Science.gov

Sample records for fall premigratory period

  1. Changes in body mass, serum leptin, and mRNA levels of leptin receptor isoforms during the premigratory period in Myotis lucifugus.

    PubMed

    Townsend, Kristy L; Kunz, Thomas H; Widmaier, Eric P

    2008-02-01

    Migration and hibernation in mammals may be preceded by a period of leptin resistance, which may in part account for the increasing adiposity and body mass that occurs during these periods. We hypothesized that hypothalamic expression of leptin receptor mRNA would decrease during the premigration (PM) period in the little brown myotis, Myotis lucifugus. Body mass of M. lucifugus increased during the PM period, but serum leptin levels did not change during that time. Hypothalamic mRNA levels for both the short (ObRa) and fully active long (ObRb) forms of the leptin receptor increased during PM, but the relative increase in ObRa was larger and occurred sooner than ObRb. mRNA levels of an inhibitor of leptin signaling (protein inhibitor of activated STAT3: PIAS3) increased in hypothalami during the PM period in bats. Adiponectin is an adipokine that has been linked to obesity in rodents; normally, serum levels of adiponectin decrease in obesity. In M. lucifugus, adiponectin mRNA levels decreased in adipose tissue during the period of mass gain, but circulating adiponectin levels did not change. We conclude that the relative changes in leptin receptor isoform expression during the PM fattening period may favor binding of leptin to the less active short isoform. Coupled with increased expression of PIAS3 and the dissociation of serum leptin levels from body mass and adiposity, these changes could account in part for the adaptive fattening during the PM period. In addition, the adipokine profiles of M. lucifugus during the PM period and that of obesity in non-hibernating mammals are strikingly dissimilar. PMID:17962952

  2. Mohawk Valley Community College (MVCC) Trend Data Book. Analysis Period: Fall 1993-Fall 1997.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russo, Samuel L., Jr.

    This trend data book from Mohawk Valley Community College (MVCC) in New York contains six statistical reports for the following areas: Enrollment, Admissions, Academic Programs, Graduate/Placement, Administrative/Financial, and Personnel. The analysis period covered is fall 1993 through fall 1997. The Enrollment section provides student headcounts…

  3. Early Life Events Carry Over to Influence Pre-Migratory Condition in a Free-Living Songbird

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, Greg W.; Guglielmo, Christopher G.; Wheelwright, Nathaniel T.; Freeman-Gallant, Corey R.; Norris, D. Ryan

    2011-01-01

    Conditions experienced during development can have long-term consequences for individual success. In migratory songbirds, the proximate mechanisms linking early life events and survival are not well understood because tracking individuals across stages of the annual cycle can be extremely challenging. In this paper, we first use a 13 year dataset to demonstrate a positive relationship between 1st year survival and nestling mass in migratory Savannah sparrows (Passerculus sandwichensis). We also use a brood manipulation experiment to show that nestlings from smaller broods have higher mass in the nest relative to individuals from larger broods. Having established these relationships, we then use three years of field data involving multiple captures of individuals throughout the pre-migratory period and a multi-level path model to examine the hypothesis that conditions during development limit survival during migration by affecting an individual's ability to accumulate sufficient lean tissue and fat mass prior to migration. We found a positive relationship between fat mass during the pre-migratory period (Sept–Oct) and nestling mass and a negative indirect relationship between pre-migratory fat mass and fledging date. Our results provide the first evidence that conditions during development limit survival during migration through their effect on fat stores. These results are particularly important given recent evidence showing that body condition of songbirds at fledging is affected by climate change and anthropogenic changes to landscape structure. PMID:22194925

  4. Premigratory and migratory neural crest cells are multipotent in vivo.

    PubMed

    Baggiolini, Arianna; Varum, Sandra; Mateos, José María; Bettosini, Damiano; John, Nessy; Bonalli, Mario; Ziegler, Urs; Dimou, Leda; Clevers, Hans; Furrer, Reinhard; Sommer, Lukas

    2015-03-01

    The neural crest (NC) is an embryonic stem/progenitor cell population that generates a diverse array of cell lineages, including peripheral neurons, myelinating Schwann cells, and melanocytes, among others. However, there is a long-standing controversy as to whether this broad developmental perspective reflects in vivo multipotency of individual NC cells or whether the NC is comprised of a heterogeneous mixture of lineage-restricted progenitors. Here, we resolve this controversy by performing in vivo fate mapping of single trunk NC cells both at premigratory and migratory stages using the R26R-Confetti mouse model. By combining quantitative clonal analyses with definitive markers of differentiation, we demonstrate that the vast majority of individual NC cells are multipotent, with only few clones contributing to single derivatives. Intriguingly, multipotency is maintained in migratory NC cells. Thus, our findings provide definitive evidence for the in vivo multipotency of both premigratory and migrating NC cells in the mouse. PMID:25748934

  5. [Falls and accidents in the nursing home--review of a 5-year period].

    PubMed

    Fisch, H P

    1983-07-01

    61 falls and accidents and one suicide needed medical attention in our nursing home during a five-year period. Most frequent sequelae were scalp lacerations, followed by fractures of the femoral neck. 73% of the patients who got hurt by falls suffered of dementia. 38% were being treated with neuroleptic, antihypertensive or diuretic drugs. It was not possible however to document a relationship between drug treatment and falls. Most falls occurred while patients were walking on the floor without obstacles and without external influences. 3 patients died as immediate consequence of their falls. We observed falls more often in the first period of the patient's stay in our institution and again shortly before the patient's death. Prophylactic measures against falls include bed-rails, little tables that can be fixed to the wheel-chairs in order to hinder unassisted standing up of patients, unable to walk alone and judicious treatment with sedative drugs. The most important measure however seems to be compassionate and attentive patient care that conveys trust and confidence between patients and the nursing personnel. Possibly the incidence of falls and accidents could be used as a measure of the quality of nursing care in geriatric institutions.

  6. The role of fall season tropical plumes in enhancing Saharan rainfall during the African Humid Period

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skinner, Christopher B.; Poulsen, Christopher J.

    2016-01-01

    The early Holocene to mid-Holocene African Humid Period (AHP) is marked by widespread rainfall throughout the present-day arid Sahara. Here we simulate early Holocene and mid-Holocene climate with the Community Atmosphere Model version 5 to explore the role of fall season dynamics in driving Saharan rainfall during the AHP. An enhanced summer monsoon during the AHP results in abundant fall season moisture throughout tropical Africa, particularly during the mid-Holocene. During the fall, extratropical troughs advect tropical moisture toward the Sahara in the form of concentrated plumes of water vapor and extend the Saharan rainy season into October. Fall season tropical plumes contribute up to 30% of annual Saharan rainfall during the mid-Holocene. Our results suggest that tropical plumes serve as an important mechanism for enhancing Saharan rainfall during the late AHP and that further understanding of changes in tropical plumes through time may provide valuable insights into past African hydroclimate change.

  7. Mohawk Valley Community College (MVCC) Trend Data Book. Analysis Period: Fall 1988-Fall 1993, with Some Data Trends into the Fall of 1994.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russo, Samuel L., Jr., Ed.

    This trend data book addresses integral areas of New York's Mohawk Valley Community College (MVCC), including Enrollment, Admissions, Academic Programs, Graduate/Placement, Administrative/Financial Statistics and Personnel Data. Analyzing statistics gathered from fall 1988 through fall 1993, the book contains six diverse statistical reports. The…

  8. Hydraulic Characteristics of the Lower Snake River During Periods of Juvenile Fall Chinook Migration

    SciTech Connect

    Cook, Chris B.; Dibrani, Berhon; Richmond, Marshall C.; Bleich, Matthew D.; Titzler, P. Scott; Fu, Tao

    2006-01-30

    This report documents a four-year study to assess hydraulic conditions in the lower Snake River. The work was conducted for the Bonneville Power Administration, U.S. Department of Energy, by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. Cold water released from the Dworshak Reservoir hypolimnion during mid- to late-summer months cools the Clearwater River far below equilibrium temperature. The volume of released cold water augments the Clearwater River, and the combined total discharge is on the order of the Snake River discharge when the two rivers meet at their confluence near the upstream edge of Lower Granite Reservoir. With typical temperature differences between the Clearwater and Snake rivers of 10°C or more during July and August, the density difference between the two rivers during summer flow augmentation periods is sufficient to stratify Lower Granite Reservoir as well as the other three reservoirs downstream. Because cooling of the river is desirable for migrating juvenile fall Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) during this same time period, the amount of mixing and cold water entrained into Lower Granite Reservoir’s epilimnion at the Clearwater/Snake River confluence is of key biological importance to juvenile fall Chinook salmon. Data collected during this project indicates the three reservoirs downstream of Lower Granite also stratify as direct result of flow augmentation from Dworshak Reservoir. These four lower Snake reservoirs are also heavily influenced by wind forcing at the water’s surface, and during periods of low river discharge, often behave like a two-layer lake. During these periods of stratification, lower river discharge, and wind forcing, the water in the upper layer of the reservoir is held in place or moves slightly upstream. This upper layer is also exposed to surface heating and may warm up to temperatures close to equilibrium temperature. The depth of this upper warm layer and its direction of travel may also be of key

  9. Short-latency compensatory eye movements associated with a brief period of free fall.

    PubMed

    Bush, G A; Miles, F A

    1996-03-01

    The vertical eye movements induced by a brief period of free fall were recorded from three monkeys (Macaca mulatta) using the electromagnetic search coil technique. Free fall was initiated in total darkness immediately following binocular fixation of one of six target lights located at viewing distances ranging from 20 to 107 cm. Responses consisted of an initial transient downward eye movement (anticompensatory direction) with a latency of a few milliseconds at most followed by a sustained upward (compensatory) eye movement. The early transient was independent of viewing distance and attributed to an artifact, whereas the later component was a linear function of the inverse of the prior viewing distance and attributed to the translational vestibulo-ocular reflex (TVOR). Response latencies for the four nearer viewing distances were determined from the individual eye velocity traces using a computerized algorithm: after removing the initial transient by subtracting the mean response obtained with the most distant viewing, a regression line was fitted to the initial rising phase of the residual response and then extrapolated back to the baseline to determine the onset. When so determined, median latencies for the nearest viewing ranged from 16.4 to 18.5 ms, values appreciably shorter than any in the literature.

  10. Comparison of Columnar Water Vapor Measurements During The Fall 1997 ARM Intensive Observation Period: Optical Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmid, Beat; Michalsky, J.; Slater, D.; Barnard, J.; Halthore, R.; Liljegren, J.; Holben, B.; Eck, T.; Livingston, J.; Russell, P.; Hipskind, R. Stephen (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    In the fall of 1997 the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM program conducted an intensive Observation Period (IOP) to study water vapor at its Southern Great Plains (SGP) site. Among the large number of instruments, four sun-tracking radiometers were present to measure the columnar water vapor (CWV). All four solar radiometers retrieve CWV by measuring solar transmittance in the 0.94-micrometer water vapor absorption band. As one of the steps in the CWV retrievals the aerosol component is subtracted from the total transmittance, in the 0.94-micrometer band. The aerosol optical depth comparisons among the same four radiometers are presented elsewhere. We have used three different methods to retrieve CWV. Without attempting to standardize on the same radiative transfer model and its underlying water vapor spectroscopy we found the CWV to agree within 0.13 cm (rms) for CWV values ranging from 1 to 5 cm. Preliminary results obtained when using the same updated radiative transfer model with updated spectroscopy for all instruments will also be shown. Comparisons to the microwave radiometer results will be included in the comparisons.

  11. The hormonal regulation of premigratory fat deposition and winter fattening in red-winged blackbirds.

    PubMed

    Hintz, J V

    2000-02-01

    Glucagon is a highly potent lipolytic agent in birds and a candidate for regulating premigratory and winter fattening. The seasonal role of glucagon in fat metabolism was determined by monitoring plasma glucagon, fatty acids and glucose in two groups of red-winged blackbirds; one group exposed to outside environmental conditions (September to May) and a second group maintained at summer conditions with respect to day length and temperature. The results of this investigation demonstrate significantly lower plasma glucagon (480.1 pg/ml) in birds exposed to outdoor conditions than in birds maintained at summer conditions (734.6 pg/ml) during September/October. The data are consistent with the view that low plasma glucagon in outdoor birds ensures the preservation of fat stores for autumn migration. Lower plasma free fatty acid (FFA) levels (0.35 mEq/l) in outdoor birds (vs. 0.54 mEq/l in indoor birds) in autumn may reflect the rapid transport of FFA to adipose tissue for lipogenesis resulting in a steady increase in body weight from September to January. The sharp decline in plasma FFA in indoor birds from 0.54 mEq/l in September/October to 0.28 mEq/l in January/February may be attributed to a marked decrease in food consumption, rather than a dramatic change in the rate of lipid transport from blood to muscle or adipose tissue. Glucagon injections caused a 600% increase in plasma FFA and a more modest (50%) increase in plasma glucose. This confirms the major role of glucagon in fat mobilization. Its lipolytic effects, however, can vary seasonally by way of down regulation of glucagon receptors. Down regulation of glucagon receptors in adipose tissue and the associated reduced sensitivity of adipocytes to the lipolytic action of glucagon would account for the progressive increase in weight of the birds throughout November/December when plasma glucagon levels were significantly higher (578.9 pg/ml) in outdoor birds as compared to indoor birds (436.9 pg/ml). Lower

  12. Beef heifer growth and reproductive performance following two levels of pasture allowance during the fall grazing period.

    PubMed

    Bailey, B L; Griggs, T C; Rayburn, E B; Krause, K M

    2014-08-01

    The objective of this study was to compare heifer growth and reproductive performance following 2 levels of stockpiled fall forage allowance of orchardgrass (30.5%) and tall fescue (14.1%). Spring-born heifers (n = 203 and BW = 246 ± 28.9 kg) of primarily Angus background were allocated to 2 grazing treatments during the fall period (November 12 to December 17 in yr 1, November 7 to January 4 in yr 2, and November 7 to January 14 in yr 3) each replicated 3 times per year for 3 yr. Treatments consisted of daily pasture DM allowance of 3.5% of BW (LO) or daily pasture DM allowance of 7.0% of BW (HI) under strip-grazing management. Throughout the winter feeding period, mixed grass-legume haylage and soybean hulls were fed. Heifers were grazed as 1 group under continuous stocking after the winter period. Heifers in the LO group gained less than heifers in the HI group during the fall grazing period (0.12 vs. 0.40 kg/d; P < 0.0001). For each 1 10 g increase in NDF/kg fall pasture (DM basis), fall ADG decreased 0.14 kg (P = 0.01). During winter feeding, ADG was 0.30 and 0.39 kg/d for LO vs. HI heifers, respectively (P = 0.0008). During the spring grazing period (April 16 to May 24 in yr 1, April 22 to May 26 in yr 2, and April 5 to May 16 in yr 3), LO heifers had numerically greater ADG than HI heifers (1.38 vs. 1.30 kg/d; P = 0.64). Hip height (122.7 vs. 121.4 cm; P = 0.0055), BCS (5.8 vs. 5.6; P = 0.0057), and BW (356 vs. 335 kg; P < 0.0001) at the end of spring grazing was greater for HI than LO heifers. Heifers in the LO group compensated with greater summer ADG than heifers in the HI group (0.74 vs. 0.66 kg/d; P = 0.03). Total ADG from treatment initiation (November) through pregnancy diagnosis (August) was greater for HI than LO heifers (0.61 vs. 0.55 kg/d; P < 0.001) as was BW at pregnancy diagnosis (415 vs. 402 kg; P = 0.0055). Percentage of heifers reaching puberty by the time of AI was 34% for both groups (P = 0.93). Percentage of heifers becoming pregnant to

  13. Hydraulic Characteristics of the Lower Snake River during Periods of Juvenile Fall Chinook Salmon Migration, 2002-2006 Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Cook, C.; Dibrani, B.; Richmond, M.; Bleich, M.; Titzler, P..; Fu, T.

    2006-01-01

    This report documents a four-year study to assess hydraulic conditions in the lower Snake River. The work was conducted for the Bonneville Power Administration, U.S. Department of Energy, by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. Cold water released from the Dworshak Reservoir hypolimnion during mid- to late-summer months cools the Clearwater River far below equilibrium temperature. The volume of released cold water augments the Clearwater River, and the combined total discharge is on the order of the Snake River discharge when the two rivers meet at their confluence near the upstream edge of Lower Granite Reservoir. With typical temperature differences between the Clearwater and Snake rivers of 10 C or more during July and August, the density difference between the two rivers during summer flow augmentation periods is sufficient to stratify Lower Granite Reservoir as well as the other three reservoirs downstream. Because cooling of the river is desirable for migrating juvenile fall Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) during this same time period, the amount of mixing and cold water entrained into Lower Granite Reservoir's epilimnion at the Clearwater/Snake River confluence is of key biological importance. Data collected during this project indicates the three reservoirs downstream of Lower Granite also stratify as direct result of flow augmentation from Dworshak Reservoir. These four reservoirs are also heavily influenced by wind forcing at the water's surface and during periods of low river discharge often behave like a two-layer lake. During these periods of stratification, lower river discharge, and wind forcing, the water in the upper layer of the reservoir is held in place or moves slightly upstream. This upper layer is also exposed to surface heating and may warm up to temperatures close to equilibrium temperature. The thickness (depth) of this upper warm layer and its direction of travel may be of key biological importance to juvenile fall Chinook

  14. Fall in incidence of guinea-worm infection in western Nigeria after periodic treatment of infected persons.

    PubMed

    Kale, O O

    1982-01-01

    Between 1971 and 1974 a series of drug trials was conducted in 17 rural communities in western Nigeria where guinea-worm is endemic. During these trials and in subsequent years treatment, in the form of chemotherapy and/or dressing of ulcers, was given to all infected persons. A longitudinal study of infection in these villages showed a marked fall in the annual incidence over an 8-year period. The aggregate reduction in incidence in the three sectors surveyed was from 15.5% to 0.5% in sector 1, 29.8% to 0.4% in sector 2, and 20.3% to 0.0% in sector 3. The change appeared to be partly due to the treatment, which reduced the reservoir of infection and the rate of pollution of the water supply. Most of the sources of water continued to harbour Cyclops, none of which was found to be infected with Dracunculus, but which were shown experimentally to be capable of sustaining infection. The study demonstrates the potential role of therapeutic measures in controlling guinea-worm infection. It is suggested that the satisfactory measure of control that has been achieved could be increased by elimination of the Cyclops, with a view to total eradication of the disease from affected communities. Attention is drawn to the relevance of the findings for the International Drinking Water Supply and Sanitation Decade.

  15. Comparison of Columnar Water Vapor Measurements During The Fall 1997 ARM Intensive Observation Period: Solar Transmittance Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmid, B.; Michalsky, J. J.; Slater, D. W.; Barnard, J. C.; Halthore, R. N.; Liljegren, J. C.; Holben, B. N.; Eck, T. F.; Livingston, J. M.; Russell, P. B.

    2000-01-01

    In the fall of 1997, during an Intensive Observation Period (IOP), the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program conducted a study of water vapor abundance measurement at its Southern Great Plains (SGP) site. Among a large number of instruments, four sun-tracking radiometers were present to measure the columnar water vapor (CWV). All four solar radiometers retrieve CWV by measuring total solar transmittance in the 0.94-gm water vapor absorption band and subtracting contributions due to Rayleigh, ozone and aerosol transmittances. The aerosol optical depth comparisons among the same four radiometers has been presented elsewhere (Geophys. Res. Lett., 26, 17, 2725-2728, 1999). We have used three different methods to retrieve CWV. In a first round of comparison no attempt was made to standardize on the same radiative transfer model and its underlying water vapor spectroscopy. In the second round of comparison we used the same line-by-line code (which includes recently corrected H2O spectroscopy) to retrieve CAN from all four suntracking radiometers. This decreased the mean CWV by 8% or 13%. The spread of 8% in the solar radiometer results found when using the same model is an indication of the other-than-model uncertainties involved in determining CWV from solar transmittance measurements with current instrumentation.

  16. The rise and fall of OJ 287 in 1983-1984 - Periodicities and wavelength-dependent delays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sillanpaa, A.

    1991-02-01

    The flare behavior of OJ 287 during the years 1983 and 1984 is studied on the basis of all the available data in the different wavebands from these years. A strong correlation between the flux and the spectral index is found in the optical wavebands. At the same time there is weak evidence for a 9.3 days periodicity in the same waveband. Time lags of the flares and sharp drops are studied between different wavebands. The sharp events seem to be simultaneous in the region ultraviolet (0.25 microns)-infrared (25 micron) but between these and millimeter wavelengths there seem to be a timelag of 40-60 days so that the short wavelength variations precede the radio ones. At longer wavelengths (greater than 3 cm) the variations are much slower and it is very difficult to find the exact delay times.

  17. Some characteristics of fall migration of female woodcock

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coon, R.A.; Caldwell, P.D.; Storm, G.L.

    1976-01-01

    Nine female woodcock (Philohela minor) were radio-tagged in central Pennsylvania before fall migration to monitor premigratory and migratory movements. Within 15 days of departure, 5 of the birds moved 0.8 to 8.0 km from their normally used area, but the remaining 4 did not move. In 1973 five marked woodcock began migration between 30 November and 8 December. In 1974, four birds departed between 18 and 29 November. Departures coincided with high pressure centers approaching from the north and west or low pressure centers retreating to the north and east, or both. Eight of the 9 woodcock departed 2.5 or more hours after sunset and at least 7 left before midnight. Two hatching-year birds were tracked for up to 201 km SSW of the study area during 2 nights. Their air speeds (mean + SD) were 36 + 2 and 45 + 3 km/h.

  18. Periodization

    PubMed Central

    Lorenz, Daniel S.; Reiman, Michael P.; Walker, John C.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Clinicians are constantly faced with the challenge of designing training programs for injured and noninjured athletes that maximize healing and optimize performance. Periodization is a concept of systematic progression—that is, resistance training programs that follow predictable patterns of change in training variables. The strength training literature is abundant with studies comparing periodization schemes on uninjured, trained, and untrained athletes. The rehabilitation literature, however, is scarce with information about how to optimally design resistance training programs based on periodization principles for injured athletes. The purpose of this review is to discuss relevant training variables and methods of periodization, as well as periodization program outcomes. A secondary purpose is to provide an anecdotal framework regarding implementation of periodization principles into rehabilitation programs. Evidence Acquisition: A Medline search from 1979 to 2009 was implemented with the keywords periodization, strength training, rehabilitation, endurance, power, hypertrophy, and resistance training with the Boolean term AND in all possible combinations in the English language. Each author also undertook independent hand searching of article references used in this review. Results: Based on the studies researched, periodized strength training regimens demonstrate improved outcomes as compared to nonperiodized programs. Conclusions: Despite the evidence in the strength training literature supporting periodization programs, there is a considerable lack of data in the rehabilitation literature about program design and successful implementation of periodization into rehabilitation programs. PMID:23015982

  19. Effects of time of weaning, supplement, and sire breed of calf during the fall grazing period on cow and calf performance.

    PubMed

    Short, R E; Grings, E E; MacNeil, M D; Heitschmidt, R K; Haferkamp, M R; Adams, D C

    1996-07-01

    A 4-yr experiment was conducted to determine effects of protein supplementation, age at weaning, and calf sire breed on cow and calf performance during fall grazing. Each year 48 pregnant, crossbred cows nursing steer calves (mean calving date = April 8) were assigned to a 2 x 2 x 2 factorial experiment replicated in three native range pastures. Treatment factors were: 1) no supplement (NS) or an individually fed supplement (S, 3 kg of a 34% protein supplement fed to cows every 3rd d); 2) calves weaned at the beginning (W, mid to late September) or at the end (NW, mid to late December) of the trial each year; or 3) calves sired by Hereford or Charolais bulls. Data were adjusted for cow size (initial hip height and initial and final weights and condition scores) by analyses of covariance using principal component coefficients as covariates. Change in cow weight and condition score were increased by S and W (P < .01), but these responses interacted and were not the same each year (yr x S, year x W, and year x S x W, P < .01). Forage intake was decreased (P < .1) by S and W. Total intake (forage+supplement) was not affected by S but was decreased by W (P < .1). Digestibility of OM was decreased by S (P < .01). Some carryover effects of treatments were observed the next spring in cow weight, condition score, and birth weight (NW decreased birth weight by 2 kg, P < .01), but there were no effects by the next fall on weaning weights or pregnancy rates. Milk yield decreased during the experimental period, and S maintained higher milk production in late lactation (P < .01). Calf ADG was increased by S and Charolais sires (P < .01). Efficiency (grams of output/ megacalorie of input) was not affected by sire breed but was enhanced by S (P < .01). Our conclusions are that 1) effects of feeding a 34% protein supplement to cows were to increase calf gains and improve persistency of lactation and efficiency; 2) delaying weaning decreased cow weight and condition score; 3

  20. Falling chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Chun Wa; Yasui, Kosuke

    2006-06-01

    The one-dimensional fall of a folded chain with one end suspended from a rigid support and a chain falling from a resting heap on a table is studied. Because their Lagrangians contain no explicit time dependence, the falling chains are conservative systems. Their equations of motion are shown to contain a term that enforces energy conservation when masses are transferred between subchains. We show that Cayley's 1857 energy nonconserving solution for a chain falling from a resting heap is incorrect because it neglects the energy gained when a link leaves a subchain. The maximum chain tension measured by Calkin and March for the falling folded chain is given a simple if rough interpretation. Other aspects of the falling folded chain are briefly discussed.

  1. Preventing falls

    MedlinePlus

    Dalbaere K, Sherrington C, Lord SR. Falls prevention interventions. In: Marchus R, Feldman D, Depmster DW, Luckey M, Cauley JA, eds. Osteoporosis . 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2013:chap 70. Rubenstein ...

  2. Reduction in falling after a falls-assessment.

    PubMed

    Hansma, A H G; Emmelot-Vonk, M H; Verhaar, H J J

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this single-center retrospective cohort study was to evaluate the effect of a multidisciplinary falls-assessment, consisting of identification and possible modification of risk factors for falls, on the frequency of falls among elderly individuals attending the geriatric outpatient department of the University Medical Center (UMC) Utrecht, the Netherlands. The characteristics of 70 elderly people who visited the outpatient department because of a fall in the period from May 2005 till February 2007 were evaluated. The effectiveness of the falls-assessment was evaluated by telephone interview of those individuals who had attended the falls-assessment. Fifty-three patients (mean age=79.8 years) were interviewed after a mean+/-S.D. of 1.47+/-0.41 years (ranging 0.72-2.34 years) subsequent to the falls-assessment. Falls-assessment led to significantly fewer falls, from 3.78+/-4.66 at the time of the assessment at baseline to 1.10+/-1.86 at the time of the interview (p=0.000041). Fear of falling was also significantly diminished. In conclusion, falls-assessment leads to fewer falls and less fear of falling among elderly individuals.

  3. Fluxes of ozone and Biogenic Volatile Organic Compounds in a mixed Mediterranean forest over a transition period between summer and fall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fares, S.; Schnitzhofer, R.; Hansel, A.; Petersson, F.; Matteucci, G.; Scarascia Mugnozza, G.; Jiang, X.; Guenther, A. B.; Loreto, F.

    2012-12-01

    Mediterranean plant ecosystems are exposed to abiotic stressors that may be exacerbated by climate change dynamics. Moreover, plants need now to cope with increasing anthropogenic pressures, often associated with expanding impacts of urbanization. Anthropogenic stressors include harmful gases (e.g. ozone,) that are transported from anthropogenic pollution sources to the vegetation. They may alter ecophysiology and compromise metabolism of Mediterranean plants. A disproportionate number of Mediterranean ecosystems, many dominated by forest trees, are being transformed into "urban or pre-urban forests". This is in particular the case for Castelporziano Estate, a 6,000 ha Mediterranean forest located just 25 km from Rome downtown at the coast of the Mediterranean Sea. In September 2011 an intensive field campaign was performed in Castelporziano to investigate ozone deposition and biogenic emissions of volatile organic compounds (BVOC) from a mixed Mediterranean forest, mainly composed by Quercus suber, Quercus ilex, Pinus pinea. Measurements were performed at canopy level with fast real-time instruments (a fast ozone analyzer and a Proton Transfer Reaction-Time of Flight Mass Spectrometer) that allowed eddy covariant flux measurements of ozone and BVOC. In the transitional period from a warm and dry summer to a wet and moderately cool fall we typically observed tropospheric ozone volume mixing ratios (VMR) of 60 ppb at around noon, with high deposition fluxes (up to -10 nmol m-2 s-1) into the forest canopy. Canopy models were used to to calculate that up to 90% of ozone uptake can be attributed to non-stomatal sinks, suggesting that chemical reactions between ozone and reactive BVOC may have played an important role. The concentrations of reactive isoprenoids (e.g. sesquiterpenes) were indeed observed to decrease during the central hours of the day, in coincidence with increased ozone concentrations. Concentrations and fluxes of isoprenoid

  4. Falling Sticks and Falling Balls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bacon, M. E.; Harpst, Michael R.; Nakazawa, Ryohei

    2002-09-01

    The behavior of a falling stick, pivoted at one end, and a ball released from the same height as the end of the stick, is investigated theoretically and experimentally. The study is made possible through the use of the computer to perform the numerical computations and analysis of the experimental data. The study provides undergraduates with an opportunity to carry out a relatively simple project with interesting results.

  5. Drought, epidemic disease, and the fall of classic period cultures in Mesoamerica (AD 750-950). Hemorrhagic fevers as a cause of massive population loss.

    PubMed

    Acuna-Soto, Rodolfo; Stahle, David W; Therrell, Matthew D; Gomez Chavez, Sergio; Cleaveland, Malcolm K

    2005-01-01

    The classical period in Mexico (AD 250-750) was an era of splendor. The city of Teotihuacan was one of the largest and most sophisticated human conglomerates of the pre-industrial world. The Mayan civilization in southeastern Mexico and the Yucatan peninsula reached an impressive degree of development at the same time. This time of prosperity came to an end during the Terminal Classic Period (AD 750-950) a time of massive population loss throughout Mesoamerica. A second episode of massive depopulation in the same area was experienced during the sixteenth century when, in less than one century, between 80% and 90% of the entire indigenous population was lost. The 16th century depopulation of Mexico constitutes one of the worst demographic catastrophes in human history. Although newly imported European and African diseases caused high mortality among the native population, the major 16th century population losses were caused by a series of epidemics of a hemorrhagic fever called Cocoliztli, a highly lethal disease unknown to both Aztec and European physicians during the colonial era. The cocoliztli epidemics occurred during the 16th century megadrought, when severe drought extended at times from central Mexico to the boreal forest of Canada, and from the Pacific to the Atlantic coast. The collapse of the cultures of the Classic Period seems also to have occurred during a time of severe drought. Tree ring and lake sediment records indicate that some of the most severe and prolonged droughts to impact North America-Mesoamerica in the past 1000-4000 years occurred between AD 650 and 1000, particularly during the 8th and 9th centuries, a period of time that coincides with the Terminal Classic Period. Based on the similarities of the climatic (severe drought) and demographic (massive population loss) events in Mesoamerica during the sixteenth century, we propose that drought-associated epidemics of hemorrhagic fever may have contributed to the massive population loss

  6. Seasonal movements and environmental triggers to fall migration of Sage Sparrows

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fesenmyer, K.A.; Knick, S.T.

    2011-01-01

    Post-breeding ecology of shrubland passerines prior to onset of migration is unknown relative to dynamics of breeding areas. We radiomarked and monitored 38 Sage Sparrows (Amphispiza belli ssp. nevadensis) at one site in Oregon and two in Nevada from September to mid-November 2007 to track local movements, estimate seasonal range sizes, and characterize weather patterns triggering onset of migration. Median area used by Sage Sparrows monitored between 3 and 18 days during or prior to migration was 14 ha; maximum daily movement was 15 km. Radio-marked Sage Sparrows at each location departed individually, rather than en masse, corresponding with passage of cold front weather systems. Conventional telemetry techniques limited our ability to monitor Sage Sparrows beyond pre-migratory periods and precluded detecting and tracking actual movements during migration. ?? 2011 by the Wilson Ornithological Society.

  7. Falls and Older Adults

    MedlinePlus

    ... rises with age. Click for more information Falls Lead to Fractures, Trauma Each year, more than 1. ... and injury deaths. Fractures caused by falls can lead to hospital stays and disability. Most often, fall- ...

  8. Falls in Nursing Homes

    MedlinePlus

    ... for health care providers. Learn More Falls in Nursing Homes Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On ... 5 Why do falls occur more often in nursing homes? Falling can be a sign of other ...

  9. Validating a multifactorial falls risk assessment.

    PubMed

    James, Michele B; Kimmons, Nancy J; Schasberger, Britta; Lefkowitz, Abigail

    2014-01-01

    Reducing risk of falls has been identified as a national safety goal by The Joint Commission (TJC). The purpose was to determine if the total score on the multifactorial Falls Risk Assessment accurately identifies the risk of falls in a homebound client. In addition, the study examined if any individual item had a higher predictive power with the incidence of falls. One hundred clients (> 65 years old) who sustained an avoidable fall during a home care episode of care, plus 25 home care clients in the same age range and time period, who did not fall. A retrospective chart review, including Falls Risk Assessment (FRA) performed at start of care, demographic information, specific physical therapy (PT) evaluation, and visit notes if necessary to determine if the fall met the inclusion criteria. Scores for each individual area of the assessment were collected for statistical analysis. Data were analyzed by a biostatistician using simple linear regression, t-tests, and regression of variable combinations. The total score on the multifactorial risk assessment tool was shown to have a strong relationship with incidence of falls. The average scores of individuals who fell after assessment were significantly higher than those of individuals who did not fall. No single factors were found to be highly predictive. A single approach to decreasing falls is likely to be less effective than a multipronged approach. Caregivers and providers are advised to consider the entirety of the falls risk and direct comprehensive interventions to address the multiple factors that lead to falls.

  10. Fall Enrollment Report. 2014

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iowa Department of Education, 2014

    2014-01-01

    This report summarizes and analyzes fall enrollment in Iowa's community colleges. Each year, Iowa's 15 community colleges submit data on enrollment on the 10th business day of the fall semester. Some highlights from this report include: (1) Fall 2014 enrollment was 93,772 students--a decline of 0.49 percent from last fall; (2) Enrollment continues…

  11. [Prevention programs of risk factors for falls].

    PubMed

    Kumagai, Shuzo; Sakita, Masahiro

    2014-10-01

    Approximately 17% of Japanese older people fall for a year. The femoral neck fractures with falls caused by various functional problems make them depress remarkably activities of daily living and quality of life. In risk factors for falls in old people, muscle weakness, balance and gait disorders particularly increases to falls. The major results from recent systematic reviews have indicated that interventions of exercise, multifactorial, environmental modification and gradual withdrawal of psychotropic medication in community-dwelling elderly people were effective for preventing falls. Regarding the older people in hospitals and sanatoriums, it appeared that comprehensive multifactorial interventions and vitamin D supplementation could be effective in falls rather than exercises intervention only. However, the short period of the exercise intervention may affect ineffectiveness in preventing falls.

  12. The Fall and Fall of Gary Hart.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowland, Robert C.

    The fall of Gary Hart, brought about because of his indiscretions during the 1988 presidential campaign, should not be treated exclusively as a consequence of Hart's moral failings. Rather, the fall of Hart can be traced to a complex of factors including bad judgment, the near total control that the press exercises over the political agenda, and…

  13. Prevalence and cost of imaging in inpatient falls: the rising cost of falling

    PubMed Central

    Fields, Jessica; Alturkistani, Tahani; Kumar, Neal; Kanuri, Arjun; Salem, Deeb N; Munn, Samson; Blazey-Martin, Deborah

    2015-01-01

    Objective To quantify the type, prevalence, and cost of imaging following inpatient falls, identify factors associated with post-fall imaging, and determine correlates of positive versus negative imaging. Design Single-center retrospective cohort study of inpatient falls. Data were collected from the hospital’s adverse event reporting system, DrQuality. Age, sex, date, time, and location of fall, clinical service, Morse Fall Scale/fall protocol, admitting diagnosis, and fall-related imaging studies were reviewed. Cost included professional and facilities fees for each study. Setting Four hundred and fifteen bed urban academic hospital over 3 years (2008–2010). Patients All adult inpatient falls during the study period were included. Falls experienced by patients aged <18 years, outpatient and emergency patients, visitors to the hospital, and staff were excluded. Measurements and main results Five hundred and thirty inpatient falls occurred during the study period, average patient age 60.7 years (range 20–98). More than half of falls were men (55%) and patients considered at risk of falls (56%). Falls were evenly distributed across morning (33%), evening (34%), and night (33%) shifts. Of 530 falls, 178 (34%) patients were imaged with 262 studies. Twenty percent of patients imaged had at least one positive imaging study attributed to the fall and 82% of studies were negative. Total cost of imaging was $160,897, 63% ($100,700) from head computed tomography (CT). Conclusion Inpatient falls affect patients of both sexes, all ages, occur at any time of day and lead to expensive imaging, mainly from head CTs. Further study should be targeted toward clarifying the indications for head CT after inpatient falls and validating risk models for positive and negative imaging, in order to decrease unnecessary imaging and thereby limit unnecessary cost and radiation exposure. PMID:26082653

  14. Comparison of real-life accidental falls in older people with experimental falls in middle-aged test subjects.

    PubMed

    Kangas, M; Vikman, I; Nyberg, L; Korpelainen, R; Lindblom, J; Jämsä, T

    2012-03-01

    Falling is a common accident among older people. Automatic fall detectors are one method of improving security. However, in most cases, fall detectors are designed and tested with data from experimental falls in younger people. This study is one of the first to provide fall-related acceleration data obtained from real-life falls. Wireless sensors were used to collect acceleration data during a six-month test period in older people. Data from five events representing forward falls, a sideways fall, a backwards fall, and a fall out of bed were collected and compared with experimental falls performed by middle-aged test subjects. The signals from real-life falls had similar features to those from intentional falls. Real-life forward, sideways and backward falls all showed a pre impact phase and an impact phase that were in keeping with the model that was based on experimental falls. In addition, the fall out of bed had a similar acceleration profile as the experimental falls of the same type. However, there were differences in the parameters that were used for the detection of the fall phases. The beginning of the fall was detected in all of the real-life falls starting from a standing posture, whereas the high pre impact velocity was not. In some real-life falls, multiple impacts suggested protective actions. In conclusion, this study demonstrated similarities between real-life falls of older people and experimental falls of middle-aged subjects. However, some fall characteristics detected from experimental falls were not detectable in acceleration signals from corresponding heterogeneous real-life falls.

  15. Meteorite Falls in Morocco

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chennaoui Aoudjehane, H.

    2016-08-01

    The number of meteorite falls reported in Morocco since 2000 is highest than any other place compared to the other countries in the world, that call into question the efficiency of the randomly meteorite falls on Earth.

  16. Seasonal changes in serum free fatty acid level in the migratory Canada goose.

    PubMed

    John, T M; George, J C

    1977-12-01

    The changes in the serum level of free fatty acids (FFA) in the migratory Canada goose (Branta canadensis interior) breeding in Ft. Churchill (Manitoba, Canada) and wintering in Swan Lake (Missouri, U.S.A.), were studied during the different periods of its yearly life cycle. The lowest serum FFA level was noted during the spring premigratory phase (early March) at Swan Lake, and the highest during moult (early August) at Ft. Churchill. Serum FFA level during the spring postmigratory period (early May at Ft. Churchill) was significantly higher than that during the spring premigratory period and the breeding period (early at Ft. Churchill). No signigicant difference in FFA levels was noted between the fall premigratory (early September at Ft. Churchill) and the fall postmigratory (mid-October at Swan Lake) periods. The significance of the seasonal variations in serum FFA level is discussed in relation to the cyclic physiological events taking place in the bird. PMID:79367

  17. Seasonal immunocytochemical and ultrastructural changes in the neurohypophysis of the migratory Canada goose.

    PubMed

    George, J C; John, T M

    1987-01-01

    Immunocytochemical localization of arginine vasotocin (AVT) in the neurohypophysis of the migratory Canada goose was studied during six periods (Spring premigratory, Spring postmigratory, breeding, moulting, Fall or Autumn premigratory, and Fall postmigratory) of its annual life cycle. Ultrastructural changes in the pars nervosa, with emphasis on the axonal endings, were also examined during the above periods. In the Spring premigratory period, the staining intensity for AVT was greater in the anterior median eminence than in the pars nervosa where the density of axonal secretory granules was lower than that in the preceding period, in both sexes. During moulting females seemed to be under greater osmotic stress than males as indicated by low AVT staining intensity and secretory granule concentration in the pars nervosa. The occurrence of considerable amounts of lipofuscin bodies in the pars nervosa of both sexes during moulting was indicative of high lysosomal activity in the pituicytes. AVT release is recognized as a significant event in initiating Spring migration. PMID:3568756

  18. Fall Enrollment Report 2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iowa Department of Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This report summarizes fall enrollment in Iowa's community colleges. Every year Iowa's 15 community college districts submit data on students enrolled on the 10th day of the fall semester. Highlights include: (1) Enrollment grew at its fastest pace since 1975 to a record high of 100,736 students; (2) Year-to-year growth was 14.3 percent, which is…

  19. Experiments in Free Fall

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Art, Albert

    2006-01-01

    A model lift containing a figure of Albert Einstein is released from the side of a tall building and its free fall is arrested by elastic ropes. This arrangement allows four simple experiments to be conducted in the lift to demonstrate the effects of free fall and show how they can lead to the concept of the equivalence of inertial and…

  20. Learning From Falling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joh, Amy, S.; Adolph, Karen, E.

    2006-01-01

    Walkers fall frequently, especially during infancy. Children (15, 21, 27, 33, and 39 month-olds) and adults were tested in a novel foam pit paradigm to examine age-related changes in the relationship between falling and prospective control of locomotion. In trial 1, participants walked and fell into a deformable foam pit marked with distinct…

  1. First Aid: Falls

    MedlinePlus

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy First Aid: Falls KidsHealth > For Parents > First Aid: Falls Print A A A Text Size en ... Floors, Doors & Windows, Furniture, Stairways: Household Safety Checklist First Aid: Broken Bones Head Injuries Preventing Children's Sports Injuries ...

  2. Fall Leaf Portraits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Hara, Cristina

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the author describes how students can create a stunning as well as economical mosaic utilizing fall's brilliantly colored leaves, preserved at their peak in color. Start by choosing a beautiful fall day to take students on a nature walk to collect a variety of leaves in different shapes, sizes, and colors. Focus on collecting a…

  3. Fall prevention conceptual framework.

    PubMed

    Abraham, Sam

    2011-01-01

    Falls can have lasting psychological and physical consequences, particularly fractures and slow-healing processes, and patients may also lose confidence in walking. Injuries from falls lead to functional decline, institutionalization, higher health care costs, and decreased quality of life. The process related to the problem of patient falls in the hospital, using the nursing model developed by the theorist, Ida Jean Orlando, is explained in this article. The useful tool that provides guidance to marketers in this endeavor is Maslow's hierarchy of needs. During acute illness, individuals are greatly in need of satisfying their physiological needs. If these needs are not met, patients leave the hospital lacking a positive experience. Initial fall risk assessment is critical to plan intervention and individualize care plan. Interventions depend on the severity of fall risk factors.

  4. Postoperative prevention of falls in older adults with fragility fractures.

    PubMed

    Demontiero, Oddom; Gunawardene, Piumali; Duque, Gustavo

    2014-05-01

    The postoperative period after correction of a fragility fracture is usually associated with functional deconditioning. This deconditioning is caused by multiple factors associated with a higher risk of falls during the immediate postoperative period and after discharge. Identification of risk and appropriate fall prevention interventions in these patients are pivotal. In this article, an overview is presented of the strategies to identify falls risk in postoperative patients after suffering a fragility fracture. Evidence is presented favoring targeted multicomponent intervention for falls prevention rather than a single intervention in fractured older patients at high risk of new falls and fractures.

  5. Pre-impact fall detection.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xinyao; Qu, Xingda

    2016-06-01

    Pre-impact fall detection has been proposed to be an effective fall prevention strategy. In particular, it can help activate on-demand fall injury prevention systems (e.g. inflatable hip protectors) prior to fall impacts, and thus directly prevent the fall-related physical injuries. This paper gave a systematical review on pre-impact fall detection, and focused on the following aspects of the existing pre-impact fall detection research: fall detection apparatus, fall detection indicators, fall detection algorithms, and types of falls for fall detection evaluation. In addition, the performance of the existing pre-impact fall detection solutions were also reviewed and reported in terms of their sensitivity, specificity, and detection/lead time. This review also summarized the limitations in the existing pre-impact fall detection research, and proposed future research directions in this field.

  6. Pre-impact fall detection.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xinyao; Qu, Xingda

    2016-01-01

    Pre-impact fall detection has been proposed to be an effective fall prevention strategy. In particular, it can help activate on-demand fall injury prevention systems (e.g. inflatable hip protectors) prior to fall impacts, and thus directly prevent the fall-related physical injuries. This paper gave a systematical review on pre-impact fall detection, and focused on the following aspects of the existing pre-impact fall detection research: fall detection apparatus, fall detection indicators, fall detection algorithms, and types of falls for fall detection evaluation. In addition, the performance of the existing pre-impact fall detection solutions were also reviewed and reported in terms of their sensitivity, specificity, and detection/lead time. This review also summarized the limitations in the existing pre-impact fall detection research, and proposed future research directions in this field. PMID:27251528

  7. The variability of meteoroid falling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velasco Herrera, V. M.; Cordero, G.

    2016-10-01

    We analysed a historical catalogue of meteoroid falling during the last 400 years. We report here for the first time the synchronization between observed meteors and solar barycentric parameters in 19.6 and 13.2 years periodicities using a new multiple cross wavelet. The group of moderated number of meteors is distributed around the positive phase of the solar barycentric periodicity of 13.2 years. While the group of severe number of meteors are distributed on the positive phase of the solar barycentric periodicity of 19.6 years. These periodicities could be associated with Jupiter periodicities. So understanding the modulation of meteoroid falling is important for determining the falling patterns of these objects and for knowing when it is more likely to expect the entry of one of these objects into the Earth's atmosphere, because bodies falling onto the Earth can cause damage from minor impacts to mass-extinctions events. One of the most extreme events was the formation of the Chicxulub impact crater 65,000,000 years ago that caused one of the five major mass extinctions in the last 500,000,000 years. During the 20th and 21st centuries, a series of events demonstrated the importance of collisions between planets and small bodies (comets and asteroids), which included our own planet. In the case of the Earth, we can cite three examples: Tunguska, Curuça and Chelyabinsk. These events invite us to think that perhaps the occurrence of this phenomenon might be more common than we realize, but the lack of communication or people in the area where they happened prevents us from having a complete record. Modern man has not witnessed the impact of large asteroids or comets on our planet, but it has been observed on other planetary bodies. The most spectacular of these events was the collision of fragments of the comet Shoemaker-Levy 9 with Jupiter in 1994. The total energy of the 21 impacts on Jupiter's atmosphere was estimated as the equivalent of tens of millions of

  8. Seneca Falls. Classroom Focus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balantic, Jeannette; Libresco, Andrea S.

    1995-01-01

    Presents a secondary school lesson based on the Seneca Falls Declaration of Sentiments. Provides lesson objectives and step-by-step instructional procedures. Includes quoted sections of the Declaration of Sentiments. (CFR)

  9. Editors' Fall Picks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffert, Barbara; Heilbrun, Margaret; Kuzyk, Raya; Kim, Ann; McCormack, Heather; Katterjohn, Anna; Burns, Ann; Williams, Wilda

    2008-01-01

    From the fall's cascade of great new books, "Library Journal's" editors select their favorites--a dark rendition of Afghan life, a look at the "self-esteem trap," a celebration of Brooklyn activism, and much more.

  10. Survival of falling robots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cameron, Jonathan M.; Arkin, Ronald C.

    1992-02-01

    As mobile robots are used in more uncertain and dangerous environments, it will become important to design them so that they can survive falls. In this paper, we examine a number of mechanisms and strategies that animals use to withstand these potentially catastrophic events and extend them to the design of robots. A brief survey of several aspects of how common cats survive falls provides an understanding of the issues involved in preventing traumatic injury during a falling event. After outlining situations in which robots might fall, a number of factors affecting their survival are described. From this background, several robot design guidelines are derived. These include recommendations for the physical structure of the robot as well as requirements for the robot control architecture. A control architecture is proposed based on reactive control techniques and action-oriented perception that is geared to support this form of survival behavior.

  11. Survival of falling robots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cameron, Jonathan M.; Arkin, Ronald C.

    1992-01-01

    As mobile robots are used in more uncertain and dangerous environments, it will become important to design them so that they can survive falls. In this paper, we examine a number of mechanisms and strategies that animals use to withstand these potentially catastrophic events and extend them to the design of robots. A brief survey of several aspects of how common cats survive falls provides an understanding of the issues involved in preventing traumatic injury during a falling event. After outlining situations in which robots might fall, a number of factors affecting their survival are described. From this background, several robot design guidelines are derived. These include recommendations for the physical structure of the robot as well as requirements for the robot control architecture. A control architecture is proposed based on reactive control techniques and action-oriented perception that is geared to support this form of survival behavior.

  12. 6. NARADA FALLS, WITH FIRST CROSSING BRIDGE SHOWN ABOVE FALLS, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. NARADA FALLS, WITH FIRST CROSSING BRIDGE SHOWN ABOVE FALLS, VIEW FACING NORTHEAST - Paradise River First Crossing Bridge, Spanning Paradise River at Narada Falls on Service Road, Longmire, Pierce County, WA

  13. On the Modulation of Meteoroid Falling by Solar Inertial Motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velasco Herrera, Victor Manuel; Cordero, Guadalupe; López Hernández, Juan Gabriel

    2016-07-01

    We present a historical report of falls of meteoroids over the last 400 years. We report here for the first time synchronization between observed meteors and solar barycentric parameters in 19.6 and 13.2 years periodicities using the multiple cross wavelet. These periodicities could be associated with Jupiter periodicities. Bodies falling on Earth can cause from minor damage to level of mass extinctions events. So understanding the modulation on meteoroid falling is important to determine patterns of falling of these objects, and to know when it is more probable to expect the entry of one of these object into the Earth's atmosphere

  14. Postpartum safety: a patient-centered approach to fall prevention.

    PubMed

    Lockwood, Suzy; Anderson, Kandace

    2013-01-01

    Falls in the perinatal setting have received minimal attention and have not been well documented. Women are at risk for falling following vaginal or cesarean birth, especially during initial attempts at ambulation. Recently, a women's hospital that averages over 500 births per month recorded a postpartum fall rate that exceeded the national mean for adult surgical patient falls. A fall prevention team (FPT) of five nurses was formed with a goal to decrease the incidence of postpartum patient falls to zero within the following 7 months. A patient-centered fall prevention strategy was developed. The results of this project have laid the foundation for additional research of a program that will consider not only prevention of falls in a healthy population but also the development of a risk assessment tool specific to women in the immediate postpartum period.

