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Sample records for fall premigratory period

  1. Roosting behavior of premigratory Dunlins (Calidris alpina)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Handel, Colleen M.; Gill, Robert E.

    1992-01-01

    We studied roosting behavior of Dunlins (Calidris alpina) during late summer along the coast of the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta, Alaska, in relation to tidal cycle, time of day, time of season, and occurrence of predators. Within Angyoyaravak Bay, peak populations of 70,000-100,000 Dunlins occur each year. The major diurnal roost sites were adjacent to intertidal feeding areas, provided an unobstructed view of predators, and were close to shallow waters used for bathing. At one site studied intensively, roosting flocks formed at high water consistently during the day but rarely at night. On about 75% of the days, Dunlins also came to the roost at dawn and dusk when the tide was low. The size of the roosting flock, the length of time birds spent at the roost site, and behavior at the roost site were highly variable throughout the season and significantly affected by both tide level and time of day. Roosting behavior changed significantly between early and late August, as Dunlins underwent heavy wing and body molt, and began premigratory fattening. The reaction of Dunlins to potential predators, the formation of roosting flocks in response to light cues, and seasonal changes in social behavior at the roost site suggested that communal roosting behavior may be related not only to the risk of predation but also to behavior during migration.

  2. Falls

    MedlinePlus

    A fall can change your life. If you're elderly, it can lead to disability and a loss of independence. If your bones are fragile from osteoporosis, you could break a bone, often a hip. But aging alone doesn't make people fall. Diabetes and heart disease affect balance. So do ...

  3. Periodic orbits in the free-fall three-body problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orlov, V. V.; Titov, V. A.; Shombina, L. A.

    2016-12-01

    Periodic solutions of the general free-fall three-body problem are investigated for the case of equal masses. The initial conditions are chosen on a Hill surface in form space. The use of the form space reduces the dimension of the problem and makes it possible to represent the region of possible initial conditions on the Hill surface, together with a color scale. The regions obtained can be used to improve the precision of the initial conditions for the periodic orbits in the free-fall three-body problem.

  4. On the periodic motion of a disk falling freely in a tube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brosse, Nicolas; Ern, Patricia

    2010-11-01

    Freely falling or rising particles in an unconfined low-viscosity fluid otherwise at rest are known to exhibit oscillatory motions, such as helicoidal or zigzag paths. In this work, we characterized experimentally the oscillatory motions of disks falling in a tube at Reynolds numbers 60 < Re < 250, covering both rectilinear and periodic motions. The fall of the bodies (of density close to that of the fluid) was followed by two travelling cameras to determine the body's translation and rotation characteristics. We focused on the effect of the confinement factor (ratio of the diameter of the body, d, to that of the tube, D). The study was carried on for different body's aspect ratio (ratio of its diameter d to thickness h, taken as 3, 6 and 10), since this parameter is known to strongly influence the characteristics of the oscillatory motions observed in the unconfined situation.

  5. cMyc Regulates the Size of the Premigratory Neural Crest Stem Cell Pool.

    PubMed

    Kerosuo, Laura; Bronner, Marianne E

    2016-12-06

    The neural crest is a transient embryonic population that originates within the central nervous system (CNS) and then migrates into the periphery and differentiates into multiple cell types. The mechanisms that govern neural crest stem-like characteristics and self-renewal ability are poorly understood. Here, we show that the proto-oncogene cMyc is a critical factor in the chick dorsal neural tube, where it regulates the size of the premigratory neural crest stem cell pool. Loss of cMyc dramatically decreases the number of emigrating neural crest cells due to reduced self-renewal capacity, increased cell death, and shorter duration of the emigration process. Interestingly, rather than via E-Box binding, cMyc acts in the dorsal neural tube by interacting with another transcription factor, Miz1, to promote self-renewal. The finding that cMyc operates in a non-canonical manner in the premigratory neural crest highlights the importance of examining its role at specific time points and in an in vivo context.

  6. Hydraulic Characteristics of the Lower Snake River During Periods of Juvenile Fall Chinook Migration

    SciTech Connect

    Cook, Chris B.; Dibrani, Berhon; Richmond, Marshall C.; Bleich, Matthew D.; Titzler, P. Scott; Fu, Tao

    2006-01-30

    This report documents a four-year study to assess hydraulic conditions in the lower Snake River. The work was conducted for the Bonneville Power Administration, U.S. Department of Energy, by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. Cold water released from the Dworshak Reservoir hypolimnion during mid- to late-summer months cools the Clearwater River far below equilibrium temperature. The volume of released cold water augments the Clearwater River, and the combined total discharge is on the order of the Snake River discharge when the two rivers meet at their confluence near the upstream edge of Lower Granite Reservoir. With typical temperature differences between the Clearwater and Snake rivers of 10°C or more during July and August, the density difference between the two rivers during summer flow augmentation periods is sufficient to stratify Lower Granite Reservoir as well as the other three reservoirs downstream. Because cooling of the river is desirable for migrating juvenile fall Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) during this same time period, the amount of mixing and cold water entrained into Lower Granite Reservoir’s epilimnion at the Clearwater/Snake River confluence is of key biological importance to juvenile fall Chinook salmon. Data collected during this project indicates the three reservoirs downstream of Lower Granite also stratify as direct result of flow augmentation from Dworshak Reservoir. These four lower Snake reservoirs are also heavily influenced by wind forcing at the water’s surface, and during periods of low river discharge, often behave like a two-layer lake. During these periods of stratification, lower river discharge, and wind forcing, the water in the upper layer of the reservoir is held in place or moves slightly upstream. This upper layer is also exposed to surface heating and may warm up to temperatures close to equilibrium temperature. The depth of this upper warm layer and its direction of travel may also be of key

  7. Comparison of Sunphotometric Measurements During the Fall 1997 ARM Intensive Observation Period

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Michalsky, J. J.; Schmid, B.; Halthore, R. N.; Pavloski, C. F.; Ackerman, T. P.; Beauharnois, M. C.; Harrison, L. C.; Livingston, J. M.; Russell, P. B.

    2000-01-01

    In the Fall of 1997 the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program held an intensive observation period (IOP) to study atmospheric aerosols using in situ and remote sensing techniques at its Southern Great Plains (SGP) site near Lamont, Oklahoma. As part of this experiment five automated, tracking sunphotometers were present to measure total column aerosol optical depth over the three-week period. which included many clear days or parts of days that were clear. The World Meteorological Organization (WMO 1993) has recommended a comparison of tracking sunphotometers to assess the ability of different instruments to arrive at similar aerosol optical depths. It was further recommended that the comparison be staged at a clean mountain site. In fact, this comparison has not occurred, but the comparison that we describe in this paper is representative of what contemporary instruments may accomplish in an environment more typical of sites where aerosols measurements will be required. The measurements were made over the period 15 September to 5 October 1997. The aerosol loading varied from extremely clean to moderately turbid conditions. In the next section the instruments will be described along with a brief explanation of the calibration techniques. The third section contains the results compared graphically on moderately turbid and fairly clean days and in a table representing the whole period. The paper ends with a section of discussion and a summary of the results.

  8. Factors associated with the risk of fall in adults in the postoperative period: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    da Mata, Luciana Regina Ferreira; Azevedo, Cissa; Policarpo, Aryanne Gabrielle; Moraes, Juliano Teixeira

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: to assess the factors associated with the risk of fall in patients undergoing surgical procedures. Method: quantitative and cross-sectional study carried out with 257 adult patients in a hospital in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. Data were collected using the sociodemographic and clinical questionnaire, the Morse Fall Scale, and the Quality of Recovery Score. Data were submitted to descriptive statistical analysis and multinomial logistic regression. The level of significance was set at 0.05. Results: 35.4% of patients had high risk of falls, 38.9% had moderate risk and 25.7% had low risk. The mean value in the surgical recovery scale was 175.37 points and no patient presented poor surgical recovery. Regarding the results of the bivariate analysis, it was found that age (p<0.001), SAH (p<0.001) and diabetes (p=0.017) were positively associated with high risk of fall, whereas cancer (p=0.004) was positively associated with moderate risk of fall. Surgical recovery (p=0,008) was inversely associated with high risk of fall. Conclusion: the results of this study allowed the identification of five factors associated with the risk of fall in adults in the postoperative hospital stay. These findings may support the planning of nursing actions aimed at preventing the risk of fall in the postoperative period. PMID:28614431

  9. Comparison of Columnar Water Vapor Measurements During The Fall 1997 ARM Intensive Observation Period: Optical Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmid, Beat; Michalsky, J.; Slater, D.; Barnard, J.; Halthore, R.; Liljegren, J.; Holben, B.; Eck, T.; Livingston, J.; Russell, P.; hide

    2000-01-01

    In the fall of 1997 the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM program conducted an intensive Observation Period (IOP) to study water vapor at its Southern Great Plains (SGP) site. Among the large number of instruments, four sun-tracking radiometers were present to measure the columnar water vapor (CWV). All four solar radiometers retrieve CWV by measuring solar transmittance in the 0.94-micrometer water vapor absorption band. As one of the steps in the CWV retrievals the aerosol component is subtracted from the total transmittance, in the 0.94-micrometer band. The aerosol optical depth comparisons among the same four radiometers are presented elsewhere. We have used three different methods to retrieve CWV. Without attempting to standardize on the same radiative transfer model and its underlying water vapor spectroscopy we found the CWV to agree within 0.13 cm (rms) for CWV values ranging from 1 to 5 cm. Preliminary results obtained when using the same updated radiative transfer model with updated spectroscopy for all instruments will also be shown. Comparisons to the microwave radiometer results will be included in the comparisons.

  10. The hormonal regulation of premigratory fat deposition and winter fattening in red-winged blackbirds.

    PubMed

    Hintz, J V

    2000-02-01

    Glucagon is a highly potent lipolytic agent in birds and a candidate for regulating premigratory and winter fattening. The seasonal role of glucagon in fat metabolism was determined by monitoring plasma glucagon, fatty acids and glucose in two groups of red-winged blackbirds; one group exposed to outside environmental conditions (September to May) and a second group maintained at summer conditions with respect to day length and temperature. The results of this investigation demonstrate significantly lower plasma glucagon (480.1 pg/ml) in birds exposed to outdoor conditions than in birds maintained at summer conditions (734.6 pg/ml) during September/October. The data are consistent with the view that low plasma glucagon in outdoor birds ensures the preservation of fat stores for autumn migration. Lower plasma free fatty acid (FFA) levels (0.35 mEq/l) in outdoor birds (vs. 0.54 mEq/l in indoor birds) in autumn may reflect the rapid transport of FFA to adipose tissue for lipogenesis resulting in a steady increase in body weight from September to January. The sharp decline in plasma FFA in indoor birds from 0.54 mEq/l in September/October to 0.28 mEq/l in January/February may be attributed to a marked decrease in food consumption, rather than a dramatic change in the rate of lipid transport from blood to muscle or adipose tissue. Glucagon injections caused a 600% increase in plasma FFA and a more modest (50%) increase in plasma glucose. This confirms the major role of glucagon in fat mobilization. Its lipolytic effects, however, can vary seasonally by way of down regulation of glucagon receptors. Down regulation of glucagon receptors in adipose tissue and the associated reduced sensitivity of adipocytes to the lipolytic action of glucagon would account for the progressive increase in weight of the birds throughout November/December when plasma glucagon levels were significantly higher (578.9 pg/ml) in outdoor birds as compared to indoor birds (436.9 pg/ml). Lower

  11. Electrode fall voltage of arc between deion plates during direct-current interruption period

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yokomizu, Y.; Ueda, Y.; Matsumura, T.; Ichikawa, T.; Niwa, Y.; Sakaguchi, W.

    2017-07-01

    A direct-current low-voltage circuit breaker has an arc chute that consists of a stack of several metallic deion plates. The deion plate is also called a splitter plate. The function of the deion plates is to split the arc into several series short-gap arcs. This phenomenon leads to the emergence of electrode fall voltages in the arc chute, eventually contributing to rise in the total arc-voltage in the circuit breaker and to successful current-interruption. The electrode fall voltage therefore plays an important role for successful current-interruption. The present paper describes the estimation result for the electrode fall voltage {{v}\\text{ele}} of the arc between steel deion plates. The estimation is performed by using a newly devised method. This method utilizes the voltage {{v}\\text{chute}} measured across the arc chute and eventually derives {{v}\\text{ele}} on the basis of the statistics: a correlation coefficient between an arc-column electric-field strength {{E}\\text{col}} and an arc current i. Adopting the devised method enabled us to derive 19 V as {{v}\\text{ele}} . Verification is furthermore made to show the validity of the determined electrode-fall voltage, 19 V.

  12. Beef heifer growth and reproductive performance following two levels of pasture allowance during the fall grazing period.

    PubMed

    Bailey, B L; Griggs, T C; Rayburn, E B; Krause, K M

    2014-08-01

    The objective of this study was to compare heifer growth and reproductive performance following 2 levels of stockpiled fall forage allowance of orchardgrass (30.5%) and tall fescue (14.1%). Spring-born heifers (n = 203 and BW = 246 ± 28.9 kg) of primarily Angus background were allocated to 2 grazing treatments during the fall period (November 12 to December 17 in yr 1, November 7 to January 4 in yr 2, and November 7 to January 14 in yr 3) each replicated 3 times per year for 3 yr. Treatments consisted of daily pasture DM allowance of 3.5% of BW (LO) or daily pasture DM allowance of 7.0% of BW (HI) under strip-grazing management. Throughout the winter feeding period, mixed grass-legume haylage and soybean hulls were fed. Heifers were grazed as 1 group under continuous stocking after the winter period. Heifers in the LO group gained less than heifers in the HI group during the fall grazing period (0.12 vs. 0.40 kg/d; P < 0.0001). For each 1 10 g increase in NDF/kg fall pasture (DM basis), fall ADG decreased 0.14 kg (P = 0.01). During winter feeding, ADG was 0.30 and 0.39 kg/d for LO vs. HI heifers, respectively (P = 0.0008). During the spring grazing period (April 16 to May 24 in yr 1, April 22 to May 26 in yr 2, and April 5 to May 16 in yr 3), LO heifers had numerically greater ADG than HI heifers (1.38 vs. 1.30 kg/d; P = 0.64). Hip height (122.7 vs. 121.4 cm; P = 0.0055), BCS (5.8 vs. 5.6; P = 0.0057), and BW (356 vs. 335 kg; P < 0.0001) at the end of spring grazing was greater for HI than LO heifers. Heifers in the LO group compensated with greater summer ADG than heifers in the HI group (0.74 vs. 0.66 kg/d; P = 0.03). Total ADG from treatment initiation (November) through pregnancy diagnosis (August) was greater for HI than LO heifers (0.61 vs. 0.55 kg/d; P < 0.001) as was BW at pregnancy diagnosis (415 vs. 402 kg; P = 0.0055). Percentage of heifers reaching puberty by the time of AI was 34% for both groups (P = 0.93). Percentage of heifers becoming pregnant to

  13. The rise and fall of periodic 'drumbeat' seismicity at Tungurahua volcano, Ecuador

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, Andrew F.; Hernandez, Stephen; Gaunt, H. Elizabeth; Mothes, Patricia; Ruiz, Mario; Sierra, Daniel; Aguaiza, Santiago

    2017-10-01

    Highly periodic 'drumbeat' long period (LP) earthquakes have been described from several andesitic and dacitic volcanoes, commonly accompanying incremental ascent and effusion of viscous magma. However, the processes controlling the occurrence and characteristics of drumbeat, and LP earthquakes more generally, remain contested. Here we use new quantitative tools to describe the emergence, evolution, and degradation of drumbeat LP seismicity at the andesitic Tungurahua volcano, Ecuador, in April 2015. The signals were recorded during an episode of minor explosive activity and ash emission, without lava effusion, and are the first to be reported at Tungurahua during the ongoing 17 yrs of eruption. Following four days of high levels of continuous and 'pulsed' tremor, highly-periodic LP earthquakes first appear on 10 April. Over the next four days, inter-event times and event amplitudes evolve through a series of step-wise transitions between stable behaviors, each involving a decrease in the degree of periodicity. Families of similar waveforms persist before, during, and after drumbeat activity, but the activity levels of different families change coincidentally with transitions in event rate, amplitude, and periodicity. A complex micro-seismicity 'initiation' sequence shows pulse-like and stepwise changes in inter-event times and amplitudes in the hours preceding the onset of drumbeat activity that indicate a partial de-coupling between event size and rate. The observations increase the phenomenology of drumbeat LP earthquakes, and suggest that at Tungurahua they result from gas flux and rapid depressurization controlled by shear failure of the margins of the ascending magma column.

  14. Enhancement of ARM surface meteorological observations during the fall 1996 water vapor intensive observation period.

    SciTech Connect

    Richardson, S. J.; Splitt, M. E.; Lesht, B. M.; Environmental Research; Univ.of Oklahoma; Univ. of Utah

    2000-03-01

    This work describes in situ moisture sensor comparisons that were performed in conjunction with the first Water Vapor Intensive Observation Period (IOP) conducted at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program Southern Great Plains (SGP) Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) site during September of 1996. Two Raman lidars, two Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometers, (AERIs), and a suite of 13 microwave radiometers were assembled at the CART site during the IOP, and in situ measurements were used for calibration and verification. In addition, this work was meant to help assess the current observing strategy in an effort to make improvements to the routine continuous measurements. To accomplish these goals, verification of the in situ measurements was required. Therefore, a laboratory intercomparison of the in situ moisture sensors (nine capacitive chip relative humidity sensors and four chilled mirror sensors) was performed at the Oklahoma Mesonet temperature and relative humidity testing and calibration facility. Tests were conducted both before and after the instruments were used in the IOP, making it possible to detect instrument problems prior to the IOP and to determine if instrument failure or drift occurred during the IOP.

  15. Hydraulic Characteristics of the Lower Snake River during Periods of Juvenile Fall Chinook Salmon Migration, 2002-2006 Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Cook, C.; Dibrani, B.; Richmond, M.; Bleich, M.; Titzler, P..; Fu, T.

    2006-01-01

    This report documents a four-year study to assess hydraulic conditions in the lower Snake River. The work was conducted for the Bonneville Power Administration, U.S. Department of Energy, by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. Cold water released from the Dworshak Reservoir hypolimnion during mid- to late-summer months cools the Clearwater River far below equilibrium temperature. The volume of released cold water augments the Clearwater River, and the combined total discharge is on the order of the Snake River discharge when the two rivers meet at their confluence near the upstream edge of Lower Granite Reservoir. With typical temperature differences between the Clearwater and Snake rivers of 10 C or more during July and August, the density difference between the two rivers during summer flow augmentation periods is sufficient to stratify Lower Granite Reservoir as well as the other three reservoirs downstream. Because cooling of the river is desirable for migrating juvenile fall Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) during this same time period, the amount of mixing and cold water entrained into Lower Granite Reservoir's epilimnion at the Clearwater/Snake River confluence is of key biological importance. Data collected during this project indicates the three reservoirs downstream of Lower Granite also stratify as direct result of flow augmentation from Dworshak Reservoir. These four reservoirs are also heavily influenced by wind forcing at the water's surface and during periods of low river discharge often behave like a two-layer lake. During these periods of stratification, lower river discharge, and wind forcing, the water in the upper layer of the reservoir is held in place or moves slightly upstream. This upper layer is also exposed to surface heating and may warm up to temperatures close to equilibrium temperature. The thickness (depth) of this upper warm layer and its direction of travel may be of key biological importance to juvenile fall Chinook

  16. Factors associated with the risk of fall in adults in the postoperative period: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Mata, Luciana Regina Ferreira da; Azevedo, Cissa; Policarpo, Aryanne Gabrielle; Moraes, Juliano Teixeira

    2017-06-08

    to assess the factors associated with the risk of fall in patients undergoing surgical procedures. quantitative and cross-sectional study carried out with 257 adult patients in a hospital in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. Data were collected using the sociodemographic and clinical questionnaire, the Morse Fall Scale, and the Quality of Recovery Score. Data were submitted to descriptive statistical analysis and multinomial logistic regression. The level of significance was set at 0.05. 35.4% of patients had high risk of falls, 38.9% had moderate risk and 25.7% had low risk. The mean value in the surgical recovery scale was 175.37 points and no patient presented poor surgical recovery. Regarding the results of the bivariate analysis, it was found that age (p<0.001), SAH (p<0.001) and diabetes (p=0.017) were positively associated with high risk of fall, whereas cancer (p=0.004) was positively associated with moderate risk of fall. Surgical recovery (p=0,008) was inversely associated with high risk of fall. the results of this study allowed the identification of five factors associated with the risk of fall in adults in the postoperative hospital stay. These findings may support the planning of nursing actions aimed at preventing the risk of fall in the postoperative period. evaluar los factores asociados al riesgo de caída en pacientes sometidos a procedimientos quirúrgicos. estudio cuantitativo, transversal, realizado en 257 pacientes adultos en un hospital de Minas Gerais, Brasil. La recolección de datos se realizó por medio de un cuestionario sociodemográfico y clínico, Morse Fall Scale Quality of Recovery Score. Los datos fueron sometidos al análisis estadístico descriptivo y regresión logística multinomial. El nivel de significación adoptado fue de 0,05. 35,4% de los pacientes presentaron elevado riesgo de caídas, 38,9% moderado riesgo y 25,7% bajo riesgo. La escala de recuperación quirúrgica indicó valor promedio de 175,37 puntos y ning

  17. Martial arts fall techniques reduce hip impact forces in naive subjects after a brief period of training.

    PubMed

    Weerdesteyn, V; Groen, B E; van Swigchem, R; Duysens, J

    2008-04-01

    Hip fractures are among the most serious consequences of falls in the elderly. Martial arts (MA) fall techniques may reduce hip fracture risk, as they are known to reduce hip impact forces by approximately 30% in experienced fallers. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether hip impact forces and velocities in MA falls would be smaller than in a 'natural' fall arrest strategy (Block) in young adults (without any prior experience) after a 30-min training session in sideways MA fall techniques. Ten subjects fell sideways from kneeling height. In order to identify experience-related differences, additional EMG data of both fall types were collected in inexperienced (n=10) and experienced fallers (n=5). Compared to Block falls, MA falls had significantly smaller hip impact forces (-17%) and velocities (-7%). EMG results revealed experience-related differences in the execution of the MA fall, indicative of less pronounced trunk rotation in the inexperienced fallers. This may explain their smaller reduction of impact forces compared to experienced fallers. In conclusion, the finding that a substantial reduction in impact forces can be achieved after a short training in MA techniques is very promising with respect to their use in interventions to prevent fall injuries.

  18. Fall in incidence of guinea-worm infection in western Nigeria after periodic treatment of infected persons.

    PubMed

    Kale, O O

    1982-01-01

    Between 1971 and 1974 a series of drug trials was conducted in 17 rural communities in western Nigeria where guinea-worm is endemic. During these trials and in subsequent years treatment, in the form of chemotherapy and/or dressing of ulcers, was given to all infected persons. A longitudinal study of infection in these villages showed a marked fall in the annual incidence over an 8-year period. The aggregate reduction in incidence in the three sectors surveyed was from 15.5% to 0.5% in sector 1, 29.8% to 0.4% in sector 2, and 20.3% to 0.0% in sector 3. The change appeared to be partly due to the treatment, which reduced the reservoir of infection and the rate of pollution of the water supply. Most of the sources of water continued to harbour Cyclops, none of which was found to be infected with Dracunculus, but which were shown experimentally to be capable of sustaining infection. The study demonstrates the potential role of therapeutic measures in controlling guinea-worm infection. It is suggested that the satisfactory measure of control that has been achieved could be increased by elimination of the Cyclops, with a view to total eradication of the disease from affected communities. Attention is drawn to the relevance of the findings for the International Drinking Water Supply and Sanitation Decade.

  19. Comparison of Columnar Water Vapor Measurements During The Fall 1997 ARM Intensive Observation Period: Solar Transmittance Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmid, B.; Michalsky, J. J.; Slater, D. W.; Barnard, J. C.; Halthore, R. N.; Liljegren, J. C.; Holben, B. N.; Eck, T. F.; Livingston, J. M.; Russell, P. B.

    2000-01-01

    In the fall of 1997, during an Intensive Observation Period (IOP), the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program conducted a study of water vapor abundance measurement at its Southern Great Plains (SGP) site. Among a large number of instruments, four sun-tracking radiometers were present to measure the columnar water vapor (CWV). All four solar radiometers retrieve CWV by measuring total solar transmittance in the 0.94-gm water vapor absorption band and subtracting contributions due to Rayleigh, ozone and aerosol transmittances. The aerosol optical depth comparisons among the same four radiometers has been presented elsewhere (Geophys. Res. Lett., 26, 17, 2725-2728, 1999). We have used three different methods to retrieve CWV. In a first round of comparison no attempt was made to standardize on the same radiative transfer model and its underlying water vapor spectroscopy. In the second round of comparison we used the same line-by-line code (which includes recently corrected H2O spectroscopy) to retrieve CAN from all four suntracking radiometers. This decreased the mean CWV by 8% or 13%. The spread of 8% in the solar radiometer results found when using the same model is an indication of the other-than-model uncertainties involved in determining CWV from solar transmittance measurements with current instrumentation.

  20. Hydrodynamic interactions between many-particles falling under gravity in a viscous fluid: analysis of periodic and quasi-periodic motions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gruca, Marta; Division of Complex Fluids Team

    2014-11-01

    We investigate dynamics of many particles settling under gravity in a viscous fluid within the Stokes flow regime. We consider several families of regular initial configurations of a large number of point-particles which lead to periodic and quasi-periodic motions of the particles. We vary the relative distance between particles and observe how does it affect the dynamics. We observe the oscillations under some out-of-phase rearrangements of the particles. We also see a large influence of initial conditions on the system stability. By perturbating the regular configurations we obtain the dynamics corresponding to the dynamics of drop of suspension. We also explore the dynamics of such system in porous media where analogous quasi-periodic motions have been found.

  1. Characterization of organic aerosol for Fall and Spring periods in the Alaskan Arctic using organic tracers, including n-alkanes, PAHs, hopanes, steranes and levoglucosan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheesley, R. J.; Yoon, S.; Barrett, T. E.

    2016-12-01

    The Fall and Spring periods in the Alaskan Arctic are times of transition: the Arctic Oscillation shifts between positive and negative phases, there are rapid decreases/increases in hours of sunlight, etc. As part of an annual campaign at the Department of Energy ARM site in Barrow, AK, a set of atmospheric particulate matter samples were collected in the Fall of 2012 and Spring of 2013. These PM10 samples were extracted and analyzed for organic tracers including combustion and non-combustion hydrocarbons (alkanes, PAHs, hopanes and steranes) and levoglucosan. The organic tracers were measured in all samples, with one to two orders of magnitude range in concentration. Unresolved complex mixture (UCM) was observed and quantified in select samples. The carbon preference index ranged from roughly 1 to 12, indicating a wide range in combustion versus biogenic contributions. Sources and degree of atmospheric processing will be characterized using diagnostic ratios and tracer to organic carbon ratios (including chemical mass balance modeling) in addition to synthesis with auxiliary ARM meteorology and radiation data.

  2. Periodization

    PubMed Central

    Lorenz, Daniel S.; Reiman, Michael P.; Walker, John C.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Clinicians are constantly faced with the challenge of designing training programs for injured and noninjured athletes that maximize healing and optimize performance. Periodization is a concept of systematic progression—that is, resistance training programs that follow predictable patterns of change in training variables. The strength training literature is abundant with studies comparing periodization schemes on uninjured, trained, and untrained athletes. The rehabilitation literature, however, is scarce with information about how to optimally design resistance training programs based on periodization principles for injured athletes. The purpose of this review is to discuss relevant training variables and methods of periodization, as well as periodization program outcomes. A secondary purpose is to provide an anecdotal framework regarding implementation of periodization principles into rehabilitation programs. Evidence Acquisition: A Medline search from 1979 to 2009 was implemented with the keywords periodization, strength training, rehabilitation, endurance, power, hypertrophy, and resistance training with the Boolean term AND in all possible combinations in the English language. Each author also undertook independent hand searching of article references used in this review. Results: Based on the studies researched, periodized strength training regimens demonstrate improved outcomes as compared to nonperiodized programs. Conclusions: Despite the evidence in the strength training literature supporting periodization programs, there is a considerable lack of data in the rehabilitation literature about program design and successful implementation of periodization into rehabilitation programs. PMID:23015982

  3. Falling chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Chun Wa; Yasui, Kosuke

    2006-06-01

    The one-dimensional fall of a folded chain with one end suspended from a rigid support and a chain falling from a resting heap on a table is studied. Because their Lagrangians contain no explicit time dependence, the falling chains are conservative systems. Their equations of motion are shown to contain a term that enforces energy conservation when masses are transferred between subchains. We show that Cayley's 1857 energy nonconserving solution for a chain falling from a resting heap is incorrect because it neglects the energy gained when a link leaves a subchain. The maximum chain tension measured by Calkin and March for the falling folded chain is given a simple if rough interpretation. Other aspects of the falling folded chain are briefly discussed.

  4. Meteorite falls in Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khiri, Fouad; Ibhi, Abderrahmane; Saint-Gerant, Thierry; Medjkane, Mohand; Ouknine, Lahcen

    2017-10-01

    The study of meteorites provides insight into the earliest history of our solar system. From 1800, about the year meteorites were first recognized as objects falling from the sky, until December 2014, 158 observed meteorite falls were recorded in Africa. Their collected mass ranges from 1.4 g to 175 kg with the 1-10 kg cases predominant. The average rate of African falls is low with only one fall recovery per 1.35-year time interval (or 0.023 per year per million km2). This African collection is dominated by ordinary chondrites (78%) just like in the worldwide falls. The seventeen achondrites include three Martian meteorite falls (Nakhla of Egypt, Tissint of Morocco and Zagami of Nigeria). Observed Iron meteorite falls are relatively rare and represent only 5%. The falls' rate in Africa is variable in time and in space. The number of falls continues to grow since 1860, 80% of which were recovered during the period between 1910 and 2014. Most of these documented meteorite falls have been recovered from North-Western Africa, Eastern Africa and Southern Africa. They are concentrated in countries which have a large surface area and a large population with a uniform distribution. Other factors are also favorable for observing and collecting meteorite falls across the African territory, such as: a genuine meteorite education, a semi-arid to arid climate (clear sky throughout the year most of the time), croplands or sparse grasslands and possible access to the fall location with a low percentage of forest cover and dense road network.

  5. Fall Frosting

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-10-16

    Richardson Crater is home to this sea of sand dunes. It was fall in the Southern hemisphere when NASA MRO acquired this image of the dunes frosted with the first bit of carbon dioxide ice condensed from the atmosphere.

  6. Fluxes of ozone and Biogenic Volatile Organic Compounds in a mixed Mediterranean forest over a transition period between summer and fall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fares, S.; Schnitzhofer, R.; Hansel, A.; Petersson, F.; Matteucci, G.; Scarascia Mugnozza, G.; Jiang, X.; Guenther, A. B.; Loreto, F.

    2012-12-01

    Mediterranean plant ecosystems are exposed to abiotic stressors that may be exacerbated by climate change dynamics. Moreover, plants need now to cope with increasing anthropogenic pressures, often associated with expanding impacts of urbanization. Anthropogenic stressors include harmful gases (e.g. ozone,) that are transported from anthropogenic pollution sources to the vegetation. They may alter ecophysiology and compromise metabolism of Mediterranean plants. A disproportionate number of Mediterranean ecosystems, many dominated by forest trees, are being transformed into "urban or pre-urban forests". This is in particular the case for Castelporziano Estate, a 6,000 ha Mediterranean forest located just 25 km from Rome downtown at the coast of the Mediterranean Sea. In September 2011 an intensive field campaign was performed in Castelporziano to investigate ozone deposition and biogenic emissions of volatile organic compounds (BVOC) from a mixed Mediterranean forest, mainly composed by Quercus suber, Quercus ilex, Pinus pinea. Measurements were performed at canopy level with fast real-time instruments (a fast ozone analyzer and a Proton Transfer Reaction-Time of Flight Mass Spectrometer) that allowed eddy covariant flux measurements of ozone and BVOC. In the transitional period from a warm and dry summer to a wet and moderately cool fall we typically observed tropospheric ozone volume mixing ratios (VMR) of 60 ppb at around noon, with high deposition fluxes (up to -10 nmol m-2 s-1) into the forest canopy. Canopy models were used to to calculate that up to 90% of ozone uptake can be attributed to non-stomatal sinks, suggesting that chemical reactions between ozone and reactive BVOC may have played an important role. The concentrations of reactive isoprenoids (e.g. sesquiterpenes) were indeed observed to decrease during the central hours of the day, in coincidence with increased ozone concentrations. Concentrations and fluxes of isoprenoid

  7. [Accidental falls].

    PubMed

    Inokuchi, Koichi

    2013-06-01

    Falls are common cause of injuries among elderly people, and fractures are the most serious consequence of falls. For seniors, hip fractures are the second major cause of bedridden. The feature and acute care of head injury, spinal cord injury, vertebrae fracture, and hip fracture are described. Just had fracture fixation, the patient can not go back to the original ADL. In order not to become bedridden, both medication and physical examination are important based on the new disease concept of locomotive syndrome. To do so, requires hospital and clinic cooperation. Sufficient cooperation is not currently possible, and spread of liaison service is essential.

  8. Students fall for Fall Meeting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smedley, Kara

    2012-02-01

    From Boston to Beijing, thousands of students traveled to San Francisco for the 2011 AGU Fall Meeting. Of those who participated, 183 students were able to attend thanks to AGU's student travel grant program, which assists students with travel costs and seeks to enrich the meeting through ethnic and gender diversity. Students at Fall Meeting enjoyed a variety of programs and activities designed to help them better network with their peers, learn about new fields, and disseminate their research to the interested public. More than 800 students attended AGU's first annual student mixer, sharing drinks and ideas with fellow student members and future colleagues as well as forging new friendships and intellectual relationships.

  9. Drought, epidemic disease, and the fall of classic period cultures in Mesoamerica (AD 750-950). Hemorrhagic fevers as a cause of massive population loss.

    PubMed

    Acuna-Soto, Rodolfo; Stahle, David W; Therrell, Matthew D; Gomez Chavez, Sergio; Cleaveland, Malcolm K

    2005-01-01

    The classical period in Mexico (AD 250-750) was an era of splendor. The city of Teotihuacan was one of the largest and most sophisticated human conglomerates of the pre-industrial world. The Mayan civilization in southeastern Mexico and the Yucatan peninsula reached an impressive degree of development at the same time. This time of prosperity came to an end during the Terminal Classic Period (AD 750-950) a time of massive population loss throughout Mesoamerica. A second episode of massive depopulation in the same area was experienced during the sixteenth century when, in less than one century, between 80% and 90% of the entire indigenous population was lost. The 16th century depopulation of Mexico constitutes one of the worst demographic catastrophes in human history. Although newly imported European and African diseases caused high mortality among the native population, the major 16th century population losses were caused by a series of epidemics of a hemorrhagic fever called Cocoliztli, a highly lethal disease unknown to both Aztec and European physicians during the colonial era. The cocoliztli epidemics occurred during the 16th century megadrought, when severe drought extended at times from central Mexico to the boreal forest of Canada, and from the Pacific to the Atlantic coast. The collapse of the cultures of the Classic Period seems also to have occurred during a time of severe drought. Tree ring and lake sediment records indicate that some of the most severe and prolonged droughts to impact North America-Mesoamerica in the past 1000-4000 years occurred between AD 650 and 1000, particularly during the 8th and 9th centuries, a period of time that coincides with the Terminal Classic Period. Based on the similarities of the climatic (severe drought) and demographic (massive population loss) events in Mesoamerica during the sixteenth century, we propose that drought-associated epidemics of hemorrhagic fever may have contributed to the massive population loss

  10. Seasonal movements and environmental triggers to fall migration of Sage Sparrows

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fesenmyer, K.A.; Knick, S.T.

    2011-01-01

    Post-breeding ecology of shrubland passerines prior to onset of migration is unknown relative to dynamics of breeding areas. We radiomarked and monitored 38 Sage Sparrows (Amphispiza belli ssp. nevadensis) at one site in Oregon and two in Nevada from September to mid-November 2007 to track local movements, estimate seasonal range sizes, and characterize weather patterns triggering onset of migration. Median area used by Sage Sparrows monitored between 3 and 18 days during or prior to migration was 14 ha; maximum daily movement was 15 km. Radio-marked Sage Sparrows at each location departed individually, rather than en masse, corresponding with passage of cold front weather systems. Conventional telemetry techniques limited our ability to monitor Sage Sparrows beyond pre-migratory periods and precluded detecting and tracking actual movements during migration. ?? 2011 by the Wilson Ornithological Society.

  11. The importance of identity in falls prevention.

    PubMed

    Walker, Wendy; Porock, Davina; Timmons, Stephen

    2011-03-01

    To explore the meaning of falling for older people who had participated in a falls prevention programme to establish the importance of identity in falls prevention interventions. Data were collected in a 14-week video observation period of two consecutive falls prevention group programmes, examination of participant referral records and a series of semi-structured interviews with 11 participants. The meaning of falling for older people is closely related to the individual's identity. Participants attended the falls prevention programme because a professional they respected referred them, not because they thought they would gain personal value. Participants used a collective identity, of individuals who fall, to show how they differed from this social construct. The findings indicate the importance of the personal and collective identity of ageing on falls prevention. Professionals consulting with older people about falls prevention should offer individual plans that are agreed and valued by the older person.

  12. Fall Protection Introduction, #33462

    SciTech Connect

    Chochoms, Michael

    2016-06-23

    The proper use of fall prevention and fall protection controls can reduce the risk of deaths and injuries caused by falls. This course, Fall Protection Introduction (#33462), is designed as an introduction to various types of recognized fall prevention and fall protection systems at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), including guardrail systems, safety net systems, fall restraint systems, and fall arrest systems. Special emphasis is given to the components, inspection, care, and storage of personal fall arrest systems (PFASs). This course also presents controls for falling object hazards and emergency planning considerations for persons who have fallen.

  13. Validation of accuracy of SVM-based fall detection system using real-world fall and non-fall datasets

    PubMed Central

    Aziz, Omar; Klenk, Jochen; Schwickert, Lars; Chiari, Lorenzo; Becker, Clemens; Park, Edward J.; Mori, Greg; Robinovitch, Stephen N.

    2017-01-01

    Falls are a major cause of injuries and deaths in older adults. Even when no injury occurs, about half of all older adults who fall are unable to get up without assistance. The extended period of lying on the floor often leads to medical complications, including muscle damage, dehydration, anxiety and fear of falling. Wearable sensor systems incorporating accelerometers and/or gyroscopes are designed to prevent long lies by automatically detecting and alerting care providers to the occurrence of a fall. Research groups have reported up to 100% accuracy in detecting falls in experimental settings. However, there is a lack of studies examining accuracy in the real-world setting. In this study, we examined the accuracy of a fall detection system based on real-world fall and non-fall data sets. Five young adults and 19 older adults went about their daily activities while wearing tri-axial accelerometers. Older adults experienced 10 unanticipated falls during the data collection. Approximately 400 hours of activities of daily living were recorded. We employed a machine learning algorithm, Support Vector Machine (SVM) classifier, to identify falls and non-fall events. We found that our system was able to detect 8 out of the 10 falls in older adults using signals from a single accelerometer (waist or sternum). Furthermore, our system did not report any false alarm during approximately 28.5 hours of recorded data from young adults. However, with older adults, the false positive rate among individuals ranged from 0 to 0.3 false alarms per hour. While our system showed higher fall detection and substantially lower false positive rate than the existing fall detection systems, there is a need for continuous efforts to collect real-world data within the target population to perform fall validation studies for fall detection systems on bigger real-world fall and non-fall datasets. PMID:28678808

  14. Modeling a falling slinky

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cross, R. C.; Wheatland, M. S.

    2012-12-01

    A slinky is an example of a tension spring: in an unstretched state a slinky is collapsed, with turns touching, and a finite tension is required to separate the turns from this state. If a slinky is suspended from its top and stretched under gravity and then released, the bottom of the slinky does not begin to fall until the top section of the slinky, which collapses turn by turn from the top, collides with the bottom. The total collapse time tc (typically ˜0.3 s for real slinkies) corresponds to the time required for a wave front to propagate down the slinky to communicate the release of the top end. We present a modification to an existing model for a falling tension spring [Calkin, Am. J. Phys. 61, 261-264 (1993)] and apply it to data from filmed drops of two real slinkies. The modification of the model is the inclusion of a finite time for collapse of the turns of the slinky behind the collapse front propagating down the slinky during the fall. The new finite-collapse time model achieves a good qualitative fit to the observed positions of the top of the real slinkies during the measured drops. The spring constant k for each slinky is taken to be a free parameter in the model. The best-fit model values for k for each slinky are approximately consistent with values obtained from measured periods of oscillation of the slinkies.

  15. Fall Prevention in a Primary Care Setting.

    PubMed

    Siegrist, Monika; Freiberger, Ellen; Geilhof, Barbara; Salb, Johannes; Hentschke, Christian; Landendoerfer, Peter; Linde, Klause; Halle, Martin; Blank, Wolfgang A

    2016-05-27

    Falls and fall-related injuries are common in community-dwelling elderly people. Effective multifactorial fall prevention programs in the primary care setting may be a promising approach to reduce the incidence rate of falls. In a cluster randomized trial in 33 general practices 378 people living independently and at high risk of falling (65 to 94 years old; 285 women) were allocated to either a 16 week exercise-based fall prevention program including muscle strengthening and challenging balance training exercises, combined with a 12 week home-based exercise program (222 participants), or to usual care (156 participants). The main outcome was number of falls over a period of 12 months. Secondary outcomes were the number of fall-related injuries, physical function (Timed-Up-and-Go-Test, TUG, Chair-Stand-Test, CST, modified Romberg Test), and fear of falling. In the intervention group (n=222 patients in 17 general practices) 291 falls occurred, compared to 367 falls in the usual care group (n=156 patients in 16 general practices). We observed a lower incidence rate for falls in the intervention group (incidence rate ratio/IRR: 0.54; 95% confidence interval (CI): [0.35; 0.84], p=0.007) and for fall-related injuries (IRR: 0.66; [0.42; 0.94], p=0.033). Additionally, patients in the intervention group showed significant improvements in secondary endpoints (TUG: -2.39 s, [-3.91; -0.87], p=0.014; mRomberg: 1.70 s, [0.35; 3.04], p=0.037; fear of falling: -2.28 points, [-3.87; -0.69], p=0.022) compared to usual care. A complex falls prevention program in a primary care setting was effective in reducing falls and fall-related injuries in community dwelling older adults at risk.

  16. Fall Enrollment Report. 2014

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iowa Department of Education, 2014

    2014-01-01

    This report summarizes and analyzes fall enrollment in Iowa's community colleges. Each year, Iowa's 15 community colleges submit data on enrollment on the 10th business day of the fall semester. Some highlights from this report include: (1) Fall 2014 enrollment was 93,772 students--a decline of 0.49 percent from last fall; (2) Enrollment continues…

  17. Comparison of real-life accidental falls in older people with experimental falls in middle-aged test subjects.

    PubMed

    Kangas, M; Vikman, I; Nyberg, L; Korpelainen, R; Lindblom, J; Jämsä, T

    2012-03-01

    Falling is a common accident among older people. Automatic fall detectors are one method of improving security. However, in most cases, fall detectors are designed and tested with data from experimental falls in younger people. This study is one of the first to provide fall-related acceleration data obtained from real-life falls. Wireless sensors were used to collect acceleration data during a six-month test period in older people. Data from five events representing forward falls, a sideways fall, a backwards fall, and a fall out of bed were collected and compared with experimental falls performed by middle-aged test subjects. The signals from real-life falls had similar features to those from intentional falls. Real-life forward, sideways and backward falls all showed a pre impact phase and an impact phase that were in keeping with the model that was based on experimental falls. In addition, the fall out of bed had a similar acceleration profile as the experimental falls of the same type. However, there were differences in the parameters that were used for the detection of the fall phases. The beginning of the fall was detected in all of the real-life falls starting from a standing posture, whereas the high pre impact velocity was not. In some real-life falls, multiple impacts suggested protective actions. In conclusion, this study demonstrated similarities between real-life falls of older people and experimental falls of middle-aged subjects. However, some fall characteristics detected from experimental falls were not detectable in acceleration signals from corresponding heterogeneous real-life falls. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. The Fall and Fall of Gary Hart.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowland, Robert C.

    The fall of Gary Hart, brought about because of his indiscretions during the 1988 presidential campaign, should not be treated exclusively as a consequence of Hart's moral failings. Rather, the fall of Hart can be traced to a complex of factors including bad judgment, the near total control that the press exercises over the political agenda, and…

  19. Enrollment Trends at Public Four-Year Colleges and Universities, Fall 1990 to Fall 1997.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association of State Universities and Land Grant Colleges, Washington, DC.

    This report provides enrollment trend information for public four-year colleges and universities for the period fall 1990 through fall 1997. Several trends are highlighted: during this period, total enrollment fell 0.5 percent to 5.77 million students; enrollment of racial/ethnic minorities rose 24.5 percent; white enrollment fell 10.8 percent.…

  20. Meteorite Falls in Morocco

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chennaoui Aoudjehane, H.

    2016-08-01

    The number of meteorite falls reported in Morocco since 2000 is highest than any other place compared to the other countries in the world, that call into question the efficiency of the randomly meteorite falls on Earth.

  1. Falls after stroke.

    PubMed

    Batchelor, Frances A; Mackintosh, Shylie F; Said, Catherine M; Hill, Keith D

    2012-08-01

    Falls are common at all stages after stroke, occurring in the acute, rehabilitative, and chronic phases. Consequences of falls include death or serious injury, minor injuries, functional limitations, reduced mobility and activity, and fear of falling. These consequences can have implications for independence and quality of life after stroke. The high frequency of falls may be due to a combination of existing falls risk factors prior to the stroke as well as impairments from the stroke, such as decreased strength and balance, hemineglect, perceptual problems, and visual problems. This paper reviews the magnitude of the problem of falls in people with stroke, highlights risk factors, and summarizes the limited randomized controlled trial evidence on falls prevention in this population. There is a need for further high quality research investigating the effectiveness of interventions to reduce falls and injury in people with stroke from onset through to the chronic stage. © 2012 The Authors. International Journal of Stroke © 2012 World Stroke Organization.

  2. First Aid: Falls

    MedlinePlus

    ... Your 1- to 2-Year-Old First Aid: Falls KidsHealth > For Parents > First Aid: Falls Print A A A en español Folleto de instructiones: Caídas (Falls) With all the running, climbing, and exploring kids ...

  3. Falls risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Gallacher, Rose

    2017-02-22

    What was the nature of the CPD activity, practice-related feedback and/or event and/or experience in your practice? The CPD article outlined the causes and consequences of falls for older patients. It discussed the falls risk assessment tools, and falls prevention measures.

  4. Fall Prevention: Simple Tips to Prevent Falls

    MedlinePlus

    ... of falls by improving strength, balance, coordination and flexibility. If you avoid physical activity because you're ... custom exercise program aimed at improving your balance, flexibility, muscle strength and gait. Consider changing your footwear ...

  5. Immobility and falls.

    PubMed

    Mahoney, J E

    1998-11-01

    Immobility is a common problem for hospitalized older adults. Excessive bed rest results in multiple adverse physiologic consequences and may contribute to functional decline and increased risk for falls in the hospital setting. About 2% of hospitalized older adults fall during hospitalization. Risk factors for in-hospital falls includes cognitive impairment, mobility impairment, specific diagnoses, multiple comorbidities, and psychotropic medications. Appropriate actions to prevent immobility and falls include increasing exercise and activity levels, improving the hospital environment, and decreasing the use of psychotropic medications. Bed alarms and increased supervision for high-risk patients also may help prevent falls.

  6. Minority Enrollment Trends, Catonsville Community College: Fall 84-Fall 88.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Catonsville Community Coll., MD. Office of Institutional Research.

    The enrollment of minority students at Catonsville Community College (CCC) generally followed the same pattern of decline and growth as the student population as a whole between fall 1984 and fall 1989. Minority enrollments increased by 1.5% from fall 1984 to fall 1985, decreased by 12.2% in fall 1986, increased by 5.8% in fall 1987, and increased…

  7. Improving the capture of fall events in hospitals: combining a service for evaluating inpatient falls with an incident report system.

    PubMed

    Shorr, Ronald I; Mion, Lorraine C; Chandler, A Michelle; Rosenblatt, Linda C; Lynch, Debra; Kessler, Lori A

    2008-04-01

    To determine the utility of a fall evaluation service to improve the ascertainment of falls in acute care. Six-month observational study. Sixteen adult nursing units (349 beds) in an urban, academically affiliated, community hospital. Patients admitted to the study units during the study period. Nursing staff identifying falls were instructed to notify, using a pager, a trained nurse "fall evaluator." Fall evaluators provided 24-hour-per-day 7-day-per-week coverage throughout the study. Data on patient falls gathered by fall evaluators were compared with falls data obtained through the hospital's incident reporting system. During 51,180 patient-days of observation, 191 falls were identified according to incident reports (3.73 falls/1,000 patient-days), whereas the evaluation service identified 228 falls (4.45 falls/1,000 patient-days). Combining falls reported from both data sources yielded 266 falls (5.20 falls/1,000 patient-days), a 39% relative rate increase compared with incident reports alone (P<.001). For falls with injury, combining data from both sources yielded 79 falls (1.54 injurious falls/1,000 patient-days), compared with 57 falls (1.11 injurious falls/1,000 patient-days) filed in incident reports--a 28% increase (P=.06). In the 16 nursing units, the relative percentage increase of captured fall events using the combined data sources versus the incident reporting system alone ranged from 13% to 125%. Incident reports significantly underestimate both injurious and noninjurious falls in acute care settings and should not be used as the sole source of data for research or quality improvement initiatives.

  8. Preventing falls in hospital.

    PubMed

    Pearce, Lynne

    2017-02-27

    Essential facts Falls are the most frequent adverse event reported in hospitals, usually affecting older patients. Every year, more than 240,000 falls are reported in acute hospitals and mental health trusts in England and Wales, equivalent to more than 600 a day, according to the Royal College of Physicians (RCP). But research shows that when nurses, doctors and therapists work together, falls can be reduced by 20-30%.

  9. Falls and fear of falling in vertigo and balance disorders: A controlled cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Schlick, Cornelia; Schniepp, Roman; Loidl, Verena; Wuehr, Max; Hesselbarth, Kristin; Jahn, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    Vertigo and dizziness are among the most prevalent symptoms in neurologic disorders. Although many of these patients suffer from postural instability and gait disturbances, there is only limited data on their risk of falling. We conducted a controlled cross-sectional study at the tertiary care outpatient clinic of the German Center for Vertigo and Balance Disorders using a self-administered questionnaire to assess falls, fall-related injuries, and fear of falling. The recruitment period was 6 months. A total of 569 patients (mean age 59.6 ± 17.1 years, 55% females) and 100 healthy participants were included (response rate > 90%). Dizzy patients with central balance disorders (Parkinsonian, cerebellar, and brainstem oculomotor syndromes) had the highest fall rates (> 50% recurrent fallers, odds ratio > 10). The rate of recurrent fallers was 30% in bilateral vestibular failure and peripheral neuropathy (odds ratio > 5). Patients with functional dizziness (somatoform or phobic vertigo) were concerned about falling but did not fall more often than healthy controls (odds ratio 0.87). Falls are common in patients presenting to a dizziness unit. Those with central syndromes are at risk of recurrent and injurious falling. Fall rates and fear of falling should be assessed in balance disorders and used to guide the regimen of rehabilitation therapy. The identification of risk factors would help provide protective measures to these groups of patients.

  10. The Patient Who Falls

    PubMed Central

    Tinetti, Mary E.; Kumar, Chandrika

    2013-01-01

    Falls are common health events that cause discomfort and disability for older adults and stress for caregivers. Using the case of an older man who has experienced multiple falls and a hip fracture, this article, which focuses on community-living older adults, addresses the consequences and etiology of falls; summarizes the evidence on predisposing factors and effective interventions; and discusses how to translate this evidence into patient care. Previous falls; strength, gait, and balance impairments; and medications are the strongest risk factors for falling. Effective single interventions include exercise and physical therapy, cataract surgery, and medication reduction. Evidence suggests that the most effective strategy for reducing the rate of falling in community-living older adults may be intervening on multiple risk factors. Vitamin D has the strongest clinical trial evidence of benefit for preventing fractures among older men at risk. Issues involved in incorporating these evidence-based fall prevention interventions into outpatient practice are discussed, as are the trade-offs inherent in managing older patients at risk of falling. While challenges and barriers exist, fall prevention strategies can be incorporated into clinical practice. PMID:20085954

  11. Visual impairment and falls: a register study.

    PubMed

    Källstrand-Ericson, Jeanette; Hildingh, Cathrine

    2009-02-01

    The aim of this register study was to investigate falls and fall injuries of inpatients 65 years and over to determine whether a causal factor of visual impairment was documented. All Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) countries have an increasing older population with falls and fall injuries becoming a major problem. A visual impairment can be an independent risk factor for falls but can also occur in combination with other intrinsic and extrinsic risk factors. A retrospective non-randomised register study. In 2004, all documented falls of inpatients aged 65 years and over were examined. Medical records and eye clinic records were scrutinised to identify whether any visual impairment have been documented. The majority of falls occurred between the hours of 24:00-06:00 and the inpatients most often affected were those with a visual impairment. The falls occurred in connection with movement when the inpatient was unaccompanied. Documentation in records at the medical clinic was defective and subjectively perceived visual impairment was not documented at all. Both subjective and objective visual impairment occurred in all eye clinic records. Visual impairment along with the ageing process are features affecting falls and the hospital environment needs to be adapted by improving the use of strong, contrasting colours and providing good lighting for older inpatients with visual impairment during the night time period. Hospital safety for older people with visual impairment is a concern if falls are to be reduced. Healthcare professionals need to undertake individual risk assessments to establish the degree of visual impairment of the older person so that appropriate interventions can be implemented to reduce the incidence of falls and fall injuries.

