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Sample records for familial amyloidotic polyneuropathy

  1. Cutaneous manifestations of familial amyloidotic polyneuropathy.

    PubMed

    Rocha, N; Velho, G; Horta, M; Martins, A; Massa, A

    2005-09-01

    Familial amyloidotic polyneuropathy is an autosomal dominant amyloidosis, characterized by the systemic deposition of amyloid with a particular involvement of the peripheral nerves. The disease generally manifests as a severe sensory, motor and autonomic neuropathy. Cardiomyopathy, nephropathy, vitreous opacities and carpal tunnel syndrome may occur in a variable association with the neuropathy. Trophic dermatological lesions are frequent in the more advanced stages of the disease. We examined the skin of 142 patients. The cutaneous manifestations more frequently observed were: xerosis (81.6%), seborrheic dermatitis (21.8%), traumatic and burn lesions (19.7%), acne (18.3%), neurotrophic ulcers (14%) and onychomycosis (10.5%). Among the hepatic transplanted patients (31%), seborrheic dermatitis and acne were the most frequent diagnoses.

  2. Rapid progression of familial amyloidotic polyneuropathy

    PubMed Central

    Coelho, Teresa; Obici, Laura; Merlini, Giampaolo; Mincheva, Zoia; Suanprasert, Narupat; Bettencourt, Brian R.; Gollob, Jared A.; Gandhi, Pritesh J.; Litchy, William J.; Dyck, Peter J.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To assess the association between severity of neuropathy and disease stage, and estimate the rate of neuropathy progression in a retrospective cross-sectional analysis of a multinational population of patients with familial amyloidotic polyneuropathy (FAP). Methods: We characterize neuropathy severity and rate of progression in available patients with FAP in France, the United States, Portugal, and Italy. Neuropathy Impairment Scores (NIS), time from symptom onset to NIS measurement, polyneuropathy disability (PND) scores, FAP disease stage, and manual grip strength data were collected. We estimated neuropathy progression using Loess Fit and Gompertz Fit models. Results: For the 283 patients studied (mean age, 56.4 years), intercountry genotypic variation in the transthyretin (TTR) mutation was observed, with the majority of patients in Portugal (92%) having early-onset Val30Met-FAP. There was also marked intercountry variation in PND score, FAP stage, and TTR stabilizer use. NIS was associated with PND score (NIS 10 and 99 for scores I and IV, respectively; p < 0.0001) and FAP stage (NIS 14 and 99 for stages 1 and 3, respectively; p < 0.0001). In addition, there was an association between NIS and TTR genotype. The estimated rate of NIS progression for a population with a median NIS of 32 was 14.3 points/year; the corresponding estimated rate for the modified NIS+7 is 17.8 points/year. Conclusions: In a multinational population of patients with FAP, rapid neuropathic progression is observed and the severity of neuropathy is associated with functional scales of locomotion. PMID:26208957

  3. [Grip strength changes in familial amyloidotic polyneuropathy].

    PubMed

    Tomás, Maria Teresa; Santa-Clara, Helena; Monteiro, Estela; Carolino, Elizabete; Freire, António; Barroso, Eduardo

    2010-01-01

    Familial amiloidotic polyneuropathy (FAP) is an autossomical and dominant neurodegenerative disease related with systemic deposition of amyloid fibre mainly on peripheral nervous system. Clinically, is translated by an autonomous sensitive-motor polyneuropathy with beginning nearly always in foot, involving subsequently the hands. Until now, the unique available treatment for FAP disease is liver transplantation requiring medication that negatively affect muscle metabolism and force production mechanism. To our knowledge there are no quantitative characterizations of peak force in FAP patients or any comparison with healthy people. This knowledge will be extremely important to verify clinical and functional evolution of this disease and eventually prescribe an effective rehabilitation program. The purpose of this study was to analyse and compare levels of hand grip strength (peak force and endurance) in FAP patients with (FAPTx) or without (FAPNTx) a liver transplant with a group of healthy people (GC). The total sample of individuals where two hundred and six, assigned in 3 groups: 59 patients PAFNTx (23 males, 36 female; age 35 ± 8 years); 90 patients PAFTx (53 males, 37 females; age 34 ± 8 years) e 62 healthy persons (GC) (30 males, 32 females; age 33 ± 9 years). Grip strength was assessed by a portable grip dynamometer E-link (Biometrics Ltd, UK). All measurements were taken on standardized positions with standardized orders. The value noted to peak force was classified according to American College of Sports Medicine norms for grip strength. The 3 groups are differents (p < 0,05) for weigth, body mass index (BMI) and grip strength in both hands and endurance for left hand. Negative correlations between age and grip strength were found for PAFNTx and PAFTx but not for GC. According to our results FAP patients have lower values for grip strength in both hands than healthy subjects and consequently a worse classification in ACSM norms. Most patients present

  4. [Familial amyloidotic polyneuropathy with a transthyretin variant (Val30-->Leu)].

    PubMed

    Shimizu, H; Ishikawa, K; Kobayashi, H; Murakami, T; Nakazato, M; Miura, K; Atsumi, T

    1996-02-01

    We report a Japanese woman with familial amyloidotic polyneuropathy (FAP) with a transthyretin variant that substituted leucine for valine at position 30. Family history was not informative. She had initially suffered from repeated petechiae in the eyelids at the age of 51. Two years later, dysesthesia in the lower extremities appeared. Distal muscle weakness and sensory disturbance gradually developed. Autonomic dysfunction emerged and vomiting and orthostatic hypotension were marked in the late stage of her illness. Because of renal failure, she died at the age of 54. At autopsy, amyloid deposits were prominent in peripheral nerves including autonomic nerves, heart, blood vessels, gastrointestinal tract, kidneys, and bladder. In the nervous system, we found amyloid deposits in anterior roots, posterior roots, posterior root ganglions, peripheral nerves, and sympathetic ganglions. Cardiac weight was increased (595 g) with conspicuous amyloid deposits in the myocardium. The kidneys showed massive deposition of amyloid in the glomeruli and vascular walls. Amyloid accumulated moderately in tongue, submandibular gland, gallbladder, spleen, and pancreas, and slightly in the thyroid gland, lung, liver, and adrenal gland. No amyloid deposits were seen in the CNS with the exception of perivascular deposits in the choroid plexus.

  5. Bilateral optic neuropathy in a patient with familial amyloidotic polyneuropathy.

    PubMed

    Hamann, Steffen; Jensen, Peter Koch; Fledelius, Hans Callø

    2013-09-07

    Amyloidogenic transthyretin (ATTR)-related familial amyloidotic polyneuropathy (FAP) is an autosomal-dominant hereditary disease characterised by slowly progressive peripheral sensorimotor and autonomic neuropathy and tissue involvement of the heart, kidneys and central nervous system. Secondary glaucoma has been reported following intraocular surgery, but optic nerve involvement unrelated to glaucoma has not previously been described. We reported a male patient in his late 40s when deceased, who previously had a liver transplant in order to reduce the abnormal protein synthesis underlying his FAP ATTR Val30Met mutation. After 11 years of ophthalmic follow-up best-corrected visual acuity was 20/100 in his seeing eye, which further had visual field findings suggestive of optic neuropathy. This was also the diagnosis underlying the preceding insidious full loss of vision in the fellow eye, with colour Doppler imaging to support an ischaemic aetiology. To our knowledge, this is the first report of ischaemic optic neuropathy in this familial amyloid disorder.

  6. Biomarkers in the Assessment of Therapies for Familial Amyloidotic Polyneuropathy

    PubMed Central

    Macedo, Bárbara; Batista, Ana Rita; do Amaral, José Barbas; Saraiva, Maria João

    2007-01-01

    The identification of specific biomarkers provides opportunities to develop early diagnostic parameters, monitor disease progression, and test drug efficiency in clinical trials. We previously demonstrated that in familial amyloidotic polyneuropathy (FAP) related to the abnormal extracellular tissue deposition of mutant transthyretin (TTR), inflammatory and apoptotic pathways are triggered in the presymptomatic stages of the disease, when nonfibrillar TTR deposits are present. In the present work, to better define biomarkers for future assessment of prophylactic and therapeutic drugs in the treatment of FAP, we extended the search for oxidative stress and apoptotic biomarkers to clinical samples and animal models presenting nonfibrillar and fibrillar TTR. We found that lipid peroxidation measured by hydroxynonenal, oxidative DNA damage measured by 8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine, and cellular redox homeostasis measured by glutaredoxin 1 were consistently increased in biopsy specimens from FAP patients and in tissues from transgenic mouse models presenting nonfibrillar TTR deposition. Death-receptor Fas, caspase-8, and Bax were also found to be increased, indicative of the involvement of death receptors in the observed apoptosis process. Removal of TTR deposition by an immunization protocol resulted in significant decreases of the selected markers we describe, corroborating the relationship between TTR deposition, oxidative stress, and apoptosis. Taken together, our results provide a robust biomarker profile for initial experimental animal studies and clinical trials to assess the application of the selected markers in therapies aimed at removal and/or inhibition of TTR polymerization. PMID:17932549

  7. Representation of illness in Familial Amyloidotic Polyneuropathy Portuguese Association newspaper: A documental study.

    PubMed

    Novais, Sónia Alexandra de Lemos; Mendes, Felismina Rosa Parreira

    2016-03-01

    This study explores illness representations within Familial Amyloidotic Polyneuropathy Portuguese Association newspaper . A content analysis was performed of the issue data using provisional coding related to the conceptual framework of the study. All dimensions of illness representation in Leventhal's Common Sense Model of illness cognitions and behaviors are present in the data and reflect the experience of living with this disease. Understanding how a person living with an hereditary, rare, neurodegenerative illness is important for developing community nursing interventions. In conclusion, we suggest an integration of common sense knowledge with other approaches for designing an intervention program centered on people living with an hereditary neurodegenerative illness, such as familial amyloidotic polyneuropathy.

  8. Characterization of a transthyretin (prealbumin) variant associated with familial amyloidotic polyneuropathy type II (Indiana/Swiss).

    PubMed Central

    Dwulet, F E; Benson, M D

    1986-01-01

    Amyloid fibrils were isolated from cardiac tissue of two brothers who died from familial amyloidotic polyneuropathy (FAP) type II. Sequence analysis on peptides derived from proteolytic cleavage with trypsin and fragmentation with cyanogen bromide reveal that the fibril subunit protein is derived from plasma transthyretin (prealbumin). About two-thirds of the fibril subunit protein was found to contain an amino acid substitution at position 84 where the normal isoleucine residue has been replaced by serine. Sequence analysis of the plasma transthyretin (prealbumin) from the two brothers as well as two clinically diagnosed FAP type II family members and two of four children of affected individuals showed the presence of serine at position 84. The presence of this substitution also correlates with low serum levels of retinol-binding protein and thus transthyretin (prealbumin) position 84 may be involved with the interaction of these two proteins. Images PMID:3760189

  9. A transthyretin variant (alanine 49) associated with familial amyloidotic polyneuropathy in a French family.

    PubMed Central

    Benson, M D; Julien, J; Liepnieks, J; Zeldenrust, S; Benson, M D

    1993-01-01

    A transthyretin mutation was discovered in a French family with familial amyloidotic polyneuropathy originally described in 1983. The syndrome is of early onset (approximate age 35 to 40) with carpal tunnel syndrome. Death is from cardiac disease. By direct genomic DNA sequencing an A-->G mutation was found in the position corresponding to the first base of transthyretin codon 49. The predicted alanine for threonine substitution in the transthyretin protein was proven by amino acid sequencing of transthyretin isolated from the plasma of an affected subject. Since the DNA mutation does not result in the creation or abolition of a restriction endonuclease recognition site, a new DNA analysis technique was used in which site directed mutagenesis is used to create an RFLP when the introduced mutation is in proximity to the natural mutation. Using a 27 nucleotide mutagenesis primer in the PCR reaction, a new Bg1I site was created on amplification of the variant allele. Using this test, termed PCR-IMRA, four affected members of the family were shown to have the mutation. Images PMID:8095301

  10. Vocal Cord Paralysis and Hypercapnic Respiratory Failure in a Patient with Familial Amyloidotic Polyneuropathy.

    PubMed

    Pıhtılı, Aylin; Bingol, Züleyha; Durmuş, Hacer; Parman, Yeşim; Kıyan, Esen

    2016-01-01

    We herein report a patient case with familial amyloidotic polyneuropathy (FAP) who presented with vocal cord paralysis (VCP). A 60-year-old man with FAP (Gly89Gln) presented with hoarseness and snoring for the previous two years. A chest X-ray demonstrated cardiomegaly and bilateral diaphragmatic elevation. The findings of a restrictive pattern on spirometry and daytime hypercapnia were consistent with respiratory muscle weakness related to neuropathy [forced expiratory volume (FEV1): 38%, forced vital capacity (FVC): 39%, FEV1/FVC: 77, partial pressure of arterial oxygen (PaO2): 80 mmHg, partial pressure of carbon dioxide in arterial blood (PaCO2): 52 mmHg]. An ear-nose-throat examination showed VCP. Polysomnography revealed severe obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). FAP may cause OSA by VCP and hypercapnic respiratory failure by respiratory muscle weakness. Therefore, an ear-nose-throat examination, spirometry, arterial blood gases analysis and polysomnography are important for these patients.

  11. A study of 159 Portuguese patients with familial amyloidotic polyneuropathy (FAP) whose parents were both unaffected.

    PubMed Central

    Coelho, T; Sousa, A; Lourenço, E; Ramalheira, J

    1994-01-01

    We reviewed 1233 cases of familial amyloidotic polyneuropathy (FAP) from 489 Portuguese families registered at the Centro de Estudos de Paramiloidose, Porto, Portugal. It was found that in 159 cases, neither parent had shown symptoms of this hereditary dominant form of peripheral neuropathy. These cases appear to form a distinct group, with a later age at onset (mean 45.1 years, SD 12.0) than the group of patients with one affected parent (mean 31.2 years, SD 6.9) and a geographical origin not quite in the areas where the disease is most prevalent. Though this group is not significantly different from the general group of patients in clinical presentation at onset and severity of the disease, the average interval between onset and diagnosis (mean 4.5 years, SD 3.2) reflects the difficulties in diagnosing these patients in the absence of a positive family history. From the analysis of pedigrees and in spite of a large number of isolated cases, the occurrence of new mutations could not be proven, and it seems more likely that, in some families, the FAP gene may result in a milder expression or even remain "silent" for several generations. Further investigation of this discrepancy may prove to be important in elucidating the mechanisms involved in the pathogenetic process. PMID:8071954

  12. Identification of carriers of a variant plasma prealbumin (transthyretin) associated with familial amyloidotic polyneuropathy type I.

    PubMed Central

    Benson, M D; Dwulet, F E

    1985-01-01

    A method is described for detecting carriers of a variant plasma prealbumin that is associated with familial amyloidotic polyneuropathy (FAP) type I. It is based on the finding of an extra methionine in the variant prealbumin, at position 30 from the amino terminals. Since normal prealbumin has only one methionine (position 13), treatment with cyanogen bromide (CNBr), which cleaves only at methionines, results in two peptides. CNBr treatment of the variant prealbumin gives three peptides. The extra can then be detected in two ways: by HPLC using a reverse phase C18 column, and by sequential Edman degradation. Each method can detect as little as 1% variant prealbumin in isolated plasma prealbumin, and therefore, can identify carriers of the gene for the variant protein. Since FAP type I usually is not manifest until after the childbearing years, this method to identify carriers of the gene offers a new approach for genetic counseling of families with this disease. To date, kindreds with hereditary amyloidosis that could benefit from these studies include those with FAP type I of Swedish, Japanese, and Portuguese origins. PMID:2981253

  13. Domino liver transplants for metabolic disorders: experience with familial amyloidotic polyneuropathy.

    PubMed

    Azoulay, D; Samuel, D; Castaing, D; Adam, R; Adams, D; Said, G; Bismuth, H

    1999-12-01

    Shortage of liver donors means that new methods of liver procurement must be explored. In domino transplantation, organs explanted during transplantation in one patient are transplanted into a second patient. Domino procedures can be performed with livers from patients having transplantation for hepatic metabolic disorders that cause systemic disease without affecting other liver functions. Familial amyloidotic polyneuropathy (FAP) type I is one of these. We reviewed the Paul Brousse experience with a domino liver transplant program for FAP, hoping to extend the approach to other metabolic disorders. Livers from 10 patients transplanted for FAP type 1 were used for domino transplants to patients with unresectable primary or metastatic liver cancers. There was no perioperative mortality. Neuropathy or cardiomyopathy did not increase the morbidity of the domino liver explant and transplant procedures. Morbidity for the domino recipients did not appear to be increased. Variant transthyretin was detected in the serum in FAP liver recipients, with no immediate clinical consequences. The domino approach is feasible and requires careful planning of the surgical procedures for liver explantation, particularly for the nature and site of vascular anastomoses. Domino transplantation of metabolically dysfunctional livers creates new categories of potential donors and potential recipients. It raises new ethical, technical, and societal issues. The domino approach could be used in several genetic or biochemical disorders now treated by liver transplantation. It has the potential to increase the number of liver grafts available for transplantation.

  14. High incidence of thrombotic complications early after liver transplantation for familial amyloidotic polyneuropathy.

    PubMed

    Bispo, Miguel; Marcelino, Paulo; Freire, António; Martins, Américo; Mourão, Luís; Barroso, Eduardo

    2009-02-01

    Early thrombotic complications are critical causes of in-hospital morbidity after orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT), potentially culminating in graft loss. The aim of this study was to retrospectively analyse these complications, trying to identify associated independent risk factors. This retrospective analysis included 223 OLTs performed on 213 patients, in a 30-month period. Eighty-six OLTs were performed on familial amyloidotic polyneuropathy (FAP) patients. Preoperative details (primary diagnosis and Child-Turcotte-Pugh classification, when applicable), surgical features (including type of arterial reconstruction), postoperative variables and outcome were analysed. The observation period ended 30 days post-OLT, until discharge or in-hospital death. Early thrombotic complications were diagnosed in 16 cases (7.2%), affecting mainly FAP patients (n = 12). Hepatic artery thrombosis (HAT) was the most frequent early thrombotic event (n = 12): incidence in FAP patients 11.6% (n = 10) versus incidence in non FAP patients 1.5% (n = 2), P = 0.001. By logistic regression analysis, FAP turned out to be an independent risk factor for early thrombotic complications, and specifically for HAT. The type of arterial reconstruction and other analysed surgical and medical factors did not influence early HAT occurrence. In conclusion, FAP was identified in this study as an independent risk factor for early HAT, a new datum not yet described in the literature.

  15. Activation of ERK1/2 MAP kinases in familial amyloidotic polyneuropathy.

    PubMed

    Monteiro, F A; Sousa, M M; Cardoso, I; do Amaral, J Barbas; Guimarães, A; Saraiva, M J

    2006-04-01

    Familial amyloidotic polyneuropathy (FAP) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the extracellular deposition of transthyretin (TTR), especially in the PNS. Given the invasiveness of nerve biopsy, salivary glands (SG) from FAP patients were used previously in microarray analysis; mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase phosphatase 1 (MKP-1) was down-regulated in FAP. Results were validated by RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry both in SG and in nerve biopsies of different stages of disease progression. MKP-3 was also down-regulated in FAP SG biopsies. Given the relationship between MKPs and MAPKs, the latter were investigated. Only extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2 (ERK1/2) displayed increased activation in FAP SG and nerves. ERK1/2 kinase (MEK1/2) activation was also up-regulated in FAP nerves. In addition, an FAP transgenic mouse model revealed increased ERK1/2 activation in peripheral nerve affected with TTR deposition when compared to control animals. Cultured rat Schwannoma cell line treatment with TTR aggregates stimulated ERK1/2 activation, which was partially mediated by the receptor for advanced glycation end-products (RAGE). Moreover, caspase-3 activation triggered by TTR aggregates was abrogated by U0126, a MEK1/2 inhibitor, indicating that ERK1/2 activation is essential for TTR aggregates-induced cytotoxicity. Taken together, these data suggest that abnormally sustained activation of ERK in FAP may represent an early signaling cascade leading to neurodegeneration.

  16. Argpyrimidine, a methylglyoxal-derived advanced glycation end-product in familial amyloidotic polyneuropathy

    PubMed Central

    2004-01-01

    FAP (familial amyloidotic polyneuropathy) is a systemic amyloid disease characterized by the formation of extracellular deposits of transthyretin. More than 80 single point mutations are associated with amyloidogenic behaviour and the onset of this fatal disease. It is believed that mutant forms of transthyretin lead to a decreased stability of the tetramer, which dissociates into monomers that are prone to unfolding and aggregation, later forming β-fibrils in amyloid deposits. This theory does not explain the formation of β-fibrils nor why they are toxic to nearby cells. Age at disease onset may vary by decades for patients with the same mutation. Moreover, non-mutated transthyretin also forms the same deposits in SSA (senile systemic amyloidosis), suggesting that mutations may only accelerate this process, but are not the determinant factor in amyloid fibril formation and cell toxicity. We propose that glycation is involved in amyloidogenesis, since amyloid fibrils present several properties common to glycated proteins. It was shown recently that glycation causes the structural transition from the folded soluble form to β-fibrils in serum albumin. We identified for the first time a methylglyoxal-derived advanced glycation end-product, argpyrimidine [Nδ-(5-hydroxy-4,6-dimethylpyrimidin-2-yl)-L-ornithine] in amyloid fibrils from FAP patients. Unequivocal argpyrimidine identification was achieved chromatographically by amino acid analysis using dabsyl (4-dimethylaminoazobenzene-4′-sulphonyl) chloride. Argpyrimidine was found at a concentration of 162.40±9.05 pmol/mg of protein in FAP patients, and it was not detected in control subjects. The presence of argpyrimidine in amyloid deposits from FAP patients supports the view that protein glycation is an important factor in amyloid diseases. PMID:15281912

  17. DJ-1 degrades transthyretin and an inactive form of DJ-1 is secreted in familial amyloidotic polyneuropathy.

    PubMed

    Koide-Yoshida, Shizuyo; Niki, Takeshi; Ueda, Mitsuharu; Himeno, Shingo; Taira, Takahiro; Iguchi-Ariga, Sanae M M; Ando, Yukio; Ariga, Hiroyoshi

    2007-06-01

    DJ-1 plays roles in transcriptional regulation and anti-oxidative stress, and loss of its function is thought to result in the onset of Parkinson's disease. DJ-1 has a protease-like structure and transthyretin (TTR), a protein causing familial amyloidotic polyneuropathy (FAP), was identified as a substrate for DJ-1 protease in this study. Both TTR and DJ-1 were secreted into the culture medium under normal conditions, and secreted TTR was not aggregated. Under oxidative conditions, TTR but not DJ-1 was secreted into the culture medium, resulting in aggregation. Mirror images of both the expression patterns and solubility of DJ-1 and TTR were observed in tissues of FAP patients, and an unoxidized form of DJ-1, an inactive form, was secreted into the serum of FAP patients. These results suggest that oxidative stress to cells abrogates secretion of DJ-1 and that secreted DJ-1 degrades aggregated TTR to protect against the onset of FAP.

  18. Familial amyloidotic polyneuropathy: current and emerging treatment options for transthyretin-mediated amyloidosis.

    PubMed

    Hund, Ernst

    2012-01-01

    Transthyretin familial amyloid polyneuropathy (TTR-FAP) is a fatal clinical disorder characterized by extracellular deposition of abnormal fibrils derived from misfolded, normally soluble transthyretin (TTR) molecules. The disease is most commonly caused by a point mutation within the TTR gene inherited in an autosomal dominant fashion. Over 100 of such mutations have been identified, leading to destabilization of the physiological TTR tetramer. As a result, many monomers originate with a tendency for spontaneous conformational changes and self-aggregation. The main clinical feature of TTR-FAP is progressive sensorimotor and autonomic neuropathy. In the beginning, this polyneuropathy predominantly involves small unmyelinated nerve fibers with the result of dissociated sensory loss disproportionately affecting sensation of pain and temperature. Autonomic neuropathy typically accompanies sensory deficits early in the disease course. The symptoms include orthostatic hypotension, constipation alternating with diarrhea, erectile dysfunction, anhydrosis, and urinary retention or incontinence. Later, involvement of motor fibers causes rapidly progressive weakness and gait disturbances. In addition to the peripheral nervous system, the heart and the gut are frequently affected. Onset of symptoms is bimodal, with one peak at age 33 years (early onset) and another distinct peak in the sixth decade of life (late onset). The course of TTR-FAP is uniformly progressive and fatal. Death occurs an average of 10.8 years after the onset of symptoms in Portuguese patients, and 7.3 years in late-onset Japanese patients. Common causes include cachexia, cardiac failure, arrhythmia, and secondary infections. Liver transplantation is the standard therapy for patients who are in a clinical condition good enough to tolerate this intervention because it stops progression of neuropathy by removing the main source of mutant TTR. Recently, orally administered tafamidis meglumine has been

  19. Familial amyloidotic polyneuropathy: current and emerging treatment options for transthyretin-mediated amyloidosis

    PubMed Central

    Hund, Ernst

    2012-01-01

    Transthyretin familial amyloid polyneuropathy (TTR-FAP) is a fatal clinical disorder characterized by extracellular deposition of abnormal fibrils derived from misfolded, normally soluble transthyretin (TTR) molecules. The disease is most commonly caused by a point mutation within the TTR gene inherited in an autosomal dominant fashion. Over 100 of such mutations have been identified, leading to destabilization of the physiological TTR tetramer. As a result, many monomers originate with a tendency for spontaneous conformational changes and self-aggregation. The main clinical feature of TTR-FAP is progressive sensorimotor and autonomic neuropathy. In the beginning, this polyneuropathy predominantly involves small unmyelinated nerve fibers with the result of dissociated sensory loss disproportionately affecting sensation of pain and temperature. Autonomic neuropathy typically accompanies sensory deficits early in the disease course. The symptoms include orthostatic hypotension, constipation alternating with diarrhea, erectile dysfunction, anhydrosis, and urinary retention or incontinence. Later, involvement of motor fibers causes rapidly progressive weakness and gait disturbances. In addition to the peripheral nervous system, the heart and the gut are frequently affected. Onset of symptoms is bimodal, with one peak at age 33 years (early onset) and another distinct peak in the sixth decade of life (late onset). The course of TTR-FAP is uniformly progressive and fatal. Death occurs an average of 10.8 years after the onset of symptoms in Portuguese patients, and 7.3 years in late-onset Japanese patients. Common causes include cachexia, cardiac failure, arrhythmia, and secondary infections. Liver transplantation is the standard therapy for patients who are in a clinical condition good enough to tolerate this intervention because it stops progression of neuropathy by removing the main source of mutant TTR. Recently, orally administered tafamidis meglumine has been

  20. Selective binding to transthyretin and tetramer stabilization in serum from patients with familial amyloidotic polyneuropathy by an iodinated diflunisal derivative

    PubMed Central

    2004-01-01

    In familial amyloidotic polyneuropathy, TTR (transthyretin) variants are deposited as amyloid fibrils. It is thought that this process involves TTR tetramer dissociation, which leads to partially unfolded monomers that aggregate and polymerize into amyloid fibrils. This process can be counteracted by stabilization of the tetramer. Several small compounds, such as diclofenac, diflunisal and flufenamic acid, have been reported to bind to TTR in vitro, in the T4 (thyroxine) binding channel that runs through the TTR tetramer, and consequently are considered to stabilize TTR. However, if these agents bind plasma proteins other than TTR, decreased drug availability will occur, compromising their use as therapeutic agents for TTR amyloidosis. In the present work, we compared the action of these compounds and of new derivatives designed to increase both selectivity of binding to TTR and inhibitory potency in relation to TTR amyloid fibril formation. We found two diflunisal derivatives that, in contrast with diclofenac, flufenamic acid and diflunisal, displaced T4 from TTR in plasma preferentially over binding to albumin and thyroxine binding globulin. The same diflunisal derivatives also had a stabilizing effect on TTR tetramers in plasma, as studied by isoelectric focusing of whole plasma under semi-denaturing conditions. In addition, by transmission electron microscopy, we demonstrated that, in contrast with other proposed TTR stabilizers (namely diclofenac, flufenamic acid and diflunisal), one of the diflunisal derivatives tested efficiently inhibited TTR aggregation. Taken together, our ex vivo and in vitro studies present evidence for the selectivity and efficiency of novel diflunisal derivates as TTR stabilizers and as inhibitors of fibril formation. PMID:15080795

  1. Systemic senile amyloidosis. Identification of a new prealbumin (transthyretin) variant in cardiac tissue: immunologic and biochemical similarity to one form of familial amyloidotic polyneuropathy.

    PubMed Central

    Gorevic, P D; Prelli, F C; Wright, J; Pras, M; Frangione, B

    1989-01-01

    Isolated amyloid fibrils from three cases of systemic senile amyloidosis (SSA) contained subunit proteins with molecular masses of 14 (10-20%), 10-12 (60-80%), and 5-6 kD (5-10%) when fractionated under reducing and dissociating conditions. This grouping was identical to that seen in SKO, a case of familial amyloidotic polyneuropathy (FAP) studied earlier. Amino acid sequencing confirmed that SSA subunit proteins were in fact prealbumin (transthyretin). Complete sequence analysis of one SSA preparation revealed the presence of a new variant Pa (TTr) molecule with a single amino acid substitution of isoleucine for valine at position 122. Further studies used an antiserum specific for SKO IV, a subunit protein of SKO previously shown to correspond to carboxy-terminal 78 residues (positions 49-127) of (TTr). Anti-SKO IV reacted with SSA in tissue at equivalent dilutions to anti-Pa (TTr) and with the 10-12-kD fraction of SSA on Western blots; reactivity was blocked by SKO IV, but not by Pa (TTr). SSA is a form of systemic amyloidosis caused by tissue deposition of Pa (TTr) and its fragments, with shared conformational or subunit antigenicity to at least one form of FAP. Identification of a new variant Pa (TTr) molecule in one case suggests further that SSA may be a genetically determined disease expressed late in life. Images PMID:2646319

  2. Potential use of glucuronylglucosyl-β-cyclodextrin/dendrimer conjugate (G2) as a siRNA carrier for the treatment of familial amyloidotic polyneuropathy.

    PubMed

    Anno, Takayuki; Higashi, Taishi; Hayashi, Yuya; Motoyama, Keiichi; Jono, Hirofumi; Ando, Yukio; Arima, Hidetoshi

    2014-12-01

    We previously reported that 6-O-α-(4-O-α-D-glucuronyl)-D-glucosyl-β-cyclodextrin (GUG-β-CyD) conjugate with polyamidoamine dendrimer (dendrimer, generation 2; G2) (GUG-β-CDE (G2)) is useful as a gene transfer carrier. In the present study, to investigate the potentials of GUG-β-CDE (G2) as a siRNA carrier, we evaluated the RNAi effect of its complex with siRNA against transthyretin (TTR) mRNA (siTTR) for the treatment of familial amyloidotic polyneuropathy (FAP). Among the various GUG-β-CDEs (G2) having the different degrees of substitution of GUG-β-CyD (degree of substation (DS) 1.8, 2.5, 3.0 and 5.0), GUG-β-CDE (G2, DS 1.8) showed the highest siTTR transfer activity. GUG-β-CDE (G2, DS 1.8)/siTTR complex showed no cytotoxicity in HepG2 cells. After intravenous administration of GUG-β-CDE (G2, DS 1.8)/siTTR complex to BALB/c mice, TTR mRNA expression was tended to reduce with negligible change of blood chemistry data. Particle size, ζ-potential and cellular association of the GUG-β-CDE (G2, DS 1.8) complex were almost the same as those of the other CDEs complexes. Meanwhile, GUG-β-CDE (G2, DS 1.8)/siTTR complex showed high endosomal escaping ability of siTTR in cytoplasm. These findings suggest the potential of GUG-β-CDE (G2, DS 1.8) as a siRNA carrier for the FAP treatment.

  3. Familial amyloid polyneuropathy.

    PubMed

    Planté-Bordeneuve, Violaine; Said, Gerard

    2011-12-01

    Familial amyloid polyneuropathies (FAPs) are a group of life-threatening multisystem disorders transmitted as an autosomal dominant trait. Nerve lesions are induced by deposits of amyloid fibrils, most commonly due to mutated transthyretin (TTR). Less often the precursor of amyloidosis is mutant apolipoprotein A-1 or gelsolin. The first identified cause of FAP-the TTR Val30Met mutation-is still the most common of more than 100 amyloidogenic point mutations identified worldwide. The penetrance and age at onset of FAP among people carrying the same mutation vary between countries. The symptomatology and clinical course of FAP can be highly variable. TTR FAP typically causes a nerve length-dependent polyneuropathy that starts in the feet with loss of temperature and pain sensations, along with life-threatening autonomic dysfunction leading to cachexia and death within 10 years on average. TTR is synthesised mainly in the liver, and liver transplantation seems to have a favourable effect on the course of neuropathy, but not on cardiac or eye lesions. Oral administration of tafamidis meglumine, which prevents misfolding and deposition of mutated TTR, is under evaluation in patients with TTR FAP. In future, patients with FAP might benefit from gene therapy; however, genetic counselling is recommended for the prevention of all types of FAP.

  4. ENDEAVOUR: Phase 3 Multicenter Study of Revusiran (ALN-TTRSC) in Patients With Transthyretin (TTR) Mediated Familial Amyloidotic Cardiomyopathy (FAC)

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-05-23

    Transthyretin (TTR) Mediated Familial Amyloidotic Cardiomyopathy (FAC); Amyloidosis, Hereditary; Amyloid Neuropathies, Familial; Amyloid Neuropathies; Amyloidosis, Hereditary, Transthyretin-Related; Familial Transthyretin Cardiac Amyloidosis

  5. [Treatment of familial amyloid polyneuropathy].

    PubMed

    Adams, David; Samuel, Didier; Slama, Michel

    2012-09-01

    The treatment of familial amyloid polyneuropathies (FAP) is complex and requires a neurological and cardiological multidisciplinary coverage. It includes specific treatments to control the progression of the systemic amyloidogenesis, the symptomatic treatment of the peripheral and autonomic neuropathy (digestive, urinary, sexual, postural hypotension) and the treatment of organs severely involved by amyloidosis (heart, eyes, kidneys). First line specific treatment of met30 TTR-FAP is liver transplantation (LT) which allows to suppress the main source of mutant TTR, to stop the progression of the neuropathy in 70 % of cases at long-term (with an experience of 18 years) and to double the median survival. In case of severe renal or cardiac insufficiency, a double transplant kidney-liver or heart-liver can be discussed. The tafamidis (in temporary authorization of use in France) is a stabilizing medicine of the tetrameric TTR which showed in very early stages of met30 TTR-FAP short-term capacities to stop the progress of the peripheral neuropathy in 60 % of the cases versus 38 % with placebo. It should be proposed in case of contraindication of TH (age>70 years [20 % of the cases]), of very early stages (very low NIS-LL score), or for the period of wait of LT. Other innovative medicines issued from biopharmaceutical companies have been developed to block the hepatic production of both mutant and wild TTR which are noxious in the late forms NAH (>50 years old) (RNAi [RNA interference] therapeutics, AntiSens oligonucleotids), for removing the amyloid deposits (monoclonal antibody anti-SAP), or to slow down the formation of deposits of TTR and amyloidosis (combination of doxycycline-TUDCA). Clinical trials should be first addressed to the patients with a late onset of FAP or non-met30 TTR-FAP who are less responding to LT and patients with contraindications in the LT. Initial cardiac assessment and periodic cardiac investigations are important for the FAP according to the

  6. [Liver transplantation for familial amyloid polyneuropathy].

    PubMed

    Adams, David; Slama, Michel; Samuel, Didier

    2010-01-01

    Familial amyloid polyneuropathy (FAP) is the most serious of the hereditary neuropathies in adults and is due to endoneurial amyloid deposits. These sensorimotor and autonomic diseases are very progressive and disabling. A "typical" patient with FAP is 30-years-old, of Portuguese origin, and has insidiously developed pains or sensory loss in the feet and digestive disorders, such as diarrhea, and has lost weight. Clinical examination shows sensory polyneuropathy of the distal small fibers (with sensory loss prevailing over sensations of temperature and pain). Cardiac disorders are frequent. One parent will have died prematurely from this disease. FAP are fatal 10.8 years after the first symptoms, on average. Neuropathy is usually associated with cardiac manifestations, weight loss, and more rarely renal or eye complications. FAP are secondary to a point mutation of the transthyretin (TTR) or prealbumin gene (18q11.2-q12.1), of which there are 40 variants. In France, the variant TTRMet30 is present in half of all cases and one third of FAP patients present with sporadic disease. Liver transplantation has been proposed as a treatment for FAP because the liver is the main source of variant amyloidogenic TTR. Transplantation makes it possible to eliminate 98% of the variant TTR in the serum, doubles median survival for variant TTRMet30 carriers, and halts the progress of the sensorimotor neuropathy over the long term in 62% of cases. No regression or recurrence has been observed. Poor prognostic factors after liver transplantation are a mutation other than the TTRMet30 variant, severe neuropathy, and late onset. Liver transplantation must be proposed to the symptomatic patients as early as possible. It should be performed in a center specialized in FAP. After LT, periodic follow-up in such a center is essential. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Cutaneous Manifestations of Familial Transthyretin Amyloid Polyneuropathy.

    PubMed

    Lanoue, Julien; Wei, Nancy; Gorevic, Peter; Phelps, Robert G

    2016-10-01

    Familial amyloid polyneuropathy (FAP) is a rare inherited autosomal dominant form of systemic amyloidosis, which classically presents with severe motor, sensory, and autonomic dysfunction. Cutaneous involvement does not become clinically apparent until late stage symptomatic disease and is rarely reported in modern literature. Here, the authors review the clinical and histologic cutaneous findings of FAP previously described in the literature and report on 3 patients with unique genetic mutations (Thr60Ala and Gly6Ser; Trp41Leu; Glu89Gln) for which cutaneous involvement has not previously been described. Histologically, our patients showed variable amyloid deposition in the subcutaneous adipose tissue, papillary dermis, and dermal blood vessel walls. A review of the literature suggests cutaneous transthyretin deposition is an underrecognized feature of FAP that occurs early on in disease, even before neural involvement and related symptoms as seen in one of our patients. As such, a cutaneous punch biopsy can serve as quick, easy, and relatively noninvasive diagnostic tool in suspected cases.

  8. Prophylactic pacemaker implantation in familial amyloid polyneuropathy.

    PubMed

    Algalarrondo, Vincent; Dinanian, Sylvie; Juin, Christophe; Chemla, Denis; Bennani, Soumiya L; Sebag, Claude; Planté, Violaine; Le Guludec, Dominique; Samuel, Didier; Adams, David; Slama, Michel S

    2012-07-01

    Familial amyloid polyneuropathy (FAP) is an autosomic dominant disease with a high rate of conduction disorders and increased risk of sudden death. Prophylactic cardiac pacing may be considered in asymptomatic patients with FAP. However, the potential benefits are unknown. To document conduction disorders in a large series of FAP and the incidence of high-degree atrioventricular (AV) block in patients with prophylactic pacemaker (PM). From January 1999 to January 2010, 262 patients with FAP were retrospectively evaluated. Prophylactic PM was implanted in patients with His-ventricular interval ≥ 70 ms, His-ventricular interval >55 ms associated with a fascicular block, a first-degree AV block, or a Wenckebach anterograde point ≤ 100 beats/min. The spontaneous AV conduction was then analyzed by temporarily inhibiting the PM. As compared with patients with prophylactic PM (n = 100) and patients implanted given a class I/IIa indication (n = 18), the patients who did not require PM (n = 144) were younger and displayed less severe cardiac involvement. Follow-up after prophylactic PM implantation was analyzed in 95 of the 100 patients over 45 ± 35 months, and a high-degree AV block was documented in 24 of the 95 patients (25%). The risk of high-degree AV block was higher in patients with first-degree AV block or Wenckebach anterograde point ≤ 100 beats/min (hazard ratio 3.5; 95% confidence interval 1.2-10) while microvoltage on surface electrocardiogram reduced the risk (hazard ratio 0.2; 95% confidence interval 0.1-0.7). In FAP with conduction disorders, prophylactic PM implantation prevented major cardiac events in 25% of the patients over a 45-month mean follow-up. It is suggested that prophylactic PM implantation prevented symptomatic bradycardia in these patients. Copyright © 2012 Heart Rhythm Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Tafamidis for transthyretin familial amyloid polyneuropathy

    PubMed Central

    Maia, Luis F.; Martins da Silva, Ana; Waddington Cruz, Marcia; Planté-Bordeneuve, Violaine; Lozeron, Pierre; Suhr, Ole B.; Campistol, Josep M.; Conceição, Isabel Maria; Schmidt, Hartmut H.-J.; Trigo, Pedro; Kelly, Jeffery W.; Labaudinière, Richard; Chan, Jason; Packman, Jeff; Wilson, Amy; Grogan, Donna R.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of 18 months of tafamidis treatment in patients with early-stage V30M transthyretin familial amyloid polyneuropathy (TTR-FAP). Methods: In this randomized, double-blind trial, patients received tafamidis 20 mg QD or placebo. Coprimary endpoints were the Neuropathy Impairment Score–Lower Limbs (NIS-LL) responder analysis (<2-point worsening) and treatment-group difference in the mean change from baseline in Norfolk Quality of Life–Diabetic Neuropathy total score (TQOL) in the intent-to-treat (ITT) population (n = 125). These endpoints were also evaluated in the efficacy-evaluable (EE; n = 87) population. Secondary endpoints, including changes in neurologic function, nutritional status, and TTR stabilization, were analyzed in the ITT population. Results: There was a higher-than-anticipated liver transplantation dropout rate. No differences were observed between the tafamidis and placebo groups for the coprimary endpoints, NIS-LL responder analysis (45.3% vs 29.5% responders; p = 0.068) and change in TQOL (2.0 vs 7.2; p = 0.116) in the ITT population. In the EE population, significantly more tafamidis patients than placebo patients were NIS-LL responders (60.0% vs 38.1%; p = 0.041), and tafamidis patients had better-preserved TQOL (0.1 vs 8.9; p = 0.045). Significant differences in most secondary endpoints favored tafamidis. TTR was stabilized in 98% of tafamidis and 0% of placebo patients (p < 0.0001). Adverse events were similar between groups. Conclusions: Although the coprimary endpoints were not met in the ITT population, tafamidis was associated with no trend toward more NIS-LL responders and a significant reduction in worsening of most neurologic variables, supporting the hypothesis that preventing TTR dissociation can delay peripheral neurologic impairment. Classification of evidence: This study provides Class II evidence that 20 mg tafamidis QD was associated with no difference in clinical progression in

  10. Management of asymptomatic gene carriers of transthyretin familial amyloid polyneuropathy

    PubMed Central

    Barroso, Fabio; González‐Duarte, Alejandra; Conceição, Isabel; Obici, Laura; Keohane, Denis; Amass, Leslie

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Transthyretin familial amyloid polyneuropathy (TTR‐FAP) is a rare, severe, and irreversible, adult‐onset, hereditary disorder caused by autosomal‐dominant mutations in the TTR gene that increase the intrinsic propensity of transthyretin protein to misfold and deposit systemically as insoluble amyloid fibrils in nerve tissues, the heart, and other organs. TTR‐FAP is characterized by relentless, progressively debilitating polyneuropathy, and leads to death, on average, within 10 years of symptom onset without treatment. With increased availability of disease‐modifying treatment options for a wider spectrum of patients with TTR‐FAP, timely detection of the disease may offer substantial clinical benefits. This review discusses mutation‐specific predictive genetic testing in first‐degree relatives of index patients diagnosed with TTR‐FAP and the structured clinical follow‐up of asymptomatic gene carriers for prompt diagnosis and early therapeutic intervention before accumulation of substantial damage. Muscle Nerve 54: 353–360, 2016 PMID:27273296

  11. Management of asymptomatic gene carriers of transthyretin familial amyloid polyneuropathy.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Hartmut H-J; Barroso, Fabio; González-Duarte, Alejandra; Conceição, Isabel; Obici, Laura; Keohane, Denis; Amass, Leslie

    2016-09-01

    Transthyretin familial amyloid polyneuropathy (TTR-FAP) is a rare, severe, and irreversible, adult-onset, hereditary disorder caused by autosomal-dominant mutations in the TTR gene that increase the intrinsic propensity of transthyretin protein to misfold and deposit systemically as insoluble amyloid fibrils in nerve tissues, the heart, and other organs. TTR-FAP is characterized by relentless, progressively debilitating polyneuropathy, and leads to death, on average, within 10 years of symptom onset without treatment. With increased availability of disease-modifying treatment options for a wider spectrum of patients with TTR-FAP, timely detection of the disease may offer substantial clinical benefits. This review discusses mutation-specific predictive genetic testing in first-degree relatives of index patients diagnosed with TTR-FAP and the structured clinical follow-up of asymptomatic gene carriers for prompt diagnosis and early therapeutic intervention before accumulation of substantial damage. Muscle Nerve 54: 353-360, 2016.

  12. Aqueous humor erythropoietin levels in open-angle glaucoma patients with and without TTR V30M familial amyloid polyneuropathy.

    PubMed

    Beirão, João M; Moreira, Luciana M; Oliveira, João C; Menéres, Maria J; Pessoa, Bernardete B; Matos, Maria E; Costa, Paulo P; Torres, Paulo A; Beirão, Idalina B

    2014-01-01

    Glaucoma is the leading cause of irreversible blindness in familial amyloidotic polyneuropathy (FAP) patients. Erythropoietin (EPO) is a cytokine that has been shown to play a role in neuroprotection and is endogenously produced in the eye. EPO levels in the aqueous humor are increased in eyes with glaucoma. In this study, we evaluated the EPO concentration in the aqueous humor of FAP and non-FAP patients, with and without glaucoma. Undiluted aqueous humor samples were obtained from 42 eyes that underwent glaucoma surgery, phacoemulsification, or vitrectomy. EPO concentration in the aqueous humor and blood were measured using the Immulite 2000 Xpi using an automatic analyzer (Siemens Healthcare Diagnostics). The mean EPO concentration in the aqueous humor of non-FAP glaucoma eyes group 2 (75.73±13.25 mU/ml) was significantly higher than non-FAP cataract eyes (17.22±5.33 mU/ml; p<0.001), FAP glaucoma eyes (18.82±10.16 mU/ml; p<0.001), and FAP nonglaucoma eyes (20.62±6.22 mU/ml; p<0.001). There was no statistically significant difference between FAP nonglaucoma eyes versus non-FAP cataract eyes (p = 0.23) and FAP glaucoma eyes versus FAP nonglaucoma eyes (p = 0.29). In the glaucoma groups, there was no correlation between the aqueous humor EPO concentration and the ocular pressure (p = 0.95) and mean deviation (p = 0.41). There was no correlation between the EPO serum concentration and EPO aqueous humor concentration in our patients (p = 0.77). Unlike other glaucomatous patients, FAP patients with glaucoma do not show increased and potentially neuroprotective endocular EPO production in the aqueous humor and may need more aggressive glaucoma management.

  13. Repurposing Diflunisal for Familial Amyloid Polyneuropathy: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Berk, John L.; Suhr, Ole B.; Obici, Laura; Sekijima, Yoshiki; Zeldenrust, Steven R.; Yamashita, Taro; Heneghan, Michael A.; Gorevic, Peter D.; Litchy, William J.; Wiesman, Janice F.; Nordh, Erik; Corato, Manuel; Lozza, Alessandro; Cortese, Andrea; Robinson-Papp, Jessica; Colton, Theodore; Rybin, Denis V.; Bisbee, Alice B.; Ando, Yukio; Ikeda, Shu-ichi; Seldin, David C.; Merlini, Giampaolo; Skinner, Martha; Kelly, Jeffery W.; Dyck, Peter J.

    2014-01-01

    Importance Familial amyloid polyneuropathy (ATTR-FAP), a lethal genetic disease caused by aggregation of variant transthyretin, induces progressive peripheral nerve deficits and disability. Diflunisal, a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agent, stabilizes transthyretin tetramers and prevents amyloid fibril formation in vitro. Objective To determine the effect of diflunisal on polyneuropathy progression in patients with ATTR-FAP. Design, Setting, and Patients We conducted an investigator-initiated international, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study at amyloid centers in Sweden (Umea), Italy (Pavia), Japan (Matsumoto and Kumamoto), England (London), and the United States (Boston, New York, Rochester, MN) from 2006 through 2012. 130 ATTRFAP patients with clinically detectable peripheral or autonomic neuropathy were randomly assigned to diflunisal 250 mg or placebo twice daily for 2 years. Main Outcome Measures The primary endpoint, the difference in polyneuropathy progression between treatments, was measured by the Neuropathy Impairment Score plus 7 nerve tests (NIS+7) which ranges from 0 (no neurologic deficits) to 270 points (no detectable peripheral nerve function). Secondary outcomes included a quality of life questionnaire (Short Form-36 (SF-36)) and modified body mass index (mBMI). Results One hundred thirty randomized patients (66 placebo, 64 diflunisal) underwent serial NIS+7 evaluations over 2 years. Due to attrition, we employed likelihood based modeling and multiple imputation (MI) analysis of baseline to 2 year data. By MI, NIS+7 increased 25.0 points (95% CI, 18.4 to 31.6) among placebo and 8.7 points (95% CI, 3.3 to 14.1) in the diflunisal group, a difference of 16.3 points (95% CI, 8.1 to 24.5, p=0.001). Mean SF-36 physical scores fell 4.9 points (95% CI, −7.6 to −2.2) among placebo and rose 1.5 points (95% CI, −0.8 to 3.7) in the diflunisal group (p=0.003). SF-36 mental scores declined 1.1 (95% CI, −4.3 to 2.0) among placebo while

  14. [Sequential heart and liver transplantation for familial amyloid polyneuropathy].

    PubMed

    Lladó, Laura; Fabregat, Joan; Ramos, Emilio; Baliellas, Carme; Roca, Josep; Casasnovas, Carlos

    2014-03-04

    Combined heart and liver transplantation for familial amyloid polyneuropathy (FAP) is currently the best treatment for patients with cardiomyopathy related to FAP. However, its optimal timing and the possibility of domino liver transplantation in this setting remain under discussion. Most such cases in the medical literature have been performed simultaneously, although many of them have required the use of veno-venous bypass and the majority have not used the liver as a graft for domino liver transplantation. We report 3 cases of non-Val30Met mutation that underwent sequential heart and domino liver transplantation at our institution. We describe the 3 cases and the medical literature, with special attention to the reason for sequential heart and liver transplantation, the role of transient elastography in this setting, and the feasibility of domino liver transplantation. In our experience, combined heart and liver transplantation is a feasible but challenging procedure for patients with FAP. Performing the procedure sequentially rather than simultaneously seems safer and easier, both technically and hemodynamically. More importantly, such an approach allows the use of livers from FAP patients as grafts for domino liver transplantation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  15. Neurodegeneration in familial amyloid polyneuropathy: from pathology to molecular signaling.

    PubMed

    Sousa, Mónica Mendes; Saraiva, Maria João

    2003-12-01

    Familial amyloid polyneuropathy (FAP) is an autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disorder related to the systemic deposition of mutated transthyretin (TTR) amyloid fibrils, particularly in peripheral nervous system (PNS). TTR fibrils are diffusely distributed in the PNS of FAP patients, involving nerve trunks, plexuses and ganglia. In peripheral nerves, amyloid deposits are prominent in the endoneurium, near blood vessels, Schwann cells and collagen fibrils. Fiber degeneration is axonal, beginning in the unmyelinated and low diameter myelinated fibers. Several hypotheses have been raised to explain axonal and neuronal loss: (i) compression of the nervous tissue by amyloid; however, a cause-effect relationship between amyloid deposition, structural nerve changes and degeneration was never clearly made; (ii) role of nerve ischemia secondary to lesions caused by perivascular amyloid, which is also doubtful as compromised blood flow was never demonstrated; (iii) lesions in the dorsal root ganglia neurons or Schwann cells. Recently, evidence for the presence of toxic non-fibrillar TTR aggregates early in FAP nerves constituted a first step to unravel molecular signaling related to neurodegeneration in FAP. The toxic nature of TTR non-fibrillar aggregates, and not mature TTR fibrils, was evidenced by their ability to induce the expression of oxidative stress and inflammation-related molecules in neuronal cells, driving them into apoptotic pathways. How these TTR aggregates exert their effects is debatable; interaction with cellular receptors, namely, the receptor for advanced glycation endproducts (RAGE), is a probable candidate mechanism. The pathology and the yet unknown molecular signaling mechanisms responsible for neurodegeneration in FAP are discussed.

  16. Current and Future Treatment Approaches in Transthyretin Familial Amyloid Polyneuropathy.

    PubMed

    Kerschen, Philippe; Planté-Bordeneuve, Violaine

    2016-12-01

    Treatment of transthyretin familial amyloid polyneuropathy (TTR FAP) must be tailored to disease stage. Patients with early stage disease (i.e., without major impairment in walking ability), especially younger patients, should be referred as soon as possible for liver transplantation (LT) in the absence of major comorbid conditions. LT remains the most effective treatment option to date and should be offered to these patients as early as possible. Bridging therapy with an oral TTR stabilizer (tafamidis or diflunisal, according to local access to these treatments) should be started as soon as the diagnosis of TTR FAP is established. Early stage patients who do not wish to or have contraindications to LT should be treated with an oral TTR stabilizer or get access to the newly developed therapeutic options (IONIS TTR-Rx, patisiran, doxycycline/TUDCA). Late stage patients (presenting with significant walking impairment) are usually older and notoriously difficult to treat. They should be offered an oral TTR stabilizer but are not candidates for LT due to a significant rate of perioperative complications and increased risk of progressive neurological and especially cardiac disease despite LT. Access to the different therapies in development should also be considered depending on respective inclusion and exclusion criteria. The abovementioned treatment options were mostly validated in Val30Met mutation patients, but should also be offered to non-Val30Met patients, although mortality rates after LT are higher in these patients. Treatment decisions should be made on an individual basis. Screening for heart, eye, and renal involvement is mandatory for every patient at disease diagnosis and regularly thereafter, even in transplanted patients. Symptomatic treatment should be offered as needed, as well as genetic counseling to at-risk family members. Asymptomatic mutation carriers should benefit from regular screening for early symptoms of disease. Current therapeutic

  17. [Perioperative management for liver transplant in a patient with familial amyloid polyneuropathy with heart involvement].

    PubMed

    López-Herrera Rodríguez, D; Guerrero Domínguez, R; Mellado Miras, P; Gómez Sosa, L

    2015-01-01

    Familial amyloid polyneuropathy (FAP) is a systemic amyloidosis caused by mutated transthyretin. Cardiac amyloidosis, the major prognostic determinant in systemic amyloidosis, is characterized by infiltration of the myocardium, leading to cardiomyopathy and conduction disturbances. Liver transplantation is the only curative option for patients with FAP. The case is presented of a 36-year-old patient with type i FAP with cardiac involvement, proposed for liver transplant surgery, which was successfully performed without any preoperative event of interest.

  18. Family with inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy and the HNPP 17p12 deletion.

    PubMed

    Korn-Lubetzki, Isabelle; Argov, Zohar; Raas-Rothschild, Annick; Wirguin, Itzchak; Steiner, Israel

    2002-12-01

    Hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies (HNPP), classically presenting as recurrent focal neuropathies precipitated by trauma or compression, is an autosomal dominant neuropathy due to a deletion at chromosomal locus 17p12. Inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (IDP), a putative autoimmune disorder presenting in an acute (AIDP) or a chronic form (CIDP), has been rarely reported as familial. We present a father and two daughters of Jewish Kurdish origin who developed IDP within 10 years. The unusual familial history led us to reevaluate the diagnosis of IDP, and suggested an autosomal dominant pedigree. DNA analysis identified the deletion typical of HNPP on chromosome 17. Screening for the HNPP deletion in patients with atypical, recurrent, or familial IDP might be warranted.

  19. Ophthalmic manifestations in a Chinese family with familial amyloid polyneuropathy due to a TTR Gly83Arg mutation.

    PubMed

    Liu, T; Zhang, B; Jin, X; Wang, W; Lee, J; Li, J; Yuan, H; Cheng, X

    2014-01-01

    To describe the characteristic ophthalmic phenotypes of a large Chinese family with familial amyloid polyneuropathy due to a missense mutation in transthyretin (TTR) (c.307 C>G). Twenty-seven individuals (12 affected, 15 unaffected) from a five-generation Chinese family underwent general medical examination and comprehensive ophthalmic examination, including best correct visual acuity, intraocular pressure measurements, Schirmer test, slitlamp examination, fundoscopy, and ocular ultrasonography. Histological examination of vitreous biopsies using Congo red staining and immunohistochemistry was performed. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR), electrocardiogram, and echocardiogram were used to evaluate cardiac amyloidosis. Electromyography was used to evaluate nerve function. All four exons of TTR were amplified by PCR, sequenced using a Bigdye terminator v3.1 cycle sequencing kit and analyzed on an ABI 3700XL Genetic Analyzer. All 12 affected individuals in the family had ocular manifestations, including severe vitreous opacities, secondary glaucoma, xerophthalmia, dyscoria, and attenuated retinal arteries. Congo red staining demonstrated amyloid deposits in the vitreous, and immunohistochemical staining confirmed the deposition of TTR proteins in the vitreous. Twelve individuals had polyneuropathy, and electromyography detected functional damage in peripheral nerves. One individual was diagnosed with cardiac amyloidosis by CMR. Direct sequencing revealed the heterozygous missense mutation in TTR (c.307 C>G p.Gly83Arg) in all 12 affected individuals. The mutation co-segregated with the disease phenotype and was absent in 100 normal controls. Vitreous opacity is very common in patients with the TTR Gly83Arg mutation; other clinical characteristics associated with the mutation include polyneuropathy and cardiac amyloidosis.

  20. [Liver transplantation as treatment of familial amyloid polyneuropathy in patients older than 60 years].

    PubMed

    Marcacuzco Quinto, Alberto A; Manrique Municio, Alejandro; Jimenez Romero, Luis C; Loinaz Segurola, Carmelo; Calvo Pulido, Jorge; Justo Alonso, Iago; Garcia-Sesma Perez-F, Alvaro; Abradelo de Usera, Manuel; Cambra Molero, Felix; Caso M, Oscar; Moreno Gonzalez, Enrique

    2015-05-08

    Familial amyloid polyneuropathy (FAP) is the most prevalent type of hereditary systemic amyloidosis. It is an autosomal dominant disease characterized by the deposition of an abnormal variant transthyretin. It has a worldwide distribution, with localized endemic areas in Portugal, Sweden and Japan. In Spain there is an endemic focus, located in Mallorca. Liver transplantation is the only curative option for patients with FAP. The aim of this study was to describe the clinical and demographic characteristics of patients transplanted with a diagnosis of PAF. Six patients with PAF underwent liver transplantation between April 1986 and December 2012. The mean age was 57.7+16 years, patients of Spanish origin were older than 60 years. All patients had progressive symptoms as mixed polyneuropathy. In 2 patients, combined heart-liver transplants sequentially were performed. Patient survival and graft was 80% at one, 3 and 5 years. The only effective treatment for etiologic PAF is liver transplantation. Early detection is the key to the treatment and control, avoiding the irreversible organ damage. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  1. Norfolk QOL-DN: validation of a patient reported outcome measure in transthyretin familial amyloid polyneuropathy.

    PubMed

    Vinik, Etta J; Vinik, Aaron I; Paulson, James F; Merkies, Ingemar S J; Packman, Jeff; Grogan, Donna R; Coelho, Teresa

    2014-06-01

    The Norfolk Quality of Life-Diabetic Neuropathy (QOL-DN) questionnaire is an instrument to assess QOL in diabetic polyneuropathy. The objective of this observational, cross-sectional study in 61 patients with V30M transthyretin familial amyloid polyneuropathy (TTR-FAP) and 16 healthy volunteers was to validate the Norfolk QOL-DN for assessment of QOL in TTR-FAP. Comparisons were conducted to identify the best items to discriminate disease stages and assess which individual Norfolk domains (symptoms, large fiber, small fiber, autonomic, and activities of daily living) would be most affected by disease stage. Analysis of individual items revealed a significant pattern of discrimination among disease stages (p < 0.001). Total QOL scores increased (indicating worsening) with duration of symptoms, with a steeper increase observed earlier in the course of disease. Significant correlations were observed between each Norfolk domain and other measures of neurological function. Limitations include cross-sectional study design, low patient numbers in this rare disease, and the ordinal-based character of the metric used; future areas to explore include item response theory approaches such as Rasch analysis. These results suggest the Norfolk QOL-DN is a reliable indicator of the impact of disease severity on QOL in patients with TTR-FAP. © 2014 Peripheral Nerve Society.

  2. High 99mTc-DPD myocardial uptake in a patient with apolipoprotein AI-related amyloidotic cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Quarta, Candida Cristina; Obici, Laura; Guidalotti, Pier Luigi; Pieroni, Maurizio; Longhi, Simone; Perlini, Stefano; Verga, Laura; Merlini, Giampaolo; Rapezzi, Claudio

    2013-03-01

    Amyloidotic cardiomyopathy is still a widely underdiagnosed condition that usually requires endomyocardial biopsy (EMB) for a definite diagnosis. 99mTc-3,3-diphosphono-1,2-propanodicarboxylic acid (99mTc-DPD) has proven highly sensitive for detecting amyloidotic cardiomyopathy due to transthyretin-related amyloid deposition. Herein we report the first description of the (99mTc-DPD scintigraphy profile in a patient with suspected amyloidotic cardiomyopathy and a final EMB- and genetically-proven diagnosis of familial apolipoprotein AI amyloidosis due to Leu174Ser variant.

  3. In vivo detection of nerve injury in familial amyloid polyneuropathy by magnetic resonance neurography

    PubMed Central

    Hund, Ernst; Hornung, Benjamin; Hegenbart, Ute; Schönland, Stefan O.; Kimmich, Christoph; Kristen, Arnt V.; Purrucker, Jan; Röcken, Christoph; Heiland, Sabine; Bendszus, Martin; Pham, Mirko

    2015-01-01

    Transthyretin familial amyloid polyneuropathy is a rare, autosomal-dominant inherited multisystem disorder usually manifesting with a rapidly progressive, axonal, distally-symmetric polyneuropathy. The detection of nerve injury by nerve conduction studies is limited, due to preferential involvement of small-fibres in early stages. We investigated whether lower limb nerve-injury can be detected, localized and quantified in vivo by high-resolution magnetic resonance neurography. We prospectively included 20 patients (12 male and eight female patients, mean age 47.9 years, range 26–66) with confirmed mutation in the transthyretin gene: 13 with symptomatic polyneuropathy and seven asymptomatic gene carriers. A large age- and sex-matched cohort of healthy volunteers served as controls (20 male and 20 female, mean age 48.1 years, range 30–73). All patients received detailed neurological and electrophysiological examinations and were scored using the Neuropathy Impairment Score–Lower Limbs, Neuropathy Deficit and Neuropathy Symptom Score. Magnetic resonance neurography (3 T) was performed with large longitudinal coverage from proximal thigh to ankle-level and separately for each leg (140 axial slices/leg) by using axial T2-weighted (repetition time/echo time = 5970/55 ms) and dual echo (repetition time 5210 ms, echo times 12 and 73 ms) turbo spin echo 2D sequences with spectral fat saturation. A 3D T2-weighted inversion-recovery sequence (repetition time/echo time 3000/202 ms) was acquired for imaging of the spinal nerves and lumbar plexus (50 axial slice reformations). Precise manual segmentation of the spinal/sciatic/tibial/common peroneal nerves was performed on each slice. Histogram-based normalization of nerve–voxel signal intensities was performed using the age- and sex-matched control group as normative reference. Nerve-voxels were subsequently classified as lesion-voxels if a threshold of >1.2 (normalized signal-intensity) was exceeded. At distal thigh

  4. Myocardial muscarinic receptor upregulation and normal response to isoproterenol in denervated hearts by familial amyloid polyneuropathy.

    PubMed

    Delahaye, N; Le Guludec, D; Dinanian, S; Delforge, J; Slama, M S; Sarda, L; Dollé, F; Mzabi, H; Samuel, D; Adams, D; Syrota, A; Merlet, P

    2001-12-11

    Patients with familial amyloid polyneuropathy, a rare hereditary form of amyloidosis, have progressive autonomic neuropathy. The disease usually does not induce heart failure but is associated with sudden death, conduction disturbances, and an increased risk of complications during anesthesia. Although cardiac sympathetic denervation has been clearly demonstrated, the postsynaptic status of the cardiac autonomic nervous system remains unelucidated. Twenty-one patients were studied (age, 39+/-11 years; normal coronary arteries; left ventricular ejection fraction 68+/-9%). To evaluate the density and affinity constants of myocardial muscarinic receptors, PET with (11)C-MQNB (methylquinuclidinyl benzilate), a specific hydrophilic antagonist, was used. Cardiac beta-receptor functional efficiency was studied by the heart rate (HR) response to intravenous infusion of isoproterenol (5 minutes after 2 mg of atropine, 5, 10, and 15 ng/kg per minute during 5 minutes per step). The mean muscarinic receptor density was higher in patients than in control subjects (B'(max), 35.5+/-8.9 versus 26.1+/-6.7 pmol/mL, P=0.003), without change in receptor affinity. The increase in HR after injection of atropine as well as of MQNB was lower in patients compared with control subjects despite a similar basal HR (DeltaHR after atropine, 11+/-21% versus 62+/-17%; P<0.001), consistent with parasympathetic denervation. Incremental infusion of isoproterenol induced a similar increase in HR in patients and control subjects. Cardiac autonomic denervation in familial amyloid polyneuropathy results in an upregulation of myocardial muscarinic receptors but without change in cardiac beta-receptor responsiveness to catecholamines.

  5. First European consensus for diagnosis, management, and treatment of transthyretin familial amyloid polyneuropathy

    PubMed Central

    Adams, David; Suhr, Ole B.; Hund, Ernst; Obici, Laura; Tournev, Ivailo; Campistol, Josep M.; Slama, Michel S.; Hazenberg, Bouke P.; Coelho, Teresa

    2016-01-01

    Purpose of review Early and accurate diagnosis of transthyretin familial amyloid polyneuropathy (TTR-FAP) represents one of the major challenges faced by physicians when caring for patients with idiopathic progressive neuropathy. There is little consensus in diagnostic and management approaches across Europe. Recent findings The low prevalence of TTR-FAP across Europe and the high variation in both genotype and phenotypic expression of the disease means that recognizing symptoms can be difficult outside of a specialized diagnostic environment. The resulting delay in diagnosis and the possibility of misdiagnosis can misguide clinical decision-making and negatively impact subsequent treatment approaches and outcomes. Summary This review summarizes the findings from two meetings of the European Network for TTR-FAP (ATTReuNET). This is an emerging group comprising representatives from 10 European countries with expertise in the diagnosis and management of TTR-FAP, including nine National Reference Centres. The current review presents management strategies and a consensus on the gold standard for diagnosis of TTR-FAP as well as a structured approach to ongoing multidisciplinary care for the patient. Greater communication, not just between members of an individual patient's treatment team, but also between regional and national centres of expertise, is the key to the effective management of TTR-FAP. PMID:26734952

  6. First European consensus for diagnosis, management, and treatment of transthyretin familial amyloid polyneuropathy.

    PubMed

    Adams, David; Suhr, Ole B; Hund, Ernst; Obici, Laura; Tournev, Ivailo; Campistol, Josep M; Slama, Michel S; Hazenberg, Bouke P; Coelho, Teresa

    2016-02-01

    Early and accurate diagnosis of transthyretin familial amyloid polyneuropathy (TTR-FAP) represents one of the major challenges faced by physicians when caring for patients with idiopathic progressive neuropathy. There is little consensus in diagnostic and management approaches across Europe. The low prevalence of TTR-FAP across Europe and the high variation in both genotype and phenotypic expression of the disease means that recognizing symptoms can be difficult outside of a specialized diagnostic environment. The resulting delay in diagnosis and the possibility of misdiagnosis can misguide clinical decision-making and negatively impact subsequent treatment approaches and outcomes. This review summarizes the findings from two meetings of the European Network for TTR-FAP (ATTReuNET). This is an emerging group comprising representatives from 10 European countries with expertise in the diagnosis and management of TTR-FAP, including nine National Reference Centres. The current review presents management strategies and a consensus on the gold standard for diagnosis of TTR-FAP as well as a structured approach to ongoing multidisciplinary care for the patient. Greater communication, not just between members of an individual patient's treatment team, but also between regional and national centres of expertise, is the key to the effective management of TTR-FAP.

  7. Evaluation of Therapeutic Oligonucleotides for Familial Amyloid Polyneuropathy in Patient-Derived Hepatocyte-Like Cells.

    PubMed

    Niemietz, Christoph J; Sauer, Vanessa; Stella, Jacqueline; Fleischhauer, Lutz; Chandhok, Gursimran; Guttmann, Sarah; Avsar, Yesim; Guo, Shuling; Ackermann, Elizabeth J; Gollob, Jared; Monia, Brett P; Zibert, Andree; Schmidt, Hartmut H-J

    2016-01-01

    Familial amyloid polyneuropathy (FAP) is caused by mutations of the transthyretin (TTR) gene, predominantly expressed in the liver. Two compounds that knockdown TTR, comprising a small interfering RNA (siRNA; ALN-TTR-02) and an antisense oligonucleotide (ASO; IONIS-TTRRx), are currently being evaluated in clinical trials. Since primary hepatocytes from FAP patients are rarely available for molecular analysis and commercial tissue culture cells or animal models lack the patient-specific genetic background, this study uses primary cells derived from urine of FAP patients. Urine-derived cells were reprogrammed to induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) with high efficiency. Hepatocyte-like cells (HLCs) showing typical hepatic marker expression were obtained from iPSCs of the FAP patients. TTR mRNA expression of FAP HLCs almost reached levels measured in human hepatocytes. To assess TTR knockdown, siTTR1 and TTR-ASO were introduced to HLCs. A significant downregulation (>80%) of TTR mRNA was induced in the HLCs by both oligonucleotides. TTR protein present in the cell culture supernatant of HLCs was similarly downregulated. Gene expression of other hepatic markers was not affected by the therapeutic oligonucleotides. Our data indicate that urine cells (UCs) after reprogramming and hepatic differentiation represent excellent primary human target cells to assess the efficacy and specificity of novel compounds.

  8. Ocular Manifestations and Therapeutic Options in Patients with Familial Amyloid Polyneuropathy: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Martins, A. C.; Rosa, A. M.; Costa, E.; Tavares, C.; Quadrado, M. J.; Murta, J. N.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. This paper aims to review the morphological and functional characteristics of patients affected by familial amyloid polyneuropathy (FAP), with greater focus on type I and its progression after liver transplantation. We also analyse therapeutic options for the ophthalmic manifestations. Methods. The literature from 2002 through 2015 was reviewed, with a total of 45 articles studied, using the key terms related to amyloidosis and its therapeutic approaches. Information was collated, evaluated, critically assessed, and then summarised in its present form. Pathophysiology and Treatment. FAP results from mutation of the transthyretin gene, with Val30Met being the most frequent substitution. The symptoms are those typical of a sensorimotor autonomic neuropathy and can be halted with liver transplantation. Nowadays there are new medical therapies that delay the progression of the systemic neuropathy. However, there are still no options to avoid ocular disease. Conclusion. The main ocular manifestations in patients with FAP type I are amyloid deposition in the vitreous, dry eye, and secondary glaucoma. Despite liver transplantation, eye synthesis of amyloid persists and is associated with progressive ocular manifestations, which require continued ophthalmologic follow-up. New therapeutic strategies are therefore needed, particularly to target the ocular synthesis of the abnormal protein. PMID:26558262

  9. Circadian rhythm of blood pressure reflects the severity of cardiac impairment in familial amyloid polyneuropathy.

    PubMed

    Algalarrondo, Vincent; Eliahou, Ludivine; Thierry, Isabelle; Bouzeman, Abdeslam; Dasoveanu, Madalina; Sebag, Claude; Moubarak, Ghassan; Le Guludec, Dominique; Samuel, Didier; Adams, David; Dinanian, Sylvie; Slama, Michel S

    2012-05-01

    Cardiac amyloidosis due to familial amyloid polyneuropathy (FAP) includes restrictive cardiomyopathy, thickened cardiac walls, conduction disorders and cardiac denervation. Impaired blood pressure variability has been documented in FAP related to the Val30Met mutation. To document blood pressure variability in FAP patients with various mutation types and its relationship to the severity of cardiac involvement. Blood pressure variability was analysed in 49 consecutive FAP patients and was compared with a matched control population. Cardiac evaluation included echocardiography, right heart catheterization, electrophysiological study, Holter electrocardiogram and metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) scintigraphy. A non-dipping pattern was found in 80% of FAP patients and in 35% of control patients (P<0.0001); this was due to a significantly lower diurnal blood pressure in FAP patients (FAP group, 113 ± 21 mmHg; control group, 124 ± 8 mmHg; P<0.0001), whereas nocturnal blood pressures were similar. Among FAP patients, a non-dipping pattern was significantly associated with haemodynamic involvement, cardiac thickening or conduction disorders. These associations did not depend on the average blood pressure levels. Impaired blood pressure variability was more frequent and more pronounced in patients with multiple criteria for severe cardiac amyloidosis. Low blood pressure variability is common in cardiac amyloidosis due to FAP. A non-dipping pattern was more frequently observed in FAP patients with haemodynamic impairment, cardiac thickening or conduction disorders. It is suggested that impairment of circadian rhythm of blood pressure reflects the severity of cardiac amyloidosis due to FAP. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Genotype-phenotype correlation and course of transthyretin familial amyloid polyneuropathies in France.

    PubMed

    Mariani, Louise-Laure; Lozeron, Pierre; Théaudin, Marie; Mincheva, Zoia; Signate, Aissatou; Ducot, Beatrice; Algalarrondo, Vincent; Denier, Christian; Adam, Clovis; Nicolas, Guillaume; Samuel, Didier; Slama, Michel S; Lacroix, Catherine; Misrahi, Micheline; Adams, David

    2015-12-01

    To compare the natural history of familial transthyretin amyloid polyneuropathies (FAP) due to the Val30Met, Ser77Tyr, and Ile107Val mutations in France with the classical Portuguese Val30Met FAP. We compared 84 French patients with a control group of 110 Portuguese patients carrying the Val30Met mutation also living in France, all referred to and followed at the French National FAP Reference Center from 1988 to 2010. Clinical examination, functional and walking disability scores, nerve conduction studies, and muscle biopsies are reported. We also conducted a comprehensive literature review to further determine the range of phenotypic expression. By comparison with Portuguese Val30Met FAP, French Ile107Val, Ser77Tyr, and LateVal30Met FAP showed more rapid and severe disease progression; onset of gait disorders was 3 times more rapid (p < 0.0001) and the rate of modified Norris test decline was up to 40 times faster in Ile107Val patients (p < 0.0001). Median survival was much shorter in Ile107Val and in Val30Met mutation with late onset (>50 years; LateMet30) FAP (p = 0.0005). Other distinctive features relative to the Portuguese patients included atypical clinical presentations, demyelination on nerve conduction studies (p = 0.0005), and difficult identification of amyloid deposits in nerve and muscle biopsies. Ile107Val and LateMet30 mutations are associated with the most debilitating and severe FAP ever described, with rapid onset of tetraparesis and shorter median survival. It could be explained by frequent large-fiber involvement and associated demyelination and more severe axonal loss. These findings have major implications for genetic counseling and patient management as new therapeutic options are being assessed in clinical trials (TTR gene silencing). © 2015 The Authors. Annals of Neurology published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Neurological Association.

  11. Changes in renal function in patients with familial amyloid polyneuropathy treated with orthotopic liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Snanoudj, Renaud; Durrbach, Antoine; Gauthier, Eric; Adams, David; Samuel, Didier; Ferlicot, Sophie; Bedossa, Pierre; Prigent, Alain; Bismuth, Henri; Charpentier, Bernard

    2004-07-01

    Familial amyloid polyneuropathy (FAP) is an autosomal dominant disease caused by a point mutation in the gene encoding transthyretin, which is secreted by the liver. Orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) has been proposed to prevent disease progression. Little is known about long-term changes in renal function and lesions after OLT. The renal function of 33 patients with FAP was evaluated (proteinuria, serum creatinine, creatinine clearance) before OLT and over a period of at least 5 years afterwards. A pre-transplantation renal biopsy was performed in 14 patients and a follow-up biopsy in eight patients. Before transplantation, mean serum creatinine concentration was 86 micromol/l (47-126 micromol/l) and creatinine clearance was 71.9+/-31.6 ml/min/1.73 m(2). Proteinuria was detected in 54% of patients (0.3-4 g/day). Pre-transplant renal biopsies (n = 14) revealed glomerular, tubular and vascular amyloid deposits in 90, 58 and 66% of patients, respectively. Eleven patients (33%) died after OLT. Death occurred most frequently in patients having weight losses >7 kg (P<0.05). After transplantation, 25 patients (76%) suffered acute renal failure but only one required dialysis. One month after transplantation, the mean serum creatinine concentration was 134.1+/-73 micromol/l and remained constant during follow-up. Eight patients underwent a second renal biopsy 2 years after transplantation. No significant changes in deposits or renal toxicity due to calcineurin inhibitors were detected. Although liver transplantation in FAP does not affect existing renal amyloid deposits, it prevents the progression of renal disease.