  15. Falling into Winter.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrington, Carolyn Lang

    2000-01-01

    Presents an activity that connects art, science, and nature in which elementary school students learn about deciduous trees. Explains that students create a torn-tissue collage, using fall colors for a background and drawing a silhouette of a tree without leaves on top of the background with black crayon. (CMK)

  16. Education and Falling Wages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thurow, Lester C.

    1994-01-01

    Discusses why today's American workforce is experiencing falling wages and suggests that the answer to reversing this trend lies in improving the American education system to world class levels. Suggests the need to develop a postsecondary training system for those who do not go on to college, and highlights ways this might be implemented. (GR)

  17. Fall 2013 International Comparisons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Northwest Evaluation Association, 2014

    2014-01-01

    This Fall report is an aggregated statistical analysis of Measures of Academic Progress® (MAP®) data from international schools. The report provides a consistent means of comparisons of specific sub-groups by subject and grade, which allows partners to compare their MAP® results with other schools within their region or membership organization.…

  18. Freshmen Survey. Fall 1985.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodyear, Don

    In 1985, College of the Sequoias (COS) was asked by the Cooperative Institutional Research Program (conducted jointly by the American Council on Education and the University of California, Los Angeles) to participate in a survey of incoming freshmen for the fall 1985 semester. During the summer counseling session, 259 new COS freshmen were…

  19. The News, Fall 2002.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giles, Ray, Ed.

    2002-01-01

    This fall 2002 newsletter from the Community College League of California contains several articles, news stories, and the brochure from the 2002 Annual Convention, "Celebrating the Way California LEARNS." Articles include: (1) "Nursing Shortage Poses Dilemma for Colleges: Access vs. Efficiency," a discussion of the debate over how to increase the…

  20. Editors' Fall Picks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heilbrun, Margaret; McCormack, Heather; Katterjohn, Anna; Kuzyk, Raya; Roncevic, Mirela; Fox, Bette-Lee; Hoffert, Barbara

    2009-01-01

    "Library Journal's" review editors select fall titles readers won't want to miss--"Waiting on a Train: The Embattled Future of Passenger Rail Service" (James McCommons); "Happy" (Alex Lemon); "Free for All: Joe Papp, the Public, and the Greatest Theater Story Ever Told" (Kenneth Turan & Joseph Papp); "In My Father's Shadow: A Daughter Remembers…

  1. Precision Falling Body Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blackburn, James A.; Koenig, R.

    1976-01-01

    Described is a simple apparatus to determine acceleration due to gravity. It utilizes direct contact switches in lieu of conventional photocells to time the fall of a ball bearing. Accuracies to better than one part in a thousand were obtained. (SL)

  2. Exercise for falls prevention in Parkinson disease

    PubMed Central

    Sherrington, Catherine; Lord, Stephen R.; Close, Jacqueline C.T.; Heritier, Stephane; Heller, Gillian Z.; Howard, Kirsten; Allen, Natalie E.; Latt, Mark D.; Murray, Susan M.; O'Rourke, Sandra D.; Paul, Serene S.; Song, Jooeun; Fung, Victor S.C.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether falls can be prevented with minimally supervised exercise targeting potentially remediable fall risk factors, i.e., poor balance, reduced leg muscle strength, and freezing of gait, in people with Parkinson disease. Methods: Two hundred thirty-one people with Parkinson disease were randomized into exercise or usual-care control groups. Exercises were practiced for 40 to 60 minutes, 3 times weekly for 6 months. Primary outcomes were fall rates and proportion of fallers during the intervention period. Secondary outcomes were physical (balance, mobility, freezing of gait, habitual physical activity), psychological (fear of falling, affect), and quality-of-life measures. Results: There was no significant difference between groups in the rate of falls (incidence rate ratio [IRR] = 0.73, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.45–1.17, p = 0.18) or proportion of fallers (p = 0.45). Preplanned subgroup analysis revealed a significant interaction for disease severity (p < 0.001). In the lower disease severity subgroup, there were fewer falls in the exercise group compared with controls (IRR = 0.31, 95% CI 0.15–0.62, p < 0.001), while in the higher disease severity subgroup, there was a trend toward more falls in the exercise group (IRR = 1.61, 95% CI 0.86–3.03, p = 0.13). Postintervention, the exercise group scored significantly (p < 0.05) better than controls on the Short Physical Performance Battery, sit-to-stand, fear of falling, affect, and quality of life, after adjusting for baseline performance. Conclusions: An exercise program targeting balance, leg strength, and freezing of gait did not reduce falls but improved physical and psychological health. Falls were reduced in people with milder disease but not in those with more severe Parkinson disease. Classification of evidence: This study provides Class III evidence that for patients with Parkinson disease, a minimally supervised exercise program does not reduce fall risk. This study lacked

  3. A Comprehensive Initiative to Prevent Falls Among Newborns.

    PubMed

    Ainsworth, Rose Mary; Summerlin-Long, Shelley; Mog, Cathy

    2016-01-01

    Our hospital experienced seven instances of newborns falling over a 7-month period. Until that time, there had been no reported newborn falls. We formed a committee to study the situation and make recommendations for change. Common factors observed were early morning hours and an exhausted parent, usually the mother, falling asleep while feeding the newborn. The committee developed a policy and procedure addressing falls among newborns, created staff education and tools, and posted signage in mothers' rooms. We also updated crib cards to include information about falls and safe sleep, and we revised newborn admission education for parents with additional information about falls. The incidence of newborns falling has decreased since we implemented these changes.

  4. `In free fall'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beijerinck, Herman C. W.

    2014-01-01

    Physicists in the lead of a fiction book or a play, that's a rare event! Writers in general do not understand physics, while physicists seldom have the talent of writing for a large audience. So when it happens, we should rejoice. The up-and-coming German author Juli Zeh [1] (1974), who studied law, has succeeded in combining beautiful prose, psychological drama, crime and physics in a challenging book `In free fall' [2]. A good friend of hers, Bettina Bruinier, has put the core message of the book into a compelling play in the `Volkstheater' in Munich [1]. Yes, it can be done.

  5. Statistical Analyses of Historical Rock Falls in Yosemite National Park

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Austin, L. J.; Stock, G. M.; Collins, B. D.

    2014-12-01

    The steep cliffs of Yosemite Valley produce dozens of rock falls each year that pose a hazard to the four million annual visitors to Yosemite National Park. To better understand rock-fall processes, we use 156 years of rock fall data to examine temporal and spatial correlations between rock falls and seasonality, environmental conditions, and rock type. We also investigate the complexity of rock fall triggers, the most notably precipitation-related triggers (precipitation, snowmelt, rain-on-snow), earthquakes, thermal stress, and freeze-thaw. Comparing rock fall occurrences and cumulative precipitation plots for 16 years between 1983 and 2011 demonstrates a temporal correlation between precipitation and rock falls; this is corroborated by the observation of 17 rock falls that occurred within a one-week period of significant precipitation in late winter 2014. Yet there are many rock falls that do not coincide with precipitation; we attribute these to other triggers when clear temporal correlations exist, or, lacking clear temporal correlations, we investigate possible factors involved in "unrecognized" triggers. The large number of rock falls in the database (925) affords the opportunity to establish a volume-frequency relation similar to that of earthquakes. We also investigate both the frequency and volume of rock falls for each significant lithologic unit exposed in Yosemite Valley and find that two units in particular, the granodiorite of Arch Rock and the granodiorite of Kuna Crest, produce higher rates of rock fall relative to the other lithologies. The aim of these analyses is to better understand conditions that contribute to rock fall and to increase understanding of rock-fall hazard within Yosemite National Park.

  6. The role of population in tracking meteorite falls in Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khiri, F.; Ibhi, A.; Saint-Gerant, T.; Medjkane, M.; Ouknine, L.

    2016-01-01

    The 158 African meteorite falls recorded during the period 1801 to 2014, account for more than 12.3% of all meteorite falls known from the world. Their rate is variable in time and in space. The number of falls continues to grow since 1860. They are concentrated in countries which exhibit large population (mainly rural population) with an uniform distribution. Generally, the number of falls follows the increase of the population density (coefficient of correlation r = 0.98). The colonial phenomenon, the education of population in this field, the population lifestyle and the rural exodus, are also factors among others which could explain the variability of the recovery of meteorite falls in Africa. In this note, we try by a statistical study, to examine the role of the African population in tracking meteorite falls on this continent.

  7. Preventing falls and fall-related injuries in hospitals.

    PubMed

    Oliver, David; Healey, Frances; Haines, Terry P

    2010-11-01

    Falls are a widespread concern in hospitals settings, with whole hospital rates of between 3 and 5 falls per 1000 bed-days representing around a million inpatient falls occurring in the United States each year. Between 1% and 3% of falls in hospitals result in fracture, but even minor injuries can cause distress and delay rehabilitation. Risk factors most consistently found in the inpatient population include a history of falling, muscle weakness, agitation and confusion, urinary incontinence or frequency, sedative medication, and postural hypotension. Based on systematic reviews, recent research, and clinical and ethical considerations, the most appropriate approach to fall prevention in the hospital environment includes multifactorial interventions with multiprofessional input. There is also some evidence that delirium avoidance programs, reducing sedative and hypnotic medication, in-depth patient education, and sustained exercise programs may reduce falls as single interventions. There is no convincing evidence that hip protectors, movement alarms, or low-low beds reduce falls or injury in the hospital setting. International approaches to developing and maintaining a fall prevention program suggest that commitment of management and a range of clinical and support staff is crucial to success.

  8. Slip, trip, and fall injuries among nursing care facility workers.

    PubMed

    Bell, Jennifer L; Collins, James W; Tiesman, Hope M; Ridenour, Marilyn; Konda, Srinivas; Wolf, Laurie; Evanoff, Bradley

    2013-04-01

    The objective of this research was to describe the slip, trip, and fall injury experience and trends in a population of nursing home workers, identify risk factors for slip, trip, and fall injuries, and develop prevention strategies for slip, trip, and fall hazards. Workers' compensation injury claims data and payroll data from 1996 through 2003 were obtained from six nursing homes and used to calculate injury incidence rates. Narrative information was used to describe details of slip, trip, and fall events. A total of 86 slip, trip, and fall-related workers' compensation claims were filed during the 8-year period. Slip, trip, and fall claim rates showed a nonsignificant increase during the 8-year period. Most slips, trips, and falls were attributed to hazards that can be mitigated (e.g., water on the floor or loose cords in a walkway). Nursing home workers experience more slip, trip, and fall-related injury claims than workers in other industries. Preventive programs should be implemented and evaluated in this industry. PMID:23521142

  9. 1991 Fall Meeting Report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chapman, David S.

    The AGU 1991 Fall Meeting, held in San Francisco December 9-13, was the largest national AGU meeting ever held. Meeting participation continued the steady growth trend set throughout the previous decade. A total of 4,037 papers and posters were presented, and by Friday noon of the meeting over 5,500 members had registered.Several special events were scheduled to inform and engage members on societal and programmatic aspects of our science. AGU's Committee on Education and Human Resources sponsored an open forum that addressed opportunities and problems associated with dual-career couples. A discussion of NASA's strategic plan by Berrien Moore and Joseph Alexander drew a large audience, and a special session on societal aspects of the Mt. Pinatubo eruption drew an overflow crowd. Two special lectures— “Plumes, Plates, and Deep Earth Structure” by Don L. Anderson and “New Frontiers in Aeronomy: Effects of Global Atmospheric Change” by P. M. Banks-also drew overflow crowds.

  10. Prospective monitoring and self-report of previous falls among older women at high risk of falls and fractures: a study of comparison and agreement

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Patrícia A.; Dias, João M. D.; Silva, Silvia L. A.; Dias, Rosângela C.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The identification of the occurrence of falls is an important step for screening and for rehabilitation processes for the elderly. The methods of monitoring these events are susceptible to recording biases, and the choice of the most accurate method remains challenging. Objectives: (i) To investigate the agreement between retrospective self-reporting and prospective monitoring of methods of recording falls, and (ii) to compare the retrospective self-reporting of falls and the prospective monitoring of falls and recurrent falls over a 12-month period among older women at high risk of falls and fractures. Method: A total of 118 community-dwelling older women with low bone density were recruited. The incidence of falls was monitored prospectively in 116 older women (2 losses) via monthly phone calls over the course of a year. At the end of this monitoring period, the older women were asked about their recall of falls in the same 12-month period. The agreement between the two methods was analyzed, and the sensitivity and specificity of self-reported previous falls in relation to the prospective monitoring were calculated. Results: There was moderate agreement between the prospective monitoring and the retrospective self-reporting of falls in classifying fallers (Kappa=0.595) and recurrent fallers (Kappa=0.589). The limits of agreement were 0.35±1.66 falls. The self-reporting of prior falls had a 67.2% sensitivity and a 94.2% specificity in classifying fallers among older women and a 50% sensitivity and a 98.9% specificity in classifying recurrent fallers. Conclusion: Self-reporting of falls over a 12-month period underestimated 32.8% of falls and 50% of recurrent falls. The findings recommend caution if one is considering replacing monthly monitoring with annual retrospective questioning. PMID:26083603

  11. NOVA Fall 1999 Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    French, Wayne; Karlan, James W.; Ransick, Kristina; Rosene, Dale; Sammons, Fran Lyons; Sammons, James

    This teacher's guide complements five programs that aired on the Public Broadcasting System (PBS) in the fall of 1999. Programs include: (1) "Fall of the Leaning Tower"; (2) "Everest: The Mystery of Mallory and Irvine"; (3) "Time Travel, Decoding Nazi Secrets"; (3) "Voyage of Doom"; and (5) "Barely Breathing". It provides activity set-ups related…

  12. Not Just a Fall Tree

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller-Hewes, Kathy A.

    2004-01-01

    Trees burst with color in the northern states. Autumn leaves dust the ground. Painting the fall landscape is nothing new. Teachers have been doing it in classrooms for decades. The approach, however, can make the difference between whether the fall landscape is simply painting for fun, or a real learning experience. Students learn best when they…

  13. Project Profile Report. Fall 1993.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennsylvania Coll. of Technology, Williamsport.

    Pennsylvania College of Technology's Project Profile seeks to provide a portrait of all students entering each fall by collecting and analyzing surveys completed at the time of admission and comparing them to previous years. This report presents data on the 4,942 students who applied and matriculated in fall 1993 and includes comparisons by…

  14. [FALLS IN PATIENTS WITH DEMENTIA].

    PubMed

    Aizen, Efraim

    2015-05-01

    Older people with dementia are at increased risk of falls and their consequences. Patients with dementia fall twice as often as elderly cognitively intact people and are at greater risk of injurious falls. Falls in older people with dementia cause higher rates of morbidity, mortality and institutionalization. There is limited literature attempting to show specific risk factors for falls in this population, mainly: Lewy body dementia, dementia related to Parkinson's disease and depression, psychotropic medication, functional disability and behavioral disturbances. The Physiological Profile Assessment (PPAJ has been found to be a good fall risk screening tool in this population. There are few trials that have shown limited effectiveness of targeted fall prevention programs in community-dwelling cognitively impaired elderly. The evidence from hospitals and residential care is not conclusive. However, it has been demonstrated that some interventions, primarily exercise interventions, can modify certain risk factors in patients with dementia. Further research is required in specifically targeting fall prevention in older people with dementia. PMID:26168645

  15. Automatic Fall Monitoring: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Pannurat, Natthapon; Thiemjarus, Surapa; Nantajeewarawat, Ekawit

    2014-01-01

    Falls and fall-related injuries are major incidents, especially for elderly people, which often mark the onset of major deterioration of health. More than one-third of home-dwelling people aged 65 or above and two-thirds of those in residential care fall once or more each year. Reliable fall detection, as well as prevention, is an important research topic for monitoring elderly living alone in residential or hospital units. The aim of this study is to review the existing fall detection systems and some of the key research challenges faced by the research community in this field. We categorize the existing platforms into two groups: wearable and ambient devices; the classification methods are divided into rule-based and machine learning techniques. The relative merit and potential drawbacks are discussed, and we also outline some of the outstanding research challenges that emerging new platforms need to address. PMID:25046016

  16. Fall prevention in our healthiest patients: assessing risk and preventing injury for moms and babies.

    PubMed

    Gaffey, Ann D

    2015-01-01

    Attention is needed in preventing patient falls in newborns and in obstetric units of hospitals. The majority of prenatal, postpartum, and newborn falls are preventable. Little effort has been made to address fall risk during the prenatal period, during labor, and after delivery in the postpartum period for moms and babies. Risk factors for falls in these populations have been identified, and targeted risk assessments and fall prevention interventions have been developed to eliminate these falls. Evidence demonstrates success in reducing falls with a variety of low-cost but high-return initiatives, comprising prenatal education, patient and family engagement, implementation of unique fall risk assessment tools, postpartum mobility assessments, and changes in patient rounding frequency.

  17. Cowlitz Falls Fish Passage.

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-01

    The upper Cowlitz was once home to native salmon and steelhead. But the combined impacts of overharvest, farming, logging and road building hammered fish runs. And in the 1960s, a pair of hydroelectric dams blocked the migration path of ocean-returning and ocean-going fish. The lower Cowlitz still supports hatchery runs of chinook, coho and steelhead. But some 200 river miles in the upper river basin--much of it prime spawning and rearing habitat--have been virtually cut off from the ocean for over 26 years. Now the idea is to trap-and-haul salmon and steelhead both ways and bypass previously impassable obstacles in the path of anadromous fish. The plan can be summarized, for the sake of explanation, in three steps: (1) trap and haul adult fish--collect ocean-returning adult fish at the lowermost Cowlitz dam, and truck them upstream; (2) reseed--release the ripe adults above the uppermost dam, and let them spawn naturally, at the same time, supplement these runs with hatchery born fry that are reared and imprinted in ponds and net pens in the watershed; (3) trap and haul smolts--collection the new generation of young fish as they arrive at the uppermost Cowlitz dam, truck them past the three dams, and release them to continue their downstream migration to the sea. The critical part of any fish-collection system is the method of fish attraction. Scientists have to find the best combination of attraction system and screens that will guide young fish to the right spot, away from the turbine intakes. In the spring of 1994 a test was made of a prototype system of baffles and slots on the upriver face of the Cowlitz Falls Dam. The prototype worked at 90% efficiency in early tests, and it worked without the kind of expensive screening devices that have been installed on other dams. Now that the success of the attraction system has been verified, Harza engineers and consultants will design and build the appropriate collection part of the system.

  18. Falls risk assessment begins with hello: lessons learned from the use of one home health agency's fall risk tool.

    PubMed

    Flemming, Patricia J; Ramsay, Katherine

    2012-10-01

    Identifying older adults at risk for falls is a challenge all home healthcare agencies (HHAs) face. The process of assessing for falls risk begins with the initial home visit. One HHA affiliated with an academic medical center describes its experience in development and use of a Falls Risk Assessment (FRA) tool over a 10-year period. The FRA tool has been modified since initial development to clarify elements of the tool based on research and to reflect changes in the Outcome and Assessment Information Set (OASIS) document. The primary purpose of this article is to share a validated falls risk assessment tool to facilitate identification of fall-related risk factors in the homebound population. A secondary purpose is to share lessons learned by the HHA during the 10 years using the FRA.

  19. Falls in elderly hemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Rahman, E M; Turgut, F; Turkmen, K; Balogun, R A

    2011-10-01

    The elderly, (age ≥ 65 years) hemodialysis (HD) patient population is growing rapidly across the world. The risk of accidental falls is very high in this patient population due to multiple factors which include aging, underlying renal disease and adverse events associated with HD treatments. Falls, the most common cause of fatal injury among elderly, not only increase morbidity and mortality, but also increase costs to the health system. Prediction of falls and interventions to prevent or minimize fall risk and associated complications will be a major step in helping these patients as well as decreasing financial and social burdens. Thus, it is vital to learn how to approach this important problem. In this review, we will summarize the epidemiology, risk factors, pathophysiology and complications of falls in elderly HD patients. We will also focus on available methods to assess and predict the patients at higher risk of falling and will provide recommendations for interventions to reduce the occurrence of falls in this population.

  20. Radar fall detectors: a comparison

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erol, Baris; Amin, Moeness; Ahmad, Fauzia; Boashash, Boualem

    2016-05-01

    Falls are a major cause of accidents in elderly people. Even simple falls can lead to severe injuries, and sometimes result in death. Doppler fall detection has drawn much attention in recent years. Micro-Doppler signatures play an important role for the Doppler-based radar systems. Numerous studies have demonstrated the offerings of micro-Doppler characteristics for fall detection. In this respect, a plethora of micro-Doppler signature features have been proposed, including those stemming from speech recognition and wavelet decomposition. In this work, we consider four different sets of features for fall detection. These can be categorized as spectrogram based features, wavelet based features, mel-frequency cepstrum coefficients, and power burst curve features. Support vector machine is employed as the classifier. Performance of the respective fall detectors is investigated using real data obtained with the same radar operating resources and under identical sensing conditions. For the considered data, the spectrogram based feature set is shown to provide superior fall detection performance.

  1. Injuries due to falling coconuts.

    PubMed

    Barss, P

    1984-11-01

    Falling coconuts can cause injury to the head, back, and shoulders. A 4-year review of trauma admissions to the Provincial Hospital, Alotau, Milne Bay Province, Papua New Guinea, revealed that 2.5% of such admissions were due to being struck by falling coconuts. Since mature coconut palms may have a height of 24 up to 35 meters and an unhusked coconut may weigh 1 to 4 kg, blows to the head of a force exceeding 1 metric ton are possible. Four patients with head injuries due to falling coconuts are described. Two required craniotomy. Two others died instantly in the village after being struck by dropping nuts.

  2. Highlights of 2012 Fall Meeting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finn, Carol

    2013-01-01

    This past December the streets of San Francisco, Calif., surrounding the Moscone Center were awash with a sea of Earth and space scientists attending the 45th consecutive AGU Fall Meeting, eager to share and expand their knowledge "for the benefit of humanity." As it has for many years, attendance at AGU's Fall Meeting—the largest gathering of Earth and space scientists in the world—continued to increase, this year passing the 24,000 mark. Attendees at the meeting, which took place on 3-7 December 2012, hailed from 97 countries; nearly 7000 of them were students. News from the Fall Meeting was carried in newspapers and on Web sites around the world, and the social media sphere lit up with talk of AGU and the Fall Meeting. It's even reported that for a short time we were a trending topic on Twitter.

  3. Exercises to help prevent falls

    MedlinePlus

    ... D, Dempster DW, Luckey M, Cauley J, eds. Osteoporosis . 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2013:chap 70. Donath L, van Dieen J, Faude O. Exercise-based fall prevention in the elderly: what about ...

  4. Community College Estimated Growth: Fall 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillippe, Kent; Mullin, Christopher M.

    2011-01-01

    A survey from the American Association of Community Colleges (AACC) found that enrollment growth in fall 2010 slowed its pace at community colleges, increasing 3.2% from the previous year. This contrasts with more dramatic increases in recent years: more than 11% between fall 2008 and fall 2009, and nearly 17% between fall 2007 and fall 2009,…

  5. Klamath Falls downtown development geothermal sidewalk snowmelt

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, B.

    1995-10-01

    The Klamuth Falls, Oregon, downtown has seen a period of decline over the past 20 years as businesses have moved to new suburban shopping centers. Downtown business owners and the Klamuth Falls Downtown Redevelopment Agency are working to reverse that trend with a Downtown Streetscape Project intended to make the downtown a more pleasant place to work and do business. The visible elements of the project include new crosswalks with brick pavers, wheelchair ramps at sidewalk corners, new concrete sidewalks with a consistent decorative grid pattern, sidewalk planters for trees and flowers, and antique-style park benches and lighting fixtures. A less visible, but equally valuable feature of the project is the plastic tubing installed under the sidewalks, wheelchair ramps and crosswalks, designed to keep them snow and ice free in the winter. A unique feature of the snowmelt system is the use of geothermal heated water on the return side of the Klamath Falls Geothermal District Heating System, made possible by the recent expansion of the district heating system.

  6. Modeling seasonal migration of fall armyworm moths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westbrook, J. K.; Nagoshi, R. N.; Meagher, R. L.; Fleischer, S. J.; Jairam, S.

    2016-02-01

    Fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith), is a highly mobile insect pest of a wide range of host crops. However, this pest of tropical origin cannot survive extended periods of freezing temperature but must migrate northward each spring if it is to re-infest cropping areas in temperate regions. The northward limit of the winter-breeding region for North America extends to southern regions of Texas and Florida, but infestations are regularly reported as far north as Québec and Ontario provinces in Canada by the end of summer. Recent genetic analyses have characterized migratory pathways from these winter-breeding regions, but knowledge is lacking on the atmosphere's role in influencing the timing, distance, and direction of migratory flights. The Hybrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory (HYSPLIT) model was used to simulate migratory flight of fall armyworm moths from distinct winter-breeding source areas. Model simulations identified regions of dominant immigration from the Florida and Texas source areas and overlapping immigrant populations in the Alabama-Georgia and Pennsylvania-Mid-Atlantic regions. This simulated migratory pattern corroborates a previous migratory map based on the distribution of fall armyworm haplotype profiles. We found a significant regression between the simulated first week of moth immigration and first week of moth capture (for locations which captured ≥10 moths), which on average indicated that the model simulated first immigration 2 weeks before first captures in pheromone traps. The results contribute to knowledge of fall armyworm population ecology on a continental scale and will aid in the prediction and interpretation of inter-annual variability of insect migration patterns including those in response to climatic change and adoption rates of transgenic cultivars.

  7. Inpatient Falls: Improving assessment, documentation, and management.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Eleanor; Reynolds, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    A frequently occurring job during on-call and out-of-hours shifts is reviewing a patient following a fall with this often being the responsibility of the most junior and inexperienced doctors. Following a pilot audit we identified inconsistencies in medical assessment and documentation, with 50% of expected data points not recorded. Failure to complete a thorough assessment can lead to missed injuries, prolonged length of stay, and litigation. Using the plan, do, study, act (PDSA) cycle model this project sought to address this through providing teaching to junior doctors and the development of a pro-forma. Three style cycles of data collection were performed; a formal baseline dataset, after delivering a teaching session to new junior doctors and following the trial of the new fall pro-forma. We selected 15 to 17 patient notes to review at random during a one month period for each data collection cycle and compared the medical assessment to the standards outlined by the National Patient Safety Agency (NPSA) guidelines.[1] There were two key areas of improvement identified following the teaching session and introduction of the proforma. Documentation of a fall history was improved by nearly 30% being recorded in 100% of cases after the interventions. Documentation of a thorough musculoskeletal examination was improved from being recorded in just 54% of cases to 77% of cases; it was recorded in 100% of the cases where the proforma was used. The project demonstrated the need to improve documentation and assessment of a patient who has fallen. Initial data collection has shown that assessment and documentation were improved providing teaching to junior doctors and by use of the document. The pro-forma has since been incorporated into hospital policy and now forms the compulsory documentation expected of the doctors and nurses managing patients following a fall. Ensuring easy access to the proforma and re-auditing after editing the document will be the next steps. PMID

  8. Modeling seasonal migration of fall armyworm moths.

    PubMed

    Westbrook, J K; Nagoshi, R N; Meagher, R L; Fleischer, S J; Jairam, S

    2016-02-01

    Fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith), is a highly mobile insect pest of a wide range of host crops. However, this pest of tropical origin cannot survive extended periods of freezing temperature but must migrate northward each spring if it is to re-infest cropping areas in temperate regions. The northward limit of the winter-breeding region for North America extends to southern regions of Texas and Florida, but infestations are regularly reported as far north as Québec and Ontario provinces in Canada by the end of summer. Recent genetic analyses have characterized migratory pathways from these winter-breeding regions, but knowledge is lacking on the atmosphere's role in influencing the timing, distance, and direction of migratory flights. The Hybrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory (HYSPLIT) model was used to simulate migratory flight of fall armyworm moths from distinct winter-breeding source areas. Model simulations identified regions of dominant immigration from the Florida and Texas source areas and overlapping immigrant populations in the Alabama-Georgia and Pennsylvania-Mid-Atlantic regions. This simulated migratory pattern corroborates a previous migratory map based on the distribution of fall armyworm haplotype profiles. We found a significant regression between the simulated first week of moth immigration and first week of moth capture (for locations which captured ≥ 10 moths), which on average indicated that the model simulated first immigration 2 weeks before first captures in pheromone traps. The results contribute to knowledge of fall armyworm population ecology on a continental scale and will aid in the prediction and interpretation of inter-annual variability of insect migration patterns including those in response to climatic change and adoption rates of transgenic cultivars.

  9. 29 CFR Appendix E to Subpart M of... - Sample Fall Protection Plan

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... work normally exposes the employee to the fall hazard for a short period of time and installation of... system to the same fall hazard, but for a longer period of time. 1. It is necessary that the employee be... device's shock absorbing function, produce cable slack and damage, and adversely affect cable...

  10. 29 CFR Appendix E to Subpart M of... - Sample Fall Protection Plan

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... work normally exposes the employee to the fall hazard for a short period of time and installation of... system to the same fall hazard, but for a longer period of time. 1. It is necessary that the employee be... device's shock absorbing function, produce cable slack and damage, and adversely affect cable...

  11. 29 CFR Appendix E to Subpart M of... - Sample Fall Protection Plan

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... work normally exposes the employee to the fall hazard for a short period of time and installation of... system to the same fall hazard, but for a longer period of time. 1. It is necessary that the employee be... device's shock absorbing function, produce cable slack and damage, and adversely affect cable...

  12. 29 CFR Appendix E to Subpart M of... - Sample Fall Protection Plan

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... work normally exposes the employee to the fall hazard for a short period of time and installation of... system to the same fall hazard, but for a longer period of time. 1. It is necessary that the employee be... device's shock absorbing function, produce cable slack and damage, and adversely affect cable...

  13. Catching a Falling Star

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2004-07-01

    . Comets are another important source of meteoroids and perhaps the most spectacular. After many visits near the Sun, a comet "dirty-snowball" nucleus of ice and dust decays and fragments, leaving a trail of meteoroids along its orbit. Some "meteoroid streams" cross the earth's orbit and when our planet passes through them, some of these particles will enter the atmosphere. The outcome is a meteor shower - the most famous being the "Perseids" in the month of August [2] and the "Leonids" in November. Thus, although meteors are referred to as "shooting" or "falling stars" in many languages, they are of a very different nature. More information The research presented in this paper is published in the journal Meteoritics and Planetary Science, Vol. 39, Nr. 4, p. 1, 2004 ("Spectroscopic anatomy of a meteor trail cross section with the ESO Very Large Telescope", by P. Jenniskens et al.). Notes [1] The team is composed of Peter Jenniskens (SETI Institute, USA), Emmanuël Jehin (ESO), Remi Cabanac (Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile), Christophe Laux (Ecole Centrale de Paris, France), and Iain Boyd (University of Michigan, USA). [2] The maximum of the Perseids is expected on August 12 after sunset and should be easily seen.

  14. Fall prevention in hospitals: an integrative review.

    PubMed

    Spoelstra, Sandra L; Given, Barbara A; Given, Charles W

    2012-02-01

    This article summarizes research and draws overall conclusions from the body of literature on fall prevention interventions to provide nurse administrators with a basis for developing evidence-based fall prevention programs in the hospital setting. Data are obtained from published studies. Thirteen articles are retrieved that focused on fall interventions in the hospital setting. An analysis is performed based on levels of evidence using an integrative review process. Multifactoral fall prevention intervention programs that included fall-risk assessments, door/bed/patient fall-risk alerts, environmental and equipment modifications, staff and patient safety education, medication management targeted to specific types, and additional assistance with transfer and toileting demonstrate reduction in both falls and fall injuries in hospitalized patients. Hospitals need to reduce falls by using multifactoral fall prevention programs using evidence-based interventions to reduce falls and injuries.

  15. Fall Enrollment Report: University of Hawaii, Community Colleges, Fall 1981.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawaii Univ., Honolulu. Office of Institutional Research and Analysis.

    Data are presented on a series of tables summarizing enrollment trends and the academic and personal characteristics of the 20,087 regular students enrolled in credit programs at six University of Hawaii community colleges during Fall, 1981. The tables cover: (1) headcount enrollment in regular credit and special programs; (2) headcount enrollment…

  16. Applications, Acceptances and Registrations, Fall 1975-Fall 1979.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawaii Univ., Honolulu. Office of Institutional Research and Analysis.

    Patterns in student progression from application to acceptance and registration were analyzed for the fall semesters from 1975 to 1979 at six Hawaii community colleges. The data, compiled from the Coordinated Admissions Program Information System and from the Student Information System, indicate, with regard to applications, that: (1) a total of…

  17. A Piece of Paper Falling Faster than Free Fall

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vera, F.; Rivera, R.

    2011-01-01

    We report a simple experiment that clearly demonstrates a common error in the explanation of the classic experiment where a small piece of paper is put over a book and the system is let fall. This classic demonstration is used in introductory physics courses to show that after eliminating the friction force with the air, the piece of paper falls…

  18. BURDEN FALLS ROADLESS AREA, ILLINOIS.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Klasner, John S.; Thompson, Robert M.

    1984-01-01

    The Burden Falls Roadless Area lies in the Shawnee National Forest of southern Illinois, about 5 mi west of the western edge of the Illinois-Kentucky fluorspar district. Geologic mapping and geochemical surveys indicate that the area has little promise for the occurrence of fluorspar and associated minerals; other special studies also indicate little promise for oil and gas and construction materials. Traces of gold and silver were detected in some geochemical samples but follow-up studies indicate little promise for the occurrence of resources of these metals within the Burden Falls Roadless Area.

  19. [Violence Profiles for Fall Programming.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Citizens Committee for Broadcasting, Washington, DC.

    This document presented by the National Citizens' Committee for Broadcasting at a 1976 press conference provides an assortment of materials concerned with violence in television. Among the materials included are "Who Sponsors the New Fall Violence?" by Nicholas Johnson, a description of and rationale for the study of advertisers who sponsor…

  20. Fall 1984 Community Services Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weeks, Ann A.

    In fall 1984, students who enrolled in credit-free courses at Dutchess Community College (DCC) were asked to provide demographic information as part of their registration process. Approximately 2,000 students, from almost all of the credit-free courses offered both on-campus and at off-campus sites, completed the student data form. Findings…

  1. [A study on fall accident].

    PubMed

    Lee, H S; Kim, M J

    1997-01-01

    The study was conducted from November 1995 to May 1996 at the one general hospital in Seoul. The total subjects of this study were 412 patients who have the experience of fall accident, among them 31 was who have fallen during hospitalization and 381 was who visited emergency room and out patient clinic. The purposes of this study were to determine the characteristics, risk factors and results of fall accident and to suggest the nursing strategies for prevention of fall. Data were collected by reviewing the medical records and interviewing with the fallers and their family members. For data analysis spss/pc+ program was utilized for descriptive statistics, adjusted standardized X2-test. The results of this study were as follows: 1) Total subjects were 412 fallers, of which 245 (59.5%) were men and 167 (40.5%) were women. Age were 0-14 years 79 (19.2%), 15-44 years 125 (30.4%), 45-64 years 104 (25.2%), over 65 years 104 (25.2%). 2) There was significant association between age and the sexes (X2 = 39.17, P = 0.00). 3) There was significant association between age and history of falls (X2 = 44.41, P = .00). And history of falls in the elderly was significantly associated with falls. 4) There was significant association with age and medical diagnosis (X2 = 140.66, P = .00), chief medical diagnosis were hypertension (34), diabetes mellitus (22), arthritis (11), stroke (8), fracture (7), pulmonary tuberculosis (6), dementia (5) and cataract (5). 5) There was significant association between age and intrinsic factors: cognitive impairment, mobility impairment, insomnia, emotional problems, urinary difficulty, visual impairments, hearing impairments, use of drugs (sedatives, antihypertensive drugs, diuretics, antidepressants) (P < 0.05). But there was no significant association between age and dizziness (X2 = 2.87, P = .41). 6) 15.3% of total fallers were drunken state when they were fallen. 7) Environmental factors of fall accident were unusual posture (50.9%), slips (35

  2. Fellows Celebrated at Fall Meeting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2010-12-01

    The 2010 AGU Fellows will be presented during the Fall Meeting Honors Tribute in San Francisco, Calif. The formal ceremony will be held on Wednesday, 15 December 2010. President-Elect Carol Finn will introduce each Fellow and read a brief statement of the achievements for which each has been selected.

  3. Fellows celebrated at Fall Meeting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2011-11-01

    The 2011 AGU Fellows will be presented during the Fall Meeting Honors Tribute in San Francisco, Calif. The formal ceremony will be held on Wednesday, 14 December 2011, during which President-Elect Carol Finn will introduce each Fellow and read a brief statement of the achievements for which each has been selected.

  4. Fellows celebrated at Fall Meeting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2012-11-01

    The 2012 AGU Fellows will be presented during the Fall Meeting Honors Tribute in San Francisco, Calif. The formal ceremony will be held on Wednesday, 5 December 2012, during which President-elect Carol Finn will introduce each Fellow and read a brief statement of the achievements for which each has been selected.

  5. Fall 1972 University Racial Census.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Glenwood C., Jr.; Sedlacek, William E.

    This document reports the results of the fall 1972 racial census at the University of Maryland. Only new freshmen, transfer students, and readmitted students filled out the racial census cards. All returning students constituted the data base of the student body. By adding new and deleting old racial census cards, counts could be made. Results of…

  6. NOVA Fall 2000 Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ransick, Kristina; Rosene, Dale; Sammons, Fran Lyons; Sammons, James

    This teacher's guide complements six programs that aired on the Public Broadcasting System (PBS) in the fall of 2000. Programs include: (1) "Lincoln's Secret Weapon"; (2) "Hitler's Lost Sub"; (3) "Runaway Universe"; (4) "Garden of Eden"; (5) "Dying to Be Thin"; and (6) "Japan's Secret Garden". It provides activity set-ups related to the programs…

  7. Fall Armyworm in the Southeast

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two separate experiments testing fall armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda) migration patterns were set up in the southeastern U.S. in 2012. Previous results showed that moths from progeny of overwintering populations from south Texas were found west of the Chattahoochee-Flint-Apalachicola river basin, ...

  8. Student Transfer Matrix, Fall 1992.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Regents for Higher Education, Oklahoma City.

    Comprised primarily of data matrices, this report provides information on students transferring from Oklahoma public and private post-secondary institutions to other public and private post-secondary institutions in the state in fall 1992. The report consists of nine sections. Section I provides an aggregate flow of all students in the state,…

  9. The Rise and Fall of the Australian DBA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kortt, Michael A.; Pervan, Simon J; Hogan, Owen

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to identify and discuss the drivers behind the rise and fall of the Australian Doctor of Business Administration (DBA) and to assess its future. Design/methodology/approach: Data covering the period 1993-2013 was sourced from the Commonwealth Department of Education and Training to provide a comprehensive…

  10. Inertial sensing-based pre-impact detection of falls involving near-fall scenarios.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jung Keun; Robinovitch, Stephen N; Park, Edward J

    2015-03-01

    Although near-falls (or recoverable imbalances) are common episodes for many older adults, they have received a little attention and were not considered in the previous laboratory-based fall assessments. Hence, this paper addresses near-fall scenarios in addition to the typical falls and activities of daily living (ADLs). First, a novel vertical velocity-based pre-impact fall detection method using a wearable inertial sensor is proposed. Second, to investigate the effect of near-fall conditions on the detection performance and feasibility of the vertical velocity as a fall detection parameter, the detection performance of the proposed method (Method 1) is evaluated by comparing it to that of an acceleration-based method (Method 2) for the following two different discrimination cases: falls versus ADLs (i.e., excluding near-falls) and falls versus non-falls (i.e., including near-falls). Our experiment results show that both methods produce similar accuracies for the fall versus ADL detection case; however, Method 1 exhibits a much higher accuracy than Method 2 for the fall versus non-fall detection case. This result demonstrates the superiority of the vertical velocity over the peak acceleration as a fall detection parameter when the near-fall conditions are included in the non-fall category, in addition to its capability of detecting pre-impact falls.

  11. Portable, Non-Invasive Fall Risk Assessment in End Stage Renal Disease Patients on Hemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Lockhart, Thurmon E; Barth, Adam T; Zhang, Xiaoyue; Songra, Rahul; Abdel-Rahman, Emaad; Lach, John

    2010-01-01

    Patients with end stage renal diseases (ESRD) on hemodialysis (HD) have high morbidity and mortality due to multiple causes, one of which is dramatically higher fall rates than the general population. The mobility mechanisms that contribute to falls in this population must be understood if adequate interventions for fall prevention are to be achieved. This study utilizes emerging non-invasive, portable gait, posture, strength, and stability assessment technologies to extract various mobility parameters that research has shown to be predictive of fall risk in the general population. As part of an ongoing human subjects study, mobility measures such as postural and locomotion profiles were obtained from five (5) ESRD patients undergoing HD treatments. To assess the effects of post-HD-fatigue on fall risk, both the pre- and post-HD measurements were obtained. Additionally, the effects of inter-HD periods (two days vs. three days) were investigated using the non-invasive, wireless, body-worn motion capture technology and novel signal processing algorithms. The results indicated that HD treatment influenced strength and mobility (i.e., weaker and slower after the dialysis, increasing the susceptibility to falls while returning home) and inter-dialysis period influenced pre-HD profiles (increasing the susceptibility to falls before they come in for a HD treatment). Methodology for early detection of increased fall risk - before a fall event occurs - using the portable mobility assessment technology for out-patient monitoring is further explored, including targeting interventions to identified individuals for fall prevention.

  12. Fall-detection solution for mobile platforms using accelerometer and gyroscope data.

    PubMed

    De Cillisy, Francesca; De Simioy, Francesca; Guidoy, Floriana; Incalzi, Raffaele Antonelli; Setolay, Roberto

    2015-08-01

    Falls are a major health risk that diminish the quality of life among elderly people. Apart from falls themselves, most dramatic consequences are usually related with long lying periods that can cause serious side effects. These findings call for pervasive long-term fall detection systems able to automatically detect falls. In this paper, we propose an effective fall detection algorithm for mobile platforms. Using data retrieved from wearable sensors, such as Inertial Measurements Units (IMUs) and/or SmartPhones (SPs), our algorithm is able to detect falls using features extracted from accelerometer and gyroscope. While mostly of the mobile-based solutions for fall management deal only with accelerometer data, in the proposed approach we combine the instantaneous acceleration magnitude vector with changes of the user's heading in a Threshold Based Algorithm (TBA). In such a way, we were able to handle falls detection with minimal computational load, increasing the overall system accuracy with respect to traditional fall management methods. Experimental results show the strong detection performance of the proposed solution in discriminating between falls and typical Activities of Daily Living (ADLs) presenting fall-like acceleration patterns.

  13. Fall-detection solution for mobile platforms using accelerometer and gyroscope data.

    PubMed

    De Cillisy, Francesca; De Simioy, Francesca; Guidoy, Floriana; Incalzi, Raffaele Antonelli; Setolay, Roberto

    2015-08-01

    Falls are a major health risk that diminish the quality of life among elderly people. Apart from falls themselves, most dramatic consequences are usually related with long lying periods that can cause serious side effects. These findings call for pervasive long-term fall detection systems able to automatically detect falls. In this paper, we propose an effective fall detection algorithm for mobile platforms. Using data retrieved from wearable sensors, such as Inertial Measurements Units (IMUs) and/or SmartPhones (SPs), our algorithm is able to detect falls using features extracted from accelerometer and gyroscope. While mostly of the mobile-based solutions for fall management deal only with accelerometer data, in the proposed approach we combine the instantaneous acceleration magnitude vector with changes of the user's heading in a Threshold Based Algorithm (TBA). In such a way, we were able to handle falls detection with minimal computational load, increasing the overall system accuracy with respect to traditional fall management methods. Experimental results show the strong detection performance of the proposed solution in discriminating between falls and typical Activities of Daily Living (ADLs) presenting fall-like acceleration patterns. PMID:26737103

  14. Adoption of Evidence-Based Fall Prevention Practices in Primary Care for Older Adults with a History of Falls

    PubMed Central

    Phelan, Elizabeth A.; Aerts, Sally; Dowler, David; Eckstrom, Elizabeth; Casey, Colleen M.

    2016-01-01

    A multifactorial approach to assess and manage modifiable risk factors is recommended for older adults with a history of falls. Limited research suggests that this approach does not routinely occur in clinical practice, but most related studies are based on provider self-report, with the last chart audit of United States practice published over a decade ago. We conducted a retrospective chart review to assess the extent to which patients aged 65+ years with a history of repeated falls or fall-related health-care use received multifactorial risk assessment and interventions. The setting was an academic primary care clinic in the Pacific Northwest. Among the 116 patients meeting our inclusion criteria, 48% had some type of documented assessment. Their mean age was 79 ± 8 years; 68% were female, and 10% were non-white. They averaged six primary care visits over a 12-month period subsequent to their index fall. Frequency of assessment of fall-risk factors varied from 24% (for home safety) to 78% (for vitamin D). An evidence-based intervention was recommended for identified risk factors 73% of the time, on average. Two risk factors were addressed infrequently: medications (21%) and home safety (24%). Use of a structured visit note template independently predicted assessment of fall-risk factors (p = 0.003). Geriatrics specialists were more likely to use a structured note template (p = 0.04) and perform more fall-risk factor assessments (4.6 vs. 3.6, p = 0.007) than general internists. These results suggest opportunities for improving multifactorial fall-risk assessment and management of older adults at high fall risk in primary care. A structured visit note template facilitates assessment. Given that high-risk medications have been found to be independent risk factors for falls, increasing attention to medications should become a key focus of both public health educational efforts and fall prevention in primary care practice. PMID:27660753

  15. Adoption of Evidence-Based Fall Prevention Practices in Primary Care for Older Adults with a History of Falls

    PubMed Central

    Phelan, Elizabeth A.; Aerts, Sally; Dowler, David; Eckstrom, Elizabeth; Casey, Colleen M.

    2016-01-01

    A multifactorial approach to assess and manage modifiable risk factors is recommended for older adults with a history of falls. Limited research suggests that this approach does not routinely occur in clinical practice, but most related studies are based on provider self-report, with the last chart audit of United States practice published over a decade ago. We conducted a retrospective chart review to assess the extent to which patients aged 65+ years with a history of repeated falls or fall-related health-care use received multifactorial risk assessment and interventions. The setting was an academic primary care clinic in the Pacific Northwest. Among the 116 patients meeting our inclusion criteria, 48% had some type of documented assessment. Their mean age was 79 ± 8 years; 68% were female, and 10% were non-white. They averaged six primary care visits over a 12-month period subsequent to their index fall. Frequency of assessment of fall-risk factors varied from 24% (for home safety) to 78% (for vitamin D). An evidence-based intervention was recommended for identified risk factors 73% of the time, on average. Two risk factors were addressed infrequently: medications (21%) and home safety (24%). Use of a structured visit note template independently predicted assessment of fall-risk factors (p = 0.003). Geriatrics specialists were more likely to use a structured note template (p = 0.04) and perform more fall-risk factor assessments (4.6 vs. 3.6, p = 0.007) than general internists. These results suggest opportunities for improving multifactorial fall-risk assessment and management of older adults at high fall risk in primary care. A structured visit note template facilitates assessment. Given that high-risk medications have been found to be independent risk factors for falls, increasing attention to medications should become a key focus of both public health educational efforts and fall prevention in primary care practice.

  16. Adoption of Evidence-Based Fall Prevention Practices in Primary Care for Older Adults with a History of Falls.

    PubMed

    Phelan, Elizabeth A; Aerts, Sally; Dowler, David; Eckstrom, Elizabeth; Casey, Colleen M

    2016-01-01

    A multifactorial approach to assess and manage modifiable risk factors is recommended for older adults with a history of falls. Limited research suggests that this approach does not routinely occur in clinical practice, but most related studies are based on provider self-report, with the last chart audit of United States practice published over a decade ago. We conducted a retrospective chart review to assess the extent to which patients aged 65+ years with a history of repeated falls or fall-related health-care use received multifactorial risk assessment and interventions. The setting was an academic primary care clinic in the Pacific Northwest. Among the 116 patients meeting our inclusion criteria, 48% had some type of documented assessment. Their mean age was 79 ± 8 years; 68% were female, and 10% were non-white. They averaged six primary care visits over a 12-month period subsequent to their index fall. Frequency of assessment of fall-risk factors varied from 24% (for home safety) to 78% (for vitamin D). An evidence-based intervention was recommended for identified risk factors 73% of the time, on average. Two risk factors were addressed infrequently: medications (21%) and home safety (24%). Use of a structured visit note template independently predicted assessment of fall-risk factors (p = 0.003). Geriatrics specialists were more likely to use a structured note template (p = 0.04) and perform more fall-risk factor assessments (4.6 vs. 3.6, p = 0.007) than general internists. These results suggest opportunities for improving multifactorial fall-risk assessment and management of older adults at high fall risk in primary care. A structured visit note template facilitates assessment. Given that high-risk medications have been found to be independent risk factors for falls, increasing attention to medications should become a key focus of both public health educational efforts and fall prevention in primary care practice. PMID:27660753

  17. After a fall in the hospital

    MedlinePlus

    ... do not see patients fall. But falls require attention right away to lessen the risk of injury. ... patient's breathing, pulse, and blood pressure. If the patient is ... a hospital emergency code and start CPR. Check for injury, such ...

  18. 78 FR 22423 - Drawbridge Operation Regulations; Taunton River, Fall River and Somerset, MA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-16

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 117 Drawbridge Operation Regulations; Taunton River, Fall River and... Brightman Street Bridge across the Taunton River, mile 1.8, between Fall River and Somerset, Massachusetts.... The Taunton River is a recreational waterway. The bridge rarely opens during the time period...

  19. Detecting Falling Snow from Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, Gail Skofronick; Johnson, Ben; Munchak, Joe

    2012-01-01

    There is an increased interest in detecting and estimating the amount of falling snow reaching the Earth's surface in order to fully capture the atmospheric water cycle. An initial step toward global spaceborne falling snow algorithms includes determining the thresholds of detection for various active and passive sensor channel configurations, snow event cloud structures and microphysics, snowflake particle electromagnetic properties, and surface types. In this work, cloud resolving model simulations of a lake effect and synoptic snow event were used to determine the minimum amount of snow (threshold) that could be detected by the following instruments: the W -band radar of CloudSat, Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Dual-frequency Precipitation Radar (DPR) Ku and Ka band, and the GPM Microwave Imager (GMI) channels from 10 to 183 plus or minus 7 GHz. Eleven different snowflake shapes were used to compute radar reflectivities and passive brightness temperatures. Notable results include: (1) the W-Band radar has detection thresholds more than an order of magnitude lower than the future GPM sensors, (2) the cloud structure macrophysics influences the thresholds of detection for passive channels, (3) the snowflake microphysics plays a large role in the detection threshold for active and passive instruments, (4) with reasonable assumptions, "the passive 166 GHz channel has detection threshold values comparable to the GPM DPR Ku and Ka band radars with approximately 0.05 g per cubic meter detected at the surface, or an approximately 0.5-1 millimeter per hr. melted snow rate (equivalent to 0.5-2 centimeters per hr. solid fluffy snowflake rate). With detection levels of falling snow known, we can focus current and future retrieval efforts on detectable storms and concentrate advances on achievable results. We will also have an understanding of the light snowfall events missed by the sensors and not captured in the global estimates.

  20. Injury pattern due to falls from hunting stands

    PubMed Central

    Zilkens, Georg; Zilkens, Christoph; Zilkens, Jan; Jäger, Marcus

    2011-01-01

    Hunting is a historically constructed cultural act and continues to be a passion and a popular recreational pastime worldwide. Along with a high population density in Europe and a large volume of hunters hunting injuries such as falls from hunting stands continue to occur regularly and are a significant cause of morbidity among hunters. The purpose of this study was to review typical injury patterns after falls from hunting stands in Germany between 2000–2009 using the German agricultural statutory accident insurance database and to compare these findings to other causes of hunting accidents. The most common injury pattern after falls from hunting stands in Germany in the period of 2000–2009 are closed fractures. However, data collection is incomplete. Thus a more precise data collection would help to be able to better analyze accident mechanisms in order to be able to prevent further accidents. PMID:22053251

  1. 29 CFR 1926.760 - Fall protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Fall protection. 1926.760 Section 1926.760 Labor... (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Steel Erection § 1926.760 Fall protection. (a... protection from fall hazards in accordance with paragraph (a)(1) of this section. (c) Controlled Decking...

  2. 29 CFR 1926.760 - Fall protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fall protection. 1926.760 Section 1926.760 Labor... (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Steel Erection § 1926.760 Fall protection. (a... protection from fall hazards in accordance with paragraph (a)(1) of this section. (c) Controlled Decking...

  3. 29 CFR 1926.760 - Fall protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Fall protection. 1926.760 Section 1926.760 Labor... (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Steel Erection § 1926.760 Fall protection. (a... protection from fall hazards in accordance with paragraph (a)(1) of this section. (c) Controlled Decking...

  4. 29 CFR 1917.41 - House falls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false House falls. 1917.41 Section 1917.41 Labor Regulations...) MARINE TERMINALS Cargo Handling Gear and Equipment § 1917.41 House falls. (a) Span beams shall be secured... working with house fall blocks. (c) Designated employees shall inspect chains, links, shackles,...

  5. 29 CFR 1917.41 - House falls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false House falls. 1917.41 Section 1917.41 Labor Regulations...) MARINE TERMINALS Cargo Handling Gear and Equipment § 1917.41 House falls. (a) Span beams shall be secured... working with house fall blocks. (c) Designated employees shall inspect chains, links, shackles,...

  6. 29 CFR 1917.41 - House falls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false House falls. 1917.41 Section 1917.41 Labor Regulations...) MARINE TERMINALS Cargo Handling Gear and Equipment § 1917.41 House falls. (a) Span beams shall be secured... working with house fall blocks. (c) Designated employees shall inspect chains, links, shackles,...

  7. Imager displays free fall in stop action

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frazer, R. E.

    1981-01-01

    Microprocessor-controlled imaging system displays sequence of "frozen" images of free-falling object, using video cameras positioned along fall. Strobe lights flash as object passes each camera's viewfield. Sequence stored on video disk and displayed on television monitor is stop-action record of fall dynamics. With modification, system monitiors other high speed phenomena.