  12. Falls aren't us: state of the science.

    PubMed

    Cozart, Huberta-Corazon T; Cesario, Sandra K

    2009-01-01

    This article reviews the scientific health and medical literature on accidental falls and fall prevention modalities specifically directed to the hospitalized elderly population over a 15-year period. Electronic searches of databases include CINAHL, Cochrane Library, Dissertation Abstracts, ERIC, MEDLINE, MeSH, PubMed PEDro, Ulrich's, and Web of Science. Key words and controlled subject headings used include accidental falls, fall prevention, fall risk factors, hospitalized elderly, fall incidence and rates, and environmental and patient safety. Boolean operators were utilized. Search limits include English languages, human subjects, older adult population, clinical trials, and meta-analyses. Wide array and multitude of papers were accessed. Analyses of the various documents from classical seminal works to the current technological studies were performed. Fall prevention modalities may facilitate achievement of the ninth goal of The Joint Commission namely, to "reduce the risk of patient harm resulting form falls" and achievement of Healthy People 2010 15th goal namely, to "reduce death from falls."

  13. Learning From Falling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joh, Amy, S.; Adolph, Karen, E.

    2006-01-01

    Walkers fall frequently, especially during infancy. Children (15, 21, 27, 33, and 39 month-olds) and adults were tested in a novel foam pit paradigm to examine age-related changes in the relationship between falling and prospective control of locomotion. In trial 1, participants walked and fell into a deformable foam pit marked with distinct…

  14. Engineering Enrollments, Fall 1984.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, R. A.

    1985-01-01

    Provides: (1) graduate and undergraduate enrollment data for 1984, including enrollment by curriculum and by institution; (2) a 10-year summary (fall 1975 to fall 1984); and (3) women and selected minorities in undergraduate engineering (1983-84). These and other enrollment data as well as enrollment trends are discussed. (JN)

  15. Fall Leaf Portraits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Hara, Cristina

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the author describes how students can create a stunning as well as economical mosaic utilizing fall's brilliantly colored leaves, preserved at their peak in color. Start by choosing a beautiful fall day to take students on a nature walk to collect a variety of leaves in different shapes, sizes, and colors. Focus on collecting a…

  16. Experiments in Free Fall

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Art, Albert

    2006-01-01

    A model lift containing a figure of Albert Einstein is released from the side of a tall building and its free fall is arrested by elastic ropes. This arrangement allows four simple experiments to be conducted in the lift to demonstrate the effects of free fall and show how they can lead to the concept of the equivalence of inertial and…

  17. Liability for falls.

    PubMed

    Fiesta, J

    1998-03-01

    Reengineering of roles, inexperienced personnel and poor communications among departments has led to an increase in patient falls--a major source of liability. While health care facilities are not liable for all falls, they are expected to take precautions based on patients' deficits.

  18. Experiments in Free Fall

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Art, Albert

    2006-01-01

    A model lift containing a figure of Albert Einstein is released from the side of a tall building and its free fall is arrested by elastic ropes. This arrangement allows four simple experiments to be conducted in the lift to demonstrate the effects of free fall and show how they can lead to the concept of the equivalence of inertial and…

  19. Preventing falls in hospital.

    PubMed

    Pearce, Lynne

    2017-01-04

    Falls are the most frequent adverse event reported in hospitals, usually affecting older patients. Every year, more than 240,000 falls are reported in acute hospitals and mental health trusts in England and Wales, equivalent to more than 600 per day, according to the Royal College of Physicians (RCP).

  20. Preventing falls in hospital.

    PubMed

    Pearce, Lynne

    2017-01-31

    Essential facts Falls are the most frequently reported adverse events in hospitals, especially among older patients. According to the Royal College of Physicians (RCP) more than 240,000 falls are reported in acute hospitals and mental health trusts in England and Wale.

  1. Fall prevention conceptual framework.

    PubMed

    Abraham, Sam

    2011-01-01

    Falls can have lasting psychological and physical consequences, particularly fractures and slow-healing processes, and patients may also lose confidence in walking. Injuries from falls lead to functional decline, institutionalization, higher health care costs, and decreased quality of life. The process related to the problem of patient falls in the hospital, using the nursing model developed by the theorist, Ida Jean Orlando, is explained in this article. The useful tool that provides guidance to marketers in this endeavor is Maslow's hierarchy of needs. During acute illness, individuals are greatly in need of satisfying their physiological needs. If these needs are not met, patients leave the hospital lacking a positive experience. Initial fall risk assessment is critical to plan intervention and individualize care plan. Interventions depend on the severity of fall risk factors.

  2. 149. TWIN FALLS MAIN CANAL DIVERSION, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, MILNER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    149. TWIN FALLS MAIN CANAL DIVERSION, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, MILNER DAM; CLOSE-UP OF MAIN CANAL GATES, SOUTH VIEW. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

  3. 97. POINT SPILL, TWIN FALLS MAIN CANAL, TWIN FALLS COUNTY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    97. POINT SPILL, TWIN FALLS MAIN CANAL, TWIN FALLS COUNTY NORTHWEST OF MURTAUGH, IDAHO; OVERALL WEST VIEW FROM CANAL SIDE. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

  4. 147. TWIN FALLS MAIN CANAL DIVERSION, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, MILNER, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    147. TWIN FALLS MAIN CANAL DIVERSION, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, MILNER, IDAHO; VIEW OF MAIN HEADGATES, EAST VIEW. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

  5. 148. TWIN FALLS MAIN CANAL DIVERSION, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, MILNER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    148. TWIN FALLS MAIN CANAL DIVERSION, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, MILNER DAM; HEADGATES AT INLET, SOUTHWEST VIEW. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

  6. 98. SHOESTRING, TWIN FALLS MAIN CANAL, TWIN FALLS COUNTY NORTHWEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    98. SHOESTRING, TWIN FALLS MAIN CANAL, TWIN FALLS COUNTY NORTHWEST OF MURTAUGH, IDAHO; PROFILE VIEW, SOUTH. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

  7. 99. POINT SPILL, TWIN FALLS MAIN CANAL, TWIN FALLS COUNTY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    99. POINT SPILL, TWIN FALLS MAIN CANAL, TWIN FALLS COUNTY NORTHWEST OF MURTAUGH, IDAHO; CLOSE-UP OF OUTLET SIDE OF GATES, SOUTH VIEW. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

  8. 141. TWIN FALLS MAIN CANAL DIVERSION, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, MILNER, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    141. TWIN FALLS MAIN CANAL DIVERSION, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, MILNER, IDAHO; CLOSE-UP OF MAIN HEADGATES, RADIAL GATES INSIDE, SOUTHEAST VIEW. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

  9. Falls prevention for the elderly.

    PubMed

    Balzer, Katrin; Bremer, Martina; Schramm, Susanne; Lühmann, Dagmar; Raspe, Heiner

    2012-01-01

    An ageing population, a growing prevalence of chronic diseases and limited financial resources for health care underpin the importance of prevention of disabling health disorders and care dependency in the elderly. A wide variety of measures is generally available for the prevention of falls and fall-related injuries. The spectrum ranges from diagnostic procedures for identifying individuals at risk of falling to complex interventions for the removal or reduction of identified risk factors. However, the clinical and economic effectiveness of the majority of recommended strategies for fall prevention is unclear. Against this background, the literature analyses in this HTA report aim to support decision-making for effective and efficient fall prevention. The pivotal research question addresses the effectiveness of single interventions and complex programmes for the prevention of falls and fall-related injuries. The target population are the elderly (> 60 years), living in their own housing or in long term care facilities. Further research questions refer to the cost-effectiveness of fall prevention measures, and their ethical, social and legal implications. Systematic literature searches were performed in 31 databases covering the publication period from January 2003 to January 2010. While the effectiveness of interventions is solely assessed on the basis of randomised controlled trials (RCT), the assessment of the effectiveness of diagnostic procedures also considers prospective accuracy studies. In order to clarify social, ethical and legal aspects all studies deemed relevant with regard to content were taken into consideration, irrespective of their study design. Study selection and critical appraisal were conducted by two independent assessors. Due to clinical heterogeneity of the studies no meta-analyses were performed. Out of 12,000 references retrieved by literature searches, 184 meet the inclusion criteria. However, to a variable degree the validity of their

  10. Fall frequency and risk assessment in early Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Voss, T S; Elm, J J; Wielinski, C L; Aminoff, M J; Bandyopadhyay, D; Chou, K L; Sudarsky, L R; Tilley, B C

    2012-08-01

    We sought to define the frequency of falls in early PD and assess potential risk factors for falls in this population. We analyzed the data from two randomized, placebo controlled trials (NET-PD FS1 and FS-TOO) of 413 individuals with early PD over 18 months of follow-up in FS1 and 12 months in FS-TOO. Falls were defined as any report of falls on the UPDRS or the adverse event log. We assessed the frequency of falls overall and by age. The relationship between prespecified fall risk markers and the probability of falling was assessed using logistic and multiple logistic regression. A hurdle Poisson model was used to jointly model the probability of remaining fall-free and the number of falls. During the follow-up period, 23% of participants fell, and 11% were habitual fallers. In a multiple logistic regression model, age, baseline UPDRS Falling score, and baseline PDQ-39 scores were associated with subsequent fall risk (p < 0.001). Similarly, in a hurdle Poisson regression model, age, baseline UPDRS falling item, and baseline PDQ-39 were all significantly related to the probability of falling, but only UPDRS falling >0 was associated with the number of falls. Falls are frequent and are associated with impaired quality of life, even in early PD. Current standard rating scales do not sufficiently explain future fall risk in the absence of a prior fall history. New assessment methods for falls and postural instability are required to better evaluate this important problem in clinical trials and clinical practice. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The variability of meteoroid falling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velasco Herrera, V. M.; Cordero, G.

    2016-10-01

    We analysed a historical catalogue of meteoroid falling during the last 400 years. We report here for the first time the synchronization between observed meteors and solar barycentric parameters in 19.6 and 13.2 years periodicities using a new multiple cross wavelet. The group of moderated number of meteors is distributed around the positive phase of the solar barycentric periodicity of 13.2 years. While the group of severe number of meteors are distributed on the positive phase of the solar barycentric periodicity of 19.6 years. These periodicities could be associated with Jupiter periodicities. So understanding the modulation of meteoroid falling is important for determining the falling patterns of these objects and for knowing when it is more likely to expect the entry of one of these objects into the Earth's atmosphere, because bodies falling onto the Earth can cause damage from minor impacts to mass-extinctions events. One of the most extreme events was the formation of the Chicxulub impact crater 65,000,000 years ago that caused one of the five major mass extinctions in the last 500,000,000 years. During the 20th and 21st centuries, a series of events demonstrated the importance of collisions between planets and small bodies (comets and asteroids), which included our own planet. In the case of the Earth, we can cite three examples: Tunguska, Curuça and Chelyabinsk. These events invite us to think that perhaps the occurrence of this phenomenon might be more common than we realize, but the lack of communication or people in the area where they happened prevents us from having a complete record. Modern man has not witnessed the impact of large asteroids or comets on our planet, but it has been observed on other planetary bodies. The most spectacular of these events was the collision of fragments of the comet Shoemaker-Levy 9 with Jupiter in 1994. The total energy of the 21 impacts on Jupiter's atmosphere was estimated as the equivalent of tens of millions of

  12. Hourly rounding and patient falls: what factors boost success?

    PubMed

    Goldsack, Jennifer; Bergey, Meredith; Mascioli, Susan; Cunningham, Janet

    2015-02-01

    Falls are a persistent problem in all healthcare settings, with rates in acute care hospitals ranging from 1.3 to 8.9 falls per 1,000 inpatient days, about 30% resulting in serious injury. A 30-day prospective pilot study was conducted on two units with pre- and postimplementation evaluation to determine the impact of patient-centered proactive hourly rounding on patient falls as part of a Lean Six Sigma process improvement project. Nurse leaders and a staff champion from Unit 1 were involved in the process from the start of the implementation period, while Unit 2 was introduced to the project for training shortly before the intervention began. On Unit 1, where staff and leadership were engaged in the project from the outset, the 1-year baseline mean fall rate was 3.9 falls/1,000 patient days. The pilot period fall rate of 1.3 falls/1,000 patient days was significantly lower than the baseline fall rate (P = 0.006). On Unit 2, where there was no run-in period, the 1-year baseline mean fall rate was 2.6 falls/1,000 patient days, which fell, but not significantly, to 2.5 falls/1,000 patient days during the pilot period (P = 0.799). Engaging an interdisciplinary team, including leadership and unit champions, to complete a Lean Six Sigma process improvement project and implement a patient-centered proactive hourly rounding program was associated with a significant reduction in the fall rate in Unit 1. Implementation of the same program in Unit 2 without engaging leadership or front-line staff in program design did not impact its fall rate. The active involvement of leadership and front-line staff in program design and as unit champions during the project run-in period was critical to significantly reducing inpatient fall rates and call bell use in an adult medical unit.

  13. Survival of falling robots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cameron, Jonathan M.; Arkin, Ronald C.

    1992-01-01

    As mobile robots are used in more uncertain and dangerous environments, it will become important to design them so that they can survive falls. In this paper, we examine a number of mechanisms and strategies that animals use to withstand these potentially catastrophic events and extend them to the design of robots. A brief survey of several aspects of how common cats survive falls provides an understanding of the issues involved in preventing traumatic injury during a falling event. After outlining situations in which robots might fall, a number of factors affecting their survival are described. From this background, several robot design guidelines are derived. These include recommendations for the physical structure of the robot as well as requirements for the robot control architecture. A control architecture is proposed based on reactive control techniques and action-oriented perception that is geared to support this form of survival behavior.

  14. Editors' Fall Picks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffert, Barbara; Heilbrun, Margaret; Kuzyk, Raya; Kim, Ann; McCormack, Heather; Katterjohn, Anna; Burns, Ann; Williams, Wilda

    2008-01-01

    From the fall's cascade of great new books, "Library Journal's" editors select their favorites--a dark rendition of Afghan life, a look at the "self-esteem trap," a celebration of Brooklyn activism, and much more.

  15. Seneca Falls. Classroom Focus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balantic, Jeannette; Libresco, Andrea S.

    1995-01-01

    Presents a secondary school lesson based on the Seneca Falls Declaration of Sentiments. Provides lesson objectives and step-by-step instructional procedures. Includes quoted sections of the Declaration of Sentiments. (CFR)

  16. Survival of falling robots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cameron, Jonathan M.; Arkin, Ronald C.

    1992-02-01

    As mobile robots are used in more uncertain and dangerous environments, it will become important to design them so that they can survive falls. In this paper, we examine a number of mechanisms and strategies that animals use to withstand these potentially catastrophic events and extend them to the design of robots. A brief survey of several aspects of how common cats survive falls provides an understanding of the issues involved in preventing traumatic injury during a falling event. After outlining situations in which robots might fall, a number of factors affecting their survival are described. From this background, several robot design guidelines are derived. These include recommendations for the physical structure of the robot as well as requirements for the robot control architecture. A control architecture is proposed based on reactive control techniques and action-oriented perception that is geared to support this form of survival behavior.

  17. Survival of falling robots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cameron, Jonathan M.; Arkin, Ronald C.

    1992-01-01

    As mobile robots are used in more uncertain and dangerous environments, it will become important to design them so that they can survive falls. In this paper, we examine a number of mechanisms and strategies that animals use to withstand these potentially catastrophic events and extend them to the design of robots. A brief survey of several aspects of how common cats survive falls provides an understanding of the issues involved in preventing traumatic injury during a falling event. After outlining situations in which robots might fall, a number of factors affecting their survival are described. From this background, several robot design guidelines are derived. These include recommendations for the physical structure of the robot as well as requirements for the robot control architecture. A control architecture is proposed based on reactive control techniques and action-oriented perception that is geared to support this form of survival behavior.

  18. Fatal falls in the U.S. residential construction industry.

    PubMed

    Dong, Xiuwen Sue; Wang, Xuanwen; Largay, Julie A; Platner, James W; Stafford, Erich; Cain, Chris Trahan; Choi, Sang D

    2014-09-01

    Falls from heights remain the most common cause of workplace fatalities among residential construction workers in the United States. This paper examines patterns and trends of fall fatalities in U.S. residential construction between 2003 and 2010 by analyzing two large national datasets. Almost half of the fatalities in residential construction were from falls. In the residential roofing industry, 80% of fatalities were from falls. In addition, about one-third of fatal falls in residential construction were among self-employed workers. Workers who were older than 55 years, were Hispanic foreign-born, or employed in small establishments (1-10 employees) also had higher proportions of fatal falls in residential construction compared to those in nonresidential construction. The findings suggest that fall safety within the residential construction industry lags behind commercial construction and industrial settings. Fall prevention in residential construction should be enhanced to better protect construction workers in this sector. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. [Fear of falling].

    PubMed

    Alcalde Tirado, Pablo

    2010-01-01

    Fear of falling (FF) can be considered as a protective response to a real threat, preventing the elderly from performing activities with high risk of falling, but can also lead to a restriction of the activities that will result in a long-term adverse effect on social, physical or cognitive functions. There is a prevalence of FF in 30% in the elderly who have no history of falls, and double that in those with a history of falling. Its prevalence is increased in women and with advanced age. Several scales have been developed to measure the psychological effects of FF, among which are noted are, the Fall Efficacy Scale (FES), the Activities-specific Balance and Confidence Scale (ABC), and the survey of activities and fear of falling in the elderly (SAFE). It has negative consequences in the functionality, the subjective feeling of well-being, and in the consequent loss of independence. The functional and physical deterioration, or the quality of life is clearly related to the FF, although it has not been established if these factors are cause or effect. Multiple interventions have been recommended, bringing about changes that reinforce their confidence to carry out activities. Interventions and research should promote a realistic and appropriate approach to the risk of falls and teach the elderly to perform activities safely. The reduction in FF is an important goal in itself to improve the subjective feeling of well-being, and the benefits could be increased if this reduction was also accompanied by an increase in safe behaviour, social participation, and activities of the daily life.

  20. Fall from heights: does height really matter?

    PubMed

    Alizo, G; Sciarretta, J D; Gibson, S; Muertos, K; Romano, A; Davis, J; Pepe, A

    2017-06-22

    Fall from heights is high energy injuries and constitutes a fraction of all fall-related trauma evaluations while bearing an increase in morbidity and mortality. We hypothesize that despite advancements in trauma care, the overall survivability has not improved in this subset of trauma patients. All adult trauma patients treated after sustaining a fall from heights during a 40-month period were retrospectively reviewed. Admission demographics, clinical data, fall height (ft), injury patterns, ISS, GCS, length of stay, and mortality were reviewed. 116 patients sustained a fall from heights, 90.4% accidental. A mean age of 37± 14.7 years, 86% male, and a fall height of 19 ± 10 ft were encountered. Admission GCS was 13 ± 2 with ISS 10 ± 11. Overall LOS was 6.6 ± 14.9 days and an ICU LOS of 2.8 ± 8.9 days. Falls ≥ 25 ft.(16%) had lower GCS 10.4 ± 5.8, increased ISS 22.6 ± 13.8, a fall height 37.9 ± 13.1 ft and associated increased mortality (p < 0.001). Mortality was 5.2%, a mean distance fallen of 39 ± 22 ft. and an ISS of 31.5 ±16.5. Brain injury was the leading cause of death, 50% with open skull fractures. Level of height fallen is a good predictor of overall outcome and survival. Despite advances in trauma care, death rates remain unchanged. Safety awareness and injury prevention programs are needed to reduce the risk of high-level falls.

  1. Thumbsucking and falling asleep.

    PubMed

    Ozturk, M; Ozturk, O M

    1977-03-01

    A review of the studies on the aetiology of habitual thumbsucking reveals either contradictory or inconclusive results. In this study carried out in Turkey, 50 thumbsuckers, 50 non-thumbsuckers, 250 school children and 312 'problem' children were investigated through interviews, questionnaires and other clinical techniques with their mothers. Among variables studied were aspects of feeding, onset and incidence of thumbsucking, strength of sucking drive, sex distribution, educational level and occupation of mothers, parental attitudes toward physical contact with children, mother-child relationships, and particular forms of falling asleep. It was found that thumbsucking was aetiologically more related to ways of falling asleep than to other factors. An attempt was made to explain the social, psychological and physiological basis of the aetiological significance of the falling asleep-stage in habitual thumbsucking. These findings now permit predictive longitudinal investigations to test this accuracy.

  2. Postural control, falls and fear of falling in people with multiple sclerosis without mobility aids.

    PubMed

    Kalron, Alon; Achiron, Anat

    2013-12-15

    The purpose of the study was to determine the relationship between static postural control parameters to fear of falling and falling history in people with multiple sclerosis (MS) without mobility assistive devices. One-hundred and seven relapsing-remitting patients diagnosed with MS, 62 women aged 42.8 (S.D.=12.0), participated in this investigation. Participants were divided into groups based on fall history; 47 had no history during the past 6 months and 60 had a history of at least one fall within the same period. Static postural control parameters were obtained from the Zebris FDM-T Treadmill (zebris® Medical GmbH, Germany). The patient's self-reported questionnaire, the Falls Efficacy Scale International (FES-I), was used to assess the level of concern relating to falls. People with MS classified as fallers exhibited increased center of pressure (CoP) path length, sway velocity and greater overall sway area. CoP path length performed with eyes open was found to explain 42% of the variance related to at least one fall during the past six months; R(2)=0.424, χ(2)(1)=40.727, P<0.01. The correlation between the FES-I and CoP path length was 0.620 (P<0.001). Measurement of the CoP trajectories with instrumented posturography should be considered in managing fall risk in the MS population. © 2013.

  3. FHR Iowa Falls Approval

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This October 22, 2015, letter from EPA approves the petition from Flint Hills Resources, LLC, regarding non-grandfathered ethanol produced through the FHR Iowa Falls Process, qualifying under the Clean Air Act for renewable fuel (D-code 6) RINs under the R

  4. Fall 1984 Retention Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peralta Community Coll. District, Oakland, CA. Office of Research, Planning and Development.

    A study was conducted of the retention patterns of students enrolled in the Peralta Community College District (PCCD) in fall 1984 using college reports on withdrawals and grade distributions. The study focused on successful retention (i.e., all students who received a passing grade) and on total retention (i.e., all students who received any…

  5. Freshmen Survey. Fall 1985.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodyear, Don

    In 1985, College of the Sequoias (COS) was asked by the Cooperative Institutional Research Program (conducted jointly by the American Council on Education and the University of California, Los Angeles) to participate in a survey of incoming freshmen for the fall 1985 semester. During the summer counseling session, 259 new COS freshmen were…

  6. Fall Protection in Construction

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-01-01

    Fall Protection in Construction U.S. Department of Labor Occupational Safety and Health Administration OSHA 3146 1998(Revised) Report Documentation...Department of Labor Occupational Safety & Health Administration 200 Constitution Avenue Washington, DC 20210 Performing Organization Report Number OSHA 3146...compliance responsibili- ties, which are set forth in OSHA standards themselves, and the Occupational Safety and Health Act. Moreover, because

  7. The News, Fall 2002.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giles, Ray, Ed.

    2002-01-01

    This fall 2002 newsletter from the Community College League of California contains several articles, news stories, and the brochure from the 2002 Annual Convention, "Celebrating the Way California LEARNS." Articles include: (1) "Nursing Shortage Poses Dilemma for Colleges: Access vs. Efficiency," a discussion of the debate over…

  8. Editors' Fall Picks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heilbrun, Margaret; McCormack, Heather; Katterjohn, Anna; Kuzyk, Raya; Roncevic, Mirela; Fox, Bette-Lee; Hoffert, Barbara

    2009-01-01

    "Library Journal's" review editors select fall titles readers won't want to miss--"Waiting on a Train: The Embattled Future of Passenger Rail Service" (James McCommons); "Happy" (Alex Lemon); "Free for All: Joe Papp, the Public, and the Greatest Theater Story Ever Told" (Kenneth Turan & Joseph Papp); "In My Father's Shadow: A Daughter Remembers…

  9. Fall 2005 Enrollment Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West Virginia Higher Education Policy Commission, 2005

    2005-01-01

    This annual report includes the following information presented in tabular form: (1) Location of West Virginia Public Institutions of Higher Education; (2) Location of West Virginia Independent Institutions of Higher Education; (3) Freshmen Headcount Enrollment, by Attendance Status, Early Fall 2005; (4) Headcount Enrollment by Residence,…

  10. Falling into Winter.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrington, Carolyn Lang

    2000-01-01

    Presents an activity that connects art, science, and nature in which elementary school students learn about deciduous trees. Explains that students create a torn-tissue collage, using fall colors for a background and drawing a silhouette of a tree without leaves on top of the background with black crayon. (CMK)

  11. Editors' Fall Picks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heilbrun, Margaret; McCormack, Heather; Katterjohn, Anna; Kuzyk, Raya; Roncevic, Mirela; Fox, Bette-Lee; Hoffert, Barbara

    2009-01-01

    "Library Journal's" review editors select fall titles readers won't want to miss--"Waiting on a Train: The Embattled Future of Passenger Rail Service" (James McCommons); "Happy" (Alex Lemon); "Free for All: Joe Papp, the Public, and the Greatest Theater Story Ever Told" (Kenneth Turan & Joseph Papp); "In My Father's Shadow: A Daughter Remembers…

  12. Fall 2013 International Comparisons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Northwest Evaluation Association, 2014

    2014-01-01

    This Fall report is an aggregated statistical analysis of Measures of Academic Progress® (MAP®) data from international schools. The report provides a consistent means of comparisons of specific sub-groups by subject and grade, which allows partners to compare their MAP® results with other schools within their region or membership organization.…

  13. Women's perspectives on falls and fall prevention during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Brewin, Dorothy; Naninni, Angela

    2014-01-01

    Falls are the leading cause of unintentional injury in women. During pregnancy, even a minor fall can result in adverse consequences. Evidence to inform effective and developmentally appropriate pregnancy fall prevention programs is lacking. Early research on pregnancy fall prevention suggests that exercise may reduce falls. However, acceptability and effectiveness of pregnancy fall prevention programs are untested. To better understand postpartum women's perspective and preferences on fall prevention strategies during pregnancy to formulate an intervention. Focus groups and individual interviews were conducted with 31 postpartum women using descriptive qualitative methodology. Discussion of falls during pregnancy and fall prevention strategies was guided by a focus group protocol and enhanced by 1- to 3-minute videos on proposed interventions. Focus groups were audio recorded, transcribed, and analyzed using NVivo 10 software. Emerging themes were environmental circumstances and physical changes of pregnancy leading to a fall, prevention strategies, barriers, safety concerns, and marketing a fall prevention program. Wet surfaces and inappropriate footwear commonly contributed to falls. Women preferred direct provider counseling and programs including yoga and Pilates. Fall prevention strategies tailored to pregnant women are needed. Perspectives of postpartum women support fall prevention through provider counseling and individual or supervised exercise programs.

  14. Modeling seasonal migration of fall armyworm moths

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith), is a highly mobile insect pest of a wide range of host crops. However, this pest of tropical origin cannot survive extended periods of freezing temperature, but must repeat a series of northward migratory flights each spring if it is to re-infest ...

  15. Evaluation of the "medication fall risk score".

    PubMed

    Yazdani, Cyrus; Hall, Scott

    2017-01-01

    Results of a study evaluating the predictive validity of a fall screening tool in hospitalized patients are reported. Administrative claims data from two hospitals were analyzed to determine the discriminatory ability of the "medication fall risk score" (RxFS), a medication review fall-risk screening tool that is designed for use in conjunction with nurse-administered tools such as the Morse Fall Scale (MFS). Through analysis of data on administered medications and documented falls in a population of adults who underwent fall-risk screening at hospital admission over a 15-month period (n = 33,058), the predictive value of admission MFS scores, alone or in combination with retrospectively calculated RxFS-based risk scores, was assessed. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis and net reclassification improvement (NRI) analysis were used to evaluate improvements in risk prediction with the addition of RxFS data to the prediction model. The area under the ROC curve for the predictive model for falls compromising both MFS and RxFS scores was computed as 0.8014, which was greater than the area under the ROC curve associated with use of the MFS alone (0.7823, p = 0.0030). Screening based on MFS scores alone had 81.25% sensitivity and 61.37% specificity. Combined use of RxFS and MFS scores resulted in 82.42% sensitivity and 66.65% specificity (NRI = 0.0587, p = 0.0003). Reclassification of fall risk based on coadministration of the MFS and the RxFS tools resulted in a modest improvement in specificity without compromising sensitivity. Copyright © 2017 by the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Novel Hierarchical Fall Detection Algorithm Using a Multiphase Fall Model

    PubMed Central

    Hsieh, Chia-Yeh; Liu, Kai-Chun; Huang, Chih-Ning; Chu, Woei-Chyn; Chan, Chia-Tai

    2017-01-01

    Falls are the primary cause of accidents for the elderly in the living environment. Reducing hazards in the living environment and performing exercises for training balance and muscles are the common strategies for fall prevention. However, falls cannot be avoided completely; fall detection provides an alarm that can decrease injuries or death caused by the lack of rescue. The automatic fall detection system has opportunities to provide real-time emergency alarms for improving the safety and quality of home healthcare services. Two common technical challenges are also tackled in order to provide a reliable fall detection algorithm, including variability and ambiguity. We propose a novel hierarchical fall detection algorithm involving threshold-based and knowledge-based approaches to detect a fall event. The threshold-based approach efficiently supports the detection and identification of fall events from continuous sensor data. A multiphase fall model is utilized, including free fall, impact, and rest phases for the knowledge-based approach, which identifies fall events and has the potential to deal with the aforementioned technical challenges of a fall detection system. Seven kinds of falls and seven types of daily activities arranged in an experiment are used to explore the performance of the proposed fall detection algorithm. The overall performances of the sensitivity, specificity, precision, and accuracy using a knowledge-based algorithm are 99.79%, 98.74%, 99.05% and 99.33%, respectively. The results show that the proposed novel hierarchical fall detection algorithm can cope with the variability and ambiguity of the technical challenges and fulfill the reliability, adaptability, and flexibility requirements of an automatic fall detection system with respect to the individual differences. PMID:28208694

  17. Novel Hierarchical Fall Detection Algorithm Using a Multiphase Fall Model.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Chia-Yeh; Liu, Kai-Chun; Huang, Chih-Ning; Chu, Woei-Chyn; Chan, Chia-Tai

    2017-02-08

    Falls are the primary cause of accidents for the elderly in the living environment. Reducing hazards in the living environment and performing exercises for training balance and muscles are the common strategies for fall prevention. However, falls cannot be avoided completely; fall detection provides an alarm that can decrease injuries or death caused by the lack of rescue. The automatic fall detection system has opportunities to provide real-time emergency alarms for improving the safety and quality of home healthcare services. Two common technical challenges are also tackled in order to provide a reliable fall detection algorithm, including variability and ambiguity. We propose a novel hierarchical fall detection algorithm involving threshold-based and knowledge-based approaches to detect a fall event. The threshold-based approach efficiently supports the detection and identification of fall events from continuous sensor data. A multiphase fall model is utilized, including free fall, impact, and rest phases for the knowledge-based approach, which identifies fall events and has the potential to deal with the aforementioned technical challenges of a fall detection system. Seven kinds of falls and seven types of daily activities arranged in an experiment are used to explore the performance of the proposed fall detection algorithm. The overall performances of the sensitivity, specificity, precision, and accuracy using a knowledge-based algorithm are 99.79%, 98.74%, 99.05% and 99.33%, respectively. The results show that the proposed novel hierarchical fall detection algorithm can cope with the variability and ambiguity of the technical challenges and fulfill the reliability, adaptability, and flexibility requirements of an automatic fall detection system with respect to the individual differences.

  18. Falling film evaporator

    DOEpatents

    Bruns, Lester E.

    1976-01-01

    A falling film evaporator including a vertically oriented pipe heated exteriorly by a steam jacket and interiorly by a finned steam tube, all heating surfaces of the pipe and steam tube being formed of a material wet by water such as stainless steel, and packing within the pipe consisting of Raschig rings formed of a material that is not wet by water such as polyvinylidene fluoride.

  19. The Resource. Fall 2001

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-01-01

    Adams, Director of Scientific Visualization, initiated a Bring Your Own Data ( BYOD ) workshop for MSRC users. The first workshop was held June 25-26 in...leverage these assets in their future work. The first BYOD workshop was definitely a benefit to the users. Chris Stone, in particular was able to...publications 28 ERDC MSRC The Resource, Fall 2001 ac ro ny m s AG Access Grid AMR Adaptive Mesh Refinement BYOD Bring Your Own Data CDC Control Data

  20. Development of fall foliage color in sugar maple

    Treesearch

    Abby K. Van den Berg; John R. Donnelly; Paula F. Murakami; Paul G. Schaberg

    2001-01-01

    Fall foliage development is important to tourism and culture in the Northeast. However, few data exist on the control of the timing and brilliance of fall color. In this study, leaf tissue from 16 sugar maples (Acer saccharum) was collected periodically from June 30 through October 27, 1999 and analyzed for foliar nutrient, moisture and carbohydrate...

  1. Fall prevention walker during rehabilitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tee, Kian Sek; E, Chun Zhi; Saim, Hashim; Zakaria, Wan Nurshazwani Wan; Khialdin, Safinaz Binti Mohd; Isa, Hazlita; Awad, M. I.; Soon, Chin Fhong

    2017-09-01

    This paper proposes on the design of a walker for the prevention of falling among elderlies or patients during rehabilitation whenever they use a walker to assist them. Fall happens due to impaired balance or gait problem. The assistive device is designed by applying stability concept and an accelerometric fall detection system is included. The accelerometric fall detection system acts as an alerting device that acquires body accelerometric data and detect fall. Recorded accelerometric data could be useful for further assessment. Structural strength of the walker was verified via iterations of simulation using finite element analysis, before being fabricated. Experiments were conducted to identify the fall patterns using accelerometric data. The design process and detection of fall pattern demonstrates the design of a walker that could support the user without fail and alerts the helper, thus salvaging the users from injuries due to fall and unattended situation.

  2. Statistical Analyses of Historical Rock Falls in Yosemite National Park

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Austin, L. J.; Stock, G. M.; Collins, B. D.

    2014-12-01

    The steep cliffs of Yosemite Valley produce dozens of rock falls each year that pose a hazard to the four million annual visitors to Yosemite National Park. To better understand rock-fall processes, we use 156 years of rock fall data to examine temporal and spatial correlations between rock falls and seasonality, environmental conditions, and rock type. We also investigate the complexity of rock fall triggers, the most notably precipitation-related triggers (precipitation, snowmelt, rain-on-snow), earthquakes, thermal stress, and freeze-thaw. Comparing rock fall occurrences and cumulative precipitation plots for 16 years between 1983 and 2011 demonstrates a temporal correlation between precipitation and rock falls; this is corroborated by the observation of 17 rock falls that occurred within a one-week period of significant precipitation in late winter 2014. Yet there are many rock falls that do not coincide with precipitation; we attribute these to other triggers when clear temporal correlations exist, or, lacking clear temporal correlations, we investigate possible factors involved in "unrecognized" triggers. The large number of rock falls in the database (925) affords the opportunity to establish a volume-frequency relation similar to that of earthquakes. We also investigate both the frequency and volume of rock falls for each significant lithologic unit exposed in Yosemite Valley and find that two units in particular, the granodiorite of Arch Rock and the granodiorite of Kuna Crest, produce higher rates of rock fall relative to the other lithologies. The aim of these analyses is to better understand conditions that contribute to rock fall and to increase understanding of rock-fall hazard within Yosemite National Park.

  3. Long-distance free fall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallant, Joseph; Carlson, James

    1999-03-01

    We present an analysis of a situation described in Milton's epic poem "Paradise Lost" in which we calculate the distance required for a nine-day free-fall from rest to the Earth. The resulting method is completely general, and can be applied to free-fall toward other bodies and to near-Earth free-fall as well.

  4. [Fall risk and fracture. Aging and fall/fracture].

    PubMed

    Kozaki, Koichi

    2013-05-01

    Fall deteriorates QOL and ADL of elderly people, especially when they suffer from hip and vertebral fractures. It is not easy to identify the cause of falling, because falling usually result from multiple factors. Among various potential causes, osteoporosis, osteoarthritis, medication of hypnotic drugs, and environmental factors are important, because they are frequent and can be modifiable. When evaluating fall risks, grasping power, one-leg standing time, timed up&go test, are useful. On the other hand, fall risk index, 22-item self-assessment test, is easy and even better in predicting future falls. In the Cochrane systematic review article 2009, exercise such as Tai-Chi, withdrawal of hypnotic drugs, and vitamin D supplementation are shown to prevent falls in community-dwelling elderly.

  5. Multimorbidity predicts falls differentially according to the type of fall in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Afrin, Nadia; Honkanen, Risto; Koivumaa-Honkanen, Heli; Lukkala, Pyry; Rikkonen, Toni; Sirola, Joonas; Williams, Lana J; Kröger, Heikki

    2016-09-01

    To ascertain whether the risk of falls of different types is related to morbidity (number of chronic medical conditions) among postmenopausal women. This cohort study uses data from a population-based prospective cohort study (OSTPRE). The study population consisted of 10,594 women aged 47-56 years living in Kuopio Province, Eastern Finland, in 1989, who responded to postal enquiries at both baseline and 5-year follow-up, in 1994. Morbidity (i.e. number of diagnosed chronic medical conditions) was reported in 1989 and falls in 1994. Falls were categorized as slip or nonslip, and 'frequent falls' was defined as two or more in a 12-month period. The risk (odds ratio (OR) with 95% CI) of a fall increased with the number of chronic medical conditions. The OR was 1.28 (1.17-1.40) for those with 1-2 conditions and 1.41 (1.24-1.60) for those with multimorbidity (≥3 conditions) compared with healthy respondents. Multimorbidity was associated with a greater risk of the woman experiencing frequent nonslip falls (OR=2.57; 2.01-3.29) than frequent slip falls (OR=1.46; 1.17-1.80). Adjusting with logistic regression for age, number of medications and smoking did not affect the risk estimates. Multimorbidity has a much smaller effect on slip than on nonslip falls in postmenopausal women. This should be taken into account when investigating the effects of multimorbidity on fall risk in varying weather conditions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Fijian seasonal scourge of mango tree falls.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Anuj; Reeves, Ben

    2009-12-01

    Mango tree falls are a frequent presentation at any health facility in the South Pacific. This study aims to identify (i) the number of admissions because of falls from mango trees; (ii) epidemiology; (iii) seasonal trend; (iv) injury profile; and (v) hospital care provided. Retrospective case review on all mango tree falls related injuries resulting in admissions at the Lautoka Hospital, Fiji during a 1-year period (2007). Patient records were analysed to identify specific injury patterns such as upper/lower limb fractures, spinal cord injury and head injury, caused by mango tree falls. Thirty-nine cases were identified. Eighty-two percent (n = 32) of the falls occurred in the mango season (June-November). Seventy-two percent (n = 28) of the patients were males and 28% (n = 11) were females. Seventy-six percent were aged 5-13 and only 21% were adults. Also, 77% (n = 30) of the patients were ethnic Fijians and 23% (n = 9) were Fijian-Indians. Sixty-four percent (n = 25) had closed fractures and 17% (n = 7) had open fractures. Fifty-six percent (n = 22) of the fractures were of the fore arm. There were two cases of spinal cord injury, four cases of head injury, one ICU admission and one death. Average hospital stay was 7.56 days. All these injuries were recreational and the majority in the urban setting. They were all avoidable.

  7. `In free fall'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beijerinck, Herman C. W.

    2014-01-01

    Physicists in the lead of a fiction book or a play, that's a rare event! Writers in general do not understand physics, while physicists seldom have the talent of writing for a large audience. So when it happens, we should rejoice. The up-and-coming German author Juli Zeh [1] (1974), who studied law, has succeeded in combining beautiful prose, psychological drama, crime and physics in a challenging book `In free fall' [2]. A good friend of hers, Bettina Bruinier, has put the core message of the book into a compelling play in the `Volkstheater' in Munich [1]. Yes, it can be done.

  8. Three-dimensional numerical simulations of falling liquid films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pain, Christopher; Xie, Zhihua; Pavlidis, Dimitrios; Salinas, Pablo; Matar, Omar

    2016-11-01

    Falling liquid films down an inclined or vertical surface have rich wave dynamics, often occurring in many industrial applications, such as condensers, evaporators and chemical reactors. There are some numerical studies for falling liquid films, however most of them have focused on two-dimensional falling films or three-dimensional falling films in a periodic domain. The objective of this study is to investigate flow dynamics of fully developed three-dimensional falling films using the Navier-Stokes equations coupled with interface capturing approach. An adaptive unstructured mesh modelling framework is employed here to study this problem, which can modify and adapt unstructured meshes to better represent the underlying physics of multiphase problems and reduce computational effort without sacrificing accuracy. Numerical examples of two-dimensional and three-dimensional falling films in a long domain with different flow conditions are presented and discussed. EPSRC UK Programme Grant MEMPHIS (EP/K003976/1).

  9. The role of population in tracking meteorite falls in Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khiri, F.; Ibhi, A.; Saint-Gerant, T.; Medjkane, M.; Ouknine, L.

    2016-01-01

    The 158 African meteorite falls recorded during the period 1801 to 2014, account for more than 12.3% of all meteorite falls known from the world. Their rate is variable in time and in space. The number of falls continues to grow since 1860. They are concentrated in countries which exhibit large population (mainly rural population) with an uniform distribution. Generally, the number of falls follows the increase of the population density (coefficient of correlation r = 0.98). The colonial phenomenon, the education of population in this field, the population lifestyle and the rural exodus, are also factors among others which could explain the variability of the recovery of meteorite falls in Africa. In this note, we try by a statistical study, to examine the role of the African population in tracking meteorite falls on this continent.

  10. [Can falls be prevented?].

    PubMed

    Dubousset, Jean

    2014-06-01

    Most recommendations and measures intended to prevent falls focus on the elderly (see HAS guideline of April 2009) but, in our opinion, this isfar too late: prevention must begin much earlier, not only by identifying persons at risk, but also by providing personalized lifestyle advice adapted to each individual's biomechanical, somatic, neurological and biological characteristics. The first preventive measure is to identify a possible deterioration of balance, starting with a physical examination at the age of 45 and repeated regularly throughout life. Extrinsic preventive measures focusing on the domestic and external environments are clearly necessary. But what is most important is to detect and, if necessary, correct any degradation of intrinsic (intracorporeal or somatic) factors starting at the age of 45 years; these include vision, vestibular function and balance, proprioception, and psychological and neurological status. Chronic illnesses and their treatments must also be taken into account: treatment must be limited to indispensable drugs; sedative psychotropics must be avoided if possible; and polymedication must be tightly controlled, as it is a major risk factor for falls. Prevention also requires a diet sufficiently rich in protein, calcium and vitamin D3 (to prevent osteoporosis), and regular daily exercise adapted to the individual, if possible associated with a simultaneous cognitive task. The last key point is the absolute need for thorough functional rehabilitation after any accidental or medical trauma, regardless of age, with the aim of restoring functional status to that existing prior to the accident.

  11. Retrospective analysis of fatal falls.

    PubMed

    Thierauf, Annette; Preuss, Johanna; Lignitz, Eberhard; Madea, Burkhard

    2010-05-20

    Fatal falls are frequent and inhomogeneous events and affect every age. The criminalistic classification can often only be done on the basis of extensive investigations and the autopsy results. We retrospectively surveyed 291 cases of fatal falls on which a post-mortem examination had been carried out in the institutes of Forensic Medicine in Bonn and Greifswald. In large part, these cases are falls from height (n=123) and ground-level falls (n=122). These are compared to fatal falls down a stairs (n=46); the analysis is confined to injuries to the cranium. In ground-level falls the injury pattern in falls under the influence of alcohol differs from that of falls with no alcohol in the case history: all injuries are seen in higher relative frequency in casualties after the consumption of alcohol. In falls from height, the previous consumption of alcohol did not influence the injury pattern; the intracranial traumas are seen in decreasing frequency with increasing heights. The aim of this retrospective analysis is to present injury patterns and influencing factors like fall heights and alcohol for the different kinds of falls on the basis of our collective and to demonstrate similarities and differences between the subgroups.

  12. Preventing falls with vitamin D.

    PubMed

    Shuler, Franklin D; Schlierf, Thomas; Wingate, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    Falls are the number one cause for injury-related morbidity and mortality in West Virginia's seniors. Multiple independent variables contribute to the risk of a fall: previous falls, alterations in balance and vision, impairments in gait and strength, and medications most highly correlate with the risk for a fall. Vitamin D supplementation is emerging as an easy, safe and well-tolerated fall reduction/prevention strategy due to the beneficial effects on the musculoskeletal system with improvements in strength, function and navigational abilities. From meta-analysis data, maximal fall reduction benefit in seniors is achieved when correcting vitamin D deficiency and when using adjunctive calcium supplementation. It is therefore recommended that practitioners in our state screen for fall risks and consider the addition of supplementation protocols that provide sufficient vitamin D and calcium to our seniors.

  13. Identifying Home Care Clinicians’ Information Needs for Managing Fall Risks

    PubMed Central

    Alhuwail, Dari

    2016-01-01

    Summary Objectives To help manage the risk of falls in home care, this study aimed to (i) identify home care clinicians’ information needs and how they manage missing or inaccurate data, (ii) identify problems that impact effectiveness and efficiency associated with retaining, exchanging, or processing information about fall risks in existing workflows and currently adopted health information technology (IT) solutions, and (iii) offer informatics-based recommendations to improve fall risk management interventions. Methods A case study was carried out in a single not-for-profit suburban Medicare-certified home health agency with three branches. Qualitative data were collected over a six month period through observations, semi-structured interviews, and focus groups. The Framework method was used for analysis. Maximum variation sampling was adopted to recruit a diverse sample of clinicians. Results Overall, the information needs for fall risk management were categorized into physiological, care delivery, educational, social, environmental, and administrative domains. Examples include a brief fall-related patient history, weight-bearing status, medications that affect balance, availability of caregivers at home, and the influence of patients’ cultures on fall management interventions. The unavailability and inaccuracy of critical information related to fall risks can delay necessary therapeutic services aimed at reducing patients’ risk for falling and thereby jeopardizing their safety. Currently adopted IT solutions did not adequately accommodate data related to fall risk management. Conclusion The results highlight the essential information for fall risk management in home care. Home care workflows and health IT solutions must effectively and efficiently retain, exchange, and process information necessary for fall risk management. Interoperability and integration of the various health IT solutions to make data sharing accessible to all clinicians is critical

  14. Evaluation of an inpatient fall risk screening tool to identify the most critical fall risk factors in inpatients.

    PubMed

    Hou, Wen-Hsuan; Kang, Chun-Mei; Ho, Mu-Hsing; Kuo, Jessie Ming-Chuan; Chen, Hsiao-Lien; Chang, Wen-Yin

    2017-03-01

    To evaluate the accuracy of the inpatient fall risk screening tool and to identify the most critical fall risk factors in inpatients. Variations exist in several screening tools applied in acute care hospitals for examining risk factors for falls and identifying high-risk inpatients. Secondary data analysis. A subset of inpatient data for the period from June 2011-June 2014 was extracted from the nursing information system and adverse event reporting system of an 818-bed teaching medical centre in Taipei. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics, receiver operating characteristic curve analysis and logistic regression analysis. During the study period, 205 fallers and 37,232 nonfallers were identified. The results revealed that the inpatient fall risk screening tool (cut-off point of ≥3) had a low sensitivity level (60%), satisfactory specificity (87%), a positive predictive value of 2·0% and a negative predictive value of 99%. The receiver operating characteristic curve analysis revealed an area under the curve of 0·805 (sensitivity, 71·8%; specificity, 78%). To increase the sensitivity values, the Youden index suggests at least 1·5 points to be the most suitable cut-off point for the inpatient fall risk screening tool. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed a considerably increased fall risk in patients with impaired balance and impaired elimination. The fall risk factor was also significantly associated with days of hospital stay and with admission to surgical wards. The findings can raise awareness about the two most critical risk factors for falls among future clinical nurses and other healthcare professionals and thus facilitate the development of fall prevention interventions. This study highlights the needs for redefining the cut-off points of the inpatient fall risk screening tool to effectively identify inpatients at a high risk of falls. Furthermore, inpatients with impaired balance and impaired elimination should be closely

  15. Fall in Earth's magnetic field is erratic.

    PubMed

    Gubbins, David; Jones, Adrian L; Finlay, Christopher C

    2006-05-12

    Earth's magnetic field has decayed by about 5% per century since measurements began in 1840. Directional measurements predate those of intensity by more than 250 years, and we combined the global model of directions with paleomagnetic intensity measurements to estimate the fall in strength for this earlier period (1590 to 1840 A.D.). We found that magnetic field strength was nearly constant throughout this time, in contrast to the later period. Extrapolating to the core surface showed that the fall in strength originated in patches of reverse magnetic flux in the Southern Hemisphere. These patches were detectable by directional data alone; the pre-1840 model showed little or no evidence of them, supporting the conclusion of a steady dipole up to 1840.

  16. An Innovative Approach for Decreasing Fall Trauma Admissions from Geriatric Living Facilities: Preliminary Investigation.

    PubMed

    Evans, Tracy; Gross, Brian; Rittenhouse, Katelyn; Harnish, Carissa; Vellucci, Ashley; Bupp, Katherine; Horst, Michael; Miller, Jo Ann; Baier, Ron; Chandler, Roxanne; Rogers, Frederick B

    2015-12-01

    Geriatric living facilities have been associated with a high rate of falls. We sought to develop an innovative intervention approach targeting geriatric living facilities that would reduce geriatric fall admissions to our Level II trauma center. In 2011, a Trauma Prevention Taskforce visited 5 of 28 local geriatric living facilities to present a fall prevention protocol composed of three sections: fall education, risk factor identification, and fall prevention strategies. To determine the impact of the intervention, the trauma registry was queried for all geriatric fall admissions attributed to patients living at local geriatric living facilities. The fall admission rate (total fall admissions/total beds) of the pre-intervention period (2010-2011) was compared with that of the postintervention period (2012-2013) at the 5 intervention and 23 control facilities. A P value < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. From 2010 to 2013, there were 487 fall admissions attributed to local geriatric living facilities (intervention: 179 fall admissions; control: 308 fall admissions). The unadjusted fall rate decreased at intervention facilities from 8.9 fall admissions/bed pre-intervention to 8.1 fall admissions/bed postintervention, whereas fall admission rates increased at control sites from 5.9 to 7.7 fall admissions/bed during the same period [control/intervention odds ratio (OR), 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.32, 1.05-1.67; period OR, 95%CI = 1.55, 1.18-2.04, P = 0.002; interaction of control/intervention group and period OR 95% CI = 0.68, 0.46-1.00, P = 0.047]. An aggressive intervention program targeting high-risk geriatric living facilities resulted in a statistically significant decrease in geriatric fall admissions to our Level II trauma center.

  17. Optimizing the tracking of falls in studies of older participants: comparison of quarterly telephone recall with monthly falls calendars in the MOBILIZE Boston Study.

    PubMed

    Hannan, Marian T; Gagnon, Margaret M; Aneja, Jasneet; Jones, Richard N; Cupples, L Adrienne; Lipsitz, Lewis A; Samelson, Elizabeth J; Leveille, Suzanne G; Kiel, Douglas P

    2010-05-01

    Tracking falls among elders is challenging. In this reliability study, which took place between October 2007 and February 2008, the authors compared participants' daily recordings of falls on calendars with a telephone survey of recall of falls over the previous 3 months within the population-based MOBILIZE Boston Study cohort, a cohort of 765 elders. From the cohort, 218 participants were randomly selected. Falls were tracked prospectively on daily calendars (mailed back monthly). Telephone recalls of falls over the previous 3 months were conducted in January and February 2008. Agreement, sensitivity, and specificity were calculated to compare the occurrence of falls as determined by 3-month recall with falls recorded by daily calendar (gold standard) during the same 3-month period. Results showed good agreement between recall and calendars: 27 persons reported a fall by both methods. However, while the 3-month recall correctly classified persons who did not fall (164 persons by both methods), it missed 25% of participants who fell (of 36 participants with a calendar-reported fall, 9 did not report a fall by telephone recall). Kappa was 0.74 (95% confidence interval: 0.68, 0.80), sensitivity was 75%, and specificity was 96%. Retrospective 3-month recall of falls resulted in underreporting of falls by as much as 25% compared with daily calendars. Calendars should be considered the preferred method of ascertaining falls in longitudinal studies.

  18. Slip, Trip, and Fall Injuries Among Nursing Care Facility Workers

    PubMed Central

    Bell, Jennifer L.; Collins, James W.; Tiesman, Hope M.; Ridenour, Marilyn; Konda, Srinivas; Wolf, Laurie; Evanoff, Bradley

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this research was to describe the slip, trip, and fall injury experience and trends in a population of nursing home workers, identify risk factors for slip, trip, and fall injuries, and develop prevention strategies for slip, trip, and fall hazards. Workers’ compensation injury claims data and payroll data from 1996 through 2003 were obtained from six nursing homes and used to calculate injury incidence rates. Narrative information was used to describe details of slip, trip, and fall events. A total of 86 slip, trip, and fall-related workers’ compensation claims were filed during the 8-year period. Slip, trip, and fall claim rates showed a nonsignificant increase during the 8-year period. Most slips, trips, and falls were attributed to hazards that can be mitigated (e.g., water on the floor or loose cords in a walkway). Nursing home workers experience more slip, trip, and fall-related injury claims than workers in other industries. Preventive programs should be implemented and evaluated in this industry. PMID:23521142

  19. Epidemiology of high falls from windows in children.

    PubMed

    Freyne, B; Doyle, J; McNamara, R; Nicholson, A J

    2014-02-01

    Falls from a height result in significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. Targeted prevention strategies in the US combined data collection, publicity campaigns and building regulation and reduced high falls in New York by 93%. This retrospective cohort study describes children who fell from a height presenting or referred to Children's University Hospital Temple St. over a 2 year period. Case ascertainment was through the Emergency Department Symphony registration system and the Trauma Area Research Network (TARN) database. Forty five falls were identified, 33 falls (73.3%) were in children less than 5 with boys being three times more likely to fall. Forty four falls were from windows, 31 from < 12 feet and 7 were witnessed. Injury severity Scores (ISS) correlated to height of fall; both deaths fells from > 24ft. A publicity campaign is warranted to highlight the frequency of injury following falls from windows. Building legislation is required to safeguard high windows and balconies. A post fall questionnaire would enable the collection of unbiased forensic data.