  12. Genotype–phenotype correlation and course of transthyretin familial amyloid polyneuropathies in France

    PubMed Central

    Mariani, Louise‐Laure; Lozeron, Pierre; Théaudin, Marie; Mincheva, Zoia; Signate, Aissatou; Ducot, Beatrice; Algalarrondo, Vincent; Denier, Christian; Adam, Clovis; Nicolas, Guillaume; Samuel, Didier; Slama, Michel S.; Lacroix, Catherine; Misrahi, Micheline; Adams, David

    2015-01-01

    Objective To compare the natural history of familial transthyretin amyloid polyneuropathies (FAP) due to the Val30Met, Ser77Tyr, and Ile107Val mutations in France with the classical Portuguese Val30Met FAP. Methods We compared 84 French patients with a control group of 110 Portuguese patients carrying the Val30Met mutation also living in France, all referred to and followed at the French National FAP Reference Center from 1988 to 2010. Clinical examination, functional and walking disability scores, nerve conduction studies, and muscle biopsies are reported. We also conducted a comprehensive literature review to further determine the range of phenotypic expression. Results By comparison with Portuguese Val30Met FAP, French Ile107Val, Ser77Tyr, and LateVal30Met FAP showed more rapid and severe disease progression; onset of gait disorders was 3 times more rapid (p < 0.0001) and the rate of modified Norris test decline was up to 40 times faster in Ile107Val patients (p < 0.0001). Median survival was much shorter in Ile107Val and in Val30Met mutation with late onset (>50 years; LateMet30) FAP (p = 0.0005). Other distinctive features relative to the Portuguese patients included atypical clinical presentations, demyelination on nerve conduction studies (p = 0.0005), and difficult identification of amyloid deposits in nerve and muscle biopsies. Interpretation Ile107Val and LateMet30 mutations are associated with the most debilitating and severe FAP ever described, with rapid onset of tetraparesis and shorter median survival. It could be explained by frequent large‐fiber involvement and associated demyelination and more severe axonal loss. These findings have major implications for genetic counseling and patient management as new therapeutic options are being assessed in clinical trials (TTR gene silencing). Ann Neurol 2015;78:901–916 PMID:26369527

  13. Recessive C10orf2 mutations in a family with infantile-onset spinocerebellar ataxia, sensorimotor polyneuropathy, and myopathy.

    PubMed

    Park, Mi-Hyun; Woo, Hae-Mi; Hong, Young Bin; Park, Ji Hoon; Yoon, Bo Ram; Park, Jin-Mo; Yoo, Jeong Hyun; Koo, Heasoo; Chae, Jong-Hee; Chung, Ki Wha; Choi, Byung-Ok; Koo, Soo Kyung

    2014-08-01

    Recessive mutations in chromosome 10 open reading frame 2 (C10orf2) are relevant in infantile-onset spinocerebellar ataxia (IOSCA). In this study, we investigated the causative mutation in a Korean family with combined phenotypes of IOSCA, sensorimotor polyneuropathy, and myopathy. We investigated recessive mutations in a Korean family with two individuals affected by IOSCA. Causative mutations were investigated using whole exome sequencing. Electrophysiological analyses and muscle and nerve biopsies were performed, along with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain and lower extremities. Compound heterozygous mutations c.1460C>T and c.1485-1G>A in C10orf2 were identified as causative of IOSCA. Skeletal muscle showed mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) deletions. Both patients showed a period of normal development until 12-15 months, followed by ataxia, athetosis, hearing loss, and intellectual disability. Electrophysiological findings indicated motor and sensory polyneuropathies. Muscle biopsy revealed variations in the size and shape of myofibers with scattered, small, and angulated degenerating myofibers containing abnormal mitochondria; these observations are consistent with myopathy and may be the result of mtDNA deletions. Sural nerve biopsy revealed an axonal neuropathy. High-signal-intensity lesions in the middle cerebellar peduncles were correlated with clinical severity, and MRI of the lower legs was compatible with the hypothesis of length-dependent axonal degeneration. We identified novel compound heterozygous mutations of the C10orf2 gene as the cause of IOSCA with sensorimotor polyneuropathy and myopathy. Signs of motor neuropathy and myopathy were discovered for the first time in IOSCA patients with C10orf2 mutations. These results suggest that the clinical spectrum of IOSCA caused by C10orf2 mutations may be more variable than previously reported.

  14. Long-term evaluation of neuromyopathy in live donor FMF amyloidotic kidney transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Sherif, Ali M; Refaie, Ayman F; Sheashaa, Hussein A; El-Tantawy, Abd-Elhalim; Sobh, Mohamed A

    2004-01-01

    Neuromyopathy was reported to be a problem among live donor familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) amyloid kidney transplant recipients. We aimed to address this issue on a long-term basis. 14 FMF amyloid live donor kidney transplant recipients with a mean post-transplant follow-up period of 82.43 +/- 50.1 months in comparison to a control group of 19 non-amyloid renal transplant patients were subjected to thorough neurological examination, laboratory and electrophysiologic studies. Both groups were comparable with regard to mean serum creatinine levels cyclosporine doses (p > 0.05), however trough cyclosporine levels were significantly lower in the amyloidotics than the controls (p = 0.04). Serum creatine phosphokinase was comparable in both groups (p = 0.59). The amyloid patients showed significantly increased polyphasic motor unit potentials and abnormal interference patterns in the biceps brachii muscle (p = 0.03) and the abductor polices brevis muscle (p = 0.05). Multivariate analysis showed a significant level for biceps myopathy in amyloidotics (p = 0.001). Both groups attained no difference with regard to median nerve conduction velocity. Electrophysiologically evidenced neuromyopathy is more liable to occur in long-term live donor FMF amyloidotic kidney transplant recipients than in the other non-amyloidotic kidney transplant recipients even with no clinical manifestations or high creatine phosphokinase levels. Copyright 2004 S. Karger AG, Basel

  15. Long-term treatment of transthyretin familial amyloid polyneuropathy with tafamidis: a clinical and neurophysiological study.

    PubMed

    Planté-Bordeneuve, Violaine; Gorram, Farida; Salhi, Hayet; Nordine, Tarik; Ayache, Samar S; Le Corvoisier, Philippe; Azoulay, Daniel; Feray, Cyrille; Damy, Thibaud; Lefaucheur, Jean-Pascal

    2017-02-01

    Tafamidis is a transthyretin (TTR) stabilizer recently approved to slow the neurologic impairment in TTR familial amyloid polyneuropathy (TTR-FAP). The pivotal studies on Tafamidis reported encouraging results on the short term, in the early onset Val30Met-TTR-FAP patients at an early stage of the neuropathy. However, the effect of the drug in the non-Val30Met patients, at a more advanced stage of the disease and on the long term, is less known. In this study, we report the effect of Tafamidis in 43 TTR-FAP patients with a variety of pathogenic mutations, including 53% of non-Val30Met variants, at different stages of neuropathy followed on the long term. General and neurological assessment was performed in a standardized protocol every 6-12 months along with neurophysiological variables, including testing of small nerve fibres. The mean follow-up under treatment was 2 years with a subset of 26 patients treated for 3 years. Overall, Tafamidis was well tolerated. A significant clinical deterioration of the neuropathy and the patient's general condition was observed across the 3 years follow-up, although neurophysiological parameters remained stable for the first 2 years. In contrast, patients had a significant increase of BMI under treatment. Deterioration of the neuropathy correlated to an older age at disease onset or treatment initiation and to poor clinical status at baseline. A higher BMI at baseline was associated with a lower progression of the neuropathy. About one-third of the patients who received 3 years of tafamidis had still preserved walking capacity or good clinical condition, suggesting that tafamidis slowed the disease progression in some patients. Overall, our work shows that tafamidis is well tolerated in TTR-FAP but does not prevent the steady progression of the neuropathy on the long term. Age, neurologic status, and general condition at baseline appear to be best predictors of tafamidis efficacy on the neurological function.

  16. The course and prognostic factors of familial amyloid polyneuropathy after liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Adams, D; Samuel, D; Goulon-Goeau, C; Nakazato, M; Costa, P M; Feray, C; Planté, V; Ducot, B; Ichai, P; Lacroix, C; Metral, S; Bismuth, H; Said, G

    2000-07-01

    Familial amyloid polyneuropathy (FAP) associated with mutations of the transthyretin (TTR) gene is the most common type of FAP, a devastating disease causing death within 10 years after the first symptoms. Because most of the amyloidogenic mutated TTR is secreted by the liver, transplantation is widely used to treat these patients, but long-term quantitative evaluation of the effects of liver transplantation on the progression of the neuropathy are not available. We have treated 45 patients with symptomatic TTR-FAP, including 43 with the Met30 TTR gene mutation, and report on the results of periodic evaluation of markers of neuropathy in 25 of them, who have been followed for more than 2 years after liver transplantation (mean follow-up 4 years). The overall survival rates at 1 and 5 years were 82 and 60%, respectively. Urinary incontinence and a low Norris score at liver transplantation were associated with poorer outcome. The motor score stabilized in seven of 11 patients (64%) with mild sensorimotor neuropathy (walking unaided) and in two of the eight patients (25%) with severe sensorimotor deficit (walking with aid) at liver transplantation. In five other patients, deterioration of motor deficit occurred only within the first year after liver transplantation, but was progressive after this interval in two patients. None of the six patients with pure sensory neuropathy developed motor loss and superficial sensory loss remained unchanged. Two years after liver transplantation, the rate of myelinated axon loss in nerve biopsy specimens was markedly lower in seven transplanted patients (0.9/mm(2) of endoneurial area/month) than in non-transplanted patients (70/mm(2) of endoneurial area/month). Symptoms of dysautonomia and quantitated cardiocirculatory autonomic tests remained unchanged. In all patients, serum mutated TTR decreased to 2.5% of pre-liver transplantation values and remained at this level during follow-up. We presently recommend liver transplantation in

  17. Impact of liver transplantation on cardiac autonomic denervation in familial amyloid polyneuropathy.

    PubMed

    Delahaye, Nicolas; Rouzet, François; Sarda, Laure; Tamas, Carmen; Dinanian, Sylvie; Plante-Bordeneuve, Violaine; Adams, David; Samuel, Didier; Merlet, Pascal; Syrota, André; Slama, Michel S; Le Guludec, Dominique

    2006-07-01

    Familial amyloid polyneuropathy (FAP) is a rare and severe hereditary form of amyloidosis, due to the deposition of a genetic variant transthyretin essentially produced by the liver, and characterized by both sensorimotor and autonomic neuropathy. Liver transplantation (LT) is the most effective treatment to stop the progression of the disease. Cardiac amyloid infiltration is usually associated with cardiac denervation, restrictive cardiomyopathy, conduction disturbances, and sometimes sudden death. Whether the cardiac involvement related to amyloid deposition may be altered after LT remains unclear. We conducted the present study to define the outcome of cardiac involvement after LT in 31 patients with FAP (age, 39 +/- 12 yr). Patients were evaluated before and after LT (24 +/- 15 mo). Cardiac sympathetic denervation was assessed by both iodine-123 metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) scintigraphy and heart rate variability (HRV) analysis. The scintigraphic importance of sympathetic denervation was evaluated globally on planar imaging using heart-to-mediastinum activity ratio (H/M) measured 4 hours after injection, and regionally using single-photon emission tomography (SPET) imaging. Amyloid myocardial infiltration was assessed by echocardiography. Diffuse sympathetic denervation was found when using cardiac MIBG planar imaging in patients evaluated before LT and compared with 12 control subjects (H/M: 1.45 +/- 0.29 vs. 1.98 +/- 0.35, p < 0.001). On SPET images, defects were diffuse in 12 patients and focal in 19 patients, with predominance at the inferior and apical segments. No change in sympathetic innervation was found in patients after LT as assessed either with planar imaging (H/M after LT: 1.46 +/- 0.28, p = not significant vs. H/M before LT) or with SPET imaging. HRV nonspectral indexes showed that the standard deviation of all cycles was significantly lower in patients compared with control subjects, and remained unchanged after LT. Conduction disturbances and

  18. Early identification of amyloid heart disease by technetium-99m-pyrophosphate scintigraphy: a study with familial amyloid polyneuropathy

    SciTech Connect

    Hongo, M.; Hirayama, J.; Fujii, T.; Yamada, H.; Okubo, S.; Kusama, S.; Ikeda, S.

    1987-03-01

    To determine whether technetium-99m-pyrophosphate (Tc-99m-PYP) scanning or two-dimensional echocardiography can detect amyloid heart disease in an earlier stage of familial amyloid polyneuropathy, 15 patients were examined. Although 10 of the 15 patients had no clinical evidence of congestive heart failure, as well as normal ventricular wall thickness and normal values for left ventricular systolic function, five (50%) of them showed mild or moderate myocardial uptake. On the other hand, none had characteristic highly refractile myocardial echoes on the two-dimensional echocardiographic images (p less than 0.01), and values for diastolic function were reduced in four of the five and normal in the remaining one. In 85 control subjects, diffuse positive pyrophosphate scans of the heart were found in four (5%) of them (three with dilated cardiomyopathy and one with sarcoidosis), and highly refractile granular sparkling echoes were observed in nine (11%) (five with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, three with aortic stenosis, and one with hypereosinophilic syndrome). We conclude that Tc-99m-PYP scanning is a more sensitive and specific method and may have the potential ability to detect amyloid heart disease in the earlier stage of familial amyloid polyneuropathy than two-dimensional echocardiography.

  19. Sensorimotor polyneuropathy

    MedlinePlus

    ... which case it is called a sensorimotor neuropathy. Sensorimotor polyneuropathy is a bodywide (systemic) process that damages nerve cells, nerve fibers (axons), and nerve coverings ( myelin sheath). Damage to ...

  20. A novel ATTR L32V mutation causes familial amyloid polyneuropathy in a Bolivian family.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Ulloa, Pedro L; Vallejo, Manuela; Corral, Iñigo; García-Barragán, Nuria; Alcazar, Alberto; Martínez-Alonso, Emma; Martínez-Poles, Javier; Pian, Hector; Jiménez-Escrig, Adriano

    2017-09-01

    We report a new transthyretin (ATTR) gene c.272C>G mutation and variant protein, p.Leu32Val, in a kindred of Bolivian origin with a rapid progressive peripheral neuropathy and cardiomyopathy. Three individuals from a kindred with peripheral nerve and cardiac amyloidosis were examined. Analysis of the TTR gene was performed by Sanger direct sequencing. Neuropathologic examination was obtained on the index patient with mass spectrometry study of the ATTR deposition. Direct DNA sequence analysis of exons 2, 3, and 4 of the TTR gene demonstrated a c.272 C>G mutation in exon 2 (p.L32V). Sural nerve biopsy revealed massive amyloid deposition in the perineurium, endoneurium and vasa nervorum. Mass spectrometric analyses of ATTR immunoprecipitated from nerve biopsy showed the presence of both wild-type and variant proteins. The observed mass results for the wild-type and variant proteins were consistent with the predicted values calculated from the genetic analysis data. The ATTR L32V is associated with a severe course. This has implications for treatment of affected individuals and counseling of family members. © 2017 Peripheral Nerve Society.

  1. Cardiac sympathetic denervation in familial amyloid polyneuropathy assessed by iodine-123 metaiodobenzylguanidine scintigraphy and heart rate variability.

    PubMed

    Delahaye, N; Dinanian, S; Slama, M S; Mzabi, H; Samuel, D; Adams, D; Merlet, P; Le Guludec, D

    1999-04-01

    Familial amyloid polyneuropathy (FAP) is a rare and severe hereditary form of amyloidosis, due to nervous deposits of a genetic variant transthyretin produced by the liver and characterized by both sensorimotor and autonomic neuropathy. Left ventricular systolic dysfunction is rare, but conduction disturbances and sudden deaths can occur. The neurological status of the heart has not been elucidated, and an alteration of the sympathetic nerves may be involved. We studied 17 patients (42+/-12 years) before liver transplantation by iodine-123 metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) scintigraphy, heart rate variability analysis, coronary angiography, radionuclide ventriculography, rest thallium single-photon emission tomography (SPET) and echocardiography. Coronary arteries, left ventricular systolic function and rest thallium SPET were normal in all patients. Only mild evidence of amyloid infiltration was found at echocardiographic examination. Cardiac MIBG uptake was dramatically decreased in patients compared with age-matched control subjects (heart-to-mediastinum activity ratio at 4 h: 1.36+/-0.26 versus 1.98+/-0.35, P<0.001), while there was no difference in MIBG washout rate. Heart rate variability analysis showed a considerable scatter of values, with high values in four patients despite cardiac sympathetic denervation as assessed by MIBG imaging. The clinical severity of the polyneuropathy correlated with MIBG uptake at 4 h but not with the heart rate variability indices. Cardiac MIBG uptake and the heart rate variability indices did not differ according to the presence or absence of conduction disturbances. Patients with FAP have sympathetic cardiac denervation as assessed by MIBG imaging despite a preserved left ventricular systolic function and cardiac perfusion, without correlation with conduction disturbances. Results of the heart rate variability analysis were more variable and this technique does not seem to be the best way to evaluate the extent of cardiac

  2. Transthyretin-Related Familial Amyloid Polyneuropathy (TTR-FAP): A Single-Center Experience in Sicily, an Italian Endemic Area

    PubMed Central

    Mazzeo, Anna; Russo, Massimo; Di Bella, Gianluca; Minutoli, Fabio; Stancanelli, Claudia; Gentile, Luca; Baldari, Sergio; Carerj, Scipione; Toscano, Antonio; Vita, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background: Familial amyloid polyneuropathy related to transthyretin gene (TTR-FAP) is a life-threatening disease transmitted as an autosomal dominant trait. Val30Met mutation accounts for the majority of the patients with large endemic foci especially in Portugal, Sweden and Japan. However, more than one hundred other mutations have been described worldwide. A great phenotypic variability among patients with late- and early-onset has been reported. Objective: To present a detailed report of TTR-FAP patients diagnosed in our tertiary neuromuscular center, in a 20-year period. Methods: Clinical informations were gathered through the database of our center. Results: The study involved 76 individuals carrying a TTR-FAP mutation. Three phenotypes were identified, each corresponding to a different TTR variant, homogeneous within and heterogeneous between each other: i) Glu89Gln mutation, characterised by 5th – 6th decade onset, neuropathy as presenting symptoms, early heart dysfunction, cardiomyopathy as major cause of mortality followed by dysautonomia and cachexia; ii) Phe64Leu mutation, marked by familiarity reported in one-half of cases, late onset, severe peripheral neuropathy, moderate dysautonomia and mild cardiomyopathy, death for wasting syndrome; iii) Thr49Ala mutation, distinguished by onset in the 5th decade, autonomic disturbances as inaugural symptoms which may remain isolated for many years, moderate polyneuropathy, cachexia as major cause of mortality followed by cardiomyopathy. Conclusions: This survey highlighted a prevalence of 8.8/1,000,000 in Sicily Island. Good knowledge of the natural history of the disease according to different TTR mutations allow clinicians to optimise multiprofessional care for patients and to offer carriers a personalized follow-up to reveal first signs of the disease. PMID:27858761

  3. Liver transplantation and combined liver-heart transplantation in patients with familial amyloid polyneuropathy: a single-center experience.

    PubMed

    Barreiros, Ana-Paula; Post, Felix; Hoppe-Lotichius, Maria; Linke, Reinhold P; Vahl, Christian F; Schäfers, Hans-Joachim; Galle, Peter R; Otto, Gerd

    2010-03-01

    Liver transplantation (LT) is the only curative option for patients with familial amyloid polyneuropathy (FAP) at present. Twenty patients with FAP underwent LT between May 1998 and June 2007. Transthyretin mutations included predominantly the Val30Met mutation but also 10 other mutations. Seven patients received a pacemaker prior to LT, and because of impairment of mechanical cardiac function, 4 combined heart-liver transplants were performed, 1 simultaneously and 3 sequentially. The first patient, who underwent simultaneous transplantation, died. Seven patients died after LT, with 5 dying within the first year after transplantation. The causes of death were cardiac complications (4 patients), infections (2 patients), and malnutrition (1 patient). One-year survival was 75.0%, and 5-year survival was 64.2%. Gly47Glu and Leu12Pro mutations showed an aggressive clinical manifestation: 2 patients with the Gly47Glu mutation, the youngest patients of all the non-Val30Met patients, suffered from severe cardiac symptoms leading to death despite LT. Two siblings with the Leu12Pro mutation, who presented only with grand mal seizures, died after LT because of sepsis. In conclusion, the clinical course in patients with FAP is very variable. Cardiac symptoms occurred predominantly in patients with non-Val30Met mutations and prompted combined heart-liver transplantation in 4 patients. Although early LT in Val30Met is indicated in order to halt the typical symptoms of polyneuropathy, additional complications occurring predominantly with other mutations may prevail and lead to life-threatening complications or a fatal outcome. Combined heart-liver transplantation should be considered in patients with restrictive cardiomyopathy.

  4. TTR familial amyloid polyneuropathy: does a mitochondrial polymorphism entirely explain the parent-of-origin difference in penetrance?

    PubMed

    Bonaïti, Bernard; Olsson, Malin; Hellman, Urban; Suhr, Ole; Bonaïti-Pellié, Catherine; Planté-Bordeneuve, Violaine

    2010-08-01

    The Val30Met transthyretin familial amyloid polyneuropathy (TTR-V30M-FAP) is the most frequent familial amyloidosis, with autosomal dominant transmission. This severe disease shows important differences in age of onset and penetrance. Recently, a difference in penetrance according to the gender of the transmitting parent was elicited in different geographic areas with a higher penetrance in case of maternal transmission of the trait. In addition, differences in mitochondrial haplogroup distribution in early and late onset Swedish and French cases of TTR-V30M-FAP suggested that a polymorphism of mitochondrial DNA could be one underlying mechanism of the phenotypic variation. We further investigated this hypothesis by modeling the penetrance function with a parent-of-origin and/or a mitochondrial polymorphism effect in samples of Portuguese (n=33) and Swedish families (n=86) with TTR-V30M-FAP in which several individuals had been tested for mitochondrial haplogroups. Our analysis showed that a mitochondrial polymorphism effect was sufficient to explain the observed difference in penetrance according to gender of the transmitting parent in the Portuguese sample, whereas, in the Swedish sample, a clear residual parent-of-origin effect remained. This study further supported the role of a mitochondrial polymorphism effect that might induce a higher penetrance in case of maternal inheritance of the disease. In clinical practice, these results might help to better delineate the individual disease risk and have a significant impact on the management of both patients and carriers.

  5. Familial amyloid polyneuropathy: elaboration of a therapeutic patient education programme, "EdAmyl".

    PubMed

    Théaudin, Marie; Cauquil, Cécile; Antonini, Teresa; Algalarrondo, Vincent; Labeyrie, Céline; Aycaguer, Sophie; Clément, Mireille; Kubezyk, Marie; Nonnez, Géraldine; Morier, Agnès; Bourges, Catherine; Darras, Amandine; Mouzat, Laurence; Adams, David

    2014-12-01

    Transthyretin-related amyloidosis (ATTR) is an autosomal dominant disease affecting the peripheral and autonomic nervous system, heart, eyes and kidneys. It is the most disabling hereditary polyneuropathy in adults. The French National Reference centre for this disease was accredited in 2005 with 10 lines of action. One of them is to inform and educate patients about their disease to improve their care and reduce morbidities. We thus decided to elaborate a therapeutic patient education (TPE) programme, starting with patients' needs assessment. A qualitative research study was conducted with one-to-one semi-structured interviews of selected individuals. Recorded interviews were analysed to identify the skills that patients need to acquire. A TPE programme was elaborated on the basis of these findings. Seven patients, one asymptomatic carrier and two healthy spouses were interviewed. Analysis of the interviews showed that interviewees had a good knowledge of the disease and its symptoms but they had difficulties explaining the disease mechanism and did not have an adequate knowledge of the available treatment options, although they knew that liver transplant might halt progression of the disease. ATTR amyloidosis appeared to have a major negative impact on the patient's physical and mental well-being. Patients feared loss of autonomy and having to require assistance from their relatives and spouses. All interviewees were keen to participate in a TPE programme. Based on this needs assessment, we identified seven skills that patients need to acquire and several pedagogical goals to be achieved during the education programme. An interdisciplinary team then elaborated a complete TPE programme. Elaboration of a TPE programme for ATTR amyloidosis required to obtain useful information from the patients themselves, and their relatives, concerning their perception of their disease. This needs' assessment constituted the basis for designing the first TPE programme, to our

  6. Epidemiology of transthyretin-associated familial amyloid polyneuropathy in the Majorcan area: Son Llàtzer Hospital descriptive study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Transthyretin-associated Familial Amyloid Polyneuropathy (TTR-FAP) is an autosomal dominant disease caused by the deposition of abnormal transthyretin that results from a gene mutation. Although rare worldwide, there are descriptions of several endemic foci, such as in Majorca, Balearic Islands, Spain. We aimed at describing a contemporary series of TTR-FAP patients in Son Llàtzer Hospital in Majorca from an epidemiological point of view in order to report their main clinical and laboratory characteristics. Methods A retrospective, observational study was performed. Medical records from adult patients diagnosed with TTR-FAP from a single hospital were reviewed. Results Out of a total of 107 cases, 75 subjects were included: asymptomatic carriers (52.3%) and symptomatic patients (47.7%). Mean age was 58.3 years at the time of the study, and 50.7% were men. Mean age at diagnosis was 49.8 years. In addition, 42 patients (39.2%) had received a liver transplant, and time to liver transplantation was on average 29.56 months from the initial diagnosis. They all had the Val30Met mutation. The organs of the nervous system were those most frequently impaired (57.3%), and 83.9% of the symptomatic patients were fully ambulant (stage 1). Family history was reported in 69.3% of the cases, with the patient’s father being the most commonly affected relative. Comorbidities were frequent, with high blood pressure being the most common. Conclusions Our findings provide additional information on this condition and are useful for describing the demographic features, clinical presentation, diagnosis, and natural course of TTR-FAP in Majorca. PMID:24572009

  7. Familial amyloid polyneuropathy: report of an autopsy case with neuropathy, vitreous opacities and polycystic kidney.

    PubMed

    Scelsi, R; Verri, A P; Bono, G; Marbini, A

    1989-01-01

    A 26-year-old Italian male with an unusual form of familial amyloidosis was investigated. The present case does not seem to fit into any of the forms of familial amyloidosis known for the different combinations of organ involvement. The patient developed renal failure, vitreous opacities and a sensorimotor neuropathy with trophic changes in the lower limbs. Two sural-nerve biopsies performed 5 years from each other showed a progressive loss of nerve fibers and amyloid deposits in the endoneurium. The autopsy revealed bilateral adult congenital polycystic kidney with wide deposition of amyloid in the interstitium and in the glomerular tufts. Amyloid deposits were also seen in the vitreous and in the cranial nerves. As in the other forms of familial amyloidosis, potassium permanganate treatment did not modify the Congo red affinity of amyloid deposits and immunocytochemical studies revealed that the amyloid reacted with antibodies against prealbumin.

  8. Curcumin could reduce the monomer of TTR with Tyr114Cys mutation via autophagy in cell model of familial amyloid polyneuropathy

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hui; Zhang, Yu; Cao, Li; Xiong, Ran; Zhang, Bei; Wu, Li; Zhao, Zongbo; Chen, Sheng-Di

    2014-01-01

    Transthyretin (TTR) familial amyloid polyneuropathy (FAP) is an autosomal dominant inherited neurodegenerative disorder caused by various mutations in the transthyretin gene. We aimed to identify the mechanisms underlying TTR FAP with Tyr114Cys (Y114C) mutation. Our study showed that TTR Y114C mutation led to an increase in monomeric TTR and impaired autophagy. Treatment with curcumin resulted in a significant decrease of monomeric TTR by recovering autophagy. Our research suggests that impairment of autophagy might be involved in the pathogenesis of TTR FAP with Y114C mutation, and curcumin might be a potential therapeutic approach for TTR FAP. PMID:25382970

  9. A sporadic case of late-onset familial amyloid polyneuropathy with a monoclonal gammopathy.

    PubMed

    Correia, Ana Sofia; Mendonça, Marcelo; Caetano, André; Medeiros, Elmira

    2015-08-01

    A 77-year-old Portuguese woman reported gradual worsening of burning and numbness in the feet and hands, fatigue, anorexia, weight loss, diarrhoea and decreased visual acuity. She had a medical history of atrial fibrillation and recent episodes of dizziness and blood pressure fluctuations. There was no relevant family history. The diagnostic workup documented a severe axonal sensorimotor peripheral neuropathy, a monoclonal IgG kappa protein on serum, a severe left ventricular hypertrophy on the echocardiogram and probable vitreous deposits of amyloid on ophthalmologic examination. Pain and dysautonomia with an axonal neuropathy and multisystemic involvement raised the possibility of amyloidosis. The presence of a detectable monoclonal protein, older age at disease onset and absence of family history of disease usually suggest immunoglobulin light-chain amyloidosis. However, in this case, both the genetic testing and the biopsy of the salivary glands confirmed transthyretin amyloidosis. In those patients with a monoclonal protein, particularly in sporadic and late-onset cases, the diagnosis of transthyretin amyloidosis can be challenging, mimicking immunoglobulin light-chain amyloidosis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. TRANSTHYRETIN V30M FAMILIAL AMYLOIDOSIS PRESENTING AS ISOLATED RETINAL ANGIOPATHY.

    PubMed

    Chen, Judy J; Kalevar, Ananda; Vora, Robin A; Qian, Ying; Gorenberg, Peter H; Garcia-Kennedy, Richard; Cunningham, Emmett T

    2017-10-09

    To describe a patient with confirmed transthyretin V30M form of familial amyloidosis who presented initially with isolated retinal angiopathy. Retrospective chart review. A 66-year-old woman presented with bilateral retinal angiopathy. Extensive workup for an infectious, inflammatory, or hypercoagulable cause was unrevealing. The patient subsequently developed bilateral neovascularization of the optic nerve and iris complicated by recurrent vitreous hemorrhages, which were treated with intravitreal bevacizumab and panretinal photocoagulation. The development of cardiac and gastrointestinal symptoms 5 years after presentation led to tissue biopsies that revealed both Congo red staining and apple-green birefringence in polarized light, confirming the diagnosis of systemic amyloidosis. Sequencing of the transthyretin gene confirmed the patient to be heterozygous for the common amyloidogenic V30M mutation. The common transthyretin V30M form of familial amyloidotic polyneuropathy can rarely present with retinal angiopathy. Recurrent vitreous hemorrhages were treated successfully with intravitreal bevacizumab and panretinal photocoagulation.

  11. Finnish type of familial amyloidosis: cosegregation of Asp187----Asn mutation of gelsolin with the disease in three large families.

    PubMed Central

    Hiltunen, T; Kiuru, S; Hongell, V; Heliö, T; Palo, J; Peltonen, L

    1991-01-01

    Familial amyloidosis of Finnish type (FAF) is one of the familial amyloidotic polyneuropathy (FAP) syndromes, a group of inherited disorders characterized by extracellular accumulation of amyloid and by clinical symptoms and signs of polyneuropathy. FAF, an autosomal dominant trait, belongs to those rare monogenic disorders which occur with increased frequency in the Finnish population: only single FAF cases have been reported from other populations. In most types of FAP syndromes the accumulating protein is a transthyretin variant. However, recent evidence has suggested that the amyloid peptides in FAF are related to gelsolin, an actin modulating protein. The gelsolin fragments isolated from at least one patient with amyloidosis have been reported to have an amino acid substitution, with asparagine replacing aspartic acid at position 187 of the plasma gelsolin. In this study allele-specific oligonucleotides were used to analyze three large FAF families with multiple affected individuals as well as healthy family members. We found the corresponding G-A mutation in nucleotide 654 of the plasma gelsolin gene to cosegregate with the disease. The result was confirmed by sequencing and strongly suggests that the mutation has caused all the FAF cases of these families. Since the disease is clustered in restricted areas on the southern coast of Finland, this mutation most probably causes the majority, if not all, of FAF cases in Finland. Images Figure 2 PMID:1652889

  12. Death anxiety and symbolic immortality in relatives at risk for familial amyloid polyneuropathy type I (FAP I, ATTR V30M).

    PubMed

    Santos, Paula I; Figueiredo, Eurico; Gomes, Inês; Sequeiros, Jorge

    2010-12-01

    This study is an investigation of the impact of familial amyloid polyneuropathy type I (FAP I, ATTR V30M) on death anxiety and symbolic immortality. Templer and Drolet's scales were administered to 524 individuals: (1) 84 relatives at risk, (2) 92 relatives not at risk for FAP I; and (3) a control group (n = 348) with no known hereditary disease in their families. At-risk relatives had, on average, a higher score for death anxiety and a lower score for symbolic immortality, than either those not-at-risk or controls. There were no significant differences in scores on either measure for those not-at-risk versus controls. Being at risk increases death anxiety and threatens the sense of symbolic immortality and psychosocial wellbeing. This may be true for other serious hereditary disorders as well. Genetic counsellors should become familiar with these concepts, feel comfortable initiating discussions about death with their patients, and be able to identify and reinforce their patients' and family members' sense of symbolic immortality.

  13. Involvement of Macrophages in the Pathogenesis of Familial Amyloid Polyneuropathy and Efficacy of Human iPS Cell-Derived Macrophages in Its Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Komohara, Yoshihiro; Takamatsu, Koutaro; Kakuma, Tatsuyuki; Tasaki, Masayoshi; Misumi, Yohei; Ueda, Mitsuharu; Ito, Takaaki; Senju, Satoru; Ando, Yukio

    2016-01-01

    We hypothesized that tissue-resident macrophages in familial amyloid polyneuropathy (FAP) patients will exhibit qualitative or quantitative abnormalities, that may accelerate transthyretin (TTR)-derived amyloid deposition. To evaluate this, we examined the number and subset of tissue-resident macrophages in heart tissue from amyloid-deposited FAP and control patients. In both FAP and control patients, tissue-resident macrophages in heart tissue were all Iba+/CD163+/CD206+ macrophages. However, the number of macrophages was significantly decreased in FAP patients compared with control patients. Furthermore, the proportion of intracellular TTR in CD14+ monocytes was reduced in peripheral blood compared with healthy donors. Based on these results, we next examined degradation and endocytosis of TTR in human induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cell-derived myeloid lineage cells (MLs), which function like macrophages. iPS-MLs express CD163 and CD206, and belong to the inhibitory macrophage category. In addition, iPS-MLs degrade both native and aggregated TTR in a cell-dependent manner in vitro. Further, iPS-MLs endocytose aggregated, and especially polymerized, TTR. These results suggest that decreased tissue-localized macrophages disrupt clearance of TTR-derived amyloid deposits, leading to progression of a pathological condition in FAP patients. To improve this situation, clinical application of pluripotent stem cell-derived MLs may be useful as an approach for FAP therapy. PMID:27695122

  14. Mid- and long-term anxiety levels associated with presymptomatic testing of Huntington's disease, Machado-Joseph disease, and familial amyloid polyneuropathy.

    PubMed

    Lêdo, Susana; Leite, Ângela; Souto, Teresa; Dinis, Maria A; Sequeiros, Jorge

    2016-02-05

    To study anxiety as a variable of the mid- and long-term psychological impact of pre-symptomatic testing for three autosomal dominant late-onset disorders - Huntington's disease (HD), Machado-Joseph disease (MJD) and familial amyloid polyneuropathy (FAP) TTR V30M - in a Portuguese sample. This cross-sectional study included 203 participants: 170 (83.7%) underwent pre-symptomatic testing for FAP, 29 (14.3%) for HD, and 4 (2%) for MJD. Of the 203 participants, 73 (36.0%) were asymptomatic carriers, 29 (14.5%) were symptomatic carriers, 9 (4.5%) were diagnosed with FAP and had a liver transplant, and 89 (44.5%) were non-carriers. Most were women (58.1%) and married (66.5%). The anxiety variable was assessed using the Zung Self-Rating Anxiety Scale (SAS). The anxiety scores were higher for symptomatic carriers and for those who underwent psychological support consultations over the years. For symptomatic carriers, the mean scores were superior to 40 points, which reflects clinical anxiety. Although it was not possible to differentiate between the mid- and long-term psychological impacts, this study supports the conclusion that the proximity to the age of symptoms onset might be a trigger for anxiety.

  15. Comparison between (99m)Tc-diphosphonate imaging and MRI with late gadolinium enhancement in evaluating cardiac involvement in patients with transthyretin familial amyloid polyneuropathy.

    PubMed

    Minutoli, Fabio; Di Bella, Gianluca; Mazzeo, Anna; Donato, Rocco; Russo, Massimo; Scribano, Emanuele; Baldari, Sergio

    2013-03-01

    Cardiac involvement is not rare in systemic amyloidosis and is associated with poor prognosis. Both (99m)Tc-diphosphonate imaging and cardiac MRI with late gadolinium enhancement are considered valuable tools in revealing amyloid deposition in the myocardium; however, to our knowledge, no comparative study between the two techniques exists. We compared findings of these two techniques in patients with transthyretin-familial amyloid polyneuropathy (FAP). Eighteen patients with transthyretin-FAP underwent (99m)Tc-diphosphonate imaging and MRI with late gadolinium enhancement. Images were visually evaluated by independent readers to determine the presence of radiotracer accumulation or late gadolinium enhancement-positive areas at the level of cardiac chambers. Interobserver agreement ranged from moderate to very good for (99m)Tc-diphosphonate imaging findings and was very good for findings of MRI with late gadolinium enhancement. Left ventricle (LV) radiotracer uptake was found in 10 of 18 patients, whereas LV late gadolinium enhancement-positive areas were found in eight of 18 patients (χ(2) = 0.9; p = 0.343). One hundred fifty-nine LV segments showed (99m)Tc-diphosphonate accumulation, and 57 LV segments were late gadolinium enhancement positive (p < 0.0001). Radiotracer uptake was found in the right ventricle (RV) in eight patients and in both atria in five patients, whereas MRI showed that RV was involved in three patients and both atria in six patients; the differences were not statistically significant (RV, p = 0.07; atria, p = 1). Intermodality agreement between (99m)Tc-diphosphonate imaging and MRI ranged from fair to good. Our study shows that, although (99m)Tc-diphosphonate imaging and MRI with late gadolinium enhancement have similar capabilities to identify patients with myocardial amyloid deposition, cardiac amyloid infiltration burden can be significantly underestimated by visual analysis of MRI with late gadolinium enhancement compared with (99m

  16. Chronic Inflammatory Demyelinating Polyneuropathy

    PubMed Central

    Dimachkie, Mazen M.; Barohn, Richard J.

    2014-01-01

    Opinion statement Chronic Inflammatory polyneuropathies are an important group of neuromuscular disorders that present chronically and progress over more than 8 weeks, being referred to as chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP). Despite tremendous progress in elucidating disease pathogenesis, the exact triggering event remains unknown. Our knowledge regarding diagnosis and management of CIDP and its variants continues to expand, resulting in improved opportunities for identification and treatment. Most clinical neurologists will be involved in the management of patients with these disorders, and should be familiar with available therapies for CIDP. We review the distinctive clinical, laboratory, and electro-diagnostic features that aid in diagnosis. We emphasize the importance of clinical patterns that define treatment responsiveness and the most appropriate therapies in order to improve prognosis. PMID:23564314

  17. Peripheral Polyneuropathy and Mefloquine Prophylaxis

    PubMed Central

    Chester, Alexander C.; Sandroni, Paola

    2011-01-01

    We describe a case of a woman who developed a peripheral polyneuropathy shortly after completing 4 weekly doses of mefloquine hydrochloride (250 mg) malaria prophylaxis. Although mefloquine-related central nervous system neuropathy is well described in the literature, peripheral polyneuropathy similar to this case has been documented only once before, to our knowledge. PMID:22144435

  18. Polyneuropathy in critically ill patients.

    PubMed Central

    Bolton, C F; Gilbert, J J; Hahn, A F; Sibbald, W J

    1984-01-01

    Five patients developed a severe motor and sensory polyneuropathy at the peak of critical illness (sepsis and multiorgan dysfunction complicating a variety of primary illnesses). Difficulties in weaning from the ventilator as the critical illness subsided and the development of flaccid and areflexic limbs were early clinical signs. However, electrophysiological studies, especially needle electrode examination of skeletal muscle, provided the definite evidence of polyneuropathy. The cause is uncertain, but the electrophysiological and morphological features indicate a primary axonal polyneuropathy with sparing of the central nervous system. Nutritional factors may have played a role, since the polyneuropathy improved in all five patients after total parenteral nutrition had been started, including the three patients who later died of unrelated causes. The features allow diagnosis during life, and encourage continued intensive management since recovery from the polyneuropathy may occur. Images PMID:6094735

  19. An Isolated Case of Late-onset Amyloidogenic Transthyretin Type Familial Amyloid Polyneuropathy Associated with a Mutant Transthyretin Substituting Methionine for Valine at Position 30 Showing Latent Progressive Cardiac Involvement Confirmed by Serial Annual Electrocardiograms

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Chikako; Takaya, Tomofumi; Mori, Shumpei; Hasegawa, Kohei; Soga, Fumitaka; Tanaka, Hidekazu; Watanabe, Yoshiaki; Nishii, Tatsuya; Kono, Atsushi K.; Morinaga, Yukiko; Ishibashi-Ueda, Hatsue; Hirata, Ken-ichi

    2017-01-01

    Late-onset amyloidogenic transthyretin (ATTR) type familial amyloid polyneuropathy (FAP) shows features distinct from those of early-onset hereditary ATTR type FAP. We herein describe an asymptomatic 68-year-old man with late-onset ATTR type FAP whose serial annual electrocardiograms demonstrated progressive left bundle branch block. Latent but severe cardiac involvement seems to be one feature of late-onset ATTR type FAP, similar to senile systemic amyloidosis (SSA). Early differential diagnosis of late-onset ATTR type FAP from SSA is important because, currently, only the former has new therapeutic options available in Japan. The present case report, therefore, highlights the necessity of careful observation for periodic electrocardiograms. PMID:28090046

  20. Chronic Demyelinating Polyneuropathies.

    PubMed

    Allen, Jeffrey A

    2017-10-01

    This article reviews the chronic demyelinating neuropathies, with a focus on the diagnosis and treatment of immune-mediated neuropathies and the features that can help differentiate immune-mediated neuropathies from other chronic demyelinating peripheral nerve conditions. Advances in clinical phenotyping and outcomes assessment have enabled neurologists to improve disease recognition, treatment, and disease monitoring. Our understanding of the immunopathogenesis of demyelinating neuropathies is evolving. Identification of new antibodies and recognition that node of Ranvier dysfunction may be an early pathogenic feature may herald further diagnostic and treatment advancements. The chronic demyelinating polyneuropathies are heterogeneous. The clinical and diagnostic features are sometimes overlapping, and the specific disorders are variable in pathogenesis, treatment, and prognosis. This heterogeneity underscores the importance of achieving diagnostic accuracy and implementing disease-specific treatment approaches.

  1. Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy.

    PubMed

    Vanasse, Michel; Rossignol, Elsa; Hadad, Elie

    2013-01-01

    Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) is characterized clinically by a progressive symmetrical weakness evolving over a period of at least 2 months. There is increased CSF protein and conduction block, reduced nerve conduction velocities, increased distal latencies, and/or absent F wave or prolonged F wave latency in two or more nerves. Incidence is lower in children (10 times less) than in adults, and the condition presents in an acute or subacute manner with frequent relapses. It is not associated with other systemic diseases such as neoplasia, diabetes mellitus, or monoclonal gammopathies. It appears to be immune-related as a variety of humoral and cellular autoimmune mechanisms have been implicated. Treatment is based on results obtained in randomized clinical trials (RCTs) conducted in adults as such studies are lacking in the pediatric population. The evolution of CIDP is more favorable in children than in adults, with 80-100% response rates to standard treatments (steroids, intravenous immunoglobulins, and/or plasmapheresis) and excellent outcome with complete functional recovery in most patients. Cases refractory to standard therapies do exist in children, for which azathioprine, methotrexate, and mycophenolate mofetil alone or more often in association with other treatments have been used. However, safety and efficacy data are still insufficient to give specific recommendations regarding the optimal choice.

  2. Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Richard A

    2017-10-01

    As a syndrome with typical and atypical cases, chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) has been a difficult disorder to diagnose and treat. The pathophysiologic basis for CIDP has not been established, contributing to the challenges in dealing with these patients. However, as one of only a handful of treatable peripheral neuropathies, there has been a tendency to diagnose CIDP to attempt a therapeutic intervention. We are also aware that there has also been overtreatment of some patients. This combination of overdiagnosis and prolonged treatment has been a concern. This chapter will review these challenges and discuss recent findings that will lead to improved diagnosis and treatment. The factors leading to misdiagnosis of CIDP were explored in a cohort of patients referred to a neuromuscular center. On a more positive note, the identification of two disorders with antibodies directed at paranodal constituents has excited the field. Treatment options have increased and been clarified. Pulse corticosteroids have been compared with oral prednisone and with intravenous immunoglobulin. The clinical trial of subcutaneous immunoglobulin in CIDP has shown both efficacy and a very low side effect profile adding to our therapeutic options. The current review will identify recent developments that show both the challenges and the exciting growth in our ability to diagnose and treat CIDP.

  3. Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy.

    PubMed

    Mathey, Emily K; Pollard, John D

    2013-10-15

    Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) is the commonest treatable neuropathy in the western world. Untreated it may result in severe disability but if diagnosed and treated early there is effective treatment for the majority of patients. Typical CIDP is readily recognised but the diagnosis of other subgroups can be more challenging. The pathology of polyradiculoneuropathies such as CIDP characteristically affects the most proximal regions of the peripheral nervous system, nerve roots and major plexuses. It is important to test these regions with electrodiagnostic studies since routine neurophysiology may not encounter regions of pathology. Although accepted as an autoimmune disorder with an underlying immunopathology involving T cell and B cell responses, there is no agreement on major target antigens; however recent studies have highlighted a role for molecules in non compact myelin which play an essential role in the formation and maintenance of the nodal structures and hence in the function of ion channels central to saltatory conduction. Controlled trials have proven the efficacy of corticosteroid, intravenous immunoglobulin and plasma exchange in the short term and intravenous immunoglobulin also in the long term. Immunosuppressive agents are widely used but their efficacy has not been proven in controlled trials. Recent trials have shown the importance of attempting treatment withdrawal in patients apparently in remission to conserve treatments that are very expensive and in short supply, since a significant proportion of patients may enter long lasting remission following short term therapy. For the relatively small group of patients who do not respond to these first line therapies new agents including monoclonal antibodies may have a role.

  4. Dysautonomic polyneuropathy as a variant of chronic inflammatory "demyelinating" polyneuropathy?

    PubMed

    Wolf, Hans-Heinrich; Kornhuber, Malte Erich; Weis, Joachim; Posa, Andreas

    2016-08-01

    This report describes the clinical course over almost one decade of a male patient presenting with immune-mediated pure autonomic neuropathy resembling a distinct variant of chronic dysimmune polyneuropathies. We suppose autoantibodies directed against epitopes on autonomic axons or neurons causative for the symptoms.

  5. [Destructive cervical amyloidotic spondyloarthropathy in patients undergoing periodic dialysis. Personal experience].

    PubMed

    Madia, G; Mughetti, M; Muratore, F; Mignani, R; Leurini, R; Boccadoro, R; Denicolò, M

    1990-12-01

    The accumulation of amyloid (beta 2-microglobulin) in several organs and tissues of patients in chronic dialysis is a recent pathologic condition. A wide range of cases, supported by specific tests for amyloid on bioptic and autoptic samples, showed a radiographic semiology of osteostructural alterations in various areas which allows amyloidotic condition of bone to be diagnosed with high reliability. In 11 of 62 patients (17.74%) we observed destructive cervical amyloidotic spondyloarthropathy (DCAS). The radiological patterns common to all patients were subchondral sclerosis, erosions of vertebral body plates, widening/narrowing of intervertebral spaces, no/poor osteophytosis. Over-hanging was present in 54.5% of cases, and deformation of vertebral bodies in 45.4%. CT was useful in improving the definition of the various alterations, and in locating others, such as cavitations in vertebral bodies and involvement of apophyseal joints. Constant factors were the association with extravertebral osseous amyloidosis, dyalitic age over 60 months, and the use of Cuprophan membranes for dialysis. The frequent (72.72%) association with alterations involving the lumbar rachis (subchondral sclerosis, erosions and geodes) was suggestive of amyloidotic condition.

  6. Sensorimotor polyneuropathy after hexavalent vaccination.

    PubMed

    Gorczyca, Daiva; Schwirten, Ulrike

    2014-01-01

    New vaccines in infants are generally well tolerated and serious adverse events are rare. We present a patient who developed severe sensorimotor polyneuropathy 2 weeks after the first immunization with hexavalent routine vaccine (INFANRIX hexa). Through intense physiotherapy the infant made a complete recovery.

  7. Sixty years of transthyretin familial amyloid polyneuropathy (TTR-FAP) in Europe: where are we now? A European network approach to defining the epidemiology and management patterns for TTR-FAP

    PubMed Central

    Parman, Yesim; Adams, David; Obici, Laura; Galán, Lucía; Guergueltcheva, Velina; Suhr, Ole B.; Coelho, Teresa

    2016-01-01

    Purpose of review Transthyretin familial amyloid polyneuropathy (TTR-FAP) is a highly disabling, life-threatening disease characterized by progressive sensorimotor and autonomic neuropathy. The profile of the disease across Europe is inadequately understood at present. Recent findings The incidence and clinical presentation of TTR-FAP varies widely within Europe, with early and late-onset disease subtypes. In those regions in which the disease is endemic (Portugal, Sweden, Cyprus, and Majorca), a Val30Met substitution in the TTR gene is the predominant genetic cause, whereas in the rest of Europe, cases of TTR-FAP are mainly sporadic with genetic heterogeneity. Current management strategies lack cohesion and patients can experience years of misdiagnosis and suboptimal treatment. Summary The article aims to disseminate the findings and recommendations from two recent meetings of the European Network for TTR-FAP (ATTReuNET), a panel comprising representatives from 10 European countries (Bulgaria, Cyprus, France, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, and Turkey) with expertise in the diagnosis and management of TTR-FAP. We explore the epidemiology and genetic mark of TTR-FAP across Europe and assess current management strategies, with a view to developing an alternative framework – a networked approach to disease management with an emphasis on collaboration and sharing of best practice. PMID:26734951

  8. Distal symmetrical polyneuropathy: definition for clinical research.

    PubMed

    England, J D; Gronseth, G S; Franklin, G; Miller, R G; Asbury, A K; Carter, G T; Cohen, J A; Fisher, M A; Howard, J F; Kinsella, L J; Latov, N; Lewis, R A; Low, P A; Sumner, A J

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this report was to develop a case definition of "distal symmetrical polyneuropathy" to standardize and facilitate clinical research and epidemiological studies. A formalized consensus process was employed to reach agreement after a systematic review and classification of evidence from the literature. The literature indicates that symptoms alone have relatively poor diagnostic accuracy in predicting the presence of polyneuropathy; signs are better predictors of polyneuropathy than symptoms; and single abnormalities on examination are less sensitive than multiple abnormalities in predicting the presence of polyneuropathy. The combination of neuropathic symptoms, signs, and electrodiagnostic findings provides the most accurate diagnosis of distal symmetrical polyneuropathy. A set of case definitions was rank ordered by likelihood of disease. The highest likelihood of polyneuropathy (useful for clinical trials) occurs with a combination of multiple symptoms, multiple signs, and abnormal electrodiagnostic studies. A modest likelihood of polyneuropathy (useful for field or epidemiological studies) occurs with a combination of multiple symptoms and multiple signs when the results of electrodiagnostic studies are not available. A lower likelihood of polyneuropathy occurs when electrodiagnostic studies and signs are discordant. For research purposes, the best approach for defining distal symmetrical polyneuropathy is a set of case definitions rank ordered by estimated likelihood of disease. The inclusion of this formalized case definition in clinical and epidemiological research studies will ensure greater consistency of case selection.

  9. Two pairs of proven monozygotic twins discordant for familial amyloid neuropathy (FAP) TTR Met 30

    PubMed Central

    Munar-Ques, M.; Pedrosa, J.; Coelho, T.; Gusmao, L.; Seruca, R.; Amorim, A.; Sequeiros, J.

    1999-01-01

    Twin studies are an important tool in medical genetics for the evaluation of the relative roles of genetic and non-genetic factors in several diseases. Familial amyloidotic polyneuropathy type I (FAP-I), TTR Met 30, was present in two sets of proven monozygotic (MZ) twins, one from Majorca and the other from Portugal. Monozygosity was established by analysis of DNA polymorphisms. Both pairs were discordant for age at onset and some clinical manifestations of FAP-I. We reviewed the differences in age at onset and clinical features in both sets and in two other pairs of presumed MZ twins with FAP-I and compared them with those in MZ twin pairs with other Mendelian disorders, such as neurofibromatosis type 1, Huntington's disease, facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy, and myotonic dystrophy. We conclude that, in addition to the postulated modifying genes, there must be a significant contribution from non-genetic factors to the phenotypic variability of FAP-I (age at onset and clinical expression), either because of enviromental differences or stochastic events during (or after) the twinning process.


Keywords: hereditary amyloidosis; discordant MZ twins; non-genetic factors; stochastic process PMID:10465115

  10. [Polyneuropathies following administration of tetanus toxoid].

    PubMed

    Grond, M; Gibbels, E; Schädlich, H J; Haupt, W F

    1988-05-01

    Two cases are reported: one with an asymmetric polyneuropathy involving the left lower extremity, the other with a generalised chronic relapsing-remitting demyelinating polyneuropathy, hitherto not described in this context. The findings are discussed with regard to the relevant literature.

  11. Sequencing of Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease genes in a toxic polyneuropathy

    PubMed Central

    Beutler, Andreas S.; Kulkarni, Amit A.; Kanwar, Rahul; Klein, Christopher J.; Therneau, Terry M.; Qin, Rui; Banck, Michaela S.; Boora, Ganesh K.; Ruddy, Kathryn J.; Wu, Yanhong; Smalley, Regenia L.; Cunningham, Julie M.; Le-Lindqwister, Nguyet Anh; Beyerlein, Peter; Schroth, Gary P.; Windebank, Anthony J.; Züchner, Stephan; Loprinzi, Charles L.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Mutations in Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMT) genes are the cause of rare familial forms of polyneuropathy. Whether allelic variability in CMT genes is also associated with common forms of polyneuropathy—considered “acquired” in medical parlance—is unknown. Chemotherapy induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN) occurs commonly in cancer patients and is individually unpredictable. We used CIPN as clinical model to investigate the association of non-CMT polyneuropathy with CMT genes. Methods 269 neurologically asymptomatic cancer patients were enrolled in the clinical trial Alliance N08C1 to receive the neurotoxic drug paclitaxel, while undergoing prospective assessments for polyneuropathy. 49 CMT genes were analyzed by targeted massively parallel sequencing of genomic DNA from patient blood. Results 119 (of 269) patients were identified from the two ends of the polyneuropathy phenotype distribution: patients that were most- and least susceptible to paclitaxel polyneuropathy. The CMT gene PRX was found to be deleteriously mutated in patients who were susceptible to CIPN but not in controls (p=8×10−3). Genetic variation in another CMT gene, ARHGEF10, was highly significantly associated with CIPN (p=5×10−4). Three non-synonymous recurrent single nucleotide variants contributed to the ARHGEF10 signal: rs9657362, rs2294039, and rs17683288. Of these, rs9657362 had the strongest effect (odds ratio of 4.8, p=4×10−4). Interpretation The results reveal an association of CMT gene allelic variability with susceptibility to CIPN. The findings raise the possibility that other acquired polyneuropathies may also be co-determined by genetic etiological factors, of which some may be related to genes already known to cause the phenotypically related Mendelian disorders of CMT. PMID:25164601

  12. Risk Factors For Diabetic Polyneuropathy

    PubMed Central

    KAPLAN, Yüksel; KURT, Semiha; KARAER ÜNALDI, Hatice; ERKORKMAZ, Ünal

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The aim of this study was to investigate the risk factors for distal symmetric sensory-motor polyneuropathy (DSP) in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM). Method Sixty seven patients with type 2 DM (33 males and 34 females) were included in the study. In addition to a detailed neurological examination, the Michigan Neuropathy Screening Instrument was administered to all patients and their total neuropathy scores were calculated. Nerve conduction examinations were performed for all patients. Results The mean age of the patients was 52.83±.87 years. The mean glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1C) value was 8.56±2.07% (normal: 3–6.5%). The total neuropathy score significantly correlated with diabetes duration, hypertension, retinopathy, and HbA1C. Conclusion This study confirms the previous reports regarding the association of neuropathy with poor glycaemic control and duration of the disease. The association of neuropathy with retinopathy and hypertension is important.

  13. Organophosphate-induced delayed polyneuropathy.

    PubMed

    Lotti, Marcello; Moretto, Angelo

    2005-01-01

    Organophosphate-induced delayed polyneuropathy (OPIDP) is a rare toxicity resulting from exposure to certain organophosphorus (OP) esters. It is characterised by distal degeneration of some axons of both the peripheral and central nervous systems occurring 1-4 weeks after single or short-term exposures. Cramping muscle pain in the lower limbs, distal numbness and paraesthesiae occur, followed by progressive weakness, depression of deep tendon reflexes in the lower limbs and, in severe cases, in the upper limbs. Signs include high-stepping gait associated with bilateral foot drop and, in severe cases, quadriplegia with foot and wrist drop as well as pyramidal signs. In time, there might be significant recovery of the peripheral nerve function but, depending on the degree of pyramidal involvement, spastic ataxia may be a permanent outcome of severe OPIDP. Human and experimental data indicate that recovery is usually complete in the young. At onset, the electrophysiological changes include reduced amplitude of the compound muscle potential, increased distal latencies and normal or slightly reduced nerve conduction velocities. The progression of the disease, usually over a few days, may lead to non-excitability of the nerve with electromyographical signs of denervation. Nerve biopsies have been performed in a few cases and showed axonal degeneration with secondary demyelination. Neuropathy target esterase (NTE) is thought to be the target of OPIDP initiation. The ratio of inhibitory powers for acetylcholinesterase and NTE represents the crucial guideline for the aetiological attribution of OP-induced peripheral neuropathy. In fact, pre-marketing toxicity testing in animals selects OP insecticides with cholinergic toxicity potential much higher than that to result in OPIDP. Therefore, OPIDP may develop only after very large exposures to insecticides, causing severe cholinergic toxicity. However, this was not the case with certain triaryl phosphates that were not used as

  14. Acute clinical onset chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy in a dog.

    PubMed

    Molín, Jéssica; Márquez, Mercedes; Raurell, Xavier; Matiasek, Kaspar; Ferrer, Isidre; Pumarola, Martí

    2011-09-01

    We report a case of acute-onset ambulatory paraparesis with electrophysiological abnormalities compatible with axonal and demyelinating lesions in a Rottweiler dog. Although the clinical findings were compatible with acute canine idiopathic polyneuropathy, postmortem investigations revealed a chronic demyelinating polyneuropathy affecting the nerve roots. Due to the combination of acute clinical presentation and chronic pathologic features, this case is consistent with the acute-onset form of chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (A-CIDP).

  15. [Polyneuropathy associated with monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance].

    PubMed

    Moth Henriksen, Marie; Kolmos, Eva Brøsted; Abildgaard, Niels; Schrøder, Henrik Daa; Sindrup, Søren

    2012-10-22

    The prevalence of polyneuropathy in patients with monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) has been reported to be 10-50%. The majority of patients have a chronic, slowly progressive, distal, symmetric and predominantly sensory polyneuropathy. A caused relationship between polyneuropathy and immunoglobulin (Ig)M MGUS is better established than the relationship between polyneuropathy and IgG/IgA MGUS because of the observed binding of IgM to myelin sheaths and widening of myelin lamellae. In randomized controlled trials plasma exchange, immunosuppressive, rituximab and intravenous Ig have been found to have a clinical meaningful effect.

  16. Neuromuscular ultrasound findings in polyneuropathy secondary to disulfiram.

    PubMed

    Stone, Sarah L; Cartwright, Michael S; Panea, Oana R; Vann, Ryan C; Magruder, John L; Walker, Francis O

    2014-12-01

    Disulfiram toxicity can cause multiple neurologic problems, including a reversible distal sensorimotor axonal polyneuropathy. Although electrodiagnosis and biopsy results have been described in the diagnosis and management of patients with disulfiram associated polyneuropathy, neuromuscular ultrasound findings have not been reported. The authors present a case of electrodiagnostically confirmed axonal polyneuropathy with relative sural sparing secondary to disulfiram and describe the neuromuscular ultrasound findings in this individual. Ultrasound demonstrated distal enlargement with slight side-to-side asymmetry and normal proximal cross-sectional area in the lower extremity nerves. Neuromuscular ultrasound is another diagnostic modality that may be used to assist in the diagnosis of patients with polyneuropathy secondary to disulfiram.

  17. Diagnostic and Therapeutic Advances: Distal Symmetric Polyneuropathy

    PubMed Central

    Callaghan, Brian C.; Price, Raymond S.; Feldman, Eva L.

    2016-01-01

    Importance Peripheral neuropathy is a highly prevalent and morbid condition affecting 2–7% of the population. Patients frequently suffer from pain and are at risk of falls, ulcerations, and amputations. We aimed to review recent diagnostic and therapeutic advances in peripheral neuropathy in distal symmetric polyneuropathy, the most common subtype of peripheral neuropathy. Observations and Advances Current evidence supports limited routine laboratory testing in patients with distal symmetric polyneuropathy. Patients without a known cause should have a complete blood count, comprehensive metabolic panel, B12, serum protein electrophoresis with immunofixation, fasting glucose, and a glucose tolerance test. The presence of atypical features such as asymmetry, non-length-dependence, motor predominance, acute or subacute onset, and/or prominent autonomic involvement should prompt a consultation with a neurologist or neuromuscular specialist. Electrodiagnostic tests and magnetic resonance imaging of the neuroaxis are the main drivers of the cost of the diagnostic evaluation, but evidence supporting their use is lacking. Strong evidence supports the use of tricyclic antidepressants, serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors, and voltage-gated calcium channel ligands in the treatment of neuropathic pain. More intensive glucose control substantially reduces the incidence of distal symmetric polyneuropathy in patients with type 1 diabetes, but does not in type 2 diabetes. Conclusions and Relevance The opportunity exists to improve guideline concordant testing in distal symmetric polyneuropathy patients. Moreover, the role of electrodiagnostic tests needs to be further defined, and interventions to reduce magnetic resonance imaging use in this population are needed. Even though several efficacious medications exist for neuropathic pain treatment, pain is still under-recognized and undertreated. New disease modifying medications are needed to prevent and treat

  18. Antiarrhythmic drugs and polyneuropathy. The Collaborative Group for the Study of Polyneuropathy.

    PubMed Central

    1994-01-01

    A total of 151 patients on chronic treatment with amiodarone and other antiarrhythmic drugs were subjected to standard clinical and electrophysiological investigation to assess the prevalence and specificity of polyneuropathy. Twenty two untreated patients with cardiac disorders and 246 normal subjects served as controls. Abnormal electrophysiological findings supporting the diagnosis of polyneuropathy were present in 38 subjects (25%) given antiarrhythmic drugs, with even distribution among drugs, and four untreated patients (18%). Concurrent clinical abnormalities were present in five treated patients (one each with amiodarone, propafenone, and flecainide, and two with multiple drugs). Therefore, electrophysiological abnormalities are a common, although non-specific, feature in patients taking antiarrhythmic drugs. Amiodarone users do not seem at higher risk of polyneuropathy than subjects treated with other drugs or even untreated patients with cardiac disorders. PMID:8158183

  19. Early identification of 'acute-onset' chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy.

    PubMed

    Sung, Jia-Ying; Tani, Jowy; Park, Susanna B; Kiernan, Matthew C; Lin, Cindy Shin-Yi

    2014-08-01

    Distinguishing patients with acute-onset chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy from acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy prior to relapse is often challenging at the onset of their clinical presentation. In the present study, nerve excitability tests were used in conjunction with the clinical phenotype and disease staging, to differentiate between patients with acute-onset chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy and patients with acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy at an early stage, with the aim to better guide treatment. Clinical assessment, staging and nerve excitability tests were undertaken on patients initially fulfilling the diagnostic criteria of acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy soon after symptom onset and their initial presentation. Patients were subsequently followed up for minimum of 12 months to determine if their clinical presentations were more consistent with acute-onset chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy. Clinical severity as evaluated by Medical Research Council sum score and Hughes functional grading scale were not significantly different between the two cohorts. There was no difference between the time of onset of initial symptoms and nerve excitability test assessment between the two cohorts nor were there significant differences in conventional nerve conduction study parameters. However, nerve excitability test profiles obtained from patients with acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy demonstrated abnormalities in the recovery cycle of excitability, including significantly reduced superexcitability (P < 0.001) and prolonged relative refractory period (P < 0.01), without changes in threshold electrotonus. In contrast, in patients with acute-onset chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy, a different pattern occurred with the recovery cycle shifted downward (increased superexcitability, P < 0.05; decreased subexcitability, P < 0.05) and increased

  20. Critical illness polyneuropathy and myopathy: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Chunkui; Wu, Limin; Ni, Fengming; Ji, Wei; Wu, Jiang; Zhang, Hongliang

    2014-01-01

    Critical illness polyneuropathy and critical illness myopathy are frequent complications of severe illness that involve sensorimotor axons and skeletal muscles, respectively. Clinically, they manifest as limb and respiratory muscle weakness. Critical illness polyneuropathy/myopathy in isolation or combination increases intensive care unit morbidity via the inability or difficulty in weaning these patients off mechanical ventilation. Many patients continue to suffer from decreased exercise capacity and compromised quality of life for months to years after the acute event. Substantial progress has been made lately in the understanding of the pathophysiology of critical illness polyneuropathy and myopathy. Clinical and ancillary test results should be carefully interpreted to differentiate critical illness polyneuropathy/myopathy from similar weaknesses in this patient population. The present review is aimed at providing the latest knowledge concerning the pathophysiology of critical illness polyneuropathy/myopathy along with relevant clinical, diagnostic, differentiating, and treatment information for this debilitating neurological disease.

  1. Critical illness polyneuropathy and myopathy: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Chunkui; Wu, Limin; Ni, Fengming; Ji, Wei; Wu, Jiang; Zhang, Hongliang

    2014-01-01

    Critical illness polyneuropathy and critical illness myopathy are frequent complications of severe illness that involve sensorimotor axons and skeletal muscles, respectively. Clinically, they manifest as limb and respiratory muscle weakness. Critical illness polyneuropathy/myopathy in isolation or combination increases intensive care unit morbidity via the inability or difficulty in weaning these patients off mechanical ventilation. Many patients continue to suffer from decreased exercise capacity and compromised quality of life for months to years after the acute event. Substantial progress has been made lately in the understanding of the pathophysiology of critical illness polyneuropathy and myopathy. Clinical and ancillary test results should be carefully interpreted to differentiate critical illness polyneuropathy/myopathy from similar weaknesses in this patient population. The present review is aimed at providing the latest knowledge concerning the pathophysiology of critical illness polyneuropathy/myopathy along with relevant clinical, diagnostic, differentiating, and treatment information for this debilitating neurological disease. PMID:25206749

  2. Update on the management of diabetic polyneuropathies

    PubMed Central

    Shakher, Jayadave; Stevens, Martin J

    2011-01-01

    The prevalence of diabetic polyneuropathy (DPN) can approach 50% in subjects with longer-duration diabetes. The most common neuropathies are generalized symmetrical chronic sensorimotor polyneuropathy and autonomic neuropathy. It is important to recognize that 50% of subjects with DPN may have no symptoms and only careful clinical examination may reveal the diagnosis. DPN, especially painful diabetic peripheral neuropathy, is associated with poor quality of life. Although there is a better understanding of the pathophysiology of DPN and the mechanisms of pain, treatment remains challenging and is limited by variable efficacy and side effects of therapies. Intensification of glycemic control remains the cornerstone for the prevention or delay of DPN but optimization of other traditional cardiovascular risk factors may also be of benefit. The management of DPN relies on its early recognition and needs to be individually based on comorbidities and tolerability to medications. To date, most pharmacological strategies focus upon symptom control. In the management of pain, tricyclic antidepressants, selective serotonin noradrenaline reuptake inhibitors, and anticonvulsants alone or in combination are current first-line therapies followed by use of opiates. Topical agents may offer symptomatic relief in some patients. Disease-modifying agents are still in development and to date, antioxidant α-lipoic acid has shown the most promising effect. Further development and testing of therapies based upon improved understanding of the complex pathophysiology of this common and disabling complication is urgently required. PMID:21887102

  3. Impaired Distal Thermoregulation in Diabetes and Diabetic Polyneuropathy

    PubMed Central

    Rutkove, Seward B.; Veves, Aristidis; Mitsa, Theophano; Nie, Rui; Fogerson, Patricia M.; Garmirian, Lindsay P.; Nardin, Rachel A.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine how thermoregulation of the feet is affected by diabetes and diabetic polyneuropathy in both wakefulness and sleep. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Normal subjects, diabetic subjects without neuropathy, diabetic subjects with small-fiber diabetic polyneuropathy, and those with advanced diabetic polyneuropathy were categorized based on neurological examination, nerve conduction studies, and quantitative sensory testing. Subjects underwent foot temperature monitoring using an iButton device attached to the foot and a second iButton for recording of ambient temperature. Socks and footwear were standardized, and subjects maintained an activity diary. Data were collected over a 32-h period and analyzed. RESULTS A total of 39 normal subjects, 28 patients with diabetes but without diabetic polyneuropathy, 14 patients with isolated small-fiber diabetic polyneuropathy, and 27 patients with more advanced diabetic polyneuropathy participated. No consistent differences in foot temperature regulation between the four groups were identified during wakefulness. During sleep, however, multiple metrics revealed significant abnormalities in the diabetic patients. These included reduced mean foot temperature (P < 0.001), reduced maximal temperature (P < 0.001), increased rate of cooling (P < 0.001), as well as increased frequency of variation (P = 0.005), supporting that patients with diabetic polyneuropathy and even those with only diabetes but no diabetic polyneuropathy have impaired nocturnal thermoregulation. CONCLUSIONS Nocturnal foot thermoregulation is impaired in patients with diabetes and diabetic polyneuropathy. Because neurons are highly temperature sensitive and because foot warming is part of the normal biology of sleep onset and maintenance, these findings suggest new potentially treatable mechanisms of diabetes-associated nocturnal pain and sleep disturbance. PMID:19196899

  4. My legs are getting old: sinvastatin-induced polyneuropathy

    PubMed Central

    Camargos, Einstein Francisco; de Freitas Oliveira, Larissa; Boaventura, Thaís de Deus Vieira

    2011-01-01

    Axonal degeneration is the most common type of neuropathy induced by medication. The literature describes isolated cases in which polyneuropathy of the lower limb was observed during treatment with statins. The authors present a case of polyneuropathy associated with the use of a statin. An 82-year-old female patient presented with a complaint of weakness and discomfort in her lower limbs after 7 years of therapy with simvastatin. The results of an electromyographic study were compatible with polyneuropathy (sensorimotor axonal neuropathy – moderate to severe). One month after the therapy with simvastatin was discontinued, the symptoms were reduced. PMID:22707627

  5. [Pathogenesis of chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy].

    PubMed

    Aranami, Toshimasa; Yamamura, Takashi

    2013-05-01

    Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) is considered to be a demyelinating autoimmune disorder in the peripheral nervous system. Concerning cellular immune response, activity of IFN-gamma producing Th1 and IL-17 producing Th17 cells might be accelerated in patients with CIDP, while regulatory function of CD4+ CD25(high) Foxp3+ regulatory T cells might be diminished. Humoral immune responses against several myelin components such as myelin protein zero and gangliosides such as GM1 might be also induced in a part of patients with CIDP. Besides, growing body of evidences suggest that immune response against several molecules expressed in the noncompact myelin might be involved in the pathogenesis of CIDP.

  6. [Toxic polyneuropathies in shoe factories: preventive aspects].

    PubMed

    Carapella, C

    1977-01-01

    An investigation was carried out concerning 19 shoe factories of Marches province, where 32 cases of polyneuropathy, upon 1264 workmen, have been verified. After examination of qualitative and quantitative risk factors the following conclusions can be deduced. Under the etiological aspect the syndrome can be attributed to poisoning caused by environmental pollutions and thus relating to aliphatic hydrocarbons (exane-cicloexane). Under the quantitative aspect the tecnopatic risk has a multifactorial origin which can be summarised as follows: 1) lack of poor efficiency of environmental purification systems; 2) lack of hygienic-environmental elements; 3) lack of sanitary precautions; 4) poor work organization. A strong preventive therapy is necessary to avoid or at least to reduce the polyneuretic tecnopathy incidence.

  7. [Multifocal polyneuropathy with persistent conduction blockage. A new subset of chronic inflammatory polyneuropathies].

    PubMed

    Alvarez Vadillo, E; Ferrer Gila, M T; Amer Ferrer, G; Anciones Rodríguez, B; Pérez Conde, M C; Gutiérrez Molina, M; Cruz Martínez, A

    1989-09-09

    Recently a subset of chronic demyelinating inflammatory polyneuropathies with asymmetrical involvement limited to upper limbs, at least at the onset, resembling a multifocal mononeuropathy has been described. Electrodiagnostic testing disclosed multifocal CB outside the common entrapment sites has been described. We report a 55 years old man with a 4 years history of paresis, numbness, fasciculations, myokymia, cramps and mild amyotrophy. Electrophysiological evaluation showed proximal multifocal conduction block and abundant spontaneous activity as fasciculations, myokymia and scarce denervation activity. The importance of taking into account this entity in the differential diagnosis of patients with suspected mononeuritis multiplex or motoneuron disease is emphasized. The nosologic place of this entity is also discussed.

  8. Hereditary Amyloidosis with Recurrent Lung Infiltrates

    PubMed Central

    Revelo, Alberto E.; Magaspi, Crischelle; Maguire, George; Aronow, Wilbert S.

    2016-01-01

    Patient: Male, 51 Final Diagnosis: Familial amyloidotic polyneuropathy with lung involvement Symptoms: Cough • dyspnea • lethargy Medication: Diflunisal Clinical Procedure: Fiberoptic bronchoscopy with trans-bronchial biopsy Specialty: Pulmonary Medicine Objective: Rare co-existance of disease or patholog Background: Amyloidosis is a protein conformational disorder characterized by extracellular deposition of amyloid fibrils in extracellular tissue. Lung involvement is most commonly caused by secondary AL amyloidosis. The familial autosomal-dominant senile transthyretin (ATTR) disease manifests mainly as polyneuropathy and restrictive cardiomyopathy denoting the name familial amyloidotic polyneuropathy (FAP). Rarely, this form manifests with clinical and radiologically relevant respiratory tract symptoms and lung involvement. Case Report: A 51-year-old male former smoker presented with progressive lower-extremity weakness of several months’ duration. He was ultimately diagnosed with chronic demyelinating polyneuropathy and treated with intravenous immunoglobulin therapy. Subsequently, he was admitted with heart failure symptoms and pulmonary infiltrates and his echocardiogram showed a ‘myocardial speckled pattern’, prompting an endomyocardial biopsy, which showed transthyretin amyloid deposition. He was started on diflunisal. Additionally, serial radiographic imaging of his chest over 3 different admissions for cough, dyspnea, hypoxemia, and lethargy demonstrated recurrent pulmonary infiltrates. A fiberoptic bronchoscopy with trans-bronchial biopsies revealed amyloid deposition in the lung tissue. Conclusions: The clinical presentation of recurrent or persistent pulmonary symptoms and fleeting infiltrates on imaging in a patient with familial amyloidotic polyneuropathy is not common; when present, it should raise the suspicion of respiratory tract involvement. PMID:27872470

  9. Analysis of gene expression in white blood cells of cattle orally challenged with bovine amyloidotic spongiform encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Panelli, Simona; Strozzi, Francesco; Capoferri, Rossana; Barbieri, Ilaria; Martinelli, Nicola; Capucci, Lorenzo; Lombardi, Guerino; Williams, John L

    2011-01-01

    Bovine amyloidotic spongiform encephalopathy (BASE) is one of the recently discovered atypical forms of BSE, which is transmissible to primates, and may be the bovine equivalent of sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jacob disease (CJD) in humans. Although it is transmissible, it is unknown whether BASE is acquired through infection or arises spontaneously. In the present study, the gene expression of white blood cells (WBCs) from 5 cattle at 1 yr after oral BASE challenge was compared with negative controls using a custom microarray containing 43,768 unique gene probes. In total, 56 genes were found to be differentially expressed between BASE and control animals with a log fold change of 2 or greater. Of these, 39 were upregulated in BASE animals, while 17 were downregulated. The majority of these genes are related to immune function. In particular, BASE animals appeared to have significantly modified expression of genes linked to T- and B-cell development and activation, and to inflammatory responses. The potential impacts of these gene expression changes are described.

  10. Treatment of diabetic polyneuropathy: Update 2006.

    PubMed

    Ziegler, Dan

    2006-11-01

    At least one of four diabetic patients is affected by distal symmetric polyneuropathy (DSP), which represents a major health problem, as it may present with partly excruciating neuropathic pain and is responsible for substantial morbidity, increased mortality, and impaired quality of life. Treatment is based on four cornerstones: (a) causal treatment aimed at (near)-normoglycemia, (b) treatment based on pathogenetic mechanisms, (c) symptomatic treatment, and (d) avoidance of risk factors and complications. Recent experimental studies suggest a multifactorial pathogenesis of diabetic neuropathy. From the clinical point of view it is important to note that, on the basis of these pathogenetic mechanisms, therapeutic approaches could be derived, some of which are currently being evaluated in clinical trials. Among these agents only alpha-lipoic acid is available for treatment in several countries and epalrestat in Japan. Although several novel analgesic drugs, such as duloxetine and pregabalin, have recently been introduced into clinical practice, the pharmacological treatment of chronic painful diabetic neuropathy remains a challenge for the physician. Individual tolerability remains a major aspect in any treatment decision. Epidemiological data indicate that not only increased alcohol consumption but also the traditional cardiovascular risk factors, such as hypertension, smoking, and visceral obesity, play a role in development and progression of diabetic neuropathy and, hence, need to be prevented or treated.

  11. Treatment of chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy.

    PubMed

    Kleyman, Inna; Brannagan, Thomas H

    2015-07-01

    Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) is one of the acquired demyelinating neuropathies and is considered to be immune mediated. Diagnosis is typically based on clinical history, neurologic examination, electrophysiologic studies, CSF studies, and pathologic examination. Early diagnosis and treatment is important to prevent irreversible axonal loss and optimize improvement in function. The first-line agents for treatment are intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg), corticosteroids, and plasmapheresis, which have all been demonstrated to be effective in controlled studies. Studies have not shown a significant difference between these three treatments, and the initial choice of therapy is often based on availability, cost, ease of administration, and side effect profile. If patients do not respond to one of these agents, they may respond to one of the others and sometimes in combination. If the first-line agents are not effective, chemotherapeutic or immunosuppressive agents may be considered. There are limited controlled studies of these modalities, and they are often used in conjunction with a first-line treatment. The majority of patients require long-term therapy to maintain a response and to prevent relapse.