  8. Epidemiology of Falls in Older Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peel, Nancye May

    2011-01-01

    Worldwide, falls among older people are a public health concern because of their frequency and adverse consequences in terms of morbidity, mortality, and quality of life, as well as their impact on health system services and costs. This epidemiological review outlines the public health burden of falls and fall-related injuries and the impact of…

  9. Fear of Falling in New Long-Term Care Enrollees

    PubMed Central

    Gillespie, Suzanne M.; Friedman, Susan M.

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To measure the prevalence of fear of falling in older adults at the time of long- term care (LTC) enrollment and identify potentially treatable risk factors for low fall related self-efficacy. DESIGN Prospective cohort study. SETTING Three LTC programs in Upstate New York. PARTICIPANTS 112 new enrollees in LTC, aged 55 or older, who passed a cognitive screen. MEASUREMENTS Self-reported falls, the falls efficacy scale (FES), medical conditions, the short geriatric depression scale, and physical performance measures (Berg balance scale, hip flexor, knee extensor and grip strength, gait speed and a six-minute walk). RESULTS Of the 54 subjects (48.2%) who reported fear of falling, 41 (75.9%) reported activity modification secondary to fear. Fearful subjects were more likely to be female (P=.003), report low back pain (P=.030) and lower extremity arthritis (P=.048). Fearful subjects were weaker at the hip (P<.001) and knee (P=.001), and had shorter six-minute walk distances. Subjects with better FES scores had better Berg scores (P<.001), had greater hip and knee strength, had faster gait speeds and walked further in six minutes (P<.001, P=.006, P=.001 and P=.001 respectively). Subjects with low FES scores and fearful subjects were more likely to have depressive symptoms (P=.003, P=.044, respectively). CONCLUSION Falls and fear of falling are more common in new LTC enrollees than in previously described community dwelling and SNF cohorts. Attention to associated characteristics like depression, arthritis, low back pain and lower extremity weakness may identify opportunities to reduce fear and improve patient safety during this transitional period. PMID:17570309

  10. Falls from trees and tree associated injuries in rural Melanesians.

    PubMed Central

    Barss, P; Dakulala, P; Doolan, M

    1984-01-01

    Falls from trees and other tree related injuries are the most common cause of trauma in some parts of rural Melanesia. A four year review of all admissions for trauma to the Provincial Hospital at Alotau, Milne Bay Province, Papua New Guinea, showed that 27% were due to falls from trees, and a further 10% were due to related injuries, such as being struck by a falling branch or a coconut. A questionnaire distributed to rural health centres showed that during the study period at least 28 villagers died from falls from trees before reaching hospital. Head and chest trauma were common causes of death. Many injured patients were boys. Forearm fractures were the most common injuries, but more serious injuries were also frequently encountered. Trees responsible for most deaths and injuries included the coconut palm, betel palm, mango, and breadfruit. There are many strategies for preventing such injuries; perhaps the most important is to stop small boys climbing tall trees. Such falls are a serious occupational hazard for many subsistence farmers. Images FIG 1 FIG 2 FIG 3 FIG 4 PMID:6440619

  11. Falls from trees and tree associated injuries in rural Melanesians.

    PubMed

    Barss, P; Dakulala, P; Doolan, M

    Falls from trees and other tree related injuries are the most common cause of trauma in some parts of rural Melanesia. A four year review of all admissions for trauma to the Provincial Hospital at Alotau, Milne Bay Province, Papua New Guinea, showed that 27% were due to falls from trees, and a further 10% were due to related injuries, such as being struck by a falling branch or a coconut. A questionnaire distributed to rural health centres showed that during the study period at least 28 villagers died from falls from trees before reaching hospital. Head and chest trauma were common causes of death. Many injured patients were boys. Forearm fractures were the most common injuries, but more serious injuries were also frequently encountered. Trees responsible for most deaths and injuries included the coconut palm, betel palm, mango, and breadfruit. There are many strategies for preventing such injuries; perhaps the most important is to stop small boys climbing tall trees. Such falls are a serious occupational hazard for many subsistence farmers.

  12. Analysis of human postural responses to recoverable falls

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bortolami, S. B.; DiZio, P.; Rabin, E.; Lackner, J. R.

    2003-01-01

    We studied the kinematics and kinetics of human postural responses to "recoverable falls." To induce brief falling we used a Hold and Release (H&R) paradigm. Standing subjects actively resisted a force applied to their sternum. When this force was quickly released they were suddenly off balance. For a brief period, approximately 125 ms, until restoring forces were generated to shift the center of foot pressure in front of the center of mass, the body was in a forward fall acted on by gravity and ground support forces. We were able to describe the whole-body postural behavior following release using a multilink inverted pendulum model in a regime of "small oscillations." A three-segment model incorporating upper body, upper leg, and lower leg, with active stiffness and damping at the joints was fully adequate to fit the kinematic data from all conditions. The significance of our findings is that in situations involving recoverable falls or loss of balance the earliest responses are likely dependent on actively-tuned, reflexive mechanisms yielding stiffness and damping modulation of the joints. We demonstrate that haptic cues from index fingertip contact with a stationary surface lead to a significantly smaller angular displacement of the torso and a more rapid recovery of balance. Our H&R paradigm and associated model provide a quantifiable approach to studying recovery from potential falling in normal and clinical subjects.

  13. Swan falls instream flow study

    SciTech Connect

    Anglin, D.R.; Cummings, T.R.; Ecklund, A.E.

    1992-10-01

    The purpose of the Swan Falls Instream Flow Study was to define the relationship between streamflows and instream habitat for resident fish species and to assess the relative impact of several different hydrographs on resident fish habitat. Specific objectives included the following: (1) Conduct a literature search to compile life history, distribution, and habitat requirements for species of interest. Physical and hydrologic characteristics of the Snake River were also compiled. (2) Determine physical habitat versus discharge relationships and conduct habitat time series analysis for each species/lifestage using the Instream Flow Incremental Methodology (IFIM) developed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. (3) Examine the impacts on resident fish habitat of proposed hydrographs, including Swan Falls Agreement flows, relative to current conditions. (4) Characterize water quality conditions, including water temperature and dissolved oxygen, in the vicinity of the study area and determine the implications of those conditions for the resident species of interest. (5) Determine streamflows necessary to protect and maintain resident fish habitat in the study area.

  14. Irregular Periods

    MedlinePlus

    ... number of days after the last one. The Menstrual Cycle Most girls get their first period between the ... to skip periods or to have an irregular menstrual cycle. Illness, rapid weight change, or stress can also ...

  15. Canada goose posterior lobe pituicytes: seasonal ultrastructural changes in relation to axonal release of neurosecretion.

    PubMed

    George, J C; John, T M; Frombach, S K

    1987-01-01

    Changes in ultrastructure of the posterior lobe pituicytes during six phases (Spring premigratory, Spring postmigratory, breeding, moulting, Fall premigratory and Fall postmigratory) of the annual life cycle of the migratory Canada goose, were studied. Pituicyte nuclear volume in females was significantly greater than that in males during the Spring premigratory and moulting phases. In the Fall postmigratory phase, nuclear volume in males was greater than that in females. During Spring premigratory phase, the axonal endings in males contained fewer neurosecretory granules (NSG) than those in the Fall postmigratory phase. In females, however, the number of NSG was relatively more than that in males in the Spring premigratory phase but fewer in the moulting phase. Nuclear volume is correlated with pituicyte function in releasing NSG containing arginine vasotocin (AVT) from axonal endings. The significance of AVT release is discussed in relation to initiation of reproductive and migratory behaviour, and to osmotic and metabolic regulation. PMID:3652739

  16. Risk of hip fracture in protected and unprotected falls in nursing homes in Norway

    PubMed Central

    Forsen, L; Sogaard, A; Sandvig, S; Schuller, A; Roed, U; Arstad, C

    2004-01-01

    Objectives: To compare the probability of hip fracture in protected and unprotected falls in a real world setting in nursing homes. Design: Observational study. Setting: Seventeen nursing homes (965 beds) in Norway. Subjects: All residents in the nursing homes with at least one fall during the intervention period. Intervention: Hip protectors were introduced as a regular part of the health care service for all the residents for an intervention period of 18 months. Residents who were considered high risk were especially encouraged to be regular users of hip protectors. Main outcome measures: Hip fracture in protected and unprotected falls. Results: At the time of the first fall within each faller, 430 were non-users of hip protectors, while 84 were registered as users, but did not wear it, and 191 were users and did wear it. The odds ratio of suffering a hip fracture was 0.31, 95% confidence interval 0.13 to 0.75 for wearers compared with non-wearers in the first fall, adjusted for age, gender, and whether they were registered as users or not. Conclusion: The odds of suffering a hip fracture for nursing home high risk residents was reduced to less than a third in protected falls compared with unprotected falls. Or, in other words, the odds of hip fracture showed a 69% reduction in protected falls compared with unprotected falls. PMID:14760021

  17. Patient Engagement in Hospital Fall Prevention.

    PubMed

    Tzeng, Huey-Ming; Yin, Chang-Yi

    2015-01-01

    Injurious falls are the most prevalent in-hospital adverse event, and hospitalized patients are at a greater risk of falling than the general population. Patient engagement in hospital fall prevention could be a possible approach to reducing falls and fall-related injuries. To engage patients, bedside nursing staff must first understand the concept of patient centeredness and then incorporate patient centeredness in clinical practice. Clinicians should move from being experts to being enablers. To conceptualize the knowledge gaps identified, a conceptual model was developed to guide future research and quality improvement efforts in hospital settings. This model could be used as a guide to advance nursing leadership in hospital fall prevention via promoting patient engagement (e.g., developing patient-centered fall prevention interventions with patients' input).

  18. Prevalence of falls in elderly women

    PubMed Central

    Vitor, Priscila Regina Rorato; de Oliveira, Ana Carolina Kovaleski; Kohler, Renan; Winter, Gabriele Regiane; Rodacki, Cintia; Krause, Maressa Priscila

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To verify prevalence of falls and fear of falling, and to compare functional fitness among elderly women fallers and non-fallers. METHODS: Seventy-eight elderly women participated in this study. Cases of falls and the fear of falling were self-reported by the elderly women, while the functional fitness was measured by a set of functional tests. Mean and standard deviation were used to describe the sample. Independent t-test was used to compare functional fitness between groups. RESULTS: The prevalence of falls in this sample was 32.4%. Among women fallers, 40% self-reported a high fear of falling. CONCLUSION: It is recommended that functional and resistance exercises are included in the preventive strategies for reducing risk factors for falls and its determinants in elderly women. Level of Evidence II, Prognostic-Prospective Study. PMID:26207095

  19. [Peculiarities of postural balance among elderly men with fear of falling syndrome].

    PubMed

    Gudkov, A B; Demin, A V

    2012-01-01

    A comparative study of postural balance among elderly men of 65-85 years old with postural instability and an equal number of falls, experiencing and not experiencing the fear of the probability of falling was conducted. Analysis of the data of computer stabilometery found that men fearing to fall in all functional tests had medium speed indicators of general center of mass (GCM), the mean radius of GCMs indicators significantly higher and indicators of mean half-period fluctuations of GCMs in the sagittal and frontal areas were significantly less than among men of similar age not fearing to fall down. These results indicate that the emergence of feelings of fear of possible falls among elderly and senile patients with postural instability has an objective basis in the form of more severe violations of the postural control system in comparison with those that do not face the fear of the probability of falling.

  20. Fall TIPS: strategies to promote adoption and use of a fall prevention toolkit.

    PubMed

    Dykes, Patricia C; Carroll, Diane L; Hurley, Ann; Gersh-Zaremski, Ronna; Kennedy, Ann; Kurowski, Jan; Tierney, Kim; Benoit, Angela; Chang, Frank; Lipsitz, Stuart; Pang, Justine; Tsurkova, Ruslana; Zuyov, Lyubov; Middleton, Blackford

    2009-11-14

    Patient falls are serious problems in hospitals. Risk factors for falls are well understood and nurses routinely assess for fall risk on all hospitalized patients. However, the link from nursing assessment of fall risk, to identification and communication of tailored interventions to prevent falls is yet to be established. The Fall TIPS (Tailoring Interventions for Patient Safety) Toolkit was developed to leverage existing practices and workflows and to employ information technology to improve fall prevention practices. The purpose of this paper is to describe the Fall TIPS Toolkit and to report on strategies used to drive adoption of the Toolkit in four acute care hospitals. Using the IHI "Framework for Spread" as a conceptual model, the research team describes the "spread" of the Fall TIPS Toolkit as means to integrate effective fall prevention practices into the workflow of interdisciplinary caregivers, patients and family members.

  1. New technologies transform Fall Meeting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Brien, Michael

    2012-02-01

    The 2011 Fall Meeting was transformed by the introduction of nine new technologies, most notably, a mobile app and the AGU ePoster system. With more than 11,000 downloads and 250,000 page views, the mobile app quickly replaced the program books for many attendees. Peter Petley of Durham University and blogger for the Landslide Blog said, "I have found that one of the challenges of attending AGU is being able to identify all of the sessions that are of interest, and then creating a schedule without carrying reams of paper." He continued, "I found that the mobile app has transformed my conference experience, providing a simple means to collate all of the sessions and to plan my day. As a result, I have found the meeting to be much more enjoyable and fulfilling."

  2. The Fall 2000 and Fall 2001 SOHO-Ulysses Quadratures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suess, S. T.; Poletto, G.

    2000-01-01

    SOHO-Ulysses quadrature occurs when the SOHO-Sun-Ulysses included angle is 90 degrees. It is only at such times that the same plasma leaving the Sun in the direction of Ulysses can first be remotely analyzed with SOHO instruments and then later be sampled in situ by Ulysses instruments. The quadratures in December 2000 and 2001 are of special significance because Ulysses will be near the south and north heliographic poles, respectively, and the solar cycle will be near sunspot maximum. Quadrature geometry is sometimes confusing and observations are influenced by solar rotation. The Fall 2000 and 2001 quadratures are more complex than usual because Ulysses is not in a true polar orbit and the orbital speed of Ulysses about the Sun is becoming comparable to the speed of SOHO about the Sun. In 2000 Ulysses will always be slightly behind the pole but will appear to hang over the pole for over two months because it is moving around the Sun in the same direction as SOHO. In 20001, Ulysses will be slightly in front of the pole so that its footpoint will be directly observable. Detailed plots will be shown of the relative positions of SOHO and Ulysses will their relative positions. In neither case is true quadrature actually achieved, but this works to the observers advantage in 2001.

  3. The Fall 2000 and Fall 2001 SOHO-Ulysses Quadratures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suess, S. T.; Poletto, G.; Rose, M. Franklin (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    SOHO-Ulysses quadrature occurs when the SOHO-Sun-Ulysses included angle is 90 degrees. It is only at such times that the same plasma leaving the Sun in the direction of Ulysses can first be remotely analyzed with SOHO instruments and then later be sampled in situ by Ulysses instruments. The quadratures in December 2000 and 2001 are of special significance because Ulysses will be near the south and north heliographic poles, respectively, and the solar cycle will be near sunspot maximum. Quadrature geometry is sometimes confusing and observations are influenced by solar rotation. The Fall 2000 and 2001 quadratures are more complex than usual because Ulysses is not in a true polar orbit and the orbital speed of Ulysses about the Sun is becoming comparable to the speed of SOHO about the Sun. In 2000 Ulysses will always be slightly behind the pole but will appear to hang over the pole for over two months because it is moving around the Sun in the same direction as SOHO. In 2001 Ulysses will be slightly in front of the pole so that its footpoint will be directly observable. Detailed plots will be shown of the relative positions of SOHO and Ulysses will their relative positions. In neither case is true quadrature actually achieved, but this works to the observers advantage in 2001.

  4. Exploration and comparison of the pre-impact lead time of active and passive falls based on inertial sensors.

    PubMed

    Liang, Ding; Ivanov, Kamen; Li, Huiqi; Ning, Yunkun; Zhang, Qi; Wang, Lei; Zhao, Guoru

    2014-01-01

    Research on falls in elderly people has a great social significance because of the rapidly growing of the aging population. The pre-impact lead time of fall (PLT) is an important part of the human fall theory. PLT is the longest time for a person who is going to fall to take action in order to prevent the fall or to reduce bodily injuries from the fall impact. However, there is no clear definition of PLT so far. There is also no comparative study for active and passive falls. In this study, we proposed a theoretical definition of the PLT, based on a new method of fall event division. We also compared the differences of PLT and the related angles between active and passive falls. Eight healthy adult subjects were arranged to perform three kinds of activities of daily living (sitting, walking and lying), and two kinds fall activities (active and passive) in three directions (forward, backward and lateral fall). Nine inertial sensor modules were used to measure the body segmental kinematic characteristics of each subject in our experimental activities. In this paper, a fall event was suggested to divide into three or four phases and then the critical phase could be divided into three periods (pre-impact, impact, and post-impact). Two fall models were developed for active and passive falls using acceleration data. The average value of PLT for active falls is about 514 ± 112 ms and it is smaller than the value for passive falls, which is 731 ± 104 ms. The longest PLTs were measured on the chest or waist instead of other locations, such as the thigh and shank. The PLTs of the three kinds of fall activities were slightly different, but there was a significant difference between two fall modes. The PLT showed the correlation to the body angle at the start of PLT, but it was uncorrelated at the end of PLT. The angles at the start of PLT had slight variations (<10 degrees) from the steady standing state except in passive forward falls (max 16 degrees) due to the self

  5. IDENTIFYING ROOF FALL PREDICTORS USING FUZZY CLASSIFICATION

    SciTech Connect

    Bertoncini, C. A.; Hinders, M. K.

    2010-02-22

    Microseismic monitoring involves placing geophones on the rock surfaces of a mine to record seismic activity. Classification of microseismic mine data can be used to predict seismic events in a mine to mitigate mining hazards, such as roof falls, where properly bolting and bracing the roof is often an insufficient method of preventing weak roofs from destabilizing. In this study, six months of recorded acoustic waveforms from microseismic monitoring in a Pennsylvania limestone mine were analyzed using classification techniques to predict roof falls. Fuzzy classification using features selected for computational ease was applied on the mine data. Both large roof fall events could be predicted using a Roof Fall Index (RFI) metric calculated from the results of the fuzzy classification. RFI was successfully used to resolve the two significant roof fall events and predicted both events by at least 15 hours before visual signs of the roof falls were evident.

  6. Source location of falling tone chorus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurita, Satoshi; Misawa, Hiroaki; Cully, Christopher M.; Le Contel, Olivier; Angelopoulos, Vassilis

    2012-11-01

    Chorus is characterized by its fine structures consisting of rising or falling tones believed to result from nonlinear wave-particle interactions. However, previous studies have showed that the intensity and propagation characteristics of rising and falling tone chorus are quite different, suggesting that their generation processes might be different. In this paper, the propagation direction of falling tone chorus is statistically investigated to identify its source region based on the Poynting vector measurement with THEMIS. The result shows that the falling tone chorus propagates from the magnetic equator to higher latitude both in the northern and southern hemispheres, in the same way as rising tone chorus. Our result shows that the magnetic equator is the common source location for both rising and falling tone chorus. The result emphasizes that the different properties between rising and falling tone chorus originate from their generation mechanism rather than source region.

  7. Prevention of construction falls by organizational intervention

    PubMed Central

    Becker, P; Fullen, M; Akladios, M; Hobbs, G

    2001-01-01

    Objectives—Determine if a university based (third party) intervention can improve construction contractor organizational performance to increase use of fall prevention practices and technologies. Setting—Falls are the leading cause of worker injury and death in the construction industry. Equipment and practices that can prevent falls are often not used appropriately in the dynamic construction work environment. Methods—A contractual partnership between a university and construction contractors created management systems to ensure use of fall protection measures. Audits by university faculty provided accountability for implementing the fall prevention system. Evaluation was conducted by quasiexperimental methodology comparing changes in audit score from baseline to fifth quarter from baseline for intervention and control contractors. Results—Audit scores improvement was greater for intervention than for control contractor group. Conclusion—A third party intervention can improve contractor fall prevention performance. PMID:11565975

  8. 3D simulation for falling papers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aoki, Takayuki

    2001-12-01

    The combination of IDO (Interpolated Differential Operator) scheme, Cut Cell technique, and overlapping grid method make it possible to simulate the falling process of papers. We have the result of the falling with fluttering trajectory for a certain initial angle of the paper, and the fluttering mechanism becomes clear. It is shown that the simulation is applicable to the phenomena of falling leaves with complex shape.

  9. 1. Photocopy of a photographca. 1920 VIEW OF AMERICAN FALLS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Photocopy of a photograph--ca. 1920 VIEW OF AMERICAN FALLS PRIOR TO CONSTRUCTION OF HYDROELECTRIC PLANTS - American Falls Water, Power & Light Company, Island Power Plant, Snake River, below American Falls Dam, American Falls, Power County, ID

  10. Effectiveness of team training on fall prevention.

    PubMed

    Spiva, LeeAnna; Robertson, Bethany; Delk, Marcia L; Patrick, Sara; Kimrey, Margaret Michelle; Green, Beverly; Gallagher, Erin

    2014-01-01

    A longitudinal, repeated-measures design with intervention and comparison groups was used to evaluate the effect of a training curriculum based on TeamSTEPPS with video vignettes focusing on fall prevention. Questionnaires, behavioral observations, and fall data were collected over 9 months from both groups located at separate hospitals. The intervention group questionnaire scores improved on all measures except teamwork perception, while observations revealed an improvement in communication compared with the control group. Furthermore, a 60% fall reduction rate was reported in the intervention group. Team training may be a promising intervention to reduce falls.

  11. Radar fall detection using principal component analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jokanovic, Branka; Amin, Moeness; Ahmad, Fauzia; Boashash, Boualem

    2016-05-01

    Falls are a major cause of fatal and nonfatal injuries in people aged 65 years and older. Radar has the potential to become one of the leading technologies for fall detection, thereby enabling the elderly to live independently. Existing techniques for fall detection using radar are based on manual feature extraction and require significant parameter tuning in order to provide successful detections. In this paper, we employ principal component analysis for fall detection, wherein eigen images of observed motions are employed for classification. Using real data, we demonstrate that the PCA based technique provides performance improvement over the conventional feature extraction methods.

  12. Klamath Falls geothermal field, Oregon

    SciTech Connect

    Lienau, P.J.; Culver, G.; Lund, J.W.

    1989-09-01

    Klamath Falls, Oregon, is located in a Known Geothermal Resource Area which has been used by residents, principally to obtain geothermal fluids for space heating, at least since the turn of the century. Over 500 shallow-depth wells ranging from 90 to 2,000 ft (27 to 610 m) in depth are used to heat (35 MWt) over 600 structures. This utilization includes the heating of homes, apartments, schools, commercial buildings, hospital, county jail, YMCA, and swimming pools by individual wells and three district heating systems. Geothermal well temperatures range from 100 to 230{degree}F (38 to 110{degree}C) and the most common practice is to use downhole heat exchangers with city water as the circulating fluid. Larger facilities and district heating systems use lineshaft vertical turbine pumps and plate heat exchangers. Well water chemistry indicates approximately 800 ppM dissolved solids, with sodium sulfate having the highest concentration. Some scaling and corrosion does occur on the downhole heat exchangers (black iron pipe) and on heating systems where the geo-fluid is used directly. 73 refs., 49 figs., 6 tabs.

  13. Pilot evaluation of an unobtrusive system to detect falls at nighttime.

    PubMed

    Redmond, Stephen J; Zhaonan Zhang; Narayanan, Michael R; Lovell, Nigel H

    2014-01-01

    Research shows that older people (aged 65 years and over) suffer many unintentional indoor falls which often lead to severe injuries. As a result of an increasingly aged population in developed countries, a sizable portion of healthcare funding is consumed in the treatment of fall-related injuries and associated long-term care. Detecting falls soon after they occur can be potentially live saving. In addition, early treatment of fall-related injuries can reduce treatment costs by minimizing health deterioration resulting from long periods spent incapacitated on the floor after a fall (a scenario known as a `long lie') and decreasing the number of hospital bed-days required. In this study, a previously proposed unobtrusive nighttime fall detection system based on wireless passive infrared sensors and furniture load sensors is evaluated in a pilot study involving three older subjects, monitored for a combined total of 174 days. No falls occurred during the study. The system reported a false alarm rate of 0.53 falls per day, which is comparable with similar unobtrusive and wearable sensor fall detection solutions. PMID:25570316

  14. History of falls, gait, balance, and fall risks in older cancer survivors living in the community

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Min H; Shilling, Tracy; Miller, Kara A; Smith, Kristin; LaVictoire, Kayle

    2015-01-01

    Older cancer survivors may be predisposed to falls because cancer-related sequelae affect virtually all body systems. The use of a history of falls, gait speed, and balance tests to assess fall risks remains to be investigated in this population. This study examined the relationship of previous falls, gait, and balance with falls in community-dwelling older cancer survivors. At the baseline, demographics, health information, and the history of falls in the past year were obtained through interviewing. Participants performed tests including gait speed, Balance Evaluation Systems Test, and short-version of Activities-specific Balance Confidence scale. Falls were tracked by mailing of monthly reports for 6 months. A “faller” was a person with ≥1 fall during follow-up. Univariate analyses, including independent sample t-tests and Fisher’s exact tests, compared baseline demographics, gait speed, and balance between fallers and non-fallers. For univariate analyses, Bonferroni correction was applied for multiple comparisons. Baseline variables with P<0.15 were included in a forward logistic regression model to identify factors predictive of falls with age as covariate. Sensitivity and specificity of each predictor of falls in the model were calculated. Significance level for the regression analysis was P<0.05. During follow-up, 59% of participants had one or more falls. Baseline demographics, health information, history of falls, gaits speed, and balance tests did not differ significantly between fallers and non-fallers. Forward logistic regression revealed that a history of falls was a significant predictor of falls in the final model (odds ratio =6.81; 95% confidence interval =1.594–29.074) (P<0.05). Sensitivity and specificity for correctly identifying a faller using the positive history of falls were 74% and 69%, respectively. Current findings suggested that for community-dwelling older cancer survivors with mixed diagnoses, asking about the history of falls

  15. History of falls, gait, balance, and fall risks in older cancer survivors living in the community.

    PubMed

    Huang, Min H; Shilling, Tracy; Miller, Kara A; Smith, Kristin; LaVictoire, Kayle

    2015-01-01

    Older cancer survivors may be predisposed to falls because cancer-related sequelae affect virtually all body systems. The use of a history of falls, gait speed, and balance tests to assess fall risks remains to be investigated in this population. This study examined the relationship of previous falls, gait, and balance with falls in community-dwelling older cancer survivors. At the baseline, demographics, health information, and the history of falls in the past year were obtained through interviewing. Participants performed tests including gait speed, Balance Evaluation Systems Test, and short-version of Activities-specific Balance Confidence scale. Falls were tracked by mailing of monthly reports for 6 months. A "faller" was a person with ≥1 fall during follow-up. Univariate analyses, including independent sample t-tests and Fisher's exact tests, compared baseline demographics, gait speed, and balance between fallers and non-fallers. For univariate analyses, Bonferroni correction was applied for multiple comparisons. Baseline variables with P<0.15 were included in a forward logistic regression model to identify factors predictive of falls with age as covariate. Sensitivity and specificity of each predictor of falls in the model were calculated. Significance level for the regression analysis was P<0.05. During follow-up, 59% of participants had one or more falls. Baseline demographics, health information, history of falls, gaits speed, and balance tests did not differ significantly between fallers and non-fallers. Forward logistic regression revealed that a history of falls was a significant predictor of falls in the final model (odds ratio =6.81; 95% confidence interval =1.594-29.074) (P<0.05). Sensitivity and specificity for correctly identifying a faller using the positive history of falls were 74% and 69%, respectively. Current findings suggested that for community-dwelling older cancer survivors with mixed diagnoses, asking about the history of falls may

  16. 180. Photocopy of Photograph, Twin Falls Canal Company. E. Pettygro, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    180. Photocopy of Photograph, Twin Falls Canal Company. E. Pettygro, Photographer, date unknown. BLASTING TWIN FALLS CANAL, TWIN FALLS COUNTY; BLASTING COTTONWOOD AREA TO REPLACE FLUME BY RUNNING HIGH LINE THROUGH SOLID ROCK. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

  17. Education Statistics Quarterly, Fall 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dillow, Sally, Ed.

    2001-01-01

    The publication gives a comprehensive overview of work done across all parts of the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES). Each issue contains short publications, summaries, and descriptions that cover all NCES publications, data products, and funding opportunities developed over a 3-month period. Each issue also contains a message from…

  18. Early Childhood Update, Fall 1995.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimmerly, Lynn, Ed.

    1995-01-01

    This newsletter provides a periodic update on the activities of the Early Childhood Research Working Group (ECRWG), organized in early 1995 by the U.S. Department of Education and other federal government departments and agencies to promote interagency cooperation and public-private partnerships in early childhood research. This edition contains…

  19. Education Statistics Quarterly, Fall 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dillow, Sally, Ed.

    2000-01-01

    The "Education Statistics Quarterly" gives a comprehensive overview of work done across all parts of the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES). Each issue contains short publications, summaries, and descriptions that cover all NCES publications and data products released during a 3-month period. Each message also contains a message from…

  20. Predicting Falls in Parkinson Disease: What Is the Value of Instrumented Testing in OFF Medication State?

    PubMed Central

    Hoskovcová, Martina; Dušek, Petr; Sieger, Tomáš; Brožová, Hana; Zárubová, Kateřina; Bezdíček, Ondřej; Šprdlík, Otakar; Jech, Robert; Štochl, Jan; Roth, Jan; Růžička, Evžen

    2015-01-01

    Background Falls are a common complication of advancing Parkinson's disease (PD). Although numerous risk factors are known, reliable predictors of future falls are still lacking. The objective of this prospective study was to investigate clinical and instrumented tests of balance and gait in both OFF and ON medication states and to verify their utility in the prediction of future falls in PD patients. Methods Forty-five patients with idiopathic PD were examined in defined OFF and ON medication states within one examination day including PD-specific clinical tests, instrumented Timed Up and Go test (iTUG) and computerized dynamic posturography. The same gait and balance tests were performed in 22 control subjects of comparable age and sex. Participants were then followed-up for 6 months using monthly fall diaries and phone calls. Results During the follow-up period, 27/45 PD patients and 4/22 control subjects fell one or more times. Previous falls, fear of falling, more severe motor impairment in the OFF state, higher PD stage, more pronounced depressive symptoms, higher daily levodopa dose and stride time variability in the OFF state were significant risk factors for future falls in PD patients. Increased stride time variability in the OFF state in combination with faster walking cadence appears to be the most significant predictor of future falls, superior to clinical predictors. Conclusion Incorporating instrumented gait measures into the baseline assessment battery as well as accounting for both OFF and ON medication states might improve future fall prediction in PD patients. However, instrumented testing in the OFF state is not routinely performed in clinical practice and has not been used in the development of fall prevention programs in PD. New assessment methods for daylong monitoring of gait, balance and falls are thus required to more effectively address the risk of falling in PD patients. PMID:26443998

  1. Ammonia emissions from deciduous forest after leaf fall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, K.; Sørensen, L. L.; Hertel, O.; Geels, C.; Skjøth, C. A.; Jensen, B.; Boegh, E.

    2013-07-01

    The understanding of biochemical feedback mechanisms in the climate system is lacking knowledge in relation to bi-directional ammonia (NH3) exchange between natural ecosystems and the atmosphere. We therefore study the atmospheric NH3 fluxes during a 25-day period during autumn 2010 (21 October to 15 November) for the Danish beech forest Lille Bøgeskov to address the hypothesis that NH3 emissions occur from deciduous forests in relation to leaf fall. This is accomplished by using observations of vegetation status, NH3 fluxes and model calculations. Vegetation status was observed using plant area index (PAI) and leaf area index (LAI). NH3 fluxes were measured using the relaxed eddy accumulation (REA) method. The REA-based NH3 concentrations were compared to NH3 denuder measurements. Model calculations of the atmospheric NH3 concentration were obtained with the Danish Ammonia MOdelling System (DAMOS). The relative contribution from the forest components to the atmospheric NH3 flux was assessed using a simple two-layer bi-directional canopy compensation point model. A total of 57.7% of the fluxes measured showed emission and 19.5% showed deposition. A clear tendency of the flux going from deposition of -0.25 ± 0.30 μg NH3-N m-2 s-1 to emission of up to 0.67 ± 0.28 μg NH3-N m-2 s-1 throughout the measurement period was found. In the leaf fall period (23 October to 8 November), an increase in the atmospheric NH3 concentrations was related to the increasing forest NH3 flux. Following leaf fall, the magnitude and temporal structure of the measured NH3 emission fluxes could be adequately reproduced with the bi-directional resistance model; it suggested the forest ground layer (soil and litter) to be the main contributing component to the NH3 emissions. The modelled concentration from DAMOS fits well the measured concentrations before leaf fall, but during and after leaf fall, the modelled concentrations are too low. The results indicate that the missing contribution

  2. Fall Meeting by the numbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asher, Pranoti

    2012-02-01

    - Visits to the Fall Meeting Web site: 650,000 - Total participants at the meeting: 20,890 - Abstracts submitted to the meeting: 20,087 - Donors who attended and took advantage of donor lounges: 1835 - Total attendance at Simon Winchester's Presidential Forum Lecture: 1200 - Total attendance at the Honors Banquet: 905 - Books sold at the AGU Marketplace: 671 - Individuals registered for the Fun Run: 487 - Students who participated in the Student Breakfast: 450 - Individuals who crossed the finish line at the Fun Run: 384 - Total attendees at Exploration Station: 307 - Total booths sold in the Exhibit Hall: 304 - registered for the meeting: 288 - Membership transactions completed for renewing and registering members at AGU Marketplace: 156 - Meeting attendees who were past Congressional Visits Day participants: 82 - Editors, associate editors, and their student guests who visited the Editors Resource Center: 63 - Copies of Navigating Graduate School and Beyond: A Career Guide for Graduate Students and a Must Read for Every Advisor sold during and after the talk and book signing by author Sundar A. Christopher: 50 - Kegs of beer consumed during the Ice Breaker on Sunday, 4 December: 48 - Hours of video footage shot at the meeting by the AGU videographer: 40 - Potential geopress authors and editors who attended the daily "Come Publish With geopress" sessions in the AGU Marketplace: 31 - Press conferences held at the meeting: 25 - Average age of minors attending Exploration Station: 8.7 - Educational seminars sponsored by AGU Publications: 2 (one on how to write a good scientific paper and the other on the rewards of reviewing) - Watching three preschoolers in space suits waiting to meet astronaut Andrew Feustel after the Public Lecture: Priceless (with apologies to Mastercard®)

  3. How fast does a building fall?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denny, Mark

    2010-07-01

    In this paper, the time required for a tower block to collapse is calculated. The tower collapses progressively, with one floor falling onto the floor below, causing it to fall. The rate of collapse is found to be not much slower than freefall. The calculation is an engaging and relevant application of Newton's laws, suitable for undergraduate teaching.

  4. 29 CFR 1917.41 - House falls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false House falls. 1917.41 Section 1917.41 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) MARINE TERMINALS Cargo Handling Gear and Equipment § 1917.41 House falls. (a) Span beams shall be...

  5. Washington Community Colleges Fall Quarter Report, 1982.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Story, Sherie; And Others

    Information on enrollments and student characteristics at Washington state community colleges is provided in this report for fall 1982. After introductory material and report highlights, tables provide data on headcount and full-time equivalent (FTE) enrollment for fall quarters 1978 through 1982; FTE and headcount by course intent category;…

  6. The Latino Experience in Central Falls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holland, William R.

    2011-01-01

    Central Falls is, by far, the poorest community in Rhode Island. More than 40 percent of the children under 18 live in poverty, and 40 percent of that group live in severe poverty. At Central Falls High School, low-income Latino students have fallen behind their white counterparts, with shockingly low graduation, poor literacy, and low…

  7. Analysis of Fall 1994 Course Grades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pima Community Coll., Tucson, AZ. Office of Research and Planning.

    This report provides data on withdrawal and success rates and grades earned in fall 1994 at the five campuses of Pima Community College (PCC), in Arizona. Following a literature review on national course grades, descriptions are provided of the following: (1) grades and withdrawals for fall 1979, 1984, 1989, and 1994, indicating that the number of…

  8. 29 CFR 1917.41 - House falls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false House falls. 1917.41 Section 1917.41 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) MARINE TERMINALS Cargo Handling Gear and Equipment § 1917.41 House falls. (a) Span beams shall be...

  9. Central Falls' Kids First: A Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tufts Univ., Medford, MA. Center on Hunger, Poverty and Nutrition Policy.

    Central Falls' Kids First, a 3-year initiative was designed to eradicate local childhood hunger through the expansion of federal child nutrition programs in Central Falls, a small, densely populated, ethnically diverse and low-income city in northeastern Rhode Island. A strong community partnership was created and included the office of the city's…

  10. [Improving fall prevention in the elderly].

    PubMed

    Bongue, Bienvenu; Hugues, Julie; Achour, Émilie; Colvez, Alain; Sass, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    The prevention of falls in the elderly requires action on several levels. Firstly, it is essential to identify those at risk of a fall. They must then be encouraged to do appropriate physical and sports activities, a factor of prevention. Social workers have a major role to play in supporting elderly people and encouraging them to participate in such programmes. PMID:27449306

  11. How Fast Does a Building Fall?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denny, Mark

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, the time required for a tower block to collapse is calculated. The tower collapses progressively, with one floor falling onto the floor below, causing it to fall. The rate of collapse is found to be not much slower than freefall. The calculation is an engaging and relevant application of Newton's laws, suitable for undergraduate…

  12. Osteosarcopenic obesity and fall prevention strategies.

    PubMed

    Hita-Contreras, Fidel; Martínez-Amat, Antonio; Cruz-Díaz, David; Pérez-López, Faustino R

    2015-02-01

    Sarcopenia, obesity, and osteoporosis are three interrelated entities which may share common pathophysiological factors. In the last decades, overall survival has drastically increased. Postmenopausal women, due to their estrogen depletion, are at higher risk of developing any of these three conditions or the three, which is termed osteosarcopenic obesity. One of the most common health problems among these patients is the elevated risk of falls and fractures. Falls and fall-related injuries are one of the major causes of mortality and morbidity in older adults, and have a significant impact on social, economical and health-related costs. Several extrinsic and intrinsic risk factors have been described that play a role in the etiology of falls. A therapeutic approach to osteosarcopenic obesity aimed at the prevention of falls must include several factors, and act on those risk elements which can be effectively modified. An adequate weight-loss diet and a good nutritional intake, with an appropriate amount of vitamin D and the right protein/carbohydrates ratio, may contribute to the prevention of falls. The recommendation of physical exercise, both traditional (resistance or aerobic training) and more recent varieties (Tai Chi, Pilates, body vibration), can improve balance and positively contribute to fall prevention, whether by itself or in combination with other therapeutic strategies. Finally, a pharmacological approach, especially one focused on hormone therapy, has shown to have a positive effect on postmenopausal women's balance, leading to a decreased risk of falls. PMID:25533145

  13. Falls - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... السقوط في المستشفى - العربية Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Safety Tips to Prevent Falls at Home (Arabic) العربية Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Bosnian (Bosanski) Preventing Falls in the Hospital Sprječavanje ...

  14. Why Does My Foot Fall Asleep?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Help White House Lunch Recipes Why Does My Foot Fall Asleep? KidsHealth > For Kids > Why Does My Foot Fall Asleep? Print A A A Text Size ... while you might have lost feeling in your foot, it might have felt heavy, or you might ...

  15. Fall Detection Using Smartphone Audio Features.

    PubMed

    Cheffena, Michael

    2016-07-01

    An automated fall detection system based on smartphone audio features is developed. The spectrogram, mel frequency cepstral coefficents (MFCCs), linear predictive coding (LPC), and matching pursuit (MP) features of different fall and no-fall sound events are extracted from experimental data. Based on the extracted audio features, four different machine learning classifiers: k-nearest neighbor classifier (k-NN), support vector machine (SVM), least squares method (LSM), and artificial neural network (ANN) are investigated for distinguishing between fall and no-fall events. For each audio feature, the performance of each classifier in terms of sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, and computational complexity is evaluated. The best performance is achieved using spectrogram features with ANN classifier with sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy all above 98%. The classifier also has acceptable computational requirement for training and testing. The system is applicable in home environments where the phone is placed in the vicinity of the user.

  16. Selective attentional processing to fall-relevant stimuli among older adults who fear falling.

    PubMed

    Brown, Lesley A; White, Patti; Doan, Jonathan B; de Bruin, Natalie

    2011-05-01

    Fear of falling is known to affect more than half of community-dwelling older adults over 60 years of age. This fear is associated with physical and psychological effects that increase the risk of falling. The authors' theory is that attentional processing biases may exist in this population that serve to perpetuate fear of falling and subsequently increase fall risk. As a starting point in testing this proposition, the authors examined selective attentional processing bias to fall-relevant stimuli among older adults. Thirty older adult participants (M(age) = 70.8 ± 5.8), self-categorized to be Fearful of Falling (FF, n = 15) or Non-Fearful of Falling (NF, n = 15) completed a visual dot-probe paradigm to determine detection latencies to fall-threatening and general-threat stimuli. Attentional processing was defined using three index scores: attentional bias, congruency index, and incongruency index. Bias indicates capture of attention, whereas congruency and incongruency imply vigilance and disengagement difficulty, respectively. Both groups showed an attentional bias to fall-threat words but those who were fearful of falling also showed an incongruency effect for fall-threat words. These findings confirm that selective attentional processing profiles for fall-relevant stimuli differ between older adults who exhibit fear of falling and those who do not have this fear. Moreover, in accordance with current interpretations of selective attentional processing, the incongruency effect noted among fall-fearful older adults presents a possibility for a difficulty disengaging from fall-threatening stimuli.

  17. Free falling and rising of spherical and angular particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahmani, M.; Wachs, A.

    2014-08-01

    Direct numerical simulations of freely falling and rising particles in an infinitely long domain, with periodic lateral boundary conditions, are performed. The focus is on characterizing the free motion of cubical and tetrahedral particles for different Reynolds numbers, as an extension to the well-studied behaviour of freely falling and rising spherical bodies. The vortical structure of the wake, dynamics of particle movement, and the interaction of the particle with its wake are studied. The results reveal mechanisms of path instabilities for angular particles, which are different from those for spherical ones. The rotation of the particle plays a more significant role in the transition to chaos for angular particles. Following a framework similar to that of Mougin and Magnaudet ["Wake-induced forces and torques on a zigzagging/spiralling bubble," J. Fluid Mech. 567, 185-194 (2006)], the balance of forces and torques acting on particles is discussed to gain more insight into the path instabilities of angular particles.

  18. Historical rock falls in Yosemite National Park, California (1857-2011)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stock, Greg M.; Collins, Brian D.; Santaniello, David J.; Zimmer, Valerie L.; Wieczorek, Gerald F.; Snyder, James B.

    2013-01-01

    Inventories of rock falls and other types of landslides are valuable tools for improving understanding of these events. For example, detailed information on rock falls is critical for identifying mechanisms that trigger rock falls, for quantifying the susceptibility of different cliffs to rock falls, and for developing magnitude-frequency relations. Further, inventories can assist in quantifying the relative hazard and risk posed by these events over both short and long time scales. This report describes and presents the accompanying rock fall inventory database for Yosemite National Park, California. The inventory database documents 925 events spanning the period 1857–2011. Rock falls, rock slides, and other forms of slope movement represent a serious natural hazard in Yosemite National Park. Rock-fall hazard and risk are particularly relevant in Yosemite Valley, where glacially steepened granitic cliffs approach 1 km in height and where the majority of the approximately 4 million yearly visitors to the park congregate. In addition to damaging roads, trails, and other facilities, rock falls and other slope movement events have killed 15 people and injured at least 85 people in the park since the first documented rock fall in 1857. The accompanying report describes each of the organizational categories in the database, including event location, type of slope movement, date, volume, relative size, probable trigger, impact to humans, narrative description, references, and environmental conditions. The inventory database itself is contained in a Microsoft Excel spreadsheet (Yosemite_rock_fall_database_1857-2011.xlsx). Narrative descriptions of events are contained in the database, but are also provided in a more readable Adobe portable document format (pdf) file (Yosemite_rock_fall_database_narratives_1857-2011.pdf) available for download separate from the database.

  19. An exercise program to prevent falls in institutionalized elderly with cognitive deficits: a crossover pilot study.

    PubMed

    DeSure, Ariell R; Peterson, Karen; Gianan, Faith V; Pang, Lorrin

    2013-11-01

    Falls are the leading cause of injury among older adults in the United States, with the institutionalized elderly at elevated risk for injury and death. Physical weakness and mental frailty, prevalent in institutionalized elderly, are major risk factors for falls. The purpose of this study was to evaluate a program that addresses both the physical and mental aspects of exercise to reduce falls in institutionalized elderly. Twenty-seven volunteer subjects residing in an assisted living facility participated in the 24 week randomized crossover study. After demographic, fall history, and mental status examinations, subjects were randomly assigned first to ten weeks of either an exercise class or a control group, followed by a four week "washout period" of no activity, then cross assigned to ten weeks as either a control group or exercise class, respectively. Falls as well as mental status changes were monitored during the study. After adjusting for differences in baseline risk between the control and treatment groups, and for potential residual effects of the treatment during the crossover phase, a statistically significant (P = .025) reduction in falls was found during treatment compared to the control periods. No change in mental status was seen. This small, pilot study shows that exercise programs, which emphasize mental strengthening as well as physical fitness, have the potential to reduce falls among mentally impaired, institutionalized seniors.

  20. Periodic Polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Edwin

    2013-03-01

    Periodic polymers can be made by self assembly, directed self assembly and by photolithography. Such materials provide a versatile platform for 1, 2 and 3D periodic nano-micro scale composites with either dielectric or impedance contrast or both, and these can serve for example, as photonic and or phononic crystals for electromagnetic and elastic waves as well as mechanical frames/trusses. Compared to electromagnetic waves, elastic waves are both less complex (longitudinal modes in fluids) and more complex (longitudinal, transverse in-plane and transverse out-of-plane modes in solids). Engineering of the dispersion relation between wave frequency w and wave vector, k enables the opening of band gaps in the density of modes and detailed shaping of w(k). Band gaps can be opened by Bragg scattering, anti-crossing of bands and discrete shape resonances. Current interest is in our group focuses using design - modeling, fabrication and measurement of polymer-based periodic materials for applications as tunable optics and control of phonon flow. Several examples will be described including the design of structures for multispectral band gaps for elastic waves to alter the phonon density of states, the creation of block polymer and bicontinuous metal-carbon nanoframes for structures that are robust against ballistic projectiles and quasi-crystalline solid/fluid structures that can steer shock waves.

  1. 6-PACK programme to decrease fall injuries in acute hospitals: cluster randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Morello, Renata T; Wolfe, Rory; Brand, Caroline A; Haines, Terry P; Hill, Keith D; Brauer, Sandra G; Botti, Mari; Cumming, Robert G; Livingston, Patricia M; Sherrington, Catherine; Zavarsek, Silva; Lindley, Richard I; Kamar, Jeannette

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effect of the 6-PACK programme on falls and fall injuries in acute wards. Design Cluster randomised controlled trial. Setting Six Australian hospitals. Participants All patients admitted to 24 acute wards during the trial period. Interventions Participating wards were randomly assigned to receive either the nurse led 6-PACK programme or usual care over 12 months. The 6-PACK programme included a fall risk tool and individualised use of one or more of six interventions: “falls alert” sign, supervision of patients in the bathroom, ensuring patients’ walking aids are within reach, a toileting regimen, use of a low-low bed, and use of a bed/chair alarm. Main outcome measures The co-primary outcomes were falls and fall injuries per 1000 occupied bed days. Results During the trial, 46 245 admissions to 16 medical and eight surgical wards occurred. As many people were admitted more than once, this represented 31 411 individual patients. Patients’ characteristics and length of stay were similar for intervention and control wards. Use of 6-PACK programme components was higher on intervention wards than on control wards (incidence rate ratio 3.05, 95% confidence interval 2.14 to 4.34; P<0.001). In all, 1831 falls and 613 fall injuries occurred, and the rates of falls (incidence rate ratio 1.04, 0.78 to 1.37; P=0.796) and fall injuries (0.96, 0.72 to 1.27; P=0.766) were similar in intervention and control wards. Conclusions Positive changes in falls prevention practice occurred following the introduction of the 6-PACK programme. However, no difference was seen in falls or fall injuries between groups. High quality evidence showing the effectiveness of falls prevention interventions in acute wards remains absent. Novel solutions to the problem of in-hospital falls are urgently needed. Trial registration Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12611000332921. PMID:26813674

  2. Unexplained Falls Are Frequent in Patients with Fall-Related Injury Admitted to Orthopaedic Wards: The UFO Study (Unexplained Falls in Older Patients).

    PubMed

    Chiara, Mussi; Gianluigi, Galizia; Pasquale, Abete; Alessandro, Morrione; Alice, Maraviglia; Gabriele, Noro; Paolo, Cavagnaro; Loredana, Ghirelli; Giovanni, Tava; Franco, Rengo; Giulio, Masotti; Gianfranco, Salvioli; Niccolò, Marchionni; Andrea, Ungar

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the incidence of unexplained falls in elderly patients affected by fall-related fractures admitted to orthopaedic wards, we recruited 246 consecutive patients older than 65 (mean age 82 ± 7 years, range 65-101). Falls were defined "accidental" (fall explained by a definite accidental cause), "medical" (fall caused directly by a specific medical disease), "dementia-related" (fall in patients affected by moderate-severe dementia), and "unexplained" (nonaccidental falls, not related to a clear medical or drug-induced cause or with no apparent cause). According to the anamnestic features of the event, older patients had a lower tendency to remember the fall. Patients with accidental fall remember more often the event. Unexplained falls were frequent in both groups of age. Accidental falls were more frequent in younger patients, while dementia-related falls were more common in the older ones. Patients with unexplained falls showed a higher number of depressive symptoms. In a multivariate analysis a higher GDS and syncopal spells were independent predictors of unexplained falls. In conclusion, more than one third of all falls in patients hospitalized in orthopaedic wards were unexplained, particularly in patients with depressive symptoms and syncopal spells. The identification of fall causes must be evaluated in older patients with a fall-related injury. PMID:23533394

  3. Unexplained Falls Are Frequent in Patients with Fall-Related Injury Admitted to Orthopaedic Wards: The UFO Study (Unexplained Falls in Older Patients).

    PubMed

    Chiara, Mussi; Gianluigi, Galizia; Pasquale, Abete; Alessandro, Morrione; Alice, Maraviglia; Gabriele, Noro; Paolo, Cavagnaro; Loredana, Ghirelli; Giovanni, Tava; Franco, Rengo; Giulio, Masotti; Gianfranco, Salvioli; Niccolò, Marchionni; Andrea, Ungar

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the incidence of unexplained falls in elderly patients affected by fall-related fractures admitted to orthopaedic wards, we recruited 246 consecutive patients older than 65 (mean age 82 ± 7 years, range 65-101). Falls were defined "accidental" (fall explained by a definite accidental cause), "medical" (fall caused directly by a specific medical disease), "dementia-related" (fall in patients affected by moderate-severe dementia), and "unexplained" (nonaccidental falls, not related to a clear medical or drug-induced cause or with no apparent cause). According to the anamnestic features of the event, older patients had a lower tendency to remember the fall. Patients with accidental fall remember more often the event. Unexplained falls were frequent in both groups of age. Accidental falls were more frequent in younger patients, while dementia-related falls were more common in the older ones. Patients with unexplained falls showed a higher number of depressive symptoms. In a multivariate analysis a higher GDS and syncopal spells were independent predictors of unexplained falls. In conclusion, more than one third of all falls in patients hospitalized in orthopaedic wards were unexplained, particularly in patients with depressive symptoms and syncopal spells. The identification of fall causes must be evaluated in older patients with a fall-related injury.

  4. Falls Prevention: Unique to Older Adults

    MedlinePlus

    ... Prevention Sleep Problems Stroke Join our e-newsletter! Aging & Health A to Z Falls Prevention Unique to ... difficulties. Optimizing Management of Congestive Heart Failure and COPD Congestive Heart Failure (CHF) Many older people develop ...

  5. Falls Among Older Adults: An Overview

    MedlinePlus

    ... and no handrails along stairs or in the bathroom. Most falls are caused by a combination of ... online]. Accessed August 15, 2013. National Hospital Discharge Survey (NHDS), National Center for Health Statistics. Health Data ...