  20. Prospective monitoring and self-report of previous falls among older women at high risk of falls and fractures: a study of comparison and agreement

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Patrícia A.; Dias, João M. D.; Silva, Silvia L. A.; Dias, Rosângela C.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The identification of the occurrence of falls is an important step for screening and for rehabilitation processes for the elderly. The methods of monitoring these events are susceptible to recording biases, and the choice of the most accurate method remains challenging. Objectives: (i) To investigate the agreement between retrospective self-reporting and prospective monitoring of methods of recording falls, and (ii) to compare the retrospective self-reporting of falls and the prospective monitoring of falls and recurrent falls over a 12-month period among older women at high risk of falls and fractures. Method: A total of 118 community-dwelling older women with low bone density were recruited. The incidence of falls was monitored prospectively in 116 older women (2 losses) via monthly phone calls over the course of a year. At the end of this monitoring period, the older women were asked about their recall of falls in the same 12-month period. The agreement between the two methods was analyzed, and the sensitivity and specificity of self-reported previous falls in relation to the prospective monitoring were calculated. Results: There was moderate agreement between the prospective monitoring and the retrospective self-reporting of falls in classifying fallers (Kappa=0.595) and recurrent fallers (Kappa=0.589). The limits of agreement were 0.35±1.66 falls. The self-reporting of prior falls had a 67.2% sensitivity and a 94.2% specificity in classifying fallers among older women and a 50% sensitivity and a 98.9% specificity in classifying recurrent fallers. Conclusion: Self-reporting of falls over a 12-month period underestimated 32.8% of falls and 50% of recurrent falls. The findings recommend caution if one is considering replacing monthly monitoring with annual retrospective questioning. PMID:26083603

  1. Fall Harvest in Kazakhstan

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-09-27

    September 22, the autumnal equinox, marks the beginning of fall in the Northern Hemisphere, but the fall harvest begins early in the harsh continental climate of eastern Kazakhstan. By September 9, 2013, when the Operational Land Imager (OLI) on the Landsat 8 satellite acquired this image, several fields were already harvested and bare. Others were dark green with pasture grasses or ripening crops. The fields fill the contours of the land, running long and narrow down mountain valleys and spreading in large squares over the plains. Agriculture is an important segment of the economy in Kazakhstan: the country’s dry climate is ideal for producing high quality wheat for export. However, 61 percent of the country’s agricultural land is pasture for livestock. The area shown in this image, far eastern Kazakhstan near the Chinese border, is a minor wheat-growing region and may also produce sunflowers, barley, and other food crops. An artifact of Soviet-era collective farms, most of the farms in Kazakhstan are large, covering more than 5,000 hectares (12,500 acres). Some of the larger fields in the image reflect the big business side of agriculture. However, family farms and small agriculture businesses account for 35 percent of the country’s agricultural production, and some of these are visible as well, particularly in the uneven hills and mountains. Nearly all agriculture in Kazakhstan is rain fed. Farmers in this region have designed their fields to take advantage of rain flowing down hills, allowing the natural shape of the land to channel water to crops. The effect is a mosaic of green and tan with tones matching the natural vegetation in the mountains to the north. NASA Earth Observatory image by Jesse Allen using Landsat data from the U.S. Geological Survey. Caption by Holli Riebeek. Instrument: Landsat 8 - OLI More info: 1.usa.gov/16IZ047 NASA image use policy. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth

  2. Childhood injuries due to falls from apartment balconies and windows

    PubMed Central

    Istre, G; McCoy, M; Stowe, M; Davies, K; Zane, D; Anderson, R; Wiebe, R

    2003-01-01

    Background: Falls from balconies and windows are an important cause of childhood injury. This study investigated the circumstances around such falls and attempted to identify possible measures for their prevention. Population: Children <15 years living in Dallas County, Texas. Methods: Each child treated because of a fall from a building in 1997–99 had information about the injury collected, and a parent was contacted to obtain further information. For apartment related falls, an attempt was made to visit the apartment to measure windows and balcony rails. Results: Ninety eight children were injured in falls from buildings during the three year period; 39 (40%) were admitted to hospital. Seventy five of the falls (77%) involved apartments, and most occurred around noon or evening meal times. Among apartment falls, 39 (52%) fell from windows, 34 (45%) from balconies, and two (3%) from unknown sites. For more than two thirds of balcony related falls, the child fell from between the balcony rails, all of which were spaced more than 4 inches (10 cm) apart. On-site measurement showed the rails were an average of 7.5 inches (19 cm) apart; all of these apartments were built before 1984. For more than two thirds of window related falls, the window was situated within 2 feet (61 cm) of the floor. Conclusions: Two factors are important in falls from apartment windows and balconies: balcony rails more than 4 inches (10 cm) apart, and windows positioned low to the floor. Current building codes do not apply to older apartments, where most of these falls occurred. Nevertheless, these factors may be amenable to environmental modifications that may prevent most of these falls. PMID:14693898

  3. Student Profile, Fall 1977 to Fall 1986. Historical Profiles Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California Community Colleges, Sacramento. Office of the Chancellor.

    The tables and graphs presented in this report reflect changes in community college enrollments in California over the past 10 years (fall 1977 to fall 1986), as they have responded to fluctuations in the state's economy, available state revenues, and community college funding. First, an executive summary highlights the following trends over the…

  4. Post Falls Dam stabilization

    SciTech Connect

    Gorny, R.H.; Gibson, J.Z.

    1995-12-31

    The stability of Washington Water Power`s (WWP) Middle Channel and South Channel Dams at Post Falls, Idaho, were evaluated as required by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) and did not meet guideline stability criteria under Probable Maximum Flood (PMF) loading. This paper describes the stability analysis, stabilization design, design parameters, construction of the anchors, and compares the design and as-built conditions. Value engineering was used to select the optimal stabilization measure. Constructibility, cost, and schedule were major considerations. The value engineering study evaluated 41 potential stabilization alternatives, selected post tensioning, and used scheduling criteria to optimize the design. Access considerations required the installation of five 47 strand, 7400 kN (1645{sup k}) anchors in the Middle Dam, and installation of six anchors with different capacities anchors in the South Channel Dam. The Washington Water Power - Black & Veatch team used value engineering, contractor prequalification, resident engineering services provided by the engineer, and strong construction support provided by the Owner to successfully complete the project on a very tight schedule.

  5. 1991 Fall Meeting Report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chapman, David S.

    The AGU 1991 Fall Meeting, held in San Francisco December 9-13, was the largest national AGU meeting ever held. Meeting participation continued the steady growth trend set throughout the previous decade. A total of 4,037 papers and posters were presented, and by Friday noon of the meeting over 5,500 members had registered.Several special events were scheduled to inform and engage members on societal and programmatic aspects of our science. AGU's Committee on Education and Human Resources sponsored an open forum that addressed opportunities and problems associated with dual-career couples. A discussion of NASA's strategic plan by Berrien Moore and Joseph Alexander drew a large audience, and a special session on societal aspects of the Mt. Pinatubo eruption drew an overflow crowd. Two special lectures— “Plumes, Plates, and Deep Earth Structure” by Don L. Anderson and “New Frontiers in Aeronomy: Effects of Global Atmospheric Change” by P. M. Banks-also drew overflow crowds.

  6. Useful methods in preventing accidental falls from the bed in children at the emergency department.

    PubMed

    Tung, Tzu-Hui; Liu, Min-Cih; Yang, Jia-Yu; Syu, Wei-Yiu; Wu, Han-Ping

    2009-11-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the general characteristics of children in the pediatric emergency department (PED) who accidentally fall off the crib and to establish useful preventive measures. This prospective research analyzed pediatric patients who accidentally fell off their beds in the observational unit (OU) of the PED from July 2005 to June 2006 (first period). From July 2006 to February 2007 (second period), the causes of children falling off the crib in the first year were analyzed and five related preventive methods were instituted in the OU. From July 2007 to March 2008 (third period), the preventive methods were enhanced to achieve zero-event of accidental falls in the PED. The differences between patients falling off the bed among the three periods were then compared. This study collected 7,281 children admitted to the OU during the first period and recorded 15 cases of accidental falls. After performing the preventive methods in 6,232 patients in the second period, three events of accidental falls were noted. In the third period, there was no accident in the 5,225 patients admitted to the PED. Comparing the occurrences of children falling off the bed among the three periods, accidental falls significantly decreased in the third period (p < 0.001). Effective methods can be instituted to prevent children from falling off the bed, especially in the PED.

  7. Frequence and geographical distribution of ancient meteorite falling in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, W.; Xuan, R.; Li, L.

    The frequency and geographical distribution of ancient meteorites falling in China have been investigated based on historic records since more than 2000 years ago. The distribution of meteorite fallng frequency in geographic space obeys Poisson's distribution, and the negative binomial distribution with respect to the space distribution is due to the overlapping of different Poisson's populations. After reducing or eliminating the effect of increased reporting of meteorites due to population growth, the time function of meteorite falling frequency is found to be a stationary random process. The autocorrelation coefficient and power spectrum are used to show that the variation of meteorite falling period is of a logarithm spiral nature. Meteorite falling is probably influenced by the activities of comets and sunspots; no relationship is confirmed between meteorite falling and major earthquakes.

  8. Not Just a Fall Tree

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller-Hewes, Kathy A.

    2004-01-01

    Trees burst with color in the northern states. Autumn leaves dust the ground. Painting the fall landscape is nothing new. Teachers have been doing it in classrooms for decades. The approach, however, can make the difference between whether the fall landscape is simply painting for fun, or a real learning experience. Students learn best when they…

  9. Not Just a Fall Tree

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller-Hewes, Kathy A.

    2004-01-01

    Trees burst with color in the northern states. Autumn leaves dust the ground. Painting the fall landscape is nothing new. Teachers have been doing it in classrooms for decades. The approach, however, can make the difference between whether the fall landscape is simply painting for fun, or a real learning experience. Students learn best when they…

  10. NOVA Fall 1999 Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    French, Wayne; Karlan, James W.; Ransick, Kristina; Rosene, Dale; Sammons, Fran Lyons; Sammons, James

    This teacher's guide complements five programs that aired on the Public Broadcasting System (PBS) in the fall of 1999. Programs include: (1) "Fall of the Leaning Tower"; (2) "Everest: The Mystery of Mallory and Irvine"; (3) "Time Travel, Decoding Nazi Secrets"; (3) "Voyage of Doom"; and (5) "Barely…

  11. Persistence. Snapshot Report, Fall 2011

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Student Clearinghouse, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Today's college student is not your '60s drop-out. In 2010, college students tended to stay enrolled (i.e., persist), even if it was in a different school, according to the National Student Clearinghouse Research Center. For a student enrolled in the fall, persistence is defined as either continued enrollment during the next term after the fall or…

  12. [FALLS IN PATIENTS WITH DEMENTIA].

    PubMed

    Aizen, Efraim

    2015-05-01

    Older people with dementia are at increased risk of falls and their consequences. Patients with dementia fall twice as often as elderly cognitively intact people and are at greater risk of injurious falls. Falls in older people with dementia cause higher rates of morbidity, mortality and institutionalization. There is limited literature attempting to show specific risk factors for falls in this population, mainly: Lewy body dementia, dementia related to Parkinson's disease and depression, psychotropic medication, functional disability and behavioral disturbances. The Physiological Profile Assessment (PPAJ has been found to be a good fall risk screening tool in this population. There are few trials that have shown limited effectiveness of targeted fall prevention programs in community-dwelling cognitively impaired elderly. The evidence from hospitals and residential care is not conclusive. However, it has been demonstrated that some interventions, primarily exercise interventions, can modify certain risk factors in patients with dementia. Further research is required in specifically targeting fall prevention in older people with dementia.

  13. Automatic Fall Monitoring: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Pannurat, Natthapon; Thiemjarus, Surapa; Nantajeewarawat, Ekawit

    2014-01-01

    Falls and fall-related injuries are major incidents, especially for elderly people, which often mark the onset of major deterioration of health. More than one-third of home-dwelling people aged 65 or above and two-thirds of those in residential care fall once or more each year. Reliable fall detection, as well as prevention, is an important research topic for monitoring elderly living alone in residential or hospital units. The aim of this study is to review the existing fall detection systems and some of the key research challenges faced by the research community in this field. We categorize the existing platforms into two groups: wearable and ambient devices; the classification methods are divided into rule-based and machine learning techniques. The relative merit and potential drawbacks are discussed, and we also outline some of the outstanding research challenges that emerging new platforms need to address. PMID:25046016

  14. Automatic fall monitoring: a review.

    PubMed

    Pannurat, Natthapon; Thiemjarus, Surapa; Nantajeewarawat, Ekawit

    2014-07-18

    Falls and fall-related injuries are major incidents, especially for elderly people, which often mark the onset of major deterioration of health. More than one-third of home-dwelling people aged 65 or above and two-thirds of those in residential care fall once or more each year. Reliable fall detection, as well as prevention, is an important research topic for monitoring elderly living alone in residential or hospital units. The aim of this study is to review the existing fall detection systems and some of the key research challenges faced by the research community in this field. We categorize the existing platforms into two groups: wearable and ambient devices; the classification methods are divided into rule-based and machine learning techniques. The relative merit and potential drawbacks are discussed, and we also outline some of the outstanding research challenges that emerging new platforms need to address.

  15. Falls risk assessment begins with hello: lessons learned from the use of one home health agency's fall risk tool.

    PubMed

    Flemming, Patricia J; Ramsay, Katherine

    2012-10-01

    Identifying older adults at risk for falls is a challenge all home healthcare agencies (HHAs) face. The process of assessing for falls risk begins with the initial home visit. One HHA affiliated with an academic medical center describes its experience in development and use of a Falls Risk Assessment (FRA) tool over a 10-year period. The FRA tool has been modified since initial development to clarify elements of the tool based on research and to reflect changes in the Outcome and Assessment Information Set (OASIS) document. The primary purpose of this article is to share a validated falls risk assessment tool to facilitate identification of fall-related risk factors in the homebound population. A secondary purpose is to share lessons learned by the HHA during the 10 years using the FRA.

  16. Highly Challenging Balance Program Reduces Fall Rate in Parkinson Disease

    PubMed Central

    Sparrow, David; DeAngelis, Tamara R.; Hendron, Kathryn; Thomas, Cathi A.; Saint-Hilaire, Marie; Ellis, Terry

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose There is a paucity of effective treatment options to reduce falls in Parkinson’s disease (PD). Although a variety of rehabilitative approaches have been shown to improve balance, evidence of a reduction in falls has been mixed. Prior balance trials suggest that programs with highly challenging exercises had superior outcomes. We investigated the effects of a theoretically driven, progressive, highly challenging group exercise program on fall rate, balance, and fear of falling. Methods Twenty-three subjects with PD participated in this randomized cross-over trial. Subjects were randomly allocated to 3 months of active balance exercises or usual care followed by the reverse. During the active condition, subjects participated in a progressive, highly challenging group exercise program twice weekly for 90 minutes. Outcomes included a change in fall rate over the 3-month active period and differences in balance (Mini-BESTest), and fear of falling (Falls Efficacy Scale-International (FES-I)) between active and usual care conditions. Results: The effect of time on falls was significant (regression coefficient = −0.015 per day, p<0.001). The estimated rate ratio comparing incidence rates at time points one month apart was 0.632 (95% CI 0.524 to 0.763). Thus, there was an estimated 37% decline in fall rate per month (95% CI 24% to 48%). Improvements were also observed on the Mini-BESTest (p=0.037) and FES-I (p=0.059). Discussion and Conclusions The results of this study show that a theoretically based, highly challenging, and progressive exercise program was effective in reducing falls, improving balance, and reducing fear of falling in PD. PMID:26655100

  17. Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo: Management and Its Impact on Falls.

    PubMed

    Jumani, Kiran; Powell, Jason

    2017-08-01

    Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV) is the most common cause of dizziness in the elderly. This has been identified as a risk factor in falls. Falls are the leading cause of disability and the leading cause of death from injury among people over 75 in the UK. We assessed the effect of BPPV treatment on falls in an elderly population by retrospectively reviewing one unit's experience of BPPV management over an 8-year period from June 2008 to June 2016. We specifically assessed patients who were referred for the primary reason of falls and were aged over 65 years. These patients were evaluated and treated with particle repositioning maneuvers if their positional tests were positive. The frequency of falls prior to their visit and at 6-month clinic follow-up were reviewed. The total number of falls in the cohort reduced significantly ( P < .0001) after the procedure, from 128 to 46 falls (64% reduction). Associated comorbidities were also evaluated in this group. A prompt and effective treatment of BPPV is prudent to prevent devastating falls in older people in our communities.

  18. Cowlitz Falls Fish Passage.

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-01

    The upper Cowlitz was once home to native salmon and steelhead. But the combined impacts of overharvest, farming, logging and road building hammered fish runs. And in the 1960s, a pair of hydroelectric dams blocked the migration path of ocean-returning and ocean-going fish. The lower Cowlitz still supports hatchery runs of chinook, coho and steelhead. But some 200 river miles in the upper river basin--much of it prime spawning and rearing habitat--have been virtually cut off from the ocean for over 26 years. Now the idea is to trap-and-haul salmon and steelhead both ways and bypass previously impassable obstacles in the path of anadromous fish. The plan can be summarized, for the sake of explanation, in three steps: (1) trap and haul adult fish--collect ocean-returning adult fish at the lowermost Cowlitz dam, and truck them upstream; (2) reseed--release the ripe adults above the uppermost dam, and let them spawn naturally, at the same time, supplement these runs with hatchery born fry that are reared and imprinted in ponds and net pens in the watershed; (3) trap and haul smolts--collection the new generation of young fish as they arrive at the uppermost Cowlitz dam, truck them past the three dams, and release them to continue their downstream migration to the sea. The critical part of any fish-collection system is the method of fish attraction. Scientists have to find the best combination of attraction system and screens that will guide young fish to the right spot, away from the turbine intakes. In the spring of 1994 a test was made of a prototype system of baffles and slots on the upriver face of the Cowlitz Falls Dam. The prototype worked at 90% efficiency in early tests, and it worked without the kind of expensive screening devices that have been installed on other dams. Now that the success of the attraction system has been verified, Harza engineers and consultants will design and build the appropriate collection part of the system.

  19. Radar fall detectors: a comparison

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erol, Baris; Amin, Moeness; Ahmad, Fauzia; Boashash, Boualem

    2016-05-01

    Falls are a major cause of accidents in elderly people. Even simple falls can lead to severe injuries, and sometimes result in death. Doppler fall detection has drawn much attention in recent years. Micro-Doppler signatures play an important role for the Doppler-based radar systems. Numerous studies have demonstrated the offerings of micro-Doppler characteristics for fall detection. In this respect, a plethora of micro-Doppler signature features have been proposed, including those stemming from speech recognition and wavelet decomposition. In this work, we consider four different sets of features for fall detection. These can be categorized as spectrogram based features, wavelet based features, mel-frequency cepstrum coefficients, and power burst curve features. Support vector machine is employed as the classifier. Performance of the respective fall detectors is investigated using real data obtained with the same radar operating resources and under identical sensing conditions. For the considered data, the spectrogram based feature set is shown to provide superior fall detection performance.

  20. Seed fall in an oldgrowth northern hardwood forest

    Treesearch

    Raymond E. Graber; William B. Leak; William B. Leak

    1992-01-01

    Seed fall was measured for 11 years in a 200-year-old stand of sugar maple, yellow birch, and beech in New Hampshire. Yellow birch had 5 good seed years, sugar maple had 3, and beech had none. Viable seed fall of yellow birch began in August and continued through autumn and winter. Most of the viable sugar maple seed fell during a short period in October. Beech seed...

  1. Diagnosis and Tests: Evaluating a Fall or Risk of Falling

    MedlinePlus

    ... illnesses Your fear of falling and your mood Memory and brain functioning Risks in your home environment. Tests Your ... assess bone strength Heart assessments such as echocardiography Brain imaging such as CT ... therapy assessment A home safety evaluation. ...

  2. Fall Frequency and Risk Assessment in Early Parkinson’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Voss, TS; Elm, JJ; Wielinski, CL; Aminoff, MJ; Bandyopadhyay, D; Chou, KL; Sudarsky, LR; Tilley, BC

    2012-01-01

    Background We sought to define the frequency of falls in early PD and assess potential risk factors for falls in this population. Methods We analyzed the data from two randomized, placebo controlled trials (NET-PD FS1 and FS-TOO) of 413 individuals with early PD over 18 months of follow-up in FS1 and 12 months in FS-TOO. Falls were defined as any report of falls on the UPDRS or the adverse event log. We assessed the frequency of falls overall and by age. The relationship between prespecified fall risk markers and the probability of falling was assessed using logistic and multiple logistic regression. A hurdle Poisson model was used to jointly model the probability of remaining fall-free and the number of falls. Results During the follow-up period, 23% of participants fell, and 11% were habitual fallers. In a multiple logistic regression model, age, baseline UPDRS Falling score, and baseline PDQ-39 scores were associated with subsequent fall risk (P <0.001). Similarly, in a hurdle Poisson regression model, age, baseline UPDRS falling item, and baseline PDQ-39 were all significantly related to the probability of falling, but only UPDRS falling >0 was associated with the number of falls. Conclusion Falls are frequent and are associated with impaired quality of life, even in early PD. Current standard rating scales do not sufficiently explain future fall risk in the absence of a prior fall history. New assessment methods for falls and postural instability are required to better evaluate this important problem in clinical trials and clinical practice. PMID:22542094

  3. Falls in critical care: a local review to identify incidence and risk.

    PubMed

    Richardson, Annette; Carter, Rachel

    2017-09-01

    Patient falls are the most common adverse event in hospitals, resulting in devastating physical, psychological and financial consequences. Therefore the emphasis on falls assessment and prevention is a key priority. Within hospitals those reported at greatest risk of falls are older patients with little known about the factors within critical care. At a local level, a practice development project was identified to review risk factors contributing to falls in critical care. To identify the incidence of falls within adult critical care and the risk factors most likely to contribute to a fall. Reported falls incidents were reviewed retrospectively using a local incident reporting system, over a 2-year period from four critical care units. Forty-two incidents were reviewed indicating a low rate of injury and low rate of occurrence (0·99 falls/1000 bed days). The median age of fallers was 58 years and the most common risk factor for falls was confusion or agitation, followed by patients attempting to mobilize against advice. Critically ill patients were less likely to fall and were more likely to be younger than patients falling on an acute care ward. Neuroscience/trauma critically ill patients were more likely to fall than general critically ill patients; this was expected to be because of the increased presence of confusion or agitation in this group. The local system used to report falls produced difficulties in identifying risk factors in a consistent way. Although limitations exist, this review has enabled the development of more suitable local critical care falls risk factor assessment and interventions to minimize the risk of falling. Fall rates, related injuries and circumstances of falls vary considerably among acute care and critical care specialities. Future work should concentrate on better falls reporting systems and further research should include validating risk factors for critical care falls. © 2015 British Association of Critical Care Nurses.

  4. A multivariate regression model predicted falls in residents living in intermediate hostel care.

    PubMed

    Chen, J S; March, L M; Schwarz, J; Zochling, J; Makaroff, J; Sitoh, Y Y; Lau, T C; Lord, S R; Cameron, I D; Cumming, R G; Sambrook, P N

    2005-05-01

    To evaluate whether individual falls risk could be predicted in a frail elderly population. We developed and tested an assessment tool and falls risk score for predicting falls based on a multivariate regression model in a prospective cohort study of intermediate care residents. During the follow-up period, 1,736 falls by 1,107 subjects were recorded with an average of 170 falls per 100 person-years. Fifty percent of the study population had at least one fall within a year. Significant independent risk factors were poor balance, cognitive impairment, incontinence, higher illness severity rating, and older age. Twenty-two percent of participants with a falls risk score > or =7 accounted for 42% of the total falls, with a falls rate of 317 per 100 person-years. This rate was a sixfold increase from the falls rate of 52 per 100 person-years observed in participants with a score < 3. A high score (> or =7) indicated almost a 2 in 3 chance of falling, while a low score (<3) indicated approximately a 1 in 7 chance of falling within 6 months. The assessment tool and falls risk score could identify individuals in this frail elderly population at high risk of falls.

  5. SisFall: A Fall and Movement Dataset

    PubMed Central

    Sucerquia, Angela; López, José David; Vargas-Bonilla, Jesús Francisco

    2017-01-01

    Research on fall and movement detection with wearable devices has witnessed promising growth. However, there are few publicly available datasets, all recorded with smartphones, which are insufficient for testing new proposals due to their absence of objective population, lack of performed activities, and limited information. Here, we present a dataset of falls and activities of daily living (ADLs) acquired with a self-developed device composed of two types of accelerometer and one gyroscope. It consists of 19 ADLs and 15 fall types performed by 23 young adults, 15 ADL types performed by 14 healthy and independent participants over 62 years old, and data from one participant of 60 years old that performed all ADLs and falls. These activities were selected based on a survey and a literature analysis. We test the dataset with widely used feature extraction and a simple to implement threshold based classification, achieving up to 96% of accuracy in fall detection. An individual activity analysis demonstrates that most errors coincide in a few number of activities where new approaches could be focused. Finally, validation tests with elderly people significantly reduced the fall detection performance of the tested features. This validates findings of other authors and encourages developing new strategies with this new dataset as the benchmark. PMID:28117691

  6. Community College Estimated Growth: Fall 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillippe, Kent; Mullin, Christopher M.

    2011-01-01

    A survey from the American Association of Community Colleges (AACC) found that enrollment growth in fall 2010 slowed its pace at community colleges, increasing 3.2% from the previous year. This contrasts with more dramatic increases in recent years: more than 11% between fall 2008 and fall 2009, and nearly 17% between fall 2007 and fall 2009,…

  7. Risk of Fall-Related Injury due to Adverse Weather Events, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 2006-2011.

    PubMed

    Gevitz, Kathryn; Madera, Robbie; Newbern, Claire; Lojo, José; Johnson, Caroline C

    Following a surge in fall-related visits to local hospital emergency departments (EDs) after a severe ice storm, the Philadelphia Department of Public Health examined the association between inclement winter weather events and fall-related ED visits during a 5-year period. Using a standardized set of keywords, we identified fall-related injuries in ED chief complaint logs submitted as part of Philadelphia Department of Public Health's syndromic surveillance from December 2006 through March 2011. We compared days when falls exceeded the winter fall threshold (ie, "high-fall days") with control days within the same winter season. We then conducted matched case-control analysis to identify weather and patient characteristics related to increased fall-related ED visits. Fifteen high-fall days occurred during winter months in the 5-year period. In multivariable analysis, 18- to 64-year-olds were twice as likely to receive ED care for fall-related injuries on high-fall days than on control days. The crude odds of ED visits occurring from 7:00 am to 10:59 am were 70% higher on high-fall days vs control days. Snow was a predictor of a high-fall day: the adjusted odds of snow before a high-fall day as compared with snow before a control day was 13.4. The association between the number of fall-related ED visits and weather-related fall injuries, age, and timing suggests that many events occurred en route to work in the morning. Promoting work closures or delaying openings after severe winter weather would allow time for better snow or ice removal, and including "fall risk" in winter weather advisories might effectively warn morning commuters. Both strategies could help reduce the number of weather-related fall injuries.

  8. Accidental Falls and Risk of Mortality among Older Adults on Chronic Peritoneal Dialysis

    PubMed Central

    Farragher, Janine; Chiu, Ernest; Ulutas, Ozkan; Tomlinson, George; Cook, Wendy L.

    2014-01-01

    Background and objectives More than 40% of elderly hemodialysis patients experience one or more accidental falls within a 1-year period. Such falls are associated with higher mortality. The objectives of this study were to assess whether falls are also common in elderly patients established on peritoneal dialysis and evaluate if patients with falls have a higher risk of mortality than patients who do not experience a fall. Design, setting, participants, & measurements Using a prospective cohort study design, patients ages≥65 years on chronic peritoneal dialysis from April 2002 to April 2003 at the University Health Network were recruited. Patients were followed biweekly, and falls occurring within the first 15 months were recorded. Outcome data were collected until death, study end (July 31, 2012), transplantation, or transfer to another dialysis center. Results Seventy-four of seventy-six potential patients were recruited, assessed at baseline, and followed biweekly for falls; 40 of 74 (54%) peritoneal dialysis patients experienced 89 falls (adjusted mean fall rate, 1.7 falls per patient-year; 95% confidence interval, 1.0 to 2.7). Patients with falls were more likely to have had previous falls, be more recently initiated onto dialysis, be men, be older, and have higher comorbidity. Twenty-eight patients died during the follow-up period. After adjustment for known risk factors, each successive fall was associated with a 1.62-fold higher mortality (hazard ratio, 1.62; 95% confidence interval, 1.29 to 2.02; P<0.001). Conclusions Accidental falls are common in the peritoneal dialysis population and often go unrecognized. Falls were associated with higher mortality risk. Because fall interventions are effective in other populations, screening peritoneal dialysis patients for falls may be a simple measure of clinical importance. PMID:24763867

  9. Accidental falls and risk of mortality among older adults on chronic peritoneal dialysis.

    PubMed

    Farragher, Janine; Chiu, Ernest; Ulutas, Ozkan; Tomlinson, George; Cook, Wendy L; Jassal, Sarbjit V

    2014-07-01

    More than 40% of elderly hemodialysis patients experience one or more accidental falls within a 1-year period. Such falls are associated with higher mortality. The objectives of this study were to assess whether falls are also common in elderly patients established on peritoneal dialysis and evaluate if patients with falls have a higher risk of mortality than patients who do not experience a fall. Using a prospective cohort study design, patients ages ≥ 65 years on chronic peritoneal dialysis from April 2002 to April 2003 at the University Health Network were recruited. Patients were followed biweekly, and falls occurring within the first 15 months were recorded. Outcome data were collected until death, study end (July 31, 2012), transplantation, or transfer to another dialysis center. Seventy-four of seventy-six potential patients were recruited, assessed at baseline, and followed biweekly for falls; 40 of 74 (54%) peritoneal dialysis patients experienced 89 falls (adjusted mean fall rate, 1.7 falls per patient-year; 95% confidence interval, 1.0 to 2.7). Patients with falls were more likely to have had previous falls, be more recently initiated onto dialysis, be men, be older, and have higher comorbidity. Twenty-eight patients died during the follow-up period. After adjustment for known risk factors, each successive fall was associated with a 1.62-fold higher mortality (hazard ratio, 1.62; 95% confidence interval, 1.29 to 2.02; P<0.001). Accidental falls are common in the peritoneal dialysis population and often go unrecognized. Falls were associated with higher mortality risk. Because fall interventions are effective in other populations, screening peritoneal dialysis patients for falls may be a simple measure of clinical importance. Copyright © 2014 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  10. Highlights of 2012 Fall Meeting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finn, Carol

    2013-01-01

    This past December the streets of San Francisco, Calif., surrounding the Moscone Center were awash with a sea of Earth and space scientists attending the 45th consecutive AGU Fall Meeting, eager to share and expand their knowledge "for the benefit of humanity." As it has for many years, attendance at AGU's Fall Meeting—the largest gathering of Earth and space scientists in the world—continued to increase, this year passing the 24,000 mark. Attendees at the meeting, which took place on 3-7 December 2012, hailed from 97 countries; nearly 7000 of them were students. News from the Fall Meeting was carried in newspapers and on Web sites around the world, and the social media sphere lit up with talk of AGU and the Fall Meeting. It's even reported that for a short time we were a trending topic on Twitter.

  11. Exercises to help prevent falls

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000493.htm Exercises to help prevent falls To use the sharing ... and easily. DO NOT hold your breath. Balance Exercises You can do some balance exercises during everyday ...

  12. Klamath Falls downtown development geothermal sidewalk snowmelt

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, B.

    1995-10-01

    The Klamuth Falls, Oregon, downtown has seen a period of decline over the past 20 years as businesses have moved to new suburban shopping centers. Downtown business owners and the Klamuth Falls Downtown Redevelopment Agency are working to reverse that trend with a Downtown Streetscape Project intended to make the downtown a more pleasant place to work and do business. The visible elements of the project include new crosswalks with brick pavers, wheelchair ramps at sidewalk corners, new concrete sidewalks with a consistent decorative grid pattern, sidewalk planters for trees and flowers, and antique-style park benches and lighting fixtures. A less visible, but equally valuable feature of the project is the plastic tubing installed under the sidewalks, wheelchair ramps and crosswalks, designed to keep them snow and ice free in the winter. A unique feature of the snowmelt system is the use of geothermal heated water on the return side of the Klamath Falls Geothermal District Heating System, made possible by the recent expansion of the district heating system.

  13. Falls Among Older Adults: An Overview

    MedlinePlus

    ... health care providers. Learn More Important Facts about Falls Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Each year, ... once doubles your chances of falling again. 2 Falls Are Serious and Costly One out of five ...

  14. Pupil Membership and Related Information, Fall 1998.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wamboldt, Martina

    Information is provided about student membership in the Colorado public schools in 1998. In fall 1998, there were 699,135 students in Colorado's public schools, an increase of 11,968 students (1.7%) from fall 1997. Fall membership grew by 58,614 students (9.2%) from fall 1994 to fall 1998. Beginning in fall 1990, membership each year has surpassed…

  15. Modeling seasonal migration of fall armyworm moths.

    PubMed

    Westbrook, J K; Nagoshi, R N; Meagher, R L; Fleischer, S J; Jairam, S

    2016-02-01

    Fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith), is a highly mobile insect pest of a wide range of host crops. However, this pest of tropical origin cannot survive extended periods of freezing temperature but must migrate northward each spring if it is to re-infest cropping areas in temperate regions. The northward limit of the winter-breeding region for North America extends to southern regions of Texas and Florida, but infestations are regularly reported as far north as Québec and Ontario provinces in Canada by the end of summer. Recent genetic analyses have characterized migratory pathways from these winter-breeding regions, but knowledge is lacking on the atmosphere's role in influencing the timing, distance, and direction of migratory flights. The Hybrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory (HYSPLIT) model was used to simulate migratory flight of fall armyworm moths from distinct winter-breeding source areas. Model simulations identified regions of dominant immigration from the Florida and Texas source areas and overlapping immigrant populations in the Alabama-Georgia and Pennsylvania-Mid-Atlantic regions. This simulated migratory pattern corroborates a previous migratory map based on the distribution of fall armyworm haplotype profiles. We found a significant regression between the simulated first week of moth immigration and first week of moth capture (for locations which captured ≥ 10 moths), which on average indicated that the model simulated first immigration 2 weeks before first captures in pheromone traps. The results contribute to knowledge of fall armyworm population ecology on a continental scale and will aid in the prediction and interpretation of inter-annual variability of insect migration patterns including those in response to climatic change and adoption rates of transgenic cultivars.

  16. Modeling seasonal migration of fall armyworm moths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westbrook, J. K.; Nagoshi, R. N.; Meagher, R. L.; Fleischer, S. J.; Jairam, S.

    2016-02-01

    Fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith), is a highly mobile insect pest of a wide range of host crops. However, this pest of tropical origin cannot survive extended periods of freezing temperature but must migrate northward each spring if it is to re-infest cropping areas in temperate regions. The northward limit of the winter-breeding region for North America extends to southern regions of Texas and Florida, but infestations are regularly reported as far north as Québec and Ontario provinces in Canada by the end of summer. Recent genetic analyses have characterized migratory pathways from these winter-breeding regions, but knowledge is lacking on the atmosphere's role in influencing the timing, distance, and direction of migratory flights. The Hybrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory (HYSPLIT) model was used to simulate migratory flight of fall armyworm moths from distinct winter-breeding source areas. Model simulations identified regions of dominant immigration from the Florida and Texas source areas and overlapping immigrant populations in the Alabama-Georgia and Pennsylvania-Mid-Atlantic regions. This simulated migratory pattern corroborates a previous migratory map based on the distribution of fall armyworm haplotype profiles. We found a significant regression between the simulated first week of moth immigration and first week of moth capture (for locations which captured ≥10 moths), which on average indicated that the model simulated first immigration 2 weeks before first captures in pheromone traps. The results contribute to knowledge of fall armyworm population ecology on a continental scale and will aid in the prediction and interpretation of inter-annual variability of insect migration patterns including those in response to climatic change and adoption rates of transgenic cultivars.

  17. Bridging the gap between research and practice: review of a targeted hospital inpatient fall prevention programme.

    PubMed

    Barker, A; Kamar, J; Morton, A; Berlowitz, D

    2009-12-01

    Falls among older inpatients are frequent and have negative consequences. In this study, the effectiveness of a fall prevention programme in reducing falls and fall injuries in an acute hospital was studied. Retrospective audit. The Northern Hospital, an acute, metropolitan, hospital in Australia. A multi-factorial fall prevention programme that included establishment of a multidisciplinary committee, risk assessment of all patients on "high-risk" wards and targeted interventions for patients identified as high risk. Fall and fall injury rates per 1000 occupied bed-days were analysed using generalised additive models (GAM) and, because of the presence of autocorrelation, generalised additive mixed models (GAMM), respectively. During the 9-year observation of 271 095 patients, there were 2910 falls and 843 fall injuries. The GAM predicted rate of falls was stable in the 3 years after the programme was implemented, increased in 2006, then decreased between October 2006 and December 2007 from 4.13 (95% CI 3.65 to 4.67) to 2.83 (95% CI 2.24 to 3.59; p = 0.005). The GAMM predicted rate of fall injuries reduced from 1.66 (95% CI 1.24 to 2.21) to 0.61 (95% CI 0.43 to 0.88) after programme implementation (p<0.001). The falls rate varied throughout the observation period, and no significant change in the rate from preprogramme to postprogramme implementation was observed. The finding of no reduction in falls during the observation period may be explained by improved reporting throughout the observation period. The reduction in fall injuries was substantial and sustained. Identification of a local problem, use of a fall risk assessment to guide the delivery of simple interventions, integration of processes into daily clinical practice and creating systems that demand accountability of staff are factors that appear to have contributed to the programme's success.

  18. Pragmatic, cluster randomized trial of a policy to introduce low-low beds to hospital wards for the prevention of falls and fall injuries.

    PubMed

    Haines, Terry P; Bell, Rebecca A R; Varghese, Paul N

    2010-03-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of a policy to introduce low-low beds for the prevention of falls and fall injuries on wards that had not previously accessed low-low beds. This was a pragmatic, matched, cluster randomized trial with wards paired according to rate of falls. Intervention and control wards were observed for a 6-month period after implementation of the low-low beds on the intervention wards. Data from a 6-month period before this were also collected and included in analyses to ensure comparability between intervention and control group wards. Public hospitals located in Queensland, Australia. Patients of 18 public hospital wards. Provision of one low-low bed for every 12 on a hospital ward, with written guidance for identifying patients at greatest risk of falls. Falls and fall injuries in the hospital measured using a computerized incident reporting system. There were 10,937 admissions to control and intervention wards combined during the pre-intervention period. There was no significant difference in the rate of falls per 1,000 occupied bed days between intervention and control group wards after the introduction of the low-low beds (generalized estimating equation coefficient=0.23, 95% confidence interval=-0.18-0.65, P=.28). The rate of bed falls, falls resulting in injury, and falls resulting in fracture also did not differ between groups. Some difficulties were encountered in intervention group wards in using the low-low beds as directed. A policy for the introduction of low-low beds did not appear to reduce falls or falls with injury, although larger studies would be required to determine their effect on fall-related fractures.

  19. Catching a Falling Star

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2004-07-01

    . Comets are another important source of meteoroids and perhaps the most spectacular. After many visits near the Sun, a comet "dirty-snowball" nucleus of ice and dust decays and fragments, leaving a trail of meteoroids along its orbit. Some "meteoroid streams" cross the earth's orbit and when our planet passes through them, some of these particles will enter the atmosphere. The outcome is a meteor shower - the most famous being the "Perseids" in the month of August [2] and the "Leonids" in November. Thus, although meteors are referred to as "shooting" or "falling stars" in many languages, they are of a very different nature. More information The research presented in this paper is published in the journal Meteoritics and Planetary Science, Vol. 39, Nr. 4, p. 1, 2004 ("Spectroscopic anatomy of a meteor trail cross section with the ESO Very Large Telescope", by P. Jenniskens et al.). Notes [1] The team is composed of Peter Jenniskens (SETI Institute, USA), Emmanuël Jehin (ESO), Remi Cabanac (Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile), Christophe Laux (Ecole Centrale de Paris, France), and Iain Boyd (University of Michigan, USA). [2] The maximum of the Perseids is expected on August 12 after sunset and should be easily seen.

  20. Injury from falls in infants under one year.

    PubMed

    Mulligan, Christopher S; Adams, Susan; Tzioumi, Dimitra; Brown, Julie

    2017-08-01

    Falls in infants are a common cause of injury. Compared to older children, infants under age one are likely to have distinctive causation and injury patterns, as they are pre-mobile or have limited independent mobility and falls are more directly the responsibility of the care giver. There is little known about the mechanistic factors, predictors of injury and injury patterns in this age group. We conducted a retrospective review of infants under age one who presented after a fall to a paediatric trauma centre in Sydney, Australia. Circumstances and mechanisms of the fall, injury patterns, burden of investigations and outcomes were analysed. Over a 3-year period (2011-2013), 916 infants presented following a fall. One hundred and six (11.6%) were admitted and there was one death. Head injury was the most common reason for admission (85%). While there were severe and critical head injuries (Abbreviated Injury Scale 4-5) these were infrequent (2% of presentations). All admitted cases involved a short distance fall. Patients dropped by others were three times more likely to be admitted than infants presenting following other fall types (95% CI 1.9-4.8). Compared to other mechanisms, patients who fell from furniture had significantly longer hospital stays. Fall mechanisms involving infants being dropped by adults, and falls from beds or couches carry the highest clinical burden. These mechanisms should be targets for injury prevention and inform the design of safe equipment and environments for babies. © 2017 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (The Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  1. 1983 AGU Fall Meeting Report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    In only 5 days the AGU 1983 Fall Meeting in San Francisco accommodated more than 3100 attendees and more than 2100 papers. Each of the special, all-Union sessions attracted crowds of close to 1100 persons. Except for the 1982 Fall Meeting, which covered 8 days and included the American Society of Limnology and Oceanography (ASLO) Winter Meeting, 1983's was the largest AGU Fall Meeting ever.The large number of presentaions at the 1983 meeting was handled efficiently by assigning more than 30% of the papers to poster sessions, which were to many participants the highlight of the meeting. Poster presentations are becoming extremely good, and some of the more spirited sessions make many oral presentations seem pale in comparison. The sight of some of the world's leading geophysicists chatting over a poster paper with a student attested to one of the advantages of this type of presentation.

  2. [Accidental falls in the elderly].

    PubMed

    Heinimann, Niklas B; Kressig, Reto W

    2014-06-18

    Falls in the elderly are common with consecutive high mortality and morbidity. Recent consecutive data focus on identification and therapy of intrinsic risk factors. Sarcopenia, imbalance and gait disorders represent the major risk factors. Sarcopenia is caused by a disequilibrium of protein synthesis and breakdown, probably in consequence of age-related changes in protein metabolism. Protein supplements in combination with strength training shows the best benefit. Disorders in balance and gait are caused by age-related or pathologic changes in a complex regulation system of gait. The individual fall risk correlates with the gait variability and even increases with bad dual task performance. Activities with high requirements of attention and body awareness are the most effective prevention for falls in the elderly (-50%).

  3. [Home falls in infants before walking acquisition].

    PubMed

    Claudet, I; Gurrera, E; Honorat, R; Rekhroukh, H; Casasoprana, A; Grouteau, E

    2013-05-01

    Minor head trauma is frequent among infants and leads to numerous visits to emergency departments for neurological assessment to evaluate the value of cerebral CT scan with the risk for traumatic brain injuries (TBI). To analyze the epidemiological characteristics of nonwalking infants admitted after falling at home and to analyze associated factors for skull fractures and TBI. Between January 2007 and December 2011, all children aged 9 months or younger and admitted after a home fall to the pediatric emergency unit of a tertiary children's hospital were included. The data collected were age, sex, weight and height, body mass index; geographic origin, referral or direct admission, mode of transportation; month, day and time of admission; causes of the fall, alleged fall height, presence of an eyewitness, type of landing surface; Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score, application of the head trauma protocol, location and type of injuries, cerebral CT scan results, length of hospital stay, progression, and neglect or abuse situations. DESCRIPTIVE ANALYSIS: within the study period, 1910 infants were included. Fifty-four percent of children were aged less than 6 months with a slight male prevalence (52%). Falls from parental bed and infant carriers accounted for the most frequent fall circumstances. GCS score on admission was equal to 14 or 15 in 99% of cases. A cerebral CT scan was performed in 34% of children and detected 104 skull fractures and 55 TBI. Infants aged less than 1 month had the highest rate of TBI (8.5%). Eleven percent of patients were hospitalized. A situation of abuse was identified in 51 infants (3%). UNIVARIATE ANALYSIS: Male children and infants aged less than 3 months had a higher risk of skull fractures (P = 0.03 and P = 0.0003, respectively). In the TBI group, children were younger (3.8 ± 2.6 months versus 5.4 ± 2.5 months, P < 0.0001), fell from a higher height (90.2 ± 29.5 cm versus 70.9 ± 28.7 cm, P < 0.0001), were more often admitted on a

  4. Post-fall reporting in aged acute inpatient mental health units: an 18-month observational cohort study.

    PubMed

    Furness, Trentham; Mnatzaganian, George; Garlick, Robyn; Ireland, Susan; McKenna, Brian; Hill, Keith D

    2017-09-04

    Despite the high risk of falling for people with severe mental illness, there is limited falls research in mental health settings. Therefore, the objective of this observational cohort study was to conduct a focused post-fall review of fall episodes within aged acute inpatient mental health units at one of Australia's largest publicly funded mental health organizations. A post-fall reporting tool was developed to collect intrinsic and extrinsic fall risk factors among three aged acute mental health inpatient units over an 18-month period. Descriptive and inferential analyses were conducted to describe fall risk factors and predictors of fall risk. There were a total of 115 falls, of which the tool was used for 93 (80.9%) episodes. Falls occurred most often in consumer's bedroom/bathroom and were unwitnessed. Intrinsic risk factors were most often attributed to postural drop and losing balance during walking. However, that was in contrast to consumer's who self-reported feeling dizzy as the reason of the fall. Based on the cohort, future falls could be reduced by targeting those aged above 82 years, or with a diagnosis of dementia. Recurrent falls during admission could be reduced by targeting those with psychotic illness and males with a diagnosis of dementia. A clearer dialogue among consumers and clinical staff reporting about fall episodes may support future remedial interventions and inform programs to reduce fall risk and assist the challenge of describing unwitnessed falls in aged acute inpatient mental health settings.

  5. A Piece of Paper Falling Faster than Free Fall

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vera, F.; Rivera, R.

    2011-01-01

    We report a simple experiment that clearly demonstrates a common error in the explanation of the classic experiment where a small piece of paper is put over a book and the system is let fall. This classic demonstration is used in introductory physics courses to show that after eliminating the friction force with the air, the piece of paper falls…

  6. A Piece of Paper Falling Faster than Free Fall

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vera, F.; Rivera, R.

    2011-01-01

    We report a simple experiment that clearly demonstrates a common error in the explanation of the classic experiment where a small piece of paper is put over a book and the system is let fall. This classic demonstration is used in introductory physics courses to show that after eliminating the friction force with the air, the piece of paper falls…

  7. BURDEN FALLS ROADLESS AREA, ILLINOIS.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Klasner, John S.; Thompson, Robert M.

    1984-01-01

    The Burden Falls Roadless Area lies in the Shawnee National Forest of southern Illinois, about 5 mi west of the western edge of the Illinois-Kentucky fluorspar district. Geologic mapping and geochemical surveys indicate that the area has little promise for the occurrence of fluorspar and associated minerals; other special studies also indicate little promise for oil and gas and construction materials. Traces of gold and silver were detected in some geochemical samples but follow-up studies indicate little promise for the occurrence of resources of these metals within the Burden Falls Roadless Area.

  8. Period Cramps

    MedlinePlus

    ... Getting Your Period at School Do Periods Ever End? When Will I Get My Period? ... Nondiscrimination Visit the Nemours Web site. Note: All information on KidsHealth® is for educational purposes ...

  9. A comparison of accuracy of fall detection algorithms (threshold-based vs. machine learning) using waist-mounted tri-axial accelerometer signals from a comprehensive set of falls and non-fall trials.

    PubMed

    Aziz, Omar; Musngi, Magnus; Park, Edward J; Mori, Greg; Robinovitch, Stephen N

    2017-01-01

    Falls are the leading cause of injury-related morbidity and mortality among older adults. Over 90 % of hip and wrist fractures and 60 % of traumatic brain injuries in older adults are due to falls. Another serious consequence of falls among older adults is the 'long lie' experienced by individuals who are unable to get up and remain on the ground for an extended period of time after a fall. Considerable research has been conducted over the past decade on the design of wearable sensor systems that can automatically detect falls and send an alert to care providers to reduce the frequency and severity of long lies. While most systems described to date incorporate threshold-based algorithms, machine learning algorithms may offer increased accuracy in detecting falls. In the current study, we compared the accuracy of these two approaches in detecting falls by conducting a comprehensive set of falling experiments with 10 young participants. Participants wore waist-mounted tri-axial accelerometers and simulated the most common causes of falls observed in older adults, along with near-falls and activities of daily living. The overall performance of five machine learning algorithms was greater than the performance of five threshold-based algorithms described in the literature, with support vector machines providing the highest combination of sensitivity and specificity.

  10. A Successful ED Fall Risk Program Using the KINDER 1 Fall RiskAssessment Tool.

    PubMed

    Townsend, Ann B; Valle-Ortiz, Marisol; Sansweet, Tracy

    2016-11-01

    Emergency nurses did not perform falls risk assessments routinely on our ED patients; the instrument used was aimed at inpatients. We identified a need to revise fall assessment practices specific to our emergency department. The purpose of the performance improvement project was to reduce ED falls and evaluate the use of an ED-specific fall risk tool, the KINDER 1 Fall Risk Assessment. The plan was to establish fall risk assessment practices at point of ED entry and to decrease total falls.

  11. Meteorite falls in China and some related human casualty events

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yau, Kevin; Weissman, Paul; Yeomans, Donald

    1994-01-01

    Statistics of witnessed and recovered meteorite falls found in Chinese historical texts for the period from 700 B.C. to A.D. 1920 are presented. Several notable features can be seen in the binned distribution as a function of time. An apparent decrease in the number of meteorite reports in the 18th century is observed. An excess of observed meteorite falls in the period from 1840 to 1880 seems to correspond to a similar excess in European data. A chi sq probability test suggest that the association between the two data sets are real. Records of human casualities and structural damage resulting from meteorite falls are also given. A calculation based on the number of casualty events in the Chinese meteorite records suggests that the probability of a meteroite striking a human is far greater than previous estimates. However, it is difficult to verify the accuracy of the reported casualty events.

  12. Effect of dissemination of evidence in reducing injuries from falls.

    PubMed

    Tinetti, Mary E; Baker, Dorothy I; King, Mary; Gottschalk, Margaret; Murphy, Terrence E; Acampora, Denise; Carlin, Bradley P; Leo-Summers, Linda; Allore, Heather G

    2008-07-17

    Falling is a common and morbid condition among elderly persons. Effective strategies to prevent falls have been identified but are underutilized. Using a nonrandomized design, we compared rates of injuries from falls in a region of Connecticut where clinicians had been exposed to interventions to change clinical practice (intervention region) and in a region where clinicians had not been exposed to such interventions (usual-care region). The interventions encouraged primary care clinicians and staff members involved in home care, outpatient rehabilitation, and senior centers to adopt effective risk assessments and strategies for the prevention of falls (e.g., medication reduction and balance and gait training). The outcomes were rates of serious fall-related injuries (hip and other fractures, head injuries, and joint dislocations) and fall-related use of medical services per 1000 person-years among persons who were 70 years of age or older. The interventions occurred from 2001 to 2004, and the evaluations took place from 2004 to 2006. Before the interventions, the adjusted rates of serious fall-related injuries (per 1000 person-years) were 31.2 in the usual-care region and 31.9 in the intervention region. During the evaluation period, the adjusted rates were 31.4 and 28.6, respectively (adjusted rate ratio, 0.91; 95% Bayesian credibility interval, 0.88 to 0.94). Between the preintervention period and the evaluation period, the rate of fall-related use of medical services increased from 68.1 to 83.3 per 1000 person-years in the usual-care region and from 70.7 to 74.2 in the intervention region (adjusted rate ratio, 0.89; 95% credibility interval, 0.86 to 0.92). The percentages of clinicians who received intervention visits ranged from 62% (131 of 212 primary care offices) to 100% (26 of 26 home care agencies). Dissemination of evidence about fall prevention, coupled with interventions to change clinical practice, may reduce fall-related injuries in elderly persons

  13. Effect of Dissemination of Evidence in Reducing Injuries from Falls

    PubMed Central

    Tinetti, Mary E.; Baker, Dorothy I.; King, Mary; Gottschalk, Margaret; Murphy, Terrence E.; Acampora, Denise; Carlin, Bradley P.; Leo-Summers, Linda; Allore, Heather G.

    2012-01-01

    Background Falling is a common and morbid condition among elderly persons. Effective strategies to prevent falls have been identified but are underutilized. Methods Using a nonrandomized design, we compared rates of injuries from falls in a region of Connecticut where clinicians had been exposed to interventions to change clinical practice (intervention region) and in a region where clinicians had not been exposed to such interventions (usual-care region). The interventions encouraged primary care clinicians and staff members involved in home care, outpatient rehabilitation, and senior centers to adopt effective risk assessments and strategies for the prevention of falls (e.g., medication reduction and balance and gait training). The outcomes were rates of serious fall-related injuries (hip and other fractures, head injuries, and joint dislocations) and fall-related use of medical services per 1000 person-years among persons who were 70 years of age or older. The interventions occurred from 2001 to 2004, and the evaluations took place from 2004 to 2006. Results Before the interventions, the adjusted rates of serious fall-related injuries (per 1000 person-years) were 31.2 in the usual-care region and 31.9 in the intervention region. During the evaluation period, the adjusted rates were 31.4 and 28.6, respectively (adjusted rate ratio, 0.91; 95% Bayesian credibility interval, 0.88 to 0.94). Between the preintervention period and the evaluation period, the rate of fall-related use of medical services increased from 68.1 to 83.3 per 1000 person-years in the usual-care region and from 70.7 to 74.2 in the intervention region (adjusted rate ratio, 0.89; 95% credibility interval, 0.86 to 0.92). The percentages of clinicians who received intervention visits ranged from 62% (131 of 212 primary care offices) to 100% (26 of 26 home care agencies). Conclusions Dissemination of evidence about fall prevention, coupled with interventions to change clinical practice, may reduce

  14. Fall 1972 University Racial Census.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Glenwood C., Jr.; Sedlacek, William E.