  12. Epidemiology of polyneuropathy in diabetes and prediabetes.

    PubMed

    Ziegler, Dan; Papanas, Nikolaos; Vinik, Aaron I; Shaw, Jonathan E

    2014-01-01

    Diabetic distal symmetric sensorimotor polyneuropathy (DSPN) represents a major health problem, associated with excruciating neuropathic pain, increased morbidity and impaired quality of life. The understanding of its epidemiology is difficult due to methodological issues. Inconsistency in the selection of diagnostic procedures renders comparison between studies problematic. Further problems arise from selection bias due to the inclusion of hospital-based populations. DSPN affects approximately 30% of hospital-based populations, 20% of community-based samples, and 10% of the diabetic population identified by screening. Chronic painful DSPN is present in 13-26% of diabetic patients. Between 25% and 62% of patients with idiopathic peripheral neuropathy have prediabetes. Among pre-diabetic subjects, 11-25% exhibit peripheral neuropathy and 13-26% neuropathic pain. Evidence from population-based studies indicates that there is a gradient in the prevalence of neuropathy. Indeed, the highest frequency is found in patients with manifest diabetes mellitus, followed by individuals with impaired glucose tolerance, then impaired fasting glucose and, finally, those with normoglycemia. The most important etiologic factors are poor glycemic control, age, diabetes duration, visceral obesity, height, hypertension, age, smoking, hypoinsulinemia, and dyslipidemia. Clinic-based data suggest that DSPN is associated with increased mortality in diabetes, but confirmatory prospective population-based studies are required.

  13. Assessment of Diabetic Polyneuropathy and Plantar Pressure in Patients with Diabetes Mellitus in Prevention of Diabetic Foot

    PubMed Central

    Skopljak, Amira; Sukalo, Aziz; Batic-Mujanovic, Olivera; Muftic, Mirsad; Tiric-Campara, Merita; Zunic, Lejla

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Risk assessment for development foot ulcer in diabetics is a key aspect in any plan and program for prevention of non-traumatic amputation of lower extremities. Material and methods: In the prospective research to assessed diabetic neuropathy in diabetic patients, to determined the dynamic function of the foot (plantar pressure), by using pedobarography (Group I), and after the use of orthopedic insoles with help of pedobarography, to determined the connection between the risk factors: deformity of the foot, limited joint movements, diabetic polyneuropathy, plantar pressure in effort preventing changes in the diabetic foot. Results: Out of 1806 patients, who are registered in one Team of family medicine examined 100 patients with diabetes mellitus Type 2. The average age of subjects was 59.4, SD11.38. The average HbA1c was 7.78% SD1.58. Combining monofilament and tuning fork tests, the diagnosis of polyneuropathy have 65% of patients. Comparing Test Symptom Score individual parameters between the first and second measurement, using pedobarography, in Group I, statistically significant difference was found for all of the assessed parameters: pain, burning sensation, paresthesia and insensitivity (p<0,05). The measurements of peak pressure, both first and the second measurement, for all of the subjects in Group I(45) show values above 200kPa. That’s a level of pressure that needs to be corrected. The study finds correlation between the foot deformation, diabetic polyneuropathy and plantar pressure (p>0,05). Conclusion: A detail clinical exam of diabetic food in a family doctor office equipped with pedobarography (plantar pressure measurements), use of orthopedic insoles, significantly reduces clinical symptoms of diabetic polyneuropathy in patients with diabetes. PMID:25650237

  14. Multiple myeloma with associated polyneuropathy in a German shepherd dog.

    PubMed

    Villiers, E; Dobson, J

    1998-05-01

    A 12-year-old female, neutered German shepherd dog developed progressive hindlimb followed by forelimb ataxia leading to tetraplegia. Neurological examination suggested lower motor dysfunction. Biochemical evaluation revealed a monoclonal hypergammaglobulinaemia, hypoalbuminaemia and hypercalcaemia. Multiple lytic lesions were identified radiographically in numerous bones. A bone marrow aspirate confirmed the diagnosis of multiple myeloma, with large numbers of plasma cells seen in clusters. An electromyogram revealed positive sharp waves and fibrillation potentials in the skeletal muscles of the limbs, suggesting a polyneuropathy. The dog was treated with chemotherapy using melphalan and prednisolone. Both the hypergammaglobulinaemia and the polyneuropathy resolved and the dog had normal motor function four weeks after commencing treatment. Polyneuropathy may occur as a paraneoplastic syndrome secondary to myeloma, and in this case was reversible following treatment of the underlying disease.

  15. Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy in common variable immunodeficiency.

    PubMed

    Özdemir, Özlem; Okan, Mehmet S; Kilic, Sara S

    2012-04-01

    Common variable immunodeficiency comprises a heterogeneous group of primary antibody deficiencies with complex clinical and immunologic phenotypes. Immune dysregulation leads to the generation of multiple autoantibodies against various antigenic targets in patients with common variable immunodeficiency. Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy is a heterogeneous disorder that indicates an autoimmune response against peripheral nerve myelin. We describe a 7-year-old girl with common variable immunodeficiency who developed chronic inflammatory polyneuropathy. A 5-day course of intravenous immunoglobulin (500 mg/kg/day) improved her neurologic disorder. Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy should be added to the broadening spectrum of neurologic complications in common variable immunodeficiency. Early detection and consequent treatment may reverse the neurologic sequelae.

  16. Detection of Diphtheritic Polyneuropathy by Acute Flaccid Paralysis Surveillance, India

    PubMed Central

    Bahl, Sunil; Khera, Ajay; Sutter, Roland W.

    2013-01-01

    Diphtheritic polyneuropathy is a vaccine-preventable illness caused by exotoxin-producing strains of Corynebacterium diphtheriae. We present a retrospective convenience case series of 15 children (6 girls) <15 years of age (mean age 5.2 years, case-fatality rate 53%, and 1 additional case-patient who was ventilator dependent at the time of last follow-up; median follow-up period 60 days) with signs and symptoms suggestive of diphtheritic polyneuropathy. All cases were identified through national acute flaccid paralysis surveillance, which was designed to detect poliomyelitis in India during 2002–2008. We also report data on detection of diphtheritic polyneuropathy compared with other causes of acute flaccid paralysis identified by this surveillance system. PMID:23965520

  17. The treatment of inflammatory polyneuropathy by plasma exchange.

    PubMed Central

    Gross, M L; Legg, N J; Lockwood, M C; Pallis, C

    1982-01-01

    Observations are reported on six patients with inflammatory polyneuropathy who were treated by plasma exchange. In four cases the polyneuropathy was acute and in two it was chronic or relapsing. Two acute cases and one chronic relapsing case had plasma exchange during a rapidly progressive phase of the disease, and showed a prompt and substantial recovery of function. The other three patients were exchanged when disease activity had reached a plateau. Only minor degrees of improvement were seen in two of these cases. One patient showed an initial mild deterioration before subsequent recovery. There were no significant side effects. These findings are discussed in relation to the pathogenesis and clinical management of inflammatory polyneuropathy. PMID:7130991

  18. Concomitant Acute Transverse Myelitis and Sensory Motor Axonal Polyneuropathy in Two Children: Two Case Reports

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Hyung; Joa, Kyung-Lim; Kim, Hyo-Sang; Kim, Chang-Hwan; Jung, Han-Young

    2015-01-01

    Acute transverse myelitis (ATM) is an upper motor neuron disease of the spinal cord, and concomitant association of peripheral polyneuropathy, particularly the axonal type, is rarely reported in children. Our cases presented with ATM complicated with axonal type polyneuropathy. Axonal type polyneuropathy may be caused by acute motor-sensory axonal neuropathy (AMSAN) or critical illness polyneuropathy and myopathy (CIPNM). These cases emphasize the need for nerve and muscle biopsies to make the differential diagnosis between AMSAN and CIPNM in patients with ATM complicated with axonal polyneuropathy. PMID:25750885

  19. Ocular Neuromyotonia Associated with Chronic Inflammatory Demyelinating Polyneuropathy.

    PubMed

    Kung, Nathan H; Bucelli, Robert C; McClelland, Collin M; Van Stavern, Gregory P

    2015-10-01

    Ocular neuromyotonia (ONM) is a neuro-ophthalmic disorder characterized by episodic diplopia caused by contraction of one or more ocular muscles due to spontaneous excitation of the respective ocular motor nerve. We report a patient whose ocular neuromyotonia arose in the setting of a subacute demyelinating polyneuropathy consistent with chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) and subsequently resolved following the initiation of intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) for her neuropathy. Our patient provides additional evidence towards the role of demyelination and ephaptic neurotransmission in ocular neuromyotonia and also represents the first reported case of ocular neuromyotonia associated with a systemic neurological condition.

  20. Motor variant of chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy in a child.

    PubMed

    Sinno, Durriyah D; Darras, Basil T; Yamout, Bassem I; Rebeiz, Jean G; Mikati, Mohamad A

    2008-06-01

    Only 2 cases of pure motor chronic demyelinating inflammatory polyneuropathy in the pediatric age group have been reported in the literature. We report on a motor variant of chronic demyelinating inflammatory polyneuropathy with anti-ganglioside antibodies, diagnosed in a 5-year-old girl who presented with progressive motor weakness over a period of 12 months with no sensory involvement. She initially responded partially to intravenous immunoglobulin therapy (1 gm/kg/month for 6 months), and then demonstrated sustained but incomplete improvement on chronic prednisone therapy (1-2 mg/kg/day), on which she has continued since 1 year and 4 months after her initial presentation 3 years ago.

  1. Clinical and electrophysiological parameters distinguishing acute-onset chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy from acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy.

    PubMed

    Dionne, Annie; Nicolle, Michael W; Hahn, Angelika F

    2010-02-01

    Up to 16% of chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) patients may present acutely. We performed a retrospective chart review on 30 acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (AIDP) and 15 acute-onset CIDP (A-CIDP) patients looking for any clinical or electrophysiological parameters that might differentiate AIDP from acutely presenting CIDP. A-CIDP patients were significantly more likely to have prominent sensory signs. They were significantly less likely to have autonomic nervous system involvement, facial weakness, a preceding infectious illness, or need for mechanical ventilation. With regard to electrophysiological features, neither sural-sparing pattern, sensory ratio >1, nor the presence of A-waves was different between the two groups. This study suggests that patients presenting acutely with a demyelinating polyneuropathy and the aforementioned clinical features should be closely monitored as they may be more likely to have CIDP at follow-up.

  2. Corneal sensitivity in chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy.

    PubMed

    Bansal, Surbhi; Myneni, Ajay A; Mu, Lina; Myers, Bennett H; Patel, Sangita P

    2014-07-01

    Neurotrophic keratitis may result from a variety of ocular or systemic diseases. Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) is an autoimmune neuropathy that affects any nerve plexus but with no known association with corneal disease. We observed 2 patients with CIDP and visually compromising neurotrophic corneal ulcers. This study was performed to determine the prevalence of neurotrophic corneas in patients with CIDP to identify a subpopulation of asymptomatic patients who are at risk for vision loss. This is an observational case series of 2 patients with CIDP with visually compromising neurotrophic corneal ulcers and a prospective clinical study comparing corneal sensitivity in 9 patients with CIDP versus 9 age- and sex-matched controls. Corneal sensitivity was tested with an esthesiometer. Statistical analyses were performed to determine patterns or significances in relation to the subject's age, gender, and duration and severity of the disease. The overall median corneal sensitivity was 5.7 for patients with CIDP and 6.0 for controls (P = 0.09). The mean corneal sensitivity was 5.6 ± 0.4 in patients with CIDP compared with 5.8 ± 0.3 in controls. No specific pattern was found with age, gender, or duration and severity of the disease among patients with CIDP. Although the case series demonstrated decreased corneal sensitivity in both patients with CIDP, the prospective study detected reduced corneal sensitivity in patients with CIDP when compared with controls, but did not reach statistical significance. Ophthalmic examinations with measurement of corneal sensitivity should be considered in the management of patients with CIDP.Clinical Trial Registration-URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01379833.

  3. Conduction Slowing in Diabetic Sensorimotor Polyneuropathy

    PubMed Central

    Dunnigan, Samantha K.; Ebadi, Hamid; Breiner, Ari; Katzberg, Hans D.; Lovblom, Leif E.; Perkins, Bruce A.; Bril, Vera

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Mild demyelination may contribute more to the pathophysiology of nerve fiber injury in diabetic sensorimotor polyneuropathy (DSP) than previously thought. We investigated the clinical and electrodiagnostic classifications of nerve injury in diabetic patients to detect evidence of conduction slowing in DSP. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Type 1 diabetic subjects (n = 62) and type 2 diabetic subjects (n = 111) with a broad spectrum of DSP underwent clinical examination and nerve conduction studies (NCS). Patients were classified as having axonal (group A), conduction slowing (group D), or combined (group C) DSP based on electrodiagnostic criteria. Patients with chronic immune-mediated neuropathies were not included. The groups were compared using ANOVA, contingency tables, and Kruskal-Wallis analyses. RESULTS Of the 173 type 1 and type 2 diabetic subjects with a mean age of 59.1 ± 13.6 years and hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) of 8.0 ± 1.8% (64 ± 19.7 mmol/mol), 46% were in group A, 32% were in group D, and 22% were in group C. The severity of DSP increased across groups A, D, and C, respectively, based on clinical and NCS parameters. The mean HbA1c for group D subjects (8.9 ± 2.3% [74 ± 25.1 mmol/mol]) was higher than for group A and group C subjects (7.7 ± 1.4% [61 ± 15.3 mmol/mol] and 7.5 ± 1.3% [58 ± 14.2 mmol/mol]; P = 0.003), and this difference was observed in those with type 1 diabetes. CONCLUSIONS The presence of conduction slowing in patients with suboptimally controlled type 1 diabetes indicates the possibility that this stage of DSP may be amenable to intervention via improved glycemic control. PMID:24026550

  4. [Demyelinating polyneuropathies in patients with diabetes mellitus and chronic alcoholic intoxication].

    PubMed

    Kovrazhkina, E A

    2012-01-01

    Frequency and nosological attribution of demyelinating polyneuropathies in patients with diabetes mellitus and alcoholism were determined. Eighty-six inpatients with alcoholic (n=46) and diabetic (n=40) polyneuropathy were examined clinically and using electroneuromyography (ENMG). A demyelinating pathogenetic variant was identified by clinical and ENMG data in 27 (31%) patients. Nine patients (33%) had dysimmune polyneuropathies (acute and chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy). Polyneuropathies were specified as toxic/metabolic with the prevalence of a demyelinating component within the main disease in 18 (67%) patients. Clinical and ENMG-signs of the demyelinating variant of alcoholic and diabetic neuropathy are presented. The efficacy of the antioxidant berlition was shown for toxic/metabolic polyneuropathies while the addition of immune modulators was needed for treatment of dysimmune polyneuropathy.

  5. Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) disease 1A with superimposed inflammatory polyneuropathy in children.

    PubMed

    Desurkar, A; Lin, J-P; Mills, K; Al-Sarraj, S; Jan, W; Jungbluth, H; Wraige, E

    2009-04-01

    Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) disease is genetically heterogeneous and subdivided into demyelinating (CMT 1) and axonal (CMT 2) types based on neurophysiology findings. CMT1A, the commonest form associated with duplication of the PMP22 segment on chromosome 17p, often arises in childhood but is generally a slowly progressive disease. We report 2 children presenting with clinical features of an acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (AIDP) who were subsequently diagnosed with underlying CMT1A. Both children had neurophysiology and histopathology features consistent with CMT1. Immunoglobulin treatment was initiated considering the evidence of superimposed inflammation and appeared to modify disease progression. Our findings indicate that CMT1A predisposes to a superimposed inflammatory neuropathy. Recognition of this association is difficult, particularly in children without clear family history, but of great importance as immunomodulatory treatment may improve outcome. In addition, we postulate that an underlying genetic polyneuropathy should be suspected if the recovery from AIDP is slower than expected, or incomplete. (c) Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart, New York.

  6. Polyneuropathy induced by m-tolyl methyl carbamate intoxication.

    PubMed

    Umehara, F; Izumo, S; Arimura, K; Osame, M

    1991-02-01

    A 55-year-old woman who attempted suicide by ingesting 200 ml of m-tolyl methyl carbamate (MTMC) is reported. She was comatose for 3 days and, upon recovery, had notable paraesthesia in her lower limbs and difficulty in walking. Neurological examination revealed sensorimotor polyneuropathy. Sural nerve biopsy revealed marked axonal degeneration with a moderate decrease of myelinated fibres.

  7. Association Between Overactive Bladder and Polyneuropathy in Diabetic Patients

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a chronic metabolic disorder that often leads to complications. We aimed to correlate two complications of DM, polyneuropathy and hyperactive bladder syndrome, using noninvasive measures, such as screening tests. Methods We included 80 female and 40 male type 2 diabetic patients in this prospective study. Diabetic polyneuropathy evaluations were conducted using the Douleur Neuropathique 4 Questions (DN4), and overactive bladder (OAB) evaluations were performed using the Overactive Bladder Questionnaire (OAB-V8). The patients were also evaluated for retinopathy and nephropathy. The diabetic male and female patients with or without OAB were chosen and compared for microvascular complications (polyneuropathy, retinopathy, and nephropathy). Results There were no significant correlations between OAB and retinopathy as well as between OAB and nephropathy among diabetic patients (female patients, P>0.05; male patients, P>0.05). However, the patients with OAB were significantly more likely to develop polyneuropathy (female patients, P<0.05; male patients, P<0.05). Conclusions In diabetic patients, OAB and diabetic peripheral neuropathy are significantly correlated. These correlations were demonstrated using short, understandable, valid, and reliable disease-specific tests without invasive measures. Using these screening tests, both neurologists and urologists can easily diagnose these complications. PMID:27706007

  8. [Autoimmune disease among secondary autonomic disease--acute demyelinating polyneuropathy (Guillain-Barré syndrome)].

    PubMed

    Suzuki, H

    1992-04-01

    Acute demyelinating polyneuropathy (Guillain-Barré syndrome) among secondary autonomic diseases was described as a representative disorder due to autoimmune mechanism. The possible roles of preceding vital infection, cellular and/or humoral immune abnormalities in developing the disease have been considered. A comparison was made between acute demyelinating polyneuropathy and experimental allergic neuritis in respects of their causes. Polyneuropathy associated with M proteinemia and Rowland's syndrome was also briefly reviewed.

  9. The sensitivity and specificity of the neurological examination in polyneuropathy patients with clinical and electrophysiological correlations

    PubMed Central

    Alabdali, Majed; Alsulaiman, Abdulla; Albulaihe, Hana; Breiner, Ari; Katzberg, Hans D.; Aljaafari, Danah; Lovblom, Leif E.; Bril, Vera

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Polyneuropathy is one of the most prevalent neurologic disorders. Although several studies explored the role of the neurological examination in polyneuropathy, they were mostly restricted to specific subgroups of patients and have not correlated examination findings with symptoms and electrophysiological results. Objectives To explore the sensitivity and specificity of different neurological examination components in patients with diverse etiologies for polyneuropathy, find the most sensitive combination of examination components for polyneuropathy detection, and correlate examination findings with symptoms and electrophysiological results. Methods Patients with polyneuropathy attending the neuromuscular clinic from 01/2013 to 09/2015 were evaluated. Inclusion criteria included symptomatic polyneuropathy, which was confirmed by electrophysiological studies. 47 subjects with no symptoms or electrophysiological findings suggestive for polyneuropathy, served as controls. Results The total cohort included 312 polyneuropathy patients, with a mean age of 60±14 years. Abnormal examination was found in 95%, most commonly sensory findings (86%). The most common abnormal examination components were impaired ankle reflexes (74%), vibration (73%), and pinprick (72%) sensation. Combining ankle reflex examination with vibration or pinprick perception had the highest sensitivity, of 88%. The specificities of individual examination component were generally high, excluding ankle reflexes (62%), and vibration perception (77%). Abnormal examination findings were correlated with symptomatic weakness and worse electrophysiological parameters. Conclusion The neurological examination is a valid, sensitive and specific tool for diagnosing polyneuropathy, and findings correlate with polyneuropathy severity. Ankle reflex examination combined with either vibration or pinprick sensory testing is the most sensitive combination for diagnosing polyneuropathy, and should be

  10. Peripheral nerve proteins as potential autoantigens in acute and chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathies.

    PubMed

    Lim, Jia Pei; Devaux, Jérôme; Yuki, Nobuhiro

    2014-10-01

    Guillain-Barré syndrome is classified into acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy and acute motor axonal neuropathy. Whereas autoantibodies to GM1 or GD1a induce the development of acute motor axonal neuropathy, pathogenic autoantibodies have yet to be identified in acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy and chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy. This review highlights the importance of autoantibodies to peripheral nerve proteins in the physiopathology of acute and chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathies. Moreover, we listed up other potential antigens, which may become helpful biomarkers for acquired, dysimmune demyelinating neuropathies based on their critical functions during myelination and their implications in hereditary demyelinating neuropathies.

  11. Thermal threshold determination in alcoholic polyneuropathy: an improvement of diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Hilz, M J; Zimmermann, P; Claus, D; Neundörfer, B

    1995-05-01

    Reports on the incidence of alcoholic polyneuropathies are variable depending on diagnostic tools. In this study, 50 chronic alcoholics with positive MALT (Munich Alcoholism Test) and greater than seven years history of excessive alcohol abuse were examined neurologically. Tibial and peroneal motor and sural nerve conduction velocities (NCV) were studied. Warm and cold perception was evaluated in the area behind the internal malleolus using a Somedic-Thermotest. Thresholds were determined by the method of limits. The effect of a slow, medium and fast temperature change rate on thermal perception was tested. Thirty-eight patients (76%) showed signs of neuropathy. Thermal perception was more often abnormal (62%) than NCV (42%) and clinical examination (56%). A medium temperature change rate of 2.0-2.5 degrees C/s was the most sensitive index of small fiber neuropathy. Thermal threshold measurement proved to be a reliable, sensitive and easy to perform method that should become standard in the examination of polyneuropathies.

  12. Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy associated with primary biliary cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Murata, Ken-ya; Ishiguchi, Hiroshi; Ando, Ryuki; Miwa, Hideto; Kondo, Tomoyoshi

    2013-12-01

    We report a patient with chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy associated with primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC). Except for minimal biochemical abnormalities, clinical symptoms of PBC were not observed, and we diagnosed our patient with asymptomatic PBC from the results of a liver biopsy. Although the patient noticed little muscle weakness, an electrophysiological study demonstrated slow conduction velocities and prolonged distal latencies, with definite conduction blocks in the median, ulnar, and tibial nerves. The disturbed sensory pattern was asymmetrical, and sensory nerve action potentials were not evoked. From these observations, we diagnosed this patient with chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy. Neuropathy associated with PBC is very rare. We must differentiate demyelinating neuropathy with PBC in patients with asymmetrical sensory dominant neuropathy with high immunoglobulin M titers, and investigate for the presence of anti-mitochondrial antibodies to rule out a complication of asymptomatic PBC.

  13. Fibrillary glomerulonephritis combined with chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy

    PubMed Central

    Sung, Woo Kyung; Jeong, Jin Uk; Bang, Ki Tae; Shin, Jong Ho; Yoo, Ji Hyung; Kim, Nak Min; Park, Jun Hyung; Kim, Joo Heon

    2015-01-01

    A 58-yr-old man presented with leg edema and subacute weakness of his bilateral lower extremities. Urinary and serum immunoelectrophoresis revealed the presence of lambda-type Bence Jones proteins. He was ultimately diagnosed with monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS). A renal biopsy specimen showed fibrillary glomerulonephritis (FGN), which was randomly arranged as 12–20 m nonbranching fibrils in the basement membranes. Immunofluorescence studies were negative for immunoglobulin (Ig)G, IgM, IgA, C3, and kappa light chains in the capillary walls and mesangial areas. A Congo red stain for amyloid was negative. Electromyography and nerve conduction velocity examinations results were compatible with the presence of demyelinating polyneuropathy. This case showed a rare combination of FGN, without Ig deposition, and MGUS combined with chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP). PMID:26484033

  14. Sensory evoked potentials in Guillain-Barré polyneuropathy.

    PubMed Central

    Brown, W F; Feasby, T E

    1984-01-01

    In 11 patients with acute Guillain-Barré polyneuropathy examined within 2 weeks of the onset of the paralysis, sensory evoked potential techniques were able to demonstrate a proximal conduction delay between Erb's point and the cervical cord in 10 subjects; while sensory conduction distal to Erb's point was much more commonly normal in the early period. Sensory evoked potential techniques provide therefore a valuable way to demonstrate proximal conduction velocity slowing early in the course of this disease. PMID:6707675

  15. Connecting impairment, disability, and handicap in immune mediated polyneuropathies.

    PubMed

    Merkies, I S J; Schmitz, P I M; van der Meché, F G A; Samijn, J P A; van Doorn, P A

    2003-01-01

    In the World Health Organisation (WHO) International Classification of Impairments, Disabilities, and Handicaps (ICIDH), it is suggested that various levels of outcome are associated with one another. However, the ICIDH has been criticised on the grounds that it only represents a general, non-specific relation between its entities. To examine the significance of the ICIDH in immune mediated polyneuropathies. Four impairment measures (fatigue severity scale, MRC sum score, "INCAT" sensory sum score, grip strength with the Vigorimeter), five disability scales (nine hole peg test, 10 metres walking test, an overall disability sum score (ODSS), Hughes functional grading scale, Rankin scale), and a handicap scale (Rotterdam nine items handicap scale (RIHS9)) were assessed in 113 clinically stable patients (83 with Guillain-Barré syndrome, 22 with chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy, eight with a gammopathy related polyneuropathy). Regression analyses with backward and forward stepwise strategies were undertaken to determine the correlation between the various levels of outcome (impairment on disability, impairment on handicap, disability leading to handicap, and impairment plus disability on handicap). Impairment measures explained a substantial part of disability (R(2) = 0.64) and about half of the variance in handicap (R(2) = 0.52). Disability measures showed a stronger association with handicap (R(2) = 0.76). Combining impairment and disability scales accounted for 77% of the variance in handicap (RIHS9) scores. In contrast to some suggestions, support for the ICIDH model is found in the current study because significant associations were shown between its various levels in patients with immune mediated polyneuropathies. Further studies are required to examine other possible contributors to deficits in daily life and social functioning in these conditions.

  16. Connecting impairment, disability, and handicap in immune mediated polyneuropathies

    PubMed Central

    Merkies, I; Schmitz, P; van der Meche, F G A; Samijn, J; van Doorn, P A

    2003-01-01

    Background: In the World Health Organisation (WHO) International Classification of Impairments, Disabilities, and Handicaps (ICIDH), it is suggested that various levels of outcome are associated with one another. However, the ICIDH has been criticised on the grounds that it only represents a general, non-specific relation between its entities. Objective: To examine the significance of the ICIDH in immune mediated polyneuropathies. Methods: Four impairment measures (fatigue severity scale, MRC sum score, "INCAT" sensory sum score, grip strength with the Vigorimeter), five disability scales (nine hole peg test, 10 metres walking test, an overall disability sum score (ODSS), Hughes functional grading scale, Rankin scale), and a handicap scale (Rotterdam nine items handicap scale (RIHS9)) were assessed in 113 clinically stable patients (83 with Guillain–Barré syndrome, 22 with chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy, eight with a gammopathy related polyneuropathy). Regression analyses with backward and forward stepwise strategies were undertaken to determine the correlation between the various levels of outcome (impairment on disability, impairment on handicap, disability leading to handicap, and impairment plus disability on handicap). Results: Impairment measures explained a substantial part of disability (R2 = 0.64) and about half of the variance in handicap (R2 = 0.52). Disability measures showed a stronger association with handicap (R2 = 0.76). Combining impairment and disability scales accounted for 77% of the variance in handicap (RIHS9) scores. Conclusions: In contrast to some suggestions, support for the ICIDH model is found in the current study because significant associations were shown between its various levels in patients with immune mediated polyneuropathies. Further studies are required to examine other possible contributors to deficits in daily life and social functioning in these conditions. PMID:12486276

  17. Focal conduction block in n-hexane polyneuropathy.

    PubMed

    Chang, A P; England, J D; Garcia, C A; Sumner, A J

    1998-07-01

    A 19-year-old man with an asymptomatic history of recreational gasoline vapor inhalation presented with subacute progressive quadriparesis. For 2 weeks, he had intensely inhaled Coleman fuel oil vapor, which contains n-hexane. Nerve conduction studies including near-nerve needle stimulation showed focal conduction block in the bilateral median and ulnar nerves. Sural nerve biopsy was consistent with giant axonal neuropathy. Conduction block as seen in this case has not heretofore been described in n-hexane polyneuropathy.

  18. Characteristics of muscle cramps in patients with polyneuropathy.

    PubMed

    Maxwell, Sarah K; Kokokyi, Seint; Breiner, Ari; Ebadi, Hamid; Bril, Vera; Katzberg, Hans D

    2014-08-01

    Muscle cramps are common in the general population and can be disabling for patients, but there is little evidence comprehensively evaluating cramp characteristics in patients with polyneuropathy. This study describes the prevalence and characteristics of muscle cramps in this patient group. Patients over 18 diagnosed with polyneuropathy were invited to join the study. Patients completed nerve conduction studies, the Toronto Clinical Neuropathy score, neuropathy-specific Vickrey's Quality of Life Assessment and a self-administered questionnaire examining demographics, neuropathy symptoms and cramp characteristics. Two hundred and twenty-five participants were enrolled (28.0% female). Sixty-three percent of patients experienced cramps, occurring on average 6 times per week, lasting 10.5 min and scoring 6 out of 10 on a pain scale and described as disabling by 43.6% of patients. No significant difference was found in cramp prevalence according to underlying pathophysiology (p = 0.52) or fiber type (p = 0.41). Patients with disabling cramps rated their physical (p < 0.0001) and mental (p = 0.04) quality of life lower than patients without disabling cramps. This study confirms that muscle cramps are common, disabling and associated with reduced quality of life in patients with polyneuropathy. Similar prevalence of cramps across predominant nerve fiber type suggests a role of sensory afferents in cramp generation, although this needs to be confirmed in larger cohorts.

  19. Electrophysiological features of POEMS syndrome and chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy.

    PubMed

    Guo, Xiuming; Qin, Xinyue; Zhang, Yuping; Huang, Cheng; Yu, Gang

    2014-04-01

    Polyneuropathy is often an initial manifestation of polyneuropathy, organomegaly, endocrinopathy, M protein and skin changes (POEMS) syndrome and therefore this disorder is frequently misdiagnosed as chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP). We reviewed electrophysiological data in 20 patients with POEMS syndrome and 36 matched patients with CIDP to compare the electrophysiological features of POEMS syndrome and CIDP. Compared with CIDP controls, POEMS patients demonstrated (1) less prolonged distal motor latency and less reduced motor nerve and sensory nerve conduction velocities, (2) greater reduction of amplitudes of compound motor action potentials (CMAP) in distal stimulation, and similar reduction of amplitudes of CMAP in proximal stimulation, (3) similar reduction of amplitudes of sensory nerve action potentials (SNAP) in median and ulnar nerves, and a greater reduction of amplitudes of SNAP in tibial and peroneal nerves, (4) less temporal dispersion, (5) less frequent conduction block, (6) more frequent neurogenic injury in the muscles of the upper and lower limbs, and more frequent neurogenic injury in the muscles of the lower than upper limbs, (7) similar F wave and H reflex abnormalities, and (8) less frequent skin sympathetic response abnormalities. We concluded that before development of typical clinical manifestations, POEMS neuropathy can be distinguished from CIDP by neural electrophysiological examination. These electrophysiological features can be used for early diagnosis and initiating correct treatment of POEMS syndrome.

  20. Childhood chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy with nonuniform pathologic features.

    PubMed

    Luan, Xinghua; Zheng, Riliang; Chen, Bin; Yuan, Yun

    2010-08-01

    Nonuniform pathologic changes in chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy were previously reported only in adult humans. We analyzed the pathologic features of 12 children, aged 2-17 years, with chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy. Six patients manifested a preceding illness. Five patients presented a chronic, monophasic course, and seven presented a relapsing-remitting course. Three patients exhibited multiple cranial-nerve involvement. Five of 12 (41.7%) patients presented nonuniform features. Two subtypes of nonuniform lesions were revealed. One exhibited varying myelinated fiber content between nerve fascicles, and one exhibited onion bulbs involving a variable number of fascicles. Macrophages were evident in 11 patients, and the number of CD3-positive T cells in the nonuniform group was greater compared with the uniform group (P = 0.045). Our results demonstrate that childhood chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy exhibits pathologically nonuniform features, thus providing more evidence to assist in differential diagnoses of pediatric patients. However, clinical and electrophysiologic features, as well as responses to treatment, were similar in the nonuniform and uniform groups.

  1. Early identification of ‘acute-onset’ chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy

    PubMed Central

    Sung, Jia-Ying; Tani, Jowy; Park, Susanna B.; Kiernan, Matthew C.

    2014-01-01

    Distinguishing patients with acute-onset chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy from acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy prior to relapse is often challenging at the onset of their clinical presentation. In the present study, nerve excitability tests were used in conjunction with the clinical phenotype and disease staging, to differentiate between patients with acute-onset chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy and patients with acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy at an early stage, with the aim to better guide treatment. Clinical assessment, staging and nerve excitability tests were undertaken on patients initially fulfilling the diagnostic criteria of acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy soon after symptom onset and their initial presentation. Patients were subsequently followed up for minimum of 12 months to determine if their clinical presentations were more consistent with acute-onset chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy. Clinical severity as evaluated by Medical Research Council sum score and Hughes functional grading scale were not significantly different between the two cohorts. There was no difference between the time of onset of initial symptoms and nerve excitability test assessment between the two cohorts nor were there significant differences in conventional nerve conduction study parameters. However, nerve excitability test profiles obtained from patients with acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy demonstrated abnormalities in the recovery cycle of excitability, including significantly reduced superexcitability (P < 0.001) and prolonged relative refractory period (P < 0.01), without changes in threshold electrotonus. In contrast, in patients with acute-onset chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy, a different pattern occurred with the recovery cycle shifted downward (increased superexcitability, P < 0.05; decreased subexcitability, P < 0.05) and increased

  2. Shoe-makers' polyneuropathy in Italy: the aetiological problem.

    PubMed Central

    Abbritti, G; Siracusa, A; Cianchetti, C; Coli, A; Curradi, F; Perticoni, G F; De Rosa, F

    1976-01-01

    Since 1957, when the first cases of the so-called shoe-makers' toxic polyneuropathy were reported, nearly 400 cases have been described in the Italian literature. The substance that was considered to be responsible for the disease was triorthocresylphosphate (TOCP) contained in glues, artificial leathers, and some types of paints. However numerous chemical analyses of glues and leathers taken from factories where cases of the disease occurred have shown that in almost all instances little or no TOCP was present. In addition the disease manifests itself more frequently during winter and spring and this is not consistent with the absorption of the causative agent through the skin and/or gastrointestinal tract. In order to clarify the aetiology of the disease 122 workers in the shoe industry affected by toxic polymeuropathy during the period 1971-74 were studied. Workplaces where cases of polyneuropathy had occurred were visited and samples of glues and solvents were taken for chemical analysis. The polyneuropathy chiefly affects workers engaged in glueing and in the cleaning process, but it also affects those who do not have direct contact with glues or solvents. The disease is more common in women (68%) than in men (32%) and, in its more severe form begins with overwhelming prevalence during winter and early spring regardless of the job performed. No direct relationship has been found between the severity of the disease and the number of years of work in the shoe industry or of specific exposure (that is the number of years of work in the activity performed at the onset of the disease). The polyneuropathy is found almost exclusively among workers of the artisam type in small shoe factories, where standards of hygiene are low. Chemical analysis of glues and cleaning fluids collected from five different factories, where 20 cases of polyneuropathy occurred, showed the presence of paraffin hydrocarbons with a low boiling point (pentane, 2-methyl-pentane, 3-methyl

  3. Objective evidence that small-fiber polyneuropathy underlies some illnesses currently labeled as fibromyalgia

    PubMed Central

    Oaklander, Anne Louise; Herzog, Zeva Daniela; Downs, Heather; Klein, Max M.

    2013-01-01

    Fibromyalgia is a common, disabling, syndrome that includes chronic widespread pain plus other diverse symptoms. No specific objective abnormalities have been identified, precluding definitive testing, disease-modifying treatments, and identification of causes. In contrast, small-fiber polyneuropathy (SFPN), despite causing similar symptoms, is definitionally a disease caused by dysfunction and degeneration of peripheral small-fiber neurons. SFPN has established etiologies, some diagnosable and definitively treatable, e.g., diabetes. To evaluate the hypothesis that some patients labeled with “fibromyalgia” have unrecognized SFPN causing their illness symptoms, we analyzed SFPN-associated symptoms, signs, and pathological and physiological markers in 27 fibromyalgia patients and 30 matched normal controls. Fibromyalgia subjects had to satisfy American College of Rheumatology criteria plus present documented evidence of a physician’s actual fibromyalgia diagnosis. Study instruments comprised the Michigan Neuropathy Screening Instrument (MNSI), the Utah Early Neuropathy Scale (UENS), distal-leg neurodiagnostic skin biopsies, plus autonomic-function testing (AFT). 41% of skin biopsies from fibromyalgia subjects vs. 3% of biopsies from control subjects were diagnostic for SFPN, and MNSI and UENS scores were higher among fibromyalgia than control subjects (all P ≤ 0.001). Abnormal AFTs were equally prevalent suggesting that fibromyalgia-associated SFPN is primarily somatic. Blood tests from all 13 fibromyalgia subjects with SFPN-diagnostic skin biopsies provided insights into etiologies. All glucose tolerance tests were normal, but eight subjects had dysimmune markers, 2 had hepatitis C serologies, and one family had apparent genetic causality. These findings suggest that some patients with chronic pain labeled as “fibromyalgia” have unrecognized small-fiber polyneuropathy, a distinct disease that can be objectively tested for and sometimes definitively

  4. Hospital-referred polyneuropathies--causes, prevalences, clinical- and neurophysiological findings.

    PubMed

    Rudolph, T; Farbu, E

    2007-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the causes, prevalences, clinical manifestations of hospital-referred polyneuropathies, and evaluate neurophysiological findings in idiopathic polyneuropathy. From 2000 to 2005, 226 patients with polyneuropathy were examined. Polyneuropathy was diagnosed when symptoms, clinical- and neurophysiological findings were compatible with affection of at least two peripheral nerves. They were classified in symptomatic and idiopathic polyneuropathy after investigation. Clinical manifestations were evaluated for diabetes- (DPN), inflammatory- (INPN), hereditary- (HPN) and idiopathic polyneuropathy (IDPN). Neurophysiological findings were investigated in IDPN. 72% had a symptomatic polyneuropathy. Most frequent causes were diabetes mellitus (18%), inflammation, (16%) and hereditary (14%). Most common prevalences per 100,000 were as follows: IDPN, 21; DPN, 13 and HPN, 11. Predominating clinical manifestations were: sensory and motor in INPN, HPN and IPN; sensory in DPN. Pain was more present in IDPN and DPN than in others. In IDPN axonal demyelinating affection was present in 20%. Symptomatic polyneuropathy was common and diabetes mellitus, inflammation and hereditary were frequent causes. In IDPN, DPN, HPN and INPN different clinical patterns were found. Additionally, in IDPN axonal demyelinating affection was more frequent than previously reported.

  5. A case of chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy presented with unilateral ptosis.

    PubMed

    Izadi, Sadegh; Karamimagham, Sina; Poursadeghfard, Maryam

    2014-01-01

    Chronic Inflammatory Demyelinating Polyneuropathy is an autoimmune disease with progressive and relapsing courses. The main clinical presentations are diffuse deep tendon hyporeflexia or areflexia and symmetric proximal-distal muscles weakness. Myasthenia gravis is also an immune mediated disease with fluctuating ocular and bulbar symptoms and sometimes weakness. Although both myasthenia gravis and chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy are immune mediated disorders, clinical presentations are obviously different in the two diseases. Herein, we will report a case of chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy who presented with isolated unilateral ptosis. Initially, the patient was managed as ocular type of myasthenia gravis, but after progression to general limb weakness and areflexia, the diagnosis of chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy was made. Although unilateral ptosis is a typical feature of myasthenia gravis, it may be seen as the first presentation of chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy as well which mimics myasthenia gravis disease.

  6. [Infrared thermography and electroneuromyography in occupational polyneuropathy diagnosis].

    PubMed

    Loginova, N N; Voitenkov, V B

    2013-01-01

    We have evaluated diagnostic value of the combination of infrared thermography and electromyography in professional polyneuropathy diagnosis. 20 patients with working-hand syndrome and 5 controls were enrolled. In 18 cases (90%) both methods were sensitive: on EMG CNV slowing and amplitudes drop were seen, as well as M-response shape changes, and thermography have detected focal hypothermia in hands in some cases and appearance of obscure hypothermia in others. Thus, both methods demonstrated good sensitivity. We recommend using thermography as a screening test and EMG as a following investigation.

  7. Autoantibodies against vinculin in patients with chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy.

    PubMed

    Beppu, Minako; Sawai, Setsu; Satoh, Mamoru; Mori, Masahiro; Kazami, Takahiro; Misawa, Sonoko; Shibuya, Kazumoto; Ishibashi, Masumi; Sogawa, Kazuyuki; Kado, Sayaka; Kodera, Yoshio; Nomura, Fumio; Kuwabara, Satoshi

    2015-10-15

    To identify the target molecules of chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP), we used proteomic-based approach in the extracted proteins from porcine cauda equina. Two of 31 CIDP patients had markedly elevated serum autoantibodies against vinculin, a cell adhesion protein. Both of the patients with anti-vinculin antibodies had similar clinical manifestation, which are compatible with those of "typical" CIDP. Immunocytochemistry showed that vinculin was stained at the myelin sheath of the sciatic nerves by serum samples. Our results suggest that vinculin is a possible immunological target molecule in a subpopulation of typical CIDP patients.

  8. Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy after treatment with interferon-alpha.

    PubMed

    Hirotani, Makoto; Nakano, Hitoshi; Ura, Shigehisa; Yoshida, Kazuto; Niino, Masaaki; Yabe, Ichiro; Sasaki, Hidenao

    2009-01-01

    Interferon-alpha (IFN-alpha), though widely used for the treatment of chronic viral hepatitis, may be associated with the occurrence of autoimmune disorders. In this case report, a patient with chronic hepatitis C virus infection had chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) after the initiation of IFN-alpha therapy. The neurological symptoms of this patient continued to progress even though the treatment with IFN-alpha had been withdrawn; the symptoms improved dramatically following treatment with intravenous immunoglobulin. This case may therefore provide an important clue to understand the immune mechanism of CIDP and IFN-alpha.

  9. Gene expression changes in chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy skin biopsies.

    PubMed

    Puttini, Stefania; Panaite, Petrica-Adrian; Mermod, Nicolas; Renaud, Susanne; Steck, Andreas J; Kuntzer, Thierry

    2014-05-15

    Chronic-inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) is an immune-mediated disease with no known biomarkers for diagnosing the disease or assessing its prognosis. We performed transcriptional profiling microarray analysis on skin punch biopsies from 20 CIDP patients and 17 healthy controls to identify disease-associated gene expression changes. We demonstrate changes in expression of genes involved in immune and chemokine regulation, growth and repair. We also found a combination of two upregulated genes that can be proposed as a novel biomarker of the disorder.

  10. Reconstruction magnetic resonance neurography in chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy.

    PubMed

    Shibuya, Kazumoto; Sugiyama, Atsuhiko; Ito, Sho-ichi; Misawa, Sonoko; Sekiguchi, Yukari; Mitsuma, Satsuki; Iwai, Yuta; Watanabe, Keisuke; Shimada, Hitoshi; Kawaguchi, Hiroshi; Suhara, Tetsuya; Yokota, Hajime; Matsumoto, Hiroshi; Kuwabara, Satoshi

    2015-02-01

    To study distribution and patterns of nerve hypertrophy in chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP), magnetic resonance neurography with 3-dimensional reconstruction of short tau inversion recovery images was performed in 33 patients. This technique clearly showed longitudinal morphological changes from the cervical roots to the nerve trunks in the proximal arm. Nerve enlargement was detected in 88% of the patients. According to the clinical subtype of CIDP, typical CIDP patients showed symmetric and root-dominant hypertrophy, whereas Lewis-Sumner syndrome patients had multifocal fusiform hypertrophy in the nerve trunks. The patterns of nerve hypertrophy presumably reflect the different pathophysiology of each CIDP subtype.

  11. An outbreak of N-hexane induced polyneuropathy among press proofing workers in Taipei.

    PubMed

    Wang, J D; Chang, Y C; Kao, K P; Huang, C C; Lin, C C; Yeh, W Y

    1986-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence and the etiology of polyneuropathy observed among press proofing workers in Taipei. Neurological examinations of 59 workers, from 16 press proofing factories, were conducted. Fifty-four of those workers subsequently underwent studies of nerve conduction velocities. Samples of bulk solvent from the involved factories were analyzed for their contents using gas chromatography. Fifteen (25%) of the study group were found to have polyneuropathy. All 15 patients with polyneuropathy were from factories in which solvents containing n-hexane were regularly used, and there was a significant association between n-hexane concentration in the bulk samples and prevalence of polyneuropathy. The air concentration of n-hexane in one factory in which all six employees developed polyneuropathy was 190 ppm. Workers who were exposed to n-hexane at air levels of less than 100 ppm but who frequently worked overtime showed a significant slowing of motor nerve conduction velocities on median, ulnar, and peroneal nerves. Of 13 workers who regularly slept in the factory, 12 (92%) had polyneuropathy compared to three (7%) of 46 workers who did not sleep in the factory. The outbreak of polyneuropathy was attributed to a combination of the use of solvents with high contents of n-hexane, poor ventilation, and the practice of sleeping in the factories between shifts.

  12. Deficient high-acceleration vestibular function in patients with polyneuropathy.

    PubMed

    Palla, A; Schmid-Priscoveanu, A; Studer, A; Hess, K; Straumann, D

    2009-06-09

    Unsteadiness during standing and walking is a frequent complaint of patients with polyneuropathy (PNP). To determine whether balance disorders in patients with PNP may be caused by reduced proprioceptive input from the feet alone or whether impaired vestibular input, resulting from involvement of the vestibular nerve, can be an additional factor. A total of 37 patients (mean age 65 years +/- 12 SD; 12 women) with electrodiagnostically confirmed PNP (predominantly axonal: 18; predominantly demyelinating: 19) underwent horizontal search-coil head-impulse testing, which assesses the high-acceleration vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR). Relative to a healthy comparison group, the gains (eye velocity divided by head velocity) of the horizontal VOR were reduced in 27 of 37 patients (unilateral: 13; bilateral: 14). The percentages of patients with unilateral or bilateral VOR deficits were not significantly different between patients with axonal or demyelinating PNP. Two thirds of patients with axonal or demyelinating polyneuropathy (PNP) showed unilateral (approximately 50%) or bilateral (approximately 50%) gain reductions of the horizontal high-acceleration vestibulo-ocular reflex. This finding suggests that, in many patients with PNP, the neuropathic process includes the vestibular nerve. Such information is highly relevant for subsequent physical therapy, since vestibular exercise improves balance control and reduces disability.

  13. Evaluation of a patient with suspected chronic demyelinating polyneuropathy.

    PubMed

    Jani-Acsadi, Agnes; Lewis, Richard A

    2013-01-01

    Demyelinating neuropathies are typically characterized by physiological slowing of conduction velocity and pathologically by segmental loss of myelin and in some instances, evidence of remyelination. Clinically, patients with demyelinating neuropathy can be seen with inherited disorders (Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease) or acquired disorders, typically immune-mediated or inflammatory. The acquired disorders can be either acute or subacute as seen in the acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (AIDP) form of Guillain-Barré syndrome or chronic progressive or relapsing disorders such as chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy. It is important to develop a logical approach to diagnosing these disorders. This requires an understanding of the clinical, genetic, physiological, and pathological features of these neuropathies. Clinically, important features to consider are the temporal progression, degree of symmetry, and involvement of proximal as well as distal muscles. Genetically, recognizing the different inheritance patterns and age of onset allow for a coordinated approach to determining a specific genotype. Physiologically, besides nerve conduction slowing, other physiological hallmarks of demyelination include temporal dispersion of compound motor action potentials (CMAP) on proximal stimulation, conduction block, and distal CMAP duration prolongation with certain patterns of involvement pointing to specific disorders. This chapter focuses on these various aspects of the evaluation of patients with chronic acquired demyelinating neuropathies to develop a comprehensive and thoughtful diagnostic concept.

  14. The spectrum of polyneuropathies in patients infected with HIV.

    PubMed Central

    Leger, J M; Bouche, P; Bolgert, F; Chaunu, M P; Rosenheim, M; Cathala, H P; Gentilini, M; Hauw, J J; Brunet, P

    1989-01-01

    Twenty five patients with peripheral neuropathy at different stages of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection are reported. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) findings were available in 17 cases, electrophysiology in all and a neuromuscular biopsy in 11. Of six otherwise asymptomatic HIV+ patients, five had chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) and one acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (AIDP). CSF showed pleocytosis in all cases. Infiltration of the endoneurium and/or the epineurium by mononuclear cells was seen in biopsies from three cases. These six patients recovered either spontaneously, or with corticosteroids or plasmaphereses. Of five patients with AIDS related complex (ARC), three had distal predominantly sensory peripheral neuropathy (DSPN), one CIDP and one mixed neuropathy. Of 14 patients with AIDS, one had mononeuropathy multiplex and 13 painful DSPN. Electrophysiological studies were consistent with an axonopathy. Nerve biopsies in six cases showed axonal changes but surprisingly associated with marked segmental demyelination in two cases. Cell infiltration was present in nerve samples in two cases. Five patients died within six months after the onset of the neuropathy. PMID:2559161

  15. Clinical and electromyographic deep tendon reflexes in polyneuropathy: diagnostic value and prevalence*.

    PubMed

    Sharma, K R; Saadia, D; Facca, A G; Resnick, S; Ayyar, D R

    2009-04-01

    Evidence is accumulating that patients with polyneuropathy may present with normal clinical deep tendon reflexes (C-DTR). There are few studies that assessed the diagnostic utility of electromyographically recorded DTR (Er-DTR) in patients with polyneuropathy. The objectives of this study were twofold: (i) to evaluate the prevalence of preserved C-DTR in polyneuropathy; (ii) diagnostic value of Er-DTR latency measurement in patients with polyneuropathy. We prospectively studied 38 controls and 185 patients with polyneuropathy. All subjects had evaluation of C-DTR, Er-DTR obtained from right biceps brachii (BR), right patellar (PR) and bilateral ankle reflexes (AR). Of these 185 patients, 118 (63.8%) had chronic axonal neuropathy (CAN), 49 (26.5%) demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (DPN) and 18 (9.7%) small fiber neuropathy (SFN). The C-DTR were normal in 65 patients whereas 39 of these 65 (60%) patients had abnormalities of Er-DTR at one or more sites. Er-DTR latencies in patients with polyneuropathies were prolonged at all sites compared with controls (P < 0.01). Among patients with various types of polyneuropathies the Er-DTR, mean latencies at all the sites and latency indicative of demyelination (>150% of the normal mean) were higher in patients with DPN than that of CAN or SFN (P < 0.01). We conclude that C-DTR are preserved in 35.1% of the patients with polyneuropathies and Er-DTR should be performed in such patients in order to provide electrophysiological evidence of a polyneuropathy. Er-DTR are useful in distinguishing axonal from demyelinating disorders of peripheral nerve, and detection of subclinical involvement of large fibers in SFN.

  16. Impairments and comorbidities of polyneuropathy revealed by population-based analyses

    PubMed Central

    Hoffman, E. Matthew; Staff, Nathan P.; Robb, Jared M.; St. Sauver, Jennifer L.; Dyck, Peter J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To quantify polyneuropathy impairments and comorbidities utilizing the Rochester Epidemiology Project (2010 census = 148,201). Methods: ICD-9-CM coding identified polyneuropathy cases (2006–2010) and their 5:1 age- and sex-matched controls. Mortality and impairments were evaluated while identifying and adjusting for Charlson Index comorbidities. Results: Overall prevalence of polyneuropathy was 1.66%, and markedly rose to 6.6% in persons older than 60 years. Cases (n = 2,892) had more comorbidities than controls (n = 14,435) with higher median Charlson Index (6 vs 3, p < 0.001). Diabetes with end-organ disease represented the largest increased comorbidity in cases compared with controls (46.8% vs 6.5%). Diabetic polyneuropathy was the most common specific subtype (38.2%). Miscoded idiopathic cases and false-negative controls also commonly had diabetic polyneuropathy. Median modified Rankin Scale score was considerably higher for cases than controls (4 vs 1, p < 0.001). Multiple comorbidities were found associated with polyneuropathy after adjusting for diabetes co-occurrence, including pulmonary disease, dementia, and others. Polyneuropathy was an independent contributor to multiple functional impairments including difficulty walking (odds ratio [OR] = 1.9), climbing stairs (OR = 2.0), using an assistive device (OR = 2.0), fall tendency (OR = 2.4), work disability (OR = 4.2), lower limb amputations (OR = 3.9), and opioid use (OR = 2.7). Prevalent cases had a younger median age at death than controls (80 vs 86 years, p < 0.001), and incident cases had a 6-month shorter survival. Conclusions: Polyneuropathies have notable neurologic impairments beyond their identified multiple comorbidities. Life expectancy is shortened. Diabetic polyneuropathy is underidentified. The quantified extent of the disease burden and refined comorbidity associations emphasize that greater research efforts and health care initiatives are needed. PMID:25832668

  17. Expression of genes involved in the T cell signalling pathway in circulating immune cells of cattle 24 months following oral challenge with Bovine Amyloidotic Spongiform Encephalopathy (BASE).

    PubMed

    Trovato, Andrea; Panelli, Simona; Strozzi, Francesco; Cambulli, Caterina; Barbieri, Ilaria; Martinelli, Nicola; Lombardi, Guerino; Capoferri, Rossana; Williams, John L

    2015-05-09

    Bovine Amyloidotic Spongiform Encephalopathy (BASE) is a variant of classical BSE that affects cows and can be transmitted to primates and mice. BASE is biochemically different from BSE and shares some molecular and histo-pathological features with the MV2 sub-type of human sporadic Creutzfeld Jakob Disease (sCJD). The present work examined the effects of BASE on gene expression in circulating immune cells. Ontology analysis of genes differentially expressed between cattle orally challenged with brain homogenate from cattle following intracranial inoculation with BASE and control cattle identified three main pathways which were affected. Within the immune function pathway, the most affected genes were related to the T cell receptor-mediated T cell activation pathways. The differential expression of these genes in BASE challenged animals at 10,12 and 24 months following challenge, vs unchallenged controls, was investigated by real time PCR. The results of this study show that the effects of prion diseases are not limited to the CNS, but involve the immune system and particularly T cell signalling during the early stage following challenge, before the appearance of clinical signs.

  18. Childhood chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy: an overview of 10 cases in the modern era.

    PubMed

    Ware, Tyson L; Kornberg, Andrew J; Rodriguez-Casero, M Victoria; Ryan, Monique M

    2014-01-01

    Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy is a rare condition in children. In this article, we report our experience in the management of 10 cases of childhood chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy in a single center, in the era of contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), genetic microarray, and chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy disease activity status. Robust neurophysiologic abnormalities were present in all cases and both MRI and lumbar puncture were useful adjuncts in diagnosis. Genetic microarray is a simple technique useful in excluding the most common hereditary demyelinating neuropathy. Intravenous immunoglobulin was an effective first-line therapy in most cases, with refractory cases responding to corticosteroids and rituximab. We found the chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy disease activity status useful for assessing outcome at final follow-up, whereas the modified Rankin score was better for assessing peak motor disability.

  19. Neuromuscular Ultrasound in the Assessment of Polyneuropathies and Motor Neuron Disease

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Jack; Cartwright, Michael S.

    2015-01-01

    Neuromuscular ultrasound is an emerging technology for the evaluation of conditions affecting nerve and muscle, with the majority of research focusing on focal neuropathies. Despite this focus, researchers have also investigated the ultrasonographic changes that occur in the nerves and muscles of those with more diffuse polyneuropathies and motor neuron diseases, and this review will detail the findings in these conditions. Specific findings are discussed in this paper, but general themes will also be presented and include the following: hereditary polyneuropathies show diffuse nerve enlargement whereas immune-mediated polyneuropathies show more patchy involvement; nerve enlargement is more profound in demyelinating than axonal polyneuropathies; and muscle changes in motor neuron diseases include heterogeneous increases in echogenicity, atrophy, readily detectable fasciculations, and increased subcutaneous tissue thickness. PMID:27035248

  20. Characterizing Treatable Causes of Small Fiber Polyneuropathy in Gulf War Veterans

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-10-01

    publications Lang M, Treister R, Oaklander AL. Diagnostic value of blood tests for occult causes of initially idiopathic small-fiber polyneuropathy. Journal...Technical Report GW093049, ADA613891, Sept 2014. 4. Lang M, Treister R, Oaklander AL. Diagnostic value of blood tests for occult causes of initially...ORIGINAL COMMUNICATION Diagnostic value of blood tests for occult causes of initially idiopathic small-fiber polyneuropathy Magdalena Lang1 • Roi Treister1

  1. Acute peripheral polyneuropathy with multiorgan failure: a diagnostic dilemma

    PubMed Central

    Hussain, Kosar; Abubaker, Jawed; Ahmad Dar, Javeed; Ahmed, Raees

    2014-01-01

    We describe the case of a young man who presented with abdominal pain, vomiting and acute symmetric peripheral polyneuropathy. He was noted to have high anion gap metabolic acidosis with high lactate levels and persistently high arterial and venous pO2 values. The cerebrospinal fluid was acellular with a high protein and the nerve conduction study was consistent with axonal sensorimotor neuropathy. His clinical condition deteriorated rapidly despite full supportive care and he subsequently died of multiorgan failure. An extensive workup for various infectious, autoimmune and other possible aetiologies was carried out to identify the underlying cause for his fulminant illness. All diagnostic workup was non-conclusive except for a significantly elevated serum aluminium level. We have discussed the possibility of aluminium phosphide poisoning in view of the clinical presentation. PMID:24899008

  2. Intractable chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy treated successfully with ciclosporin

    PubMed Central

    Odaka, M; Tatsumoto, M; Susuki, K; Hirata, K; Yuki, N

    2005-01-01

    Background: Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) is a heterogeneous disorder and both clinical course and response to treatment vary widely. Because of the propensity for relapse, CIDP requires maintenance therapy after the initial response to treatment. There is no consensus regarding this in the published literature. Present report: A patient with CIDP was treated with oral prednisolone and cyclophosphamide pulse therapy but required repeated plasma exchange and intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg). Treatment with ciclosporin freed the patient from repeated IVIg administration. Therapeutic responses in 14 subsequent cases including three patients who showed improvement with ciclosporin are also presented along with an algorithm of the authors' suggested protocol for treatment. Conclusion: Ciclosporin should be considered for patients with intractable CIDP who require repeated IVIg. PMID:16024890

  3. The dilemma of diabetes in chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy

    PubMed Central

    Bril, Vera; Blanchette, Christopher M.; Noone, Joshua M.; Runken, M. Chris; Gelinas, Deborah; Russell, James W.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose We reviewed the literature on chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) in diabetes mellitus (DM) and explored real-world data on the prevalence and treatment of CIDP within DM. Methods: A literature search of Scopus was performed for the terms chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy, chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy, CIDP, and prevalence, incidence, epidemiology, or diabetes; peripheral neuropathy and prevalence or diabetes. We also searched through the reference lists of the resulting publications for additional findings that may have been missed. Additional publications on guidelines for the diagnosis of CIDP and diabetic neuropathy were also included. A descriptive analysis of the 2009–2013 PharMetrics Plus™ Database was performed to estimate the prevalence and treatment of CIDP within the DM population. Results There is an increasing body of literature suggesting that the prevalence of CIDP tends to be higher in diabetic patients, especially in those of older age. Our real-world data seem to support published findings from the literature. For the total cohort (N = 101,321,694), the percent prevalence of CIDP (n = 8,173) was 0.008%; DM (n = 4,026,740) was 4%. The percent prevalence of CIDP without DM (n = 5,986) was 0.006%; CIDP with DM (n = 2,187) was 9-fold higher at 0.054%. For patients >50 years old, there was a significantly higher percentage of CIDP with DM than CIDP without DM. Approximately 50% of CIDP patients were treated with IVIg, 23%–24% with steroids, 1%–2% with PE, and 20%–23% received no treatment. Conclusions In addition to the growing evidence of higher prevalence of CIDP in DM, our findings reinforce the need for heightened awareness of the association of CIDP and DM. PMID:27389526

  4. [Spinal meningioma as differential diagnosis of diabetic polyneuropathy].

    PubMed

    Weck, M; Pause, M; Pinzer, T

    2001-05-18

    A 70 year old woman had suffered from diabetes mellitus type 2 since she was 52. Three years before the surgery she had begun to experience weakness together with altered sensitivity in the right leg, which was regarded as having been caused by diabetic polyneuropathy. During the admission examination the level for algesia on the right-hand side was at about D 11, a distal paraparesis of the leg (3-4 degrees, Janda's classification), more intense on the right, hyperactive deep tendon reflexes, Babinski's reflex on both sides, and depressed abdominal cutaneous reflexes. The sensitivity to vibrations on the Malleolus medialis on both sides was 0/8. The patient could walk only with the help of a Rollator. Over the three-year period following onset of symptoms the following tests were carried out: motor nerve conduction speeds of the N. tibialis and N. peronaeus, electromyogram of the N. tibialis anterior and the M. gastrocnemius, somatosensory evoked potentials (SSEP) of the N. tibialis, which indicated a lesion in the peripheral nerves or nerve roots. Cranial computed tomography (CCT), CT scan of the lumbar spine (L3-S1) and angiological investigation elicited no significant pathological findings. An MRI of the thoracal spine showed a vertebra-sized dorsal tumor pressing on the spinal cord from left to right. By means of microsurgery the spinal tumor was completely removed. Suspected meningeoma was confirmed by histological analysis. During the post-surgical period, the incomplete paraplegia quickly regressed, and 7 weeks after the removal of the spinal meningeoma the patient was able to climb stairs. In case of slowly-developing paresis of the legs in diabetic patients, diabetic polyneuropathy should not be diagnosed without careful consideration, and rare spinal tumors should be considered as part of the differential diagnosis, especially if the blood glucose level is normal, and intensive physiotherapy brings no improvement in the patient's condition.

  5. Diabetic polyneuropathies: update on research definition, diagnostic criteria and estimation of severity.

    PubMed

    Dyck, Peter J; Albers, James W; Andersen, Henning; Arezzo, Joseph C; Biessels, Geert-Jan; Bril, Vera; Feldman, Eva L; Litchy, William J; O'Brien, Peter C; Russell, James W

    2011-10-01

    Prior to a joint meeting of the Neurodiab Association and International Symposium on Diabetic Neuropathy held in Toronto, Ontario, Canada, 13-18 October 2009, Solomon Tesfaye, Sheffield, UK, convened a panel of neuromuscular experts to provide an update on polyneuropathies associated with diabetes (Toronto Consensus Panels on DPNs, 2009). Herein, we provide definitions of typical and atypical diabetic polyneuropathies (DPNs), diagnostic criteria, and approaches to diagnose sensorimotor polyneuropathy as well as to estimate severity. Diabetic sensorimotor polyneuropathy (DSPN), or typical DPN, usually develops on long-standing hyperglycaemia, consequent metabolic derangements and microvessel alterations. It is frequently associated with microvessel retinal and kidney disease-but other causes must be excluded. By contrast, atypical DPNs are intercurrent painful and autonomic small-fibre polyneuropathies. Recognizing that there is a need to detect and estimate severity of DSPN validly and reproducibly, we define subclinical DSPN using nerve conduction criteria and define possible, probable, and confirmed clinical levels of DSPN. For conduct of epidemiologic surveys and randomized controlled trials, it is necessary to pre-specify which attributes of nerve conduction are to be used, the criterion for diagnosis, reference values, correction for applicable variables, and the specific criterion for DSPN. Herein, we provide the performance characteristics of several criteria for the diagnosis of sensorimotor polyneuropathy in healthy subject- and diabetic subject cohorts. Also outlined here are staged and continuous approaches to estimate severity of DSPN. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Parenteral nutrition improves nutritional status, autonomic symptoms and quality of life in transthyretin amyloid polyneuropathy.

    PubMed

    Russo, Massimo; Vita, Gian Luca; Stancanelli, Claudia; Mazzeo, Anna; Vita, Giuseppe; Messina, Sonia

    2016-06-01

    Transthyretin familial amyloid polyneuropathy (TTR-FAP) is an inherited amyloidosis, leading to death in about ten years in most cases due to cardiac failure or wasting syndrome. Previous studies showed that modified body mass index was related to time before death, duration of gastrointestinal disturbances, malabsorption and functional capacity. We report two patients in whom nutritional status worsened despite diet modification, hypercaloric supplement and two relevant therapeutic approaches such as liver transplant and tafamidis meglumine, respectively. The first patient, a 52-year-old lady carrying Thr49Ala mutation, had a disease duration of twelve years and had lost weight up to 35 kg because of daily diarrhea. The second patient, a 63-year-old man with Glu89Gln mutation and a disease duration of fifteen years, was in the New York Heart Association (NYHA) Functional Classification class III and his weight was 39 kg. In both cases, a peripherally inserted central catheter was placed for parenteral nutrition. It allowed to improve their nutritional status and clinical conditions, with body weight gains of 11 and 8 kg in a one year follow-up, respectively. Moreover, reduction of autonomic symptoms including postural hypotension, nausea and diarrhoea was recorded with ameliorated quality of life. Our experience suggests that parenteral nutrition may be useful in reducing complications and disabilities in TTR-FAP patients, even when all dietary adjustments have been ineffective. Reasonably, the improvement in nutritional status may prolong survival in TTR-FAP patients.

  7. Plasma exchange and chlorambucil in polyneuropathy associated with monoclonal IgM gammopathy. IgM-associated Polyneuropathy Study Group.

    PubMed Central

    Oksenhendler, E; Chevret, S; Léger, J M; Louboutin, J P; Bussel, A; Brouet, J C

    1995-01-01

    The study compared chlorambucil alone with chlorambucil in combination with plasma exchange in patients with polyneuropathy associated with monoclonal IgM. Forty four patients were prospectively randomly assigned, in a comparative open trial, to receive either 0.1 mg/kg/day chlorambucil orally, for 12 months or chlorambucil associated with 15 courses of plasma exchange, during the first four months of treatment. They were evaluated by a neuropathy disability score and nerve conduction studies. No difference was found between the two treatment groups. The average neuropathy disability score improved by 2.1 points from baseline (21.0 to 18.9) in the chlorambucil group and by 1.8 points (20.4 to 18.6) in the chlorambucil + plasma exchange group (P = 0.70). The mean motor nerve conduction velocity decreased from 20.0 to 18.2 m/s in the chlorambucil group and increased from 20.5 to 22.5 m/s in the chlorambucil + plasma exchange group (P = 0.51). A slight improvement of the sensory component of the neuropathy disability score (from 10.5 to 8.3) was noted in both groups (P = 0.01). At the end of the study and according to self evaluation, 15 patients--eight from the chlorambucil group and seven from the chlorambucil + plasma exchange group--reported clinical improvement, whereas 15--eight from the chlorambucil group and seven from the chlorambucil + plasma exchange group--reported clinical worsening. Neuropathy remained stable in the others. Thus plasma exchange seemed to confer no additional benefit in the treatment of polyneuropathy associated with monoclonal IgM. PMID:7673949

  8. [α-Lipoic acid as the main pharmacological drug for in- and outpatient treatment of diabetic polyneuropathy].

    PubMed

    Strokov, I A; Phokina, A S

    2017-01-01

    α-Lipoic acid, or thioctic acid, (ALA) is the most applicable pharmacological drug for treatment of diabetic polyneuropathy. The article explores the results of experimental studies on the α-lipoic acid effect on mechanisms of peripheral nerves affection in hyperglycemia as well as the data of numerous randomized controlled trials and meta-analyses on studying ALA efficacy in symptomatic diabetic polyneuropathy. It has been shown that amelioration of patients with diabetic polyneuropathy is observed both for ALA infusions and tableted form of the drug. The authors conclude that α-lipoic acid is a drug for treatment of pathogenetic development mechanisms of diabetic polyneuropathy with the best proven efficacy.

  9. An ARHGEF10 Deletion Is Highly Associated with a Juvenile-Onset Inherited Polyneuropathy in Leonberger and Saint Bernard Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Minor, Katie M.; Shelton, G. Diane; Patterson, Edward E.; Bley, Tim; Oevermann, Anna; Bilzer, Thomas; Leeb, Tosso

    2014-01-01

    An inherited polyneuropathy (PN) observed in Leonberger dogs has clinical similarities to a genetically heterogeneous group of peripheral neuropathies termed Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) disease in humans. The Leonberger disorder is a severe, juvenile-onset, chronic, progressive, and mixed PN, characterized by exercise intolerance, gait abnormalities and muscle atrophy of the pelvic limbs, as well as inspiratory stridor and dyspnea. We mapped a PN locus in Leonbergers to a 250 kb region on canine chromosome 16 (Praw = 1.16×10−10, Pgenome, corrected = 0.006) utilizing a high-density SNP array. Within this interval is the ARHGEF10 gene, a member of the rho family of GTPases known to be involved in neuronal growth and axonal migration, and implicated in human hypomyelination. ARHGEF10 sequencing identified a 10 bp deletion in affected dogs that removes four nucleotides from the 3′-end of exon 17 and six nucleotides from the 5′-end of intron 17 (c.1955_1958+6delCACGGTGAGC). This eliminates the 3′-splice junction of exon 17, creates an alternate splice site immediately downstream in which the processed mRNA contains a frame shift, and generates a premature stop codon predicted to truncate approximately 50% of the protein. Homozygosity for the deletion was highly associated with the severe juvenile-onset PN phenotype in both Leonberger and Saint Bernard dogs. The overall clinical picture of PN in these breeds, and the effects of sex and heterozygosity of the ARHGEF10 deletion, are less clear due to the likely presence of other forms of PN with variable ages of onset and severity of clinical signs. This is the first documented severe polyneuropathy associated with a mutation in ARHGEF10 in any species. PMID:25275565

  10. Applying an artificial neural network model for developing a severity score for patients with hereditary amyloid polyneuropathy.

    PubMed

    Novis, Shenia; Machado, Felipe; Costa, Victor B; Foguel, Debora; Cruz, Marcia W; de Seixas, José Manoel

    2017-09-01

    Hereditary (familial) amyloid polyneuropathy (FAP) is a systemic disease that includes a sensorimotor polyneuropathy related to transthyretin (TTR) mutations. So far, a scale designed to classify the severity of this disease has not yet been validated. This work proposes the implementation of an artificial neural network (ANN) in order to develop a severity scale for monitoring the disease progression in FAP patients. In order to achieve this goal, relevant symptoms and laboratory findings were collected from 98 Brazilian patients included in THAOS - the Transthyretin Amyloidosis Outcomes Survey. Ninety-three percent of them bore Val30Met, the most prevalent variant of TTR worldwide; 63 were symptomatic and 35 were asymptomatic. These data were numerically codified for the purpose of constructing a Self-Organizing Map (SOM), which maps data onto a grid of artificial neurons. Mapped data could be clustered by similarity into five groups, based on increasing FAP severity (from Groups 1 to 5). Most symptoms were virtually absent from patients who mapped to Group 1, which also includes the asymptomatic patients. Group 2 encompasses the patients bearing symptoms considered to be initial markers of FAP, such as first signs of walking disabilities and lack of sensitivity to temperature and pain. Interestingly, the patients with cardiac symptoms, which also carry cardiac-associated mutations of the TTR gene (such as Val112Ile and Ala19Asp), were concentrated in Group 3. Symptoms such as urinary and fecal incontinence and diarrhea characterized particularly Groups 4 and 5. Renal impairment was found almost exclusively in Group 5. Model validation was accomplished by considering the symptoms from a sample with 48 additional Brazilian patients. The severity scores proposed here not only identify the current stage of a patient's disease but also offer to the physician an easy-to-read, 2D map that makes it possible to track disease progression.

  11. Clinimetric evaluation of a new overall disability scale in immune mediated polyneuropathies.

    PubMed

    Merkies, I S J; Schmitz, P I M; van der Meché, F G A; Samijn, J P A; van Doorn, P A

    2002-05-01

    To determine the validity, reliability, and responsiveness of a new overall disability sum score in immune mediated polyneuropathies. Three impairment measures (MRC sum score, sensory sum score, grip strength (Vigorimeter)) and three disability scales (an overall disability sum score (ODSS), Hughes' functional scale (f score), Rankin scale) were assessed in a cross sectional group of 113 clinically stable patients (83 with Guillain-Barré syndrome, 22 with chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP), eight with a gammopathy related polyneuropathy). The ODSS was also used serially in 20 patients with recently diagnosed Guillain-Barré syndrome (n = 7) or CIDP (n = 13) and changing clinical conditions. Multiple regression studies were performed to compare the impact of impairment disturbances (independent variables) on the various disability scales (dependent variable). Moderate to good construct validity (stable group: Spearman's rank test (absolute values), r = 0.41-0.79; longitudinal group: multiple correlation coefficient, R = 0.69-0.89; p < 0.006 for all associations) and reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient, R = 0.90-0.95; p < 0.0001) were demonstrated for the ODSS. Its SRM values were high (> 0.8), indicating good responsiveness. Impairment measures accounted for a higher variance proportion of the ODSS compared with the f score and Rankin (R = 0.64 v 0.56 and 0.45, respectively). All clinimetric requirements were met by the overall (arm and leg) disability sum score in immune mediated polyneuropathies. Its use is therefore suggested in evaluating immune mediated polyneuropathies.

  12. Axonal and perikaryal involvement in chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy

    PubMed Central

    Nagamatsu, M; Terao, S; Misu, K; Li, M; Hattori, N; Ichimura, M; Sakai, M; Yamamoto, H; Watanabe, H; Riku, S; Ikeda, E; Hata, J; Oda, M; Satake, M; Nakamura, N; Matsuya, S; Hashizume, Y; Sobue, G

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—To assess the extent of loss of myelinated nerve fibres and spinal motor neuron loss in chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP), a clinicopathological study was conducted on biopsied sural nerves and necropsied spinal cords from patients with CIDP.
METHODS—The myelinated fibre pathology of 71 biopsied sural nerves and motor neuron pathology of nine necropsied spinal cords at L4 levels in patients with CIDP were quantitatively and immunohistochemically assessed.
RESULTS—Myelinated nerve fibre density was significantly diminished to 65.4% of the control values (p <0.0001), correlating inversely with the extent of segmental demyelination and remyelination (r = −0.43, p < 0.0005) and duration of illness (r = −0.31, p < 0.01). Numbers of large spinal motor neurons in CIDP were variably but significantly diminished (range from 46.0 to 97.6% of the age matched control value (p < 0.005)), and reactive astrogliosis was evident in the ventral horn in CIDP. The frequency of ventral horn neurons exhibiting central chromatolysis and the accumulation of phosphorylated high molecular weight neurofilament protein was significantly higher in CIDP than in controls (p<0.01 and p<0.05).
CONCLUSIONS—The loss of nerve axons and spinal motor neurons is common in CIDP, and extensive in some cases. These neuronal and axonal losses may influence the functional prognosis in CIDP.

 PMID:10329744

  13. A standardized clinical evaluation of phenotypic diversity in diabetic polyneuropathy.

    PubMed

    Scholz, Joachim; Rathmell, James P; David, William S; Chad, David A; Broderick, Alithia C; Perros, Stephen G; Shin, Naomi S; Wells, Jenna L; Davis, John B; DiMaggio, Charles J; Wang, Shuang; Tate, Simon N

    2016-10-01

    Diabetic polyneuropathy (DPN) is a major cause of neuropathic pain and a frequent target condition in analgesic treatment trials. Differences in the clinical symptoms and signs associated with DPN suggest distinct pathophysiological mechanisms underlying nerve damage and dysfunction that are likely to have therapeutic relevance. The aim of this study was to develop a tool for the bedside assessment of painful neuropathies such as DPN that captures the diversity of phenotypes. Sixty-one patients with type 2 diabetes and painful neuropathy, 19 patients with painless DPN, 25 patients with type 2 diabetes but no clinical evidence of neuropathy, and 20 healthy control subjects completed a structured interview (47 items) and a standardized physical examination (39 items). After analyzing critical features of pain and painless symptoms and examining the outcome of physical tests of sensory function, we determined principal components of the phenotypic variance among patients. Increased sensitivity to mechanical or thermal stimuli and, to a lesser extent, the sensory quality of pain or paresthesia were the most discriminating elements of DPN phenotypes. Correlation patterns of symptoms and signs indicated the involvement of functionally distinct nerve fiber populations. We combined interview questions and physical tests identifying these differences in a shortened assessment protocol that we named Standardized Evaluation of Pain and Somatosensory Function (StEPS). The protocol StEPS generates a phenotypic profile of patients with neuropathy. Separate intensity ratings for spontaneous painful symptoms and pain evoked by standard stimuli support a detailed documentation of neuropathic pain and its response to analgesic treatment.

  14. Mechanisms and Management of Diabetic Painful Distal Symmetrical Polyneuropathy

    PubMed Central

    Tesfaye, Solomon; Boulton, Andrew J.M.; Dickenson, Anthony H.