  6. Ocular problems in military free fall parachutists.

    PubMed

    Gruppo, Leonard; Mader, Thomas H; Wedmore, Ian

    2002-10-01

    Military free fall parachutists may be unaware of the risk of corneal freezing and desiccation keratitis should their goggles come off during free fall in subfreezing temperatures. We determine the incidence of ocular difficulties in military free fall parachutists and the role freezing temperatures may play in causing these problems. We found that 79% of those who responded to the survey had lost their goggles at least once during free fall and 69% experienced ocular symptoms after goggle loss. Analysis shows a 30-fold increase in the duration of symptoms in subfreezing vs. above-freezing temperatures, with the odds of the ground mission being affected at 7.3 per 100 jumps in the subfreezing group. The rate of goggles coming off per jump is 3.3 times less with >75 jumps. Contact lenses are not protective and photorefractive keratectomy was not detrimental. PMID:12392242

  7. Siena, 1794: History's Most Consequential Meteorite Fall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marvin, U. B.

    1995-09-01

    In the mythos of meteoritics, the fall of stones at L'Aigle in Normandy at 1 p. m. on April 26, 1803, is commonly regarded as the event that turned skeptics into believers and opened the way for the new science. A strong case can be made, however, that the fall of stones at Siena at 7:00 p.m. on June 16, 1794, established the authenticity of meteorite falls and set in motion the reexaminations of entrenched beliefs that led to the founding of the new science. The Siena fall was heralded by the appearance of an extraordinarily high, dark cloud emitting smoke, sparks like rockets, and bolts of unusually slow-moving red lightning. With a tremendous explosion a shower of stones, ranging in weight from a few milligrams to 3 kg, fell southeast of Siena. This was the first meteorite fall to occur in the vicinity of a sizeable European city and the first to be witnessed by so many people, including English visitors, that the fall of the stones from the sky could not be denied. It also was the first fall to be seriously investigated by scholars, at several universities in Italy, who collected eye-witness reports and specimens and formulated hypotheses of origin. Their task was greatly complicated by the timing of the fall which occurred 18 hours after Mt. Vesuvius sprang into full eruption. Some believed that the two events were entirely coincidental; others thought that the stones either were ejecta from the volcano (which lay about 320 km to the southeast of Siena) or had consolidated in the fiery masses of dust and ash expelled by the mountain. No explanations seemed entirely satisfactory, but, in an age when the very possibility of falling stones had been decisively ruled out by savants of the Enlightenment, the well-observed fall at Siena opened a new dialog on this subject. The Siena fall occurred only two months after the publication in Riga and Leipzig of Ernst F. F. Chladni's book On the Origin of Ironmasses in which he concluded from historical records that

  8. Effect of free fall on higher plants.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gordon, S. A.

    1973-01-01

    The influence of exposure to the free-fall state on the orientation, morphogenesis, physiology, and radiation response of higher plants is briefly summarized. It is proposed that the duration of the space-flight experiments has been to brief to permit meaningful effects of free fall on general biochemistry, growth, and development to appear. However, two types of significant effect did occur. The first is on differential growth - i.e., tropism and epinasty - resulting from the absence of a normal geostimulus. For these phenomena it is suggested that ground-based experiments with the clinostat would suffice to mimic the effect of the free-fall state. The second is an apparent interaction between the radiation response and some flight condition, yielding an enhanced microspore abortion, a disturbed spindle function, and a stunting of stamen hairs. It is suggested that this apparent interaction may be derived from a shift in the rhythm of the cell cycle, induced by the free fall.

  9. 158. Photocopy of transit book (taken from Twin Falls Canal ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    158. Photocopy of transit book (taken from Twin Falls Canal Company Transit Book #404T, Page 3, #46, Division One). START OF MAIN CANAL SURVEY, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, MILNER, IDAHO. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

  10. 155. Photocopy of transit book (taken from Twin Falls Canal ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    155. Photocopy of transit book (taken from Twin Falls Canal Company Surveyor's Transit Book #405T, Page 1, #46 Division One). STATEMENT RE: SURVEY ALIGNMENT 3/03, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, MILNER, IDAHO. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

  11. 154. Photocopy of transit book (taken from Twin Falls Canal ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    154. Photocopy of transit book (taken from Twin Falls Canal Company Surveyor's Transit Book #405T, Page 2, #46 Division One). STATEMENT OF SIGHT-SETTING FOR 1903 SURVEY TO ALIGN SOUTH SIDE CANAL, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, MILNER, IDAHO. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

  12. Estimation of the kinetic energy dissipation in fall-arrest system and manikin during fall impact.

    PubMed

    Wu, John Z; Powers, John R; Harris, James R; Pan, Christopher S

    2011-04-01

    Fall-arrest systems (FASs) have been widely applied to provide a safe stop during fall incidents for occupational activities. The mechanical interaction and kinetic energy exchange between the human body and the fall-arrest system during fall impact is one of the most important factors in FAS ergonomic design. In the current study, we developed a systematic approach to evaluate the energy dissipated in the energy absorbing lanyard (EAL) and in the harness/manikin during fall impact. The kinematics of the manikin and EAL during the impact were derived using the arrest-force time histories that were measured experimentally. We applied the proposed method to analyse the experimental data of drop tests at heights of 1.83 and 3.35 m. Our preliminary results indicate that approximately 84-92% of the kinetic energy is dissipated in the EAL system and the remainder is dissipated in the harness/manikin during fall impact. The proposed approach would be useful for the ergonomic design and performance evaluation of an FAS. STATEMENT OF RELEVANCE: Mechanical interaction, especially kinetic energy exchange, between the human body and the fall-arrest system during fall impact is one of the most important factors in the ergonomic design of a fall-arrest system. In the current study, we propose an approach to quantify the kinetic energy dissipated in the energy absorbing lanyard and in the harness/body system during fall impact.

  13. Validation of the Saskatoon Falls Prevention Consortium's Falls Screening and Referral Algorithm

    PubMed Central

    Lawson, Sara Nicole; Zaluski, Neal; Petrie, Amanda; Arnold, Cathy; Basran, Jenny

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose: To investigate the concurrent validity of the Saskatoon Falls Prevention Consortium's Falls Screening and Referral Algorithm (FSRA). Method: A total of 29 older adults (mean age 77.7 [SD 4.0] y) residing in an independent-living senior's complex who met inclusion criteria completed a demographic questionnaire and the components of the FSRA and Berg Balance Scale (BBS). The FSRA consists of the Elderly Fall Screening Test (EFST) and the Multi-factor Falls Questionnaire (MFQ); it is designed to categorize individuals into low, moderate, or high fall-risk categories to determine appropriate management pathways. A predictive model for probability of fall risk, based on previous research, was used to determine concurrent validity of the FSRI. Results: The FSRA placed 79% of participants into the low-risk category, whereas the predictive model found the probability of fall risk to range from 0.04 to 0.74, with a mean of 0.35 (SD 0.25). No statistically significant correlation was found between the FSRA and the predictive model for probability of fall risk (Spearman's ρ=0.35, p=0.06). Conclusion: The FSRA lacks concurrent validity relative to to a previously established model of fall risk and appears to over-categorize individuals into the low-risk group. Further research on the FSRA as an adequate tool to screen community-dwelling older adults for fall risk is recommended. PMID:24381379

  14. Simulated unobtrusive falls detection with multiple persons.

    PubMed

    Ariani, Arni; Redmond, Stephen J; Chang, David; Lovell, Nigel H

    2012-11-01

    One serious issue related to falls among the elderly living at home or in a residential care facility is the "long lie" scenario, which involves being unable to get up from the floor after a fall for 60 min or more. This research uses a simulated environment to investigate the potential effectiveness of using wireless ambient sensors (dual-technology (microwave/infrared) motion detectors and pressure mats) to track the movement of multiple persons and to unobtrusively detect falls when they occur, therefore reducing the rate of occurrence of "long lie" scenarios. A path-finding algorithm (A*) is used to simulate the movement of one or more persons through the residential area. For analysis, the sensor network is represented as an undirected graph, where nodes in the graph represent sensors, and edges between nodes in the graph imply that these sensors share an overlapping physical region in their area of sensitivity. A second undirected graph is used to represent the physical adjacency of the sensors (even where they do not overlap in their monitored regions). These graphical representations enable the tracking of multiple subjects/groups within the environment, by analyzing the sensor activation and adjacency profiles, hence allowing individuals/groups to be isolated when multiple persons are present, and subsequently monitoring falls events. A falls algorithm, based on a heuristic decision tree classifier model, was tested on 15 scenarios, each including one or more persons; three scenarios of activity of daily living, and 12 different types of falls (four types of fall, each with three postfall scenarios). The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of the falls algorithm are 100.00%, 77.14%, and 89.33%, respectively. PMID:22835529

  15. Simulated unobtrusive falls detection with multiple persons.

    PubMed

    Ariani, Arni; Redmond, Stephen J; Chang, David; Lovell, Nigel H

    2012-11-01

    One serious issue related to falls among the elderly living at home or in a residential care facility is the "long lie" scenario, which involves being unable to get up from the floor after a fall for 60 min or more. This research uses a simulated environment to investigate the potential effectiveness of using wireless ambient sensors (dual-technology (microwave/infrared) motion detectors and pressure mats) to track the movement of multiple persons and to unobtrusively detect falls when they occur, therefore reducing the rate of occurrence of "long lie" scenarios. A path-finding algorithm (A*) is used to simulate the movement of one or more persons through the residential area. For analysis, the sensor network is represented as an undirected graph, where nodes in the graph represent sensors, and edges between nodes in the graph imply that these sensors share an overlapping physical region in their area of sensitivity. A second undirected graph is used to represent the physical adjacency of the sensors (even where they do not overlap in their monitored regions). These graphical representations enable the tracking of multiple subjects/groups within the environment, by analyzing the sensor activation and adjacency profiles, hence allowing individuals/groups to be isolated when multiple persons are present, and subsequently monitoring falls events. A falls algorithm, based on a heuristic decision tree classifier model, was tested on 15 scenarios, each including one or more persons; three scenarios of activity of daily living, and 12 different types of falls (four types of fall, each with three postfall scenarios). The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of the falls algorithm are 100.00%, 77.14%, and 89.33%, respectively.

  16. Fatal falls: lessons for the future.

    PubMed

    2000-07-12

    Health care organizations that have experienced sentinel events due to falls have identified the root causes and risk reduction strategies included in this issue. In addition, experts have commented on the events and the related root causes and risk reduction strategies. The Joint Commission offers this information for consideration by hospitals, long term care facilities and behavioral health care organizations in their continuing efforts to reduce the risk of falls of their patients, residents or individuals served.

  17. Quantifying Temperature Effects on Fall Chinook Salmon

    SciTech Connect

    Jager, Yetta

    2011-11-01

    The motivation for this study was to recommend relationships for use in a model of San Joaquin fall Chinook salmon. This report reviews literature pertaining to relationships between water temperature and fall Chinook salmon. The report is organized into three sections that deal with temperature effects on development and timing of freshwater life stages, temperature effects on incubation survival for eggs and alevin, and temperature effects on juvenile survival. Recommendations are made for modeling temperature influences for all three life stages.

  18. Get connected: New Fall Meeting technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moscovitch, Mirelle

    2012-11-01

    Kick off your 2012 Fall Meeting experience today by joining the Fall Meeting Community, an interactive Web-based community. Whether you are attending this year's Fall Meeting or are just interested in learning more, this site can help you connect with colleagues, learn about the groundbreaking research and amazing programming being presented in San Francisco, and plan your trip to the largest Earth and space science conference of the year. Available through the Fall Meeting Web site (http://fallmeeting.agu.org), the Community allows you to share your Fall Meeting experience like never before. You can join groups based on your interests, and each group includes a message board that allows you to ask questions, post comments, discuss presentations, and make plans with colleagues. You can also create your own groups and use the Community's robust search engine to find and connect with friends. And because the Fall Meeting Web site was improved for 2012 to allow for nearly seamless functionality on mobile devices, you can access much of the same Community functionality on the go.

  19. Prevalence of falls in fibromyalgia patients

    PubMed Central

    Meireles, Sandra Adolph; Antero, Daniel Casagrande; Kulczycki, Marciane Maria; Skare, Thelma Larocca

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare the risk of falls in fibromyalgia (FM) patients compared to rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients and normal controls. METHODS: We studied 60 FM, 60 RA patients and 60 controls for fall frequency in one week, one month, six months and one year. Patients were submitted to body mass index determination and balance evaluation through the Berg scale. Data on disease impact and depression were collected in FM patients through the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ) and the Beck Questionnaire. RESULTS: FM patients had a higher frequency of falls than RA patients and control individuals in one month (p<0.0001), in six months (p<0.0001) and in one year (p<0.0001). No relationship was found between falls and body mass index, pain or depression scores. Falls in 12 months were associated with higher FIQ values. CONCLUSION: FM patients fall more often than RA patients and control individuals. Level of Evidence II, Investigation of the effect of a patient characteristic on the disease outcome. PMID:25061425

  20. Central and Peripheral Visual Impairment and the Risk of Falls and Falls with Injury

    PubMed Central

    Patino, Cecilia M.; McKean-Cowdin, Roberta; Azen, Stanley P.; Allison, Jessica Chung; Choudhury, Farzana; Varma, Rohit

    2009-01-01

    Objective To evaluate central and peripheral visual impairment as independent risk factors for falls and falls with injury among adults. Design Population-based prospective cohort study. Participants A total of 3,203 LALES participants. Methods Baseline presenting binocular central distance acuity was measured and impairment was classified as mild (20/40–20/63), moderate/severe (20/80 or worse). Peripheral visual impairment was classified as mild (−6dBFalls and falls with injury in the past 12 months were assessed by self-report at 4-year follow-up visit. Results Out of 3,203 individuals, 19% reported falls and 10% falls with injury; participants with falls were more likely to: be ≥ 60 years of age, be female, report lower income, have more than two co-morbidities, report alcohol use, report wearing bifocal glasses and report obesity. Among those who reported falls, 7% had central visual impairment (visual acuity≥20/40) compared to 4% who did not report falls; and 49% had peripheral visual impairment (mean deviation<−2dB) compared to 39% of those who did not report falls (both p-values<.0001). After adjusting for confounders, moderate to severe central and peripheral visual impairment were associated with increased risk for falls (odds ratio 2.36 95% confidence interval 1.02–5.45, p-trend= .04 and odds ratio 1.42 95% confidence interval 1.06–1.91, p-trend= .01, respectively) and with falls with injury (odds ratio 2.76 95% confidence interval 1.10–7.02, p-value= .03, and odds ratio 1.40 95% confidence interval .94–2.05, p-trend= .04, respectively). Conclusion Both central and peripheral visual impairment were independently associated with increased risk for falls and falls with injury in a dose-response manner. Although vision related interventions for preventing falls have mainly focused on correcting central visual impairment, this

  1. Seasonal changes in circulating levels of luteinizing hormone and growth hormone in the migratory Canada goose.

    PubMed

    John, T M; George, J C; Scanes, C G

    1983-07-01

    Seasonal changes in plasma levels of LH and GH in the Canada goose (Branta canadensis interior) have been studied. The population examined breeds in the Canadian subarctic region (Fort Churchill, Manitoba) and winters in the southern United States (Swan Lake Refuge, Missouri). Peak levels of LH were observed during spring postmigratory (nestbuilding, early May) and nesting (incubating, early June) periods, while no significant differences were observed during the other periods studied. The highest levels of GH were observed during molting (late July) and the immediately following fall premigratory (early September) period.

  2. Observations of cosmic-ray modulations in the fall, 1984

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Torsti, J. J.; Nieminen, M.; Valtonen, E.; Arvela, H.; Lumme, M.; Peltonen, J.; Vainikka, E.

    1985-01-01

    Modulation of cosmic-ray energy spectrum was studied by using the Turku double neutron monitor. The multiplicity region of detected neutrons produced by cosmic ray hadrons in the monitor was divided into seven categories corresponding to mean energies 0.1, 0.3, 1.0, 3.2, 8.6, 21, and 94 GeV of hadrons at sea level. Based on 24-hour frequencies, a statistical analysis showed that modulation of the intensity in all categories occurred during several periods in the fall 1984. The magnitude of the variation was a few per cent.

  3. Comparing the Incidence of Falls/Fractures in Parkinson's Disease Patients in the US Population.

    PubMed

    Kalilani, Linda; Asgharnejad, Mahnaz; Palokangas, Tuire; Durgin, Tracy

    2016-01-01

    Patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) may experience falls and/or fractures as a result of disease symptoms. There are limited data available from long-term studies estimating the incidence of falls/fractures in patients with PD. The objective was to compare the incidence rate of falls/fractures in PD patients with non-PD patients in a US population. This was a retrospective study using a US-based claims database (Truven Health MarketScan®) that compared the incidence rate of falls/fractures in PD subjects with non-PD subjects. The study period included the 12 months prior to index date (defined as earliest PD diagnosis [International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification code 332.0]) and a postindex period to the end of data availability. Fractures were defined by inpatient/outpatient claims as a principal or secondary diagnosis and accompanying procedure codes during the postindex period. Incidence rates and 95% CIs for falls/fractures were calculated as the number of events per 10,000 person-years of follow-up using negative binomial or Poisson regression models. Twenty-eight thousand two hundred and eighty PD subjects were matched to non-PD subjects for the analysis (mean [SD] age, 71.4 [11.8] years; 53% male). A higher incidence rate (adjusted for comorbidities and medications) of all fall/fracture cases and by fall and fracture types was observed for PD subjects versus non-PD subjects; the overall adjusted incidence rate ratio comparing PD to non-PD subjects was 2.05; 95% CI, 1.88-2.24. The incidence rate of falls/fractures was significantly higher in subjects with PD compared with non-PD subjects in a US population. PMID:27583564

  4. Martial arts fall techniques decrease the impact forces at the hip during sideways falling.

    PubMed

    Groen, B E; Weerdesteyn, V; Duysens, J

    2007-01-01

    Falls to the side and those with impact on the hip are risky for hip fractures in the elderly. A previous study has indicated that martial arts (MA) fall techniques can reduce hip impact force, but the underlying mechanism is unknown. Furthermore, the high impact forces at the hand used to break the fall have raised concerns because of the risk for wrist fractures. The purpose of the study was to get insight into the role of hand impact, impact velocity, and trunk orientation in the reduction of hip impact force in MA techniques. Six experienced judokas performed sideways falls from kneeling height using three fall techniques: block with arm technique (control), MA technique with use of the arm to break the fall (MA-a), and MA technique without use of the arm (MA-na). The results showed that the MA-a and MA-na technique reduced the impact force by 27.5% and 30%, respectively. Impact velocity was significantly reduced in the MA falls. Trunk orientation was significantly less vertical in the MA-a falls. No significant differences were found between the MA techniques. It was concluded that the reduction in hip impact force was associated with a lower impact velocity and less vertical trunk orientation. Rolling after impact, which is characteristic for MA falls, is likely to contribute to the reduction of impact forces, as well. Using the arm to break the fall was not essential for the MA technique to reduce hip impact force. These findings provided support for the incorporation of MA fall techniques in fall prevention programs for elderly.

  5. Periodic folding of viscous sheets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ribe, Neil M.

    2003-09-01

    The periodic folding of a sheet of viscous fluid falling upon a rigid surface is a common fluid mechanical instability that occurs in contexts ranging from food processing to geophysics. Asymptotic thin-layer equations for the combined stretching-bending deformation of a two-dimensional sheet are solved numerically to determine the folding frequency as a function of the sheet’s initial thickness, the pouring speed, the height of fall, and the fluid properties. As the buoyancy increases, the system bifurcates from “forced” folding driven kinematically by fluid extrusion to “free” folding in which viscous resistance to bending is balanced by buoyancy. The systematics of the numerically predicted folding frequency are in good agreement with laboratory experiments.

  6. How do you learn to walk? Thousands of steps and dozens of falls per day.

    PubMed

    Adolph, Karen E; Cole, Whitney G; Komati, Meghana; Garciaguirre, Jessie S; Badaly, Daryaneh; Lingeman, Jesse M; Chan, Gladys L Y; Sotsky, Rachel B

    2012-01-01

    A century of research on the development of walking has examined periodic gait over a straight, uniform path. The current study provides the first corpus of natural infant locomotion derived from spontaneous activity during free play. Locomotor experience was immense: Twelve- to 19-month-olds averaged 2,368 steps and 17 falls per hour. Novice walkers traveled farther faster than expert crawlers, but had comparable fall rates, which suggests that increased efficiency without increased cost motivates expert crawlers to transition to walking. After walking onset, natural locomotion improved dramatically: Infants took more steps, traveled farther distances, and fell less. Walking was distributed in short bouts with variable paths--frequently too short or irregular to qualify as periodic gait. Nonetheless, measures of periodic gait and of natural locomotion were correlated, which indicates that better walkers spontaneously walk more and fall less. Immense amounts of time-distributed, variable practice constitute the natural practice regimen for learning to walk. PMID:23085640

  7. Tailored prevention of inpatient falls: development and usability testing of the fall TIPS toolkit.

    PubMed

    Zuyev, Lyubov; Benoit, Angela N; Chang, Frank Y; Dykes, Patricia C

    2011-02-01

    Patient falls and fall-related injuries are serious problems in hospitals. The Fall TIPS application aims to prevent patient falls by translating routine nursing fall risk assessment into a decision support intervention that communicates fall risk status and creates a tailored evidence-based plan of care that is accessible to the care team, patients, and family members. In our design and implementation of the Fall TIPS toolkit, we used the Spiral Software Development Life Cycle model. Three output tools available to be generated from the toolkit are bed poster, plan of care, and patient education handout. A preliminary design of the application was based on initial requirements defined by project leaders and informed by focus groups with end users. Preliminary design partially simulated the paper version of the Morse Fall Scale currently used in hospitals involved in the research study. Strengths and weaknesses of the first prototype were identified by heuristic evaluation. Usability testing was performed at sites where research study is implemented. Suggestions mentioned by end users participating in usability studies were either directly incorporated into the toolkit and output tools, were slightly modified, or will be addressed during training. The next step is implementation of the fall prevention toolkit on the pilot testing units.

  8. Interior cavern conditions and salt fall potential

    SciTech Connect

    Munson, D.E.; Molecke, M.A.; Myers, R.E.

    1998-03-01

    A relatively large number of salt caverns are used for fluid hydrocarbon storage, including an extensive set of facilities in the Gulf Coast salt domes for the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) Program. Attention is focused on the SPR caverns because of available histories that detail events involving loss and damage of the hanging string casing. The total number of events is limited, making the database statistically sparse. The occurrence of the events is not evenly distributed, with some facilities, and some caverns, more susceptible than others. While not all of these events could be attributed to impacts from salt falls, many did show the evidence of such impacts. As a result, a study has been completed to analyze the potential for salt falls in the SPR storage caverns. In this process, it was also possible to deduce some of the cavern interior conditions. Storage caverns are very large systems in which many factors could possibly play a part in casing damage. In this study, all of the potentially important factors such as salt dome geology, operational details, and material characteristics were considered, with all being logically evaluated and most being determined as secondary in nature. As a result of the study, it appears that a principal factor in determining a propensity for casing damage from salt falls is the creep and fracture characteristics of salt in individual caverns. In addition the fracture depends strongly upon the concentration of impurity particles in the salt. Although direct observation of cavern conditions is not possible, the average impurity concentration and the accumulation of salt fall material can be determined. When this is done, there is a reasonable correlation between the propensity for a cavern to show casing damage events and accumulation of salt fall material. The accumulation volumes of salt fall material can be extremely large, indicating that only a few of the salt falls are large enough to cause impact damage.

  9. Analyzing the problem of falls among older people

    PubMed Central

    Dionyssiotis, Yannis

    2012-01-01

    Falls are a serious problem facing the elderly. The prevention of falls that contribute to disability, mainly in elderly people, is an important issue. Ensuring the greatest possible functionality for elderly people is an important element in the prevention of disability. This paper analyzes the importance of falls, risk factors for falls, and interventions to prevent falls. Recent publications as well as research regarding the prevention and rehabilitation for falls are reviewed. PMID:23055770

  10. A time series analysis of falls and injury in the inpatient rehabilitation setting.

    PubMed

    Frisina, Pasquale G; Guellnitz, Rita; Alverzo, Joan

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to assess whether falls and injuries are influenced by a temporal pattern (defined as a pattern based on the time of day) in the inpatient acute rehabilitation unit/hospital (IRU/H) setting. A retrospective chart review and analysis of falls and injuries among inpatients admitted to our facility during a 9-month period was performed. The sample consisted of 367 patients who had fallen at least once; 71 had repeated falls, bringing the total number of falls to 438. Significant variation in the prevalence of falls (chi2 = 24.1, p <. 01) and injuries (chi2 = 12.90, p < .01) based on time of day and shift was observed. In addition, a temporal pattern of fall-related injuries with patients who had sustained stroke and brain injury (chi2 = 12.74, p = .045) was also observed. The findings from this study allow for the development of interventions that are appropriate when falls and injury are most prevalent for different clinical populations in the IRU/H setting.

  11. Electronic Out-fall Inspection Application - 12007

    SciTech Connect

    Weymouth, A Kent III; Pham, Minh; Messick, Chuck

    2012-07-01

    In early 2009 an exciting opportunity was presented to the Geographic Information Systems (GIS) team at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The SRS maintenance group was directed to maintain all Out-falls on Site, increasing their workload from 75 to 183 out-falls with no additional resources. The existing out-fall inspection system consisted of inspections performed manually and documented via paper trail. The inspections were closed out upon completion of activities and placed in file cabinets with no central location for tracking/trending maintenance activities. A platform for meeting new improvements required for documentation by the Department of Health and Environmental Control (DHEC) out-fall permits was needed to replace this current system that had been in place since the 1980's. This was accomplished by building a geographically aware electronic application that improved reliability of site out-fall maintenance and ensured consistent standards were maintained for environmental excellence and worker efficiency. Inspections are now performed via tablet and uploaded to a central point. Work orders are completed and closed either in the field using tablets (mobile application) or in their offices (via web portal) using PCs. And finally completed work orders are now stored in a central database allowing trending of maintenance activities. (authors)

  12. Stick balancing, falls and Dragon-Kings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabrera, J. L.; Milton, J. G.

    2012-05-01

    The extent to which the occurrence of falls, the dominant feature of human attempts to balance a stick at their fingertip, can be predicted is examined in the context of the "Dragon-King" hypothesis. For skilled stick balancers, fluctuations in the controlled variable, namely the vertical displacement angle θ, exhibit power law behaviors. When stick balancing is made less stable by either decreasing the length of the stick or by requiring the subject to balance the stick on the surface of a table tennis racket, systematic departures from the power law behaviors are observed in the range of large θ. This observation raises the possibility that the presence of departures from the power law in the large length scale region, possibly Dragon-Kings, may identify situations in which the occurrence of a fall is more imminent. However, whether or not Dragon-Kings are observed, there is a Weibull-type survival function for stick falling. The possibility that increased risk of falling can, at least to some extent, be predicted from fluctuations in the controlled variable before the event occurs has important implications for the development of preventative strategies for the management of phenomena ranging from earthquakes to epileptic seizures to falls in the elderly.

  13. Striving to prevent falls in an acute care setting--action to enhance quality.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, A; Jones, N

    1996-07-01

    Although most falls do not result in serious physical injury, they can contribute to a loss of confidence and mobility which can culminate in a significant reduction in quality of life. Furthermore, the potential to fall is often increased when an individual is institutionalized because of frailty or confusion. The purpose of the study was, therefore, to establish whether a structured intervention would assist in preventing falls in an acute setting. This pre-test/post-test study was carried out over a 12-month period. Interventions included risk assessment, an alert system, reinforcing preventive actions, staff education and ongoing audits and feedback. Initial analysis of the data and comparison of fall rates indicated a significant reduction in the rate of falls between the pre- and post-intervention phases, although subsequent statistical analysis did not identify any significant relationships. It must be noted that no controls existed for extraneous variables, although patient profiles varied minimally during the period of the study. Outcomes include: a reduction in fall numbers and rates, enhanced staff morale with ownership of the programme, provision of a learning experience for staff (on which to build), and the fostering of a professional approach to improving the quality of patient care.

  14. Sensor-derived physical activity parameters can predict future falls in people with dementia

    PubMed Central

    Schwenk, Michael; Hauer, Klaus; Zieschang, Tania; Englert, Stefan; Mohler, Jane; Najafi, Bijan

    2014-01-01

    Background There is a need for simple clinical tools that can objectively assess fall risk in people with dementia. Wearable sensors seem to have potential for fall prediction, however, there has been limited work performed in this important area. Objective To explore the validity of sensor-derived physical activity (PA) parameters for predicting future falls in people with dementia. To compare sensor-based fall risk assessment with conventional fall risk measures. Methods A cohort study of people with confirmed dementia discharged from a geriatric rehabilitation ward. PA was quantified using 24-hour motion-sensor monitoring at the beginning of the study. PA parameters (percentage of walking, standing, sitting, lying; duration of single walking, standing, and sitting bouts) were extracted using specific algorithms. Conventional assessment included performance-based tests (Timed-up-and-go test, Performance-Oriented-Mobility-Assessment, 5-chair stand) and questionnaires (cognition, ADL-status, fear of falling, depression, previous faller). Outcome measures were fallers (at least one fall in the 3-month follow-up period) versus non-fallers. Results Seventy-seven people were included in the study (age 81.8 ± 6.3; community dwelling 88%, institutionalized 12%). Surprisingly, fallers and non-fallers did not differ on any conventional assessment (p= 0.069–0.991), except for ‘previous faller’ (p= 0.006). Interestingly, several PA parameters discriminated between groups. The ‘walking bouts average duration’, ‘longest walking bout duration’ and ‘walking bouts duration variability’ were lower in fallers, compared to non-fallers (p= 0.008–0.027). The ‘standing bouts average duration’ was higher in fallers (p= 0.050). Two variables, ‘walking bouts average duration’ [odds ratio (OR) 0.79, p= 0.012] and ‘previous faller’ [OR 4.44, p= 0.007] were identified as independent predictors for falls. The OR for a ‘walking bouts average duration’ of

  15. Falls study: Proprioception, postural stability, and slips.

    PubMed

    Sohn, Jeehoon; Kim, Sukwon

    2015-01-01

    The present study evaluated effects of exercise training on the proprioception sensitivity, postural stability, and the likelihood of slip-induced falls. Eighteen older adults (6 in balance, 6 in weight, and 6 in control groups) participated in this study. Three groups met three times per week over the course of eight weeks. Ankle and knee proprioception sensitivities and postural stability were measured. Slip-induced events were introduced for all participants before and after training. The results indicated that, overall, strength and postural stability were improved only in the training group, although proprioception sensitivity was improved in all groups. Training for older adults resulted in decreased likelihood of slip-induced falls. The study suggested that proprioception can be improved by simply being active, however, the results suggested that training would aid older adults in reducing the likelihood of slip-induced falls.

  16. Fatal falls from bicycles: a case report.

    PubMed

    Venara, A; Mauillon, D; Gaudin, A; Rouge-Maillart, C; Jousset, N

    2013-03-10

    Though rare occurrences, fatal falls from bicycles are generally linked to the absence of a protective helmet and/or a collision with another vehicle. The case presented here is exceptional due to its circumstances and the consequences of the accident: a fall with no obstacle at a low speed that brought about multiple traumas and the death of a cyclist wearing a protective helmet. Comparing this against a review of cyclist accidentology literature, this case is unique. The increased use of autopsy in terms of forensic accidentology is to be encouraged so as not to misunderstand the possibility of such lesion-based consequences following a simple fall from a bicycle. PMID:23312586

  17. REDUCTION OF THE MOMENTUM OF FALLING BODIES

    DOEpatents

    Kendall, J.W.; Morrison, I.H.

    1954-09-21

    A means for catching free falling bodies that may be damaged upon impact is given. Several layers of floating gas-filled rubber balls are contained within a partially compartmented tank of liquid. The compartment extends from beneath the surface of the liquid to that height necessary to contain the desired number of layers of the balls. The balls and the liquid itself break the force of the fall by absorbing the kinetic energy of falling body. The body may then be retrieved from the floor of the tank by a rake that extends from outside of the tank through the free surface area and underneath the compartment wall. This arrangement is particularly useful in collecting irradiated atomic fuel rods that are discharged from a reactor at considerable height without damaging the thin aluminum jacket of the rods.

  18. Elderly fall detection using SIFT hybrid features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiaoxiao; Gao, Chao; Guo, Yongcai

    2015-10-01

    With the tendency of aging society, countries all over the world are dealing with the demographic change. Fall had been proven to be of the highest fatality rate among the elderly. To realize the elderly fall detection, the proposed algorithm used the hybrid feature. Based on the rate of centroid change, the algorithm adopted VEI to offer the posture feature, this combined motion feature with posture feature. The algorithm also took advantage of SIFT descriptor of VEI(V-SIFT) to show more details of behaviors with occlusion. An improved motion detection method was proposed to improve the accuracy of front-view motion detection. The experimental results on CASIA database and self-built database showed that the proposed approach has high efficiency and strong robustness which effectively improved the accuracy of fall detection.

  19. Falls study: Proprioception, postural stability, and slips.

    PubMed

    Sohn, Jeehoon; Kim, Sukwon

    2015-01-01

    The present study evaluated effects of exercise training on the proprioception sensitivity, postural stability, and the likelihood of slip-induced falls. Eighteen older adults (6 in balance, 6 in weight, and 6 in control groups) participated in this study. Three groups met three times per week over the course of eight weeks. Ankle and knee proprioception sensitivities and postural stability were measured. Slip-induced events were introduced for all participants before and after training. The results indicated that, overall, strength and postural stability were improved only in the training group, although proprioception sensitivity was improved in all groups. Training for older adults resulted in decreased likelihood of slip-induced falls. The study suggested that proprioception can be improved by simply being active, however, the results suggested that training would aid older adults in reducing the likelihood of slip-induced falls. PMID:26406065

  20. Electrostatic demonstration of free-fall weightlessness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balukovic, Jasmina; Slisko, Josip; Corona Cruz, Adrian

    2015-05-01

    The phenomena of free-fall weightlessness have been demonstrated to students for many years in a number of different ways. The essential basis of all these demonstrations is the fact that in free-falling, gravitationally accelerated systems, the weight force and weight-related forces (for example, friction and hydrostatic forces) disappear. In this article, an original electrostatic demonstration of weightlessness is presented. A charged balloon fixed at the opening of a plastic container cannot lift a light styrofoam sphere sitting on the bottom when the container is at rest. However, while the system is in free-fall, the sphere becomes weightless and the charged balloon is able to lift it electrostatically.

  1. Sacramento City College Assessment Center Research Report: Assessment Procedures, Fall 1983 - Fall 1984.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haase, M.; Caffrey, Patrick

    Studies and analyses conducted by the Assessment Center at Sacramento City College (SCC) between fall 1983 and fall 1984 provided the data on SCC's students and services which are presented in this report. Following an overview of the significant findings of the year's research efforts, part I sets forth the purpose of the report and part II…

  2. Seniors Falls Investigative Methodology (SFIM): A Systems Approach to the Study of Falls in Seniors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zecevic, Aleksandra A.; Salmoni, Alan W.; Lewko, John H.; Vandervoort, Anthony A.

    2007-01-01

    An in-depth understanding of human factors and human error is lacking in current research on seniors' falls. Additional knowledge is needed to understand why seniors are falling. The purpose of this article is to describe the adapting of the Integrated Safety Investigation Methodology (ISIM) (used for investigating transportation and industrial…

  3. Results of the Colorado Student Assessment Program, Fall 1988 and Fall 1991.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colorado State Dept. of Education, Denver.

    Colorado conducts an assessment program to provide a statewide profile of student achievement. Results for fall 1988 and fall 1991 are presented in a series of tables. A standardized, nationally norm-referenced achievement test, the Iowa Tests of Basic Skills, was administered in 1988 to students in grades 4, 7, and 10, and again to the same…

  4. Thou shalt not fall! Decreasing falls in the postoperative orthopedic patient with a femoral nerve block.

    PubMed

    Foisy, Kimberly

    2013-01-01

    A Transforming Care at the Bedside model was used to decrease falls in the femoral nerve block (FNB) patient population on a 32-bed orthopedic/neurologic unit in a community hospital setting. A multifaceted, strategic practice and educational bundle was implemented, resulting in a 75% decrease in falls among patients with FNB.

  5. The flow of two falling balls mixes rapidly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bálint, Péter; Némedy Varga, András

    2016-09-01

    In this paper we study the system of two falling balls in continuous time. We model the system by a suspension flow over a two dimensional, hyperbolic base map. By detailed analysis of the geometry of the system we identify special periodic points and show that the ratio of certain periods in continuous time is Diophantine for almost every value of the mass parameter in an interval. Using results of Melbourne (2007 Trans. Am. Math. Soc. 359 2421-41) and our previous achievements (Bálint et al 2012 Chaos 22 026104) we conclude that for these values of the parameter the flow mixes faster than any polynomial. Even though the calculations are presented for the specific physical system, the method is quite general and can be applied to other suspension flows, too.

  6. Why Does Attention to Web Articles Fall With Time?

    PubMed Central

    Simkin, Mikhail V.; Roychowdhury, Vwani P.

    2015-01-01

    We analyze access statistics of 150 blog entries and news articles for periods of up to 3 years. Access rate falls as an inverse power of time passed since publication. The power law holds for periods of up to 1,000 days. The exponents are different for different blogs and are distributed between 0.6 and 3.2. We argue that the decay of attention to a web article is caused by the link to it first dropping down the list of links on the website’s front page and then disappearing from the front page and its subsequent movement further into background. The other proposed explanations that use a decaying with time novelty factor, or some intricate theory of human dynamics, cannot explain all of the experimental observations. PMID:26478903

  7. The flow of two falling balls mixes rapidly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bálint, Péter; Némedy Varga, András

    2016-09-01

    In this paper we study the system of two falling balls in continuous time. We model the system by a suspension flow over a two dimensional, hyperbolic base map. By detailed analysis of the geometry of the system we identify special periodic points and show that the ratio of certain periods in continuous time is Diophantine for almost every value of the mass parameter in an interval. Using results of Melbourne (2007 Trans. Am. Math. Soc. 359 2421–41) and our previous achievements (Bálint et al 2012 Chaos 22 026104) we conclude that for these values of the parameter the flow mixes faster than any polynomial. Even though the calculations are presented for the specific physical system, the method is quite general and can be applied to other suspension flows, too.

  8. The Free Fall Machine--a ground-based facility for microgravity research in life sciences.

    PubMed

    Mesland, D A; Anton, A H; Willemsen, H; van den Ende, H

    1996-08-01

    A device is described in which a biological specimen is periodically accelerated for a short period. Each event is followed by a variable period of free fall. Assuming that the g-dose (expressed g s) has to surpass a certain minimal value to be perceived by cells, and in addition, there is a minimal time threshold for sensing a change in gravity, it is conceivable that conditions are created in which cells do not detect the periodic acceleration, and only experience the periodic free-fall movement as a long-term weightlessness condition. Using the cell-cycle progression of the unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas as an example, it is shown that with this device effects can be generated which are similar to those observed in satellite flights.

  9. Public events at Fall Meeting 2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holm Adamec, Bethany

    2012-11-01

    Three much-anticipated events at Fall Meeting are AGU's family science programs, which take place the Sunday before Fall Meeting begins. Beginning at noon on 2 December, the public lecture will be given by Michael Meyer, John Grotzinger, and Rebecca Williams. These three NASA scientists are working with the rover Curiosity, which is currently exploring Mars. They will engage the public in a discussion of Mars exploration and the latest activities of the most sophisticated explorer ever sent to another planet. The panelists will discuss the hopes and excitement of exploring Mars through a robot's eyes, nose, taste, and touch.

  10. Helping pharmacists to reduce fall risk in long-term care

    PubMed Central

    Seymour, Nicole; Brown, Susan G.

    2014-01-01

    Background: One-third to one-half of adults older than 65 fall at least once per year. Fall prevention through medication management requires little effort and has consistently been shown to reduce risk of falls. The objective of this study was to further develop and perform preliminary pilot testing of an algorithm designed to assist consultant pharmacists in systematically identifying medications that might be modifiable, in order to reduce the risk of falls in older adults. We hypothesized that algorithm use would increase the number of fall-related medication change recommendations made to physicians. Methods: Four consultant pharmacists were trained to use the algorithm during their routine medication reviews over a 3-week period. An informal survey was administered at the end of the study period to assess the algorithm. Results: Overall, 51% of residents of long-term facilities had 1 or more recommendations for medication changes related to reducing fall risk (range 0-3 recommendations per resident), with an average 0.675 recommendations made per resident. There were more recommendations for men compared with women and for residents receiving more medications, but the number of recommendations did not correspond with age. All 4 pharmacists agreed that the algorithm was useful and worthwhile. Discussion: The absolute 20% increase in recommendations related to falls supports the study hypothesis. Time was cited as a barrier to using the algorithm, but this should decrease with continued use of this tool. Conclusion: This preliminary study furthered the development of and confirmed the possible utility and acceptability of a fall risk–reducing algorithm that may be used in practice. PMID:24847370

  11. Pediatric falls from buildings: defining the burden of injury in Hawai'i.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Joy; Wolfe, Stacey Q; Speck, Cora; Woods, Elizabeth; Lustik, Michael B; Edwards, Kurt D; Edwards, Mary J

    2014-05-01

    Falls from buildings, including houses, are an important cause of childhood injury in the United States; however, no study has previously examined the impact of this problem in Hawai'i. The objective of this study is to categorize the demographics and injury circumstances of pediatric falls from buildings in Hawai'i and compare to other US cities. Patients age 10 and under who were injured in nonfatal accidental falls from buildings in Hawai'i between 2005 and 2011 were identified retrospectively from a statewide repository of hospital billing data. The Hawai'i death certificate database was searched separately for deaths in children age 10 and under due to falls from buildings, with data available from 1991 through 2011. Data was reviewed for demographics, circumstances surrounding the injury, and level of hospital treatment. During the 7-year period for nonfatal injuries, 416 fall-related injuries were identified in children age 10 and younger. Of these, 86 required hospitalization. The rate of nonfatal injury in Hawai'i County was twice that of Honolulu and Maui Counties, and three times that of Kaua'i County. There were 9 fatal falls over a 21-year period. The population based incidence for nonfatal injuries was three-fold higher than that reported in the city of Dallas. The rate of hospitalizations following building falls was more than twice as high as the national average, and that of New York City, but similar to that of California. Strategies for education and environmental modification are reviewed, which may be helpful in reducing the incidence of pediatric falls from buildings in Hawai'i. PMID:24843835

  12. Experimental migration of knickpoints: influence of style of base-level fall and bed lithology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grimaud, J.-L.; Paola, C.; Voller, V.

    2016-01-01

    Knickpoints are fascinating and common geomorphic features whose dynamics influence the development of landscapes and source-to-sink systems - in particular the upstream propagation of erosion. Here, we study river profiles and associated knickpoints experimentally in a microflume filled with a cohesive substrate made of silica, water and kaolinite. We focus on the effect on knickpoint dynamics of varying the distribution of base-level fall (rate, increment, and period) and substrate strength, i.e., kaolinite content. Such simple cases are directly comparable to both bedrock and alluvial river systems. Under a constant rate of base-level fall, knickpoints of similar shape are periodically generated, highlighting self-organized dynamics in which steady forcing leads to multiple knickpoint events. Temporary shielding of the bed by alluvium controls the spacing between these unit knickpoints. Shielding is, however, not effective when base-level drops exceed alluvium thickness. While the base-level fall rate controls the overall slope of experiments, it is not instrumental in dictating the major characteristics of unit knickpoints. Instead the velocity, face slope and associated plunge pool depth of these knickpoints are all strongly influenced by lithology. The period between knickpoints is set by both alluvium thickness and base-level fall rate, allowing use of knickpoint spacing along rivers as an indicator of base-level fall rate.

  13. Experimental migration of knickpoints: influence of style of base-level fall and bed lithology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grimaud, J.-L.; Paola, C.; Voller, V.

    2015-08-01

    Knickpoints are fascinating and common geomorphic features whose dynamics influences the development of landscapes and source-to-sink systems - in particular the upstream propagation of erosion. Here, we study river profiles and associated knickpoints experimentally in a micro flume filled with a cohesive substrate made of silica, water and kaolinite. We focus on the effect on knickpoint dynamics of varying the distribution of base-level fall (rate, increment, and period) and substrate strength, i.e. kaolinite content. Such simple cases are directly comparable to both bedrock and alluvial river systems. Under a constant rate of base-level fall, knickpoints of similar shape are periodically generated, highlighting a self-organized dynamics in which steady forcing leads to multiple knickpoint events. Temporary shielding of the bed by alluvium controls the spacing between these unit knickpoints. Shielding is however not effective when base-level drops exceed alluvium thickness. While the base-level fall rate controls the overall slope of experiments, it is not instrumental in dictating the major characteristics of unit knickpoints. Instead the velocity, face slope and associated plunge pool depth of these knickpoints are all strongly influenced by lithology. The period between knickpoints is set by both alluvium thickness and base-level fall rate, allowing use of knickpoint spacing along rivers as an indicator of base-level fall rate.

  14. Photocopy of drawing, "Sluiceway at Combined Locks, Glens Falls Feeder" ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of drawing, "Sluiceway at Combined Locks, Glens Falls Feeder" (from Champlain canal structure book) 6-45, New York State Archives and Manuscripts, Albany, New York), c. 1858 - Glens Falls Feeder, Sluice, Along south side of Glens Falls Feeder between locks 10 & 20, Hudson Falls, Washington County, NY

  15. 113. ROCK CREEK SIPHON LOW LINE CANAL, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    113. ROCK CREEK SIPHON LOW LINE CANAL, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, SOUTH OF KIMBERLY IDAHO; CLOSE-UP OF INLET SIDE OF SIPHON, NORTHWEST VIEW. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

  16. 126. COTTONWOOD CREEK SIPHON, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, SOUTH OF KIMBERLY, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    126. COTTONWOOD CREEK SIPHON, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, SOUTH OF KIMBERLY, IDAHO; CLOSE-UP OF OUTLET SIDE OF SIPHON, SOUTH VIEW. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

  17. 111. ROCK CREEK SIPHON LOW LINE CANAL, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    111. ROCK CREEK SIPHON LOW LINE CANAL, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, SOUTH OF KIMBERLY IDAHO; OVERALL VIEW OF SIPHON, EAST VIEW. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

  18. 129. COTTONWOOD CREEK SIPHON, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, SOUTH OF KIMBERLY, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    129. COTTONWOOD CREEK SIPHON, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, SOUTH OF KIMBERLY, IDAHO; OUTLET SIDE OF SIPHON UNDER CANAL. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

  19. 115. ROCK CREEK SIPHON LOW LINE CANAL, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    115. ROCK CREEK SIPHON LOW LINE CANAL, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, SOUTH OF KIMBERLY IDAHO; WEST VIEW OF SIPHON CROSSING ROCK CREEK. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

  20. A Profile of the Fall 1979 Freshmen at CUNY.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kramer, Rena

    A profile of the fall 1979 first-time freshmen at the City University of New York (CUNY) is presented and comparisons are made with the fall 1975 and 1976 classes. In fall 1976, tuition was imposed for the first time and new admissions criteria were set. In comparison to fall 1976 enrollments, the number of first-time freshmen enrollment at CUNY…

  1. 197. Photocopy of drawing, Twin Falls, Canal Company, date unknown. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    197. Photocopy of drawing, Twin Falls, Canal Company, date unknown. GATE STEMS AND LIFTING DEVICES, NO COUNTY; BLUEPRINT SKETCHES. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

  2. 29 CFR 1926.760 - Fall protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Steel Erection § 1926.760 Fall protection. (a... a steel erection activity who is on a walking/working surface with an unprotected side or edge more... (CDZ). A controlled decking zone may be established in that area of the structure over 15 and up to...

  3. 29 CFR 1926.760 - Fall protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Steel Erection § 1926.760 Fall protection. (a... a steel erection activity who is on a walking/working surface with an unprotected side or edge more... (CDZ). A controlled decking zone may be established in that area of the structure over 15 and up to...

  4. Harvesting strawberries in fall and early spring

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    New management strategies are needed to produce strawberry planting materials that will fruit in the off-season in the mid-Atlantic coast region. Also, a better understanding of mechanisms that control flowering in strawberries is needed to improve fall flowering in short-day type cultivars. When ...

  5. Riemann pendulum in free fall systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fargion, Daniele

    2016-07-01

    The possible detection in space and in different free fall system of the tidal effects via a Riemann pendulum rate, is considered. The possibility to perform such an experiment for educational purpouse by a Moire' or Holographic double exposure detection is described. The International Space Station may obtain high quality test of 3D Riemann pendulum effects.

  6. Grade Distribution. Community Colleges, Fall 1978.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawaii Univ., Honolulu. Community Coll. System.

    Data on the grade point ratios (GPR's) and the distribution of grades earned were gathered and analyzed for all students enrolled in credit courses at the seven Hawaii community colleges during Fall 1978. These data indicate that the average assigned grade was 2.7, and that the credits-earned rate was 71%. As in previous semesters, the…

  7. Bodies Falling with Air Resistance: Computer Simulation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vest, Floyd

    1982-01-01

    Two models are presented. The first assumes that air resistance is proportional to the velocity of the falling body. The second assumes that air resistance is proportional to the square of the velocity. A program written in BASIC that simulates the second model is presented. (MP)

  8. Kentucky College and University Enrollments, Fall 1987.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kentucky Council on Public Higher Education, Frankfort.

    Statistical information on Kentucky college and university enrollments for the fall of 1987 are provided, including listings of the membership of the Commonwealth of Kentucky Council on Higher Education, and the presidents of Kentucky's senior colleges and universities, junior and community colleges, seminaries, and business colleges. The 41…

  9. West Tennessee ACEI 2006 Fall Conference

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clifford, Anna; Hailey, Beth

    2007-01-01

    This article presents the West Tennessee ACEI 2006 Fall Conference held at Union University in Jackson, Tennessee on October 14, 2006. The conference theme, Turning the Pages: A Focus on Children's Literature, was emphasized throughout the day. During the conference, the early childhood classroom teachers, preservice teachers, and administrators…

  10. Ethnic Student Survey--Fall 1995.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moraine Valley Community College., Palos Hills, IL. Office of Institutional Research.

    In fall 1995, Illinois' Moraine Valley Community College (MVCC) conducted a survey of a random sample of 1,447 current students to gather information on their attitudes and goals and to compare responses for Asian, Black, Hispanic, and White students. Completed surveys were received from 433 students, including 53 Asians, 73 Blacks, 127 Hispanics,…

  11. Cohort Analysis, Fall 1993 New Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moraine Valley Community College., Palos Hills, IL. Office of Institutional Research.

    In October 1996, Illinois' Moraine Valley Community College (MVCC) conducted a longitudinal study of the characteristics of and outcomes experienced by students who entered the college for the first time in fall 1993, gathering data on retention rates, average attempted and earned cumulative hours, and graduation rates over 3 years. Of the 3,146…

  12. TAP into Learning, Fall-Winter 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burns, Mary; Dimock, Vicki; Martinez, Danny

    2000-01-01

    This document consists of the final three issues of "TAP into Learning" (Technology Assistance Program). The double fall issue focuses on knowledge construction and on using multimedia applications in the classroom. Contents include: "Knowledge Under Construction"; "Hegel and the Dialectic"; "Implications for Teaching and Learning"; "How Can…

  13. How to catch a falling fruit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marantan, Andrew; Mahadevan, Lakshminarayanan

    2015-03-01

    A variety of fish engage in complex hunting behaviors involving catching airborne prey falling to the surface of the water. In principle this requires that the fish develop internal models describing both the falling prey and its own motion relative to that prey. However learning such models is complicated by the fact that the fish must also account for noise in optical measurements and the refraction occurring at the air/water interface. Inspired by experimental observations, we describe how one such species (Brycon guatemalensis) might feasibly overcome these obstacles and learn a model accurate enough to catch falling fruit. Instead of learning a model for how the fruit falls and a model for how it moves in the water and a model accounting for refraction, we argue that the fish could instead learn one approximate linear model relating a set of measured inputs to a set of measured outputs valid in a limited domain of initial conditions. The fish could then make its control decisions based on the outcome predicted by this combined linear model. We also discuss how the fish can leverage neural transformations of raw data to learn a model with a larger domain of validity and yet more sensitive to noise due to nontrivial Jacobians arising from the neural transformations.

  14. Artists Paint ... Fall: Grades K-1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herberholz, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    Artists often paint the different seasonal activities people engage in and the way the world looks as changes take place. The weather for each of the four seasons is different. Farmers plant crops and gardens in the spring and harvest their crops in the fall, just like "The Harvesters" by Pieter Bruegel the Elder. To begin, children will observe…

  15. Freshman Profile, Entering Class: Fall 1974.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Peter B.

    In fall 1974, Hostos Community College (HCC) participated in the national survey of college freshmen which is conducted annually by the Cooperative Institutional Research Program (CIRP) of the American Council on Education, and UCLA. The population served by Hostos Community College is, for the most part, comprised of economically disadvantaged,…

  16. Occupational Programs Student Survey, Fall 2002. Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meuschke, Daylene M.; Gribbons, Barry C.

    Each semester, the College of the Canyons (California) surveys all students enrolled in occupational courses. This information has three primary purposes: (1) the survey results are used in determining funding through the Vocational and Technical Education Act (VTEA); (2) beginning in fall 2000, the College expanded the survey to include students'…

  17. Community College Users' Report, Fall 1975.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zimmer, A. L., Ed.

    This report was compiled from information supplied by instructors participating in the National Science Foundation's community college field test of PLATO IV--a computer-based system developed at the University of Illinois--during the fall semester of 1975. Represented here are the responses of instructors at five Illinois community colleges to…

  18. Seneca Falls: A Women's Demonstration for Peace.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khan, Billie

    1984-01-01

    A reporter gives her personal impressions of the Seneca Falls Women's Encampment for a Future of Peace and Justice and the march by members of the encampment to the Seneca Army Depot. Confrontations between the demonstrators and conservative counterdemonstrators and the army response are also covered. (IS)

  19. Kentucky College and University Enrollments. Fall 1977.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kentucky Center for Education Statistics, Frankfort.

    Fall 1977 enrollment data from the Kentucky state-supported and independent colleges and universities, seminaries, proprietary business colleges and Eagle University are presented. Total enrollment in the state and independent colleges and universities was 126,162. Of this total, 108,546 students were enrolled in the state universities and…

  20. OATYC Journal, Fall 1990-Spring 1991.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fullen, Jim, Ed.

    1991-01-01

    Published by the Ohio Association of Two-Year Colleges, the "OATYC Journal" is designed to provide a medium for sharing concepts, methods, and findings relevant to the classroom, and an open forum for the discussion and review of problems. This 16th volume of the journal, consisting of the fall 1990 and spring 1991 issues, contains the following…

  1. Early Childhood: Fall Harvest and Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science and Children, 1982

    1982-01-01

    Provides instructional strategies for using fall fruits/vegetables in science lessons, including activities related to melons, pumpkins, grapes, pears, squash, and yams. Suggests extending the activities over a month or more to allow children time to explore and investigate. (JN)

  2. Analysis of Fall 1996 Course Grades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGregor, Ellen N.; Reece, Dee; Garner, Doris

    This report provides data on withdrawal and success rates and grades earned in fall 1996 at the five campuses of Pima Community College (PCC) in Arizona. Following a literature review on national course grades, descriptions are provided of the following: (1) grades and withdrawals for 1981, 1986, 1991, and 1996, indicating that the number of A…

  3. Analysis of Fall 1995 Course Grades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pima Community Coll., Tucson, AZ. Office of Institutional Research.

    This report provides data on withdrawal and success rates and grades earned in fall 1995 at the five campuses of Pima Community College (PCC) in Arizona. Following a literature review on national course grades, descriptions are provided of the following: (1) grades and withdrawals for 1980, 1985, 1990, and 1995, indicating that the number of A…

  4. Students Enrolled for Advanced Degrees, Fall 1972.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Curtis O.; Wells, Agnes Q.

    The seventh annual Higher Education General Information Survey (HEGIS) acquired these data in 1972-73 for students enrolled for advanced degrees in fall 1972. Included in this report are summary enrollment tables by level of study, attendance status, sex of student, discipline specialty, state or other area, and institutional control and level.…

  5. Academic Crossover Study: Community Colleges, Fall 1981.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawaii Univ., Honolulu. Office of Institutional Research and Analysis.

    In fall 1981, a study was conducted in Hawaii's community colleges to determine the course-taking patterns of different groups of student majors (e.g., the proportion of the liberal arts major's academic load that is taken in the humanities, natural sciences, etc.), and the client-serving patterns of different subject disciplines (e.g., the…

  6. NOVA[R] Fall 2001 Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    WGBH-TV, Boston, MA.

    This teacher guide includes activity information for the program NOVA, Fall 2001. Background for each activity is provided along with its correlation to the national science standards. Activities include: (1) "Search for a Safe Cigarette"; (2) "18 Ways To Make a Baby"; (3) "Secrets of Mind"; (4) "Neanderthals on Trial"; (5) "Life's Greatest…

  7. Fall Colors, Temperature, and Day Length

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burton, Stephen; Miller, Heather; Roossinck, Carrie

    2007-01-01

    Along with the bright hues of orange, red, and yellow, the season of fall represents significant changes, such as day length and temperature. These changes provide excellent opportunities for students to use science process skills to examine how abiotic factors such as weather and temperature impact organisms. In this article, the authors describe…

  8. Anode Fall Formation in a Hall Thruster

    SciTech Connect

    Leonid A. Dorf; Yevgeny F. Raitses; Artem N. Smirnov; Nathaniel J. Fisch

    2004-06-29

    As was reported in our previous work, accurate, nondisturbing near-anode measurements of the plasma density, electron temperature, and plasma potential performed with biased and emissive probes allowed the first experimental identification of both electron-repelling (negative anode fall) and electron-attracting (positive anode fall) anode sheaths in Hall thrusters. An interesting new phenomenon revealed by the probe measurements is that the anode fall changes from positive to negative upon removal of the dielectric coating, which appears on the anode surface during the course of Hall thruster operation. As reported in the present work, energy dispersion spectroscopy analysis of the chemical composition of the anode dielectric coating indicates that the coating layer consists essentially of an oxide of the anode material (stainless steel). However, it is still unclear how oxygen gets into the thruster channel. Most importantly, possible mechanisms of anode fall formation in a Hall thruster with a clean and a coated anodes are analyzed in this work; practical implication of understanding the general structure of the electron-attracting anode sheath in the case of a coated anode is also discussed.

  9. Does Fall History Influence Residential Adjustments?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leland, Natalie; Porell, Frank; Murphy, Susan L.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose of the study: To determine whether reported falls at baseline are associated with an older adult's decision to make a residential adjustment (RA) and the type of adjustment made in the subsequent 2 years. Design and Methods: Observations (n = 25,036) were from the Health and Retirement Study, a nationally representative sample of…

  10. Community College Humanities Review, Fall 1998.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hult, Susan, Ed.; Wilson, Ned M., Ed.

    1998-01-01

    The "Community College Humanities Review" is a forum for scholarly work focusing on research, curriculum change, and developments within the humanities disciplines. The fall 1998 issue offers the following articles: (1) "Feminist Currents and Confluence in Southern and Latin America, Women's Narrative: Gertrudis Gomez de Avellaneda y Arteaga and…

  11. Integrating the Curriculum: Faux Fall Repousse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kernan, Christine

    2012-01-01

    When introducing a new unit, art teachers know that sometimes a little "bling" can really grab students' attention. The author received "ooohs" and "aaahs" from her fourth-graders when they learned they would be creating "Faux Fall Repousse." The dazzling shine of the aluminum foil and the beautiful array of autumnal colors were impossible for…

  12. Persistence Rates in Day Classes: Fall, 1978.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gold, Ben K.

    In order to investigate patterns of persistence in courses taken by day students at Los Angeles City College, class enrollment data were gathered at the end of the third week of the Fall 1978 semester, at the first and second census weeks, and on the last day of the semester. Additionally, the number of students receiving final grades other than W…

  13. Risk factors for frequent falls in people with Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Paul, Serene S; Allen, Natalie E; Sherrington, Cathie; Heller, Gillian; Fung, Victor S C; Close, Jacqueline C T; Lord, Stephen R; Canning, Colleen G

    2014-01-01

    Fall frequency varies among individuals with Parkinson's disease (PD). We aimed to determine whether risk factors that distinguish PD fallers from non-fallers are influenced by frequent falls. 205 people with PD participated in a 6-month prospective study. Factors in previously published fall risk models were analyzed for their associations with fall rates and frequent fallers. Fall history, freezing and impaired reactive balance were associated with fall rates and the proportion of frequent fallers (p < 0.05). These models were highly accurate in discriminating frequent fallers (area under curve 0.84-0.87). Interventions to manage freezing and reduce balance impairment may reduce fall frequency.

  14. iFall: an Android application for fall monitoring and response.

    PubMed

    Sposaro, Frank; Tyson, Gary

    2009-01-01

    Injuries due to falls are among the leading causes of hospitalization in elderly persons, often resulting in a rapid decline in quality of life or death. Rapid response can improve the patients outcome, but this is often lacking when the injured person lives alone and the nature of the injury complicates calling for help. This paper presents an alert system for fall detection using common commercially available electronic devices to both detect the fall and alert authorities. We use an Android-based smart phone with an integrated tri-axial accelerometer. Data from the accelerometer is evaluated with several threshold based algorithms and position data to determine a fall. The threshold is adaptive based on user provided parameters such as: height, weight, and level of activity. The algorithm adapts to unique movements that a phone experiences as opposed to similar systems which require users to mount accelerometers to their chest or trunk. If a fall is suspected a notification is raised requiring the user's response. If the user does not respond, the system alerts pre-specified social contacts with an informational message via SMS. If a contact responds the system commits an audible notification, automatically connects, and enables the speakerphone. If a social contact confirms a fall, an appropriate emergency service is alerted. Our system provides a realizable, cost effective solution to fall detection using a simple graphical interface while not overwhelming the user with uncomfortable sensors.

  15. Maxillofacial Fractures due to Falls: does Fall Modality Determine the Pattern of Injury?

    PubMed Central

    Boffano, Paolo; Bianchi, Francesca A.; Zavattero, Emanuele

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objectives In several epidemiological studies of maxillofacial trauma, falls were one of the most frequent causes of facial injury. The aim of this study is to analyse the patterns of fall-related maxillofacial injuries based on the height of the fall. Material and Methods Using a systematic computer-assisted database of patients hospitalised with maxillofacial fractures, only those with fall-related injuries were considered. The falls were divided into four groups: falls from slipping, tripping or stumbling (STSF), loss of consciousness (LOCF), stairs (SAF), and height (HF). Data on the age, gender, fracture site, Facial Injury Severity Scale (FISS), facial lacerations, associated lesions, type of treatment, and length of hospital stay were also analysed. Results This study included 557 patients (338 males, 219 females; average age 51.5 years [range 4 - 99 years]). In the over 60 age group, females were more prevalent in STSF than males. According to aetiology, STSF was the most frequent cause of maxillofacial fractures (315 patients; 56.5%) followed by LOCF (157; 28.2%), HF (55; 9.9%), and SAF (30; 5.4%). The middle third of the face was affected most frequently. After LOCF, however, the inferior third was prevalently involved. The majority of associated fractures, as well as the most severe injuries and greatest rate of facial lacerations, occurred secondary to HF. Conclusions This study showed that fracture severity and site are influenced not only by patient age, but also by the nature of the fall. PMID:25635212

  16. Myths and Misconceptions in Fall Protection

    SciTech Connect

    Epp, R J

    2006-02-23

    Since 1973, when OSHA CFRs 1910 and 1926 began to influence the workplace, confusion about the interpretation of the standards has been a problem and fall protection issues are among them. This confusion is verified by the issuance of 351 (as of 11/25/05) Standard Interpretations issued by OSHA in response to formally submitted questions asking for clarification. Over the years, many workers and too many ES&H Professionals have become 'self-interpreters', reaching conclusions that do not conform to either the Standards or the published Interpretations. One conclusion that has been reached by the author is that many ES&H Professionals are either not aware of, or do not pay attention to the Standard Interpretations issued by OSHA, or the State OSHA interpretation mechanism, whoever has jurisdiction. If you fall in this category, you are doing your organization or clients a disservice and are not providing them with the best information available. Several myths and/or misconceptions have been promulgated to the point that they become accepted fact, until an incident occurs and OSHA becomes involved. For example, one very pervasive myth is that you are in compliance as long as you maintain a distance of 6 feet from the edge. No such carte blanche rule exists. In this presentation, this myth and several other common myths/misconceptions will be discussed. This presentation is focused only on Federal OSHA CFR1910 Subpart D--Walking-Working Surfaces, CFR1926 Subpart M--Fall Protection and the Fall Protection Standard Interpretation Letters. This presentation does not cover steel erection, aerial lifts and other fall protection issues. Your regulations will probably be different than those presented if you are operating under a State plan.

  17. Utilization of Residence Hall Facilities, Fall 1986, with Trends from Fall 1977. Report No. 9-87.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    State Univ. of New York, Albany. Central Staff Office of Institutional Research.

    Data on the utilization of residence hall facilities at campuses of the State University of New York are presented for fall 1986, with summary data for fall 1977 through fall 1986. In addition to trend data for each college and college type, graphic displays of percent utilization of residence hall facilities are provided. Tables for fall 1986…

  18. A wavelet-based approach to fall detection.

    PubMed

    Palmerini, Luca; Bagalà, Fabio; Zanetti, Andrea; Klenk, Jochen; Becker, Clemens; Cappello, Angelo

    2015-01-01

    Falls among older people are a widely documented public health problem. Automatic fall detection has recently gained huge importance because it could allow for the immediate communication of falls to medical assistance. The aim of this work is to present a novel wavelet-based approach to fall detection, focusing on the impact phase and using a dataset of real-world falls. Since recorded falls result in a non-stationary signal, a wavelet transform was chosen to examine fall patterns. The idea is to consider the average fall pattern as the "prototype fall".In order to detect falls, every acceleration signal can be compared to this prototype through wavelet analysis. The similarity of the recorded signal with the prototype fall is a feature that can be used in order to determine the difference between falls and daily activities. The discriminative ability of this feature is evaluated on real-world data. It outperforms other features that are commonly used in fall detection studies, with an Area Under the Curve of 0.918. This result suggests that the proposed wavelet-based feature is promising and future studies could use this feature (in combination with others considering different fall phases) in order to improve the performance of fall detection algorithms. PMID:26007719

  19. Influences on modern multifactorial falls prevention interventions and fear of falling in non-frail older adults: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Svantesson, Ulla; Babagbemi, Buki; Foster, Lakicia; Alricsson, Marie

    2014-10-01

    This review explores underlying features that may influence fear of falling and the effectiveness of multifactorial falls prevention programs in community dwelling non-frail adults aged 65 and older. It also examines the interrelationship between fear of falling and multifactorial falls prevention interventions. A literature search of medical databases was conducted to identify articles that address the fear of falling and multifactorial programs as either a primary or secondary component of their findings. Multifactorial interventions were assessed in terms of their program content, design, demographics, implementation techniques, and cost-effectiveness. Falls are a common, but preventable, cause of morbidity and injury in older adults 65 and over. In addition to physiological variables, fear of falling and self-efficacy are psychosocial factors that impact the incidence of falls in this population. Addressing fear of falling in addition to physiological parameters may influence the success of multifactorial falls prevention programs for adults 65 and over.

  20. Cross-Sectional and Longitudinal Risk Factors for Falls, Fear of Falling, and Falls Efficacy in a Cohort of Middle-Aged African Americans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Elena M.; Wolinsky, Fredric D.; Miller, J. Phillip; Wilson, Margaret-Mary G.; Malmstrom, Theodore K.; Miller, Douglas K.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to cross-sectionally and longitudinally identify risk factors for falls, fear of falling, and falls efficacy in late-middle-aged African Americans. Design and Methods: We performed in-home assessments on a probability sample of 998 African Americans and conducted two annual follow-up interviews. Multiple…

  1. Changes in FTSE in Selected Occupational Areas by Student Sex: Fall 1972, Fall 1977, and Fall 1982. Report No. 82-16.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bresler, Marilyn

    Data are provided in this report on the changes in the sexual composition of full-time student enrollments in selected occupational areas in the Maricopa County Community College District (MCCCD). The report provides figures on male and female enrollments for fall 1972, fall 1977, and fall 1982 in eight areas: Administration of Justice,…

  2. Evaluation of the Cosmetology Program at Caldwell Community College and Technical Institute--Fall, 1981.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pipes, V. David

    In fall 1981, the cosmetology program at Caldwell Community College and Technical Institute (CCC&TI) was evaluated as part of a process to create a model for the periodic evaluation of all occupational programs at the school. In addition to collecting information for planning and program improvement, the study sought to assess the achievement of…

  3. Safe pre-release disease treatment with formalin for fall chinook salmon smolts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, S.D.; Gould, R.W.; Zaugg, W.S.; Harrell, L.W.; Mahnken, C.V.W.

    1987-01-01

    Standard formalin treatment (167 μL/L for 1 h) applied to presmolts and smolts of fall chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) 80, 62, 52, 38, 24, and 10 d prior to seawater exposure did not affect freshwater growth or survival during a 20-d period in seawater. There was no consistent effect of treatment on gill Na+, K+ -ATPase activity.

  4. Integrated crop/livestock systems reduce late-fall livestock feeding costs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Feed costs during the late-fall and winter periods represent the greatest cost to cow-calf production in the northern Great Plains. Integration of crop and livestock enterprises may improve sustainability through synergisms among enterprises reducing waste and improving productivity, and providing b...

  5. TRICHLOROETHYLENE SORPTION AND OXIDATION USING A DUAL FUNCTION SORBENT/CATALYST IN A FALLING FURNACE REACTOR

    EPA Science Inventory

    A dual function medium (Cr-ZSM-5), capable of physisorbing trichloroethylene (TCE) at ambient temperature and catalytically oxidizing it at elevated temperature (-350 degrees C) was utilized in a novel continuous falling furnace reactor system to store and periodically destroy t...

  6. Drop Shapes Versus Fall Velocities in Rain: 2 Contrasting Examples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thurai, M.; Bringi, V. N.; Petersen, W. A.; Carey, L. D.; Gatlin, P. N.; Tokay, A.

    2011-01-01

    Rainfall retrievals from polarimetric radar measurements require the knowledge of four fundamental rain microstructure parameters, namely, drop size distribution, drop shape distribution, canting angles and drop fall velocities. Some recent measurements of all four parameters in natural rain are summarized in [1]. In this paper, we perform an in-depth analysis of two events, using two co-located 2D video disdrometers (2DVD; see [2]) both with high calibration accuracy, and a C-band polarimetric radar [3], located 15 km away. The two events, which occurred 7 days apart (on the 18th and the 25th of Dec 2009), had moderate-to-intense rainfall rates, but the second event had an embedded convection line within the storm. The line had passed over the 2DVD site, thus enabling the shapes and fall velocities to be determined as the line crossed the site. The first event was also captured in a similar manner by both the 2DVDs as well as the C-band radar. Drop fall velocity measurements for, say, the 3 mm drops show noticeable differences between the two events. Whereas for the first event, the velocity distribution showed a narrow and symmetric distribution, with a mode at the expected value (7.95 m/s, as given by the formula in [4]), the second event produced a wider distribution with a significant skewness towards lower velocities (although its mode too was close to the expected value). Moreover, the slower 3 mm drops in the second event occurred when the convection line was directly over the 2DVD site (03:35-03:45 utc), and not before nor after. A similar trend was observed in terms of the horizontal dimensions of the 3 mm drops, i.e. large fluctuations during the same time period, but not outside the period. Vertical dimensions of the drops also fluctuated but not to the same extent. Interestingly, the horizontal dimensions tended towards larger values during the 10-minute period, implying an increase in drop oblateness, which in turn indicates the possibility of the

  7. Exercise in preventing falls and fall related injuries in older people: a review of randomised controlled trials

    PubMed Central

    Gardner, M.; Robertson, M; Campbell, A

    2000-01-01

    Objective—To assess the effectiveness of exercise programmes in preventing falls (and/or lowering the risk of falls and fall related injuries) in older people. Design—A review of controlled clinical trials designed with the aim of lowering the risk of falling and/or fall injuries through an exercise only intervention or an intervention that included an exercise component Main outcome measures—Falls, fall related injuries, time between falls, costs, cost effectiveness. Subjects—A total of 4933 men and women aged 60 years and older. Results—Eleven trials meeting the criteria for inclusion were reviewed. Eight of these trials had separate exercise interventions, and three used interventions with an exercise programme component. Five trials showed a significant reduction in the rate of falls or the risk of falling in the intervention group. Conclusions—Exercise is effective in lowering falls risk in selected groups and should form part of falls prevention programmes. Lowering fall related injuries will reduce health care costs but there is little available information on the costs associated with programme replication or the cost effectiveness of exercise programmes aimed at preventing falls in older people. Key Words: exercise; elderly; falls; cost effectiveness PMID:10690444

  8. Spatiotemporal gait parameters and recurrent falls in community-dwelling elderly women: a prospective study

    PubMed Central

    Moreira, Bruno S.; Sampaio, Rosana F.; Kirkwood, Renata N.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Falling is a common but devastating and costly problem of aging. There is no consensus in the literature on whether the spatial and temporal gait parameters could identify elderly people at risk of recurrent falls. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether spatiotemporal gait parameters could predict recurrent falls in elderly women. METHOD: One hundred and forty-eight elderly women (65-85 years) participated in this study. Seven spatiotemporal gait parameters were collected with the GAITRite(r) system. Falls were recorded prospectively during 12 months through biweekly phone contacts. Elderly women who reported two or more falls throughout the follow-up period were considered as recurrent fallers. Principal component analysis (PCA) and discriminant analysis followed by biplot graph interpretation were applied to the gait parameters. RESULTS: After 12 months, 23 elderly women fell twice or more and comprised the recurrent fallers group and 110 with one or no falls comprised the non-recurrent fallers group. PCA resulted in three components that explained 88.3% of data variance. Discriminant analysis showed that none of the components could significantly discriminate the groups. However, visual inspection of the biplot showed a trend towards group separation in relation to gait velocity and stance time. PC1 represented gait rhythm and showed that recurrent fallers tend to walk with lower velocity and cadence and increased stance time in relation to non-recurrent fallers. CONCLUSIONS: The analyzed spatiotemporal gait parameters failed to predict recurrent falls in this sample. The PCA-biplot technique highlighted important trends or red flags that should be considered when evaluating recurrent falls in elderly females. PMID:25714603

  9. Survey on Fall Detection and Fall Prevention Using Wearable and External Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Delahoz, Yueng Santiago; Labrador, Miguel Angel

    2014-01-01

    According to nihseniorhealth.gov (a website for older adults), falling represents a great threat as people get older, and providing mechanisms to detect and prevent falls is critical to improve people's lives. Over 1.6 million U.S. adults are treated for fall-related injuries in emergency rooms every year suffering fractures, loss of independence, and even death. It is clear then, that this problem must be addressed in a prompt manner, and the use of pervasive computing plays a key role to achieve this. Fall detection (FD) and fall prevention (FP) are research areas that have been active for over a decade, and they both strive for improving people's lives through the use of pervasive computing. This paper surveys the state of the art in FD and FP systems, including qualitative comparisons among various studies. It aims to serve as a point of reference for future research on the mentioned systems. A general description of FD and FP systems is provided, including the different types of sensors used in both approaches. Challenges and current solutions are presented and described in great detail. A 3-level taxonomy associated with the risk factors of a fall is proposed. Finally, cutting edge FD and FP systems are thoroughly reviewed and qualitatively compared, in terms of design issues and other parameters. PMID:25340452

  10. Milestones in gait, balance, and falling.

    PubMed

    Nutt, John G; Horak, Fay B; Bloem, Bastiaan R

    2011-05-01

    Gait, balance, and falls have become increasingly common topics of published articles in the Movement Disorders journal since its launch in 1986. This growth represents an increasing awareness of the importance of mobility to patients' quality of life. New methods have become available that allow for accurate measurement of many aspects for gait and balance. This has led to new concepts of understanding gait and balance disorders. Neuroimaging has begun to reveal the neural circuitry underlying gait and balance. The physiology and pathophysiology of balance and gait are beginning to tease out the many processes involved in mobility and how they may be disrupted by disease processes. With these advances, the old therapeutic nihilism that characterized the clinician's approach to falls and gait disorders is disappearing, as innovative physiotherapy, exercise, drugs, and deep brain stimulation are being employed for gait and balance disorders. PMID:21626560

  11. Droplet impact on falling liquid films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matar, Omar; Che, Zhizhao; Zadrazil, Ivan; Hewitt, Geoffrey; Markides, Christos

    2013-11-01

    Droplet impact is a ubiquitous phenomenon in nature, and has a wide range of applications; these include inkjet printing, spray painting, and surface cleaning. In this study, we examine the impact of droplets on falling liquid films, which is an event that occurs in various two-phase flows, such as annular flows and spray cooling. High-speed photography is used to visualise droplet impact, and associated phenomena, on a uniform falling liquid film, which is created on a flat substrate with controllable thickness and flow speed. Different phenomena are observed and analysed for droplet impact at different impact speeds, angles, and film thicknesses and flow speeds. The results of the present work are part of a programme to elucidate the complex dynamics of multiphase flows and to develop validated numerical tools for accurate predictions. EPSRC Programme Grant EP/K003976/1.

  12. Air Resistance on Falling Balls and Balloons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gluck, Paul

    2003-03-01

    Studying the effect of air resistance on falling objects in an introductory mechanics course has the merit of relevance to a considerable part of our everyday experience: Leaves, parachutes, raindrops, or soot particles do not keep accelerating as they fall. This topic has been discussed in this and other journals many times,1-7 ranging from theoretical treatments to various experimental investigations, mostly for coffee filters, depending on the apparatus at the disposal of the writers (video clips, graphic calculators, and so on). We report here a sequence of activities for our 11th-grade high school students dealing with this topic. The analysis of data emphasizes points that do not seem to have been done in previous articles.

  13. Gold Veins near Great Falls, Maryland

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reed, John Calvin, Jr.; Reed, John C.

    1969-01-01

    Small deposits of native gold are present along an anastomosing system of quartz veins and shear zones just east of Great Falls, Montgomery County, Md. The deposits were discovered in 1861 and were worked sporadically until 1951, yielding more than 5,000 ounces of gold. The vein system and the principal veins within it strike a few degrees west of north, at an appreciable angle to foliation and fold axial planes in enclosing rocks of the Wissahickon Formation of late Precambrian (?) age. The veins cut granitic rocks of Devonian or pre-Devonian age and may be as young as Triassic. Further development of the deposits is unlikely under present economic conditions because of their generally low gold content and because much of the vein system lies on park property, but study of the Great Falls vein system may be useful in the search for similar deposits elsewhere in the Appalachian Piedmont.

  14. Conditioning of sandhill cranes during fall migration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Krapu, Gary L.; Johnson, Douglas H.

    1990-01-01

    Body mass of adult female and male sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis) increased an average of 17 and 20%, respectively, from early September to late October on staging areas in central North Dakota and varied by year. Increases in body mass averaged 550 and 681 g among female and male G. c. canadensis, respectively, and 616 and 836 g among female and male G. c. rowani. Adult and juvenile G. c. rowani were lean at arrival, averaging 177 and 83 g of fat, respectively, and fat reserves increased to 677 and 482 g by mid-October. Fat-free dry mass increased by 12% among juveniles, reflecting substantial growth, but remained constant among adults. The importance of fall staging areas as conditioning sites for sandhill cranes, annual variation in body mass, and vulnerability of cranes to habitat loss underscore the need to monitor status of fall staging habitat in the northern plains region and to take steps to maintain suitable habitat where necessary.

  15. Exploring ethnic and racial differences in falls among older adults.

    PubMed

    Han, Benjamin H; Ferris, Rosie; Blaum, Caroline

    2014-12-01

    Falls are common events that threaten the independence and health of older adults. Studies have found a wide range of fall statistics in different ethnic and racial groups throughout the world. These studies suggest that fall rates may differ between different racial and ethnic groups. Studies also suggest that the location of falls, circumstances of falls, and particular behaviors may also be different by population. Also migration to new locations may alter an individual's fall risk. However, there are few studies that directly compare ethnic and racial differences in falls statistics or examine how known fall risk factors change based on race and ethnicity. This paper reviews the existing literature on how falls may differ between different racial and ethnic groups, highlights gaps in the literature, and explores directions for future research. The focus of this paper is community dwelling older adults and immigrant populations in the United States.

  16. Free falling and rising of spherical and angular particles

    SciTech Connect

    Rahmani, M. Wachs, A.

    2014-08-15

    Direct numerical simulations of freely falling and rising particles in an infinitely long domain, with periodic lateral boundary conditions, are performed. The focus is on characterizing the free motion of cubical and tetrahedral particles for different Reynolds numbers, as an extension to the well-studied behaviour of freely falling and rising spherical bodies. The vortical structure of the wake, dynamics of particle movement, and the interaction of the particle with its wake are studied. The results reveal mechanisms of path instabilities for angular particles, which are different from those for spherical ones. The rotation of the particle plays a more significant role in the transition to chaos for angular particles. Following a framework similar to that of Mougin and Magnaudet [“Wake-induced forces and torques on a zigzagging/spiralling bubble,” J. Fluid Mech. 567, 185–194 (2006)], the balance of forces and torques acting on particles is discussed to gain more insight into the path instabilities of angular particles.

  17. A Wavelet-Based Approach to Fall Detection

    PubMed Central

    Palmerini, Luca; Bagalà, Fabio; Zanetti, Andrea; Klenk, Jochen; Becker, Clemens; Cappello, Angelo

    2015-01-01

    Falls among older people are a widely documented public health problem. Automatic fall detection has recently gained huge importance because it could allow for the immediate communication of falls to medical assistance. The aim of this work is to present a novel wavelet-based approach to fall detection, focusing on the impact phase and using a dataset of real-world falls. Since recorded falls result in a non-stationary signal, a wavelet transform was chosen to examine fall patterns. The idea is to consider the average fall pattern as the “prototype fall”.In order to detect falls, every acceleration signal can be compared to this prototype through wavelet analysis. The similarity of the recorded signal with the prototype fall is a feature that can be used in order to determine the difference between falls and daily activities. The discriminative ability of this feature is evaluated on real-world data. It outperforms other features that are commonly used in fall detection studies, with an Area Under the Curve of 0.918. This result suggests that the proposed wavelet-based feature is promising and future studies could use this feature (in combination with others considering different fall phases) in order to improve the performance of fall detection algorithms. PMID:26007719

  18. Free fall - A partial unique motion environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graybiel, A.

    1980-01-01

    Conditions leading to the elicitation of motion sickness have been divided into two main categories: partial motion environments, in which head movements are required to elicit motion sickness, and complete motion environments, in which independent movements of the head are not required for the production of symptoms. It is postulated that, according to this categorization, free fall constitutes a partial motion environment. In support of this hypothesis evidence is reviewed from Skylab missions, experiments in parabolic flight, and ground-based studies.

  19. A Second H Chondrite Stream of Falls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolf, S. F.; Wang, M.-S.; Dodd, R. T.; Lipschutz, M. E.

    1995-09-01

    Earlier, Dodd et al. [1] described a statistically significant concentration of 17 H4-6 chondrite falls in May between 1855 and 1895, that clustered on a year-day plot, indicating a coorbital meteoroid stream or two closely-related ones. Contents of 10 thermally labile trace elements (Rb, Ag, Se, Cs, Te,Zn, Cd, Bi, Tl, In) determined by RNAA demonstrated that 13 of these H Cluster 1 (hereafter HC1) falls are compositionally distinguishable from another 45 non-H Cluster 1 (non-HC1) falls [1] (as are Antarctic samples with nominal terrestrial ages >50 ky [2,3]). This compositional distinguishability is demonstrable using two standard, model-dependent multivariate statistical tests (linear discriminant analysis LDA or logistic regression LR) or the model-independent, randomization-simulation (R-S) methods of Lipschutz and Samuels [4]. Despite petrographic and cosmic ray exposure age variabilities, like Antarctic suites [2] HC1 meteorites seemingly derive from coorbital meteoroids (from their circumstances of fall) and apparently have a common thermal history (reflected in contents of thermally labile trace elements) distinguishable from those of other H4-6 chondrite falls [1]. Other explanations seem inviable [5]. During days 220-300 when streams of large fireballs [6] and near-Earth asteroids [7] occur several H chondrite concentrations are evident (Fig. 1), particularly if petrographic type becomes a criterion [1]. Here, we focus on H Clusters 2 through 4 (HC2-4) containing, respectively, 10 H4-6, 5 H5 and 12 H6 chondrite members, for which full data sets exist because of the generosity of many colleagues/institutions. H chondrite clusters in the same time-span might include samples derived from related parent regions. Hence, we changed our comparison-base to approximate a random background of falls by including only the 34 non-Cluster H chondrites, HC0; this also simplified our calculations. To establish whether this choice impacts our observations, we compared 13

  20. Fatal falls and jumps from motor vehicles.

    PubMed Central

    Williams, A F; Goins, S E

    1981-01-01

    In 1978, 345 persons were killed in the United States in jumps and falls from non-crashing motor vehicles: 64 per cent fell; 15 per cent jumped; and it was not known whether the other 21 per cent jumped or fell. Two hundred and one people had been traveling on the exterior of vehicles, especially truck beds, and almost all of these people fell from their vehicles. The other 144 fatalities involved people in passenger compartments. Many of the falls from compartments occurred when occupants opened doors, or when vehicles changed direction. Seventy-seven per cent of those who fell from passenger compartments were males, and 44 per cent were less than five years old. Among those who jumped from vehicle compartments, 62 per cent were women and all were older than 14 years. Fatal falls and jumps from vehicles could be reduced in a variety of ways. These include legislation to prohibit travel on vehicle exteriors, designing vehicles so that doors cannot be opened when in motion, improving door designs, installing signals that provide warning if doors are not closed completely, and using occupant restraints. PMID:7468860

  1. Fall Down Detection Under Smart Home System.

    PubMed

    Juang, Li-Hong; Wu, Ming-Ni

    2015-10-01

    Medical technology makes an inevitable trend for the elderly population, therefore the intelligent home care is an important direction for science and technology development, in particular, elderly in-home safety management issues become more and more important. In this research, a low of operation algorithm and using the triangular pattern rule are proposed, then can quickly detect fall-down movements of humanoid by the installation of a robot with camera vision at home that will be able to judge the fall-down movements of in-home elderly people in real time. In this paper, it will present a preliminary design and experimental results of fall-down movements from body posture that utilizes image pre-processing and three triangular-mass-central points to extract the characteristics. The result shows that the proposed method would adopt some characteristic value and the accuracy can reach up to 90 % for a single character posture. Furthermore the accuracy can be up to 100 % when a continuous-time sampling criterion and support vector machine (SVM) classifier are used. PMID:26276014

  2. Horton Falls named for Pioneer Hydrologist

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaefer, Vincent

    A beautiful 80-foot waterfall in the Catskill Mountains was recently named after Robert E. Horton (1875-1945), a pioneer hydrologist and active AGU member for many years. Officially named Horton Falls, the waterfall, located a few miles east of Voorheesville, N.Y., in Albany County, was an important part of Horton's hydrological laboratory. The U.S. Board on Geographic Names approved the name at its November 8, 1990 meeting.Horton lived close to the falls and operated his hydrological laboratory at its crest in the old La Grange Grist Mill, which used hydropower generated by the falling waters of the La Grange Mill Pond, originally impounded by a wooden log dam 100 feet upstream of the mill. As far as can be determined, the pioneer La Granges, who built and operated the mill, never used the 85-foot head made available to them by the waterfalls. Horton, however, did, and ran a vertical and a horizontal iron water wheel to spin a DC electricity-generating turbine, which he used for heat, light, and power in his home and laboratory.

  3. Modern Rehabilitation in Osteoporosis, Falls, and Fractures

    PubMed Central

    Dionyssiotis, Yannis; Skarantavos, Grigorios; Papagelopoulos, Panayiotis

    2014-01-01

    In prevention and management of osteoporosis, modern rehabilitation should focus on how to increase muscular and bone strength. Resistance exercises are beneficial for muscle and bone strength, and weight-bearing exercises help maintain fitness and bone mass. In subjects at higher risk for osteoporotic fractures, particular attention should be paid to improving balance – the most important element in falls prevention. Given the close interaction between osteoporosis and falls, prevention of fractures should be based on factors related to bone strength and risk factors for falls. Fractures are the most serious complication of osteoporosis and may be prevented. The use of modern spinal orthosis helps to reduce pain and improve posture. Vibration platforms are used in rehabilitation of osteoporosis, based on the concept that noninvasive, short-duration, mechanical stimulation could have an impact on osteoporosis risk. Pharmacologic therapy should be added for those at high risk of fracture, and vitamin D/calcium supplementation is essential in all prevention strategies. Success of rehabilitation in osteoporotic and fractured subjects through an individualized educational approach optimizes function to the highest level of independence while improving the overall quality of life. PMID:24963273

  4. Falling through the black hole horizon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brustein, Ram; Medved, A. J. M.

    2015-06-01

    We consider the fate of a small classical object, a "stick", as it falls through the horizon of a large black hole (BH). Classically, the equivalence principle dictates that the stick is affected by small tidal forces, and Hawking's quantum-mechanical model of BH evaporation makes essentially the same prediction. If, on the other hand, the BH horizon is surrounded by a "firewall", the stick will be consumed as it falls through. We have recently extended Hawking's model by taking into account the quantum fluctuations of the geometry and the classical back-reaction of the emitted particles. Here, we calculate the train exerted on the falling stick for our model. The strain depends on the near-horizon state of the Hawking pairs. We find that, after the Page time when the state of the pairs deviates significantly from maximal entanglement (as required by unitarity), the induced strain in our semiclassical model is still parametrically small. This is because the number of the disentangled pairs is parametrically smaller than the BH entropy. A firewall does, however, appear if the number of disentangled pairs near the horizon is of order of the BH entropy, as implicitly assumed in previous discussions in the literature.

  5. Albeni Falls Wildlife Mitigation : Annual Report 2002.

    SciTech Connect

    Terra-Berns, Mary

    2003-01-01

    The Albeni Falls Interagency Work Group continued to actively engage in implementing wildlife mitigation actions in 2002. Regular Work Group meetings were held to discuss budget concerns affecting the Albeni Falls Wildlife Mitigation Program, to present potential acquisition projects, and to discuss and evaluate other issues affecting the Work Group and Project. Work Group members protected 1,386.29 acres of wildlife habitat in 2002. To date, the Albeni Falls project has protected approximately 5,914.31 acres of wildlife habitat. About 21% of the total wildlife habitat lost has been mitigated. Administrative activities have increased as more properties are purchased and continue to center on restoration, operation and maintenance, and monitoring. In 2001, Work Group members focused on development of a monitoring and evaluation program as well as completion of site-specific management plans. This year the Work Group began implementation of the monitoring and evaluation program performing population and plant surveys, data evaluation and storage, and map development as well as developing management plans. Assuming that the current BPA budget restrictions will be lifted in the near future, the Work Group expects to increase mitigation properties this coming year with several potential projects.

  6. Fall Down Detection Under Smart Home System.

    PubMed

    Juang, Li-Hong; Wu, Ming-Ni

    2015-10-01

    Medical technology makes an inevitable trend for the elderly population, therefore the intelligent home care is an important direction for science and technology development, in particular, elderly in-home safety management issues become more and more important. In this research, a low of operation algorithm and using the triangular pattern rule are proposed, then can quickly detect fall-down movements of humanoid by the installation of a robot with camera vision at home that will be able to judge the fall-down movements of in-home elderly people in real time. In this paper, it will present a preliminary design and experimental results of fall-down movements from body posture that utilizes image pre-processing and three triangular-mass-central points to extract the characteristics. The result shows that the proposed method would adopt some characteristic value and the accuracy can reach up to 90 % for a single character posture. Furthermore the accuracy can be up to 100 % when a continuous-time sampling criterion and support vector machine (SVM) classifier are used.

  7. Detection of baseline and near-fall postural stability.

    PubMed

    Sipp, Amy R; Rowley, Blair A

    2008-01-01

    It is unknown whether there are any measurable warning signs just before a patient falls. This study of postural position just prior to a fall involved a subject standing on a balance beam while wearing a gyroscope-based wireless data acquisition system. Results show a variation in postural position when the subject appeared stable. This occurred well before the subject experienced a fall and could not be classified as pre-fall or fall. The results show that there are two distinguishable levels of postural stability - baseline and near-fall.

  8. Falling monsoon depression frequency: A Gray-Sikka conditions perspective

    PubMed Central

    Prajeesh, A. G.; Ashok, K.; Rao, D. V. Bhaskar

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we show that the annual monsoon depression (MD) frequency making landfall on the east coast of India shows a statistically significant decreasing trend for the period 1979–2010. Importantly, about 80% of this fall is confined to the south of 20°N. To understand the plausible reason(s) for the weakening frequency of MDs in the southern Bay of Bengal in recent decades, we examine some of the seasonal average in-situ atmospheric parameters important for tropical cyclogenesis; we use various observational data from the IMD, and three atmospheric climate reanalysis datasets to account for possible quality constraints in them. Our findings suggest that the observed weakening of MD frequency south of 20°N in the Bay of Bengal since 1950s is likely due to a declining trend in the mid-tropospheric relative humidity over the Indian region. Our numerical sensitivity experiments support this finding. PMID:24141862

  9. Rise and fall of species occupancy in Cenozoic fossil mollusks.

    PubMed

    Foote, Michael; Crampton, James S; Beu, Alan G; Marshall, Bruce A; Cooper, Roger A; Maxwell, Phillip A; Matcham, Iain

    2007-11-16

    In the time between speciation and extinction, a species' ecological and biogeographic footprint-its occupancy-will vary in response to macroecological drivers and historical contingencies. Despite their importance for understanding macroecological processes, general patterns of long-term species occupancy remain largely unknown. We documented the occupancy histories of Cenozoic marine mollusks from New Zealand. For both genera and species, these show a distinct pattern of increase to relatively short-lived peak occupancy at mid-duration, followed by a decline toward extinction. Thus, species at greatest risk for extinction are those that have already been in decline for a substantial period of time. This pattern of protracted rise and fall stands in contrast to that of incumbency, insofar as species show no general tendency to stay near maximal occupancy once established.

  10. Free fall and harmonic oscillations: analyzing trampoline jumps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pendrill, Ann-Marie; Eager, David

    2015-01-01

    Trampolines can be found in many gardens and also in some playgrounds. They offer an easily accessible vertical motion that includes free fall. In this work, the motion on a trampoline is modelled by assuming a linear relation between force and deflection, giving harmonic oscillations for small amplitudes. An expression for the cycle-time is obtained in terms of maximum normalized force from the trampoline and the harmonic frequency. A simple expression is obtained for the ratio between air-time and harmonic period, and the maximum g-factor. The results are compared to experimental results, including accelerometer data showing 7g during bounces on a small trampoline in an amusement park play area. Similar results are obtained on a larger garden trampoline, and even larger accelerations have been measured for gymnastic trampolines.

  11. A study of maxillofacial injuries in the elderly resulting from falls.

    PubMed

    Chew, D J; Edmondson, H D

    1996-07-01

    Falls are a major problem for the elderly, both in terms of the injuries sustained and the consequent loss of confidence and independence. Many studies, both prospective and retrospective, have investigated the possible causes and the resulting injuries following falls. However, no specific consideration appears to have been given to maxillofacial injuries. This survey examines the incidence of such injuries, over a three year period, in elderly patients presenting at an Accident and Emergency Department, and reviews the causes. Recognition of old age abuse is an essential aspect of the assessment of injuries in this group of patients. PMID:8814568

  12. Accidental falls among community-dwelling older adults: improving the identification process of persons at risk by nursing staff.

    PubMed

    Coll-Planas, Laura; Kron, Martina; Sander, Silvia; Rissmann, Ulrich; Becker, Clemens; Nikolaus, Thorsten

    2006-08-01

    Elderly persons living in the community are a heterogeneous population. Among them, the screening of persons at risk of falling is still a matter of debate. The aim of this analysis was to improve the identification process of elderly persons living in the community at risk for falling by nursing staff of community- based services. A secondary analysis was performed with the data from a prospective non-randomized interventional trial. The study included 268 community-dwelling older adults (mean age of 82 years, 81.3% female) from Ulm and Neu-Ulm with a followup period of 12 months. Fall risk indicators were extracted from the nursing assessment and analysis with crude odds ratios revealed the following risk indicators for falls: assistance when transferring, bathing and climbing a flight of stairs as well as fall history. Afterwards, fall risk indicators were selected by backward elimination in a multiple logistic regression. Variable selection identified a positive fall history and the need for assistance when bathing as important risk indicators. These two risk indicators could be used as a screening tool, which would be easy to perform by nursing staff in their daily work. This screening test defined as more than one fall in the last 12 months or bathing assistance, the first ADL to be affected in the disablement process, has a sensitivity of 85.3% and a specificity of 42.1%.

  13. 5. VIEW SHOWING THE DOWNSTREAM SIDE OF SWAN FALLS DAM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. VIEW SHOWING THE DOWNSTREAM SIDE OF SWAN FALLS DAM AND POWER HOUSE, LOOKING UPSTREAM TO SOUTH FROM THE A MOUND OF DEBRIS ABOUT THIRTY TO FORTY FEET ABOVE THE RIVER - Swan Falls Dam, Snake River, Kuna, Ada County, ID

  14. 4. SHOWING BRIDGE AT UPPER LEFT, UPPER FALLS AND TOP ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. SHOWING BRIDGE AT UPPER LEFT, UPPER FALLS AND TOP OF MAIN WATERFALL, FACING NORTHEAST - Paradise River First Crossing Bridge, Spanning Paradise River at Narada Falls on Service Road, Longmire, Pierce County, WA

  15. Skin-contact sensor for automatic fall detection.

    PubMed

    Narasimhan, Ravi

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes an adhesive sensor system worn on the skin that automatically detects human falls. The sensor, which consists of a tri-axial accelerometer, a microcon-troller and a Bluetooth Low Energy transceiver, can be worn anywhere on a subject's torso and in any orientation. In order to distinguish easily between falls and activities of daily living (ADL), a possible fall is detected only if an impact is detected and if the subject is horizontal shortly afterwards. As an additional criterion to reduce false positives, a fall is confirmed if the user activity level several seconds after a possible fall is below a threshold. Intentional falls onto a gymnastics mat were performed by 10 volunteers (total of 297 falls); ADL were performed by 15 elderly volunteers (total of 315 ADL). The fall detection algorithm provided a sensitivity of 99% and a specificity of 100%.

  16. 21. VIEW OF COTTAGE 101 AND THE SWAN FALLS POWER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. VIEW OF COTTAGE 101 AND THE SWAN FALLS POWER PLANT AND DAM TAKEN AROUND 1920, LOOKING SOUTHWEST. BUILDING AT LOWER LEFT IS COTTAGE THAT LATER BURNED. - Swan Falls Village, Snake River, Kuna, Ada County, ID

  17. Preventing Falls | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... But many cannot and need long-term care. Fear of Falling Fear of falling becomes more common with age, even ... and restore your walking confidence. Getting over your fear can help you to stay active, maintain your ...

  18. Historic view of Nooksack Falls, taken in 1904 prior to ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Historic view of Nooksack Falls, taken in 1904 prior to construction of the hydroelectric project. (J.B. Hahn, photographer, 1904.) - Nooksack Falls Hydroelectric Plant, Route 542, Glacier, Whatcom County, WA

  19. Can martial arts techniques reduce fall severity? An in vivo study of femoral loading configurations in sideways falls.

    PubMed

    van der Zijden, A M; Groen, B E; Tanck, E; Nienhuis, B; Verdonschot, N; Weerdesteyn, V

    2012-06-01

    Sideways falls onto the hip are a major cause of femoral fractures in the elderly. Martial arts (MA) fall techniques decrease hip impact forces in sideways falls. The femoral fracture risk, however, also depends on the femoral loading configuration (direction and point of application of the force). The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of fall techniques, landing surface and fall height on the impact force and the loading configuration in sideways falls. Twelve experienced judokas performed sideways MA and Block ('natural') falls on a force plate, both with and without a judo mat on top. Kinematic and force data were analysed to determine the hip impact force and the loading configuration. In falls from a kneeling position, the MA technique reduced the impact force by 27%, but did not change the loading configuration. The use of the mat did not change the loading configuration. Falling from a standing changed the force direction. In all conditions, the point of application was distal and posterior to the greater trochanter, but it was less distal and more posterior in falls from standing than from kneeling position. The present decrease in hip impact force with an unchanged loading configuration indicates the potential protective effect of the MA technique on the femoral fracture risk. The change in loading configuration with an increased fall height warrant further studies to examine the effect of MA techniques on fall severity under more natural fall circumstances.

  20. Fear of Falling in Women with Fibromyalgia and Its Relation with Number of Falls and Balance Performance

    PubMed Central

    Collado-Mateo, D.; Gallego-Diaz, J. M.; Adsuar, J. C.; Domínguez-Muñoz, F. J.; Olivares, P. R.; Gusi, N.

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate fear of falling, number of falls, and balance performance in women with FM and to examine the relationship between these variables and others, such as balance performance, quality of life, age, pain, and impact of fibromyalgia. Methods. A total of 240 women participated in this cross-sectional study. Of these, 125 had fibromyalgia. Several variables were assessed: age, fear of falling from 0 to 100, number of falls, body composition, balance performance, lower limb strength, health-related quality of life, and impact of fibromyalgia. Results. Women with fibromyalgia reported more falls and more fear of falling. Fear of falling was associated with number of falls in the last year, stiffness, perceived balance problems, impact of FM, and HRQoL whereas the number of falls was related to fear of falling, balance performance with eyes closed, pain, tenderness to touch level, anxiety, self-reported balance problems, impact of FM, and HRQoL. Conclusion. FM has an impact on fear of falling, balance performance, and number of falls. Perceived balance problems seem to be more closely associated with fear of falling than objective balance performance. PMID:26618173

  1. Systems and Methods for Imaging of Falling Objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garrett, Tim (Inventor); Fallgatter, Cale (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    Imaging of falling objects is described. Multiple images of a falling object can be captured substantially simultaneously using multiple cameras located at multiple angles around the falling object. An epipolar geometry of the captured images can be determined. The images can be rectified to parallelize epipolar lines of the epipolar geometry. Correspondence points between the images can be identified. At least a portion of the falling object can be digitally reconstructed using the identified correspondence points to create a digital reconstruction.

  2. Dynamical behaviours observed on falling liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brunet, Philippe; Le Grand, Nolwenn; Limat, Laurent

    2001-11-01

    We investigate dynamical behaviours of viscous liquids falling from a ceiling in various geometries : fall from a horizontal cylinder, from a circular dish, and from the bottom of a porous plate. In these differents experiments, the liquid is supplied at constant flow rate and falls under the effect of gravity. When the flow-rate is large, the flow involves one or several liquid sheets. We have studied the shape and stablity of such objects near the break-up into liquid threads : we have highlighted the similarities and differences of shapes between wakes and holes respectively generated by disturbing sheets with a wettable and a non-wettable obstacle. We put into evidence the limits of the stability criterion found by Taylor and Lin and we observe various unrecognized instabilities: hole boundary oscilations coupled with detachment of the rim surrounding the hole, propagation of a "crack" between the rim and the sheet, chessboard-like pattern of sinuous waves formed on oscillating sheets... A similar study has been performed on threads formed by sheet breaking. A single thread can develop the Rayleigh instability and breaks into droplets. A system of several threads coupled with each other by a residual film remaining on the ceiling, exhibit remarkable collective modes of column motions, that we have investigated in a circular geometry. Among other results we were able to quantify very accurately the scenario of parity breaking in this system and also the transition to temporal or spatio-temporal chaos. A two dimensional version of this system, i.e. columns formed below a porous plate is under study.

  3. Diel behavior of rearing fall Chinook salmon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tiffan, Kenneth F.; Kock, Tobias J.; Skalicky, Joseph J.

    2010-01-01

    In fisheries science, habitat use is often inferred when fish are sampled or observed in a particular location. Physical habitat is typically measured where fish are found, and thus deemed important to habitat use. Although less common, a more informative approach is to measure or observe fish behavior within given habitats to more thoroughly assess their use of those locations. While this approach better reflects how fish use habitat, fish behavior can be difficult to quantify, particularly at night. For example, Tiffan and others (2002, 2006) were able to quantify habitat availability and characteristics that were important for rearing juvenile fall Chinook Salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) in the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River. The authors, however, could only speculate as to how juvenile salmon use habitat and respond to changes in water level fluctuations. Conversely, in this study we provide data on the diel activities of rearing juvenile wild fall Chinook Salmon which provides a better understanding of how fish “use” these rearing habitats. Diel behavior patterns are important because fish in the Hanford Reach are often stranded on shorelines when the water level rapidly recedes because of hydroelectric power generation at upriver dams (Nugent and others 2002; Anglin and others 2006). We hypothesize that juvenile salmon are at greater risk of stranding at night because they are less active and occupy habitat differently than during the day. We used underwater videography to collect behavioral information during the day and night to determine if juvenile fall Chinook Salmon are more susceptible to stranding when water level fluctuations occur at night.

  4. Relationship between falls and stride length variability in senile dementia of the Alzheimer type.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, T; Meguro, K; Sasaki, H

    1996-01-01

    In this study, 97 patients with senile dementia of the Alzheimer type (SDAT) in a nursing home were followed over a period of 2 years, and the relationship between falls and gait function was examined. The findings indicated that the number of fallers was significantly higher in moderate-stage SDAT patients than in the mild-stage patients. In the moderate-stage SDAT patients, walking speed and stride length, measured as indices to evaluate gait function, were significantly lower, and the stride length variability was significantly higher than in mild-stage patients. When comparing the gait indices of fallers and non-fallers by the severity of dementia, a significant difference was observed only in stride length variability. The gait abnormality associated with advanced severity in dementia is believed to be a factor affecting falling. In particular, stride length variability appeared to be an effective predictor of falling.

  5. Persistent groin pain after a bicycle fall.

    PubMed

    Luu, Say-Chong; Jacques, Nicole; Jost, Daniel; Tourtier, Jean-Pierre

    2015-01-01

    Motor scooter handlebar syndrome (MSH) is uncommon. MSH includes groin pain associated with intimal injury to the common femoral artery caused by a direct blow from objects such as a motor scooter handlebar. We describe a case of a 23-year-old man with MSH occurring after a bicycle fall. The diagnosis was performed 5 years after the onset of pain. The patient underwent endovascular surgery and made a rapid recovery. Postoperatively, he was free of symptoms. This case highlights the difficulty of recognising this syndrome. PMID:26678689

  6. Public affairs events at Fall Meeting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uhlenbrock, Kristan

    2012-02-01

    AGU's Public Affairs team presented two workshop luncheons and hosted 17 oral and poster sessions at the 2011 Fall Meeting. Topics ranged from defining the importance of the geosciences, to climate change science for communities and institutions. The workshop luncheon "How to Be a Congressional Science Fellow or Mass Media Fellow" was a well-attended event with more than 115 participants. The luncheon provided the opportunity for audience members to ask fellow scientists about their experiences working either in Congress or as a reporter for a news organization. For scientists looking to expand their expertise outside the academic environment, these AGU fellowships are fantastic opportunities.

  7. Final slate for AGU elections this fall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anonymous

    2012-07-01

    Your vote is important! This fall, AGU members will elect leaders for the next term (1 January 2013 to 31 December 2014). This issue of Eos provides details about the upcoming election and information on candidates for open AGU Board and Council positions as well as section and focus group secretary positions. All regular and student members who joined or renewed their membership by 1 July 2012 are eligible to vote in this year's election of AGU leaders. The election will be held electronically, and all members must have a valid e-mail address on file at AGU to receive login credentials from the company conducting the election.

  8. Vitamin D and Sarcopenia/Falls.

    PubMed

    Lappe, Joan M; Binkley, Neil

    2015-01-01

    Maintenance of adequate vitamin D status is a stratagem to consider for sarcopenia prevention and treatment. Vitamin D deficiency is common and involves all ages of most racial/ethnic groups and both sexes. Evidence suggests that vitamin D is important for muscle strength and function, and prospective studies are underway to further define these effects. This article summarizes the potential effects of vitamin D on skeletal muscle structure and function and provides guidance for vitamin D supplementation in prevention and treatment of sarcopenia and falls. PMID:26059567

  9. Contemporary Records of the (1492) Ensisheim Fall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levi, F. A.; Levi-Donati, G. R.

    1992-07-01

    On the occasion of the five-hundredth anniversary of the Ensisheim (LL6) stone (November 16, 1492), five rare documents on this fall are presented: 1) Anonymous, Annali del Convento di S. Domenico. (in Italian) Manuscript n. 1151, Biblioteca Com. "Augusta", Perugia. 2) Eusebii Pamphili C. (1570) Chronicon. Petri, Basilea. (in Latin). 3) Lycosthenes (Wolffhart) C. (1557) Prodigiorum ac ostentorum Chronicon. Petri, Basilea. (in Latin). 4) Sansovino F. (1582) Cronologia del Mondo. Salicato, Vinegia. (in Italian). 5) Schedel H. (1492) Liber Chronicarum cum figuris et ymagi(ni)bus ab inicio mu(n)di. Koberger, Nuremberga. (in Latin).

  10. Impact force of a falling drop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soto, Dan; Clanet, Cristophe; Quere, David; Xavier Boutillon Collaboration

    2012-11-01

    Controlling droplet deposition is crucial in many industrial processes such as spraying pesticides on crops, inkjet printing or spray coating. Therefore, the dynamics of drop impacts have been extensively studied for more than one century. However, few literature describe the impacting force of a drop on a solid flat surface, although it might be a way to measure the size distribution of a collection of falling drops. We investigated experimentally how the instantaneous force at impact depends on impact velocity and drop radius. We also propose a new model to understand our observations. Physique et Mecanique des Milieux Heterogenes, CNRS, ESPCI, Paris France & Ladhyx, CNRS, Ecole Polytechnique, Palaiseau, France.

  11. [Vertigo and falls in the elderly: Part 2: Fall diagnostics, prophylaxis and therapy].

    PubMed

    Walther, L E; Nikolaus, T; Schaaf, H; Hörmann, K

    2008-09-01

    In many acute or chronic vestibular diseases in old age, the risk of falling is increased. A fear of falling often develops together with further limitations to physical activity and subsequent physical and psychological consequences. Falls represent a substantial health-related risk factor. A regular balance, walking and muscle training is an effective prophylaxis. Components of the treatment of vestibular diseases in old age are counselling and encouragement (psychotherapy), treatment of the specific organic disease, specific vestibular rehabilitation and a symptomatic medication therapy. Vertigo in old age is a multifactorial process. The differential diagnosis of disorders of the equilibrium function in old age represents a challenge which can only be overcome by interdisciplinary cooperation. PMID:18712512

  12. Fall speed measurement and high-resolution multi-angle photography of hydrometeors in free fall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garrett, T. J.; Fallgatter, C.; Shkurko, K.; Howlett, D.

    2012-11-01

    We describe here a new instrument for imaging hydrometeors in free fall. The Multi-Angle Snowflake Camera (MASC) captures high-resolution photographs of hydrometeors from three angles while simultaneously measuring their fall speed. Based on the stereoscopic photographs captured over the two months of continuous measurements obtained at a high altitude location within the Wasatch Front in Utah, we derive statistics for fall speed, hydrometeor size, shape, orientation and aspect ratio. From a selection of the photographed hydrometeors, an illustration is provided for how the instrument might be used for making improved microwave scattering calculations. Complex, aggregated snowflake shapes appear to be more strongly forward scattering, at the expense of reduced back-scatter, than heavily rimed graupel particles of similar size.

  13. [Vertigo and falls in the elderly: Part 2: Fall diagnostics, prophylaxis and therapy].

    PubMed

    Walther, L E; Nikolaus, T; Schaaf, H; Hörmann, K

    2008-09-01

    In many acute or chronic vestibular diseases in old age, the risk of falling is increased. A fear of falling often develops together with further limitations to physical activity and subsequent physical and psychological consequences. Falls represent a substantial health-related risk factor. A regular balance, walking and muscle training is an effective prophylaxis. Components of the treatment of vestibular diseases in old age are counselling and encouragement (psychotherapy), treatment of the specific organic disease, specific vestibular rehabilitation and a symptomatic medication therapy. Vertigo in old age is a multifactorial process. The differential diagnosis of disorders of the equilibrium function in old age represents a challenge which can only be overcome by interdisciplinary cooperation.

  14. 30 CFR 56.14110 - Flying or falling materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Flying or falling materials. 56.14110 Section... Equipment Safety Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 56.14110 Flying or falling materials. In areas where flying or falling materials generated from the operation of screens, crushers, or conveyors present...

  15. 30 CFR 57.14110 - Flying or falling materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Flying or falling materials. 57.14110 Section... and Equipment Safety Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 57.14110 Flying or falling materials. In areas where flying or falling materials generated from the operation of screens, crushers, or...

  16. 30 CFR 56.14110 - Flying or falling materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Flying or falling materials. 56.14110 Section... Equipment Safety Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 56.14110 Flying or falling materials. In areas where flying or falling materials generated from the operation of screens, crushers, or conveyors present...

  17. 30 CFR 57.14110 - Flying or falling materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Flying or falling materials. 57.14110 Section... and Equipment Safety Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 57.14110 Flying or falling materials. In areas where flying or falling materials generated from the operation of screens, crushers, or...

  18. Sidi Ali Ou Azza (L4): A New Moroccan Fall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chennaoui Aoudjehane, H.; Agee, C. B.; Aaranson, A.; Bouragaa, A.

    2016-08-01

    Sidi Ali Ou Azza is the latest meteorite fall in Morocco, it occurred on 28 July 2015 very close (about 40 km) to Tissint martian shergottite fall that occurred on 18 July 2011. It's one of the small group of 23 L4 ordinary chondrite falls.

  19. 30 CFR 56.14106 - Falling object protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Falling object protection. 56.14106 Section 56... Equipment Safety Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 56.14106 Falling object protection. (a) Fork-lift trucks, front-end loaders, and bulldozers shall be provided with falling object protective structures...

  20. 29 CFR 1926.759 - Falling object protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Falling object protection. 1926.759 Section 1926.759 Labor... (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Steel Erection § 1926.759 Falling object... aloft, shall be secured against accidental displacement. (b) Protection from falling objects other...

  1. 30 CFR 57.14106 - Falling object protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Falling object protection. 57.14106 Section 57... Equipment Safety Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 57.14106 Falling object protection. (a) Fork-lift trucks, front-end loaders, and bulldozers shall be provided with falling object protective structures...

  2. Nonpersisting Student Analysis for Fall 1977-Spring 1978. Research Note.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baratta, Mary Kathryne

    This research note reviews an analysis of Moraine Valley Community College nonpersisting students for fall 1977 and spring 1978. Information is provided on trends in transfer and occupational student retention by semester from spring 1970 through fall/spring 1977-78, and on fall 1977 and spring 1978 persister and nonpersister characteristics. Of…

  3. 1. Wideangle view of the Glens Falls Dam with the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Wide-angle view of the Glens Falls Dam with the Niagara Mohawk Power Corporation intakes structure on the left and the Finch, Pruyn & Company intake structure and power canal on the right. Facing south to southwest. - Glens Falls Dam, 100' to 450' West of U.S. Route 9 Bridge Spanning Hudson River, Glens Falls, Warren County, NY

  4. The role of primary care providers in managing falls.

    PubMed

    Demons, Jamehl L; Duncan, Pamela W

    2014-01-01

    Falls threaten the ability of older adults to live independently in the community. Fortunately, national and state organizations have created tools that allow primary care providers to easily assess fall risk, and small changes in practice patterns can provide patients with the resources necessary to prevent falls, thus helping to reverse a costly, deadly epidemic. PMID:25237872

  5. 46 CFR 131.550 - Maintenance of falls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Maintenance of falls. 131.550 Section 131.550 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS OPERATIONS Tests, Drills, and Inspections § 131.550 Maintenance of falls. (a) Each fall used with a launching...

  6. 46 CFR 122.704 - Maintenance of falls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Maintenance of falls. 122.704 Section 122.704 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS CARRYING MORE THAN 150..., Maintenance, and Inspection of Lifesaving Equipment § 122.704 Maintenance of falls. (a) Each fall used in...

  7. The Pendulum: From Constrained Fall to the Concept of Potential

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bevilacqua, Fabio; Falomo, Lidia; Fregonese, Lucio; Giannetto, Enrico; Giudice, Franco; Mascheretti, Paolo

    2006-01-01

    Kuhn underlined the relevance of Galileo's gestalt switch in the interpretation of a swinging body from constrained fall to time metre. But the new interpretation did not eliminate the older one. The constrained fall, both in the motion of pendulums and along inclined planes, led Galileo to the law of free fall. Experimenting with physical…

  8. Heifer growth performance from fall-oat pastures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fall-grown oat has shown promise as an emergency fall forage option, or to extend the grazing season in Wisconsin. Our objectives for this project were: i) to assess the pasture productivity and forage characteristics of 2 fall-grown oat cultivars (Ogle and ForagePlus; OG and FP, respectively) using...

  9. 30 CFR 56.14110 - Flying or falling materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Flying or falling materials. 56.14110 Section... Equipment Safety Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 56.14110 Flying or falling materials. In areas where flying or falling materials generated from the operation of screens, crushers, or conveyors present...

  10. 30 CFR 57.14110 - Flying or falling materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Flying or falling materials. 57.14110 Section... and Equipment Safety Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 57.14110 Flying or falling materials. In areas where flying or falling materials generated from the operation of screens, crushers, or...

  11. 30 CFR 56.14110 - Flying or falling materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Flying or falling materials. 56.14110 Section... Equipment Safety Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 56.14110 Flying or falling materials. In areas where flying or falling materials generated from the operation of screens, crushers, or conveyors present...

  12. 30 CFR 57.14110 - Flying or falling materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Flying or falling materials. 57.14110 Section... and Equipment Safety Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 57.14110 Flying or falling materials. In areas where flying or falling materials generated from the operation of screens, crushers, or...

  13. 30 CFR 57.14110 - Flying or falling materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Flying or falling materials. 57.14110 Section... and Equipment Safety Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 57.14110 Flying or falling materials. In areas where flying or falling materials generated from the operation of screens, crushers, or...

  14. 30 CFR 56.14110 - Flying or falling materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Flying or falling materials. 56.14110 Section... Equipment Safety Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 56.14110 Flying or falling materials. In areas where flying or falling materials generated from the operation of screens, crushers, or conveyors present...

  15. 6. UPSTREAM VIEW OF THE SPILLWAY OF THE POST FALLS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. UPSTREAM VIEW OF THE SPILLWAY OF THE POST FALLS POWERHOUSE, WITH A PARTIAL VIEW OF THE MODERN TRANSFORMER IN THE FOREGROUND, AND THE OLD SWITCHING BUILDING IN THE LEFT BACKGROUND, LOOKING SOUTHEAST. - Washington Water Power Company Post Falls Power Plant, Middle Channel Powerhouse & Dam, West of intersection of Spokane & Fourth Streets, Post Falls, Kootenai County, ID

  16. The Falling Chain of Hopkins, Tait, Steele and Cayley

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Chun Wa; Youn, Seo Ho; Yasui, Kosuke

    2007-01-01

    A uniform, flexible and frictionless chain falling link by link from a heap by the edge of a table falls with an acceleration g/3 if the motion is nonconservative, but g/2 if the motion is conservative, g being the acceleration due to gravity. Unable to construct such a falling chain, we use instead higher-dimensional versions of it. A home…

  17. 29 CFR 1926.501 - Duty to have fall protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Duty to have fall protection. 1926.501 Section 1926.501 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Fall Protection § 1926.501 Duty to have fall protection. (a) General. (1)...

  18. 2. CLOSEUP OF SOUTH FACADE OF UPPER FALLS GATE HOUSE, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. CLOSEUP OF SOUTH FACADE OF UPPER FALLS GATE HOUSE, SHOWING TRASH RACKS, REMOVABLE STEEL DOORS, TRASH RAKE STRUCTURE, AND DERRICK, WINCH AND CABLE GATE LIFTING DEVICE, LOOKING SOUTH/SOUTHWEST. - Washington Water Power Spokane River Upper Falls Hydroelectric Development, Gate House, Spokane River, approximately 0.5 mile northeast of intersection of Spokane Falls Boulevard & Post Street, Spokane, Spokane County, WA

  19. Central Falls High School: First Year Transformation Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burns, Amy; Whitney, Joye; Shah, Hardeek; Foley, Ellen; Dure, Elsa

    2011-01-01

    In January 2010, the Rhode Island Department of Education (RIDE) identified Central Falls High School (CFHS) as one of the state's persistently lowest-achieving schools. The Central Falls School District (CFSD) and the Central Falls Teachers Union (CFTU) considered the transformation model but could not come to an agreement initially around…

  20. 2. CONTEXTUAL VIEW OF THE POST FALLS POWERHOUSE, WITH THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. CONTEXTUAL VIEW OF THE POST FALLS POWERHOUSE, WITH THE MODERN SUBSTATION AND OLD SWITCHING BUILDING IN THE LEFT FOREGROUND AND THE POWER PLANT IN THE RIGHT FOREGROUND, LOOKING SOUTH. - Washington Water Power Company Post Falls Power Plant, Middle Channel Powerhouse & Dam, West of intersection of Spokane & Fourth Streets, Post Falls, Kootenai County, ID

  1. 1. CONTEXTUAL VIEW OF THE POST FALLS POWERHOUSE LOOKING DOWNSTREAM. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. CONTEXTUAL VIEW OF THE POST FALLS POWERHOUSE LOOKING DOWNSTREAM. POWER PLANT AND INTAKE GATES ARE IN THE LEFT FOREGROUND, AND THE ATTACHED 'OLD SWITCHING BUILDING' (NOW ABANDONED) IS IN THE RIGHT BACKGROUND, LOOKING NORTHWEST. - Washington Water Power Company Post Falls Power Plant, Middle Channel Powerhouse & Dam, West of intersection of Spokane & Fourth Streets, Post Falls, Kootenai County, ID

  2. 49 CFR 214.103 - Fall protection, generally.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... shall use a personal fall arrest system or safety net system. All fall protection systems required by... shall not apply if the installation of the fall arrest system poses a greater risk than the work to be... alternative systems required. (c) This section shall not apply where bridge workers are working on a...

  3. 49 CFR 214.103 - Fall protection, generally.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... shall use a personal fall arrest system or safety net system. All fall protection systems required by... shall not apply if the installation of the fall arrest system poses a greater risk than the work to be... alternative systems required. (c) This section shall not apply where bridge workers are working on a...

  4. An intervention program to reduce falls for adult in-patients following major lower limb amputation.

    PubMed

    Dyer, David; Bouman, Bonnie; Davey, Monique; Ismond, Kathleen P

    2008-01-01

    A qualitative and quantitative assessment was conducted regarding falls sustained by in-patients receiving rehabilitation therapy following major lower limb amputation at the Glenrose Rehabilitation Hospital. During the nine-month assessment period, 18 of 58 patients in the amputee unit experienced a fall, of which 17% resulted in a moderate injury. The majority of falls occurred during patients' use of a wheelchair (14 of 18) and involved poor balance (nine of 14). Patient wheelchair self-transfers accounted for 71% (10 of 14) of the falls, while sitting in the wheelchair and reaching represented 29/ (four of 14). The hospital's rehabilitation program teaches patient safety including using assistive devices such as wheelchairs but did not include a comprehensive graded learning path to monitor patients' ongoing risk for falls. Based upon the data collected, an intervention program was initiated to improve patient safety and reduce the number of falls. The multidisciplinary program encompassed aspects ranging from an environmental assessment of the patients' room to medication management, continuous patient wheelchair skills training and alteration of the care plan. The effectiveness of the intervention program was assessed through a series of interviews and questionnaires administered to medical personnel. This article presents the preliminary data collected during the first three months of the six-month study. Overall, satisfaction has significantly improved as a direct result of the intervention program. The article provides evidence-based interventions that improve safety for a subset of in-patients known to be susceptible to falls when using wheelchairs. Other in-patient groups will also benefit from these findings as many are universally applicable.

  5. Perchlorate in dust fall and indoor dust in Malta: An effect of fireworks.

    PubMed

    Vella, Alfred J; Chircop, Cynthia; Micallef, Tamara; Pace, Colette

    2015-07-15

    We report on the presence of perchlorate in the settleable dust of Malta, a small central Mediterranean island. Both dust fall collected directly as it precipitated from atmosphere over a period of one month and deposited indoor dust from domestic residences were studied. Perchlorate was determined by ion chromatography of water extracts of the collected dusts. Dust fall was collected from 43 towns during 2011 to 2013 and indoor dust was sampled from homes in the same localities. Perchlorate was detected in 108 of 153 samples of dust fall (71%) and in 28 of 37 indoor dust samples (76%). Detectable perchlorate in dust fall ranged from 0.52μgg(-1) to 561μgg(-1) with a median value of 6.2μgg(-1); in indoor dust, levels were from 0.79μgg(-1) to 53μgg(-1) with a median value of 7.8μgg(-1), the highest recorded anywhere to date. Statistical analysis suggested that there was no significant difference in perchlorate content of indoor dust and dust fall. Perchlorate levels in dust fall escalate during the summer in response to numerous religious feasts celebrated with fireworks and perchlorate persists at low μgg(-1) concentrations for several months beyond the summer festive period. In Malta, perchlorate derives exclusively from KClO4, imported for fireworks manufacture. Its residue in dust presents an exposure risk to the population, especially via ingestion by hand to mouth transfer. Our results suggest that wherever intensive burning of fireworks takes place, the environmental impact may be much longer lived than realised, mainly due to re-suspension and deposition of contaminated settled dust in the urban environment.

  6. Perchlorate in dust fall and indoor dust in Malta: An effect of fireworks.

    PubMed

    Vella, Alfred J; Chircop, Cynthia; Micallef, Tamara; Pace, Colette

    2015-07-15

    We report on the presence of perchlorate in the settleable dust of Malta, a small central Mediterranean island. Both dust fall collected directly as it precipitated from atmosphere over a period of one month and deposited indoor dust from domestic residences were studied. Perchlorate was determined by ion chromatography of water extracts of the collected dusts. Dust fall was collected from 43 towns during 2011 to 2013 and indoor dust was sampled from homes in the same localities. Perchlorate was detected in 108 of 153 samples of dust fall (71%) and in 28 of 37 indoor dust samples (76%). Detectable perchlorate in dust fall ranged from 0.52μgg(-1) to 561μgg(-1) with a median value of 6.2μgg(-1); in indoor dust, levels were from 0.79μgg(-1) to 53μgg(-1) with a median value of 7.8μgg(-1), the highest recorded anywhere to date. Statistical analysis suggested that there was no significant difference in perchlorate content of indoor dust and dust fall. Perchlorate levels in dust fall escalate during the summer in response to numerous religious feasts celebrated with fireworks and perchlorate persists at low μgg(-1) concentrations for several months beyond the summer festive period. In Malta, perchlorate derives exclusively from KClO4, imported for fireworks manufacture. Its residue in dust presents an exposure risk to the population, especially via ingestion by hand to mouth transfer. Our results suggest that wherever intensive burning of fireworks takes place, the environmental impact may be much longer lived than realised, mainly due to re-suspension and deposition of contaminated settled dust in the urban environment. PMID:25828411

  7. Practice Development Section Paper 1 Older People’s Perspectives on Fall Risk and Fall Prevention Programs: A Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    McMahon, Siobhan; Talley, Kristine M.; Wyman, Jean F.

    2011-01-01

    Despite evidence supporting fall prevention methods, fall-related injury and death rates continue to rise. Understanding older people’s views on fall risk and prevention will help nurses and other health professionals in the design of fall prevention strategies that will broaden their scope, reach, and adoption. This literature review synthesized 19 qualitative and quantitative studies examining older people’s perspectives about fall risk and prevention using a social ecological framework. Three themes emerged about fall risk; fearing vulnerability, maintaining autonomy and independence, and interpreting risk. Four themes emerged about fall prevention programs; influence of participant and program characteristics, need for personal relevance and preference, maintaining autonomy and independence, and increased support for and access to programs. Implications for practice include individual, interpersonal, organizational and community level considerations for improving fall prevention efforts. PMID:22078019

  8. The stimuli evoking the aerial-righting posture of falling pea aphids.

    PubMed

    Meresman, Yonatan; Ribak, Gal; Weihs, Daniel; Inbar, Moshe

    2014-10-01

    Some wingless insects possess aerial righting reflexes, suggesting that adaptation for controlling body orientation while falling through air could have preceded flight. When threatened by natural enemies, wingless pea aphids (Acyrthosiphon pisum) may drop off their host plant and assume a stereotypic posture that rotates them in midair to land on their feet. The sensory information triggering aphids to assume this posture has so far been unknown. We subjected aphids to a series of tests, isolating the sensory cues experienced during free-fall. Falling aphids assumed the righting posture and landed upright irrespective of whether the experiments were carried out in the light or in complete darkness. Detachment of the tarsi from the substrate triggered the aphids to assume the posture rapidly, but only for a brief period. Rotation (mainly roll and yaw) of the body in air, in the light, caused aphids to assume the posture and remain in it throughout rotation. In contrast, aphids rotated in the dark did not respond. Acceleration associated with falling or airflow over the body per se did not trigger the posture. However, sensing motion relative to air heightened the aphids' responsiveness to rotation in the light. These results suggest that the righting posture of aphids is triggered by a tarsal reflex, but, once the aphid is airborne, vision and a sense of motion relative to air can augment the response. Hence, aerial righting in a wingless insect could have emerged as a basic tarsal response and developed further to include secondary sensory cues typical of falling.

  9. Investigation and hazard assessment of the 2003 and 2007 Staircase Falls rock falls, Yosemite National Park, California, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wieczorek, G.F.; Stock, Gregory M.; Reichenbach, P.; Snyder, J.B.; Borchers, J.W.; Godt, J.W.

    2008-01-01

    Since 1857 more than 600 rock falls, rock slides, debris slides, and debris flows have been documented in Yosemite National Park, with rock falls in Yosemite Valley representing the majority of the events. On 26 December 2003, a rock fall originating from west of Glacier Point sent approximately 200 m 3 of rock debris down a series of joint-controlled ledges to the floor of Yosemite Valley. The debris impacted talus near the base of Staircase Falls, producing fragments of flying rock that struck occupied cabins in Curry Village. Several years later on 9 June 2007, and again on 26 July 2007, smaller rock falls originated from the same source area. The 26 December 2003 event coincided with a severe winter storm and was likely triggered by precipitation and/or frost wedging, but the 9 June and 26 July 2007 events lack recognizable triggering mechanisms. We investigated the geologic and hydrologic factors contributing to the Staircase Falls rock falls, including bedrock lithology, weathering, joint spacing and orientations, and hydrologic processes affecting slope stability. We improved upon previous geomorphic assessment of rock-fall hazards, based on a shadow angle approach, by using STONE, a three-dimensional rock-fall simulation computer program. STONE produced simulated rock-fall runout patterns similar to the mapped extent of the 2003 and 2007 events, allowing us to simulate potential future rock falls from the Staircase Falls detachment area. Observations of recent rock falls, mapping of rock debris, and simulations of rock fall runouts beneath the Staircase Falls detachment area suggest that rock-fall hazard zones extend farther downslope than the extent previously defined by mapped surface talus deposits.

  10. Precise timing when hitting falling balls.

    PubMed

    Brenner, Eli; Driesen, Ben; Smeets, Jeroen B J

    2014-01-01

    People are extremely good at hitting falling balls with a baseball bat. Despite the ball's constant acceleration, they have been reported to time hits with a standard deviation of only about 7 ms. To examine how people achieve such precision, we compared performance when there were no added restrictions, with performance when looking with one eye, when vision was blurred, and when various parts of the ball's trajectory were hidden from view. We also examined how the size of the ball and varying the height from which it was dropped influenced temporal precision. Temporal precision did not become worse when vision was blurred, when the ball was smaller, or when balls falling from different heights were randomly interleaved. The disadvantage of closing one eye did not exceed expectations from removing one of two independent estimates. Precision was higher for slower balls, but only if the ball being slower meant that one saw it longer before the hit. It was particularly important to see the ball while swinging the bat. Together, these findings suggest that people time their hits so precisely by using the changing elevation throughout the swing to adjust the bat's movement to that of the ball. PMID:24904380

  11. Patient falls in hospitals: an increasing problem.

    PubMed

    Weil, Thomas P

    2015-01-01

    Despite six decades of worldwide efforts that include publishing virtually hundreds of related epidemiological-type studies, there has been an increase (estimated to be 46% per 1000 patient days from 1954-6 to 2006-10) in the number of patient falls in hospitals and other health care facilities. These still occur most frequently near the bedside or in the bathroom, among mentally confused or physically impaired patients, and often involve those with greater comorbidity. The reasons that hospitals during the past half century have demonstrated a significant increase in patient falls per discharge or per patient days are numerous, are not completely surprising, and are certainly interrelated: improved accident reporting systems; on the average older, more impaired, more acutely ill, and more heavily sedated patients; and, less time spent by nursing personnel at the bedside. Most safety committees are not as effective as they should be, since they have difficulty in implementing a long-term, aggressive, facility-wide prevention program. Within that context, it may be worthwhile to discuss the advantages of nursing leadership rather than a representative of the facility's management staff to chair these safety committees. PMID:26304626

  12. Precise timing when hitting falling balls

    PubMed Central

    Brenner, Eli; Driesen, Ben; Smeets, Jeroen B. J.

    2014-01-01

    People are extremely good at hitting falling balls with a baseball bat. Despite the ball's constant acceleration, they have been reported to time hits with a standard deviation of only about 7 ms. To examine how people achieve such precision, we compared performance when there were no added restrictions, with performance when looking with one eye, when vision was blurred, and when various parts of the ball's trajectory were hidden from view. We also examined how the size of the ball and varying the height from which it was dropped influenced temporal precision. Temporal precision did not become worse when vision was blurred, when the ball was smaller, or when balls falling from different heights were randomly interleaved. The disadvantage of closing one eye did not exceed expectations from removing one of two independent estimates. Precision was higher for slower balls, but only if the ball being slower meant that one saw it longer before the hit. It was particularly important to see the ball while swinging the bat. Together, these findings suggest that people time their hits so precisely by using the changing elevation throughout the swing to adjust the bat's movement to that of the ball. PMID:24904380

  13. Precise timing when hitting falling balls.

    PubMed

    Brenner, Eli; Driesen, Ben; Smeets, Jeroen B J

    2014-01-01

    People are extremely good at hitting falling balls with a baseball bat. Despite the ball's constant acceleration, they have been reported to time hits with a standard deviation of only about 7 ms. To examine how people achieve such precision, we compared performance when there were no added restrictions, with performance when looking with one eye, when vision was blurred, and when various parts of the ball's trajectory were hidden from view. We also examined how the size of the ball and varying the height from which it was dropped influenced temporal precision. Temporal precision did not become worse when vision was blurred, when the ball was smaller, or when balls falling from different heights were randomly interleaved. The disadvantage of closing one eye did not exceed expectations from removing one of two independent estimates. Precision was higher for slower balls, but only if the ball being slower meant that one saw it longer before the hit. It was particularly important to see the ball while swinging the bat. Together, these findings suggest that people time their hits so precisely by using the changing elevation throughout the swing to adjust the bat's movement to that of the ball.

  14. Comparing the Incidence of Falls/Fractures in Parkinson’s Disease Patients in the US Population

    PubMed Central

    Kalilani, Linda; Asgharnejad, Mahnaz; Palokangas, Tuire; Durgin, Tracy

    2016-01-01

    Patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD) may experience falls and/or fractures as a result of disease symptoms. There are limited data available from long-term studies estimating the incidence of falls/fractures in patients with PD. The objective was to compare the incidence rate of falls/fractures in PD patients with non-PD patients in a US population. This was a retrospective study using a US-based claims database (Truven Health MarketScan®) that compared the incidence rate of falls/fractures in PD subjects with non-PD subjects. The study period included the 12 months prior to index date (defined as earliest PD diagnosis [International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification code 332.0]) and a postindex period to the end of data availability. Fractures were defined by inpatient/outpatient claims as a principal or secondary diagnosis and accompanying procedure codes during the postindex period. Incidence rates and 95% CIs for falls/fractures were calculated as the number of events per 10,000 person-years of follow-up using negative binomial or Poisson regression models. Twenty-eight thousand two hundred and eighty PD subjects were matched to non-PD subjects for the analysis (mean [SD] age, 71.4 [11.8] years; 53% male). A higher incidence rate (adjusted for comorbidities and medications) of all fall/fracture cases and by fall and fracture types was observed for PD subjects versus non-PD subjects; the overall adjusted incidence rate ratio comparing PD to non-PD subjects was 2.05; 95% CI, 1.88–2.24. The incidence rate of falls/fractures was significantly higher in subjects with PD compared with non-PD subjects in a US population. PMID:27583564

  15. Effects of a multifactorial fall prevention program on balance, gait, and fear of falling in post-stroke inpatients.

    PubMed

    Jung, Younuk; Lee, Kyeongbong; Shin, Seonhae; Lee, Wanhee

    2015-06-01

    [Purpose] This study investigated the effects of a multifactorial fall prevention program on balance, gait, and fear of falling in stroke patients. [Subjects] Twenty-five stroke patients were divided randomly into multifactorial fall prevention program group (n=15) and control treadmill group (n=10). [Methods] All interventions were applied for 30 min, five times per week, for five weeks. The fall prevention program included interventions based on the "Step Up to Stop Falls" initiative and educational interventions based on the Department of Health guidelines. For those in the treadmill group, the speed was increased gradually. The Korean falls efficacy scale and Korean activities-specific balance confidence scale were used to assess fear of falling. To assess balance and walking ability, the Korean performance-oriented mobility assessment scale and the 10-m and 6-minute walk tests were used. [Results] The fall prevention program interventions were found to be very effective at improving gait, balance, and fear of falling compared with the treadmill intervention and therefore seem appropriate for stroke patients. [Conclusion] A multifactorial fall prevention program is effective at improving balance, gait ability, and fear of falling. It is a more specific and broad intervention for reducing falls among inpatients in facilities and hospitals.

  16. Comparison of the Validity of Four Fall-Related Psychological Measures in a Community-Based Falls Risk Screening

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Delilah S.; Ellis, Rebecca; Kosma, Maria; Fabre, Jennifer M.; McCarter, Kevin S.; Wood, Robert H.

    2011-01-01

    We examined the measurement properties of fall-related psychological instruments with a sample of 133 older adults (M age = 74.4 years, SD = 9.4). Measures included the Comprehensive Falls Risk Screening Instrument, Falls-efficacy Scale-International (FES-I), Activities-specific Balance Confidence (ABC), modified Survey of Activities and Fear of…

  17. Proposal for a multiphase fall model based on real-world fall recordings with body-fixed sensors.

    PubMed

    Becker, C; Schwickert, L; Mellone, S; Bagalà, F; Chiari, L; Helbostad, J L; Zijlstra, W; Aminian, K; Bourke, A; Todd, C; Bandinelli, S; Kerse, N; Klenk, J

    2012-12-01

    Falls are by far the leading cause of fractures and accidents in the home environment. The current Cochrane reviews and other systematic reviews report on more than 200 intervention studies about fall prevention. A recent meta-analysis has summarized the most important risk factors of accidental falls. However, falls and fall-related injuries remain a major challenge. One novel approach to recognize, analyze, and work better toward preventing falls could be the differentiation of the fall event into separate phases. This might aid in reconsidering ways to design preventive efforts and diagnostic approaches. From a conceptual point of view, falls can be separated into a pre-fall phase, a falling phase, an impact phase, a resting phase, and a recovery phase. Patient and external observers are often unable to give detailed comments concerning these phases. With new technological developments, it is now at least partly possible to examine the phases of falls separately and to generate new hypotheses.The article describes the practicality and the limitations of this approach using body-fixed sensor technology. The features of the different phases are outlined with selected real-world fall signals.

  18. Educators’ perspectives about how older hospital patients can engage in a falls prevention education programme: a qualitative process evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Anne-Marie; McPhail, Steven M; Francis-Coad, Jacqueline; Waldron, Nicholas; Etherton-Beer, Christopher; Flicker, Leon; Ingram, Katharine; Haines, Terry P

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Falls are the most frequent adverse event reported in hospitals. Patient and staff education delivered by trained educators significantly reduced falls and injurious falls in an older rehabilitation population. The purpose of the study was to explore the educators’ perspectives of delivering the education and to conceptualise how the programme worked to prevent falls among older patients who received the education. Design A qualitative exploratory study. Methods Data were gathered from three sources: conducting a focus group and an interview (n=10 educators), written educator notes and reflective researcher field notes based on interactions with the educators during the primary study. The educators delivered the programme on eight rehabilitation wards for periods of between 10 and 40 weeks. They provided older patients with individualised education to engage in falls prevention and provided staff with education to support patient actions. Data were thematically analysed and presented using a conceptual framework. Results Falls prevention education led to mutual understanding between staff and patients which assisted patients to engage in falls prevention behaviours. Mutual understanding was derived from the following observations: the educators perceived that they could facilitate an effective three-way interaction between staff actions, patient actions and the ward environment which led to behaviour change on the wards. This included engaging with staff and patients, and assisting them to reconcile differing perspectives about falls prevention behaviours. Conclusions Individualised falls prevention education effectively provides patients who receive it with the capability and motivation to develop and undertake behavioural strategies that reduce their falls, if supported by staff and the ward environment. PMID:26656027

  19. Doppler radar sensor positioning in a fall detection system.

    PubMed

    Liu, Liang; Popescu, Mihail; Ho, K C; Skubic, Marjorie; Rantz, Marilyn

    2012-01-01

    Falling is a common health problem for more than a third of the United States population over 65. We are currently developing a Doppler radar based fall detection system that already has showed promising results. In this paper, we study the sensor positioning in the environment with respect to the subject. We investigate three sensor positions, floor, wall and ceiling of the room, in two experimental configurations. Within each system configuration, subjects performed falls towards or across the radar sensors. We collected 90 falls and 341 non falls for the first configuration and 126 falls and 817 non falls for the second one. Radar signature classification was performed using a SVM classifier. Fall detection performance was evaluated using the area under the ROC curves (AUCs) for each sensor deployment. We found that a fall is more likely to be detected if the subject is falling toward or away from the sensor and a ceiling Doppler radar is more reliable for fall detection than a wall mounted one.

  20. Doppler radar sensor positioning in a fall detection system.

    PubMed

    Liu, Liang; Popescu, Mihail; Ho, K C; Skubic, Marjorie; Rantz, Marilyn

    2012-01-01

    Falling is a common health problem for more than a third of the United States population over 65. We are currently developing a Doppler radar based fall detection system that already has showed promising results. In this paper, we study the sensor positioning in the environment with respect to the subject. We investigate three sensor positions, floor, wall and ceiling of the room, in two experimental configurations. Within each system configuration, subjects performed falls towards or across the radar sensors. We collected 90 falls and 341 non falls for the first configuration and 126 falls and 817 non falls for the second one. Radar signature classification was performed using a SVM classifier. Fall detection performance was evaluated using the area under the ROC curves (AUCs) for each sensor deployment. We found that a fall is more likely to be detected if the subject is falling toward or away from the sensor and a ceiling Doppler radar is more reliable for fall detection than a wall mounted one. PMID:23365879

  1. Falls in Korean Polio Survivors: Incidence, Consequences, and Risk Factors

    PubMed Central

    Lee, SeungYeol; Yang, Eun Joo; Kim, Keewon; Jung, Se Hee; Jang, Soong-Nang; Han, Soo Jeong; Kim, Wan-Ho

    2016-01-01

    Falls and fall-related injuries are important issue among polio survivors. The purpose of this study was to determine the incidence of, and consequences and factors associated with falls among Korean polio survivors. A total of 317 polio survivors participated in this study. All participants completed a questionnaire including fall history, symptoms related to post-polio syndrome and other information through a telephone interview. Among them, 80 participants visited our clinic for additional physical measurements and tests. Of the 317 respondents, 68.5% reported at least one fall in the past year. Of the fallers, 42.5% experienced at least one fall during one month. Most falls occurred during ambulation (76.6%), outside (75.2%) and by slipping down (29.7%). Of fallers, 45% reported any injuries caused by falls, and 23.3% reported fractures specifically. Female sex, old age, low bone mineral density, the presence of symptoms related to post-polio syndrome (PPS), poor balance confidence, short physical performance battery and weak muscle strength of knee extensor were not significantly associated with falls. Only leg-length discrepancy using spine-malleolar distance (SMD) was a significant factor associated with falls among Korean polio survivors. Our findings suggest that malalignment between the paralytic and non-paralytic limb length should be addressed in polio survivors for preventing falls. PMID:26839487

  2. Falls risk assessment in older patients in hospital.

    PubMed

    Matarese, Maria; Ivziku, Dhurata

    2016-07-27

    Falls are the most frequent adverse event reported in hospitals, usually affecting older patients. All hospitals in NHS organisations develop risk prevention policies that include falls risk assessment. Falls risk assessment involves the use of risk screening tools, aimed at identifying patients at increased risk of falls, and risk assessment tools, which identify a patient's risk factors for falls. Various risk screening tools have been used in clinical practice, but no single tool is able to identify all patients at risk of falls or to accurately exclude all those who are not at risk of falls. Guidelines recommend that patients aged 65 years and over who are admitted to hospital should be considered at high risk of falls and that a multifactorial falls risk assessment should be performed. Therefore, falls risk assessment tools should be used to identify the risk factors for each inpatient aged 65 years or over, in order to determine the most appropriate care plan for falls prevention and to maximise patient mobility and independence. PMID:27461329

  3. Falls in Korean Polio Survivors: Incidence, Consequences, and Risk Factors.

    PubMed

    Nam, Ki Yeun; Lee, SeungYeol; Yang, Eun Joo; Kim, Keewon; Jung, Se Hee; Jang, Soong-Nang; Han, Soo Jeong; Kim, Wan-Ho; Lim, Jae-Young

    2016-02-01

    Falls and fall-related injuries are important issue among polio survivors. The purpose of this study was to determine the incidence of, and consequences and factors associated with falls among Korean polio survivors. A total of 317 polio survivors participated in this study. All participants completed a questionnaire including fall history, symptoms related to post-polio syndrome and other information through a telephone interview. Among them, 80 participants visited our clinic for additional physical measurements and tests. Of the 317 respondents, 68.5% reported at least one fall in the past year. Of the fallers, 42.5% experienced at least one fall during one month. Most falls occurred during ambulation (76.6%), outside (75.2%) and by slipping down (29.7%). Of fallers, 45% reported any injuries caused by falls, and 23.3% reported fractures specifically. Female sex, old age, low bone mineral density, the presence of symptoms related to post-polio syndrome (PPS), poor balance confidence, short physical performance battery and weak muscle strength of knee extensor were not significantly associated with falls. Only leg-length discrepancy using spine-malleolar distance (SMD) was a significant factor associated with falls among Korean polio survivors. Our findings suggest that malalignment between the paralytic and non-paralytic limb length should be addressed in polio survivors for preventing falls. PMID:26839487

  4. Continuous equilibrium scores: factoring in the time before a fall.

    PubMed

    Wood, Scott J; Reschke, Millard F; Owen Black, F

    2012-07-01

    The equilibrium (EQ) score commonly used in computerized dynamic posturography is normalized between 0 and 100, with falls assigned a score of 0. The resulting mixed discrete-continuous distribution limits certain statistical analyses and treats all trials with falls equally. We propose a simple modification of the formula in which peak-to-peak sway data from trials with falls is scaled according the percent of the trial completed to derive a continuous equilibrium (cEQ) score. The cEQ scores for trials without falls remain unchanged from the original methodology. The cEQ factors in the time before a fall and results in a continuous variable retaining the central tendencies of the original EQ distribution. A random set of 5315 Sensory Organization Test trials were pooled that included 81 falls. A comparison of the original and cEQ distributions and their rank ordering demonstrated that trials with falls continue to constitute the lower range of scores with the cEQ methodology. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (0.997) demonstrates that the cEQ retained near-perfect discrimination between trials with and without falls. We conclude that the cEQ score provides the ability to discriminate between ballistic falls from falls that occur later in the trial. This approach of incorporating time and sway magnitude can be easily extended to enhance other balance tests that include fall data or incomplete trials. PMID:22640866

  5. Doppler radar fall activity detection using the wavelet transform.

    PubMed

    Su, Bo Yu; Ho, K C; Rantz, Marilyn J; Skubic, Marjorie

    2015-03-01

    We propose in this paper the use of Wavelet transform (WT) to detect human falls using a ceiling mounted Doppler range control radar. The radar senses any motions from falls as well as nonfalls due to the Doppler effect. The WT is very effective in distinguishing the falls from other activities, making it a promising technique for radar fall detection in nonobtrusive inhome elder care applications. The proposed radar fall detector consists of two stages. The prescreen stage uses the coefficients of wavelet decomposition at a given scale to identify the time locations in which fall activities may have occurred. The classification stage extracts the time-frequency content from the wavelet coefficients at many scales to form a feature vector for fall versus nonfall classification. The selection of different wavelet functions is examined to achieve better performance. Experimental results using the data from the laboratory and real inhome environments validate the promising and robust performance of the proposed detector.

  6. Doppler radar fall activity detection using the wavelet transform.

    PubMed

    Su, Bo Yu; Ho, K C; Rantz, Marilyn J; Skubic, Marjorie

    2015-03-01

    We propose in this paper the use of Wavelet transform (WT) to detect human falls using a ceiling mounted Doppler range control radar. The radar senses any motions from falls as well as nonfalls due to the Doppler effect. The WT is very effective in distinguishing the falls from other activities, making it a promising technique for radar fall detection in nonobtrusive inhome elder care applications. The proposed radar fall detector consists of two stages. The prescreen stage uses the coefficients of wavelet decomposition at a given scale to identify the time locations in which fall activities may have occurred. The classification stage extracts the time-frequency content from the wavelet coefficients at many scales to form a feature vector for fall versus nonfall classification. The selection of different wavelet functions is examined to achieve better performance. Experimental results using the data from the laboratory and real inhome environments validate the promising and robust performance of the proposed detector. PMID:25376033

  7. Paediatric bed fall computer simulation model development and validation.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Angela K; Bertocci, Gina E

    2013-01-01

    Falls from beds and other household furniture are common scenarios stated to conceal child abuse. Knowledge of the biomechanics associated with short-distance falls may aid clinicians in distinguishing between abusive and accidental injuries. Computer simulation is a useful tool to investigate injury-producing events and to study the effect of altering event parameters on injury risk. In this study, a paediatric bed fall computer simulation model was developed and validated. The simulation was created using Mathematical Dynamic Modeling(®) software with a child restraint air bag interaction (CRABI) 12-month-old anthropomorphic test device (ATD) representing the fall victim. The model was validated using data from physical fall experiments of the same scenario with an instrumented CRABI ATD. Validation was conducted using both observational and statistical comparisons. Future parametric sensitivity studies using this model will lead to an improved understanding of relationships between child (fall victim) parameters, fall environment parameters and injury potential.

  8. Person-Environment Interactions Contributing to Nursing Home Resident Falls

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Elizabeth E.; Nguyen, Tam H.; Shaha, Maya; Wenzel, Jennifer A.; DeForge, Bruce R.; Spellbring, Ann Marie

    2011-01-01

    Although approximately 50% of nursing home residents fall annually, the surrounding circumstances remain inadequately understood. This study explored nursing staff perspectives of person, environment, and interactive circumstances surrounding nursing home falls. Focus groups were conducted at two nursing homes in the mid-Atlantic region with the highest and lowest fall rates among corporate facilities. Two focus groups were conducted per facility: one with licensed nurses and one with geriatric nursing assistants. Thematic and content analysis revealed three themes and 11 categories. Three categories under the Person theme were Change in Residents’ Health Status, Decline in Residents’ Abilities, and Residents’ Behaviors and Personality Characteristics. There were five Nursing Home Environment categories: Design Safety, Limited Space, Obstacles, Equipment Misuse and Malfunction, and Staff and Organization of Care. Three Interactions Leading to Falls categories were identified: Reasons for Falls, Time of Falls, and High-Risk Activities. Findings highlight interactions between person and environment factors as significant contributors to resident falls. PMID:20077985

  9. Going nuts: Measuring free-fall acceleration by analyzing the sound of falling metal pieces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuhn, Jochen; Vogt, Patrik; Theilmann, Florian

    2016-03-01

    Galilei presented the kinematics of a one-dimensional accelerated motion with ease and in terms of elegant geometry. Moreover, he believed, "Philosophy [i.e. physics] is written in this grand book—I mean the universe—which stands continually open to our gaze, but it cannot be understood unless one first learns to comprehend the language and interpret the characters in which it is written. It is written in the language of mathematics, and its characters are triangles, circles, and other geometrical figures, without which it is humanly impossible to understand a single word of it." In classroom practice, however, it can be difficult to reveal this mathematical heart of nature; free fall and other accelerated motions often get obscured by friction or other sources of errors. In this paper, we introduce a method of analyzing free-fall motion indirectly by evaluating the noise of freely falling metal pieces. The method connects a deeper understanding of the mathematical structure of accelerated motion with the possibility to derive a numerical value for the free-fall acceleration g.

  10. Perceived Fall Risk and Functional Decline: Gender Differences in Patient's Willingness to Discuss Fall Risk, Fall History, or to Have a Home Safety Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Greenberg, Marna Rayl; Moore, Elizabeth C.; Nguyen, Michael C.; Stello, Brian; Goldberg, Arnold; Barraco, Robert D.; Porter, Bernadette G.; Kurt, Anita; Dusza, Stephen W.; Kane, Bryan G.

    2016-01-01

    The CDC reports that among older adults, falls are the leading cause of injury-related death and rates of fall-related fractures among older women are twice those of men. We set out to 1) determine patient perceptions (analyzed by gender) about their perceived fall risk compared to their actual risk for functional decline and death and 2) to report their comfort level in discussing their fall history or a home safety plan with their provider. Elders who presented to the Emergency Department (ED†) were surveyed. The survey included demographics, the Falls Efficacy Scale (FES) and the Vulnerable Elders Survey (VES); both validated surveys measuring fall concern and functional decline. Females had higher FES scores (mean 12.3, SD 5.9) than males (mean 9.7, SD 5.9 p = .007) in the 146 surveys analyzed. Females were more likely to report an increased fear of falling, and almost three times more likely to have a VES score of 3 or greater than males (OR = 2.86, 95% CI: 1.17-7.00, p = .02). A strong correlation was observed between FES and VES scores (r = 0.80, p < .001). No difference in correlation was observed between males and females, p = .26. Participants (77 percent) reported they would be comfortable discussing their fall risk with a provider; there was no difference between genders (p = .57). In this study, irrespective of gender, there appears to be a high association between subjects’ perceived fall risk and risk for functional decline and death. The majority of patients are likely willing to discuss their fall risk with their provider. These findings may suggest a meaningful opportunity for fall risk mitigation in this setting. PMID:27354852

  11. Atmospheric Mercury near Salmon Falls Creek Reservoir in Southern Idaho

    SciTech Connect

    Michael L. Abbott; Jeffrey J. Einerson

    2007-12-01

    Gaseous elemental mercury (GEM) and reactive gaseous mercury (RGM) were measured over two-week seasonal field campaigns near Salmon Falls Creek Reservoir in south-central Idaho from the summer of 2005 through the fall of 2006 and over the entire summer of 2006 using automated Tekran mercury analyzers. GEM, RGM, and particulate mercury (HgP) were also measured at a secondary site 90 km to the west in southwestern Idaho during the summer of 2006. The study was performed to characterize mercury air concentrations in the southern Idaho area for the first time, estimate mercury dry deposition rates, and investigate the source of observed elevated concentrations. High seasonal variability was observed with the highest GEM (1.91 ± 0.9 ng m-3) and RGM (8.1 ± 5.6 pg m-3) concentrations occurring in the summer and lower values in the winter (1.32 ± 0.3 ng m-3, 3.2 ± 2.9 pg m-3 for GEM, RGM respectively). The summer-average HgP concentrations were generally below detection limit (0.6 ± 1 pg m-3). Seasonally-averaged deposition velocities calculated using a resistance model were 0.034 ± 0.032, 0.043 ± 0.040, 0.00084 ± 0.0017 and 0.00036 ± 0.0011 cm s-1 for GEM (spring, summer, fall, and winter, respectively) and 0.50 ± 0.39, 0.40 ± 0.31, 0.51 ± 0.43 and 0.76 ± 0.57 cm s-1 for RGM. The total annual RGM + GEM dry deposition estimate was calculated to be 11.9 ± 3.3 µg m-2, or about 2/3 of the total (wet + dry) deposition estimate for the area. Periodic elevated short-term GEM (2.2 – 12 ng m-3) and RGM (50 - 150 pg m-3) events were observed primarily during the warm seasons. Back-trajectory modeling and PSCF analysis indicated predominant source directions from the southeast (western Utah, northeastern Nevada) through the southwest (north-central Nevada) with fewer inputs from the northwest (southeastern Oregon and southwestern Idaho).

  12. Interspecific relationships between American coots and waterfowl during fall migration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eddleman, William R.; Patterson, Craig T.; Knopf, Fritz L.

    1985-01-01

    Interactions between American Coots (Fulica americana) and water-fowl during the breeding season are well-documented (Ryder 1959, Nudds 1981). Ducks and coots use similar nesting, feeding, brooding, and loafing sites during the breeding season (Munro 1939, Sooter 1945, Ryder 1959). Coots create potential nest sites, repulse predators, provide predation buffers for ducks (Sooter 1945; Ryder 1958, 1959), and may also destroy eggs and young of other marsh-nesting birds (Munro 1937, Burger 1973, McNicholl 1975). Coots, ducks, and swans often feed cooperatively (Ryder 1959, Anderson 1974, Ryan 1981); and American Wigeon (Anas americana) and Gadwell () may rob feeding coots (Knapton and Knudsen 1978, Ryan 1981). Interspecies aggression between coots and waterfowl usually occurs when ducks approach coot nests or broods (Ryan and Dinsmore 1979). Despite these interactions, the numbers of duck broods produced in areas in Utah with nesting coots and in areas where coots have been removed were similar (Ryder 1958, 1961). Densities of coots and ducks, and brood counts of coots and ducks for a 26-year period in Saskatchewan also indicated no significant relationship between numbers of coots and waterfowl (Nudds 1981). Coots and waterfowl from large areas of breeding habitat concentrate on smaller areas during the nonbreeding season (Weller 1975:102). These species may also change diets and habitats during migration and while wintering (Weller 1975). This study documents associations between waterfowl and coots during fall migration and examines feeding and behavioral interactions between coots and waterfowl in mixed flocks. Specifically, we (1) describe temporal and spatial overlap among migrations of coots and waterfowl, (2) present behavioral interactions among species, and (3) document food habits of birds feeding sympatrically during fall migration in Oklahoma.

  13. Development and Validation of a Falls Grading Scale

    PubMed Central

    Davalos-Bichara, Marcela; Lin, Frank R.; Carey, John P.; Walston, Jeremy D.; Fairman, Jennifer E.; Schubert, Michael C.; Barron, Jeremy S.; Hughes, Jennifer; Millar, Jennifer; Spar, Anne; Weber, Kristy L.; Ying, Howard S.; Zackowski, Kathleen M.; Zee, David

    2013-01-01

    Background and Purpose The recording of fall events is usually subjective and imprecise, which limits clinical practice and falls-related research. We sought to develop and validate a scale to grade near-fall and fall events based on their severity represented by the use of healthcare resources, with the goal of standardizing fall reporting in the clinical and research settings. Methods Qualitative instrument development was based on a literature review and semi-structured interviews to assess face and content validity. We queried older individuals and healthcare professionals with expertise in the care of patients at risk of falling about clinically important differences to detect and how to optimize the scale's ease of use. To assess the scale's inter-rater reliability, we created 30 video-vignettes of falls and compared how healthcare professionals and volunteers rated each of the falls according to our grading scale. Results We developed the illustrated 4-point Hopkins Falls Grading Scale (HFGS). The grades distinguish a near-fall (Grade 1) from a fall for which an individual did not receive medical attention (Grade 2), a fall associated with medical attention but not hospital admission (Grade 3), and a fall associated with hospital admission (Grade 4). Overall, the HFGS exhibited good face and content validity, and had an intraclass correlation coefficient of 0.998. Conclusion The 4-point HFGS demonstrates good face and content validity and high inter-rater reliability. We predict this tool will facilitate the standardization of falls reporting in both the clinical and research settings. PMID:22810170

  14. Factors affecting fall down rates of dead aspen (Populus tremuloides) biomass following severe drought in west-central Canada.

    PubMed

    Ted Hogg, Edward H; Michaelian, Michael

    2015-05-01

    Increases in mortality of trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.) have been recorded across large areas of western North America following recent periods of exceptionally severe drought. The resultant increase in standing, dead tree biomass represents a significant potential source of carbon emissions to the atmosphere, but the timing of emissions is partially driven by dead-wood dynamics which include the fall down and breakage of dead aspen stems. The rate at which dead trees fall to the ground also strongly influences the period over which forest dieback episodes can be detected by aerial surveys or satellite remote sensing observations. Over a 12-year period (2000-2012), we monitored the annual status of 1010 aspen trees that died during and following a severe regional drought within 25 study areas across west-central Canada. Observations of stem fall down and breakage (snapping) were used to estimate woody biomass transfer from standing to downed dead wood as a function of years since tree death. For the region as a whole, we estimated that >80% of standing dead aspen biomass had fallen after 10 years. Overall, the rate of fall down was minimal during the year following stem death, but thereafter fall rates followed a negative exponential equation with k = 0.20 per year. However, there was high between-site variation in the rate of fall down (k = 0.08-0.37 per year). The analysis showed that fall down rates were positively correlated with stand age, site windiness, and the incidence of decay fungi (Phellinus tremulae (Bond.) Bond. and Boris.) and wood-boring insects. These factors are thus likely to influence the rate of carbon emissions from dead trees following periods of climate-related forest die-off episodes.

  15. Massive Organic Matter Fall Processing and Organic Enrichment in Deep Sea Sediments: the Role of Fall Type

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hannides, A. K.; Smith, C. R.; Baco-Taylor, A. R.

    2005-12-01

    Resource-limited deep-sea sedimentary settings are occasionally punctuated with massive organic matter (MOM) falls, such as fish and marine mammal carcasses, macrophytes and wood. In the case of whale falls, previous studies have shown that sharp gradients in microbial activity exist within a few meters of these falls. These sites are characterized by intense sulfate reduction and sulfide generation, which are commonly attributed to sedimentary organic enrichment from MOM, and in part support extensive chemosynthetic communities that rely on endosymbiotic oxidation of this sulfide for energy. Enrichment is brought about by the fragmentation and dissemination activities of deep-sea megafauna: scavengers in the case of carcasses and macrophytes, and wood borers in the case of wood.Differences in MOM fall composition and structure and the subsequent megafaunal processing raise questions concerning the patterns of organic enrichment around these falls and how these patterns vary with fall type. We present an extensive data set of surface sediment organic carbon and nitrogen content at whale, kelp and wood falls of various ages in the California Borderland Basins region. Evidence for organic enrichment around whale falls is lacking, corroborating previous findings. However, distinctly low C:N ratios in surface sediments adjacent to whale falls suggest more complex processing of MOM in this zone. This pattern persists regardless of whale fall age. On the contrary, evidence for organic enrichment around kelp and wood falls abounds. Organic carbon and nitrogen content values adjacent to 3 month-old kelp falls are 25-50 % higher than those 1 m away from the falls and traces of this signal persist for at least 3 more months. In the case of wood falls, 6 month-old falls do not show any significant traces of enrichment, but 3 years after the fall event organic carbon content adjacent to the falls increases by 2-5 times that of background. C:N ratios concomitantly increase to

  16. Symmetric Rock Fall on Waste Package

    SciTech Connect

    Sreten Mastilovic

    2001-08-09

    The objective of this calculation is to determine the structural response of the Naval SNF (spent nuclear fuel) Waste Package (WP) and the emplacement pallet (EP) subjected to the rock fall DBE (design basis event) dynamic loads. The scope of this calculation is limited to reporting the calculation results in terms of stress intensities and residual stresses in the WP, and stress intensities and maximum permanent downward displacements of the EP-lifting surface. The information provided by the sketches (Attachment I) is that of the potential design of the type of WP and EP considered in this calculation, and all obtained results are valid for those designs only. This calculation is associated with the waste package design and is performed by the Waste Package Design Section in accordance with Reference 24. AP-3.124, ''Calculations'', is used to perform the calculation and develop the document.

  17. Recent meteorite falls in South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Y.; Kim, M.; Byun, Y.; Yi, H.; Chang, S.; Choi, J.; Sohn, J.; Moon, H.; Park, J.

    2014-07-01

    In the evening of March 9, 2014, a fireball falling from north to south was observed in South Korea. Multiple explosions were heard and multiple videos recorded in cars from various places, suggesting that the fireball was separated into several pieces. Immediately thereafter, a series of discovery reports about meteorites from the southern part of South Korea followed and, as of today, three meteorites were confirmed and one meteorite, with a mass of about 20 kg, is pending. This discovery of a meteorite in South Korea occurs for the first time in 70 years. The overall trajectory of the fireball matches the area where meteorites were discovered. According to the preliminary analyses, the meteorite is an ordinary chondrite. The origin of the meteorite and its surface properties will be studied.

  18. Steady growth in Fall Meeting's scope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ward, Joanna

    2012-02-01

    The 2011 Fall Meeting exceeded attendance projections, with 12% growth over last year in abstract submissions (20,087) and 9% growth in attendees (20,890). Participants at the meeting represented 96 countries—14 more than last year. With 1620 oral and poster sessions throughout the week—up 11% from last year—attendees had a lot of presentations to choose from! Student participation also increased markedly, by 17%, and the number of companies with booths in the exhibit hall increased by 5%. In addition, a total of 66 sessions and lectures were videotaped (compared to 21 last year) and are now archived to view. Be sure to catch these sessions at http://sites.agu.org/fallmeeting/scientific-program/sessions-on-demand/.

  19. Box of ideal gas in free fall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kothawala, Dawood

    2013-03-01

    We study the quantum partition function of non-relativistic, ideal gas in a (non-cubical) box falling freely in arbitrary curved spacetime with center 4-velocity ua. When perturbed energy eigenvalues are properly taken into account, we find that corrections to various thermodynamic quantities include a very specific, sub-dominant term which is independent of kinematic details such as box dimensions and mass of particles. This term is characterized by the dimensionless quantity, Ξ =R 0 ˆ 0 ˆΛ2, where R 0 ˆ 0 ˆ =Rabuaub and Λ = βℏc, and, quite intriguingly, produces Euler relation of homogeneity two between entropy and energy - a relation familiar from black hole thermodynamics.

  20. Effects of a multifactorial fall prevention program on balance, gait, and fear of falling in post-stroke inpatients

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Younuk; Lee, Kyeongbong; Shin, Seonhae; Lee, Wanhee

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This study investigated the effects of a multifactorial fall prevention program on balance, gait, and fear of falling in stroke patients. [Subjects] Twenty-five stroke patients were divided randomly into multifactorial fall prevention program group (n=15) and control treadmill group (n=10). [Methods] All interventions were applied for 30 min, five times per week, for five weeks. The fall prevention program included interventions based on the “Step Up to Stop Falls” initiative and educational interventions based on the Department of Health guidelines. For those in the treadmill group, the speed was increased gradually. The Korean falls efficacy scale and Korean activities-specific balance confidence scale were used to assess fear of falling. To assess balance and walking ability, the Korean performance-oriented mobility assessment scale and the 10-m and 6-minute walk tests were used. [Results] The fall prevention program interventions were found to be very effective at improving gait, balance, and fear of falling compared with the treadmill intervention and therefore seem appropriate for stroke patients. [Conclusion] A multifactorial fall prevention program is effective at improving balance, gait ability, and fear of falling. It is a more specific and broad intervention for reducing falls among inpatients in facilities and hospitals. PMID:26180337

  1. Pulsation modes of long-period variables in the period-luminosity plane

    SciTech Connect

    Soszyński, I.; Udalski, A.; Wood, P. R. E-mail: udalski@astrouw.edu.pl

    2013-12-20

    We present a phenomenological analysis of long-period variables (LPVs) in the Large Magellanic Cloud with the aim of detecting pulsation modes associated with different period-luminosity (PL) relations. Among brighter LPVs, we discover a group of triple-mode semi-regular variables with the fundamental, first-overtone, and second-overtone modes simultaneously excited, which fall on PL sequences C, C', and B, respectively. The mode identification in the fainter red giants is more complicated. We demonstrate that the fundamental-mode pulsators partly overlap with the first-overtone modes. We show a possible range of fundamental mode and first overtone periods in the PL diagram.

  2. Seismic isolation of two dimensional periodic foundations

    SciTech Connect

    Yan, Y.; Mo, Y. L.; Laskar, A.; Cheng, Z.; Shi, Z.; Menq, F.; Tang, Y.

    2014-07-28

    Phononic crystal is now used to control acoustic waves. When the crystal goes to a larger scale, it is called periodic structure. The band gaps of the periodic structure can be reduced to range from 0.5 Hz to 50 Hz. Therefore, the periodic structure has potential applications in seismic wave reflection. In civil engineering, the periodic structure can be served as the foundation of upper structure. This type of foundation consisting of periodic structure is called periodic foundation. When the frequency of seismic waves falls into the band gaps of the periodic foundation, the seismic wave can be blocked. Field experiments of a scaled two dimensional (2D) periodic foundation with an upper structure were conducted to verify the band gap effects. Test results showed the 2D periodic foundation can effectively reduce the response of the upper structure for excitations with frequencies within the frequency band gaps. When the experimental and the finite element analysis results are compared, they agree well with each other, indicating that 2D periodic foundation is a feasible way of reducing seismic vibrations.

  3. Fall prevention and bathroom safety in the epilepsy monitoring unit.

    PubMed

    Spritzer, Scott D; Riordan, Katherine C; Berry, Jennnifer; Corbett, Bryn M; Gerke, Joyce K; Hoerth, Matthew T; Crepeau, Amy Z; Drazkowski, Joseph F; Sirven, Joseph I; Noe, Katherine H

    2015-07-01

    Falls are one of the most common adverse events occurring in the epilepsy monitoring unit (EMU) and can result in significant injury. Protocols and procedures to reduce falls vary significantly between institutions as it is not yet known what interventions are effective in the EMU setting. This study retrospectively examined the frequency of falls and the impact of serial changes in fall prevention strategies utilized in the EMU between 2001 and 2014 at a single institution. Overall fall rate was 2.81 per 1000 patient days and varied annually from 0 to 9.02 per 1000 patient days. Both seizures and psychogenic nonepileptic events occurring in the bathroom were more likely to result in falls compared with events occurring elsewhere in the room. With initiation of increased patient education, hourly nurse rounding, nocturnal bed alarms, having two persons assisting for high fall risk patients when out of bed, and immediate postfall team review between 2001 and 2013, there was a trend of decreasing fall frequency; however, no specific intervention could be identified as having a particular high impact. In late 2013, a ceiling lift system extending into the bathroom was put in place for use in all EMU patients when out of bed. In the subsequent 15 months, there have been zero falls. The results reinforce both the need for diligent safety standards to prevent falls in the EMU as well as the challenges in identifying the most effective practices to achieve this goal. PMID:26074343

  4. Comparison and Characterization of Android-Based Fall Detection Systems

    PubMed Central

    Luque, Rafael; Casilari, Eduardo; Morón, María-José; Redondo, Gema

    2014-01-01

    Falls are a foremost source of injuries and hospitalization for seniors. The adoption of automatic fall detection mechanisms can noticeably reduce the response time of the medical staff or caregivers when a fall takes place. Smartphones are being increasingly proposed as wearable, cost-effective and not-intrusive systems for fall detection. The exploitation of smartphones' potential (and in particular, the Android Operating System) can benefit from the wide implantation, the growing computational capabilities and the diversity of communication interfaces and embedded sensors of these personal devices. After revising the state-of-the-art on this matter, this study develops an experimental testbed to assess the performance of different fall detection algorithms that ground their decisions on the analysis of the inertial data registered by the accelerometer of the smartphone. Results obtained in a real testbed with diverse individuals indicate that the accuracy of the accelerometry-based techniques to identify the falls depends strongly on the fall pattern. The performed tests also show the difficulty to set detection acceleration thresholds that allow achieving a good trade-off between false negatives (falls that remain unnoticed) and false positives (conventional movements that are erroneously classified as falls). In any case, the study of the evolution of the battery drain reveals that the extra power consumption introduced by the Android monitoring applications cannot be neglected when evaluating the autonomy and even the viability of fall detection systems. PMID:25299953

  5. Pediatric bed fall computer simulation model: parametric sensitivity analysis.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Angela; Bertocci, Gina

    2014-01-01

    Falls from beds and other household furniture are common scenarios that may result in injury and may also be stated to conceal child abuse. Knowledge of the biomechanics associated with short-distance falls may aid clinicians in distinguishing between abusive and accidental injuries. In this study, a validated bed fall computer simulation model of an anthropomorphic test device representing a 12-month-old child was used to investigate the effect of altering fall environment parameters (fall height, impact surface stiffness, initial force used to initiate the fall) and child surrogate parameters (overall mass, head stiffness, neck stiffness, stiffness for other body segments) on fall dynamics and outcomes related to injury potential. The sensitivity of head and neck injury outcome measures to model parameters was determined. Parameters associated with the greatest sensitivity values (fall height, initiating force, and surrogate mass) altered fall dynamics and impact orientation. This suggests that fall dynamics and impact orientation play a key role in head and neck injury potential. With the exception of surrogate mass, injury outcome measures tended to be more sensitive to changes in environmental parameters (bed height, impact surface stiffness, initiating force) than surrogate parameters (head stiffness, neck stiffness, body segment stiffness).

  6. Comparison and characterization of Android-based fall detection systems.

    PubMed

    Luque, Rafael; Casilari, Eduardo; Morón, María-José; Redondo, Gema

    2014-10-08

    Falls are a foremost source of injuries and hospitalization for seniors. The adoption of automatic fall detection mechanisms can noticeably reduce the response time of the medical staff or caregivers when a fall takes place. Smartphones are being increasingly proposed as wearable, cost-effective and not-intrusive systems for fall detection. The exploitation of smartphones' potential (and in particular, the Android Operating System) can benefit from the wide implantation, the growing computational capabilities and the diversity of communication interfaces and embedded sensors of these personal devices. After revising the state-of-the-art on this matter, this study develops an experimental testbed to assess the performance of different fall detection algorithms that ground their decisions on the analysis of the inertial data registered by the accelerometer of the smartphone. Results obtained in a real testbed with diverse individuals indicate that the accuracy of the accelerometry-based techniques to identify the falls depends strongly on the fall pattern. The performed tests also show the difficulty to set detection acceleration thresholds that allow achieving a good trade-off between false negatives (falls that remain unnoticed) and false positives (conventional movements that are erroneously classified as falls). In any case, the study of the evolution of the battery drain reveals that the extra power consumption introduced by the Android monitoring applications cannot be neglected when evaluating the autonomy and even the viability of fall detection systems.

  7. Rock-fall potential in the Yosemite Valley, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wieczorek, G.F.; Morrissey, M.M.; Iovine, Giulio; Godt, Jonathan

    1999-01-01

    We used two methods of estimating rock-fall potential in the Yosemite Valley, California based on (1) physical evidence of previous rock-fall travel, in which the potential extends to the base of the talus, and (2) theoretical potential energy considerations, in which the potential can extend beyond the base of the talus, herein referred to as the rock-fall shadow. Rock falls in the valley commonly range in size from individual boulders of less than 1 m3 to moderate-sized falls with volumes of about 100,000 m3. Larger rock falls exceeding 100,000 m3, referred to as rock avalanches, are considered to be much less likely to occur based on the relatively few prehistoric rock-fall avalanche deposits in the Yosemite Valley. Because the valley has steep walls and is relatively narrow, there are no areas that are absolutely safe from large rock avalanches. The map shows areas of rock-fall potential, but does not predict when or how frequently a rock fall will occur. Consequently, neither the hazard in terms of probability of a rock fall at any specific location, nor the risk to people or facilities to such events can be assessed from this map.

  8. Comparison and characterization of Android-based fall detection systems.

    PubMed

    Luque, Rafael; Casilari, Eduardo; Morón, María-José; Redondo, Gema

    2014-01-01

    Falls are a foremost source of injuries and hospitalization for seniors. The adoption of automatic fall detection mechanisms can noticeably reduce the response time of the medical staff or caregivers when a fall takes place. Smartphones are being increasingly proposed as wearable, cost-effective and not-intrusive systems for fall detection. The exploitation of smartphones' potential (and in particular, the Android Operating System) can benefit from the wide implantation, the growing computational capabilities and the diversity of communication interfaces and embedded sensors of these personal devices. After revising the state-of-the-art on this matter, this study develops an experimental testbed to assess the performance of different fall detection algorithms that ground their decisions on the analysis of the inertial data registered by the accelerometer of the smartphone. Results obtained in a real testbed with diverse individuals indicate that the accuracy of the accelerometry-based techniques to identify the falls depends strongly on the fall pattern. The performed tests also show the difficulty to set detection acceleration thresholds that allow achieving a good trade-off between false negatives (falls that remain unnoticed) and false positives (conventional movements that are erroneously classified as falls). In any case, the study of the evolution of the battery drain reveals that the extra power consumption introduced by the Android monitoring applications cannot be neglected when evaluating the autonomy and even the viability of fall detection systems. PMID:25299953

  9. Flood of August 1-6, 1950, at Wichita Falls, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yost, Ivan Dale

    1951-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to present certain rainfall and runoff data in the flood area in greater detail than is usually found in regular Water-Supply Papers. The report contains a summary of peak discharges at six points, and d~tailed records of discharge during the flood period at five points in the vicinity of Wichita Falls. The report also contains a discussion of rainfall associated with the flood and a description of the general features of the flood.

  10. Atmospheric Mercury Concentrations Near Salmon Falls Creek Reservoir - Phase 1

    SciTech Connect

    M. L. Abbott

    2005-10-01

    Elemental and reactive gaseous mercury (EGM/RGM) were measured in ambient air concentrations over a two-week period in July/August 2005 near Salmon Falls Creek Reservoir, a popular fishery located 50 km southwest of Twin Falls, Idaho. A fish consumption advisory for mercury was posted at the reservoir in 2002 by the Idaho Department of Health and Welfare. The air measurements were part of a multi-media (water, sediment, precipitation, air) study initiated by the Idaho Department of Environmental Quality and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Region 10 to identify potential sources of mercury contamination to the reservoir. The sampling site is located about 150 km northeast of large gold mining operations in Nevada, which are known to emit large amounts of mercury to the atmosphere (est. 2,200 kg/y from EPA 2003 Toxic Release Inventory). The work was co-funded by the Idaho National Laboratory’s Community Assistance Program and has a secondary objective to better understand mercury inputs to the environment near the INL, which lies approximately 230 km to the northeast. Sampling results showed that both EGM and RGM concentrations were significantly elevated (~ 30 – 70%, P<0.05) compared to known regional background concentrations. Elevated short-term RGM concentrations (the primary form that deposits) were likely due to atmospheric oxidation of high EGM concentrations, which suggests that EGM loading from upwind sources could increase Hg deposition in the area. Back-trajectory analyses indicated that elevated EGM and RGM occurred when air parcels came out of north-central and northeastern Nevada. One EGM peak occurred when the air parcels came out of northwestern Utah. Background concentrations occurred when the air was from upwind locations in Idaho (both northwest and northeast). Based on 2003 EPA Toxic Release Inventory data, it is likely that most of the observed peaks were from Nevada gold mine sources. Emissions from known large natural mercury

  11. Medical complications and falls in patients with spinal cord injury during the immediate phase after completing a rehabilitation program

    PubMed Central

    Wannapakhe, Jirabhorn; Arrayawichanon, Preeda; Saengsuwan, Jiamjit; Amatachaya, Sugalya

    2015-01-01

    Background/objectives Complications and falls are crucial problems in patients with spinal cord injury (SCI). However, existing evidence on complications comes from data from hospital records over a long period of time, and falls were mostly reported retrospectively in patients with incomplete SCI. This study prospectively explored the occurrence of complications and falls, and associated factors in patients with SCI during the 6 months after discharge. Methods One hundred subjects with SCI (50 wheelchair-bound (WB) and 50 ambulatory (AM) subjects) from a tertiary rehabilitation center completed the study. Every month, subjects were monitored for data on medical complications and falls. Descriptive information is provided for each group. Results Every WB subject had complications and 14 subjects were re-hospitalized. The most frequent complications found in these subjects were neurogenic pain (36 subjects), urinary tract infection (UTI) (25 subjects), and pressure ulcers (21 subjects). In AM subjects, 38 subjects (76%) experienced complications and 3 subjects needed re-hospitalization. The most frequent complications included neurogenic pain (35 subjects) and UTI (11 subjects). Eighteen WB subjects (36%) and 27 AM subjects (54%) experienced falls. WB subjects had significantly increased odds for incidence of UTI and pressure ulcers, whereas AM subjects had significantly greater odds for falls (P < 0.05). Conclusion A number of subjects with SCI experienced complications and falls after completing a rehabilitation program. The findings add to our knowledge about complications and falls after SCI, and confirm the importance of effective strategies to minimize the occurrence of complications and falls in these individuals. PMID:24621026

  12. Long-term Surveillance Plan for the Falls City Disposal Site, Falls City, Texas. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    1995-08-01

    This long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project Falls City disposal site, Falls City, Texas, describes the surveillance activities for the disposal site. The US Department of Energy (DOE) will carry out these activities to ensure that the disposal cell continues to function as designed. This LTSP was prepared as a requirement for acceptance under the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) general license for custody and long-term care of residual radioactive materials. This LTSP documents whether the land and interests are owned by the United States and details how long-term care of the disposal site will be carried out. It is based on the DOE`s Guidance for Implementing the UMTRA Project Long-term Surveillance Program (DOE, 1992a).

  13. Long-term surveillance plan for the Falls City Disposal Site, Falls City, Texas

    SciTech Connect

    1995-06-01

    This long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project Falls City disposal site, Falls City, Texas, describes the surveillance activities for the disposal site. DOE will carry out these activities to ensure that the disposal cell continues to function as designed. This LTSP was prepared as a requirement for acceptance under the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) general license for custody and long-term care of residual radioactive materials. This LTSP documents whether the land and interests are owned by the United States and details how long-term care of the disposal site will be carried out. It is based on the DOE`s Guidance for Implementing the UMTRA Project Long-term Surveillance Program (DOE, 1992a).

  14. Longer thaw seasons increase nitrogen availability for leaching during fall in tundra soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Treat, Claire C.; Wollheim, Wilfred M.; Varner, Ruth K.; Bowden, William B.

    2016-06-01

    Climate change has resulted in warmer soil temperatures, earlier spring thaw and later fall freeze-up, resulting in warmer soil temperatures and thawing of permafrost in tundra regions. While these changes in temperature metrics tend to lengthen the growing season for plants, light levels, especially in the fall, will continue to limit plant growth and nutrient uptake. We conducted a laboratory experiment using intact soil cores with and without vegetation from a tundra peatland to measure the effects of late freeze and early spring thaw on carbon dioxide (CO2) exchange, methane (CH4) emissions, dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and nitrogen (N) leaching from soils. We compared soil C exchange and N production with a 30 day longer seasonal thaw during a simulated annual cycle from spring thaw through freeze-up and thaw. Across all cores, fall N leaching accounted for ˜33% of total annual N loss despite significant increases in microbial biomass during this period. Nitrate ({{{{NO}}}3}-) leaching was highest during the fall (5.33 ± 1.45 mg N m-2 d-1) following plant senescence and lowest during the summer (0.43 ± 0.22 mg N m-2 d-1). In the late freeze and early thaw treatment, we found 25% higher total annual ecosystem respiration but no significant change in CH4 emissions or DOC loss due to high variability among samples. The late freeze period magnified N leaching and likely was derived from root turnover and microbial mineralization of soil organic matter coupled with little demand from plants or microbes. Large N leaching during the fall will affect N cycling in low-lying areas and streams and may alter terrestrial and aquatic ecosystem nitrogen budgets in the arctic.

  15. Longer thaw seasons increase nitrogen availability for leaching during fall in tundra soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Treat, Claire C.; Wollheim, Wilfred M.; Varner, Ruth K.; Bowden, William B.

    2016-06-01

    Climate change has resulted in warmer soil temperatures, earlier spring thaw and later fall freeze-up, resulting in warmer soil temperatures and thawing of permafrost in tundra regions. While these changes in temperature metrics tend to lengthen the growing season for plants, light levels, especially in the fall, will continue to limit plant growth and nutrient uptake. We conducted a laboratory experiment using intact soil cores with and without vegetation from a tundra peatland to measure the effects of late freeze and early spring thaw on carbon dioxide (CO2) exchange, methane (CH4) emissions, dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and nitrogen (N) leaching from soils. We compared soil C exchange and N production with a 30 day longer seasonal thaw during a simulated annual cycle from spring thaw through freeze-up and thaw. Across all cores, fall N leaching accounted for ∼33% of total annual N loss despite significant increases in microbial biomass during this period. Nitrate ({{{{NO}}}3}-) leaching was highest during the fall (5.33 ± 1.45 mg N m‑2 d‑1) following plant senescence and lowest during the summer (0.43 ± 0.22 mg N m‑2 d‑1). In the late freeze and early thaw treatment, we found 25% higher total annual ecosystem respiration but no significant change in CH4 emissions or DOC loss due to high variability among samples. The late freeze period magnified N leaching and likely was derived from root turnover and microbial mineralization of soil organic matter coupled with little demand from plants or microbes. Large N leaching during the fall will affect N cycling in low-lying areas and streams and may alter terrestrial and aquatic ecosystem nitrogen budgets in the arctic.

  16. A Falls Wheel in a Large Academic Medical Center: An Intervention to Reduce Patient Falls With Harm.

    PubMed

    Hefner, Jennifer L; McAlearney, Ann Scheck; Mansfield, Jerry; Knupp, Amy M; Moffatt-Bruce, Susan D

    2015-01-01

    This article presents an evaluation of a multifaceted fall prevention initiative. The main element of this initiative was the creation and implementation of a Falls Wheel--a visual communication tool of a patient's fall injury risk for all care team members placed on every patient door throughout the health system. The Falls Wheel allows for patient categorization along two dimensions simultaneously: risk of fall and risk of injury from a fall. During the yearlong implementation, the rate of falls with harm dropped by almost 50%. A process audit revealed that there was high fidelity to the intervention components, including displaying the wheel correctly 95% of the time, and the Falls Wheel was updated to match the risk level in the electronic health record 70% of the time. The goal of this article was to share the experience of one health system and encourage others to adopt and rigorously test the Falls Wheel. Replication and extension of this program at other hospitals and health systems will enable staff and empower patients to reduce falls with harm and their unintended consequences.

  17. Assessment and prevention of falls in older people.

    PubMed

    Barker, Wendy

    2014-07-01

    In June 2013 the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence updated and replaced its 2004 clinical guideline 21 (CG21) on falls with clinical guideline 161 (CG161). Two priorities were outlined in the latter: preventing falls in older people (unchanged from CG21) and preventing falls in older people during a hospital stay (new). CG161 is for health and social care clinicians who care for older people who have fallen or who are at risk of falling. It provides clinicians and commissioners with evidence to implement effective care pathways and recommendations on the assessment and prevention of falls in older people. The amalgamation of the two guidelines has resulted in some disconnection. This article summarises the evidence and supports clinicians in the interpretation of the revised falls guideline.

  18. A Field Study on the Raindrop Fall Velocity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahman, Kalimur; Testik, Firat

    2016-04-01

    Raindrop fall velocity is a critical parameter in various rainfall related applications such as dual-polarization radar rainfall estimation. In such applications, it is typically assumed that raindrops fall at terminal velocity. Recent field observations, however, challenged this assumption of terminal raindrops. In this study, we investigated raindrop fall velocity in rainfall events using a new optical-type disdrometer called the High-speed Optical Disdrometer (HOD). We developed the HOD recently for precipitation microphysical observations, in particular for investigating raindrop dynamics including raindrop fall velocity. Our field observations showed clear deviations of raindrop fall velocities from predicted terminal velocities. These new field observations and our ongoing efforts to elucidate raindrop fall velocity characteristics will be discussed. This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. AGS-1612681.

  19. Road accidents caused by drivers falling asleep.

    PubMed

    Sagberg, F

    1999-11-01

    About 29600 Norwegian accident-involved drivers received a questionnaire about the last accident reported to their insurance company. About 9200 drivers (31%) returned the questionnaire. The questionnaire contained questions about sleep or fatigue as contributing factors to the accident. In addition, the drivers reported whether or not they had fallen asleep some time whilst driving. and what the consequences had been. Sleep or drowsiness was a contributing factor in 3.9% of all accidents, as reported by drivers who were at fault for the accident. This factor was strongly over-represented in night-time accidents (18.6%), in running-off-the-road accidents (8.3%), accidents after driving more than 150 km on one trip (8.1%), and personal injury accidents (7.3%). A logistic regression analysis showed that the following additional factors made significant and independent contributions to increasing the odds of sleep involvement in an accident: dry road, high speed limit, driving one's own car, not driving the car daily, high education, and few years of driving experience. More male than female drivers were involved in sleep-related accidents, but this seems largely to be explained by males driving relatively more than females on roads with high speed limits. A total of 10% of male drivers and 4% of females reported to have fallen asleep while driving during the last 12 months. A total of 4% of these events resulted in an accident. The most frequent consequence of falling asleep--amounting to more than 40% of the reported incidents--was crossing of the right edge-line before awaking, whereas crossing of the centreline was reported by 16%. Drivers' lack of awareness of important precursors of falling asleep--like highway hypnosis, driving without awareness, and similar phenomena--as well as a reluctance to discontinue driving despite feeling tired are pointed out as likely contributors to sleep-related accidents. More knowledge about the drivers' experiences immediately

  20. 4. View of Great Falls of the Potomac River looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. View of Great Falls of the Potomac River looking upriver from a lower point further downstream than view #2. Observation Tower visible on left. During flood conditions of 1936 and 1942, lower portion of this tower was under water. Low water conditions are clearly evidenced here by normal water markings on rock formations noted on right. In rear of front rock promontory, a sand beach is shown. Mr. Horyduzak, photographer, 1943. - Potowmack Company: Great Falls Canal & Locks, Great Falls, Fairfax County, VA

  1. Free fall of a cat—freshman physics exercise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Studnička, Filip; Šlégr, Jan; Štegner, David

    2016-07-01

    This paper describes theoretical calculation of the terminal velocity of falling cat, taking the air drag into account. The results show that a fall from the seventh floor is critical for the cat so we introduce a new quantity called the ‘coefficient of the cat’s fear’ during free fall. A subsequent experiment with a model of a cat carrying the accelerometer confirmed this conclusion. This calculation and experiment can act as a strong motivational factor during introductory physics courses.

  2. Familial Periodic Paralyses

    MedlinePlus

    ... NINDS NINDS Familial Periodic Paralyses Information Page Synonym(s): Periodic Paralyses Table of Contents (click to jump to sections) What are Familial Periodic Paralyses? Is there any treatment? What is the ...

  3. Do continence management strategies reduce falls? a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Batchelor, Frances A; Dow, Briony; Low, May-Ann

    2013-12-01

    Urinary incontinence is associated with increased fall risk, and fall prevention programs include recommendations to manage continence as one component of fall reduction. However, the evidence to support this recommendation is unclear. The aim of this study was to identify continence management interventions that are effective in decreasing falls. A systematic review of the literature was conducted. Studies were included if they evaluated the effect of any type of continence management strategy on falls in older adults. The included studies were assessed for quality, and data relating to participants, interventions and outcomes were extracted by two independent reviewers. Four articles met the inclusion criteria. Two studies were randomised controlled trials, one a retrospective cohort study and one an uncontrolled intervention study. Interventions included pharmacological agents, a toileting regime combined with physical activity and an individualised continence program. Only the study evaluating the combination of physical activity and prompted voiding found an effect on falls. It is surprising that there has been so little research into continence management interventions that include fall outcomes. A toileting regime combined with physical activity may reduce falls in residential care. There is a need for further studies investigating the impact of continence management on falls.

  4. Falls and Fractures: A systematic approach to screening and prevention.

    PubMed

    Ambrose, Anne Felicia; Cruz, Lisanne; Paul, Geet

    2015-09-01

    Falls are one of the major causes of mortality and morbidity in older adults. Every year, an estimated 30-40% of patients over the age of 65 will fall at least once. Falls lead to moderate to severe injuries, fear of falling, loss of independence and death in a third of those patients. Falls account for 87 % of all fractures in the elderly. These fractures are almost always due to low impact injuries in osteoporotic bones. Several organizations have recommended screening older patients to identify those with a high risk of falling and, or fractures. The present review provides a brief summary and update of the relevant literature, summarizing screening tools and interventions to prevent falls and fractures. The major risk factors identified are impaired balance and gait, polypharmacy, and history of previous falls. Other risk factors include advancing age, female gender, visual impairments, cognitive decline especially attention and executive dysfunction, and environmental factors. Recommendations for the clinician to screen and prevent falls in older patients are also summarized.

  5. Development of a Wearable-Sensor-Based Fall Detection System

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Hengyang; Zhao, Yan; Zhong, Haibo

    2015-01-01

    Fall detection is a major challenge in the public healthcare domain, especially for the elderly as the decline of their physical fitness, and timely and reliable surveillance is necessary to mitigate the negative effects of falls. This paper develops a novel fall detection system based on a wearable device. The system monitors the movements of human body, recognizes a fall from normal daily activities by an effective quaternion algorithm, and automatically sends request for help to the caregivers with the patient's location. PMID:25784933

  6. Cathode fall measurement in a dielectric barrier discharge in helium

    SciTech Connect

    Hao, Yanpeng; Zheng, Bin; Liu, Yaoge

    2013-11-15

    A method based on the “zero-length voltage” extrapolation is proposed to measure cathode fall in a dielectric barrier discharge. Starting, stable, and discharge-maintaining voltages were measured to obtain the extrapolation zero-length voltage. Under our experimental conditions, the “zero-length voltage” gave a cathode fall of about 185 V. Based on the known thickness of the cathode fall region, the spatial distribution of the electric field strength in dielectric barrier discharge in atmospheric helium is determined. The strong cathode fall with a maximum field value of approximately 9.25 kV/cm was typical for the glow mode of the discharge.

  7. Preventing in-hospital newborn falls: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Matteson, Tara; Henderson-Williams, Audery; Nelson, Jessica

    2013-01-01

    In-hospital newborn falls are arguably one of the most underresearched and underreported issues for organizations that care for newborn patients. From the few published statistics of in-hospital fall rates, we know that perhaps 600 to 1,600 newborn falls occur annually. Many of these falls can result in injury or even death of the newborn, legal issues for the institution, and severe emotional stress to the caregiver(s) and parents. Therefore, we searched the literature to ascertain causation and associated risks associated with in-hospital newborn falls. This is an important issue for nurses to understand because not only can the newborn be harmed due to a fall, but the actual newborn fall can also elicit strong feelings of guilt and culpability in the caregiver(s). This article reviews the literature to examine what is known about the factors associated with in-hospital newborn falls, to explore prevention measures, and to present best practices for how to adopt safe-sleep policy to prevent newborn falls. PMID:24013477

  8. Development of a wearable-sensor-based fall detection system.

    PubMed

    Wu, Falin; Zhao, Hengyang; Zhao, Yan; Zhong, Haibo

    2015-01-01

    Fall detection is a major challenge in the public healthcare domain, especially for the elderly as the decline of their physical fitness, and timely and reliable surveillance is necessary to mitigate the negative effects of falls. This paper develops a novel fall detection system based on a wearable device. The system monitors the movements of human body, recognizes a fall from normal daily activities by an effective quaternion algorithm, and automatically sends request for help to the caregivers with the patient's location. PMID:25784933

  9. Orthopedic Injuries: Protocols to Prevent and Manage Patient Falls.

    PubMed

    Parsons, Lynn C; Revell, Maria A

    2015-12-01

    Health care organizations must adopt a culture of safety and implement effective fall prevention protocols. The teach-back method is a useful strategy for health providers to determine patient understanding of information taught to maintain a safe environment and prevent falls. Purposeful rounding is a proactive approach to ensure that patient assessments are accurate and research supports that patients use the call light less when nurses participate in hourly rounding. This article provides the reader with evidence-based fall prevention interventions, tips for using the teach-back method, and fall prevention tools to safely care for patients of all ages.

  10. When Does Air Resistance Become Significant in Free Fall?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohazzabi, Pirooz

    2011-02-01

    In introductory physics laboratories, students who experiment with freely falling objects frequently attribute any error in their experimental results to the presence of air resistance. It is, therefore, important to realize when and at what point during a free fall air resistance begins to play a significant role in the motion of the falling object. In this paper we address this question, and we show that blaming air resistance for errors in free-fall experiments in introductory physics laboratories is almost never justified.

  11. The role of entrainment by falling raindrops in microbursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krueger, Steven K.

    1988-01-01

    The numerical model of Krueger et al. (1986) for dry microburst simulations is used to study the role of entrainment by falling raindrops. Two series of numerical simulations were conducted: a control series, and a series with the raindrop fall speed set to zero so that the rain moved with the air instead of falling through it. The results show that entrainment due to falling raindrops helps microbursts with large raindrop mixing ratios to form in stable stratifications. It is found that entrainment appears to contribute to the small spatial and temporal scales that characterize microburst outflows.

  12. Fall 2012 Graduate Engineering Internship Summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ehrlich, Joshua

    2013-01-01

    In the fall of 2012, I participated in the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Pathways Intern Employment Program at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) in Florida. This was my second internship opportunity with NASA, a consecutive extension from a summer 2012 internship. During my four-month tenure, I gained valuable knowledge and extensive hands-on experience with payload design and testing as well as composite fabrication for repair design on future space vehicle structures. As a systems engineer, I supported the systems engineering and integration team with the testing of scientific payloads such as the Vegetable Production System (Veggie). Verification and validation (V&V) of the Veggie was carried out prior to qualification testing of the payload, which incorporated a lengthy process of confirming design requirements that were integrated through one or more validatjon methods: inspection, analysis, demonstration, and testing. Additionally, I provided assistance in verifying design requirements outlined in the V&V plan with the requirements outlined by the scientists in the Science Requirements Envelope Document (SRED). The purpose of the SRED was to define experiment requirements intended for the payload to meet and carry out.

  13. Does falling smoking lead to rising obesity?

    PubMed

    Gruber, Jonathan; Frakes, Michael

    2006-03-01

    The strong negative correlation over time between smoking rates and obesity have led some to suggest that reduced smoking is increasing weight gain in the U.S. This conclusion is supported by the findings of Chou et al. [Chou, S.-Y., Grossman, M., Saffer, H., 2004. An economic analysis of adult obesity: results from the behavioral risk factor surveillance system. Journal of Health Economics 23, 565-587], who conclude that higher cigarette prices lead to increased body weight. We investigate this issue and find no evidence that reduced smoking leads to weight gain. Using the cigarette tax rather than the cigarette price and controlling for non-linear time effects, we find a negative effect of cigarette taxes on body weight, implying that reduced smoking leads to lower body weights. Yet our results, as well as Chou et al., imply implausibly large effects of smoking on body weight. Thus, we cannot confirm that falling smoking leads in a major way to rising obesity rates in the U.S.

  14. Deep-sea food bonanzas: early Cenozoic whale-fall communities resemble wood-fall rather than seep communities.

    PubMed

    Kiel, Steffen; Goedert, James L

    2006-10-22

    The evolutionary history of invertebrate communities utilizing whale carcasses and sunken wood in the deep-sea is explored using fossil evidence. Compared to modern whale-fall communities, the Eo-Oligocene examples lack those vent-type taxa that most heavily rely on sulphide produced by anaerobic breakdown of bone lipids, but are very similar in their trophic structure to contemporaneous wood-falls. This sheds doubt on the hypothesis that whale-falls were evolutionary stepping stones for taxa that now inhabit hydrothermal vents and seeps. We suggest that the whale-fall communities reported here represent a new ecologic stage among whale-falls, which we have coined the 'chemosymbiotic opportunist stage' and that the 'sulphophilic stage' of modern whale-falls developed during the Early Miocene, resulting from a significant increase in both body size and/or oil content of bones among cetaceans during this time.

  15. Deep-sea food bonanzas: early Cenozoic whale-fall communities resemble wood-fall rather than seep communities

    PubMed Central

    Kiel, Steffen; Goedert, James L

    2006-01-01

    The evolutionary history of invertebrate communities utilizing whale carcasses and sunken wood in the deep-sea is explored using fossil evidence. Compared to modern whale-fall communities, the Eo-Oligocene examples lack those vent-type taxa that most heavily rely on sulphide produced by anaerobic breakdown of bone lipids, but are very similar in their trophic structure to contemporaneous wood-falls. This sheds doubt on the hypothesis that whale-falls were evolutionary stepping stones for taxa that now inhabit hydrothermal vents and seeps. We suggest that the whale-fall communities reported here represent a new ecologic stage among whale-falls, which we have coined the ‘chemosymbiotic opportunist stage’ and that the ‘sulphophilic stage’ of modern whale-falls developed during the Early Miocene, resulting from a significant increase in both body size and/or oil content of bones among cetaceans during this time. PMID:17002948

  16. Prevention of falls in Parkinson's disease: a review of fall risk factors and the role of physical interventions.

    PubMed

    Canning, Colleen G; Paul, Serene S; Nieuwboer, Alice

    2014-01-01

    Falls in people with Parkinson's disease (PD) are frequent and recurrent events with devastating and widespread consequences. Despite this, understanding of the predictive and explanatory value of fall risk factors, as well as the development and testing of interventions aimed at reducing falls, are in their infancy. This review focuses on fall prediction and risk factors that are potentially remediable with physical interventions. We show that falls can be predicted with high accuracy using a simple three-step clinical tool. Evidence from recently published randomized controlled trials supports the implementation of balance-challenging exercises in reducing falls. Larger scale trials utilizing technologically advanced monitoring methods will further elucidate those interventions most likely to be cost effective according to individual risk factor profiles.

  17. Cohort study of institutionalized elderly people: fall risk factors from the nursing diagnosis1

    PubMed Central

    dos Reis, Karine Marques Costa; de Jesus, Cristine Alves Costa

    2015-01-01

    Objective: to determine the incidence of falls in elderly residents of long-stay institutions of the Federal District, to identify the aspects involved in the falls, in terms of risk factors, from the application of scales and the Taxonomy II of NANDA-I, and to define the level of accuracy with its sensitivity and specificity for application in the clinical nursing practice. Method: this was a cohort study with the evaluation of 271 elderly people. Cognition, functionality, mobility and other intrinsic factors were evaluated. After six months, the elderly people who fell were identified, with significance analysis then performed to define the risk factors. Results: the results showed an incidence of 41%. Of the 271 patients included, 69 suffered 111 episodes of falls during the monitoring period. Risk factors were the presence of stroke with its sequelae (OR: 1.82, 95% CI 1.01 - 3.28, p=.045), presenting more than five chronic diseases (OR: 2.82, 95% CI 1.43 - 5.56, p=.0028), foot problem (OR: 2.45, 95% CI 1.35 - 4.44, p=.0033) and motion (OR: 2.04, 95% CI 1.15 - 3.61, p=.0145). Conclusion: the taxonomy has high validity regarding the detection of elderly people at risk of falling and should be applied consistently in the clinical nursing practice. PMID:26626005

  18. White River Falls Fish Passage Project, Tygh Valley, Oregon : Final Technical Report, Volume I..

    SciTech Connect

    Oregon. Dept. of Fish and Wildlife; Mount Hood National Forest

    1985-06-01

    Studies were conducted to describe current habitat conditions in the White River basin above White River Falls and to evaluate the potential to produce anadromous fish. An inventory of spawning and rearing habitats, irrigation diversions, and enhancement opportunities for anadromous fish in the White River drainage was conducted. Survival of juvenile fish at White River Falls was estimated by releasing juvenile chinook and steelhead above the falls during high and low flow periods and recapturing them below the falls in 1983 and 1984. Four alternatives to provide upstream passage for adult salmon and steelhead were developed to a predesign level. The cost of adult passage and the estimated run size of anadromous fish were used to determine the benefit/cost ratio of the preferred alternative. Possible effects of the introduction of anadromous fish on resident fish and on nearby Oak Springs Hatchery were evaluated. This included an inventory of resident species, a genetic study of native rainbow, and the identification of fish diseases in the basin. 28 figs., 23 tabs.

  19. Free fall tests of the accelerometers of the MICROSCOPE mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liorzou, F.; Boulanger, D.; Rodrigues, M.; Touboul, P.; Selig, H.

    2014-09-01

    The MICROSCOPE mission is fully dedicated to the in-orbit test of the Universality of free fall, the so-called Weak Equivalence Principle (WEP), with an expected accuracy better than 10-15. The test principle consists in comparing the accelerations of two proof masses of different composition in the Earth gravitational field. The payload embarks two pairs of test-masses made of Platinum Rhodium and Titanium alloys at the core of two dedicated coaxial electrostatic accelerometers. These instruments are under qualification for a launch in 2016. Their operations are only possible in microgravity environment which makes its validation on ground a real issue. In Europe, only the drop tower of the ZARM Institute provides a facility for experiments under conditions of weightlessness and offers the experimental conditions to verify the correct functioning of the MICROSCOPE payload. The height of the tower limits the “free fall” experiment period to 4.72 s. Under this strong constraint, the demonstration of the capability to control the test masses of the two coaxial electrostatic accelerometers is challenging. This paper describes the complete experimental set up and in which condition the test has been performed, then an analysis of a drop result is given with its interpretations.

  20. Falling Evaporating Bodies around Beta Pictoris

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beust, H.

    2014-09-01

    The edge-on orientation of the beta Pictoris disk as viewed from the Earth enabled the detection of its gaseous counterpart by absorption spectroscopy. This was done as early as 1985 (Vidal-Madjar et al.). Surprisingly, the detected circumstellar absorptions in Ca II, Mg II, etc... lines appeared to often present, next to a central stable component, highly time- variable additional features, Doppler shifted by a few tens, sometimes up to a few hundreds km/s. A huge sample of such features, sometimes presenting very different shapes, has been recorded since that time, especially in the last 10 years thanks to the survey by the HARPS spectrograph. Modeling work in the late 1980's led to propose that these transient spectral events could be due to star-grazing, evaporating planetesimals arising from the disk, that cross the line of sight close to periastron. The absorption components would be due to the gaseous coma around the object, and the Doppler shift to the projection of its velocity onto the line of sight. This model has been thus termed the ÓFalling Evaporating BodiesÓ (FEB) model. Detailed modeling and simulations (Beust et al. 1990, 1996; Karmann et al. 2001, 2003; Fernandez et al. 2006) helped to constrain the physics of the phenomenon and to specify the characteristics of the suspected FEBs, which number may be as large as several hundreds per year. The large number of available data enabled a statistical approach of these events and of their characteristics. It rapidly turned out that the infall of FEBs towards beta Pictoris from the disk was not isotropic. This raised the issue of the dynamical origin of this phenomenon. In the late 1990's, Beust & Morbidelli (1996, 2000) proposed that FEBs could originate from 4:1 and 3:1 mean-motion resonances with a hypothetical giant planet, and fall towards the star thanks to a drastic increase of their eccentricities thanks to the resonances. Exhaustive dynamical simulations led to propose that the suspected

  1. The Seneca Falls Convention: Teaching about the Rights of Women and the Heritage of the Declaration of Independence. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osborn, Elizabeth R.

    Different groups at different times have turned to founding documents of the United States to meet their needs and to declare their entitlement to the promises of the Revolution of 1776. At Seneca Falls, New York in the summer of 1848, a group of U.S. men and women met to discuss the legal limitations imposed on women during this period. Their…

  2. Economic Evaluation of a Tai Ji Quan Intervention to Reduce Falls in People With Parkinson Disease, Oregon, 2008–2011

    PubMed Central

    Harmer, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Exercise is effective in reducing falls in people with Parkinson disease. However, information on the cost effectiveness of this approach is lacking. We conducted a cost-effectiveness analysis of Tai Ji Quan for reducing falls among patients with mild-to-moderate Parkinson disease. Methods We used data from a previous intervention trial to analyze resource use costs related to intervention delivery and number of falls observed during a 9-month study period. Cost effectiveness was estimated via incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) in which Tai Ji Quan was compared with 2 alternative interventions (Resistance training and Stretching) on the primary outcome of per fall prevented and the secondary outcome of per participant quality-adjusted life years (QALY) gained. We also conducted subgroup and sensitivity analyses. Results Tai Ji Quan was more effective than either Resistance training or Stretching; it had the lowest cost and was the most effective in improving primary and secondary outcomes. Compared with Stretching, Tai Ji Quan cost an average of $175 less for each additional fall prevented and produced a substantial improvement in QALY gained at a lower cost. Results from subgroup and sensitivity analyses showed no variation in cost-effectiveness estimates. However, sensitivity analyses demonstrated a much lower ICER ($27) when only intervention costs were considered. Conclusion Tai Ji Quan represents a cost-effective strategy for optimizing spending to prevent falls and maximize health gains in people with Parkinson disease. While these results are promising, they warrant further validation. PMID:26226067

  3. Preventing Falls in Older Adults Who Live in Community Settings

    MedlinePlus

    ... Preventing Falls in Older Adults Who Live in Community Settings: U.S. Preventive Services Task Force Recommendation Summaries ... full report is titled “Prevention of Falls in Community-Dwelling Older Adults: U.S. Preventive Services Task Force ...