    This document reports the results of the fall 1972 racial census at the University of Maryland. Only new freshmen, transfer students, and readmitted students filled out the racial census cards. All returning students constituted the data base of the student body. By adding new and deleting old racial census cards, counts could be made. Results of…

  15. Fall 1984 Community Services Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weeks, Ann A.

    In fall 1984, students who enrolled in credit-free courses at Dutchess Community College (DCC) were asked to provide demographic information as part of their registration process. Approximately 2,000 students, from almost all of the credit-free courses offered both on-campus and at off-campus sites, completed the student data form. Findings…

  16. Fall management of eastern gamagrass

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Recent research has suggested that eastern gamagrass (EGG) may be an effective alternative to chopped straw in the blended diets of dairy heifers and cows. Most extension materials discussing appropriate fall management of EGG recommend avoiding harvest within 6 weeks of first frost. Using this guid...

  17. More about the falling raindrop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mungan, Carl E.

    2010-12-01

    A simple strategy is presented for solving the "inverse rocket" problem of a particle accumulating material from a medium through which it falls vertically. Some forms of drag can also be easily included, thereby changing the constant acceleration to a more realistic value.

  18. Space Utilization Analysis, Fall 1995.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, John

    In an effort to inform space allocation decisions, Gainesville College (GC) in Georgia, undertook a project to analyze classroom usage for fall 1995 and make projections to the year 2000 based on annual enrollment increases of 3%. Factors potentially affecting the use of space were determined to include the following: (1) conversion to the…

  19. Fall Armyworm in the Southeast

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Two separate experiments testing fall armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda) migration patterns were set up in the southeastern U.S. in 2012. Previous results showed that moths from progeny of overwintering populations from south Texas were found west of the Chattahoochee-Flint-Apalachicola river basin, ...

  20. [A study on fall accident].

    PubMed

    Lee, H S; Kim, M J

    1997-01-01

    The study was conducted from November 1995 to May 1996 at the one general hospital in Seoul. The total subjects of this study were 412 patients who have the experience of fall accident, among them 31 was who have fallen during hospitalization and 381 was who visited emergency room and out patient clinic. The purposes of this study were to determine the characteristics, risk factors and results of fall accident and to suggest the nursing strategies for prevention of fall. Data were collected by reviewing the medical records and interviewing with the fallers and their family members. For data analysis spss/pc+ program was utilized for descriptive statistics, adjusted standardized X2-test. The results of this study were as follows: 1) Total subjects were 412 fallers, of which 245 (59.5%) were men and 167 (40.5%) were women. Age were 0-14 years 79 (19.2%), 15-44 years 125 (30.4%), 45-64 years 104 (25.2%), over 65 years 104 (25.2%). 2) There was significant association between age and the sexes (X2 = 39.17, P = 0.00). 3) There was significant association between age and history of falls (X2 = 44.41, P = .00). And history of falls in the elderly was significantly associated with falls. 4) There was significant association with age and medical diagnosis (X2 = 140.66, P = .00), chief medical diagnosis were hypertension (34), diabetes mellitus (22), arthritis (11), stroke (8), fracture (7), pulmonary tuberculosis (6), dementia (5) and cataract (5). 5) There was significant association between age and intrinsic factors: cognitive impairment, mobility impairment, insomnia, emotional problems, urinary difficulty, visual impairments, hearing impairments, use of drugs (sedatives, antihypertensive drugs, diuretics, antidepressants) (P < 0.05). But there was no significant association between age and dizziness (X2 = 2.87, P = .41). 6) 15.3% of total fallers were drunken state when they were fallen. 7) Environmental factors of fall accident were unusual posture (50.9%), slips (35

  1. Preventing Falls and Related Fractures

    MedlinePlus

    ... Reflexes are automatic responses to stimuli in the environment. Examples of reflexes include quickly slamming on the car brakes when a child runs into the street or quickly moving out of the way when something accidentally falls. Aging slows a person’s ...

  2. NOVA Fall 2000 Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ransick, Kristina; Rosene, Dale; Sammons, Fran Lyons; Sammons, James

    This teacher's guide complements six programs that aired on the Public Broadcasting System (PBS) in the fall of 2000. Programs include: (1) "Lincoln's Secret Weapon"; (2) "Hitler's Lost Sub"; (3) "Runaway Universe"; (4) "Garden of Eden"; (5) "Dying to Be Thin"; and (6) "Japan's Secret…

  3. Community-based tai chi and its effect on injurious falls, balance, gait, and fear of falling in older people.

    PubMed

    Lin, Mau-Roung; Hwang, Hei-Fen; Wang, Yi-Wei; Chang, Shu-Hui; Wolf, Steven L

    2006-09-01

    It is important to determine the effect of adherence to a tai chi program on falls and related functional outcomes in older people. This study examined the effect of a community-based tai chi program on injurious falls, balance, gait, and fear of falling among people aged 65 years and older in Taiwan. In 6 rural villages in Taichung County, 1,200 subjects participated in the initial assessment. During a 1-year intervention period, all study villages were provided with education on fall prevention. Two villages had been provided tai chi exercise (n=472 participants or "tai chi villagers"), and 4 villages served as control villages (n=728 participants or "control villagers"). Injurious falls were ascertained by telephone interviews every 3 months over a 2-year study period; additionally, balance, gait, and fear of falling were assessed in 2 follow-up assessments. Eighty-eight subjects, 83 from the tai chi villages and 5 from the control villages, participated and practiced in the tai chi program (the group labeled "tai chi practitioners"). After the tai chi program, injurious falls among the control villagers significantly declined by 44% (adjusted rate ratio [RR]=0.56; 95% confidence interval [CI]=0.36-0.92). Compared with the results for the control villagers, the decline was 31% greater (RR=0.69; 95% CI=0.30-1.56) among the tai chi villagers and 50% greater (RR=0.5; 95% CI=0.11-2.17) among the tai chi practitioners; the results did not reach statistical significance. Furthermore, compared with the scores for the control villagers, the scores for the tai chi practitioners increased by 1.8 points (95% CI=0.2-3.4) on the Tinetti Balance Scale and increased by 0.9 point (95% CI=0.1-1.8) on the Tinetti Gait Scale. No significant changes in the fear of falling were detected among the tai chi practitioners, tai chi villagers, and control villagers. Tai chi can prevent a decline in functional balance and gait among older people. However, the reduction in injurious falls

  4. Comparison of fall and spring planting on strip-mine spoils in the bituminous region of Pennsylvania

    Treesearch

    Grant. Davis

    1973-01-01

    To evaluate fall versus spring planting of 10 coniferous tree species and 5 hardwood shrub species, experimental plantings were established over a 2-year period on 7 graded strip-mine spoils. In general, initial tree survival was better with spring planting than with fall planting, especially on the more acid sites. Shrubs survived well with both spring and fall...

  5. Falls from heights in and around the city of Batman.

    PubMed

    Al, Behçet; Yildirim, Cuma; Coban, Sacid

    2009-03-01

    We evaluated the demographic data, mortality rates, fall causes, and post-mortem findings of individuals who fell from heights. Five hundred thirty-eight patients who sustained injuries after an accidental fall from heights were entered into the study. Our cases were collected prospectively in Batman over a seven- month period. The mean age was 12.4+/-3.22 years (3 months-98 years); 56.5% of patients were under 6 years old and 83.5% were under 20 years old. The mean fall height was 3.2+/-2.4 m. The mortality rate was 2.2%, and was highest among the patients who fell from flat-roofed houses. The most common injuries were to the head, and 100% of those who died had a head injury. Six patients were followed because of abdominal bleeding and 141 patients due to extremity fractures; 6.7% of patients were operated on and 83.8% of patients were treated in the emergency department. The results of this study were at variance with literature data with respect to the following: falls from heights were most common in the 0-5 years of age group. Craniocerebral trauma is the most common injury in fatal falls. Males had a higher rate of falls from height than females.

  6. Prevalence and Characteristics of Falls in Adults with Intellectual Disability Living in a Residential Facility: A Longitudinal Study [PreFallID].

    PubMed

    Salb, Johannes; Woodward, Carol; Offenhäußer, Jens; Becker, Clemens; Sieber, Cornel; Freiberger, Ellen

    2015-06-01

    The objective of our study was to describe the prevalence and characteristics of falls in adults with intellectual disability living in a residential care setting and to define differences between fallers and non-fallers in younger and older resident groups. In contrast to the general population, falls are a problem for both aged and younger adults with intellectual disability living in a residential care setting. Falls of 147 residents, aged between 21-89 years with different grades of ID, were recorded prospectively over a 12 months period using a digital fall report form. For all participants, a total of 140 falls were reported and high fall rates per person-year were found in the younger (0.85) as well as in the older aged residents (1.06).

  7. Increasing fall fruit production in short-day strawberries

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In the mid-Atlantic coast region of the United States (30 deg N, 77 deg W), the harvest period for short-day (SD) strawberry cultivars is only 7 weeks long from early May to late June. Strawberry transplants from a new propagation technique that improves fall flowering were grown under high tunnel ...

  8. The Rise and Fall of the Australian DBA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kortt, Michael A.; Pervan, Simon J; Hogan, Owen

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to identify and discuss the drivers behind the rise and fall of the Australian Doctor of Business Administration (DBA) and to assess its future. Design/methodology/approach: Data covering the period 1993-2013 was sourced from the Commonwealth Department of Education and Training to provide a comprehensive…

  9. Person-Centered Fall Risk Awareness Perspectives: Clinical Correlates and Fall Risk.

    PubMed

    Verghese, Joe

    2016-12-01

    To identify clinical correlates of person-centered fall risk awareness and their validity for predicting falls. Prospective cohort study. Community. Ambulatory community-dwelling older adults without dementia (N = 316; mean age 78, 55% female). Fall risk awareness was assessed using a two-item questionnaire that asked participants about overall likelihood of someone in their age group having a fall and their own personal risk of falling over the next 12 months. Incident falls were recorded over study follow-up. Fifty-three participants (16.8%) responded positively to the first fall risk awareness question about being likely to have a fall in the next 12 months, and 100 (31.6%) reported being at personal risk of falling over the next 12 months. There was only fair correlation (κ = 0.370) between responses on the two questions. Prior falls and depressive symptoms were associated with positive responses on both fall risk awareness questions. Age and other established fall risk factors were not associated with responses on either fall risk awareness question. The fall risk awareness questionnaire did not predict incident falls or injurious falls. Fall risk awareness is low in older adults. Although person-centered fall risk awareness is not predictive of falls, subjective risk perceptions should be considered when designing fall preventive strategies because they may influence participation and behaviors. © 2016, Copyright the Author Journal compilation © 2016, The American Geriatrics Society.

  10. Watch Out for Falling Plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-12-01

    The path taken by the falling fragment in the June 2011 event. [Adapted from Petralia et al. 2016]Sometimes plasma emitted from the Sun doesnt escape into space, but instead comes crashing back down to the solar surface. What can observations and models of this process tell us about how the plasma falls and the local conditions on the Sun?Fallback from a FlareOn 7 June 2011, an M-class flare erupted from the solar surface. As the Solar Dynamics Observatorys Atmospheric Imaging Assembly looked on, plasma fragments from the flare arced away from the Sun and then fell back to the surface.Some fragments fell back where the Suns magnetic field was weak, returning directly to the surface. But others fell within active regions, where they crashed into the Suns magnetic field lines, brightening the channels and funneling along them through the dense corona and back to the Suns surface.The authors model of the falling blobs at several different times in their simulation. The blobs get disrupted when they encounter the field lines, and are then funneled along the channels to the solar surface. [Adapted from Petralia et al. 2016]This sort of flare and fall-back event is a common occurrence with the Sun, and SDOs observations of the June 2011 event present an excellent opportunity to understand the process better. A team of scientists led by Antonino Petralia (University of Palermo, Italy and INAF-OAPA) modeled this event in an effort to learn more about how the falling plasma interacts with strong magnetic fields above the solar surface.Magnetic Fields as GuidesPetralia and collaborators used three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamical modeling to attempt to reproduce the observations of this event. They simulated blobs of plasma as they fall back to the solar surface and interact with magnetic field lines over a range of different conditions.The team found that only simulations that assume a relatively strong magnetic field resulted in the blobs funneling along a channel to the

  11. Clinical decision making in exercise prescription for fall prevention.

    PubMed

    Haas, Romi; Maloney, Stephen; Pausenberger, Eva; Keating, Jennifer L; Sims, Jane; Molloy, Elizabeth; Jolly, Brian; Morgan, Prue; Haines, Terry

    2012-05-01

    Physical therapists often prescribe exercises for fall prevention. Understanding the factors influencing the clinical decision-making processes used by expert physical therapists working in specialist fall and balance clinics may assist other therapists in prescribing exercises for fall prevention with greater efficacy. The objective of this study was to describe the factors influencing the clinical decision-making processes used by expert physical therapists to prescribe exercises for fall prevention. This investigation was a qualitative study from a phenomenological perspective. Semistructured telephone interviews were conducted with 24 expert physical therapists recruited primarily from the Victorian Falls Clinic Coalition. Interviews focused on 3 exercise prescription contexts: face-to-face individual therapy, group exercise programs, and home exercise programs. Interviews elicited information about therapist practices and the therapist, patient, and environmental factors influencing the clinical decision-making processes for the selection of exercise setting, type, dosage (intensity, quantity, rest periods, duration, and frequency), and progression. Strategies for promoting adherence and safety were also discussed. Data were analyzed with a framework approach by 3 investigators. Participants described highly individualized exercise prescription approaches tailored to address key findings from physical assessments. Dissonance between prescribing a program that was theoretically correct on the basis of physiological considerations and prescribing one that a client would adhere to was evident. Safety considerations also were highly influential on the exercise type and setting prescribed. Terminology for describing the intensity of balance exercises was vague relative to terminology for describing the intensity of strength exercises. Physical therapists with expertise in fall prevention adopted an individualized approach to exercise prescription that was based on

  12. Longitudinal Evaluation of Johns Hopkins Fall Risk Assessment Tool and Nurses' Experience.

    PubMed

    Hur, Eun Young; Jin, Yinji; Jin, Taixian; Lee, Sun-Mi

    The Johns Hopkins Fall Risk Assessment Tool (JHFRAT) is relatively new in Korea, and it has not been fully evaluated. This study revealed that the JHFRAT had good predictive validity throughout the hospitalization period. However, 2 items (fall history and elimination patterns) on the tool were not determinants of falls in this population. Interestingly, the nurses indicated those 2 items were the most difficult items to assess and needed further training to develop the assessment skills.

  13. An improbable concentration of basaltic meteorite falls (HED and mesosiderite) in the mid-20th century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Treiman, A. H.

    1993-06-01

    The present examination of the historical record of HED and mesosiderite basaltic meteorite falls attempts to determine whether that record is consistent with completely random fall times. Strong evidence for nonrandomness emerges, in view of a significant cluster of falls for the 1924-1939 period. The causes of the cluster appear to have acted only on basaltic meteorites, and in a way that was of only 15-year-duration.

  14. Risk of falling and hypnotic drugs: retrospective study of inpatients.

    PubMed

    Obayashi, Kyoko; Araki, Takuya; Nakamura, Katsunori; Kurabayashi, Masahiko; Nojima, Yoshihisa; Hara, Katsuyuki; Nakamura, Tomonori; Yamamoto, Koujirou

    2013-06-01

    Falls and related injuries remain a concern for patient safety in many hospitals and nursing care facilities. In particular, reports examining the relationship between accidents and drugs with a sedative effect have been increasing; however, the analysis of correlation between the background factors of fall accidents and the detailed therapeutic category of drugs is insufficient. Our objective was to estimate fall risk following the administration of hypnotics in inpatients within an acute hospital. We assessed the relationship between falls and hypnotic drugs compared with other medicines. An inpatient population-based study was carried out at Gunma University Hospital, where all inpatients admitted between 1 October and 31 December 2007 were included. Over a 3-month follow-up period, all reports of falling accidents from ward medical staff were investigated. Falls occurred in 1.8% of males and 1.3% of females in the study population (n = 3,683). The mean age of patients who experienced falls (64.7 ± 19.5 years) was significantly higher than that of patients who did not (56.2 ± 20.2 years). Multivariate analysis revealed the following drugs as high-risk factors for falling: hypnotics (odds ratio [OR] 2.17, 95% CI 1.44-3.28), antiepileptics (OR 5.06, 95% CI 2.70-9.46), opioids (OR 3.91, 95% CI 2.16-7.10), anti-Alzheimer's (OR 5.74, 95% CI 1.62-20.3), anti-Parkinson's (OR 5.06, 95% CI 1.58-16.24), antidiabetics (OR 3.08, 95% CI 1.63-5.84), antihypertensives (OR 2.24, 95% CI 1.41-3.56), and antiarrhythmics (OR 2.82, 95% CI 1.36-5.86). Multivariate logistic regression analysis of hypnotics, brotizolam, zopiclone, and estazolam revealed a significant association with an increased risk of inpatient falling accidents, while zolpidem, triazolam, flunitrazepam, and nitrazepam did not. The present findings suggest that the risk of falling accidents in hospitals differs according to the type of hypnotic drug administered. The appropriate selection of hypnotic drugs

  15. Programs and Place: Risk and Asset Mapping for Fall Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Matthew Lee; Towne, Samuel D.; Motlagh, Audry S.; Smith, Donald R.; Boolani, Ali; Horel, Scott A.; Ory, Marcia G.

    2017-01-01

    Identifying ways to measure access, availability, and utilization of health-care services, relative to at-risk areas or populations, is critical in providing practical and actionable information to key stakeholders. This study identified the prevalence and geospatial distribution of fall-related emergency medical services (EMS) calls in relation to the delivery of an evidence-based fall prevention program in Tarrant County, Texas over a 3-year time period. It aims to educate public health professionals and EMS first respondents about the application of geographic information system programs to identify risk-related “hot spots,” service gaps, and community assets to reduce falls among older adults. On average, 96.09 (±108.65) calls were received per ZIP Code (ranging from 0 calls to 386 calls). On average, EMS calls per ZIP Code increased from 30.80 (±34.70) calls in 2009 to 33.75 (±39.58) calls in 2011, which indicate a modest annual call increase over the 3-year study period. The percent of ZIP Codes offering A Matter of Balance/Volunteer Lay Leader Model (AMOB/VLL) workshops increased from 27.3% in 2009 to 34.5% in 2011. On average, AMOB/VLL workshops were offered in ZIP Codes with more fall-related EMS calls over the 3-year study period. Findings suggest that the study community was providing evidence-based fall prevention programming (AMOB/VLL workshops) in higher-risk areas. Opportunities for strategic service expansion were revealed through the identification of fall-related hot spots and asset mapping. PMID:28361049

  16. Programs and Place: Risk and Asset Mapping for Fall Prevention.

    PubMed

    Smith, Matthew Lee; Towne, Samuel D; Motlagh, Audry S; Smith, Donald R; Boolani, Ali; Horel, Scott A; Ory, Marcia G

    2017-01-01

    Identifying ways to measure access, availability, and utilization of health-care services, relative to at-risk areas or populations, is critical in providing practical and actionable information to key stakeholders. This study identified the prevalence and geospatial distribution of fall-related emergency medical services (EMS) calls in relation to the delivery of an evidence-based fall prevention program in Tarrant County, Texas over a 3-year time period. It aims to educate public health professionals and EMS first respondents about the application of geographic information system programs to identify risk-related "hot spots," service gaps, and community assets to reduce falls among older adults. On average, 96.09 (±108.65) calls were received per ZIP Code (ranging from 0 calls to 386 calls). On average, EMS calls per ZIP Code increased from 30.80 (±34.70) calls in 2009 to 33.75 (±39.58) calls in 2011, which indicate a modest annual call increase over the 3-year study period. The percent of ZIP Codes offering A Matter of Balance/Volunteer Lay Leader Model (AMOB/VLL) workshops increased from 27.3% in 2009 to 34.5% in 2011. On average, AMOB/VLL workshops were offered in ZIP Codes with more fall-related EMS calls over the 3-year study period. Findings suggest that the study community was providing evidence-based fall prevention programming (AMOB/VLL workshops) in higher-risk areas. Opportunities for strategic service expansion were revealed through the identification of fall-related hot spots and asset mapping.

  17. Experiments with a falling rod

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliveira, Vitor

    2016-02-01

    We study the motion of a uniform thin rod released from rest, with the bottom end initially in contact with a horizontal surface. Our focus here is the motion of the bottom end as the rod falls. For small angles of release with respect to the horizontal, the rod falls without the bottom end slipping. For larger angles, the slipping direction depends on the static friction coefficient between the rod and the horizontal surface. Small friction coefficients cause the end to slip initially in one direction and then in the other, while for high coefficients, the end slips in one direction only. For intermediate values, depending on the angle of release, both situations can occur. We find the initial slipping direction to depend on a relation between the angle at which the rod slips, and a critical angle at which the frictional force vanishes. Comparison between experimental data and numerical simulations shows good agreement.

  18. The Niagara Falls of Mars

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-06-26

    Various researchers are often pre-occupied with the quest for flowing water on Mars. However, this image from NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO), shows one of the many examples from Mars where lava (when it was molten) behaved in a similar fashion to liquid water. The northern rim of a 30-kilometer diameter crater situated in the western part of the Tharsis volcanic province is shown. The image shows that a lava flow coming from the north-northeast surrounded the crater rim, and rose to such levels that it breached the crater rim at four locations to produce spectacular multi-level lava falls (one in the northwest and three in the north). These lava "falls" cascaded down the wall and terraces of the crater to produce a quasi-circular flow deposit. It seems that the flows were insufficient to fill or even cover the pre-existing deposits of the crater floor. This is evidenced by the darker-toned lavas that overlie the older, and possibly dustier, lighter-toned deposits on the crater floor. This image covers the three falls in the north-central region of the crater wall. The lava flows and falls are distinct as they are rougher than the original features that are smooth and knobby. In a close-up image the rough-textured lava flow to the north has breached the crater wall at a narrow point, where it then cascades downwards, fanning out and draping the steeper slopes of the wall in the process. Image scale is 54.5 centimeters (21.5 inches) per pixel (with 2 x 2 binning); objects on the order of 164 centimeters (64.6 inches) across are resolved.] North is up. https://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA21763

  19. NAVO MSRC Navigator. Fall 2005

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-01-01

    for proper resolution of flows within straits such as Lombok , Ombai, the narrowest part of the Makassar Strait, and others. The vertical resolution has...water depths-parameters that are important for understanding sediment transport. Sediment transport modeling at the grain scale is achieved through...slabs) is parallel to the bed. NAVO MSRC NAVIGATOR26 FALL 2005 Modeling of sediment transport usually requires parameterized continuum descriptions

  20. A wearable airbag to prevent fall injuries.

    PubMed

    Tamura, Toshiyo; Yoshimura, Takumi; Sekine, Masaki; Uchida, Mitsuo; Tanaka, Osamu

    2009-11-01

    We have developed a wearable airbag that incorporates a fall-detection system that uses both acceleration and angular velocity signals to trigger inflation of the airbag. The fall-detection algorithm was devised using a thresholding technique with an accelerometer and gyro sensor. Sixteen subjects mimicked falls, and their acceleration waveforms were monitored. Then, we developed a fall-detection algorithm that could detect signals 300 ms before the fall. This signal was used as a trigger to inflate the airbag to a capacity of 2.4 L. Although the proposed system can help to prevent fall-related injuries, further development is needed to miniaturize the inflation system.

  1. Osteoarthritis and falls in the older person.

    PubMed

    Ng, Chin Teck; Tan, Maw Pin

    2013-09-01

    Osteoarthritis and falls are common conditions affecting older individuals which are associated with disability and escalating health expenditure. It has been widely assumed that osteoarthritis is an established risk factor for falls in older people. The relationship between osteoarthritis and falls has, quite surprisingly, not been adequately elucidated, and published reports have been conflicting. Our review of the existing literature has found limited evidence supporting the current assumption that the presence of osteoarthritis is associated with increased risk of falls with suggestions that osteoarthritis may actually be protective against falls related fractures. In addition, joint arthroplasty appears to increase the risk of falls in individuals with osteoarthritis.

  2. Fall-related activity avoidance in relation to a history of falls or near falls, fear of falling and disease severity in people with Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Kader, Manzur; Iwarsson, Susanne; Odin, Per; Nilsson, Maria H

    2016-06-02

    There is limited knowledge concerning fall-related activity avoidance in people with Parkinson's disease (PD); such knowledge would be of importance for the development of more efficient PD-care and rehabilitation. This study aimed to examine how fall-related activity avoidance relates to a history of self-reported falls/near falls and fear of falling (FOF) as well as to disease severity in people with PD. Data were collected from 251 (61 % men) participants with PD; their median (min-max) age and PD duration were 70 (45-93) and 8 (1-43) years, respectively. A self-administered postal survey preceded a home visit which included observations, clinical tests and interview-administered questionnaires. Fall-related activity avoidance was assessed using the modified Survey of Activities and Fear of Falling in the Elderly (mSAFFE) as well as by using a dichotomous (Yes/No) question. Further dichotomous questions concerned: the presence of FOF and the history (past 6 months) of falls or near falls, followed by stating the number of incidents. Disease severity was assessed according to the Hoehn and Yahr (HY) stages. In the total sample (n = 251), 41 % of the participants reported fall-related activity avoidance; the median mSAFFE score was 22. In relation to a history of fall, the proportions of participants (p < 0.001) that reported fall-related activity avoidance were: non-fallers (30 %), single fallers (50 %) and recurrent fallers, i.e. ≥ 2 falls (57 %). Among those that reported near falls (but no falls), 51 % (26 out of 51) reported fall-related activity avoidance. Of those that reported FOF, 70 % reported fall-related activity avoidance. Fall-related activity avoidance ranged from 24 % in the early PD-stage (HY I) to 74 % in the most severe stages (HY IV-V). Results indicate that fall-related activity avoidance may be related to a history of self-reported falls/near falls, FOF and disease severity in people with PD. Importantly, fall

  3. Precipitating factors for falls among patients with dementia on a psychogeriatric ward.

    PubMed

    Tängman, Sofie; Eriksson, Staffan; Gustafson, Yngve; Lundin-Olsson, Lillemor

    2010-06-01

    Predisposing factors alone explain only a limited proportion of the variation in fall events, especially in people with dementia. The aim of this study was to identify precipitating factors for falls among people with dementia. We examined prospective fall registrations over a two-year period on a psychogeriatric hospital ward in the north of Sweden. Circumstances associated with each fall event were analyzed by independent reviewers, possible precipitating factors were documented, evaluated and the most likely precipitating factors were identified. In total, 223 patients with any type of diagnosed dementia were admitted to the ward and 91 fell at least once. Of these, 46 were women and 45 were men (mean age 80.3 years, range 60-94). A total of 298 falls were registered, 62% of which were sustained by men. The most likely factor or combination of factors could be ascertained in 247 falls (83%). Falls took place at all hours but almost half of the falls (44%) occurred during the nightshift (between 9 pm and 7 am). Acute disease or symptoms of disease and/or acute drug side-effects were, alone or in combination with other factors, judged to precipitate more than three out of four falls. It is possible to identify many precipitating factors that may contribute to a fall. Falls in people with dementia should be regarded as a symptom of acute disease or as a drug side-effect until proven otherwise. Prompt detection of these relevant factors is, therefore, essential.

  4. Fall-detection solution for mobile platforms using accelerometer and gyroscope data.

    PubMed

    De Cillisy, Francesca; De Simioy, Francesca; Guidoy, Floriana; Incalzi, Raffaele Antonelli; Setolay, Roberto

    2015-08-01

    Falls are a major health risk that diminish the quality of life among elderly people. Apart from falls themselves, most dramatic consequences are usually related with long lying periods that can cause serious side effects. These findings call for pervasive long-term fall detection systems able to automatically detect falls. In this paper, we propose an effective fall detection algorithm for mobile platforms. Using data retrieved from wearable sensors, such as Inertial Measurements Units (IMUs) and/or SmartPhones (SPs), our algorithm is able to detect falls using features extracted from accelerometer and gyroscope. While mostly of the mobile-based solutions for fall management deal only with accelerometer data, in the proposed approach we combine the instantaneous acceleration magnitude vector with changes of the user's heading in a Threshold Based Algorithm (TBA). In such a way, we were able to handle falls detection with minimal computational load, increasing the overall system accuracy with respect to traditional fall management methods. Experimental results show the strong detection performance of the proposed solution in discriminating between falls and typical Activities of Daily Living (ADLs) presenting fall-like acceleration patterns.

  5. Irregular Periods

    MedlinePlus

    ... number of days after the last one. The Menstrual Cycle Most girls get their first period between the ... to skip periods or to have an irregular menstrual cycle. Illness, rapid weight change, or stress can also ...

  6. Dynamics of turbulent falling films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Naraigh, Lennon; Matar, Omar

    2012-11-01

    The dynamics of laminar falling films have received considerable attention over the past several decades. In contrast, turbulent falling films have been the subject of far fewer studies. We seek to redress this balance by studying the stability of falling films which have already undergone a transition from a laminar to a turbulent flow regime. We derive a uniform-film base-state for this flow by assuming the averaged turbulent velocity field to be steady and fully-developed, and by employing a modified version of mixing-length theory. The latter features an interpolation function for the eddy viscosity, and van Driest-type functions for turbulence-damping near the wall and interface regions. The predicted base-state streamwise velocity component is in good agreement with experimental data. A linear stability analysis of this base-state is then carried out by solving a modified version of the Orr-Sommerfeld equation. Our results suggest that the unstable mode is a long-wave one. This provides motivation for the derivation of long-wave equations for the nonlinear evolution of the film.

  7. Vestimentiferan on a whale fall.

    PubMed

    Feldman, R A; Shank, T M; Black, M B; Baco, A R; Smith, C R; Vrijenhoek, R C

    1998-04-01

    Discovery of chemosynthetic communities associated with whale bones led to the hypothesis that whale falls may serve as stepping-stones for faunal dispersal between disjunct hydrothermal vents and cold seeps on the ocean floor (1). The initial observation was followed by a faunal inventory that revealed a diverse assemblage of microbes and invertebrates, supported by chemoautotrophic production, living in close proximity to whale remains (2, 3). To date, the conspicuous absence from whale falls of vestimentiferan tubeworms (a predominant constituent of eastern Pacific vent and seep habitats) has been a major objection to the stepping-stone hypothesis (4-5). We report the first evidence of a vestimentiferan tubeworm associated with a whale fall (Fig. 1). The tubeworm, Escarpia spicata, was identified by morphological criteria and DNA sequence data from a portion of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase C subunit I (COI) gene. Additionally, the bacterial endosymbiont in the tubeworm possessed a 16S rRNA gene that was similar to that of endosymbionts from vestimentiferans in sedimented cold-seep environments.

  8. Trends in fall injuries associated with children's outdoor climbing frames.

    PubMed

    Ball, David J

    2007-03-01

    Falls from publicly owned climbing equipment are often cited as the major cause of injury on children's outdoor playgrounds and have been the focus of substantial interventions in the UK since the early 1980s. Analysis of national data on falls from climbing frames for 1988 to 2002 shows that the main discernible trend during this period is an increase in the occurrence of injuries to the lower arm. Whether this is attributable to a behavioural response to some of the interventions, or to some other factor, is unknown.

  9. Adoption of Evidence-Based Fall Prevention Practices in Primary Care for Older Adults with a History of Falls

    PubMed Central

    Phelan, Elizabeth A.; Aerts, Sally; Dowler, David; Eckstrom, Elizabeth; Casey, Colleen M.

    2016-01-01

    A multifactorial approach to assess and manage modifiable risk factors is recommended for older adults with a history of falls. Limited research suggests that this approach does not routinely occur in clinical practice, but most related studies are based on provider self-report, with the last chart audit of United States practice published over a decade ago. We conducted a retrospective chart review to assess the extent to which patients aged 65+ years with a history of repeated falls or fall-related health-care use received multifactorial risk assessment and interventions. The setting was an academic primary care clinic in the Pacific Northwest. Among the 116 patients meeting our inclusion criteria, 48% had some type of documented assessment. Their mean age was 79 ± 8 years; 68% were female, and 10% were non-white. They averaged six primary care visits over a 12-month period subsequent to their index fall. Frequency of assessment of fall-risk factors varied from 24% (for home safety) to 78% (for vitamin D). An evidence-based intervention was recommended for identified risk factors 73% of the time, on average. Two risk factors were addressed infrequently: medications (21%) and home safety (24%). Use of a structured visit note template independently predicted assessment of fall-risk factors (p = 0.003). Geriatrics specialists were more likely to use a structured note template (p = 0.04) and perform more fall-risk factor assessments (4.6 vs. 3.6, p = 0.007) than general internists. These results suggest opportunities for improving multifactorial fall-risk assessment and management of older adults at high fall risk in primary care. A structured visit note template facilitates assessment. Given that high-risk medications have been found to be independent risk factors for falls, increasing attention to medications should become a key focus of both public health educational efforts and fall prevention in primary care practice. PMID:27660753

  10. Attrition and Student Progress at Bronx Community College for Entering Classes: Fall 1972 to Fall 1976 (Progress to Fall 1978).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eagle, Norman

    Data tables summarize the semester-by-semester persistence of each class of regularly matriculated students entering Bronx Community College (BCC) between Fall 1972 and Fall 1976 in terms of graduation and retention rates. For each entering class, the tables provide progress analyses up to Fall 1978 by curriculum group and high school grade…

  11. 75 FR 79921 - Fall 2010 Unified Agenda

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-20

    ...) FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION 12 CFR Ch. III Fall 2010 Unified Agenda AGENCY: Federal Deposit... Corporation (FDIC) is hereby publishing items for the Fall 2010 Unified Agenda of Federal Regulatory...

  12. Factors inducing falling in schizophrenia patients

    PubMed Central

    Tsuji, Yoko; Akezaki, Yoshiteru; Mori, Kohei; Yuri, Yoshimi; Katsumura, Hitomi; Hara, Tomihiro; Usui, Yuki; Fujino, Yoritaka; Nomura, Takuo; Hirao, Fumio

    2017-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study is to investigate the factors causing falling among patients with schizophrenia hospitalized in psychiatric hospitals. [Subjects and Methods] The study subjects were divided into either those having experienced a fall within the past one year (Fall group, 12 patients) and those not having experienced a fall (Non-fall group, 7 patients), and we examined differences between the two groups. Assessment items measured included muscle strength, balance ability, flexibility, body composition assessment, Global Assessment of Functioning scale (GAF), the antipsychotic drug intake, and Drug Induced Extra-Pyramidal Symptoms Scale (DIEPSS). [Results] As a result, significant differences were observed in regard to One leg standing time with eyes open, Time Up and Go Test (TUGT), and DIEPSS Sialorrhea between the Fall group and the Non-fall group. [Conclusion] These results suggest that a decrease in balance ability was significantly correlated with falling in schizophrenia patients. PMID:28356628

  13. [Medication and falls in old age].

    PubMed

    Modreker, M K; von Renteln-Kruse, W

    2009-04-01

    Falls with and without injuries in elderly persons commonly have multiple causes. Exposure to drugs does contribute to these causes. Therefore, complete assessment and evaluation of prescription and over the counter drugs are essential parts of fall-prevention concepts. Frail elderly persons frequently treated with several medications are particularly predisposed to adverse drug effects which may increase the risk of falling. Risk increasing drug effects are dose dependent which have been best studied with psychotropic medication. Apart from psychotropic drugs, cardiovascular drugs contribute to FRIDs (Fall-Risk Increasing Drugs). Fall risk is particularly increased with drugs of the same therapeutic class combined or combinations of psychotropics and cardiovascular drugs. Intervention studies on withdrawal and dose reduction of fall-risk increasing drugs were successful in reducing the risk of falling. There is relatively few knowledge on whether and how drug treatment does decrease fall risk in elderly patients by improving safe mobility and walking ability relevant to activities of daily living.

  14. Fall Risk is Not Black and White

    PubMed Central

    Kiely, Dan K.; Kim, Dae Hyun; Gross, Alden L.; Habtemariam, Daniel A.; Leveille, Suzanne G.; Li, Wenjun; Lipsitz, Lewis A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine whether previously reported racial differences in fall rates between White and Black/African American is explained by differences in health status and neighborhood characteristics. Design Prospective cohort Setting Community Participants The study included 550 White and 116 Black older adults in the Greater Boston area (mean age: 78 years; 36% men) who were English-speaking, able to walk across a room, and without severe cognitive impairment. Measurements Falls were prospectively reported using monthly fall calendars. The location of each fall and fall-related injuries were asked during telephone interviews. At baseline, we assessed risk factors for falls, including sociodemographic characteristics, physiologic risk factors, physical activity, and community-level characteristics. Results Over the mean follow-up of 1,048 days, 1,539 falls occurred (incidence: 806/1,000 person-years). Whites were more likely than Blacks to experience any falls (867 versus 504 falls per 1,000 person-years; RR [95% CI]: 1.77 [1.33, 2.36]), outdoor falls (418 versus 178 falls per 1,000 person-years; 1.78 [1.08, 2.92]), indoor falls (434 versus 320 falls per 1,000 person-years; 1.44 [1.02, 2.05]), and injurious falls (367 versus 205 falls per 1,000 person-years; 1.79 [1.30, 2.46]). With exception of injurious falls, higher fall rates in Whites than Blacks were substantially attenuated with adjustment for risk factors and community-level characteristics: any fall (1.24 [0.81, 1.89]), outdoor fall (1.57 [0.86, 2.88]), indoor fall (1.08 [0.64, 1.81]), and injurious fall (1.77 [1.14, 2.74]). Conclusion Our findings suggest that the racial differences in fall rates may be largely due to confounding by individual-level and community-level characteristics. PMID:26855845

  15. Injury pattern due to falls from hunting stands

    PubMed Central

    Zilkens, Georg; Zilkens, Christoph; Zilkens, Jan; Jäger, Marcus

    2011-01-01

    Hunting is a historically constructed cultural act and continues to be a passion and a popular recreational pastime worldwide. Along with a high population density in Europe and a large volume of hunters hunting injuries such as falls from hunting stands continue to occur regularly and are a significant cause of morbidity among hunters. The purpose of this study was to review typical injury patterns after falls from hunting stands in Germany between 2000–2009 using the German agricultural statutory accident insurance database and to compare these findings to other causes of hunting accidents. The most common injury pattern after falls from hunting stands in Germany in the period of 2000–2009 are closed fractures. However, data collection is incomplete. Thus a more precise data collection would help to be able to better analyze accident mechanisms in order to be able to prevent further accidents. PMID:22053251

  16. Relationship between subjective fall risk assessment and falls and fall-related fractures in frail elderly people

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Objective measurements can be used to identify people with risks of falls, but many frail elderly adults cannot complete physical performance tests. The study examined the relationship between a subjective risk rating of specific tasks (SRRST) to screen for fall risks and falls and fall-related fractures in frail elderly people. Methods The SRRST was investigated in 5,062 individuals aged 65 years or older who were utilized day-care services. The SRRST comprised 7 dichotomous questions to screen for fall risks during movements and behaviours such as walking, transferring, and wandering. The history of falls and fall-related fractures during the previous year was reported by participants or determined from an interview with the participant's family and care staff. Results All SRRST items showed significant differences between the participants with and without falls and fall-related fractures. In multiple logistic regression analysis adjusted for age, sex, diseases, and behavioural variables, the SRRST score was independently associated with history of falls and fractures. Odds ratios for those in the high-risk SRRST group (≥ 5 points) compared with the no risk SRRST group (0 point) were 6.15 (p < 0.01) for a single fall, 15.04 (p < 0.01) for recurrent falls, and 5.05 (p < 0.01) for fall-related fractures. The results remained essentially unchanged in subgroup analysis accounting for locomotion status. Conclusion These results suggest that subjective ratings by care staff can be utilized to determine the risks of falls and fall-related fractures in the frail elderly, however, these preliminary results require confirmation in further prospective research. PMID:21838891

  17. World Health Organization fracture risk assessment tool in the assessment of fractures after falls in hospital

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Falls are very common accidents in a hospital. Various risk factors and risk assessment tools are used to predict falls. However, outcomes of falls such as bone fractures have not been considered in these risk assessment tools, and the performance of risk assessment tools in a Japanese hospital setting is not clear. Methods This was a retrospective single-institution study of 20,320 inpatients aged from 40 to 90 years who were admitted to a tertiary-care university hospital during the period from April 2006 to March 2009. Possible risk factors for falls and fractures including STRATIFY score and FRAX™ score and information on falls and their outcome were obtained from the hospital information system. The datasets were divided randomly into a development dataset and a test dataset. The chi-square test, logistic regression analysis and survival analysis were used to identify risk factors for falls and fractures after falls. Results Fallers accounted for 3.1% of the patients in the development dataset and 3.5% of the patients in the test dataset, and 2.6% and 2.9% of the fallers in those datasets suffered peripheral fractures. Sensitivity and specificity of the STRATIFY score to predict falls were not optimal. Most of the known risk factors for falls had no power to predict fractures after falls. Multiple logistic analysis and multivariate Cox's regression analysis with time-dependent covariates revealed that FRAX™ score was significantly associated with fractures after falls. Conclusions Risk assessment tools for falls are not appropriate for predicting fractures after falls. FRAX™ might be a useful tool for that purpose. The performance of STRATIFY to predict falls in a Japanese hospital setting was similar to that in previous studies. PMID:20423520

  18. Epidemiology of Falls in Older Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peel, Nancye May

    2011-01-01

    Worldwide, falls among older people are a public health concern because of their frequency and adverse consequences in terms of morbidity, mortality, and quality of life, as well as their impact on health system services and costs. This epidemiological review outlines the public health burden of falls and fall-related injuries and the impact of…

  19. Epidemiology of Falls in Older Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peel, Nancye May

    2011-01-01

    Worldwide, falls among older people are a public health concern because of their frequency and adverse consequences in terms of morbidity, mortality, and quality of life, as well as their impact on health system services and costs. This epidemiological review outlines the public health burden of falls and fall-related injuries and the impact of…

  20. 29 CFR 1926.760 - Fall protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fall protection. 1926.760 Section 1926.760 Labor... (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Steel Erection § 1926.760 Fall protection. (a... than 15 feet (4.6 m) above a lower level shall be protected from fall hazards by guardrail...

  1. Why Does My Foot Fall Asleep?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Getting an X-ray Why Does My Foot Fall Asleep? KidsHealth > For Kids > Why Does My Foot Fall Asleep? Print A A A Jenna had been ... pins and needles." But why would your foot fall asleep? Many people say this is because you' ...

  2. 29 CFR 1917.41 - House falls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false House falls. 1917.41 Section 1917.41 Labor Regulations...) MARINE TERMINALS Cargo Handling Gear and Equipment § 1917.41 House falls. (a) Span beams shall be secured... working with house fall blocks. (c) Designated employees shall inspect chains, links, shackles,...

  3. 29 CFR 1926.760 - Fall protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., safety net systems, personal fall arrest systems, positioning device systems or fall restraint systems... feet (27.4 m) wide and 90 (27.4 m) feet deep from any leading edge. The CDZ shall be marked by the use... protection equipment. (1) Guardrail systems, safety net systems, personal fall arrest systems,...

  4. 29 CFR 1926.760 - Fall protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., safety net systems, personal fall arrest systems, positioning device systems or fall restraint systems... feet (27.4 m) wide and 90 (27.4 m) feet deep from any leading edge. The CDZ shall be marked by the use... protection equipment. (1) Guardrail systems, safety net systems, personal fall arrest systems,...

  5. 29 CFR 1926.760 - Fall protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., safety net systems, personal fall arrest systems, positioning device systems or fall restraint systems... feet (27.4 m) wide and 90 (27.4 m) feet deep from any leading edge. The CDZ shall be marked by the use... protection equipment. (1) Guardrail systems, safety net systems, personal fall arrest systems,...

  6. 29 CFR 1926.760 - Fall protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., safety net systems, personal fall arrest systems, positioning device systems or fall restraint systems... feet (27.4 m) wide and 90 (27.4 m) feet deep from any leading edge. The CDZ shall be marked by the use... protection equipment. (1) Guardrail systems, safety net systems, personal fall arrest systems,...

  7. Imager displays free fall in stop action

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frazer, R. E.

    1981-01-01

    Microprocessor-controlled imaging system displays sequence of "frozen" images of free-falling object, using video cameras positioned along fall. Strobe lights flash as object passes each camera's viewfield. Sequence stored on video disk and displayed on television monitor is stop-action record of fall dynamics. With modification, system monitiors other high speed phenomena.

  8. A fully relativistic radial fall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spallicci, Alessandro D. A. M.; Ritter, Patxi

    2014-10-01

    Radial fall has historically played a momentous role. It is one of the most classical problems, the solutions of which represent the level of understanding of gravitation in a given epoch. A gedankenexperiment in a modern frame is given by a small body, like a compact star or a solar mass black hole, captured by a supermassive black hole. The mass of the small body itself and the emission of gravitational radiation cause the departure from the geodesic path due to the back-action, that is the self-force. For radial fall, as any other non-adiabatic motion, the instantaneous identity of the radiated energy and the loss of orbital energy cannot be imposed and provide the perturbed trajectory. In the first part of this paper, we present the effects due to the self-force computed on the geodesic trajectory in the background field. Compared to the latter trajectory, in the Regge-Wheeler, harmonic and all others smoothly related gauges, a far observer concludes that the self-force pushes inward (not outward) the falling body, with a strength proportional to the mass of the small body for a given large mass; further, the same observer notes a higher value of the maximal coordinate velocity, this value being reached earlier during infall. In the second part of this paper, we implement a self-consistent approach for which the trajectory is iteratively corrected by the self-force, this time computed on osculating geodesics. Finally, we compare the motion driven by the self-force without and with self-consistent orbital evolution. Subtle differences are noticeable, even if self-force effects have hardly the time to accumulate in such a short orbit.

  9. Detecting Falling Snow from Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, Gail Skofronick; Johnson, Ben; Munchak, Joe

    2012-01-01

    There is an increased interest in detecting and estimating the amount of falling snow reaching the Earth's surface in order to fully capture the atmospheric water cycle. An initial step toward global spaceborne falling snow algorithms includes determining the thresholds of detection for various active and passive sensor channel configurations, snow event cloud structures and microphysics, snowflake particle electromagnetic properties, and surface types. In this work, cloud resolving model simulations of a lake effect and synoptic snow event were used to determine the minimum amount of snow (threshold) that could be detected by the following instruments: the W -band radar of CloudSat, Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Dual-frequency Precipitation Radar (DPR) Ku and Ka band, and the GPM Microwave Imager (GMI) channels from 10 to 183 plus or minus 7 GHz. Eleven different snowflake shapes were used to compute radar reflectivities and passive brightness temperatures. Notable results include: (1) the W-Band radar has detection thresholds more than an order of magnitude lower than the future GPM sensors, (2) the cloud structure macrophysics influences the thresholds of detection for passive channels, (3) the snowflake microphysics plays a large role in the detection threshold for active and passive instruments, (4) with reasonable assumptions, "the passive 166 GHz channel has detection threshold values comparable to the GPM DPR Ku and Ka band radars with approximately 0.05 g per cubic meter detected at the surface, or an approximately 0.5-1 millimeter per hr. melted snow rate (equivalent to 0.5-2 centimeters per hr. solid fluffy snowflake rate). With detection levels of falling snow known, we can focus current and future retrieval efforts on detectable storms and concentrate advances on achievable results. We will also have an understanding of the light snowfall events missed by the sensors and not captured in the global estimates.

  10. Falls from trees and tree associated injuries in rural Melanesians.

    PubMed Central

    Barss, P; Dakulala, P; Doolan, M

    1984-01-01

    Falls from trees and other tree related injuries are the most common cause of trauma in some parts of rural Melanesia. A four year review of all admissions for trauma to the Provincial Hospital at Alotau, Milne Bay Province, Papua New Guinea, showed that 27% were due to falls from trees, and a further 10% were due to related injuries, such as being struck by a falling branch or a coconut. A questionnaire distributed to rural health centres showed that during the study period at least 28 villagers died from falls from trees before reaching hospital. Head and chest trauma were common causes of death. Many injured patients were boys. Forearm fractures were the most common injuries, but more serious injuries were also frequently encountered. Trees responsible for most deaths and injuries included the coconut palm, betel palm, mango, and breadfruit. There are many strategies for preventing such injuries; perhaps the most important is to stop small boys climbing tall trees. Such falls are a serious occupational hazard for many subsistence farmers. Images FIG 1 FIG 2 FIG 3 FIG 4 PMID:6440619

  11. Falls from trees and tree associated injuries in rural Melanesians.

    PubMed

    Barss, P; Dakulala, P; Doolan, M

    Falls from trees and other tree related injuries are the most common cause of trauma in some parts of rural Melanesia. A four year review of all admissions for trauma to the Provincial Hospital at Alotau, Milne Bay Province, Papua New Guinea, showed that 27% were due to falls from trees, and a further 10% were due to related injuries, such as being struck by a falling branch or a coconut. A questionnaire distributed to rural health centres showed that during the study period at least 28 villagers died from falls from trees before reaching hospital. Head and chest trauma were common causes of death. Many injured patients were boys. Forearm fractures were the most common injuries, but more serious injuries were also frequently encountered. Trees responsible for most deaths and injuries included the coconut palm, betel palm, mango, and breadfruit. There are many strategies for preventing such injuries; perhaps the most important is to stop small boys climbing tall trees. Such falls are a serious occupational hazard for many subsistence farmers.

  12. Analysis of human postural responses to recoverable falls

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bortolami, S. B.; DiZio, P.; Rabin, E.; Lackner, J. R.

    2003-01-01

    We studied the kinematics and kinetics of human postural responses to "recoverable falls." To induce brief falling we used a Hold and Release (H&R) paradigm. Standing subjects actively resisted a force applied to their sternum. When this force was quickly released they were suddenly off balance. For a brief period, approximately 125 ms, until restoring forces were generated to shift the center of foot pressure in front of the center of mass, the body was in a forward fall acted on by gravity and ground support forces. We were able to describe the whole-body postural behavior following release using a multilink inverted pendulum model in a regime of "small oscillations." A three-segment model incorporating upper body, upper leg, and lower leg, with active stiffness and damping at the joints was fully adequate to fit the kinematic data from all conditions. The significance of our findings is that in situations involving recoverable falls or loss of balance the earliest responses are likely dependent on actively-tuned, reflexive mechanisms yielding stiffness and damping modulation of the joints. We demonstrate that haptic cues from index fingertip contact with a stationary surface lead to a significantly smaller angular displacement of the torso and a more rapid recovery of balance. Our H&R paradigm and associated model provide a quantifiable approach to studying recovery from potential falling in normal and clinical subjects.

  13. Analysis of human postural responses to recoverable falls.

    PubMed

    Bortolami, S B; DiZio, P; Rabin, E; Lackner, J R

    2003-08-01

    We studied the kinematics and kinetics of human postural responses to "recoverable falls." To induce brief falling we used a Hold and Release (H&R) paradigm. Standing subjects actively resisted a force applied to their sternum. When this force was quickly released they were suddenly off balance. For a brief period, approximately 125 ms, until restoring forces were generated to shift the center of foot pressure in front of the center of mass, the body was in a forward fall acted on by gravity and ground support forces. We were able to describe the whole-body postural behavior following release using a multilink inverted pendulum model in a regime of "small oscillations." A three-segment model incorporating upper body, upper leg, and lower leg, with active stiffness and damping at the joints was fully adequate to fit the kinematic data from all conditions. The significance of our findings is that in situations involving recoverable falls or loss of balance the earliest responses are likely dependent on actively-tuned, reflexive mechanisms yielding stiffness and damping modulation of the joints. We demonstrate that haptic cues from index fingertip contact with a stationary surface lead to a significantly smaller angular displacement of the torso and a more rapid recovery of balance. Our H&R paradigm and associated model provide a quantifiable approach to studying recovery from potential falling in normal and clinical subjects.

  14. Gastric ischaemia following a fall

    PubMed Central

    Dunne, Michael John; Ferreira, Irina; Thorpe, Ben; Ajeel, Ala; Ali, Haythem; Bailey, Charles

    2011-01-01

    A previously well 73-year-old gentleman presented 5 days after a fall from 6 feet from a ladder with abdominal pain and vomiting. X-rays demonstrated evidence of bowel perforation. On arrival, the patient was peritonitic and displayed a severely septic picture. He was subsequently taken for emergency laparotomy. A 5 mm perforation was found in the small bowel which was repaired but unusually a large segment in the fundus and greater curvature of the stomach was found to be necrotic. A partial gastrectomy was performed and histology confirmed ischaemia likely to be secondary to trauma. The patient has now been successfully discharged home. PMID:22693301

  15. Risk of hip fracture in protected and unprotected falls in nursing homes in Norway

    PubMed Central

    Forsen, L; Sogaard, A; Sandvig, S; Schuller, A; Roed, U; Arstad, C

    2004-01-01

    Objectives: To compare the probability of hip fracture in protected and unprotected falls in a real world setting in nursing homes. Design: Observational study. Setting: Seventeen nursing homes (965 beds) in Norway. Subjects: All residents in the nursing homes with at least one fall during the intervention period. Intervention: Hip protectors were introduced as a regular part of the health care service for all the residents for an intervention period of 18 months. Residents who were considered high risk were especially encouraged to be regular users of hip protectors. Main outcome measures: Hip fracture in protected and unprotected falls. Results: At the time of the first fall within each faller, 430 were non-users of hip protectors, while 84 were registered as users, but did not wear it, and 191 were users and did wear it. The odds ratio of suffering a hip fracture was 0.31, 95% confidence interval 0.13 to 0.75 for wearers compared with non-wearers in the first fall, adjusted for age, gender, and whether they were registered as users or not. Conclusion: The odds of suffering a hip fracture for nursing home high risk residents was reduced to less than a third in protected falls compared with unprotected falls. Or, in other words, the odds of hip fracture showed a 69% reduction in protected falls compared with unprotected falls. PMID:14760021

  16. Falls in residential carpentry and drywall installation: findings from active injury surveillance with union carpenters.