    2013-01-01

    Although a number of the diabetic neuropathies may result in painful symptomatology, this review focuses on the most common: chronic sensorimotor distal symmetrical polyneuropathy (DSPN). It is estimated that 15–20% of diabetic patients may have painful DSPN, but not all of these will require therapy. In practice, the diagnosis of DSPN is a clinical one, whereas for longitudinal studies and clinical trials, quantitative sensory testing and electrophysiological assessment are usually necessary. A number of simple numeric rating scales are available to assess the frequency and severity of neuropathic pain. Although the exact pathophysiological processes that result in diabetic neuropathic pain remain enigmatic, both peripheral and central mechanisms have been implicated, and extend from altered channel function in peripheral nerve through enhanced spinal processing and changes in many higher centers. A number of pharmacological agents have proven efficacy in painful DSPN, but all are prone to side effects, and none impact the underlying pathophysiological abnormalities because they are only symptomatic therapy. The two first-line therapies approved by regulatory authorities for painful neuropathy are duloxetine and pregabalin. α-Lipoic acid, an antioxidant and pathogenic therapy, has evidence of efficacy but is not licensed in the U.S. and several European countries. All patients with DSPN are at increased risk of foot ulceration and require foot care, education, and if possible, regular podiatry assessment. PMID:23970715

  15. Diagnosis and treatment of chronic acquired demyelinating polyneuropathies.

    PubMed

    Latov, Norman

    2014-08-01

    Chronic neuropathies are operationally classified as primarily demyelinating or axonal, on the basis of electrodiagnostic or pathological criteria. Demyelinating neuropathies are further classified as hereditary or acquired-this distinction is important, because the acquired neuropathies are immune-mediated and, thus, amenable to treatment. The acquired chronic demyelinating neuropathies include chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP), neuropathy associated with monoclonal IgM antibodies to myelin-associated glycoprotein (MAG; anti-MAG neuropathy), multifocal motor neuropathy (MMN), and POEMS syndrome. They have characteristic--though overlapping--clinical presentations, are mediated by distinct immune mechanisms, and respond to different therapies. CIDP is the default diagnosis if the neuropathy is demyelinating and no other cause is found. Anti-MAG neuropathy is diagnosed on the basis of the presence of anti-MAG antibodies, MMN is characterized by multifocal weakness and motor conduction blocks, and POEMS syndrome is associated with IgG or IgA λ-type monoclonal gammopathy and osteosclerotic myeloma. The correct diagnosis, however, can be difficult to make in patients with atypical or overlapping presentations, or nondefinitive laboratory studies. First-line treatments include intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg), corticosteroids or plasmapheresis for CIDP; IVIg for MMN; rituximab for anti-MAG neuropathy; and irradiation or chemotherapy for POEMS syndrome. A correct diagnosis is required for choosing the appropriate treatment, with the aim of preventing progressive neuropathy.

  16. Additional causes for distal sensory polyneuropathy in diabetic patients

    PubMed Central

    Gorson, K C; Ropper, A H

    2006-01-01

    Objective To assess the frequency of additional causes of distal sensory polyneuropathy (DSP) in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM). Methods Retrospective review of patients with DM and DSP during a 5 year period. A quantitative sensory score (QSS) was determined at the initial evaluation and extensive laboratory and EMG studies were performed. Patients with one or more potential causes for DSP were compared to those with DM alone. Results Fifty five patients (53%) had potential additional causes for DSP. These included: neurotoxic medications (seven), alcohol abuse (six), and B12 deficiency and renal disease (four each). The most common laboratory abnormalities were: abnormally low levels of vitamin B6 (11) or B1 (10), monoclonal gammopathy (eight), and hypertriglyceridaemia (eight). Twenty six (25%) subjects had more than one additional cause. Nine (9%) had three or more demyelinating features on EMG. There was a trend toward a lower QSS score (p = 0.05) and reduced mean amplitude of the sensory potentials in those with additional causes. Those with additional causes more often had upper limb sensory symptoms (p = 0.001) and sensory findings (p = 0.003). Conclusion There was a high frequency of additional sources of DSP in patients with DM. These patients more often had sensory symptoms and findings in the hands. Tests that may be useful in the evaluation of DSP in diabetic patients include measures of vitamins B1, B6, B12, serum triglycerides, and immunofixation. PMID:16484643

  17. Assessing Decreased Sensation and Increased Sensory Phenomena in Diabetic Polyneuropathies

    PubMed Central

    Herrmann, David N.; Staff, Nathan P.; Dyck, P. James B.

    2013-01-01

    Loss of sensation and increased sensory phenomena are major expressions of varieties of diabetic polyneuropathies needing improved assessments for clinical and research purposes. We provide a neurobiological explanation for the apparent paradox between decreased sensation and increased sensory phenomena. Strongly endorsed is the use of the 10-g monofilaments for screening of feet to detect sensation loss, with the goal of improving diabetic management and prevention of foot ulcers and neurogenic arthropathy. We describe improved methods to assess for the kind, severity, and distribution of both large- and small-fiber sensory loss and which approaches and techniques may be useful for conducting therapeutic trials. The abnormality of attributes of nerve conduction may be used to validate the dysfunction of large sensory fibers. The abnormality of epidermal nerve fibers/1 mm may be used as a surrogate measure of small-fiber sensory loss but appear not to correlate closely with severity of pain. Increased sensory phenomena are recognized by the characteristic words patients use to describe them and by the severity and persistence of these symptoms. Tests of tactile and thermal hyperalgesia are additional markers of neural hyperactivity that are useful for diagnosis and disease management. PMID:24158999

  18. Influence Of Low Intensity Laser Therapy On Diabetic Polyneuropathy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdel-Raoof, N. A.; Elnhas, N. G.; Elsayed, I. M.

    2011-09-01

    Diabetic peripheral neuropathy is a consequence of diabetes-mediated impairment of blood flow, and resultant hypoxia of nerves that may develop within 10 years of the onset of diabetes in 40-50% of people with type 1 or type 2 diabetes. Low Intensity Laser Therapy (LILT) has been advocated for the treatment of chronic pain disorders as blood flow is an important determinant for pain relief. Comparing the effect of Helium-Neon Laser therapy versus Infrared laser therapy on blood vessels diameter and flow as well as level of sensation for neuropathy. Twenty diabetic patients suffering from neuropathy were enrolled in the study with age 45-55 years. They were assigned randomly into two equal groups in number; Group A underwent an application of He-Neon laser while Group B underwent an application of Infrared laser. Both groups received laser for 2 months. Blood flow velocity, and blood vessel diameter were investigated by using duplex Doppler ultrasound and peripheral neuropathy parameters were investigated by Semmes-Weinstein monofilament assessment. The results revealed that He-Neon laser as well as Infrared laser groups showed significant improvement in blood flow velocity, blood vessel diameter & neuropathy tested parameters after treatment but there was no significance difference between the two types of LILT. LILT is a safe, non-invasive and drug free method for improving blood flow & sensation in patients suffering from diabetic polyneuropathy in addition to preventing one of the most threatening microvascular complications of diabetes.

  19. Late-onset distal polyneuropathy due to acute organophosphate intoxication case report.

    PubMed

    Genel, Ferah; Arslanoğlu, Sertaç; Uran, Nedret; Doğan, Mustafa; Atlihan, Füsun

    2003-01-01

    Intoxications due to organophosphate insecticides are common in our country, since agriculture has an important place. Besides the well known acute cholinergic toxicity, these compounds may cause late-onset distal polyneuropathy occurring two to three weeks after the acute exposure. An eight-year-old boy and a 13-year-old girl admitted to the hospital with gait disturbances. Beginning 15 and 20 days, respectively, after organophosphate ingestion. Neurologic examination revealed bilateral dropped foot, absent Achilles tendon reflexes and peripheral sensory loss. Electromyography demonstrated motor weighed sensory-motor polyneuropathy with axonal degeneration significant in the distal parts of bilateral lower extremities. Biochemical, radiological findings and magnetic resonance imagings were normal. The two cases were taken under a physiotherapy program. The two cases are presented here since organophosphate poisonings are common in our country, and since late-onset polyneuropathy is not a well known clinical presentation as acute toxicity.

  20. [Spontaneous activity of cutaneous nociceptors in patients with painful polyneuropathy. Report of three patients].

    PubMed

    Campero, Mario; Campero, Sebastián

    2012-11-01

    Painful polyneuropathy may result from selective impairment of small diameter nerve fibers, while tactile and motor functions are preserved. In these patients clinical and electrophysiological assessment is usually unrevealing. We report three patients with a pure painful polyneuropathy. One of them had neurogenic pruritus additionally. Quantitative sensory analysis disclosed a slight warm hypoesthesia (3/3) and paradoxical hot sensation (2/3) in the feet. Intraneural recordings from the peroneal nerve demonstrated abnormal spontaneous activity in 8 of 17 nociceptive afferents. One of them displayed double firing reflecting impulse multiplication. These results support the notion that patients with pain or pruritus with a distal distribution similar to a polyneuropathy, could have small diameter afferent fiber damage, despite normal function of large diameter fibers.

  1. Contactin 1 IgG4 associates to chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy with sensory ataxia.

    PubMed

    Miura, Yumako; Devaux, Jérôme J; Fukami, Yuki; Manso, Constance; Belghazi, Maya; Wong, Anna Hiu Yi; Yuki, Nobuhiro

    2015-06-01

    A Spanish group recently reported that four patients with chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy carrying IgG4 autoantibodies against contactin 1 showed aggressive symptom onset and poor response to intravenous immunoglobulin. We aimed to describe the clinical and serological features of Japanese chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy patients displaying the anti-contactin 1 antibodies. Thirteen of 533 (2.4%) patients with chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy had anti-contactin 1 IgG4 whereas neither patients from disease or normal control subjects did (P = 0.02). Three of 13 (23%) patients showed subacute symptom onset, but all of the patients presented with sensory ataxia. Six of 10 (60%) anti-contactin 1 antibody-positive patients had poor response to intravenous immunoglobulin, whereas 8 of 11 (73%) antibody-positive patients had good response to corticosteroids. Anti-contactin 1 IgG4 antibodies are a possible biomarker to guide treatment option.

  2. A 52-year-old woman with disabling peripheral neuropathy: review of diabetic polyneuropathy.

    PubMed

    Rutkove, Seward B

    2009-10-07

    Ms Q is a 52-year-old woman who has had progressive polyneuropathy in the setting of diabetes for the past 8 years. Ms Q's major disability is that of increasingly severe neuropathic pain and cramps that have been poorly responsive to a variety of therapies, including gabapentin and topiramate. The diagnosis of and differential diagnosis for diabetic polyneuropathy are reviewed herein. In general, treatment options for diabetic polyneuropathy remain primarily symptomatic. Improving the metabolic profile through weight loss, exercise, and if necessary, medications may help slow neuropathy progression. Many medications are effective in reducing pain, and newly developed ones, such as pregabalin and duloxetine, while specifically marketed for diabetic neuropathy, are likely to be no better and are considerably more expensive than older ones. Alpha-lipoic acid appears to be effective as well.

  3. BAG3-related myopathy, polyneuropathy and cardiomyopathy with long QT syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kostera-Pruszczyk, Anna; Suszek, Małgorzata; Płoski, Rafał; Franaszczyk, Maria; Potulska-Chromik, Anna; Pruszczyk, Piotr; Sadurska, Elżbieta; Karolczak, Justyna; Kamińska, Anna M; Rędowicz, Maria Jolanta

    2015-12-01

    BAG3 belongs to BAG family of molecular chaperone regulators interacting with HSP70 and anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2. It is ubiquitously expressed with strong expression in skeletal and cardiac muscle, and is involved in a panoply of cellular processes. Mutations in BAG3 and aberrations in its expression cause fulminant myopathies, presenting with progressive limb and axial muscle weakness, and respiratory insufficiency and neuropathy. Herein, we report a sporadic case of a 15-years old girl with symptoms of myopathy, demyelinating polyneuropathy and asymptomatic long QT syndrome. Genetic testing demonstrated heterozygous mutation Pro209Leu (c.626C > T) in exon 3 of BAG3 gene causing severe myopathy and neuropathy, often associated with restrictive cardiomyopathy. We did not find a mutation in any known LQT syndrome genes. Analysis of muscle biopsy revealed profound disintegration of Z-discs with extensive accumulation of granular debris and large inclusions within fibers. We demonstrated profound alterations in BAG3 distribution as the protein localized to long filamentous structures present across the fibers that were positively stained not only for α-actinin but also for desmin and filamin indicating that those disintegrated Z-disc regions contained also other sarcomeric proteins. The mutation caused a decrease in the content of BAG3 and HSP70, and also of α-actinin desmin, filamin and fast myosin heavy chain, confirming its severe effect on the muscle fiber morphology and thus function. We provide further evidence that BAG3 is associated with Z-disc maintenance, and the Pro209Leu mutation may occur worldwide. We also provide a summary of cases associated with this mutation reported so far.

  4. Sensory-motor axonal polyneuropathy involving cranial nerves: An uncommon manifestation of disulfiram toxicity.

    PubMed

    Santos, Telma; Martins Campos, António; Morais, Hugo

    2017-01-01

    Disulfiram (tetraethylthiuram disulfide) has been used for the treatment of alcohol dependence. An axonal sensory-motor polyneuropathy with involvement of cranial pairs due to disulfiram is exceedingly rare. The authors report a unique case of an extremely severe axonal polyneuropathy involving cranial nerves that developed within weeks after a regular dosage of 500mg/day disulfiram. To the authors best knowledge, such a severe and rapidly-progressive course has never been described with disulfiram dosages of only 500mg/day.

  5. Idiopathic chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy: an epidemiological study in Italy

    PubMed Central

    Chiò, A; Cocito, D; Bottacchi, E; Buffa, C; Leone, M; Plano, F; Mutani, R; Calvo, A

    2007-01-01

    Aim The clinical and epidemiological characteristics of chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) in an Italian population were assessed. Subjects and methods All subjects with a diagnosis of demyelinating neuropathy after 1990 in Piemonte and Valle d'Aosta (4 334 225 inhabitants) were considered. The diagnosis of CIDP was based on the research criteria of the American Academy of Neurology. 165 of 294 patients met the diagnostic criteria. Results The crude prevalence rate was 3.58/100 000 population (95% CI 3.02 to 4.20). At the prevalence day, 76 (49.0%) cases had definite, 67 (43.2%) probable and 12 (7.7%) possible CIDP; disability was mild in 105 (67.7%) cases, moderate in 32 (20.6%) and severe in 18 (11.6%). The course was remitting–relapsing in 40 cases (25.8%), chronic progressive in 96 (61.9%) and monophasic in 19 (12.3%). Considering the 95 patients whose disorder presented in the period 1995–2001, the mean annual crude incidence rate was 0.36/100 000 population (95% CI 0.29 to 0.44), with a male to female ratio of 2.3:1. 14 cases were affected by diabetes mellitus. In multivariate analysis, factors related to severe disability at the prevalence day were: age>60 years; failure of immunomodulating therapies at the time of diagnosis; worse disability at nadir; and chronic course. Conclusion Incidence and prevalence rates of CIDP in Italy were higher than those observed in most previous studies. At the prevalence day, more than 80% of cases had a mild or moderate disability, indicating either a good response to immunomodulating therapy or a tendency of CIDP to have a mild course in most cases. PMID:17494979

  6. The Beneficial Effects of C-Peptide on Diabetic Polyneuropathy

    PubMed Central

    Kamiya, Hideki; Zhang, Weixian; Sima, Anders A.F.

    2009-01-01

    Diabetic polyneuropathy (DPN) is a common complication in diabetes. At present, there is no adequate treatment, and DPN is often debilitating for patients. It is a heterogeneous disorder and differs in type 1 and type 2 diabetes. An important underlying factor in type 1 DPN is insulin deficiency. Proinsulin C-peptide is a critical element in the cascade of events. In this review, we describe the physiological role of C-peptide and how it provides an insulin-like signaling function. Such effects translate into beneficial outcomes in early metabolic perturbations of neural Na+/K+-ATPase and nitric oxide (NO) with subsequent preventive effects on early nerve dysfunction. Further corrective consequences resulting from this signaling cascade have beneficial effects on gene regulation of early gene responses, neurotrophic factors, their receptors, and the insulin receptor itself. This may lead to preventive and corrective results to nerve fiber degeneration and loss, as well as, promotion of nerve fiber regeneration with respect to sensory somatic fibers and small nociceptive nerve fibers. A characteristic abnormality of type 1 DPN is nodal and paranodal degeneration with severe consequences for myelinated fiber function. This review deals in detail with the underlying insulin-deficiency-related molecular changes and their correction by C-peptide. Based on these observations, it is evident that continuous maintenance of insulin-like actions by C-peptide is needed in peripheral nerve to minimize the sequences of metabolic and molecular abnormalities, thereby ameliorating neuropathic complications. There is now ample evidence demonstrating that C-peptide replacement in type 1 diabetes promotes insulin action and signaling activities in a more enhanced, prolonged, and continuous fashion than does insulin alone. It is therefore necessary to replace C-peptide to physiological levels in diabetic patients. This will have substantial beneficial effects on type 1 DPN. PMID

  7. Treatment of chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy with pulsed oral steroids.

    PubMed

    Muley, Suraj Ashok; Kelkar, Praful; Parry, Gareth J

    2008-11-01

    Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) is an immune-mediated neuropathy that responds to various immunosuppressive treatments. Oral daily prednisone therapy is effective and inexpensive, but the long-term treatment that is usually necessary leads to serious adverse effects. Consequently, intravenous immunoglobulin and plasma exchange have been widely used to treat CIDP, making treatment expensive and inconvenient. A steroid regimen that reduces adverse effects but preserves efficacy would simplify treatment. Pulsed steroids have nongenomic actions not seen with low-dose steroids, including rapid inhibition of arachidonic acid release and of calcium and sodium cycling across plasma membranes of immune cells. To study the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of pulsed oral methylprednisolone therapy in patients with CIDP. Open-label prospective study. University of Minnesota Neuropathy Center, Minneapolis. Ten patients (3 women and 7 men) with CIDP followed up for at least 22 months. Neuromuscular score and Inflammatory Neuropathy Cause and Treatment (INCAT) disability score were used as outcome measures for efficacy; weight, blood pressure, changes in bone density, and steroid-related adverse effect questionnaire were used as outcome measures for safety. This steroid regimen leads to significant improvement in weakness and disability in all patients treated and to off-treatment remission in 60% of patients. Treatment was fairly well tolerated, and only 1 patient discontinued treatment because of adverse effects. Steroid-induced osteoporosis remained a problem, especially in older patients. Pulsed oral methylprednisolone may be efficacious in the long-term treatment of CIDP and is relatively well tolerated. Remission can be induced in most patients, especially those with a shorter duration of disease.

  8. [Amyloidosis and familial Mediterranean fever].

    PubMed

    Pras, M

    1986-01-01

    Familial Mediterranean Fever (F. M. F.) is an autosomal recessive disorder occurring most commonly in Sepharadi Jews and Armenians. Two phenotypic features characterize the disease: brief episodic febrile attacks of peritonitis, pleuritis or synovitis recurring from childhood or adolescence and the development of systemic amyloidosis. Attacks are accompanied by striking elevations of acute phase proteins, including serum amyloid A protein. The amyloidosis of Familial Mediterranean Fever is of the AA type, and manifest clinically as a nephropathy that passes through proteinuria, nephrotic and uremic stages to renal death. Although there is ethnic variation in the incidence of amyloidosis of F. M. F. in our patient population--predominantly Sepharadi Jews of North African extraction--an amyloidotic death at an early age is their genetic destiny. Since the introduction in 1972 of colchicine to prevent the febrile attacks, the drug has been proven and become the main stay of therapy. Today, colchicine has been shown to be effective in preventing amyloidosis as well as the febrile attacks in Familial Mediterranean Fever. End stage renal disease is not the end of the road for patients with F.M.F. because of improving outlook for dialysis and renal transplantation in these patients.

  9. Rehabilitation of Critical Illness Polyneuropathy and Myopathy Patients: An Observational Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Novak, Primoz; Vidmar, Gaj; Kuret, Zala; Bizovicar, Natasa

    2011-01-01

    Critical illness polyneuropathy and myopathy (CIPNM) frequently develops in patients hospitalized in intensive care units. The number of patients with CIPNM admitted to inpatient rehabilitation is increasing. The aim of this study was to comprehensively evaluate the outcome of their rehabilitation. Twenty-seven patients with CIPNM were included in…

  10. Rehabilitation of Critical Illness Polyneuropathy and Myopathy Patients: An Observational Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Novak, Primoz; Vidmar, Gaj; Kuret, Zala; Bizovicar, Natasa

    2011-01-01

    Critical illness polyneuropathy and myopathy (CIPNM) frequently develops in patients hospitalized in intensive care units. The number of patients with CIPNM admitted to inpatient rehabilitation is increasing. The aim of this study was to comprehensively evaluate the outcome of their rehabilitation. Twenty-seven patients with CIPNM were included in…

  11. Usefulness of blink reflex in hypothyroid patients with or without polyneuropathy: a case control study.

    PubMed

    Pawar, Sachin; Udan, Vikas; Jain, Jyoti; Shende, Vinod; Singh, Ramji

    2014-01-01

    Central nervous system (CNS) dysfunction is an important consequence of thyroid deficiency. Cranial nerves are frequently affected in hypothyroid process. On routine nerve conduction studies, symptomatic peripheral and cranial neuropathy can be detected, however, diagnosing subclinical cranial neuropathy pose the major problem. Blink reflex (BR), has been shown to be an effective method for revealing subclinical involvement of cranial nerves in generalized neuropathies. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the efficacy of BR as a method for early diagnosis of subclinical cranial neuropathy in hypothyroid patients with or without overt peripheral polyneuropathy. A case control study was conducted on 150 subjects aged 18 years and above (100 controls, 50 cases). A routine nerve conduction study and BR evaluation was done in all the subjects. We found abnormal BR response in 50% of hypothyroid patients studied. In hypothyroid patient without polyneuropathy R1 latency was significantly prolonged (P < 0.05 Vs control). Ipsilateral and contralateral R2 latencies were significantly prolonged in hypothyroid cases with or without polyneuropathy on bilateral stimulation. Magnitude of prolongation was greater in with polyneuropathy group. In conclusion, study suggests that BR is a useful non-invasive method for the detection of clinically silent cranial nerve compromise in hypothyroid patients.

  12. Intrathecal Dexmedetomidine for Anaesthetic Management of a Patient with Chronic Inflammatory Demyelinating Polyneuropathy

    PubMed Central

    Srinivasalu, D

    2016-01-01

    Chronic demyelinating disorders have multifactorial origin but common important physiologic and anaesthetic considerations. Choice of anaesthesia technique and the drugs used, undertanding the pros and cons of using central neuraxial blocks will help in successful management of such patients. We describe the anaesthetic management of a 34-year-old male with chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy posted for cystolithotripsy. PMID:27790558

  13. Association of Long-term Opioid Therapy With Functional Status, Adverse Outcomes, and Mortality Among Patients With Polyneuropathy.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, E Matthew; Watson, James C; St Sauver, Jennifer; Staff, Nathan P; Klein, Christopher J

    2017-07-01

    Polyneuropathy is one of the most common painful conditions managed within general and specialty clinics. Neuropathic pain frequently leads to decisions about using long-term opioid therapy. Understanding the association of long-term opioid use with functional status, adverse outcomes, and mortality among patients with polyneuropathy could influence disease-specific decisions about opioid treatment. To quantify the prevalence of long-term opioid use among patients with polyneuropathy and to assess the association of long-term opioid use with functional status, adverse outcomes, and mortality. A retrospective population-based cohort study was conducted of prescriptions given to patients with polyneuropathy and to controls in ambulatory practice between January 1, 2006, and December 31, 2010, to determine exposure to long-term opioid use as well as other outcomes. The latest follow-up was conducted through November 25, 2016. Long-term opioid therapy, defined by 1 or multiple consecutive opioid prescriptions resulting in 90 continuous days or more of opioid use. Prevalence of long-term opioid therapy among patients with polyneuropathy and controls. Patient-reported functional status, documented adverse outcomes, and mortality were compared between patients with polyneuropathy receiving long-term opioid therapy (≥90 days) and patients with polyneuropathy receiving shorter durations of opioid therapy. Among the 2892 patients with polyneuropathy (1364 women and 1528 men; mean [SD] age, 67.5 [16.6] years) and the 14 435 controls (6827 women and 7608 men; mean [SD] age, 67.5 [16.5] years), patients with polyneuropathy received long-term opioids more often than did controls (545 [18.8%] vs 780 [5.4%]). Patients with polyneuropathy who were receiving long-term opioids had multiple functional status markers that were modestly poorer even after adjusting for medical comorbidity, including increased reliance on gait aids (adjusted odds ratio, 1.9; 95% CI, 1.4-2.6); no

  14. Working hand syndrome: A new definition of non-classified polyneuropathy condition.

    PubMed

    Özdemir, Gökhan

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this paper was to define an unexplained non-classified polyneuropathy condition as a new neurological disease. This new diagnosis of occupation related polyneuropathy has been named as "WORKING HAND SYNDROME (WHS)."This study collected and compared clinic and electrophysiological analyze data from healthy controls, WHS patients, carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) patients and polyneuropathy patients. The WHS patients presented to the clinic with pain, numbness, tingling, and burning sensations in their hands that increased significantly during rest and nighttime. However, there was no weakness in the muscles, and the deep tendon reflexes were normal in this disease. The patients had all been working in physically demanding jobs requiring the use of their hands/arms for at least 1 year, but no vibrating tools were used by the patients. All of the cases were men. I supposed that overload caused by an action repeated chronically by the hand/arm may impair the sensory nerves in mentioned hand/arm. In patients with these complaints, for a definitive diagnosis, similar diseases must be excluded. Nonetheless, the specific electrophysiological finding that the sural nerves are normal on the lower sides, as well as the occurrence of sensory axonal polyneuropathy in the sensory nerves without a significant effect on velocity and latency in the work-ups of the upper extremity are enough to make a diagnosis.In conclusion, WHS has been defined as a polyneuropathy and occupational disease. Patients with WHS present with pain, numbness, tingling, and burning sensations in their hands that increases significantly during rest and nighttime. They also use their arms/hands for jobs that require heavy labor. The neurological examinations of patients with WHS are normal. Only the sensory nerves in the upper extremities are affected. This article is suggested to serve as a resource for patients, health care professionals, and members of the neurology community at large.

  15. Impact of etiology and duration of pain on pharmacological treatment effects in painful polyneuropathy.

    PubMed

    Sindrup, S H; Holbech, J; Demant, D; Finnerup, N B; Bach, F W; Jensen, T S

    2017-09-01

    The pharmacological treatments for painful polyneuropathy have not changed much for more than a decade, and less than half of the patients obtain adequate pain relief with first line treatments. Therefore, patient-specific factors which could predict drug response are searched for. We analysed data from four published, randomized, controlled trials of drugs in painful polyneuropathy to see if diabetic etiology and duration of neuropathic pain had an impact on drug efficacy. The studies had a cross-over design, and had nearly similar outcome recordings as well as a thorough baseline registration of symptoms, signs and quantitative sensory testing. 244 patient records of drug effect distributed over treatments with three antidepressants (imipramine, venlafaxine, escitalopram) and two anticonvulsants (pregabalin, oxcarbazepine) were analysed. Diabetes as etiology of polyneuropathy had no impact on the effect of antidepressants (imipramine, venlafaxine, escitalopram), but there was a significant interaction with treatment effect on anticonvulsants with better effects in diabetics (0.86 NRS points, p = 0.021) with most pronounced interaction for oxcarbazepine (1.47 NRS points, p = 0.032). There was an interaction between duration of neuropathic pain and treatment with antidepressants with better effect with duration less than 3 years (0.62 NRS points, p = 0.036), whereas anticonvulsants tended to work best with duration of pain for more than 3 years. Despite the small sample size and limited number of drugs included this study suggests that diabetic etiology of polyneuropathy may impact on the efficacy of anticonvulsants, and duration of neuropathic pain may impact on the efficacy of antidepressants. This study found that duration of pain appears to have an impact on the effect of antidepressants in neuropathic pain and that diabetes as etiology for painful polyneuropathy appears to influence pain relief obtained with anticonvulsants. © 2017 European Pain

  16. Neurotoxic effects of n-hexane on the human central nervous system: evoked potential abnormalities in n-hexane polyneuropathy.

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Y C

    1987-01-01

    An outbreak of n-hexane polyneuropathy as a result of industrial exposure occurred in printing factories in Taipei area from December 1983 to February 1985. Multimodality evoked potentials study was performed on 22 of the polyneuropathy cases, five of the subclinical cases, and seven of the unaffected workers. The absolute and interpeak latencies of patterned visual evoked potential (pVEP) in both the polyneuropathy and subclinical groups were longer than in the normal controls. The pVEP interpeak amplitude was also decreased in the polyneuropathy cases. Brainstem auditory evoked potentials (BAEP), showed no difference of wave I latency between factory workers and normal controls, but prolongation of the wave I-V interpeak latencies was noted, corresponding with the severity of the polyneuropathy. In somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs), both the absolute latencies and central conduction time (CCT) were longer in subclinical and polyneuropathy cases than in the unaffected workers and normal controls. From this evoked potentials study, chronic toxic effects of n-hexane on the central nervous system were shown. PMID:3031221

  17. Amyloidotic muscle pseudohypertrophy: case report.

    PubMed

    Scola, R H; Werneck, L C; Ramos, C S; Pasquini, R; Graf, H; Arruda, W O

    2001-09-01

    The authors report one case of amyloidosis associated with muscular pseudohypertrophy in a 46-year-old woman, who developed weakness, macroglossia and muscle hypertrophy associated with primary systemic amyloidosis. Electromyography showed a myopathic pattern and bilateral carpal tunnel syndrome. The muscle biopsy presented with a type I and II fiber hypertrophy and infiltration of amyloid material in the interstitious space and artery walls. She underwent bone marrow transplantation with stabilization and subjective improvement of the clinical picture.

  18. POEMS Syndrome in a Juvenile Initially Diagnosed as Treatment Resistant Chronic Inflammatory Demyelinating Polyneuropathy.

    PubMed

    Krish, Sonia N; Nguyen, Thy; Biliciler, Suur; Kumaravel, Manickam; Wahed, Amer; Risin, Semyon; Sheikh, Kazim A

    2015-12-01

    POEMS (polyneuropathy, organomegaly, endocrinopathy, monoclonal protein, skin changes) is a disorder that mainly affects adults. We report a pediatric patient, initially considered to have Guillain-Barré syndrome, who continued to have progression of neuropathic disease leading to the diagnosis of chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy. Diagnosis of POEMS was established by an abnormal bone marrow biopsy, prompted by laboratory and imaging findings, which became abnormal later in the course of the disease. POEMS syndrome is extremely rare in children, and neuropathic features in this age group have not been previously described. This case illustrates that "Guillain-Barré syndrome-like" initial presentation for POEMS, which has not been previously reported. It also emphasizes that in children with progressive acquired neuropathies that are treatment unresponsive, POEMS syndrome should be considered.

  19. A Rare Case of Polyneuropathy and Monoclonalgammopathy with Recurrent Acute Kidney Injury

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Eun Jung; Shin, Dong Ho; Jeon, Hee Jung; Rhee, So Yon; Nam, Eun Sook; Park, Ji Young

    2016-01-01

    POEMS syndrome is a rare paraneoplastic syndrome and there are few reports of polyneuropathy and monoclonal gammopathy associated with kidney dysfunction. Here, we report a case of POEMS syndrome with recurrent acute kidney injury (AKI). A 52-year-old man presented with bilateral aggravating paresthesia and latermotor weakness of the lower extremities accompanied by repeated elevation of serum creatinine. The patient was finally diagnosed with POEMS syndrome on the basis of fulfilling the two mandatory major criteria (polyneuropathy and monoclonal gammopathy), one other major criterion (sclerotic bone lesion), and several minor criteria. A renal biopsy was performed to clarify the cause of AKI and showed membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis-like lesions with mesangiolysis and endothelial cell injury. This case illustrates that renal manifestations, not included in the diagnostic criteria for POEMS, can be apparent before various other systemic symptoms. PMID:27453713

  20. [Target Molecule for a Demyelinating Type of Guillain-Barré Syndrome, Acute Inflammatory Demyelinating Polyneuropathy].

    PubMed

    Mori, Masahiro

    2015-11-01

    Guillain-Barré syndrome is classified into demyelinating type, acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (AIDP) and axonal form, acute axonal motor neuropathy (AMAN). It has been clearly established that the target molecule for the former is a ganglioside. In contrast, despite years of effort, the target molecule for the latter has not been identified. Recently, molecules around the nodes of Ranvier have entered the spotlight, and "moesin" was reported to be a target molecule for cytomegalovirus associated-AIDP.

  1. [Macrocytosis, polyneuropathy and posterior column disorders caused by malabsorption of protein-bound vitamin B12].

    PubMed

    Mazure, A; Bieger, R; Lambregts, P C; Wiarda, K S

    1990-03-31

    This case report concerns a patient with a vitamin B12 deficiency and a normal Schilling test, who had macrocytosis of many years' duration and finally polyneuropathy. All known causes of a vitamin B12 deficiency were excluded. When the Schilling test was performed with egg consumption, excretion of vitamin B12 was clearly diminished. It appears highly likely that this vitamin B12 deficiency developed as a result of malabsorption of protein-bound vitamin B12.

  2. Sonographic findings in a case of polyneuropathy associated with POEMS syndrome.

    PubMed

    Yanik, Bahar; Conkbayir, Isik; Keyik, Bahri; Yoldas, Tahir Kurtulus

    2011-10-01

    Polyneuropathy, organomegaly, endocrinopathy, M protein and skin changes (POEMS) syndrome is a rare multi-system disease. We describe the ultrasonography (US) and color Doppler ultrasonography (CDUS) findings of peripheral neuropathy in a patient with POEMS syndrome. In US examination, peripheral nerves were found to be diffusely thickned in both upper limbs. CDUS imaging showed arterial blood flow with low systolic peaks on the nerves. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Undiagnosed Small Fiber Polyneuropathy: Is it a Component of Gulf War Illness?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-07-01

    out occult diabetes , which is increasingly prevalent and carries high risk of polyneuropathy. Skin biopsies are performed in our JCAHO-accredited...demonstrated by 2-hour fasting glucose tolerance test that they had impaired glucose tolerance (i.e., pre- diabetes ), as defined by criteria of the American... Diabetes Association. The age distribution of the included subjects is summarized in Table 1. Task 1b: In addition to the adult normal controls

  4. Quality of life complements traditional outcome measures in immune-mediated polyneuropathies.

    PubMed

    Merkies, I S J; Schmitz, P I M; van der Meché, F G A; Samijn, J P A; van Doorn, P A

    2002-07-09

    To determine whether quality of life complements traditional outcome measures in immune-mediated polyneuropathies using the Medical Outcome Study 36-item short-form health status scale (SF-36). The validity, reliability, and responsiveness of the SF-36 were also analyzed. SF-36 and three other measures (Medical Research Council sumscore, sensory sumscore, and Hughes functional scale) were assessed in 114 stable patients (83 with Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS), 23 with chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP), eight with a gammopathy-related polyneuropathy) and serially in 20 patients with recently diagnosed GBS (n = 7) or CIDP (n = 13) with changing conditions. The SF-36 values were compared with reported healthy Dutch community scores (controls). The SF-36 validity and reliability were examined by correlation and regression studies with the other measures and by calculating its internal consistency. The standardized response mean and effect size techniques were applied to determine its responsiveness. In the stable group, all SF-36 scores were substantially lower (indicating worse clinical condition) compared with control subjects (p < 0.0001). Improvement in the longitudinal group resulted in a gradual shift of all SF-36 scores toward normal values. Acceptable validity and internal consistency values and moderate to good standardized response mean and effect size scores were demonstrated for the SF-36. The Medical Research Council sumscore and sensory sumscore explained SF-36 values only partially. The SF-36 as a generic health status complemented traditional strength and sensory measures in patients with immune-mediated polyneuropathies and appears to be a potentially valuable instrument for measuring quality of life in these conditions.

  5. Urinary 2,5-hexanedione excretion in cryptogenic polyneuropathy compared to the general Swedish population

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background 2,5-hexanedione (2,5-HD) is the main neurotoxic metabolite of methyl-n-butyl ketone (MBK) and n-hexane, and known to cause polyneuropathy. The aim of our study was to compare the urinary levels of 2,5-HD between cases with cryptogenic polyneuropathy and the general Swedish population, and to elucidate the role of certain external factors. Methods Morning urine samples were collected from 114 cases with cryptogenic polyneuropathy (77 men and 37 women) and 227 referents (110 men and 117 women) randomly selected from the population registry. None had any current occupational exposure to n-hexane or MBK. The urine samples were analysed by a gas chromatographic method based on acidic hydrolysis. Results Cases had statistically higher urinary levels of 2,5-HD (0.48 mg/L) than the general population (0.41 mg/L) and men higher excretion than women (0.48 mg/L and 0.38 mg/L, respectively). There was no difference in 2,5-HD levels between current smokers and non-smokers. Occupational exposure to xylene, alcohol consumption and ever exposed to general anaesthesia were associated with lower excretion in men while for occupational exposure to nitrous oxide in women higher excretion was seen. Higher excretion of 2,5 HD was inversely related to increasing age. Conclusions Significantly higher levels of urinary 2,5-HD were seen in men and cryptogenic polyneuropathy cases seemingly unexposed to n-hexane. Hypothetically, this might be due to either differences in metabolic patterns or some concealed exposure. The difference in means between cases and the general population is small and can therefore not allow any firm conclusions of the causality, however. PMID:23898939

  6. Evidence-based interventional pain medicine according to clinical diagnoses. 18. Painful diabetic polyneuropathy.

    PubMed

    Pluijms, Wouter; Huygen, Frank; Cheng, Jianguo; Mekhail, Nagy; van Kleef, Maarten; Van Zundert, Jan; van Dongen, Robert

    2011-01-01

    In the industrialized world, polyneuropathy induced by diabetes mellitus (DM) is one of the most prevalent forms of neuropathy. Diabetic neuropathy can result from a direct toxic effect of glucose on nerve cells. Additionally, the damage of the nerve structures (central and peripheral) is accompanied by a microvascular dysfunction, which damages the vasa nervorum. More than 80% of the patients with DM-induced polyneuropathy have a distal and symmetric presentation. The initial symptoms are: signs of diminished sensation, burning feet, which may occur particularly during the night and worsen when touched, and tingling sensation in the feet. Attacks of shooting pain may also occur. Proper control of DM is mandatory. Based on the recently published National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence guidelines, treatment of painful diabetic neuropathy should start with duloxetine or amitriptyline if duloxetine is contraindicated. If pain relief is inadequate, monotherapy with amitriptyline or pregabalin, or combination therapy with amitriptyline and pregabalin should be considered. If pain relief is still insufficient, tramadol instead of or in combination with a second-line agent should be considered. In patients who are unable to take oral medication, topical lidocaine can be considered for localized pain. There are currently four studies showing that spinal cord stimulation can potentially provide pain alleviation for the longer term in patients with painful diabetic polyneuropathy. Complications are mainly implant related, though infections also occur. The available evidence (2 C+) justifies spinal cord stimulation to be considered, preferably study related.

  7. Recurrent Isolated Sixth Nerve Palsy in Relapsing-Remitting Chronic Inflammatory Demyelinating Polyneuropathy.

    PubMed

    Al-Bustani, Najwa; Weiss, Michael D

    2015-09-01

    Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) is an immune-mediated sensory and motor demyelinating polyneuropathy that typically presents as a relapsing-remitting or progressive disorder. Cranial neuropathies infrequently occur in association with other more typical symptoms of CIDP. We report a case of CIDP with recurrent isolated sixth nerve palsy. Her physical examination showed a right sixth nerve palsy and absent deep tendon reflexes as the only indicator of her disease. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed thickening without enhancement of the trigeminal and sixth cranial nerves. Nerve conduction study (NCS) revealed a sensory and motor demyelinating polyneuropathy with conduction block and temporal dispersion in multiple nerves consistent with CIDP. Cerebrospinal fluid demonstrated albuminic-cytologic dissociation. She had a remarkable response to intravenous immunoglobulin and remains asymptomatic without any additional immunomodulating therapy. Isolated cranial neuropathies can rarely occur as the sole manifestation of relapsing-remitting CIDP. The profound demyelination found on NCS in this case demonstrates that there can be a dramatic discordance between the clinical and electrodiagnostic findings in some patients with this disorder.

  8. Evaluation of the efficacy of pulsed electromagnetic field in the management of patients with diabetic polyneuropathy

    PubMed Central

    Graak, Vinay; Chaudhary, Sarika; Bal, B. S.; Sandhu, J. S.

    2009-01-01

    AIM: The study was carried out to evaluate and compare the effect of low power, low frequency pulsed electromagnetic field (PEMF) of 600 and 800 Hz, respectively, in management of patients with diabetic polyneuropathy. SETTINGS AND DESIGNS: The study was a randomized controlled trial performed in Guru Nanak Dev University and Medical College, Amritsar, India with different subject experimental design. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty subjects within an age group of 40–68 years with diabetic polyneuropathy stages N1a, N1b, N2a were randomly allocated to groups 1, 2, 3 with 10 subjects in each. Group 1 and 2 were treated with low power 600 and 800-Hz PEMF for 30 min for 12 consecutive days. Group 3 served as control on usual medical treatment of diabetic polyneuropathy (DPN). The subjects with neuropathy due to any cause other than diabetes were excluded. The pain and motor nerve conduction parameters (distal latency, amplitude, nerve conduction velocity) were assessed before and after treatment. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: Related t-test and unrelated t-test were used for data analysis. RESULTS: Significant reduction in pain and statistically significant (P<0.05) improvement in distal latency and nerve conduction velocity were seen in experimental group 1 and 2. CONCLUSIONS: Low-frequency PEMF can be used as an adjunct in reducing neuropathic pain as well as for retarding the progression of neuropathy in a short span of time. PMID:20142869

  9. Comparison between impairment and disability scales in immune-mediated polyneuropathies.

    PubMed

    Merkies, Ingemar S J; Schmitz, Paul I M; Van Der Meché, Frans G A; Van Doorn, Pieter A

    2003-07-01

    The ability of a scale to detect clinical relevant changes over time, i.e., its "responsiveness," may help clinicians to choose among valid and reliable measures. Therefore, we investigated the responsiveness' rank ordering (best to worse) of six selected valid and reliable scales, namely the Medical Research Council (MRC)-sumscore, sensory-sumscore, grip-strength (Vigorimeter), nine-hole peg, ten-meters walking, and a disability-sumscore, in immune-mediated polyneuropathies. Patients with newly diagnosed Guillain-Barré syndrome (n = 7) or chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (n = 13) were examined over 52 weeks. Responsiveness of each scale was measured using different methods (effect-size, standardized response mean score, Wilcoxon matched-pairs signed-rank, and a newly devised Schmitz's distribution-free responsiveness score), and the obtained scores in each method were plotted against the follow-up period, thus allowing area-under-the-curve calculations (higher area-under-the-curve indicating better responsiveness). Also, longitudinal correlations were performed between the scales' values and patients' own clinical judgments (deteriorated, unchanged, improved) (higher correlation = better responsiveness). A consistent rank ordering was observed in each technique with the disability-sumscore, MRC-sumscore, and Vigorimeter being among the best responsive scales. Hence, the primary use of these measures is suggested in studies of immune-mediated polyneuropathies.

  10. Diabetic polyneuropathy, sensory neurons, nuclear structure and spliceosome alterations: a role for CWC22.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Masaki; Chandrasekhar, Ambika; Cheng, Chu; Martinez, Jose A; Ng, Hilarie; de la Hoz, Cristiane; Zochodne, Douglas W

    2017-03-01

    Unique deficits in the function of adult sensory neurons as part of their early neurodegeneration might account for progressive polyneuropathy during chronic diabetes mellitus. Here, we provide structural and functional evidence for aberrant pre-mRNA splicing in a chronic type 1 model of experimental diabetic polyneuropathy (DPN). Cajal bodies (CBs), unique nuclear substructures involved in RNA splicing, increased in number in diabetic sensory neurons, but their expected colocalization with survival motor neuron (SMN) proteins was reduced - a mislocalization described in motor neurons of spinal muscular atrophy. Small nuclear ribonucleoprotein particles (snRNPs), also participants in the spliceosome, had abnormal multiple nuclear foci unassociated with CBs, and their associated snRNAs were reduced. CWC22, a key spliceosome protein, was aberrantly upregulated in diabetic dorsal root ganglia (DRG), and impaired neuronal function. CWC22 attenuated sensory neuron plasticity, with knockdown in vitro enhancing their neurite outgrowth. Further, axonal delivery of CWC22 siRNA unilaterally to locally knock down the aberrant protein in diabetic nerves improved aspects of sensory function in diabetic mice. Collectively, our findings identify subtle but significant alterations in spliceosome structure and function, including dysregulated CBs and CWC22 overexpression, in diabetic sensory neurons that offer new ideas regarding diabetic sensory neurodegeneration in polyneuropathy.

  11. [Critical illness polyneuropathy und polymyopathy. How certain is the clinical diagnosis in patients with weaning failure?].

    PubMed

    Oehmichen, F; Pohl, M; Schlosser, R; Stogowski, D; Toppel, D; Mehrholz, J

    2012-02-01

    A frequent cause of weaning failure and the resultant long-term artificial ventilation is the generalized weakness syndrome in the sense of critical illness polyneuropathy or polymyopathy. However, hardly any information is presently available regarding the necessary intensity of the diagnostic workup for reaching or excluding a diagnosis with certainty in the neurological examination or regarding the additional diagnostic value of electrophysiological studies in patients receiving long-term acute care suspected of having critical illness polyneuropathy and polymyopathy. Therefore, the goal of this investigation was to address these questions. A total of 280 patients with complicated weaning were included in the study. All patients underwent clinical examination by a specialist in neurology and electrophysiological workup performed by another specialist. Among the patients studied, the greatest possible certainty of the diagnosis (positive predictive value) of the clinical examination was 97.9% [95% confidence interval (CI) 69.4-99.9] and the best certainty of excluding the diagnosis (negative predictive value) was 88.9% (95% CI 82.7-93.0). Thus, in difficult-to-wean patients who were considered to probably have the diagnosis of critical illness polyneuropathy or polymyopathy as assessed by a specialist, little additional information is gained from an electrophysiological study, which is hence dispensable in these cases.

  12. Diabetic polyneuropathy, sensory neurons, nuclear structure and spliceosome alterations: a role for CWC22

    PubMed Central

    Kobayashi, Masaki; Chandrasekhar, Ambika; Cheng, Chu; Martinez, Jose A.; Ng, Hilarie; de la Hoz, Cristiane

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Unique deficits in the function of adult sensory neurons as part of their early neurodegeneration might account for progressive polyneuropathy during chronic diabetes mellitus. Here, we provide structural and functional evidence for aberrant pre-mRNA splicing in a chronic type 1 model of experimental diabetic polyneuropathy (DPN). Cajal bodies (CBs), unique nuclear substructures involved in RNA splicing, increased in number in diabetic sensory neurons, but their expected colocalization with survival motor neuron (SMN) proteins was reduced – a mislocalization described in motor neurons of spinal muscular atrophy. Small nuclear ribonucleoprotein particles (snRNPs), also participants in the spliceosome, had abnormal multiple nuclear foci unassociated with CBs, and their associated snRNAs were reduced. CWC22, a key spliceosome protein, was aberrantly upregulated in diabetic dorsal root ganglia (DRG), and impaired neuronal function. CWC22 attenuated sensory neuron plasticity, with knockdown in vitro enhancing their neurite outgrowth. Further, axonal delivery of CWC22 siRNA unilaterally to locally knock down the aberrant protein in diabetic nerves improved aspects of sensory function in diabetic mice. Collectively, our findings identify subtle but significant alterations in spliceosome structure and function, including dysregulated CBs and CWC22 overexpression, in diabetic sensory neurons that offer new ideas regarding diabetic sensory neurodegeneration in polyneuropathy. PMID:28250049

  13. Metabolic Syndrome, Neurotoxic 1-Deoxysphingolipids and Nervous Tissue Inflammation in Chronic Idiopathic Axonal Polyneuropathy (CIAP)

    PubMed Central

    Hube, Larissa; Dohrn, Maike F.; Karsai, Gergely; Hirshman, Sarah; Van Damme, Philip; Schulz, Jörg B.; Weis, Joachim; Hornemann, Thorsten; Claeys, Kristl G.

    2017-01-01

    Aim Chronic idiopathic axonal polyneuropathy (CIAP) is a slowly progressive, predominantly sensory, axonal polyneuropathy, with no aetiology being identified despite extensive investigations. We studied the potential role of the metabolic syndrome, neurotoxic 1-deoxysphingolipids (1-deoxySLs), microangiopathy and inflammation in sural nerve biopsies. Methods We included 30 CIAP-patients, 28 with diabetic distal symmetrical polyneuropathy (DSPN) and 31 healthy controls. We assessed standardised scales, tested for the metabolic syndrome, measured 1-deoxySLs in plasma, performed electroneurography and studied 17 sural nerve biopsies (10 CIAP; 7 DSPN). Results One third of the CIAP-patients had a metabolic syndrome, significantly less frequent than DSPN-patients (89%). Although the metabolic syndrome was not significantly more prevalent in CIAP compared to healthy controls, hypercholesterolemia did occur significantly more frequent. 1-deoxySLs were significantly and equally elevated in both patient groups compared to healthy controls. Mean basal lamina thickness of small endoneurial vessels and the number of CD68- or CD8-positive cells in biopsies of CIAP- and DSPN-patients did not differ significantly. However, the number of leucocyte-common-antigen positive cells was significantly increased in CIAP. Conclusions A non-significant trend towards a higher occurrence of the metabolic syndrome in CIAP-patients compared to healthy controls was found. 1-deoxySLs were significantly increased in plasma of CIAP-patients. Microangiopathy and an inflammatory component were present in CIAP-biopsies. PMID:28114358

  14. Multiple MAG peptides are recognized by circulating T and B lymphocytes in polyneuropathy and multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Andersson, M; Yu, M; Söderström, M; Weerth, S; Baig, S; Solders, G; Link, H

    2002-05-01

    Abnormal immune responses to myelin associated glycoprotein (MAG), a component of myelin of the central and peripheral nervous system, have been suggested to play a role in the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis (MS) and certain types of inflammatory polyneuropathy. To identify possible immunodominant MAG peptides in neuroinflammation, we examined T and B cell responses to five selected synthetic MAG peptides and myelin proteins in 21 patients with non-inflammatory polyneuropathy, 26 patients with MS, 10 optic neuritis patients and 17 healthy subjects. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent spot-forming cell assays were adopted, allowing the detection and enumeration of individual antigen responsive T and B cells in body fluids. Patients with polyneuropathy as well as those with MS had elevated levels of T and B cells recognizing MAG and its peptides. Any of the five MAG peptides under study functioned as immunodominant T and/or B cell epitope in individual subjects. None of the MAG peptides elicited a specific disease-associated T or B cell response. The enhanced T and B cell response to myelin components like MAG may play some role in initiation and/or progression of these diseases, but they could also represent secondary responses associated with myelin damage and indicate tolerization rather than autoaggressive immunity.

  15. Schwann cells contribute to neurodegeneration in transthyretin amyloidosis.

    PubMed

    Murakami, Tatsufumi; Sango, Kazunori; Watabe, Kazuhiko; Niimi, Naoko; Takaku, Shizuka; Li, Zhenghua; Yamamura, Ken-ichi; Sunada, Yoshihide

    2015-07-01

    Familial amyloidotic polyneuropathy (FAP) is one of the transthyretin (TTR) amyloidoses characterized by extracellular amyloid deposits and peripheral nerve involvement. Recently, we found significant expression of the TTR gene in Schwann cells of the peripheral nervous system. We hypothesized that local expression of variant TTR in Schwann cells may contribute to neurodegeneration in FAP. Schwann cells derived from the dorsal root ganglia (DRG) of transgenic mice expressing variant human TTR in a mouse null background were cultured long term to obtain spontaneously immortalized cell lines. We established an immortalized Schwann cell line, TgS1, derived from the transgenic mice. TgS1 cells synthesized variant TTR and secreted it into the medium. As sensory neuropathy usually arises early in FAP, we examined the effect of the conditioned medium derived from TgS1 cells on neurite outgrowth from DRG sensory neurons. Conditioned medium derived from TgS1 cells inhibited neurite outgrowth from the sensory neurons. TTR deposition in the DRG of aged transgenic mice was investigated by immunohistochemistry. TTR aggregates were observed in the cytoplasm of Schwann cells and satellite cells. Proteasome inhibition induced TTR aggregates as aggresomes in TgS1 cells. In conclusion, local variant TTR gene expression in Schwann cells might trigger neurodegeneration in FAP. We established a spontaneously immortalized Schwann cell line derived from familial amyloidotic polyneuropathy transgenic mice. Conditioned medium from the cells contained variant transthyretin (TTR), and inhibited neurite outgrowth of neurons. TTR aggregates were observed in the Schwann cells and satellite cells of aged mice. Proteasome inhibition induced TTR aggregates as aggresomes in the cultured cells. These results support the hypothesis that Schwann cells contribute to neurodegeneration in familial amyloidotic polyneuropathy (FAP). © 2015 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  16. Evaluation of distal symmetric polyneuropathy: the role of autonomic testing, nerve biopsy, and skin biopsy (an evidence-based review).

    PubMed

    England, J D; Gronseth, G S; Franklin, G; Carter, G T; Kinsella, L J; Cohen, J A; Asbury, A K; Szigeti, K; Lupski, J R; Latov, N; Lewis, R A; Low, P A; Fisher, M A; Herrmann, D; Howard, J F; Lauria, G; Miller, R G; Polydefkis, M; Sumner, A J

    2009-01-01

    Distal symmetric polyneuropathy (DSP) is the most common variety of neuropathy. Since the evaluation of this disorder is not standardized, the available literature was reviewed to provide evidence-based guidelines regarding the role of autonomic testing, nerve biopsy, and skin biopsy for the assessment of polyneuropathy. A literature review using MEDLINE, EMBASE, Science Citation Index, and Current Contents was performed to identify the best evidence regarding the evaluation of polyneuropathy published between 1980 and March 2007. Articles were classified according to a four-tiered level of evidence scheme and recommendations were based on the level of evidence. (1) Autonomic testing may be considered in the evaluation of patients with polyneuropathy to document autonomic nervous system dysfunction (Level B). Such testing should be considered especially for the evaluation of suspected autonomic neuropathy (Level B) and distal small fiber sensory polyneuropathy (SFSN) (Level C). A battery of validated tests is recommended to achieve the highest diagnostic accuracy (Level B). (2) Nerve biopsy is generally accepted as useful in the evaluation of certain neuropathies as in patients with suspected amyloid neuropathy, mononeuropathy multiplex due to vasculitis, or with atypical forms of chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP). However, the literature is insufficient to provide a recommendation regarding when a nerve biopsy may be useful in the evaluation of DSP (Level U). (3) Skin biopsy is a validated technique for determining intraepidermal nerve fiber (IENF) density and may be considered for the diagnosis of DSP, particularly SFSN (Level C). There is a need for additional prospective studies to define more exact guidelines for the evaluation of polyneuropathy.

  17. Metabolic syndrome is related to polyneuropathy and impaired peripheral nerve function: a prospective population-based cohort study.

    PubMed

    Hanewinckel, Rens; Drenthen, Judith; Ligthart, Symen; Dehghan, Abbas; Franco, Oscar H; Hofman, Albert; Ikram, M Arfan; van Doorn, Pieter A

    2016-12-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a known risk factor for polyneuropathy, but the role of pre-diabetes and metabolic syndrome remains unclear. We aimed to investigate the role of these factors in a community-dwelling middle-aged and elderly population. 1256 participants of the population-based Rotterdam Study (mean age 70.0, 54.5% females) were screened for polyneuropathy with a questionnaire, neurological examination and nerve conduction studies. Data on type 2 diabetes and components of metabolic syndrome were also collected. Logistic regression was used to investigate associations of diabetes, pre-diabetes and metabolic syndrome and its separate components with polyneuropathy. Linear regression was used to investigate associations with nerve conduction parameters in participants without polyneuropathy. Diabetes was associated with polyneuropathy (OR 3.01, 95% CI 1.60 to 5.65), while impaired fasting glucose was not (OR 1.55, 95% CI 0.70 to 3.44). Metabolic syndrome was associated with polyneuropathy (OR 1.92, 95% CI 1.09 to 3.38), with a stronger association when more components of the syndrome were present. Analysing separate components of metabolic syndrome revealed associations for elevated waist circumference (OR 2.84, 95% CI 1.35 to 5.99) and elevated triglycerides (OR 2.01, 95% CI 1.11 to 3.62). Similar associations were found after excluding participants with diabetes. In participants without polyneuropathy, metabolic syndrome associated with lower sural sensory nerve action potential amplitudes. Metabolic syndrome, abdominal obesity and dyslipidaemia, are strongly associated with polyneuropathy, irrespective of the presence of diabetes. Metabolic syndrome also associates with impaired nerve function in people without polyneuropathy. Our study therefore suggests that cardiometabolic disturbances have an impact on peripheral nerve function that extends beyond clinically manifest disease. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not

  18. Early intervention with tafamidis provides long-term (5.5-year) delay of neurologic progression in transthyretin hereditary amyloid polyneuropathy

    PubMed Central

    Waddington Cruz, Márcia; Amass, Leslie; Keohane, Denis; Schwartz, Jeffrey; Li, Huihua; Gundapaneni, Balarama

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Transthyretin hereditary amyloid polyneuropathy, also traditionally known as transthyretin familial amyloid polyneuropathy (ATTR-FAP), is a rare, relentless, fatal hereditary disorder. Tafamidis, an oral, non-NSAID, highly specific transthyretin stabilizer, demonstrated safety and efficacy in slowing neuropathy progression in early-stage ATTRV30M-FAP in a 1.5-year, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, and 1-year open-label extension study, with a second long-term open-label extension study ongoing. Subgroup analysis of the effectiveness of tafamidis in the pivotal study and its open-label extensions revealed a relatively cohesive cohort of patients with mild neuropathy (i.e. Neuropathy Impairment Score for Lower Limbs [NIS-LL] ≤ 10) at the start of active treatment. Early treatment with tafamidis for up to 5.5 years (≥1 dose of tafamidis meglumine 20 mg once daily during the original trial or after switching from placebo in its extension) resulted in sustained delay in neurologic progression and long-term preservation of nutritional status in this cohort. Mean (95% CI) changes from baseline in NIS-LL and mBMI were 5.3 (1.6, 9.1) points and −7.8 (−44.3, 28.8) kg/m2 × g/L at 5.5 years, respectively. No new safety issues or side effects were identified. These data represent the longest prospective evaluation of tafamidis to date, confirm a favorable safety profile, and underscore the long-term benefits of early intervention with tafamidis. Trial Registration: ClincalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00409175, NCT00791492, and NCT00925002. PMID:27494299

  19. Early intervention with tafamidis provides long-term (5.5-year) delay of neurologic progression in transthyretin hereditary amyloid polyneuropathy.

    PubMed

    Waddington Cruz, Márcia; Amass, Leslie; Keohane, Denis; Schwartz, Jeffrey; Li, Huihua; Gundapaneni, Balarama

    2016-09-01

    Transthyretin hereditary amyloid polyneuropathy, also traditionally known as transthyretin familial amyloid polyneuropathy (ATTR-FAP), is a rare, relentless, fatal hereditary disorder. Tafamidis, an oral, non-NSAID, highly specific transthyretin stabilizer, demonstrated safety and efficacy in slowing neuropathy progression in early-stage ATTRV30M-FAP in a 1.5-year, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, and 1-year open-label extension study, with a second long-term open-label extension study ongoing. Subgroup analysis of the effectiveness of tafamidis in the pivotal study and its open-label extensions revealed a relatively cohesive cohort of patients with mild neuropathy (i.e. Neuropathy Impairment Score for Lower Limbs [NIS-LL] ≤ 10) at the start of active treatment. Early treatment with tafamidis for up to 5.5 years (≥1 dose of tafamidis meglumine 20 mg once daily during the original trial or after switching from placebo in its extension) resulted in sustained delay in neurologic progression and long-term preservation of nutritional status in this cohort. Mean (95% CI) changes from baseline in NIS-LL and mBMI were 5.3 (1.6, 9.1) points and -7.8 (-44.3, 28.8) kg/m(2) × g/L at 5.5 years, respectively. No new safety issues or side effects were identified. These data represent the longest prospective evaluation of tafamidis to date, confirm a favorable safety profile, and underscore the long-term benefits of early intervention with tafamidis.

  20. Altered glutathione system is associated with the presence of distal symmetric peripheral polyneuropathy in type 2 diabetic subjects.

    PubMed

    Mendez, Mercedes Molina; Folgado, José; Tormo, Carmen; Artero, Ana; Ascaso, Maria; Martinez-Hervás, Sergio; Chaves, F Javier; Ascaso, Juan F; Real, Jose T

    2015-01-01

    Distal symmetric peripheral polyneuropathy (DSPN) is a highly prevalent complication of diabetes. However, underlying pathophysiological mechanisms are multiple and not well understood. The aim of our study was to analyze the oxidative stress levels in circulating mononuclear cells by measuring the glutathione system, malondialdehyde and oxidized-LDL, in 60 type 2 diabetic patients from a well-characterized cohort of 196 type 2 diabetic patients. Using a nested case-control design, we studied 30 type 2 diabetic patients with distal symmetric polyneuropathy and 30 diabetic controls without this complication, according to the Neuropathy Disability Score. We have found that diabetic patients with distal symmetric polyneuropathy showed significantly lower values of reduced glutathione (GSH) and reduced glutathione/oxidized glutathione (GSH/GSSG) ratio. These data indicate an increased consumption of glutathione in mononuclear cells from patients with distal symmetric polyneuropathy. No significant differences were found in malondialdehyde or in oxidized-LDL levels comparing both groups. These data show an altered glutathione response in circulating monocytes from diabetic patients with distal symmetric polyneuropathy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Reliability and responsiveness of a graduated tuning fork in immune mediated polyneuropathies. The Inflammatory Neuropathy Cause and Treatment (INCAT) Group.

    PubMed

    Merkies, I S; Schmitz, P I; van der Meché, F G; van Doorn, P A

    2000-05-01

    The interobserver and intraobserver reliability of the Rydel-Seiffer (RS) graduated tuning fork was evaluated in 113 patients with a clinically stable immune mediated polyneuropathy (83 patients who had had Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) in the past, 22 with a chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP), and eight with a polyneuropathy associated with a gammopathy of undetermined significance). Additionally, the responsiveness of this instrument was serially investigated in 20 patients with recently diagnosed GBS or CIDP and changing clinical conditions. The measures were done in triplicate at eight different locations in the limbs and the values were compared with the recently published vibration threshold reference values. Good interobserver and intraobserver agreements (quadratic weighted kappa=0.67-0.98) and high responsiveness values (standardised response mean scores>0.8) were demonstrated for the RS tuning fork. These results provide, in addition to literature findings, further evidence for incorporation of this easily applicable instrument in routine neurological examination.

  2. Evaluation of distal symmetric polyneuropathy: the role of laboratory and genetic testing (an evidence-based review).

    PubMed

    England, J D; Gronseth, G S; Franklin, G; Carter, G T; Kinsella, L J; Cohen, J A; Asbury, A K; Szigeti, K; Lupski, J R; Latov, N; Lewis, R A; Low, P A; Fisher, M A; Herrmann, D; Howard, J F; Lauria, G; Miller, R G; Polydefkis, M; Sumner, A J

    2009-01-01

    Distal symmetric polyneuropathy (DSP) is the most common variety of neuropathy. Since the evaluation of this disorder is not standardized, the available literature was reviewed to provide evidence-based guidelines regarding the role of laboratory and genetic tests for the assessment of DSP. A literature review using MEDLINE, EMBASE, Science Citation Index, and Current Contents was performed to identify the best evidence regarding the evaluation of polyneuropathy published between 1980 and March 2007. Articles were classified according to a four-tiered level of evidence scheme and recommendations were based on the level of evidence. (1) Screening laboratory tests may be considered for all patients with polyneuropathy (Level C). Those tests that provide the highest yield of abnormality are blood glucose, serum B(12) with metabolites (methylmalonic acid with or without homocysteine), and serum protein immunofixation electrophoresis (Level C). If there is no definite evidence of diabetes mellitus by routine testing of blood glucose, testing for impaired glucose tolerance may be considered in distal symmetric sensory polyneuropathy (Level C). (2) Genetic testing is established as useful for the accurate diagnosis and classification of hereditary neuropathies (Level A). Genetic testing may be considered in patients with cryptogenic polyneuropathy who exhibit a hereditary neuropathy phenotype (Level C). Initial genetic testing should be guided by the clinical phenotype, inheritance pattern, and electrodiagnostic (EDX) features and should focus on the most common abnormalities, which are CMT1A duplication/HNPP deletion, Cx32 (GJB1), and MFN2 mutation screening. There is insufficient evidence to determine the usefulness of routine genetic testing in patients with cryptogenic polyneuropathy who do not exhibit a hereditary neuropathy phenotype (Level U).

  3. Study of Autophagy and Microangiopathy in Sural Nerves of Patients with Chronic Idiopathic Axonal Polyneuropathy.

    PubMed

    Samuelsson, Kristin; Osman, Ayman A M; Angeria, Maria; Risling, Mårten; Mohseni, Simin; Press, Rayomand

    Twenty-five percent of polyneuropathies are idiopathic. Microangiopathy has been suggested to be a possible pathogenic cause of chronic idiopathic axonal polyneuropathy (CIAP). Dysfunction of the autophagy pathway has been implicated as a marker of neurodegeneration in the central nervous system, but the autophagy process is not explored in the peripheral nervous system. In the current study, we examined the presence of microangiopathy and autophagy-related structures in sural nerve biopsies of 10 patients with CIAP, 11 controls with inflammatory neuropathy and 10 controls without sensory polyneuropathy. We did not find any significant difference in endoneurial microangiopathic markers in patients with CIAP compared to normal controls, though we did find a correlation between basal lamina area thickness and age. Unexpectedly, we found a significantly larger basal lamina area thickness in patients with vasculitic neuropathy. Furthermore, we found a significantly higher density of endoneurial autophagy-related structures, particularly in patients with CIAP but also in patients with inflammatory neuropathy, compared to normal controls. It is unclear if the alteration in the autophagy pathway is a consequence or a cause of the neuropathy. Our results do not support the hypothesis that CIAP is primarily caused by a microangiopathic process in endoneurial blood vessels in peripheral nerves. The significantly higher density of autophagy structures in sural nerves obtained from patients with CIAP and inflammatory neuropathy vs. controls indicates the involvement of this pathway in neuropathy, particularly in CIAP, since the increase in density of autophagy-related structures was more pronounced in patients with CIAP than those with inflammatory neuropathy. To our knowledge this is the first report investigating signs of autophagy process in peripheral nerves in patients with CIAP and inflammatory neuropathy.

  4. A prospective multi-centric open clinical trial of homeopathy in diabetic distal symmetric polyneuropathy.

    PubMed

    Nayak, Chaturbhuja; Oberai, Praveen; Varanasi, Roja; Baig, Hafeezullah; Ch, Raveender; Reddy, G R C; Devi, Pratima; S, Bhubaneshwari; Singh, Vikram; Singh, V P; Singh, Hari; Shitanshu, Shashi Shekhar

    2013-04-01

    To evaluate homeopathic treatment in the management of diabetic distal symmetric polyneuropathy. A prospective multi-centric clinical observational study was carried out from October 2005 to September 2009 by Central Council for Research in Homeopathy (CCRH) (India) at its five institutes/units. Patients suffering from diabetes mellitus (DM) and presenting with symptoms of diabetic polyneuropathy (DPN) were screened, investigated and were enrolled in the study after fulfilling the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Patients were evaluated by the diabetic distal symmetric polyneuropathy symptom score (DDSPSS) developed by the Council. A total of 15 homeopathic medicines were identified after repertorizing the nosological symptoms and signs of the disease. The appropriate constitutional medicine was selected and prescribed in 30, 200 and 1 M potency on an individualized basis. Patients were followed up regularly for 12 months. Out of 336 patients (167 males and 169 females) enrolled in the study, 247 patients (123 males and 124 females) were analyzed. All patients who attended at least three follow-up appointments and baseline curve conduction studies were included in the analysis.). A statistically significant improvement in DDSPSS total score (p = 0.0001) was found at 12 months from baseline. Most objective measures did not show significant improvement. Lycopodium clavatum (n = 132), Phosphorus (n = 27) and Sulphur (n = 26) were the medicines most frequently prescribed. Adverse event of hypoglycaemia was observed in one patient only. This study suggests homeopathic medicines may be effective in managing the symptoms of DPN patients. Further studies should be controlled and include the quality of life (QOL) assessment. Copyright © 2013 The Faculty of Homeopathy. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Study of Autophagy and Microangiopathy in Sural Nerves of Patients with Chronic Idiopathic Axonal Polyneuropathy

    PubMed Central

    Samuelsson, Kristin; Osman, Ayman A. M.; Angeria, Maria; Risling, Mårten; Mohseni, Simin; Press, Rayomand

    2016-01-01

    Twenty-five percent of polyneuropathies are idiopathic. Microangiopathy has been suggested to be a possible pathogenic cause of chronic idiopathic axonal polyneuropathy (CIAP). Dysfunction of the autophagy pathway has been implicated as a marker of neurodegeneration in the central nervous system, but the autophagy process is not explored in the peripheral nervous system. In the current study, we examined the presence of microangiopathy and autophagy-related structures in sural nerve biopsies of 10 patients with CIAP, 11 controls with inflammatory neuropathy and 10 controls without sensory polyneuropathy. We did not find any significant difference in endoneurial microangiopathic markers in patients with CIAP compared to normal controls, though we did find a correlation between basal lamina area thickness and age. Unexpectedly, we found a significantly larger basal lamina area thickness in patients with vasculitic neuropathy. Furthermore, we found a significantly higher density of endoneurial autophagy-related structures, particularly in patients with CIAP but also in patients with inflammatory neuropathy, compared to normal controls. It is unclear if the alteration in the autophagy pathway is a consequence or a cause of the neuropathy. Our results do not support the hypothesis that CIAP is primarily caused by a microangiopathic process in endoneurial blood vessels in peripheral nerves. The significantly higher density of autophagy structures in sural nerves obtained from patients with CIAP and inflammatory neuropathy vs. controls indicates the involvement of this pathway in neuropathy, particularly in CIAP, since the increase in density of autophagy-related structures was more pronounced in patients with CIAP than those with inflammatory neuropathy. To our knowledge this is the first report investigating signs of autophagy process in peripheral nerves in patients with CIAP and inflammatory neuropathy. PMID:27662650

  6. Fatigue in immune-mediated polyneuropathies. European Inflammatory Neuropathy Cause and Treatment (INCAT) Group.

    PubMed

    Merkies, I S; Schmitz, P I; Samijn, J P; van der Meché, F G; van Doorn, P A

    1999-11-10

    To determine the prevalence and severity of ongoing fatigue and to investigate the internal consistency, reliability, and validity of the Fatigue Severity Scale (FSS) in patients with immune-mediated polyneuropathies. The FSS was assessed in 113 patients who either experienced Guillain-Barré syndrome in the past or currently have a stable, chronic, inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy or a polyneuropathy associated with a monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance, and in 113 age- and sex-matched healthy controls. Data on four additional scales (Medical Research Council sumscore, functional grading scale [f-score], INCAT sensory sumscore, medical outcome study 36-items health survey [SF-36]) were obtained in all patients. SF-36 also was assessed in 59 controls. "Severe" fatigue (FSS scores > or =95th percentile values in controls) was present in 80% of the patients. Fatigue was not significantly related to general strength, sensory deficits, f-score, and duration of symptoms. Severe fatigue was reported in 81% to 86% of patients with normal strength or sensation. Eighty percent of the patients (controls, 12%) reported their fatigue being among the three most disabling symptoms. SF-36 health status scores in the patient group were significantly lower than the obtained values of the controls and partially related to the FSS scores. Good internal consistency, significant reliability, and validity were obtained for the FSS. Fatigue is a major symptom in patients with immune-mediated polyneuropathies and may persist for years after apparent recovery. The Fatigue Severity Scale seems appropriate for assessing fatigue in these patients because good internal consistency, reliability, and validity were demonstrated.

  7. [n-Hexane polyneuropathy due to sniffing bond G10--clinical and electron microscopic findings].

    PubMed

    Kurihara, K; Kita, K; Hattori, T; Hirayama, K

    1986-11-01

    Two cases of n-hexane polyneuropathy due to glue sniffing were reported and the clinical features, laboratory data and sural nerve biopsy findings were discussed. Case 1 was a 31-year-old man and case 2 was a 24-year-old man. Both of them developed motor dominant polyneuropathy subacutely after inhalating Bond G10 for about 3 months. Their weakness deteriorated further for about 3 months even after discontinuing Bond G10 inhalation and they became almost confined to wheel chairs. Thereafter, however, they started to recover fairly rapidly. Gas chromatographic analysis of Bond G10 revealed that it contains 47.7% of n-hexane and 21.8% of toluene. Almost all reported cases of glue sniffer's neuropathy were motor dominant type, but those of n-hexane polyneuropathy of factory workers were sensory or sensorimotor neuropathy. Therefore our cases are thought to be typical of glue sniffer's neuropathies. Sural nerve biopsies were done in both patients, and examinations of photomicroscope, teased method and electronmicroscope were performed. From our photomicroscopic examinations we found only mild changes such as reduction of number of myelinated fibers, and from our electronmicroscopic examinations we noted marked accumulation of neurofilaments and loss of neurotubules in swelled axons. Some axons were normal in appearance by photomicroscopic examination, but the same axons under electronmicroscopic examination further revealed that neurotubules were oppressed by accumulation of neurofilaments to the margin of an axon. These findings seem to indicate the pathological processes of axonal swellings.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  8. Successful treatment of chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) with oral cyclophosphamide.

    PubMed

    Jasmin, R; Sockalingam, S; Shahrizaila, N; Cheah, T-E; Zain, A A; Goh, K-J

    2012-09-01

    Peripheral neuropathy is a known manifestation of systemic lupus erythematosus. However, the association of primary autoimmune inflammatory neuropathies such as chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) with SLE is uncommon. We report a 26-year-old man who simultaneously presented with severe CIDP and photosensitive rash, but was unresponsive to intravenous immunoglobulin infusion and continued to progress. He was found to have underlying SLE and improved with combined corticosteroid and immunosuppressive therapy with oral cyclophosphamide. CIDP with underlying SLE may be more resistant to conventional therapy with IVIG, requiring the addition of other immunosuppressive agents.

  9. Serum cytokine and chemokine profiles in patients with chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy.

    PubMed

    Beppu, Minako; Sawai, Setsu; Misawa, Sonoko; Sogawa, Kazuyuki; Mori, Masahiro; Ishige, Takayuki; Satoh, Mamoru; Nomura, Fumio; Kuwabara, Satoshi

    2015-02-15

    To identify serum cytokine networks specific to chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP), serum samples of two subgroups (18 patients with typical CIDP and 12 patients with multifocal acquired demyelinating sensory and motor neuropathy [MADSAM]) were analyzed with multiplex magnetic bead-based cytokine assay. TNF-α, HGF, MIP-1β and IL-1β levels were significantly higher in total CIDP patients than in normal controls. Of these, HGF levels were elevated in typical CIDP patients, but not in MADSAM patients. Patients with high HGF levels showed good responses to steroid treatment. Different cytokine profiles among the CIDP subtypes presumably reflect differences in pathophysiology.

  10. Acute-onset chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy with focal segmental glomerulosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Quek, Amy May Lin; Soon, Derek; Chan, Yee Cheun; Thamboo, Thomas Paulraj; Yuki, Nobuhiro

    2014-06-15

    Inflammatory neuropathies have been reported to occur in association with nephrotic syndrome. Their underlying immuno-pathogenic mechanisms remain unknown. A 50-year-old woman concurrently presented with acute-onset chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy and nephrotic syndrome secondary to focal segmental glomerulosclerosis. Both neuropathy and proteinuria improved after plasma exchange and steroids. Literature review of cases of concurrent inflammatory neuropathies and nephrotic syndrome revealed similar neuro-renal presentations. This neuro-renal condition may be mediated by autoantibodies targeting myelin and podocytes.

  11. Geospatial association of endemicity of ataxic polyneuropathy and highly cyanogenic cassava cultivars

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Exposure to cyanide from cassava foods is present in communities where ataxic polyneuropathy is endemic. Ataxic polyneuropathy is endemic in coastal parts of southwest and southeast Nigeria, and coastal Newala, south India, but it has been reported in epidemic or endemic forms from Africa, Asia, or Caribbean. This study was done to determine if cyanogenicity of cassava cultivars is higher in lowland than highland areas, and if areas of endemicity of ataxic polyneuropathy colocalize with areas of highest cyanogenicity of cassava. Methods Roots of cassava cultivars were collected from 150 farmers in 32 of 37 administrative areas in Nigeria. Global positioning system was used to determine the location of the roots. Roots were assayed for concentrations of cyanogens. Thin Plate Spline regression was used to produce the contour map of cyanogenicity of the study area. Contour maps of altitude of the endemic areas were produced. Relationship of cyanogenicity of cassava cultivars and altitude, and of locations of areas of high cyanogenicity and areas of endemicity were determined. Results Geometrical mean (95% CI) cyanogen concentration was 182 (142–233) mg HCN eq/kg dry wt for cassava cultivars in areas ≤ 25 m above sea level, but 54 (43–66) mg HCN eq/kg dry wt for areas > 375 m. Non-spatial linear regression of altitude on logarithm transformed concentrations of cyanogens showed highly significant association, (p < 0.0001). Contour map of concentrations of cyanogens in cassava cultivars in Nigeria showed four areas with average concentrations of cassava cyanogens > 250 mg HCN eq/kg dry wt, and one area of moderately high cyanogen concentration > 150 mg HCN eq/kg dry wt. The endemic areas colocalized with areas of highest cassava cyanogenicity in lowland areas close to the Atlantic Ocean. Conclusion This study shows strong geospatial association of areas of endemicity of ataxic polyneuropathy and areas of highest cyanogenicity of

  12. Overview of the pathogenesis and treatment of chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy with intravenous immunoglobulins

    PubMed Central

    Mahdi-Rogers, Mohamed; Rajabally, Yusuf A

    2010-01-01

    Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) is an acquired heterogeneous disorder of immune origin affecting the peripheral nerves, causing motor weakness and sensory symptoms and signs. The precise pathophysiology of CIDP remains uncertain although B and T cell mechanisms are believed to be implicated. Intravenous immunoglobulins (IVIg) have been shown in a number of trials to be an effective treatment for CIDP. IVIg is thought to exert its immunomodulatory effects by affecting several components of the immune system including B-cells, T-cells, macrophages and complement. This article provides an overview of the pathogenesis of CIDP and of its treatment with IVIg. PMID:20376173

  13. Human immunodeficiency virus infection and diffuse polyneuropathy. Implications for rehabilitation medicine.

    PubMed Central

    Mukand, J. A.