  4. Wyoming Community College System Fall 2006 Enrollment Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyoming Community College Commission, 2007

    2007-01-01

    This report includes Fall 2006 semester enrollment information for Wyoming's seven comprehensive community colleges. Selected data includes student counts by credit hours, county, full-time students (FTE), program or study, ethnicity and a 10-year history. (Contains 12 tables.) [For the Fall 2005 edition of this report, see ED502745.

  5. 30 CFR 56.10007 - Falling object protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Falling object protection. 56.10007 Section 56.10007 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL... § 56.10007 Falling object protection. Guard nets or other suitable protection shall be provided...

  6. 30 CFR 57.10007 - Falling object protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Falling object protection. 57.10007 Section 57.10007 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL... § 57.10007 Falling object protection. Guard nets or other suitable protection shall be provided...

  7. Terminal Velocity of a Shuttlecock in Vertical Fall.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peastrel, Mark; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Describes a straightforward vertical fall experiment using a badminton shuttlecock, a tape measure, and a millisecond timer. The effects of air resistance are important and directly measurable. The experimental data best fit a predictive model which assumes a resistive force quadratic in the instantaneous speed of the falling object. (GS)

  8. 7. STREAMSIDE PATH BETWEEN THREE BRIDGE FALLS AND THREE SISTERS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. STREAM-SIDE PATH BETWEEN THREE BRIDGE FALLS AND THREE SISTERS FALLS, LOOKING WEST Photocopy of photograph, 1930s National Park Service, National Capital Region files - Dumbarton Oaks Park, Thirty-second & R Streets Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  9. Fall 2011: Estimated Headcount Enrollment and Pell Grant Trends

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mullin, Christopher M.; Phillippe, Kent

    2011-01-01

    After a number of years of enrollment growth at the nation's community colleges, total headcount enrollments leveled off in fall 2011 from the previous year. A collaborative analysis of the American Association of Community Colleges and the National Student Clearinghouse shows an enrollment decrease of almost 1% from fall 2010 to 2011. Despite…

  10. Developing an audit checklist to assess outdoor falls risk

    PubMed Central

    Curl, Angela; Thompson, Catharine Ward; Aspinall, Peter; Ormerod, Marcus

    2016-01-01

    Falls by older people (aged 65+) are linked to disability and a decrease in mobility, presenting a challenge to active ageing. As such, older fallers represent a vulnerable road user group. Despite this there is little research into the causes and prevention of outdoor falls. This paper develops an understanding of environmental factors causing falls or fear of falling using a walk-along interview approach with recent fallers to explore how older people navigate the outdoor environment and which aspects of it they perceived facilitate or hinder their ability to go outdoors and fear of falling. While there are a number of audit checklists focused on assessing the indoor environment for risk or fear of falls, nothing exists for the outdoor environment. Many existing street audit tools are focused on general environmental qualities and have not been designed with an older population in mind. We present a checklist that assesses aspects of the environment most likely to encourage or hinder those who are at risk of falling outdoors, developed through accounting for the experiences and navigational strategies of elderly individuals. The audit checklist can assist occupational therapists and urban planners, designers and managers in working to reduce the occurrence of outdoor falls among this vulnerable user group. PMID:27166968

  11. 33 CFR 117.653 - St. Mary's Falls Canal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false St. Mary's Falls Canal. 117.653... DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Michigan § 117.653 St. Mary's Falls Canal. The draw of... vessel, 1,200 feet or less west of the bridge, unless the vessel is moored at either canal pier...

  12. Integration of Fall Prevention into State Policy in Connecticut

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Terrence E.; Baker, Dorothy I.; Leo-Summers, Linda S.; Bianco, Luann; Gottschalk, Margaret; Acampora, Denise; King, Mary B.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose of Study: To describe the ongoing efforts of the Connecticut Collaboration for Fall Prevention (CCFP) to move evidence regarding fall prevention into clinical practice and state policy. Methods: A university-based team developed methods of networking with existing statewide organizations to influence clinical practice and state policy.…

  13. View of Dry Falls Dam Powerhouse (right) and headgates to ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of Dry Falls Dam Powerhouse (right) and headgates to Main Canal (left) leading to Bacon Siphon and on to Billy Clapp Lake, looking northeast - Columbia Basin Project, Banks Lake Dry Falls Dam & Main Canal Headworks, South end of Banks Lake, Northwest of Coulee City, Grand Coulee, Grant County, WA

  14. Parasitoids attacking fall armyworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in sweet corn habitats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fall armyworm larvae, Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith), were collected from sweet corn plants (Zea mays L.) in fields located in three south Florida counties. Fields were sampled from 2010 – 2015 during the fall and spring seasons. Larvae were brought back to the laboratory to complete developme...

  15. Fall armyworm migrations and implications for NJ farmers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fall armyworm can be a serious pest to vegetable crops in the northeastern U.S. This species migrates from southern Florida and southern Texas each season, arriving in New Jersey during summer and early fall. Although it was thought that infestations in NJ were from Florida, our research has sugge...

  16. The Tail-less Cat in Free-Fall.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fredrickson, J. E.

    1989-01-01

    Describes four kinds of movement by a cat with or without angular momentum and tail or tail-less during free falling. Presents many pictures illustrating the movement. Supports the position that the angular momentum of the tail plays an important role in free fall. (YP)

  17. 78 FR 60864 - Army Science Board Fall Plenary Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-02

    ... Department of the Army Army Science Board Fall Plenary Meeting AGENCY: Department of the Army, DoD. ACTION... the Federal Regulations (CFR 102-3. 140 through 160, the Department of the Army announces the following committee meeting: Name of Committee: Army Science Board (ASB) Fall Plenary Session....

  18. Risk of Fall for Individuals with Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiba, Yoichi; Shimada, Atsuyoshi; Yoshida, Futoshi; Keino, Hiromi; Hasegawa, Mariko; Ikari, Hiroyuki; Miyake, Shikako; Hosokawa, Masanori

    2009-01-01

    Our aim was to identify risk factors for falling and establish a method to assess risk for falls in adults with intellectual disabilities. In a cross-sectional survey of 144 Japanese adults, we found that age, presence of epilepsy, and presence of paretic conditions were independent risk factors. The Tinetti balance and gait instrument was…

  19. Engaging Community-Based Organizations in Fall Prevention Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kramer, B. Josea; Vivrette, Rebecca L.; Rubenstein, Laurence Z.

    2011-01-01

    Falls are a major public health problem for older adults, and community-based organizations play a key role in educating seniors about falls prevention (FP). We conducted a qualitative process evaluation at six sites to report community-based centers' perspectives on adoption, adaptation, and sustainability of an evidence-based multifactorial FP…

  20. Technology Innovation Enabling Falls Risk Assessment in a Community Setting.

    PubMed

    Ni Scanaill, Cliodhna; Garattini, Chiara; Greene, Barry R; McGrath, Michael J

    2011-06-01

    Approximately one in three people over the age of 65 will fall each year, resulting in significant financial, physical, and emotional cost on the individual, their family, and society. Currently, falls are managed using on-body sensors and alarm pendants to notify others when a falls event occurs. However these technologies do not prevent a fall from occurring. There is now a growing focus on falls risk assessment and preventative interventions. Falls risk is currently assessed in a clinical setting by expert physiotherapists, geriatricians, or occupational therapists following the occurrence of an injurious fall. As the population ages, this reactive model of care will become increasingly unsatisfactory, and a proactive community-based prevention strategy will be required. Recent advances in technology can support this new model of care by enabling community-based practitioners to perform tests that previously required expensive technology or expert interpretation. Gait and balance impairment is one of the most common risk factors for falls. This paper reviews the current technical and non-technical gait and balance assessments, discusses how low-cost technology can be applied to objectively administer and interpret these tests in the community, and reports on recent research where body-worn sensors have been utilized. It also discusses the barriers to adoption in the community and proposes ethnographic research as a method to investigate solutions to these barriers. PMID:21660088

  1. A wearable system for pre-impact fall detection.

    PubMed

    Nyan, M N; Tay, Francis E H; Murugasu, E

    2008-12-01

    Unique features of body segment kinematics in falls and activities of daily living (ADL) are applied to make automatic detection of a fall in its descending phase, prior to impact, possible. Fall-related injuries can thus be prevented or reduced by deploying fall impact reduction systems, such as an inflatable airbag for hip protection, before the impact. In this application, the authors propose the following hypothesis: "Thigh segments normally do not exceed a certain threshold angle to the side and forward directions in ADL, whereas this abnormal behavior occurs during a fall activity". Torso and thigh wearable inertial sensors (3D accelerometer and 2D gyroscope) are used and the whole system is based on a body area network (BAN) for the comfort of the wearer during a long term application. The hypothesis was validated in an experiment with 21 young healthy volunteers performing both normal ADL and fall activities. Results show that falls could be detected with an average lead-time of 700 ms before the impact occurs, with no false alarms (100% specificity), a sensitivity of 95.2%. This is the longest lead-time achieved so far in pre-impact fall detection.

  2. 5. HISTORIC PHOTOGRAPH OF FIRST CHRISTINE FALLS BRIDGE, BUILT BY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. HISTORIC PHOTOGRAPH OF FIRST CHRISTINE FALLS BRIDGE, BUILT BY U.S. ARMY CORPS OF ENGINEERS CA. 1908. PHOTOGRAPHER TAKEN 1911. MOUNT RAINIER NATIONAL PARK ARCHIVES - Christine Falls Bridge, Spanning Van Trump Creek on Nisqually Road, Longmire, Pierce County, WA

  3. Dust trailing from the top chord, the bridge falls toward ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Dust trailing from the top chord, the bridge falls toward the river, as the southwest end (right) falls first. View southeast from confluence of Trinity and South Fork Trinity Rivers - South Fork Trinity River Bridge, State Highway 299 spanning South Fork Trinity River, Salyer, Trinity County, CA

  4. Preventing Death and Serious Injury from Falling Trees and Branches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brookes, Andrew

    2007-01-01

    Of 128 outdoor education related deaths examined since 1960, 14 have been due to falling trees or branches. This article examines the grounds on which death or serious injury due to falling trees or branches can be regarded as an inherent risk in outdoor education, and the extent to which such incidents can be regarded as preventable. It compares…

  5. The Falling Raindrop: Variations on a Theme of Newton.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krane, K. S.

    1981-01-01

    The general problem of mass accretion by a drop falling through a cloud of droplets is considered as an exercise in introductory or intermediate mechanics. The kinematic behavior of the falling drop is deduced for a variety of mechanisms of mass accretion, and some special limiting conditions are discussed. (Author/SK)

  6. Feasibility study for the City of Twin Falls Sewage Hydroelectric Project in Twin Falls County, Idaho

    SciTech Connect

    1981-08-01

    The City of Twin Falls, Idaho authorized J-U-B Engineers, Inc., to assess the feasibility of installing a small hydropower plant on the discharge of the City's Grandview sewage trunk line. The concept of developing hydropower from sewage flow is novel and may have applications in other areas of the nation if its technical feasibility can be established. No conventional turbine would be suitable in this application without extensively screening the influent. Therefore, finding a turbine which would work satisfactorily, was one of the major aspects of the study. A solution to this problem was found in a staged, non-clog, hydraulic turbine manufactured by Cornell Pump Co. A preliminary design configuration is presented using these turbines. The economical feasibility of the project depends on future sewage flows from Idaho Frozen Foods Company, a large contributor to the present Twin Falls sewage flows. The yearly revenue, would decrease by about one-third, if Idaho Frozen Foods disconnects from the City's sewage system. Therefore, the project is less feasible, economically, without the flow contributed by Idaho Frozen Foods. The cost of energy production is 47 mils per kilowatt-hour (kWh) with this flow, and about 60 mils/kWh without this flow. At the higher flow rate (5 cfs) the total capital investment is estimated to be $270,200 or approximately $2250 per installed kW capacity. Estimated annual energy production at 5.0 cfs is 440,650 kWh with a subsequent first year annual revenue of $59,460. Power could be put on line within nine months of the time the Twin Falls City Council makes a decision to develop the project.

  7. Fall-grown oat to extend the fall grazing season for replacement dairy heifers.

    PubMed

    Coblentz, W K; Brink, G E; Hoffman, P C; Esser, N M; Bertram, M G

    2014-03-01

    Our objective was to assess the pasture productivity and forage characteristics of 2 fall-grown oat (Avena sativa L.) cultivars, specifically for extending the grazing season and reducing reliance on harvested forages by replacement dairy heifers. A total of 160 gravid Holstein heifers (80 heifers/yr) were stratified by weight, and assigned to 1 of 10 identical research pens (8 heifers/pen). Initial body weights were 480 ± 43.5 kg in 2011 and 509 ± 39.4 kg in 2012. During both years of the trial, four 1.0-ha pasture replicates were seeded in August with Ogle oat (Schumitsch Seed Inc., Antigo, WI), and 4 separate, but similarly configured, pasture replicates were seeded with Forage Plus oat (Kratz Farms, Slinger, WI). Heifer groups were maintained as units, assigned to specific pastures, and then allowed to graze fall-oat pastures for 6h daily before returning to the barn, where they were offered a forage-based basal total mixed ration. Two heifer groups were retained in confinement (without grazing) as controls and offered the identical total mixed ration as pasture groups. During 2011, available forage mass increased with strong linear and quadratic effects for both cultivars, peaking at almost 9 Mg/ha on October 31. In contrast, forage mass was not affected by evaluation date in 2012, remaining ≤ 2,639 kg/ha across all dates because of droughty climatic conditions. During 2012, Ogle exhibited greater forage mass than Forage Plus across all sampling dates (2,678 vs. 1,856 kg/ha), largely because of its more rapid maturation rate and greater canopy height. Estimates of energy density for oat forage ranged from 59.6 to 69.1% during 2011, and ranged narrowly from 68.4 to 70.4% during 2012. For 2011, responses for both cultivars had strong quadratic character, in which the most energy-dense forages occurred in mid November, largely due to accumulation of water-soluble carbohydrates that reached maximum concentrations of 18.2 and 15.1% for Forage Plus and Ogle

  8. Fall-grown oat to extend the fall grazing season for replacement dairy heifers.

    PubMed

    Coblentz, W K; Brink, G E; Hoffman, P C; Esser, N M; Bertram, M G

    2014-03-01

    Our objective was to assess the pasture productivity and forage characteristics of 2 fall-grown oat (Avena sativa L.) cultivars, specifically for extending the grazing season and reducing reliance on harvested forages by replacement dairy heifers. A total of 160 gravid Holstein heifers (80 heifers/yr) were stratified by weight, and assigned to 1 of 10 identical research pens (8 heifers/pen). Initial body weights were 480 ± 43.5 kg in 2011 and 509 ± 39.4 kg in 2012. During both years of the trial, four 1.0-ha pasture replicates were seeded in August with Ogle oat (Schumitsch Seed Inc., Antigo, WI), and 4 separate, but similarly configured, pasture replicates were seeded with Forage Plus oat (Kratz Farms, Slinger, WI). Heifer groups were maintained as units, assigned to specific pastures, and then allowed to graze fall-oat pastures for 6h daily before returning to the barn, where they were offered a forage-based basal total mixed ration. Two heifer groups were retained in confinement (without grazing) as controls and offered the identical total mixed ration as pasture groups. During 2011, available forage mass increased with strong linear and quadratic effects for both cultivars, peaking at almost 9 Mg/ha on October 31. In contrast, forage mass was not affected by evaluation date in 2012, remaining ≤ 2,639 kg/ha across all dates because of droughty climatic conditions. During 2012, Ogle exhibited greater forage mass than Forage Plus across all sampling dates (2,678 vs. 1,856 kg/ha), largely because of its more rapid maturation rate and greater canopy height. Estimates of energy density for oat forage ranged from 59.6 to 69.1% during 2011, and ranged narrowly from 68.4 to 70.4% during 2012. For 2011, responses for both cultivars had strong quadratic character, in which the most energy-dense forages occurred in mid November, largely due to accumulation of water-soluble carbohydrates that reached maximum concentrations of 18.2 and 15.1% for Forage Plus and Ogle

  9. Challenges, issues and trends in fall detection systems

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Since falls are a major public health problem among older people, the number of systems aimed at detecting them has increased dramatically over recent years. This work presents an extensive literature review of fall detection systems, including comparisons among various kinds of studies. It aims to serve as a reference for both clinicians and biomedical engineers planning or conducting field investigations. Challenges, issues and trends in fall detection have been identified after the reviewing work. The number of studies using context-aware techniques is still increasing but there is a new trend towards the integration of fall detection into smartphones as well as the use of machine learning methods in the detection algorithm. We have also identified challenges regarding performance under real-life conditions, usability, and user acceptance as well as issues related to power consumption, real-time operations, sensing limitations, privacy and record of real-life falls. PMID:23829390

  10. Development of Fall Detection System Using Ultrasound Sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tajima, Takuya; Abe, Takehiko; Kimura, Haruhiko

    This paper proposes a sensing system for detecting bather's fall. The fall detection system uses ultrasound sensors installed on the ceiling of bathroom to measure the distance between sensor and a bather. The merits of utilizing ultrasound sensor are easy installation and easy use. Moreover the apparatus has an advantage of enhancing the privacy of bathers and having robustness against humidity. In order to detect bather's fall, the proposed system uses the following two methods: status detection and behavior detection. The function of status detection is to estimate bather's postures such as standing and sitting by monitoring the highest part of bather's body. Meanwhile, the function of behavior detection is to grasp the speed of bather's vertical movement by monitoring the change of distance between sensor and the bather. The system estimates the occurrence of bather's fall when the distance changes suddenly. As a result of experiment with some subjects, the system was possible to detect bather's falling behavior with high accuracy.

  11. In-home fall risk assessment and detection sensor system.

    PubMed

    Rantz, Marilyn J; Skubic, Marjorie; Abbott, Carmen; Galambos, Colleen; Pak, Youngju; Ho, Dominic K C; Stone, Erik E; Rui, Liyang; Back, Jessica; Miller, Steven J

    2013-07-01

    Falls are a major problem in older adults. A continuous, unobtrusive, environmentally mounted (i.e., embedded into the environment and not worn by the individual), in-home monitoring system that automatically detects when falls have occurred or when the risk of falling is increasing could alert health care providers and family members to intervene to improve physical function or manage illnesses that may precipitate falls. Researchers at the University of Missouri Center for Eldercare and Rehabilitation Technology are testing such sensor systems for fall risk assessment (FRA) and detection in older adults' apartments in a senior living community. Initial results comparing ground truth (validated measures) of FRA data and GAITRite System parameters with data captured from Microsoft(®) Kinect and pulse-Doppler radar are reported. PMID:23675644

  12. Tailored Calendar Journals to Ascertain Falls Among Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Stark, Susan L; Silianoff, Tara J; Kim, H Lyn; Conte, Jane W; Morris, John C

    2015-01-01

    Although falls are a serious health risk for community-dwelling older adults, their ascertainment has been complicated by issues such as recall and reporting biases. We examined a novel method, individualized tailored calendars, to accurately ascertain falls in older adults. A convenience sample of 125 cognitively normal participants enrolled in longitudinal studies of healthy aging at the Knight Alzheimer's Disease Ressearch Center was followed prospectively for 12 months. Tailored calendar journal pages were used to document falls daily and returned by mail monthly. Participants received a US$5 gift card incentive for each month returned. Participants returned 1,487 of 1,500 calendar months over the 12-month follow-up for 99.1% compliance rate. There were 154 falls reported. Tailored calendar journals and incentives may be effective in ascertaining falls among community-dwelling older adults. This tool could improve the accuracy of outcome measures for occupational therapy interventions. PMID:25866488

  13. Challenges, issues and trends in fall detection systems.

    PubMed

    Igual, Raul; Medrano, Carlos; Plaza, Inmaculada

    2013-01-01

    Since falls are a major public health problem among older people, the number of systems aimed at detecting them has increased dramatically over recent years. This work presents an extensive literature review of fall detection systems, including comparisons among various kinds of studies. It aims to serve as a reference for both clinicians and biomedical engineers planning or conducting field investigations. Challenges, issues and trends in fall detection have been identified after the reviewing work. The number of studies using context-aware techniques is still increasing but there is a new trend towards the integration of fall detection into smartphones as well as the use of machine learning methods in the detection algorithm. We have also identified challenges regarding performance under real-life conditions, usability, and user acceptance as well as issues related to power consumption, real-time operations, sensing limitations, privacy and record of real-life falls.

  14. Participation in Older Adult Physical Activity Programs and Risk for Falls Requiring Medical Care, Washington State, 2005–2011

    PubMed Central

    Rosenberg, Dori E.; Phelan, Elizabeth A.; Fitzpatrick, Annette L.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Physical activity is known to prevent falls; however, use of widely available exercise programs for older adults, including EnhanceFitness and Silver Sneakers, has not been examined in relation to effects on falls among program participants. We aimed to determine whether participation in EnhanceFitness or Silver Sneakers is associated with a reduced risk of falls resulting in medical care. Methods A retrospective cohort study examined a demographically representative sample from a Washington State integrated health system. Health plan members aged 65 or older, including 2,095 EnhanceFitness users, 13,576 Silver Sneakers users, and 55,127 nonusers from 2005 through 2011, were classified as consistent users (used a program ≥2 times in all years they were enrolled in the health plan during the study period); intermittent users (used a program ≥2 times in 1 or more years enrolled but not all years), or nonusers of EnhanceFitness or Silver Sneakers. The main outcome was measured as time-to-first-fall requiring inpatient or out-of-hospital medical treatment based on the International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision, Clinical Modification, Sixth Edition and E-codes. Results In fully adjusted Cox proportional hazards models, consistent (hazard ratio [HR], 0.74; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.63–0.88) and intermittent (HR, 0.87; 95% CI, 0.8–0.94) EnhanceFitness participation were both associated with a reduced risk of falls resulting in medical care. Intermittent Silver Sneakers participation showed a reduced risk (HR, 0.93; 95% CI, 0.90–0.97). Conclusion Participation in widely available community-based exercise programs geared toward older adults (but not specific to fall prevention) reduced the risk of medical falls. Structured programs that include balance and strength exercise, as EnhanceFitness does, may be effective in reducing fall risk. PMID:26068411

  15. Cost-effectiveness and budget impact of Empirical vitamin D therapy on unintentional falls in older adults in the UK

    PubMed Central

    Poole, C D; Smith, J; Davies, J S

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the health outcomes and economics associated with the current guidance relating to the prevention of falls in the elderly through vitamin D supplementation. Setting UK. Participants UK population aged 60 years and above. Interventions A Markov health state transition model simulated patient transitions between key fall-related outcomes using a 5-year horizon and annual cycles to assess the costs and benefits of empirical treatment with colecalciferol 800 iu daily. Primary and secondary outcome measures Costs and health outcomes attributable to fall prevention following vitamin D supplementation. Results Our model shows that treating the UK population aged 60 years and above with 800 iu colecalciferol would, over a 5-year period: (1) prevent in excess of 430 000 minor falls; (2) avoid 190 000 major falls; (3) prevent 1579 acute deaths; (4) avoid 84 000 person-years of long-term care and (5) prevent 8300 deaths associated with increased mortality in long-term care. The greatest gains are seen among those 75 years and older. Based on reduction in falls alone, the intervention in all adults aged 65+ is cost-saving and leads to increased quality adjusted life years. Treating all adults aged 60+ incurs an intervention cost of £2.70bn over 5 years, yet produces a −£3.12bn reduction in fall-related costs; a net saving of £420M. Increasing the lower bound age limit by 5-year increments increases budget impact to −£1.17bn, −£1.75bn, and −£2.06bn for adults 65+, 70+ and 75+, respectively. Conclusions This study shows that treatment of the elderly UK population with colecalciferol 800 iu daily would be associated with reductions in mortality and substantial cost-savings through fall prevention. PMID:26419680

  16. Does progressive resistance and balance exercise reduce falls in residential aged care? Randomized controlled trial protocol for the SUNBEAM program

    PubMed Central

    Hewitt, Jennifer; Refshauge, Kathryn M; Goodall, Stephen; Henwood, Timothy; Clemson, Lindy

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Falls are common among older adults. It is reported that approximately 60% of residents of aged care facilities fall each year. This is a major cause of morbidity and mortality, and a significant burden for health care providers and the health system. Among community dwelling older adults, exercise appears to be an effective countermeasure, but data are limited and inconsistent among studies in residents of aged care communities. This trial has been designed to evaluate whether the SUNBEAM program (Strength and Balance Exercise in Aged Care) reduces falls in residents of aged care facilities. Research question Is the program more effective and cost-effective than usual care for the prevention of falls? Design Single-blinded, two group, cluster randomized trial. Participants and setting 300 residents, living in 20 aged care facilities. Intervention Progressive resistance and balance training under the guidance of a physiotherapist for 6 months, then facility-guided maintenance training for 6 months. Control Usual care. Measurements Number of falls, number of fallers, quality of life, mobility, balance, fear of falling, cognitive well-being, resource use, and cost-effectiveness. Measurements will be taken at baseline, 6 months, and 12 months. Analysis The number of falls will be analyzed using a Poisson mixed model. A logistic mixed model will be used to analyze the number of residents who fall during the study period. Intention-to-treat analysis will be used. Discussion This study addresses a significant shortcoming in aged care research, and has potential to impact upon a substantial health care problem. Outcomes will be used to inform care providers, and guide health care policies. PMID:24591821

  17. The stimuli evoking the aerial-righting posture of falling pea aphids.

    PubMed

    Meresman, Yonatan; Ribak, Gal; Weihs, Daniel; Inbar, Moshe

    2014-10-01

    Some wingless insects possess aerial righting reflexes, suggesting that adaptation for controlling body orientation while falling through air could have preceded flight. When threatened by natural enemies, wingless pea aphids (Acyrthosiphon pisum) may drop off their host plant and assume a stereotypic posture that rotates them in midair to land on their feet. The sensory information triggering aphids to assume this posture has so far been unknown. We subjected aphids to a series of tests, isolating the sensory cues experienced during free-fall. Falling aphids assumed the righting posture and landed upright irrespective of whether the experiments were carried out in the light or in complete darkness. Detachment of the tarsi from the substrate triggered the aphids to assume the posture rapidly, but only for a brief period. Rotation (mainly roll and yaw) of the body in air, in the light, caused aphids to assume the posture and remain in it throughout rotation. In contrast, aphids rotated in the dark did not respond. Acceleration associated with falling or airflow over the body per se did not trigger the posture. However, sensing motion relative to air heightened the aphids' responsiveness to rotation in the light. These results suggest that the righting posture of aphids is triggered by a tarsal reflex, but, once the aphid is airborne, vision and a sense of motion relative to air can augment the response. Hence, aerial righting in a wingless insect could have emerged as a basic tarsal response and developed further to include secondary sensory cues typical of falling. PMID:25104755

  18. Comment and response document for the long-term surveillance plan for the Falls City Disposal Site, Falls City, Texas

    SciTech Connect

    1996-10-01

    This document contains the comments made by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission on the Department of Energy`s (DOE) Long-Term Surveillance Plan for the Falls City Disposal Site, Falls City, Texas. DOE`s responses to the comments are also included.

  19. Defining a Fall and Reasons for Falling: Comparisons among the Views of Seniors, Health Care Providers, and the Research Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zecevic, Aleksandra A.; Salmoni, Alan W.; Speechley, Mark; Vandervoort, Anthony A.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was (a) to obtain information about the perceptions held by seniors and health care providers concerning what constitutes a fall and potential reasons for falling, and (b) to compare these perceptions to the research literature. Design and Methods: As part of a larger telephone survey, interviewers asked 477…

  20. Fall incidents unraveled: a series of 26 video-based real-life fall events in three frail older persons

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background For prevention and detection of falls, it is essential to unravel the way in which older people fall. This study aims to provide a description of video-based real-life fall events and to examine real-life falls using the classification system by Noury and colleagues, which divides a fall into four phases (the prefall, critical, postfall and recovery phase). Methods Observational study of three older persons at high risk for falls, residing in assisted living or residential care facilities: a camera system was installed in each participant’s room covering all areas, using a centralized PC platform in combination with standard Internet Protocol (IP) cameras. After a fall, two independent researchers analyzed recorded images using the camera position with the clearest viewpoint. Results A total of 30 falls occurred of which 26 were recorded on camera over 17 months. Most falls happened in the morning or evening (62%), when no other persons were present (88%). Participants mainly fell backward (initial fall direction and landing configuration) on the pelvis or torso and none could get up unaided. In cases where a call alarm was used (54%), an average of 70 seconds (SD=64; range 15–224) was needed to call for help. Staff responded to the call after an average of eight minutes (SD=8.4; range 2–33). Mean time on the ground was 28 minutes (SD=25.4; range 2–59) without using a call alarm compared to 11 minutes (SD=9.2; range 3–38) when using a call alarm (p=0.445). The real life falls were comparable with the prefall and recovery phase of Noury’s classification system. The critical phase, however, showed a prolonged duration in all falls. We suggest distinguishing two separate phases: a prolonged loss of balance phase and the actual descending phase after failure to recover balance, resulting in the impact of the body on the ground. In contrast to the theoretical description, the postfall phase was not typically characterized by inactivity; this

  1. Postglacial Recession of Niagara Falls in Relation to the Great Lakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tinkler, Keith J.; Pengelly, James W.; Asselin, Gary; Parkins, William G.

    1994-07-01

    The recessional history of Niagara Falls in the present Niagara Gorge during the postglacial period has been a focus of study throughout this century. Radiocarbon ages of clam shells suggest that Niagara Falls migrated very slowly around the narrowed gorge section at Niagara Glen from 10,500 to 5500 yr B.P., when upper Great Lakes water bypassed Lake Erie and flowed to the Ottawa River via the outlet at North Bay, Ontario. Prior to that interval, river discharge and recession rates were similar to those at present, and similar rates resumed after 5200 yr B.P. By about 4500 yr B.P., the present gorge had intersected a buried gorge of the pre-late Wisconsinan Niagara River (St. Davids Gorge). The sediment derived from the excavated buried valley fill may be present as a distinct marker horizon in the sediments in southwestern Lake Ontario.

  2. Effect of the ash Fall on the Human Health at Colima Volcano During 2005-2006.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nieto, A.; Martin, A. L.; Fonseca, R.; Garcia, M.

    2007-05-01

    Colima Volcano in western Mexico had several small ash emitting eruptions during 2005-2006. In this time period we studied the impact of the ash fall on human health through field observations, interviews and health data processing. The volcano was most active in May-June 2005. Data from 15.000 medical records of the Colima and Jalisco State Health Departments show two main health problems in humans during this time: Conjunctivitis was detected in 1,933 people and respiratory disease in 12,630 people in an area of 1,841,283 km2 which was affected by small amounts of ash fall near the volcano in 2005. Ash emissions from Colima Volcano correlate well with increased affections. When emissions increased so did the frequency of these health problems in the population.

  3. Fatal wounds sustained from "falling bullets": maintaining a high index of suspicion in a forensic setting.

    PubMed

    Rapkiewicz, Amy V; Shuman, Mark J; Hutchins, Kenneth D

    2014-01-01

    Celebratory gunfire injuries from "falling bullets" occur when guns are fired into the air during celebrations without realizing that this can cause serious injuries or even fatalities. Fatal celebratory gunfire injury is an uncommonly reported event in the continental United States. Our electronic database was queried for homicides occurring within days of July 4th and December 31st over a 14-year period. We describe two cases of fatal gunfire injury due to celebratory gunfire occurring during New Year's Eve in Southern Florida. The relevant literature is reviewed. These case reports illustrate that fatal gunfire injuries sustained from "falling bullets" may pose as an unexpected mimic to sudden natural deaths especially in patients with prior medical history. A high index of suspicion to recognize such injury is required particularly during holidays.

  4. Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler Surveys of Velocity Downstream of Albeni Falls Dam

    SciTech Connect

    Perkins, William A.; Titzler, P. Scott; Richmond, Marshall C.; Serkowski, John A.; Kallio, Sara E.; Bellgraph, Brian J.

    2010-09-30

    The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE), Seattle District, is studying the potential to locate fish bypass systems at Albeni Falls Dam. The USACE requested Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to survey velocity magnitude and direction in the dam tailrace. The empirical data collected will be used to support future numerical modeling, physical modeling, and evaluation of fish bypass system alternatives. In May 2010, PNNL conducted velocity surveys of the Albeni Falls Dam using a boat-mounted acoustic Doppler current profiler. The surveys were conducted over three days (May 25 through 27). During the survey period, total river discharge at the dam varied between 30.2 and 31.0 kcfs. A small amount of spill discharge, 2 kcfs, was present on two days (May 26 and 27). This report presents data plots showing measured velocity direction and magnitude averaged over the entire depth and over 5-ft depth increments from 5 to 30 ft.

  5. Development and Process Evaluation of a 5-Week Exercise Program to Prevent Falls in People after Stroke: The FALLS Program

    PubMed Central

    van Duijnhoven, H. J. R.; De Kam, D.; Hellebrand, W.; Smulders, E.; Geurts, A. C. H.; Weerdesteyn, V.

    2012-01-01

    Falls are a common complication after stroke, with balance and gait deficits being the most important risk factors. Taking into account the specific needs and capacities of people with stroke, we developed the FALLS program (FALL prevention after Stroke), based on the “Nijmegen falls prevention program” (a proven-effective 5-week exercise program designed for community-dwelling elderly people). The program was tested in twelve community-dwelling persons with stroke, and a process evaluation was conducted with patients, trainers, health care professionals, and managers. The FALLS program was considered suitable and feasible by people with stroke in the study and relevant health care professionals, and recommendations for implementation in clinical practice have been suggested. PMID:22195292

  6. Using falling soap film to visualize flow in a wavy channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monts, Vontravis; Edokpolo, Osazuwa; Mills, Zachary; Alexeev, Alexander

    2014-11-01

    The disturbances created by the walls of a sinusoidal shaped channel lead to the development of unsteady, time periodic flow. This periodic flow is the result of vortex shedding occurring along the crests of the channel walls. We used a falling soap film to investigate the influence of the channel geometry on the flow. In falling soap films, variations in the thickness of the film correspond to streamlines in the flow. These thickness variations are made visible by reflecting monochromatic light off the film. This allows for soap films to be an accurate, but inexpensive method of visualizing two dimensional flows. In our experiments we used a gravity driven soap film flowing through a wavy channel of several periods and used a high speed camera to record the resulting flow. The collected footage was then analyzed to collect data on the flow. From this data we were able to characterize the dependence of the size of the vortices and their shedding frequency on the amplitude and period of the sinusoidal channel walls as well as the Reynolds number of the flow.

  7. The effect of falling particles on the shape and spin rate of an asteroid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasilkova, O.

    2003-05-01

    This simulation is focused on the specific influence of the gravitational field of a very elongated rotating asteroid on the location of zones of the most intensive bombardment by falling particles. It is assumed that the particles are distributed uniformly in the space surrounding the asteroid. The asteroid shape is approximated by a triaxial ellipsoid with semiaxes 28,12,10.5 km (equal to those of asteroid 243 Ida) and by a dumb-bell of the same mass. The computations and appropriate figures show that at a rotation period faster than approximately 9.1 hours for the triaxial ellipsoid model and 3.3 hours for the dumb-bell one the leading sides of the asteroid receive a higher flux of impacting particles than the trailing sides while at slower periods the situation is the opposite. The zones of possible erosion are computed depending on the asteroid rotation period and on the ratio of impact and rebound velocities of particles. The contribution of all impacting particles to the angular momentum of the asteroid is computed, which leads to the conclusion that falling out of particles damps the asteroid rotation at any spin period.

  8. Fruit production and predispersal seed fall and predation in Rhamnus alaternus (Rhamnaceae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bas, Josep M.; Gómez, Crisanto; Pons, Pere

    2005-03-01

    In the reproductive cycle of fleshy-fruited plants, and before the seeds are dispersed, some fruits fall down or are predated on the branches. Here, we study the predispersal biology of Rhamnus alaternus in the north-east of the Iberian Peninsula over a 4-year period. Specifically, we examined fruit production, fructification and the phenology of ripening, together with the causes and the consequences of the predispersal loss in female plants. In addition, we evaluated the influence of the biometric traits and the spatial distribution of plants with regard to these aspects. The total estimated fruit production and fruiting phenology varied between localities and years, and there was no relation either to the plant biometry or to the spatial situation. The ripening period was between April and August, with a mean period of fruit permanence on the branches of 102 days. The maximum presence of ripe fruits was from early June to July, 54 days in average after fruit ripening began. The interaction of animals with the fruits has four important consequences: (a) losses in the initial production due to depredation of seeds, mainly by rodents; (b) direct fall of fruit and seeds under the cover of the female plants due to invertebrate predators of pulp; (c) reduction of the period of fruit availability on the branches; and (d) reduction of the proportion of ripe fruits on branches. In summary, the number of seeds available to be dispersed by frugivorous vertebrates is considerably reduced as a consequence of predispersal effects.

  9. The development of a fear of falling interdisciplinary intervention program

    PubMed Central

    Gomez, Fernando; Curcio, Carmen-Lucia

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To describe the development process of a protocol for a fear of falling interdisciplinary intervention program based on the main factors associated with fear of falling. Design/methods: The process of developing a protocol consisted of defining the target population, selecting the initial assessment components, adapting the intervention program based on findings about fear of falling and restriction of activities in this population. Settings: University-affiliated outpatient vertigo, dizziness and falls clinic in coffee-growers zone of Colombian Andes Mountains. Results: An intervention program was developed based on three main falling conceptual models. A medical intervention, based on a biomedical and pathophysiological model, a physiotherapeutic intervention based on a postural control model and a psychological intervention based on a biological-behavioral model. Conclusion: This interdisciplinary fear of falling intervention program developed is based on particular characteristics of target population, with differences in the inclusion criteria and the program intervention components; with emphasis on medical (recurrent falls and dizziness evaluation and management), psychological (cognitive-behavioral therapy) and physiotherapeutic (balance and transfers training) components. PMID:18225468

  10. Incidence and predicting factors of falls of older inpatients

    PubMed Central

    Abreu, Hellen Cristina de Almeida; Reiners, Annelita Almeida Oliveira; Azevedo, Rosemeiry Capriata de Souza; da Silva, Ageo Mário Cândido; Abreu, Débora Regina de Oliveira Moura; de Oliveira, Adriana Delmondes

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To estimate the incidence and predicting factors associated with falls among older inpatients. METHODS Prospective cohort study conducted in clinical units of three hospitals in Cuiaba, MT, Midwestern Brazil, from March to August 2013. In this study, 221 inpatients aged 60 or over were followed until hospital discharge, death, or fall. The method of incidence density was used to calculate incidence rates. Bivariate analysis was performed by Chi-square test, and multiple analysis was performed by Cox regression. RESULTS The incidence of falls was 12.6 per 1,000 patients/day. Predicting factors for falls during hospitalization were: low educational level (RR = 2.48; 95%CI 1.17;5.25), polypharmacy (RR = 4.42; 95%CI 1.77;11.05), visual impairment (RR = 2.06; 95%CI 1.01;4.23), gait and balance impairment (RR = 2.95; 95%CI 1.22;7.14), urinary incontinence (RR = 5.67; 95%CI 2.58;12.44) and use of laxatives (RR = 4.21; 95%CI 1.15;15.39) and antipsychotics (RR = 4.10; 95%CI 1.38;12.13). CONCLUSIONS The incidence of falls of older inpatients is high. Predicting factors found for falls were low education level, polypharmacy, visual impairment, gait and balance impairment, urinary incontinence and use of laxatives and antipsychotics. Measures to prevent falls in hospitals are needed to reduce the incidence of this event. PMID:26083943

  11. Research on Fall Prevention and Protection from Heights in Japan

    PubMed Central

    OHDO, Katsutoshi; HINO, Yasumichi; TAKAHASHI, Hiroki

    2014-01-01

    The high frequency of fall accidents is a serious problem in Japan. Thus, more stringent countermeasures for preventing falls from scaffolds were developed and incorporated into institutional guidelines. These countermeasures aim to decrease deaths caused by falls from scaffolds. Despite the improvements in such measures, however, the rate of accidental fall deaths remains high in Japan’s construction industries. To improve the rigor of the countermeasures, a committee was established in our institute by the Japan Ministry of Health, Labour, and Welfare. This committee investigated the regulations applied in other countries and evaluated construction industry compliance with existing fall prevention guidelines. After considerable research and discussion, the Occupational Safety and Health Regulations and Guidelines were amended in 2009. The effects of the amended regulations have recently been investigated on the basis of accident reports. This paper describes the investigation and its results. The paper also discusses other research and workplace safety countermeasures for preventing falls and ensuring fall protection from heights. PMID:25098387

  12. Development of a Pediatric Fall Risk And Injury Reduction Program.

    PubMed

    Kramlich, Debra L; Dende, Denise

    2016-01-01

    Fall prevention programs that include reliable, valid, and clinically tested screening tools have demonstrated more positive effects for adult and geriatric populations than those not including such assessment. In contrast, because falling is a natural part of growth and development for pediatric patients, progression toward effective prevention programs for this population has proven to be a challenge; a significant impediment is the lack of definition regarding what constitutes a reportable fall. This project explored pediatric health care providers' perceptions of patient falls in order to define a reportable pediatric fall and inform development of a prevention program. A concept analysis of defining attributes, antecedents, and consequences of pediatric falls from literature formed the basis for a set of questions; a convenience sample of 28 pediatric health care providers in an acute care hospital in New England participated in six moderated focus groups. Constant comparison method was used to code the qualitative data and develop themes. Participants unanimously agreed on several points; as expected, their years of experience in pediatric practice provided valuable insight. Three major themes emerged: patient characteristics, caregiver characteristics, and environmental characteristics. Based on factors identified by staff, a screening tool was adopted and integrated into the electronic medical record. Staff were actively engaged in developing definitions, selecting tools, and identifying next steps toward a comprehensive fall reduction program for their patients. As a result, they have embraced changes and advocated successfully for endorsement by the organization. PMID:27254976

  13. Development of a Pediatric Fall Risk And Injury Reduction Program.

    PubMed

    Kramlich, Debra L; Dende, Denise

    2016-01-01

    Fall prevention programs that include reliable, valid, and clinically tested screening tools have demonstrated more positive effects for adult and geriatric populations than those not including such assessment. In contrast, because falling is a natural part of growth and development for pediatric patients, progression toward effective prevention programs for this population has proven to be a challenge; a significant impediment is the lack of definition regarding what constitutes a reportable fall. This project explored pediatric health care providers' perceptions of patient falls in order to define a reportable pediatric fall and inform development of a prevention program. A concept analysis of defining attributes, antecedents, and consequences of pediatric falls from literature formed the basis for a set of questions; a convenience sample of 28 pediatric health care providers in an acute care hospital in New England participated in six moderated focus groups. Constant comparison method was used to code the qualitative data and develop themes. Participants unanimously agreed on several points; as expected, their years of experience in pediatric practice provided valuable insight. Three major themes emerged: patient characteristics, caregiver characteristics, and environmental characteristics. Based on factors identified by staff, a screening tool was adopted and integrated into the electronic medical record. Staff were actively engaged in developing definitions, selecting tools, and identifying next steps toward a comprehensive fall reduction program for their patients. As a result, they have embraced changes and advocated successfully for endorsement by the organization.

  14. Detecting Falls as Novelties in Acceleration Patterns Acquired with Smartphones

    PubMed Central

    Medrano, Carlos; Igual, Raul; Plaza, Inmaculada; Castro, Manuel

    2014-01-01

    Despite being a major public health problem, falls in the elderly cannot be detected efficiently yet. Many studies have used acceleration as the main input to discriminate between falls and activities of daily living (ADL). In recent years, there has been an increasing interest in using smartphones for fall detection. The most promising results have been obtained by supervised Machine Learning algorithms. However, a drawback of these approaches is that they rely on falls simulated by young or mature people, which might not represent every possible fall situation and might be different from older people's falls. Thus, we propose to tackle the problem of fall detection by applying a kind of novelty detection methods which rely only on true ADL. In this way, a fall is any abnormal movement with respect to ADL. A system based on these methods could easily adapt itself to new situations since new ADL could be recorded continuously and the system could be re-trained on the fly. The goal of this work is to explore the use of such novelty detectors by selecting one of them and by comparing it with a state-of-the-art traditional supervised method under different conditions. The data sets we have collected were recorded with smartphones. Ten volunteers simulated eight type of falls, whereas ADL were recorded while they carried the phone in their real life. Even though we have not collected data from the elderly, the data sets were suitable to check the adaptability of novelty detectors. They have been made publicly available to improve the reproducibility of our results. We have studied several novelty detection methods, selecting the nearest neighbour-based technique (NN) as the most suitable. Then, we have compared NN with the Support Vector Machine (SVM). In most situations a generic SVM outperformed an adapted NN. PMID:24736626

  15. Detecting falls as novelties in acceleration patterns acquired with smartphones.

    PubMed

    Medrano, Carlos; Igual, Raul; Plaza, Inmaculada; Castro, Manuel

    2014-01-01

    Despite being a major public health problem, falls in the elderly cannot be detected efficiently yet. Many studies have used acceleration as the main input to discriminate between falls and activities of daily living (ADL). In recent years, there has been an increasing interest in using smartphones for fall detection. The most promising results have been obtained by supervised Machine Learning algorithms. However, a drawback of these approaches is that they rely on falls simulated by young or mature people, which might not represent every possible fall situation and might be different from older people's falls. Thus, we propose to tackle the problem of fall detection by applying a kind of novelty detection methods which rely only on true ADL. In this way, a fall is any abnormal movement with respect to ADL. A system based on these methods could easily adapt itself to new situations since new ADL could be recorded continuously and the system could be re-trained on the fly. The goal of this work is to explore the use of such novelty detectors by selecting one of them and by comparing it with a state-of-the-art traditional supervised method under different conditions. The data sets we have collected were recorded with smartphones. Ten volunteers simulated eight type of falls, whereas ADL were recorded while they carried the phone in their real life. Even though we have not collected data from the elderly, the data sets were suitable to check the adaptability of novelty detectors. They have been made publicly available to improve the reproducibility of our results. We have studied several novelty detection methods, selecting the nearest neighbour-based technique (NN) as the most suitable. Then, we have compared NN with the Support Vector Machine (SVM). In most situations a generic SVM outperformed an adapted NN.

  16. Barometric pressure and triaxial accelerometry-based falls event detection.

    PubMed

    Bianchi, Federico; Redmond, Stephen J; Narayanan, Michael R; Cerutti, Sergio; Lovell, Nigel H

    2010-12-01

    Falls and fall related injuries are a significant cause of morbidity, disability, and health care utilization, particularly among the age group of 65 years and over. The ability to detect falls events in an unsupervised manner would lead to improved prognoses for falls victims. Several wearable accelerometry and gyroscope-based falls detection devices have been described in the literature; however, they all suffer from unacceptable false positive rates. This paper investigates the augmentation of such systems with a barometric pressure sensor, as a surrogate measure of altitude, to assist in discriminating real fall events from normal activities of daily living. The acceleration and air pressure data are recorded using a wearable device attached to the subject's waist and analyzed offline. The study incorporates several protocols including simulated falls onto a mattress and simulated activities of daily living, in a cohort of 20 young healthy volunteers (12 male and 8 female; age: 23.7 ±3.0 years). A heuristically trained decision tree classifier is used to label suspected falls. The proposed system demonstrated considerable improvements in comparison to an existing accelerometry-based technique; showing an accuracy, sensitivity and specificity of 96.9%, 97.5%, and 96.5%, respectively, in the indoor environment, with no false positives generated during extended testing during activities of daily living. This is compared to 85.3%, 75%, and 91.5% for the same measures, respectively, when using accelerometry alone. The increased specificity of this system may enhance the usage of falls detectors among the elderly population.

  17. Factors associated with falls among older adults living in institutions

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Falls have enormous impact in older adults. Yet, there is insufficient evidence regarding the effectiveness of preventive interventions in this setting. The objectives were to measure the frequency of falls and associated factors among older people living institutions. Methods Data were obtained from a survey on a probabilistic sample of residents aged ≥65 years, drawn in 1998-99 from institutions of Madrid (Spain). Residents, their caregivers, and facility physicians were interviewed. Fall rates were computed based on the number of physician-reported falls in the preceding 30 days. Adjusted rate ratios were computed using negative binomial regression models, including age, sex, cognitive status, functional dependence, number of diseases, and polypharmacy. Results The final sample comprised 733 residents. The fall rate was 2.4 falls per person-year (95% confidence interval [CI], 2.04-2.82). The strongest risk factor was number of diseases, with an adjusted rate ratio (RR) of 1.32 (95% CI, 1.17-1.50) for each additional diagnosis. Other variables associated with falls were: urinary incontinence (RR = 2.56 [95% CI, 1.32-4.94]); antidepressant use (RR = 2.32 [95% CI, 1.22-4.40]); arrhythmias (RR = 2.00 [95% CI, 1.05-3.81]); and polypharmacy (RR = 1.07 [95% CI, 0.95-1.21], for each additional medication). The attributable fraction for number of diseases (with reference to those with ≤ 1 condition) was 84% (95% CI, 45-95%). Conclusions Number of diseases was the main risk factor for falls in this population of institutionalized older adults. Other variables associated with falls, probably more amenable to preventive action, were urinary incontinence, antidepressants, arrhythmias, and polypharmacy. Virtual slides The virtual slide(s) for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/3916151157277337 PMID:23320746

  18. Barometric pressure and triaxial accelerometry-based falls event detection.

    PubMed

    Bianchi, Federico; Redmond, Stephen J; Narayanan, Michael R; Cerutti, Sergio; Lovell, Nigel H

    2010-12-01

    Falls and fall related injuries are a significant cause of morbidity, disability, and health care utilization, particularly among the age group of 65 years and over. The ability to detect falls events in an unsupervised manner would lead to improved prognoses for falls victims. Several wearable accelerometry and gyroscope-based falls detection devices have been described in the literature; however, they all suffer from unacceptable false positive rates. This paper investigates the augmentation of such systems with a barometric pressure sensor, as a surrogate measure of altitude, to assist in discriminating real fall events from normal activities of daily living. The acceleration and air pressure data are recorded using a wearable device attached to the subject's waist and analyzed offline. The study incorporates several protocols including simulated falls onto a mattress and simulated activities of daily living, in a cohort of 20 young healthy volunteers (12 male and 8 female; age: 23.7 ±3.0 years). A heuristically trained decision tree classifier is used to label suspected falls. The proposed system demonstrated considerable improvements in comparison to an existing accelerometry-based technique; showing an accuracy, sensitivity and specificity of 96.9%, 97.5%, and 96.5%, respectively, in the indoor environment, with no false positives generated during extended testing during activities of daily living. This is compared to 85.3%, 75%, and 91.5% for the same measures, respectively, when using accelerometry alone. The increased specificity of this system may enhance the usage of falls detectors among the elderly population. PMID:20805056

  19. Period meter for reactors

    DOEpatents

    Rusch, Gordon K.

    1976-01-06

    An improved log N amplifier type nuclear reactor period meter with reduced probability for noise-induced scrams is provided. With the reactor at low power levels a sampling circuit is provided to determine the reactor period by measuring the finite change in the amplitude of the log N amplifier output signal for a predetermined time period, while at high power levels, differentiation of the log N amplifier output signal provides an additional measure of the reactor period.

  20. Assessment of suspended-sediment transport, bedload, and dissolved oxygen during a short-term drawdown of Fall Creek Lake, Oregon, winter 2012-13

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schenk, Liam N.; Bragg, Heather M.

    2014-01-01

    The drawdown of Fall Creek Lake resulted in the net transport of approximately 50,300 tons of sediment from the lake during a 6-day drawdown operation, based on computed daily values of suspended-sediment load downstream of Fall Creek Dam and the two main tributaries to Fall Creek Lake. A suspended-sediment budget calculated for 72 days of the study period indicates that as a result of drawdown operations, there was approximately 16,300 tons of sediment deposition within the reaches of Fall Creek and the Middle Fork Willamette River between Fall Creek Dam and the streamgage on the Middle Fork Willamette River at Jasper, Oregon. Bedload samples collected at the station downstream of Fall Creek Dam during the drawdown were primarily composed of medium to fine sands and accounted for an average of 11 percent of the total instantaneous sediment load (also termed sediment discharge) during sample collection. Monitoring of dissolved oxygen at the station downstream of Fall Creek Dam showed an initial decrease in dissolved oxygen concurrent with the sediment release over the span of 5 hours, though the extent of dissolved oxygen depletion is unknown because of extreme and rapid fouling of the probe by the large amount of sediment in transport. Dissolved oxygen returned to background levels downstream of Fall Creek Dam on December 18, 2012, approximately 1 day after the end of the drawdown operation.