    PubMed

    Lipscomb, Hester J; Dement, John M; Nolan, James; Patterson, Dennis; Li, Leiming; Cameron, Wilfred

    2003-08-01

    Active injury surveillance was conducted with a large, unionized workforce of residential and drywall carpenters over a 3-year period. Injured carpenters were interviewed by trained carpenter investigators and sites were visited where falls occurred. Qualitative information was collected on exposures, risk perception, training, and mentoring. Falls accounted for 20% of injuries. Same-level falls were often related to weather, carrying objects-sometimes with an obstructed view-housekeeping, terrain of the lot, and speed of work. Falls from height occurred from a variety of work surfaces and involved ladders, scaffolding, roofs, work on other unsecured surfaces, unprotected openings, speed, and weather conditions. Recognized fall protection strategies, such as guardrails, toe boards, tying off to appropriate anchors, and guarding openings, would have prevented many of these falls; these practices were not the norm on many sites.

  17. Promoting adoption of fall prevention measures among Latino workers and residential contractors: formative research findings.

    PubMed

    Teran, Suzanne; Blecker, Hillary; Scruggs, Kelsie; García Hernández, Javier; Rahke, Barbara

    2015-08-01

    Falls from heights remain a concern in construction, particularly for foreign-born Latino construction workers employed by small residential contractors. The social ecological model provides a framework to assess the individual and contextual factors influencing the risk for falls. Five focus groups and thirteen in-depth interviews with workers, small residential contractors, and key informants were conducted in 2012 in San Francisco and Philadelphia. Data were analyzed with qualitative methods. Economic conditions in residential construction, coupled with a lack of enforcement and vulnerabilities of the foreign-born workforce, are principal contributors to risk for falls. Small contractors perceive strong economic disincentives for implementation of fall protection and foreign-born Latino workers experience a variety of social, cultural and occupational pressures impeding its use. Increased adoption of fall protection cannot be accomplished solely by targeting Latino construction workers. Research is needed on incentives to influence contractor behavior and facilitate adoption of fall protection measures. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. [Peculiarities of postural balance among elderly men with fear of falling syndrome].

    PubMed

    Gudkov, A B; Demin, A V

    2012-01-01

    A comparative study of postural balance among elderly men of 65-85 years old with postural instability and an equal number of falls, experiencing and not experiencing the fear of the probability of falling was conducted. Analysis of the data of computer stabilometery found that men fearing to fall in all functional tests had medium speed indicators of general center of mass (GCM), the mean radius of GCMs indicators significantly higher and indicators of mean half-period fluctuations of GCMs in the sagittal and frontal areas were significantly less than among men of similar age not fearing to fall down. These results indicate that the emergence of feelings of fear of possible falls among elderly and senile patients with postural instability has an objective basis in the form of more severe violations of the postural control system in comparison with those that do not face the fear of the probability of falling.

  19. Determining the risk of falling in elderly patients undergoing hip fracture surgery.

    PubMed

    Seyhan, E; Cavdar, I

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE OF THE STUDY This study examines the risk of falling in elderly patients who underwent hip fracture surgery in the orthopaedic clinic during the postoperative period. MATERIALS AND METHODS This study was a cross-sectional study. The study sample consisted of 71 elderly patients aged more than 65 years undergoing hip fracture surgery. A questionnaire, the Tinetti balance test and the mini-mental state examination (MMSE) were used. RESULTS The analyses included 71 elderly patients with a mean age of 78.45 years. All patients had been hospitalized for hip fracture due to falling, and 29.6% had a history of falling in the one year prior to hospitalization. The mean MMSE score was 18.37 ± 6.54 and the mean Tinetti score was 11.10 ± 6.66. CONCLUSION We found that as the mean age of the elderly patients increased, the risk of falling also increased and the MMSE scores deteriorate and that the elderly patients living alone were at a greater risk of falling and had worse cognitive function, that those with a history of falling before hospitalization were at a greater risk of falling again and that the risk of falling increased as cognitive function declined. Key words:elderly, falling, hip fracture, risk of falling.

  20. Fear of falling in vision impairment.

    PubMed

    White, Ursula E; Black, Alex A; Wood, Joanne M; Delbaere, Kim

    2015-06-01

    Falls are the leading cause of injury-related morbidity and mortality among older adults. In addition to the resulting physical injury and potential disability after a fall, there are also important psychological consequences, including depression, anxiety, activity restriction, and fear of falling. Fear of falling affects 20 to 43% of community-dwelling older adults and is not limited to those who have previously experienced a fall. About half of older adults who experience fear of falling subsequently restrict their physical and everyday activities, which can lead to functional decline, depression, increased falls risk, and reduced quality of life. Although there is clear evidence that older adults with visual impairment have higher falls risk, only a limited number of studies have investigated fear of falling in older adults with visual impairment and the findings have been mixed. Recent studies suggest increased levels of fear of falling among older adults with various eye conditions, including glaucoma and age-related macular degeneration, whereas other studies have failed to find differences. Interventions, which are still in their infancy in the general population, are also largely unexplored in those with visual impairment. The major aims of this review were to provide an overview of the literature on fear of falling, its measurement, and risk factors among older populations, with specific focus on older adults with visual impairment, and to identify directions for future research in this area.

  1. Preventing falls among seniors: the way forward.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Nancy C

    2011-12-01

    There is a growing body of research about the etiology and prevention of falls. However, the persistently high incidence of falls among seniors calls for renewed efforts to develop, test, implement, and scale-up fall prevention strategies for older adults. This paper considers advances in the field and describes three priority areas for generating research and translating knowledge on fall prevention. Clinical practice guidelines, systems change approaches and environmental risk factors are discussed. Recommendations include transcending our health sector view of the fall prevention problem, supporting comparative research on system-oriented approaches to fall prevention, and examining ways to sustain and scale-up fall prevention efforts. Copyright © 2011 National Safety Council and Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Prevalence of falls in elderly women

    PubMed Central

    Vitor, Priscila Regina Rorato; de Oliveira, Ana Carolina Kovaleski; Kohler, Renan; Winter, Gabriele Regiane; Rodacki, Cintia; Krause, Maressa Priscila

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To verify prevalence of falls and fear of falling, and to compare functional fitness among elderly women fallers and non-fallers. METHODS: Seventy-eight elderly women participated in this study. Cases of falls and the fear of falling were self-reported by the elderly women, while the functional fitness was measured by a set of functional tests. Mean and standard deviation were used to describe the sample. Independent t-test was used to compare functional fitness between groups. RESULTS: The prevalence of falls in this sample was 32.4%. Among women fallers, 40% self-reported a high fear of falling. CONCLUSION: It is recommended that functional and resistance exercises are included in the preventive strategies for reducing risk factors for falls and its determinants in elderly women. Level of Evidence II, Prognostic-Prospective Study. PMID:26207095

  3. A two-question tool to assess the risk of repeated falls in the elderly

    PubMed Central

    Gálvez-Barrón, César; Narvaiza, Leire; Miñarro, Antonio; Ruiz, Jorge; Valldosera, Esther; Gonzalo, Natalia; Ng, Thalia; Sanguino, María Jesús; Yuste, Antonio

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Older adults’ perception of their own risk of fall has never been included into screening tools. The goal of this study was to evaluate the predictive validity of questions on subjects’ self-perception of their own risk of fall. Methods This prospective study was conducted on a probabilistic sample of 772 Spanish community-dwelling older adults, who were followed-up for a one year period. At a baseline visit, subjects were asked about their recent history of falls (question 1: “Have you fallen in the last 6 months?”), as well as on their perception of their own risk of fall by using two questions (question 2: “Do you think you may fall in the next few months?” possible answers: yes/no; question 3: “What is the probability that you fall in the next few months?” possible answers: low/intermediate/high). The follow-up consisted of quarterly telephone calls, where the number of falls occurred in that period was recorded. Results A short questionnaire built with questions 1 and 3 showed 70% sensitivity (95% CI: 56%-84%), 72% specificity (95% CI: 68%-76%) and 0.74 area under the ROC curve (95% CI: 0.66–0.82) for prediction of repeated falls in the subsequent year. Conclusions The estimation of one’s own risk of fall has predictive validity for the occurrence of repeated falls in older adults. A short questionnaire including a question on perception of one’s own risk of fall and a question on the recent history of falls had good predictive validity. PMID:28489888

  4. A two-question tool to assess the risk of repeated falls in the elderly.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Molinero, Alejandro; Gálvez-Barrón, César; Narvaiza, Leire; Miñarro, Antonio; Ruiz, Jorge; Valldosera, Esther; Gonzalo, Natalia; Ng, Thalia; Sanguino, María Jesús; Yuste, Antonio

    2017-01-01

    Older adults' perception of their own risk of fall has never been included into screening tools. The goal of this study was to evaluate the predictive validity of questions on subjects' self-perception of their own risk of fall. This prospective study was conducted on a probabilistic sample of 772 Spanish community-dwelling older adults, who were followed-up for a one year period. At a baseline visit, subjects were asked about their recent history of falls (question 1: "Have you fallen in the last 6 months?"), as well as on their perception of their own risk of fall by using two questions (question 2: "Do you think you may fall in the next few months?" possible answers: yes/no; question 3: "What is the probability that you fall in the next few months?" possible answers: low/intermediate/high). The follow-up consisted of quarterly telephone calls, where the number of falls occurred in that period was recorded. A short questionnaire built with questions 1 and 3 showed 70% sensitivity (95% CI: 56%-84%), 72% specificity (95% CI: 68%-76%) and 0.74 area under the ROC curve (95% CI: 0.66-0.82) for prediction of repeated falls in the subsequent year. The estimation of one's own risk of fall has predictive validity for the occurrence of repeated falls in older adults. A short questionnaire including a question on perception of one's own risk of fall and a question on the recent history of falls had good predictive validity.

  5. Falls prevention training for community health workers: strategies and actions for independent living (SAIL).

    PubMed

    Scott, Victoria J; Votova, Kristine; Gallagher, Elaine

    2006-10-01

    This article describes a quasi-experimental study on falls prevention for clients of home support services in British Columbia, Canada. The study tested a nurse-designed multifactorial intervention, delivered by community health workers. The intervention consisted of 1 day of falls surveillance and prevention training for 51 community health workers, followed by 6 months of evidence-based interventions with their clients (n = 70) using a pretested Checklist and Action Plan. Study findings showed a 43% reduction (chi2 = 8.742, p < .01) in falls and a 44% reduction (chi2 = 5.739, p < .05) for fallers (those who fell once or more) from the 6-month preintervention period to postintervention. The proportion of falls resulting in any injury did not decrease; however, fractures were reduced from seven in the 6-month preintervention period to one following the intervention. The results indicate this intervention is an effective and inexpensive falls prevention strategy for frail recipients of home support services.

  6. Reconceptualizing the role of fear of falling and balance confidence in fall risk.

    PubMed

    Hadjistavropoulos, Thomas; Delbaere, Kim; Fitzgerald, Theresa Dever

    2011-02-01

    This article aimed to critically examine preexisting conceptualizations of the relationship among fear of falling, falls efficacy, and falls and to offer a new theoretical model incorporating findings from the recent literature. This is a theoretical article based on a review of preexisting findings pertaining to fear of falling and falls efficacy. Traditional conceptualizations consider avoidance of activity and deconditioning to be mediators in the relationship between fear of falling and falls, but recent findings suggest that this mediational conceptualization may not be accurate. Moreover, the terms falls efficacy and fear of falling are often used interchangeably in the literature, which is conceptually problematic. We conclude with the presentation and discussion of an alternative predictive model of fear of falling that incorporates important findings from the recent literature.

  7. Nurses' Perceptions of Implementing Fall Prevention Interventions to Mitigate Patient-Specific Fall Risk Factors.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Deleise S; Montie, Mary; Conlon, Paul; Reynolds, Margaret; Ripley, Robert; Titler, Marita G

    2016-08-01

    Evidence-based (EB) fall prevention interventions to mitigate patient-specific fall risk factors are readily available but not routinely used in practice. Few studies have examined nurses' perceptions about both the use of these EB interventions and implementation strategies designed to promote their adoption. This article reports qualitative findings of nurses' perceptions about use of EB fall prevention interventions to mitigate patient-specific fall risks, and implementation strategies to promote use of these interventions. The findings revealed five major themes: before-study fall prevention practices, use of EB fall prevention interventions tailored to patient-specific fall risk factors, beneficial implementation strategies, overall impact on approach to fall prevention, and challenges These findings are useful to guide nurses' engagement and use of EB fall prevention practices tailored to patient-specific fall risk factors.

  8. Fatal falls among older construction workers.

    PubMed

    Dong, Xiuwen Sue; Wang, Xuanwen; Daw, Christina

    2012-06-01

    This study examines recent trends and patterns in fall fatalities in the U.S. construction industry to determine whether fatal falls among older workers are different from younger workers in this industry. Falls are the leading cause of fatalities in the U.S. construction industry. Given the increasingly aging workforce in construction, it is important to assess the risk of falls among older construction workers. Fatality data were obtained from the Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries for the years 1992 through 2008. Denominators for death rates were estimated from the Current Population Survey. Stratified and multivariate analyses were performed to examine whether there are differences in fatal falls between older workers (> or = 55 years) and younger workers (16-54 years). Fatal falls in nonconstruction industries were excluded from this study. Older workers had higher rates of fatal falls than younger workers; results were significant in 11 of 14 construction occupations. Regression analysis indicated that older decedents had a higher likelihood that work-related death was caused by a fall, after controlling for major demographic and employment factors (odds ratio = 1.50, confidence interval [1.30, 1.72]). Falls from roofs accounted for one third of construction fatal falls, but falls from ladders caused a larger proportion of deadly falls in older decedents than in younger decedents. Older workers have a higher likelihood of dying from a fall. Roofs and ladders are particularly risky for older construction workers. As the construction workforce ages, there is an urgent need to enhance fall prevention efforts, provide work accommodations, and match work capabilities to job duties.

  9. Falls and Fear of Falling After Stroke: A Case-Control Study.

    PubMed

    Goh, Hui-Ting; Nadarajah, Mohanasuntharaam; Hamzah, Norhamizan Binti; Varadan, Parimalaganthi; Tan, Maw Pin

    2016-12-01

    Falls are common after stroke, with potentially serious consequences. Few investigations have included age-matched control participants to directly compare fall characteristics between older adults with and without stroke. Further, fear of falling, a significant psychological consequence of falls, has only been examined to a limited degree as a risk factor for future falls in a stroke population. To compare the fall history between older adults with and without a previous stroke and to identify the determinants of falls and fear of falling in older stroke survivors. Case-control observational study. Primary teaching hospital. Seventy-five patients with stroke (mean age ± standard deviation, 66 ± 7 years) and 50 age-matched control participants with no previous stroke were tested. Fall history, fear of falling, and physical, cognitive, and psychological function were assessed. A χ(2) test was performed to compare characteristics between groups, and logistic regression was performed to determine the risk factors for falls and fear of falling. Fall events in the past 12 months, Fall Efficacy Scale-International, Berg Balance Scale, Functional Ambulation Category, Fatigue Severity Scale, Montreal Cognitive Assessment, and Patient Healthy Questionnaire-9 were measured for all participants. Fugl-Meyer Motor Assessment was used to quantify severity of stroke motor impairments. Twenty-three patients and 13 control participants reported at least one fall in the past 12 months (P = .58). Nine participants with stroke had recurrent falls (≥2 falls) compared with none of the control participants (P < .01). Participants with stroke reported greater concern for falling than did nonstroke control participants (P < .01). Female gender was associated with falls in the nonstroke group, whereas falls in the stroke group were not significantly associated with any measured outcomes. Fear of falling in the stroke group was associated with functional ambulation level and balance

  10. Effectiveness of an automatic manual wheelchair braking system in the prevention of falls.

    PubMed

    Martorello, Laura; Swanson, Edward

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of an automatic manual wheelchair braking system in the reduction of falls for patients at high risk of falls while transferring to and from a manual wheelchair. The study design was a normative survey carried out through the use of a written questionnaire sent to 60 skilled nursing facilities to collect data from the medical charts, which identified patients at high risk for falls who used an automatic wheelchair braking system. The facilities participating in the study identified a frequency of falls of high-risk patients while transferring to and from the wheelchair ranging from 2 to 10 per year, with a median fall rate per facility of 4 falls. One year after the installation of the automatic wheelchair braking system, participating facilities demonstrated a reduction of zero to three falls during transfers by high-risk patients, with a median fall rate of zero falls. This represents a statistically significant reduction of 78% in the fall rate of high-risk patients while transferring to and from the wheelchair, t (18) = 6.39, p < .0001. Incident reports of falls to and from manual wheelchairs were reviewed retrospectively for a 1-year period. This study suggests that high-risk fallers transferring to or from manual wheelchairs sustained significantly fewer falls when the Steddy Mate automatic braking system for manual wheelchairs was installed. The application of the automatic braking system allows clients, families/caregivers, and facility personnel an increased safety factor for the reduction of falls from the wheelchair.

  11. The risk of falls on initiation of antihypertensive drugs in the elderly.

    PubMed

    Butt, D A; Mamdani, M; Austin, P C; Tu, K; Gomes, T; Glazier, R H

    2013-10-01

    Antihypertensive drugs are associated with an immediate increased falls risk in elderly patients which was significant during the first 14 days after receiving a thiazide diuretic, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor, angiotensin II receptor blocker, calcium channel blocker, or beta-adrenergic blocker. Fall prevention strategies during this period may prevent fall-related injuries. The purpose of this study is to evaluate if initiation of the common antihypertensive drugs is associated with the occurrence of falls. This population-based self-controlled case series study used healthcare administrative databases to identify new users of antihypertensive drugs in the elderly aged 66 and older living in Ontario, Canada who suffered a fall from April 1, 2000 to March 31, 2009. The risk period was the first 45 days following antihypertensive therapy initiation, further subdivided into 0-14 and 15-44 days with control periods before and after treatment in a 450-day observation period. We calculated the relative incidence (incidence rate ratio, IRR), defined as the rate of falls in the risk period compared to falls rate in the control periods. Of the 543,572 new users of antihypertensive drugs among community-dwelling elderly, 8,893 experienced an injurious fall that required hospital care during the observation period. New users had a 69 % increased risk of having an injurious fall during the first 45 days following antihypertensive treatment (IRR = 1.69; 95 % CI, 1.57-1.81). This finding was consistent for thiazide diuretics, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, calcium channel blockers, and beta-adrenergic blockers but not angiotensin II receptor antagonists. There was also an increased falls risk during the first 14 days of antihypertensive drug initiation (IRR = 1.94; 95 % CI, 1.75-2.16), which was consistent for all antihypertensive drug classes. This study suggests that initiation of antihypertensive drugs is a risk factor for falls in the elderly

  12. Period Pain

    MedlinePlus

    ... You may also have other symptoms, such as lower back pain, nausea, diarrhea, and headaches. Period pain is not ... Taking a hot bath Doing relaxation techniques, including yoga and meditation You might also try taking over- ...

  13. Association between use of sedatives or hypnotics, alcohol consumption, or other risk factors and a single injurious fall or multiple injurious falls: a longitudinal general population study.

    PubMed

    Stenbacka, Marlene; Jansson, Bjarne; Leifman, Anders; Romelsjö, Anders

    2002-08-01

    In this study, we investigated the association between risk factors, including use of sedatives or hypnotics or alcohol consumption, and injurious falls leading to hospitalization or death among 4023 subjects (1828 men and 2195 women) aged 20-89 years in Stockholm County, Sweden. Questionnaire data obtained from the 1984-1985 Stockholm Health of the Population Study (SHPS) were linked to official data registers on hospitalization and mortality. Of the 4023 subjects, 330 (121 men and 209 women) had been treated for or died of injurious falls during the 12-year follow-up period. High age was significantly associated with injurious falls among both men and women. Multivariate analyses showed that women who had used sedatives or hypnotics during the 2 weeks before an injurious fall were at increased risk [relative risk of 1.83 (95% confidence interval, 1.10-3.06)] for two or more injurious falls, but not for a single fall accident. High alcohol consumption and earlier self-reported injurious falls were significantly associated with injurious falls for women younger than 60 years of age and with earlier self-reported falls and living alone for men in the same age category. Among older women (>60 years of age), high alcohol consumption and use of sedatives or hypnotics were significantly associated with injurious falls, whereas living alone and earlier self-reported accidents were significant predictors for men in the same age category. These results support a cautious prescribing policy for sedatives and hypnotics, as well as an awareness of high alcohol consumption and its association with injurious falls.

  14. Periodized wavelets

    SciTech Connect

    Schlossnagle, G.; Restrepo, J.M.; Leaf, G.K.

    1993-12-01

    The properties of periodized Daubechies wavelets on [0,1] are detailed and contrasted against their counterparts which form a basis for L{sup 2}(R). Numerical examples illustrate the analytical estimates for convergence and demonstrate by comparison with Fourier spectral methods the superiority of wavelet projection methods for approximations. The analytical solution to inner products of periodized wavelets and their derivatives, which are known as connection coefficients, is presented, and several tabulated values are included.

  15. Internship Progress Summary: Fall 2016

    SciTech Connect

    Wiser, Ralph S.; Valencia, Matthew John

    2016-12-13

    This fall I had the opportunity to work at Los Alamos National Laboratory for the Technology Applications engineering group. I assisted two main projects during my appointment, both related to the Lab’s mission statement: “To solve national security challenges through scientific excellence.” My first project, a thermal source transfer unit, involved skills such as mechanical design, heat transfer simulation, and design analysis. The goal was to create a container that could protect a heat source and regulate its temperature during transit. I generated several designs, performed heat transfer simulations, and chose a design for prototyping. The second project was a soil drying unit for use in post blast sample analysis. To ensure fast and accurate sample processing, agents in the field wanted a system that could process wet dirt and turn it into dry powder. We designed a system of commercially available parts, and we tested the systems to determine the best methods and processes.

  16. Association between treatment or usual care region and hospitalization for fall-related traumatic brain injury in the Connecticut Collaboration for Fall Prevention.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Terrence E; Baker, Dorothy I; Leo-Summers, Linda S; Allore, Heather G; Tinetti, Mary E

    2013-10-01

    To evaluate the association between the treatment region (TR) or usual care region (UCR) of the Connecticut Collaboration for Fall Prevention (CCFP), a clinical intervention for prevention of falls, and the rate of hospitalization for fall-related traumatic brain injury (FR-TBI) in persons aged 70 and older and to describe the Medicare charges for FR-TBI hospitalizations. Using a quasi-experimental design, rates of hospitalization for FR-TBI were recorded over an 8-year period (2000-2007) in two distinct geographic regions (TR and UCR) chosen for their similarity in characteristics associated with occurrence of falls. Two geographical regions in Connecticut. More than 200,000 persons aged 70 and older. Clinicians in the TR translated research protocols from the Yale Frailty and Injuries: Cooperative Studies of Intervention Techniques, a successful fall-prevention randomized clinical trial, into discipline- and site-specific fall-prevention procedures for integration into their clinical practices. Rate of hospitalization for FR-TBI in persons aged 70 and older. Connecticut Collaboration for Fall Prevention's TR exhibited lower rates of hospitalization for FR-TBI than the UCR (risk ratio = 0.84, 95% credible interval = 0.72-0.99). The significantly lower rate of hospitalization for FR-TBI in CCFP's TR suggests that the engagement of practicing clinicians in the implementation of evidence-based fall-prevention practices may reduce hospitalizations for FR-TBI. © 2013, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2013, The American Geriatrics Society.

  17. Wallpaper illusion: cause of disorientation and falls on escalators.

    PubMed

    Cohn, T E; Lasley, D J

    1990-01-01

    The wallpaper illusion, first described over a century ago, can occur when a person with normal binocular vision views a pattern that is periodic in the horizontal meridian of the visual field. Escalator trends present such a pattern. Evidence is presented favoring the view that disorientation experienced by escalator riders is caused by this illusion. Possibly some of the estimated 60,000 escalator falls occurring in the United States each year are linked to it.

  18. Meanings of Falls and Prevention of Falls According to Rehabilitation Nurses: A Qualitative Descriptive Study.

    PubMed

    Bok, Amy; Pierce, Linda L; Gies, Cheryl; Steiner, Victoria

    2016-01-01

    Guided by Friedemann's theoretical framework, this survey explored the meaning of a fall of an institutionalized older adult or fall prevention to rehabilitation registered nurses and whether the experience changed the nurse's practice. Qualitative, descriptive survey. A convenience sample of 742 rehabilitation nurses was asked to describe these experiences and the impact on their practice. Themes discovered related to the meaning of a fall include negative feelings (incongruence) and positive feelings (congruence). Themes related to the meaning of preventing a fall include positive feelings (congruence). Practice change themes emerged from both the experience of a fall and fall prevention. Practice change themes were drawn to Friedemann's (1995) process dimensions. Nurses' experiences and meanings of falls uncovered negative and positive feelings about these falls. New findings of this study were the positive feelings expressed by nurses, when there was no injury or when a fall was prevented. © 2015 Association of Rehabilitation Nurses.

  19. Evaluation of fall risk assessment tools for psychiatric patient fall prevention: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Van Dyke, Debra; Singley, Bruce; Speroni, Karen Gabel; Daniel, Marlon G

    2014-12-01

    The Hendrich II Fall Risk Model™ (Hendrich II) is used to determine patient fall risks. However, the WilsonSims Fall Risk Assessment Tool (WSFRAT) is more specific to psychiatric patients. The current study tested the Hendrich II and WSFRAT simultaneously to determine which tool was the most predictive for patient falls in a psychiatric population. Fall risk assessments using the Hendrich II and WSFRAT tools were completed through discharge. Fall risk assessment scores, medications, and falls data were documented. Fifty patients who met eligibility criteria generated 319 observations; of the 50 patients, two (4%) experienced falls. Sensitivity was 100% for the Hendrich II and WSFRAT, with all patients properly categorized as high risk for falling. Both assessments had similar specificity (Hendrich II = 67.8%; WSFRAT = 63.1%). Both tools have similar specificity; thus, additional research is warranted. Copyright 2014, SLACK Incorporated.

  20. Falls, risk factors and fear of falling among persons older than 65 years of age.

    PubMed

    Gazibara, Tatjana; Kurtagic, Ilma; Kisic-Tepavcevic, Darija; Nurkovic, Selmina; Kovacevic, Nikolina; Gazibara, Teodora; Pekmezovic, Tatjana

    2017-07-01

    Falling represents a major public health problem among older persons because it leads to premature mortality, loss of independence, and placement in assisted-living facilities. The purpose of this study was to assess the main features and risks for falls among persons older than 65 years of age as well as to quantify their fear of falling. A total of 354 persons older than 65 years of age were recruited at a community health centre. Characteristics of the most recent fall were obtained through detailed interviews with study participants. The Falls Efficacy Scale was used to quantify fear of falling. Frequency of falling was 15.8%. Falls occurred most often while walking (49%). One-half of fallers (49.1%) sustained an injury. Head haematomas and soft tissues contusions were the most common consequences of falls. The average Falls Efficacy Scale score was significantly higher in fallers ( P = 0.001). Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that having a fear of falling (odds ratio = 4.14, 95% confidence interval: 1.22-14.08, P = 0.02) and being a woman (odds ratio = 2.10, 95% confidence interval: 0.97-4.53, P = 0.05) were independent risk factors for falling among older persons. The frequency of falls among older people was similar to those in other populations. These results could be used to help select older persons who should be enrolled in fall prevention programmes. © 2017 Japanese Psychogeriatric Society.

  1. Predicting Falls in People with Multiple Sclerosis: Fall History Is as Accurate as More Complex Measures

    PubMed Central

    Cameron, Michelle H.; Bourdette, Dennis

    2013-01-01

    Background. Many people with MS fall, but the best method for identifying those at increased fall risk is not known. Objective. To compare how accurately fall history, questionnaires, and physical tests predict future falls and injurious falls in people with MS. Methods. 52 people with MS were asked if they had fallen in the past 2 months and the past year. Subjects were also assessed with the Activities-specific Balance Confidence, Falls Efficacy Scale-International, and Multiple Sclerosis Walking Scale-12 questionnaires, the Expanded Disability Status Scale, Timed 25-Foot Walk, and computerized dynamic posturography and recorded their falls daily for the following 6 months with calendars. The ability of baseline assessments to predict future falls was compared using receiver operator curves and logistic regression. Results. All tests individually provided similar fall prediction (area under the curve (AUC) 0.60–0.75). A fall in the past year was the best predictor of falls (AUC 0.75, sensitivity 0.89, specificity 0.56) or injurious falls (AUC 0.69, sensitivity 0.96, specificity 0.41) in the following 6 months. Conclusion. Simply asking people with MS if they have fallen in the past year predicts future falls and injurious falls as well as more complex, expensive, or time-consuming approaches. PMID:24191198

  2. 1. Photocopy of a photographca. 1920 VIEW OF AMERICAN FALLS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Photocopy of a photograph--ca. 1920 VIEW OF AMERICAN FALLS PRIOR TO CONSTRUCTION OF HYDROELECTRIC PLANTS - American Falls Water, Power & Light Company, Island Power Plant, Snake River, below American Falls Dam, American Falls, Power County, ID

  3. 22. TWIN FALLS MAIN CANAL HEADWORKS WITH MILNER DAM IN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. TWIN FALLS MAIN CANAL HEADWORKS WITH MILNER DAM IN DISTANCE; LOOKING EAST. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

  4. 127. COTTONWOOD CUT AREA, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, SOUTH OF KIMBERLY, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    127. COTTONWOOD CUT AREA, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, SOUTH OF KIMBERLY, IDAHO; NORTH VIEW. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

  5. 32. VIEW OF TWIN FALLS MAIN CANAL FROM VICINITY OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    32. VIEW OF TWIN FALLS MAIN CANAL FROM VICINITY OF PROPOSED POWER CANAL, LOOKING UPSTREAM. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

  6. 31. VIEW OF TWIN FALLS MAIN CANAL BRIDGE FROM DOWNSTREAM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    31. VIEW OF TWIN FALLS MAIN CANAL BRIDGE FROM DOWNSTREAM LOOKING UPSTREAM. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

  7. 100. MURTAUGH LAKE HEADGATES, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, SOUTH OF MURTAUGH, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    100. MURTAUGH LAKE HEADGATES, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, SOUTH OF MURTAUGH, IDAHO; SOUTH VIEW OF HEADGATES. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

  8. 108. MURTAUGH LAKE HEADGATES, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, SOUTH OF MURTAUGH, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    108. MURTAUGH LAKE HEADGATES, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, SOUTH OF MURTAUGH, IDAHO; OVERALL VIEW SOUTH. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

  9. 107. MURTAUGH LAKE, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, SOUTH OF MURTAUGH, IDAHO; ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    107. MURTAUGH LAKE, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, SOUTH OF MURTAUGH, IDAHO; WEST VIEW OF LAKE. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

  10. 29. VIEW OF TWIN FALLS MAIN CANAL BRIDGE FROM UPSTREAM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    29. VIEW OF TWIN FALLS MAIN CANAL BRIDGE FROM UPSTREAM LOOKING DOWNSTREAM. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

  11. 24. TWIN FALLS MAIN CANAL HEADWORKS, DOWNSTREAM LOOKING TOWARD THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. TWIN FALLS MAIN CANAL HEADWORKS, DOWNSTREAM LOOKING TOWARD THE EAST. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

  12. 30. VIEW OF TWIN FALLS MAIN CANAL FROM BRIDGE LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    30. VIEW OF TWIN FALLS MAIN CANAL FROM BRIDGE LOOKING WEST DOWNSTREAM. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

  13. 23. TWIN FALLS MAIN CANAL HEADWORKS WITH MILNER DAM IN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    23. TWIN FALLS MAIN CANAL HEADWORKS WITH MILNER DAM IN DISTANCE; LOOKING NORTHEAST. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

  14. 27. VIEW OF TWIN FALLS MAIN CANAL HEADGATE WITH CANAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    27. VIEW OF TWIN FALLS MAIN CANAL HEADGATE WITH CANAL BRIDGE IN DISTANCE; LOOKING SOUTHWEST. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

  15. 128. COTTONWOOD CUT, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, SOUTH OF KIMBERLY, IDAHO; ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    128. COTTONWOOD CUT, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, SOUTH OF KIMBERLY, IDAHO; NORTH VIEW. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

  16. 26. DETAIL OF HEADGATE HOIST MACHINERY, TWIN FALLS MAIN CANAL. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    26. DETAIL OF HEADGATE HOIST MACHINERY, TWIN FALLS MAIN CANAL. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

  17. 125. COTTONWOOD CUT AREA, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, SOUTH OF KIMBERLY, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    125. COTTONWOOD CUT AREA, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, SOUTH OF KIMBERLY, IDAHO; SOUTH VIEW OF CANAL. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

  18. Prevention of construction falls by organizational intervention

    PubMed Central

    Becker, P; Fullen, M; Akladios, M; Hobbs, G

    2001-01-01

    Objectives—Determine if a university based (third party) intervention can improve construction contractor organizational performance to increase use of fall prevention practices and technologies. Setting—Falls are the leading cause of worker injury and death in the construction industry. Equipment and practices that can prevent falls are often not used appropriately in the dynamic construction work environment. Methods—A contractual partnership between a university and construction contractors created management systems to ensure use of fall protection measures. Audits by university faculty provided accountability for implementing the fall prevention system. Evaluation was conducted by quasiexperimental methodology comparing changes in audit score from baseline to fifth quarter from baseline for intervention and control contractors. Results—Audit scores improvement was greater for intervention than for control contractor group. Conclusion—A third party intervention can improve contractor fall prevention performance. PMID:11565975

  19. Unobtrusive monitoring and identification of fall accidents.

    PubMed

    van de Ven, Pepijn; O'Brien, Hugh; Nelson, John; Clifford, Amanda

    2015-05-01

    Falls are a societal and economic problem of great concern with large parts of the population, in particular older citizens, at significant risk and the result of a fall often being grave. It has long been established that it is of importance to provide help to a faller soon after the event to prevent complications and this can be achieved with a fall monitor. Yet, the practical use of currently available fall monitoring solutions is limited due to accuracy, usability, cost, and, not in the least, the stigmatising effect of many solutions. This paper proposes a fall sensor concept that can be embedded in the user's footwear and discusses algorithms, software and hardware developed. Sensor performance is illustrated using results of a series of functional tests. These show that the developed sensor can be used for the accurate measurement of various mobility and gait parameters and that falls are detected accurately.

  20. IDENTIFYING ROOF FALL PREDICTORS USING FUZZY CLASSIFICATION

    SciTech Connect

    Bertoncini, C. A.; Hinders, M. K.

    2010-02-22

    Microseismic monitoring involves placing geophones on the rock surfaces of a mine to record seismic activity. Classification of microseismic mine data can be used to predict seismic events in a mine to mitigate mining hazards, such as roof falls, where properly bolting and bracing the roof is often an insufficient method of preventing weak roofs from destabilizing. In this study, six months of recorded acoustic waveforms from microseismic monitoring in a Pennsylvania limestone mine were analyzed using classification techniques to predict roof falls. Fuzzy classification using features selected for computational ease was applied on the mine data. Both large roof fall events could be predicted using a Roof Fall Index (RFI) metric calculated from the results of the fuzzy classification. RFI was successfully used to resolve the two significant roof fall events and predicted both events by at least 15 hours before visual signs of the roof falls were evident.

  1. The Fall 2000 and Fall 2001 SOHO-Ulysses Quadratures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suess, S. T.; Poletto, G.

    2000-01-01

    SOHO-Ulysses quadrature occurs when the SOHO-Sun-Ulysses included angle is 90 degrees. It is only at such times that the same plasma leaving the Sun in the direction of Ulysses can first be remotely analyzed with SOHO instruments and then later be sampled in situ by Ulysses instruments. The quadratures in December 2000 and 2001 are of special significance because Ulysses will be near the south and north heliographic poles, respectively, and the solar cycle will be near sunspot maximum. Quadrature geometry is sometimes confusing and observations are influenced by solar rotation. The Fall 2000 and 2001 quadratures are more complex than usual because Ulysses is not in a true polar orbit and the orbital speed of Ulysses about the Sun is becoming comparable to the speed of SOHO about the Sun. In 2000 Ulysses will always be slightly behind the pole but will appear to hang over the pole for over two months because it is moving around the Sun in the same direction as SOHO. In 20001, Ulysses will be slightly in front of the pole so that its footpoint will be directly observable. Detailed plots will be shown of the relative positions of SOHO and Ulysses will their relative positions. In neither case is true quadrature actually achieved, but this works to the observers advantage in 2001.

  2. The Fall 2000 and Fall 2001 SOHO-Ulysses Quadratures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suess, S. T.; Poletto, G.; Rose, M. Franklin (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    SOHO-Ulysses quadrature occurs when the SOHO-Sun-Ulysses included angle is 90 degrees. It is only at such times that the same plasma leaving the Sun in the direction of Ulysses can first be remotely analyzed with SOHO instruments and then later be sampled in situ by Ulysses instruments. The quadratures in December 2000 and 2001 are of special significance because Ulysses will be near the south and north heliographic poles, respectively, and the solar cycle will be near sunspot maximum. Quadrature geometry is sometimes confusing and observations are influenced by solar rotation. The Fall 2000 and 2001 quadratures are more complex than usual because Ulysses is not in a true polar orbit and the orbital speed of Ulysses about the Sun is becoming comparable to the speed of SOHO about the Sun. In 2000 Ulysses will always be slightly behind the pole but will appear to hang over the pole for over two months because it is moving around the Sun in the same direction as SOHO. In 2001 Ulysses will be slightly in front of the pole so that its footpoint will be directly observable. Detailed plots will be shown of the relative positions of SOHO and Ulysses will their relative positions. In neither case is true quadrature actually achieved, but this works to the observers advantage in 2001.

  3. Effectiveness of simple balancing training program in elderly patients with history of frequent falls.

    PubMed

    Kuptniratsaikul, Vilai; Praditsuwan, Rungnirand; Assantachai, Prasert; Ploypetch, Teerada; Udompunturak, Suthipol; Pooliam, Julaporn

    2011-01-01

    To study the effectiveness of simply-performed balancing exercises in fall prevention. Pre- and post-trial. University hospital from January 2009 to May 2010. Elderly with falls in the previous year. Simple balancing exercise was performed at home every day and was recorded in the booklet. New falling events and a battery of balancing abilities including the Timed Up and Go Test (TUGT), chair stand, functional reach, and Berg balance scale-short form were evaluated at baseline, 3-, 6-, 9-, and 12-month periods. Fear of falling and quality of life scores were assessed at baseline and 12-month periods. 146 subjects were recruited, 116 female (79.5%) with a mean age of 67.1 years. At the end of the study, 49% of participants had not fallen. All of the balancing abilities were compared between frequent and infrequent fallers and were significantly improved (P<0.001) except for functional reach in the frequent fall group. Most subjects (72%-79%) complied well with the exercise program. However, compliance had no effect on balancing abilities. About 36.4% of participants had adverse events from exercise, of which knee pain was the top ranked. The quality of life and the fall efficacy scores increased significantly at the end of the study. Factors affecting falling were compliance with exercise (adjusted odds ratio [OR]: 2.55, 95% confidence intervals [CI]: 1.04, 6.30) and a history of falling ≥3 times in the previous year (adjusted OR: 3.76, 95% CI: 1.18, 11.98). Performing simply-designed balancing exercises, at least 3 days per week, can increase balancing abilities, and decrease fall rates in the elderly with a history of previous falls. However, strategies to encourage elderly compliance may prevent falling.

  4. Health care utilization and costs in a Medicare population by fall status.

    PubMed

    Rizzo, J A; Friedkin, R; Williams, C S; Nabors, J; Acampora, D; Tinetti, M E

    1998-08-01

    The economic impact of trauma in older persons is a matter of increasing concern to public health practitioners and planners, yet it is an issue that has not been widely studied. Available evidence does suggest, however, that falls are the costliest category of injury among older persons. This study used data from the Health Care Financing Administration and the Connecticut Long-Term Care Registry to isolate the effects of fall severity on hospital, nursing home, home health, and emergency room costs. Multivariate and logistic regression methods were used to control for the influence of a number of clinical and demographic factors believed to be independently related to health care costs. Health care costs of fallers were tracked for 1 year after the fall. The cost experience of this cohort was compared with nonfallers during the same time period. The results provide strong evidence that falls are associated with increased health care costs, and that this relation increases monotonically with the frequency and severity of falls. Incurring one or more injurious falls was associated with increased annual hospital costs of $11,042 (1996), nursing home costs of $5,325, and total health care costs of $19,440. Incurring two or more noninjurious falls increased costs substantially as well. The health care costs of falls are pervasive and substantial, and they increase with fall frequency and severity.

  5. Physical and Optical Properties of Falling Snow

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-07-01

    thefallvelocity. They found that Me~lor (1966) and Rosinski et al. (1983) observed the snow fall velocities generally ranged between the fall velocities of snow...mass (after Rosinski et al. 1983). nally designed to measure rain rates (Wang et al. 1980), was modified for operation in snow. The Locatelli and...is partially collimated. Snow and measuring the melted droplet diameter. particles falling through the sample area break the Rosinski et al. (1983

  6. 3D simulation for falling papers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aoki, Takayuki

    2001-12-01

    The combination of IDO (Interpolated Differential Operator) scheme, Cut Cell technique, and overlapping grid method make it possible to simulate the falling process of papers. We have the result of the falling with fluttering trajectory for a certain initial angle of the paper, and the fluttering mechanism becomes clear. It is shown that the simulation is applicable to the phenomena of falling leaves with complex shape.

  7. Predictors of future falls in Parkinson disease.

    PubMed

    Kerr, G K; Worringham, C J; Cole, M H; Lacherez, P F; Wood, J M; Silburn, P A

    2010-07-13

    Falls are a major health and injury problem for people with Parkinson disease (PD). Despite the severe consequences of falls, a major unresolved issue is the identification of factors that predict the risk of falls in individual patients with PD. The primary aim of this study was to prospectively determine an optimal combination of functional and disease-specific tests to predict falls in individuals with PD. A total of 101 people with early-stage PD undertook a battery of neurologic and functional tests in their optimally medicated state. The tests included Tinetti, Berg, Timed Up and Go, Functional Reach, and the Physiological Profile Assessment of Falls Risk; the latter assessment includes physiologic tests of visual function, proprioception, strength, cutaneous sensitivity, reaction time, and postural sway. Falls were recorded prospectively over 6 months. Forty-eight percent of participants reported a fall and 24% more than 1 fall. In the multivariate model, a combination of the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) total score, total freezing of gait score, occurrence of symptomatic postural orthostasis, Tinetti total score, and extent of postural sway in the anterior-posterior direction produced the best sensitivity (78%) and specificity (84%) for predicting falls. From the UPDRS items, only the rapid alternating task category was an independent predictor of falls. Reduced peripheral sensation and knee extension strength in fallers contributed to increased postural instability. Falls are a significant problem in optimally medicated early-stage PD. A combination of both disease-specific and balance- and mobility-related measures can accurately predict falls in individuals with PD.

  8. [Incidence and risk factors for accidental falls among general practice elderly patients in Latina, Central Italy].

    PubMed

    Capon, Alessandra; Di Lallo, Domenico; Mastromattei, Antonio; Pavoni, Noemi; Simeoni, Siro

    2007-01-01

    falls incidence in home resident elderly people varies from 30% to 40%. Falls induce loss of self-sufficiency and increase mortality and morbidity. to evaluate falls incidence and risk factors in a group of general practice elderly patients. prospective cohort study with 1 year follow-up. 18 practitioners visited their elderly patients (>75 years) for a baseline assessment. Information on current pathologies and previous falls in the last six months was collected. Functional status was evaluated using: Short Portable Mental State Questionnaire, Geriatric Depression Scale, Activities of Daily Living, Instrumental Activities of Daily Living. Total mobility Tinetti score was measured in a subgroup of elderly. Falls were monitored through 2 phone-interviews at 6 and 12 months. Data were analyzed through logistic regression. 1168 elderly were visited and 800 were enrolled in the study. Twenty-eight percent of the elderly fell in the whole period. Sixty percent of falls were not reported to the practitioner. Independent predictors for falls were ADL score (ADL<5: OR 1.90; 95% CI 1.05-3.45), falls occurred in the 6 months previous to the follow-up period (OR 1.62; 95% CI 1.03-2.54) and the interaction term among this factor and the follow-up period (OR 2.39; 95% CI 1.22-4.72). Tinetti score was significantly associated to falls only in univariate analysis. Practitioners can play a key-role in identifying at-risk subjects and managing prevention interventions. Falls monitoring and a continuous practice of comprehensive geriatric assessment should be encouraged.

  9. Effectiveness of team training on fall prevention.

    PubMed

    Spiva, LeeAnna; Robertson, Bethany; Delk, Marcia L; Patrick, Sara; Kimrey, Margaret Michelle; Green, Beverly; Gallagher, Erin

    2014-01-01

    A longitudinal, repeated-measures design with intervention and comparison groups was used to evaluate the effect of a training curriculum based on TeamSTEPPS with video vignettes focusing on fall prevention. Questionnaires, behavioral observations, and fall data were collected over 9 months from both groups located at separate hospitals. The intervention group questionnaire scores improved on all measures except teamwork perception, while observations revealed an improvement in communication compared with the control group. Furthermore, a 60% fall reduction rate was reported in the intervention group. Team training may be a promising intervention to reduce falls.

  10. Radar fall detection using principal component analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jokanovic, Branka; Amin, Moeness; Ahmad, Fauzia; Boashash, Boualem

    2016-05-01

    Falls are a major cause of fatal and nonfatal injuries in people aged 65 years and older. Radar has the potential to become one of the leading technologies for fall detection, thereby enabling the elderly to live independently. Existing techniques for fall detection using radar are based on manual feature extraction and require significant parameter tuning in order to provide successful detections. In this paper, we employ principal component analysis for fall detection, wherein eigen images of observed motions are employed for classification. Using real data, we demonstrate that the PCA based technique provides performance improvement over the conventional feature extraction methods.

  11. Two-year trajectory of fall risk in people with Parkinson’s disease: a latent class analysis

    PubMed Central

    Paul, Serene S; Thackeray, Anne; Duncan, Ryan P; Cavanaugh, James T; Ellis, Theresa D; Earhart, Gammon M; Ford, Matthew P; Foreman, K Bo; Dibble, Leland E

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine fall risk trajectories occurring naturally in a sample of individuals with early to middle stage Parkinson’s disease (PD). Design Latent class analysis, specifically growth mixture modeling (GMM) of longitudinal fall risk trajectories. Setting Not applicable. Participants 230 community-dwelling PD participants of a longitudinal cohort study who attended at least two of five assessments over a two year period. Interventions Not applicable. Main Outcome Measures Fall risk trajectory (low, medium or high risk) and stability of fall risk trajectory (stable or fluctuating). Fall risk was determined at 6-monthly intervals using a simple clinical tool based on fall history, freezing of gait, and gait speed. Results The GMM optimally grouped participants into three fall risk trajectories that closely mirrored baseline fall risk status (p=.001). The high fall risk trajectory was most common (42.6%) and included participants with longer and more severe disease and with higher postural instability and gait disability (PIGD) scores than the low and medium risk trajectories (p<.001). Fluctuating fall risk (posterior probability <0.8 of belonging to any trajectory) was found in only 22.6% of the sample, most commonly among individuals who were transitioning to PIGD predominance. Conclusions Regardless of their baseline characteristics, most participants had clear and stable fall risk trajectories over two years. Further investigation is required to determine whether interventions to improve gait and balance may improve fall risk trajectories in people with PD. PMID:26606871

  12. 150. Photocopy of drawing (taken from Twin Falls Canal Company ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    150. Photocopy of drawing (taken from Twin Falls Canal Company Surveyor's Book #363, Page 42, entitled, 'Diversion Tunnels', located in Twin Falls Canal Company office, Twin Falls, Idaho). PLAN OF DIVERSION TUNNELS, MILNER DAM. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

  13. 180. Photocopy of Photograph, Twin Falls Canal Company. E. Pettygro, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    180. Photocopy of Photograph, Twin Falls Canal Company. E. Pettygro, Photographer, date unknown. BLASTING TWIN FALLS CANAL, TWIN FALLS COUNTY; BLASTING COTTONWOOD AREA TO REPLACE FLUME BY RUNNING HIGH LINE THROUGH SOLID ROCK. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

  14. Anatomy of Inpatient Falls: Examining Fall Events Captured by Depth-Sensor Technology.

    PubMed

    Potter, Patricia; Allen, Kelly; Costantinou, Eileen; Klinkenberg, Dean; Malen, Jill; Norris, Traci; O'Connor, Elizabeth; Roney, Wilhelmina; Tymkew, Heidi Hahn

    2016-05-01

    Sensor technology offers a new way to identify patient movement, detect falls, and automatically alert health care staff when falls occur. The information gained from analyzing actual fall events can be beneficial in developing individualized fall prevention strategies, informing nursing staff about the nature of falls, and identifying opportunities to make the patient care environment safer. A six-month performance improvement pilot was conducted at Barnes-Jewish Hospital (St. Louis) to assess the ability of a depth-sensor system to capture inpatient fall events within patient hospital rooms. Depth sensors were installed on two inpatient medicine units with a history of high fall rates. The depth sensors captured actual fall events on video. Video clips were reviewed and analyzed to identify the characteristics of patient falls, staff response times, and environmental conditions contributing to falls. A total of 16 falls involving 13 patients were recorded by depth sensors. Six of the 13 patients who fell were classified as high risk on the basis of the hospital's fall rating tool. Common contributing factors included difficulty rising from their bed, weakened lower extremities, and unsteady or slow gait. Eleven of the falls involved patients reaching for objects in their path in an effort to achieve stability. Nurses had less than two minutes from the time a patient began to exit a bed to the time a fall occurred. Patients expressed few complaints with depth sensors installed in rooms. Fall-detection sensor systems offer valuable data for analyzing the nature of patient falls, with the potential promise of prescribing specific fall interventions for patients and to identify staff development opportunities. Hospitals should understand these devices' benefits and limitations and how they affect nursing practice.

  15. Evaluation of Sensor Technology to Detect Fall Risk and Prevent Falls in Acute Care.

    PubMed

    Potter, Patricia; Allen, Kelly; Costantinou, Eileen; Klinkenberg, William Dean; Malen, Jill; Norris, Traci; O'Connor, Elizabeth; Roney, Wilhemina; Tymkew, Heidi Hahn; Wolf, Laurie

    2017-08-01

    Sensor technology that dynamically identifies hospitalized patients' fall risk and detects and alerts nurses of high-risk patients' early exits out of bed has potential for reducing fall rates and preventing patient harm. During Phase 1 (August 2014-January 2015) of a previously reported performance improvement project, an innovative depth sensor was evaluated on two inpatient medical units to study fall characteristics. In Phase 2 (April 2015-January 2016), a combined depth and bed sensor system designed to assign patient fall probability, detect patient bed exits, and subsequently prevent falls was evaluated. Fall detection depth sensors remained in place on two medicine units; bed sensors used to detect patient bed exits were added on only one of the medicine units. Fall rates and fall with injury rates were evaluated on both units. During Phase 2, the designated evaluation unit had 14 falls, for a fall rate of 2.22 per 1,000 patient-days-a 54.1% reduction compared with the Phase 1 fall rate. The difference in rates from Phase 1 to Phase 2 was statistically significant (z = 2.20; p = 0.0297). The comparison medicine unit had 30 falls-a fall rate of 4.69 per 1,000 patient-days, representing a 57.9% increase as compared with Phase 1. A fall detection sensor system affords a level of surveillance that standard fall alert systems do not have. Fall prevention remains a complex issue, but sensor technology is a viable fall prevention option. Copyright © 2017 The Joint Commission. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Automated Fall Detection With Quality Improvement “Rewind” to Reduce Falls in Hospital Rooms

    PubMed Central

    Rantz, Marilyn J.; Banerjee, Tanvi S.; Cattoor, Erin; Scott, Susan D.; Skubic, Marjorie; Popescu, Mihail

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the implementation of a fall detection and “rewind” privacy-protecting technique using the Microsoft® Kinect™ to not only detect but prevent falls from occurring in hospitalized patients. Kinect sensors were placed in six hospital rooms in a step-down unit and data were continuously logged. Prior to implementation with patients, three researchers performed a total of 18 falls (walking and then falling down or falling from the bed) and 17 non-fall events (crouching down, stooping down to tie shoe laces, and lying on the floor). All falls and non-falls were correctly identified using automated algorithms to process Kinect sensor data. During the first 8 months of data collection, processing methods were perfected to manage data and provide a “rewind” method to view events that led to falls for post-fall quality improvement process analyses. Preliminary data from this feasibility study show that using the Microsoft Kinect sensors provides detection of falls, fall risks, and facilitates quality improvement after falls in real hospital environments unobtrusively, while taking into account patient privacy. PMID:24296567

  17. How Do Community-Dwelling Persons with Alzheimer Disease Fall? Falls in the FINALEX Study.

    PubMed

    Perttila, Niko M; Öhman, Hannareeta; Strandberg, Timo E; Kautiainen, Hannu; Raivio, Minna; Laakkonen, Marja-Liisa; Savikko, Niina; Tilvis, Reijo S; Pitkala, Kaisu H

    2017-01-01

    People with dementia are at high risk for falls. However, little is known of the features causing falls in Alzheimer disease (AD). Our aim was to investigate how participants with AD fall. In the FINALEX (Finnish Alzheimer Disease Exercise Trial) study, participants' (n = 194) falls were followed up for 1 year by diaries kept by their spouses. The most common reason for falls (n = 355) was stumbling (n = 61). Of the falls, 123 led to injuries, 50 to emergency department visits, and 13 to fractures. The participants without falls (n = 103) were younger and had milder dementia than those with 1 (n = 34) or ≥2 falls (n = 57). Participants with a Mini Mental State Examination score of around 10 points were most prone to fall. In adjusted regression models, good nutritional status, good physical functioning, and use of antihypertensive medication (incident rate ratio [IRR] 0.68, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.54-0.85) protected against falls, whereas fall history (IRR 2.71, 95% CI 2.13-3.44), osteoarthritis, diabetes mellitus, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, higher number of drugs, drugs with anticholinergic properties, psychotropics, and opioids (IRR 4.27, 95% CI 2.92-6.24) were risk factors for falls. Our study provides a detailed account on how and why people with AD fall, suggesting several risk and protective factors.