    1991-01-01

    Patients at various stages of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection require rehabilitation services. These patients present problems for each of the disciplines in a rehabilitation team, and all team members must confront the psychosocial and ethical issues involved with the disease. Patients with HIV infection may have polyneuropathy with multisystem involvement, including dysphagia, autonomic dysfunction, respiratory failure, bowel and bladder dysfunction, generalized weakness, a painful sensory neuropathy, and depression. Guidelines are presented for determining if inpatient rehabilitation or other settings are appropriate. Case management is a valuable strategy for the rehabilitation of patients with this complicated disorder. PMID:1866948

  14. Systemic Lupus Erythematosus With Acute Inflammatory Demyelinating Polyneuropathy: A Case Report and Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiangling; Wang, Yanqiang

    2016-07-01

    We recently encountered a patient with acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (AIDP) that was associated with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). A 34-year-old Chinese female with a 3-year history of SLE presented with acute bilateral leg weakness and paraparesis, and lost the ability to walk 1 day after noticing bilateral leg numbness and pain for 12 days. Physical examination revealed bilateral facial muscle paralysis, muscle strength in the legs with graded 1/5 proximally and 2/5 distally bilaterally and absence of deep tendon reflex in both knees and ankles. Paresthesia was observed in distal limbs with glove and stocking distribution. Cerebrospinal fluid analysis demonstrated albuminocytologic dissociation. Electrophysiologic survey also indicated sensory-motor demyelinating polyneuropathy. The diagnosis of SLE was established based on her initial symptoms including intermittent fevers, hair loss, oral ulcers, malar rash and arthritis affecting the elbow, wrist and hand joints; positive immunologic findings for antinuclear antibody (ANA), anti-DNA antibody, anti-Smith (anti-Sm) antibody, low serum complement levels, and the kidney biopsy specimen showed glomerular mesangial proliferation with focal endothelial cell proliferation (ISN/PPS 2004 classification lupus nephritis, class III). Treatment with intravenous immunoglobulin, methylprednisolone and cyclophosphamide resulted in clinical and electrophysiological improvement.

  15. [Opportunities for confocal and laser biomicroscopy of corneal nerves in diabetic polyneuropathy].

    PubMed

    Surnina, Z V

    2015-01-01

    The review concerns corneal nerves involvement in diabetes mellitus (DM), a pressing issue for ophthalmology and endocrinology. The history of research in this field along with anatomical, physiological, and biochemical features of corneal nerves is provided. Corneal nerves anatomy is described in accordance with Soviet scientific school and contemporary foreign sources. The most part of the paper is devoted to technical description of a confocal microscope and Heidelberg Retina Tomograph with corneal module as well as the feasibility of corneal nerves visualization. Diabetic neuropathy, a threatening complication of DM that can result in lower limb amputations, is discussed. A number of authors suggest confocal biomicroscopy for early diagnosis of polyneuropathy, yet few relevant publications can be found. If effective, confocal biomicroscopy can be considered as a possible screening tool able to detect early signs of diabetes complications and thus to ensure the treatment initiated in a timely manner. The latter is crucial to prevent DM progression to its terminal stage--diabetic polyneuropathy, which is dangerous of lower limb amputations.

  16. Sensory loss, pains, motor deficit and axonal regeneration in length-dependent diabetic polyneuropathy.

    PubMed

    Said, G; Baudoin, D; Toyooka, K

    2008-11-01

    In order to learn more on the occurrence of pains and motor deficit in severe diabetic polyneuropathy we reviewed the data of a series of 30 diabetic patients with an uncommonly severe length-dependent diabetic polyneuropathy (LDDP). Extensive sensory loss predominated with pains and temperature sensations and affected all four limb extremities, anterior trunk in all, plus the top of the scalp in 9 patients and the cauda equina territory in 2. Twenty patients had neuropathic pains. Symptomatic autonomic dysfunction was present in 28/30 patients, mild distal motor deficit in 12 patients, severe in only one. Vibratory sensation was impaired in the lower limbs in 18 patients; position sense in 8. In the 10 nerve biopsy specimens, the density of myelinated axons was reduced to 23 % and that of unmyelinated axons to 8.5 % of control values. Regenerating axons accounted for 32.4 +/- 19.8 % of the myelinated fibres. On teased fibre preparations 13.9 % of fibres were undergoing axonal degeneration, while 29.4 % of fibres showed focal abnormalities of the myelin sheath.We conclude that distal motor deficit occurs only after major loss of sensory fibres in LDDP; the unmyelinated axons are predominantly affected; absence of clinical improvement contrasts with the high proportion of regenerating axons; detection of alteration of pain and temperature sensation in the feet seems the best method for neuropathy screening in diabetic patients.

  17. Intensive care unit acquired weakness in children: Critical illness polyneuropathy and myopathy

    PubMed Central

    Kukreti, Vinay; Shamim, Mosharraf; Khilnani, Praveen

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims: Intensive care unit acquired weakness (ICUAW) is a common occurrence in patients who are critically ill. It is most often due to critical illness polyneuropathy (CIP) or to critical illness myopathy (CIM). ICUAW is increasingly being recognized partly as a consequence of improved survival in patients with severe sepsis and multi-organ failure, partly related to commonly used agents such as steroids and muscle relaxants. There have been occasional reports of CIP and CIM in children, but little is known about their prevalence or clinical impact in the pediatric population. This review summarizes the current understanding of pathophysiology, clinical presentation, diagnosis and treatment of CIP and CIM in general with special reference to published literature in the pediatric age group. Subjects and Methods: Studies were identified through MedLine and Embase using relevant MeSH and Key words. Both adult and pediatric studies were included. Results: ICUAW in children is a poorly described entity with unknown incidence, etiology and unclear long-term prognosis. Conclusions: Critical illness polyneuropathy and myopathy is relatively rare, but clinically significant sequelae of multifactorial origin affecting morbidity, length of intensive care unit (ICU) stay and possibly mortality in critically ill children admitted to pediatric ICU. PMID:24678152

  18. Systemic Lupus Erythematosus With Acute Inflammatory Demyelinating Polyneuropathy: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiangling; Wang, Yanqiang

    2016-01-01

    We recently encountered a patient with acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (AIDP) that was associated with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). A 34-year-old Chinese female with a 3-year history of SLE presented with acute bilateral leg weakness and paraparesis, and lost the ability to walk 1 day after noticing bilateral leg numbness and pain for 12 days. Physical examination revealed bilateral facial muscle paralysis, muscle strength in the legs with graded 1/5 proximally and 2/5 distally bilaterally and absence of deep tendon reflex in both knees and ankles. Paresthesia was observed in distal limbs with glove and stocking distribution. Cerebrospinal fluid analysis demonstrated albuminocytologic dissociation. Electrophysiologic survey also indicated sensory-motor demyelinating polyneuropathy. The diagnosis of SLE was established based on her initial symptoms including intermittent fevers, hair loss, oral ulcers, malar rash and arthritis affecting the elbow, wrist and hand joints; positive immunologic findings for antinuclear antibody (ANA), anti-DNA antibody, anti-Smith (anti-Sm) antibody, low serum complement levels, and the kidney biopsy specimen showed glomerular mesangial proliferation with focal endothelial cell proliferation (ISN/PPS 2004 classification lupus nephritis, class III). Treatment with intravenous immunoglobulin, methylprednisolone and cyclophosphamide resulted in clinical and electrophysiological improvement. PMID:27298667

  19. Patients with n-hexane induced polyneuropathy: a clinical follow up.

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Y C

    1990-01-01

    The prognosis of hexacarbon induced polyneuropathy is usually good, though its clinical course after the cessation of exposure has not been described in detail. Eleven patients with moderate to severe n-hexane induced polyneuropathy due to occupational exposure were regularly followed up for a period of four years at the neurological department of the National Taiwan University Hospital. Sensorimotor neuropathy was diagnosed in nine patients and motor neuropathy in two. All were removed from further exposure to n-hexane after aetiological confirmation, but motor disturbance continued to worsen in five cases. Sensory functions were regained earlier than motor functions. All the patients, including one who was tetraplegic and confined to a wheelchair in the early stages, regained their full motor capabilities within one to four years. Three patients with severe neuropathy had residual muscle atrophy in the intrinsic foot and hand muscles. Signs of damage to the central nervous system, including increased tendon reflexes in two patients and leg tightness in six patients, emerged as muscle power was nearing complete recovery. The tightness of the legs gradually disappeared, but muscle cramps of the calves developed and these were still present at the end of follow up. Two patients had mild abnormal colour vision, and the abnormality was still detectable four years later. It is concluded that n-hexane induced neuropathy has a good prognosis, and that spasticity due to damage to the central nervous system is functionally reversible; muscle cramps and dyschromatopsia persist much longer. PMID:2166555

  20. Patients with n-hexane induced polyneuropathy: a clinical follow up.

    PubMed

    Chang, Y C

    1990-07-01

    The prognosis of hexacarbon induced polyneuropathy is usually good, though its clinical course after the cessation of exposure has not been described in detail. Eleven patients with moderate to severe n-hexane induced polyneuropathy due to occupational exposure were regularly followed up for a period of four years at the neurological department of the National Taiwan University Hospital. Sensorimotor neuropathy was diagnosed in nine patients and motor neuropathy in two. All were removed from further exposure to n-hexane after aetiological confirmation, but motor disturbance continued to worsen in five cases. Sensory functions were regained earlier than motor functions. All the patients, including one who was tetraplegic and confined to a wheelchair in the early stages, regained their full motor capabilities within one to four years. Three patients with severe neuropathy had residual muscle atrophy in the intrinsic foot and hand muscles. Signs of damage to the central nervous system, including increased tendon reflexes in two patients and leg tightness in six patients, emerged as muscle power was nearing complete recovery. The tightness of the legs gradually disappeared, but muscle cramps of the calves developed and these were still present at the end of follow up. Two patients had mild abnormal colour vision, and the abnormality was still detectable four years later. It is concluded that n-hexane induced neuropathy has a good prognosis, and that spasticity due to damage to the central nervous system is functionally reversible; muscle cramps and dyschromatopsia persist much longer.

  1. Basement membrane reduplication and pericyte degeneration precede development of diabetic polyneuropathy and are associated with its severity.

    PubMed

    Giannini, C; Dyck, P J

    1995-04-01

    In a recent paper, we showed that the number of endoneurial microvessels per square millimeter and the average luminal area and size distribution of these microvessels are not significantly different in sural nerves of patients with diabetes mellitus as compared to control subjects. Mural area, especially the component due to basement membrane reduplication and cellular debris, was unequivocally increased in diabetes mellitus. Because these latter changes are associated with a decrease in periendothelial cell area, we hypothesized that cellular degeneration, especially of pericytes, may account for basement membrane reduplication and increased frequency of cellular debris. In the present study, we showed that endoneurial microvessels undergo a statistically significant increase in basement membrane area, mural area, and frequency of cellular debris in diabetics without polyneuropathy and an even greater increase in diabetics with polyneuropathy. We also found that duration of diabetes mellitus was significantly associated with area occupied by reduplicated basement membrane and cellular debris, but not with mural and periendothelial area. None of the examined measurements was associated with age. Since the microvessel abnormalities we describe are already present before the development of polyneuropathy and increase with severity of polyneuropathy, it is likely that they reflect functional derangements of pericytes and microvessel function which precede and might be implicated in fiber degeneration.

  2. [Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy after treatment with pegylated interferon alpha 2b in a patient with HIV/HCV coinfection: case report].

    PubMed

    Bassetti, Bil Randerson; Trés, Eduardo Sturzeneker; Ciríaco, Jovana Gobbi Marchesi; Pinto Neto, Lauro Ferreira Silva

    2010-01-01

    Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy has a strong association with HIV and HCV infection. A rare association between chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy and hepatitis C treatment with pegylated interferon alpha was described recently. We described the first case of chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy associated with pegylated interferon alpha 2b in a white man infected with HIV and HCV. The patient recovered completely with the use of intravenous hyperimmune immunoglobulin. Infectologists and hepatologists should be alert regarding this rare and serious association, which requires immediately drug discontinuation and early treatment.

  3. A deletion in the N-myc downstream regulated gene 1 (NDRG1) gene in Greyhounds with polyneuropathy.

    PubMed

    Drögemüller, Cord; Becker, Doreen; Kessler, Barbara; Kemter, Elisabeth; Tetens, Jens; Jurina, Konrad; Jäderlund, Karin Hultin; Flagstad, Annette; Perloski, Michele; Lindblad-Toh, Kerstin; Matiasek, Kaspar

    2010-06-22

    The polyneuropathy of juvenile Greyhound show dogs shows clinical similarities to the genetically heterogeneous Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) disease in humans. The pedigrees containing affected dogs suggest monogenic autosomal recessive inheritance and all affected dogs trace back to a single male. Here, we studied the neuropathology of this disease and identified a candidate causative mutation. Peripheral nerve biopsies from affected dogs were examined using semi-thin histology, nerve fibre teasing and electron microscopy. A severe chronic progressive mixed polyneuropathy was observed. Seven affected and 17 related control dogs were genotyped on the 50k canine SNP chip. This allowed us to localize the causative mutation to a 19.5 Mb interval on chromosome 13 by homozygosity mapping. The NDRG1 gene is located within this interval and NDRG1 mutations have been shown to cause hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy-Lom in humans (CMT4D). Therefore, we considered NDRG1 a positional and functional candidate gene and performed mutation analysis in affected and control Greyhounds. A 10 bp deletion in canine NDRG1 exon 15 (c.1080_1089delTCGCCTGGAC) was perfectly associated with the polyneuropathy phenotype of Greyhound show dogs. The deletion causes a frame shift (p.Arg361SerfsX60) which alters several amino acids before a stop codon is encountered. A reduced level of NDRG1 transcript could be detected by RT-PCR. Western blot analysis demonstrated an absence of NDRG1 protein in peripheral nerve biopsy of an affected Greyhound. We thus have identified a candidate causative mutation for polyneuropathy in Greyhounds and identified the first genetically characterized canine CMT model which offers an opportunity to gain further insights into the pathobiology and therapy of human NDRG1 associated CMT disease. Selection against this mutation can now be used to eliminate polyneuropathy from Greyhound show dogs.

  4. Segmental somatosensory-evoked potentials as a diagnostic tool in chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathies, and other sensory neuropathies.

    PubMed

    Koutlidis, R M; Ayrignac, X; Pradat, P-F; Le Forestier, N; Léger, J-M; Salachas, F; Maisonobe, T; Fournier, E; Viala, K

    2014-09-01

    Somatosensory-evoked potentials with segmental recordings were performed with the aim of distinguishing chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy from other sensory neuropathies. Four groups of 20 subjects each corresponded to patients with (1) possible sensory chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy, (2) patients with sensory polyneuropathy of unknown origin, (3) patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and (4) normal subjects. The patients selected for this study had preserved sensory potentials on electroneuromyogram and all waves were recordable in evoked potentials. Somatosensory-evoked potentials evaluations were carried out by stimulation of the posterior tibial nerve at the ankle, recording peripheral nerve potential in the popliteal fossa, radicular potential and spinal potential at the L4-L5 and T12 levels, and cortical at C'z, with determination of distal conduction time, proximal and radicular conduction time and central conduction time. In the group of chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy, 80% of patients had abnormal conduction in the N8-N22 segment and 95% had abnormal N18-N22 conduction time. In the group of neuropathies, distal conduction was abnormal in most cases, whereas 60% of patients had no proximal abnormality. None of the patients in the group of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis had an abnormal N18-N22 conduction time. Somatosensory-evoked potentials with segmental recording can be used to distinguish between atypical sensory chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy and other sensory neuropathies, at the early stage of the disease. Graphical representation of segmental conduction times provides a rapid and accurate visualization of the profile of each patient. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Curcumin: A multi-target disease-modifying agent for late-stage transthyretin amyloidosis

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira, Nelson; Gonçalves, Nádia P.; Saraiva, Maria J.; Almeida, Maria R.

    2016-01-01

    Transthyretin amyloidoses encompass a variety of acquired and hereditary diseases triggered by systemic extracellular accumulation of toxic transthyretin aggregates and fibrils, particularly in the peripheral nervous system. Since transthyretin amyloidoses are typically complex progressive disorders, therapeutic approaches aiming multiple molecular targets simultaneously, might improve therapy efficacy and treatment outcome. In this study, we evaluate the protective effect of physiologically achievable doses of curcumin on the cytotoxicity induced by transthyretin oligomers in vitro by showing reduction of caspase-3 activity and the levels of endoplasmic reticulum-resident chaperone binding immunoglobulin protein. When given to an aged Familial Amyloidotic Polyneuropathy mouse model, curcumin not only reduced transthyretin aggregates deposition and toxicity in both gastrointestinal tract and dorsal root ganglia but also remodeled congophilic amyloid material in tissues. In addition, curcumin enhanced internalization, intracellular transport and degradation of transthyretin oligomers by primary macrophages from aged Familial Amyloidotic Polyneuropathy transgenic mice, suggesting an impaired activation of naïve phagocytic cells exposed to transthyretin toxic intermediate species. Overall, our results clearly support curcumin or optimized derivatives as promising multi-target disease-modifying agent for late-stage transthyretin amyloidosis. PMID:27197872

  6. An Unfortunate Polyneuropathy, Organomegaly, Endocrinopathy, Monoclonal Gammopathy, and Skin Change (POEMS)

    PubMed Central

    Otoya, Jorge; Bunting, Samantha F; Chaaya, Gerard

    2017-01-01

    POEMS syndrome is an acronym for polyneuropathy, organomegaly, endocrinopathy, monoclonal gammopathy and skin changes, which is a rare paraneoplastic disease of monoclonal plasma cells. A mandatory criterion to diagnose POEMS syndrome is the presence of a monoclonal plasma cell dyscrasia in which plasma cell leukemia is the most aggressive form. Early identification of the features of the POEMS syndrome is critical for patients to identify an underlying plasma cell dyscrasias and to reduce the morbidity and mortality of the disease by providing early therapy. We present a case of a 64-year-old male who presented with non-specific symptoms and was found to have primary plasma cell leukemia, which was part of his unfortunate POEMS syndrome. PMID:28405536

  7. Unilateral Cervical Polyneuropathies following Concurrent Bortezomib, Cetuximab, and Radiotherapy for Head and Neck Cancer.

    PubMed

    Elghouche, Alhasan; Shokri, Tom; Qin, Yewen; Wargo, Susannah; Citrin, Deborah; Van Waes, Carter

    2016-01-01

    We report a constellation of cervical polyneuropathies in a patient treated with concurrent bortezomib, cetuximab, and cisplatin alongside intensity modulated radiotherapy for carcinoma of the tonsil with neck metastasis. The described deficits include brachial plexopathy, cervical sensory neuropathy, and oculosympathetic, recurrent laryngeal, and phrenic nerve palsies within the ipsilateral radiation field. Radiation neuropathy involving the brachial plexus is typically associated with treatment of breast or lung cancer; however, increased awareness of this entity in the context of investigational agents with potential neuropathic effects in head and neck cancer has recently emerged. With this report, we highlight radiation neuropathy in the setting of investigational therapy for head and neck cancer, particularly since these sequelae may present years after therapy and entail significant and often irreversible morbidity.

  8. Polyneuropathy, organomegaly, endocrinopathy, M-protein and skin changes (POEMS syndrome): a paraneoplastic syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Sunil; Sharma, Shruti

    2015-01-01

    POEMS syndrome (Crow–Fukase syndrome) is a rare paraneoplastic disorder. It is characterized by peripheral neuropathy, elevated vascular endothelial growth factors (VEGFs), monoclonal gammopathy, sclerotic bone lesions and Castleman disease. Other important clinical features are organomegaly, edema, ascites, papilledema, endocrinopathy, skin changes and thrombocytosis. A high index of suspicion, a detailed clinical history and examination followed by appropriate laboratory investigations like VEGF level, radiological skeletal survey and bone marrow biopsy are required to diagnose POEMS syndrome. We report a case of POEMS syndrome who presented with insidious onset, progressive sensorimotor polyneuropathy, pedal edema, ascites, hepatomegaly, skin changes and hypothyroidism. X-ray of the pelvis showed osteosclerotic lesions. Immunoelectrophoresis using the immunofixation method revealed lambda chain monoclonal gammopathy. The patient was given radiotherapy, followed by a combination therapy of melphalan and dexamethasone. We emphasize the importance of recognizing a challenging diagnosis of a rare disease, which is shown to be treatment responsive. PMID:26634133

  9. Distal polyneuropathy after canine heartworm disease therapy complicated by disseminated intravascular coagulation.

    PubMed

    Dillon, A R; Braund, K G

    1982-08-01

    A 3-year-old male Setter-type dog had a progressive distal sensorimotor polyneuropathy characterized by weakness, bilateral atrophy of distal appendicular musculature, and reduced response to tactile stimuli. The diagnosis of a distal axonopathy was supported by electromyographic findings of fibrillation potentials, positive sharp waves in distal limb muscles, and absence of evoked action potentials, myopathic changes of atrophic angular fibers, and myelinated nerve fiber depletion in distal parts of peripheral nerves. The neuropathy appeared 5 weeks after 38 days of heparin therapy for disseminated intravascular coagulation. The disseminated intravascular coagulation, a complication of thiacetarsamide therapy for heartworm disease, had resolved 40 days after the end of heparin therapy. The cause of the neuropathy was not determined.

  10. Marchiafava-Bignami and Alcohol Related Acute Polyneuropathy: The Cooccurrence of Two Rare Entities

    PubMed Central

    Boloursaz, Samine; Nekooei, Sirous; Seilanian Toosi, Farrokh; Rezaei-Dalouei, Hossein; Davachi, Behrooz; Kazemi, Sahar

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. The aim of this article is to represent the first reported case with cooccurrence of two rare alcohol related complications. Case Report. We report a 38-year-old man with chronic alcoholism who presented with both cranial and peripheral nerve palsy. On MRI examination characteristic findings of Marchiafava-Bignami disease were recognized. Discussion. Marchiafava-Bignami disease (MBD) is a rare complication of long-term, heavy alcohol abuse that has characteristic MRI findings. Acute alcohol related polyneuropathy (AARP) is another rare and not-well-understood complication of chronic alcohol abuse. We could not find any previous report of the cooccurrence of these two complications in the literature. PMID:27668107

  11. The Dutch neuromuscular database CRAMP (Computer Registry of All Myopathies and Polyneuropathies): development and preliminary data.

    PubMed

    van Engelen, B G M; van Veenendaal, H; van Doorn, P A; Faber, C G; van der Hoeven, J H; Janssen, N G; Notermans, N C; van Schaik, I N; Visser, L H; Verschuuren, J J G M

    2007-01-01

    Each of the various neuromuscular diseases is rare. Consequently, solid epidemiological data are not available and it is often difficult to find sufficient patients for studies. For this reason, the Dutch neuromuscular database, CRAMP (Computer Registry of All Myopathies and Polyneuropathies), was developed in 2004 by the Dutch Neuromuscular Research Support Centre, to store information on patient characteristics and diagnoses (based on Rowland and McLeod's classification) in a uniform and easily retrievable manner. Care was taken to preserve data confidentiality. It is envisaged that CRAMP will prove particularly useful for studies in which multicentre collaboration is needed to recruit a sufficiently large number of patients. More than 10,000 patients with neuromuscular diseases (4,837 female, 5,476 male) have been registered since 2004, half of whom (n=5059) have peripheral nerve disorders.

  12. Treatment of pediatric chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy: Challenges, controversies and questions.

    PubMed

    Desai, Jay; Ramos-Platt, Leigh; Mitchell, Wendy G

    2015-01-01

    Pediatric chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) is an uncommon acquired disorder of unknown cause, presumed to have an immunological basis. We report 20 patients seen at Children's Hospital Los Angeles over a period of 10 years. The outcome of our patients was favorable in a vast majority with good response to various treatments instituted. However, residual neurologic deficit was common. The choice of treatment modality was empirical and selected by the treating neurologist. Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) and corticosteroids were most commonly utilized for treatment. Plasmapheresis, mycophenolate mofetil, rituximab, cyclophosphamide, azathioprine, and abatacept were added if the patients were refractory to IVIG or became corticosteroid dependent. The spectrum of disease severity ranged from a single monophasic episode, to multiphasic with infrequent relapses with good response to IVIG, to progressive disease refractory to multiple therapies.

  13. [Anesthetic management of a Dialysis Patient with Chronic Inflammatory Demyelinating Polyneuropathy].

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Yoshihiro; Hara, Koji; Sata, Takeyoshi

    2015-11-01

    We report the successful management of anesthesia in a 46-year-old male dialysis patient with chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP). He underwent an osteosynthesis of the ankle joint using general anesthesia combined with epidural anesthesia. The anesthetic concerns in patients with CIDP are the possibility of postoperative respiratory dysfunction due to anesthetics or muscle relaxants and that of postoperative neurological deterioration due to spinal or epidural anesthesia. In this case, sevoflurane (1.5-2%) did not cause respiratory dysfunction postoperatively and muscle relaxant effect of rocuronium was effectively reversed by sugammadex. Epidural anesthesia using ropivacaine (0.2-0.375%) and fentanyl did not worsen the neurological symptoms of CIDP post-operatively.

  14. Intravenous immunoglobulin inhibits BAFF production in chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy - a new mechanism of action?

    PubMed

    Bick, Sandra; Tschernatsch, Marlene; Karg, Anne; Fuehlhuber, Verena; Trenczek, Tina E; Faltermeier, Kathrin; Hackstein, Holger; Kaps, Manfred; Blaes, Franz

    2013-03-15

    Chronic-inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) is an immune-mediated disease treated with intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg). The underlying mechanism of action remains incompletely understood. The B-cell activating factor BAFF contributes to B-cell homeostasis and (auto-)antibody production. BAFF was recently identified as one key molecule in the development of autoimmune diseases. Herein, we demonstrate that BAFF serum levels are elevated in CIDP patients. IVIg treatment resulted in a significant decrease of BAFF serum level. In vitro, IVIg inhibited BAFF in monocytes. Consequently, we identified BAFF as a new target for IVIg in CIDP treatment and provide a new, Fcγ-receptor independent, mechanism of action for IVIg.

  15. Office immunotherapy in chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy and multifocal motor neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Dyck, Peter J; Taylor, Bruce V; Davies, Jenny L; Mauermann, Michelle L; Litchy, William J; Klein, Christopher J; Dyck, P James B

    2015-10-01

    Intravenous immunoglobulin [IVIg], plasma exchange [PE], and corticosteroids are efficacious treatment in chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy [CIDP]. IVIg is effective in multifocal motor neuropathy [MMN]. NIS, NIS-weakness, sum scores of raw amplitudes of motor fiber (CMAPs) amplitudes, and Dyck/Rankin score provided reliable measures to detect and scale abnormality and reflect change; they are therefore ideal for office management of response-based immunotherapy (R-IRx) of CIDP. Using efficacious R-IRx, a large early and late therapeutic response (≥ one-fourth were in remission or had recovered) was demonstrated in CIDP. In MMN only an early improvement with late non-significant worsening was observed. The difference in immunotherapy response supports a fundamental difference between CIDP (immune attack on Schwann cells and myelin) and MMN (attack on nodes of Ranvier and axons).

  16. IVIG regulates BAFF expression in patients with chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP).

    PubMed

    Ritter, Christian; Förster, Dominik; Albrecht, Philipp; Hartung, Hans-Peter; Kieseier, Bernd C; Lehmann, Helmar C

    2014-09-15

    Recent studies indicate that the cytokine B-cell activating factor (BAFF) is involved in the pathogenesis of chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP). Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) is standard treatment for CIDP and is known to rapidly modulate increased serum levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines. We evaluated the expression profile of BAFF and its corresponding BAFF-receptor in samples from CIDP patients, focusing on rapid changes before and after IVIg treatment. In CIDP patients BAFF serum concentrations were elevated compared to controls. Treatment with high-dose IVIg restored those elevated BAFF serum levels. Whereas treatment with IVIg did not affect BAFF production in monocytes, antibodies against BAFF could be detected in IVIg preparations, which may explain the short-term decrease of BAFF levels after IVIg treatment. Our data suggest that BAFF plays an important role in the pathogenesis of CIDP and may serve as marker for IVIg treatment response.

  17. Classical and lectin complement pathway activity in polyneuropathy associated with IgM monoclonal gammopathy.

    PubMed

    Stork, Abraham C J; Cats, Elisabeth A; Vlam, Lotte; Heezius, Erik; Rooijakkers, Suzan; Herpers, Bjorn; de Jong, Ben A W; Rijkers, Ger; van Strijp, Jos; Notermans, Nicolette C; van den Berg, Leonard H; van der Pol, W-Ludo

    2016-01-15

    Polyneuropathy associated with IgM monoclonal gammopathy (IgM-PNP) is a slowly progressive, sensorimotor neuropathy. It is assumed that complement activation contributes to IgM-PNP pathogenesis. We investigated whether innate differences in complement activity of the classical and mannose binding lectin (MBL) pathways are associated with IgM-PNP or its severity. We measured complement activity using ELISA and determined MBL serumc oncentrations and MBL gene polymorphisms in 83 patients and 83 healthy controls. We did not observe differences between IgM-PNP patients and healthy controls nor associations with different disease severities. Differences in innate complement activity are not likely to explain susceptibility to or severity of IgM-PNP.

  18. Diagnostic Value of the Near-Nerve Needle Sensory Nerve Conduction in Sensory Inflammatory Demyelinating Polyneuropathy.

    PubMed

    Odabasi, Zeki; Oh, Shin J

    2017-08-10

    We report here the diagnostic value of the near-nerve needle sensory nerve conduction study (NNN-SNCS) in sensory inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (IDP) in which the routine nerve conduction study was normal or nondiagnostic. The NNN-SNCS was performed to identify demyelination in the plantar nerves in 14 patients and in the median or ulnar nerve in two patients with sensory IDP . In 16 patients with sensory IDP, routine NCSs were either normal or non-diagnostic for demyelination. Demyelination was identified by NNN-SNCS by dispersion and/or slow nerve conduction velocity (NCV) below the demyelination marker. Immunotherapy was initiated in 11 patients, 10 of whom improved or remained stable. NNN-SNCS played an essential role in identifying demyelinaton in 16 patients with sensory IDP, leading to proper treatment. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Patient demographics and health plan paid costs in chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy.

    PubMed

    Guptill, Jeffrey T; Bromberg, Mark B; Zhu, Li; Sharma, Bal K; Thompson, Amy R; Krueger, Andrew; Sanders, Donald B

    2014-07-01

    We determined health plan paid costs and healthcare resource usage of patients with chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP). CIDP patients from 9 U.S. commercial health plans with claims in 2011 were identified from the Accordant Health Services claims database. We examined demographics, prevalence of comorbidities, prescribed drugs, place of service, and mean annual health plan paid costs per patient. From 6.5 million covered lives, 73 (56% men; mean age 47) met study entry criteria. The most prescribed therapies were intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) (26% of patients), gabapentin (26%), and prednisone (16%). The annual health plan paid cost was $56,953. Pharmacy cost was the major cost driver (57% of the total), and IVIg totaled 90% of the pharmacy costs. Healthcare costs for CIDP patients are substantial, with a large burden in pharmacy usage. Studies are needed to determine optimal long-term treatment strategies for CIDP, particularly related to IVIg. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Unilateral Cervical Polyneuropathies following Concurrent Bortezomib, Cetuximab, and Radiotherapy for Head and Neck Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Elghouche, Alhasan; Shokri, Tom; Qin, Yewen; Wargo, Susannah; Citrin, Deborah; Van Waes, Carter

    2016-01-01

    We report a constellation of cervical polyneuropathies in a patient treated with concurrent bortezomib, cetuximab, and cisplatin alongside intensity modulated radiotherapy for carcinoma of the tonsil with neck metastasis. The described deficits include brachial plexopathy, cervical sensory neuropathy, and oculosympathetic, recurrent laryngeal, and phrenic nerve palsies within the ipsilateral radiation field. Radiation neuropathy involving the brachial plexus is typically associated with treatment of breast or lung cancer; however, increased awareness of this entity in the context of investigational agents with potential neuropathic effects in head and neck cancer has recently emerged. With this report, we highlight radiation neuropathy in the setting of investigational therapy for head and neck cancer, particularly since these sequelae may present years after therapy and entail significant and often irreversible morbidity. PMID:27088023

  1. Treatment of Chronic Inflammatory Demyelinating Polyneuropathy: From Molecular Bases to Practical Considerations

    PubMed Central

    Ripellino, Paolo; Fleetwood, Thomas; Cantello, Roberto; Comi, Cristoforo

    2014-01-01

    Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) is an autoimmune disease of the peripheral nervous system, in which both cellular and humoral immune responses are involved. The disease is clinically heterogeneous with some patients displaying pure motor form and others also showing a variable degree of sensory dysfunction; disease evolution may also differ from patient to patient, since monophasic, progressive, and relapsing forms are reported. Underlying such clinical variability there is probably a broad spectrum of molecular dysfunctions that are and will be the target of therapeutic strategies. In this review we first explore the biological bases of current treatments and subsequently we focus on the practical management that must also take into account pharmacoeconomic issues. PMID:24527207

  2. Office Immunotherapy in Chronic Inflammatoryh Demyelinating Polyneuropathy and Multifocal Motor Neuropathy

    PubMed Central

    Dyck, Peter J.; Taylor, Bruce V.; Davies, Jenny L.; Mauermann, Michelle L.; Litchy, William J.; Klein, Christopher J.; Dyck, P. James B.

    2015-01-01

    Background Intravenous immunoglobulin [IVIg], plasma exchange [PE], and corticosteroids are efficacious treatment in chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy [CIDP]. IVIg is effective in multifocal motor neuropathy [MMN]. Objective and Methods Results and Conclusions NIS, NIS-weakness, sum scores of raw amplitudes of motor fiber (CMAPs) amplitudes, and Dyck/Rankin score provided reliable measures to detect and scale abnormality and reflect change; they are therefore ideal for office management of response-basedimmunotherapy (R-IRx) of CIDP. Using efficacious R-IRx, a large early and late therapeutic response (≥ one-fourth were in remission or had recovered) was demonstrated in CIDP. In MMN only an early improvement with late non-significant worsening was observed. The difference in immunotherapy response supports a fundamental difference between CIDP (immune attack on Schwann cells and myelin) and MMN (attack on nodes of Ranvier and axons). PMID:25976871

  3. "H" reflex as a measure of subclinical uremic polyneuropathy in children with chronic renal failure.

    PubMed

    Mendoza-Guevara, L; Cervantes, A; Aguilar-Kitsu, A; Rendon, E; Morales, A; Rodriguez, F; Castro, F; Flores, M; Jaramillo, R M; Garcia-Lopez, E

    1997-01-01

    Uremic polyneuropathy (UPNP) is a serious complication of chronic renal failure (CRF) in adults; however, its prevalence is unknown in the pediatric population. An easy-to-perform maneuver for its detection in children is the evaluation of "H" reflex. The objective of this study was to validate the usefulness of the "H" reflex maneuver for the diagnosis of UPNP in pediatric dialysis patients for CRF. Thirty-seven CRF patients were paired with healthy controls by age and sex. The patients were being treated with dialysis or one of its variants. Information was obtained regarding diagnosis, duration, and control of dialysis. Neurological examination was performed, conduction velocities in sensory and motor nerves were measured, and "H" reflex elicited bilaterally. Peripheral polyneuropathy was determined by the presence of at least two nerves with alterations in latency and/or conduction velocities. It was found that 59.4% (22/37) of the children with CRF treated with dialysis developed UPNP, 17 with ambulatory peritoneal dialysis, and 5 with hemodialysis. There was no difference in diagnosis, duration of dialysis, or control of the same in these patients from other CRF patients who did not have UPNP. All patients were clinically asymptomatic. "H" reflex showed a sensibility of 44%, a specificity of 87%, a predictive value positive of 66%, and a predictive value negative of 76%, when measured to 28 msec. With a 30 msec duration specificity rises to 95%. UPNP presents asymptomatically in pediatric patients. "H" reflex is an adequate screening test for the selection of pediatric patients to be tested further.

  4. [The "pseudo-polyneuropathy" type sensory disturbances in cervical spondylotic myelopathy].

    PubMed

    Yoshiyama, Y; Tokumaru, Y; Hattori, T; Hirayama, K

    1995-02-01

    We reported the pseudo-polyneuropathy type sensory disturbances in cervical spondylotic myelopathy. We defined this clinical type by objective superficial sensory deficits of all four distal limbs, and excluded the patients having only subjective sensory disturbances. Ten out of 61 patients with cervical spondylotic myelopathy had sensory disturbances of this type. Two patients noticed difference of the subjective sensations of the upper and lower limbs. Eight patients developed sensory symptoms initially in the upper limbs. Pin-prick sensation was diminished in the upper limbs more predominantly than in the lower limbs. Vibration sense was affected in the lower limbs predominantly. Motor functions were mildly impaired, and muscle stretch reflex of triceps brachii was preserved in all ten patients. Distribution of sensory disturbances of four patients changed in their course. Nerve conduction studies and F-wave latencies were normal. Electromyography showed mild chronic denervation of the C5-C7 innervated muscles. Somatosensory evoked potentials after median or ulnar nerve stimulation showed delayed latencies or attenuated waveforms of N13 as well as P14 peaks. Spinal cord was compressed mainly at C4/5 and C5/6 intervertebral level, shown by myelography, CT-myelography or magnetic resonance imagings. We conclude that the pseudo-polyneuropathy type sensory disturbance of cervical spondylotic myelopathy indicates the lesion at mid-to-low cervical vertebral level. The anatomical substrates for this type of sensory impairment could be caused by combination of the dorsal horn/anterior comissure lesions for the upper limbs, and the anterolateral funiculi lesions for the lower limbs.

  5. Imipramine and pregabalin combination for painful polyneuropathy: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Holbech, Jakob V; Bach, Flemming W; Finnerup, Nanna B; Brøsen, Kim; Jensen, Troels S; Sindrup, Søren H

    2015-05-01

    Monotherapy with first-line drugs for neuropathic pain often fails to provide sufficient pain relief or has unacceptable side effects because of the need for high doses. The aim of this trial was to test whether the combination of imipramine and pregabalin in moderate doses would relieve pain more effectively than monotherapy with either of the drugs. This was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover, multicenter trial consisting of four 5-week treatment periods in patients with painful polyneuropathy. Treatment arms were imipramine 75 mg/d vs pregabalin 300 mg/d vs combination therapy vs placebo. Patients with polyneuropathy and symptoms for more than 6 months, age 20 to 85 years, pain intensity ≥4 on a 0- to 10-point numeric rating scale (NRS) and pain at least 4 days a week were included in the trial. A total of 262 patients were screened for participation, 73 patients were randomized, and 69 patients were included in the data analysis. The effect on average pain in comparison with placebo was: combination (-1.67 NRS points, P < 0.001), imipramine (-1.08 NRS points, P < 0.001), and pregabalin (-0.48 NRS points, P = 0.03). The combination therapy had significantly lower pain scores than both monotherapies: combination vs imipramine (P = 0.009), combination vs pregabalin (P < 0.001). During combination therapy, the dropout rate was higher and the patients reported a higher rate and severity of side effects. Combination of moderate doses of the tricyclic antidepressant imipramine and pregabalin could be considered as an alternative to high-dosage monotherapy. However, the trial also emphasized that balance between efficacy and safety is an issue.

  6. Initial Development and Validation of a Patient-Reported Symptom Survey for Small-Fiber Polyneuropathy.

    PubMed

    Treister, Roi; Lodahl, Mette; Lang, Magdalena; Tworoger, Shelley S; Sawilowsky, Shlomo; Oaklander, Anne Louise

    2017-05-01

    Small-fiber polyneuropathy (SFPN) affects unmyelinated and thinly myelinated peripheral axons. Several questionnaires have been developed to assess polyneuropathy from diabetes or chemotherapy, but none for SFPN from other or unknown causes. A comprehensive survey could help clinicians diagnose and assess treatment responses, define prevalence natural history and cures, and identify research subjects. Thus, we developed the 1-page Small-Fiber Symptom Survey, using input from patients and 21 medical/scientific experts. Participants comprised consenting consecutive patients evaluated for SFPN at the Massachusetts General Hospital plus normal control subjects. Participants SFPN status was stratified on the basis of the results of their objective diagnostic tests (distal leg skin biopsy and autonomic function testing). We measured internal consistency, test retest reliability, convergent validity, and performed a receiver operating curve analysis. The 179 participants averaged 46.6 ± 15.6 years old; they were 73.2% female and 92.2% Caucasian. Eighty-five had confirmed SFPN, mostly idiopathic. Principal component analysis revealed 5 symptom clusters. The questionnaire had good internal consistency (Cronbach α = .893), excellent test retest reliability (r = .927, P < .001) and good to fair convergent validity. Participants with confirmed SFPN had more severe symptoms than others (P = .009). The Small-Fiber Symptom Survey has satisfactory psychometric properties, indicating potential future utility for surveying patient-reported symptoms of SFPN regardless of its cause. This article reports the initial development and early psychometric validation of a new patient-reported outcome measure intended to capture the wide range of multisystem symptoms of SFPN. When further developed, it could potentially help clinicians diagnose and monitor patients, and help advance research. Copyright © 2017 American Pain Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Comparison of diabetes patients with “demyelinating” diabetic sensorimotor polyneuropathy to those diagnosed with CIDP

    PubMed Central

    Dunnigan, Samantha K; Ebadi, Hamid; Breiner, Ari; Katzberg, Hans D; Lovblom, Leif E; Perkins, Bruce A; Bril, Vera

    2013-01-01

    Background We have previously identified a subset of diabetic sensorimotor polyneuropathy (DSP) patients with probable demyelination related to poor glycemic control. We aimed to determine whether the clinical characteristics and electrodiagnostic classification of nerve injury in diabetes patients with “demyelinating” DSP (D-DSP) differed from those diagnosed with chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) (CIDP + diabetes mellitus [DM]). Methods D-DSP (56) and CIDP + DM (67) subjects underwent clinical examination and nerve conduction studies (NCS), and were compared using analysis of variance, contingency tables, and Kruskal–Wallis analyses. Results Of the 123 subjects with a mean age of 60.5 ± 15.6 years and mean hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) of 8.2 ± 2.2%, 54% had CIDP + DM and 46% had D-DSP. CIDP + DM subjects were older (P = 0.0003), had shorter duration of diabetes (P = 0.005), and more severe neuropathy as indicated by Toronto Clinical Neuropathy Score (TCNS) (P = 0.003), deep tendon reflexes (P = 0.02), and vibration perception thresholds (VPT) (P = 0.01, P = 0.02). The mean HbA1c value for D-DSP subjects (8.9 ± 2.3%) was higher than in CIDP + DM subjects (7.7 ± 2.0%, P = 0.02). Conclusions The clinical phenotype and electrophysiological profile of CIDP + DM patients is marked by more severe neuropathy and better glycemic control than in patients with D-DSP. These findings indicate that these two conditions – despite similarities in their electrophysiological pattern of demyelination – likely differ in etiology. PMID:24363969

  8. Urinary excretion of 2,5-hexanedione and peripheral polyneuropathies in workers exposed to hexane

    SciTech Connect

    Governa, M.; Calisti, R.; Coppa, G.; Tagliavento, G.; Colombi, A.; Troni, W.

    1987-01-01

    Forty shoe factory workers who were exposed to hexane were investigated to see if there was a correlation between electroneuromyographic changes indicative of neuropathy and urinary excretion of 2,5-hexanedione. Urinary samples were analyzed for the presence of the metabolic products of n-hexane and its isomers. Electrodiagnostic examination was carried out following the urinary sampling. A rating scale was used to obtain a cumulative numeric index of electrodiagnostic findings. 2,5-Hexanedione and ..gamma..-valerolactone were discovered in all cases, while 2-hexanol was found in 11 cases. 2,5-Hexanedione was the main metabolite in most cases (39 of 40). Only in 1 case was a low level of 2-methyl-2-pentanol detected; 3-methyl-2-pentanol was never detected. Metabolic products of cyclohexane were present in about one-fifth of the cases, while trichloroethanol, a metabolic product of trichloroethylene, was nearly always present, all at very low concentrations. Electromyographic abnormalities significant for early detection of toxic polyneuropathy were found in 14 cases. A statistically significant correlation of the electroneuromyographic scoring on the urinary concentrations of measured metabolites was observed only with 2,5-hexanedione and ..gamma..-valerolactone, both derived from n-hexane. Since ..gamma..-valerolactone is probably not a true metabolite of n-hexane, the authors results support the hypothesis that polyneuropathies in shoemakers are due to 2,5-hexanedione. For practical purposes the urinary concentration of 2,5-hexanedione can serve as a predictive measurement for early detection of neurotoxic lesions at preclinical states.

  9. Urinary excretion of 2,5-hexanedione and peripheral polyneuropathies workers exposed to hexane.

    PubMed

    Governa, M; Calisti, R; Coppa, G; Tagliavento, G; Colombi, A; Troni, W

    1987-01-01

    Forty shoe factory workers who were exposed to hexane were investigated to see if there was a correlation between electroneuromyographic changes indicative of neuropathy and urinary excretion of 2,5-hexanedione. Urinary samples were analyzed for the presence of the metabolic products of n-hexane and its isomers. Electrodiagnostic examination was carried out following the urinary sampling. A rating scale was used to obtain a cumulative numeric index of electrodiagnostic findings. 2,5-Hexanedione and gamma-valerolactone were discovered in all cases, while 2-hexanol was found in 11 cases. 2,5-Hexanedione was the main metabolite in most cases (39 of 40). Only in 1 case was a low level of 2-methyl-2-pentanol detected; 3-methyl-2-pentanol was never detected. Metabolic products of cyclohexane were present in about one-fifth of the cases, while trichloroethanol, a metabolic product of trichoroethylene, was nearly always present, all at very low concentrations. Electromyographic abnormalities significant for early detection of toxic polyneuropathy were found in 14 cases. A statistically significant correlation of the electroneuromyographic scoring on the urinary concentrations of measured metabolites was observed only with 2,5-hexanedione and gamma-valerolactone, both derived from n-hexane. Since gamma-valerolactone is probably not a true metabolite of n-hexane, our results support the hypothesis that polyneuropathies in shoemakers are due to 2,5-hexanedione. For practical purposes the urinary concentration of 2,5-hexanedione can serve as a predictive measurement for early detection of neurotoxic lesions at preclinical states.

  10. Correlation of clinical and neurophysiological findings with health-related quality of life in patients with diabetic polyneuropathy.

    PubMed

    Vukojević, Zoran; Pekmezović, Tatjana; Nikolić, Ana; Perić, Stojan; Basta, Ivana; Marjanović, Ivan; Lavrnić, Dragana

    2014-09-01

    Diabetic polyneuropathy is defined as the presence of clinical or subclinical symptoms and/or signs of peripheral nerve damage in patients with diabetes mellitus in the absence of the other causes of peripheral neuropathy. The aim of this study was to assess health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in patients with diabetic polyneuropathy and its correlation with clinical and neurophysiological findings. This study comprised 60 patients with distal, symmetric, sensorimotor diabetic polyneuropathy and type 2 diabetes mellitus. For evaluation of clinical findings the following scales were used: Medical Research Council strenth score (MRC sum score), Inflammatory Neuropathy Cause and Treatment (INCAT) disability scale (arm disability and leg disability scales), INCAT sensory sum score, Hamilton depression and anxiety rating scales. Nerve conduction study (NCS) was performed on the motor part of the median and peroneal nerves, the sensory part of the median nerve and sural nerve. All the patients completed the Serbian version of the SF-36 questionnaire as a measure of HRQoL. Our results showed mild to moderate QoL impairment in the patients with diabetic polyneuropathy with no difference in physical and mental composite scores (p > 0.05). The age of the patients, mean MRC sum score, arm disability scale score, leg disability scale score and mean INCAT sensory sum score correlated with scores in the SF-36 questionnaire (p < 0.01). The patients with higher scores of anxiety and depression had significantly worse health perception for all QoL domains, for both composite scores and for the total SF-36 score (p < 0.01). Both motor and sensory NCS parameters of the median nerve showed significant correlations with QoL scores (p < 0.05). Our results showed mild to moderate QoL impairment in the patients with diabetic polyneuropathy. HRQoL significantly correlated with the age of the patients, muscle strength, disability, sensory complaints, depressiveness and anxiety of the

  11. Distal symmetrical polyneuropathy: a definition for clinical research. A report of the American Academy of Neurology, the American Association of Electrodiagnostic Medicine, and the American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    England, John D; Gronseth, Gary S; Franklin, Gary; Miller, Robert G; Asbury, Arthur K; Carter, Gregory T; Cohen, Jeffrey A; Fisher, Morris A; Howard, James F; Kinsella, Laurence J; Latov, Norman; Lewis, Richard A; Low, Phillip A; Sumner, Austin J

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this report was to develop a case definition of "distal symmetrical polyneuropathy" to standardize and facilitate clinical research and epidemiologic studies. A formalized consensus process was employed to reach agreement after a systematic review and classification of evidence from the literature. The literature indicates that symptoms alone have relatively poor diagnostic accuracy in predicting the presence of polyneuropathy; signs are better predictors of polyneuropathy than symptoms; and single abnormalities on examination are less sensitive than multiple abnormalities in predicting the presence of polyneuropathy. The combination of neuropathic symptoms, signs, and electrodiagnostic findings provides the most accurate diagnosis of distal symmetrical polyneuropathy. A set of case definitions was rank ordered by likelihood of disease. The highest likelihood of polyneuropathy (useful for clinical trials) occurs with a combination of multiple symptoms, multiple signs, and abnormal electrodiagnostic studies. A modest likelihood of polyneuropathy (useful for field or epidemiologic studies) occurs with a combination of multiple symptoms and multiple signs when the results of electrodiagnostic studies are not available. A lower likelihood of polyneuropathy occurs when electrodiagnostic studies and signs are discordant. For research purposes, the best approach to defining distal symmetrical polyneuropathy is a set of case definitions rank ordered by estimated likelihood of disease. The inclusion of this formalized case definition in clinical and epidemiologic research studies will ensure greater consistency of case selection.

  12. Distal symmetric polyneuropathy: a definition for clinical research: report of the American Academy of Neurology, the American Association of Electrodiagnostic Medicine, and the American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    England, J D; Gronseth, G S; Franklin, G; Miller, R G; Asbury, A K; Carter, G T; Cohen, J A; Fisher, M A; Howard, J F; Kinsella, L J; Latov, N; Lewis, R A; Low, P A; Sumner, A J

    2005-01-25

    The objective of this report was to develop a case definition of distal symmetric polyneuropathy to standardize and facilitate clinical research and epidemiologic studies. A formalized consensus process was employed to reach agreement after a systematic review and classification of evidence from the literature. The literature indicates that symptoms alone have relatively poor diagnostic accuracy in predicting the presence of polyneuropathy; signs are better predictors of polyneuropathy than symptoms; and single abnormalities on examination are less sensitive than multiple abnormalities in predicting the presence of polyneuropathy. The combination of neuropathic symptoms, signs, and electrodiagnostic findings provides the most accurate diagnosis of distal symmetric polyneuropathy. A set of case definitions was rank ordered by likelihood of disease. The highest likelihood of polyneuropathy (useful for clinical trials) occurs with a combination of multiple symptoms, multiple signs, and abnormal electrodiagnostic studies. A modest likelihood of polyneuropathy (useful for field or epidemiologic studies) occurs with a combination of multiple symptoms and multiple signs when the results of electrodiagnostic studies are not available. A lower likelihood of polyneuropathy occurs when electrodiagnostic studies and signs are discordant. For research purposes, the best approach to defining distal symmetric polyneuropathy is a set of case definitions rank ordered by estimated likelihood of disease. The inclusion of this formalized case definition in clinical and epidemiologic research studies will ensure greater consistency of case selection.

  13. Vincristine-induced polyneuropathy in a child with stage I Wilms' tumour presenting with unilateral abducens nerve palsy.

    PubMed

    Panjawatanan, Panadeekarn; Charoenkwan, Pimlak; Katanyuwong, Kamornwan; Choeyprasert, Worawut

    2014-06-25

    A 4-year-old boy presented with right esotropia while receiving vincristine and dactinomycin for stage I Wilms' tumour according to the National Wilms Tumour Study-5 protocol. On examination, he had isolated limitation of his right lateral gaze. CT of the brain and cerebrospinal fluid examination were normal. A nerve conduction velocity study which was performed on the peripheral nerves revealed predominant motor polyneuropathy compatible with axonal loss involving the upper limbs. The patient had received a cumulative vincristine dose of 17 mg/m(2) before developing esotropia. Vincristine-induced abducens nerve mononeuropathy and subclinical motor polyneuropathy was suspected. Unilateral esotropia markedly improved after the discontinuation of vincristine and a short course of oral pyridoxine treatment.

  14. Optimizing testing methods and collection of reference data for differentiating critical illness polyneuropathy from critical illness MYOPATHIES.

    PubMed

    Marrero, Humberto Gonzalez; Stålberg, Erik V

    2016-04-01

    In severe acute quadriplegic myopathy in intensive care unit (ICU) patients, muscle fibers are electrically inexcitable; in critical illness polyneuropathy, the excitability remains normal. Conventional electrodiagnostic methods do not provide the means to adequately differentiate between them. In this study we aimed to further optimize the methodology for the study of critically ill ICU patients and to create a reference database in healthy controls. Different electrophysiologic protocols were tested to find sufficiently robust and reproducible techniques for clinical diagnostic applications. Many parameters show large test-retest variability within the same healthy subject. Reference values have been collected and described as a basis for studies of weakness in critical illness. Using the ratio of neCMAP/dmCMAP (response from nerve and direct muscle stimulation), refractory period, and stimulus-response curves may optimize the electrodiagnostic differentiation of patients with critical illness myopathy from those with critical illness polyneuropathy. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Lower cranial polyneuropathy in zoster sine herpete presenting with pain in the ear and throat: a case report.

    PubMed

    Hosokawa, Takafumi; Nakajima, Hideto; Tsukahara, Akihiro; Unoda, Kiich; Ishida, Shimon; Kimura, Fumiharu

    2016-10-28

    A 64-year-old woman developed acute paralysis of glossopharyngeal, vagus, accessory, and hypoglossal nerves on the left side after pain in the head and the left ear and throat. Cerebrospinal fluid examination revealed lymphocytic pleocytosis and elevated protein concentration. Varicella-zoster virus (VZV)-DNA was detected by PCR from cerebrospinal fluid. The diagnosis of lower cranial polyneuropathy due to VZV reactivation was made. After oral administration of an anti-viral agent and steroid, all symptoms and signs dramatically improved. Notably, there was no evidence of cutaneous or mucosal rash during the whole course of the disease. VZV reactivation should be included in the differential diagnosis of acute lower cranial polyneuropathy, especially with pain in the ear and throat, even without cutaneous or mucosal rash.

  16. Polyneuropathy as Novel Initial Manifestation in a Case of “Nonsecretory” POEMS Syndrome with Sjögren's Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Minrui; Jiang, Zhixing; Lin, Zhiguang; Chen, Bobin; Zou, Hejian

    2017-01-01

    POEMS syndrome (polyneuropathy, organomegaly, endocrinopathy, monoclonal gammopathy, and skin changes) is a paraneoplastic syndrome driven by plasma cell dyscrasias. We report a patient with novel initial manifestation of polyneuropathy, which was considered due to Sjögren's syndrome but with poor response to methylprednisolone (120 mg/d) and intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg). Further investigation by imaging tests and following biopsy eventually confirmed the diagnosis of POEMS syndrome secondary to solitary plasmocytoma. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of POEMS syndrome with Sjögren's syndrome occurring in the absence of a peripheral monoclonal gammopathy, highlighting the diagnostic challenges posed by this disease and reviewing the diagnostic role of (18) F-FDG PET/CT in POEMS syndrome. PMID:28133484

  17. Spinal primitive neuroectodermal tumor mimicking as chronic inflammatory demyelination polyneuropathy: a case report and review of literature.

    PubMed

    Chan, Sophelia H S; Tsang, Dickson S F; Wong, Virginia C N; Chan, Godfrey C F

    2015-02-01

    We report a young boy who presented with progressive weakness of lower extremities associated with areflexia and abnormal electrophysiological findings initially suggestive of chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy. Initial lumbosacral spinal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed thickened descending spinal nerve roots only. Immunomodulating therapy was given but with limited clinical response. Repeated spine magnetic resonance imaging showed cauda equina and also new spinal cord extramedullary contrast enhancement. The initial extensive investigations including open biopsy did not point to any specific diagnosis. Only through pursuing a repeated biopsy, the diagnosis of the spinal peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumor was confirmed. This case highlights the diagnostic challenges of the spinal peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumor that could have an initial chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy-like presentation. The literature review confirms that this is a rare condition and cauda equina origin has only been reported in adults and teenagers, and this is the first reported case in a young child.

  18. [An effect of antioxidant drugs on symptoms of sensomotor polyneuropathy and affective disorders in patients with diabetes mellitus].

    PubMed

    Volchegorskiĭ, I A; Moskvicheva, M G; Chashchina, E N

    2005-01-01

    An effect of 3-oxypiridine and succinic acid derivates--emoxipine, reamberin and mexidole--on severity of clinical symptoms of distal sensomotor polyneuropathy, anxiety and depression was studied in 120 patients with diabetes mellitus with syndrome of diabetic foot. These medications were used in addition to basic antidiabetic therapy. After 14 days of the treatment an equally pronounced decrease of integral index of "negative" neurological symptoms and reduction of anxiety-depressive disorders were detected.

  19. [Microcirculatory changes in Bureau-Barrière disease and alcoholic polyneuropathy. Preliminary note: correlations and pathogenic hypotheses].

    PubMed

    Bilancini, S; Lucchi, M; Curri, S B

    1988-01-01

    Nosologically, in ulcerative-mutilating acropathies (U.M.A.), it is customary to differentiate the usual forms of the disease (Thevenard's disease) which develop primarily and the secondary forms (U.M.A. or, better, pseudo-U.M.A.), in which the syndrome is secondary to a known pathologic process and which represent a symptom and not a disease. The link between these two nosological entities is the pseudo-syringomyeli U.M.A. of the lower extremities, or Bureau-Barrier's disease. This disease is exclusively seen in alcoholics and is similar to the neurological alterations observed in alcoholic polyneuropathies. Some authors consider this form as an ulcerative-mutilating acropathy (symptomatic U.M.A.). The objective of our research is to demonstrate the similarity between the microcirculation alterations in patients with Bureau-Barriere's disease and patients with alcoholic polyneuropathy without trophic lesions. For this purpose, we have biopsied the pulp of the great toe, according to the method described by Curri-Schendorf in three patients with Bureau-Barriere's disease, 46, 50 and 65 year-old respectively, and three patients with alcoholic polyneuropathy, 34, 54 and 63 years-old respectively. All these patients presented a normal macrocirculation, without any diabetes, nor disease prone to alter the microcirculation. The results obtained, in a limited series however, permit to state that it is possible to unify alcoholic polyneuropathy and Bureau-Barriere's disease in a single clinical and nosological entity, and to say that the latter only represents an evolution of the former. Besides, we have notices that microcirculation alterations, although non-specific, are extensive and occur early, permitting to suspect a pathogenic process related to a true alcoholic histo-angeitis which, for us, represent the pathogenic basis of Bureau-Barriere's disease.

  20. Validity of the shuttle walk test as a functional assessment of walking ability in individuals with polyneuropathy.

    PubMed

    Erdmann, Peter G; Teunissen, Laurien L; van den Berg, Leonard H; Notermans, Nicolette C; Schröder, Carin D; Bongers, Bart C; van Meeteren, Nico L U

    2017-10-01

    This study assessed the validity of the shuttle walk test (SWT) to evaluate walking ability in patients with polyneuropathy. Forty-one patients with chronic idiopathic axonal polyneuropathy (CIAP) and 49 patients with multifocal motor neuropathy (MMN) performed both the 10-meter walk test (10MWT) and the SWT. Face validity was assessed by evaluating whether patients considered both tests to reflect their walking ability (Likert scale: 1 = not at all, 10 = very well). Concurrent validity was determined by Spearman rank-correlation analyses performed on the outcomes of both tests. Mean (SD) scores for how well the 10MWT and SWT reflected daily walking ability were 6.8 (1.3) and 7.4 (1.6) (p = 0.117) in patients with CIAP and 6.9 (1.2) and 7.9 (1.0) (p = 0.001) in patients with MMN, respectively. Correlation scores between both tests ranged from -0.70 to -0.82, except for 18 patients with MMN with a "normal" walking speed at the 10MWT (-0.21). The SWT seems a valid instrument for assessing walking ability in individuals with CIAP and MMN. Moreover, the SWT seems to be useful for investigating the symptoms elicited by walking long distances and may be more sensitive to changes when compared to the 10MWT. Implications for Rehabilitation Patients with polyneuropathy mainly experience problems when walking long distances. The 10-meter walk test does not possess sufficient psychometrics to diagnose walking abilities in these circumstances. The shuttle walk test is a valid instrument for assessing walking ability in individuals with polyneuropathy and might be the preferred instrument of choice when compared to the 10-meter walk test.

  1. Psychometric evaluation of a new sensory scale in immune-mediated polyneuropathies. Inflammatory Neuropathy Cause and Treatment (INCAT) Group.

    PubMed

    Merkies, I S; Schmitz, P I; van der Meché, F G; van Doorn, P A

    2000-02-22

    To perform a psychometric evaluation of the inflammatory neuropathy cause and treatment (INCAT) sensory sumscore (ISS) in sensory-motor immune-mediated polyneuropathies. This new sensory scale was evaluated to strive for uniformity in assessing sensory deficit in these disorders. The ISS comprises vibration and pinprick sense plus a two-point discrimination value and ranges from 0 (normal sensation) to 20 (maximum sensory deficit). Before its clinical use, a panel of expert neurologists concluded that the ISS has face and content validity. The construct validity of the ISS was investigated by correlation and regression studies with additional scales (Nine-Hole Peg Test, 10-Meter Walking Test, a disability sumscore). All scales were applied in 113 patients with a stable neurologic condition (83 patients who experienced Guillain-Barre syndrome [GBS] in the past, 22 with chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy [CIDP], 8 patients with a monoclonal gammopathy associated polyneuropathy), and 10 patients with recently diagnosed GBS or CIDP with changing clinical conditions. Reliability of the ISS was evaluated in the stable patients. Its responsiveness was investigated in the patients examined longitudinally. A moderate to good validity was obtained for the ISS (stable group: r = 0.38 to 0.56, p < or = 0.006; longitudinal group: R = 0.60 to 0.82, p < or = 0.007, except for the association with the 10-Meter Walking Test [p = 0.08]). Acceptable internal consistency, and inter- and intraobserver reliability were demonstrated for the ISS (alpha = 0.68 to 0.87; R = 0.85 to 0.89, p < 0.0001). Standardized response mean scores for the ISS were high (> or =0.8), indicating good responsiveness. All psychometric requirements are provided for the the inflammatory neuropathy cause and treatment sensory sumscore. The use of this scale is therefore suggested for bedside evaluation of sensory deficit in the individual patient with a sensory-motor immune-mediated polyneuropathy

  2. [A case of sensory ataxic axonal polyneuropathy with IgGλ monoclonal gammopathy successfully treated with intravenous immunoglobulin therapy].

    PubMed

    Kanatsuka, Yoichi; Hasegawa, Osamu; Imazeki, Ryoko; Yamamoto, Masahiro

    2015-01-01

    We report the case of an 84-year-old man with sensory ataxic polyneuropathy and IgGλ monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS), which was successfully treated with intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) therapy. He had developed progressive ataxic gait over the span of 2 years before he was admitted to our hospital. On admission, he was unable to walk without assistance because of severe sensory ataxia. He performed poorly on the finger-nose-finger and heel-knee tests, and his vibration and position sense in the feet was remarkably diminished. However, motor involvement was not remarkable. Serum immunoelectrophoresis revealed IgGλ monoclonal gammopathy, and MGUS was diagnosed. Nerve conduction studies revealed sensory-dominant axonal polyneuropathy. The patient was successfully treated with IVIG (400 mg/kg/day, for 5 days). He regained his capacity to walk independently after treatment, but his nerve conduction results remained unchanged. This sensory ataxia might be partially due to underlying cervical spondylotic myelopathy. To our knowledge, this is the first report in our country of the successful use of IVIG therapy to treat a patient with IgGλ monoclonal gammopathy and related sensory ataxic axonal polyneuropathy.

  3. Chronic Inflammatory Demyelinating Polyneuropathy with Reversible Dementia: A New Clinical Entity?

    PubMed Central

    Samaniego, Jorge

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Classic chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP), an acquired demyelination of peripheral nerves and nerve roots presents with symmetric motor and sensory involvement, weakness in proximal and distal muscles, globally diminished or absent reflexes, painful dysesthesias, and back pain with no brain involvement. In this case, a highly functional lawyer presents with reversible dementia and motor and sensory symptoms consistent with CIDP. This case may represent a new clinical entity of CIDP with reversible dementia. Case Report A 60-year-old man presented with progressive weakness, and cognitive dysfunction in the form of dementia over the last 8 weeks. Sensory and motor weakness continued to progress affecting upper and lower extremities with both proximal and distal muscle groups to the point where the patient was unable to move without assistance. The patient had word finding difficulty, short-term memory impairment, and was disoriented, despite his comprehension being intact. Initial Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) was 12/30. Initial neurologic exam was notable for muscle strength 3/5, globally depressed deep tendon reflexes. Lumbar puncture revealed elevated protein with no pleocytosis and no serum paraprotein. EMG/NCS demonstrated mixed sensorimotor axonal and demyelination peripheral polyneuropathy. CIDP was diagnosed based on clinical history according to Koski criteria. He was started on a 5-day treatment of IVIG, after which he had marked cognitive improvement after just one dose and improvement in weakness after the second dose of IVIG. Three weeks after IVIG treatment, the patient's cognitive function was back at baseline with MoCA score 29/30; no further word finding difficulty, and no short term memory impairment. At discharge, the patient's weakness had significantly improved to the point where he was able to walk with only the aid of a walker. His neurologic exam had improved as well as his muscle strength 4/5 and 2

  4. Electrodiagnostic criteria for polyneuropathy and demyelination: application in 135 patients with Guillain-Barré syndrome. Dutch Guillain-Barré Study Group.

    PubMed Central

    Meulstee, J; van der Meché, F G

    1995-01-01

    Since the development of effective but expensive therapeutic strategies for the treatment of Guillain-Barré syndrome, early confirmation of the diagnosis has become very important. Electrodiagnostic criteria were developed for the discrimination of polyneuropathy and in particular for demyelination. The sensitivity and specificity of these criteria were determined in 135 patients with Guillain-Barré syndrome in an early stage of the disease, along with 45 healthy volunteers. The algorithms used to develop our criteria consisted of sets of selected electrodiagnostic variables, each of them relevant to the detection of polyneuropathy. Each set was applied on all of three consecutive electrodiagnostic examinations within one month of disease onset. Application of the best set resulted in 85% of patients with Guillain-Barré syndrome fulfilling the criteria for polyneuropathy at the first examination (mean time interval six days of disease onset), whereas none of the healthy volunteers fulfilled the criteria (sensitivity 85%, specificity 100%). The set of criteria for the detection of demyelination was fulfilled by 60% during the first examination (by 66% and 72% during the second and third examination). Application of criteria for demyelinating polyneuropathy as defined by others resulted in substantially lowered incidence (3%-46%). It is concluded that these criteria for the electrodiagnostic delineation of polyneuropathy are the most sensitive to date, with respect to the early confirmation of the diagnosis of Guillain-Barré syndrome. PMID:8530930

  5. Perceived control is a concurrent predictor of activity limitations in patients with chronic idiopathic axonal polyneuropathy.

    PubMed

    Schröder, Carin; Johnston, Marie; Teunissen, Laurien; Notermans, Nicolette; Helders, Paul; van Meeteren, Nico

    2007-01-01

    To investigate (1) whether control perceptions (person's perception of ease or difficulty of performing behavior) and emotions contribute to activity limitations and if so (2) whether these variables mediate the relation between impairment and activity limitations in patients with chronic idiopathic axonal polyneuropathy (CIAP). Cross-sectional study. Outpatient clinics of a university medical center. Fifty-six patients diagnosed with CIAP. Not applicable. Control perceptions about performing activities (questionnaire based on the theory of planned behavior), emotions (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale), activity limitations (performance: Shuttle Walk Test [SWT]; self-report: Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey [SF-36] physical functioning subscale, self-reported ability to walk), and physical impairments (muscle strength, sensory function). Control perceptions significantly (P<.01) correlated with all measures of activity limitations (r range, .58-.69). Hierarchical multiple regression analyses showed that perceived control explained 9% of the variance in the SWT (beta=.34, P<.01), 12% in the SF-36 (beta=.40, P<.01), and 24% in ability to walk (beta=.54, P<.01). In all measures of activity limitations, perceived control significantly mediated the effect of impairment. Perceived control explained and mediated variance in activity limitations, whereas emotions did not. This suggests that increasing patients' perceptions of control might enhance performance of activities, even without changes in impairment.

  6. Cold Exposure Exacerbates the Development of Diabetic Polyneuropathy in the Rat

    PubMed Central

    Kasselman, Lora J.; Veves, Aristidis; Gibbons, Christopher H.; Rutkove, Seward B.

    2009-01-01

    Diabetic polyneuropathy (DPN) and cold-induced nerve injury share several pathogenic mechanisms. This study explores whether cold exposure contributes to the development of DPN. Streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats and controls were exposed to a room temperature (23°C) or cold environment (10°C). H-reflex, tail and sciatic motor, and sensory nerve conduction studies were performed. Analyses of sural nerve, intraepidermal nerve fibers, and skin and nerve nitrotyrosine ELISAs were performed. Diabetic animals exposed to a cold environment had an increased H-reflex four weeks earlier than diabetic room temperature animals (P = .03). Cold-exposed diabetic animals also had greater reduction in motor conduction velocities at 20 weeks (P = .017), decreased skin nerve fiber density (P = .037), and increased skin nitrotyrosine levels (P = .047). Cold exposure appears to hasten the development of DPN in the rat STZ model of diabetes. These findings support that further study into the relationship between ambient temperature and DPN is warranted. PMID:20130819

  7. Acute-onset chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy in hantavirus and hepatitis B virus coinfection

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Jong Youb; Lim, Young-Ho; Choi, Eun-Hi

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Introduction: Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) is an acquired autoimmune disorder with progressive weakness. Acute-onset CIDP resembles Guillain-Barre syndrome (GBS), a rapidly progressive disorder, and follows a chronic course. To our knowledge, no case of acute-onset CIDP in hantavirus and hepatitis B virus (HBV) coinfection has been reported previously. Clinical findings: We report a case of acute-onset CIDP that was initially diagnosed as GBS. Diagnoses: A 44-year-old male logger complained of acute quadriplegia and dyspnea. Mechanical ventilation was initiated. He was an HBV carrier with mild elevation of hepatic enzyme, and positive for hantavirus antibody. He was diagnosed with GBS and immunoglobulin therapy was administered. Interventions: After 8 months, quadriplegia and hypesthesia recurred. Immunoglobulin therapy at this time had no effect, but steroid therapy had some effect. Outcomes: A diagnosis of CIDP was made. After 2 months, severe extremity pain and dyspnea developed again, and steroid pulse therapy was initiated. Conclusion: Besides GBS, acute-onset CIDP can occur with hantavirus and HBV coinfection. Patients with this coinfection in whom GBS has been initially diagnosed should be followed up for a long time, because of the possibility of relapse or deterioration, and acute-onset CIDP should always be considered. PMID:27930572

  8. Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy in children: a report of four patients with variable relapsing courses.

    PubMed

    Chang, Soo Jin; Lee, Ji Hyun; Kim, Shin Hye; Lee, Joon Soo; Kim, Heung Dong; Kang, Joon Won; Lee, Young Mock; Kang, Hoon-Chul

    2015-05-01

    Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) is a chronically progressive or relapsing symmetric sensorimotor disorder presumed to occur because of immunologic antibody-mediated reactions. To understand the clinical courses of CIDP, we report variable CIDP courses in children with respect to initial presentation, responsiveness to medical treatment, and recurrence interval. Four patients who were diagnosed with acute-onset and relapsing CIDP courses at Severance Children's Hospital, Seoul, Korea, were enrolled in this retrospective study. We diagnosed each patient on the basis of the CIDP diagnostic criteria developed in 2010 by the European Federation of Neurological Societies/Peripheral Nerve Society Guidelines. We present the cases of four pediatric patients diagnosed with CIDP to understand the variable clinical course of the disease in children. Our four patients were all between 8 and 12 years of age. Patients 1 and 2 were diagnosed with acute cerebellar ataxia or Guillain-Barré syndrome as initial symptoms. While patients 1 and 4 were given only intravenous dexamethasone (0.3 mg/kg/day) for 5 days at the first episode, Patients 2 and 3 were given a combination of intravenous immunoglobulin (2 g/kg) and dexamethasone (0.3 mg/kg/day). All patients were maintained with oral prednisolone at 30 mg/day, but their clinical courses were variable in both relapse intervals and severity. We experienced variable clinical courses of CIDP in children with respect to initial presentation, responsiveness to medical treatment, and recurrence interval.

  9. Comparison of sensitivity and specificity among 15 criteria for chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy.

    PubMed

    Breiner, Ari; Brannagan, Thomas H

    2014-07-01

    There have been 15 formal sets of criteria published for the diagnosis of CIDP. No study to date has compared the sensitivity and specificity of all published criteria in the same patient population. We conducted a retrospective chart review of patients with CIDP (n = 56) and controls with diabetic polyneuropathy (n = 37) or amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (n = 39) who were followed in an academic neuromuscular practice. The sensitivity and specificity of each CIDP criterion was calculated, including clinical, laboratory, and electrodiagnostic components. Sensitivities ranged from 1.8% to 87.5%; the Dyck (87.5%), Neuropathy Association (75%), and European Federation of Neurological Societies (EFNS; 73.2%) criteria ranked highest. Specificities ranged from 65.6% to 100% and, among the 3 most sensitive criteria, the EFNS (90.8%) and Neuropathy Association (82.9%) criteria were most specific. In our patient population, the EFNS and Neuropathy Association criteria stand out due to high sensitivity and specificity. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Diabetic Polyneuropathy in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: Inflammation, Oxidative Stress, and Mitochondrial Function

    PubMed Central

    Román-Pintos, Luis Miguel; Villegas-Rivera, Geannyne; Rodríguez-Carrizalez, Adolfo Daniel; Cardona-Muñoz, Ernesto Germán

    2016-01-01

    Diabetic polyneuropathy (DPN) is defined as peripheral nerve dysfunction. There are three main alterations involved in the pathologic changes of DPN: inflammation, oxidative stress, and mitochondrial dysfunction. Inflammation induces activation of nuclear factor kappa B, activator protein 1, and mitogen-activated protein kinases. Oxidative stress induced by hyperglycemia is mediated by several identified pathways: polyol, hexosamine, protein kinase C, advanced glycosylation end-products, and glycolysis. In addition, mitochondrial dysfunction accounts for most of the production of reactive oxygen and nitrosative species. These free radicals cause lipid peroxidation, protein modification, and nucleic acid damage, to finally induce axonal degeneration and segmental demyelination. The prevalence of DPN ranges from 2.4% to 78.8% worldwide, depending on the diagnostic method and the population assessed (hospital-based or outpatients). Risk factors include age, male gender, duration of diabetes, uncontrolled glycaemia, height, overweight and obesity, and insulin treatment. Several diagnostic methods have been developed, and composite scores combined with nerve conduction studies are the most reliable to identify early DPN. Treatment should be directed to improve etiologic factors besides reducing symptoms; several approaches have been evaluated to reduce neuropathic impairments and improve nerve conduction, such as oral antidiabetics, statins, and antioxidants (alpha-lipoic acid, ubiquinone, and flavonoids). PMID:28058263

  11. A cluster of polyneuropathy and Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome in a bariatric unit.

    PubMed

    Chaves, Luiz Claudio Lopes; Faintuch, Joel; Kahwage, Salomão; Alencar, Francisco de Assis

    2002-06-01

    Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome and peripheral neuropathy are very uncommon in bariatric surgical practice. The literature indicates that these complications tend to strike patients receiving unbalanced diets or undergoing rapid weight-loss. In a retrospective analysis of the initial experience of a bariatric team in the city of Belem, Pará, in northern Brazil, 5 cases were diagnosed in the first year, 4 of them following gastric bypass and the last one after therapy with an intragastric balloon. All episodes followed periods of severe vomiting, which certainly interfered with intake of food as well as of routine vitamin supplements, resulting in severe polyneuropathy and other neurologic manifestions, mostly damaging motility of lower limbs. Therapy consisted of pharmacologic doses of vitamin B1 along with restoration of adequate diet and multivitamin prescriptions. Physical therapy was employed to prevent atrophy and accelerate normalization of muscle strength. All patients responded to this program after variable intervals without significant sequelae. Thiamine-related neurologic derangements were a cause for much concern and prolonged morbidity in this series, but responded to vitamin B1 replenishment. A high degree of clinical suspicion in bariatric patients and urgent therapeutic intervention whenever postoperative vomiting persists for several days, especially during the first 2-3 months after operation, are the safest approach to these uncommon episodes. It is speculated whether peculiarities in the regional diet of this area in Brazil could have influenced the high incidence of the neurologic aberrations.

  12. 5,10-Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase deficiency with progressive polyneuropathy in an infant.

    PubMed

    Tsuji, Megumi; Takagi, Atsushi; Sameshima, Kiyoko; Iai, Mizue; Yamashita, Sumimasa; Shinbo, Hiroko; Furuya, Noritaka; Kurosawa, Kenji; Osaka, Hitoshi

    2011-06-01

    5,10-Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) deficiency is the most prevalent inborn error of folate metabolism, and has variable clinical manifestations from asymptomatic to severe psychomotor retardation, microcephalus and seizure. In untreated infantile cases, it predominantly affects the central nervous system, which is sometimes fatal. On the other hand, peripheral nerve involvement is uncommon. We present a severe infantile case of MTHFR deficiency that manifested unilateral phrenic nerve palsy with communicating hydrocephalus, developmental delay and died at 11months of age. An enzymatic study confirmed MTHFR deficiency with residual activity of 0.75% of mean control values in cultured fibroblasts. Mutation analysis of the MTHFR gene revealed homozygous, tandem missense mutations c.[446G>T; 447C>T] in exon 3 of the MTHFR gene converting glycine to valine (Gly149Val). In MTHFR deficiency, betaine may improve the symptoms if started immediately after birth by reducing the level of serum homocysteine and increasing that of methionine. Our results show that we should be aware of possible inborn errors of folate metabolism such as MTHFR deficiency, in infants with unexplained developmental delay manifesting rapidly progressive polyneuropathy.

  13. Advances in the diagnosis and management of diabetic distal symmetric polyneuropathy

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Distal symmetric polyneuropathy (DSPN) is the most common chronic complication of diabetes mellitus. The pathogenesis of DSPN is not fully elucidated, but it is certainly multifactorial in nature and attributable to metabolic and microvessel disorders related to chronic hyperglycemia, diabetes duration, and several cardiovascular risk factors. Early diagnosis and appropriate management are extremely important, since up to 50% of DSPN cases may be asymptomatic, and patients are unaware of foot injury leading to foot ulcers and amputation. Simple, validated tests such as the Neuropathy Disability Score and/or Vibration Perception Threshold may be used to diagnose DSPN. Similarly, neurological dysfunction screening questionnaires should be used to assess the quality and severity of DSPN symptoms. Using both methods enables prediction of the prognosis of diabetic patients with DSPN. No causative treatment of DSPN is known, but the results of clinical trials indicate that several treatment options are highly effective in symptomatic treatment of painful DSPN. The appropriate treatment of DSPN may improve the outcome, preventing or delaying the development of numerous diabetic complications. PMID:24904671

  14. Screening tests for distal symmetrical polyneuropathy in Latin American patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Banoy, Nicolás; Cuevas, Virginia; Soler, Fernando; Pineda, Maria Fernanda; Mockus, Ismena

    2017-07-13

    This cross sectional study intended to evaluate two bedside tests (Neuropad and VibraTip) as screening tools for distal symmetrical polyneuropathy (DSPN) in Latin American patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D). Ninety-three Colombian patients diagnosed with T2D were recruited. Anthropometric variables, glycemic control parameters, lipid profile and renal function were assessed for each patient. DSPN was defined by a Michigan Neuropathy Screening Instrument (MNSI) clinical score greater than 2. Both Neuropad and Vibratip tests were applied to each patient. Contingency analyses were performed to evaluate the diagnostic power of both tools. The prevalence of DSPN determined clinically by MNSI was 25.8%. DSPN in these patients was associated with age, worsening renal function, and insulin treatment. The sensitivity and specificity of the Neuropad test for DSPN was 66.6% and 63% respectively. Its negative predictive value (NPV) was 84.6%. The VibraTip test exhibited a sensitivity of 54.1% and specificity of 91.3%, with a NPV of 85.1%. Neuropad and VibraTip are reliable screening tools for DSPN in Latin American population. VibraTip presents a considerable diagnostic power for DSPN in this population. Further studies regarding the cost-effectiveness of these tools in clinical practice are needed.

  15. Cellular infiltrates in skin and sural nerve of patients with polyneuropathies.

    PubMed

    Üçeyler, Nurcan; Braunsdorf, Silvia; Kunze, Ekkehard; Riediger, Nadja; Scheytt, Sarah; Divisova, Šarka; Bekircan-Kurt, Can Ebru; Toyka, Klaus Viktor; Sommer, Claudia

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the diagnostic usefulness of skin punch biopsies with emphasis on visualization and quantification of T-cells and macrophages in patients with polyneuropathies. We quantified inflammatory cells in skin samples (lower leg, upper thigh) in 187 patients and compared data with counts in their sural nerve biopsies and with skin biopsies from 32 healthy volunteers. Vessel-bound T-cells and macrophages were increased in proximal and distal skin samples of neuropathy patients compared with controls (P < 0.001 in both). Patients with vasculitic neuropathy had increased T-cell and macrophage counts in distal skin compared with controls (P < 0.01; for scattered macrophages/mm(2) diagnostic sensitivity 71% and specificity 79%). In patients with vasculitic neuropathy, distal skin perivascular inflammatory cell counts also correlated with those in sural nerve biopsies (P < 0.001). Neuropathy per se may lead to skin inflammation. In cases of possible vasculitic neuropathy, skin biopsy may be an additional tool to support the diagnosis. Muscle Nerve 55: 884-893, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. AAV1.NT-3 gene therapy attenuates spontaneous autoimmune peripheral polyneuropathy.

    PubMed

    Yalvac, M E; Arnold, W D; Braganza, C; Chen, L; Mendell, J R; Sahenk, Z

    2016-01-01

    The spontaneous autoimmune peripheral polyneuropathy (SAPP) model in B7-2 knockout non-obese diabetic mice shares clinical and histological features with chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (CIDP). Secondary axonal loss is prominent in the progressive phase of this neuropathy. Neurotrophin 3 (NT-3) is an important autocrine factor supporting Schwann cell survival and differentiation and stimulates neurite outgrowth and myelination. The anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects of NT-3 raised considerations of potential efficacy in the SAPP model that could be applicable to CIDP. For this study, scAAV1.tMCK.NT-3 was delivered to the gastrocnemius muscle of 25-week-old SAPP mice. Measurable NT-3 levels were found in the serum at 7-week postgene delivery. The outcome measures included functional, electrophysiological and histological assessments. At week 32, NT-3-treated mice showed increased hind limb grip strength that correlated with improved compound muscle action potential amplitude. Myelinated fiber density was 1.9 times higher in the NT-3-treated group compared with controls and the number of demyelinated axons was significantly lower. The remyelinated nerve fiber population was significantly increased. These improved histopathological parameters from scAAV1.tMCK.NT-3 treatment occurred in the setting of reduced sciatic nerve inflammation. Collectively, these findings suggest a translational application to CIDP.

  17. Cardiovascular Autonomic Dysfunction Predicts Diabetic Foot Ulcers in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes Without Diabetic Polyneuropathy

    PubMed Central

    Yun, Jae-Seung; Cha, Seon-Ah; Lim, Tae-Seok; Lee, Eun-Young; Song, Ki-Ho; Ahn, Yu-Bae; Yoo, Ki-Dong; Kim, Joon-Sung; Park, Yong-Moon; Ko, Seung-Hyun

    2016-01-01

    Abstract We investigated the factors that might influence the development of diabetic foot ulcers (DFUs) in type 2 diabetes patients without diabetic polyneuropathy (DPN). From January 2000 to December 2005, a total of 595 patients who had type 2 diabetes without DPN between the ages of 25 and 75 years, and had no prior history of DFUs were consecutively enrolled in the study. A cardiovascular autonomic function test was performed to diagnose cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy (CAN) using heart rate variability parameters. The median follow-up time was 13.3 years. Among the 449 (75.4%) patients who completed the follow-up evaluation, 22 (4.9%) patients developed new ulcers, and 6 (1.3%) patients underwent the procedure for lower extremity amputations. The patients in the DFUs group had a longer duration of diabetes, higher baseline HbA1c levels, higher rates of nephropathy, and CAN. A Cox hazard regression analysis results revealed that the development of DFUs was significantly associated with the presence of CAN (normal vs definite CAN; HR, 4.45; 95% confidence interval, 1.29–15.33) after adjusting for possible confounding factors. The development of DFUs was independently associated with CAN in patients with type 2 diabetes without DPN. We suggested the importance of CAN as a predictor of DFUs even in the patients without DPN, and the need to pay attention to patients with definite CAN and type 2 diabetes. PMID:27015188

  18. [Polyneuropathy caused by vitamin B12 deficiency secondary to chronic atrophic gastritis and giardiasis].

    PubMed

    Brieva, L; Ara, J R; Bertol, V; Canellas, A; del Agua, C

    1998-06-01

    In chronic atrophic gastritis atrophy of the stomach glands leads to intrinsic factor deficit, with consequent failure to absorb vitamin B12 and gastric achylia, which predisposes to Giardia infection which in itself leads to depletion of vitamin B12. We describe the case of a patient with peripheral and central nervous system pathology due to lack of vitamin B12 secondary to the combined effect of these two disorders. A 54 year old woman consulted us for paraesthesia and weakness of the legs which had been progressive for the previous two years. She presented with tactile hypoaesthesia, hypoparaesthesia, distal hyperreflexia and dysymmetry of the legs, ataxic-spastic gait and a positive Romberg sign. The investigations carried out showed the serum vitamin B12 level to be 3 pg/ml (N: 180-900), hemoglobin 13 g/dl and MCV 111 fl with MCHC 348/dl; neurophysiological studies: compatible with demyelinating motor polyneuropathy. Schilling test: deficit of absorption of vitamin B12 which was corrected on administration of intrinsic factor; gastroscopy; atrophic gastritis which confirmed the morbid anatomy findings. There was also flora containing Helicobacter and massive Giardia infection. Replacement and antibiotic therapy was followed by complete remission of the clinical picture. We emphasize the excellent clinical response to treatment in spite of the time elapsed since onset of symptoms.

  19. Nerve Ultrasound and Electrophysiology for Therapy Monitoring in Chronic Inflammatory Demyelinating Polyneuropathy.

    PubMed

    Kerasnoudis, Antonios; Pitarokoili, Kalliopi; Gold, Ralf; Yoon, Min-Suk

    2015-01-01

    We evaluated prospectively nerve ultrasound and electrophysiology as monitoring methods of intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) therapy in chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP). Overall 15 healthy subjects and 11 CIDP patients undergoing IVIG therapy were recruited in the study. All patients underwent clinical, ultrasound, and electrophysiological evaluation at the time point of first onset of symptoms (<6 weeks of symptoms) and 4, 8, and 12 months after onset. The intranerve cross-sectional area (CSA) variability of each nerve, but not the CSA alone, correlated with the MRC Scale score during 12-month follow-up. On the other hand, none of the electrophysiological parameters correlated with the MRC Scale Score in each of the peripheral nerves. Interestingly, in ¾ of the CIDP patients, the resolution of the conduction block correlated with the improvement in the MRC Sum score. Nerve ultrasound and in particular the intranerve CSA variability seems to be a useful method in monitoring CIDP patients. Although the sample size is small, the intranerve CSA variability seems to be more promising than neurophysiology. Copyright © 2015 by the American Society of Neuroimaging.

  20. Electrophysiological and neuromuscular stability of persons with chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy.

    PubMed

    Gilmore, Kevin J; Allen, Matti D; Doherty, Timothy J; Kimpinski, Kurt; Rice, Charles L

    2017-09-01

    We assessed motor unit (MU) properties and neuromuscular stability in the tibialis anterior (TA) of chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) patients using decomposition-based quantitative electromyography. Dorsiflexion strength was assessed, and surface and concentric needle electromyography were sampled from the TA. Estimates of MU numbers were derived using decomposition-based quantitative electromyography and spike-triggered averaging. Neuromuscular transmission stability was assessed from concentric needle-detected MU potentials. CIDP patients had 43% lower compound muscle action potential amplitude than controls, and despite near-maximum voluntary activation, were 37% weaker. CIDP had 27% fewer functioning MUs in the TA, and had 90% and 44% higher jiggle and jitter values, respectively compared with controls. CIDP had lower strength and compound muscle action potential values, moderately fewer numbers of MUs, and significant neuromuscular instability compared with controls. Thus, in addition to muscle atrophy, voluntary weakness is also due to limitations of peripheral neural transmission consistent with demyelination. Muscle Nerve 56: 413-420, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Distal Sensory Polyneuropathy is Associated with Neuropsychological Test Performance among Persons with HIV

    PubMed Central

    Fellows, Robert P.; Byrd, Desiree A.; Elliott, Kathryn; Robinson-Papp, Jessica; Mindt, Monica Rivera; Morgello, Susan

    2013-01-01

    While distal sensory polyneuropathy (DSP) is the most common neurological condition associated with HIV, causing nerve damage in upper and lower extremities, its impact on neuropsychological test performance is unclear. In this study, we analyzed baseline data for 278 HIV-infected participants with comprehensive neurological and neurocognitive evaluations to examine the contribution of DSP and anatomic distribution of neuropathic signs (upper extremity or lower extremity) on standardized domain scores. We found that participants with DSP performed significantly worse in multiple domains containing timed psychomotor tests (i.e., motor, information processing speed and executive functioning). With regard to executive functioning, differences were limited to a test with a motor component (Trail Making Test, Part B). The group with clinically detectable neuropathic signs in the upper extremities and the group with signs limited to the lower extremities both performed worse in the motor domain than the group without DSP. Participants with DSP demonstrated a unique pattern of impairment limited to neuropsychological domains with timed psychomotor tests. These results suggest that caution should be used in interpretation of neuropsychological tests in patients with DSP, as some abnormalities may be exacerbated by peripheral nervous system pathology. PMID:22691455

  2. Critical illness polyneuropathy (CIP) in neurological early rehabilitation: clinical and neurophysiological features.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Simone B; Rollnik, Jens D

    2016-12-15

    Critical illness polyneuropathy (CIP) is a complex disease affecting 30-70% of critically ill patients. Clinical (Barthel index, length of stay (LOS), morbidity, duration of mechanical ventilation, routine lab results) and neurophysiological (neurography) data of 191 patients admitted to neurological early rehabilitation and diagnosed with CIP have been analyzed retrospectively. CIP diagnosis was correct in 159 cases (83%). In this study, systemic inflammation, sepsis, systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS), multiple organic failure (MOF), chronic renal failure, liver dysfunction, mechanical ventilation, diabetes, dyslipidemia and impaired ion homeostasis (hypocalcaemia, hypokalemia) were associated with CIP. Neurography, in particular of the peroneal, sural, tibial and median nerves, helped to identify CIP patients. Compound muscle action potential amplitude (r = -0.324, p < 0.05), as well as sensory (r = -0.389, p < 0.05) and motor conduction velocity (r = -0.347, p < 0.05) of the median nerve correlated with LOS in neurological early rehabilitation but not with outcome measures. In most cases, diagnosis of CIP among neurological early rehabilitation patients seems to be correct. Neurography may help to verify the diagnosis and to learn more about CIP pathophysiology, but it does not allow outcome prediction. Further studies on CIP are strongly encouraged.

  3. Diabetic Polyneuropathy in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: Inflammation, Oxidative Stress, and Mitochondrial Function.

    PubMed

    Román-Pintos, Luis Miguel; Villegas-Rivera, Geannyne; Rodríguez-Carrizalez, Adolfo Daniel; Miranda-Díaz, Alejandra Guillermina; Cardona-Muñoz, Ernesto Germán

    2016-01-01

    Diabetic polyneuropathy (DPN) is defined as peripheral nerve dysfunction. There are three main alterations involved in the pathologic changes of DPN: inflammation, oxidative stress, and mitochondrial dysfunction. Inflammation induces activation of nuclear factor kappa B, activator protein 1, and mitogen-activated protein kinases. Oxidative stress induced by hyperglycemia is mediated by several identified pathways: polyol, hexosamine, protein kinase C, advanced glycosylation end-products, and glycolysis. In addition, mitochondrial dysfunction accounts for most of the production of reactive oxygen and nitrosative species. These free radicals cause lipid peroxidation, protein modification, and nucleic acid damage, to finally induce axonal degeneration and segmental demyelination. The prevalence of DPN ranges from 2.4% to 78.8% worldwide, depending on the diagnostic method and the population assessed (hospital-based or outpatients). Risk factors include age, male gender, duration of diabetes, uncontrolled glycaemia, height, overweight and obesity, and insulin treatment. Several diagnostic methods have been developed, and composite scores combined with nerve conduction studies are the most reliable to identify early DPN. Treatment should be directed to improve etiologic factors besides reducing symptoms; several approaches have been evaluated to reduce neuropathic impairments and improve nerve conduction, such as oral antidiabetics, statins, and antioxidants (alpha-lipoic acid, ubiquinone, and flavonoids).

  4. VIP-expressing Dendritic Cells Protect Against Spontaneous Autoimmune Peripheral Polyneuropathy

    PubMed Central

    Yalvac, Mehmet E; Arnold, William David; Hussain, Syed-Rehan A; Braganza, Cilwyn; Shontz, Kimberly M; Clark, Kelly Reed; Walker, Christopher M; Ubogu, Eroboghene E; Mendell, Jerry R; Sahenk, Zarife

    2014-01-01

    The spontaneous autoimmune peripheral polyneuropathy (SAPP) model in B7-2 knockout nonobese diabetic mice mimics a progressive and unremitting course of chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (CIDP). In this study, bone marrow–derived dendritic cells (DCs) were transduced to express vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) using a lentiviral vector (LV-VIP). These transduced DCs (LV-VIP-DCs) were then injected intravenously (i.v.) into 16-week-old (before disease onset) and 21-week-old (after disease onset) SAPP mice in order to prevent or attenuate the disease. Outcome measures included behavioral tests, clinical and histological scoring, electrophysiology, real-time PCR, flow cytometry analyses, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. LV-VIP-DCs were recruited to the inflamed sciatic nerve and reduced the expression of inflammatory cytokines. A single injection of LV-VIP-DC delayed the onset of disease, stabilized, and attenuated clinical signs correlating with ameliorated behavioral functions, reduced nerve demyelination, and improved nerve conduction. This proof-of-principle study is an important step potentially leading to a clinical translational study using DCs expressing VIP in cases of CIDP refractory to standard immunosuppressive therapy. PMID:24762627

  5. An electrophysiological follow up of patients with n-hexane polyneuropathy.

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Y C

    1991-01-01

    Electroneurographic (ENeG) and evoked potential (EP) studies were regularly performed on 11 printing workers with n-hexane polyneuropathy after cessation of exposure. At the initial examination, the ENeG studies simulated a demyelinative process. Further slowing of nerve conduction velocity, or further decreasing of action potential amplitude, or both in the follow up ENeG study were found in about half the patients. The motor distal latency did not worsen. Nerve conduction returned to normal earlier in the sensory than in the motor nerves. After the patients had regained full motor capability, conduction velocities in motor nerves were still significantly slowed. These ENeG characteristics correlate with the pathological and pathophysiological changes in experimental hexa-carbon neuropathies. The initial findings from the EP studies indicated a conduction abnormality in the central nervous system (CNS). Delayed worsening occurred in the amplitude of visual EPs in three patients. On serial follow up, the interpeak latency and interpeak amplitude of visual EPs improved little. Residual abnormalities were also found in the interpeak latency of auditory EPs in the brainstem and in the absolute latency of scalp somatosensory EPs from the peroneal nerve. Astroglial proliferation in the CNS probably impedes recovery of the abnormalities in EP. PMID:1993154

  6. Toxic polyneuropathy of shoe-industry workers. A study of 122 cases.

    PubMed Central

    Cianchetti, C; Abbritti, G; Perticoni, G; Siracusa, A; Curradi, F

    1976-01-01

    The toxic polyneuropathy observed in a group of shoe-industry workers in Italy was clinically characterised by a symmetrical prevalently distal motor deficit, with occasional marked weakness of pelvic girdle muscles, and frequently by only subjective sensory symptoms; non-specific disturbances usually preceded neurological signs. Subclinical cases of 'minimal' chronic neuropathy, characterised by alterations of a neurogenic type in the EMG without a reduction of motor nerve conduction velocity, were also observed. Worsening of the clinical picture, with further lowering of nerve conduction velocity, was noted in some cases up to four months after removal from the toxic environment. In the most severe cases clinical recovery took up to three years. The electromyographic and electroneurographic features were consistent with a mixed axonal neuropathy, with clear prevalence of the damage in the distal part of the nerve (dying-back neuropathy). Volatile substances, such as n-hexane and other low boiling point hydrocarbons found in high percentage in solvents and glues, are suggested as the causative agent. PMID:1011025

  7. A simplified protocol to screen for distal polyneuropathy in type 2 diabetic patients.

    PubMed

    Costa, Luciana A; Maraschin, Jorge F; Xavier de Castro, José H; Gross, Jorge L; Friedman, Rogério

    2006-09-01

    To test a simplified protocol to screen type 2 diabetic patients (DM2) for distal polyneuropathy (DPN), 80 outpatients and 45 controls answered a symptom questionnaire, underwent a directed examination (pin-prick, tuning fork, monofilament, ankle jerk, cold spatula and walking on heels), autonomic tests, and an electroneurophysiological study (EMG). Symptoms were also analysed as scores. DPN was diagnosed in the presence of abnormal EMG (or autonomic neuropathy), plus one symptom or one abnormal objective finding. Symptoms were equally frequent in patients (56%) and controls (35%, P=0.20). Objective findings were more frequent in patients (62/80 versus 11/45; P<0.05). The 60 DM2 patients with DPN were older, with longer diabetes duration and more often hypertensive than those without DPN. The 15 patients unable to walk on heels had DPN (sensitivity 20.8%, specificity 100%, positive predictive value 100% and negative predictive value 12.3%). The 12 patients able to walk on heels but with three or more abnormal tests had DPN (sensitivity 21.1%, specificity 100%, positive predictive value 100% and negative predictive value 15.1%). Isolated signs and symptoms do not identify patients with DPN. Patients with higher degrees of impairment can be identified by six simple ambulatory tests, reducing in one-third the need for EMG.

  8. Erythromelalgia-like presentation of chronic acquired demyelinating polyneuropathy in a setting of past alcohol abuse.

    PubMed

    Chuquilin, Miguel; Dhand, Upinder K

    2016-02-01

    Erythromelalgia may be primary or secondary to an underlying medical condition. Association with small fiber neuropathy and axonal large fiber peripheral neuropathy has been described. Erythromelalgia in the setting of acquired demyelinating neuropathy has not been reported. We report a 52-year-old woman with severe erythromelalgia, pain and burning, progressive weakness, hyporeflexia and distal pan-sensory deficits. Cerebrospinal fluid protein was 219 mg/dL. Nerve conduction study revealed extreme (ten-fold) prolongation of distal motor latencies, markedly slow motor nerve conduction, reduced terminal latency index, reduced distal compound muscle action potential (CMAP) amplitude, possible conduction blocks, and distal denervation. Treatment with intravenous immunoglobulin, prednisone and azathioprine resulted in marked clinical and electrophysiological improvement. Our patient fulfills the diagnostic criteria for chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP); however, the unique electrodiagnostic features and presentation with erythromelalgia may represent a CIDP variant or a novel dysimmune neuropathy, or may partly be related to neurotoxic effects of prior alcohol abuse. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Phlebectasia in a finger in a case of microscopic polyangiitis with peripheral polyneuropathy.

    PubMed

    Badía Flores, Jorge Julio; Arévalo Martínez, Federico G

    2017-08-22

    The patient was a 56-year-old man with microscopic polyangiitis and symmetrical peripheral polyneuropathy of the extremities who was positive for p-ANCA, EMG pattern of mononeuritis multiplex and skin biopsy showing the presence of nonspecific vasculitis. He had phlebectasia with plethora and tortuous vessels on dorsum of the fingers on both hands, paresis and hypoesthesia of fingers and toes with functional limitations. The administration of prednisone, azathioprine and a cyclophosphamide pulse achieved rapid improvement in the general symptoms, but the changes in the neuropathy occurred very slowly. After 47 months of treatment, he had mild phlebectasia in fingers and slight hypoesthesia in hands and feet, with normal laboratory tests. Phlebectasia was probably the result of an autonomic dysfunction due to vasculitis of the vasa nervorum and could be a sign to look for in similar cases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Reumatología y Colegio Mexicano de Reumatología. All rights reserved.

  10. Effect of rosuvastatin on diabetic polyneuropathy: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled Phase IIa study

    PubMed Central

    Hernández-Ojeda, Jaime; Román-Pintos, Luis Miguel; Rodríguez-Carrízalez, Adolfo Daniel; Troyo-Sanromán, Rogelio; Cardona-Muñoz, Ernesto Germán; Alatorre-Carranza, María del Pilar; Miranda-Díaz, Alejandra Guillermina

    2014-01-01

    Background Diabetic neuropathy affects 50%–66% of patients with diabetes mellitus. Oxidative stress generates nerve dysfunction by causing segmental demyelinization and axonal degeneration. Antioxidants are considered to be the only etiologic management for diabetic polyneuropathy, and statins such as rosuvastatin increase nitric oxide bioavailability and reduce lipid peroxidation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antioxidant effect of rosuvastatin in diabetic polyneuropathy. Methods We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled Phase IIa clinical trial in patients with type 2 diabetes and diabetic polyneuropathy (DPN) stage ≥1b. We allocated subjects to two parallel groups (1:1) that received rosuvastatin 20 mg or placebo for 12 weeks. Primary outcomes were neuropathic symptom score, disability score, and nerve conduction studies, and secondary outcomes were glycemic control, lipid and hepatic profile, lipid peroxidation, and nerve growth factor beta (NGF-β) levels. Results Both groups were of similar age and duration since diagnosis of diabetes and DPN. We observed improvement of DPN in the rosuvastatin group from stage 2a (88.2%) to stage 1b (41.2%), improvement of neuropathic symptom score from 4.5±2 to 2.4±1.8, and significant (P=0.001) reductions of peroneal nerve conduction velocity (from 40.8±2.2 to 42.1±1.6 seconds) and lipid peroxidation (from 25.4±2 to 12.2±4.0 nmol/mL), with no significant change in glycemic control or β-NGF. Conclusion The severity, symptoms, and nerve conduction parameters of DPN improved after 12 weeks of treatment with rosuvastatin. These beneficial effects appear to be attributable to reductions in lipid peroxidation and oxidative stress. PMID:25214797

  11. Benfotiamine in the treatment of diabetic polyneuropathy--a three-week randomized, controlled pilot study (BEDIP study).

    PubMed

    Haupt, E; Ledermann, H; Köpcke, W

    2005-02-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the efficacy of benfotiamine administered over three weeks (allithiamine; a lipid-soluble vitamin B1 prodrug with high bioavailability) to patients with diabetic polyneuropathy in a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, two-center pilot study. Forty inpatients (23 male, 18 female, age range 18 - 70 years) with a history of type 1 or 2 diabetes and polyneuropathy of not longer than two years, were included in the study. Twenty Patients received two 50 mg benfotiamine tablets four times daily and 20 patients received placebo over the three-week study period. Two clinical units were involved with 10 patients receiving placebo and 10 patients benfotiamine in each. The neuropathy score according to Katzenwadel et al. [1987] was used to evaluate symptoms of polyneuropathy, vibration perception threshold and both the physician's and the patient's own assessment were documented. A statistically significant (p = 0.0287) improvement in the neuropathy score was observed in the group given active drug when compared to the placebo-treated controls. There was no statistically significant change observed in the tuning fork test. The most pronounced effect on complaints was a decrease in pain (p = 0.0414). More patients in the benfotiamine-treated group than in the placebo group considered their clinical condition to have improved (p = 0.052). No side effects attributable to benfotiamine were observed. The differences between the groups cannot be attributed to a change in metabolic parameters since there were no significant alterations in the HbA1 levels and blood sugar profiles. The body mass index of the two groups did not differ. This pilot investigation (BEDIP Study) has confirmed the results of two earlier randomized controlled trials and has provided further evidence for the beneficial effects of benfotiamine in patients with diabetic neuropathy.

  12. Acute Motor-dominant Polyneuropathy as Guillain-Barré Syndrome and Multiple Mononeuropathies in a Patient with Sjögren's Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Kenichiro; Nakayasu, Hiroyuki; Suto, Yutaka; Takahashi, Shotaro; Konishi, Yoshihiro; Nishimura, Hirotake; Ueno, Rino; Kusunoki, Susumu; Nakashima, Kenji

    A patient with xerostomia and xerophthalmia due to Sjögren's syndrome presented with acute motor-dominant polyneuropathy and multiple mononeuropathy with antiganglioside antibodies. Nerve conduction studies and a sural nerve biopsy revealed the neuropathy as a mixture of segmental demyelination and axonal degeneration. Positive results were obtained for several antiganglioside antibodies. Corticosteroid treatment proved effective. The neuropathy was considered to represent a mixture of polyneuropathy as Guillain-Barré syndrome and multiple mononeuropathy via Sjögren's syndrome. We speculate that Guillain-Barré syndrome occurred in the patient and Guillain-Barré syndrome itself activated multiple mononeuropathy via Sjögren's syndrome.

  13. Reversible acute axonal polyneuropathy associated with Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome: impaired physiological nerve conduction due to thiamine deficiency?

    PubMed

    Ishibashi, S; Yokota, T; Shiojiri, T; Matunaga, T; Tanaka, H; Nishina, K; Hirota, H; Inaba, A; Yamada, M; Kanda, T; Mizusawa, H

    2003-05-01

    Acute axonal polyneuropathy and Wernicke-Korsakoff encephalopathy developed simultaneously in three patients. Nerve conduction studies (NCS) detected markedly decreased compound muscle action potentials (CMAPs) and sensory nerve action potentials (SNAPs) with minimal conduction slowing; sympathetic skin responses (SSRs) were also notably decreased. Sural nerve biopsies showed only mild axonal degeneration with scattered myelin ovoid formation. The symptoms of neuropathy lessened within two weeks after an intravenous thiamine infusion. CMAPs, SNAPs, and SSRs also increased considerably. We suggest that this is a new type of peripheral nerve impairment: physiological conduction failure with minimal conduction delay due to thiamine deficiency.

  14. [Wernicke´s encephalopathy and polyneuropathy associated with vitamin B complex deficiency after a bariatric surgery].

    PubMed

    Carvajal, Tomas; Franco, Diana L; Martínez, Adriana; Peña, Iván M

    2012-01-01

    Bariatric surgery is a treatment that guarantees a substantial and lasting weight loss in addition to the tangible benefits relating to obesity-associated medical conditions. The increasing number of bariatric surgeries has revealed an increasing number of complications related to this procedure, including Wernicke´s encephalopathy and vitamin B deficiency polyneuropathies. Herein, a 7-week post-surgery case of Wernicke´s encephalopathy is presented that emphasizes the importance of an early recognition of these symptoms so as to initiate intervention during the reversible phase of these potentially lethal pathologies.

  15. Autonomic dysfunction is common in HIV and associated with distal symmetric polyneuropathy

    PubMed Central

    Robinson-Papp, Jessica; Sharma, Sandeep; Simpson, David M.; Morgello, Susan

    2013-01-01

    Neurologic complications of HIV are well characterized in the central and peripheral nervous systems but not in the autonomic nervous system, perhaps due to the complexities of measuring autonomic function in medically ill populations. We hypothesized that autonomic dysfunction is common in HIV, can be meaningfully measured with an autonomic reflex screen, and is associated with distal symmetric polyneuropathy (DSP) but not with signs of CNS disease. We also sought to characterize immuno-virologic and medical factors associated with autonomic dysfunction. We assessed 102 HIV-infected adults for autonomic dysfunction with a laboratory-based autonomic reflex screen summarized as the Composite Autonomic Severity Score (CASS). The Total Neuropathy Score (TNS) was used to quantify DSP based on neurologic interview/examination, quantitative sensory testing, and nerve conduction studies. Autonomic dysfunction was common, with a CASS ≥ 3 in 61% of participants, of whom 86% were symptomatic. Greater CASS abnormalities demonstrated univariate association with increasing TNS, age, viral load, hypertension, and use of medications (particularly anticholinergics), but not with antiretrovirals, current/nadir CD4+ count, HIV-duration, metabolic factors, or signs of CNS disease. The TNS was the only significant predictor of the CASS in multivariate analysis; anticholinergic medications were marginally significant. This study demonstrates that autonomic dysfunction is common and frequently symptomatic in HIV, and that an autonomic reflex screen, adjusted for anticholinergic medication, is useful in its assessment. Association of autonomic dysfunction with DSP suggests common factors in their pathogenesis, and autonomic neuropathy may be part of the spectrum of HIV-associated peripheral nerve pathologies. PMID:23580249

  16. Skin Intrinsic Fluorescence Correlates With Autonomic and Distal Symmetrical Polyneuropathy in Individuals With Type 1 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Conway, Baqiyyah N.; Aroda, Vanita R.; Maynard, John D.; Matter, Nathaniel; Fernandez, Stephen; Ratner, Robert E.; Orchard, Trevor J.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine whether skin intrinsic fluorescence (SIF) was associated with autonomic neuropathy and confirmed distal symmetrical polyneuropathy (CDSP) in 111 individuals with type 1 diabetes (mean age 49 years, mean diabetes duration 40 years). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS SIF was measured using the SCOUT DM device. Autonomic neuropathy was defined as an electrocardiographic abnormal heart rate response to deep breathing (expiration-to-inspiration ratio <1.1). CDSP was defined using the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial clinical exam protocol (the presence of two or more of the following: symptoms, sensory and/or motor signs, and/or reduced/absent tendon reflexes consistent with DSP) confirmed by the presence of an abnormal age-specific vibratory threshold (using a Vibratron II tester). RESULTS The prevalence of autonomic neuropathy and CDSP were 61 and 66%, respectively. SIF was higher in those with autonomic neuropathy (P < 0.0001). In multivariable analyses controlling for age and updated mean (18-year average) HbA1c, and allowing for other univariately and clinically significant correlates of autonomic neuropathy, each SD change in SIF was associated with a 2.6-greater likelihood of autonomic neuropathy (P = 0.006). Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analyses revealed that SIF and updated mean HbA1c accounted for 80 and 57%, respectively, of the area under the curve (AUC) for autonomic neuropathy. SIF also was higher in those with CDSP (P < 0.0001) and remained so in multivariable analyses (odds ratio 2.70; P = 0.005). ROC analyses revealed that SIF and updated mean HbA1c accounted for 78 and 59%, respectively, of the AUC for CDSP. CONCLUSIONS SIF, a marker of dermal advanced glycation end products, appears to be more strongly associated with the presence of both CDSP and autonomic neuropathy than mean HbA1c. PMID:21307380

  17. Evidence of Small-Fiber Polyneuropathy in Unexplained, Juvenile-Onset, Widespread Pain Syndromes

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Max M.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: We tested the hypothesis that acquired small-fiber polyneuropathy (SFPN), previously uncharacterized in children, contributes to unexplained pediatric widespread pain syndromes. METHODS: Forty-one consecutive patients evaluated for unexplained widespread pain beginning before age 21 had medical records comprehensively analyzed regarding objective diagnostic testing for SFPN (neurodiagnostic skin biopsy, nerve biopsy, and autonomic function testing), plus histories, symptoms, signs, other tests, and treatments. Healthy, demographically matched volunteers provided normal controls for SFPN tests. RESULTS: Age at illness onset averaged 12.3 ± 5.7 years; 73% among this poly-ethnic sample were female (P = .001). Sixty-eight percent were chronically disabled, and 68% had hospitalizations. Objective testing diagnosed definite SFPN in 59%, probable SFPN in 17%, and possible SFPN in 22%. Only 1 of 41 had entirely normal SFPN test results. Ninety-eight percent of patients had other somatic complaints consistent with SFPN dysautonomia (90% cardiovascular, 82% gastrointestinal, and 34% urologic), 83% reported chronic fatigue, and 63% had chronic headache. Neurologic examinations identified reduced sensation in 68% and vasomotor abnormalities in 55%, including 23% with erythromelalgia. Exhaustive investigations for SFPN causality identified only history of autoimmune illnesses in 33% and serologic markers of disordered immunity in 89%. Treatment with corticosteroids and/or intravenous immune globulin objectively and subjectively benefited 80% of patients (12/15). CONCLUSIONS: More than half among a large series of patients with childhood-onset, unexplained chronic widespread pain met rigorous, multitest, diagnostic criteria for SFPN, which extends the age range of acquired SFPN into early childhood. Some cases appeared immune-mediated and improved with immunomodulatory therapies. PMID:23478869

  18. Acetyl-L-carnitine in diabetic polyneuropathy: experimental and clinical data.

    PubMed

    Sima, Anders A F

    2007-01-01

    Diabetic polyneuropathy (DPN) is the most common late complication of diabetes mellitus. The underlying pathogenesis is multifaceted, with partly interrelated mechanisms that display a dynamic course. The mechanisms underlying DPN in type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus show overlaps or may differ. The differences are mainly due to insulin deficiency in type 1 diabetes which exacerbates the abnormalities caused by hyperglycaemia. Experimental DPN in rat models have identified early metabolic abnormalities with consequences for nerve conduction velocities and endoneurial blood flow. When corrected, the early functional deficits are usually normalised. On the other hand, if not corrected, they lead to abnormalities in lipid peroxidation and expression of neurotrophic factors which in turn result in axonal, nodal and paranodal degenerative changes with worsening of nerve function. As the structural changes progress, they become increasingly less amendable to metabolic interventions. In the past several years, experimental drugs--such as aldose reductase inhibitors, antioxidants and protein kinase C inhibitors--have undergone clinical trials, with disappointing outcomes. These drugs, targeting a single underlying pathogenetic factor, have in most cases been initiated at the advanced stage of DPN. In contrast, substitution of acetyl-L-carnitine (ALC) or C-peptide in type 1 DPN target a multitude of underlying mechanisms and are therefore more likely to be effective on a broader spectrum of the underlying pathogenesis. Clinical trials utilising ALC have shown beneficial effects on nerve conduction slowing, neuropathic pain, axonal degenerative changes and nerve fibre regeneration, despite relatively late initiation in the natural history of DPN. Owing to the good safety profile of ALC, early initiation of ALC therapy would be justified, with potentially greater benefits.

  19. Comorbidity of psychiatric disorders and symmetric distal polyneuropathy among type II diabetic outpatients.

    PubMed

    Moreira, R O; Papelbaum, M; Fontenelle, L F; Appolinario, J C; Ellinger, V C M; Coutinho, W F; Zagury, L

    2007-02-01

    The objective of the present study was to establish the frequency of psychiatric comorbidity in a sample of diabetic patients with symmetric distal polyneuropathy (SDPN). Sixty-five patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus were selected consecutively to participate in the study at Instituto Estadual de Diabetes e Endocrinologia. All patients were submitted to a complete clinical and psychiatric evaluation, including the Portuguese version of the structured clinical interview for DSM-IV, the Beck Depression Inventory, the Neuropathy Symptom Score, and Neuropathy Disability Score. SDPN was identified in 22 subjects (33.8%). Patients with and without SDPN did not differ significantly regarding sociodemographic characteristics. However, a trend toward a worse glycemic control was found in patients with SDPN in comparison to patients without SDPN (HbA1c = 8.43 +/- 1.97 vs 7.48 +/- 1.95; P = 0.08). Patients with SDPN exhibited axis I psychiatric disorders significantly more often than those without SDPN (especially anxiety disorders, in general (81.8 vs 60.0%; P = 0.01), and major depression--current episode, in particular (18.2 vs 7.7%; P = 0.04)). The severity of the depressive symptoms correlated positively with the severity of SDPN symptoms (r = 0.38; P = 0.006), but not with the severity of SDPN signs (r = 0.07; P = 0.56). In conclusion, the presence of SDPN seems to be associated with a trend toward glycemic control. The diagnosis of SDPN in diabetic subjects seems also to be associated with relevant psychiatric comorbidity, including anxiety and current mood disorders.

  20. [Peripheral polyneuropathy and bilateral optic neuropathy during treatment of chronic hepatitis C].

    PubMed

    Chrissafidou, A; Musch, E

    2009-04-01

    A 54-year-old female patient with recently confirmed chronic hepatitis C, genotype Ib and positive HCV-RNA was admitted for interferon induction therapy. Physical examination findings were normal. Ultrasound examination of the abdomen revealed slightly compacted liver structure with otherwise no pathological findings. Laboratory results showed marginally increased GPT value at 46 U/l with HCV-RNA of 769,000 U/ml. All other laboratory results were within the reference range. There was no indication for autoantibodies. After one-week induction therapy with interferon-alpha (IFN-alpha2a) plus ribavirin and amantadine, maintenance therapy with pegylated interferon-alpha (PEG-IFN-alpha2a) plus ribavirin and amantadine was initiated. Complete virus elimination was achieved after two and a half months. Five months after onset of therapy, painful peripheral neuropathy of the limbs occured and after one more month, severe vision impairment with opticus neuropathy and bilateral papilledema developed. Simultaneously, peripheral polyneuropathy progressed with additional motoric deficits. Interferon therapy was terminated and the patient received high-dose corticosteroids which resulted in an improvement of neuropathic complaints. Eight months later, only discrete bilateral vision impairment with optic nerve atrophy remained. Side effects occurring with interferon-alpha therapy and pegylated interferon-alpha therapy are generally low and well tolerated. However, in individual cases - as in our patient - side effects including severe peripheral neuropathy and optic neuropathy have been observed. In these cases, interferon therapy must be terminated immediately as severe damage of nerves may result.

  1. Randomized, Sham Controlled Trial of Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation for Painful Diabetic Polyneuropathy

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yon Joon; Ku, Jeonghun; Kim, Hyun Jung; Im, Dal Jae; Lee, Hye Sun; Han, Kyung Ah

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the analgesic effect of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) over the primary motor (M1), dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), and sham tDCS in patients with painful diabetic polyneuropathy (PDPN). Methods Patients with PDPN (n=60) were divided randomly into the three groups (n=20 per group). Each group received anodal tDCS with the anode centered over the left M1, DLPFC, or sham stimulation for 20 minutes at intensity of 2 mA for 5 consecutive days. A blinded physician rated the patients' pain using a visual analog scale (VAS), Clinical Global Impression (CGI) score, anxiety score, sleep quality, Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), and the pain threshold (PT) to pressure. Results After the tDCS sessions, the M1 group showed a significantly greater reduction in VAS for pain and PT versus the sham and DLPFC groups (p<0.001). The reduction in VAS for pain was sustained after 2 and 4 weeks of follow-up in the M1 group compared with the sham group (p<0.001, p=0.007). Significant differences were observed among the three groups over time in VAS for pain (p<0.001), CGI score (p=0.01), and PT (p<0.001). No significant difference was observed among the groups in sleep quality, anxiety score, or BDI score immediately after tDCS. Conclusion Five daily sessions of tDCS over the M1 can produce immediate pain relief, and relief 2- and 4-week in duration in patients with PDPN. Our findings provide the first evidence of a beneficial effect of tDCS on PDPN. PMID:24466511

  2. A look inside the nerve - Morphology of nerve fascicles in healthy controls and patients with polyneuropathy.

    PubMed

    Grimm, Alexander; Winter, Natalie; Rattay, Tim W; Härtig, Florian; Dammeier, Nele M; Auffenberg, Eva; Koch, Marilin; Axer, Hubertus

    2017-09-19

    Polyneuropathies are increasingly analyzed by ultrasound. Summarizing, diffuse enlargement is typical in Charcot-Marie Tooth type 1 (CMT1a), regional enlargement occurs in inflammatory neuropathies. However, a distinction of subtypes is still challenging. Therefore, this study focused on fascicle size and pattern in controls and distinct neuropathies. Cross-sectional area (CSA) of the median, ulnar and peroneal nerve (MN, UN, PN) was measured at predefined landmarks in 50 healthy controls, 15 CMT1a and 13 MMN patients. Additionally, largest fascicle size and number of visible fascicles was obtained at the mid-upper arm cross-section of the MN and UN and in the popliteal fossa cross-section of the PN. Cut-off normal values for fascicle size in the MN, UN and PN were defined (<4.8mm(2), <2.8mm(2) and <3.5mm(2)). In CMT1a CSA and fascicle values are significantly enlarged in all nerves, while in MMN CSA and fascicles are regionally enlarged with predominance in the upper arm nerves. The ratio of enlarged fascicles and all fascicles was significantly increased in CMT1a (>50%) in all nerves (p<0.0001), representing diffuse fascicle enlargement, and moderately increased in MMN (>20%), representing differential fascicle enlargement (enlarged and normal fascicles at the same location) sparing the peroneal nerve (regional fascicle enlargement). Based on these findings distinct fascicle patterns were defined. Normal values for fascicle size could be evaluated; while CMT1a features diffuse fascicle enlargement, MMN shows regional and differential predominance with enlarged fascicles as single pathology. Pattern analysis of fascicles might facilitate distinction of several otherwise similar neuropathies. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Polyneuropathy associated with duodenal infusion of levodopa in Parkinson's disease: features, pathogenesis and management.

    PubMed

    Uncini, Antonino; Eleopra, Roberto; Onofrj, Marco

    2015-05-01

    Patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) treated with oral levodopa have a higher prevalence of chronic, prevalently sensory, usually mild axonal polyneuropathy (PNP). Several studies showed a positive association among PNP, cumulative levodopa dosage, low serum B12 and high-homocysteine and methylmalonic acid level. Anecdotal severe acute or subacute PNPs thought to be Guillain-Barré syndrome have been reported in patients receiving continuous intraduodenal infusion of levodopa/carbidopa intestinal gel (LCIG). We report an additional acute case and by a systematic literature search we also reviewed the clinical and laboratory features of 13 other acute and 21 subacute PNP cases occurring during LCIG treatment. In series with at least nine patients, the mean frequency of acute and subacute PNP is 13.6% and the mortality rate at 6 months in acute cases is 14%. The great majority of PNP cases displayed axonal sensory-motor and reduced vitamin B12 levels, and alterations of metabolites of 1-carbon pathway were found in most patients. We discuss the possible role of high-levodopa dosage, vitamin B12, B6 and folate deficiency and accumulation of homocysteine and methylmalonic acid in the pathogenesis to conclude that there is enough, although circumstantial, evidence that alterations of 1-carbon pathway are implicated also in acute and subacute PNP during LCIG usage. There is no solid proof for a dysimmune pathogenesis and in our opinion acute, subacute and chronic PNP, either after oral levodopa or LCIG, represent a continuum. Finally, we propose recommendations for prevention and management of PNP occurring during LCIG treatment.

  4. Joint preserving surgery versus arthrodesis in operative treatment of patients with neuromuscular polyneuropathy: questionnaire assessment.

    PubMed

    Napiontek, Marek; Pietrzak, Krzysztof

    2015-02-01

    The purpose of the paper was to present the results of surgical treatment of foot deformities in peripheral neuropathies using bone procedures: both joint preserving and with joint arthrodesis. The study included 26 patients, 14 males and 12 females (43 feet). The age of the patients at surgery ranged from 5 to 55 years (average 23 years). The follow-up ranged from 0.5 to 15 years (average 4.3 years). Seventeen patients presented Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease, three Friedreich's ataxia and six peripheral motor and sensory neuropathies of undetermined nature. Sixteen patients had bilateral procedures. Four patients had to be re-operated during the follow-up. The patients were divided into four groups depending on the age and the surgical technique applied. The groups I and II (9 children, 17 feet) included patients with growth plate still present in the foot just before surgery. In the groups III and IV (17 adults, 26 feet), bone growth was completed. The assessment of all patients based on a modified AOFAS scale ranged from 44 to 105 points (mean 83.7; SD 17.5). The assessment on the subjective scale ranged from 3 to 10 points (mean 7.4; SD 2.1). The assessment of quality of life on the WOMAC scale ranged from 0 to 41 points (mean 15.7; SD 13.2). All patients stated that they would decide to undergo the treatment again. For groups I and II, joint preserving surgeries gave better results; however, the results could not be statistically confirmed. The results for the groups III and IV were inconclusive as to which surgical techniques should be preferred, arthrodesis or joint preserving. The results show that none of the surgical techniques used for correction of foot deformities in motor-sensory polyneuropathies seems to be preferable.

  5. Atypical electrophysiologic findings in chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP)--diagnosis confirmed by nerve biopsy.

    PubMed

    Boukhris, S; Magy, L; Kabore, R; Mabrouk, T; Li, Y; Sindou, P; Tabaraud, F; Vallat, Jean-Michel

    2004-04-01

    Numerous sets of electrophysiological criteria of chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) have been proposed, among which the criteria established by an ad hoc subcommittee of the American Academy of Neurology (AAN) in 1991 (Neurology 41 (1991) 617) are the most widely used. As they seemed rather restrictive, the Inflammatory Neuropathy Cause and Treatment (INCAT) group (Ann. Neurol. 50 (2001) 195) proposed modifications of these electrophysiological criteria. However, even using these criteria, some cases of CIDP may not be recognized. In such cases, nerve biopsy has proven useful for confirmation of the diagnosis by demonstrating specific abnormalities. The objective of the study was to determine the profile of electrophysiological abnormalities in patients with atypical electrophysiologic criteria of CIDP and the diagnostic value of multiple A waves and a low median to sural amplitude ratio. Over a period of 3 years, we classified 44 patients into two categories: those presenting the strict AAN and/or INCAT criteria and those who we regarded as cases of CIDP not meeting these criteria. All patients benefited from one or more clinical and electrophysiological examination. Extensive biological workup and genetic study when appropriate excluded other causes of neuropathy. Nerve biopsies were taken from all patients and samples were included in paraffin and epon for systematic light, teasing and electron microscopic examination. Out of 44 patients, 36 fulfilled the INCAT or AAN criteria. In eight other patients, the diagnosis of CIDP was suspected on clinical and EMG examinations and confirmed by nerve biopsy. In these cases, the electrophysiological exploration showed some abnormalities such as multiple A waves in four out of eight patients or an abnormal pattern of the sensory responses of the median and sural nerves in four out of eight patients that were more indicative of an initial demyelinating process. Six of our patients received

  6. Associations between autonomic dysfunction and pain in chemotherapy-induced polyneuropathy.

    PubMed

    Nahman-Averbuch, H; Granovsky, Y; Sprecher, E; Steiner, M; Tzuk-Shina, T; Pud, D; Yarnitsky, D

    2014-01-01

    Autonomic neuropathy, a relatively common complication of several chemotherapy agents, can affect the vagus nerve and its pain inhibitory capacity, thus increasing sensitivity to pain. This study aimed to evaluate the relationships between autonomic parasympathetic function and the perception of (1) spontaneous pain; (2) experimental non-painful sensations; and (3) experimental painful sensations in chemotherapy-induced neuropathy patients. Twenty-seven cancer patients with chemotherapy-induced polyneuropathy were enrolled (20 women, age 56.6 ± 7.9). Autonomic parameters of heart rate variability, deep-breathing and Valsalva ratios, experimental non-painful parameters of warm, cold and mechanical detection thresholds, and painful parameters of heat pain thresholds, pain rating of suprathreshold stimulus, mechanical temporal summation and conditioned pain modulation response were examined. Autonomic parameters and spontaneous pain levels were not associated, yet autonomic parameters were positively correlated with non-painful sensations - milder autonomic neuropathy was accompanied by milder sensory neuropathy as indicated by several parameters, e.g., lower Valsalva ratio was correlated with higher warmth detection threshold (r = -0.465; p = 0.033). Autonomic parameters were, however, negatively correlated with painful sensations - lower parasympathetic-vagal activity was associated with higher pain sensitivity as indicated by several parameters, e.g., lower Valsalva ratio was correlated with higher pain rating of suprathreshold stimulus (r = -0.559; p = 0.008). Diminished vagal function due to neuropathy is associated with, and may possibly underlie, pain disinhibition expressed as greater levels of experimental pain. © 2013 European Pain Federation - EFIC®

  7. Long-term follow-up of Norwegian horses affected with acquired equine polyneuropathy.

    PubMed

    Hanche-Olsen, S; Kielland, C; Ihler, C F; Hultin Jäderlund, K

    2017-09-01

    Acquired equine polyneuropathy (AEP), a neurological disease clinically characterised by knuckling of metatarsophalangeal joints, has been described in numerous Nordic horses during the last 20 years. Although clinical recovery has been reported, large-scale data on long-term follow-up of survivors have been lacking. To describe long-term survival of AEP affected horses registered in Norway, with a focus on athletic performance and possible residual clinical signs connected to the disease. A retrospective cohort study. The study includes 143 horses recorded with AEP in Norway from 2000 to 2012, with the follow-up period continuing until 2015. Participating owners of survivors completed a standardised questionnaire, providing information on disease and convalescence, management, performance-level and possible residual clinical signs. To investigate the follow-up of survivors, we performed 2 multivariable linear regression models. The follow-up time of survivors was 1.0-14.5 years (median 5.3, interquartile range 2.5-7.2). Fifty-seven horses survived and all but 3 horses returned to previous or higher level of performance. However, possible disease-related residual clinical signs were reported in 14/57 horses. Forty-nine of the survivors were in athletic use at time of contact. The majority of survivors were categorised with low severity-grades at time of diagnosis and the initial grade was significantly associated with time to resumed training. Only 3 horses had experienced relapse/new attack during the follow-up period. Athletic performance was judged by owners, which renders a possible source of bias. Although AEP is a potential fatal disease, most survivors will recover and return to minimum previous level of athletic performance. Some horses display residual clinical signs, but often without negative effect on performance and relapse of disease is rare. © 2017 EVJ Ltd.

  8. An 'Importance' Map of Signs and Symptoms to Classify Diabetic Polyneuropathy: An Exploratory Data Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Sacco, Isabel C. N.; Suda, Eneida Yuri; Vigneron, Vincent; Sartor, Cristina Dallemole

    2015-01-01

    Aims/Hypothesis Early diagnosis of diabetic polyneuropathy (DPN) is critical for a good prognosis. We aimed to identify different groups of patients, based on the various common clinical signs and symptoms of DPN, that represent a progressive worsening of the disease before the onset of plantar ulceration or amputation. We also sought to identify the most important DPN-related variables that can discriminate between groups, thus representing the most informative variables for early detection. Methods In 193 diabetic patients, we assessed 16 DPN-related signs, symptoms, and foot characteristics, based on the literature and the International Consensus on the Diabetic Foot. We used multiple correspondence analysis and the Kohonen algorithm to group the variables into micro and macro-classes and to identify clusters of patients that represent different DPN conditions. Results Four distinct groups were observed. One group showed no indication of DPN. The remaining groups were characterized by a progressive loss of the vibration perception, without a worsening of symptoms or tactile perception. The 2 intermediate groups presented different aspects of DPN: one showed mostly DPN symptoms and the other showed the incipient vibration impairment, callus and crack formation, and foot arch alteration. The fourth group showed more severe foot and DPN conditions, including ulceration and amputation, absence of vibration and tactile perception (irrespective of how many compromised foot areas), and worse foot deformities and callus and crack formation. Conclusion Vibration perception was more informative than tactile sensitivity in discriminating early DPN onset because its impairment was evident in more groups. Symptoms and callus and cracks did not discriminate the severity status and should be interpreted in association with other clinical variables. Reconsideration of the current screening techniques is needed to clinically determine the early onset of neuropathy using tactile

  9. Distribution patterns of demyelination correlate with clinical profiles in chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy

    PubMed Central

    Kuwabara, S; Ogawara, K; Misawa, S; Mori, M; Hattori, T

    2002-01-01

    Background: Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) is a heterogeneous disorder having a wide clinical range, and is characterised by multifocal demyelination that can involve the distal nerve terminals, intermediate nerve segments, and nerve roots. Objective: To investigate whether the distribution patterns of demyelination along the course of the nerve correlate with clinical profiles in patients with CIDP. Methods: Motor nerve conduction studies were carried out on 42 consecutive patients. According to the physiological criteria for demyelination, the presence of a demyelinative lesion was determined in the distal nerve segments (distal pattern) or intermediate nerve segments (intermediate pattern), or in both (diffuse pattern). The serum concentration of tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α was measured by immunoassay. Results: Patients were classified as having a distal (n=10), intermediate (n=13), or diffuse (n=15) pattern, or were unclassified (n=4). Patients with the distal or diffuse pattern had common clinical features such as subacute onset, symmetric symptoms, and weakness involving proximal as well as distal muscles. Patients with the distal pattern had a good response to treatment and a monophasic remitting course, but the diffuse pattern was associated with a treatment dependent relapsing course, reflecting longer disease activity. The serum TNF-α concentrations increased only in the "diffuse" subgroup of patients, and this might be associated with breakdown of the blood-nerve barrier and therefore, involvement of the intermediate segments. The intermediate pattern was characterised by a chronic course, asymmetric symptoms, less severe disability, and refractoriness to treatments. Conclusions: CIDP consists of subtypes with varying predilections for lesions along the course of the nerve. The distribution patterns of conduction abnormalities may be useful in the prediction of outcome of patients with CIDP. PMID:11784822

  10. Epidemiologic variability of chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy with different diagnostic criteria: study of a UK population.

    PubMed

    Rajabally, Yusuf A; Simpson, Benjamin S; Beri, Sushil; Bankart, John; Gosalakkal, Jayaprakash A

    2009-04-01

    Epidemiologic data on chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) is limited, and previous studies have shown variable results. The frequencies of CIDP subtypes remain unknown. Variations due to use of different diagnostic criteria have not been studied. We examined the prevalence and incidence of CIDP in Leicestershire and Rutland, UK (population 963,600). Prevalence day was 1 May 2008. The prevalence of CIDP fulfilling the 2006 clinical and electrophysiologic European Federation of Neurological Societies/Peripheral Nerve Society (EFNS/PNS) criteria was 4.77 per 100,000 (95% confidence interval [CI] 3.49-6.37). Using the 1991 American Academy of Neurology (AAN) criteria, the prevalence was 1.97 per 100,000 in this population (95% CI 1.19-3.08). Lewis-Sumner syndrome was diagnosed in 15.2% of patients, and 23.9% had pure sensory onset. Over 40% required no immunotherapy, and 84.6% of those treated responded. More than 80% of the AAN criteria-negative but EFNS/PNS criteria-positive patients were responsive to treatment. Both sets of criteria were equally likely to identify patients who required therapy. The mean annual incidence rate over the 3 years preceding the prevalence day was 0.70 per 100,000/year using EFNS/PNS criteria (95% CI 0.43-1.08), and 0.35 per 100,000/year using AAN criteria (95% CI 0.17-0.64). We conclude that the AAN criteria may underestimate prevalence and incidence of the disease. The EFNS/PNS criteria provide higher diagnostic sensitivity and are of greater clinical relevance, and they also offer a useful breakdown of the epidemiologic data for CIDP subtypes.

  11. “Unequivocally Abnormal” vs “Usual” Signs and Symptoms for Proficient Diagnosis of Diabetic Polyneuropathy

    PubMed Central

    Dyck, Peter J.; Overland, Carol J.; Low, Phillip A.; Litchy, William J.; Davies, Jenny L.; Dyck, P. James B.; Carter, Rickey E.; Melton, L. Joseph; Andersen, Henning; Albers, James W.; Bolton, Charles F.; England, John D.; Klein, Christopher J.; Llewelyn, Gareth; Mauermann, Michelle L.; Russell, James W.; Selvarajah, Dinesh; Singer, Wolfgang; Smith, A. Gordon; Tesfaye, Solomon; Vella, Adrian

    2012-01-01

    Objective To repeat the Clinical vs Neurophysiology (Cl vs N Phys) trial using “unequivocally abnormal” signs and symptoms (Trial 2) compared with the earlier trial (Trial 1), which used “usual” signs and symptoms. Design Standard and referenced nerve conduction abnormalities were used in both Trials 1 and 2 as the standard criterion indicative of diabetic sensorimotor poly-neuropathy. Physician proficiency (accuracy among evaluators) was compared between Trials 1 and 2. Setting Academic medical centers in Canada, Denmark, England, and the United States. Participants Thirteen expert neuromuscular physicians. One expert was replaced in Trial 2. Results The marked overreporting, especially of signs, in Trial 1 was avoided in Trial 2. Reproducibility of diagnosis between days 1 and 2 was significantly (P=.005) better in Trial 2. The correlation of the following clinical scores with composite nerve conduction measures spanning the range of normality and abnormality was improved in Trial 2: pinprick sensation (P = .03), decreased reflexes (P = .06), touch-pressure sensation (P=.06), and the sum of symptoms (P=.06). Conclusions The simple pretrial decision to use unequivocally abnormal signs and symptoms—taking age, sex, and physical variables into account—in making clinical judgments for the diagnosis of diabetic sensorimotor polyneuropathy (Trial 2) improves physician proficiency compared with use of usual elicitation of signs and symptoms (Trial 1); both compare to confirmed nerve conduction abnormality. PMID:22986424

  12. [Successful treatment with acyclovir and a corticosteroid for lower cranial polyneuropathy in zoster sine herpete: a case report].

    PubMed

    Taniguchi, Daisuke; Nakahara Ph D, Toshiki; Nakajima, Sho; Nakazato, Tomoko; Mikasa, Michitaka; Furukawa Ph D, Yoshiaki

    2015-01-01

    A 62-year-old woman developed meningitis as well as acute paralysis of glossopharyngeal, vagus, and accessory nerves on the right side and also had dysfunction of the left hypoglossal nerve. Although there was no evidence of a typical cutaneous or mucosal herpetic lesion, PCR detection of varicella zoster virus (VZV)-DNA in cerebrospinal fluid confirmed the clinical diagnosis of polyneuritis cranialis due to VZV infection and zoster sine herpete. After starting intravenous acyclovir and methylprednisolone, her hypoglossal nerve palsy disappeared within a day and all other symptoms and signs dramatically improved. A rapid improvement observed in our patient suggests that the right cranial polyneuropathy could be caused by inflammation associated with epineurial edema (where the ninth, tenth, and eleventh cranial nerves pass through the right jugular foramen), whereas the exact mechanism of the twelfth cranial nerve involvement on the contralateral side is unknown. Our clinical findings indicate that acute lower cranial polyneuropathy in patients with zoster sine herpete should be treated immediately with combined administration of acyclovir and an anti-inflammatory corticosteroid.

  13. Emergencies in parkinsonism: akinetic crisis, life-threatening dyskinesias, and polyneuropathy during L-Dopa gel treatment.

    PubMed

    Onofrj, Marco; Bonanni, Laura; Cossu, Giovanni; Manca, Davide; Stocchi, Fabrizio; Thomas, Astrid

    2009-12-01

    This article reviews literature on three emergencies in Parkinson's disease (PD): Akinetic crisis, severe dyskinesias or life-threatening dyskinesias, and polyneuropathy during duodenal L-Dopa gel infusion treatment. Akinetic crisis is also known as Parkinsonian hyperpyrexia, Neuroleptic-like malignant syndrome, Acute akinesia, and Malignant syndrome in parkinsonism. It appears in 0.3% of PD patients/year, and is characterized in the most severe cases by total akinesia with dysphagia, hyperthermia, dysautonomia, increment of muscle enzymes and alterations of mental status, but it may also appear in less severe forms ("forme frusta"). At difference with the continuum of motor hypokinesias observed in PD it is characterized by transient (in cases with favorable outcome) unresponsiveness to rescue drugs. Life-supporting measures are mandatory in patients affected by this emergency. Severe dyskinesia, or life-threatening dyskinesia, is due to increased dopaminergic stimulation (either by the patient or by the prescriber): when it appears the level of dopaminomimetic stimulation should be reduced. Polyneuropathy during duodenal L-Dopa gel infusion is a recently described complication, attributed to the onset of Guillain-Barré syndromes. However, hemapheresis was not effective in some reported cases, and recent evidence suggests that Vitamin B12 deficiency or direct high-dose chronic L-Dopa toxicity might play a role in its origin.

  14. Anti-ganglioside antibodies in Guillain-Barré syndrome and chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy in Chinese patients.

    PubMed

    Fan, Chenghe; Jin, Haiqiang; Hao, Hongjun; Gao, Feng; Sun, Yongan; Lu, Yuanyuan; Liu, Yuanyuan; Lv, Pu; Cui, Wei; Teng, Yuming; Huang, Yining

    2017-04-01

    In this study we investigated the relationships between anti-ganglioside antibodies and Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) and chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP). Samples from 48 Chinese patients diagnosed with GBS and 18 patients diagnosed with CIDP were retrospectively reviewed. In the GBS patients, 62.5% were classified as having acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (AIDP), 27.1% were found to have acute motor axonal neuropathy (AMAN), and 10.4% were unclassified. Serum IgG anti-ganglioside antibodies were detected in 46.2% of the AMAN patients and in 6.7% of the AIDP patients (P < 0.05); 5.6% of the 18 CIDP patients were IgG antibody positive, and 27.8% were IgM antibody positive. Facial palsy and sensory impairment were significantly associated with IgM antibodies. These results suggest that IgG anti-GM1 antibodies are associated with AMAN, but not with AIDP, and that IgM antibodies against GM1, GM2, and GM3 are associated with facial nerve palsy. Muscle Nerve 55: 470-475, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Gelsolin-related familial amyloidosis, Finnish type, in a Portuguese family: clinical and neurophysiological studies.

    PubMed

    Conceição, Isabel; Sales-Luis, Maria Lurdes; De Carvalho, Mamede; Evangelista, Teresinha; Fernandes, Rui; Paunio, Tiina; Kangas, Hannele; Coutinho, Paula; Neves, Carlos; Saraiva, Maria João

    2003-12-01

    We report a Portuguese family with familial amyloid polyneuropathy related to gelsolin. There were no known Finnish ancestors, but the same mutation as described in Finnish patients (G654A) was carried. Clinical and neurophysiological investigations were performed in four patients. Corneal lattice dystrophy affected all four patients; an axonal lesion of the facial nerve occurred in three patients; visual tract involvement was documented in one case; and corticospinal and posterior column dysfunction was present in one patient. Polarizing microscopy of skin and muscle samples demonstrated amyloid deposits in two patients; anti-gelsolin immunohistochemistry was positive for amyloidogenic gelsolin. The Finnish mutation of gelsolin protein (G654A) was detected in five family members. The utility of neurophysiological testing in the evaluation and follow-up of this type of amyloidosis is discussed.

  16. Metabolic Syndrome Components Are Associated With Symptomatic Polyneuropathy Independent of Glycemic Status.

    PubMed

    Callaghan, Brian C; Xia, Rong; Banerjee, Mousumi; de Rekeneire, Nathalie; Harris, Tamara B; Newman, Anne B; Satterfield, Suzanne; Schwartz, Ann V; Vinik, Aaron I; Feldman, Eva L; Strotmeyer, Elsa S

    2016-05-01

    Previous studies demonstrate that the metabolic syndrome is associated with distal symmetric polyneuropathy (DSP). We aimed to determine the magnitude of this effect and the precise components involved. We determined the symptomatic DSP prevalence in the Health, Aging, and Body Composition (Health ABC) study (prospective cohort study, with subjects aged 70-79 years at baseline), stratified by glycemic status (glucose tolerance test) and the number of additional metabolic syndrome components (updated National Cholesterol Education Program/Adult Treatment Panel III definition). DSP was defined as neuropathic symptoms (questionnaire) plus at least one of three confirmatory tests (heavy monofilament, peroneal conduction velocity, and vibration threshold). Multivariable logistic and linear regression evaluated the association of metabolic syndrome components with DSP in cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses. Of 2,382 participants with neuropathy measures (mean age 73.5 ± 2.9 years, 38.2% black, 51.7% women), 21.0% had diabetes, 29.9% prediabetes, 52.8% metabolic syndrome, and 11.1% DSP. Stratified by glycemic status, DSP prevalence increased as the number of metabolic syndrome components increased (P = 0.03). Diabetes (cross-sectional model, odds ratio [OR] 1.65 [95% CI 1.18-2.31]) and baseline hemoglobin A1C (longitudinal model, OR 1.42 [95% CI 1.15-1.75]) were the only metabolic syndrome measures significantly associated with DSP. Waist circumference and HDL were significantly associated with multiple secondary neuropathy outcomes. Independent of glycemic status, symptomatic DSP is more common in those with additional metabolic syndrome components. However, the issue of which metabolic syndrome components drive this association, in addition to hyperglycemia, remains unclear. Larger waist circumference and low HDL may be associated with DSP, but larger studies with more precise metabolic measures are needed. © 2016 by the American Diabetes Association. Readers

  17. The role of neurologists and diagnostic tests in the management of distal symmetric polyneuropathy

    PubMed Central

    Callaghan, Brian C.; Kerber, Kevin A.; Lisabeth, Lynda L.; Morgenstern, Lewis B.; Longoria, Ruth; Rodgers, Ann; Longwell, Paxton; Feldman, Eva L.

    2014-01-01

    Importance Distal symmetric polyneuropathy (DSP) is a prevalent condition resulting in high costs from diagnostic testing. However, the role of neurologists and diagnostic tests on patient care is unknown. Objective To determine how often neurologists and diagnostic tests influence the diagnosis and management of DSP patients in a community setting. Design We utilized a validated case-capture method (ICD-9 screening technique with subsequent medical chart abstraction) to identify patients with a new DSP diagnosis (retrospective cohort). Using a structured data abstraction process, diagnostic testing, diagnoses rendered (before and after testing), and subsequent management were recorded. Setting Community neurologist’s outpatient offices in Corpus Christi, Texas. Participants Patients meeting the Toronto consensus criteria for probable DSP. Main Outcome Measure Changes in etiology and management after diagnostic testing by neurologists. Results Between 1/1/2010–3/31/2011, we identified 458 DSP patients followed for mean (SD) 435.3 (44.1) days. Neurologists identified a cause of DSP in 63.5% of cases prior to their diagnostic testing. Seventy-one patients (15.5%) had a new DSP cause discovered after testing by neurologists. The most common new diagnoses were pre-diabetes (N=28), B12 deficiency (N=20), diabetes (N=8), and thyroid disease (N=8). Management changes were common (63.1%), usually related to neuropathic pain management (77.5%). Disease modifying management changes occurred in 24.7% with diabetes management (N=45), starting vitamins (N=39), advising diet/exercise (N=33), and adjusting thyroid medications (N=10) the most common. Electrodiagnostic testing and MRIs of the neuroaxis rarely led to management changes. Conclusions and Relevance Neurologists diagnosed the cause of DSP in almost two-thirds of patients prior to their diagnostic testing. Inexpensive blood tests for diabetes, thyroid dysfunction, and B12 deficiency, allowed neurologists to identify

  18. Measurement of Cooling Detection Thresholds for Identification of Diabetic Sensorimotor Polyneuropathy in Type 1 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Lysy, Zoe; Lovblom, Leif E.; Halpern, Elise M.; Ngo, Mylan; Ng, Eduardo; Orszag, Andrej; Breiner, Ari; Bril, Vera; Perkins, Bruce A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Compared to recently-studied novel morphological measures, conventional small nerve fiber functional tests have not been systematically studied for identification of diabetic sensorimotor polyneuropathy (DSP). We aimed to determine and compare the diagnostic performance of cooling detection thresholds (CDT) in a cross-sectional type 1 diabetes cohort. Research Design and Methods 136 subjects with type 1 diabetes and 52 healthy volunteers underwent clinical and electrophysiological examination for DSP classification concomitantly with the Toronto Clinical Neuropathy Score (TCNS) and three small fiber function tests: CDT, heart rate variability (HRV), and laser doppler imaging of axon-mediated neurogenic flare responses to cutaneous heating (LDIFLARE). Area under the curve (AUC) and optimal thresholds were determined by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves in the type 1 diabetes cohort. Results Type 1 diabetes subjects were 42±17 years of age with mean HbA1c 7.9±1.7%. Fifty-nine (45%) met the case definition for DSP. CDT values were lowest in cases with DSP (18.3±8.4°C) compared to controls without DSP (28.4±3.5°C) and to healthy volunteers (29.6±1.8°C; p-value for both comparisons<0.0001). AUCCDT was 0.863 which was similar to AUCTCNS (0.858, p = 0.24) and AUCHRV (0.788, p = 0.05), but exceeded AUCLDIFLARE (0.750, p = 0.001). The threshold of <25.1°C was equivalent to the lower bound of the healthy volunteer 95% distribution [25.1, 30.8°C] and performed with 83% sensitivity and 82% specificity. Conclusions Akin to novel small fiber morphological measures, CDT is a functional test that identifies DSP with very good diagnostic performance. These findings support further research that revisits the role of CDT in early DSP detection. PMID:25216179

  19. Polyneuropathy in a young Belgian patient: A novel heterozygous mutation in the WNK1/HSN2 gene.

    PubMed

    de Filette, Jeroen; Hasaerts, Danielle; Seneca, Sara; Gheldof, Alexander; Stouffs, Katrien; Keymolen, Kathelijn; Velkeniers, Brigitte

    2016-02-01

    Hereditary sensory autonomic neuropathy (HSAN) is a rare condition, predominantly affecting the peripheral sensory nervous system, although variable motor and dysautonomic symptoms can be present. At least 7 clinical types of HSAN have been described, and different genetic mutations have been identified for each of these. HSAN IIA (OMIM #201300) is characterized by loss of pain and loss of temperature and touch sensation, with onset usually before the first decade. The mode of inheritance is autosomal recessive.(1) The causative gene, WNK1/HSN2, is located on locus 12p13.33 and is an isoform of the WNK1 (lysine deficient protein kinase 1) gene, which contains the HSN2 exon.(2,3) We describe 2 new heterozygous mutations in the WNK1/HSN2 gene in a Belgian patient with early-onset sensory polyneuropathy.

  20. The six-spot-step test - a new method for monitoring walking ability in patients with chronic inflammatory polyneuropathy.

    PubMed

    Kreutzfeldt, Melissa; Jensen, Henrik B; Ravnborg, Mads; Markvardsen, Lars H; Andersen, Henning; Sindrup, Søren H

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the six-spot-step test (SSST) is more suitable for monitoring walking ability in patients with chronic inflammatory polyneuropathy than the timed 25-foot-walking test (T25FW). In the SSST, participants have to walk as quickly as possible across a field measuring 1 × 5 m, while kicking blocks out of five circles on the floor. Sixty-two patients and 61 controls performed the SSST and T25FW. Patients also performed the overall disability sumscore, INCAT sensory sumscore, Medical Research Council sumscore, and 9-hole-peg-test. Twenty-one patients treated with intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) every 4-6 weeks were tested prior to and 2-3 weeks after treatment and judged change in their own clinical condition using the patient global impression of change (PGIC) scale. In patients, SSST ranged from 5.7 to 26.8 s and T25FW ranged from 3.6 to 12.9 s. Intra-class correlation between repeated tests was 0.97 for SSST and 0.95 for T25FW. Correlation with the additional tests was stronger for SSST than T25FW. In IVIG-treated patients, the mean change in walking time was -2.3 s for SSST and -0.6 s for T25FW. The SSST showed larger responsiveness in terms of effect size, standardized response means, and relative efficiency. Both ambulation tests correlated moderately to PGIC. The SSST may be superior to the T25FW in terms of dynamic range, floor effect, and responsiveness which makes the SSST a possible alternative for monitoring walking ability in patients with chronic inflammatory polyneuropathy. © 2017 Peripheral Nerve Society.

  1. Liver transplantation and transthyretin amyloidosis.

    PubMed

    Benson, Merrill D

    2013-02-01

    Liver transplantation as a specific treatment of transthyretin amyloidosis was first performed in 1990. The rationale for this treatment was that removal of the source (liver) of the amyloid precursor protein (mutated transthyretin) would stop progression of the disease. Indeed, after orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT), mutant transthyretin (TTR) is rapidly cleared from circulation. In the last 20 years, >2000 familial amyloidotic polyneuropathy (FAP) patients have received liver transplants. For these patients, prospective monitoring has shown prolongation of life compared with FAP patients who have not undergone liver transplantation. The most favorable results have been for FAP patients with the Val30Met TTR mutation. Less favorable results have been seen for patients with other TTR mutations where progression of amyloid tissue deposition has been documented as the result of amyloid fibril formation from normal (wild-type) TTR. Although it is obvious that OLT has benefited many FAP patients, there remains a need for further therapies. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Functional outcomes and efficiency of rehabilitation in a national cohort of patients with Guillain-Barré syndrome and other inflammatory polyneuropathies.

    PubMed

    Alexandrescu, Roxana; Siegert, Richard John; Turner-Stokes, Lynne

    2014-01-01

    To describe functional outcomes, care needs and cost-efficiency of hospital rehabilitation for a UK cohort of inpatients with complex rehabilitation needs arising from inflammatory polyneuropathies. 186 patients consecutively admitted to specialist neurorehabilitation centres in England with Guillain-Barré Syndrome (n = 118 (63.4%)) or other inflammatory polyneuropathies, including chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (n = 15 (8.1%) or critical illness neuropathy (n = 32 (17.2%)). Cohort analysis of data from the UK Rehabilitation Outcomes Collaborative national clinical dataset. Outcome measures include the UK Functional Assessment Measure, Northwick Park Dependency Score (NPDS) and Care Needs Assessment (NPCNA). Patients were analysed in three groups of dependency based on their admission NPDS score: 'low' (NPDS<10), 'medium' (NPDS 10-24) and 'high' (NPDS ≥ 25). Cost-efficiency was measured as the time taken to offset the cost of rehabilitation by savings in NPCNA-estimated costs of on-going care in the community. The mean rehabilitation length of stay was 72.2 (sd = 66.6) days. Significant differences were seen between the diagnostic groups on admission, but all showed significant improvements between admission and discharge, in both motor and cognitive function (p<0.0001). Patients who were highly dependent on admission had the longest lengths of stay (mean 97.0 (SD 79.0) days), but also showed the greatest reduction in on-going care costs (£1049 per week (SD £994)), so that overall they were the most cost-efficient to treat. Patients with polyneuropathies have both physical and cognitive disabilities that are amenable to change with rehabilitation, resulting in significant reduction in on-going care-costs, especially for highly dependent patients.