  18. Nuclear winter or nuclear fall?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berger, André

    Climate is universal. If a major modern nuclear war (i.e., with a large number of small-yield weapons) were to happen, it is not even necessary to have a specific part of the world directly involved for there to be cause to worry about the consequences for its inhabitants and their future. Indeed, smoke from fires ignited by the nuclear explosions would be transported by winds all over the world, causing dark and cold. According to the first study, by Turco et al. [1983], air surface temperature over continental areas of the northern mid-latitudes (assumed to be the nuclear war theatre) would fall to winter levels even in summer (hence the term “nuclear winter”) and induce drastic climatic conditions for several months at least. The devastating effects of a nuclear war would thus last much longer than was assumed initially. Discussing to what extent these estimations of long-term impacts on climate are reliable is the purpose of this article.

  19. Klamath Falls geothermal field, Oregon

    SciTech Connect

    Lienau, P.J.; Culver, G.; Lund, J.W.

    1989-09-01

    Klamath Falls, Oregon, is located in a Known Geothermal Resource Area which has been used by residents, principally to obtain geothermal fluids for space heating, at least since the turn of the century. Over 500 shallow-depth wells ranging from 90 to 2,000 ft (27 to 610 m) in depth are used to heat (35 MWt) over 600 structures. This utilization includes the heating of homes, apartments, schools, commercial buildings, hospital, county jail, YMCA, and swimming pools by individual wells and three district heating systems. Geothermal well temperatures range from 100 to 230{degree}F (38 to 110{degree}C) and the most common practice is to use downhole heat exchangers with city water as the circulating fluid. Larger facilities and district heating systems use lineshaft vertical turbine pumps and plate heat exchangers. Well water chemistry indicates approximately 800 ppM dissolved solids, with sodium sulfate having the highest concentration. Some scaling and corrosion does occur on the downhole heat exchangers (black iron pipe) and on heating systems where the geo-fluid is used directly. 73 refs., 49 figs., 6 tabs.

  20. Association Between Treatment or Usual Care Region and Hospitalization for Fall-Related Traumatic Brain Injury in the Connecticut Collaboration for Fall Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Terrence E.; Baker, Dorothy I.; Leo-Summers, Linda S.; Allore, Heather G.; Tinetti, Mary E.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Most traumatic brain injuries among older persons in the U.S. are attributed to falls. Efforts to prevent falls may also plausibly reduce the incidence of TBIs and resultant costs. OBJECTIVES To evaluate the association between the treatment or usual care region of the Connecticut Collaboration for Fall Prevention (CCFP), a clinical intervention for prevention of falls, and the rate of hospitalization for fall-related traumatic brain injury (FR-TBI) among persons ≥ 70 years. The Medicare charges of FR-TBI hospitalizations are also described. DESIGN Using a quasi-experimental design, rates of hospitalization for FR-TBI were recorded over an eight year period (2000–2007) in two distinct geographic regions (treatment and usual care) chosen for their similarity in characteristics associated with occurrence of falls. SETTING/PARTICIPANTS Over 200,000 persons, 70 years and older, residing in two geographical regions in Connecticut. INTERVENTION Clinicians in the treatment region translated research protocols from Yale FICSIT, a successful fall prevention randomized clinical trial, into discipline- and site-specific fall prevention procedures for integration into their clinical practices. MEASUREMENTS The rate of hospitalization for fall-related traumatic brain injury among persons 70 years and older RESULTS Relative to the usual care region, CCFP’s treatment region exhibited lower rates of hospitalization for FR-TBI; RR= 0.84 with 95% credible interval (0.72 – 0.99). CONCLUSION The significantly lower rate of hospitalization for FR-TBI in CCFP’s treatment region suggests that the engagement of practicing clinicians in the implementation of evidence-based fall-prevention practices may reduce hospitalizations for FR-TBI. PMID:24083593

  1. Dance movement therapy and falls prevention.

    PubMed

    Veronese, Nicola; Maggi, Stefania; Schofield, Patricia; Stubbs, Brendon

    2017-08-01

    Falls are a leading cause of morbidity, healthcare use and mortality. Dance is a popular form of physical activity among older people and previous research has suggested that it may improve various health outcomes in this population, including balance, gait and muscle performance. A systematic review of the potential benefits of dance on falls and fear of falling is lacking. Thus, we conducted a systematic review considering all randomized controls trials (RCTs) investigating if dance can reduce falls and improve fear of falling in older adults. Major databases were searched from inception until 1 March 2017 and a total of 10 RCTs were identified, which included a total of 680 people (n=356 dance, n=324 control). Overall, the mean age of the samples was 69.4 years, and 75.2% were female. Across four RCTs, dance therapy reduced falls versus usual care in only one study. Dance therapy improved fear of falling in two out of three included RCTs. There were no serious adverse events reported in the RCTs. In summary, we found a paucity of studies investigating the effect of dance on falls and fear of falling and the evidence base is preliminary and equivocal. Given the heterogeneity of the included samples and interventions, in addition to the short-term follow-up, no firm conclusions can be drawn. However, dance appears to be safe and, given its popularity and demonstrated benefits on other health/wellbeing outcomes in older adults, it is important that future research considers its potential benefits on falls/fear of falling in older age. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. PHYSICAL FUNCTION AND HISTORY OF FALLS

    PubMed Central

    I, Mangani; M, Cesari; A, Russo; G, Onder; C, Maraldi; V, Zamboni; N, Marchionni; R, Bernabei; M, Pahor; F, Landi

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims Falls are a common cause of morbidity and mortality in the elderly, but the consequences of falls on physical function measures are still unclear. The present study explores the association between history of falls and physical function measures in older persons. Methods Data are from baseline evaluation of the ilSIRENTE study. Physical performance was assessed using the Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB) and the 4-m walking test. Muscle strength was measured by hand grip strength. Functional status was assessed using the Basic and Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (ADLs and IADLs, respectively) scales. Self reported history of falls occurred during the previous 90 days was recorded. Analyses of covariance and linear regression models were performed to evaluate the relationship between history of falls and physical function measures. Results Mean age of participants (n=364) was 85.9 (SD=4.9) years. Fifty participants (15.9%) reported at least one fall event in the previous 90 days. Participants with history of falls had significantly lower adjusted means for the 4-m walking test (0.382 m/s) and the SPPB score (5.602) compared to non fallers (0.498 m/s and 6.780, respectively, all p< 0.05). No statistically significant association of hand grip strength, ADLs and IADLs scales with history of falls was reported after adjustment. Physical activity was the strongest confounder of the association between history of falls and physical function. Physically active participants had a significantly higher physical function compared to sedentary subjects, regardless of history of falls. Conclusions Physical performance measures, walking speed and SPPB in particular, are negatively associated with history of falls. PMID:18594191

  3. Periodic Polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Edwin

    2013-03-01

    Periodic polymers can be made by self assembly, directed self assembly and by photolithography. Such materials provide a versatile platform for 1, 2 and 3D periodic nano-micro scale composites with either dielectric or impedance contrast or both, and these can serve for example, as photonic and or phononic crystals for electromagnetic and elastic waves as well as mechanical frames/trusses. Compared to electromagnetic waves, elastic waves are both less complex (longitudinal modes in fluids) and more complex (longitudinal, transverse in-plane and transverse out-of-plane modes in solids). Engineering of the dispersion relation between wave frequency w and wave vector, k enables the opening of band gaps in the density of modes and detailed shaping of w(k). Band gaps can be opened by Bragg scattering, anti-crossing of bands and discrete shape resonances. Current interest is in our group focuses using design - modeling, fabrication and measurement of polymer-based periodic materials for applications as tunable optics and control of phonon flow. Several examples will be described including the design of structures for multispectral band gaps for elastic waves to alter the phonon density of states, the creation of block polymer and bicontinuous metal-carbon nanoframes for structures that are robust against ballistic projectiles and quasi-crystalline solid/fluid structures that can steer shock waves.

  4. Neurology Falls. Patient Falls Risk Assessment, Neurology Clinic, Johns Hopkins Hospital, Baltimore, MD

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-07-06

    reduction program must be evaluated to determine its effectiveness . Neurology Falls 8 In order to successfully reduce the risk of patient harm resulting...from falls, implementation of a fall reduction program and evaluation of the effectiveness of such a program is required. CDC Recommendations The... different from outpatient falls assessment where functional mobility of chronic nature with stable medications is more of an issue. In the inpatient

  5. The Latino Experience in Central Falls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holland, William R.

    2011-01-01

    Central Falls is, by far, the poorest community in Rhode Island. More than 40 percent of the children under 18 live in poverty, and 40 percent of that group live in severe poverty. At Central Falls High School, low-income Latino students have fallen behind their white counterparts, with shockingly low graduation, poor literacy, and low…

  6. Falls and stumbles in myotonic dystrophy.

    PubMed

    Wiles, C M; Busse, M E; Sampson, C M; Rogers, M T; Fenton-May, J; van Deursen, R

    2006-03-01

    To investigate falls and risk factors in patients with myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1) compared with healthy volunteers. 13 sequential patients with DM1 from different kindreds were compared with 12 healthy volunteers. All subjects were evaluated using the Rivermead Mobility Index, Performance Oriented Mobility Assessment, and modified Activities Specific Balance Confidence scale. Measures of lower limb muscle strength, gait speed, and 7-day ambulatory activity monitoring were recorded. Subjects returned a weekly card detailing stumbles and falls. 11 of 13 patients (mean age 46.5 years, seven female) had 127 stumbles and 34 falls over the 13 weeks, compared with 10 of 12 healthy subjects (34.4 years, seven female) who had 26 stumbles and three falls. Patients were less active than healthy subjects but had more falls and stumbles per 5000 right steps taken (mean (SD) events, 0.21 (0.29) v 0.02 (0.02), p = 0.007). Patients who fell (n = 6) had on average a lower Rivermead Mobility score, slower self selected gait speed, and higher depression scores than those who did not. DM1 patients stumble or fall about 10 times more often than healthy volunteers. Routine inquiry about falls and stumbles is justified. A study of multidisciplinary intervention to reduce the risk of falls seems warranted.

  7. Osteosarcopenic obesity and fall prevention strategies.

    PubMed

    Hita-Contreras, Fidel; Martínez-Amat, Antonio; Cruz-Díaz, David; Pérez-López, Faustino R

    2015-02-01

    Sarcopenia, obesity, and osteoporosis are three interrelated entities which may share common pathophysiological factors. In the last decades, overall survival has drastically increased. Postmenopausal women, due to their estrogen depletion, are at higher risk of developing any of these three conditions or the three, which is termed osteosarcopenic obesity. One of the most common health problems among these patients is the elevated risk of falls and fractures. Falls and fall-related injuries are one of the major causes of mortality and morbidity in older adults, and have a significant impact on social, economical and health-related costs. Several extrinsic and intrinsic risk factors have been described that play a role in the etiology of falls. A therapeutic approach to osteosarcopenic obesity aimed at the prevention of falls must include several factors, and act on those risk elements which can be effectively modified. An adequate weight-loss diet and a good nutritional intake, with an appropriate amount of vitamin D and the right protein/carbohydrates ratio, may contribute to the prevention of falls. The recommendation of physical exercise, both traditional (resistance or aerobic training) and more recent varieties (Tai Chi, Pilates, body vibration), can improve balance and positively contribute to fall prevention, whether by itself or in combination with other therapeutic strategies. Finally, a pharmacological approach, especially one focused on hormone therapy, has shown to have a positive effect on postmenopausal women's balance, leading to a decreased risk of falls. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Veterans' fall risk profile: a prevalence study.

    PubMed

    Quigley, Patricia A; Palacios, Polly; Spehar, Andrea M

    2006-01-01

    The Veterans Health Administration (VHA) serves the health care needs of an adult, predominantly male, and aging population. The aging profile of VHA patients is 25% greater than the civilian sector (DVA 2001). Aged patients are at higher risk for falls. In February 2002, 6 VHA medical centers profiled their inpatients' fall risk profile as one aspect of program initiatives targeted at reducing veterans' fall risk and fall-related injuries, participating in a one-day collection of fall risk measurement using the Morse Fall Scale (MFS) for all inpatients (n = 1819), acute and long-term care units. Data results are reported for age, MFS score, and the relationship between age and score, and by type of ward/unit, ie, predominately acute and critical care or long-term care. The results of this prevalence study documented that the veteran inpatient population are at high-risk for anticipated physiological falls. This Veteran Integrated Services Network-wide Deployment of an Evidence-based Program to Prevent Patient Falls study was completed as part of a nationally funded clinical initiative, National Program Initiative 20-006-1.

  9. Veterans’ fall risk profile: a prevalence study

    PubMed Central

    Quigley, Patricia A; Palacios, Polly; Spehar, Andrea M

    2006-01-01

    The Veterans Health Administration (VHA) serves the health care needs of an adult, predominantly male, and aging population. The aging profile of VHA patients is 25% greater than the civilian sector (DVA 2001). Aged patients are at higher risk for falls. In February 2002, 6 VHA medical centers profiled their inpatients’ fall risk profile as one aspect of program initiatives targeted at reducing veterans’ fall risk and fall-related injuries, participating in a one-day collection of fall risk measurement using the Morse Fall Scale (MFS) for all inpatients (n=1819), acute and long-term care units. Data results are reported for age, MFS score, and the relationship between age and score, and by type of ward/unit, ie, predominately acute and critical care or long-term care. The results of this prevalence study documented that the veteran inpatient population are at high-risk for anticipated physiological falls. This Veteran Integrated Services Network-wide Deployment of an Evidence-based Program to Prevent Patient Falls study was completed as part of a nationally funded clinical initiative, National Program Initiative 20-006-1. PMID:18044113

  10. How Fast Does a Building Fall?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denny, Mark

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, the time required for a tower block to collapse is calculated. The tower collapses progressively, with one floor falling onto the floor below, causing it to fall. The rate of collapse is found to be not much slower than freefall. The calculation is an engaging and relevant application of Newton's laws, suitable for undergraduate…

  11. 29 CFR 1917.41 - House falls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false House falls. 1917.41 Section 1917.41 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) MARINE TERMINALS Cargo Handling Gear and Equipment § 1917.41 House falls. (a) Span beams shall be secured...

  12. Central Falls' Kids First: A Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tufts Univ., Medford, MA. Center on Hunger, Poverty and Nutrition Policy.

    Central Falls' Kids First, a 3-year initiative was designed to eradicate local childhood hunger through the expansion of federal child nutrition programs in Central Falls, a small, densely populated, ethnically diverse and low-income city in northeastern Rhode Island. A strong community partnership was created and included the office of the city's…

  13. Central Falls' Kids First: A Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tufts Univ., Medford, MA. Center on Hunger, Poverty and Nutrition Policy.

    Central Falls' Kids First, a 3-year initiative was designed to eradicate local childhood hunger through the expansion of federal child nutrition programs in Central Falls, a small, densely populated, ethnically diverse and low-income city in northeastern Rhode Island. A strong community partnership was created and included the office of the city's…

  14. How Fast Does a Building Fall?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denny, Mark

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, the time required for a tower block to collapse is calculated. The tower collapses progressively, with one floor falling onto the floor below, causing it to fall. The rate of collapse is found to be not much slower than freefall. The calculation is an engaging and relevant application of Newton's laws, suitable for undergraduate…

  15. Characteristics of the Fall-Prone Patient.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morse, Janice M.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Compared to hospitalized patients (N=100) who had not fallen, 100 hospitalized patients who had fallen were more likely to have had a previous fall, presence of a secondary diagnosis, intravenous therapy, impaired gait, used walking aids, and poor mental states. Identifies three types of falls (physiological anticipated, physiological…

  16. Why Does My Foot Fall Asleep?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Happens in the Operating Room? Why Does My Foot Fall Asleep? KidsHealth > For Kids > Why Does My Foot Fall Asleep? A A A Jenna had been ... while you might have lost feeling in your foot, it might have felt heavy, or you might ...

  17. Bellevue Community College Student Profile, Fall 1995.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodge, Valerie L.

    Intended for the college community and various campus constituencies working with the college, this report provides data on students enrolled at Bellevue Community College (BCC), in Washington, as of fall 1995. Following an executive summary and introduction, data are presented for 1990-95 and specifically for fall 1995 on student age, gender,…

  18. Increasing Trend of Fatal Falls in Older Adults in the United States, 1992 to 2005: Coding Practice or Reporting Quality?

    PubMed

    Kharrazi, Rebekah J; Nash, Denis; Mielenz, Thelma J

    2015-09-01

    To investigate whether changes in death certificate coding and reporting practices explain part or all of the recent increase in the rate of fatal falls in adults aged 65 and older in the United States. Trends in coding and reporting practices of fatal falls were evaluated under mortality coding schemes for International Classification of Diseases (ICD), Ninth Revision (1992-1998) and Tenth Revision (1999-2005). United States, 1992 to 2005. Individuals aged 65 and older with falls listed as the underlying cause of death (UCD) on their death certificates. The primary outcome was annual fatal falls rates per 100,000 U.S. residents aged 65 and older. Coding practice was assessed through analysis of trends in rates of specific UCD fall ICD e-codes over time. Reporting quality was assessed by examining changes in the location on the death certificate where fall e-codes were reported, in particular, the percentage of fall e-codes recorded in the proper location on the death certificate. Fatal falls rates increased over both time periods: 1992 to 1998 and 1999 to 2005. A single falls e-code was responsible for the increasing trend of fatal falls overall from 1992 to 1998 (E888, other and unspecified fall) and from 1999 to 2005 (W18, other falls on the same level), whereas trends for other falls e-codes remained stable. Reporting quality improved steadily throughout the study period. Better reporting quality, not coding practices, contributed to the increasing rate of fatal falls in older adults in the United States from 1992 to 2005. © 2015, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2015, The American Geriatrics Society.

  19. Falls in children birth to 5 years: different mechanisms lead to different injuries.

    PubMed

    Pomerantz, Wendy J; Gittelman, Michael A; Hornung, Richard; Husseinzadeh, Heideh

    2012-10-01

    Falls are the most common cause of injury-related hospitalization in children younger than 5 years old. Most anticipatory guidance surrounding falls is around falls from windows or stairs; however, falls from furniture also are important causes of morbidity. The purpose of this study was to compare the number of children injured, ages of injured children, and injuries sustained in falls from furniture and falls from stairs in hospitalized children younger than 5 years. All records of individuals from 0 year through 4 years, hospitalized at our institution for a fall from furniture or stairs between January 1, 1996, and December 31, 2006, were retrospectively reviewed. A standard data set was abstracted from each chart. Frequencies were used to characterize the study population. χ and t tests were used to determine differences between groups. A total of 171 patients were hospitalized for falls from stairs and 318 for falls from furniture. There were no differences between the groups with regard to age, sex, race, type of insurance, length of stay, Injury Severity Score, or total cost. The most common pieces of furniture from which children fell were beds (33.0%), couches (18.9%), and chairs (17.9%). Children who fell from stairs were significantly more likely to have injuries to their head (64.3% vs. 38.1%); those that fell from furniture were more likely to sustain arm injuries (33.3% vs. 9.9%). There were significantly more skull fractures in those that fell from stairs (39.8% vs. 20.1%) and humerus fractures in those that fell from furniture (30.8% vs. 9.4%) (p < 0.001). Falls from furniture increased during the study period, while falls from stairs fell; the difference was not statistically significant, however. Falls from furniture and stairs are important causes of morbidity in children. More children were hospitalized for falls from furniture than from stairs. Falls down stairs are decreasing while falls off furniture are increasing. More anticipatory

  20. Education Statistics Quarterly, Fall 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dillow, Sally, Ed.

    2000-01-01

    The "Education Statistics Quarterly" gives a comprehensive overview of work done across all parts of the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES). Each issue contains short publications, summaries, and descriptions that cover all NCES publications and data products released during a 3-month period. Each message also contains a…

  1. Education Statistics Quarterly, Fall 2002.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dillow, Sally, Ed.

    2003-01-01

    This publication provides a comprehensive overview of work done across all parts of the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES). Each issue contains short publications, summaries, and descriptions that cover all NCES publications and data products released in a 3-month period. Each issue also contains a message from the NCES on a timely…

  2. Education Statistics Quarterly, Fall 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dillow, Sally, Ed.

    2001-01-01

    The publication gives a comprehensive overview of work done across all parts of the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES). Each issue contains short publications, summaries, and descriptions that cover all NCES publications, data products, and funding opportunities developed over a 3-month period. Each issue also contains a message from…

  3. Early Childhood Update, Fall 1995.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimmerly, Lynn, Ed.

    1995-01-01

    This newsletter provides a periodic update on the activities of the Early Childhood Research Working Group (ECRWG), organized in early 1995 by the U.S. Department of Education and other federal government departments and agencies to promote interagency cooperation and public-private partnerships in early childhood research. This edition contains…

  4. The Science Teacher: Fall 2005

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Long, Steve

    2005-11-01

    The Science Teacher (TST) is the high school publication of the National Science Teachers Association. Articles of possible interest appearing in TST between March and Summer 2005 include topics on alternative assessment, periodic table trends, and teaching the history of chemistry. The reviewed articles contain resources, teaching tips, assessment ideas, and content.

  5. The motif of falling: falling and the loss of the mother.

    PubMed

    Andresen, J J

    1985-01-01

    Falling carries the meaning of loss of the mother for three patients studied psychoanalytically. Falling carries the same implication in various tropes, myths and biblical imagery. This convergence of evidence supports the thesis that falling is a symbol of maternal loss.

  6. Utilization of Residence Hall Facilities, Fall 1977, With Trends From Fall 1974.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    State Univ. of New York, Albany. Central Staff Office of Institutional Research.

    Data collected in the fourth annual survey of use of residence hall facilities in the fall of 1977, as well as summary data from fall 1974 through fall 1977 is presented in tabular form. The study includes all state-operated institutions which have residence hall facilities except facilities available at locally sponsored community colleges under…

  7. Utilization of Residence Hall Facilities, Fall 1990, with Trends from Fall 1981.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    State Univ. of New York, Albany. Central Staff Office of Institutional Research.

    Data are presented on the utilization of residence hall facilities at campuses of the State University of New York (excluding community colleges) for fall 1990, with summary data from fall 1981 through fall 1990. Part One offers seven tables on utilization of original design capacity of residence hall facilities; utilization by institution within…

  8. Fall Meeting by the numbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asher, Pranoti

    2012-02-01

    - Visits to the Fall Meeting Web site: 650,000 - Total participants at the meeting: 20,890 - Abstracts submitted to the meeting: 20,087 - Donors who attended and took advantage of donor lounges: 1835 - Total attendance at Simon Winchester's Presidential Forum Lecture: 1200 - Total attendance at the Honors Banquet: 905 - Books sold at the AGU Marketplace: 671 - Individuals registered for the Fun Run: 487 - Students who participated in the Student Breakfast: 450 - Individuals who crossed the finish line at the Fun Run: 384 - Total attendees at Exploration Station: 307 - Total booths sold in the Exhibit Hall: 304 - registered for the meeting: 288 - Membership transactions completed for renewing and registering members at AGU Marketplace: 156 - Meeting attendees who were past Congressional Visits Day participants: 82 - Editors, associate editors, and their student guests who visited the Editors Resource Center: 63 - Copies of Navigating Graduate School and Beyond: A Career Guide for Graduate Students and a Must Read for Every Advisor sold during and after the talk and book signing by author Sundar A. Christopher: 50 - Kegs of beer consumed during the Ice Breaker on Sunday, 4 December: 48 - Hours of video footage shot at the meeting by the AGU videographer: 40 - Potential geopress authors and editors who attended the daily "Come Publish With geopress" sessions in the AGU Marketplace: 31 - Press conferences held at the meeting: 25 - Average age of minors attending Exploration Station: 8.7 - Educational seminars sponsored by AGU Publications: 2 (one on how to write a good scientific paper and the other on the rewards of reviewing) - Watching three preschoolers in space suits waiting to meet astronaut Andrew Feustel after the Public Lecture: Priceless (with apologies to Mastercard®)

  9. Falls in the Elderly: A Practical Approach

    PubMed Central

    Handfield-Jones, Richard

    1989-01-01

    Falls in the elderly constitute a major problem confronting physicians. Their cost to individual patients and to society in terms of incidence, morbidity, and mortality is enormous. This paper attempts to outline some of the common etiological factors related to falls and a practical approach to the diagnosis and management. Causes of falls are clssified as extrinsic and intrinsic factors. The latter include disorders of many organ systems, especially those resulting from neurological and cardiovascular diseases. The role of drugs and alcohol is stressed. Determining the cause of falls requires a thorough history and physical examination. In order to manage successfully an elderly person with multiple falls, a co-ordinated effort by a multi-disciplinary team is often essential. PMID:21249001

  10. Falls in Patients With Liver Cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Yildirim, Meric

    Health-related quality of life (HRQOL) has become an important outcome for patients with liver cirrhosis as the number of transplantation candidates increases by the progression of treatment strategies. Falls and fall-related injuries are common in patients with liver cirrhosis and negatively affect HRQOL. Many factors increase the risk for falls such as minimal hepatic encephalopathy, psychoactive drugs, muscle strength, autonomic dysfunction, hyponatremia, and sleep problems. It is important to understand the underlying mechanisms for falls in cirrhotic patients to prevent severe injuries such as fractures, decrease healthcare costs, and improve HRQOL. Healthcare professionals, including physiotherapists and nurses, should be aware of the higher risk for falls in this population and therapeutic interventions must be designed for patients, especially those waiting on the transplant list.

  11. The effects of eyeball exercise on balance ability and falls efficacy of the elderly who have experienced a fall: A single-blind, randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Park, Jin-Hyuck

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of eyeball exercise on balance and fall efficacy of the elderly who have experienced a fall. Subjects were randomly assigned to the eyeball exercise group (n=30) or functional exercise group (n=31). All subjects received 30 sessions for 10 weeks. To identify the effects on balance, static and dynamic balance were measured using the center of pressure (CoP) measurement equipment and Timed Up and Go Test (TUGT) respectively. Fall efficacy was evaluated using the modified efficacy scale (MFES). The outcome measurements were performed before and after the 10 weeks training period. After 10 weeks, static balance, dynamic balance, and fall efficacy were significantly improved in both groups. Also, there were significant differences in the outcome measures between both groups (p<0.05). These results indicate that eyeball exercise is beneficial to improve the fall efficacy as well as the balance of the elderly compared with functional exercise. Eyeball exercise would be useful to improve balance and fall efficacy of the elderly who have experienced a fall. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Severe cranial neuropathies caused by falls from heights in children.

    PubMed

    Zahavi, A; Luckman, J; Yassur, I; Michowiz, S; Goldenberg-Cohen, N

    2016-04-01

    Falls from heights are the most common traumatic event associated with emergency department visits in children. This study investigated the incidence and clinical course of cranial neuropathies caused by falls from heights in children. The computerized records of a tertiary pediatric medical center were searched for all patients admitted to the emergency department in 2004-2014 with a head injury caused by falling from a height. Those with cranial neuropathies involving optic and eye-motility disturbances were identified, and their clinical, imaging, and outcome data were evaluated. Of the estimated 61,968 patients who presented to the emergency department during the study period because of a fall, 18,758 (30.3 %) had head trauma. Only 12 (seven boys, five girls, average age 6.7 years) had a visual disturbance. Eight were diagnosed with traumatic optic neuropathy, one after a 6-month delay, including two with accompanying cranial nerve (CN) III injuries. Five patients had anisocoria or an abnormal pupillary response to light at presentation, one patient had CN VI paralysis and temporary vision loss, and one patient had an isolated CN III injury diagnosed on follow-up. Visual improvement varied among the patients. Cranial neuropathies due to falls from heights are rare in children and are associated with high visual morbidity. Vision or ocular motility impairment, especially monocular vision loss, may be missed during acute intake to the emergency department, and a high index of suspicion is needed. Assessment of the pupillary response to light is essential.

  13. Historical rock falls in Yosemite National Park, California (1857-2011)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stock, Greg M.; Collins, Brian D.; Santaniello, David J.; Zimmer, Valerie L.; Wieczorek, Gerald F.; Snyder, James B.

    2013-01-01

    Inventories of rock falls and other types of landslides are valuable tools for improving understanding of these events. For example, detailed information on rock falls is critical for identifying mechanisms that trigger rock falls, for quantifying the susceptibility of different cliffs to rock falls, and for developing magnitude-frequency relations. Further, inventories can assist in quantifying the relative hazard and risk posed by these events over both short and long time scales. This report describes and presents the accompanying rock fall inventory database for Yosemite National Park, California. The inventory database documents 925 events spanning the period 1857–2011. Rock falls, rock slides, and other forms of slope movement represent a serious natural hazard in Yosemite National Park. Rock-fall hazard and risk are particularly relevant in Yosemite Valley, where glacially steepened granitic cliffs approach 1 km in height and where the majority of the approximately 4 million yearly visitors to the park congregate. In addition to damaging roads, trails, and other facilities, rock falls and other slope movement events have killed 15 people and injured at least 85 people in the park since the first documented rock fall in 1857. The accompanying report describes each of the organizational categories in the database, including event location, type of slope movement, date, volume, relative size, probable trigger, impact to humans, narrative description, references, and environmental conditions. The inventory database itself is contained in a Microsoft Excel spreadsheet (Yosemite_rock_fall_database_1857-2011.xlsx). Narrative descriptions of events are contained in the database, but are also provided in a more readable Adobe portable document format (pdf) file (Yosemite_rock_fall_database_narratives_1857-2011.pdf) available for download separate from the database.

  14. Reducing falls in a care home.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Rosie

    2017-01-01

    Care home residents are 3 times more likely to fall than their community dwelling peers and 10 times more likely to sustain a significant injury as a result. 2 A project commenced at a care home in Aberdeen with the aim of reducing the number of falls by 20% by 30st April 2016 using the model for improvement. Qualitative data was gathered to establish staff belief about falls and their level of knowledge& understanding about falls risks and how to manage these. This informed the training which was delivered and iterative testing commenced with the introduction of the Lanarkshire Falls Risk/Intervention tool - where the multifactorial nature of a resident's falls risks are explored and specific actions to manage these are identified and implemented. Failure to meet PDSA predictions about sharing risk reducing actions with staff and length of time to complete the tool prompted a focus on communication and the processes whereby the tool is completed. "Teach back" was employed to highlight communication difficulties and ultimately the introduction of Huddles out improved the flow of information about residents and informed the Falls Risk/Intervention tool. 5 PDSAs were completed and within them multiple tests of change. The improvement shift came following a root cause analysis of the nature & cause of one resident's falls and applying the tool & communication processes. The average falls rate fell from 49 per 1000 occupied bed days to 23.6 and was sustained because of the attention to the importance of communication. The aim was achieved with a 36.6% reduction in Falls rate. Care home residents are 3 times more likely to fall than their community dwelling peers and 10 times more likely to sustain a significant injury as a result. 2 A project commenced at a care home in Aberdeen with the aim of reducing the number of falls by 20% by 30th April 2016 using the model for improvement. Qualitative data was gathered to establish staff belief about falls and their level of

  15. Reducing falls in a care home

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Rosie

    2017-01-01

    Care home residents are 3 times more likely to fall than their community dwelling peers and 10 times more likely to sustain a significant injury as a result. 2 A project commenced at a care home in Aberdeen with the aim of reducing the number of falls by 20% by 30st April 2016 using the model for improvement. Qualitative data was gathered to establish staff belief about falls and their level of knowledge& understanding about falls risks and how to manage these. This informed the training which was delivered and iterative testing commenced with the introduction of the Lanarkshire Falls Risk/Intervention tool – where the multifactorial nature of a resident's falls risks are explored and specific actions to manage these are identified and implemented. Failure to meet PDSA predictions about sharing risk reducing actions with staff and length of time to complete the tool prompted a focus on communication and the processes whereby the tool is completed. “Teach back” was employed to highlight communication difficulties and ultimately the introduction of Huddles out improved the flow of information about residents and informed the Falls Risk/Intervention tool. 5 PDSAs were completed and within them multiple tests of change. The improvement shift came following a root cause analysis of the nature & cause of one resident's falls and applying the tool & communication processes. The average falls rate fell from 49 per 1000 occupied bed days to 23.6 and was sustained because of the attention to the importance of communication. The aim was achieved with a 36.6% reduction in Falls rate. Care home residents are 3 times more likely to fall than their community dwelling peers and 10 times more likely to sustain a significant injury as a result. 2 A project commenced at a care home in Aberdeen with the aim of reducing the number of falls by 20% by 30th April 2016 using the model for improvement. Qualitative data was gathered to establish staff belief about falls and their level

  16. Effect of Promoting High-Quality Staff Interactions on Fall Prevention in Nursing Homes: A Cluster-Randomized Trial.

    PubMed

    Colón-Emeric, Cathleen S; Corazzini, Kirsten; McConnell, Eleanor S; Pan, Wei; Toles, Mark; Hall, Rasheeda; Cary, Michael P; Batchelor-Murphy, Melissa; Yap, Tracey; Anderson, Amber L; Burd, Andrew; Amarasekara, Sathya; Anderson, Ruth A

    2017-10-02

    New approaches are needed to enhance implementation of complex interventions for geriatric syndromes such as falls. To test whether a complexity science-based staff training intervention (CONNECT) promoting high-quality staff interactions improves the impact of an evidence-based falls quality improvement program (FALLS). Cluster-randomized trial in 24 nursing homes receiving either CONNECT followed by FALLS (intervention), or FALLS alone (control). Nursing home staff in all positions were asked to complete surveys at baseline, 3, 6, and 9 months. Medical records of residents with at least 1 fall in the 6-month pre- and postintervention windows (n = 1794) were abstracted for fall risk reduction measures, falls, and injurious falls. CONNECT taught staff to improve their connections with coworkers, increase information flow, and use cognitive diversity in problem solving. Intervention components included 2 classroom sessions, relationship mapping, and self-monitoring. FALLS provided instruction in the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality's Falls Management Program. Primary outcomes were (1) mean number of fall risk reduction activities documented within 30 days of falls and (2) median fall rates among residents with at least 1 fall during the study period. In addition, validated scales measured staff communication quality, frequency, timeliness, and safety climate. Surveys were completed by 1545 staff members, representing 734 (37%) and 811 (44%) of eligible staff in intervention and control facilities, respectively; 511 (33%) respondents were hands-on care workers. Neither the CONNECT nor the FALLS-only facilities improved the mean count of fall risk reduction activities following FALLS (3.3 [1.6] vs 3.2 [1.5] of 10); furthermore, adjusted median recurrent fall rates did not differ between the groups (4.06 [interquartile range {IQR}, 2.03-8.11] vs 4.06 [IQR, 2.04-8.11] falls/resident/y). A modest improvement in staff communication measures was observed

  17. 77 FR 7904 - Fall 2011 Semiannual Agenda of Regulations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-13

    ...In compliance with Executive Order 12866, entitled ``Regulatory Planning and Review,'' and the Regulatory Flexibility Act, as amended, the Department of Commerce (Department), in the spring and fall of each year, publishes in the Federal Register an agenda of regulations under development or review over the next 12 months. Rulemaking actions are grouped according to prerulemaking, proposed rules, final rules, long-term actions, and rulemaking actions completed since the spring 2011 agenda. The purpose of the agenda is to provide information to the public on regulations that are currently under review, being proposed, or issued by the Department. The agenda is intended to facilitate comments and views by interested members of the public. The Department's fall 2011 regulatory agenda includes regulatory activities that are expected to be conducted during the period October 1, 2011 through September 30, 2012.

  18. 78 FR 1536 - Fall 2012 Semiannual Agenda of Regulations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-08

    ...In compliance with Executive Order 12866, entitled ``Regulatory Planning and Review,'' and the Regulatory Flexibility Act, as amended, the Department of Commerce (Commerce), in the spring and fall of each year, publishes in the Federal Register an agenda of regulations under development or review over the next 12 months. Rulemaking actions are grouped according to prerulemaking, proposed rules, final rules, long-term actions, and rulemaking actions completed since the spring 2012 agenda. The purpose of the agenda is to provide information to the public on regulations that are currently under review, being proposed, or issued by Commerce. The agenda is intended to facilitate comments and views by interested members of the public. Commerce's fall 2012 regulatory agenda includes regulatory activities that are expected to be conducted during the period October 1, 2012 through September 30, 2013.

  19. Falls in People with Multiple Sclerosis Compared with Falls in Healthy Controls

    PubMed Central

    Mazumder, Rajarshi; Murchison, Charles; Bourdette, Dennis; Cameron, Michelle

    2014-01-01

    Objective To compare the risk, circumstances, consequences and causes of prospectively recorded falls between people with multiple sclerosis (PwMS) and healthy controls of similar age and gender. Methods 58 PwMS and 58 healthy controls, who are community-dwelling, were recruited in this 6-month prospective cohort study. 90% of PwMS and 84% of healthy controls completed the study. Participants counted falls prospectively using fall calendars and noted fall location, fall-related injuries, and the cause of the falls. Kaplan Meier survival analysis and log-rank tests were performed to compare the distributions of survival without falling between PwMS and healthy controls. Results 40.8% of controls and 71.2% of PwMS fell at least once. 48.1% of PwMS and 18.4% of healthy controls fell at least twice. 42.3% of PwMS and 20.4% of health controls sustained a fall-related injury. After adjusting for age and gender, the time to first fall (HR: 1.87, p = 0.033) and the time to recurrent falls (HR: 2.87, p = 0.0082) were significantly different between PwMS and healthy controls. PwMS reported an almost equal number of falls inside and outside, 86% of the falls in healthy controls were outside. Healthy controls were more likely to fall due to slipping on a slippery surface (39.5% vs 10.4%). PwMS more often attributed falls to distraction (31% vs 7%) and uniquely attributed falls to fatigue or heat. Conclusions Fall risk, circumstances, consequences, and causes are different for PwMS than for healthy people of the same age and gender. PwMS fall more, are more likely to be injured by a fall, and often fall indoors. PwMS, but not healthy controls, frequently fall because they are distracted, fatigued or hot. PMID:25254633

  20. An exercise program to prevent falls in institutionalized elderly with cognitive deficits: a crossover pilot study.

    PubMed

    DeSure, Ariell R; Peterson, Karen; Gianan, Faith V; Pang, Lorrin

    2013-11-01

    Falls are the leading cause of injury among older adults in the United States, with the institutionalized elderly at elevated risk for injury and death. Physical weakness and mental frailty, prevalent in institutionalized elderly, are major risk factors for falls. The purpose of this study was to evaluate a program that addresses both the physical and mental aspects of exercise to reduce falls in institutionalized elderly. Twenty-seven volunteer subjects residing in an assisted living facility participated in the 24 week randomized crossover study. After demographic, fall history, and mental status examinations, subjects were randomly assigned first to ten weeks of either an exercise class or a control group, followed by a four week "washout period" of no activity, then cross assigned to ten weeks as either a control group or exercise class, respectively. Falls as well as mental status changes were monitored during the study. After adjusting for differences in baseline risk between the control and treatment groups, and for potential residual effects of the treatment during the crossover phase, a statistically significant (P = .025) reduction in falls was found during treatment compared to the control periods. No change in mental status was seen. This small, pilot study shows that exercise programs, which emphasize mental strengthening as well as physical fitness, have the potential to reduce falls among mentally impaired, institutionalized seniors.

  1. Prospective investigation of the incidence of falls, dizziness and syncope in haemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Russell; Jeffrey, Corinne; Carlisle, Gary; Brierley, Elizabeth

    2007-01-01

    Prevention of falls in the elderly is a major health care target. There are theoretical reasons why older dialysis patients may be at high risk of falls: co-morbidity, medication, and post-dialysis hypotension, which have not been well tested. Dialysis patients are also at higher risk of fracture if they do fall. We prospectively interviewed all our centre haemodialysis patients over a 6 month period to see if they reported falls, syncope, pre-syncope or dizziness. Routine blood pressure (BP) and other clinical data were recorded. A total of 78 patients completed the study. There was a high incidence of all four symptoms but only falls was age-related. About 38% of patients aged >65 reported 1 or more fall compared to 4% of younger patients (p < 0.001). There were no significant differences in pre-dialysis, post-dialysis or standing BP between young and older patients or between fallers and non-fallers although the older patients did have a greater magnitude in change between pre-dialysis BP and post-dialysis standing BP. Older haemodialysis patients have a high incidence of falls. Falls can be prevented by addressing modifiable risk factors. Whether existing guidelines are applicable to this specialised population is uncertain. There is a high incidence of syncope in dialysis patients of all ages and the cause of this needs further exploration.

  2. The epidemiology of slips, trips, and falls in a helicopter manufacturing plant.

    PubMed

    Amandus, Harlan; Bell, Jennifer; Tiesman, Hope; Biddle, Elyce

    2012-06-01

    The purpose of this evaluation was to evaluate the causes and costs of slips, trips, and falls (STFs) in a helicopter manufacturing plant. STFs are a significant portion of the total industry injury burden. For this study, 4,070 helicopter plant workers who were employed from January 1, 2004, through February 28, 2008, were enrolled. Company records on workers' compensation claims, occupational health first report of injury, and payroll records on hours worked were collected. Cause and source of all injuries, including STFs, were coded for analysis. During the 4-year study period, there were 2,378 injuries and 226 STFs (46 falls [20%] to a lower level, 117 [52%] falls on the same level, 41 [18%] from loss of balance without a fall, and 22 [10%] from other events). Of the 226 STFs, 123 falls to the same level were caused by slippery substances (52), objects on floor (43), and surface hazards (28), and they cost $1,543,946. Falls to lower levels primarily involved access to stands to and from aircraft and falling off large machines. More than half of the STF injury claims likely could have been prevented by housekeeping and maintenance, and this cost saving could reasonably offset a considerable portion of the cost of prevention. Training and stand modifications could be considered to prevent falls from elevation from stands, machines, and aircraft. Recommendations for STF prevention are discussed.

  3. Development and validation of fall risk screening tools for use in residential aged care facilities.

    PubMed

    Delbaere, Kim; Close, Jacqueline C T; Menz, Hylton B; Cumming, Robert G; Cameron, Ian D; Sambrook, Philip N; March, Lyn M; Lord, Stephen R

    2008-08-18

    To develop screening tools for predicting falls in nursing home and intermediate-care hostel residents who can and cannot stand unaided. Prospective cohort study in residential aged care facilities in northern Sydney, New South Wales, June 1999-June 2003. 2005 people aged 65-104 years (mean +/- SD, 85.7+/-7.1 years). Demographic, health, and physical function assessment measures; number of falls over a 6-month period; validity of the screening models. Ability to stand unaided was identified as a significant event modifier for falls. In people who could stand unaided, having either poor balance or two of three other risk factors (previous falls, nursing home residence, and urinary incontinence) increased the risk of falling in the next 6 months threefold (sensitivity, 73%; specificity, 55%). In people who could not stand unaided, having any one of three risk factors (previous falls, hostel residence, and using nine or more medications) increased the risk of falling twofold (sensitivity, 87%; specificity, 29%). These two screening models are useful for identifying older people living in residential aged care facilities who are at increased risk of falls. The screens are easy to administer and contain items that are routinely collected in residential aged care facilities in Australia.

  4. Comparison of three instruments in predicting accidental falls in selected inpatients in a general teaching hospital.

    PubMed

    Eagle, D J; Salama, S; Whitman, D; Evans, L A; Ho, E; Olde, J

    1999-07-01

    Accidental patient falls are becoming a major cause of concern for hospitalized inpatients. It is well known that patients who fall once during their hospital stay are more likely to fall again and that fall rates tend to be higher in hospitalized elderly individuals. Concerned health care team personnel recognize that many accidental patient falls may be predicted and, thus, prevented. The best tool to predict falls has not been determined yet. The purpose of this study was to compare the abilities of the Morse Fall Scale (MFS), the Functional Reach (FR) test, and the nurses' clinical judgment in predicting those inpatients on a rehabilitation unit and a geriatric medical ward who were most likely to fall. A total of 98 patients were screened in a 3-month period, with each patient undergoing all three instruments the same day. The results showed that the two objective standardized tests (i.e., MFS, FR) were time consuming and often inconvenient and were no better at prediction than the clinical judgments made by the primary nurses.

  5. Neuropsychological mechanisms of falls in older adults

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yu; Chan, John S. Y.; Yan, Jin H.

    2014-01-01

    Falls, a common cause of injury among older adults, have become increasingly prevalent. As the world’s population ages, the increase in—and the prevalence of—falls among older people makes this a serious and compelling societal and healthcare issue. Physical weakness is a critical predictor in falling. While considerable research has examined this relationship, comprehensive reviews of neuropsychological predictors of falls have been lacking. In this paper, we examine and discuss current studies of the neuropsychological predictors of falls in older adults, as related to sporting and non-sporting contexts. By integrating the existing evidence, we propose that brain aging is an important precursor of the increased risk of falls in older adults. Brain aging disrupts the neural integrity of motor outputs and reduces neuropsychological abilities. Older adults may shift from unconscious movement control to more conscious or attentive motor control. Increased understanding of the causes of falls will afford opportunities to reduce their incidence, reduce consequent injuries, improve overall well-being and quality of life, and possibly to prolong life. PMID:24782761

  6. Fall Speeds of Freezing and Frozen Raindrops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flynn, A. M.; Rahman, K. M.; Testik, F. Y.

    2016-12-01

    In this study, we investigated the fall speeds of freezing and frozen raindrops through field observations. While there have been many studies on the fall speed of warm raindrops (i.e. raindrops that are in liquid state during fall and after impact on a surface), yielding a number of parameterizations to predict the terminal fall speed of warm raindrops, such studies are limited for freezing and frozen raindrops. Moreover, the parameterizations developed for predicting the terminal fall speeds of warm raindrops are not applicable to freezing and frozen raindrops. The information on freezing and frozen raindrop fall speeds has important meteorological applications: for example, identification of precipitation type and radar retrieval of precipitation rates during such events. In this study, field data was collected using a new instrument called the High-speed Optical Disdrometer (HOD) that we recently developed. This data provided valuable insights into fall speeds of freezing and frozen raindrops, which will be discussed in our presentation. This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under Grants No. AGS-1144846 and AGS-1612681.

  7. Bulgarian population in transitional period.

    PubMed

    Georgieva, Lidia; Powles, John; Genchev, Gencho; Salchev, Petko; Poptodorov, George

    2002-04-01

    In the transition period from a communist to market-oriented economy, Bulgaria faces several public health challenges. One of them is the decline in population (estimated fall from current 8.25 million to around 6 million in 2045), mainly due to emigration and pronounced fall in fertility. Infant mortality is still relatively high (over 15/1,000 live births), and the incidence of tuberculosis is on the rise. Total mortality shows a steady upward trend from 12.1/1,000 in 1990 to 14.3/1,000 in 1998. Trends in ischemic heart disease are comparable to those in other Central and Eastern European countries, but stroke mortality is notably higher. This calls for detailed epidemiological studies of risk factors, such as salt consumption, as well as preventive programs for detection and control of high blood pressure. The problems of smoking and alcohol abuse should be addressed by a coordinated public health and legal measures.

  8. 6-PACK programme to decrease fall injuries in acute hospitals: cluster randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Morello, Renata T; Wolfe, Rory; Brand, Caroline A; Haines, Terry P; Hill, Keith D; Brauer, Sandra G; Botti, Mari; Cumming, Robert G; Livingston, Patricia M; Sherrington, Catherine; Zavarsek, Silva; Lindley, Richard I; Kamar, Jeannette

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effect of the 6-PACK programme on falls and fall injuries in acute wards. Design Cluster randomised controlled trial. Setting Six Australian hospitals. Participants All patients admitted to 24 acute wards during the trial period. Interventions Participating wards were randomly assigned to receive either the nurse led 6-PACK programme or usual care over 12 months. The 6-PACK programme included a fall risk tool and individualised use of one or more of six interventions: “falls alert” sign, supervision of patients in the bathroom, ensuring patients’ walking aids are within reach, a toileting regimen, use of a low-low bed, and use of a bed/chair alarm. Main outcome measures The co-primary outcomes were falls and fall injuries per 1000 occupied bed days. Results During the trial, 46 245 admissions to 16 medical and eight surgical wards occurred. As many people were admitted more than once, this represented 31 411 individual patients. Patients’ characteristics and length of stay were similar for intervention and control wards. Use of 6-PACK programme components was higher on intervention wards than on control wards (incidence rate ratio 3.05, 95% confidence interval 2.14 to 4.34; P<0.001). In all, 1831 falls and 613 fall injuries occurred, and the rates of falls (incidence rate ratio 1.04, 0.78 to 1.37; P=0.796) and fall injuries (0.96, 0.72 to 1.27; P=0.766) were similar in intervention and control wards. Conclusions Positive changes in falls prevention practice occurred following the introduction of the 6-PACK programme. However, no difference was seen in falls or fall injuries between groups. High quality evidence showing the effectiveness of falls prevention interventions in acute wards remains absent. Novel solutions to the problem of in-hospital falls are urgently needed. Trial registration Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12611000332921. PMID:26813674

  9. 6-PACK programme to decrease fall injuries in acute hospitals: cluster randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Barker, Anna L; Morello, Renata T; Wolfe, Rory; Brand, Caroline A; Haines, Terry P; Hill, Keith D; Brauer, Sandra G; Botti, Mari; Cumming, Robert G; Livingston, Patricia M; Sherrington, Catherine; Zavarsek, Silva; Lindley, Richard I; Kamar, Jeannette

    2016-01-26

    To evaluate the effect of the 6-PACK programme on falls and fall injuries in acute wards. Cluster randomised controlled trial. Six Australian hospitals. All patients admitted to 24 acute wards during the trial period. Participating wards were randomly assigned to receive either the nurse led 6-PACK programme or usual care over 12 months. The 6-PACK programme included a fall risk tool and individualised use of one or more of six interventions: "falls alert" sign, supervision of patients in the bathroom, ensuring patients' walking aids are within reach, a toileting regimen, use of a low-low bed, and use of a bed/chair alarm. The co-primary outcomes were falls and fall injuries per 1000 occupied bed days. During the trial, 46 245 admissions to 16 medical and eight surgical wards occurred. As many people were admitted more than once, this represented 31 411 individual patients. Patients' characteristics and length of stay were similar for intervention and control wards. Use of 6-PACK programme components was higher on intervention wards than on control wards (incidence rate ratio 3.05, 95% confidence interval 2.14 to 4.34; P<0.001). In all, 1831 falls and 613 fall injuries occurred, and the rates of falls (incidence rate ratio 1.04, 0.78 to 1.37; P=0.796) and fall injuries (0.96, 0.72 to 1.27; P=0.766) were similar in intervention and control wards. Positive changes in falls prevention practice occurred following the introduction of the 6-PACK programme. However, no difference was seen in falls or fall injuries between groups. High quality evidence showing the effectiveness of falls prevention interventions in acute wards remains absent. Novel solutions to the problem of in-hospital falls are urgently needed. Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12611000332921. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  10. Chronic Musculoskeletal Pain and the Occurrence of Falls in an Older Population

    PubMed Central

    Leveille, Suzanne G.; Jones, Richard N.; Kiely, Dan K.; Hausdorff, Jeffrey M.; Shmerling, Robert H.; Guralnik, Jack M.; Kiel, Douglas P.; Lipsitz, Lewis A.; Bean, Jonathan F.

    2010-01-01

    Context Chronic pain is a major contributor to disability in older adults, however, the potential role of chronic pain as a risk factor for falls is poorly understood. Objective To determine whether chronic musculoskeletal pain is associated with an increased occurrence of falls in a cohort of community-living older adults. Design, Setting, Participants The MOBILIZE Boston Study is a population-based longitudinal study of falls in 749 adults aged 70 and older living in the Boston area. Participants were enrolled from September, 2005 through January, 2008. Main Outcome Measure Participants recorded falls on monthly calendar postcards mailed to the study center during an 18-month period. Results There were 1029 falls reported during the follow-up. Report of 2 or more locations of musculoskeletal pain at baseline was associated with greater occurrence of falls. The age-adjusted fall rates were: 1.18 (95%CI 1.13–1.23) falls per person-year(PPY), for participants with ≥2 sites of joint pain (n=300), 0.90 (95%CI 0.87–0.92) falls PPY for those with single site pain (n=181), and 0.78 (95%CI 0.74–0.81) falls PPY for persons reporting no joint pain (n=267). Similarly, more severe or disabling pain at baseline was associated with higher fall rates (p<0.05). The association persisted after adjusting for multiple confounders and fall risk factors. The greatest risk for falls was observed in persons who had ≥2 pain sites (adj. rate ratio (RR) =1.53, 95%CI 1.17–1.99), and those in the highest tertiles of pain severity (adj. RR=1.53, 95%CI 1.12–2.08) and pain interference with activities (adj. RR=1.53, 95%CI 1.15–2.05), compared to their peers with no pain or those in the lowest tertiles of pain subscales. Conclusions Chronic pain measured according to number of locations, severity or pain interference with daily activities was associated with greater risk for falls in older adults. A randomized controlled trial is needed to confirm whether improved pain control

  11. Falls and Fall-Related Injuries among Community-Dwelling Adults in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Verma, Santosh K.; Willetts, Joanna L.; Corns, Helen L.; Marucci-Wellman, Helen R.; Lombardi, David A.; Courtney, Theodore K.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Falls are the leading cause of unintentional injuries in the U.S.; however, national estimates for all community-dwelling adults are lacking. This study estimated the national incidence of falls and fall-related injuries among community-dwelling U.S. adults by age and gender and the trends in fall-related injuries across the adult life span. Methods Nationally representative data from the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) 2008 Balance and Dizziness supplement was used to develop national estimates of falls, and pooled data from the NHIS was used to calculate estimates of fall-related injuries in the U.S. and related trends from 2004–2013. Costs of unintentional fall-related injuries were extracted from the CDC’s Web-based Injury Statistics Query and Reporting System. Results Twelve percent of community-dwelling U.S. adults reported falling in the previous year for a total estimate of 80 million falls at a rate of 37.2 falls per 100 person-years. On average, 9.9 million fall-related injuries occurred each year with a rate of 4.38 fall-related injuries per 100 person-years. In the previous three months, 2.0% of older adults (65+), 1.1% of middle-aged adults (45–64) and 0.7% of young adults (18–44) reported a fall-related injury. Of all fall-related injuries among community-dwelling adults, 32.3% occurred among older adults, 35.3% among middle-aged adults and 32.3% among younger adults. The age-adjusted rate of fall-related injuries increased 4% per year among older women (95% CI 1%–7%) from 2004 to 2013. Among U.S. adults, the total lifetime cost of annual unintentional fall-related injuries that resulted in a fatality, hospitalization or treatment in an emergency department was 111 billion U.S. dollars in 2010. Conclusions Falls and fall-related injuries represent a significant health and safety problem for adults of all ages. The findings suggest that adult fall prevention efforts should consider the entire adult lifespan to ensure a

  12. Falls and Fall-Related Injuries among Community-Dwelling Adults in the United States.

    PubMed

    Verma, Santosh K; Willetts, Joanna L; Corns, Helen L; Marucci-Wellman, Helen R; Lombardi, David A; Courtney, Theodore K

    2016-01-01

    Falls are the leading cause of unintentional injuries in the U.S.; however, national estimates for all community-dwelling adults are lacking. This study estimated the national incidence of falls and fall-related injuries among community-dwelling U.S. adults by age and gender and the trends in fall-related injuries across the adult life span. Nationally representative data from the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) 2008 Balance and Dizziness supplement was used to develop national estimates of falls, and pooled data from the NHIS was used to calculate estimates of fall-related injuries in the U.S. and related trends from 2004-2013. Costs of unintentional fall-related injuries were extracted from the CDC's Web-based Injury Statistics Query and Reporting System. Twelve percent of community-dwelling U.S. adults reported falling in the previous year for a total estimate of 80 million falls at a rate of 37.2 falls per 100 person-years. On average, 9.9 million fall-related injuries occurred each year with a rate of 4.38 fall-related injuries per 100 person-years. In the previous three months, 2.0% of older adults (65+), 1.1% of middle-aged adults (45-64) and 0.7% of young adults (18-44) reported a fall-related injury. Of all fall-related injuries among community-dwelling adults, 32.3% occurred among older adults, 35.3% among middle-aged adults and 32.3% among younger adults. The age-adjusted rate of fall-related injuries increased 4% per year among older women (95% CI 1%-7%) from 2004 to 2013. Among U.S. adults, the total lifetime cost of annual unintentional fall-related injuries that resulted in a fatality, hospitalization or treatment in an emergency department was 111 billion U.S. dollars in 2010. Falls and fall-related injuries represent a significant health and safety problem for adults of all ages. The findings suggest that adult fall prevention efforts should consider the entire adult lifespan to ensure a greater public health benefit.