  3. Functional Outcomes and Efficiency of Rehabilitation in a National Cohort of Patients with Guillain - Barré Syndrome and Other Inflammatory Polyneuropathies

    PubMed Central

    Alexandrescu, Roxana; Siegert, Richard John; Turner-Stokes, Lynne

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To describe functional outcomes, care needs and cost-efficiency of hospital rehabilitation for a UK cohort of inpatients with complex rehabilitation needs arising from inflammatory polyneuropathies. Subjects and Setting 186 patients consecutively admitted to specialist neurorehabilitation centres in England with Guillain-Barré Syndrome (n = 118 (63.4%)) or other inflammatory polyneuropathies, including chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (n = 15 (8.1%) or critical illness neuropathy (n = 32 (17.2%)). Methods Cohort analysis of data from the UK Rehabilitation Outcomes Collaborative national clinical dataset. Outcome measures include the UK Functional Assessment Measure, Northwick Park Dependency Score (NPDS) and Care Needs Assessment (NPCNA). Patients were analysed in three groups of dependency based on their admission NPDS score: ‘low’ (NPDS<10), ‘medium’ (NPDS 10–24) and ‘high’ (NPDS ≥25). Cost-efficiency was measured as the time taken to offset the cost of rehabilitation by savings in NPCNA-estimated costs of on-going care in the community. Results The mean rehabilitation length of stay was 72.2 (sd = 66.6) days. Significant differences were seen between the diagnostic groups on admission, but all showed significant improvements between admission and discharge, in both motor and cognitive function (p<0.0001). Patients who were highly dependent on admission had the longest lengths of stay (mean 97.0 (SD 79.0) days), but also showed the greatest reduction in on-going care costs (£1049 per week (SD £994)), so that overall they were the most cost-efficient to treat. Conclusions Patients with polyneuropathies have both physical and cognitive disabilities that are amenable to change with rehabilitation, resulting in significant reduction in on-going care-costs, especially for highly dependent patients. PMID:25402491

  4. Construction and validation of the chronic acquired polyneuropathy patient-reported index (CAP-PRI): A disease-specific, health-related quality-of-life instrument.

    PubMed

    Gwathmey, Kelly G; Conaway, Mark R; Sadjadi, Reza; Joshi, Amruta; Barnett, Carolina; Bril, Vera; Ng, Eduardo; David, William; Gable, Karissa; Guptill, Jeffrey T; Hobson-Webb, Lisa D; Dineen, Jennifer; Hehir, Michael; Brannagan, Thomas H; Byun, Esther; Adler, Margaret; Burns, Ted M

    2016-06-01

    Generic health-related quality-of-life (HRQOL) patient-reported outcome measures have been used in patients with chronic immune-mediated polyneuropathies. We have created a disease-specific HRQOL instrument. The chronic acquired polyneuropathy patient-reported index (CAP-PRI) was developed and validated in multiple steps. Items were initially generated through patient and specialist input. The performance of the preliminary 20 items was analyzed via a prospective, 5-center study involving chronic immune-mediated polyneuropathy patients. Data analysis suggested modification to a 15-item scale with 3 response categories rather than 5. The final CAP-PRI was validated in another prospective, 5-center study. The CAP-PRI appeared to be a unidimensional outcome measure that fit the Rasch model in our multicenter cohort. It correlated appropriately with outcome measures commonly used in this patient population. The CAP-PRI is a simple disease-specific HRQOL measure that appears to be useful for clinical care and possibly also for clinical trials. Muscle Nerve 54: 9-17, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Treatment with α-Lipoic Acid over 16 Weeks in Type 2 Diabetic Patients with Symptomatic Polyneuropathy Who Responded to Initial 4-Week High-Dose Loading

    PubMed Central

    Garcia-Alcala, Hector; Santos Vichido, Celia Isabel; Islas Macedo, Silverio; Genestier-Tamborero, Christelle Nathalie; Minutti-Palacios, Marissa; Hirales Tamez, Omara; García, Carlos; Ziegler, Dan

    2015-01-01

    Effective treatment of diabetic sensorimotor polyneuropathy remains a challenge. To assess the efficacy and safety of α-lipoic acid (ALA) over 20 weeks, we conducted a multicenter randomized withdrawal open-label study, in which 45 patients with type 2 diabetes and symptomatic polyneuropathy were initially treated with ALA (600 mg tid) for 4 weeks (phase 1). Subsequently, responders were randomized to receive ALA (600 mg qd; n = 16) or to ALA withdrawal (n = 17) for 16 weeks (phase 2). During phase 1, the Total Symptom Score (TSS) decreased from 8.9 ± 1.8 points to 3.46 ± 2.0 points. During phase 2, TSS improved from 3.7 ± 1.9 points to 2.5 ± 2.5 points in the ALA treated group (p < 0.05) and remained unchanged in the ALA withdrawal group. The use of analgesic rescue medication was higher in the ALA withdrawal group than ALA treated group (p < 0.05). In conclusion, in type 2 diabetic patients with symptomatic polyneuropathy who responded to initial 4-week high-dose (600 mg tid) administration of ALA, subsequent treatment with ALA (600 mg qd) over 16 weeks improved neuropathic symptoms, whereas ALA withdrawal was associated with a higher use of rescue analgesic drugs. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02439879. PMID:26345602

  6. Treatment with α-Lipoic Acid over 16 Weeks in Type 2 Diabetic Patients with Symptomatic Polyneuropathy Who Responded to Initial 4-Week High-Dose Loading.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Alcala, Hector; Santos Vichido, Celia Isabel; Islas Macedo, Silverio; Genestier-Tamborero, Christelle Nathalie; Minutti-Palacios, Marissa; Hirales Tamez, Omara; García, Carlos; Ziegler, Dan

    2015-01-01

    Effective treatment of diabetic sensorimotor polyneuropathy remains a challenge. To assess the efficacy and safety of α-lipoic acid (ALA) over 20 weeks, we conducted a multicenter randomized withdrawal open-label study, in which 45 patients with type 2 diabetes and symptomatic polyneuropathy were initially treated with ALA (600 mg tid) for 4 weeks (phase 1). Subsequently, responders were randomized to receive ALA (600 mg qd; n = 16) or to ALA withdrawal (n = 17) for 16 weeks (phase 2). During phase 1, the Total Symptom Score (TSS) decreased from 8.9 ± 1.8 points to 3.46 ± 2.0 points. During phase 2, TSS improved from 3.7 ± 1.9 points to 2.5 ± 2.5 points in the ALA treated group (p < 0.05) and remained unchanged in the ALA withdrawal group. The use of analgesic rescue medication was higher in the ALA withdrawal group than ALA treated group (p < 0.05). In conclusion, in type 2 diabetic patients with symptomatic polyneuropathy who responded to initial 4-week high-dose (600 mg tid) administration of ALA, subsequent treatment with ALA (600 mg qd) over 16 weeks improved neuropathic symptoms, whereas ALA withdrawal was associated with a higher use of rescue analgesic drugs. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02439879.

  7. Construction and validation of the chronic acquired polyneuropathy patient-reported index, “CAP-PRI:” a disease-specific, health-related quality of life instrument

    PubMed Central

    Gwathmey, Kelly G.; Conaway, Mark R.; Seyedsadjadi, Reza; Joshi, Amruta; Barnett, Carolina; Bril, Vera; Ng, Eduardo; David, William; Gable, Karissa; Guptill, Jeffrey T.; Hobson-Webb, Lisa D.; Dineen, Jennifer; Hehir, Michael; Brannagan, Thomas H.; Byun, Esther; Adler, Margaret; Burns, Ted M.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Generic health-related quality of life (HRQOL) patient-reported outcome measures have been used in patients with chronic immune-mediated polyneuropathies. We have created a disease-specific HRQOL instrument. Methods and Results The 15-item chronic acquired polyneuropathy patient-reported index (CAP-PRI) was developed and validated in multiple steps. Items were initially generated through patient and specialist input. The performance of the preliminary 20 items was analyzed from a prospective, 5-center study involving chronic immune-mediated polyneuropathy patients. Data analysis suggested modification to a 15-item scale with 3 response categories, rather than 5. The final CAP-PRI was then validated in another prospective, 5-center study. The CAP-PRI appeared to be a unidimensional outcome measure that fits the Rasch Partial Credit Model in our multicenter cohort. It correlated appropriately with the outcome measures commonly used in this patient population. Discussion The CAP-PRI is a simple, easy, disease-specific HRQOL measure that appears to be useful for clinical care and possibly also for clinical trials. PMID:26600438

  8. Measuring vibration threshold with a graduated tuning fork in normal aging and in patients with polyneuropathy. European Inflammatory Neuropathy Cause and Treatment (INCAT) group.

    PubMed

    Martina, I S; van Koningsveld, R; Schmitz, P I; van der Meché, F G; van Doorn, P A

    1998-11-01

    To provide clinically useful vibration threshold normal values. The graduated Rydel-Seiffer tuning fork was evaluated in 198 healthy controls and 59 patients with a polyneuropathy. The measures were done in triplicate at four locations: the distal interphalangeal joint of the index finger, ulnar styloid process, interphalangeal joint of the hallux, and internal malleolus. The values obtained with this tuning fork in healthy controls and patients with polyneuropathy were compared with the values of an electronic device, the Vibrameter. Vibration sense was better perceived in the arms compared with the legs. There was a significant age related decline of vibration sense at all locations. The values from the Rydel-Seiffer tuning fork and the Vibrameter were significantly correlated in both groups. The sensitivity of these two instruments for the four sites examined in the polyneuropathy group ranged from 29-76% and 31-73%, respectively and was the highest at the hallux for both instruments. This study provides clinical useful normal values of vibration threshold for the Rydel-Seiffer tuning fork. This is a simple and easily applicable instrument that assesses vibration sense semiquantitatively and should therefore have a place in routine neurological examination.

  9. A Gly98Val Mutation in the N-Myc Downstream Regulated Gene 1 (NDRG1) in Alaskan Malamutes with Polyneuropathy

    PubMed Central

    Bruun, Camilla S.; Jäderlund, Karin H.; Berendt, Mette; Jensen, Kristine B.; Spodsberg, Eva H.; Gredal, Hanne; Shelton, G. Diane; Mickelson, James R.; Minor, Katie M.; Lohi, Hannes; Bjerkås, Inge; Stigen, Øyvind; Espenes, Arild; Rohdin, Cecilia; Edlund, Rebecca; Ohlsson, Jennie; Cizinauskas, Sigitas; Leifsson, Páll S.; Drögemüller, Cord; Moe, Lars; Cirera, Susanna; Fredholm, Merete

    2013-01-01

    The first cases of early-onset progressive polyneuropathy appeared in the Alaskan Malamute population in Norway in the late 1970s. Affected dogs were of both sexes and were ambulatory paraparetic, progressing to non-ambulatory tetraparesis. On neurologic examination, affected dogs displayed predominantly laryngeal paresis, decreased postural reactions, decreased spinal reflexes and muscle atrophy. The disease was considered eradicated through breeding programmes but recently new cases have occurred in the Nordic countries and the USA. The N-myc downstream-regulated gene (NDRG1) is implicated in neuropathies with comparable symptoms or clinical signs both in humans and in Greyhound dogs. This gene was therefore considered a candidate gene for the polyneuropathy in Alaskan Malamutes. The coding sequence of the NDRG1 gene derived from one healthy and one affected Alaskan Malamute revealed a non-synonymous G>T mutation in exon 4 in the affected dog that causes a Gly98Val amino acid substitution. This substitution was categorized to be “probably damaging” to the protein function by PolyPhen2 (score: 1.000). Subsequently, 102 Alaskan Malamutes from the Nordic countries and the USA known to be either affected (n = 22), obligate carriers (n = 7) or healthy (n = 73) were genotyped for the SNP using TaqMan. All affected dogs had the T/T genotype, the obligate carriers had the G/T genotype and the healthy dogs had the G/G genotype except for 13 who had the G/T genotype. A protein alignment showed that residue 98 is conserved in mammals and also that the entire NDRG1 protein is highly conserved (94.7%) in mammals. We conclude that the G>T substitution is most likely the mutation that causes polyneuropathy in Alaskan Malamutes. Our characterization of a novel candidate causative mutation for polyneuropathy offers a new canine model that can provide further insight into pathobiology and therapy of human polyneuropathy. Furthermore, selection against this mutation

  10. A Gly98Val mutation in the N-Myc downstream regulated gene 1 (NDRG1) in Alaskan Malamutes with polyneuropathy.

    PubMed

    Bruun, Camilla S; Jäderlund, Karin H; Berendt, Mette; Jensen, Kristine B; Spodsberg, Eva H; Gredal, Hanne; Shelton, G Diane; Mickelson, James R; Minor, Katie M; Lohi, Hannes; Bjerkås, Inge; Stigen, Oyvind; Espenes, Arild; Rohdin, Cecilia; Edlund, Rebecca; Ohlsson, Jennie; Cizinauskas, Sigitas; Leifsson, Páll S; Drögemüller, Cord; Moe, Lars; Cirera, Susanna; Fredholm, Merete

    2013-01-01

    The first cases of early-onset progressive polyneuropathy appeared in the Alaskan Malamute population in Norway in the late 1970s. Affected dogs were of both sexes and were ambulatory paraparetic, progressing to non-ambulatory tetraparesis. On neurologic examination, affected dogs displayed predominantly laryngeal paresis, decreased postural reactions, decreased spinal reflexes and muscle atrophy. The disease was considered eradicated through breeding programmes but recently new cases have occurred in the Nordic countries and the USA. The N-myc downstream-regulated gene (NDRG1) is implicated in neuropathies with comparable symptoms or clinical signs both in humans and in Greyhound dogs. This gene was therefore considered a candidate gene for the polyneuropathy in Alaskan Malamutes. The coding sequence of the NDRG1 gene derived from one healthy and one affected Alaskan Malamute revealed a non-synonymous G>T mutation in exon 4 in the affected dog that causes a Gly98Val amino acid substitution. This substitution was categorized to be "probably damaging" to the protein function by PolyPhen2 (score: 1.000). Subsequently, 102 Alaskan Malamutes from the Nordic countries and the USA known to be either affected (n = 22), obligate carriers (n = 7) or healthy (n = 73) were genotyped for the SNP using TaqMan. All affected dogs had the T/T genotype, the obligate carriers had the G/T genotype and the healthy dogs had the G/G genotype except for 13 who had the G/T genotype. A protein alignment showed that residue 98 is conserved in mammals and also that the entire NDRG1 protein is highly conserved (94.7%) in mammals. We conclude that the G>T substitution is most likely the mutation that causes polyneuropathy in Alaskan Malamutes. Our characterization of a novel candidate causative mutation for polyneuropathy offers a new canine model that can provide further insight into pathobiology and therapy of human polyneuropathy. Furthermore, selection against this mutation can

  11. Subcutaneous immunoglobulin for maintenance treatment in chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (The PATH Study): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    van Schaik, Ivo N; van Geloven, Nan; Bril, Vera; Hartung, Hans-Peter; Lewis, Richard A; Sobue, Gen; Lawo, John-Philip; Mielke, Orell; Cornblath, David R; Merkies, Ingemar S J

    2016-07-25

    Subcutaneous administration of Ig (SCIg) has gained popularity as an alternative route of administration but has never been rigorously examined in chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP). The primary objective of the PATH study (Polyneuropathy and Treatment with Hizentra) is to determine the efficacy of two different doses of SCIg IgPro20 (0.2 g/kg bw or 0.4 g/kg bw) in a 24-week maintenance treatment of CIDP in comparison to placebo. The primary efficacy endpoint will be the proportion of patients who show CIDP relapse (1-point deterioration on the adjusted Inflammatory Neuropathy Cause and Treatment (INCAT) disability score) or are withdrawn within 24 weeks after randomization for any reason. IVIg-dependent adult patients with definite or probable CIDP according to the European Federation of Neurological Societies/Peripheral Nerve Society who fulfil the inclusion and exclusion criteria will be eligible. Based on sample-size calculation and relapse assumptions in the three arms, a sample size of 58 is needed per arm (overall sample size will be 350, of which 174 will be randomized). All eligible patients will progress through three study periods: an IgG dependency period (≤12 weeks) to select those who are Ig dependent; an IVIg restabilization period (10 or 13 weeks), which will be performed using the 10 % IgPro10 product; and an SC treatment period (24 weeks, followed by a 1-week completion visit after last follow-up). Patients showing IVIg restabilization will be randomized to demonstrate the efficacy of SCIg IgPro20 maintenance treatment over placebo. After completing the study, subjects are eligible to enter a long-term, open-label, extension study of 1 year or return to their previous treatment. In case of CIDP relapse during the 24-week SC treatment period, IgPro10 rescue medication will be offered. Safety, tolerability, and patients' preference of Ig administration route will be examined. The PATH trial, which started in March

  12. Acute paretic syndrome in juvenile White Leghorn chickens resembles late stages of acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathies in humans

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Sudden limb paresis is a common problem in White Leghorn flocks, affecting about 1% of the chicken population before achievement of sexual maturity. Previously, a similar clinical syndrome has been reported as being caused by inflammatory demyelination of peripheral nerve fibres. Here, we investigated in detail the immunopathology of this paretic syndrome and its possible resemblance to human neuropathies. Methods Neurologically affected chickens and control animals from one single flock underwent clinical and neuropathological examination. Peripheral nervous system (PNS) alterations were characterised using standard morphological techniques, including nerve fibre teasing and transmission electron microscopy. Infiltrating cells were phenotyped immunohistologically and quantified by flow cytometry. The cytokine expression pattern was assessed by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). These investigations were accomplished by MHC genotyping and a PCR screen for Marek's disease virus (MDV). Results Spontaneous paresis of White Leghorns is caused by cell-mediated, inflammatory demyelination affecting multiple cranial and spinal nerves and nerve roots with a proximodistal tapering. Clinical manifestation coincides with the employment of humoral immune mechanisms, enrolling plasma cell recruitment, deposition of myelin-bound IgG and antibody-dependent macrophageal myelin-stripping. Disease development was significantly linked to a 539 bp microsatellite in MHC locus LEI0258. An aetiological role for MDV was excluded. Conclusions The paretic phase of avian inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuritis immunobiologically resembles the late-acute disease stages of human acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy, and is characterised by a Th1-to-Th2 shift. PMID:20109187

  13. Bochum ultrasound score versus clinical and electrophysiological parameters in distinguishing acute-onset chronic from acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy.

    PubMed

    Kerasnoudis, Antonios; Pitarokoili, Kallia; Behrendt, Volker; Gold, Ralf; Yoon, Min-Suk

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate whether a nerve ultrasound score (Bochum ultrasound score, BUS), clinical, and electrophysiological parameters could distinguish subacute chronic (CIDP) from acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (AIDP). Phase 1: The charts of 35 patients with polyradiculoneuropathy were evaluated retrospectively regarding BUS, clinical, and electrophysiological parameters (A-waves, sural nerve sparing pattern, sensory ratio>1). Phase 2: All parameters were evaluated prospectively in 10 patients with subacute polyradiculoneuropathy. Phase 1: A sum score of ≥2 points in BUS and the presence of sensory symptoms were significantly more frequent in the subacute CIDP group than in the AIDP group (P<0.001).The electrophysiological parameters showed no significant changes between the 2 groups. Phase 2: BUS (83.3%; 100%;), sensory symptoms (100%; 75%), absence of autonomic nervous system dysfunction (83.3%; 75%), or bulbar palsy (83.3%; 50%) showed the best sensitivity and specificity in distinguishing subacute CIDP from AIDP. BUS is a useful diagnostic tool for distinguishing subacute CIDP from AIDP. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. A MODEL OF CHRONIC DIABETIC POLYNEUROPATHY: BENEFITS FROM INTRANASAL INSULIN ARE MODIFIED BY SEX AND RAGE DELETION.

    PubMed

    de la Hoz, Cristiane L; Cheng, Chu; Fernyhough, Paul; Zochodne, Douglas W

    2017-02-21

    Human diabetic polyneuropathy (DPN) is a progressive complication of chronic diabetes mellitus. Preliminary evidence has suggested that intranasal insulin, in doses insufficient to alter hyperglycemia, suppresses the development of DPN. In this work we confirm this finding, but demonstrate that its impact is modified by sex and deletion of RAGE, the receptor for advanced glycosylation endproducts. We serially evaluated experimental DPN in male and female wild type mice and male RAGE null (RN) mice, each with nondiabetic controls, during 16 weeks of diabetes, the final 8 weeks including groups given intranasal insulin. Age matched nondiabetic female mice had higher motor and sensory conduction velocities than their male counterparts and had lesser conduction slowing from chronic diabetes. Intranasal insulin improved slowing in both genders. In male RN mice, there was lesser conduction slowing with chronic diabetes and intranasal insulin provided limited benefits. Rotarod testing, and hindpaw grip power offered less consistent impacts . Mechanical sensitivity and thermal sensitivity were respectively but disparately changed and improved with insulin in wild type female and male mice but not RN male mice. These studies confirm that intranasal insulin improves indices of experimental DPN but indicates that females with DPN may differ in their underlying phenotype. RN mice had partial but incomplete protection from underlying DPN and lesser impacts from insulin. We also identify an important role for sex in the development of DPN and report evidence that insulin and AGE-RAGE pathways in its pathogenesis may overlap.

  15. [Successful treatment of HIV-associated chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy by early initiation of highly active anti-retroviral therapy].

    PubMed

    Kume, Kodai; Ikeda, Kazuyo; Kamada, Masaki; Touge, Tetsuo; Deguchi, Kazushi; Masaki, Tsutomu

    2013-01-01

    A 47-year-old man with HIV infection presented with lower leg dominant dysesthesia, muscle weakness and sensory ataxia of 3 month's duration. Nerve conduction studies (NCS) showed demyelination change in the median and tibial nerves and sensory nerve action potential (SNAP) in the sural nerve was not evoked. Somatosensory evoked potential (SEP) showed the delayed N9 latency. Diagnose of HIV-associated chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) was made. Although the CD4 lymphocyte counts were relatively preserved (466/μl), highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART) was started according to a new guideline for the use of antiretroviral agents in HIV-1-infected adults and adolescents recommending early initiation of treatment. After six months, HIV1-RNA was not detected and the CD4 lymphocyte counts showed a recovering trend (585/μl). His symptoms had disappeared, except for dysesthesia in the tip of a toe. Repeated NCS demonstrated full recovery from the demyelination and appearance of SNAP in the sural nerve. The improvement of his symptoms and NCS findings has been maintained for two years. Although effectiveness of immunotherapies such as oral prednisone, high-dose immunoglobulins and plasmapheresis have been reported in HIV-associated CIDP, early initiation of HAART may be also important for favorable prognosis in HIV-associated CIDP.

  16. Subcutaneous vs intravenous administration of immunoglobulin in chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy: an Italian cost-minimization analysis.

    PubMed

    Lazzaro, Carlo; Lopiano, Leonardo; Cocito, Dario

    2014-07-01

    Prior researches have suggested that home-based subcutaneous immunoglobulin (SCIG) is equally effective and can be less expensive than hospital-based intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) in treating chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) patients. This economic evaluation aims at comparing costs of SCIG vs IVIG for CIDP patients in Italy. A 1-year model-based cost-minimization analysis basically populated via neurologists' opinion was undertaken from a societal perspective. Health care resources included immunoglobulin; drugs for premedication and complications (rash, headache, and hypertension) management; time of various health care professionals; pump for SCIG self-administration; infusion disposables. Non-health care resources encompassed transport and parking; losses of working and leisure time for patients and caregivers. Unit or yearly costs for resources valuation were mainly obtained from published sources. Costs were expressed in Euro () 2013. An extensive one-way sensitivity analysis (OWSA) and a scenario SA tested the robustness of the base case findings. Overall costs per patient amount to 49,534.75 (SCIG) and 50,895.73 (IVIG); saving in favour of SCIG reaches 1360.98. For both SCIG and IVIG, the cost driver was immunoglobulin (94.06 vs 86.06 % of the overall costs, respectively). Sensitivity analyses confirmed the consistency of the baseline results. SCIG may be a cost-saving therapy for Italian CIDP patients.

  17. Comparative Clustering of Plantar Pressure Distributions in Diabetics with Polyneuropathy May Be Applied to Reveal Inappropriate Biomechanical Stress.

    PubMed

    Niemann, Uli; Spiliopoulou, Myra; Szczepanski, Thorsten; Samland, Fred; Grützner, Jens; Senk, Dominik; Ming, Antao; Kellersmann, Juliane; Malanowski, Jan; Klose, Silke; Mertens, Peter R

    2016-01-01

    In diabetic patients, excessive peak plantar pressure has been identified as major risk factor for ulceration. Analyzing plantar pressure distributions potentially improves the identification of patients with a high risk for foot ulceration development. The goal of this study was to classify regional plantar pressure distributions. By means of a sensor-equipped insole, pressure recordings of healthy controls (n = 18) and diabetics with severe polyneuropathy (n = 25) were captured across eight foot regions. The study involved a controlled experimental protocol with multiple sessions, where a session contained several cycles of pressure exposure. Clustering was used to identify subgroups of study participants that are characterized by similar pressure distributions. For both analyzed groups, the number of clusters to best describe the pressure profiles was four. When both groups were combined, analysis again led to four distinct clusters. While three clusters did not separate between healthy and diabetic volunteers the fourth cluster was only represented by diabetics. Here the pressure distribution pattern is characterized by a focal point of pressure application on the forefoot and low pressure on the lateral region. Our data suggest that pressure clustering is a feasible means to identify inappropriate biomechanical plantar stress.

  18. The Effects of C-peptide on Type 1 Diabetic Polyneuropathies and Encephalopathy in the BB/Wor-rat

    PubMed Central

    Sima, Anders A. F.; Zhang, Weixian; Li, Zhen-guo; Kamiya, Hideki

    2008-01-01

    Diabetic polyneuropathy (DPN) occurs more frequently in type 1 diabetes resulting in a more severe DPN. The differences in DPN between the two types of diabetes are due to differences in the availability of insulin and C-peptide. Insulin and C-peptide provide gene regulatory effects on neurotrophic factors with effects on axonal cytoskeletal proteins and nerve fiber integrity. A significant abnormality in type 1 DPN is nodal degeneration. In the type 1 BB/Wor-rat, C-peptide replacement corrects metabolic abnormalities ameliorating the acute nerve conduction defect. It corrects abnormalities of neurotrophic factors and the expression of neuroskeletal proteins with improvements of axonal size and function. C-peptide corrects the expression of nodal adhesive molecules with prevention and repair of the functionally significant nodal degeneration. Cognitive dysfunction is a recognized complication of type 1 diabetes, and is associated with impaired neurotrophic support and apoptotic neuronal loss. C-peptide prevents hippocampal apoptosis and cognitive deficits. It is therefore clear that substitution of C-peptide in type 1 diabetes has a multitude of effects on DPN and cognitive dysfunction. Here the effects of C-peptide replenishment will be extensively described as they pertain to DPN and diabetic encephalopathy, underpinning its beneficial effects on neurological complications in type 1 diabetes. PMID:18437223

  19. Comparative Clustering of Plantar Pressure Distributions in Diabetics with Polyneuropathy May Be Applied to Reveal Inappropriate Biomechanical Stress

    PubMed Central

    Niemann, Uli; Spiliopoulou, Myra; Szczepanski, Thorsten; Samland, Fred; Grützner, Jens; Senk, Dominik; Ming, Antao; Kellersmann, Juliane; Malanowski, Jan; Klose, Silke; Mertens, Peter R.

    2016-01-01

    In diabetic patients, excessive peak plantar pressure has been identified as major risk factor for ulceration. Analyzing plantar pressure distributions potentially improves the identification of patients with a high risk for foot ulceration development. The goal of this study was to classify regional plantar pressure distributions. By means of a sensor-equipped insole, pressure recordings of healthy controls (n = 18) and diabetics with severe polyneuropathy (n = 25) were captured across eight foot regions. The study involved a controlled experimental protocol with multiple sessions, where a session contained several cycles of pressure exposure. Clustering was used to identify subgroups of study participants that are characterized by similar pressure distributions. For both analyzed groups, the number of clusters to best describe the pressure profiles was four. When both groups were combined, analysis again led to four distinct clusters. While three clusters did not separate between healthy and diabetic volunteers the fourth cluster was only represented by diabetics. Here the pressure distribution pattern is characterized by a focal point of pressure application on the forefoot and low pressure on the lateral region. Our data suggest that pressure clustering is a feasible means to identify inappropriate biomechanical plantar stress. PMID:27529421

  20. Primary structure of an amyloid prealbumin and its plasma precursor in a heredofamilial polyneuropathy of Swedish origin.

    PubMed Central

    Dwulet, F E; Benson, M D

    1984-01-01

    Prealbumin from an individual with heredofamilial amyloid polyneuropathy of Swedish origin was isolated from plasma by using a three-step procedure involving ion exchange, Affi-gel Blue affinity chromatography, and gel filtration. This prealbumin and its associated amyloid fibril subunit protein were digested with trypsin and the resulting peptides were separated by high performance liquid chromatography. Comparison with normal prealbumin peptides showed that an amino acid substitution of a methionine for a valine had occurred at position 30. In the plasma prealbumin, the abnormal residue accounted for 1/3rd of the material while in the amyloid fibrils it accounted for 2/3rds. From this sequence information and the known three-dimensional structure of the prealbumin molecule, a mechanism for the amyloid formation is proposed. It involves formation of the amyloid fibrils by addition of prealbumin dimers or tetramers to the aggregate. Each dimer must contain at least one variant peptide chain while the tetramer must contain at least two abnormal chains. Either of these models can account for the observed amount of normal prealbumin in amyloid fibrils. No proteolytic processing of this molecule is required because the entire undegraded prealbumin molecule is found in the fibrils. PMID:6583672

  1. Association of Peripheral Autonomic Neuropathy and Sympathetic Skin Response in the Patients with Diabetic Polyneuropathy: A Pilot Study in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Gerawarapong, Chinapat

    2015-12-01

    Investigate the association of peripheral autonomic neuropathy (PAN) symptoms and sympathetic skin response (SSR) in the patients with diabetic polyneuropathy (DPN) as a pilot study in Thai patients. Sixty-eight DPN patients' limbs, conducted retrospectively between June 2012 and January 2014, were included and divided into two groups, 48 abnormal SSR limbs and 20 control limbs, respectively. All clinical data, demographic characteristics, PAN symptoms, and other associated factors were compared and analyzed. A comparison between abnormal and normal SSR groups in DPN limbs showed no significant differences of age, gender, body mass index (BMI), comorbidity of hypertension and dyslipidemia, duration of PAN symptoms, associated neurological signs of impaired light touch sensation, and muscle weakness or atrophy (p-value > 0.05). The PAN symptoms, either anhidrosis or hypohidrosis, and hyporemia showed significantly correlated to abnormal SSRs (p-value = 0.003 and 0.028, respectively). Among symptoms of somatic small fiber neuropathy (SFN), burning paresthesia, and reduced thermal sensation revealed significantly correlated to abnormal SSRs (p-value = 0.032 and 0.021, respectively). Moreover, the study showed that history of fall in six months, history of foot ulcer in three months, impaired pinprick sensation, impaired proprioceptive sensation, decreased deep tendon reflex, burning paresthesia, reduced thermal sensation, either anhidrosis or hypohidrosis, and hyporemia had significantly associated with the occurrence of abnormal SSRs (p-value < 0.05). There was the association between PAN symptoms and abnormal SSRs in DPN patients' limbs. These data support the recent findings of several studies that abnormal SSR has the association with history of foot ulceration in diabetic patients. It warrants further investigation into the clinical utility of the SSR in diabetic patients.

  2. Validation of the Composite Autonomic Symptom Scale-31 (COMPASS-31) in patients with and without Small-fiber Polyneuropathy

    PubMed Central

    Treister, Roi; O'Neil, Kate; Downs, Heather M.; Oaklander, Anne Louise

    2015-01-01

    Background The recently developed composite autonomic symptom score-31 (COMPASS-31) is a questionnaire for assessing symptoms of dysautonomia. It was distilled from the well established autonomic symptom profile questionnaire. COMPASS-31 has not yet been externally validated. To do so, we assessed its psychometric properties and its convergent validity in patients with or without objective diagnosis of small fiber polyneuropathy (SFPN). Methods The internal validity and reliability of COMPASS-31 were assessed in participants with or without SFPN spanning the full autonomic symptoms severity. Convergent validity was assessed by comparing results of the COMPASS-31 and the gold standard autonomic function testing (AFT) which measures cardiovagal, adrenergic, and sudomotor functions. Additionally, relationships between COMPASS-31 and the Short Form McGill pain questionnaire, Short Form Health Survey and a 0-10 numeric pain scale were assessed. COMPASS-31 and all other questionnaires results were compared between patients with or without evidence of SFPN, objectively confirmed by distal-leg PGP9.5-immunolabeled skin biopsy. Results Among 66 participants (28 SFPN+, 38 SFPN-), COMPASS-31 total scores had excellent internal validity (Cronbach's α =0.919), test-retest reliability (rs=0.886; p<0.001), and good convergent validity (rs=0.474; p<0.001). COMPASS-31 scores differed between subjects with or without SFPN (Z=−3.296, p<0.001), and demonstrated fair diagnostic accuracy. Area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.749 (P =0.01, 95% confidence interval 0.627-0.871). Conclusions COMPASS-31 has good psychometric properties in the population of patients being evaluated for SFPN and thus it might be useful as an initial screening tool for the more expensive SFPN objective tests. PMID:25907824

  3. Validation of the composite autonomic symptom scale 31 (COMPASS-31) in patients with and without small fiber polyneuropathy.

    PubMed

    Treister, R; O'Neil, K; Downs, H M; Oaklander, A L

    2015-07-01

    The recently developed composite autonomic symptom score 31 (COMPASS-31) is a questionnaire that assess symptoms of dysautonomia. It was distilled from the well-established Autonomic Symptom Profile questionnaire. COMPASS-31 has not yet been externally validated. To do so, its psychometric properties and convergent validity in patients with and without objective diagnosis of small fiber polyneuropathy (SFPN) were assessed. Internal validity and reliability of COMPASS-31 were assessed in participants with or without SFPN spanning the full range of severity of autonomic symptoms. Convergent validity was assessed by comparing results of the COMPASS-31 with the "gold standard" autonomic function testing that measures cardiovagal, adrenergic and sudomotor functions. Additionally, relationships between COMPASS-31 and the Short Form McGill Pain Questionnaire, Short Form Health Survey and 0-10 numeric pain scale were measured. COMPASS-31 and all other questionnaire results were compared between patients with or without evidence of SFPN, objectively confirmed by distal-leg PGP9.5-immunolabeled skin biopsy. Amongst 66 participants (28 SFPN+, 38 SFPN-), COMPASS-31 total scores had excellent internal validity (Cronbach's α = 0.919), test-retest reliability (r(s) = 0.886; P < 0.001) and good convergent validity (r(s) = 0.474; P < 0.001). COMPASS-31 scores differed between subjects with or without SFPN (Z = -3.296, P < 0.001) and demonstrated fair diagnostic accuracy. Area under the Receiver Operating Characteristic curve was 0.749 (P = 0.01, 95% confidence interval 0.627-0.871). COMPASS-31 has good psychometric properties in the population of patients being evaluated for SFPN and thus it might be useful as an initial screening tool for the more expensive SFPN objective tests. © 2015 EAN.

  4. Benefit in long-term response and mortality of treatment with intravenous immunoglobulin prior to plasmapheresis in peripheral polyneuropathies.

    PubMed

    Parra-Salinas, I; González-Rodríguez, V P; Gracia Pina, J A; Gimeno Lozano, J J; García-Erce, J A

    2017-02-01

    The benefits of plasmapheresis (PA) for neurologic autoimmune diseases have been widely demonstrated. Little is known about the long-term neurologic prognosis and course after PA and immunosuppressive (IS) and/or intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) treatment. We aimed to analyse features associated with short-term response and long-term outcome and prognosis (neurologic status and mortality) of peripheral polyneuropathy (PP) and central nervous system acute inflammatory disease (CNSAID) treated with PA. A descriptive, retrospective single-centre study from January 2005 to December 2012. There were 26 episodes, which included 16 CNSAID and 10 PP cases. First line therapy included PA (n=4), IS drugs (n=15), and IVIG (n=7). Responses were achieved in 80% and 50% of PP and CNSAID cases, respectively. For PP, first line treatment with IVIG and no IS treatment prior to or during PA were variables associated with short-term response (P=0.067), good or stable neurologic status at the end of follow-up (P=0.008), and lower mortality rate (P=0.008). For CNSAID, initial EDSS score≥7 (P=0.019) was related to long-term good or stable neurologic status. During the study period, 177 sessions were conducted; 3.4% had technical complications and 8.5% clinical complications. However, these incidents were all minor and no PA session had to be discontinued. The response rates achieved in our patients were similar to those of other research. PA has a safe profile but double-blind, controlled studies are needed to evaluate the synergy of sequential treatment with IGIV followed by PA and the possible benefit for long-term outcome. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Efficacy and Safety of Antioxidant Treatment With α-Lipoic Acid Over 4 Years in Diabetic Polyneuropathy

    PubMed Central

    Ziegler, Dan; Low, Phillip A.; Litchy, William J.; Boulton, Andrew J.M.; Vinik, Aaron I.; Freeman, Roy; Samigullin, Rustem; Tritschler, Hans; Munzel, Ullrich; Maus, Joachim; Schütte, Klemens; Dyck, Peter J.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate the efficacy and safety of α-lipoic acid (ALA) over 4 years in mild-to-moderate diabetic distal symmetric sensorimotor polyneuropathy (DSPN). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS In a multicenter randomized double-blind parallel-group trial, 460 diabetic patients with mild-to-moderate DSPN were randomly assigned to oral treatment with 600 mg ALA once daily (n = 233) or placebo (n = 227) for 4 years. Primary end point was a composite score (Neuropathy Impairment Score [NIS]–Lower Limbs [NIS-LL] and seven neurophysiologic tests). Secondary outcome measures included NIS, NIS-LL, nerve conduction, and quantitative sensory tests (QSTs). RESULTS Change in primary end point from baseline to 4 years showed no significant difference between treatment groups (P = 0.105). Change from baseline was significantly better with ALA than placebo for NIS (P = 0.028), NIS-LL (P = 0.05), and NIS-LL muscular weakness subscore (P = 0.045). More patients showed a clinically meaningful improvement and fewer showed progression of NIS (P = 0.013) and NIS-LL (P = 0.025) with ALA than with placebo. Nerve conduction and QST results did not significantly worsen with placebo. Global assessment of treatment tolerability and discontinuations due to lack of tolerability did not differ between the groups. The rates of serious adverse events were higher on ALA (38.1%) than on placebo (28.0%). CONCLUSIONS Four-year treatment with ALA in mild-to-moderate DSPN did not influence the primary composite end point but resulted in a clinically meaningful improvement and prevention of progression of neuropathic impairments and was well tolerated. Because the primary composite end point did not deteriorate significantly in placebo-treated subjects, secondary prevention of its progression by ALA according to the trial design was not feasible. PMID:21775755

  6. A diagnosis challenge-L4 nerve root compression as the initial presentation of chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy.

    PubMed

    Cojocaru, Inimioara Mihaela; Alexianu, Marilena; Bastian, Alexandra; Sapira, Violeta; Herţea, Cristina; Cojocaru, M

    2012-01-01

    The authors present the case of a 65-year-old woman who was admitted for paraparesis and paresthesias in the inferior limbs. The neurological examination revealed the difficulty in extension of the right foot and of the right toe, accompanied by paresthesias located in the anterolateral area of the right leg, dorsum and plantar area of the foot, the reduction of the right knee jerk, and of the ankle tendon jerk both sides. The vertebro-spinal MRI showed lumbar canal stenosis with L4 intraforaminal compression on the right, and L2-L3 on the left. CSF examination revealed mild increase in protein concentration. The morphological picture of the sural nerve biopsy was compatible with a chronic inflammatory neuropathy and severe muscular lesions of neurogenic origin were observed on right gastrocnemius muscle biopsy. The diagnosis of chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) was established. Solu-medrol (0.5 g/d)-5 days, then medrol (prednisolone) was done, followed by improving of the symptomatology. For the relapse of the disease intravenous immunoglobulins (IVIG)-0.4 g/kg/d-5 days was the elective treatment. Six months later she presented a new relapse. IVIG were administered with the remission of the sensitive symptoms. A chronic treatment with medrol was recommended. The diagnosis of L4 disc herniation was obvious in the studied case, but the electroneurographic examination brought extra data for the associated diagnosis of CIDP whose onset was asymmetrical and initially paucisymptomatic. Neither the electroneurographic examination nor the CSF examination were total relevant for CIDP, imposing the sural nerve biopsy. The diagnosis of CIDP involves a team-work composed of neurologist, electroneurophysiologist and neuropathologist.

  7. The value of the Rydel-Seiffer tuning fork as a predictor of diabetic polyneuropathy compared with a neurothesiometer.

    PubMed

    Kästenbauer, T; Sauseng, S; Brath, H; Abrahamian, H; Irsigler, K

    2004-06-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the predictive value of the Rydel-Seiffer tuning fork for detecting diabetic neuropathy and to compare it with an electronic neurothesiometer. In 2022 consecutive diabetic subjects, peripheral polyneuropathy was diagnosed by vibration perception threshold (VPT) at the tip of both great toes using a 128-Hz tuning fork and a neurothesiometer, by simple bedside tests and by the presence of neuropathic symptoms. These evaluations were further combined to diagnose peripheral nerve dysfunction (abnormal bedside tests) and symptomatic neuropathy. VPT was also measured in 175 non-diabetic control subjects to define normal values. VPT was normal in 1917 subjects and abnormal in 105 (5.2%) patients when measured by the tuning fork. Patients with an abnormal vibration test were significantly (P < 0.0001) older than subjects with a normal vibration sense, while diabetes duration and HbA(1c) of the former were also significantly elevated. The same was true for the percentages of an abnormal 10-g monofilament test (66.7% vs. 7.2%, P < 0.0001) and a missing Achilles' tendon reflex (68.6% vs. 24.8%, P < 0.0001). Finally, the VPT measured by the neurothesiometer was 2.5 times higher in patients with an abnormal tuning fork test (32.0 +/- 9.8 vs. 12.5 +/- 6.4 V, P < 0.0001). The plot of the difference of both methods against their mean yielded a good agreement of the two VPT measurements, and the tuning fork had a high sensitivity and positive predictive value for the diagnosis of abnormal bedside tests and for symptomatic neuropathy. The tuning fork reliably detected peripheral neuropathy in comparison with the neurothesiometer. A tuning fork is a useful screening test for diabetic neuropathy.

  8. Quality of life and self-reported lower extremity function in adults with HIV-related distal sensory polyneuropathy.

    PubMed

    Galantino, Mary Lou A; Kietrys, David M; Parrott, James Scott; Stevens, Maureen E; Stevens, Anne Marie; Condoluci, David V

    2014-10-01

    Distal sensory polyneuropathy (DSP) is a common complication of HIV disease. Its effects on quality of life (QOL) and function have not been well described. The study objectives were: (1) to compare QOL and lower extremity function in people with HIV-related DSP and people with HIV disease who do not have DSP, (2) to determine the extent to which function predicts QOL, (3) to evaluate the agreement of 2 function scales, and (4) to describe the use of pain management resources. This was a cross-sectional survey study with predictive modeling and measurement tool concordant validation. A demographic questionnaire, the Medical Outcomes Study HIV Health Survey, the Lower Extremity Functional Scale (LEFS), the Lower Limb Functional Index (LLFI), and a review of medical records were used. General linear modeling was used to assess group differences in QOL and the relationship between function and QOL. Bland-Altman procedures were used to assess the agreement of the LEFS and the LLFI. Usable data for analyses were available for 82 of the 94 participants enrolled. The 67% of participants who reported DSP symptoms tended to be older, had HIV disease longer, and were more likely to receive disability benefits. Participants without DSP had better LLFI, LEFS, and physical health summary scores. In multivariate models, lower limb function predicted physical and mental health summary scores. The LLFI identified participants with a lower level of function more often than the LEFS. Participants with DSP were more likely to use medical treatment, physical therapy, and complementary or alternative treatments. A sample of convenience was used; the sample size resulted in a low power for the mental health summary score of the Medical Outcomes Study HIV Health Survey. Quality of life and function were more impaired in participants with HIV disease and DSP. The LLFI was more likely to capture limitations in function than the LEFS. Participants with DSP reported more frequent use of pain

  9. Identification and Prediction of Diabetic Sensorimotor Polyneuropathy Using Individual and Simple Combinations of Nerve Conduction Study Parameters

    PubMed Central

    Weisman, Alanna; Bril, Vera; Ngo, Mylan; Lovblom, Leif E.; Halpern, Elise M.; Orszag, Andrej; Perkins, Bruce A.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Evaluation of diabetic sensorimotor polyneuropathy (DSP) is hindered by the need for complex nerve conduction study (NCS) protocols and lack of predictive biomarkers. We aimed to determine the performance of single and simple combinations of NCS parameters for identification and future prediction of DSP. Materials and Methods 406 participants (61 with type 1 diabetes and 345 with type 2 diabetes) with a broad spectrum of neuropathy, from none to severe, underwent NCS to determine presence or absence of DSP for cross-sectional (concurrent validity) analysis. The 109 participants without baseline DSP were re-evaluated for its future onset (predictive validity). Performance of NCS parameters was compared by area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AROC). Results At baseline there were 246 (60%) Prevalent Cases. After 3.9 years mean follow-up, 25 (23%) of the 109 Prevalent Controls that were followed became Incident DSP Cases. Threshold values for peroneal conduction velocity and sural amplitude potential best identified Prevalent Cases (AROC 0.90 and 0.83, sensitivity 80 and 83%, specificity 89 and 72%, respectively). Baseline tibial F-wave latency, peroneal conduction velocity and the sum of three lower limb nerve conduction velocities (sural, peroneal, and tibial) best predicted 4-year incidence (AROC 0.79, 0.79, and 0.85; sensitivity 79, 70, and 81%; specificity 63, 74 and 77%, respectively). Discussion Individual NCS parameters or their simple combinations are valid measures for identification and future prediction of DSP. Further research into the predictive roles of tibial F-wave latencies, peroneal conduction velocity, and sum of conduction velocities as markers of incipient nerve injury is needed to risk-stratify individuals for clinical and research protocols. PMID:23533591

  10. A prospective study comparing tryptophan immunoadsorption with therapeutic plasma exchange for the treatment of chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy.

    PubMed

    Lieker, Ina; Slowinski, Torsten; Harms, Lutz; Hahn, Katrin; Klehmet, Juliane

    2017-05-09

    Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) is a rare paralyzing inflammatory neuropathy with probably autoimmune origin. While plasma exchange (PE) constitutes a first-line treatment option for CIDP, there is only little known about the efficacy and safety of immunoadsorption (IA), a more selective apheresis procedure with assumed better tolerability. In this prospective-randomized pilot trial, patients were randomly assigned to receive 6 sessions of PE (n = 10) or IA (n = 10) treating equal plasma volumes. To evaluate efficacy, we calculated the adjusted Inflammatory Neuropathy Cause and Treatment (INCAT) disability score and the Medical Research Council (MRC) sum score at baseline (V1), after completion of 6 sessions (V2) as well as 4 weeks after completion (V3) in 9 patients per group (1 patient in each group did not complete follow-up). We additionally assessed safety and tolerability of treatments by monitoring adverse event and blood parameters. With IA, 6 out of 9 (66.7%) patients improved clinically, whereas with PE, 4 out of 9 (44.4%) patients improved, most of them immediately with completion of the apheresis treatment series. There was one adverse event (AE) out of 52 treatment sessions for the 9 patients in the IA group. In the PE group of 9 patients, there was 1 AE out of 51 sessions and a trend of greater fibrinogen reduction. No severe AE occurred in either group. The results of this pilot study suggest that IA is at least equally effective and safe compared to PE in CIDP patients. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Long-term disability and prognostic factors in polyneuropathy associated with anti-myelin-associated glycoprotein (MAG) antibodies.

    PubMed

    Galassi, Giuliana; Tondelli, Manuela; Ariatti, Alessandra; Benuzzi, Francesca; Nichelli, Paolo; Valzania, Franco

    2017-05-01

    Neuropathy associated with IgM monoclonal gammopathy (MGUS) represents distinctive clinical syndrome, characterized by male predominance, late age of onset, slow progression, predominantly sensory symptoms, deep sensory loss, ataxia, minor motor impairment. More than 50% of patients with neuropathy-associated MGUS possess antibodies against myelin-associated glycoprotein (MAG). Purpose of our study was to assess effects on disease progression of demographic, clinical and neurophysiological variables in our large cohort of patients. Forty-three Caucasians patients were followed every eight months for median duration time of 93 months. Extremity strength was assessed with Medical Research Council (MRC) Scale, disability with overall disability status scale (ODSS), modified Rankin Scale and sensory function with Inflammatory Neuropathy Cause and Treatment (INCAT) sensory scale (ISS). Statistical analyses were conducted with parametric or non-parametric measures as appropriate. Survival analysis was used to test predictive value of clinical, demographical and neurophysiological variables. Variance analysis was conducted to explain difference on MRC between patients and groups at different time from onset. Results showed that demyelinating pattern, older age and absence of treatment were significant risk factors for disability worsening. No other factors emerged as predictors including gender, ataxia and tremor at baseline, level of anti-MAG and IgM protein concentration in serum. Despite worsening of all outcome measures between first and last visit, quality of life (HRQol) judged by patients did not vary significantly. Our study provides evidence that electrophysiologic pattern, age of onset and absence of treatment are strong predictor of prognosis in anti-MAG polyneuropathy.

  12. Increased contact heat evoked potential stimulation latencies in responders to spinal cord stimulation for painful diabetic polyneuropathy.

    PubMed

    Pluijms, Wouter A; Slangen, Rachel; van Kleef, Maarten; Joosten, Elbert A; Reulen, Jos P H

    2015-02-01

    To analyze sensory characteristics and small nerve fiber function in patients suffering from painful diabetic polyneuropathy (PDP) and compare outcomes in responders and nonresponders to SCS treatment. Fifteen patients with intractable PDP in the legs were recruited. If trial stimulation resulted in clinically relevant pain relief, a pulse generator was implanted and pain scores were measured after 12 months. Sensory characteristics (modified Inflammatory Neuropathy Cause and Treatment [md-INCAT] sum score) and small nerve fiber function (contact heat evoked potentials, CHEPs) were measured before implantation (D1), and CHEP measurement was repeated after two weeks of trial stimulation (D2). Outcomes in responders (N = 10) and nonresponders (N = 5) to SCS treatment were compared. Data were analyzed using nonparametric statistics. At one year, clinically relevant pain relief was achieved in 10 out of 15 patients. The md-INCAT score did not differ between SCS responders and nonresponders (8.0 vs. 5.0; p = 0.59). No differences were found in CHEP outcomes at D1 vs. D2, except for dorsal forearm P2 latency, and the correlation between D1 and D2 CHEP outcomes was high. Volar N2 forearm latency (0.492 vs. 0.434; p < 0.01), dorsal forearm N2 latency (0.518 vs. 0.453; p = 0.04), and dorsal forearm P2 latency (0.660 vs. 0.589; p = 0.04) were increased in SCS responders as compared with SCS nonresponders. From this small-scale clinical pilot study we conclude that forearm CHEP latencies are increased in PDP patients who respond to SCS therapy as compared with SCS nonresponders. Before the CHEP latency can be used as a predictor of SCS outcome in PDP patients, a large-scale study is needed. © 2014 Maastricht University Medical Center.

  13. Multifocal Motor Neuropathy, Multifocal Acquired Demyelinating Sensory and Motor Neuropathy and Other Chronic Acquired Demyelinating Polyneuropathy Variants

    PubMed Central

    Barohn, Richard J.; Katz, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    Chronic acquired demyelinating neuropathies (CADP) are an important group of immune neuromuscular disorders affecting myelin. These are distinct from chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP). Classically, CIDP is characterized by proximal and distal weakness, large fiber sensory loss, elevated cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) protein content, demyelinating changes nerve conduction studies or nerve biopsy, and response to immunomodulating treatment. In this chapter we discuss CADP with emphasis on multifocal motor neuropathy (MMN), multifocal acquired demyelinating sensory and motor neuropathy (MADSAM), distal acquired demyelinating symmetric (DADS) neuropathy and conclude with less common variants. While each of these entities has distinctive laboratory and electrodiagnostic features that aid in their diagnosis, clinical characteristics are of paramount importance in diagnosing specific conditions and determining the most appropriate therapies. Unlike CIDP, MMN is typically asymmetric and affects only the motor nerve fibers. MMN is a rare disease that presents chronically, over several years of progression affecting the arms are more commonly than the legs. Men are more likely than women to develop MMN. MADSAM should be suspected in patients who have weakness and loss of sensation in primarily one arm or leg which progresses slowly over several months to years. It is important in patient with multifocal demyelinating clinical presentation to distinguish MMN from MADSAM since corticosteroids are not effective in MMN where the mainstay of therapy is intravenous gammaglobulin (IVIg). DADS can be subdivided into DADS-M (associated woth M-protein) and DADS-I which is idioapthic. While DADS-I patients respond somewhat to immunotherapy, DADS-M patients present with distal predominant sensorimotor demyelinating neuropathy phenotype and are notoriously refractory to immunotherapies regardless of antibodies to myelin-associated glycoprotein (MAG). Our knowledge

  14. transthyretin — EDRN Public Portal

    Cancer.gov

    Transthyretin, one of the three prealbumins including alpha-1-antitrypsin, transthyretin and orosomucoid, is a carrier protein that transports thyroid hormones in the plasma and cerebrospinal fluid, and also transports retinol (vitamin A) in the plasma. TT consists of a tetramer of identical subunits. More than 80 different mutations in this gene have been reported; most mutations are related to amyloid deposition, affecting predominantly peripheral nerve and/or the heart, and a small portion of the gene mutations is non-amyloidogenic. The diseases caused by mutations include amyloidotic polyneuropathy, euthyroid hyperthyroxinaemia, amyloidotic vitreous opacities, cardiomyopathy, oculoleptomeningeal amyloidosis, meningocerebrovascular amyloidosis, and carpal tunnel syndrome.

  15. A Case of Cauda Equina Syndrome in Early-Onset Chronic Inflammatory Demyelinating Polyneuropathy Clinically Similar to Charcot-Marie-Tooth Disease Type 1

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Seung Eun; Ha, Sam Yeol; Nam, Taek Kyun

    2014-01-01

    To present a case of cauda equina syndrome (CES) caused by chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) which seemed clinically similar to Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type1 (CMT1). CIDP is an immune-mediated polyneuropathy, either progressive or relapsing-remitting. It is a non-hereditary disorder characterized by symmetrical motor and sensory deficits. Rarely, spinal nerve roots can be involved, leading to CES by hypertrophic cauda equina. A 34-year-old man presented with low back pain, radicular pain, bilateral lower-extremity weakness, urinary incontinence, and constipation. He had had musculoskeletal deformities, such as hammertoes and pes cavus, since age 10. Lumbar spine magnetic resonance imaging showed diffuse thickening of the cauda equina. Electrophysiological testing showed increased distal latency, conduction blocks, temporal dispersion, and severe nerve conduction velocity slowing (3 m/s). We were not able to find genetic mutations at the PMP 22, MPZ, PRX, and EGR2 genes. The pathologic findings of the sural nerve biopsy revealed thinly myelinated nerve fibers with Schwann cells proliferation. We performed a decompressive laminectomy, intravenous IgG (IV-IgG) and oral steroid. At 1 week after surgery, most of his symptoms showed marked improvements except foot deformities. There was no relapse or aggravation of disease for 3 years. We diagnosed the case as an early-onset CIDP with cauda equine syndrome, whose initial clinical findings were similar to those of CMT1, and successfully managed with decompressive laminectomy, IV-IgG and oral steroid. PMID:25237436

  16. Experience and challenges presented by a multicenter crossover study of combination analgesic therapy for the treatment of painful HIV-associated polyneuropathies

    PubMed Central

    Harrison, Taylor; Miyahara, Sachiko; Lee, Anthony; Evans, Scott; Bastow, Barbara; Simpson, David; Gilron, Ian; Dworkin, Robert; Daar, Eric S.; Wieclaw, Linda; Clifford, David B.

    2014-01-01

    Objective There is limited evidence for efficacy of analgesics as monotherapy for neuropathic pain associated with HIV-associated polyneuropathies, in spite of demonstrated efficacy in other neuropathic pain conditions. We evaluated the tolerability and analgesic efficacy of duloxetine, methadone, and the combination of duloxetine-methadone compared to placebo. Design This study was a phase II, randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled, four-period crossover multi-center study of analgesic therapy for patients with at least moderate neuropathic pain due to HIV-associated polyneuropathy. Duloxetine, methadone, combination duloxetine-methadone, and placebo were administered in four different possible sequences. The primary outcome measure was mean pain intensity (MPI) measured daily in a study-supplied pain diary. Results A total of 15 patients were enrolled from 8 study sites and 8 patients completed the entire trial. Study treatments failed to show statistically significant change in MPI compared to placebo. Adverse events were frequent and associated with high rates of drug discontinuation and study drop-out. Conclusions Challenges with participant recruitment and poor retention precluded trial completion to its planned targets, limiting our evaluation of the analgesic efficacy of the study treatments. Challenges to successful completion of this study and lessons learned are discussed. PMID:23565581

  17. Comparative analysis of the effects combined physical procedures and alpha-lipoic acid on the electroneurographic parameters of patients with distal sensorimotor diabetic polyneuropathy

    PubMed Central

    Grbovic, Vesna; Jurisic-Skevin, Aleksandra; Djukic, Svetlana; Stefanović, Srdjan; Nurkovic, Jasmin

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] Painful diabetic polyneuropathy occurs as a complication in 16% of all patients with diabetes mellitus. [Subjects and Methods] A clinical, prospective open-label randomized intervention study was conducted of 60 adult patients, with distal sensorimotor diabetic neuropathy two groups of 30 patients, with diabetes mellitus type 2 with distal sensorimotor diabetic neuropathy. Patients in group A were treated with combined physical procedures, and patients in group B were treated with alpha lipoic acid. [Results] There where a statistically significant improvements in terminal latency and the amplitude of the action potential in group A patients, while group B patients showed a statistically significant improvements in conduction velocity and terminal latency of n. peroneus. Group A patients showed a statistically significant improvements in conduction velocity and terminal latency, while group B patients also showed a statistically significant improvements in conduction velocity and terminal latency. This was reflected in a significant improvements in electrophysiological parameters (conduction velocity, amplitude and latency) of the motor and sensory nerves (n. peroneus, n. suralis). [Conclusion] These results present further evidence justifying of the use of physical agents in the treatment of diabetic sensorimotor polyneuropathy. PMID:27065527

  18. Progressive Lower Extremity Weakness and Axonal Sensorimotor Polyneuropathy from a Mutation in KIF5A (c.611G>A;p.Arg204Gln)

    PubMed Central

    Jerath, Nivedita U.; Grider, Tiffany; Shy, Michael E.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Hereditary Spastic Paraplegia (HSP) is a rare hereditary disorder that primarily involves progressive spasticity of the legs (hamstrings, quadriceps, and calves). Methods. A 27-year-old gentleman was a fast runner and able to play soccer until age 9 when he developed slowly progressive weakness. He was wheelchair-bound by age 25. He was evaluated by laboratory testing, imaging, electrodiagnostics, and molecular genetics. Results. Electrodiagnostic testing revealed an axonal sensorimotor polyneuropathy. Genetic testing for HSP in 2003 was negative; repeat testing in 2013 revealed a mutation in KIF5A (c.611G>A;p.Arg204Gln). Conclusions. A recent advance in neurogenetics has allowed for more genes and mutations to be identified; over 76 different genetic loci for HSP and 59 gene products are currently known. Even though our patient had a sensorimotor polyneuropathy on electrodiagnostic testing and a 2003 HSP genetic panel that was negative, a repeat HSP genetic panel was performed in 2013 due to the advancement in neurogenetics. This revealed a mutation in KIF5A. PMID:26543653

  19. Progressive Lower Extremity Weakness and Axonal Sensorimotor Polyneuropathy from a Mutation in KIF5A (c.611G>A;p.Arg204Gln).

    PubMed

    Jerath, Nivedita U; Grider, Tiffany; Shy, Michael E

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Hereditary Spastic Paraplegia (HSP) is a rare hereditary disorder that primarily involves progressive spasticity of the legs (hamstrings, quadriceps, and calves). Methods. A 27-year-old gentleman was a fast runner and able to play soccer until age 9 when he developed slowly progressive weakness. He was wheelchair-bound by age 25. He was evaluated by laboratory testing, imaging, electrodiagnostics, and molecular genetics. Results. Electrodiagnostic testing revealed an axonal sensorimotor polyneuropathy. Genetic testing for HSP in 2003 was negative; repeat testing in 2013 revealed a mutation in KIF5A (c.611G>A;p.Arg204Gln). Conclusions. A recent advance in neurogenetics has allowed for more genes and mutations to be identified; over 76 different genetic loci for HSP and 59 gene products are currently known. Even though our patient had a sensorimotor polyneuropathy on electrodiagnostic testing and a 2003 HSP genetic panel that was negative, a repeat HSP genetic panel was performed in 2013 due to the advancement in neurogenetics. This revealed a mutation in KIF5A.

  20. Getting closer to patients: the INCAT Overall Disability Sum Score relates better to patients' own clinical judgement in immune‐mediated polyneuropathies

    PubMed Central

    Merkies, I S J; Schmitz, P I M

    2006-01-01

    Objective To determine which widely used disability measure in Guillain–Barré syndrome (GBS) and chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) shows the strongest association with patients' rating scores. Methods Five disability scales and the Medical Outcomes Study 36‐Item Short Form Health Survey (SF‐36) were assessed serially in 20 patients with newly diagnosed GBS (n = 7) or CIDP (n = 13). Also at each visit, the patient's condition was self‐assessed as being worse, unchanged or better. Longitudinal regressions were carried out to determine the association between disability scales (independent variables) and SF‐36 and patients' rating scores (dependent variables). Results Higher associations with the SF‐36 were found in the Overall Disability Sum Score (ODSS) than other disability measures. A higher correlation with ODSS changes was also found in the rating scores of the patients. Conclusion In addition to literature findings, higher associations were found between Inflammatory Neuropathy Cause and Treatment Group ODSS and outcome assessed from patients' perceptions in immune‐related polyneuropathies than in other commonly used disability scales. PMID:16549419

  1. Getting closer to patients: the INCAT Overall Disability Sum Score relates better to patients' own clinical judgement in immune-mediated polyneuropathies.

    PubMed

    Merkies, I S J; Schmitz, P I M

    2006-08-01

    To determine which widely used disability measure in Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) and chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) shows the strongest association with patients' rating scores. Five disability scales and the Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36) were assessed serially in 20 patients with newly diagnosed GBS (n = 7) or CIDP (n = 13). Also at each visit, the patient's condition was self-assessed as being worse, unchanged or better. Longitudinal regressions were carried out to determine the association between disability scales (independent variables) and SF-36 and patients' rating scores (dependent variables). Higher associations with the SF-36 were found in the Overall Disability Sum Score (ODSS) than other disability measures. A higher correlation with ODSS changes was also found in the rating scores of the patients. In addition to literature findings, higher associations were found between Inflammatory Neuropathy Cause and Treatment Group ODSS and outcome assessed from patients' perceptions in immune-related polyneuropathies than in other commonly used disability scales.

  2. Family Therapy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Family therapy is a type of psychological counseling (psychotherapy) that helps family members improve communication and resolve ... organizations? Do you have specialty training in family psychotherapy? What is your experience with my family's type ...

  3. Intravenous immunoglobulin for maintenance treatment of chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy: a multicentre, open-label, 52-week phase III trial.

    PubMed

    Kuwabara, Satoshi; Mori, Masahiro; Misawa, Sonoko; Suzuki, Miki; Nishiyama, Kazutoshi; Mutoh, Tatsuro; Doi, Shizuki; Kokubun, Norito; Kamijo, Mikiko; Yoshikawa, Hiroo; Abe, Koji; Nishida, Yoshihiko; Okada, Kazumasa; Sekiguchi, Kenji; Sakamoto, Ko; Kusunoki, Susumu; Sobue, Gen; Kaji, Ryuji

    2017-10-01

    Short-term efficacy of induction therapy with intravenous immunoglobulin (Ig) in patients with chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) is well established. However, data of previous studies on maintenance therapy were limited up to 24-week treatment period. We aimed to investigate the efficacy and safety of longer-term intravenous Ig therapy for 52 weeks. This study was an open-label phase 3 clinical trial conducted in 49 Japanese tertiary centres. 49 patients with CIDP who fulfilled diagnostic criteria were included. After an induction intravenous Ig therapy (0.4 g/kg/day for five consecutive days), maintenance dose intravenous Ig (1.0 g/kg) was given every 3 weeks for up to 52 weeks. The primary outcome measures were the responder rate at week 28 and relapse rate at week 52. The response and relapse were defined with the adjusted Inflammatory Neuropathy Cause and Treatment scale. At week 28, the responder rate was 77.6% (38/49 patients; 95% CI 63% to 88%), and the 38 responders continued the maintenance therapy. At week 52, 4 of the 38 (10.5%) had a relapse (95% CI 3% to 25%). During 52 weeks, 34 (69.4%) of the 49 enrolled patients had a maintained improvement. Adverse events were reported in 94% of the patients; two patients (66-year-old and 76-year-old men with hypertension or diabetes) developed cerebral infarction (lacunar infarct with good recovery), and the other adverse effects were mild and resolved by the end of the study period. Maintenance treatment with 1.0 g/kg intravenous Ig every 3 weeks is an efficacious therapy for patients with CIDP, and approximately 70% of them had a sustained remission for 52 weeks. Thrombotic complications should be carefully monitored, particularly in elderly patients with vascular risk factors. ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT01824251). © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise

  4. Spatial and temporal distribution of incidence of acquired equine polyneuropathy in Norway and Sweden, 1995-2012.

    PubMed

    Wolff, Cecilia; Egenvall, Agneta; Hanche-Olsen, Siv; Gröndahl, Gittan

    2014-11-15

    Acquired equine polyneuropathy (AEP) is an emerging disease in horses in Sweden, Norway and Finland since 1995. Affected horses show bilateral pelvic limb knuckling and weakness, sometimes progressing to recumbency and euthanasia. The aetiology is unknown but is thought to be non-infectious and non-genetic, though possibly toxic or toxico-infectious. The objectives of this study were to describe the spatial, temporal and spatio-temporal features of AEP in Norway and Sweden for the period of 1995 to 2012. Data from all documented case farms (n = 136) were used. Space-time interaction clustering of case farms was investigated with a retrospective space-time scan statistic with a space-time permutation model, the space-time K-function and the Jacquez k nearest neighbour (kNN) test. There was a clear seasonality in disease occurrence, as 123 case farms presented their first case from January to May. However, there was large variation in the number of case farms between years. Case farms were more numerous in certain regions. Despite the larger horse population in Sweden, 120 of the case farms were in Norway. Space-time clustering was supported by the K-function and partly by the space-time scan, but not by the Jacquez k nearest neighbour (kNN) test. The results suggest an aetiology for AEP where the exposure is not consistent in time, but varies during and between years, assuming that the incubation period does not vary greatly. The results further suggest that the exposure varies between regions as well. Two out of three different analytical methods supported spatio-temporal clustering of case farms, which rendered inconclusive results. The negative result in the kNN test might be explained by lack of power, which is due to the small number of outbreaks in relation to the size of the study area and length of the study period, and further by the low to moderate power of methods to detect space-time clustering when the background population is unknown. Further

  5. Electrotonic potentials in simulated chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy at 20°C-42°C.

    PubMed

    Stephanova, D I; Daskalova, M

    2015-06-01

    Threshold electrotonus changes have been studied following warming to 37°C and cooling to 25°C in patients with chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP). To extend the tracking of these changes also during hypothermia (≤ 25°C) and hyperthermia (≥ 40°C), and to explain their mechanisms, we investigate the effects of temperature (from 20°C to 42°C) on polarizing nodal and internodal electrotonic potentials and their current kinetics in previously simulated case of 70% CIDP. The computations use our temperature-dependent multi-layered model of the myelinated human motor nerve fiber. While the changes of electrotonic potentials and their current kinetics are largely similar for the physiological range of 28-37°C, they are altered during hypothermia and hyperthermia in the normal and CIDP cases. The normal (at 37°C) resting membrane potential is further depolarized or hyperpolarized during hypothermia or hyperthermia, respectively, and the internodal current types defining these changes are the same for both cases. Unexpectedly, our results show that in the CIDP case, the lowest and highest critical temperatures for blocking of electrotonic potentials are 20°C and 39°C, while in the normal case the highest critical temperature for blocking of these potentials is 42°C. In the temperature range of 20-39°C, the relevant potentials in the CIDP case, except for the lesser value (at 39°C) in hyperpolarized resting membrane potential, are modified: (i) polarizing nodal and depolarizing internodal electrotonic potentials and their defining currents are increased in magnitude; (ii) inward rectifier (I IR ) and leakage (I Lk ) currents, defining the hyperpolarizing internodal electrotonic potential, are gradually increased with the rise of temperature from 20°C to 39°C, and (iii) the accommodation to long-lasting hyperpolarization is greater than to depolarization. The present results suggest that the electrotonic potentials in patients with

  6. Rare combination of bilateral putaminal necrosis, optic neuritis, and polyneuropathy in a case of acute methanol intoxication among patients met with hooch tragedy in Gujarat, India

    PubMed Central

    Jarwani, Bhavesh S; Motiani, Puja; Divetia, Ruchir; Thakkar, Gurudutta

    2012-01-01

    Methanol poisoning is a rare but extremely hazardous form of intoxication, generally occurring after suicidal or accidental events. Methanol is a cheap and potent adulterant of illicit liquors. In India, we have witnessed number of mass emergencies due to adulterated alcohol consumption. Although Gujarat State had banned alcohol consumption since 1961, worse hooch tragedies have often taken place. The most severe consequences of methanol intoxication are blindness, a profound metabolic acidosis and various forms of neurological impairment; which occur characteristically after a latent period of several hours or days after ingestion. We present a unique case of acute methanol intoxication presented with, apart from metabolic acidosis and optic neuritis, involvement of central nervous system and peripheral nervous system. He had bilateral optic neuritis, delayed onset polyneuropathy with axonopathy, and radiculopathy. Magnetic resonance imaging findings were consistent with bilateral putaminal necrosis. PMID:23248510

  7. Effect of Ranirestat on Sensory and Motor Nerve Function in Japanese Patients with Diabetic Polyneuropathy: A Randomized Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled Study

    PubMed Central

    Satoh, Jo; Kohara, Nobuo; Sekiguchi, Kenji; Yamaguchi, Yasuyuki

    2016-01-01

    We conducted a 26-week oral-administration study of ranirestat (an aldose reductase inhibitor) at a once-daily dose of 20 mg to evaluate its efficacy and safety in Japanese patients with diabetic polyneuropathy (DPN). The primary endpoint was summed change in sensory nerve conduction velocity (NCV) for the bilateral sural and proximal median sensory nerves. The sensory NCV was significantly (P = 0.006) improved by ranirestat. On clinical symptoms evaluated with the use of modified Toronto Clinical Neuropathy Score (mTCNS), obvious efficacy was not found in total score. However, improvement in the sensory test domain of the mTCNS was significant (P = 0.037) in a subgroup of patients diagnosed with neuropathy according to the TCNS severity classification. No clinically significant effects on safety parameters including hepatic and renal functions were observed. Our results indicate that ranirestat is effective on DPN (Japic CTI-121994). PMID:26881251

  8. Family History

    MedlinePlus

    Your family history includes health information about you and your close relatives. Families have many factors in common, including their genes, ... as heart disease, stroke, and cancer. Having a family member with a disease raises your risk, but ...

  9. Family Folklore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kotkin, Amy J.; Baker, Holly C.

    1977-01-01

    Discusses the Family Folklore Program of the Smithsonian Institution's annual Festival of American Folklife, in which the whole family can be involved in tracing family history through story telling, photographs, etc. (MS)

  10. Family History

    MedlinePlus

    ... Aneurysms » Diagnosis » Family History A- A A+ Family History Familial intracranial aneurysms are generally defined as the ... patients with an Intracranial Aneurysm (IA) have a history of smoking at some time in their life. ...

  11. Family Folklore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kotkin, Amy J.; Baker, Holly C.

    1977-01-01

    Discusses the Family Folklore Program of the Smithsonian Institution's annual Festival of American Folklife, in which the whole family can be involved in tracing family history through story telling, photographs, etc. (MS)

  12. A mutation in the Warburg syndrome gene, RAB3GAP1, causes a similar syndrome with polyneuropathy and neuronal vacuolation in Black Russian Terrier dogs.

    PubMed

    Mhlanga-Mutangadura, Tendai; Johnson, Gary S; Schnabel, Robert D; Taylor, Jeremy F; Johnson, Gayle C; Katz, Martin L; Shelton, G Diane; Lever, Teresa E; Giuliano, Elizabeth; Granger, Nicolas; Shomper, Jeremy; O'Brien, Dennis P

    2016-02-01

    An autosomal recessive disease of Black Russian Terriers was previously described as a juvenile-onset, laryngeal paralysis and polyneuropathy similar to Charcot Marie Tooth disease in humans. We found that in addition to an axonal neuropathy, affected dogs exhibit microphthalmia, cataracts, and miotic pupils. On histopathology, affected dogs exhibit a spongiform encephalopathy characterized by accumulations of abnormal, membrane-bound vacuoles of various sizes in neuronal cell bodies, axons and adrenal cells. DNA from an individual dog with this polyneuropathy with ocular abnormalities and neuronal vacuolation (POANV) was used to generate a whole genome sequence which contained a homozygous RAB3GAP1:c.743delC mutation that was absent from 73 control canine whole genome sequences. An additional 12 Black Russian Terriers with POANV were RAB3GAP1:c.743delC homozygotes. DNA samples from 249 Black Russian Terriers with no known signs of POANV were either heterozygotes or homozygous for the reference allele. Mutations in human RAB3GAP1 cause Warburg micro syndrome (WARBM), a severe developmental disorder characterized by abnormalities of the eye, genitals and nervous system including a predominantly axonal peripheral neuropathy. RAB3GAP1 encodes the catalytic subunit of a GTPase activator protein and guanine exchange factor for Rab3 and Rab18 respectively. Rab proteins are involved in membrane trafficking in the endoplasmic reticulum, axonal transport, autophagy and synaptic transmission. The neuronal vacuolation and membranous inclusions and vacuoles in axons seen in this canine disorder likely reflect alterations of these processes. Thus, this canine disease could serve as a model for WARBM and provide insight into its pathogenesis and treatment. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Prevalence of distal diabetic polyneuropathy using quantitative sensory methods in a population with diabetes of more than 10 years' disease duration.

    PubMed

    Miralles-García, José M; de Pablos-Velasco, Pedro; Cabrerizo, Lucio; Pérez, María; López-Gómez, Vanessa

    2010-11-01

    Results of studies on the prevalence of distal diabetic polyneuropathy (DPN) are contradictory. Conventional methods used for the diagnosis of DPN in clinical practice have limited effectiveness. The present study aimed to assess the prevalence of DPN in a population with long-standing diabetes (more than 10 years disease duration) by measuring vibratory, thermal and tactile sensitivities with quantitative sensory devices, as well as their relationship with associated clinical risk factors. A total of 1011 diabetic patients were evaluated in a multicenter, cross-sectional, observational study. The three sensitivities were assessed by ultrabiothesiometer, aesthesiometer and thermoskin devices, respectively. The prevalence of neuropathic pain was validated by the DN4 questionnaire. Of the 1011 cases included, 400 (39.6%) met the diagnostic criteria of DPN, while no DPN was found in the remaining 611 (60.4%). Of the 400 patients with DPN, 253 (63.2%) showed clinical manifestations, while 147 (36.8%) were diagnosed as subclinical DPN. The prevalence of DPN increased with disease duration. There was a progressive loss of the three sensitivities with increased disease duration, particularly thermal and vibratory sensitivities. This loss was statistically significant for the latter two sensitivities. Among patients with clinical DPN, 84.2% had painful neuropathic symptoms. The prevalence of DPN was positively related to micro- and macroangiopathic complications and with dyslipidemia. This study reveals a high degree of underdiagnosis of DPN, most likely due to the asymptomatic nature of the disease in a considerable proportion of patients. Our observations provide evidence of the usefulness of specific equipment for quantitative and objective assessment of polyneuropathy. Copyright © 2010 SEEN. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  14. Validation of a novel screening device (NeuroQuick) for quantitative assessment of small nerve fiber dysfunction as an early feature of diabetic polyneuropathy.

    PubMed

    Ziegler, Dan; Siekierka-Kleiser, Ewa; Meyer, Bernd; Schweers, Michael

    2005-05-01

    To validate a handheld screening device (NeuroQuick) for an early detection of diabetic distal symmetric polyneuropathy (DSP) by quantitative testing of cold sensation based on the wind chill factor (NeuroQuick threshold [NQT]). NQT was measured on the dorsum of the foot in 160 healthy subjects as well as 60 and 128 diabetic patients without and with DSP, respectively. DSP was diagnosed by a neurological examination, motor and sensory nerve conduction velocity, vibration perception threshold, and warm and cold thermal perception threshold (TPT) (TPT Medoc). In addition, a C-64 Hz tuning fork and TipTherm device were used as screening instruments. In the diabetic cohort, NQT correlated significantly with all nerve function tests, with the highest correlation coefficients being found on the foot versus Medoc warm TPT (r = 0.618, P < 0.001) and cold TPT (r = 0.529, P < 0.001). Among patients with DSP, NQT was abnormal, whereas Medoc warm TPT was normal in 34%, whereas only 5% showed the opposite constellation (P < 0.05). Likewise, the corresponding percentages for Medoc cold TPT were 32 and 11%, for TipTherm 47 and 2%, and for the tuning fork 29 and 10% (all P < 0.05), whereas no significant differences were noted when comparing NQT with peroneal motor nerve conduction velocity, sural sensory nerve conduction velocity, and malleolar vibration perception threshold. The coefficients of variation for repeated NQT measurements in 41 control and 41 diabetic subjects were 20.4 and 8.5%, respectively. The NeuroQuick is a valid and reliable screening tool for quantitative assessment of small nerve fiber dysfunction. This device appears to be more sensitive in detecting early diabetic polyneuropathy than both elaborate thermal testing and screening tests such as the tuning fork.

  15. Patterns of cutaneous nerve fibre loss and regeneration in type 2 diabetes with painful and painless polyneuropathy.

    PubMed

    Bönhof, Gidon J; Strom, Alexander; Püttgen, Sonja; Ringel, Bernd; Brüggemann, Jutta; Bódis, Kálmán; Müssig, Karsten; Szendroedi, Julia; Roden, Michael; Ziegler, Dan

    2017-09-15

    The determinants and mechanisms of the development of diabetic sensorimotor polyneuropathy as a painful (DSPN+p) or painless (DSPN-p) entity remain unclear. We examined the degree of cutaneous nerve fibre loss and regeneration in individuals with type 2 diabetes with DSPN+p or DSPN-p compared with individuals with recent-onset type 2 diabetes and corresponding healthy volunteers. In this cross-sectional study, skin biopsies taken from the distal lateral calf were obtained from individuals with recent-onset type 2 diabetes (n = 32) from the German Diabetes Study, with DSPN+p (n = 34) and DSPN-p (n = 32) from the PROPANE study, and volunteers with normal glucose tolerance (n = 50). Double immunofluorescence staining for protein gene product 9.5 (PGP9.5) (pan-neuronal marker) and growth-associated protein 43 (GAP-43) (nerve regeneration marker) was applied to assess intraepidermal nerve fibre density (IENFD) and length (IENFL) and dermal nerve fibre length (DNFL). DSPN was diagnosed using the modified Toronto Consensus (2011) criteria, while neuropathic pain was assessed using an 11-point Numerical Rating Scale. After adjustment for age, sex, BMI and HbA1c, IENFD and IENFL were reduced for both markers in individuals with recent-onset diabetes and both DSPN groups compared with control participants (all p < 0.05), but did not differ between the DSPN groups. The DNFL GAP-43/PGP9.5 ratio was higher in the DSPN+p and DSPN-p groups compared with control participants (1.18 ± 0.28 and 1.07 ± 0.10 vs 1.02 ± 0.10; p ≤ 0.05) and in the DSPN + p group compared with DSPN-p (p < 0.05). Correlation analyses showed distinct inverse associations between the DNFL GAP-43/PGP9.5 ratio and PGP9.5 positive IENFD as well as DNFL (IENFD: β = -0.569, DNFL: β = -0.639; both p < 0.0001) in individuals with type 2 diabetes, but not in the control group. A similar pattern was found for correlations between the DNFL GAP-43/PGP9.5 ratio and peripheral nerve

  16. Family Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holloway, John H.

    2004-01-01

    Research indicates that family literacy programs can provide opportunities for educational success for parents and children. The benefits reaped by the children in family literacy workshops are presented.

  17. Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy

    MedlinePlus

    ... biopsy to remove a small piece of a nerve for examination Spinal tap (lumbar puncture) to check the fluid that surrounds the brain and spinal cord Blood tests may be done to look for specific ... on the nerves Depending on the suspected cause of CIDP, other ...

  18. Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy.

    PubMed

    Gorson, Kenneth C; Katz, Jonathan

    2013-05-01

    Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (CIDP) is an immune disorder of the peripheral nervous system. This article highlights our current understanding of the condition along with its phenotypic variants that are encountered in clinical practice. The diagnostic evaluation of CIDP includes laboratory studies to detect associated medical conditions and electrodiagnostic studies to assess for demyelination. Current treatment options include corticosteroids, plasma exchange, and intravenous immune globulin, along with alternative therapies that may be used as corticosteroid-sparing agents or for treatment-refractory cases. Approximately 85% to 90% of patients eventually improve or stabilize with treatment, and the long-term prognosis of CIDP is favorable.

  19. Family Privilege

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seita, John R.

    2014-01-01

    Family privilege is defined as "strengths and supports gained through primary caring relationships." A generation ago, the typical family included two parents and a bevy of kids living under one roof. Now, every variation of blended caregiving qualifies as family. But over the long arc of human history, a real family was a…

  20. Family Literacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington, Charles W., Ed.

    1996-01-01

    This newsletter theme issue focuses on the impact of learning disabilities within families, specifically families with low literacy skills. It explores the effectiveness of family literacy programs, examines the connection between the field of family literacy and learning disabilities (LD), and offers suggestions on how to work with students with…

  1. Family Privilege

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seita, John R.

    2014-01-01

    Family privilege is defined as "strengths and supports gained through primary caring relationships." A generation ago, the typical family included two parents and a bevy of kids living under one roof. Now, every variation of blended caregiving qualifies as family. But over the long arc of human history, a real family was a…

  2. Family Violence and Family Physicians

    PubMed Central

    Herbert, Carol P.

    1991-01-01

    The acronym IDEALS summarizes family physicians' obligations when violence is suspected: to identify family violence; document injuries; educate families and ensure safety for victims; access resources and coordinate care; co-operate in the legal process; and provide support for families. Failure to respond reflects personal and professional experience and attitudes, fear of legal involvement, and lack of knowledge. Risks of intervention include physician burnout, physician overfunctioning, escalation of violence, and family disruption. PMID:21228987

  3. Family Life

    MedlinePlus

    ... Family and Friends Talking About Cancer Family Life Parenting While Living With Cancer How A Child Understands ... Learn more about how to get support for parenting while living with cancer . The importance of communication ...

  4. Family Violence

    MedlinePlus

    ... help. About Military OneSource Benefits Home and Family Finances Legal Issues Personal Financial Management and Taxes Taxes ... Surveys Site Map Categories Confidential Help Family & Relationships Finance & Legal Health & Wellness Education & Employment On & Off-Base ...

  5. Familial gigantism

    PubMed Central

    de Herder, Wouter W.

    2012-01-01

    Familial GH-secreting tumors are seen in association with three separate hereditary clinical syndromes: multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1, Carney complex, and familial isolated pituitary adenomas. PMID:22584702

  6. Family Support.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wieck, Colleen, Ed.; McBride, Marijo, Ed.

    1990-01-01

    This "Feature Issue" of the quarterly journal "Impact" presents 19 brief articles on family support systems in the United States for persons with developmental disabilities and their families. Emphasis is on provisions of Public Law 99-457. Articles include: "Family Support in the United States: Setting a Course for the…

  7. Family Matters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Featherstone, Joseph

    1979-01-01

    Emphasizing the family as the center of political/policy debates is the result of the tradition of romanticizing family virtues and a set of events ("the sixities"). Author sees the family emerging as a symbol in communal social policy development. Warns of dangers inherent in seeking private solutions to collective problems. (Author/CSS)

  8. Family Involvement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liontos, Lynn Balster

    1992-01-01

    Family involvement in schools will work only when perceived as an enlarged concept focusing on all children, including those from at-risk families. Each publication reviewed here is specifically concerned with family involvement strategies concerned with all children or targeted at primarily high risk students. Susan McAllister Swap looks at three…

  9. Italian families and family interventions.

    PubMed

    Casacchia, Massimo; Roncone, Rita

    2014-06-01

    In Italy, as in many countries, relatives are closely involved in caring for persons with physical and mental disorders. The Italian scenario lends itself to routine involvement of family members in psychiatric treatment because, despite becoming smaller and smaller, Italian families keep close ties, and men and women do not leave the parental home until relatively late. The authors describe the impact of international family psychosocial research on the Italian mental health services (MHSs) and the main psychosocial interventions currently in use, including family psychoeducational interventions and the "Milan family therapy approach." They also highlight the contribution Italian researchers have given to the study of important variables in integrated mental disorder care, such as family burden of care, relatives' attitudes, family functioning, and satisfaction with the MHSs. Finally, they discuss the difficulties of implementing and disseminating family interventions within the Italian MHS, despite the growing evidence of their effectiveness.

  10. POEMS Syndrome (Polyneuropathy, Organomegaly, Endocrinopathy, Monoclonal Gammopathy and Skin Changes) Treated with Autologous Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation: A Case Report and Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Arana, Carlos; Pérez de León, José Antonio; Gómez-Moreno, Gerardo; Pérez-Cano, Ramón; Hernández, Tomás Martín

    2015-01-01

    Patient: Male, 62 Final Diagnosis: POEMS syndrome Symptoms: General malaise • pretibial edemas • weight loss Medication: — Clinical Procedure: Autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation Specialty: Hematology Objective: Rare disease Background: POEMS syndrome is a rare systemic pathology of paraneoplastic origin that is associated with plasma cell dyscrasia. It is characterized by the presence of sensorimotor polyneuropathy, organomegaly, endocrinopathy, monoclonal gammopathy, skin changes, and other systemic manifestations. The pathogenesis of the syndrome is unknown but over-production of vascular endothelial growth factor is probably responsible for most of the more characteristic symptoms. There is no standard treatment for POEMS syndrome and no randomized controlled clinical trials of treatment exist in the available literature. High-dose melphalan with autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation should be considered for younger patients with widespread osteosclerotic lesions, and for patients with rapidly progressive neuropathy. Case Report: This is the case of a 62-year-old Caucasian man who was admitted to our center presenting pretibial edema accompanied by significant weight loss and difficulty walking. POEMS criteria were present and an immunofixation test confirmed the presence of a monoclonal plasmaproliferative disorder. After autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, the monoclonal component disappeared and the patient’s clinical status improved markedly. Conclusions: Autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation following high-dose melphalan is an effective therapy for younger patients with widespread osteosclerotic lesions in POEMS syndrome. PMID:25726020

  11. Toxicological assessment of isomeric pesticides: a strategy for testing of chiral organophosphorus (OP) compounds for delayed polyneuropathy in a regulatory setting.

    PubMed

    Battershill, Jon M; Edwards, Philippa M; Johnson, Martin K

    2004-08-01

    Many compounds, including some pesticides, contain structural centres of asymmetry, which convey the property of a type of stereoisomerism known as chirality. Such compounds can exist in two or more forms, depending on the number of chiral atoms and are termed stereoisomers or enantiomers. Stereoisomers of a particular compound can have different biological properties; one such of particular importance for toxicological evaluation, is the potential for differences in metabolic disposal of and binding of stereoisomers to molecular targets in the cell. The combination of differential metabolism of chiral organophosphorus (OP) pesticides and opposing stereoselectivity of inhibition of neuropathy target esterase (NTE) and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) can affect the value of the hen test, performed to OECD guidelines, in predicting the potential to cause organophosphate-induced delayed polyneuropathy (OPIDP) in humans. This is a mixed central and sensory and motor neuropathy. The experimental data on structural analogues of the pesticide methamidophos and the evidence for stereoselective OPIDP are reviewed and a model is given demonstrating how the properties of a chiral OP can result in the neuropathic potential not being detected by the standard hen test. A strategy for the assessment of a racemic mixture comprised of two OP enantiomers for the potential to induce OPIDP is outlined. The strategy uses information from structure activity relationships (SAR), in vitro tests and in vivo tests to allow risk assessment decisions to be made. It is suggested that the potential for stereoselective toxicity of pesticides should be routinely considered in regulatory assessments.

  12. Early Electrodiagnostic Features of Upper Extremity Sensory Nerves Can Differentiate Axonal Guillain-Barré Syndrome from Acute Inflammatory Demyelinating Polyneuropathy

    PubMed Central

    Koo, Yong Seo; Shin, Ha Young; Kim, Jong Kuk; Nam, Tai-Seung; Shin, Kyong Jin; Bae, Jong-Seok; Suh, Bum Chun; Oh, Jeeyoung; Yoon, Byeol-A

    2016-01-01

    Background and Purpose Serial nerve conduction studies (NCSs) are recommended for differentiating axonal and demyelinating Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS), but this approach is not suitable for early diagnoses. This study was designed to identify possible NCS parameters for differentiating GBS subtypes. Methods We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 70 patients with GBS who underwent NCS within 10 days of symptom onset. Patients with axonal GBS and acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (AIDP) were selected based on clinical characteristics and serial NCSs. An antiganglioside antibody study was used to increase the diagnostic certainty. Results The amplitudes of median and ulnar nerve sensory nerve action potentials (SNAPs) were significantly smaller in the AIDP group than in the axonal-GBS group. Classification and regression-tree analysis revealed that the distal ulnar sensory nerve SNAP amplitude was the best predictor of axonal GBS. Conclusions Early upper extremity sensory NCS findings are helpful in differentiating axonal-GBS patients with antiganglioside antibodies from AIDP patients. PMID:27819421

  13. The assessment of clinical distal symmetric polyneuropathy in type 1 diabetes: a comparison of methodologies from the Pittsburgh Epidemiology of Diabetes Complications Cohort.

    PubMed

    Pambianco, G; Costacou, T; Strotmeyer, Elsa; Orchard, T J

    2011-05-01

    Distal symmetrical polyneuropathy (DSP) is the most common type of diabetic neuropathy, but often difficult to diagnose reliably. We evaluated the cross-sectional association between three point-of-care devices, Vibratron II, NC-stat(®), and Neurometer(®), and two clinical protocols, MNSI and monofilament, in identifying those with DSP, and/or amputation/ulcer/neuropathic pain (AUP), the two outcomes of major concern. This report presents data from 195 type 1 diabetic participants of the Epidemiology of Diabetes Complications (EDC) Study attending the 18-year examination (2004-2006). Participants with physician-diagnosed DSP, AUP or who were abnormal on the NC-stat, and the Vibratron II, MNSI, and monofilament were older (p<0.05) and had a longer duration of diabetes (p < 0.05). There was no difference by sex for DSP, AUP, or any testing modality, with the exception of NCstat (motor). The Vibratron II and MNSI showed the highest sensitivity for DSP (>87%) and AUP (>80%), whereas the monofilament had the highest specificity (98% DSP, 94% AUP) and positive predictive value (89% DSP, 47% AUP), but lowest sensitivity (20% DSP, 30% AUP). The MNSI also had the highest negative predictive value (83%) and Youden's Index (37%) and currently presents the single best combination of sensitivity and specificity of DSP in type 1 diabetes. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The assessment of clinical distal symmetric polyneuropathy in type 1 diabetes: A comparison of methodologies from the Pittsburgh Epidemiology of Diabetes Complications Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Pambianco, G.; Costacou, T.; Strotmeyer, Elsa; Orchard, T.J.

    2011-01-01

    Distal symmetrical polyneuropathy (DSP) is the most common type of diabetic neuropathy, but often difficult to diagnose reliably. We evaluated the cross-sectional association between three point-of-care devices, Vibratron II, NC-stat®, and Neurometer®, and two clinical protocols, MNSI and monofilament, in identifying those with DSP, and/or amputation/ulcer/neuropathic pain (AUP), the two outcomes of major concern. This report presents data from 195 type 1 diabetic participants of the Epidemiology of Diabetes Complications (EDC) Study attending the 18-year examination (2004–2006). Participants with physician-diagnosed DSP, AUP or who were abnormal on the NC-stat, and the Vibratron II, MNSI, and monofilament were older (p < 0.05) and had a longer duration of diabetes (p < 0.05). There was no difference by sex for DSP, AUP, or any testing modality, with the exception of NCstat (motor). The Vibratron II and MNSI showed the highest sensitivity for DSP (>87%) and AUP (>80%), whereas the monofilament had the highest specificity (98% DSP, 94% AUP) and positive predictive value (89% DSP, 47% AUP), but lowest sensitivity (20% DSP, 30% AUP). The MNSI also had the highest negative predictive value (83%) and Youden's Index (37%) and currently presents the single best combination of sensitivity and specificity of DSP in type 1 diabetes. PMID:21411172

  15. Alterations in the neural circuits from peripheral afferents to the spinal cord: possible implications for diabetic polyneuropathy in streptozotocin-induced type 1 diabetic rats

    PubMed Central

    Kou, Zhen-Zhen; Li, Chun-Yu; Hu, Jia-Chen; Yin, Jun-Bin; Zhang, Dong-Liang; Liao, Yong-Hui; Wu, Zhen-Yu; Ding, Tan; Qu, Juan; Li, Hui; Li, Yun-Qing

    2014-01-01

    Diabetic polyneuropathy (DPN) presents as a wide variety of sensorimotor symptoms and affects approximately 50% of diabetic patients. Changes in the neural circuits may occur in the early stages in diabetes and are implicated in the development of DPN. Therefore, we aimed to detect changes in the expression of isolectin B4 (IB4, the marker for nonpeptidergic unmyelinated fibers and their cell bodies) and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP, the marker for peptidergic fibers and their cell bodies) in the dorsal root ganglion (DRG) and spinal cord of streptozotocin (STZ)-induced type 1 diabetic rats showing alterations in sensory and motor function. We also used cholera toxin B subunit (CTB) to show the morphological changes of the myelinated fibers and motor neurons. STZ-induced diabetic rats exhibited hyperglycemia, decreased body weight gain, mechanical allodynia and impaired locomotor activity. In the DRG and spinal dorsal horn, IB4-labeled structures decreased, but both CGRP immunostaining and CTB labeling increased from day 14 to day 28 in diabetic rats. In spinal ventral horn, CTB labeling decreased in motor neurons in diabetic rats. Treatment with intrathecal injection of insulin at the early stages of DPN could alleviate mechanical allodynia and impaired locomotor activity in diabetic rats. The results suggest that the alterations of the neural circuits between spinal nerve and spinal cord via the DRG and ventral root might be involved in DPN. PMID:24523675

  16. [Correlation between plasma concentrations of homocysteine and diabetic polyneuropathy evaluated with the Semmes-Weinstein monofilament test in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus].

    PubMed

    Molina, Mercedes; Gonzalez, Ricardo; Folgado, José; Real, José T; Martínez-Hervás, Sergio; Priego, Antonia; Lorente, Rosario; Chaves, F Javier; Ascaso, Juan F

    2013-11-02

    Few modifiable risk factors are known to be associated with the presence and progression of diabetic polyneuropathy (DPN). We have analyzed in 405 type 2 diabetic (T2DM) subjects (169 women) the association of plasma homocysteine with the presence of DPN measured with the Semmes-Weinstein (SW) monofilament test. A score below 4 was considered an altered SW monofilament test. Plasma homocysteine, vitamin B12 and folic acid were measured using standard procedures (ELISA). Patients with T2DM with altered SW test have significantly higher age, evolution of disease, HbA1c and lower creatinine clearance values. In addition, plasma homocysteine values were independently and significantly higher in T2DM with DPN measured as altered SW test (13.64 ± 4.93 vs. 12.22 ± 4.48 μmol/l, P<.01) with similar vitamin B12 and folic acid values comparing the 2 groups. Plasma homocysteine and HbA1c values are the 2 modifiable biological factors associated with the presence of DPN evaluated as an altered SW monofilament test in T2DM subjects. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  17. Secretion of DJ-1 into the serum of patients with Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Maita, Chinatsu; Tsuji, Sachiko; Yabe, Ichiro; Hamada, Shinsuke; Ogata, Akihiko; Maita, Hiroyhsi; Iguchi-Ariga, Sanae M M; Sasaki, Hidenao; Ariga, Hiroyoshi

    2008-01-24

    DJ-1 was initially identified by us as a novel oncogene and has later been found to be a causative gene for familial Parkinson's disease PARK7. DJ-1 plays role in transcriptional regulation and in oxidative stress function, and loss of its function is thought to be related to onset age, mode of progression and clinical severity of both familial and sporadic forms of Parkinson's disease (PD). DJ-1 is localized both in the cytoplasm and nucleus, and it has been reported to be secreted into the serum or plasma of patients with breast cancer, melanoma, familial amyloidotic polyneuropathy and stroke. In this study, levels of DJ-1 secreted into the serum of healthy controls and patients with sporadic PD were examined by using a DJ-1 ELISA kit, and the level of oxidative stress in the serum was also measured. The results showed that DJ-1 was secreted into the serum of both healthy controls and PD patients. There was no significant difference between the levels of secreted DJ-1 in two groups, and correlations of levels of secreted DJ-1 with age, clinical severity of PD and level of oxidative stress were not found.

  18. Family Empowerment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sinclair, Mary F., Ed.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    This feature issue of IMPACT focuses on the empowerment of families with a member who has a developmental disability. It presents strategies and models for a collaborative, respectful approach to service provision, and presents the experiences of families in seeking support and assistance. Feature articles include "Two Generations of…

  19. Family Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naturescope, 1986

    1986-01-01

    Focuses on various aspects of mammal family life ranging from ways different species are born to how different mammals are raised. Learning activities include making butter from cream, creating birth announcements for mammals, and playing a password game on family life. (ML)

  20. Family Potyviridae

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The International Committee on the Taxonomy of Viruses potyvirus study group has revised the description of the family Potyviridae for inclusion in the ICTV 9th report. Characteristic features of each genus within the family is presented. Revised criteria for demarcation and nomenclature of viral sp...

  1. Family, Extended

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patton, Jessica Rae

    2006-01-01

    Parents are a child's first and most influential teacher. People hear this truism often, yet nowhere has the author seen it more taken to heart than at Tower Street Elementary School. The school's efforts to form a true partnership with students' families--from involving families in the first day of school, to the principal making home visits, to…

  2. Family Workshops

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Dave; Rees-Jones, Tanny

    1978-01-01

    A Family Workshop is an informal, multidisciplined educational program for adults and children, organized by a team of teachers. This article discusses the Lavender Hill Family Workshop, one of many, which attempts to provide education in various subject areas for adults and for children while also integrating both objectives in order to educate…

  3. Family Workshops

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Dave; Rees-Jones, Tanny

    1978-01-01

    A Family Workshop is an informal, multidisciplined educational program for adults and children, organized by a team of teachers. This article discusses the Lavender Hill Family Workshop, one of many, which attempts to provide education in various subject areas for adults and for children while also integrating both objectives in order to educate…

  4. Family Reunification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wulczyn, Fred

    2004-01-01

    Reunifying children placed in foster care with their birth parents is a primary goal of the child welfare system. Yet, relatively little is known about the reunification process. This article analyzes new data on trends in family reunification and discovers: (1) Although most children still exit foster care through family reunification, exit…

  5. Family Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naturescope, 1986

    1986-01-01

    Focuses on various aspects of mammal family life ranging from ways different species are born to how different mammals are raised. Learning activities include making butter from cream, creating birth announcements for mammals, and playing a password game on family life. (ML)

  6. Atypical Features in a Large Turkish Family Affected with Friedreich Ataxia

    PubMed Central

    Cevik, Betul; Aksoy, Durdane; Sahbaz, E. Irmak; Basak, A. Nazli

    2016-01-01

    Here, we describe the clinical features of several members of the same family diagnosed with Friedreich ataxia (FRDA) and cerebral lesions, demyelinating neuropathy, and late-age onset without a significant cardiac involvement and presenting with similar symptoms, although genetic testing was negative for the GAA repeat expansion in one patient of the family. The GAA repeat expansion in the frataxin gene was shown in all of the family members except in a young female patient. MRI revealed arachnoid cysts in two patients; MRI was consistent with both cavum septum pellucidum-cavum vergae and nodular signal intensity increase in one patient. EMG showed demyelinating sensorimotor polyneuropathy in another patient. The GAA expansion-negative 11-year-old female patient had mental-motor retardation, epilepsy, and ataxia. None of the patients had significant cardiac symptoms. Description of FRDA families with different ethnic backgrounds may assist in identifying possible phenotypic and genetic features of the disease. Furthermore, the genetic heterogeneity observed in this family draws attention to the difficulty of genetic counseling in an inbred population and to the need for genotyping all affected members before delivering comprehensive genetic counseling. PMID:27668106

  7. Family Health and Family Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    World Health Organization, Copenhagen (Denmark). Regional Office for Europe.

    This document is made up of a selection of some of the papers distributed to participants in courses on "Family Health and Family Planning" which have been organized each year since 1973 by the International Children's Center and the World Health Organization Regional Office for Europe. Six courses, held between 1973 and 1978, brought together a…

  8. Family Health and Family Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    World Health Organization, Copenhagen (Denmark). Regional Office for Europe.

    This document is made up of a selection of some of the papers distributed to participants in courses on "Family Health and Family Planning" which have been organized each year since 1973 by the International Children's Center and the World Health Organization Regional Office for Europe. Six courses, held between 1973 and 1978, brought together a…

  9. The Facilitative Effect of Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation on Visuospatial Working Memory in Patients with Diabetic Polyneuropathy: A Pre-post Sham-Controlled Study.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yi-Jen; Tseng, Philip; Huang, Han-Wei; Hu, Jon-Fan; Juan, Chi-Hung; Hsu, Kuei-Sen; Lin, Chou-Ching

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus can lead to diabetic polyneuropathy (DPN) and cognitive deficits that manifest as peripheral and central neuropathy, respectively. In this study we investigated the relationship between visuospatial working memory (VSWM) capacity and DPN severity, and attempted to improve VSWM in DPN patients via the use of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS). Sixteen DPN patients and 16 age- and education-matched healthy control subjects received Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV) and Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MOCA) for baseline cognitive assessment. A forward- and backward-recall computerized Corsi block tapping task (CBT), both with and without a concurrent motor interference task was used to measure VSWM capacity. Each DPN patient underwent a pre-treatment CBT, followed by tDCS or sham treatment, then a post-treatment CBT on two separate days. We found that although patients with severe DPN (Dyck's grade 2a or 2b) showed comparable general intelligence scores on WAIS-IV as their age- and education-matched healthy counterparts, they nonetheless showed mild cognitive impairment (MCI) on MOCA and working memory deficit on digit-span test of WAIS-IV. Furthermore, patients' peripheral nerve conduction velocity (NCV) was positively correlated with their VSWM span in the most difficult CBT condition that involved backward-recall with motor interference such that patients with worse NCV also had lower VSWM span. Most importantly, anodal tDCS over the right DLPFC was able to improve low-performing patients' VSWM span to be on par with the high-performers, thereby eliminating the correlation between NCV and VSWM. In summary, these findings suggest that (1) MCI and severe peripheral neuropathy can coexist with unequal severity in diabetic patients, (2) the positive correlation of VSWM and NCV suggests a link between peripheral and central neuropathies, and (3) anodal tDCS over the right DLPFC can improve DPN patients' VSWM

  10. The Facilitative Effect of Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation on Visuospatial Working Memory in Patients with Diabetic Polyneuropathy: A Pre–post Sham-Controlled Study

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yi-Jen; Tseng, Philip; Huang, Han-Wei; Hu, Jon-Fan; Juan, Chi-Hung; Hsu, Kuei-Sen; Lin, Chou-Ching

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus can lead to diabetic polyneuropathy (DPN) and cognitive deficits that manifest as peripheral and central neuropathy, respectively. In this study we investigated the relationship between visuospatial working memory (VSWM) capacity and DPN severity, and attempted to improve VSWM in DPN patients via the use of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS). Sixteen DPN patients and 16 age- and education-matched healthy control subjects received Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV) and Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MOCA) for baseline cognitive assessment. A forward- and backward-recall computerized Corsi block tapping task (CBT), both with and without a concurrent motor interference task was used to measure VSWM capacity. Each DPN patient underwent a pre-treatment CBT, followed by tDCS or sham treatment, then a post-treatment CBT on two separate days. We found that although patients with severe DPN (Dyck’s grade 2a or 2b) showed comparable general intelligence scores on WAIS-IV as their age- and education-matched healthy counterparts, they nonetheless showed mild cognitive impairment (MCI) on MOCA and working memory deficit on digit-span test of WAIS-IV. Furthermore, patients’ peripheral nerve conduction velocity (NCV) was positively correlated with their VSWM span in the most difficult CBT condition that involved backward-recall with motor interference such that patients with worse NCV also had lower VSWM span. Most importantly, anodal tDCS over the right DLPFC was able to improve low-performing patients’ VSWM span to be on par with the high-performers, thereby eliminating the correlation between NCV and VSWM. In summary, these findings suggest that (1) MCI and severe peripheral neuropathy can coexist with unequal severity in diabetic patients, (2) the positive correlation of VSWM and NCV suggests a link between peripheral and central neuropathies, and (3) anodal tDCS over the right DLPFC can improve DPN patients’ VSWM

  11. A RAB3GAP1 SINE Insertion in Alaskan Huskies with Polyneuropathy, Ocular Abnormalities, and Neuronal Vacuolation (POANV) Resembling Human Warburg Micro Syndrome 1 (WARBM1).

    PubMed

    Wiedmer, Michaela; Oevermann, Anna; Borer-Germann, Stephanie E; Gorgas, Daniela; Shelton, G Diane; Drögemüller, Michaela; Jagannathan, Vidhya; Henke, Diana; Leeb, Tosso

    2015-11-23

    We observed a hereditary phenotype in Alaskan Huskies that was characterized by polyneuropathy with ocular abnormalities and neuronal vacuolation (POANV). The affected dogs developed a progressive severe ataxia, which led to euthanasia between 8 and 16 months of age. The pedigrees were consistent with a monogenic autosomal recessive inheritance. We localized the causative genetic defect to a 4 Mb interval on chromosome 19 by a combined linkage and homozygosity mapping approach. Whole genome sequencing of one affected dog, an obligate carrier, and an unrelated control revealed a 218-bp SINE insertion into exon 7 of the RAB3GAP1 gene. The SINE insertion was perfectly associated with the disease phenotype in a cohort of 43 Alaskan Huskies, and it was absent from 541 control dogs of diverse other breeds. The SINE insertion induced aberrant splicing and led to a transcript with a greatly altered exon 7. RAB3GAP1 loss-of-function variants in humans cause Warburg Micro Syndrome 1 (WARBM1), which is characterized by additional developmental defects compared to canine POANV, whereas Rab3gap1-deficient mice have a much milder phenotype than either humans or dogs. Thus, the RAB3GAP1 mutant Alaskan Huskies provide an interesting intermediate phenotype that may help to better understand the function of RAB3GAP1 in development. Furthermore, the identification of the presumed causative genetic variant will enable genetic testing to avoid the nonintentional breeding of affected dogs. Copyright © 2016 Wiedmer et al.

  12. Asteroid families

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nesvorný, David; Bottke, William F.; Vokrouhlický, David; Morbidelli, Alessandro; Jedicke, Robert

    An asteroid family is a group of asteroids with similar orbits and spectra that was produced by a collisional breakup of a large parent body. To identify asteroid families, researchers look for clusters of asteroid positions in the space of proper orbital elements. These elements, being more constant over time than osculating orbital elements, provide a dynamical criterion of whether a group of bodies has a common ancestor. More than fifty asteroid families have been identified to date. Their analysis produced several important insights into the physics of large scale collisions, dynamical processes affecting small bodies in the Solar System, and surface and interior properties of asteroids.

  13. FAMILY PIOPHILIDAE.

    PubMed

    Wolff, Marta; Pérez, Sandra; Grisales, Diana

    2016-06-14

    Piophilidae is a little family poorly known in Colombia, with only Piophila casei (L.) and Stearibia nigriceps Meigen reported so far. This catalogue expands the distribution of these species to other localities in the country.

  14. Unusual families.

    PubMed

    Golombok, Susan

    2005-03-01

    The introduction of assisted reproduction has led to unusual forms of procreation. This article describes the social consequences of lesbian motherhood and of families headed by single heterosexual mothers.

  15. Family dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Hayaki, Chie; Anno, Kozo; Shibata, Mao; Iwaki, Rie; Kawata, Hiroshi; Sudo, Nobuyuki; Hosoi, Masako

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Previous studies have shown differences in the psychosocial factors related to chronic localized pain (CLP) and chronic widespread pain (CWP). However, no studies have done an evaluation of differences between CLP and CWP from the viewpoint of family functioning. We did a cross-sectional study in a tertiary care setting to investigate possible differences in the relation of CWP and CLP to family functioning. Patients with CLP (N = 126) or CWP (N = 75) were assessed for family functioning by the Family Assessment Device (FAD) and a comparison was done. Logistic regression analysis was used to estimate associations of family functioning subscales with pain status (CWP vs CLP), controlling for demographic variables, pain variables; pain duration, pain ratings, pain disability, and psychological factors; depression, anxiety, and catastrophizing. The odds ratios (ORs) for the presence of CWP were calculated. Compared to patients with CLP, patients with CWP showed a lower functional status for Roles and Affective Involvement. The ORs for CWP were significantly higher in lower functioning Roles (OR: 2.38, 95% CI: 1.21–4.65) and Affective Involvement (OR: 2.86, 95% CI: 1.56–5.24) after adjusting for demographic variables. The significant association of CWP to Roles and Affective Involvement remained after controlling for the pain variables and psychological factors. This study shows that the families of patients with CWP have poorer family functioning than those with CLP. Our findings suggest that early identification and interventions for the family dysfunction of chronic pain patients are important to the treatment and prevention of CWP. PMID:27930535

  16. Importance of Family Routines

    MedlinePlus

    ... Pediatrician Family Life Medical Home Family Dynamics Adoption & Foster Care Communication & Discipline Types of Families Media Work & Play Getting Involved in Your Community Healthy Children > Family Life > Family Dynamics > The Importance of Family ...

  17. Domino liver transplantation: how far can we push the paradigm?

    PubMed

    Popescu, Irinel; Dima, Simona O

    2012-01-01

    Domino liver transplantation (DLT) has emerged as a strategy for increasing the number of liver grafts available: morphologically normal livers from donors with metabolic diseases can be used for select recipients with hepatocellular carcinoma (usually outside the Milan criteria). Familial amyloidotic polyneuropathy (FAP) is the most common indication for DLT. When FAP patients are involved in DLT, the indications and outcomes are clear and good, although de novo FAP development within various periods of time has been described in DLT recipients of FAP livers. With the increasing need for organs, livers explanted from patients with rare metabolic diseases, such as primary hyperoxaluria (PH), acute intermittent porphyria (AIP), maple syrup urine disease (MSUD), and homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia (HFHC), are being used for DLT. However, insufficient data about the use of livers from patients with these rare metabolic diseases are available. In this review, we focus on the latter disorders. PH is not a good indication for DLT because recipients of PH livers develop hyperoxaluria and early acute renal failure. AIP also seems to be a debatable indication for DLT because of the rapid development of neurotoxicity in AIP liver recipients. However, the outcomes of DLT with HFHC and MSUD liver grafts (which include the risk of the de novo development of these genetic diseases) are promising. For rare metabolic liver diseases to be established as indications for DLT, more reports and studies are needed. Copyright © 2011 American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

  18. Biochemical and molecular genetic characterization of a new variant prealbumin associated with hereditary amyloidosis.

    PubMed Central

    Wallace, M R; Dwulet, F E; Conneally, P M; Benson, M D

    1986-01-01

    Familial amyloidotic polyneuropathy (FAP) is an autosomal dominant late-onset disorder characterized by the extracellular deposition of amyloid fibrils. In all cases studied these fibrils have been found to be composed of plasma prealbumin (transthyretin) containing a single amino acid substitution. Biochemical studies were conducted on amyloid from one patient and plasma prealbumin from his affected brother, both part of a large kindred from the Appalachian region of the United States. Sequence analysis of the amyloid subunit protein showed it to be prealbumin with about two-thirds of the molecules containing a substitution of alanine for threonine at position 60. Studies of the plasma prealbumin showed that the same substitution was present in 40-45% of the protein. Based on this substitution and the prealbumin cDNA sequence, a Pvu II restriction fragment length DNA polymorphism (RFLP) was predicted and demonstrated in DNA of both patients as well as other family members. This RFLP confirms the predicted DNA mutation responsible for the protein variant, and represents an accurate method for detection of this gene. Images PMID:3722385

  19. Mercury vapor inhalation and poisoning of a family.

    PubMed

    Oz, Serife Gul; Tozlu, Mukaddes; Yalcin, Songul Siddika; Sozen, Tumay; Guven, Gulay Sain

    2012-08-01

    Acute mercury vapor poisoning is a rare but fatal toxicological emergency. People are exposed to mercury in daily life by the way of foods, vaccines, antiseptics, ointments, amalgam or occupation. We present here, the clinical picture and management of four members of the same family who were exposed to elemental mercury. Three of the family members were seen in another hospital with malaise, fever, eritematous rash and pulmonary problems. Their questioning revealed the mercury exposure. Having a suspicion of heavy metal intoxication, blood and urine mercury levels were measured and mercury intoxication was diagnosed. On admission to our hospital, two patients already had chelation therapy. In three of them we found three distinct abnormalities: encephalopathy, nephrotic syndrome and polyneuropathy. The fourth family member had minor symptoms. This family is an example for the inhalation exposure resulting from inappropriate handling of liquid mercury. During the first days, flu like illness ensues. Then, severe pulmonary, neurological, renal, hepatic, hematological and dermatological dysfunctions develop. Blood and urine mercury levels should be tested on suspicion, but it must be kept in mind that blood level is unreliable in predicting the severity of mercury toxicity. The priority in the treatment should be removing the patient from the source of exposure. Then British anti-Lewisite, edetate calcium disodium, penicillamine, Sodium 2,3-dimercaptopropane-1-sulfhonate and 2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid can be used for binding the mercury. We conclude that since mercury-containing devices are present in daily life, physicians must be able to recognize the clinical manifestations and treatment of mercury poisoning.

  20. Family welfare.

    PubMed

    Sinha, N K

    1992-01-01

    Between 1901-1921, India gained 12.9 million people because mortality remained high. The death rate fell between 1921-1951, but birth rates remained the same. Therefore 110 million people were added--2 times the population increase between 1891-1921. Between 1951-1981, the population increased to 324 million. Socioeconomic development was responsible for most of the downward trend in the birth rate during the 20th century. Even though large families were the norm in early India, religious leaders encouraged small family size. The 1st government family planning clinics in the world opened in Mysore and Bangalore in 1930. Right before Independence, the Bhore Committee made recommendations to reduce population growth such as increasing the age of marriage for girls. Since 1951 there has been a change in measures and policies geared towards population growth with each of the 7 5-Year Plans because policy makers applied what they learned from each previous plan. The 1st 5-Year Plan emphasized the need to understand what factors contribute to population growth. It also integrated family planning services into health services of hospitals and health centers. The government was over zealous in its implementation of the sterilization program (2nd 5-Year Plan, 1956-1961), however, which hurt family planning programs for many years. As of early 1992, sterilization, especially tubectomy, remained the most popular family planning method, however. The 7th 5-Year Plan changed its target of reaching a Net Reproductive Rate of 1 by 2001 to 2006-2011. It set a goal of 100% immunization coverage by 1990 but it did not occur. In 1986, the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare planned to make free contraceptives available in urban and rural areas and to involve voluntary organizations. The government needs to instill measures to increase women's status, women's literacy, and age of marriage as well as to eliminate poverty, ensure old age security, and ensure child survival and

  1. 5% lidocaine medicated plaster versus pregabalin in post-herpetic neuralgia and diabetic polyneuropathy: an open-label, non-inferiority two-stage RCT study.

    PubMed

    Baron, Ralf; Mayoral, Victor; Leijon, Göran; Binder, Andreas; Steigerwald, Ilona; Serpell, Michael

    2009-07-01

    To compare efficacy and safety of 5% lidocaine medicated plaster with pregabalin in patients with post-herpetic neuralgia (PHN) or painful diabetic polyneuropathy (DPN). This was a two-stage adaptive, randomized, open-label, multicentre, non-inferiority study. Data are reported from the initial 4-week comparative phase, in which adults with PHN or painful DPN received either topical 5% lidocaine medicated plaster applied to the most painful skin area or twice-daily pregabalin capsules titrated to effect according to the Summary of Product Characteristics. The primary endpoint was response rate at 4 weeks, defined as reduction averaged over the last three days from baseline of > or = 2 points or an absolute value of < or = 4 points on the 11-point Numerical Rating Scale (NRS-3). Secondary endpoints included 30% and 50% reductions in NRS-3 scores; change in allodynia severity rating; quality of life (QoL) parameters EQ-5D, CGIC, and PGIC; patient satisfaction with treatment; and evaluation of safety (laboratory parameters, vital signs, physical examinations, adverse events [AEs], drug-related AEs [DRAEs], and withdrawal due to AEs). Ninety-six patients with PHN and 204 with painful DPN were analysed (full analysis set, FAS). Overall, 66.4% of patients treated with the 5% lidocaine medicated plaster and 61.5% receiving pregabalin were considered responders (corresponding numbers for the per protocol set, PPS: 65.3% vs. 62.0%). In PHN more patients responded to 5% lidocaine medicated plaster treatment than to pregabalin (PPS: 62.2% vs. 46.5%), while response was comparable for patients with painful DPN (PPS: 66.7% vs 69.1%). 30% and 50% reductions in NRS-3 scores were greater with 5% lidocaine medicated plaster than with pregabalin. Both treatments reduced allodynia severity. 5% lidocaine medicated plaster showed greater improvements in QoL based on EQ-5D in both PHN and DPN. PGIC and CGIC scores indicated greater improvement for 5% lidocaine medicated plaster treated

  2. Family Hypnotherapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Araoz, Daniel L.; Negley-Parker, Esther

    1985-01-01

    A therapeutic model to help families activate experiential and right hemispheric functioning through hypnosis is presented in detail, together with a clinical illustration. Different situations in which this model is effective are mentioned and one such set of circumstances is described. (Author)

  3. FAMILY TYMOVIRIDAE

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This article provides a brief review of the taxonomic structure, virion properties, genome organization and replication strategy, antigenic properties, and biological properties of viruses in the family Tymoviridae. Criteria for demarcation of genus and species are provided. A brief review of each...

  4. Familial hypercholesterolemia

    MedlinePlus

    A diet low in cholesterol and saturated fat and rich in unsaturated fat may help to control your LDL level. People with a family history of this condition, particularly if both parents carry the defective gene, may want to seek genetic counseling.

  5. Family Hypnotherapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Araoz, Daniel L.; Negley-Parker, Esther

    1985-01-01

    A therapeutic model to help families activate experiential and right hemispheric functioning through hypnosis is presented in detail, together with a clinical illustration. Different situations in which this model is effective are mentioned and one such set of circumstances is described. (Author)

  6. Family Violence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sorgen, Carol, Ed.

    1979-01-01

    This quarterly publication, issued by the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA), contains articles dealing with family violence and alcohol abuse, children of alcoholic parents, training programs for counselors, and confidentiality of client records. The three articles on alcohol abuse suggest that: (1) there is a clear…

  7. My Family.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alaska State-Operated Schools, Anchorage.

    This elementary reader is designed for use in a bilingual Inupiat-English program in Buckland and Deering, Alaska. It is the story of a small boy named Paul and his family. The Inupiat text and its English equivalent are never in opposition. The Inupiat text is presented on a picture page, with the English on the back. The illustrations, by J.…

  8. FAMILY SCATHOPHAGIDAE.

    PubMed

    Wolff, Marta; Grisales, Diana; Nihei, Silvio S

    2016-06-14

    Scathophagidae (Diptera, Calyptratae) is an uncommon group of flies. In Colombia there was no scientific record of this family until now. In this paper we report for the first time the genus Scatogera and the species S. primogenita Albuquerque, collected over 3000m. and previously collected in Ecuador.

  9. FAMILY ASILIDAE.

    PubMed

    Wolff, Marta; Lamas, Carlos José Einicker

    2016-06-14

    Asilidae is one of the largest Diptera families with more than 7,000 recognized species worldwide. All their species are predators on arthropods, mainly insects. This catalogue presents 71 species distributed in 26 genera, ten tribes or generic groups and four subfamilies. For each species we present the available geographical information and relevant references.

  10. Serving Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Link, Geoffrey; Beggs, Marjorie; Seiderman, Ethel

    Parent Services Project (PSP), the first comprehensive program of resources and mental health activities for parents offered at child care centers in the San Francisco Bay Area (California), has expanded to centers in six states, serving over 19,000 families. This report describes the program's history, aims, and achievements, along with specific…

  11. Serving Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Link, Geoffrey; Beggs, Marjorie; Seiderman, Ethel

    Parent Services Project (PSP), the first comprehensive program of resources and mental health activities for parents offered at child care centers in the San Francisco Bay Area (California), has expanded to centers in six states, serving over 19,000 families. This report describes the program's history, aims, and achievements, along with specific…

  12. Familial dysautonomia.

    PubMed

    Slaugenhaupt, Susan A; Gusella, James F

    2002-06-01

    Familial dysautonomia is a developmental disorder of the sensory and autonomic nervous system. Recent studies have shown that two mutations in the gene IKBKAP are responsible for the disease. IKAP, the IKBKAP-encoded protein, is a member of the recently identified human Elongator complex. The major FD mutation is a splice mutation that results in aberrant tissue-specific mRNA splicing.

  13. FAMILY LAUXANIIDAE.

    PubMed

    Silva, Vera Cristina

    2016-06-14

    An updated Catalogue of the Lauxaniidae of Colombia is presented. This acalyptratae family is poorly known in Colombia, with only 36 described species in 33 genera. This paper expands the distribution of 24 species to Colombia. At total, 63 species are reported here for Colombia.

  14. Family Structure and Family Processes in Mexican American Families

    PubMed Central

    Zeiders, Katharine H.; Roosa, Mark W.; Tein, Jenn-Yun

    2010-01-01

    Despite increases in single-parent families among Mexican Americans (MA), few studies have examined the association of family structure and family adjustment. Utilizing a diverse sample of 738 Mexican American families (21.7% single parent), the current study examined differences across family structure on early adolescent outcomes, family functioning, and parent-child relationship variables. Results revealed that early adolescents in single parent families reported greater school misconduct, CD/ODD and MDD symptoms, and greater parent-child conflict than their counterparts in two parent families. Single parent mothers reported greater economic hardship, depression and family stress. Family stress and parent-child conflict emerged as significant mediators of the association between family structure and early adolescent outcomes, suggesting important processes linking MA single parent families and adolescent adjustment. PMID:21361925

  15. [Family violence].

    PubMed

    Manoudi, F; Chagh, R; Es-soussi, M; Asri, F; Tazi, I

    2013-09-01

    Family violence is a serious public health problem, the scale of which is seriously increasing in Morocco. Although it has existed for a long time, we ignore the real characteristics of this plague in our country; our work consisted in an epidemiological approach of family violence in Marrakech during 2006. After elaborating a questionnaire, which allows the study of the demographic and social profile of the families, the study of violence exercised in the family and the evaluation of the depression in the women, we led an inquiry amongst 265 women. Analysis of the results obtained has allowed us to underline the following characteristics: 16.6% of the women in our sample had been physically beaten; the young age is a risk factor; the age range most affected by violence is in women between the ages of 30 and 40 and which represent 39% of the battered women; domestic violence touches all the social, economic and cultural classes: in our study, 63% of the women having undergone violence were housewives, 25% were managers and 3% senior executives; family problems were the most important cause of violence in our study, representing 32.32%. Requests for money was the cause in 11.3% of the cases, and imposed sexual relations were found in 6.8% of the cases; alcoholism is an aggravating factor of family violence; 27.3% of the spouses who assaulted their wives were drunk; 52% of the assaulted women were victims of violence in childhood and 36% had been witness to their father's violence; in 63.6% of the cases of violence, the children were witnesses, and in 25% of the cases the children were victims of violence at the same time as their mothers; 50% of the women victims of violence did not react, while 38.6% left home, and 9.1 filed for divorce. Thirty-two percent of the assaulted woman had been traumatised by the aggression; the association of depression and violence was very high, 343% of the battered women in our study suffered from severe depression. This work

  16. Family Therapy and Disturbed Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zuk, Gerald H., Ed.; Boszormenyi-Nagy, Ivan, Ed.

    Presented at a conference at which authors represented major theoretical positions in the field, most of the papers use family therapy as an important source of observations or ideas, or as a means to pinpoint methodological problems. Papers are grouped in sections as follows: four which introduce the reader to the field of specialization, provide…

  17. Family Therapy and Disturbed Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zuk, Gerald H., Ed.; Boszormenyi-Nagy, Ivan, Ed.

    Presented at a conference at which authors represented major theoretical positions in the field, most of the papers use family therapy as an important source of observations or ideas, or as a means to pinpoint methodological problems. Papers are grouped in sections as follows: four which introduce the reader to the field of specialization, provide…

  18. A New Folding Kinetic Mechanism for Human Transthyretin and the Influence of the Amyloidogenic V30M Mutation

    PubMed Central

    Jesus, Catarina S. H.; Almeida, Zaida L.; Vaz, Daniela C.; Faria, Tiago Q.; Brito, Rui M. M.

    2016-01-01

    Protein aggregation into insoluble amyloid fibrils is the hallmark of several neurodegenerative diseases, chief among them Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s. Although caused by different proteins, these pathologies share some basic molecular mechanisms with familial amyloidotic polyneuropathy (FAP), a rare hereditary neuropathy caused by amyloid formation and deposition by transthyretin (TTR) in the peripheral and autonomic nervous systems. Among the amyloidogenic TTR mutations known, V30M-TTR is the most common in FAP. TTR amyloidogenesis (ATTR) is triggered by tetramer dissociation, followed by partial unfolding and aggregation of the low conformational stability monomers formed. Thus, tetramer dissociation kinetics, monomer conformational stability and competition between refolding and aggregation pathways do play a critical role in ATTR. Here, we propose a new model to analyze the refolding kinetics of WT-TTR and V30M-TTR, showing that at pH and protein concentrations close to physiological, a two-step mechanism with a unimolecular first step followed by a second-order second step adjusts well to the experimental data. Interestingly, although sharing the same kinetic mechanism, V30M-TTR refolds at a much slower rate than WT-TTR, a feature that may favor the formation of transient species leading to kinetic partition into amyloidogenic pathways and, thus, significantly increasing the probability of amyloid formation in vivo. PMID:27589730

  19. Tetrabromobisphenol A Is an Efficient Stabilizer of the Transthyretin Tetramer

    PubMed Central

    Iakovleva, Irina; Begum, Afshan; Brännström, Kristoffer; Wijsekera, Alexandra; Nilsson, Lina; Zhang, Jin; Andersson, Patrik L.; Sauer-Eriksson, A. Elisabeth; Olofsson, Anders

    2016-01-01

    Amyloid formation of the human plasma protein transthyretin (TTR) is associated with several human disorders, including familial amyloidotic polyneuropathy (FAP) and senile systemic amyloidosis. Dissociation of TTR’s native tetrameric assembly is the rate-limiting step in the conversion into amyloid, and this feature presents an avenue for intervention because binding of an appropriate ligand to the thyroxin hormone binding sites of TTR stabilizes the native tetrameric assembly and impairs conversion into amyloid. The desired features for an effective TTR stabilizer include high affinity for TTR, high selectivity in the presence of other proteins, no adverse side effects at the effective concentrations, and a long half-life in the body. In this study we show that the commonly used flame retardant tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) efficiently stabilizes the tetrameric structure of TTR. The X-ray crystal structure shows TBBPA binding in the thyroxine binding pocket with bromines occupying two of the three halogen binding sites. Interestingly, TBBPA binds TTR with an extremely high selectivity in human plasma, and the effect is equal to the recently approved drug tafamidis and better than diflunisal, both of which have shown therapeutic effects against FAP. TBBPA consequently present an interesting scaffold for drug design. Its absorption, metabolism, and potential side-effects are discussed. PMID:27093678

  20. Gene therapy approach to FAP: in vivo influence of T119M in TTR deposition in a transgenic V30M mouse model.

    PubMed

    Batista, A R; Gianni, D; Ventosa, M; Coelho, A V; Almeida, M R; Sena-Esteves, M; Saraiva, M J

    2014-12-01

    Familial amyloidotic polyneuropathy (FAP) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by extracellular deposition of amyloid fibrils composed by mutated transthyretin (TTR) mainly in the peripheral nervous system. At present, liver transplantation is still the standard treatment to halt the progression of clinical symptoms in FAP, but new therapeutic strategies are emerging, including the use of TTR stabilizers. Here we propose to establish a new gene therapy approach using adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors to deliver the trans-suppressor TTR T119M variant to the liver of transgenic TTR V30M mice at different ages. This TTR variant is known for its ability to stabilize the tetrameric protein. Analysis of the gastrointestinal tract of AAV-treated animals revealed a significant reduction in deposition of TTR non-fibrillar aggregates in as much as 34% in stomach and 30% in colon, as well as decreased levels of biomarkers associated with TTR deposition, namely the endoplasmic reticulum stress marker BiP and the extracellular matrix protein MMP-9. Moreover, we showed with different studies that our approach leads to an increase in tetrameric and more stable forms of TTR, in favor of destabilized monomers. Altogether our data suggest the possibility to use this gene therapy approach in a prophylactic manner to prevent FAP pathology.

  1. [Transthyretin: it's miracle function and pathogenesis].

    PubMed

    Ando, Yukio

    2009-03-01

    Transthyretin (TTR) was previously called prealbumin because the band it formed on agarose gel electrophoresis at pH 8.6 was at the prealbumin position. However, it has been well documented that TTR of rodents does not show a prealbumin position on electrophoresis. Now, its name describes its function, binding to retinol binding protein (RBP) and T4. The serum concentration of the protein is 20-40 mg/dl, and TTR forms a tetramer. The plasma half life of the protein is 1.9 days. TTR is synthesized by the liver, retina, pancreas, and choroid plexus. In cerebro-spinal fluid (CSF), it is the second most abundant protein, and is considered as an important protein in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease, depression, and lead intoxication. In addition, TTR is a tryptophan-rich protein, it is used as one of the nutrition assessment proteins, it acts as an anti acute phase protein, and its plasma concentration decreases during inflammation and bacterial infection. Since TTR is a highly amyloidogenic protein because it contains a beta-sheet structure, it becomes a precursor protein in familial amyloidotic polyneuropathy(FAP). Moreover, TTR plays important roles in various CNS disorders, diabetes melitus, and lipid metabolism.

  2. [Diagnosis of small-fiber neuropathy using various autonomic function tests].

    PubMed

    Obayashi, Konen; Ando, Yukio

    2014-01-01

    It is well known that transthyretin-related familial amyloidotic polyneuropathy (TTR-FAP) and diabetic peripheral neuropathy are characterized by early selective involvement of small nerve fibers. However, early diagnosis of these diseases is not easy because prominent early diagnostic markers for small fiber neuropathies have not established. Thus, we adopted several methods to evaluate autonomic function accurately for detecting the onset of small-fiber neuropathy, such as laser-Doppler flowmetry, sweating tests using capsule type sweating ratemeter, morphological check of sweat gland, electrogastrography, density check of small-fiber and gastrointestinal interstitial cells of Cajal, R-R interval study, (123)I-MIBG myocardial scintigraphy, and head-up tilt test to check the overshoot phenomenon. These tests may indicate very early stage of small-fiber neuropathies in asymptomatic mutated TTR carriers or impaired glucose tolerance patients. Moreover, assessment of the pain thresholds by preferential stimulation of C and Aδ fibers are particularly useful tools for diagnosing the onset of small-fiber neuropathies in addition to the autonomic testing.

  3. Serum transthyretin levels in senile systemic amyloidosis: effects of age, gender and ethnicity

    PubMed Central

    Buxbaum, Joel; Koziol, James; Connors, Lawreen H.

    2017-01-01

    Serum transthyretin (TTR) levels are reduced in familial amyloidotic polyneuropathy (FAP). A single study of patients with senile systemic amyloidosis (SSA) in Sweden found that those individuals also had a significantly lower mean serum TTR concentration than age- and gender-matched controls. To determine if the same phenomenon prevailed in an ethnically more heterogeneous population, we compared the serum TTR levels, as determined by ELISA, in 45 documented SSA patients with congestive heart failure, 20 AL patients with congestive heart failure and population controls. Serum TTR concentrations in the controls were influenced in a statistically significant manner by age, gender and ethnicity. Although it is unlikely that such differences are clinically relevant, they must be considered when assessing the meaning of serum TTR concentrations in any clinically defined population. The serum concentrations in patients with SSA did not differ from age, gender and ethnically matched controls or from a group of AL patients with significant clinical cardiac involvement. We also compared TTR concentrations in 12 African-Americans carrying the TTR V122I allele with those in 826 African-Americans who were homozygous wild type at the TTR locus. The TTR V122I carriers had significantly lower serum TTR concentrations than appropriate controls even though the majority of such individuals had not reached the age of clinical or anatomic risk, i.e. over 60. Thus, as in carriers of other TTR mutations the serum TTR level is lower than normal, despite having a much later appearance of clinical disease. PMID:19065297

  4. Family Centers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-12-30

    quality service delivery to meet the needs of the DoD personnel and their families, in accordance with DoD Directive 1342.17 (reference (a)). 4...facility, and program standards. f. Develop and forward to ASD(FM&P), for review and approval, a comprehensive evaluation system to measure the...of future services and the continuation, expansion, or termination of others. (3) Service-wide measurement criteria for monitoring and evaluating the

  5. [Familial hypercholesterolemia].

    PubMed

    Turpin, G; Bruckert, E

    1999-12-01

    Familial hypercholesterolemia is characterized by a high plasma LDL-cholesterol level. The low-density particles are the end-product of the triglyceride-rich particles, i.e. VLDL, synthetized by the liver. These triglyceride-rich particles are subsequently transformed into intermediate density lipoprotein by the lipoprotein lipase and LDL after further triglyceride hydrolysis by the hepatic lipase. The LDL particles are taken up in all cells by the mean of the LDL receptor. A large body of evidence (including experimental, clinical, epidemiological data as well as the results of large trial with lipid lowering drugs) has accumulated to establish that these particles are one of the major causative factor of atherosclerosis and its complications. Two different mechanisms may be at work in the familial hypercholesterolemia: a mutation in the LDL receptor or a single mutation in the apolipoprotein B100. Specific therapeutic intervention should be undertaken to decrease the risk to develop cardiovascular disease, mainly coronary heart disease. The therapeutic intervention includes both a diet low in saturated fatty acids and cholesterol and statins which are now the first line therapy. Fibrates are proposed to those who do not tolerate statins and LDL-apheresis is associated to statin in the rare homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia.

  6. Novel OPA1 missense mutation in a family with optic atrophy and severe widespread neurological disorder.

    PubMed

    Liskova, Petra; Ulmanova, Olga; Tesina, Petr; Melsova, Hana; Diblik, Pavel; Hansikova, Hana; Tesarova, Marketa; Votruba, Marcela

    2013-05-01

    To identify the underlying molecular genetic cause in a Czech family with optic atrophy, deafness, ptosis, ophthalmoplegia, polyneuropathy and ataxia transmitted as an autosomal dominant trait. Ophthalmological and neurological examination followed by molecular genetic analyses. Seven family members were clinically affected. There was a variable but progressive visual, hearing and neurological disability across the family as a whole. The majority of subjects presented with impairment of visual function and a variable degree of ptosis and/or ophthalmoplegia from the first to the third decade of life. Deafness, neuropathy and ataxia appeared later, in the third and fourth decade. Migraine, tachycardia, intention tremor, nystagmus and cervical dystonia were observed in isolated individuals. A significant overall feature was the high level of neurological disability leading to 3 of 4 members being unable to walk or stand unaided before the age of 60 years. A novel missense mutation c.1345A>C (p.Thr449Pro) in OPA1 segregating with the disease phenotype over three generations was detected. In silico analysis supported pathogenicity of the identified sequence variant. Our work expands the spectrum of mutation in OPA1, which may lead to severe multisystem neurological disorder. The molecular genetic cause of dominant optic atrophy in the Czech population is reported for the first time. We propose that regular cardiac follow-up in patients diagnosed with dominant optic atrophy and widespread neurological disease should be considered. © 2013 The Authors. Acta Ophthalmologica © 2013 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation.

  7. From Family Therapy to Family Intervention.

    PubMed

    Josephson, Allan M

    2015-07-01

    For many, family therapy refers to sessions in which all family members are present. Yet in contemporary psychiatry there are many ways to work with families in addition to this classic concept. This article proposes family intervention as an encompassing term for a new family paradigm in child and adolescent psychiatry. Developmental psychopathology is a guiding principle of this paradigm. A full range of ways to work with families clinically is described with clinical examples. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Ultrasonographic nerve enlargement of the median and ulnar nerves and the cervical nerve roots in patients with demyelinating Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease: distinction from patients with chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy.

    PubMed

    Sugimoto, Takamichi; Ochi, Kazuhide; Hosomi, Naohisa; Takahashi, Tetsuya; Ueno, Hiroki; Nakamura, Takeshi; Nagano, Yoshito; Maruyama, Hirofumi; Kohriyama, Tatsuo; Matsumoto, Masayasu

    2013-10-01

    Demyelinating Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMT) and chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) are both demyelinating polyneuropathies. The differences in nerve enlargement degree and pattern at multiple evaluation sites/levels are not well known. We investigated the differences in nerve enlargement degree and the distribution pattern of nerve enlargement in patients with demyelinating CMT and CIDP, and verified the appropriate combination of sites/levels to differentiate between these diseases. Ten patients (aged 23-84 years, three females) with demyelinating CMT and 16 patients (aged 30-85 years, five females) with CIDP were evaluated in this study. The nerve sizes were measured at 24 predetermined sites/levels from the median and ulnar nerves and the cervical nerve roots (CNR) using ultrasonography. The evaluation sites/levels were classified into three regions: distal, intermediate and cervical. The number of sites/levels that exhibited nerve enlargement (enlargement site number, ESN) in each region was determined from the 24 sites/levels and from the selected eight screening sites/levels, respectively. The cross-sectional areas of the peripheral nerves were markedly larger at all evaluation sites in patients with demyelinating CMT than in patients with CIDP (p < 0.01). However, the nerve sizes of CNR were not significantly different between patients with either disease. When we evaluated ESN of four selected sites for screening from the intermediate region, the sensitivity and specificity to distinguish between demyelinating CMT and CIDP were 0.90 and 0.94, respectively, with the cut-off value set at four. Nerve ultrasonography is useful to detect nerve enlargement and can clarify morphological differences in nerves between patients with demyelinating CMT and CIDP.

  9. Lymphoma-associated dysimmune polyneuropathies.

    PubMed

    Stübgen, Joerg-Patrick

    2015-08-15

    Lymphoma consists of a variety of malignancies of lymphocyte origin. A spectrum of clinical peripheral neuropathy syndromes with different disease mechanisms occurs in about 5% of lymphoma patients. There exists a complex inter-relationship between lymphoproliferative malignancies and autoimmunity. An imbalance in the regulation of the immune system presumably underlies various immune-mediated neuropathies in patients with lymphoma. This article reviews lymphoma and more-or-less well-defined dysimmune neuropathy subgroups that are caused by humoral and/or cell-mediated immune disease mechanisms directed against known or undetermined peripheral nerve antigens.

  10. Chronic Inflammatory Demyelinating Polyneuropathy (CIDP)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Disparities Neural Interfaces Parkinson's Disease Spinal Cord Injury Stem Cells Traumatic Brain Injury Trans-Agency Activities Interagency Research ... Disparities Neural Interfaces Parkinson's Disease Spinal Cord Injury Stem Cells Traumatic Brain Injury Trans-Agency Activities Interagency Research ...

  11. Family and family therapy in the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Wagenaar, Karin; Baars, Jan

    2012-04-01

    This article describes how families are functioning in the Netherlands, and how family therapy is used in mental healthcare. In the open Dutch society, new ideas are easily incorporated, as exemplified by the rapid introduction and growth of family therapy in the 1980s. In recent decades, however, family therapy has lost ground to other treatment models that are more individually orientated, and adhere to stricter protocols. This decline of family therapy has been exacerbated by recent budget cuts in mental healthcare. In regular healthcare institutes family therapy now has a marginal position at best, although family treatment models are used in specific areas such as forensic treatments. In addition, the higher trained family therapists have found their own niches to work with couples and families. We argue that a stronger position of family therapy would be beneficial for patients and for families, in order to counteract the strong individualization of Dutch society.

  12. Roles within the Family

    MedlinePlus

    ... Adoption & Foster Care Communication & Discipline Types of Families Media Work & Play Getting ... Within the Family Page Content Article Body Families are not democracies. Each family has its own ways of deciding ...

  13. FAMILY DROSOPHILIDAE.

    PubMed

    Tidon, Rosana; Almeida, Jonathan Mendes De

    2016-06-14

    This catalogue presents 176 species distributed in 17 genera and four tribes of Drosophilidae in Colombia, with both subfamilies, Drosophilinae and Steganinae, represented in the Colombian territory. This is probably an underestimate of the real richness of drosophilid species in the country, for two reasons. First, there are relatively few collections of Drosophilidae in Colombia, resulting in significant spatial gaps in the sampling of these flies. Second, we have not considered here species that have already been recorded in neighbour countries but not in Colombia. Consequently, there are certainly several described species, as well as new species, that occur in this area but are not listed here. We hope that this catalogue will stimulate new inventories of drosophilids in Colombia, contributing to fill gaps in the knowledge of this family of flies in the country.

  14. Familial dysautonomia.

    PubMed

    Axelrod, Felicia B

    2004-03-01

    Familial dysautonomia (FD) is a neurodevelopmental genetic disorder within the larger classification of hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathies, each caused by a different genetic error. The FD gene has been identified as IKBKAP. Mutations result in tissue-specific expression of mutant IkappaB kinase-associated protein (IKAP). The genetic error probably affects development, as well as maintenance, of neurons because there is neuropathological and clinical progression. Pathological alterations consist of decreased unmyelinated and small-fiber neurons. Clinical features reflect widespread involvement of sensory and autonomic neurons. Sensory loss includes impaired pain and temperature appreciation. Autonomic features include dysphagia, vomiting crises, blood pressure lability, and sudomotor dysfunction. Central dysfunction includes emotional lability and ataxia. With supportive treatment, prognosis has improved greatly. About 40% of patients are over age 20 years. The cause of death is usually pulmonary failure, unexplained sudden deaths, or renal failure. With the discovery of the genetic defect, definitive treatments are anticipated.

  15. Family Psychology and Family Therapy in Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kameguchi, Kenji; Murphy-Shigematsu, Stephen

    2001-01-01

    Reviews the development of family psychology and family therapy in Japan, tracing the origins of these movements, explaining how these fields were activated by the problem of school refusal, and describing an approach to family therapy that has been developed to work with families confronting this problem, as well as preventive programs of family…

  16. The Family Hero in Black Alcoholism Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brisbane, Francis L.

    1989-01-01

    Uses data from 20 case studies of Black adult female children of alcoholic parents to discuss Family Hero role often assumed by oldest or only female child in Black alcoholism families. Explains how female-dominated survival role of Family Hero in Black families is significantly more related to racial and cultural factors than numbers alone may…

  17. Integrating Family Resilience and Family Stress Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patterson, Joan M.

    2002-01-01

    The construct, family resilience, is defined differently by practitioners and researchers. This study tries to clarify the concept of family resilience. The foundation is family stress and coping theory, particularly the stress models that emphasize adaptation processes in families exposed to major adversities. (JDM)

  18. Positive Family Functioning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sussman, Marvin B.

    The persistence of the nuclear family as the primary social unit in the United States and most all other societies, especially complex ones, is a fact. Values shape the definition of family, especially the "good family," and the "great debate" of this period on family failure, family corruption and the family's near demise originates in…

  19. Family Orientation in Family Medicine Training

    PubMed Central

    Talbot, Yves R.; Tannenbaum, David

    1990-01-01

    Teaching about the family has become an important part of the family medicine curriculum. The family orientation index, a 39-item questionnaire, was designed to evaluate the family orientation of services and care provided as well as the teaching and research. The questionnaire was distributed to 55 program directors at 16 Canadian universities. The response rate was 84%. The results indicate that the family orientation of services is less than optimal. PMID:21233938

  20. Family ties: constructing family time in low-income families.

    PubMed

    Tubbs, Carolyn Y; Roy, Kevin M; Burton, Linda M

    2005-03-01

    "Family time" is reflected in the process of building and fortifying family relationships. Whereas such time, free of obligatory work, school, and family maintenance activities, is purchased by many families using discretionary income, we explore how low-income mothers make time for and give meaning to focused engagement and relationship development with their children within time constraints idiosyncratic to being poor and relying on welfare. Longitudinal ethnographic data from 61 low-income African American, European American, and Latina American mothers were analyzed to understand how mothers construct family time during daily activities such as talking, play, and meals. We also identify unique cultural factors that shape family time for low-income families, such as changing temporal orientations, centrality of television time, and emotional burdens due to poverty. Implications for family therapy are also discussed.

  1. Recovery and outcomes after the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) in patients and their family caregivers.

    PubMed

    Herridge, Margaret S; Moss, Marc; Hough, Catherine L; Hopkins, Ramona O; Rice, Todd W; Bienvenu, O Joseph; Azoulay, Elie

    2016-05-01

    Outcomes after acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) are similar to those of other survivors of critical illness and largely affect the nerve, muscle, and central nervous system but also include a constellation of varied physical devastations ranging from contractures and frozen joints to tooth loss and cosmesis. Compromised quality of life is related to a spectrum of impairment of physical, social, emotional, and neurocognitive function and to a much lesser extent discrete pulmonary disability. Intensive care unit-acquired weakness (ICUAW) is ubiquitous and includes contributions from both critical illness polyneuropathy and myopathy, and recovery from these lesions may be incomplete at 5 years after ICU discharge. Cognitive impairment in ARDS survivors ranges from 70 to 100 % at hospital discharge, 46 to 80 % at 1 year, and 20 % at 5 years, and mood disorders including depression and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are also sustained and prevalent. Robust multidisciplinary and longitudinal interventions that improve these outcomes are still uncertain and data in our literature are conflicting. Studies are needed in family members of ARDS survivors to better understand long-term outcomes of the post-ICU family syndrome and to evaluate how it affects patient recovery.

  2. Familial hyperargininaemia.

    PubMed Central

    Terheggen, H G; Lowenthal, A; Lavinha, F; Colombo, J P

    1975-01-01

    A third case of hyperargininaemia occurring in one family was studied from birth. In cord blood serum arginine concentration was only slightly raised, but arginase activity in red blood cell haemolysates was very low. In the urine on day 2 a typical cystinuria pattern was present. Arginine concentration in serum increased to 158 mumol/100 ml on the 41st day of life. Later determinations of the arginase activity in peripheral blood showed values below the sensitivity of the method. Blood ammonia was consistently high, and cystinuria was present. The enzymatic defect was further displayed by intravenous loading tests with arginine. Serum urea values were predominantly normal or near the lower limit of normal, suggesting the presence of other metabolic pathways of urea synthesis. In urine there was no excretion of guanidinosuccinic acid, while the excretion of other monosubstituted guanidine derivatives was increased, pointing to a connexion with hyperargininaemia. Owing to parental attitude, a low protein diet (1-5 g/kg) was introduced only late. The infant developed severe mental retardation, athetosis, and spasticity. PMID:1124944

  3. Incidence of hereditary amyloidosis and autoinflammatory diseases in Sweden: endemic and imported diseases

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Amyloidoses are a heterogeneous group of progressive diseases caused by tissue deposition of misfolded proteins. According to the International Classification of Diseases, hereditary amyloidosis is divided into neuropathic and non-neuropathic forms. In Sweden, neuropathic heredofamilial amyloidosis has been identified as familial amyloidotic polyneuropathy (FAP), a fatal disease that is treated by liver transplantation. The non-neuropathic form includes familial autoinflammatory diseases. As no incidence data on these hereditary diseases are available and as even diagnostic data on non-neuropathic forms are lacking we determined the incidence of these diseases and characterized non-neuropathic conditions. Methods Patients were identified using data from the Swedish Hospital Discharge Register and from the Outpatient Register for 2001 through 2008. All patients discharged with hereditary amyloidosis diagnoses were included and standardized incidence rates were calculated. Results Non-neuropathic disease was diagnosed in 210 patients, with an incidence of 2.83 per million. FAP was diagnosed in 221 patients, with an incidence of 2.02 per million. Two northern provinces that are home to 5% of the Swedish population accounted for 77% of FAP cases; the incidence in one of them, West Bothnia, was 100 times that in the rest of Sweden. Approximately 98% of non-neuropathic disease patients were immigrants, most of whom were from the Eastern Mediterranean area. Young Syrian descendants had the highest incidence rate, which was over 500-fold higher than that in individuals with Swedish parents. Even the early onset of these conditions identified them as familial autoinflammatory diseases. Conclusions FAP cases were highly concentrated in the two northernmost provinces. Non-neuropathic familial autoinflammatory diseases were of early-onset and immigrant origin most likely related to periodic fever syndromes. Paradoxically, FAP has remained endemic, in spite of

  4. Family and family therapy in Russia.

    PubMed

    Bebtschuk, Marina; Smirnova, Daria; Khayretdinov, Oleg

    2012-04-01

    This article represents the information about family and family therapy in the context of culture, traditions and contemporary changes of social situations in Russia. The legislation of family rights are mentioned within items about marriage and family in the Constitution, Civil Code and Family Code of the Russian Federation which has changed during recent years. The definition of family and description of family structure are given through the prism of the current demographic situation, dynamics of statistics of marriage and divorce rates, mental disorders, disabilities and such phenomena as social abandonment. The actual curriculum, teaching of family therapy and its disadvantages, system of continuous education, supervision and initiatives of the Institute of Integrative Family Therapy in improvement of preparing of specialists who can provide qualified psychosocial assistance for the family according to the actual needs of society are noted. The directions of state and private practice of family counselling and therapy both for psychiatric patients and medical patients, for adults and children in a family systemic approach are highlighted with an indication of the spectrum of techniques and methods used by Russian professionals. The main obstacles and perspectives of development of family therapy in Russia are summarized.

  5. Family Reading Night

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutchins, Darcy; Greenfeld, Marsha; Epstein, Joyce

    2007-01-01

    This book offers clear and practical guidelines to help engage families in student success. It shows families how to conduct a successful Family Reading Night at their school. Family Night themes include Scary Stories, Books We Love, Reading Olympics, Dr. Seuss, and other themes. Family reading nights invite parents to come to school with their…

  6. Bequeathing Family Continuity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spanier, Graham B.

    1989-01-01

    Notes that many children who experience abuse, family disruption, or poverty reach adulthood with a strong commitment to family life. Questions whether changes in American families are indicators of pathology, deterioration, and instability; and asks how dysfunctional families transmit commitment to the concept of family to succeeding generations.…

  7. Family Therapy and Ideology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernal, Guillermo; Ysern, Eduardo

    1986-01-01

    Argues that the family and the enterprise of family therapy are social systems and under the influence of the ideology particular to a given society. The strategic family therapy treatment of a family with a drug-addicted member serves as an example to clarify the ideological themes of contemporary family therapy. (Author/BL)

  8. Long-term treatment of anemia with recombinant human erythropoietin in familial amyloidosis TTR V30M.

    PubMed

    Beirão, Idalina; Lobato, Luísa; Moreira, Luciana; Mp Costa, Paulo; Fonseca, Isabel; Cabrita, António; Porto, Graça

    2008-09-01

    Familial amyloidosis or familial amyloid polyneuropathy (FAP) TTR V30M is a hereditary disease presented, in most cases, as a sensorimotor and autonomic neuropathy. Normocytic and normochromic anaemia was found in 24.8% of symptomatic FAP patients associated to lower serum erythropoietin (Epo) levels. Erythropoietin has been reported as efficient in anaemia correction in this disease. To evaluate the tolerance and efficacy of this treatment, a retrospective longitudinal study with 24 patients was undertaken. Patients were followed for at least 6 months. Haemoglobin, hematocrit, iron status, serum creatinine and urea and r-HuEPO doses were monitored, at 0, 3 months, 6 months and at the end of the follow-up. Long-term use of r-HuEPO proved to be efficient in the treatment of anaemia in familial amyloidosis TTR V30M and, despite the disease progression, no resistance cases to this treatment were observed. Positive side effects, like improvement on orthostatic hypotension symptoms and well-being sensation, contributing to confirm erythropoietin as a drug of choice to treat anaemia in amyloidosis TTR V30M.

  9. Effects of family connection and family individuation.

    PubMed

    Bell, Linda G; Bell, David C

    2009-09-01

    This prospective longitudinal study explores the differential effects of family connection and family individuation measured during adolescence on later midlife well-being. Home interviews were held in the 1970s with 99 families of 245 adolescents. Connection and individuation in the family system were measured by self-report, a projective exercise, and coding of taped family interactions. Twenty-five years later, telephone interviews were conducted with 54 men and 120 women (representing 82 families) who had been adolescents in the 1970s interviews. Family connection (measured during adolescence) was associated with self-acceptance and positive relationships at midlife partially mediated by marriage. Family individuation (measured during adolescence) was associated with personal autonomy at midlife.

  10. Family Capital: Implications for Interventions with Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belcher, John R.; Peckuonis, Edward V.; Deforge, Bruce R.

    2011-01-01

    Social capital has been extensively discussed in the literature as building blocks that individuals and communities utilize to leverage system resources. Similarly, some families also create capital, which can enable members of the family, such as children, to successfully negotiate the outside world. Families in poverty confront serious…

  11. Revamping Family Preservation Services for Native Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coleman, Heather; Unrau, Yvonne A.; Manyfingers, Brenda

    2001-01-01

    Examines the philosophy and program structures of family preservation services (FPS) in the context of providing services to Native American families with child welfare issues. Explores Native cultural concepts of family, child rearing, time, and spirituality. Outlines cross-cultural training needs for FPS workers related to cultural awareness,…

  12. Family Capital: Implications for Interventions with Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belcher, John R.; Peckuonis, Edward V.; Deforge, Bruce R.

    2011-01-01

    Social capital has been extensively discussed in the literature as building blocks that individuals and communities utilize to leverage system resources. Similarly, some families also create capital, which can enable members of the family, such as children, to successfully negotiate the outside world. Families in poverty confront serious…

  13. National Military Family Association

    MedlinePlus

    ... have good news and bad news for military families. MORE Military Families Brace for What’s Next In Syria President Trump ordered an airstrike in Syria leaving military families wondering what's next. More April is the Month ...

  14. Normal Functioning Family

    MedlinePlus

    ... Spread the Word Shop AAP Find a Pediatrician Family Life Medical Home Family Dynamics Adoption & Foster Care ... Español Text Size Email Print Share Normal Functioning Family Page Content Article Body Is there any way ...

  15. Family Activities for Fitness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grosse, Susan J.

    2009-01-01

    This article discusses how families can increase family togetherness and improve physical fitness. The author provides easy ways to implement family friendly activities for improving and maintaining physical health. These activities include: walking, backyard games, and fitness challenges.

  16. Family Activities for Fitness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grosse, Susan J.

    2009-01-01

    This article discusses how families can increase family togetherness and improve physical fitness. The author provides easy ways to implement family friendly activities for improving and maintaining physical health. These activities include: walking, backyard games, and fitness challenges.

  17. Family Health History and Diabetes