  13. Interventions for preventing falls in older people living in the community.

    PubMed

    Gillespie, Lesley D; Robertson, M Clare; Gillespie, William J; Sherrington, Catherine; Gates, Simon; Clemson, Lindy M; Lamb, Sarah E

    2012-09-12

    second eye cataract surgery did not.Gradual withdrawal of psychotropic medication reduced rate of falls (RaR 0.34, 95% CI 0.16 to 0.73; one trial; 93 participants), but not risk of falling. A prescribing modification programme for primary care physicians significantly reduced risk of falling (RR 0.61, 95% CI 0.41 to 0.91; one trial; 659 participants).An anti-slip shoe device reduced rate of falls in icy conditions (RaR 0.42, 95% CI 0.22 to 0.78; one trial; 109 participants). One trial (305 participants) comparing multifaceted podiatry including foot and ankle exercises with standard podiatry in people with disabling foot pain significantly reduced the rate of falls (RaR 0.64, 95% CI 0.45 to 0.91) but not the risk of falling.There is no evidence of effect for cognitive behavioural interventions on rate of falls (RaR 1.00, 95% CI 0.37 to 2.72; one trial; 120 participants) or risk of falling (RR 1.11, 95% CI 0.80 to 1.54; two trials; 350 participants).Trials testing interventions to increase knowledge/educate about fall prevention alone did not significantly reduce the rate of falls (RaR 0.33, 95% CI 0.09 to 1.20; one trial; 45 participants) or risk of falling (RR 0.88, 95% CI 0.75 to 1.03; four trials; 2555 participants).No conclusions can be drawn from the 47 trials reporting fall-related fractures.Thirteen trials provided a comprehensive economic evaluation. Three of these indicated cost savings for their interventions during the trial period: home-based exercise in over 80-year-olds, home safety assessment and modification in those with a previous fall, and one multifactorial programme targeting eight specific risk factors. Group and home-based exercise programmes, and home safety interventions reduce rate of falls and risk of falling.Multifactorial assessment and intervention programmes reduce rate of falls but not risk of falling; Tai Chi reduces risk of falling.Overall, vitamin D supplementation does not appear to reduce falls but may be effective in people who have

  14. Possible Fengyun-1C debris fall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golebiewska, J.; Nowak, M.; Muszyński, A.; Wnuk, E.

    2017-05-01

    A fall of small objects took place on 27th April 2012 in Wargowo village near Oborniki, about 25 km NW from Poznań (Poland). There was only one eye-witness of the fall, who found two separate pieces (ca. 2.7 cm and ca. 2 cm), with several small additional fragments. After microscopic observations and chemical analysis a meteoritic origin of these objects was excluded. They are identified as space debris, therefore man-made. The most probable source of the observed fall was space debris 35127 Fengyun 1C DEB, created during destruction of the Chinese weather satellite Fengyun-1C (FY-1C).

  15. Relevance of vitamin D in fall prevention.

    PubMed

    Bischoff-Ferrari, Heike A

    2017-03-01

    This review will summarize recent clinical studies and meta-analyses on the effect of vitamin D supplementation on fall prevention. As fall prevention is fundamental in fracture prevention at older age, we discuss if and to what extend the vitamin D effect on muscle modulates hip fracture risk. Further, to explain the effect of vitamin D on fall prevention, we will review the mechanistic evidence linking vitamin D to muscle health and the potentially selective effect of vitamin D on type II fast muscle fibers.

  16. Unexplained Falls Are Frequent in Patients with Fall-Related Injury Admitted to Orthopaedic Wards: The UFO Study (Unexplained Falls in Older Patients).

    PubMed

    Chiara, Mussi; Gianluigi, Galizia; Pasquale, Abete; Alessandro, Morrione; Alice, Maraviglia; Gabriele, Noro; Paolo, Cavagnaro; Loredana, Ghirelli; Giovanni, Tava; Franco, Rengo; Giulio, Masotti; Gianfranco, Salvioli; Niccolò, Marchionni; Andrea, Ungar

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the incidence of unexplained falls in elderly patients affected by fall-related fractures admitted to orthopaedic wards, we recruited 246 consecutive patients older than 65 (mean age 82 ± 7 years, range 65-101). Falls were defined "accidental" (fall explained by a definite accidental cause), "medical" (fall caused directly by a specific medical disease), "dementia-related" (fall in patients affected by moderate-severe dementia), and "unexplained" (nonaccidental falls, not related to a clear medical or drug-induced cause or with no apparent cause). According to the anamnestic features of the event, older patients had a lower tendency to remember the fall. Patients with accidental fall remember more often the event. Unexplained falls were frequent in both groups of age. Accidental falls were more frequent in younger patients, while dementia-related falls were more common in the older ones. Patients with unexplained falls showed a higher number of depressive symptoms. In a multivariate analysis a higher GDS and syncopal spells were independent predictors of unexplained falls. In conclusion, more than one third of all falls in patients hospitalized in orthopaedic wards were unexplained, particularly in patients with depressive symptoms and syncopal spells. The identification of fall causes must be evaluated in older patients with a fall-related injury.

  17. Unexplained Falls Are Frequent in Patients with Fall-Related Injury Admitted to Orthopaedic Wards: The UFO Study (Unexplained Falls in Older Patients)

    PubMed Central

    Chiara, Mussi; Gianluigi, Galizia; Pasquale, Abete; Alessandro, Morrione; Alice, Maraviglia; Gabriele, Noro; Paolo, Cavagnaro; Loredana, Ghirelli; Giovanni, Tava; Franco, Rengo; Giulio, Masotti; Gianfranco, Salvioli; Niccolò, Marchionni; Andrea, Ungar

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the incidence of unexplained falls in elderly patients affected by fall-related fractures admitted to orthopaedic wards, we recruited 246 consecutive patients older than 65 (mean age 82 ± 7 years, range 65–101). Falls were defined “accidental” (fall explained by a definite accidental cause), “medical” (fall caused directly by a specific medical disease), “dementia-related” (fall in patients affected by moderate-severe dementia), and “unexplained” (nonaccidental falls, not related to a clear medical or drug-induced cause or with no apparent cause). According to the anamnestic features of the event, older patients had a lower tendency to remember the fall. Patients with accidental fall remember more often the event. Unexplained falls were frequent in both groups of age. Accidental falls were more frequent in younger patients, while dementia-related falls were more common in the older ones. Patients with unexplained falls showed a higher number of depressive symptoms. In a multivariate analysis a higher GDS and syncopal spells were independent predictors of unexplained falls. In conclusion, more than one third of all falls in patients hospitalized in orthopaedic wards were unexplained, particularly in patients with depressive symptoms and syncopal spells. The identification of fall causes must be evaluated in older patients with a fall-related injury. PMID:23533394

  18. 178. Photocopy of Photograph, Twin Falls Canal Company. C. R. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    178. Photocopy of Photograph, Twin Falls Canal Company. C. R. Savage, Photographer, March, 1905. FIRST FULL WATER OVER MILNER DAM, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, MILNER, IDAHO; SOUTHWEST VIEW OF SPILLWAY GATES. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

  19. 151. Photocopy of drawing (taken from Twin Falls Canal Company ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    151. Photocopy of drawing (taken from Twin Falls Canal Company Surveyor's Transit Book #363, Page 20). SURVEY PRINT SHOWING POINT SPILLWAY AND FIELD NOTES, TWIN FALLS COUNTY NORTHWEST OF MURTAUGH, IDAHO. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

  20. 190. Photocopy of drawing, Twin Falls Canal Company, date unknown. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    190. Photocopy of drawing, Twin Falls Canal Company, date unknown. GENERAL PLAN OF MILNER DAM TUNNELS, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, MILNER, IDAHO; BLUEPRINT. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

  1. 137. TWIN FALLS SOUTH SIDE MAIN CANAL DIVERSION HEADGATES, TWIN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    137. TWIN FALLS SOUTH SIDE MAIN CANAL DIVERSION HEADGATES, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, MILNER, IDAHO; OVERALL VIEW OF MAIN HEADGATES, DAM IN BACKGROUND. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

  2. 185. Photocopy of drawing, Twin Falls Canal Company, date unknown. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    185. Photocopy of drawing, Twin Falls Canal Company, date unknown. MILNER DAM CROSS SECTION PLAN, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, MILNER, IDAHO; BLUEPRINT. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

  3. 186. Photocopy of drawing, Twin Falls Canal Company, date unknown. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    186. Photocopy of drawing, Twin Falls Canal Company, date unknown. DRY CREEK RESERVOIR, CASSIA COUNTY (NOW TWIN FALLS COUNTY); MAP. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

  4. 179. Photocopy of Photograph, Twin Falls Canal Company, Bisbee Photo, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    179. Photocopy of Photograph, Twin Falls Canal Company, Bisbee Photo, September, 1912. Photographer unknown. VIEW OF LOW LINE CANAL, TWIN FALLS COUNTY; VIEW OF LOW LINE CANAL IN PETE LINK'S FIELD. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

  5. 181. Photocopy of Photograph, Twin Falls Canal Company. Photographer and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    181. Photocopy of Photograph, Twin Falls Canal Company. Photographer and date unknown. POINT SPILL, TWIN FALLS COUNTY; SOUTH VIEW. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

  6. 187. Photocopy of drawing, Twin Falls Canal Company, date unknown. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    187. Photocopy of drawing, Twin Falls Canal Company, date unknown. TOPOGRAPHICAL MAP OF MILNER DAM LOCATION, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, MILNER, IDAHO; BLUEPRINT MAP. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

  7. 182. Photocopy of Photograph, Twin Falls Canal Company. Photographer and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    182. Photocopy of Photograph, Twin Falls Canal Company. Photographer and date unknown. MILNER DAM TUNNELS, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, MILNER, IDAHO; APPROACH TO TUNNELS. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

  8. 177. Photocopy of Photograph, Twin Falls Canal Company, Bisbee Photo, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    177. Photocopy of Photograph, Twin Falls Canal Company, Bisbee Photo, September, 1912. Photographer unknown. COTTONWOOD FLUME, HIGH LINE CANAL, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, SOUTH OF KIMBERLY, IDAHO; SOUTH VIEW FROM UPPER SIDE. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

  9. 152. Photocopy of drawing (taken from Twin Falls Canal Company ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    152. Photocopy of drawing (taken from Twin Falls Canal Company Surveyor's Transit Book #363, Page 1). 1912 CONDITION REPORT OF MILNER DAM AREA, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, MILNER, IDAHO. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

  10. 189. Photocopy of drawing, Twin Falls Canal Company, date unknown. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    189. Photocopy of drawing, Twin Falls Canal Company, date unknown. ROCK CREEK CROSSING, LOW LINE CANAL, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, SOUTH OF KIMBERLY, IDAHO; BLUEPRINT. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

  11. 191. Photocopy of drawing, Twin Falls Canal Company, date unknown. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    191. Photocopy of drawing, Twin Falls Canal Company, date unknown. SPILLWAY GATES, MILNER DAM, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, MILNER, IDAHO; BLUEPRINT. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

  12. 195. Photocopy of drawing, Twin Falls Canal Company, date unknown. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    195. Photocopy of drawing, Twin Falls Canal Company, date unknown. PLAN OF CONSTRUCTION AREA PLANT, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, MILNER, IDAHO; BLUEPRINT. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

  13. 194. Photocopy of drawing, Twin Falls Canal Company, date unknown. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    194. Photocopy of drawing, Twin Falls Canal Company, date unknown. PROFILE AND GATE PLAN, NORTH ISLAND CROSS SECTION OF DAM, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, MILNER, IDAHO; BLUEPRINT. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

  14. 193. Photocopy of Photograph, Twin Falls Canal Company, date unknown. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    193. Photocopy of Photograph, Twin Falls Canal Company, date unknown. MILNER DAM PROFILE, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, MILNER, IDAHO; BLUEPRINT. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

  15. 158. Photocopy of transit book (taken from Twin Falls Canal ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    158. Photocopy of transit book (taken from Twin Falls Canal Company Transit Book #404T, Page 3, #46, Division One). START OF MAIN CANAL SURVEY, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, MILNER, IDAHO. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

  16. 155. Photocopy of transit book (taken from Twin Falls Canal ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    155. Photocopy of transit book (taken from Twin Falls Canal Company Surveyor's Transit Book #405T, Page 1, #46 Division One). STATEMENT RE: SURVEY ALIGNMENT 3/03, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, MILNER, IDAHO. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

  17. 154. Photocopy of transit book (taken from Twin Falls Canal ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    154. Photocopy of transit book (taken from Twin Falls Canal Company Surveyor's Transit Book #405T, Page 2, #46 Division One). STATEMENT OF SIGHT-SETTING FOR 1903 SURVEY TO ALIGN SOUTH SIDE CANAL, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, MILNER, IDAHO. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

  18. 157. Photocopy of drawing (taken from Twin Falls Canal Company ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    157. Photocopy of drawing (taken from Twin Falls Canal Company Field Book #360, Page 75, entitled, 'Clay-Seam Cut-Off.' Cross-Reference: ID-15-153). MILNER DAM SURVEY, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, MILNER, IDAHO. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

  19. 153. Photocopy of drawing (taken from Twin Falls Canal Company ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    153. Photocopy of drawing (taken from Twin Falls Canal Company Field Book #360, Page 74, entitled, 'Clay-Seam Cut-Off.' Cross-Reference: ID-15-157). MILNER DAM SURVEY, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, MILNER, IDAHO. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

  20. 183. Photocopy of map (Twin Falls Canal Company). TOPOGRAPHICAL MAP ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    183. Photocopy of map (Twin Falls Canal Company). TOPOGRAPHICAL MAP OF MILNER DAM SITE, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, MILNER, IDAHO; MAP, LEFT SIDE ONLY. CROSS REFERENCE: ID-15-192. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

  1. 192. Photocopy of drawing, Twin Falls Canal Company, date unknown. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    192. Photocopy of drawing, Twin Falls Canal Company, date unknown. TOPOGRAPHICAL MAP (DAM DRAWN IN), MILNER SITE, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, MILNER, IDAHO; RIGHT SIDE OF MAP (LEFT ON ID-15-183). - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

  2. Period proliferation in periodic states in cyclically sheared jammed solids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lavrentovich, Maxim O.; Liu, Andrea J.; Nagel, Sidney R.

    2017-08-01

    Athermal disordered systems can exhibit a remarkable response to an applied oscillatory shear: After a relatively few shearing cycles, the system falls into a configuration that had already been visited in a previous cycle. After this point the system repeats its dynamics periodically despite undergoing many particle rearrangements during each cycle. We study the behavior of orbits as we approach the jamming point in simulations of jammed particles subject to oscillatory shear at fixed pressure and zero temperature. As the pressure is lowered, we find that it becomes more common for the system to find periodic states where it takes multiple cycles before returning to a previously visited state. Thus, there is a proliferation of longer periods as the jamming point is approached.

  3. Estimation of the kinetic energy dissipation in fall-arrest system and manikin during fall impact.

    PubMed

    Wu, John Z; Powers, John R; Harris, James R; Pan, Christopher S

    2011-04-01

    Fall-arrest systems (FASs) have been widely applied to provide a safe stop during fall incidents for occupational activities. The mechanical interaction and kinetic energy exchange between the human body and the fall-arrest system during fall impact is one of the most important factors in FAS ergonomic design. In the current study, we developed a systematic approach to evaluate the energy dissipated in the energy absorbing lanyard (EAL) and in the harness/manikin during fall impact. The kinematics of the manikin and EAL during the impact were derived using the arrest-force time histories that were measured experimentally. We applied the proposed method to analyse the experimental data of drop tests at heights of 1.83 and 3.35 m. Our preliminary results indicate that approximately 84-92% of the kinetic energy is dissipated in the EAL system and the remainder is dissipated in the harness/manikin during fall impact. The proposed approach would be useful for the ergonomic design and performance evaluation of an FAS. STATEMENT OF RELEVANCE: Mechanical interaction, especially kinetic energy exchange, between the human body and the fall-arrest system during fall impact is one of the most important factors in the ergonomic design of a fall-arrest system. In the current study, we propose an approach to quantify the kinetic energy dissipated in the energy absorbing lanyard and in the harness/body system during fall impact.

  4. Siena, 1794: History's Most Consequential Meteorite Fall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marvin, U. B.

    1995-09-01

    In the mythos of meteoritics, the fall of stones at L'Aigle in Normandy at 1 p. m. on April 26, 1803, is commonly regarded as the event that turned skeptics into believers and opened the way for the new science. A strong case can be made, however, that the fall of stones at Siena at 7:00 p.m. on June 16, 1794, established the authenticity of meteorite falls and set in motion the reexaminations of entrenched beliefs that led to the founding of the new science. The Siena fall was heralded by the appearance of an extraordinarily high, dark cloud emitting smoke, sparks like rockets, and bolts of unusually slow-moving red lightning. With a tremendous explosion a shower of stones, ranging in weight from a few milligrams to 3 kg, fell southeast of Siena. This was the first meteorite fall to occur in the vicinity of a sizeable European city and the first to be witnessed by so many people, including English visitors, that the fall of the stones from the sky could not be denied. It also was the first fall to be seriously investigated by scholars, at several universities in Italy, who collected eye-witness reports and specimens and formulated hypotheses of origin. Their task was greatly complicated by the timing of the fall which occurred 18 hours after Mt. Vesuvius sprang into full eruption. Some believed that the two events were entirely coincidental; others thought that the stones either were ejecta from the volcano (which lay about 320 km to the southeast of Siena) or had consolidated in the fiery masses of dust and ash expelled by the mountain. No explanations seemed entirely satisfactory, but, in an age when the very possibility of falling stones had been decisively ruled out by savants of the Enlightenment, the well-observed fall at Siena opened a new dialog on this subject. The Siena fall occurred only two months after the publication in Riga and Leipzig of Ernst F. F. Chladni's book On the Origin of Ironmasses in which he concluded from historical records that

  5. Usability testing of a fall prevention toolkit.

    PubMed

    Keuter, Kayla R; Berg, Gina M; Hervey, Ashley M; Rogers, Nicole

    2015-05-01

    This study sought to evaluate a fall prevention toolkit, determine its ease of use and user satisfaction, and determine the preferred venue of distribution. Three forms of assessment were used: focus groups, usability testing, and surveys. Focus group participants were recruited from four locations: two rural health clinics and two urban centers. Usability testing participants were recruited from two rural health clinics. Survey questions included self-reported prior falls, current fall prevention habits, reaction to the toolkit, and demographics. Participants reported the toolkit was attractive, well-organized, and easy to use, but may contain too much information. Most participants admitted they would not actively use the toolkit on their own, but prefer having it introduced by a healthcare provider or in a social setting. Healthcare focuses on customer satisfaction; therefore, providers benefit from knowing patient preferred methods of learning fall prevention strategies.

  6. Ocular problems in military free fall parachutists.

    PubMed

    Gruppo, Leonard; Mader, Thomas H; Wedmore, Ian

    2002-10-01

    Military free fall parachutists may be unaware of the risk of corneal freezing and desiccation keratitis should their goggles come off during free fall in subfreezing temperatures. We determine the incidence of ocular difficulties in military free fall parachutists and the role freezing temperatures may play in causing these problems. We found that 79% of those who responded to the survey had lost their goggles at least once during free fall and 69% experienced ocular symptoms after goggle loss. Analysis shows a 30-fold increase in the duration of symptoms in subfreezing vs. above-freezing temperatures, with the odds of the ground mission being affected at 7.3 per 100 jumps in the subfreezing group. The rate of goggles coming off per jump is 3.3 times less with >75 jumps. Contact lenses are not protective and photorefractive keratectomy was not detrimental.

  7. Effect of free fall on higher plants.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gordon, S. A.

    1973-01-01

    The influence of exposure to the free-fall state on the orientation, morphogenesis, physiology, and radiation response of higher plants is briefly summarized. It is proposed that the duration of the space-flight experiments has been to brief to permit meaningful effects of free fall on general biochemistry, growth, and development to appear. However, two types of significant effect did occur. The first is on differential growth - i.e., tropism and epinasty - resulting from the absence of a normal geostimulus. For these phenomena it is suggested that ground-based experiments with the clinostat would suffice to mimic the effect of the free-fall state. The second is an apparent interaction between the radiation response and some flight condition, yielding an enhanced microspore abortion, a disturbed spindle function, and a stunting of stamen hairs. It is suggested that this apparent interaction may be derived from a shift in the rhythm of the cell cycle, induced by the free fall.

  8. Fall from Grace: The Decline of America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schnepper, Jeff A.; Schnepper, Barbara

    1976-01-01

    Asks whether the United States is about to join the Roman Empire as a historical lesson of inevitable rise and fall. The government, economic and industrial leaders, and social scientists are examined. (Editor/RK)

  9. [Falls in the Spanish elderly population: Incidence, consequences and risk factors].

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Molinero, Alejandro; Narvaiza, Leire; Gálvez-Barrón, César; de la Cruz, Juan José; Ruíz, Jorge; Gonzalo, Natalia; Valldosera, Esther; Yuste, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Falls in the elderly constitute a public health concern. The objective of the present study was to collect updated data on the frequency of falls in the Spanish elderly population, as well as to analyse their consequences and associated risk factors. This prospective study was conducted on a probabilistic sample of 772 Spanish, community dwelling, older adults. During the baseline visit, data were collected on functional capacity, history of falls, disease background, number of medications used, balance impairment, use of walking aids, cognitive capacity and depression symptoms. Participants were followed up for one year by means of quarterly phone calls, where they were asked about the number of falls occurred in that period, as well as their consequences and associated use of healthcare resources. During the one-year follow up period, 28.4% (95%CI 24.9-32.1) of participants suffered one or more falls, while 9.9% (95%CI 7.4-11.4) suffered multiple falls. One-third of the falls were due to accidental extrinsic causes. Among participants who had suffered falls, 9.3% suffered a fracture (3.1% hip fracture), and 55.4% required healthcare services (29% were managed in the hospital emergency room, and 7.3% were admitted to hospital). Risk factors identified through multivariate analysis were: advanced age (>79 years), not having a companion, using more than 2 drugs, dependency in BADLs, impaired strength or balance, and use of walking aids. Falls continue to be a major public health concern in Spain. Given that some of the associated risk factors may be modified, introducing programs aimed at tackling this problem should be regarded as a priority. Copyright © 2014 SEGG. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  10. Quantifying Temperature Effects on Fall Chinook Salmon

    SciTech Connect

    Jager, Yetta

    2011-11-01

    The motivation for this study was to recommend relationships for use in a model of San Joaquin fall Chinook salmon. This report reviews literature pertaining to relationships between water temperature and fall Chinook salmon. The report is organized into three sections that deal with temperature effects on development and timing of freshwater life stages, temperature effects on incubation survival for eggs and alevin, and temperature effects on juvenile survival. Recommendations are made for modeling temperature influences for all three life stages.

  11. Simulated unobtrusive falls detection with multiple persons.

    PubMed

    Ariani, Arni; Redmond, Stephen J; Chang, David; Lovell, Nigel H

    2012-11-01

    One serious issue related to falls among the elderly living at home or in a residential care facility is the "long lie" scenario, which involves being unable to get up from the floor after a fall for 60 min or more. This research uses a simulated environment to investigate the potential effectiveness of using wireless ambient sensors (dual-technology (microwave/infrared) motion detectors and pressure mats) to track the movement of multiple persons and to unobtrusively detect falls when they occur, therefore reducing the rate of occurrence of "long lie" scenarios. A path-finding algorithm (A*) is used to simulate the movement of one or more persons through the residential area. For analysis, the sensor network is represented as an undirected graph, where nodes in the graph represent sensors, and edges between nodes in the graph imply that these sensors share an overlapping physical region in their area of sensitivity. A second undirected graph is used to represent the physical adjacency of the sensors (even where they do not overlap in their monitored regions). These graphical representations enable the tracking of multiple subjects/groups within the environment, by analyzing the sensor activation and adjacency profiles, hence allowing individuals/groups to be isolated when multiple persons are present, and subsequently monitoring falls events. A falls algorithm, based on a heuristic decision tree classifier model, was tested on 15 scenarios, each including one or more persons; three scenarios of activity of daily living, and 12 different types of falls (four types of fall, each with three postfall scenarios). The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of the falls algorithm are 100.00%, 77.14%, and 89.33%, respectively.

  12. The improvement on the falling needle viscometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sha, Zhen-Shun

    1997-04-01

    To overcome the shortcomings of the conventional falling needle viscometer, many improvements have been made, e.g., adopting new design of needle structure, collector, and launcher. Furthermore, Hall magnetic sensors and single-board computer are used in the system, which makes the measurement automatic and intelligent. It is proved in the experiment that the instrument is accurate enough and has excellent performance. The technique can also be applied in falling ball viscometers.

  13. Deprescribing medicines in the acute setting to reduce the risk of falls

    PubMed Central

    Marvin, Vanessa; Ward, Emily; Poots, Alan J; Heard, Katie; Rajagopalan, Arvind; Jubraj, Barry

    2017-01-01

    Background Falls are a common cause of morbidity and hospitalisation in older people. Inappropriate prescribing and polypharmacy contribute to falls risk in elderly patients. This study's aim was to quantify the problem and find out if medication review in the hospital setting led to deprescribing of medicines associated with falls risk. Methods Admissions records for elderly patients were examined to identify those whose presenting complaint included a fall. Inpatient medication charts, pharmaceutical care notes, medical notes and discharge summaries were examined to identify any falls-risk medicines from admission histories and to determine if any medication review took place, and whether or not changes were made as a result. In particular deprescribing and dose reduction details were analysed. Results 100 patients over 70 years old were admitted following a fall during the 2 months study period. The mean number of medicines on admission was 6.8 per patient with polypharmacy found in 62/100 (62%). One or more falls-risk medicine was found in 65/100 (65%) patients. Medicines review was carried out in 86/100 (86%) of patients, and 59/697 (8.5%) medicines were deprescribed. Pharmacist involvement in medication review led to a significant reduction in the number of falls-risk medicines per patient (p=0.002). Conclusions Inappropriate prescribing and polypharmacy are found frequently in elderly patients at admission following a fall. Comprehensive medicines reviews should be carried out in all such patients with the objective of deprescribing or reducing doses to minimise risk of harm. Involvement of a pharmacist improves the rate of reduction of falls-risk medicines. PMID:28184303

  14. Fatal falls among Hispanic construction workers.

    PubMed

    Dong, Xiuwen Sue; Fujimoto, Alissa; Ringen, Knut; Men, Yurong

    2009-09-01

    This study evaluated occupational deaths resulting from fall injuries among Hispanic construction workers using data from the Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries and the Current Population Survey. The demographics and characteristics of fatal falls among Hispanic workers were examined and compared with that of their white, non-Hispanic counterparts. The results show that fatal injuries among Hispanic construction workers were more likely to be caused by a fall than their white, non-Hispanic counterparts (OR=1.48, 95% CI: 1.05-2.10) after controlling for possible confounders. The rate of fatal falls for foreign-born Hispanic construction workers was 5.5 per 100,000 FTE, which is significantly higher than 4.1 per 100,000 FTE for Hispanic workers who were born in the U.S. (OR=1.36, 95% CI: 1.08-1.67). The disparities in fatal injuries from falls were found in age groups, job tenure, occupations, and types of construction projects. This study also found that about every two of three fatal falls in construction occurred in establishments with 10 or fewer employees. More prevention, intervention, and training measures must be applied to Hispanic workers, especially those who are new immigrants. OSHA enforcements should target small construction establishments in order to lower overall fatality rates, costs, and unnecessary losses of life.

  15. Get connected: New Fall Meeting technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moscovitch, Mirelle

    2012-11-01

    Kick off your 2012 Fall Meeting experience today by joining the Fall Meeting Community, an interactive Web-based community. Whether you are attending this year's Fall Meeting or are just interested in learning more, this site can help you connect with colleagues, learn about the groundbreaking research and amazing programming being presented in San Francisco, and plan your trip to the largest Earth and space science conference of the year. Available through the Fall Meeting Web site (http://fallmeeting.agu.org), the Community allows you to share your Fall Meeting experience like never before. You can join groups based on your interests, and each group includes a message board that allows you to ask questions, post comments, discuss presentations, and make plans with colleagues. You can also create your own groups and use the Community's robust search engine to find and connect with friends. And because the Fall Meeting Web site was improved for 2012 to allow for nearly seamless functionality on mobile devices, you can access much of the same Community functionality on the go.

  16. Prevalence of falls in fibromyalgia patients

    PubMed Central

    Meireles, Sandra Adolph; Antero, Daniel Casagrande; Kulczycki, Marciane Maria; Skare, Thelma Larocca

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare the risk of falls in fibromyalgia (FM) patients compared to rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients and normal controls. METHODS: We studied 60 FM, 60 RA patients and 60 controls for fall frequency in one week, one month, six months and one year. Patients were submitted to body mass index determination and balance evaluation through the Berg scale. Data on disease impact and depression were collected in FM patients through the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ) and the Beck Questionnaire. RESULTS: FM patients had a higher frequency of falls than RA patients and control individuals in one month (p<0.0001), in six months (p<0.0001) and in one year (p<0.0001). No relationship was found between falls and body mass index, pain or depression scores. Falls in 12 months were associated with higher FIQ values. CONCLUSION: FM patients fall more often than RA patients and control individuals. Level of Evidence II, Investigation of the effect of a patient characteristic on the disease outcome. PMID:25061425

  17. Evaluation of accelerometer-based fall detection algorithms on real-world falls.

    PubMed

    Bagalà, Fabio; Becker, Clemens; Cappello, Angelo; Chiari, Lorenzo; Aminian, Kamiar; Hausdorff, Jeffrey M; Zijlstra, Wiebren; Klenk, Jochen

    2012-01-01

    Despite extensive preventive efforts, falls continue to be a major source of morbidity and mortality among elderly. Real-time detection of falls and their urgent communication to a telecare center may enable rapid medical assistance, thus increasing the sense of security of the elderly and reducing some of the negative consequences of falls. Many different approaches have been explored to automatically detect a fall using inertial sensors. Although previously published algorithms report high sensitivity (SE) and high specificity (SP), they have usually been tested on simulated falls performed by healthy volunteers. We recently collected acceleration data during a number of real-world falls among a patient population with a high-fall-risk as part of the SensAction-AAL European project. The aim of the present study is to benchmark the performance of thirteen published fall-detection algorithms when they are applied to the database of 29 real-world falls. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first systematic comparison of fall detection algorithms tested on real-world falls. We found that the SP average of the thirteen algorithms, was (mean ± std) 83.0% ± 30.3% (maximum value = 98%). The SE was considerably lower (SE = 57.0% ± 27.3%, maximum value = 82.8%), much lower than the values obtained on simulated falls. The number of false alarms generated by the algorithms during 1-day monitoring of three representative fallers ranged from 3 to 85. The factors that affect the performance of the published algorithms, when they are applied to the real-world falls, are also discussed. These findings indicate the importance of testing fall-detection algorithms in real-life conditions in order to produce more effective automated alarm systems with higher acceptance. Further, the present results support the idea that a large, shared real-world fall database could, potentially, provide an enhanced understanding of the fall process and the information needed to design and

  18. Evaluation of Accelerometer-Based Fall Detection Algorithms on Real-World Falls

    PubMed Central

    Bagalà, Fabio; Becker, Clemens; Cappello, Angelo; Chiari, Lorenzo; Aminian, Kamiar; Hausdorff, Jeffrey M.; Zijlstra, Wiebren; Klenk, Jochen

    2012-01-01

    Despite extensive preventive efforts, falls continue to be a major source of morbidity and mortality among elderly. Real-time detection of falls and their urgent communication to a telecare center may enable rapid medical assistance, thus increasing the sense of security of the elderly and reducing some of the negative consequences of falls. Many different approaches have been explored to automatically detect a fall using inertial sensors. Although previously published algorithms report high sensitivity (SE) and high specificity (SP), they have usually been tested on simulated falls performed by healthy volunteers. We recently collected acceleration data during a number of real-world falls among a patient population with a high-fall-risk as part of the SensAction-AAL European project. The aim of the present study is to benchmark the performance of thirteen published fall-detection algorithms when they are applied to the database of 29 real-world falls. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first systematic comparison of fall detection algorithms tested on real-world falls. We found that the SP average of the thirteen algorithms, was (mean±std) 83.0%±30.3% (maximum value = 98%). The SE was considerably lower (SE = 57.0%±27.3%, maximum value = 82.8%), much lower than the values obtained on simulated falls. The number of false alarms generated by the algorithms during 1-day monitoring of three representative fallers ranged from 3 to 85. The factors that affect the performance of the published algorithms, when they are applied to the real-world falls, are also discussed. These findings indicate the importance of testing fall-detection algorithms in real-life conditions in order to produce more effective automated alarm systems with higher acceptance. Further, the present results support the idea that a large, shared real-world fall database could, potentially, provide an enhanced understanding of the fall process and the information needed to design

  19. Fatal falls from roofs among U.S. construction workers.

    PubMed

    Dong, Xiuwen Sue; Choi, Sang D; Borchardt, James G; Wang, Xuanwen; Largay, Julie A

    2013-02-01

    This study examined trends and patterns of fatal falls from roofs in the U.S. construction industry over an 18-year period (1992-2009), with detailed analysis for 2003-2009. Two large national datasets were analyzed: the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics' Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries and the Current Population Survey. Roof fatalities accounted for one-third of fatal falls in construction in 1992-2009. A disproportionately high percentage (67%) of deaths from roof falls occurred in small construction establishments (1-10 employees). Roofers, ironworkers, workers employed with roofing contractors, or working at residential construction sites, had a higher risk of roof fatalities. A higher rate of roof fatalities was also found among younger (<20years) and older (>44years) workers, Hispanics, and immigrant workers. Roof fatalities corresponded with economic cycles and differed among construction subgroups and worksites. Prevention strategies should target high-risk worker groups and small establishments. Copyright © 2012 National Safety Council and Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Chaotic Dynamics of Falling Disks: from Maxwell to Bar Tricks.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Field, Stuart

    1998-03-01

    Understanding the motion of flat objects falling in a viscous medium dates back to at least Newton and Maxwell, and is relevant to problems in meteorology, sedimentology, aerospace and chemical engineering, and bar wagering strategies. Recent theoretical studies have emphasized the role played by deterministic chaos. Here we falling.html>report(S. B. Field, M. Klaus, M. G. Moore, and F. Nori, Nature 388), 252 (1997) experimental observations and theoretical analysis of the dynamics of disks falling in water/glycerol mixtures. We find four distinct types of motion, and map out a ``phase diagram'' in the appropriate variables. The apparently complex behavior of the disks can be reduced to a series of one-dimensional maps which display a discontinuity at the crossover from periodic and chaotic motion. This discontinuity leads to an unusual intermittency transition between the two behaviors, which has not previously been observed experimentally in any system.

  1. Interventions for preventing falls in elderly people.

    PubMed

    Gillespie, L D; Gillespie, W J; Robertson, M C; Lamb, S E; Cumming, R G; Rowe, B H

    2001-01-01

    Approximately 30 per cent of people over 65 years of age and living in the community fall each year; the number is higher in institutions. Although less than one fall in 10 results in a fracture, a fifth of fall incidents require medical attention. To assess the effects of interventions designed to reduce the incidence of falls in elderly people (living in the community, or in institutional or hospital care). We searched the Cochrane Musculoskeletal Group specialised register (January 2001), Cochrane Controlled Trials Register (The Cochrane Library, Issue 1, 2001), MEDLINE (1966 to February 2001), EMBASE (1988 to 2001 Week 14), CINAHL (1982 to March 2001), The National Research Register, Issue 1, 2001, Current Controlled Trials (www.controlled-trials.com accessed 25 May 2001), and reference lists of articles. We also contacted researchers in the field. Randomised trials of interventions designed to minimise the effect of, or exposure to, risk factors for falling in elderly people. Main outcomes of interest were the number of fallers, or falls. Trials reporting only intermediate outcomes were excluded. Two reviewers independently assessed trial quality and extracted data. Data were pooled using the fixed effect model where appropriate. Interventions likely to be beneficial: ~bullet~A programme of muscle strengthening and balance retraining, individually prescribed at home by a trained health professional (3 trials, 566 participants, pooled relative risk (RR) 0.80, 95% confidence interval (95%CI) 0.66 to 0.98). ~bullet~A 15 week Tai Chi group exercise intervention (1 trial, 200 participants, risk ratio 0.51, 95%CI 0.36 to 0.73). ~bullet~Home hazard assessment and modification that is professionally prescribed for older people with a history of falling (1 trial, 530 participants, RR 0.64, 95% CI 0.49 to 0.84). A reduction in falls was seen both inside and outside the home. ~bullet~Withdrawal of psychotropic medication (1 trial, 93 participants, relative hazard 0

  2. Periodicals Committee Report--Summary of Decisions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirshon, Arnold

    This report summarizes the decisions of the Virginia Commonwealth University Joint Committee to Study Library Periodical Services that were scheduled for implementation for the fall 1987 semester. Approved decisions are outlined for the areas of: (1) photocopiers, including photocopy services and Vendacard; (2) bound volumes, including loan…

  3. 4. VIEW OF SOUTHEAST CORNER OF LITTLE FALLS TIE LINE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. VIEW OF SOUTHEAST CORNER OF LITTLE FALLS TIE LINE TOWER NO. 41, OSPREY NEST ON TOWER TOP. LOOKING NORTHWEST. - Little Falls Tie Line Towers, Near Little Dam Falls on Spokane River, Wellpinit, Stevens County, WA

  4. 2. VIEW OF WEST ELEVATION OF LITTLE FALLS TIE LINE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. VIEW OF WEST ELEVATION OF LITTLE FALLS TIE LINE TOWER NO. 23, OSPREY NEST ON TOWER TOP. LOOKING EAST - Little Falls Tie Line Towers, Near Little Dam Falls on Spokane River, Wellpinit, Stevens County, WA

  5. OVERVIEW OF FALLS AND DAM COMPLEX, SPILLWAY AT RIGHT; FACING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OVERVIEW OF FALLS AND DAM COMPLEX, SPILLWAY AT RIGHT; FACING EAST-NORTHEAST - Shoshone Falls Hydroelectric Project, Reservoir and Dam Complex, North Bank of Snake River, extreme Eastern end of the Shoshone Falls Hydroelectric Project, Tipperary Corner, Jerome County, ID

  6. The interplay between gait, falls and cognition: can cognitive therapy reduce fall risk?

    PubMed Central

    Segev-Jacubovski, Orit; Herman, Talia; Yogev-Seligmann, Galit; Mirelman, Anat; Giladi, Nir; Hausdorff, Jeffrey M

    2011-01-01

    In this article, we briefly summarize the incidence and significant consequences of falls among older adults, the insufficient effectiveness of commonly used multifactorial interventions and the evidence linking falls and cognitive function. Recent pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic studies that evaluated the effects of cognitive therapy on fall risk are reviewed. The results of this article illustrate the potential utility of multiple, diverse forms of cognitive therapy for reducing fall risk. The article also indicates that large-scale, randomized controlled trials are warranted and that additional research is needed to better understand the pathophysiologic mechanisms underlying the interplay between human mobility, fall risk and cognitive function. Nonetheless, we suggest that multimodality interventions that combine motor and cognitive therapy should, eventually, be incorporated into clinical practice to enable older adults and patients to move safer and with a reduced fall risk. PMID:21721921

  7. Fall risk probability estimation based on supervised feature learning using public fall datasets.

    PubMed

    Koshmak, Gregory A; Linden, Maria; Loutfi, Amy

    2016-08-01

    Risk of falling is considered among major threats for elderly population and therefore started to play an important role in modern healthcare. With recent development of sensor technology, the number of studies dedicated to reliable fall detection system has increased drastically. However, there is still a lack of universal approach regarding the evaluation of developed algorithms. In the following study we make an attempt to find publicly available fall datasets and analyze similarities among them using supervised learning. After preforming similarity assessment based on multidimensional scaling we indicate the most representative feature vector corresponding to each specific dataset. This vector obtained from a real-life data is subsequently deployed to estimate fall risk probabilities for a statistical fall detection model. Finally, we conclude with some observations regarding the similarity assessment results and provide suggestions towards an efficient approach for evaluation of fall detection studies.

  8. Evaluation of fall and fall recovery in a simulated seismic environment: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Abu-Faraj, Ziad O; Akar, Hassan A; Assaf, Elie H; Al-Qadiri, Mohamad N; Youssef, Elssy G

    2010-01-01

    Fall-related injuries, disabilities, and fatalities are known to seriously affect the healthcare and industry sectors. Nevertheless, an abled individual, as well as a trained senior citizen, is believed to be capable of withstanding and overcoming unusual environmental variations in terms of postural stability and balance. Understanding the biomechanics of fall and fall recovery through quantitative measurements could provide academic and methodical means to maintain human postural stability, of various ages, in such environments. This study assesses human performance and endurance in the most hazardous environment of a simulated violent seismic activity of a magnitude of 6.5 degrees on the Richter's scale. The objective is to evaluate fall and fall recovery in young abled adults using dynamic plantar pressure measurements. The obtained results support the hypothesis that falls in young adults could be prevented via exercise intervention programs. Further investigation is done by our research group to validate the same concept for senior citizens.

  9. Observations of cosmic-ray modulations in the fall, 1984

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Torsti, J. J.; Nieminen, M.; Valtonen, E.; Arvela, H.; Lumme, M.; Peltonen, J.; Vainikka, E.

    1985-01-01

    Modulation of cosmic-ray energy spectrum was studied by using the Turku double neutron monitor. The multiplicity region of detected neutrons produced by cosmic ray hadrons in the monitor was divided into seven categories corresponding to mean energies 0.1, 0.3, 1.0, 3.2, 8.6, 21, and 94 GeV of hadrons at sea level. Based on 24-hour frequencies, a statistical analysis showed that modulation of the intensity in all categories occurred during several periods in the fall 1984. The magnitude of the variation was a few per cent.

  10. CO2 lidar backscatter profiles over Hawaii during fall 1988

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Post, Madison J.; Cupp, Richard E.

    1992-01-01

    Aerosol and cloud backscatter data, obtained over a 24-day period in fall 1988 with the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's Doppler lidar at 10.59-micron wavelength, are analyzed by using a new technique to lessen biases that are due to dropouts. Typical backscatter cross sections were significantly lower than those routinely observed over the continental United States, although episodic backscatter enhancements caused by cirrus and mineral dust also occurred. Implications of these data on the proposed Laser Atmospheric Wind Sounder wind profiling satellite sensor are discussed.

  11. Depression and Outcome of Fear of Falling in a Falls Prevention Program.

    PubMed

    Iaboni, Andrea; Banez, Carol; Lam, Robert; Jones, Simon A; Maki, Brian E; Liu, Barbara A; Flint, Alastair J

    2015-10-01

    To examine whether depression predicts less improvement in fear of falling and falls efficacy in older adults attending a falls prevention program (FPP). Using a prospective observational design in an academic medical center, the authors studied 69 nondemented adults aged 55 years or older (mean age: 77.8±8.9 years) who had experienced at least one fall in the previous year and who attended the FPP. The primary outcome variable was change in severity of fear of falling during the FPP. Secondary outcome variables were change in falls efficacy and fear-related restriction of activities during the FPP. Independent variables were baseline depressive disorders and depressive symptom severity. Twenty-one of 69 study participants (30.4%) had a depressive disorder at baseline. Depressive disorder and depressive symptoms were not associated with change in severity of fear of falling or restriction of activity. On the other hand, depressive disorder was associated with improvement in falls efficacy, although this finding was not significant in multivariate analysis. Among participants with a depressive disorder, improvement in falls efficacy was significantly correlated with improvement in depressive symptoms. There was no association between baseline depression and change in fear of falling in this FPP. The correlation between improvement in depressive symptoms and improvement in falls efficacy raises the question as to whether a cognitive-behavioral intervention that simultaneously targets both depression and falls efficacy would be a useful component of a FPP. Copyright © 2015 American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Martial arts fall techniques decrease the impact forces at the hip during sideways falling.

    PubMed

    Groen, B E; Weerdesteyn, V; Duysens, J

    2007-01-01

    Falls to the side and those with impact on the hip are risky for hip fractures in the elderly. A previous study has indicated that martial arts (MA) fall techniques can reduce hip impact force, but the underlying mechanism is unknown. Furthermore, the high impact forces at the hand used to break the fall have raised concerns because of the risk for wrist fractures. The purpose of the study was to get insight into the role of hand impact, impact velocity, and trunk orientation in the reduction of hip impact force in MA techniques. Six experienced judokas performed sideways falls from kneeling height using three fall techniques: block with arm technique (control), MA technique with use of the arm to break the fall (MA-a), and MA technique without use of the arm (MA-na). The results showed that the MA-a and MA-na technique reduced the impact force by 27.5% and 30%, respectively. Impact velocity was significantly reduced in the MA falls. Trunk orientation was significantly less vertical in the MA-a falls. No significant differences were found between the MA techniques. It was concluded that the reduction in hip impact force was associated with a lower impact velocity and less vertical trunk orientation. Rolling after impact, which is characteristic for MA falls, is likely to contribute to the reduction of impact forces, as well. Using the arm to break the fall was not essential for the MA technique to reduce hip impact force. These findings provided support for the incorporation of MA fall techniques in fall prevention programs for elderly.

  13. Polypharmacy and falls in older people: Balancing evidence-based medicine against falls risk.

    PubMed

    Zia, Anam; Kamaruzzaman, Shahrul Bahyah; Tan, Maw Pin

    2015-04-01

    The term polypharmacy has negative connotations due to its association with adverse drug reactions and falls. This spectrum of adverse events widens when polypharmacy occurs among the already vulnerable geriatric population. To date, there is no consensus definition of polypharmacy, and diverse definitions have been used by various researchers, the most common being the consumption of multiple number of medications. Taking multiple medications is considered a risk factor for falls through the adverse effects of drug-drug or drug-disease interactions. Falls studies have determined that taking ≥ 4 drugs is associated with an increased incidence of falls, recurrent falls, and injurious falls. In light of existing evidence, careful and regular medication reviews are advised to reduce the effect of polypharmacy on falls. However, intervention studies on medication reviews and their effectiveness on falls reduction have been scarce. This article reviews and discusses the evidence behind polypharmacy and its association with falls among older individuals, and highlights important areas for future research.

  14. Tailored prevention of inpatient falls: development and usability testing of the fall TIPS toolkit.

    PubMed

    Zuyev, Lyubov; Benoit, Angela N; Chang, Frank Y; Dykes, Patricia C

    2011-02-01

    Patient falls and fall-related injuries are serious problems in hospitals. The Fall TIPS application aims to prevent patient falls by translating routine nursing fall risk assessment into a decision support intervention that communicates fall risk status and creates a tailored evidence-based plan of care that is accessible to the care team, patients, and family members. In our design and implementation of the Fall TIPS toolkit, we used the Spiral Software Development Life Cycle model. Three output tools available to be generated from the toolkit are bed poster, plan of care, and patient education handout. A preliminary design of the application was based on initial requirements defined by project leaders and informed by focus groups with end users. Preliminary design partially simulated the paper version of the Morse Fall Scale currently used in hospitals involved in the research study. Strengths and weaknesses of the first prototype were identified by heuristic evaluation. Usability testing was performed at sites where research study is implemented. Suggestions mentioned by end users participating in usability studies were either directly incorporated into the toolkit and output tools, were slightly modified, or will be addressed during training. The next step is implementation of the fall prevention toolkit on the pilot testing units.

  15. Evaluation of functional deficits and falls risk in the elderly--methods for preventing falls.

    PubMed

    Narayanan, Michael R; Scalzi, Maria Elena; Redmond, Stephen J; Lord, Steven R; Celler, Branko G; Lovell, Nigel H

    2009-01-01

    Falls in the elderly have a profound impact on their quality of life through injury, increased fear of falling, reduced confidence to perform daily tasks and loss of independence. Falls come at a substantial economic cost. Tools to quantify falls risk and evaluate functional deficits allow interventions to be targeted to those at increased risk of falling and tailored to correct deficits with the aim of reducing falls rate and reducing ones risk of falling. We describe a system to evaluate falls risk and functional deficits in the elderly. The system is based on the evaluation of performance in a simple set of controlled movements known as the directed routine (DR). We present preliminary results of the DR in a cohort of 68 subjects using features extracted from the DR. Linear least-squares models were trained to estimate falls risk, knee-extension strength, proprioception, mediolateral body sway, anteroposterior body sway and contrast sensitivity. The model estimates provided good to fair correlations with (r=0.76 p<0.001), (r=0.65 p<0.001), (r=0.35 p<0.01), (r=0.53 p<0.001), (r=0.48 p<0.001) and (r=0.37 p<0.01) respectively.

  16. Production and decomposition of forest litter fall on the Apalachicola River flood plain, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Elder, J.F.; Cairns, D.J.

    1982-01-01

    Measurements of litter fall (leaves and other particulate organic material) and leaf decomposition were made on the Apalachicola River flood plain in 1979-80. Litter fall was collected monthly in five different forest types in swamp and levee areas. Leaves from 42 species of trees and other plants accounted for 58 percent of total litter fall. The remaining 42 percent was nonleaf material. Average litter fall was 800 grams per square meter per year in the flood plain. Tupelo (Nyssa), baldcypress (Taxodium), and ash (Fraxinus), all swamp-adapted trees, produce over 50 percent of the leaf fall. Common levee species such as sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua) and diamond-leaf oak (Quercus laurifolia) are also major contributors to total flood-plain litter fall. Annual flooding of the river provides an important mechanism for mobilization of the litter-fall products. Leaf decomposition rates were greatly reduced in dry environments. Carbon loss was nearly linear over a 6-month period, but nitrogen and phosphorus loss was exponential and nearly complete within 1 month. (USGS)

  17. An Exercise Program to Prevent Falls in Institutionalized Elderly with Cognitive Deficits: A Crossover Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, Karen; Gianan, Faith V; Pang, Lorrin

    2013-01-01

    Falls are the leading cause of injury among older adults in the United States, with the institutionalized elderly at elevated risk for injury and death. Physical weakness and mental frailty, prevalent in institutionalized elderly, are major risk factors for falls. The purpose of this study was to evaluate a program that addresses both the physical and mental aspects of exercise to reduce falls in institutionalized elderly. Twenty-seven volunteer subjects residing in an assisted living facility participated in the 24 week randomized crossover study. After demographic, fall history, and mental status examinations, subjects were randomly assigned first to ten weeks of either an exercise class or a control group, followed by a four week “washout period” of no activity, then cross assigned to ten weeks as either a control group or exercise class, respectively. Falls as well as mental status changes were monitored during the study. After adjusting for differences in baseline risk between the control and treatment groups, and for potential residual effects of the treatment during the crossover phase, a statistically significant (P = .025) reduction in falls was found during treatment compared to the control periods. No change in mental status was seen. This small, pilot study shows that exercise programs, which emphasize mental strengthening as well as physical fitness, have the potential to reduce falls among mentally impaired, institutionalized seniors. PMID:24251085

  18. Reducing falls among older people in general practice: The ProAct65+ exercise intervention trial.

    PubMed

    Gawler, S; Skelton, D A; Dinan-Young, S; Masud, T; Morris, R W; Griffin, M; Kendrick, D; Iliffe, S

    2016-01-01

    Falls are common in the older UK population and associated costs to the NHS are high. Systematic reviews suggest that home exercise and group-based exercise interventions, which focus on progressively challenging balance and increasing strength, can reduce up to 42% of falls in those with a history of falls. The evidence is less clear for those older adults who are currently at low risk of falls. ProAct65+, a large, cluster-randomised, controlled trial, investigated the effectiveness of a home exercise programme (Otago Exercise Programme (OEP)) and a group-based exercise programme (Falls Management Exercise (FaME)) compared to usual care (UC) at increasing moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA). This paper examines the trial's secondary outcomes; the effectiveness of the interventions at reducing falls and falls-related injuries. 1256 community-dwelling older adults (aged 65+) were recruited through GP practices in two sites (London and Nottingham). Frequent fallers (≥3 falls in last year) and those with unstable medical conditions were excluded, as were those already reaching the UK Government recommended levels of physical activity (PA) for health. Baseline assessment (including assessment of health, function and previous falls) occurred before randomisation; the intervention period lasted 24 weeks and there was an immediate post-intervention assessment; participants were followed up every six months for 24 months. Falls data were analysed using negative binomial modelling. Falls data were collected prospectively during the intervention period by 4-weekly diaries (6 in total). Falls recall was recorded at the 3-monthly follow-ups for a total of 24 months. Balance was measured at baseline and at the end of the intervention period using the Timed Up & Go and Functional Reach tests. Balance confidence (CONFbal), falls risk (FRAT) and falls self-efficacy (FES-I) were measured by questionnaire at baseline and at all subsequent assessment points. 294

  19. [Functional impairment, fear of falling and body composition in institutionalized elderly].

    PubMed

    São Romão Preto, Leonel; Nogueiro Santos, Ana Luisa; Mendes, Maria Eugénia; Pinto Novo, André; Pimentel, Maria Helena

    2015-01-01

    To analyze changes in the aging process of institutionalized elderly over a 24 months period, including physical condition, fear of falling, and body composition. A longitudinal, analytic and prospective study was implemented in 3 residential care homes for seniors. Data were collected using a socio-demographic and clinical questionnaire, the Rikli and Jones Senior Fitness Test, handgrip dynamometry and bioelectric impedance. The Portuguese version of the Falls Efficacy Scale was used for measure fear of falling. Fifty-one institutionalized elderly (82.5 ± 7.4 years) were included. In the 24 months analysis period, functional decline was observed (P<.05) in tests: sit to stand, harm curl, sit and reach and Up and Go. In average falls occurred 1.7 times. Were observed a decrease of self-efficacy to prevent falling, and falls prevalence was 42.1%. Results suggest a functional decrease, mainly in variables related with strength and muscular control of arms and legs, agility/dynamic balance and flexibility. Data don't highlight significant changes in body composition, however, tend to a muscle mass and bone mineral mass reduction. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  20. A Method for Estimating Meteorite Fall Mass from Weather Radar Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laird, C.; Fries, M.; Matson, R.

    2017-01-01

    Techniques such as weather RADAR, seismometers, and all-sky cameras allow new insights concerning the physics of meteorite fall dynamics and fragmentation during "dark flight", the period of time between the end of the meteor's luminous flight and the concluding impact on the Earth's surface. Understanding dark flight dynamics enables us to rapidly analyze the characteristics of new meteorite falls. This analysis will provide essential information to meteorite hunters to optimize recovery, increasing the frequency and total mass of scientifically important freshly-fallen meteorites available to the scientific community. We have developed a mathematical method to estimate meteorite fall mass using reflectivity data as recorded by National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Next Generation RADAR (NEXRAD) stations. This study analyzed eleven official and one unofficial meteorite falls in the United States and Canada to achieve this purpose.

  1. Discrimination of falls and blows in blunt head trauma: assessment of predictability through combined criteria.

    PubMed

    Kremer, Célia; Sauvageau, Anny

    2009-07-01

    The discrimination of falls from homicidal blows in blunt head injuries is a common but difficult problem in both forensic anthropology and pathology. Three criteria have been previously proposed for this distinction: the hat brim line rule, side lateralization of fractures, and number of lacerations. The aim of the present study was to achieve a better distinction rate by combining those criteria and assess the predictability of these combined criteria tools. Over a 6-year period, a total of 114 cases (92 males and 22 females) were studied: 21 cases of downstairs falls, 29 cases of falls from one's own height, and 64 cases of head trauma by a blunt weapon. The results revealed predictability rates varying from 62.5 to 83.3% for criteria pointing towards a fall. As for combined criteria in favor of a blow, the assumption was accurate in all cases (100%).

  2. Characteristics of daily life gait in fall and non fall-prone stroke survivors and controls.

    PubMed

    Punt, Michiel; Bruijn, Sjoerd M; van Schooten, Kimberley S; Pijnappels, Mirjam; van de Port, Ingrid G; Wittink, Harriet; van Dieën, Jaap H

    2016-07-27

    Falls in stroke survivors can lead to serious injuries and medical costs. Fall risk in older adults can be predicted based on gait characteristics measured in daily life. Given the different gait patterns that stroke survivors exhibit it is unclear whether a similar fall-prediction model could be used in this group. Therefore the main purpose of this study was to examine whether fall-prediction models that have been used in older adults can also be used in a population of stroke survivors, or if modifications are needed, either in the cut-off values of such models, or in the gait characteristics of interest. This study investigated gait characteristics by assessing accelerations of the lower back measured during seven consecutive days in 31 non fall-prone stroke survivors, 25 fall-prone stroke survivors, 20 neurologically intact fall-prone older adults and 30 non fall-prone older adults. We created a binary logistic regression model to assess the ability of predicting falls for each gait characteristic. We included health status and the interaction between health status (stroke survivors versus older adults) and gait characteristic in the model. We found four significant interactions between gait characteristics and health status. Furthermore we found another four gait characteristics that had similar predictive capacity in both stroke survivors and older adults. The interactions between gait characteristics and health status indicate that gait characteristics are differently associated with fall history between stroke survivors and older adults. Thus specific models are needed to predict fall risk in stroke survivors.

  3. Falling clothes irons rarely cause burns.

    PubMed

    Allasio, David; Shanti, Christina

    2014-01-01

    Children's Hospital of Michigan's Burn Center treats approximately three pediatric contact burns annually related to clothes irons, which involve the face, torso, and extremities. These burns leave well-demarcated burn patterns, including the steam holes from the heat plate of the iron. The average age of these children is 15 months. The history given by the parent is that the child pulled the cord of an iron that was on an ironing board or high shelf. It seemed unlikely to the investigators that a falling iron would produce such demarcated burns. A free-standing shelf unit was built with shelf heights of 36, 60, and 72 inches (the height of an ironing board and shelves at home). Three irons of different weights were put in three different positions on each shelf, with the cord dangling. A doll the approximate size of a 15-month old was positioned in front of the shelf. The dangling cord was pulled, and the falling iron was videotaped. The video was edited in freeze frame at the point at which the iron hit the doll. Two hundred seventy falls were recorded. The flat heat plate of the iron never hit the doll. The linear edge of the heat plate hit the doll on only seven falls. This study demonstrates that it is very unlikely for the flat heat plate of a falling iron to contact a toddler-sized doll. Children who allegedly sustain demarcated burns in this manner need to be investigated for nonaccidental injury.

  4. Stick balancing, falls and Dragon-Kings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabrera, J. L.; Milton, J. G.

    2012-05-01

    The extent to which the occurrence of falls, the dominant feature of human attempts to balance a stick at their fingertip, can be predicted is examined in the context of the "Dragon-King" hypothesis. For skilled stick balancers, fluctuations in the controlled variable, namely the vertical displacement angle θ, exhibit power law behaviors. When stick balancing is made less stable by either decreasing the length of the stick or by requiring the subject to balance the stick on the surface of a table tennis racket, systematic departures from the power law behaviors are observed in the range of large θ. This observation raises the possibility that the presence of departures from the power law in the large length scale region, possibly Dragon-Kings, may identify situations in which the occurrence of a fall is more imminent. However, whether or not Dragon-Kings are observed, there is a Weibull-type survival function for stick falling. The possibility that increased risk of falling can, at least to some extent, be predicted from fluctuations in the controlled variable before the event occurs has important implications for the development of preventative strategies for the management of phenomena ranging from earthquakes to epileptic seizures to falls in the elderly.

  5. Accidents due to falls from roof slabs.

    PubMed

    Rudelli, Bruno Alves; Silva, Marcelo Valerio Alabarce da; Akkari, Miguel; Santili, Claudio

    2013-01-01

    CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE Falls from the roof slabs of houses are accidents of high potential severity that occur in large Brazilian cities and often affect children and adolescents. The aims of this study were to characterize the factors that predispose towards this type of fall involving children and adolescents, quantify the severity of associated lesions and suggest preventive measures. DESIGN AND SETTING Descriptive observational prospective longitudinal study in two hospitals in the metropolitan region of São Paulo. METHODS Data were collected from 29 cases of falls from roof slabs involving children and adolescents between October 2008 and October 2009. RESULTS Cases involving males were more prevalent, accounting for 84%. The predominant age group was schoolchildren (7 to 12 years old; 44%). Leisure activities were most frequently being practiced on the roof slab at the time of the fall (86%), and flying a kite was the most prevalent game (37.9%). In 72% of the cases, the children were unaccompanied by an adult responsible for them. Severe conditions such as multiple trauma and traumatic brain injuries resulted from 79% of the accidents. CONCLUSION Falls from roof slabs are accidents of high potential severity, and preventive measures aimed towards informing parents and guardians about the dangers and risk factors associated with this type of accident are needed, along with physical protective measures, such as low walls around the slab and gates with locks to restrict free access to these places.

  6. Data Comparison: Satellite and Falling Sphere Temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmidlin, Francis J.; Schauer, Allison G.; Remsberg, Ellis E.; Gerlach, John C. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Small meteorological rocketsondes providing temperature data have beam used for comparison with, and validation of measurements from satellite-borne instruments. A significant number of rocket-borne falling spheres were launched in conjunction with the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS) for validation of the Halogen Occultation Experiment (HALOE), High Resolution Doppler Interferometer (HRDI), and the Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) instruments. Upper stratosphere and mesosphere temperatures measured with these instruments on UARS are compared with inflatable spheres launched from Wallops Island (1992-1999), Brazil (1994), Hawaii (1992), Norway (1992), and Sweden (1993 and 1996). Time and space differences varied between the satellite measurement and the rocketsonde launch, for example HALOE overpasses occurred within 5 days and in some cases there were spatial differences of up to 30 degrees longitude. Validation measurements of the HRDI instrument occurred at Wallops Island when it passed within 20 minutes and 330 kilometers of the launch site. Because of discontinuity in the falling sphere drag coefficients when fall speed neared MACH 1 falling sphere temperatures near 70 kilometers attitude are biased toward lower temperatures. Availability of improved software and a new atmospheric model have helped to reduce this bias. The validated remote instrument measurements permit a new perspective of atmospheric structure to be formed, not always possible with the limited number of falling sphere measurements. Features of the remote measurement temperature profiles and their possible use to extend the climatological data base at the rocketsonde sites will be discussed.

  7. Electronic Out-fall Inspection Application - 12007

    SciTech Connect

    Weymouth, A Kent III; Pham, Minh; Messick, Chuck

    2012-07-01

    In early 2009 an exciting opportunity was presented to the Geographic Information Systems (GIS) team at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The SRS maintenance group was directed to maintain all Out-falls on Site, increasing their workload from 75 to 183 out-falls with no additional resources. The existing out-fall inspection system consisted of inspections performed manually and documented via paper trail. The inspections were closed out upon completion of activities and placed in file cabinets with no central location for tracking/trending maintenance activities. A platform for meeting new improvements required for documentation by the Department of Health and Environmental Control (DHEC) out-fall permits was needed to replace this current system that had been in place since the 1980's. This was accomplished by building a geographically aware electronic application that improved reliability of site out-fall maintenance and ensured consistent standards were maintained for environmental excellence and worker efficiency. Inspections are now performed via tablet and uploaded to a central point. Work orders are completed and closed either in the field using tablets (mobile application) or in their offices (via web portal) using PCs. And finally completed work orders are now stored in a central database allowing trending of maintenance activities. (authors)

  8. Pediatric falls from buildings: defining the burden of injury in Hawai'i.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Joy; Wolfe, Stacey Q; Speck, Cora; Woods, Elizabeth; Lustik, Michael B; Edwards, Kurt D; Edwards, Mary J

    2014-05-01

    Falls from buildings, including houses, are an important cause of childhood injury in the United States; however, no study has previously examined the impact of this problem in Hawai'i. The objective of this study is to categorize the demographics and injury circumstances of pediatric falls from buildings in Hawai'i and compare to other US cities. Patients age 10 and under who were injured in nonfatal accidental falls from buildings in Hawai'i between 2005 and 2011 were identified retrospectively from a statewide repository of hospital billing data. The Hawai'i death certificate database was searched separately for deaths in children age 10 and under due to falls from buildings, with data available from 1991 through 2011. Data was reviewed for demographics, circumstances surrounding the injury, and level of hospital treatment. During the 7-year period for nonfatal injuries, 416 fall-related injuries were identified in children age 10 and younger. Of these, 86 required hospitalization. The rate of nonfatal injury in Hawai'i County was twice that of Honolulu and Maui Counties, and three times that of Kaua'i County. There were 9 fatal falls over a 21-year period. The population based incidence for nonfatal injuries was three-fold higher than that reported in the city of Dallas. The rate of hospitalizations following building falls was more than twice as high as the national average, and that of New York City, but similar to that of California. Strategies for education and environmental modification are reviewed, which may be helpful in reducing the incidence of pediatric falls from buildings in Hawai'i.

  9. Pediatric Falls from Buildings: Defining the Burden of Injury in Hawai‘i

    PubMed Central

    Wolfe, Stacey Q; Speck, Cora; Woods, Elizabeth; Lustik, Michael B; Edwards, Kurt D; Edwards, Mary J

    2014-01-01

    Falls from buildings, including houses, are an important cause of childhood injury in the United States; however, no study has previously examined the impact of this problem in Hawai‘i. The objective of this study is to categorize the demographics and injury circumstances of pediatric falls from buildings in Hawai‘i and compare to other US cities. Patients age 10 and under who were injured in nonfatal accidental falls from buildings in Hawai‘i between 2005 and 2011 were identified retrospectively from a statewide repository of hospital billing data. The Hawai‘i death certificate database was searched separately for deaths in children age 10 and under due to falls from buildings, with data available from 1991 through 2011. Data was reviewed for demographics, circumstances surrounding the injury, and level of hospital treatment. During the 7-year period for nonfatal injuries, 416 fall-related injuries were identified in children age 10 and younger. Of these, 86 required hospitalization. The rate of nonfatal injury in Hawai‘i County was twice that of Honolulu and Maui Counties, and three times that of Kaua‘i County. There were 9 fatal falls over a 21-year period. The population based incidence for nonfatal injuries was three-fold higher than that reported in the city of Dallas. The rate of hospitalizations following building falls was more than twice as high as the national average, and that of New York City, but similar to that of California. Strategies for education and environmental modification are reviewed, which may be helpful in reducing the incidence of pediatric falls from buildings in Hawai‘i. PMID:24843835

  10. Trends in CT Utilization for Pediatric Fall Patients in US Emergency Departments.

    PubMed

    Shahi, Varun; Brinjikji, Waleed; Cloft, Harry J; Thomas, Kristen B; Kallmes, David F

    2015-07-01

    Falls are a common cause of emergency department (ED) visits in the United States. We evaluated trends in computed tomography (CT) utilization for pediatric fall victims in the United States from 2001 to 2010. Using the National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey from 2001 to 2010, we identified all visits of pediatric (aged <18 years) patients presenting to EDs after falls. This database surveys approximately 500 EDs per year for 4 weeks providing national estimates on ED resource utilization and outcomes. We studied trends in CT utilization and proportion of visits with life-threatening conditions after falls. We also studied the association between CT utilization rates and demographic characteristics and admission status. A total of 9763 unweighted observations for a total of 32,432,686 pediatric fall patients were seen in US EDs from 2001 to 2010. The proportion of pediatric fall patients receiving CT increased from 5.3% in 2001 to a peak of 16.6% in 2009 and decreased to 11.3% in 2010, whereas the proportion of pediatric fall patients with life-threatening conditions fluctuated between 1.2% and 3.3% during this period. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, each increasing year was independently associated with CT utilization (odds ratio [OR], 1.15; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.14-1.16). Patients aged 0-1 years had higher odds of CT utilization than patients aged 13-17 years (OR, 2.27; 95% CI, 2.26-2.27). There was a twofold increase in CT utilization among pediatric fall visits from 2001 to 2010. When controlling for demographic and clinical variables, increasing year was independently associated with CT utilization. These findings suggest that CT may be overutilized among pediatric fall patients. Copyright © 2015 AUR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Reducing patients' falls rate in an Academic Medical Center (AMC) using Six Sigma "DMAIC" approach.

    PubMed

    Kuwaiti, Ahmed Al; Subbarayalu, Arun Vijay

    2017-05-08

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the impact of adopting the Six Sigma define, measure, analyze, improve and control (DMAIC) approach in reducing patients fall rate in an Academic Medical Center, Saudi Arabia. Design/methodology/approach A prospective study design was adopted and this study was conducted at King Fahd Hospital of the University (KFHU) during the year 2014. Based on the historical data of the patients' falls reported at KFHU during the year 2013, the goal was fixed to reduce the falls rate from 7.18 to<3 (over 60 percent reduction) by the end of December 2014. This study was conducted through the five phases of "DMAIC" approach using various quality tools. Three time periods were identified, namely, pre-intervention phase; intervention phase; and post-intervention phase. Appropriate strategies were identified through the process of brainstorming and were implemented to study the potential causes leading to the occurrence of falls. Findings The pre-intervention falls rate was reported as 6.57 whereas the post-intervention falls rate was measured as 1.91 (demonstrating a 70.93 percent reduction) after the implementation of improvement strategies. The adherence rate toward the practice of carrying falls risk assessment and hourly rounding was observed to be high where 88 percent of nurses are regularly practicing it. A control plan was also executed to sustain the improvements obtained. Originality/value The Six Sigma "DMAIC" approach improves the processes related to the prevention of falls. A greater reduction in patients falls rate (over 70 percent) was observed after the implementation of the improvement strategy.

  12. Case Study on Possible Falling Patterns of a Fatal Fall from Stairs

    PubMed Central

    NAGATA, Hisao

    2014-01-01

    Considering a fatal case of an aged individual, who died due to falling down stairs, the cause of the fatal fall was investigated through experiments. A witness, who was with the victim, when the fatal accident occurred, stated that the aged individual had miss-footed, lost balance at the top of the stairs, and fell accidently from an upper floor to a lower floor. It was very questionable whether or not this witness’s statements were true. The true cause of the fatal fall was unclear, because of the witness’s inconsistent statements, which showed discrepancies between the initial and later statements. The cause of a fatal fall can be presumed from external and internal damages to the body and other circumstantial evidences. But it was difficult to prove the true cause of a fatal fall only from the results of the autopsy and investigation of circumstantial evidences. The author was officially requested to conduct experiments to elucidate possible falling patterns. Judging from the experimental results, deep questions about the witness’s statements arose. These experimental methods and analyses in this paper could be applied to elucidate possible falling patterns of fatal falls from stairs where the fatal causes are controversial. PMID:25088990

  13. Sacramento City College Assessment Center Research Report: Assessment Procedures, Fall 1983 - Fall 1984.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haase, M.; Caffrey, Patrick

    Studies and analyses conducted by the Assessment Center at Sacramento City College (SCC) between fall 1983 and fall 1984 provided the data on SCC's students and services which are presented in this report. Following an overview of the significant findings of the year's research efforts, part I sets forth the purpose of the report and part II…

  14. Enrollment in Higher Education: Fall 1984 through Fall 1993. E.D. TABS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barbett, Samuel F.; And Others

    This publication presents detailed data on student enrollment at institutions of higher education from Fall 1984 to Fall 1993 in 24 tables (though most tables include data from 1991 through 1993 only). The data are from the Higher Education General Information Survey (HEGIS) and the Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System (IPEDS). The data…

  15. Results of the Colorado Student Assessment Program, Fall 1988 and Fall 1991.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colorado State Dept. of Education, Denver.

    Colorado conducts an assessment program to provide a statewide profile of student achievement. Results for fall 1988 and fall 1991 are presented in a series of tables. A standardized, nationally norm-referenced achievement test, the Iowa Tests of Basic Skills, was administered in 1988 to students in grades 4, 7, and 10, and again to the same…

  16. Instrumentally documented meteorite falls: two recent cases and statistics from all falls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spurný, Pavel

    2016-01-01

    Precise data from instrumental observations of fireballs, especially those for really bright bolides, provide information about the population and physical properties of meteoroids, i.e. fragments of asteroids and comets, colliding with the Earth's atmosphere. An overview of what is known about meteoroids and their parent bodies from analysis of bolides producing meteorite falls, especially from the instrumentally observed meteorite falls, was a topic of this invited contribution. At present, atmospheric and orbital information with different degree of reliability and precision for these meteorite falls is known for only 24 cases. This topic was described in detail in the review work of Borovička, Spurný and Brown (2015) (Borovička et al., 2015). However, this work contains all instrumentally documented falls until end of 2013. To bring this work up to date, two new instrumentally observed meteorite falls in 2014, the Annama meteorite fall in Russia on 18 April 2014 and the Žďár nad Sázavou meteorite fall in the Czech Republic on 9 December 2014, are presented and commented in this paper. Especially the second case is mentioned in more detail including still unpublished data. Statistical analyses resulting from all 24 instrumentally documented falls are also mentioned.

  17. Utilization of Residence Hall Facilities, Fall 1983 with Trends from Fall 1974.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    State Univ. of New York, Albany. Office of Institutional Research and Analytical Studies.

    Detailed fall 1983 data, and summary data for fall 1974-1983, are presented on the utilization of residence hall facilities at campuses of the State University of New York (excluding community colleges). Trend data are displayed for each institution and institution type. Graphic displays of percent utilization of residence hall facilities are…

  18. REDUCTION OF THE MOMENTUM OF FALLING BODIES

    DOEpatents

    Kendall, J.W.; Morrison, I.H.

    1954-09-21

    A means for catching free falling bodies that may be damaged upon impact is given. Several layers of floating gas-filled rubber balls are contained within a partially compartmented tank of liquid. The compartment extends from beneath the surface of the liquid to that height necessary to contain the desired number of layers of the balls. The balls and the liquid itself break the force of the fall by absorbing the kinetic energy of falling body. The body may then be retrieved from the floor of the tank by a rake that extends from outside of the tank through the free surface area and underneath the compartment wall. This arrangement is particularly useful in collecting irradiated atomic fuel rods that are discharged from a reactor at considerable height without damaging the thin aluminum jacket of the rods.

  19. Hybrid simulation of EMIC falling tone emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shoji, M.

    2016-12-01

    Theoretical study suggest the existence of electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) falling tone emissions, as well as the EMIC rising tone emissions. We develop self-consistent hybrid simulation code with parabolic ambient magnetic field with longitudinal electric field. We successfully reproduce a helium band falling tone EMIC emission in the simulation space. In upstream region of the wave propagation, we find electromagnetic proton hill predicted in the nonlinear wave growth theory. The proton hill results in nonlinear resonant current causing falling frequency in the upstream region. Cold ion density modulation is induced by forward and backward propagating oxygen band EMIC waves. The linear growth of the helium band EMIC wave is also enhanced due to the spatial inhomogeneous density distributions, and then helium band waves are modulated in density modulation scale. The strong trapping takes place due to the packeted waves. The trapped particle guided by the increasing resonance velocity in the upstream region, the proton hill appears in the distribution function.

  20. Falling ball viscometry of magnetized ferrofluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cali, Alex; Lee, W. K.; Nunez, Samuel, Jr.; Prescod, Joy; Smith, Rose; Trubatch, A. D.; Vieira, Matthew; Yecko, Philip

    2011-11-01

    Falling spheres of 500 μm were used to perform viscometric experiments on magnetized ferrofluids. The role of the angle of orientation of an applied unifom field relative to the direction of fall has been examined with high speed phase contrast imaging using the Advanced Photon Source. The magnetized ferrofluid exhibits an anisotropic viscosity that we can quantify in terms of a tensorial viscosity coefficient. We find that the effective drag is greater when the fall occurs normal to the applied field rather than parallel to it, a result that is opposite to what is predicted by many ferrofluid magnetoviscosity models, but consistent with the properties of electro- and magneto-rheological fluid, liquid crystal, and polymer fluid rheology models. Finally, we discuss the dispersion of these results in terms of thread-like aggregations of magnetic particles observed in the experiments. supported by NSF grant no. MPS-1016383

  1. Elderly fall detection using SIFT hybrid features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiaoxiao; Gao, Chao; Guo, Yongcai

    2015-10-01

    With the tendency of aging society, countries all over the world are dealing with the demographic change. Fall had been proven to be of the highest fatality rate among the elderly. To realize the elderly fall detection, the proposed algorithm used the hybrid feature. Based on the rate of centroid change, the algorithm adopted VEI to offer the posture feature, this combined motion feature with posture feature. The algorithm also took advantage of SIFT descriptor of VEI(V-SIFT) to show more details of behaviors with occlusion. An improved motion detection method was proposed to improve the accuracy of front-view motion detection. The experimental results on CASIA database and self-built database showed that the proposed approach has high efficiency and strong robustness which effectively improved the accuracy of fall detection.

  2. Falls study: Proprioception, postural stability, and slips.

    PubMed

    Sohn, Jeehoon; Kim, Sukwon

    2015-01-01

    The present study evaluated effects of exercise training on the proprioception sensitivity, postural stability, and the likelihood of slip-induced falls. Eighteen older adults (6 in balance, 6 in weight, and 6 in control groups) participated in this study. Three groups met three times per week over the course of eight weeks. Ankle and knee proprioception sensitivities and postural stability were measured. Slip-induced events were introduced for all participants before and after training. The results indicated that, overall, strength and postural stability were improved only in the training group, although proprioception sensitivity was improved in all groups. Training for older adults resulted in decreased likelihood of slip-induced falls. The study suggested that proprioception can be improved by simply being active, however, the results suggested that training would aid older adults in reducing the likelihood of slip-induced falls.

  3. Experimental migration of knickpoints: influence of style of base-level fall and bed lithology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grimaud, J.-L.; Paola, C.; Voller, V.

    2015-08-01

    Knickpoints are fascinating and common geomorphic features whose dynamics influences the development of landscapes and source-to-sink systems - in particular the upstream propagation of erosion. Here, we study river profiles and associated knickpoints experimentally in a micro flume filled with a cohesive substrate made of silica, water and kaolinite. We focus on the effect on knickpoint dynamics of varying the distribution of base-level fall (rate, increment, and period) and substrate strength, i.e. kaolinite content. Such simple cases are directly comparable to both bedrock and alluvial river systems. Under a constant rate of base-level fall, knickpoints of similar shape are periodically generated, highlighting a self-organized dynamics in which steady forcing leads to multiple knickpoint events. Temporary shielding of the bed by alluvium controls the spacing between these unit knickpoints. Shielding is however not effective when base-level drops exceed alluvium thickness. While the base-level fall rate controls the overall slope of experiments, it is not instrumental in dictating the major characteristics of unit knickpoints. Instead the velocity, face slope and associated plunge pool depth of these knickpoints are all strongly influenced by lithology. The period between knickpoints is set by both alluvium thickness and base-level fall rate, allowing use of knickpoint spacing along rivers as an indicator of base-level fall rate.

  4. Experimental migration of knickpoints: influence of style of base-level fall and bed lithology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grimaud, J.-L.; Paola, C.; Voller, V.

    2016-01-01

    Knickpoints are fascinating and common geomorphic features whose dynamics influence the development of landscapes and source-to-sink systems - in particular the upstream propagation of erosion. Here, we study river profiles and associated knickpoints experimentally in a microflume filled with a cohesive substrate made of silica, water and kaolinite. We focus on the effect on knickpoint dynamics of varying the distribution of base-level fall (rate, increment, and period) and substrate strength, i.e., kaolinite content. Such simple cases are directly comparable to both bedrock and alluvial river systems. Under a constant rate of base-level fall, knickpoints of similar shape are periodically generated, highlighting self-organized dynamics in which steady forcing leads to multiple knickpoint events. Temporary shielding of the bed by alluvium controls the spacing between these unit knickpoints. Shielding is, however, not effective when base-level drops exceed alluvium thickness. While the base-level fall rate controls the overall slope of experiments, it is not instrumental in dictating the major characteristics of unit knickpoints. Instead the velocity, face slope and associated plunge pool depth of these knickpoints are all strongly influenced by lithology. The period between knickpoints is set by both alluvium thickness and base-level fall rate, allowing use of knickpoint spacing along rivers as an indicator of base-level fall rate.

  5. Nocturia Is Associated with Slipping and Falling

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Min-Su; Park, Bumjung; Kim, Jin-Hwan

    2017-01-01

    Several reports have demonstrated associations between falls and nocturia in the elderly. However, little information is available regarding other age groups. This study evaluated the relationship between the frequency of nocturia and falls in men using a large, population-based survey in Korea, and the results were adjusted for various confounding factors. Data from a 2011 Korean community health survey (KCHS) were retrieved for 92,660 men aged 19 to 103 years. Information regarding the history of slips or falls in the past year was collected. The frequency of nocturia was classified as 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, and ≥ 5 instances a night. Walking during the day, education, income, body mass index (BMI), smoking, alcohol consumption, sleep time, stress level and medical histories of hypertension, diabetes mellitus, hyperlipidemia, cerebral stroke, angina or myocardial infarction, arthritis, and osteoporosis were adjusted using multiple logistic regression analysis with complex sampling. A subgroup analysis was conducted for young (19–30 years), middle-aged (31–60 years), and elderly individuals (61+ years). Approximately 14.6% of the men had a history of falls. Their mean age was 42.9 years, which was significantly higher than that of the non-faller group (P < 0.001). An increased frequency of nocturia was associated with increased adjusted odds ratio (AOR) for falls (AOR for 1 instance of nocturia/night = 1.41 [95% confidence interval, 1.33–1.50]; AOR for 2 instances = 1.41 [1.33–1.50]; AOR for 3 instances = 2.00 [1.75–2.28]; AOR for 4 instances = 2.12 [1.73–2.61]; AOR for ≥ 5 instances = 2.02 [1.74–2.36], P < 0.001). In the subgroup analysis, the AORs for falls significantly increased in all age groups as the frequency of nocturia increased. PMID:28060916

  6. Statistical modelling for falls count data.

    PubMed

    Ullah, Shahid; Finch, Caroline F; Day, Lesley

    2010-03-01

    Falls and their injury outcomes have count distributions that are highly skewed toward the right with clumping at zero, posing analytical challenges. Different modelling approaches have been used in the published literature to describe falls count distributions, often without consideration of the underlying statistical and modelling assumptions. This paper compares the use of modified Poisson and negative binomial (NB) models as alternatives to Poisson (P) regression, for the analysis of fall outcome counts. Four different count-based regression models (P, NB, zero-inflated Poisson (ZIP), zero-inflated negative binomial (ZINB)) were each individually fitted to four separate fall count datasets from Australia, New Zealand and United States. The finite mixtures of P and NB regression models were also compared to the standard NB model. Both analytical (F, Vuong and bootstrap tests) and graphical approaches were used to select and compare models. Simulation studies assessed the size and power of each model fit. This study confirms that falls count distributions are over-dispersed, but not dispersed due to excess zero counts or heterogeneous population. Accordingly, the P model generally provided the poorest fit to all datasets. The fit improved significantly with NB and both zero-inflated models. The fit was also improved with the NB model, compared to finite mixtures of both P and NB regression models. Although there was little difference in fit between NB and ZINB models, in the interests of parsimony it is recommended that future studies involving modelling of falls count data routinely use the NB models in preference to the P or ZINB or finite mixture distribution. The fact that these conclusions apply across four separate datasets from four different samples of older people participating in studies of different methodology, adds strength to this general guiding principle.

  7. Why Does Attention to Web Articles Fall With Time?

    PubMed

    Simkin, Mikhail V; Roychowdhury, Vwani P

    2015-09-01

    We analyze access statistics of 150 blog entries and news articles for periods of up to 3 years. Access rate falls as an inverse power of time passed since publication. The power law holds for periods of up to 1,000 days. The exponents are different for different blogs and are distributed between 0.6 and 3.2. We argue that the decay of attention to a web article is caused by the link to it first dropping down the list of links on the website's front page and then disappearing from the front page and its subsequent movement further into background. The other proposed explanations that use a decaying with time novelty factor, or some intricate theory of human dynamics, cannot explain all of the experimental observations.

  8. Why Does Attention to Web Articles Fall With Time?

    PubMed Central

    Simkin, Mikhail V.; Roychowdhury, Vwani P.

    2015-01-01

    We analyze access statistics of 150 blog entries and news articles for periods of up to 3 years. Access rate falls as an inverse power of time passed since publication. The power law holds for periods of up to 1,000 days. The exponents are different for different blogs and are distributed between 0.6 and 3.2. We argue that the decay of attention to a web article is caused by the link to it first dropping down the list of links on the website’s front page and then disappearing from the front page and its subsequent movement further into background. The other proposed explanations that use a decaying with time novelty factor, or some intricate theory of human dynamics, cannot explain all of the experimental observations. PMID:26478903

  9. Thinking falls - taking action: a guide to action for falls prevention.

    PubMed

    Robertson, Kate; Logan, Philippa A; Conroy, Simon; Dods, Verity; Gordon, Adam; Challands, Linda; Smith, Sue; Humpage, Sally; Burn, Ann

    2010-08-01

    Clinical guidelines and research papers help clinicians measure and understand the risk of falling in their older clients but very few provide the assessor with recommendations as to which interventions they can use to reduce the risk of a fall. The Guide to Action for Falls Prevention tool (GtA) was developed to help professionals from a broad range of organizations to recognize factors that might increase falls risk and know which actions to take to lessen that risk. Twenty four professionals tested the GtA in a clinical setting and found it quick (15 minutes) and easy to complete. The GtA needs further evaluation to test whether it is a practical way of delivering a falls prevention intervention.

  10. Public events at Fall Meeting 2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holm Adamec, Bethany

    2012-11-01

    Three much-anticipated events at Fall Meeting are AGU's family science programs, which take place the Sunday before Fall Meeting begins. Beginning at noon on 2 December, the public lecture will be given by Michael Meyer, John Grotzinger, and Rebecca Williams. These three NASA scientists are working with the rover Curiosity, which is currently exploring Mars. They will engage the public in a discussion of Mars exploration and the latest activities of the most sophisticated explorer ever sent to another planet. The panelists will discuss the hopes and excitement of exploring Mars through a robot's eyes, nose, taste, and touch.

  11. Retrospective analysis of free-fall fractures with regard to height and cause of fall.

    PubMed

    Petaros, Anja; Slaus, Mario; Coklo, Miran; Sosa, Ivan; Cengija, Morana; Bosnar, Alan

    2013-03-10

    Free-fall fractures represent a specific form of blunt force trauma that can be hard to interpret because of the numerous factors that affect it. The aim of this study is to focus on skeletal injury patterns resulting from free-falls and to analyse the relationship between specific skeletal fractures, and the height and cause (accidental vs. suicidal) of the fall. A total of 179 autopsy reports of fatal free-falls from known heights were analysed at the Department of Forensic Medicine and Criminalistics, in Rijeka, Croatia. The location, type and frequency of fractures, as well as the number and distribution of fractured regions were analysed with regard to height and cause of fall. Height was found to be the major factor influencing fracture patterns in free-falls. In our sample, the frequencies of thoracic fractures, fractures to the extremities and those to the pelvis increased with height. Head fractures show no such relationship. However, types of fractures recorded in different anatomical regions, including the cranium, differ between height groups suggesting different injury mechanisms in each. Victims of falls generally sustained fractures in more than one body region, and the number of injured regions correlates significantly with height. Although no statistical difference was found in the number of fractured regions or frequency of fractures between accidental fallers and suicidal jumpers, jumpers showed a significantly higher number of bilateral extremity fractures when compared to victims of accidental falls. Logistic regression analyses also demonstrate a significant relationship between lower extremity fractures, and the cause of the fall. Our results highlight the need for further investigations of the influence that behaviour and height have in free-fall fractures. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Nonbenzodiazepine Sedative Hypnotics and Risk of Fall-Related Injury

    PubMed Central

    Tom, Sarah E.; Wickwire, Emerson M.; Park, Yujin; Albrecht, Jennifer S.

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that use of zolpidem, eszopiclone, and zaleplon would be associated with increased risk of traumatic brain injury (TBI) and hip fracture. Methods: We conducted a case-crossover study on a 5% random sample of Medicare beneficiaries age 65 y or older hospitalized with either TBI (n = 15,031) or hip fracture (n = 37,833) during 2007–2009. Use of zolpidem, eszopiclone, or zaleplon during the 30-day period prior to injury hospitalization was compared to use during four control periods at 3, 6, 9, and 12 mo prior to injury. The primary outcome was hospitalization for TBI or hip fracture. Results: Zolpidem use during the month prior to injury was associated with increased risk of TBI (odds ratio [OR] 1.87; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.56, 2.25); however, eszopiclone use during the same period was not associated with increased risk (OR 0.67; 95% CI 0.40, 1.13). Zolpidem use during the month prior to injury was associated with increased risk of hip fracture (OR 1.59; 95% CI 1.41, 1.79); however, eszopiclone use during the same period was not associated with increased risk (OR 1.12; 95% CI 0.83, 1.50). Analysis of zaleplon use in the month prior to injury was limited by low drug utilization but was not associated with increased risk of TBI (OR 0.85; 95% CI 0.21, 3.34) or hip fracture (OR 0.92; 95% CI 0.40, 2.13) in this study. Conclusions: For the treatment of insomnia in older adults, eszopiclone may present a safer alternative to zolpidem, in terms of fall-related injuries. Citation: Tom SE, Wickwire EM, Park Y, Albrecht JS. Nonbenzodiazepine sedative hypnotics and risk of fall-related injury. SLEEP 2016;39(5):1009–1014. PMID:26943470

  13. Rock fall triggering from cyclic thermal forcing of exfoliation fractures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collins, B. D.; Stock, G. M.

    2013-12-01

    times of the day and year are periods when conditions are preferentially suitable for rock-fall initiation and that the mechanism of ongoing cyclic thermal forcing may make conditions favorable for other, more typical (freeze-thaw, seepage) triggering events at other times of the year.

  14. Long-term risk of falls in an incident Parkinson's disease cohort: the Norwegian ParkWest study.

    PubMed

    Hiorth, Ylva Hivand; Alves, Guido; Larsen, Jan Petter; Schulz, Jörn; Tysnes, Ole-Bjørn; Pedersen, Kenn Freddy

    2017-02-01

    The objective of this study is to examine the frequency, development, concomitants, and risk factors of falls in a population-based incident Parkinson's disease (PD) cohort. One hundred eighty-one drug-naïve patients with incident PD and 173 normal controls recruited from the Norwegian ParkWest study were prospectively monitored over 7 years. Information on falls was obtained biannually from patients, and at baseline and after 1, 3, 5, and 7 years of follow-up in control subjects. Generalized estimating equation models for correlated data were applied to investigate concomitant features of falls and risk factors for incident falls during 7 years of follow-up in PD. Overall, 64.1% of patients reported falling during the study period. The 7-year cumulative incidence of falls in non-falling patients at baseline (n = 153) was 57.5%, with a relative risk to controls of at least 3.1 (95% confidence interval 1.5-6.3; p < 0.002). Significant concomitants of falls in patients during the study period were higher age, Unified PD Rating Scale motor score, postural instability and gait difficulties (PIGD) phenotype, dementia, and follow-up time. Higher age at baseline, PIGD phenotype at 1-year visit, and follow-up time were independent risk factors for incident falls during follow-up. Nearly two-thirds of patients in the general PD population experience falls within 7 years of diagnosis, representing a more than threefold increased risk compared to age- and gender-matched controls. Patients with higher age at baseline and early PIGD have the greatest risk of falling and may, therefore, be the prime target of specialized assessment and treatment interventions.

  15. Reducing serious fall-related injuries in acute hospitals: are low-low beds a critical success factor?

    PubMed

    Barker, Anna; Kamar, Jeannette; Tyndall, Tamara; Hill, Keith

    2013-01-01

    This article is a report of a study of associations between occurrence of serious fall-related injuries and implementation of low-low beds at The Northern Hospital, Victoria, Australia. A 9-year evaluation at The Northern Hospital found an important reduction in fall-related injuries after the 6-PACK falls prevention program was implemented. Low-low beds are a key component of the 6-PACK that aims to decrease fall-related injuries. A retrospective cohort study. Retrospective audit of The Northern Hospital inpatients admitted between 1999-2009. Changes in serious fall-related injuries throughout the period and associations with available low-low beds were analysed using Poisson regression. During the observation of 356,158 inpatients, there were 3946 falls and 1005 fall-related injuries of which 60 (5·9%) were serious (55 fractures and five subdural haematomas). Serious fall-related injuries declined significantly throughout the period. When there was one low-low bed to nine or more standard beds there was no statistically significant decrease in serious fall-related injuries. An important reduction only occurred when there was one low-low bed to three standard beds. The 6-PACK program has been in place since 2002 at The Northern Hospital. Throughout this time serious fall-related injuries have decreased. There appears to be an association between serious fall-related injuries and the number of available low-low beds. Threshold numbers of these beds may be required to achieve optimal usability and effectiveness. A randomized controlled trial is required to give additional evidence for use of low-low beds for injury prevention in hospitals. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  16. 156. Photocopy of written record (taken from Twin Falls Canal ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    156. Photocopy of written record (taken from Twin Falls Canal Company, Low Line Book #1, pp.2,3). LOW LINE CONTRACTORS AND BORROW RECORD. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

  17. 159. Photocopy of written record (taken from Twin Falls Canal ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    159. Photocopy of written record (taken from Twin Falls Canal Company Low Line Book #1, pp. 76,77). RECORD OF BORROW AT LOW LINE SIPHON. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

  18. Fall movements of Red-headed woodpeckers in South Carolina

    Treesearch

    Mark Vukovich; John C. Kilgo

    2013-01-01

    Fall migration of Red-headed Woodpeckers (Melanerpes erythrocephalus) can be erratic, with departure rates, directions, and distances varying among populations and individuals. We report fall migration departure dates, rates, and routes, and the size of fall home ranges of 62 radio-tagged Red-headed Woodpeckers in western South Carolina. Rates of fall migration...

  19. 46 CFR 122.704 - Maintenance of falls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Maintenance of falls. 122.704 Section 122.704 Shipping..., Maintenance, and Inspection of Lifesaving Equipment § 122.704 Maintenance of falls. (a) Each fall used in a... fall must be renewed when necessary due to deterioration or at internals of not more than 5...

  20. 46 CFR 131.550 - Maintenance of falls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Maintenance of falls. 131.550 Section 131.550 Shipping..., Drills, and Inspections § 131.550 Maintenance of falls. (a) Each fall used with a launching appliance must be turned end for end at intervals of not more than 30 months. (b) Each fall used with a...

  1. Enrollment in Colleges and Universities, Fall 1985. OERI Bulletin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernandez, Rosa

    National data on fall 1985 enrollment in U.S. colleges and universities are presented, along with a narrative overview, based on the Higher Education General Information Survey's Fall Enrollment Survey. Information is presented on the percentage changes in enrollment from fall 1984 to fall 1985 for various types of institutions (public, private,…

  2. A Profile of the Fall 1979 Freshmen at CUNY.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kramer, Rena

    A profile of the fall 1979 first-time freshmen at the City University of New York (CUNY) is presented and comparisons are made with the fall 1975 and 1976 classes. In fall 1976, tuition was imposed for the first time and new admissions criteria were set. In comparison to fall 1976 enrollments, the number of first-time freshmen enrollment at CUNY…

  3. 8. BRIDGEWORK PLANKING FROM EAST SIDE WITH TWIN FALLS MAIN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. BRIDGEWORK PLANKING FROM EAST SIDE WITH TWIN FALLS MAIN CANAL HEADWORKS IN DISTANCE; LOOKING WEST. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

  4. 91. CEDAR DRAW SPILL, HIGH LINE CANAL, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    91. CEDAR DRAW SPILL, HIGH LINE CANAL, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, SOUTH OF FILER, IDAHO; NORTHEAST VIEW OF CANAL AND GATES. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

  5. 28. VIEW FROM IMMEDIATELY DOWNSTREAM OF TWIN FALLS MAIN CANAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    28. VIEW FROM IMMEDIATELY DOWNSTREAM OF TWIN FALLS MAIN CANAL HEADWORKS WITH CANAL BRIDGE IN DISTANCE. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

  6. 109. CEDAR DRAW SPILL, LOW LINE CANAL, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    109. CEDAR DRAW SPILL, LOW LINE CANAL, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, SOUTH OF FILER, IDAHO; OVERALL VIEW LOOKING WEST. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

  7. 124. MCMULLEN CREEK HIGH LINE CANAL, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, SOUTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    124. MCMULLEN CREEK HIGH LINE CANAL, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, SOUTH OF KIMBERLY, IDAHO; OVERALL SOUTH VIEW OF DRAW. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

  8. 95. CEDAR DRAW SPILL, LOW LINE CANAL, TWIN FALLS COUNTY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    95. CEDAR DRAW SPILL, LOW LINE CANAL, TWIN FALLS COUNTY SOUTH OF FILER, IDAHO; OVERALL VIEW LOOKING EAST. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

  9. 113. ROCK CREEK SIPHON LOW LINE CANAL, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    113. ROCK CREEK SIPHON LOW LINE CANAL, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, SOUTH OF KIMBERLY IDAHO; CLOSE-UP OF INLET SIDE OF SIPHON, NORTHWEST VIEW. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

  10. 102. MURTAUGH LAKE HEADGATES, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, SOUTH OF MURTAUGH, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    102. MURTAUGH LAKE HEADGATES, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, SOUTH OF MURTAUGH, IDAHO; LAKE SIDE OF HEADGATES, NORTHWEST VIEW. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

  11. 126. COTTONWOOD CREEK SIPHON, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, SOUTH OF KIMBERLY, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    126. COTTONWOOD CREEK SIPHON, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, SOUTH OF KIMBERLY, IDAHO; CLOSE-UP OF OUTLET SIDE OF SIPHON, SOUTH VIEW. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

  12. 111. ROCK CREEK SIPHON LOW LINE CANAL, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    111. ROCK CREEK SIPHON LOW LINE CANAL, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, SOUTH OF KIMBERLY IDAHO; OVERALL VIEW OF SIPHON, EAST VIEW. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

  13. 121. MCMULLEN CREEK DRAW, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, SOUTH OF KIMBERLY, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    121. MCMULLEN CREEK DRAW, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, SOUTH OF KIMBERLY, IDAHO; OUTLET SIDE OF CREEK, SOUTH VIEW. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

  14. 96. CEDAR DRAW SPILL, LOW LINE CANAL, TWIN FALLS COUNTY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    96. CEDAR DRAW SPILL, LOW LINE CANAL, TWIN FALLS COUNTY SOUTH OF FILER, IDAHO; OUTLET SIDE OF CEDAR DRAW, WEST VIEW. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

  15. 90. CEDAR DRAW SPILL, HIGH LINE CANAL, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    90. CEDAR DRAW SPILL, HIGH LINE CANAL, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, SOUTH OF FILER, IDAHO; CLOSE-UP OF GATES. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

  16. 101. DRY CREEK SPILL, MURTAUGH LAKE, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, SOUTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    101. DRY CREEK SPILL, MURTAUGH LAKE, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, SOUTH OF MURTAUGH, IDAHO; NORTHEAST VIEW OF DRY CREEK OUTLET. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

  17. 112. ROCK CREEK SIPHON LOW LINE CANAL, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    112. ROCK CREEK SIPHON LOW LINE CANAL, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, SOUTH OF KIMBERLY IDAHO; OUTLET SIDE, EAST VIEW. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

  18. 122. MCMULLEN CREEK, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, SOUTH OF KIMBERLY, IDAHO; ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    122. MCMULLEN CREEK, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, SOUTH OF KIMBERLY, IDAHO; INLET SIDE OF THE CREEK, ENTRANCE INTO THE HIGH LINE CANAL, SOUTH VIEW. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

  19. 88. CEDAR DRAW SPILL, HIGH LINE CANAL, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    88. CEDAR DRAW SPILL, HIGH LINE CANAL, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, SOUTH OF FILER, IDAHO; WEST VIEW OF CANAL AND GATES. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

  20. 94. CEDAR DRAW SPILL, LOW LINE CANAL, TWIN FALLS COUNTY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    94. CEDAR DRAW SPILL, LOW LINE CANAL, TWIN FALLS COUNTY SOUTH OF FILER, IDAHO; CLOSE-UP OF GATES FROM THE CANAL SIDE. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

  1. 118. COTTONWOOD CREEK SPILL, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, SOUTH OF KIMBERLY, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    118. COTTONWOOD CREEK SPILL, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, SOUTH OF KIMBERLY, IDAHO; WEST VIEW OF GATES ON HIGH LINE CANAL. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

  2. 92. CEDAR DRAW SPILL, HIGH LINE CANAL, TWIN FALLS COUNTY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    92. CEDAR DRAW SPILL, HIGH LINE CANAL, TWIN FALLS COUNTY SOUTH OF FILER, IDAHO; CLOSE-UP OF OUTLET SIDE OF GATES, SOUTH VIEW. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

  3. 25. TWIN FALLS MAIN CANAL HEADWORKS FROM UPSTREAM LOOKING TOWARD ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    25. TWIN FALLS MAIN CANAL HEADWORKS FROM UPSTREAM LOOKING TOWARD THE WEST (DAM-TENDER RICHARD CARL ADJUSTING THE GATES TO ALLOW 3400 CFS THROUGH). - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

  4. 105. MURTAUGH LAKE, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, SOUTH OF MURTAUGH, IDAHO; ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    105. MURTAUGH LAKE, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, SOUTH OF MURTAUGH, IDAHO; NORTHWEST VIEW OF LAKE AND HEADGATES. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

  5. 123. MCMULLEN CREEK, HIGH LINE CANAL, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, SOUTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    123. MCMULLEN CREEK, HIGH LINE CANAL, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, SOUTH OF KIMBERLY, IDAHO; SOUTH VIEW OF THE CREEK EMPTYING INTO THE HIGH LINE CANAL. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

  6. 93. ROCK CREEK SIPHON, LOW LINE CANAL, TWIN FALLS COUNTY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    93. ROCK CREEK SIPHON, LOW LINE CANAL, TWIN FALLS COUNTY SOUTH OF KIMBERLY, IDAHO; OVERALL NORTHEAST VIEW. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

  7. 129. COTTONWOOD CREEK SIPHON, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, SOUTH OF KIMBERLY, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    129. COTTONWOOD CREEK SIPHON, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, SOUTH OF KIMBERLY, IDAHO; OUTLET SIDE OF SIPHON UNDER CANAL. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

  8. 116. ROCK CREEK SIPHON LOW LINE CANAL, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    116. ROCK CREEK SIPHON LOW LINE CANAL, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, SOUTH OF KIMBERLY IDAHO; CLOSE-UP OF OUTLET, DIVERSION SPILL IN BACKGROUND, WEST VIEW. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

  9. 106. DRY CREEK SPILL, MURTAUGH LAKE, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, SOUTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    106. DRY CREEK SPILL, MURTAUGH LAKE, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, SOUTH OF MURTAUGH, IDAHO; CLOSE-UP OF GATES, NORTHWEST VIEW. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

  10. 119. COTTONWOOD CREEK SIPHON, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, SOUTH OF KIMBERLY, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    119. COTTONWOOD CREEK SIPHON, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, SOUTH OF KIMBERLY, IDAHO; INLET SIDE OF COTTONWOOD CREEK, SOUTH VIEW. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

  11. 114. ROCK CREEK SIPHON LOW LINE CANAL, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    114. ROCK CREEK SIPHON LOW LINE CANAL, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, SOUTH OF KIMBERLY IDAHO; OVERALL VIEW, WEST OF INLET SIDE. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

  12. 89. CEDAR DRAW SPILL, HIGH LINE CANAL, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    89. CEDAR DRAW SPILL, HIGH LINE CANAL, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, SOUTH OF FILER, IDAHO; OUTLET SIDE OF CANAL, SOUTHWEST VIEW. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

  13. 115. ROCK CREEK SIPHON LOW LINE CANAL, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    115. ROCK CREEK SIPHON LOW LINE CANAL, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, SOUTH OF KIMBERLY IDAHO; WEST VIEW OF SIPHON CROSSING ROCK CREEK. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

  14. 104. DRY CREEK OUTLET (SPILL), TWIN FALLS COUNTY, SOUTH OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    104. DRY CREEK OUTLET (SPILL), TWIN FALLS COUNTY, SOUTH OF MURTAUGH, IDAHO; OUTLET FOR MURTAUGH LAKE, SOUTHEAST VIEW. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

  15. 117. COTTONWOOD CREEK SPILL, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, SOUTH OF KIMBERLY, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    117. COTTONWOOD CREEK SPILL, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, SOUTH OF KIMBERLY, IDAHO; CLOSE-UP OF OUTLET SIDE OF SPILL, SOUTH VIEW. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

  16. 110. ROCK CREEK SIPHON, LOW LINE CANAL, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    110. ROCK CREEK SIPHON, LOW LINE CANAL, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, SOUTH OF KIMBERLY, IDAHO; INLET SIDE WEST VIEW. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

  17. 103. DRY CREEK SPILL, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, SOUTH OF MURTAUGH, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    103. DRY CREEK SPILL, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, SOUTH OF MURTAUGH, IDAHO; INLET SIDE TO DRY CREEK, SOUTH VIEW. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

  18. 120. COTTONWOOD CUT AREA, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, SOUTH OF KIMBERLY, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    120. COTTONWOOD CUT AREA, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, SOUTH OF KIMBERLY, IDAHO; OVERALL VIEW OF THE COTTONWOOD CREEK DRAW, SOUTH VIEW. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

  19. Photocopy of drawing, "Sluiceway at Combined Locks, Glens Falls Feeder" ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of drawing, "Sluiceway at Combined Locks, Glens Falls Feeder" (from Champlain canal structure book) 6-45, New York State Archives and Manuscripts, Albany, New York), c. 1858 - Glens Falls Feeder, Sluice, Along south side of Glens Falls Feeder between locks 10 & 20, Hudson Falls, Washington County, NY

  20. 197. Photocopy of drawing, Twin Falls, Canal Company, date unknown. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    197. Photocopy of drawing, Twin Falls, Canal Company, date unknown. GATE STEMS AND LIFTING DEVICES, NO COUNTY; BLUEPRINT SKETCHES. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID