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Sample records for familial scpn deficiency

  1. Decreased synthesis of serum carboxypeptidase N (SCPN) in familial SCPN deficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Mathews, K.P.; Curd, J.G.; Hugli, T.E.

    1986-01-01

    Serum carboxypeptidase N (SCPN) is the primary inactivator of the C3a, C4a, and C5a anaphylatoxins as well as an inactivator of bradykinin. Thus, SCPN deficiency potentially could result in significant pathophysiologic consequences. Previous studies identified a deficient subject afflicted with frequent episodes of angioedema, and other family members also had SCPN deficiency. To delineate this abnormality further, the fractional catabolic rate (FRC) and enzyme synthesis were determined in three members of the afflicted kindred as well as in five normal persons following the infusion of homogeneous /sup 125/I-SCPN. The mean FCR and synthesis rates for SCPN in the normal subjects were 1.3%/hr and 20,793 U/kg/hr, respectively. Reduced synthesis was concluded to be primarily responsible for the low SCPN levels in the afflicted kindred. The high FRC of SCPN discourages attempted maintenance therapy with infusions of enriched SCPN preparations.

  2. Familial apolipoprotein E deficiency.

    PubMed Central

    Schaefer, E J; Gregg, R E; Ghiselli, G; Forte, T M; Ordovas, J M; Zech, L A; Brewer, H B

    1986-01-01

    A unique kindred with premature cardiovascular disease, tubo-eruptive xanthomas, and type III hyperlipoproteinemia (HLP) associated with familial apolipoprotein (apo) E deficiency was examined. Homozygotes (n = 4) had marked increases in cholesterol-rich very low density lipoproteins (VLDL) and intermediate density lipoproteins (IDL), which could be effectively lowered with diet and medication (niacin, clofibrate). Homozygotes had only trace amounts of plasma apoE, and accumulations of apoB-48 and apoA-IV in VLDL, IDL, and low density lipoproteins. Radioiodinated VLDL apoB and apoE kinetic studies revealed that the homozygous proband had markedly retarded fractional catabolism of VLDL apoB-100, apoB-48 and plasma apoE, as well as an extremely low apoE synthesis rate as compared to normals. Obligate heterozygotes (n = 10) generally had normal plasma lipids and mean plasma apoE concentrations that were 42% of normal. The data indicate that homozygous familial apoE deficiency is a cause of type III HLP, is associated with markedly decreased apoE production, and that apoE is essential for the normal catabolism of triglyceride-rich lipoprotein constituents. Images PMID:3771793

  3. Genetics Home Reference: familial HDL deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... Twitter Home Health Conditions familial HDL deficiency familial HDL deficiency Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable ... to view the expand/collapse boxes. Description Familial HDL deficiency is a condition characterized by low levels ...

  4. Genetics Home Reference: familial glucocorticoid deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... familial glucocorticoid deficiency type 1 lead to defective trafficking of the receptor to the cell surface. J ... short stature, and natural killer cell deficiency in humans. J Clin Invest. 2012 Mar;122(3):814- ...

  5. Genetics Home Reference: familial lipoprotein lipase deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... In people with familial lipoprotein lipase deficiency , increased fat levels can also cause neurological features, such as depression, memory loss, and mild intellectual decline (dementia). These problems are ...

  6. Potentiation of the anaphylatoxins in vivo using an inhibitor of serum carboxypeptidase N (SCPN). I. Lethality and pathologic effects on pulmonary tissue.

    PubMed Central

    Huey, R.; Bloor, C. M.; Kawahara, M. S.; Hugli, T. E.

    1983-01-01

    Carboxypeptidase N (EC 3.4.12.7) (SCPN) is a plasma enzyme that efficiently inactivates the anaphylatoxins C3a and C4a and significantly reduces C5a spasmogenic activity by removing the C-terminal arginyl residue from each of these factors. The arginine analog DL-2-mercaptomethyl-3-guanidinoethylthiopropanoic acid (SCPN-INH) is a potent competitive inhibitor of SCPN with a Ki for this carboxypeptidase in serum of 2 x 10(-9) M. Therefore, we have used the SCPN inhibitor to potentiate biologic activity of the anaphylatoxins in vivo. Infusion via the carotid artery of about 40 mg of SCPN-INH into each of 8 adult guinea pigs inactivated the SCPN for at least 3 hours and caused no measurable toxic effects. When cobra venom factor (CVF) is infused into guinea pigs, it activates the alternative pathway of complement, thereby generating the anaphylatoxins C3a and C5a. Ordinarily, infusion of CVF is nonlethal, because the generated anaphylatoxins are rapidly converted to C3a des Arg and C5a des Arg by SCPN. However, CVF (200 micrograms) plus SCPN-INH delivered intravenously in 5 animals induced a lethal reaction in less than 5 minutes. The authors conclude that the lethal effect is due largely to the anaphylatoxins. Histologic sections of the lungs from treated animals show dramatic structural changes consistent with peripheral small airway constriction, bronchial constriction, and vasoconstriction of small muscular arteries. Also, cell aggregates are present in blood vessels. Other histologic changes include severe congestion, pulmonary edema, and an interstitial infiltrate of mononuclear cells. Large doses of chlorpheniramine prevent this lethal reaction. Lethality is apparently attributable to asphyxia and is dependent on the level of CVF administered: eg, 100 micrograms CVF was not lethal in 4 animals given SCPN inhibitor, although signs of respiratory distress were observed. On histologic examination of lungs from guinea pigs given CVF and SCPN-INH, the features are

  7. Characterisation of kilo electron volt neutron fluence standard with the 45Sc(p,n)45Ti reaction at NMIJ.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, T; Harano, H; Shimoyama, T; Kudo, K; Uritani, A

    2007-01-01

    We are developing a national standard of a monoenergetic kilo electron volt neutron field with the (45)Sc(p,n)(45)Ti resonance reaction. A wide resonance yields 27.4 keV neutrons at 0 degrees with respect to the proton beam. The proton energy was precisely determined in the measurement of the relative neutron yield as a function of the proton energy from the threshold energy to 2.942 MeV. Absolute measurement of the monoenergetic neutron fluence was performed using a (3)He proportional counter. Relative measurement was also carried out using a Bonner sphere calibrated at our 144 keV standard neutron field. Calibration factors were obtained between the count of a neutron monitor and the neutron fluence. A silicon-surface barrier detector with a (6)LiF foil converter was also being developed for the neutron fluence measurement. Successful results were obtained in the tests in the 144 keV standard neutron field.

  8. Complement component C7 deficiency in two Spanish families.

    PubMed

    Barroso, Sonia; Sánchez, Berta; Alvarez, Antonia José; López-Trascasa, Margarita; Lanuza, Amparo; Luque, Rafael; Wichmann, Ingeborg; Núñez-Roldán, Antonio

    2004-12-01

    Different genetic mutations have been described in complement component C7 deficiency, a molecular defect clinically associated with an increased susceptibility to neisserial recurrent infections. In this work we report the genetic basis of C7 deficiency in two different Spanish families (family 1 and family 2). In family 1, of Gypsy ethnical background, exon-specific polymerase chain reaction and sequencing revealed a not previously described single base deletion of nucleotide 1309 (exon 10) in the patient, as well as in her father, leading to a stop codon that causes the premature truncation of the C7 protein (K416 X 419). Additionally, the patient and her mother displayed a missense mutation at position 1135 (exon 9) located in the first nucleotide of the codon GGG (CGG), resulting in a change of amino acid (G357R). This mutation was firstly described in individuals of Moroccan Sephardic Jewish ancestry and has been also reported among Spaniards. In family 2, another novel mutation was found in homozygosity in two siblings; a two base-pair deletion of nucleotides 1922 and 1923 in exon 14 leading to the generation of a downstream stop codon causing the truncation of the C7 protein product (S620 X 630). Our results provide more evidence for the heterogeneous molecular basis of C7 deficiency as well as for the subsequent susceptibility to meningococcal disease, since different families carry different molecular defects. On the other hand, certain C7 defects appear to be prevalent in individuals from certain populations or living in defined geographical areas.

  9. [Pedigree survey in a family with hereditary protein S deficiency].

    PubMed

    Huang, K Y; Kong, L Q; Wu, Z; Wen, X; Zhao, J; Zhang, H C; Xu, Y; Long, X J; Kang, Y

    2016-09-24

    Objective: To observe the clinical feature of familiar hereditary protein S deficiency(HPSD), and to explore the related gene mutations. Methods: A total of seven family members were enrolled in this study and examined during the June to September 2015. Medical histories of the families were analyzed to detect HPSD according to the diagnostic criteria. PROS1 genes of the proband and her family were analyzed. DNA was extracted from peripheral blood. The 15 exons and their intron-exon boundaries of PROS1 were amplified with PCR, and the PCR products were sequenced and analyzed to identify potential mutations. Medical histories from the family members died prior this study were also obtained. Results: Four out of 7 family members of 2 generations were diagnosed as HPSD. The proband suffered from pulmonary embolism, her elder brother suffered from cerebral infarction and her niece suffered from deep vein thrombosis. A missense mutation at the 1063 bp of cDNA(c.1063C>T)was detected in the exon 10 of PROS1, which resulted in arginine 355 to cysteine replacement in the first ball domain of laminin of the protein S(p.R355C). Conclusion: HPSD is an autosomal dominant genetic disease, patients often suffer from recurring vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism. A missense mutation(c.1063C>T, p. R355C)of PROS1 was discovered in this Chinese family with HPSD, thus, this mutation might be the genetic basis responsible for these family members with HPSD .

  10. [Is familial screening useful in selective immunoglobulin A deficiency?].

    PubMed

    Soler-Palacín, P; Cobos-Carrascosa, E; Martín-Nalda, A; Caracseghi, F; Hernández, M; Figueras-Nadal, C

    2016-02-01

    Selective immunoglobulin A deficiency (SIgAD), the most common primary immunodeficiency, is often asymptomatic. High rates of familial clustering have been described in SIgAD, but the causative genetic defect and mechanism of inheritance are unknown. To determine whether familial SIgAD cases show more severe clinical and immunological characteristics than sporadic ones; to investigate the utility of screening first-degree relatives (FDRs) of these patients, and to determine whether symptoms in affected family members are important enough to justify screening. Descriptive, cross-sectional study (October 2010-September 2011) of all patients with SIgAD and followed up in our center. Demographic, clinical, and analytical data were reviewed. A familial case was defined as an SIgAD patient with at least one affected FDR. Of the 130 participants, 42 were SIgAD patients and 88 FDR. There were 13 (31%) familial cases and and 14 (16%) affected FDRs. Six family members had to be analyzed in order to detect one affected one. There were no clinical differences between familial and sporadic SIgAD cases. The percentages of intestinal disease (p=001, OR=9.57, 95%CI 2.59-35.3), hospitalizations (p=045, OR=4.01; 95%CI 1.10-14.67], and need for chronic treatment (p=006, OR=5.5; 95%CI 1.57-19.54) were higher in affected FDRs than in unaffected ones. The symptoms were not more severe in familial than sporadic SIgAD cases. Nonetheless, the elevated prevalence of affected FDRs with significant morbidity may justify routine screening of close family members of these patients. Copyright © 2015 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  11. Hereditary C1q deficiency: a new family with C1qA deficiency.

    PubMed

    Sun-Tan, Cağman; Ozgür, Tuba Turul; Kilinç, Gamze; Topaloğlu, Rezan; Gököz, Ozay; Ersoy-Evans, Sibel; Sanal, Ozden

    2010-01-01

    Hereditary deficiency of complement component C1q is a rare genetic disorder with susceptibility to recurrent infections with polysaccharide-containing encapsulated microorganisms and a high prevalence of autoimmune diseases, most often systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Here, we report a 29-month-old boy who presented with facial rash and history of early death of a sibling with infections, who was found to have a selective deficiency of C1q. The facial rash was composed of patchy erythematous plaques and centrally hypopigmented macules and desquamation. Two siblings had died of severe bacterial infections and his uncle had died of meningitis. Molecular study disclosed a homozygous point mutation in the C1qA chain gene. Five members of the family, including the parents and three healthy siblings, were heterozygous for this mutation.

  12. Familial C4B Deficiency and Immune Complex Glomerulonephritis

    PubMed Central

    Soto, K; Wu, YL; Ortiz, A; Aparício, SR; Yu, CY

    2010-01-01

    Homozygous complement C4B deficiency is described in a Southern European young female patient with Membranoproliferative Glomerulonephritis (MPGN) type III characterized by renal biopsies with strong complement C4 and IgG deposits. Low C4 levels were independent of clinical evolution or type of immunosuppression and were found in three other family members without renal disease or infections. HLA typing revealed that the patient has homozygous A*02, Cw*06, B*50 at the class I region, and DRB1*08 and DQB1*03 at the class II region. Genotypic and phenotypic studies demonstrated that the patient has homozygous monomodular RCCX in the HLA class III region, with single long C4A genes coding for C4A3 and complete C4B deficiency. Her father, mother, son and niece have heterozygous C4B deficiency. The patient’s deceased brother had a history of Henoch-Schönlein Purpura (HSP), an immune complex-mediated proliferative glomerulonephritis. These findings challenge the putative pathophysiological roles of C4A and C4B and underscore the need to perform functional assays, C4 allotyping and genotyping on patients with persistently low serum levels of a classical pathway complement component and glomerulopathy associated with immune deposits. PMID:20580617

  13. Familial C4B deficiency and immune complex glomerulonephritis.

    PubMed

    Soto, K; Wu, Y L; Ortiz, A; Aparício, S R; Yu, C Y

    2010-10-01

    Homozygous complement C4B deficiency is described in a Southern European young female patient with Membranoproliferative Glomerulonephritis (MPGN) type III characterized by renal biopsies with strong complement C4 and IgG deposits. Low C4 levels were independent of clinical evolution or type of immunosuppression and were found in three other family members without renal disease or infections. HLA typing revealed that the patient has homozygous A*02, Cw*06, B*50 at the class I region, and DRB1*08 and DQB1*03 at the class II region. Genotypic and phenotypic studies demonstrated that the patient has homozygous monomodular RCCX in the HLA class III region, with single long C4A genes coding for C4A3 and complete C4B deficiency. Her father, mother, son and niece have heterozygous C4B deficiency. The patient's deceased brother had a history of Henoch-Schönlein Purpura (HSP), an immune complex-mediated proliferative glomerulonephritis. These findings challenge the putative pathophysiological roles of C4A and C4B and underscore the need to perform functional assays, C4 allotyping and genotyping on patients with persistently low serum levels of a classical pathway complement component and glomerulopathy associated with immune deposits. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Familial glucocorticoid deficiency: a diagnostic challenge during acute illness.

    PubMed

    Habeb, Abdelhadi M; Hughes, Claire R; Al-Arabi, Rida; Al-Muhamadi, Ali; Clark, Adrian J L; Metherell, L A

    2013-10-01

    Familial glucocorticoid deficiency (FGD) is a heterogeneous condition of isolated glucocorticoid deficiency due to adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) resistance. Patients have adrenal failure with normal electrolytes. We report two Arab children with different forms of FGD, in whom the diagnosis was initially masked by their acute illness and discuss the reasons for the delay in the diagnosis of FGD in both patients. Patient 1 presented at 12 days with Serratia sepsis. She received hydrocortisone for septic shock and needed dexamethasone courses to wean her off ventilation. At 13 weeks, she had normal electrolytes, low cortisol and high ACTH in keeping with FGD. A homozygous missense mutation (T159) in MC2R confirmed the diagnosis of FGD type 1. Patient 2 was admitted at 4.5 years, with an acute exacerbation of chronic asthma. At presentation, he had hypotension, hypoglycaemia and normal electrolytes. He was given IV hydrocortisone to treat his severe asthma, and his lip hyperpigmentation was thought to be central cyanosis. Two weeks later, his lips remained dark, and cortisol was low, with markedly elevated ACTH. Family history revealed a sister aged 22 years with cerebral palsy and a healthy 15-year-old brother, who were both severely pigmented with high ACTH levels. The diagnosis of FGD type 2 was confirmed by identifying a homozygous missense mutation (p.Y59D) in MRAP in the three siblings. FGD can be easily overlooked during acute illness. In a sick child, paired measurement of serum cortisol with ACTH prior to starting steroid therapy would be useful in making the diagnosis of FGD.

  15. Muscle coenzyme Q deficiency in familial mitochondrial encephalomyopathy.

    PubMed Central

    Ogasahara, S; Engel, A G; Frens, D; Mack, D

    1989-01-01

    The electron transport system of muscle mitochondria was examined in a familial syndrome of lactacidemia, mitochondrial myopathy, and encephalopathy. The propositus, a 14-year-old female, and her 12-year-old sister had suffered from progressive muscle weakness, abnormal fatigability, and central nervous system dysfunction since early childhood. In the propositus, the state 3 respiratory rate of muscle mitochondria with NADH-linked substrates and with succinate was markedly reduced. The levels of cytochromes a + a3, b, and c + c1 were normal. The activities of complexes I, II, III, and IV of the electron transport chain were normal or increased. By contrast, the activities of complex I-III and of complex II-III, both of which need coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10), were abnormally low. On direct measurement, the mitochondrial CoQ10 content was 3.7% of the mean value observed in 10 controls. Serum and cultured fibroblasts of the propositus had normal CoQ10 contents. In the younger sister, the respiratory activities and CoQ10 level of muscle mitochondria were similar to those observed in the propositus. The findings establish CoQ10 deficiency as a cause of a familial mitochondrial cytopathy and suggest that the disease results from a tissue-specific defect of CoQ10 biosynthesis. PMID:2928337

  16. Partial pyruvate kinase deficiency aggravates the phenotypic expression of band 3 deficiency in a family with hereditary spherocytosis.

    PubMed

    van Zwieten, Rob; van Oirschot, Brigitte A; Veldthuis, Martijn; Dobbe, Johannes G; Streekstra, Geert J; van Solinge, Wouter W; Schutgens, Roger E G; van Wijk, Richard

    2015-03-01

    In a family with mild dominant spherocytosis, affected members showed partial band 3 deficiency. The index patient showed more severe clinical symptoms than his relatives, and his red blood cells displayed concomitant low pyruvate kinase activity. We investigated the contribution of partial PK deficiency to the phenotypic expression of mutant band 3 in this family. Pyruvate kinase deficiency and band 3 deficiency were characterized by DNA analysis. Results of red cell osmotic fragility testing, the results of cell deformability obtained by the Automated Rheoscope and Cell Analyzer and the results obtained by Osmotic Gradient Ektacytometry, which is a combination of these tests, were related to the red cell ATP content. Spherocytosis in this family was due to a novel heterozygous mutation in SLC4A1, the gene for band 3. Reduced PK activity of the index patient was attributed to a novel mutation in PKLR inherited from his mother, who was without clinical symptoms. Partial PK deficiency was associated with decreased red cell ATP content and markedly increased osmotic fragility. This suggests an aggravating effect of low ATP levels on the phenotypic expression of band 3 deficiency.

  17. Work-family conflict, psychological distress, and sleep deficiency among patient care workers.

    PubMed

    Jacobsen, Henrik B; Reme, Silje Endresen; Sembajwe, Grace; Hopcia, Karen; Stoddard, Anne M; Kenwood, Christopher; Stiles, Tore C; Sorensen, Glorian; Buxton, Orfeu M

    2014-07-01

    This study examined whether work-family conflict was associated with sleep deficiencies, both cross-sectionally and longitudinally. In this two-phase study, a workplace health survey was completed by a cohort of patient care workers (n = 1,572). Additional data were collected 2 years later from a subsample of the original respondents (n = 102). Self-reported measures included work-family conflict, workplace factors, and sleep outcomes. The participants were 90% women, with a mean age of 41 ± 11.7 years. At baseline, after adjusting for covariates, higher levels of work-family conflict were significantly associated with sleep deficiency. Higher levels of work-family conflict also predicted sleep insufficiency nearly 2 years later. The first study to determine the predictive association between work-family conflict and sleep deficiency suggests that future sleep interventions should include a specific focus on work-family conflict.

  18. Combined homozygous factor H and heterozygous C2 deficiency in an Italian family.

    PubMed

    Brai, M; Misiano, G; Maringhini, S; Cutaja, I; Hauptmann, G

    1988-01-01

    Three of four children in a family have homozygous (less than 1% of normal) deficiency of factor H of the complement system and both parents, who are first cousins, are heterozygous for the same defect. The father and two of the H-deficient siblings also have a partial C2 deficiency. One of the children with combined deficiencies is affected by systemic lupus erythematosus with nephritis. No increased susceptibility to infections has been observed in the family. H deficiency is inherited in an autosomal codominant manner and is independently transmitted from C2 deficiency and HLA haplotypes. In the homozygous state it is associated with very low serum concentrations of B and C3, barely demonstrable as activated molecules. C5 is greatly reduced (less than 5%). Also, properdin and C6-9 are decreased. The findings in this family demonstrate that the occurrence of systemic lupus erythematosus in one of the children affected by a combined deficiency of factor H and C2 raises the question whether this pathology is related to the complete factor H or to the heterozygous C2 deficiency. Complete H deficiency is not necessarily accompanied by overt illness.

  19. A family of homozygous familial hyperalphalipoproteinemia with complete deficiency of cholesteryl ester transfer activity.

    PubMed

    Eto, M; Miyata, O; Noda, K; Makino, I

    1990-01-01

    The propositus was a 43-year-old Japanese male with a plasma total cholesterol (chol) level of 252 mg/dl and a high density lipoprotein (HDL)-chol of 169 mg/dl. His brother also had a markedly higher HDL-chol level of 149 mg/dl. In addition, his mother, sister and all 3 children had higher HDL-chol levels of 75-91 mg/dl. These data suggest that the propositus and his brother were homozygous for familial hyperalphalipoproteinemia (FHALP), whereas his mother, sister and 3 children were heterozygous for FHALP. None had any clinical signs of atherosclerosis. The propositus and his brother (homozygous FHALP) also showed markedly higher levels of apo AI (greater than or equal to 190 mg/dl) and E (greater than 16 mg/dl). Ultracentrifugal analysis disclosed an increase of HDL2-chol in the propositus. Cholesteryl ester transfer activity (CETA) was completely absent in the propositus (0.0% transfer/5 microliters/18 hr) and his brother (0.3% transfer/5 microliters/18 hr). It is concluded that this case is a family of homozygous FHALP probably caused by complete deficiency of CETA.

  20. Deficiency of Maternal Approval in the Abusive Family Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herrenkohl, Roy C.; Herrenkohl, Ellen C.

    This study examines the hypothesis that the lack of parental approval of the child characterizes child-abusing families. As part of a larger study of the coping styles of such families, a variety of verbal and non-verbal behaviors in parent-child interactions was examined. Subjects were 80 mother-child pairs from among four groups of comparable…

  1. [NAC transcription factors family and increased tolerance to water deficiency in plants].

    PubMed

    Lip, Sabina; Kurowska, Marzena; Szarejko, Iwona

    2013-01-01

    Transcription factors are proteins that are able to regulate the expression of target genes by specifically binding with DNA sequences and regulating the activity initiation complex of transcription. These proteins are key elements in the adaptation of plants to environmental conditions. Families of transcription factors that are associated with a response to stress are DREB/CBF, AREB/ABF, MYB/MYC and NAC. The NAC gene family is one of the largest families of transcription factors. Members of the NAC family have been identified in many plant species. NAC TFs are involved in the growth, development and response of plants to biotic and abiotic stress. Many transcription factors belonging to the NAC family, including SNAC1, are involved in the response of plants to water deficiency. Drought is the most harmful environmental stress in worldwide agriculture. Obtaining plants with an increased tolerance to water deficiency by using the methods of molecular biology has become a major goal of plant breeding.

  2. Survival in families with hereditary protein C deficiency, 1820 to 1993.

    PubMed Central

    Allaart, C. F.; Rosendaal, F. R.; Noteboom, W. M.; Vandenbroucke, J. P.; Briët, E.

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVES--To establish the survival of individuals heterozygous for hereditary protein C deficiency, who have an increased risk of venous thrombotic events, and to compare it with the survival of the general population. DESIGN--Retrospective study in pedigrees of 23 families with hereditary protein C deficiency for period 1820 and 1993. SETTING--23 completed family trees of 24 probands from various parts of the Netherlands with symptoms of protein C deficiency. SUBJECTS--All 736 members of the 23 families with a 50% or 100% probability of being (or having been) heterozygous for the genetic defect on the basis of DNA analysis or their place in the pedigrees, following mendelian rules. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Observed mortality compared with the mortality of the general Dutch population; the standardised mortality ratio was calculated by dividing the observed mortality by the expected mortality. RESULTS--No excess mortality was found in the 206 proved heterozygous individuals and "obligatory transmitters" (those who have definitely passed on the deficiency) (standardised mortality ratio 0.95 (95% confidence interval 0.5 to 1.2)) or in the 530 family members with a 50% genetic probability of heterozygosity (1.10 (0.9 to 1.3)). CONCLUSION--Heterozygous individuals with hereditary protein C deficiency type I have normal survival compared with the general population. Prophylactic anticoagulant treatment may prevent thrombotic events in heterozygous individuals but may not be expected to improve their survival. PMID:7580547

  3. Molecular basis of human transcobalamin II deficiency in an affected family

    SciTech Connect

    Li, N.; Seetharam, S.; Seetharam, B.

    1994-09-01

    Transcobalamin II (TC II) deficiency is an autosomal recessive disease leading to cobalamin (Cbl, Vitamin B{sub 12}) deficiency. Patients with this disorder fail to absorb and transport Cbl across cellular membranes and develop Cbl deficiency, symptoms of which include failure to thrive, megaloblastic anemia, impaired immunodefence and neurological disorders. The molecular basis for this disease is not known. By means of Southern blotting and sequence analysis of TC II, cDNA amplified from fibroblasts of an affected child and his parents, we have identified two mutant TC II alleles. The maternally derived allele had a gross deletion, while the paternally derived allele had a 4-nucleotide ({sup 1023}TCTG) deletion which caused a reading frame shift and generation of a premature termination codon, 146 nucleotides downstream from the deletion. Both these deletions caused markedly reduced levels of TC II mRNA and protein. In addition, these two deletions were unique to this family and were not detected in four other unrelated TC II deficient patients who also exhibited the same (TC II protein/mRNA deficiency) phenotypes. Based on this study we suggest, (1) that the molecular defect in the most common form of human TC II deficiency (lack of immunoprecipitable plasma TC II) is heterogeneous and (2) these mutations cause TC II mRNA and protein deficiency leading to defective plasma transport of Cbl and the development of Cbl deficiency.

  4. Growth hormone deficiency and pituitary malformation in a recurrent Cat-Eye syndrome: a family report.

    PubMed

    Jedraszak, Guillaume; Braun, Karine; Receveur, Aline; Decamp, Matthieu; Andrieux, Joris; Rabbind Singh, Amrathlal; Copin, Henri; Bremond-Gignac, Dominique; Mathieu, Michèle; Rochette, Jacques; Morin, Gilles

    2015-10-01

    Growth hormone deficiency affects roughly between one in 3000 and one in 4000 children with most instances of growth hormone deficiency being idiopathic. Growth hormone deficiency can also be associated with genetic diseases or chromosome abnormalities. Association of growth hormone deficiency together with hypothalamic-pituitary axis malformation and Cat-Eye syndrome is a very rare condition. We report a family with two brothers presenting with growth delay due to a growth hormone deficiency associated with a polymalformation syndrome. They both displayed pre-auricular pits and tags, imperforate anus and Duane retraction syndrome. Both parents and a third unaffected son displayed normal growth pattern. Cerebral MRI showed a hypothalamic-pituitary axis malformation in the two affected brothers. Cytogenetic studies revealed a type I small supernumerary marker chromosome derived from chromosome 22 resulting in a tetrasomy 22pter-22q11.21 characteristic of the Cat-Eye syndrome. The small supernumerary marker chromosome was present in the two affected sons and the mother in a mosaic state. Patients with short stature due to growth hormone deficiency should be evaluated for chromosomal abnormality. Family study should not be underestimated.

  5. Prekallikrein deficiency in a family of Belgian horses.

    PubMed

    Geor, R J; Jackson, M L; Lewis, K D; Fretz, P B

    1990-09-15

    A 7-year-old Belgian stallion hemorrhaged excessively after castration; the hemostatic mechanism was investigated. The horse had normal one-stage prothrombin time and markedly prolonged activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT). Results of intrinsic coagulation factor assays were all normal with the exception of prekallikrein activity, which was markedly reduced (less than 1% activity; value for control population, 63 to 150%). Two of this horse's full siblings, a brother and sister, had markedly prolonged APTT and low prekallikrein values (2.5% and less than 1%, respectively). The addition of plasma from a normal equine plasma pool corrected the prolonged APTT in the 3 Belgian sibling with low prekallikrein activity. Prekallikrein activity in 10 other closely related Belgian horses ranged between 12.5 and 64% (mean, 29.3%), compared with 63 to 150% (mean, 91%) in 10 mixed-breed horses. In the 3 Belgian siblings with low prekallikrein activity, the APTT approached normal after prolonged incubation (15 minutes) with the contact activator and in response to addition of an ellagic acid activator. The 3 Belgian siblings with low prekallikrein activity may be homozygous for prekallikrein deficiency, whereas the other close relatives may be heterozygous for the genetic defect.

  6. Amino acid and DNA analyses in a family with ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency.

    PubMed

    Hou, J W; Wang, T R

    1996-02-01

    Ornithine transcarbamylase (OTC) is a hepatic mitochondrial enzyme involved in the detoxification of ammonia by the urea cycle. OTC deficiency is an X-linked genetic disorder, usually causing neonatal or infantile hyperammonemia, coma and death. We attended a male newborn who had poor feeding since 30 hours of age, at which time, he then rapidly progressed to a comatose state. Hyperammonemia and liver dysfunction were noted. Analysis of plasma amino acids showed elevated levels of glutamine and alanine, but a decreased level of arginine and no citrulline. OTC deficiency was diagnosed by family history of early death of newborn males on the maternal side and characteristic biochemical findings. In addition, it was proved by Southern blot analysis of genomic DNA. Although OTC deficiency has been described as the most common inborn error of ureagenesis in humans, to our knowledge, this is the first report in a Chinese family confirmed by biochemical and DNA analyses.

  7. Characterization of high density lipoprotein particles in familial apolipoprotein A-I deficiency

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Our aim was to characterize HDL subspecies and fat-soluble vitamin levels in a kindred with familial apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) deficiency. Sequencing of the APOA1 gene revealed a nonsense mutation at codon 22, Q[22]X, with two documented homozygotes, eight heterozygotes, and two normal subjects in...

  8. Lower Cancer Incidence in Amsterdam-I Criteria Families Without Mismatch Repair Deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Lindor, Noralane M.; Rabe, Kari; Petersen, Gloria M.; Haile, Robert; Casey, Graham; Baron, John; Gallinger, Steve; Bapat, Bharati; Aronson, Melyssa; Hopper, John; Jass, Jeremy; LeMarchand, Loic; Grove, John; Potter, John; Newcomb, Polly; Terdiman, Jonathan P.; Conrad, Peggy; Moslein, Gabriella; Goldberg, Richard; Ziogas, Argyrios; Anton-Culver, Hoda; de Andrade, Mariza; Siegmund, Kim; Thibodeau, Stephen N.; Boardman, Lisa A.; Seminara, Daniela

    2010-01-01

    Context Approximately 60% of families that meet the Amsterdam-I criteria (AC-I) for hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) have a hereditary abnormality in a DNA mismatch repair (MMR) gene. Cancer incidence in AC-I families with MMR gene mutations is reported to be very high, but cancer incidence for individuals in AC-I families with no evidence of an MMR defect is unknown. Objective To determine if cancer risks in AC-I families with no apparent deficiency in DNA MMR are different from cancer risks in AC-I families with DNA MMR abnormalities. Design, Setting, and Participants Identification (1997–2001) of 161 AC-I pedigrees from multiple population- and clinic-based sources in North America and Germany, with families grouped into those with (group A) or without (group B) MMR deficiency by tumor testing. A total of 3422 relatives were included in the analyses. Main Outcome Measures Cancer incidence in groups A and B (excluding the 3 affected members used to define each pedigree as AC-I) and computed age- and sex-adjusted standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) using Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results data. Results Group A families from both population- and clinic-based series showed increased incidence of the HNPCC-related cancers. Group B families showed increased incidence only for colorectal cancer (SIR, 2.3; 95% confidence interval, 1.7–3.0) and to a lesser extent than group A (SIR, 6.1; 95% confidence interval, 5.2–7.2) (P<.001). Conclusions Families who fulfill AC-I criteria but who have no evidence of a DNA MMR defect do not share the same cancer incidence as families with HNPCC-Lynch syndrome (ie, hereditary MMR deficiency). Relatives in such families have a lower incidence of colorectal cancer than those in families with HNPCC-Lynch syndrome, and incidence may not be increased for other cancers. These families should not be described or counseled as having HNPCC-Lynch syndrome. To facilitate distinguishing these entities, the

  9. Familial orthostatic tachycardia due to norepinephrine transporter deficiency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robertson, D.; Flattem, N.; Tellioglu, T.; Carson, R.; Garland, E.; Shannon, J. R.; Jordan, J.; Jacob, G.; Blakely, R. D.; Biaggioni, I.

    2001-01-01

    Orthostatic intolerance (OI) or postural tachycardia syndrome (POTS) is a syndrome primarily affecting young females, and is characterized by lightheadedness, palpitations, fatigue, altered mentation, and syncope primarily occurring with upright posture and being relieved by lying down. There is typically tachycardia and raised plasma norepinephrine levels on upright posture, but little or no orthostatic hypotension. The pathophysiology of OI is believed to be very heterogeneous. Most studies of the syndrome have focused on abnormalities in norepinephrine release. Here the hypothesis that abnormal norepinephrine transporter (NET) function might contribute to the pathophysiology in some patients with OI was tested. In a proband with significant orthostatic symptoms and tachycardia, disproportionately elevated plasma norepinephrine with standing, impaired systemic, and local clearance of infused tritiated norepinephrine, impaired tyramine responsiveness, and a dissociation between stimulated plasma norepinephrine and DHPG elevation were found. Studies of NET gene structure in the proband revealed a coding mutation that converts a highly conserved transmembrane domain Ala residue to Pro. Analysis of the protein produced by the mutant cDNA in transfected cells demonstrated greater than 98% reduction in activity relative to normal. NE, DHPG/NE, and heart rate correlated with the mutant allele in this family. CONCLUSION: These results represent the first identification of a specific genetic defect in OI and the first disease linked to a coding alteration in a Na+/Cl(-)-dependent neurotransmitter transporter. Identification of this mechanism may facilitate our understanding of genetic causes of OI and lead to the development of more effective therapeutic modalities.

  10. Tocotrienols reverse IKAP and monoamine oxidase deficiencies in familial dysautonomia.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Sylvia L; Rubin, Berish Y

    2005-10-14

    Familial dysautonomia (FD), a recessive neurodegenerative disease, is caused by mutations in the IKBKAP gene that result in the production of nonfunctional IKAP protein. Manifestations of FD include autonomic crises characterized by hypertension, tachycardia, diaphoresis, and vomiting. Elevated plasma levels of norepinephrine (NE) and dopamine observed during autonomic crises and an exaggerated hypertensive response to low doses of NE prompted an examination of monoamine oxidase (MAO) levels, key isoenzymes responsible for degrading biogenic and dietary monoamines, in individuals with FD. Fetal tissue homozygous for the common FD-causing mutation and peripheral blood cells of individuals with FD have reduced MAO A mRNA levels. FD-derived cells, stimulated with tocotrienols or EGCG to produce increased levels of functional IKAP, express increased amounts of MAO A mRNA transcript and protein. Administration of tocotrienol to individuals with FD results in increased expression of both functional IKAP and MAO A transcripts in their peripheral blood cells. These findings provide new insight into the pathophysiology of FD and demonstrate the value of therapeutic approaches designed to elevate cellular levels of functional IKAP and MAO A.

  11. Familial orthostatic tachycardia due to norepinephrine transporter deficiency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robertson, D.; Flattem, N.; Tellioglu, T.; Carson, R.; Garland, E.; Shannon, J. R.; Jordan, J.; Jacob, G.; Blakely, R. D.; Biaggioni, I.

    2001-01-01

    Orthostatic intolerance (OI) or postural tachycardia syndrome (POTS) is a syndrome primarily affecting young females, and is characterized by lightheadedness, palpitations, fatigue, altered mentation, and syncope primarily occurring with upright posture and being relieved by lying down. There is typically tachycardia and raised plasma norepinephrine levels on upright posture, but little or no orthostatic hypotension. The pathophysiology of OI is believed to be very heterogeneous. Most studies of the syndrome have focused on abnormalities in norepinephrine release. Here the hypothesis that abnormal norepinephrine transporter (NET) function might contribute to the pathophysiology in some patients with OI was tested. In a proband with significant orthostatic symptoms and tachycardia, disproportionately elevated plasma norepinephrine with standing, impaired systemic, and local clearance of infused tritiated norepinephrine, impaired tyramine responsiveness, and a dissociation between stimulated plasma norepinephrine and DHPG elevation were found. Studies of NET gene structure in the proband revealed a coding mutation that converts a highly conserved transmembrane domain Ala residue to Pro. Analysis of the protein produced by the mutant cDNA in transfected cells demonstrated greater than 98% reduction in activity relative to normal. NE, DHPG/NE, and heart rate correlated with the mutant allele in this family. CONCLUSION: These results represent the first identification of a specific genetic defect in OI and the first disease linked to a coding alteration in a Na+/Cl(-)-dependent neurotransmitter transporter. Identification of this mechanism may facilitate our understanding of genetic causes of OI and lead to the development of more effective therapeutic modalities.

  12. Familial paroxysmal exercise-induced dystonia: atypical presentation of autosomal dominant GTP-cyclohydrolase 1 deficiency.

    PubMed

    Dale, Russell C; Melchers, Anna; Fung, Victor S C; Grattan-Smith, Padraic; Houlden, Henry; Earl, John

    2010-06-01

    Paroxysmal exercise-induced dystonia (PED) is one of the rarer forms of paroxysmal dyskinesia, and can occur in sporadic or familial forms. We report a family (male index case, mother and maternal grandfather) with autosomal dominant inheritance of paroxysmal exercise-induced dystonia. The dystonia began in childhood and was only ever induced after many minutes of exercise, and was never present at rest, or on initiation of movements. In addition, family members suffered restless legs syndrome (RLS), depression, and adult-onset Parkinsonism. The index case had low cerebrospinal fluid neurotransmitters and pterins. The PED and RLS stopped on initiation of L-Dopa therapy. Both live family members were found to have a nonsense mutation (p.E84X) in exon 1 of the GTP-cyclohydrolase 1 (GCH-1) gene. We propose that GCH-1 mutations should be considered a genetic cause of familial PED, especially if additional clinical features of monoaminergic deficiency are present in affected individuals.

  13. A splice-junction mutation responsible for familial apolipoprotein A-II deficiency.

    PubMed Central

    Deeb, S S; Takata, K; Peng, R L; Kajiyama, G; Albers, J J

    1990-01-01

    The first case of familial apolipoprotein A-II (apo A-II) deficiency was recently reported from Hiroshima, Japan, and designated apo A-IIHiroshima. The proband had no immunologically detectable apo A-II in her plasma. DNA sequence analysis showed that the proband was homozygous for a G----A transition at position 1 of intron 3 of the apo A-II gene. A sister of the proband, who had an intermediate level of plasma apo AII, was shown to be heterozygous for this base substitution. This splice-junction alteration is most likely responsible for apo A-II deficiency, since it would be expected to completely block splicing of intron 3 from the primary transcript and therefore prevent formation of functional mRNA. This deficiency seems to have little influence either on lipid and lipoprotein profiles or on the occurrence of coronary artery disease. Images Figure 2 PMID:2107739

  14. Defective minor spliceosome mRNA processing results in isolated familial growth hormone deficiency.

    PubMed

    Argente, Jesús; Flores, Raquel; Gutiérrez-Arumí, Armand; Verma, Bhupendra; Martos-Moreno, Gabriel Á; Cuscó, Ivon; Oghabian, Ali; Chowen, Julie A; Frilander, Mikko J; Pérez-Jurado, Luis A

    2014-03-01

    The molecular basis of a significant number of cases of isolated growth hormone deficiency remains unknown. We describe three sisters affected with severe isolated growth hormone deficiency and pituitary hypoplasia caused by biallelic mutations in the RNPC3 gene, which codes for a minor spliceosome protein required for U11/U12 small nuclear ribonucleoprotein (snRNP) formation and splicing of U12-type introns. We found anomalies in U11/U12 di-snRNP formation and in splicing of multiple U12-type introns in patient cells. Defective transcripts include preprohormone convertases SPCS2 and SPCS3 and actin-related ARPC5L genes, which are candidates for the somatotroph-restricted dysfunction. The reported novel mechanism for familial growth hormone deficiency demonstrates that general mRNA processing defects of the minor spliceosome can lead to very narrow tissue-specific consequences.

  15. Defective minor spliceosome mRNA processing results in isolated familial growth hormone deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Argente, Jesús; Flores, Raquel; Gutiérrez-Arumí, Armand; Verma, Bhupendra; Martos-Moreno, Gabriel Á; Cuscó, Ivon; Oghabian, Ali; Chowen, Julie A; Frilander, Mikko J; Pérez-Jurado, Luis A

    2014-01-01

    The molecular basis of a significant number of cases of isolated growth hormone deficiency remains unknown. We describe three sisters affected with severe isolated growth hormone deficiency and pituitary hypoplasia caused by biallelic mutations in the RNPC3 gene, which codes for a minor spliceosome protein required for U11/U12 small nuclear ribonucleoprotein (snRNP) formation and splicing of U12-type introns. We found anomalies in U11/U12 di-snRNP formation and in splicing of multiple U12-type introns in patient cells. Defective transcripts include preprohormone convertases SPCS2 and SPCS3 and actin-related ARPC5L genes, which are candidates for the somatotroph-restricted dysfunction. The reported novel mechanism for familial growth hormone deficiency demonstrates that general mRNA processing defects of the minor spliceosome can lead to very narrow tissue-specific consequences. Subject Categories Genetics, Gene Therapy ' Genetic Disease; Metabolism PMID:24480542

  16. Idiopathic hemochromotosis and alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency: coexistence in a family with progressive liver disease in the proband.

    PubMed

    Anand, S; Schade, R R; Bendetti, C; Kelly, R; Rabin, B S; Krause, J; Starzl, T E; Iwatsuki, S; Van Thiel, D H

    1983-01-01

    A patient with coexistent hemochromatosis and alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency which led to cirrhosis and death despite adequate therapy for hemochromatosis is reported. Evaluation of the family revealed first degree relatives with iron overload and others with alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency but none with both conditions. The role of family studies in the early recognition and possible prevention of overt clinical disease in individuals with either of these two genetic diseases is discussed.

  17. Idiopathic Hemochromotosis and Alpha-1-Antitrypsin Deficiency: Coexistence in a Family with Progressive Liver Disease in the Proband

    PubMed Central

    Anand, Suri; Schade, Robert R.; Bendetti, Carlos; Kelly, Robert; Rabin, Bruce S.; Krause, John; Starzl, Thomas E.; Iwatsuki, Shunzaburo; Van Thiel, David H.

    2010-01-01

    A patient with coexistent hemochromatosis and alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency which led to cirrhosis and death despite adequate therapy for hemochromatosis is reported. Evaluation of the family revealed first degree relatives with iron overload and others with alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency but none with both conditions. The role of family studies in the early recognition and possible prevention of overt clinical disease in individuals with either of these two genetic diseases is discussed. PMID:6604688

  18. [Serological Characteristics and Family Survey of 3 Cases of H-deficient Blood Group].

    PubMed

    Geng, Wei; Gao, Huan-Huan; Zhang, Lin-Wei

    2016-06-01

    To investigate the serological characteristics and the genetic status of the family of H-deficient blood group in Jining area of Shandong province in China. ABO, H, and Lewis blood groups in 3 probands were screened out by the serological method, and saliva testing was performed on all the individuals. The presence of weak A or B on the RBC was confirmed by using the adsorption-elution procedure. Three cases of H-deficient blood group were identified to be para-Bombay blood group (secretor), out of 3 cases, 2 cases were Bh, 1 case was Ah, and anti-H or anti-HI antibody was detected in their serum. Three cases of H-deficerent blood group are para-Bombay phenotype, among them one proband's parents have been confirmed to be consanguineous relationship.

  19. Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency-Associated Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: A Family Perspective.

    PubMed

    Anzueto, Antonio

    2015-08-01

    Alpha-1 antitrypsin (AAT) deficiency (AATD) is a genetic condition that can lead to the early onset of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), a disorder that comprises elements of chronic bronchitis and emphysema. AATD is characterized by reduced levels of the AAT protease inhibitor, leading to unrestricted protease activity in the lung, which promotes destruction of lung tissue. In severe cases, patients with AATD have an increased mortality risk and, potentially, a poor quality of life due to more frequent COPD exacerbations and/or limitations on daily activity. However, the burden of AATD on members of the patient's immediate family who may serve as caregivers has not been described. Because the age range at which most patients are diagnosed with AATD may affect the economic status of an individual and/or of a family, it is likely that a diagnosis of AATD may have negative effects that extend beyond those on the diagnosed person to include immediate family members. Here, we review the literature to investigate the impact of the caregiver role of family members in disease states that affect an age group similar to AATD. Furthermore, we provide a case study showing the effect of AATD on immediate family members.

  20. Educating children and families about growth hormone deficiency and its management: part 1.

    PubMed

    Collin, Jacqueline; Whitehead, Amanda; Walker, Jenny

    2016-02-01

    The management of growth hormone deficiency is long term. Children may be diagnosed at pre-school age meaning relationships with the paediatric endocrine team may last more than 15 years. The education role of the paediatric endocrine nurse specialist is essential in working in partnership with families over a long period of time. Children and young people have changing needs for information to help them understand their condition and growth hormone deficiency treatment as they grow up. Developing positive working relationships with parents, children and young people enables their developmental needs and the context in which they live their lives to be central to any educational planning for them. Addressing developmental needs when providing information on growth hormone deficiency to children and young people reinforces the need for education to be an ongoing process and not a one-off event. This is part one of a two-part article. The second part will be published in the March issue of Nursing Children and Young People and it focuses on educating children, young people and their parents about the condition, and includes case studies.

  1. Genetic and immunologic analysis of a family containing five patients with common-variable immune deficiency or selective IgA deficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Ashman, R.F.; Kemp, J.D.; Yokoyama, W.M. ); Zhu, Z.B.; Cooper, M.D.; Volanakis, J.E. )

    1992-11-01

    A family with 13 members included 2 subjects with selective IgA deficiency (IgA-D) and 3 subjects with common-variable immune deficiency (CVID), diseases which usually occur sporadically. Reciprocal combinations of B and T cells in vitro between one normal and two immune-deficient family members and normal subjects revealed that defective Ig synthesis was determined by the B cells, while the patient T cells functioned normally. Normal T helper and suppressor function was demonstrated even in one patient with CVID who developed a T-cell lymphoproliferative disorder associated with elevated IgM; this patient's B cells made only IgM in vitro. Immune deficiencies were inherited in this family in a pattern consistent with an autosomal dominant trait with incomplete penetrance. All the immune-deficient patients in this family possessed at least one copy of an MHC haplotype previously shown to be abnormally frequent in IgA-D and CVID: HLA-DQB1*0201, HLA-DR3, C4B-Sf, C4A-deleted, G11-15, Bf-0.4, C2-a, HSP70-7.5, TNF[alpha]-5, HLA-B8, and HLA-A1. The patient who developed the lymphoproliferative disorder was homozygous for this haplotype. Four immunologically normal members, one of whom was 80 years old, also possessed this MHC haplotype, indicating that its presence is not sufficient for disease expression. A small segment of another MHC haplotype associated with Ig deficiency in the population also occurred in this family, but it was not associated with immune deficiency. The presence of neutral amino acids at position 57 of DQ[beta], previously correlated with IgA-D, was associated with disease in this family approximately to the same degree reported previously in unrelated patients. Thus the expression of immunodeficiency in individuals bearing a disease-associated MHC haplotype appears to require either additional genes or an environmental trigger.

  2. Thioredoxin Reductase 2 (TXNRD2) Mutation Associated With Familial Glucocorticoid Deficiency (FGD)

    PubMed Central

    Prasad, Rathi; Chan, Li F.; Hughes, Claire R.; Kaski, Juan P.; Kowalczyk, Julia C.; Savage, Martin O.; Peters, Catherine J.; Nathwani, Nisha; Clark, Adrian J. L.; Metherell, Louise A.

    2014-01-01

    Context: Classic ACTH resistance, due to disruption of ACTH signaling, accounts for the majority of cases of familial glucocorticoid deficiency (FGD). Recently FGD cases caused by mutations in the mitochondrial antioxidant, nicotinamide nucleotide transhydrogenase, have highlighted the importance of redox regulation in steroidogenesis. Objective: We hypothesized that other components of mitochondrial antioxidant systems would be good candidates in the etiology of FGD. Design: Whole-exome sequencing was performed on three related patients, and segregation of putative causal variants confirmed by Sanger sequencing of all family members. A TXNRD2-knockdown H295R cell line was created to investigate redox homeostasis. Setting: The study was conducted on patients from three pediatric centers in the United Kingdom. Patients: Seven individuals from a consanguineous Kashmiri kindred, six of whom presented with FGD between 0.1 and 10.8 years, participated in the study. Interventions: There were no interventions. Main Outcome Measure: Identification and functional interrogation of a novel homozygous mutation segregating with the disease trait were measured. Results: A stop gain mutation, p.Y447X in TXNRD2, encoding the mitochondrial selenoprotein thioredoxin reductase 2 (TXNRD2) was identified and segregated with disease in this extended kindred. RT-PCR and Western blotting revealed complete absence of TXNRD2 in patients homozygous for the mutation. TXNRD2 deficiency leads to impaired redox homeostasis in a human adrenocortical cell line. Conclusion: In contrast to the Txnrd2-knockout mouse model, in which embryonic lethality as a consequence of hematopoietic and cardiac defects is described, absence of TXNRD2 in humans leads to glucocorticoid deficiency. This is the first report of a homozygous mutation in any component of the thioredoxin antioxidant system leading to inherited disease in humans. PMID:24601690

  3. Educating children and families about growth hormone deficiency and its management: part 2.

    PubMed

    Collin, Jacqueline; Whitehead, Amanda; Walker, Jenny

    2016-03-01

    Growth hormone deficiency (GHD) is a long-term condition, therefore creating ongoing partnerships with families is a fundamental part of the role of a paediatric endocrine nurse specialist (PENS). Teaching children, young people and their families about GHD and exploring what it means to them and how they can manage their ongoing treatment is central to building positive relationships. Educating children about the management of their growth hormone treatment (GHT) is an ongoing process and professionals must respond to the changing needs for that information children may have as they grow and develop. Long-term relationships with families are strengthened by recognising and respecting the developing expertise of families as they gain confidence and competence to manage GHT. This article is the second of two parts. Part one was published in the February issue of Nursing Children and Young People and covered an overview of growth hormone, causes and clinical presentation of GHD, development and availability of GHT and the role of the PENS in building partnerships with parents. The focus of this article is the education role of the PENS and the importance of providing information that is appropriate to the child or young person's developmental age.

  4. Association of Graves' disease and prekallikrein congenital deficiency in a patient belonging to the first CRM+ prekallikrein-deficient Italian family.

    PubMed

    De Stefano, V; Leone, G; Teofili, L; De Marinis, L; Micalizzi, P; Fiumara, C; Bizzi, B

    1990-12-01

    Severe prekallikrein (Fletcher factor) deficiency was diagnosed in a 49-year-old woman and in 3 of her siblings. Functional prekallikrein (PKK) activity was found below 1% by clotting assay and 20% by amidolytic assay in all the affected subjects; PKK cross-reacting material (CRM) was present in all the patients (antigen levels from 34% to 54%). This is the first CRM+ PKK-deficient family identified in Italy. The index patient was affected from Graves' disease: such association was previously reported in another patient with PKK congenital defect.

  5. Molecular basis of inherited antithrombin deficiency in Portuguese families: identification of genetic alterations and screening for additional thrombotic risk factors.

    PubMed

    David, Dezsö; Ribeiro, Sofia; Ferrão, Lénia; Gago, Teresa; Crespo, Francisco

    2004-06-01

    Antithrombin (AT), the most important coagulation serine proteases inhibitor, plays an important role in maintaining the hemostatic balance. Inherited AT deficiency, mainly characterized by predisposition to recurrent venous thromboembolism, is transmitted in an autosomal dominant manner. In this study, we analyzed the underlying genetic alterations in 12 unrelated Portuguese thrombophilic families with AT deficiency. At the same time, the modulating effect of the FV Leiden mutation, PT 20210A, PAI-1 4G, and MTHFR 677T allelic variants, on the thrombotic risk of AT deficient patients was also evaluated. Three novel frameshift alterations, a 4-bp deletion in exon 4 and two 1-bp insertions in exon 6, were identified in six unrelated type I AT deficient families. A novel missense mutation in exon 3a, which changes the highly conserved F147 residue, and a novel splice site mutation in the invariant acceptor AG dinucleotide of intron 2 were also identified in unrelated type I AT deficient families. In addition to these, two previously reported missense mutations changing the AT reactive site bond (R393-S394) and leading to type II-RS deficiency, and a previously reported cryptic splice site mutation (IVS4-14G-->A), were also identified. In these families, increased thrombotic risk associated with co-inheritance of the FV Leiden mutation and of the PAI-1 4G variant was also observed. In conclusion, we present the first data regarding the underlying genetic alterations in Portuguese thrombophilic families with AT deficiency, and confirm that the FV Leiden mutation and probably the PAI-1 4G variant represent additional thrombotic risk factors in these families.

  6. Deficiency of serum cholesteryl-ester transfer activity in patients with familial hyperalphalipoproteinaemia.

    PubMed

    Koizumi, J; Mabuchi, H; Yoshimura, A; Michishita, I; Takeda, M; Itoh, H; Sakai, Y; Sakai, T; Ueda, K; Takeda, R

    1985-12-01

    Lipoprotein patterns and cholesteryl ester transfer activity (CETA) were examined in 2 patients with familial hyperalphalipoproteinaemia (FHALP). The proband was a healthy 58-year-old Japanese male who had an HDL cholesterol of 7.83 mmol/l (301 mg/dl). His sister's HDL cholesterol was 4.52 mmol/l (174 mg/dl), which suggested that both were homozygous carriers of FHALP. In both subjects HDL showed a high cholesterol/apo A-I ratio and appeared to be a larger-sized particle than normal HDL on agarose gel chromatography. Two of the proband's children showed higher HDL cholesterol levels (1.74 mmol/l, 2.16 mmol/l) than normal, but another 2 children showed normal levels (1.48 mmol/l, 1.40 mmol/l). However, the ratios of HDL cholesterol to total cholesterol and to apo A-I in all children were higher than normal. These data suggest, but do not prove, that all his children were heterozygotes. Apo B levels in all of the family members studied were lower than normal (47-80 mg/dl). Deceased members of the same family had not died from cardiovascular disease. Cholesteryl-ester transfer activity was studied in both patients. When serum or lipoprotein deficient serum (d greater than 1.21) and [3H]cholesteryl ester labelled HDL3 were incubated in the presence of an LCAT inhibitor, there was no evidence of cholesteryl ester transfer from HDL to VLDL and/or LDL, unlike normal subjects. The deficiency of CETA in these patients with FHALP presumably accounted for the increase in particle size and cholesterol enrichment of HDL.

  7. Genetically determined hypercholesterolemia in a rhesus monkey family due to a deficiency of the LDL receptor.

    PubMed

    Scanu, A M; Khalil, A; Neven, L; Tidore, M; Dawson, G; Pfaffinger, D; Jackson, E; Carey, K D; McGill, H C; Fless, G M

    1988-12-01

    A family of rhesus monkeys comprising a sire, a dam, and four male offspring were fed a cholesterol-free Purina Chow diet for several months. The sire, 431-J, and two of the offspring, B-8204 and B-8806, had persistent plasma cholesterol levels in the range of 100-130 mg/dl, whereas the dam, 766-I, and the two other offspring, B-1000 and B-7643, exhibited a marked hypercholesterolemia in the 250-300 mg/dl range associated with an elevation of plasma LDL and apoB. When fed for 12 weeks a diet containing 12.5% lard and 0.25% cholesterol, sire, dam, B-1000 and B-7643 exhibited a marked hypercholesterolemia (500-800 mg/dl range), whereas B-8204 and B-8806 developed only a modest hypercholesterolemia (200-250 mg/dl). All animals were Lp[a]+. Skin fibroblasts from each animal and from control cells were grown in 10% fetal calf serum, transferred to 10% lipoprotein-deficient serum for 48 hr, and then incubated at 4 degrees C or 37 degrees C with 125I-labeled Lp[a]-free LDL. The fibroblasts from dam and offspring B-1000 and B-7643 bound and internalized 125I-labeled LDL less efficiently than control cells. Mathematical analyses of the 4 degrees C binding data indicated that there were no significant differences in LDL binding affinity between test and control cells suggesting that cells from the animals with a spontaneous hypercholesterolemia had a decreased number of LDL receptors. This conclusion was supported by the results of ligand and immunoblot analyses carried out on cell lysates separated by gradient gel electrophoresis. We conclude that a genetically determined LDL receptor deficiency was responsible, in part, for the spontaneous hypercholesterolemia observed in three out of the six family members and that this deficiency accounted for the hyperresponsiveness to a dietary fat and cholesterol challenge by the dam and the two offspring, B-1000 and B-7643. The hyperresponsiveness noted in the sire that had no evidence for LDL-receptor deficiency illustrates that

  8. GLUT1-deficiency syndrome: Report of a four-generation Norwegian family with a mild phenotype.

    PubMed

    Ramm-Pettersen, Anette; Nakken, Karl O; Haavardsholm, Kathrine C; Selmer, Kaja Kristine

    2017-05-01

    Glucose transporter type 1 deficiency syndrome (GLUT1-DS) is a rare metabolic encephalopathy with a wide variation of clinical phenotypes. Familial variants are often milder than de novo cases, and may therefore remain undiagnosed. The aim of this study was to characterize the clinical course of GLUT1-DS in a four-generation Norwegian family where the oldest generations had never received any treatment. Through interviews and clinical investigations, we characterized a family of 26 members, where 11 members had symptoms strongly suggesting GLUT1-DS. All members were offered genetic testing of the SLC2A1 gene. Affected members were offered treatment with ketogenic diet, and the effect of the treatment was registered. We sequenced the SLC2A1 gene in 13 members, and found that 10, all with symptoms, had the c.823G>A (p.Ala275Thr) variant. All affected members had experienced early-onset epilepsy, paroxysmal exercise-induced dyskinesias, and most had mild learning disability. Moreover, some had symptoms and signs of a distal neuropathy in addition to reduced sense of orientation and excessive daytime sleep. Their load of symptoms had decreased over the years, although that they never had received any treatment. Nevertheless, those who started dietary treatment all experienced an improved quality of life. We report a four-generation family with GLUT1-DS where the disease has a mild course, even when untreated. In addition to classical GLUT1-DS features, we also describe symptoms which have never been reported in GLUT1-DS previously. As such, this family extends the phenotypic spectrum of GLUT1-DS and underlines the importance of diagnosing also relatively mildly affected patients, even in adult life, as they also seem to benefit from dietary treatment. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. Familial hypercholesterolemia in a rhesus monkey pedigree: molecular basis of low density lipoprotein receptor deficiency.

    PubMed Central

    Hummel, M; Li, Z G; Pfaffinger, D; Neven, L; Scanu, A M

    1990-01-01

    We have recently identified a family of rhesus monkeys with members exhibiting a spontaneous hypercholesterolemia associated with a low density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) deficiency. By using the polymerase chain reaction, we now show that the affected monkeys are heterozygous for a nonsense mutation in exon 6 of the LDLR gene. This mutation changes the sequence of the codon for amino acid 284 (tryptophan) from TGG to TAG, thereby generating a nonsense codon potentially resulting in a truncated 283-amino acid protein, which needs documentation, however. This G----A mutation also creates a site for the restriction endonuclease Spe I. Using this site as a marker for this nonsense mutation, we have shown that the mutation is present in all of the affected members of the pedigree and absent in unaffected members and that the mutation segregates with the phenotype of spontaneous hypercholesterolemia through three generations. Quantitative analyses of RNA obtained from liver biopsies show that the abundance of the LDLR RNA is also reduced by about 50%. Thus, we have identified a primate model for human familial hypercholesterolemia which will be useful for studying the relationship between the LDLR and lipoprotein metabolism and for assessing the efficacy of diets and drugs in the treatment of human familial hypercholesterolemia. Images PMID:2326270

  10. Further mapping of the properdin deficiency gene in a Tunisian Jewish family--evidence for genetic homogeneity.

    PubMed

    Ash, S; Johnson, C; Shohat, M; Shohat, T; Schlesinger, M

    1994-08-01

    The properdin deficiency gene has been localized to Xp21.1-Xcen; however, it is not clear whether the mutation responsible for the disease co-maps exactly with the structural properdin gene. Based on a recent study on a total of six families, the gene was found linked to DXS255 (theta = 0.00). As only a few families have been studied, it is not known whether the same gene is responsible for the disease in all families. In order to better localize the disease gene in Israel, we studied a Tunisian Jewish family with properdin deficiency for linkage with various X-markers. A maximum lod score of 1.93 at theta = 0.00 was calculated with the DXS7 probe while there was one recombination with DXS255. This study helps to better localize the properdin deficiency gene to Xp11.3-p21.1 proximal to DXS255 locus and confirms that there is no indication of genetic heterogeneity. Whether the properdin structural gene (PFC) and properdin deficiency locus are one and the same await demonstration of mutations in the structural gene in patients with properdin deficiency.

  11. Possible relationship between elevated plasma ACTH and tall stature in familial glucocorticoid deficiency.

    PubMed

    Imamine, Hiroki; Mizuno, Haruo; Sugiyama, Yukari; Ohro, Yoichiro; Sugiura, Tokio; Togari, Hajime

    2005-02-01

    Familial glucocorticoid deficiency (FGD) is characterized clinically by severe glucocorticoid deficiency associated with failure of adrenal responsiveness to ACTH but not with mineralcorticoid deficiency. Excessive growth was described previously in some patients with FGD, many of whom were shown to have mutations in the ACTH receptor gene. The mechanisms responsible for their excessive growth are unknown. We analyzed the ACTH receptor gene in three patients with FGD and discussed the causes of excessive growth in FGD. No mutations were detected in the coding and promoter regions of the ACTH receptor gene of one female patient who had tall stature (+ 2.41S.D.) and advanced bone age (10 years 9 months) when she was 4 years 9 months old. Her plasma ACTH level had been elevated until then (124-2,684 pg/ml). Moreover, plasma estradiol was elevated for her age (21.3 pg/ml), and it decreased in response to the dexamethasone suppression test (from 25.4 to 6.9 pg/ml). Elevated plasma estradiol was apparently related to the increase in plasma ACTH and played a major role in excessive growth in this patient. On the other hand, the genetic analysis showed that the other two patients who were siblings were homozygous for the R137W mutation. Clinically, they responded well to hydrocortisone replacement therapy with almost normal plasma ACTH levels. Although all patients with the R137W mutation reported previously were tall, our patients were of normal height. We speculate that the major causes of excessive growth in FGD are not only from ACTH receptor mutation, but also from the action of elevated plasma ACTH.

  12. Familial X-linked mental retardation and isolated growth hormone deficiency: Clinical and molecular findings

    SciTech Connect

    Hamel, B.C.J.; Smits, A.P.T.; Helm, B. van den

    1996-07-12

    We report on several members of a family with varying degrees of X-linked mental retardation (XLMR), isolated growth hormone deficiency (IGHD), and infantile behavior but without other consistent phenotypic abnormalities. Male patients continued to grow until well into their twenties and reached a height ranging from 135 to 159 cm. Except one, all female carriers were mentally normal; their adult height ranged from 159 to 168 cm. By linkage studies we have assigned the underlying genetic defect to the Xq24-q27.3 region, with a maximum lod score of Z = 3.26 at {theta} = 0.0 for the DXS294 locus. The XLMR-IGHD phenotype in these patients may be due to pleiotropic effects of a single gene or it may represent a contiguous gene syndrome. 18 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  13. Familial CD8 deficiency due to a mutation in the CD8α gene

    PubMed Central

    de la Calle-Martin, Oscar; Hernandez, Manuel; Ordi, Jose; Casamitjana, Natalia; Arostegui, Juan I.; Caragol, Isabel; Ferrando, Monserrat; Labrador, Moises; Rodriguez-Sanchez, Jose L.; Espanol, Teresa

    2001-01-01

    CD8 glycoproteins play an important role in both the maturation and function of MHC class I-restricted T lymphocytes. A 25-year-old man, from a consanguineous family, with recurrent bacterial infections and total absence of CD8+ cells, was studied. Ab deficiencies and ZAP-70 and TAP defects were ruled out. A missense mutation (gly90→ser) in both alleles of the immunoglobulin domain of the CD8α gene was shown to correlate with the absence of CD8 expression found in the patient and two sisters. Conversely, high percentages of CD4–CD8–TCRαβ+ T cells were found in the three siblings. A novel autosomal recessive immunologic defect characterized by absence of CD8+ cells is described. These findings may help to further understanding of the role of CD8 molecules in human immune response. PMID:11435463

  14. Effects of bezafibrate on dyslipidemia with cholestasis in children with familial intrahepatic cholestasis-1 deficiency manifesting progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis.

    PubMed

    Nagasaka, Hironori; Yorifuji, Tohru; Hirano, Kenichi; Ota, Akemi; Toyama-Nakagawa, Yumiko; Takatani, Tomozumi; Tsukahara, Hirokazu; Kobayashi, Kunihiko; Takayanagi, Masaki; Inomata, Yukihiro; Uemoto, Shinji; Miida, Takashi

    2009-01-01

    No appropriate pharmaceutical therapy has been established for dyslipidemia with cholestasis in progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis (PFIC)-1. We evaluated the efficacy of bezafibrate in PFIC-1. We monitored the clinical presentation and lipoprotein metabolism of 3 patients, aged 3, 4, and 8 years, with FIC1 deficiency, manifesting PFIC-1, over 12 months of bezafibrate therapy. Pruritus was substantially alleviated in the 3 patients after initiation of bezafibrate. Cholestasis was alleviated in 2 of them. Serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol increased 1.6- to 2.0-fold and 1.1- to 1.2-fold, respectively; but the values remained low and normal, respectively. Serum lipoprotein X, which was at normal levels before treatment, was elevated to levels above the upper limit of the reference range. High serum triglyceride levels decreased by 15% to 30%, to normal levels, after treatment initiation. The activities of lipoprotein lipase and hepatic triglyceride lipase were increased, but those of high-density lipoprotein regulators remained unchanged. Liver expression of multidrug resistance protein-3, which regulates lipoprotein X synthesis, was enhanced by bezafibrate therapy. Bezafibrate treatment favorably affected pruritus, dyslipidemia, and cholestasis in PFIC-1.

  15. Deficiency of antiproliferative family protein Ana correlates with development of lung adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Yoneda, Mitsuhiro; Suzuki, Toru; Nakamura, Takahisa; Ajima, Rieko; Yoshida, Yutaka; Kakuta, Shigeru; Katsuko, Sudo; Iwakura, Yoichiro; Shibutani, Makoto; Mitsumori, Kunitoshi; Yokota, Jun; Yamamoto, Tadashi

    2009-02-01

    The abundant in neuroepithelium area (ana) gene was originally identified as a member of the tob/btg family of antiproliferative genes. Like the other family members, Ana inhibits growth of NIH3T3 cells when overexpressed. However, whether or not Ana is involved in tumor progression has been elusive. Here, we show that expression of ana is relatively high in the lung, the expression being restricted in type II alveolar epithelial cells. We further show that ana expression is reduced in 97% of the human lung cancer cell lines examined (61/63) and 86% of clinical samples from lung adenocarcinoma patients (36/42). Long-term observation of ana-deficient (ana−/–) mice reveals that 8% of them develop lung tumors (5/66) by 21 months after birth, while 0% of wild-type mice (0/35) develop the same type of tumors. We also show that exogenously expressed ana gene product suppresses the levels of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) expression in lung cancer cells. Taken together, we propose that ana functions as a tumor suppressor and that its product inhibits tumor progression as well by suppressing angiogenesis, invasion, and metastasis.

  16. 3-Methylcrotonyl-CoA carboxylase deficiency: phenotypic variability in a family.

    PubMed

    Eminoglu, F Tuba; Ozcelik, Aysima A; Okur, Ilyas; Tumer, Leyla; Biberoglu, Gursel; Demir, Ercan; Hasanoglu, Alev; Baumgartner, Matthias R

    2009-04-01

    A family with 3-methylcrotonyl-CoA carboxylase deficiency with different clinical features is described. A 15-month-old boy, who was the index patient, was admitted to the hospital with atonic seizure. His brother had delayed language development and their uncle had been followed with diagnosis of epilepsy for the last 5 years. Urinary organic acid analysis displayed elevated 3-hydroxyisovaleric acid and 3-methylcrotonylglycine, analysis of acylcarnitines showed elevated 3-hydroxyisovalerylcarnitine and decreased free carnitine levels in both the patients and their uncle. Methylcrotonyl-CoA carboxylase activity in cultured fibroblasts displayed a low residual activity of 2.2% of the median control value while propionyl-CoA carboxylase activity was normal in the index patient. Mutation analysis revealed a large homozygous deletion of 2264 bp (c.873+4524_6787de12264) in the MCCA gene, which has not been described to date. Adult-onset afebrile seizures have not been reported in the literature. Our cases are an example of this wide phenotypic variability within a single family.

  17. Congenital 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (6PGD) deficiency associated with chronic hemolytic anemia in a Spanish family.

    PubMed

    Vives Corrons, J L; Colomer, D; Pujades, A; Rovira, A; Aymerich, M; Merino, A; Aguilar i Bascompte, J L

    1996-12-01

    Clinical and metabolic studies were performed in four members of a Spanish family with partial (50%) 6 phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (6PGD) deficiency. In all cases the activities of 6 phosphogluconolactone (6PGL) and glutathione reductase (GR) were normal, and the molecular characterization performed in the partially purified 6PGD from the propositus showed normal kinetic and electrophoretic patterns. Two females (the propositus and her sister) suffered from a well-compensated chronic nonspherocytic hemolytic anemia (CNSHA) and exhibited decreased RBC glutathione (GSH) stability with increased oxidative susceptibility, defined by enhanced malonyldialdehyde (MDA) generation "in vitro." The other two members of the family (the propositus's mother and brother) were clinically asymptomatic. In the propositus and her sister, RBC metabolism exhibited a markedly abnormal concentration of glycolytic intermediates, mainly characterized by striking increases in fructose 1,6 bisphosphate (50-fold), dihydroxiacetone-phosphate (20-fold) and glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate (tenfold). Although the precise mechanism of the hemolysis in the two patients is unknown, the enhanced oxidative threat observed in their RBCs may interfere in some way with the glycolytic pathway function, leading to a marked increase in certain metabolic intermediates located before the glyceraldehyde 3 phosphate dehydrogenase (GA3PD) step. Since it seems that GA3PD half-life is modulated by fluctuations of the cytosolic redox status, an "in situ" approach was simulated by using permeabilized RBCs. In these conditions, GA3PD activity was significantly lower in the propositus and her sister than in the asymptomatic members of the family and the simultaneous normal control.

  18. Plasma lipoproteins in familial lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase deficiency: lipid composition and reactivity in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Glomset, John A.; Norum, Kaare R.; King, Weiling

    1970-01-01

    Plasma lipoproteins from patients with familial lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) deficiency have been fractioned by preparative ultra-centrifugation and gel filtration and their lipid content and reactivity studied. All of the lipoproteins are abnormal with respect to lipid concentration or relative lipid content. The low density lipoproteins (LDL) and high density lipoproteins (HDL) appear to react normally with partially purified LCAT from normal plasma. Also, the lipids of the very low density lipoproteins (VLDL) and LDL, like those of the corresponding lipoproteins of normal plasma, are indirectly altered by the action of LCAT on normal HDL. Thus, during incubation in vitro VLDL cholesteryl ester is increased and VLDL triglyceride is decreased, as described by others for VLDL from hyperlipemic plasma, and both the unesterified cholesterol and lecithin of the VLDL and LDL are decreased. The patients' VLDL and LDL are abnormal, however, in that they lose unesterified cholesterol and lecithin to normal HDL in the absence of LCAT. Also, the patients' HDL lose these lipids to erythrocyte membranes in the absence of the enzyme. Our results provide further evidence that the abnormal cholesterol and phospholipid composition of the patients' lipoproteins is caused by the LCAT deficiency. They support the postulate that an excess of unesterified cholesterol and lecithin develops as VLDL are converted to LDL and HDL and suggest that in the absence of LCAT this excess lipid distributes among plasma lipoproteins and plasma membranes. They further suggest that LCAT normally reduces this excess lipid through a combination of direct and indirect effects. PMID:5456796

  19. Prenatal diagnosis of citrin deficiency in a Chinese family with a fatal proband.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xin-Jing; Tang, Xiao-Mei; Zha, Qing-Bing; Shi, Shan-Shan; Song, Yuan-Zong; Xiao, Xiao-Min

    2011-12-01

    Citrin deficiency (CD) is an autosomal recessive disorder with SLC25A13 as causative gene that encodes citrin, the liver-type aspartate/glutamate carrier isoform 2 (AGC2). Neonatal intrahepatic cholestasis caused by citrin deficiency (NICCD), the major CD phenotype at pediatric age, has been previously reported as a self-limiting condition with clinical presentations resolving between 6 months and 1 year of life. We report the prenatal diagnosis of CD in a family with a fatal NICCD proband. The proband was a 10-month-old male presenting cough for 8 days and jaundiced skin 1 day. Physical examination revealed fever, dark jaundiced sclera and skin, hoarse breathing sounds, and hepatosplenomegaly. Laboratory tests uncovered elevated cholestatic indices, increased ammonia, and prolonged activated partial thromboplastin time and prothrombin time, and reduced fibrinogen. Sonography showed the features of liver cirrhosis. Metabolome analysis uncovered large quantity of 4-hydroxyphenyllactate and dicarboxylates in urine and increased citrulline and methionine in blood. The patient passed away due to liver failure at his age of 13.5 months. Mutation analysis revealed him a homozygote of 851del4, a four-base deletion in exon 9 of SLC25A13 gene. On request of the parents who had a second fetus, prenatal diagnosis of CD was performed by PCR-electrophoresis following amniocentesis and amniocyte culture, and demonstrated the fetus a carrier of the same mutation. The fatal proband in the present report has provided clinical evidence challenging the traditional concept on NICCD prognosis. Moreover, as the first trial on CD prenatal diagnosis, this study might open a novel area for clinical management of CD.

  20. Lipoprotein subfractions highly associated with renal damage in familial lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase deficiency.

    PubMed

    Kuroda, Masayuki; Holleboom, Adriaan G; Stroes, Erik S G; Asada, Sakiyo; Aoyagi, Yasuyuki; Kamata, Kouju; Yamashita, Shizuya; Ishibashi, Shun; Saito, Yasushi; Bujo, Hideaki

    2014-08-01

    In familial lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) deficiency (FLD), deposition of abnormal lipoproteins in the renal stroma ultimately leads to renal failure. However, fish-eye disease (FED) does not lead to renal damage although the causative mutations for both FLD and FED lie within the same LCAT gene. This study was performed to identify the lipoproteins important for the development of renal failure in genetically diagnosed FLD in comparison with FED, using high-performance liquid chromatography with a gel filtration column. Lipoprotein profiles of 9 patients with LCAT deficiency were examined. Four lipoprotein fractions specific to both FLD and FED were identified: (1) large lipoproteins (>80 nm), (2) lipoproteins corresponding to large low-density lipoprotein (LDL), (3) lipoproteins corresponding to small LDL to large high-density lipoprotein, and (4) to small high-density lipoprotein. Contents of cholesteryl ester and triglyceride of the large LDL in FLD (below detection limit and 45.8±3.8%) and FED (20.7±6.4% and 28.0±6.5%) were significantly different, respectively. On in vitro incubation with recombinant LCAT, content of cholesteryl ester in the large LDL in FLD, but not in FED, was significantly increased (to 4.2±1.4%), whereas dysfunctional high-density lipoprotein was diminished in both FLD and FED. Our novel analytic approach using high-performance liquid chromatography with a gel filtration column identified large LDL and high-density lipoprotein with a composition specific to FLD, but not to FED. The abnormal lipoproteins were sensitive to treatment with recombinant LCAT and thus may play a causal role in the renal pathology of FLD. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  1. [A family with creatine transporter deficiency diagnosed with urinary creatine/creatinine ratio and the family history: the third Japanese familial case].

    PubMed

    Nozaki, Fumihito; Kumada, Tomohiro; Shibata, Minoru; Fujii, Tatsuya; Wada, Takahito; Osaka, Hitoshi

    2015-01-01

    Creatine transporter deficiency (CRTR-D) is an X-linked disorder characterized by hypotonia, developmental delay, and seizures. We report the third Japanese family with CRTR-D. The proband was an 8-year-old boy who presented with hypotonia, severe intellectual disability and two episodes of seizures associated with/without fever. Among 7 siblings (4 males, 3 females), the eldest brother had severe intellectual disability, epilepsy, and sudden death at 17 years of age, while 18-year-old third elder brother had severe intellectual disability, autism, and drug-resistant epilepsy. The proband's urinary creatine/creatinine ratio was increased. A reduced creatine peak on brain magnetic resonance spectroscopy and a known pathogenic mutation in the SLC6A8 gene (c.1661 C > T;p.Pro554Leu) confirmed the diagnosis of CRTR-D. The same mutation was found in the third elder brother. Their mother was a heterozygote. Symptoms of CRTR-D are non-specific. Urinary creatine/creatinine ratio should be measured in patients with hypotonia, developmental delay, seizure and autism whose family history indicates an X-linked inheritance.

  2. Molecular characterisation of 34 patients with biotinidase deficiency ascertained by newborn screening and family investigation.

    PubMed

    Mühl, A; Möslinger, D; Item, C B; Stöckler-Ipsiroglu, S

    2001-04-01

    This study characterises the spectrum of biotinidase mutations in 21 patients (17 families) with profound biotinidase deficiency (BD) and 13 unrelated patients with partial BD using a denaturing gradient gel electrophoretic mutation screening and selective sequencing approach. In 29 from 30 unrelated families we found biallelic mutations including four common mutations, D444H (frequency 23.3%), G98:d7i3(20.0%), Q456H(20.0%), T532M (15.0%) and nine rare mutations (V62M, R157H, A171T+D444H, C423W, D543H, L279W, N172S, V109G, 12236G-A) with frequencies less than 5.0%. Only three profound BD patients with G98:d7i3/G98:d7i3 and Q456H/Q456H genotypes and residual biotinidase activities of 0.0%, and 0.9% of normal activity developed clinical symptoms before biotin supplementation at 8 weeks of age. All other patients remained asymptomatic within the first months of life or even longer without treatment. Two patients homozygous for the frameshift mutation G98:d7i3 had no measurable residual enzyme activity. Twelve patients with partial BD had the D444H mutation in at least one allele. We conclude that, based on mutation analysis and biochemical examinations of the enzyme, it is currently not clearly predictable whether an untreated patient will develop symptoms or not, although it seems that patients with activities lower than 1% are at a high risk for developing symptoms of the disease early in life.

  3. Deficiency of Src family kinases compromises the repopulating ability of hematopoietic stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Orschell, Christie M.; Borneo, Jovencio; Munugalavadla, Veerendra; Ma, Peilin; Sims, Emily; Ramdas, Baskar; Yoder, Mervin C.; Kapur, Reuben

    2015-01-01

    Objective Src family kinases (SFK) have been implicated in regulating growth factor and integrin-induced proliferation, migration, and gene expression in multiple cell types. However, little is known about the role of these kinases in the growth, homing, and engraftment potential of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells. Results Here we show that loss of hematopoietic-specific SFKs Hck, Fgr, and Lyn results in increased number of Sca-1+Lin− cells in the bone marrow, which respond differentially to cytokine-induced growth in vitro and manifest a significant defect in the long-term repopulating potential in vivo. Interestingly, a significant increase in expression of adhesion molecules, known to coincide with the homing potential of wild-type bone marrow cells is also observed on the surface of SFK−/− cells, although, this increase did not affect the homing potential of more primitive Lin−Sca-1+ SFK−/− cells. The stem cell–repopulating defect observed in mice transplanted with SFK−/− bone marrow cells is due to the loss of Lyn Src kinase, because deficiency of Lyn, but not Hck or Fgr, recapitulated the long-term stem cell defect observed in mice transplanted with SFK−/− bone marrow cells. Conclusions Taken together, our results demonstrate an essential role for Lyn kinase in positively regulating the long-term and multilineage engraftment of stem cells, which is distinct from its role in mature B cells and myeloid cells. PMID:18346837

  4. Deficient Cholesterol Esterification in Plasma of apoc2 Knockout Zebrafish and Familial Chylomicronemia Patients.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chao; Gaudet, Daniel; Miller, Yury I

    2017-01-01

    Hypertriglyceridemia is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Apolipoprotein C-II (APOC2) is an obligatory cofactor for lipoprotein lipase (LPL), the major enzyme catalyzing plasma triglyceride hydrolysis. We have created an apoc2 knockout zebrafish model, which mimics the familial chylomicronemia syndrome (FCS) in human patients with a defect in the APOC2 or LPL gene. In this study, we measured plasma levels of free cholesterol (FC) and cholesterol esters (CE) and found that apoc2 mutant zebrafish have a significantly higher FC to CE ratio (FC/CE), when compared to the wild type. Feeding apoc2 mutant zebrafish a low-fat diet reduced triglyceride levels but not the FC/CE ratio. In situ hybridization and qPCR results demonstrated that the hepatic expression of lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase (lcat), the enzyme responsible for esterifying plasma FC to CE, and of apolipoprotein A-I, a major protein component of HDL, were dramatically decreased in apoc2 mutants. Furthermore, the FC/CE ratio was significantly increased in the whole plasma and in a chylomicron-depleted fraction of human FCS patients. The FCS plasma LCAT activity was significantly lower than that of healthy controls. In summary, this study, using a zebrafish model and human patient samples, reports for the first time the defect in plasma cholesterol esterification associated with LPL deficiency.

  5. Lysosomal acid lipase deficiency: A hidden disease among cohorts of familial hypercholesterolemia?

    PubMed

    Chora, Joana Rita; Alves, Ana Catarina; Medeiros, Ana Margarida; Mariano, Cibelle; Lobarinhas, Goreti; Guerra, António; Mansilha, Helena; Cortez-Pinto, Helena; Bourbon, Mafalda

    Lysosomal acid lipase deficiency (LALD) is an autosomal recessive disorder and an unrecognized cause of dyslipidemia. Patients usually present with dyslipidemia and altered liver function and mutations in LIPA gene are the underlying cause of LALD. The aim of this study was to investigate LALD in individuals with severe dyslipidemia and/or liver steatosis. Coding, splice regions, and promoter region of LIPA were sequenced by Sanger sequencing in a cohort of mutation-negative familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) patients (n = 492) and in a population sample comprising individuals with several types of dyslipidemia and/or liver steatosis (n = 258). This study led to the identification of LALD in 4 children referred to the Portuguese FH Study, all with a clinical diagnosis of FH. Mild liver dysfunction was present at the age of FH diagnosis; however, a diagnosis of LALD was not considered. No adults at the time of referral have been identified with LALD. LALD is a life-threatening disorder, and early identification is crucial for the implementation of specific treatment to avoid premature mortality. FH cohorts should be investigated to identify possible LALD patients, who will need appropriate treatment. These results highlight the importance of correctly identifying the etiology of the dyslipidemia. Copyright © 2017 National Lipid Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Deficient Cholesterol Esterification in Plasma of apoc2 Knockout Zebrafish and Familial Chylomicronemia Patients

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Chao; Gaudet, Daniel; Miller, Yury I.

    2017-01-01

    Hypertriglyceridemia is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Apolipoprotein C-II (APOC2) is an obligatory cofactor for lipoprotein lipase (LPL), the major enzyme catalyzing plasma triglyceride hydrolysis. We have created an apoc2 knockout zebrafish model, which mimics the familial chylomicronemia syndrome (FCS) in human patients with a defect in the APOC2 or LPL gene. In this study, we measured plasma levels of free cholesterol (FC) and cholesterol esters (CE) and found that apoc2 mutant zebrafish have a significantly higher FC to CE ratio (FC/CE), when compared to the wild type. Feeding apoc2 mutant zebrafish a low-fat diet reduced triglyceride levels but not the FC/CE ratio. In situ hybridization and qPCR results demonstrated that the hepatic expression of lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase (lcat), the enzyme responsible for esterifying plasma FC to CE, and of apolipoprotein A-I, a major protein component of HDL, were dramatically decreased in apoc2 mutants. Furthermore, the FC/CE ratio was significantly increased in the whole plasma and in a chylomicron-depleted fraction of human FCS patients. The FCS plasma LCAT activity was significantly lower than that of healthy controls. In summary, this study, using a zebrafish model and human patient samples, reports for the first time the defect in plasma cholesterol esterification associated with LPL deficiency. PMID:28107429

  7. Hereditary sideroblastic anemia and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency in a Negro family.

    PubMed

    Prasad, A S; Tranchida, L; Konno, E T; Berman, L; Albert, S; Sing, C F; Brewer, G J

    1968-06-01

    Detailed clinical and genetic studies have been performed in a Negro family, which segregated for sex-linked sideroblastic anemia and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G-6-DP) deficiency. This is the first such pedigree reported. Males affected with sideroblastic anemia had growth retardation, hypochromic microcytic anemia, elevated serum iron, decreased unsaturated iron-binding capacity, increased (59)Fe clearance, low (59)Fe incorporation into erythrocytes, normal erythrocyte survival ((51)Cr), normal hemoglobin electrophoretic pattern, erythroblastic hyperplasia of marrow with increased iron, and marked increase in marrow sideroblasts, particularly ringed sideroblasts. Perinuclear deposition of ferric aggregates was demonstrated to be intramitochondrial by electron microscopy. Female carriers of the sideroblastic gene were normal but exhibited a dimorphic population of erythrocytes including normocytic and microcytic cells. The bone marrow studies in the female (mother) showed ringed marrow sideroblasts. Studies of G-6-PD involved the methemoglobin elution test for G-6-PD activity of individual erythrocytes, quantitative G-6-PD assay, and electrophoresis. In the pedigree, linkage information was obtained from a doubly heterozygous woman, four of her sons, and five of her daughters. Three sons were doubly affected, and one was normal. One daughter appeared to be a recombinant. The genes appeared to be linked in the coupling phase in the mother. The maximum likelihood estimate of the recombination value was 0.14. By means of Price-Jones curves, the microcytic red cells in peripheral blood were quantitated in female carriers. The sideroblast count in the bone marrow in the mother corresponded closely to the percentage of microcytic cells in peripheral blood. This is the second example in which the cellular expression of a sex-linked trait has been documented in the human red cells, the first one being G-6-PD deficiency. The coexistence of the two genes in doubly

  8. Molecular Characterization of Glucose-6-phosphate Dehydrogenase Deficiency in Families from the Republic of Macedonia and Genotype-phenotype Correlation

    PubMed Central

    Cherepnalkovski, Anet Papazovska; Zemunik, Tatijana; Glamocanin, Sofijanka; Piperkova, Katica; Gunjaca, Ivana; Kocheva, Svetlana; Jovanova, Biljana Coneska; Krzelj, Vjekoslav

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Glucose-6-phospahte dehydrogenase deficiency (G6PD) is one of the most common inherited disorders affecting around 400 million people worldwide. Molecular analysis of the G6PD gene identified more than 140 distinct mutations, the majority being single base missense mutations. G6PD Mediterranean is the most common variant found in populations of the Mediterranean area. Aim: The aim of our study was to perform molecular characterization of G6PD deficiency in families from the Republic of Macedonia and correlate the findings to disease phenotype. Patients and methods: Six patients and seven other family members were selected for genetic characterization, the selection procedure involved clinical evaluation and G6PD quantitative testing. All patients were first screened for the Mediterranean mutation, and subsequently for the Seattle mutation. Mutations were detected using PCR amplification and appropriate restriction endonuclease cleavage. Results: Four hemizygote and 3 heterozygous carriers for G6PD Mediterranean were detected. All G6PD deficient patients from this group showed clinical picture of hemolysis, and in 66.6% neonatal jaundice was confirmed based on history data. To our knowledge, this is the first study concerned with molecular aspects of the G6PD deficiency in R. Macedonia. Conclusion: This study represents a step towards a more comprehensive genetic evaluation in our population and better understanding of the health issues involved. PMID:26622077

  9. NNT pseudoexon activation as a novel mechanism for disease in two siblings with familial glucocorticoid deficiency.

    PubMed

    Novoselova, Tatiana V; Rath, Shoshana R; Carpenter, Karen; Pachter, Nicholas; Dickinson, Jan E; Price, Glynis; Chan, Li F; Choong, Catherine S; Metherell, Louise A

    2015-02-01

    Intronic DNA frequently encodes potential exonic sequences called pseudoexons. In recent years, mutations resulting in aberrant pseudoexon inclusion have been increasingly recognized to cause disease. To find the genetic cause of familial glucocorticoid deficiency (FGD) in two siblings. The proband and his affected sibling, from nonconsanguineous parents of East Asian and South African origin, were diagnosed with FGD at the ages of 21 and 8 months, respectively. Whole exome sequencing was performed on genomic DNA (gDNA) of the siblings. Variants in genes known to cause FGD were assessed for causality. Further analysis of gDNA and cDNA was performed by PCR/RT-PCR followed by automated Sanger sequencing. Whole exome sequencing identified a single, novel heterozygous variant (p.Arg71*) in nicotinamide nucleotide transhydrogenase (NNT) in both affected individuals. Follow-up cDNA analysis in the proband identified a 69-bp pseudoexon inclusion event, and Sanger sequencing of his gDNA identified a 4-bp duplication responsible for its activation. The variants segregated with the disease: p.Arg71* was inherited from the mother, the pseudoexon change was inherited from the father, and an unaffected sibling had inherited only the p.Arg71* variant. FGD in these siblings is caused by compound heterozygous mutations in NNT; one causing pseudoexon inclusion in combination with another leading to Arg71*. Discovery of this pseudoexon activation mutation highlights the importance of identifying sequence changes in introns by cDNA analysis. The clinical implications of these findings include: facilitation of antenatal genetic diagnosis, early institution of potentially lifesaving therapy, and the possibility of preventative or curative intervention.

  10. NNT Pseudoexon Activation as a Novel Mechanism for Disease in Two Siblings With Familial Glucocorticoid Deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Novoselova, Tatiana V.; Rath, Shoshana R.; Carpenter, Karen; Pachter, Nicholas; Dickinson, Jan E.; Price, Glynis; Chan, Li F.; Choong, Catherine S.

    2015-01-01

    Context: Intronic DNA frequently encodes potential exonic sequences called pseudoexons. In recent years, mutations resulting in aberrant pseudoexon inclusion have been increasingly recognized to cause disease. Objectives: To find the genetic cause of familial glucocorticoid deficiency (FGD) in two siblings. Patients: The proband and his affected sibling, from nonconsanguineous parents of East Asian and South African origin, were diagnosed with FGD at the ages of 21 and 8 months, respectively. Design: Whole exome sequencing was performed on genomic DNA (gDNA) of the siblings. Variants in genes known to cause FGD were assessed for causality. Further analysis of gDNA and cDNA was performed by PCR/RT-PCR followed by automated Sanger sequencing. Results: Whole exome sequencing identified a single, novel heterozygous variant (p.Arg71*) in nicotinamide nucleotide transhydrogenase (NNT) in both affected individuals. Follow-up cDNA analysis in the proband identified a 69-bp pseudoexon inclusion event, and Sanger sequencing of his gDNA identified a 4-bp duplication responsible for its activation. The variants segregated with the disease: p.Arg71* was inherited from the mother, the pseudoexon change was inherited from the father, and an unaffected sibling had inherited only the p.Arg71* variant. Conclusions: FGD in these siblings is caused by compound heterozygous mutations in NNT; one causing pseudoexon inclusion in combination with another leading to Arg71*. Discovery of this pseudoexon activation mutation highlights the importance of identifying sequence changes in introns by cDNA analysis. The clinical implications of these findings include: facilitation of antenatal genetic diagnosis, early institution of potentially lifesaving therapy, and the possibility of preventative or curative intervention. PMID:25459914

  11. Familial lipoprotein lipase deficiency caused by known (G188E) and novel (W394X) LPL gene mutations.

    PubMed

    Hooper, A J; Crawford, G M; Brisbane, J M; Robertson, K; Watts, G F; van Bockxmeer, F M; Burnett, J R

    2008-01-01

    Lipoprotein lipase (LPL) is the key enzyme in the catabolism of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins in the circulation. Familial LPL deficiency is characterized by hypertriglyceridaemia and absence of LPL activity. We report a case of LPL deficiency in a 43-year-old woman, who initially presented in childhood with chylomicronaemia syndrome. At that time, her plasma triglyceride concentration was approximately 30 mmol/L and post-heparin lipolytic activity was very low. In addition to having the known missense mutation LPL G188E, the patient was also found to have a novel nonsense mutation in exon 8, namely LPL W394X. The novel substitution in exon 8 (c.1262G > A) predicts a truncated protein product of 393 amino acids that lacks the carboxylterminal 12% of the mature LPL. Trp(394) is part of a cluster of exposed tryptophan residues in the carboxyl-terminal domain of LPL important for binding lipid substrate. Of 11 members from her three-generation family, three were heterozygotes for G188E (mean plasma triglyceride, 3.5 +/- 2.0 mmol/L), whereas six were heterozygotes for W394X (triglyceride, 4.3 +/- 1.8 mmol/L). In summary, we describe a case of familial LPL deficiency caused by compound heterozygosity for known (G188E) and novel (W394X) LPL gene mutations.

  12. Missense mutations in the melanocortin 2 receptor accessory protein that lead to late onset familial glucocorticoid deficiency type 2.

    PubMed

    Hughes, C R; Chung, T T; Habeb, A M; Kelestimur, F; Clark, A J L; Metherell, L A

    2010-07-01

    Familial glucocorticoid deficiency (FGD) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by isolated glucocorticoid deficiency. Mutations in the ACTH receptor [melanocortin 2 receptor (MC2R)] or the MC2R accessory protein (MRAP) cause FGD types 1 and 2, respectively. Typically, type 2 patients present early (median age, 0.1 yr), and no patient reported to date has presented after 1.6 yr. The aim of this study was to investigate the cause of disease in two families with late-onset FGD. The proband in family 1 was diagnosed at age 4 yr. Family review revealed two older siblings with undiagnosed FGD. One sibling was well, whereas the second had cerebral palsy secondary to hypoglycemic seizures. The proband in family 2 was diagnosed at age 18 yr with symptoms of fatigue, weight loss, and depression. The coding exons of MC2R and MRAP were sequenced. ACTH dose-response curves were generated for MC2R when transfected with wild-type or mutant MRAP constructs using HEK293 cells. MC2R trafficking with both mutant MRAPs was investigated using immunocytochemistry. MRAP gene analysis identified two novel homozygous missense mutations, c.175T>G (pY59D) in family 1 and c.76T>C (p.V26A) in family 2. In vitro analysis showed that the Y59D mutant had significant impairment of cAMP generation, and both mutants caused a shift in the dose-response curve to the right when compared to wild type. Immunocytochemistry showed normal trafficking of MC2R when transfected with both mutant MRAPs, indicating a probable signaling defect. These results indicate that missense MRAP mutations present with a variable phenotype of ACTH resistance and can present late in life.

  13. [Paternity analysis in deficiency cases with related putative fathers: simulation of a deficiency analysis in 27 families].

    PubMed

    von Wurmb-Schwark, Nicole; Mályusz, Victoria; Simeoni, Eva; Oehmichen, Manfred; Lignitz, Eberhard; Lüdcke, Christina; Repenning, Antje; Poetsch, Micaela

    2004-01-01

    During the last few years, the number of privately ordered paternity investigations has increased considerably. Probably due to financial reasons in more and more cases only the putative father and the child are investigated. Additionally, very often only one method, such as STR analysis, is employed. This raises the question whether such a reduced analysis leads to reliable and clear results when investigating cases with related putative fathers. We investigated 165 individuals from 27 families using the AmpFlSTRIdentifiler multiplex PCR and calculated the paternity probabilities of the children to their biological fathers, uncles, grand fathers and other relatives. In more than 30% less than three exclusions between child and relative were detected. In five cases no exclusions were found between child and uncle, always leading to paternity probabilities >99.9%. These results show that the calculation of high probabilities (>99.9%) does not necessarily lead to the accurate conclusion of fatherhood. In many of our cases misleadingly the brother of the real father or another close relative would have been declared to be the biological father.

  14. Ataxia with isolated vitamin E deficiency: heterogeneity of mutations and phenotypic variability in a large number of families.

    PubMed Central

    Cavalier, L; Ouahchi, K; Kayden, H J; Di Donato, S; Reutenauer, L; Mandel, J L; Koenig, M

    1998-01-01

    Ataxia with vitamin E deficiency (AVED), or familial isolated vitamin E deficiency, is a rare autosomal recessive neurodegenerative disease characterized clinically by symptoms with often striking resemblance to those of Friedreich ataxia. We recently have demonstrated that AVED is caused by mutations in the gene for alpha-tocopherol transfer protein (alpha-TTP). We now have identified a total of 13 mutations in 27 families. Four mutations were found in >=2 independent families: 744delA, which is the major mutation in North Africa, and 513insTT, 486delT, and R134X, in families of European origin. Compilation of the clinical records of 43 patients with documented mutation in the alpha-TTP gene revealed differences from Friedreich ataxia: cardiomyopathy was found in only 19% of cases, whereas head titubation was found in 28% of cases and dystonia in an additional 13%. This study represents the largest group of patients and mutations reported for this often misdiagnosed disease and points to the need for an early differential diagnosis with Friedreich ataxia, in order to initiate therapeutic and prophylactic vitamin E supplementation before irreversible damage develops. PMID:9463307

  15. Familial antithrombin III deficiency in a Malay patient with massive thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Wan Ab Rahman, W S; Abdullah, W Z; Hassan, M N; Hussin, A; Zulkafli, Z; Haron, J

    2017-08-01

    Patients with low antithrombin III (AT III) has increased risk for arteriovenous thromboembolic (TE) disease. We report a 28-year-old Malay lady who presented with spontaneous right calf pain and swelling of one week duration. She was on oral contraceptive pills and had a history of travelling for a long distance prior to the presentation. Her brother who was diagnosed with AT III deficiency had arterial thrombosis at a young age. She was diagnosed as having right popliteal vein thrombosis by ultrasound and treated with subcutaneous fondaparinux. While on treatment, she developed massive bilateral pulmonary embolism (PE). Thrombophilia study showed reduced AT III activity (38μl/dl) and normal results for protein C, protein S, activated protein C resistance and lupus anticoagulant assays. This patient has heterozygous AT III deficiency added with significant acquired factors responsible for the TE events. Those with AT III deficiency may have resistance to heparin therapy and require higher doses of heparin.

  16. Mitochondrial trifunctional protein deficiency due to HADHB gene mutation in a Chinese family.

    PubMed

    Fu, Xiaona; Zheng, Feixia; Zhang, Yao; Bao, Xinhua; Wang, Shuang; Yang, Yanling; Xiong, Hui

    2015-12-01

    We report an 8-year-old girl with lower limb weakness since birth in whom mitochondrial trifunctional protein (MTP) deficiency, an autosomal recessive fatty acid oxidation disorder caused by HADHA or HADHB mutations, had not been definitively diagnosed before she was referred to our hospital. Repeated blood acylcarnitine analysis revealed slightly increased long-chain 3-OH-acylcarnitine levels; electromyography (EMG) suggested peripheral nerve injury; muscle biopsy confirmed a neurogenic lesion in muscle fibers, as shown by EMG. Analysis of the HADHB, which encodes long-chain 3-ketoacyl-CoA thiolase, one of the enzymes constituting mitochondrial trifunctional protein, identified homozygous missense mutation c.739C > T (p.R247C). Mitochondrial trifunctional protein deficiency is an extremely rare disorder and has not been reported in Chinese people to date. It is likely that neonatal onset, as seen in our patient, has not been reported for the neuromyopathic phenotype of mitochondrial trifunctional protein deficiency.

  17. Multiple sulfatase deficiency in a Turkish family resulting from a novel mutation.

    PubMed

    Yiş, Uluç; Pepe, Stefano; Kurul, Semra Hiz; Ballabio, Andrea; Cosma, Maria Pia; Dirik, Eray

    2008-05-01

    Multiple sulfatase deficiency (MSD) is an inherited lysosomal storage disease that affects post-translational activation of all of the sulfatases. Since biochemical and clinical findings are variable, the diagnosis is difficult in most of the cases. Missense, nonsense, microdeletion and splicing mutations in SUMF1 gene were found in all of the MSD patients analyzed. Here, we present clinical findings of two consanguineous patients with multiple sulfatase deficiency. They were found to be homozygous for a novel missense mutation c.739G > C causing a p.G247R amino acid substitution in the SUMF1 protein.

  18. Familial combined deficiency of muscle carnitine and carnitine palmityl transferase (CPT).

    PubMed

    Skard Heier, M; Dietrichson, P; Landaas, S

    1986-12-01

    Two patients, brother and sister, aged 19 and 16, with combined, partial deficiency of carnitine palmityltransferase (CPT) are reported. Both patients had recurrent exercise-related myoglobinuria. The brother had also experienced an episode of transient renal failure associated with myoglobinuria. Both had elevated CK and myoglobin in plasma between attacks. There was a normal production of lactate in ischaemic forearm exercise, but elevated levels of NH3, resulting in an increased NH3/lactate ratio; 48-h fasting caused no significant changes in cholesterol, triglycerides or glucose, no rise of CK, and a normal ketogenic response, indicating no hepatic enzyme deficiency. Muscle biopsy showed slight changes of myopathy in both patients, with scattered atrophic fibres, but no lipid accumulation or other specific changes. Biochemical analysis of muscle tissue revealed a reduction of carnitine to 48% and 40% and a reduction of CPT to 55% and 59% of normal values, which is similar to the findings in the only previous report of combined partial carnitine and CPT deficiency. The heterogeneity of the laboratory findings in CPT deficiencies and the value of the various diagnostic procedures in metabolic myopathies are discussed.

  19. Contesting Certification: Mental Deficiency, Families and the State in Interwar England

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, Kevin

    2011-01-01

    This article is an attempt to shed some further light on the people and the processes involved in the identification of mental deficiency in children and young people. In order to do this, it turns away from the themes that have been most prominent in the historiography to date: elite and professional ideas, parliamentary and public debates and…

  20. NK and B cell deficiency in a MPS type II family with novel mutation in the IDS gene.

    PubMed

    Torres, Leuridan Cavalcante; Soares, Diogo Cordeiro de Queiroz; Kulikowski, Leslie Domenici; Franco, Jose Francisco; Kim, Chong Ae

    2014-10-01

    The mucopolysaccharidoses (MPSs) are a group of rare, inherited lysosomal storage disorders that are clinically characterized by abnormalities in multiple organ systems and reduced life expectancy. Whereas the lysosome is essential to the functioning of the immune system, some authors suggest that the MPS patients have abnormalities in the immune system similar to the patients with primary immunodeficiency. In this study, we evaluated 8 male MPS type II patients of the same family with novel mutation in the IDS gene. We found in this MPS family a quantitative deficiency of NK and B cells with normal values of IgG, IgM and IgA serum antibodies and normal response to polysaccharide antigens. Interestingly, abnormalities found in these patients were not observed in other MPS patients, suggesting that the type of mutation found in the IDS gene can be implicated in the immunodeficiency.

  1. Familial Paroxysmal Exercise-Induced Dystonia: Atypical Presentation of Autosomal Dominant GTP-Cyclohydrolase 1 Deficiency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dale, Russell C.; Melchers, Anna; Fung, Victor S. C.; Grattan-Smith, Padraic; Houlden, Henry; Earl, John

    2010-01-01

    Paroxysmal exercise-induced dystonia (PED) is one of the rarer forms of paroxysmal dyskinesia, and can occur in sporadic or familial forms. We report a family (male index case, mother and maternal grandfather) with autosomal dominant inheritance of paroxysmal exercise-induced dystonia. The dystonia began in childhood and was only ever induced…

  2. Familial Paroxysmal Exercise-Induced Dystonia: Atypical Presentation of Autosomal Dominant GTP-Cyclohydrolase 1 Deficiency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dale, Russell C.; Melchers, Anna; Fung, Victor S. C.; Grattan-Smith, Padraic; Houlden, Henry; Earl, John

    2010-01-01

    Paroxysmal exercise-induced dystonia (PED) is one of the rarer forms of paroxysmal dyskinesia, and can occur in sporadic or familial forms. We report a family (male index case, mother and maternal grandfather) with autosomal dominant inheritance of paroxysmal exercise-induced dystonia. The dystonia began in childhood and was only ever induced…

  3. Antithrombin deficiency in three Japanese families: one novel and two reported point mutations in the antithrombin gene.

    PubMed

    Maruyama, Keiko; Morishita, Eriko; Karato, Megumi; Kadono, Tadaaki; Sekiya, Akiko; Goto, Yukie; Sato, Tomomi; Nomoto, Haruka; Omi, Wataru; Tsuzura, Sachie; Imai, Hidenori; Asakura, Hidesaku; Ohtake, Shigeki; Nakao, Shinji

    2013-08-01

    Inherited antithrombin (AT) deficiency is associated with a predisposition to familial venous thromboembolic disease. We analyzed the AT gene in three unrelated patients with an AT deficiency who developed thrombosis. We analyzed the SERPINC1 gene in three patients. Additionally, we expressed the three mutants in the COS-1 cells and compared their secretion rates and levels of AT activity with those of the wild-type (WT). We identified three distinct heterozygous mutations of c.2534C>T: p.56Arginine → Cysteine (R56C), c.13398C>A: p.459Alanine → Aspartic acid (A459D) and c.2703C>G: p.112 Proline → Arginine (P112R). In the in vitro expression experiments, the AT antigen levels in the conditioned media (CM) of the R56C mutant were nearly equal to those of WT. In contrast, the AT antigen levels in the CM of the A459D and P112R mutants were significantly decreased. The AT activity of R56C was decreased in association with a shorter incubation time in a FXa inhibition assay and a thrombin inhibition-based activity test. However, the AT activity of R56C was comparable to that of WT when the incubation time was increased. We concluded that the R56C mutant is responsible for type II HBS deficiency. We considered that the A459D and P112R mutants can be classified as belonging to the type I AT deficiency. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Clinical and neuropsychological outcome in 33 patients with biotinidase deficiency ascertained by nationwide newborn screening and family studies in Austria.

    PubMed

    Möslinger, D; Stöckler-Ipsiroglu, S; Scheibenreiter, S; Tiefenthaler, M; Mühl, A; Seidl, R; Strobl, W; Plecko, B; Suormala, T; Baumgartner, E R

    2001-05-01

    Newborn screening for biotinidase deficiency (BD) provides prevention of neurological sequelae in patients with low residual enzyme activity by early treatment with oral biotin substitution. Screening 1.1 million newborns in Austria and consecutive family studies led to the identification of 21 patients with profound BD (residual activity <10%) (incidence: 1:59,800) and to 12 patients with partial BD (residual activity 10%-30%) (incidence 1:89,700). Application of an HPLC assay using the natural substrate biocytin allowed exact quantification of extremely low residual biotinidase activities and thus subdivision of patients with profound BD into a group with a residual activity 0%-1% of normal activity (n = 5) and >1%-<10% (n = 16) respectively. Evaluation of clinical and neuropsychological outcome showed that only patients with a biotinidase activity < 1% (n = 3/5) exhibited characteristic clinical symptoms within the first weeks of life, while five patients with a residual activity of 1.2%-4.6% did not develop clinical symptoms even when not treated until 3.5 21 years. In all patients with residual activity <10% and biotin substitution within the first weeks of life, neuropsychological outcome was normal, while abnormal in three out of five patients tested for IQ and treated after the age of 3.5 years. In five out of nine patients with poor compliance or delayed or no treatment, visual and brainstem auditory evoked potentials were measured and were within age-related normal values. All patients with partial BD available for follow-up remained clinically and neuropsychologically asymptomatic without treatment at ages 2.5 10 years. The incidence of biotinidase deficiency in Austria is comparable to other European countries. Subdivision of the group of patients with profound biotinidase deficiency suggests that only patients with residual activities < 1% are prone to develop clinical symptoms early in life, while patients with residual activities >1% may remain

  5. Liver Transplantation as a Treatment for Severe Refractory Vitamin E Deficiency Related to Progressive Familial Intrahepatic Cholestasis Type 2 in a Pediatric Patient.

    PubMed

    Collyer, Elizabeth; Hupertz, Vera; Eghtesad, Bijan; Radhakrishnan, Kadakkal

    2016-08-01

    Refractory vitamin E deficiency is thought to have irreversible effects on neurologic function. We report an adolescent boy with severe refractory vitamin E deficiency due to progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis (PFIC) type 2. His consequent neurologic dysfunction included severe ataxia, dysmetria, dysarthria, and cranial nerve VI palsy. He underwent liver transplantation at age 13 due to his neurologic dysfunction; and afterward, he had marked improvement in neurologic function. We demonstrate that in a patient with PFIC 2 and severe refractory vitamin E deficiency, liver transplant can improve vitamin E absorption, prevent further neurological sequelae, and reverse prior neurologic dysfunction.

  6. Liver Transplantation as a Treatment for Severe Refractory Vitamin E Deficiency Related to Progressive Familial Intrahepatic Cholestasis Type 2 in a Pediatric Patient

    PubMed Central

    Hupertz, Vera; Eghtesad, Bijan; Radhakrishnan, Kadakkal

    2016-01-01

    Refractory vitamin E deficiency is thought to have irreversible effects on neurologic function. We report an adolescent boy with severe refractory vitamin E deficiency due to progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis (PFIC) type 2. His consequent neurologic dysfunction included severe ataxia, dysmetria, dysarthria, and cranial nerve VI palsy. He underwent liver transplantation at age 13 due to his neurologic dysfunction; and afterward, he had marked improvement in neurologic function. We demonstrate that in a patient with PFIC 2 and severe refractory vitamin E deficiency, liver transplant can improve vitamin E absorption, prevent further neurological sequelae, and reverse prior neurologic dysfunction. PMID:28119944

  7. Increased expression of six ZIP family genes by zinc (Zn) deficiency is associated with enhanced uptake and root-to-shoot translocation of Zn in barley (Hordeum vulgare).

    PubMed

    Tiong, Jingwen; McDonald, Glenn; Genc, Yusuf; Shirley, Neil; Langridge, Peter; Huang, Chun Y

    2015-09-01

    Low zinc (Zn) in soils reduces yield and grain Zn content. Regulation of ZRT/IRT-like protein (ZIP) family genes is a major mechanism in plant adaptation to low and fluctuating Zn in soil. Although several Zn deficiency-inducible ZIP genes are identified in cereals, there has been no systematic study on the association of Zn deficiency-induced uptake and root-to-shoot translocation with expression of ZIP family genes. We measured Zn deficiency-induced uptake and root-to-shoot translocation of Zn in barley (Hordeum vulgare) plants by resupplying 0.5 μM Zn, and quantified the transcripts of thirteen HvZIP genes. Subcellular localization and tissue-specific expression were also determined for Zn deficiency-inducible HvZIP genes. Zn deficiency enhanced the capacity of uptake and root-to-shoot translocation of Zn, and sustained the enhanced capacity for 6 d after Zn resupply. Six HvZIP genes were highly induced in roots of Zn-deficient plants, and their proteins were localized in the plasma membrane. Tissue-specific expression in roots supports their roles in uptake and root-to-shoot translocation of Zn under low Zn conditions. Our results provide a comprehensive view on the physiological roles of ZIP genes in plant adaptation to low and fluctuating Zn in soil, and pave the way for development of new strategies to improve Zn-deficiency tolerance and biofortification in cereals.

  8. De novo mutation causes steroid 21-hydroxylase deficiency in one family of HLA-identical affected and unaffected siblings

    SciTech Connect

    Tajima, Toshihiro Hokkaido Univ., Sapporo ); Fujieda, K. ); Fujii-Kuriyama, Yoshiaki )

    1993-07-01

    Over 90% of congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) results from 21-hydroxylase deficiency. Because the CYP21B gene is located within the HLA complex and is very tightly linked to HLA markers, HLA typing is widely used for prenatal diagnosis and identifying heterozygous family members. In the course of a study on identification of heterozygous family members with HLA typing, the authors recognized an unusual family case in which three siblings share the same HLA haplotype, and only one of them had the simple virilizing form; her two siblings did not have any endocrinological abnormalities. They investigated the mode of genetic transmission by using polymerase chain reaction and single stranded conformation polymorphism. The present study revealed that the proband was a compound heterozygote with the intron 2 mutation that causes aberrant RNA splicing and the missense mutation of exon 4, while the other siblings and the father had only one allele of a missense mutation in exon 4; the mother is a normal homozygote. This result together with DNA fingerprint analysis strongly suggest that the intron 2 mutation occurred de novo in the maternally inherited gene of the proband. This seems to be the first case of a de novo mutation of the CYP21B gene that causes CAH. 19 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  9. The p.M292T NDUFS2 mutation causes complex I-deficient Leigh syndrome in multiple families

    PubMed Central

    Tuppen, Helen A. L.; Hogan, Vanessa E.; He, Langping; Blakely, Emma L.; Worgan, Lisa; Al-Dosary, Mazhor; Saretzki, Gabriele; Alston, Charlotte L.; Morris, Andrew A.; Clarke, Michael; Jones, Simon; Devlin, Anita M.; Mansour, Sahar; Chrzanowska-Lightowlers, Zofia M. A.; Thorburn, David R.; McFarland, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Isolated complex I deficiency is the most frequently observed oxidative phosphorylation defect in children with mitochondrial disease, leading to a diverse range of clinical presentations, including Leigh syndrome. For most patients the genetic cause of the biochemical defect remains unknown due to incomplete understanding of the complex I assembly process. Nonetheless, a plethora of pathogenic mutations have been described to date in the seven mitochondrial-encoded subunits of complex I as well as in 12 of the nuclear-encoded subunits and in six assembly factors. Whilst several mitochondrial DNA mutations are recurrent, the majority of these mutations are reported in single families. We have sequenced core structural and functional nuclear-encoded subunits of complex I in a cohort of 34 paediatric patients with isolated complex I deficiency, identifying pathogenic mutations in 6 patients. These included a novel homozygous NDUFS1 mutation in an Asian child with Leigh syndrome, a previously identified NDUFS8 mutation (c.236C>T, p.P79L) in a second Asian child with Leigh-like syndrome and six novel, compound heterozygous NDUFS2 mutations in four white Caucasian patients with Leigh or Leigh-like syndrome. Three of these children harboured an identical NDUFS2 mutation (c.875T>C, p.M292T), which was also identified in conjunction with a novel NDUFS2 splice site mutation (c.866+4A>G) in a fourth Caucasian child who presented to a different diagnostic centre, with microsatellite and single nucleotide polymorphism analyses indicating that this was due to an ancient common founder event. Our results confirm that NDUFS2 is a mutational hotspot in Caucasian children with isolated complex I deficiency and recommend the routine diagnostic investigation of this gene in patients with Leigh or Leigh-like phenotypes. PMID:20819849

  10. RUNX1 deficiency (familial platelet disorder with predisposition to myeloid leukemia, FPDMM).

    PubMed

    Schlegelberger, Brigitte; Heller, Paula G

    2017-04-01

    In this review, we discuss disease-causing alterations of RUNT-related transcription factor 1 (RUNX1), a master regulator of hematopoietic differentiation. Familial platelet disorder with predisposition to myeloid leukemia (FPDMM) typically presents with (1) mild to moderate thrombocytopenia with normal-sized platelets; (2) functional platelets defects leading to prolonged bleeding; and (3) an increased risk to develop myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS), acute myeloid leukemia (AML), or T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL). Hematological neoplasms in carriers of a germline RUNX1 mutation need additional secondary mutations or chromosome aberrations to develop. If a disease-causing mutation is known in the family, it is important to prevent hematopoietic stem cell transplantation from a sibling or other relative carrying the familial mutation. First experiments introducing a wild-type copy of RUNX1 into induce pluripotent stem cells (iPSC) lines from patients with FPDMM appear to demonstrate that by gene correction reversal of the phenotype may be possible. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. Molecular study of the 5 {alpha}-reductase type 2 gene in three European families with 5 {alpha}-reductase deficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Boudon, C.; Lumbroso, S.; Lobaccaro, J.M. ||

    1995-07-01

    The molecular basis of 5{alpha}-reductase (5{alpha}R) deficiency was investigated in four patients from three European families. In the French family, the first patient was raised as a female, and gonadectomy was performed before puberty. The second sibling, also raised as female, differed in that gonadal removal was performed after the onset of pubertal masculinization. The other two patients, both from Polish families, developed masculinization of external genitalia during puberty. All patients developed a female sexual identity. In all cases, no known consanguinity or family history of 5{alpha}R deficiency was reported. The genomic DNAs of the patients were sequenced after polymerase chain reaction amplification of the five exons of the 5{alpha}R type 2 gene. We found two homozygous mutations responsible for gutamine to arginine and histidine to arginine substitution in families 1 and 3, respectively. In family 2, we found a heterozygous mutation responsible for an asparagine to serine substitution at position 193. The glutamine/arginine 126 mutation in the French family was previously reported in a Creole ethnic group, and the Polish histidine/arginine 231 mutation was previously reported in a patient from Chicago, Moreover, all of the mutations created new restriction sites, which were used to determine the kindred carrier status in the three families. Because 5{alpha}R deficiency is known to be heterogenous disease in terms of clinical and biochemical expression, our data suggest that molecular biology analysis of the type 2 gene could be an essential step in diagnosing 5{alpha}R deficiency. 22 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Characterization of the Phosphofructokinase Gene Family in Rice and Its Expression Under Oxygen Deficiency Stress

    PubMed Central

    Mustroph, Angelika; Stock, Johanna; Hess, Natalia; Aldous, Sophia; Dreilich, Anika; Grimm, Bernhard

    2013-01-01

    Plants possess two types of phosphofructokinase proteins for phosphorylation of fructose-6-phosphate, the ATP-dependent phosphofructokinase (PFK) and the pyrophosphate-(PPi) dependent pyrophosphate-fructose-6-phosphate-phosphotransferase (PFP). During oxygen deficiency ATP levels in rice seedlings are severely reduced, and it is hypothesized that PPi is used as an alternative energy source for the phosphorylation of fructose-6-phosphate during glycolysis. In this study, we analyzed the expression of 15 phosphofructokinase-encoding genes in roots and aerial tissues of anoxia-tolerant rice seedlings in response to anoxic stress and compared our data with transcript profiles obtained from microarray analyses. Furthermore, the intracellular localization of rice PFK proteins was determined, and the PFK and PFP isoforms were grouped in a phylogenetic tree. Two PFK and two PFP transcripts accumulated during anoxic stress, whereas mRNA levels of four PFK and three PFP genes were decreased. The total specific activity of both PFK and PFP changed only slightly during a 24-h anoxia treatment. It is assumed that expression of different isoforms and their catalytic properties differ during normoxic and anoxic conditions and contribute to balanced glycolytic activity during the low-oxygen stress. These characterizations of phosphofructokinase genes and the comparison to other plant species allowed us to suggest candidate rice genes for adaptation to anoxic stress. PMID:23717315

  13. Molecular defects leading to human complement component C6 deficiency in an African-American family

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Z-B; Totemchokchyakarn, K; Atkinson, T P; Volanakis, J E

    1998-01-01

    Complement component C6 deficiency (C6D) was diagnosed in a 16-year-old African-American male with meningococcal meningitis. The patient's father and two brothers also had C6D, but gave no history of meningitis or other neisserial infection. By using exon-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR)/single-strand conformation polymorphism as a screening step and nucleotide sequencing of target exons, we determined that the proband was a compound heterozygote for two C6 gene mutations. The first, 1195delC located in exon 7, is a novel mutation, while the second, 1936delG in exon 12, has been described before to cause C6D in an unrelated African-American individual. Both mutations result in premature termination codons and C6 null alleles. Allele-specific PCR indicated that the proband's two brothers also inherited the 1195delC mutation from their heterozygous mother and the 1936delG mutation from their homozygous father. PMID:9472666

  14. Familial idiopathic gonadotropin deficiency not linked to gene for gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) in Brazilian kindred

    SciTech Connect

    Faraco, J.; Francke, U.; Toledo, S.

    1994-09-01

    Familial idiopathic gonadotropin deficiency (FIGD) is an autosomal recessive disorder which results in failure to develop secondary sexual characteristics. The origin is a hypothalamic defect resulting in insufficient secretion of gonadotropin-releasing hormone GnRH (also called LHRH, luteinizing hormone releasing hormone) and follicle-stimuating hormone (FSH). FIGD has been determined to be a separate entity from Kallmann syndrome which presents with hypogonadism as well as anosmia. The FIGD phenotype appears to be analogous to the phenotype of the hpg (hypogonadal) mouse. Because the hpg phenotype is the result of a structurally abnormal GnRH gene, we have studied the GnRH gene in individuals from a previously reported Brazilian FIGD family. An informative dimorphic marker in the signal peptide sequence of the GnRH gene allowed assessment of linkage between the disease gene and the GnRH locus in this pedigree. We have concluded that the GnRH locus is not linked to the disease-causing mutation in these hypogonadal individuals. Recent evidence suggests that neuropeptide Y (NPY) may play a role in the initiation of puberty. We hypothesize that mutations in NPY may result in failure to secrete GnRH. We have characterized three diallelic frequent-cutter restriction fragment length polymorphisms within the human NPY locus, and are currently using these markers to determine if the NPY gene is linked to, and possibly the site of the disease mutation in this kindred.

  15. A new Italian family with severe prekallikrein deficiency. Desmopressin-induced fibrinolysis and coagulation changes in homozygous and heterozygous members.

    PubMed

    Castaman, G; Ruggeri, M; Rodeghiero, F

    1990-01-01

    In this paper we report the case of a new Italian family with severe cross-reacting material prekallikrein deficiency (CRM-). The proposita is a 22-year-old woman referred for evaluating an extremely prolonged activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) detected during a routine screening. No clearcut bleeding history was reported. Prekallikrein antigen and activity were not measurable. The other contact-phase factors were within the normal range. Using an electromechanical coagulometer, six different commercial reagents yielded a markedly prolonged APTT (ratio greater than 2). By prolonging the incubation time up to 10 min, APTT was normalized only with reagents employing ellagic acid as activator. On the contrary, APTT remained markedly prolonged using particulate activators (i.e. micronized silica and celite). No differences were observed using either rabbit or bovine brain cephalin. APTT was also performed on a laser automated ACL instrument; in this case reagents using ellagic acid yielded only moderately prolonged APTT values (ratio 1.3 vs 1.4). The intrinsic fibrinolytic activity, as assessed by blood activator inventory test, was found to be moderately reduced (about 50% of normal) in the proposita, whereas normal values were measured in the heterozygous relatives. After infusion of 0.3 micrograms/kg 1-desamino-8-D-arginine vasopressin (DDAVP), kallikrein levels did not change in the proposita and her heterozygous relatives. A normal release of tissue-plasminogen activator, as assessed by fibrin-plate assay, was observed in all family members including the proposita.

  16. Characterization of High Density Lipoprotein Particles in Familial Apolipoprotein A-I Deficiency With Premature Coronary Atherosclerosis, Corneal Arcus and Opacification, and Tubo-Eruptive and Planar Xanthomas

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    We describe two male siblings with homozygous familial apolipoprotein (apo) A-I deficiency, markedly decreased high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol levels, undetectable plasma apoA-1, tubo-eruptive and planar xanthomas, and mild corneal arcus and opacification. Sequencing of the apoA-I gene re...

  17. Molecular analysis of the acid sphingomyelinase deficiency in a family with an intermediate form of Niemann-Pick disease.

    PubMed Central

    Ferlinz, K; Hurwitz, R; Weiler, M; Suzuki, K; Sandhoff, K; Vanier, M T

    1995-01-01

    A novel point mutation in the lysosomal acid sphingomyelinase gene has been identified in the recently reported Serbian family with a clinically and biochemically atypical intermediate form of Niemann-Pick disease. The mutation was a T1171-->G transversion resulting in substitution of glycine for normal tryptophan at amino acid residue 391. The coding sequence was otherwise normal. All of the five affected individuals were almost certainly homoallelic, and both of the two obligate heterozygotes studied also carried the same mutation. This mutation is therefore likely to be directly associated with the atypical phenotype of these patients. Expression in COS-1 cells suggested a higher residual activity than that in cultured fibroblasts. A recently developed high-affinity rabbit antihuman sphingomyelinase antibody allowed us to study for the first time the biosynthesis, processing, and targeting of a mutant sphingomyelinase by metabolic labeling of cultured fibroblasts. The mutant enzyme protein was normally synthesized, processed, and routed to the lysosome but was apparently unstable and degraded rapidly once it reached the lysosome. Together with the finding of the relatively high residual activity in COS-1 cells, we interpret our observations to mean that instability and rapid breakdown of the mature mutant enzyme protein, due to the mutation rather than direct inactivation of the catalytic activity, is the primary mechanism for the deficiency of sphingomyelinase activity in these patients. A high prevalence of this mutation in the Serbian population is likely, since the family pedigree indicates that members from four reportedly unrelated families must have contributed the same mutation. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:7762557

  18. Molecular characterisation and neuropsychological outcome of 21 patients with profound biotinidase deficiency detected by newborn screening and family studies.

    PubMed

    Möslinger, Dorothea; Mühl, Adolf; Suormala, Terttu; Baumgartner, Regula; Stöckler-Ipsiroglu, Sylvia

    2003-12-01

    Early recognition by newborn screening and oral biotin supplementation may prevent clinical and neurological deficits in profound biotinidase deficiency (residual plasma biotinidase activity <10%). In order to evaluate possible correlations of molecular characteristics, onset and continuation of treatment and clinical outcome, we investigated 21 patients detected by newborn screening and consecutive family investigations. In 18 patients found by newborn screening, the range of biotinidase activities was 0%-9% residual activity. Application of a sensitive HPLC assay enabled us to discriminate five patients with residual biotinidase activities <1%. Two patients with zero activities were homozygous for the G98:d7i3 mutation and three patients with activities <1% carried mutations G98:d7i3, R157H, and Q456H. The mutation spectrum of the remaining patients included T532M, A171T+D444H, V62M,C432W, and D444H. Evaluation of clinical and neuropsychological outcome showed that only patients with biotinidase activities <1% exhibited characteristic clinical symptoms within the first weeks of life whereas five patients with residual activities of 1.2%-4.6% did not develop clinical symptoms even when not treated until 3.5-21 years. In all patients treated with biotin within the first weeks of life, neuropsychological outcome was normal whereas abnormal in three out of five patients tested for IQ and treated after the age of 3.5 years. The clinical and molecular spectrum of profound biotinidase deficiency is heterogeneous. Early onset of symptoms is predicted by the presence of zero residual activity as measured by sensitive assays and by homozygosity for the G98:d7i3 mutation. In patients with higher residual activities and variable mutational spectrum, correlation with the onset and severity of symptoms cannot be made.

  19. Molecular genetic analysis of the F11 gene in 14 Turkish patients with factor XI deficiency: identification of novel and recurrent mutations and their inheritance within families.

    PubMed

    Colakoglu, Seyma; Bayhan, Turan; Tavil, Betül; Keskin, Ebru Yılmaz; Cakir, Volkan; Gümrük, Fatma; Çetin, Mualla; Aytaç, Selin; Berber, Ergul

    2016-10-04

    Factor XI (FXI) deficiency is an autosomal bleeding disease associated with genetic defects in the F11 gene which cause decreased FXI levels or impaired FXI function. An increasing number of mutations has been reported in the FXI mutation database, most of which affect the serine protease domain of the protein. FXI is a heterogeneous disorder associated with a variable bleeding tendency and a variety of causative F11 gene mutations. The molecular basis of FXI deficiency in 14 patients from ten unrelated families in Turkey was analysed to establish genotype-phenotype correlations and inheritance of the mutations in the patients' families. Fourteen index cases with a diagnosis of FXI deficiency and family members of these patients were enrolled into the study. The patients' F11 genes were amplified by polymerase chain reaction and subjected to direct DNA sequencing analysis. The findings were analysed statistically using bivariate correlations, Pearson's correlation coefficient and the non-parametric Mann-Whitney test. Direct DNA sequencing analysis of the F11 genes revealed that all of the 14 patients had a F11 gene mutation. Eight different mutations were identified in the apple 1, apple 2 or serine protease domains, except one which was a splice site mutation. Six of the mutations were recurrent. Two of the mutations were novel missense mutations, p.Val522Gly and p.Cys581Arg, within the catalytic domain. The p.Trp519Stop mutation was observed in two families whereas all the other mutations were specific to a single family. Identification of mutations confirmed the genetic heterogeneity of FXI deficiency. Most of the patients with mutations did not have any bleeding complications, whereas some had severe bleeding symptoms. Genetic screening for F11 gene mutations is important to decrease the mortality and morbidity rate associated with FXI deficiency, which can be life-threatening if bleeding occurs in tissues with high fibrinolytic activity.

  20. A novel mutation of the adrenocorticotropin receptor (ACTH-R) gene in a family with the syndrome of isolated glucocorticoid deficiency, but no ACTH-R abnormalities in two families with the triple A syndrome.

    PubMed

    Tsigos, C; Arai, K; Latronico, A C; DiGeorge, A M; Rapaport, R; Chrousos, G P

    1995-07-01

    Isolated glucocorticoid deficiency (IGD) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by primary adrenocortical insufficiency, usually without mineralocorticoid deficiency. Occasionally, the disorder is associated with alacrima and achalasia of the esophagus (triple A syndrome), suggesting potential heterogeneity in its etiology. Mutations in the ACTH receptor gene have been reported in several families with IGD. We have amplified and directly sequenced the entire intronless ACTH receptor gene in 1 other family with IGD and 2 families with triple A syndrome. The proband with IGD was a homozygote for an A-->G substitution, changing tyrosine 254 to cysteine in the third extracellular loop of the receptor protein, probably interfering with ligand binding. Both of her parents were heterozygotes for this mutation, which was not detected in 100 normal alleles. No mutations were identified in the entire coding area of the ACTH receptor in the 2 families with triple A syndrome, supporting the idea of a developmental or postreceptor defect in this syndrome.

  1. Polymorphism of the complement C8A and -B genes in two families with C8 beta deficiency and neisserial infections.

    PubMed

    Barba, G M; Kaufmann, T J; Schneider, P M; Rittner, C; Brai, M

    1994-07-01

    Serum samples from members of two Italian families with complement C8 beta deficiency were studied by SDS-PAGE under nonreducing conditions and by IEF. The proband of family I had suffered from two episodes of purulent meningitis and two of her uncles had suffered from only one episode, while the proband of family II had suffered from three different episodes. In contrast to previous findings, where C8 beta deficiency was cosegregating with C8A (alpha-gamma) allotype A, the proband of family II had the C8A allotype B. In addition, in one of her sons a novel variant of the C8 beta chain was detected. Studies at the DNA level in family I, using a recently described PCR system, demonstrate the presence of a C-T exchange, which creates a stop codon in exon 9 of the C8B gene, as cause for the C8 beta deficiency. The mutated allele does not carry the TaqI polymorphic restriction site located in intron 11 of the C8B gene. These findings provide evidence for multiple recombination events within the genetic region of the defective C8B gene.

  2. Familial very long chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency as a cause of neonatal sudden infant death: improved survival by prompt diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Scalais, Emmanuel; Bottu, Jean; Wanders, Ronald J A; Ferdinandusse, Sacha; Waterham, Hans R; De Meirleir, Linda

    2015-01-01

    In neonates, very long chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (VLCAD) deficiency is often characterized by cardiomyopathy, hepatic encephalopathy, or severe hypoketotic hypoglycemia, or a combination thereof. The purpose of this study was to further elucidate a familial VLCAD deficiency in three patients, two of whom died in the neonatal period. We report on a family with VLCAD deficiency. Acyl-carnitine profiles were obtained from dried blood spot and/or from oxidation of (13) C-palmitate by cultured skin fibroblasts. In the index patient, VLCAD deficiency was ascertained by enzyme activity measurement in fibroblasts and by molecular analysis of ACADVL. At 30 hr of life, the proband was diagnosed with hypoglycemia (1.77 mmol/L), rhabdomyolysis (CK: 12966 IU/L) and hyperlactacidemia (10.6 mmol/L). Acylcarnitine profile performed at 31 hr of life was consistent with VLCAD deficiency and confirmed by cultured skin fibroblast enzyme activity measurement. Molecular analysis of ACADVL revealed a homozygous splice-site mutation (1077 + 2T>C). The acyl-carnitine profile obtained from the sibling's original newborn screening cards demonstrated a similar, but less pronounced abnormal profile. In the proband, the initial metabolic crisis was controlled with 10% dextrose solution and oral riboflavin followed by specific diet (Basic-F and medium chain triglyceride (MCT). This clinical report demonstrates a familial history of repeated neonatal deaths explained by VLCAD deficiency, and the clinical evolution of the latest affected, surviving sibling. It shows that very early metabolic screening is an effective approach to avoid sudden unexpected death.

  3. Two Novel CYP11B1 Gene Mutations in Patients from Two Croatian Families with 11β-Hydroxylase Deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Dumic, Katja; Yuen, Tony; Grubic, Zorana; Kusec, Vesna; Barisic, Ingeborg; New, Maria I.

    2014-01-01

    Steroid 11β-hydroxylase deficiency (11β-OHD) is the second most common cause of congenital adrenal hyperplasia. Mutations in the CYP11B1 gene, which encodes steroid 11β-hydroxylase, are responsible for this autosomal recessive disorder. Here, we describe the molecular genetics of two previously reported male siblings in whom diagnosis of 11β-OHD has been established based on their hormonal profiles displaying high levels of 11-deoxycortisol and hyperandrogenism. Both patients are compound heterozygous for a novel p.E67fs (c.199delG) mutation in exon 1 and a p.R448H (c.1343G>A) mutation in exon 8. We also report the biochemical and molecular genetics data of one new 11β-OHD patient. Sequencing of the CYP11B1 gene reveals that this patient is compound heterozygous for a novel, previously undescribed p.R141Q (c.422G>A) mutation in exon 3 and a p.T318R (c.953C>G) mutation in exon 5. All three patients are of Croatian (Slavic) origin and there is no self-reported consanguinity in these two families. Results of our investigation confirm that most of the CYP11B1 mutations are private. In order to elucidate the molecular basis for 11β-OHD in the Croatian/Slavic population, it is imperative to perform CYP11B1 genetic analysis in more patients from this region, since so far only four patients from three unrelated Croatian families have been analyzed. PMID:24987415

  4. Ribosomal protein S19 deficiency in zebrafish leads to developmental abnormalities and defective erythropoiesis through activation of p53 protein family.

    PubMed

    Danilova, Nadia; Sakamoto, Kathleen M; Lin, Shuo

    2008-12-15

    Mutations in several ribosomal proteins (RPs) lead to Diamond-Blackfan anemia (DBA), a syndrome characterized by defective erythropoiesis, congenital anomalies, and increased frequency of cancer. RPS19 is the most frequently mutated RP in DBA. RPS19 deficiency impairs ribosomal biogenesis, but how this leads to DBA or cancer remains unknown. We have found that rps19 deficiency in ze-brafish results in hematopoietic and developmental abnormalities resembling DBA. Our data suggest that the rps19-deficient phenotype is mediated by dysregulation of deltaNp63 and p53. During gastrulation, deltaNp63 is required for specification of nonneural ectoderm and its up-regulation suppresses neural differentiation, thus contributing to brain/craniofacial defects. In rps19-deficient embryos, deltaNp63 is induced in erythroid progenitors and may contribute to blood defects. We have shown that suppression of p53 and deltaNp63 alleviates the rps19-deficient phenotypes. Mutations in other ribosomal proteins, such as S8, S11, and S18, also lead to up-regulation of p53 pathway, suggesting it is a common response to ribosomal protein deficiency. Our finding provides new insights into pathogenesis of DBA. Ribosomal stress syndromes represent a broader spectrum of human congenital diseases caused by genotoxic stress; therefore, imbalance of p53 family members may become a new target for therapeutics.

  5. Purified radiolabeled antithrombin III metabolism in three families with hereditary AT III deficiency: application of a three-compartment model

    SciTech Connect

    Knot, E.A.; de Jong, E.; ten Cate, J.W.; Iburg, A.H.; Henny, C.P.; Bruin, T.; Stibbe, J.

    1986-01-01

    Purified human radioiodinated antithrombin III (125I-AT III) was used to study its metabolism in six members from three different families with a known hereditary AT III deficiency. Six healthy volunteers served as a control group. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and crossed immunoelectrophoresis (CIE) showed the purified AT III to be homogeneous. Amino acid analysis of the protein revealed a composition identical to a highly purified internal standard. The specific activity was 5.6 U/mg. Analysis of plasma radioactivity data was performed, using a three-compartment model. Neither plasma disappearance half-times nor fractional catabolic rate constants differed significantly between patients and control subjects. The mean absolute catabolic rate in the patient group was significantly lower than that of the control group at 2.57 +/- 0.44 and 4.46 +/- 0.80 mg/kg/day, respectively. In addition, the mean patient alpha 1-phase, flux ratio (k1,2 and k2,1) of the second compartment alpha 2-phase and influx (k3,1) of the third compartment were significantly reduced as compared with control values. It has been tentatively concluded that the observed reduction in the second compartment may be caused by a decrease in endothelial cell surface binding.

  6. Genotyping of a family with a novel deleterious DPYD mutation supports the pretherapeutic screening of DPD deficiency with dihydrouracil/uracil ratio.

    PubMed

    Thomas, F; Hennebelle, I; Delmas, C; Lochon, I; Dhelens, C; Garnier Tixidre, C; Bonadona, A; Penel, N; Goncalves, A; Delord, J P; Toulas, C; Chatelut, E

    2016-02-01

    Despite the growing evidence that dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase deficiency (DPD, encoded by the DPYD gene) confers a higher risk of developing severe toxicity, most patients are not screened for DPD deficiency before fluoropyrimidine treatment. We report here the genetic and phenotypic analyses of DPD in a family related to a patient who died after a first cycle of 5-fluorouracil and in 15 additional retrospective patients having a partial DPD deficiency (as measured by plasma dihydrouracil/uracil ratio). The patient with lethal toxicity was found to be a compound heterozygote for two DPYD mutations: a novel 8-bp duplication (c.168_175dupGAATAATT, p.Phe59Ter) and c.1679T>G (Ile560Ser). The patient's dihydrouracil/uracil ratio indicates complete DPD deficiency. The novel mutation was found in two members of the patient's family. Deleterious DPYD mutations were identified in 9 out of the 15 patients. The relationship between genotype and dihydrouracil/uracil values in the 22 patients of the present study was significant (P = 0.01).

  7. Molecular basis of severe factor XI deficiency in seven families from the west of France. Seven novel mutations, including an ancient Q88X mutation.

    PubMed

    Quélin, F; Trossaërt, M; Sigaud, M; Mazancourt, P D E; Fressinaud, E

    2004-01-01

    Inherited factor (F)XI deficiency is a rare disorder in the general population, though it is commonly found in individuals of Ashkenazi Jewish ancestry. In particular, two mutations--a stop mutation (type II) and a missense mutation (type III)--which are responsible for FXI deficiency, predominate. The bleeding tendency associated with plasma FXI deficiency in patients is variable, with approximately 50% of patients exhibiting excessive post-traumatic or postsurgical bleeding. In this study, we identified the molecular basis of FXI deficiency in 10 patients belonging to six unrelated families of the Nantes area in France and one family of Lebanese origin. As in Ashkenazi Jewish or in French Basque patients, we have identified a new ancient mutation in exon 4 resulting in Q88X, specific to patients from Nantes, that can result in a severely truncated polypeptide. Homozygous Q88X was found in a severely affected patient with an inhibitor to FXI and in three other unrelated families, either as homozygous, heterozygous or compound heterozygous states. Other identified mutations are two nonsense mutations in the FXI gene, in exon 7 and 15, resulting in R210X and C581X, respectively, which were identified in three families. A novel insertion in exon 3 (nucleotide 137 + G), which causes a stop codon, was characterized. Finally, sequence analysis of all 15 exons of the FXI gene revealed three missense mutations resulting in G336R and G350A (exon 10) and T575M (exon 15). Two mutations (T575M and G350A) with discrepant antigen and functional values are particularly interesting because most of the described mutations are associated with the absence of secreted protein.

  8. Distinct and synergistic roles of FcγRIIB deficiency and 129 strain-derived SLAM family proteins in the development of spontaneous germinal centers and autoimmunity.

    PubMed

    Soni, Chetna; Domeier, Phillip P; Wong, Eric B; Shwetank; Khan, Tahsin N; Elias, Melinda J; Schell, Stephanie L; Lukacher, Aron E; Cooper, Timothy K; Rahman, Ziaur S M

    2015-09-01

    The inhibitory IgG Fc receptor (FcγRIIB) deficiency and 129 strain-derived signaling lymphocyte activation molecules (129-SLAMs) are proposed to contribute to the lupus phenotype in FcγRIIB-deficient mice generated using 129 ES cells and backcrossed to C57BL/6 mice (B6.129.RIIBKO). In this study, we examine the individual contributions and the cellular mechanisms by which FcγRIIB deficiency and 129-derived SLAM family genes promote dysregulated spontaneous germinal center (Spt-GC) B cell and follicular helper T cell (Tfh) responses in B6.129.RIIBKO mice. We find that B6 mice congenic for the 129-derived SLAM locus (B6.129-SLAM) and B6 mice deficient in FcγRIIB (B6.RIIBKO) have increased Spt-GC B cell responses compared to B6 controls but significantly lower than B6.129.RIIBKO mice. These data indicate that both FcγRIIB deficiency and 129-SLAMs contribute to elevated Spt-GC B cell responses in B6.129.RIIBKO mice. However, only 129-SLAMs contribute significantly to augmented Tfh responses in B6.129.RIIBKO mice, and do so by a combination of T cell-dependent effects and enhanced B cell and DC-dependent antigen presentation to T cells. Elevated Spt-GC B cell responses in mice with FcγRIIB deficiency and polymorphic 129-SLAMs were associated with elevated metabolic activity, improved GC B cell survival and increased differentiation of naïve B cells into GC B cell phenotype. Our data suggest that the interplay between 129-SLAM expression on B cells, T cells and DCs is central to the alteration of the GC tolerance checkpoint, and that deficiency of FcγRIIB on B cells is necessary to augment Spt-GC responses, pathogenic autoantibodies, and lupus disease.

  9. High prevalence of mismatch repair deficiency in prostate cancers diagnosed in mismatch repair gene mutation carriers from the colon cancer family registry

    PubMed Central

    Rosty, Christophe; Walsh, Michael D.; Lindor, Noralane M.; Thibodeau, Stephen N.; Mundt, Erin; Gallinger, Steven; Aronson, Melyssa; Pollett, Aaron; Baron, John A.; Pearson, Sally; Clendenning, Mark; Walters, Rhiannon J.; Nagler, Belinda N.; Crawford, William J.; Young, Joanne P.; Winship, Ingrid; Win, Aung Ko; Hopper, John L.; Jenkins, Mark A.

    2015-01-01

    The question of whether prostate cancer is part of the Lynch syndrome spectrum of tumors is unresolved. We investigated the mismatch repair (MMR) status and pathologic features of prostate cancers diagnosed in MMR gene mutation carriers. Prostate cancers (mean age at diagnosis = 62 ± SD = 8 years) from 32 MMR mutation carriers (23 MSH2, 5 MLH1 and 4 MSH6) enrolled in the Australasian, Mayo Clinic and Ontario sites of the Colon Cancer Family Registry were examined for clinico-pathologic features and MMR-deficiency (immunohistochemical loss of MMR protein expression and high levels of microsatellite instability; MSI-H). Tumor MMR-deficiency was observed for 22 cases [69 %; 95 % confidence interval (CI) 50–83 %], with the highest prevalence of MMR-deficiency in tumors from MSH2 mutation carriers (19/23, 83 %) compared with MLH1 and MSH6 carriers combined (3/9, 33 %; p = 0.01). MMR-deficient tumors had increased levels of tumor infiltrating lymphocytes compared with tumors without MMR-deficiency (p = 0.04). Under the assumption that tumour MMR-deficiency occurred only because the cancer was caused by the germline mutation, mutation carriers are at 3.2-fold (95 % CI 2.0–6.3) increased risk of prostate cancer, and when assessed by gene, the relative risk was greatest for MSH2 carriers (5.8, 95 % CI 2.6–20.9). Prostate cancer was the first or only diagnosed tumor in 37 % of carriers. MMR gene mutation carriers have at least a twofold or greater increased risk of developing MMR-deficient prostate cancer where the risk is highest for MSH2 mutation carriers. MMR IHC screening of prostate cancers will aid in identifying MMR gene mutation carriers. PMID:25117503

  10. Von Willebrand's disease: a novel mutation, P1824H and the incidence of R1205H defect among families with dominant quantitative von Willebrand factor deficiency.

    PubMed

    Casaña, Pilar; Cabrera, Noelia; Haya, Saturnino; Cid, Ana Rosa; Aznar, José Antonio

    2006-08-01

    To date, few mutations associated with a dominant quantitative deficiency of von Willebrand factor (VWF) and a high penetrance have been reported. This phenotype was confirmed in seven unrelated families of several patients diagnosed with von Willebrand's disease out of 70 who requested genetic studies of the VWF gene. The mutations linked to this type were identified: R1205H in five families; T1156M in one family; and the new P1824H alteration in one other family. The R1205H mutation linked to the different haplotypes might well be frequent among this variant. The P1824H in the A3 domain is associated with very low VWF levels and with a moderate-to-severe bleeding tendency, unlike the other mutations reported in this domain.

  11. Effects of IKAP/hELP1 Deficiency on Gene Expression in Differentiating Neuroblastoma Cells: Implications for Familial Dysautonomia

    PubMed Central

    Cohen-Kupiec, Rachel; Pasmanik-Chor, Metsada; Oron-Karni, Varda; Weil, Miguel

    2011-01-01

    Familial dysautonomia (FD) is a developmental neuropathy of the sensory and autonomous nervous systems. The IKBKAP gene, encoding the IKAP/hELP1 subunit of the RNA polymerase II Elongator complex is mutated in FD patients, leading to a tissue-specific mis-splicing of the gene and to the absence of the protein in neuronal tissues. To elucidate the function of IKAP/hELP1 in the development of neuronal cells, we have downregulated IKBKAP expression in SHSY5Y cells, a neuroblastoma cell line of a neural crest origin. We have previously shown that these cells exhibit abnormal cell adhesion when allowed to differentiate under defined culture conditions on laminin substratum. Here, we report results of a microarray expression analysis of IKAP/hELP1 downregulated cells that were grown on laminin under differentiation or non-differentiation growth conditions. It is shown that under non-differentiation growth conditions, IKAP/hELP1 downregulation affects genes important for early developmental stages of the nervous system, including cell signaling, cell adhesion and neural crest migration. IKAP/hELP1 downregulation during differentiation affects the expression of genes that play a role in late neuronal development, in axonal projection and synapse formation and function. We also show that IKAP/hELP1 deficiency affects the expression of genes involved in calcium metabolism before and after differentiation of the neuroblastoma cells. Hence, our data support IKAP/hELP1 importance in the development and function of neuronal cells and contribute to the understanding of the FD phenotype. PMID:21559466

  12. Effects of IKAP/hELP1 deficiency on gene expression in differentiating neuroblastoma cells: implications for familial dysautonomia.

    PubMed

    Cohen-Kupiec, Rachel; Pasmanik-Chor, Metsada; Oron-Karni, Varda; Weil, Miguel

    2011-04-29

    Familial dysautonomia (FD) is a developmental neuropathy of the sensory and autonomous nervous systems. The IKBKAP gene, encoding the IKAP/hELP1 subunit of the RNA polymerase II Elongator complex is mutated in FD patients, leading to a tissue-specific mis-splicing of the gene and to the absence of the protein in neuronal tissues. To elucidate the function of IKAP/hELP1 in the development of neuronal cells, we have downregulated IKBKAP expression in SHSY5Y cells, a neuroblastoma cell line of a neural crest origin. We have previously shown that these cells exhibit abnormal cell adhesion when allowed to differentiate under defined culture conditions on laminin substratum. Here, we report results of a microarray expression analysis of IKAP/hELP1 downregulated cells that were grown on laminin under differentiation or non-differentiation growth conditions. It is shown that under non-differentiation growth conditions, IKAP/hELP1 downregulation affects genes important for early developmental stages of the nervous system, including cell signaling, cell adhesion and neural crest migration. IKAP/hELP1 downregulation during differentiation affects the expression of genes that play a role in late neuronal development, in axonal projection and synapse formation and function. We also show that IKAP/hELP1 deficiency affects the expression of genes involved in calcium metabolism before and after differentiation of the neuroblastoma cells. Hence, our data support IKAP/hELP1 importance in the development and function of neuronal cells and contribute to the understanding of the FD phenotype.

  13. Carbonic anhydrase II deficiency in 12 families with the autosomal recessive syndrome of osteopetrosis with renal tubular acidosis and cerebral calcification.

    PubMed

    Sly, W S; Whyte, M P; Sundaram, V; Tashian, R E; Hewett-Emmett, D; Guibaud, P; Vainsel, M; Baluarte, H J; Gruskin, A; Al-Mosawi, M

    1985-07-18

    Osteopetrosis with renal tubular acidosis and cerebral calcification was identified as a recessively inherited syndrome in 1972. In 1983, we reported a deficiency of carbonic anhydrase II, one of the isozymes of carbonic anhydrase, in three sisters with this disorder. We now describe our study of 18 similarly affected patients with this syndrome in 11 unrelated families of different geographic and ethnic origins. Virtual absence of the carbonic anhydrase II peak on high-performance liquid chromatography, of the esterase and carbon dioxide hydratase activities of carbonic anhydrase II, and of immunoprecipitable isozyme II was demonstrated on extracts of erythrocyte hemolysates from all patients studied. Reduced levels of isozyme II were found in obligate heterozygotes. These observations demonstrate the generality of the findings that we reported earlier in one family and provide further evidence that a deficiency of carbonic anhydrase II is the enzymatic basis for the autosomal recessive syndrome of osteopetrosis with renal tubular acidosis and cerebral calcification. We also summarize the clinical findings in these families, propose mechanisms by which a deficiency of carbonic anhydrase II could produce this metabolic disorder of bone, kidney, and brain, and discuss the clinical evidence for genetic heterogeneity in patients from different kindreds with this inborn error of metabolism.

  14. Familial lipoprotein lipase deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... Coronary artery disease References Hegele RA. Lipoprotein and lipid metabolism. In: Rimoin D, Korf B, eds. Emery ... Semenkovich CF, Goldberg AC, Goldberg IJ. Disorders of lipid metabolism. In: Melmed S, Polonsky KS, Larsen PR, Kronenberg ...

  15. Familial lecithin: cholesterol acyltransferase deficiency complicated with unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia and peripheral neuropathy. The first reported cases in the Far East.

    PubMed

    Iwamoto, A; Naito, C; Teramoto, T; Kato, H; Kako, M; Kariya, T; Shimizu, T; Oka, H; Oda, T

    1978-01-01

    Three Japanese patients with lecithin: cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) deficiency, the offspring of a consanguineous marriage, are described. In addition to the characteristic clinical and laboratory findings of the disease, our patients had hitherto unreported manifestations, namely unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia, peripheral neuropathy and marked hypocholesterolemia. Although the mechanism of the unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia is not clear, the role of impaired hepatic bilirubin uridine-diphosphate-glucuronyl transferase activity combined with another unknown factor(s) was postulated. Non-random assortment was observed between LCAT deficiency and haptoglobin types, as previously reported. The discovery of Japanese patients with LCAT deficiency indicates that the distribution of this hereditary metabolic disorder is not confined to the Western hemisphere.

  16. To control and to be controlled: understanding the Arabidopsis SLIM1 function in sulfur deficiency through comprehensive investigation of the EIL protein family

    PubMed Central

    Wawrzyńska, Anna; Sirko, Agnieszka

    2014-01-01

    Sulfur limitation 1 (SLIM1), a member of the EIN3-like (EIL) family of transcription factors in Arabidopsis, is the regulator of many sulfur deficiency responsive genes. Among the five other proteins of the family, three regulate ethylene (ET) responses and two have unassigned functions. Contrary to the well-defined ET signaling, the pathway leading from sensing sulfate status to the activation of its acquisition via SLIM1 is completely unknown. SLIM1 binds to the 20 nt-long specific UPE-box sequence; however, it also recognizes the shorter TEIL sequence, unique for the whole EIL family. SLIM1 takes part in the upregulation and downregulation of various sulfur metabolism genes, but also it controls the degradation of glucosinolates under sulfur deficient conditions. Besides facilitating the increased flux through the sulfate assimilation pathway, SLIM1 induces microRNA395, specifically targeting ATP sulfurylases and a low-affinity sulfate transporter, SULTR2;1, thus affecting sulfate translocation to the shoot. Here, we briefly review the identification, structural characteristics, and molecular function of SLIM1 from the perspective of the whole EIL protein family. PMID:25374579

  17. Molecular genetic analysis of factor XI deficiency: identification of five novel gene alterations and the origin of type II mutation in Portuguese families.

    PubMed

    Ventura, C; Santos, A I; Tavares, A; Gago, T; Lavinha, J; McVey, J H; David, D

    2000-11-01

    Coagulation factor XI (FXI) deficiency is an inherited autosomal recessive mild bleeding disorder. In this study, we report the molecular genetic analysis of FXI deficiency in six unrelated families of Portuguese origin. The Jewish type II mutation was found in two families, of seemingly Portuguese origin. Haplotype analysis in these families demonstrated that this mutation is of Jewish origin. In the remaining families, five novel FXI mutations have been identified. Two of these mutations (FXI IVS K -10T-->A and FXI 1026G-->T, cd 324) affect the FXI pre-mRNA splicing. A further two (FXI 307 ins AAGCAAT, cd 85 and FXI 1072 del A, cd 340) introduce frameshifts leading to premature termination codons. The FXI splicing mutation, 1026G-->T cd 324, was found in compound heterozygosity with missense mutation FXI K518N. Analysis of the FXI mRNA from the latter genotype demonstrated new donor splice site usage. All reported mutations most likely result in functional null-alleles. In addition, three novel polymorphisms have been identified: at nt -138 in intron A, at codon D125 in exon 5 and at codon T249 in exon 8.

  18. To control and to be controlled: understanding the Arabidopsis SLIM1 function in sulfur deficiency through comprehensive investigation of the EIL protein family.

    PubMed

    Wawrzyńska, Anna; Sirko, Agnieszka

    2014-01-01

    Sulfur limitation 1 (SLIM1), a member of the EIN3-like (EIL) family of transcription factors in Arabidopsis, is the regulator of many sulfur deficiency responsive genes. Among the five other proteins of the family, three regulate ethylene (ET) responses and two have unassigned functions. Contrary to the well-defined ET signaling, the pathway leading from sensing sulfate status to the activation of its acquisition via SLIM1 is completely unknown. SLIM1 binds to the 20 nt-long specific UPE-box sequence; however, it also recognizes the shorter TEIL sequence, unique for the whole EIL family. SLIM1 takes part in the upregulation and downregulation of various sulfur metabolism genes, but also it controls the degradation of glucosinolates under sulfur deficient conditions. Besides facilitating the increased flux through the sulfate assimilation pathway, SLIM1 induces microRNA395, specifically targeting ATP sulfurylases and a low-affinity sulfate transporter, SULTR2;1, thus affecting sulfate translocation to the shoot. Here, we briefly review the identification, structural characteristics, and molecular function of SLIM1 from the perspective of the whole EIL protein family.

  19. Properdin deficiency in a large Swiss family: identification of a stop codon in the properdin gene, and association of meningococcal disease with lack of the IgG2 allotype marker G2m(n)

    PubMed Central

    Späth, P J; Sjöholm, A G; Nordin Fredrikson, G; Misiano, G; Scherz, R; Schaad, U B; Uhring-Lambert, B; Hauptmann, G; Westberg, J; Uhlén, M; Wadelius, C; Truedsson, L

    1999-01-01

    Properdin deficiency was demonstrated in three generations of a large Swiss family. The concentration of circulating properdin in affected males was < 0.1 mg/l, indicating properdin deficiency type I. Two of the nine properdin-deficient males in the family had survived meningitis caused by Neisseria meningitidis serogroup B without sequel. Two point mutations were identified when the properdin gene in one of the properdin-deficient individuals was investigated by direct solid-phase sequencing of overlapping polymerase chain reaction (PCR) products. The critical mutation was found at base 2061 in exon 4, where the change of cytosine to thymine had generated the stop codon TGA. The other mutation was positioned at base 827 in intron 3. The stop codon in exon 4 was also demonstrated by standard dideoxy sequencing in three additional family members. The question was asked if genetic factors such as partial C4 deficiency and IgG allotypes could have influenced susceptibility to meningococcal disease in the family. No relationship was found between C4 phenotypes and infection. Interestingly, the two properdin-deficient males with meningitis differed from the other properdin-deficient persons in that they lacked the G2m(n) allotype, a marker known to be associated with poor antibody responses to T-independent antigens. This implies that the consequences of properdin deficiency might partly be determined by independent factors influencing the immune response. PMID:10540191

  20. Asymptomatic and late-onset ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency caused by a A208T mutation: Clinical, biochemical and DNA analyses in a four-generation family

    SciTech Connect

    Ausems, M.G.E.M.; Bakker, E.; Kneppers, A.L.J.

    1997-01-20

    We describe a 4-generation family in which a previously healthy 10-year-old boy died of late-onset ornithine transcarbamylase (OTC) deficiency. Pedigree analysis and allopurinol loading tests in female relatives were not informative. A missense mutation (A208T) in the OTC gene was detected in the deceased patient and in several clinically healthy male and female relatives, the oldest male being 97 years old. OTC deficiency was established in autopsy liver tissue of the propositus and liver biopsy samples of his sister, mother, and a maternal uncle. The males had 4% and 6% residual activity, respectively, the females 58% and 67%, respectively. The observed relation between the mutation and the decreased OTC activity in liver tissue of these subjects suggests that the mutation is a deleterious one. Late-onset, {open_quotes}mild{close_quotes} OTC deficiency can have a fatal or a favorable outcome. The disease can segregate undetected in families. 16 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  1. Ataxia with Vitamin E Deficiency: Refinement of Genetic Localization and Analysis of Linkage Disequilibrium by Using New Markers in 14 Families

    PubMed Central

    Doerflinger, Nathalie; Linder, Catherine; Ouahchi, Karim; Gyapay, Gabor; Weissenbach, Jean; Le Paslier, Denis; Rigault, Philippe; Belal, Samir; Hamida, Christiane Ben; Hentati, Faycal; Hamida, Mongi Ben; Pandolfo, Massimo; DiDonato, Stephano; Sokol, Ronald; Kayden, Herbert; Landrieu, Pierre; Durr, Alexandra; Brice, Alexis; Goutières, Françoise; Kohlschütter, Alfried; Sabouraud, Pascal; Benomar, Ali; Yahyaoui, Mohamed; Mandel, Jean-Louis; Koenig, Michel

    1995-01-01

    Ataxia with vitamin E deficiency (AVED) is an autosomal recessive disease characterized clinically by neurological symptoms with often striking resemblance to those of Friedreich ataxia. This disorder has been reported previously as familial isolated vitamin E deficiency. We have mapped recently the AVED locus to a 5-cM confidence interval on chromosome 8q by homozygosity mapping in six Mediterranean families. We have now analyzed six new and two previously described families and demonstrate genetic homogeneity despite important clinical variability and wide geographic origins. Analysis of nine new tightly linked microsatellite markers, including four characterized in this study, revealed a predominant but not unique mutation in northern African populations, where this condition is more frequent. Haplotype analysis but also classical recombinations allowed us to refine the AVED position to a 1-cM interval. A YAC contig over this interval was constructed from marker STSs and YAC fingerprint data, in order to facilitate the search of the AVED gene. PMID:7726167

  2. Analysis of families with common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) and IgA deficiency suggests linkage of CVID to chromosome 16q.

    PubMed

    Schäffer, Alejandro A; Pfannstiel, Jessica; Webster, A David B; Plebani, Alessandro; Hammarström, Lennart; Grimbacher, Bodo

    2006-02-01

    Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) is an antibody deficiency syndrome that often co-occurs in families with selective IgA deficiency (IgAD). Vorechovský et al. (Am J Hum Genet 64:1096-1109, 1999; J Immunol 164:4408-4416, 2000) ascertained and genotyped 101 multiplex IgAD families and used them to identify and fine map the IGAD1 locus on chromosome 6p. We analyzed the original genotype data in a subset of families with at least one case of CVID and present evidence of a CVID locus on chromosome 16q with autosomal dominant inheritance. The peak (model-based) LOD score for the best marker D16S518 is 2.83 at theta=0.07, and a 4-marker LOD score under heterogeneity peaks at 3.00 with alpha=0.68. The (model-free) NPL score using the same markers peaks at the same location with a value of 3.38 (P=0.0001).

  3. Ataxia with vitamin E deficiency: refinement of genetic localization and analysis of linkage disequilibrium by using new markers in 14 families

    SciTech Connect

    Doerflinger, N.; Linder, C.; Ouahchi, K.; Mandel, J.L.; Koenig, M.; Gyapay, G.; Weissenbach, J.; Le Paslier, D.; Rigault, P.; Landrieu, P.

    1995-05-01

    Ataxia with vitamin E deficiency (AVED) is an autosomal recessive disease characterized clinically by neurological symptoms with often striking resemblance to those of Friedreich ataxia. This disorder has been reported previously as familial isolated vitamin E deficiency. We have mapped recently the AVED locus to a 5-cM confidence interval on chromosome 8q by homozygosity mapping in six Mediterranean families. We have now analyzed six new and two previously described families and demonstrate genetic homgeneity despite important clinical variability and wide geographic origins. Analysis of nine new tightly linked microsatellite markers, including four characterized in this study, revealed a predominant but not unique mutation in northern African populations, where this condition is more frequent. Haplotype analysis but also classical recombinations allowed us to refine the AVED position to a 1-cM interval. A YAC contig over this interval was constructed from marker STSs and YAC fingerprint data, in order to facilitate the search of the AVED gene. 28 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

  4. A common ancestral mutation (C128X) occurring in 11 non-Jewish families from the UK with factor XI deficiency.

    PubMed

    Bolton-Maggs, P H B; Peretz, H; Butler, R; Mountford, R; Keeney, S; Zacharski, L; Zivelin, A; Seligsohn, U

    2004-06-01

    Factor XI (FXI) deficiency is a mild bleeding disorder that is particularly common in Ashkenazi Jews, but has been reported in all populations. In Jews, two FXI gene (F11) mutations (a stop codon in exon 5, E117X, type II, and a point mutation in exon 9, F283L, type III) are particularly common, but in other populations a variety of different mutations have been described. In the Basque region of France one mutation, C38R in exon 3, was found in eight of 12 families studied, haplotype analysis suggesting a founder effect. In the course of screening 78 unrelated individuals (including 15 Jewish and 12 Asian) we have found 10 Caucasian non-Jewish patients with the mutation C128X in exon 5. Individuals were investigated because of a personal or family history of bleeding, or finding a prolonged activated partial thromboplastin time. Individuals negative for the type II and type III mutations were screened by a combination of SSCP and heteroduplex analysis. The C128X mutation was found in 10 families (one previously described). Among three individuals with severe FXI deficiency, one was homozygous for the C128X mutation, and two were compound heterozygotes for the C128X and another mutation; other individuals were carriers of the C128X mutation. This is a nonsense mutation producing a truncated protein; individuals have FXI antigen levels concordant with FXI coagulant activity. Haplotype analysis of 11 families, including a further kindred previously reported from the USA, but which originally came from the UK (in which the index patient was homozygous for C128X), suggests a founder effect.

  5. A novel mutation of the adrenocorticotropin receptor (ACTH-R) gene in a family with the syndrome of isolated glucocorticoid deficiency, but no ACTH-R abnormalities in two families with the triple A syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Tsigos, C.; Arai, K.; Latronico, A.C. ||

    1995-07-01

    Isolated glucocorticoid deficiency (IGD) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by primary adrenocortical insufficiency, usually without mineralocorticoid deficiency. Occasionally, the disorder is associated with alacrima and achalasia of the esophagus (triple A syndrome), suggesting potential heterogeneity in its etiology. Mutations in the ACTH receptor gene have been reported in several families with IGD. We have amplified and directly sequenced the entire intronless ACTH receptor gene in 1 other family with IGD and 2 famlies with triple A syndrome. The proband with IGD was a homozygote for an A {r_arrow}G substitution, changing tyrosine 254 to cysteine in the third extracellular loop of the receptor protein, probably interfering with ligand binding. Both of her parents were heterozygotes for this mutation, which was not detected in 100 normal alleles. No mutations were identified in the entire coding area of the ACTH receptor in the 2 families with triple A syndrome, supporting the idea of a developmental or postreceptor defect in this syndrome. 19 refs., 1 fig.

  6. A Pilot Study Evaluating Therapeutic Response of Different Dosage of Oral Glucocorticoid in Two Children with Familial Glucocorticoid Deficiency Presenting with Diffuse Mucocutaneous Hyperpigmentation

    PubMed Central

    Sarkar, Uttam Kumar; Sarma, Nilendu; Debbarma, Sambreeta; Mandal, Asok Kumar; Bala, Ashok Kumar

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Familial glucocorticoid deficiency (FGD) is a rare autosomal recessive potentially life-threatening condition, characterized by glucocorticoid deficiency, preserved aldosterone/renin secretion, and secondary rise in plasma adrenocorticotropic hormone level. This occurs due to either mutation in adrenocorticotropic receptor (25%, FGD Type-1) or in the MC2 receptor accessory protein (15%–20%). However, in about 50% patients, no identifiable mutations have been identified. Clinically, it manifests with weakness, fatigue, weight loss, anorexia, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain, hypoglycemia, and hypothermia. Progressive mucocutaneous pigmentation is a conspicuous presentation. Repeated hypoglycemia may result in seizure, persistent neurological, severe mental disability, and even sudden death. Standard therapy is oral glucocorticoids (10–15 mg/m2). Patients and Results: Two familial cases of FGD were put on progressively increasing doses of oral glucocorticoids (10 mg, 15 mg, and 20 mg/m2/day, each for 6 weeks) to achieve the best response without any adverse effects. One patient had excellent improvement with 15 mg/m2/day, and another required 20 mg/m2/day. The latter patient had excellent overall improvement with only moderate improvement in pigmentation. Conclusion: Glucocorticoids replacement with optimum dose is necessary in FGD to promote physical and neurological growth and to prevent adrenal crises, hypotension, hypoglycemia, and sudden death. Higher dose than mentioned in literature (15 mg/m2/day) may be required in selected cases. Mucocutaneous pigmentation may require even higher dose than we used. More studies are required. PMID:28400640

  7. Depletion in LpA-I:A-II particles enhances HDL-mediated endothelial protection in familial LCAT deficiency.

    PubMed

    Gomaraschi, Monica; Ossoli, Alice; Castelnuovo, Samuela; Simonelli, Sara; Pavanello, Chiara; Balzarotti, Gloria; Arca, Marcello; Di Costanzo, Alessia; Sampietro, Tiziana; Vaudo, Gaetano; Baldassarre, Damiano; Veglia, Fabrizio; Franceschini, Guido; Calabresi, Laura

    2017-05-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the vasoprotective effects of HDL isolated from carriers of LCAT deficiency, which are characterized by a selective depletion of LpA-I:A-II particles and predominance of preβ migrating HDL. HDLs were isolated from LCAT-deficient carriers and tested in vitro for their capacity to promote NO production and to inhibit vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) expression in cultured endothelial cells. HDLs from carriers were more effective than control HDLs in promoting eNOS activation with a gene-dose-dependent effect (PTrend = 0.048). As a consequence, NO production induced by HDL from carriers was significantly higher than that promoted by control HDL (1.63 ± 0.24-fold vs. 1.34 ± 0.07-fold, P = 0.031). HDLs from carriers were also more effective than control HDLs in inhibiting the expression of VCAM-1 (homozygotes, 65.0 ± 8.6%; heterozygotes, 53.1 ± 7.2%; controls, 44.4 ± 4.1%; PTrend = 0.0003). The increased efficiency of carrier HDL was likely due to the depletion in LpA-I:A-II particles. The in vitro findings might explain why carriers of LCAT deficiency showed flow-mediated vasodilation and plasma-soluble cell adhesion molecule concentrations comparable to controls, despite low HDL-cholesterol levels. These results indicate that selective depletion of apoA-II-containing HDL, as observed in carriers of LCAT deficiency, leads to an increased capacity of HDL to stimulate endothelial NO production, suggesting that changes in HDL apolipoprotein composition may be the target of therapeutic interventions designed to improve HDL functionality. Copyright © 2017 by the American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  8. Placental steroid deficiency: association with arylsulfatase A deficiency.

    PubMed Central

    Vidgoff, J; Buxman, M M; Shapiro, L J; Dimond, R L; Wilson, T G; Hepburn, C A; Tabei, T; Heinrichs, W R

    1982-01-01

    A family with an obstetric history consistent with placental sulfatase deficiency has X-linked ichthyosis. Steroid sulfatase deficiency was confirmed in placenta, leukocytes, and cultured skin fibroblasts of affected males; arylsulfatase A diminution was also observed in these tissues of both affected males and 2 generations of related females. No symptoms of metachromatic leukodystrophy are present in any family members. In this family, placental sulfatase deficiency, and arylsulfatase A pseudodeficiency are nonallelic. PMID:6123259

  9. Factor VII deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... if one or more of these factors are missing or are not functioning like they should. Factor VII is one such coagulation factor. Factor VII deficiency runs in families (inherited) and is very rare. Both parents must ...

  10. Factor II deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... if one or more of these factors are missing or are not functioning like they should. Factor II is one such coagulation factor. Factor II deficiency runs in families (inherited) and is very rare. Both parents must ...

  11. Genome-wide investigation and expression analysis suggest diverse roles and genetic redundancy of Pht1 family genes in response to Pi deficiency in tomato

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Phosphorus (P) deficiency is one of the major nutrient stresses limiting plant growth. The uptake of P by plants is well considered to be mediated by a number of high-affinity phosphate (Pi) transporters belonging to the Pht1 family. Although the Pht1 genes have been extensively identified in several plant species, there is a lack of systematic analysis of the Pht1 gene family in any solanaceous species thus far. Results Here, we report the genome-wide analysis, phylogenetic evolution and expression patterns of the Pht1 genes in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum). A total of eight putative Pht1 genes (LePT1 to 8), distributed on three chromosomes (3, 6 and 9), were identified through extensive searches of the released tomato genome sequence database. Chromosomal organization and phylogenetic tree analysis suggested that the six Pht1 paralogues, LePT1/3, LePT2/6 and LePT4/5, which were assigned into three pairs with very close physical distance, were produced from recent tandem duplication events that occurred after Solanaceae splitting with other dicot families. Expression analysis of these Pht1 members revealed that except LePT8, of which the transcript was undetectable in all tissues, the other seven paralogues showed differential but partial-overlapping expression patterns. LePT1 and LePT7 were ubiquitously expressed in all tissues examined, and their transcripts were induced abundantly in response to Pi starvation; LePT2 and LePT6, the two paralogues harboring identical coding sequence, were predominantly expressed in Pi-deficient roots; LePT3, LePT4 and LePT5 were strongly activated in the roots colonized by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi under low-P, but not high-P condition. Histochemical analysis revealed that a 1250-bp LePT3 promoter fragment and a 471-bp LePT5 promoter fragment containing the two elements, MYCS and P1BS, were sufficient to direct the GUS reporter expression in mycorrhizal roots and were limited to distinct cells harboring AM fungal

  12. Fine mapping of the gene for carbohydrate-deficient glycoprotein syndrome, type I (CDG1): Linkage disequilibrium and founder effect in Scandinavian families

    SciTech Connect

    Bjursell, C.; Wahlstroem, J.; Martinsson, T.

    1997-02-01

    Carbohydrate-deficient glycoprotein syndrome type I (CDG I) is characterized clinically by severe nervous system involvement and biochemically by defects in the carbohydrate residues in a number of serum glycoproteins. The CDG1 gene was recently localized by us to a 13-cM interval in chromosome region 16p13. In this study 44 CDG I families from nine countries were analyzed with available markers in a region ranging from marker D16S495 to D16S497, and haplotype and linkage disequilibrium analyses were performed. One specific haplotype was found to be markedly overrepresented in CDG I patients from a geographically distinct region in Scandinavia, strongly indicating that CDG I families in this region share the same ancestral CDG1 mutation. Furthermore, analysis of the extent of the common haplotype in these families indicates that the CDG1 gene is located in the region defined by markers D16S513-AFMa284wd5-Dl6S768-Dl6S406-D16S502. The critical CDG1 region, in strong linkage disequilibrium with markers AFMa284wd5, D16S768, and D16S406, thus constitutes less than 1 Mb of DNA and less than 1 cM in the very distal part of the CDG1 region defined by us previously. 14 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. X-linked mental retardation with isolated growth hormone deficiency is mapped to Xq22-Xq27.2 in one family.

    PubMed

    Raynaud, M; Ronce, N; Ayrault, A D; Francannet, C; Malpuech, G; Moraine, C

    1998-03-19

    X-linked mental retardation (XLMR) includes distinct entities in which mental deficiency is either associated with specific abnormalities (syndromal) or not (nonsyndromal). We report on the clinical, neuropsychological, and laboratory findings and linkage analysis in one family with XLMR and isolated growth hormone deficiency (IGHD). Mental retardation was associated in 3 males and 5 females with short stature, microcephaly, and particular facial traits, i.e., high curved forehead, midface hypoplasia, and concave nasal bridge with nasal end of normal size and broad traits. Significant lod scores (Zmax >2) at a recombination fraction of theta = 0 were detected for 6 marker loci between DXS178 (Xq22.1) and DXS292 (Xq27.2). This mapping region overlaps that of XLMR with IGHD, recently reported by Hamel et al. [1996: Am J Med Genet 64:35-41] (Xq24-q27.3), and that of agammaglobulinemia with IGHD (Xq21.33-q22.2). This observation may confirm the suspicion of a gene involved in growth hormone regulation being localized in Xq.

  14. Hereditary Xerocytosis due to Mutations in PIEZO1 Gene Associated with Heterozygous Pyruvate Kinase Deficiency and Beta-Thalassemia Trait in Two Unrelated Families

    PubMed Central

    Vercellati, Cristina; Marcello, Anna Paola; Zaninoni, Anna; van Wijk, Richard; Mirra, Nadia; Curcio, Cristina; Cortelezzi, Agostino; Zanella, Alberto; Barcellini, Wilma; Bianchi, Paola

    2017-01-01

    Hereditary xerocytosis (HX) is a rare disorder caused by defects of RBC permeability, associated with haemolytic anaemia of variable degree and iron overload. It is sometimes misdiagnosed as hereditary spherocytosis or other congenital haemolytic anaemia. Splenectomy is contraindicated due to increased risk of thromboembolic complications. We report the clinical, haematological, and molecular characteristics of four patients from two unrelated Italian families affected by HX, associated with beta-thalassemia trait and heterozygous pyruvate kinase deficiency, respectively. Two patients had been splenectomised and displayed thrombotic episodes. All patients had iron overload in the absence of transfusion, two of them requiring iron chelation. The diagnosis of HX was confirmed by LoRRca Osmoscan analysis showing a left-shifted curve. PIEZO1 gene sequencing revealed the presence of mutation p.E2496ELE, showing that this is one of the most frequent mutations in this disease. The concomitant defects did not aggravate the clinical phenotype; however, in one patient, the initial diagnosis of pyruvate kinase deficiency delayed the correct diagnosis of HX for many years and resulted in splenectomy followed by thrombotic complications. The study underlines the importance of a precise diagnosis in HX, particularly in view of splenectomy, and the need of a molecular confirmation of suspected RBC enzymopathy. PMID:28367341

  15. Hereditary Xerocytosis due to Mutations in PIEZO1 Gene Associated with Heterozygous Pyruvate Kinase Deficiency and Beta-Thalassemia Trait in Two Unrelated Families.

    PubMed

    Fermo, Elisa; Vercellati, Cristina; Marcello, Anna Paola; Zaninoni, Anna; van Wijk, Richard; Mirra, Nadia; Curcio, Cristina; Cortelezzi, Agostino; Zanella, Alberto; Barcellini, Wilma; Bianchi, Paola

    2017-01-01

    Hereditary xerocytosis (HX) is a rare disorder caused by defects of RBC permeability, associated with haemolytic anaemia of variable degree and iron overload. It is sometimes misdiagnosed as hereditary spherocytosis or other congenital haemolytic anaemia. Splenectomy is contraindicated due to increased risk of thromboembolic complications. We report the clinical, haematological, and molecular characteristics of four patients from two unrelated Italian families affected by HX, associated with beta-thalassemia trait and heterozygous pyruvate kinase deficiency, respectively. Two patients had been splenectomised and displayed thrombotic episodes. All patients had iron overload in the absence of transfusion, two of them requiring iron chelation. The diagnosis of HX was confirmed by LoRRca Osmoscan analysis showing a left-shifted curve. PIEZO1 gene sequencing revealed the presence of mutation p.E2496ELE, showing that this is one of the most frequent mutations in this disease. The concomitant defects did not aggravate the clinical phenotype; however, in one patient, the initial diagnosis of pyruvate kinase deficiency delayed the correct diagnosis of HX for many years and resulted in splenectomy followed by thrombotic complications. The study underlines the importance of a precise diagnosis in HX, particularly in view of splenectomy, and the need of a molecular confirmation of suspected RBC enzymopathy.

  16. [Mutation analysis for a family affected with riboflavin responsive-multiple acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency].

    PubMed

    Lu, Jun; Ji, Lijuan

    2014-08-01

    To identify pathogenic mutation in a boy affected with riboflavin responsive-multiple acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (RR-MADD). The patient was initially diagnosed as primary carnitine deficiency (PCD) and has been treated with carnitine supplementation for 7 years. Clinical manifestations and characteristics of fibula muscle specimen were analyzed. Potential mutation in electron transfer flavoprotein dehydrogenase (ETFDH) gene (for the patient and his parents) and carnitine transfer protein gene (SLC22A5) (for the patient) was screened. Electronic microscopy of the muscle specimen has suggested lipid storage myopathy. Mutation analysis has found that the patient carried compound heterozygous mutations, c.250G>A and c.380T>C, in exon 3 of the ETFDH gene, whilst his father and mother were heterozygous for the c.380T>C and c.250G>A mutations, respectively. Screening of the SLC22A5 gene has yielded no clinically meaningful result. After the establishment of diagnosis of RR-MADD, the condition of the patient has improved greatly with supplementation of high doses of riboflavin along with continuous carnitine supplement. The c.250G>A (p.Ala84Thr) mutation of exon 3 of the ETFDH gene has been a hot spot in Southern Chinese population, whilst the c.380T>C (p.Leu127Pro) is rarely reported. Our case has suggested that therapeutic diagnosis cannot substitute genetic testing. The mechanism for having stabilized the patient with only carnitine supplementation for 7 years needs further investigation.

  17. Comparative Analysis of PvPAP Gene Family and Their Functions in Response to Phosphorus Deficiency in Common Bean

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Cuiyue; Sun, Lili; Yao, Zhufang; Liao, Hong; Tian, Jiang

    2012-01-01

    Background Purple acid phosphatases (PAPs) play a vital role in adaptive strategies of plants to phosphorus (P) deficiency. However, their functions in relation to P efficiency are fragmentary in common bean. Principal Findings Five PvPAPs were isolated and sequenced in common bean. Phylogenetic analysis showed that PvPAPs could be classified into two groups, including a small group with low molecular mass, and a large group with high molecular mass. Among them, PvPAP3, PvPAP4 and PvPAP5 belong to the small group, while the other two belong to the large group. Transient expression of 35S:PvPAPs-GFP on onion epidermal cells verified the variations of subcellular localization among PvPAPs, suggesting functional diversities of PvPAPs in common bean. Quantitative PCR results showed that most PvPAPs were up-regulated by phosphate (Pi) starvation. Among them, the expression of the small group PvPAPs responded more to Pi starvation, especially in the roots of G19833, the P-efficient genotype. However, only overexpressing PvPAP1 and PvPAP3 could result in significantly increased utilization of extracellular dNTPs in the transgenic bean hairy roots. Furthermore, overexpressing PvPAP3 in Arabidopsis enhanced both plant growth and total P content when dNTPs were supplied as the sole external P source. Conclusions The results suggest that PvPAPs in bean varied in protein structure, response to P deficiency and subcellular localization. Among them, both PvPAP1 and PvPAP3 might function as utilization of extracellular dNTPs. PMID:22662274

  18. SORT1 Mutation Resulting in Sortilin Deficiency and p75NTR Upregulation in a Family With Essential Tremor

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez, Elena; Bergareche, Alberto; Krebs, Catharine E.; Gorostidi, Ana; Makarov, Vladimir; Ruiz-Martinez, Javier; Chorny, Alejo; Lopez de Munain, Adolfo; Marti-Masso, Jose Felix

    2015-01-01

    *These authors contributed equally to this work.Essential tremor (ET) is the most prevalent movement disorder affecting millions of people in the United States. Although a positive family history is one of the most important risk factors for ET, the genetic causes of ET remain unknown. In this study, whole exome sequencing and subsequent approaches were performed in a family with an autosomal dominant form of early-onset ET. Functional analyses including mutagenesis, cell culture, gene expression, enzyme-linked immunosorbent, and apoptosis assays were also performed. A disease-segregating mutation (p.Gly171Ala), absent in normal population, was identified in the SORT1 gene. The p.Gly171Ala mutation was shown not only to impair the expression of its encoding protein sortilin but also the mRNA levels of its binding partner p75 neurotrophin receptor that is known to be implicated in brain injury, neuronal apoptosis, and neurotransmission. PMID:26297037

  19. SORT1 Mutation Resulting in Sortilin Deficiency and p75(NTR) Upregulation in a Family With Essential Tremor.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, Elena; Bergareche, Alberto; Krebs, Catharine E; Gorostidi, Ana; Makarov, Vladimir; Ruiz-Martinez, Javier; Chorny, Alejo; Lopez de Munain, Adolfo; Marti-Masso, Jose Felix; Paisán-Ruiz, Coro

    2015-01-01

    *These authors contributed equally to this work.Essential tremor (ET) is the most prevalent movement disorder affecting millions of people in the United States. Although a positive family history is one of the most important risk factors for ET, the genetic causes of ET remain unknown. In this study, whole exome sequencing and subsequent approaches were performed in a family with an autosomal dominant form of early-onset ET. Functional analyses including mutagenesis, cell culture, gene expression, enzyme-linked immunosorbent, and apoptosis assays were also performed. A disease-segregating mutation (p.Gly171Ala), absent in normal population, was identified in the SORT1 gene. The p.Gly171Ala mutation was shown not only to impair the expression of its encoding protein sortilin but also the mRNA levels of its binding partner p75 neurotrophin receptor that is known to be implicated in brain injury, neuronal apoptosis, and neurotransmission.

  20. Apolipoprotein A-I Q[-2]X causing isolated apolipoprotein A-I deficiency in a family with analphalipoproteinemia.

    PubMed Central

    Ng, D S; Leiter, L A; Vezina, C; Connelly, P W; Hegele, R A

    1994-01-01

    We report a Canadian kindred with a novel mutation in the apolipoprotein (apo) A-I gene causing analphalipoproteinemia. The 34-yr-old proband, product of a consanguineous marriage, had bilateral retinopathy, bilateral cataracts, spinocerebellar ataxia, and tendon xanthomata. High density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) was < 0.1 mM and apoA-I was undetectable. Genomic DNA sequencing of the proband's apoA-I gene identified a nonsense mutation at codon [-2], which we designate as Q[-2]X. This mutation causes a loss of endonuclease digestion sites for both BbvI and Fnu4HI. Genotyping identified four additional homozygotes, four heterozygotes, and two unaffected subjects among the first-degree relatives. Q[-2]X homozygosity causes a selective failure to produce any portion of mature apoA-I, resulting in very low plasma level of HDL. Heterozygosity results in approximately half-normal apoA-I and HDL. Gradient gel electrophoresis and differential electroimmunodiffusion assay revealed that the HDL particles of the homozygotes had peak Stokes diameter of 7.9 nm and contained apoA-II without apoA-I (Lp-AII). Heterozygotes had an additional fraction of HDL3-like particles. Two of the proband's affected sisters had documented premature coronary heart disease. This kindred, the third reported apoA-I gene mutation causing isolated complete apoA-I deficiency, appears to be at significantly increased risk for atherosclerosis. Images PMID:8282791

  1. Tomato Cutin Deficient 1 (CD1) and putative orthologs comprise an ancient family of cutin synthase-like (CUS) proteins that are conserved among land plants.

    PubMed

    Yeats, Trevor H; Huang, Wenlin; Chatterjee, Subhasish; Viart, Hélène M-F; Clausen, Mads H; Stark, Ruth E; Rose, Jocelyn K C

    2014-03-01

    The aerial epidermis of all land plants is covered with a hydrophobic cuticle that provides essential protection from desiccation, and so its evolution is believed to have been prerequisite for terrestrial colonization. A major structural component of apparently all plant cuticles is cutin, a polyester of hydroxy fatty acids; however, despite its ubiquity, the details of cutin polymeric structure and the mechanisms of its formation and remodeling are not well understood. We recently reported that cutin polymerization in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) fruit occurs via transesterification of hydroxyacylglycerol precursors, catalyzed by the GDSL-motif lipase/hydrolase family protein (GDSL) Cutin Deficient 1 (CD1). Here, we present additional biochemical characterization of CD1 and putative orthologs from Arabidopsis thaliana and the moss Physcomitrella patens, which represent a distinct clade of cutin synthases within the large GDSL superfamily. We demonstrate that members of this ancient and conserved family of cutin synthase-like (CUS) proteins act as polyester synthases with negligible hydrolytic activity. Moreover, solution-state NMR analysis indicates that CD1 catalyzes the formation of primarily linear cutin oligomeric products in vitro. These results reveal a conserved mechanism of cutin polyester synthesis in land plants, and suggest that elaborations of the linear polymer, such as branching or cross-linking, may require additional, as yet unknown, factors.

  2. Heritability of plasma concentrations of clotting factors and measures of a prethrombotic state in a protein C-deficient family.

    PubMed

    Vossen, C Y; Hasstedt, S J; Rosendaal, F R; Callas, P W; Bauer, K A; Broze, G J; Hoogendoorn, H; Long, G L; Scott, B T; Bovill, E G

    2004-02-01

    Earlier studies found strong support for a genetic basis for regulation of coagulation factor levels and measures of a prethrombotic state (d-dimer, prothrombin fragment 1.2). Estimation of how much of the variation in the levels of coagulation factors and measures of a prethrombotic state, including measures of protein C activation and inactivation, could be attributed to heritability and household effect. Blood samples were collected from 330 members of a large kindred of French-Canadian origin with type I protein C deficiency. Heritability and common household effect were estimated for plasma concentrations of prothrombin, factor (F)V, factor VIII, factor (F)IX, fibrinogen, von Willebrand factor (VWF), antithrombin, protein C, protein S, protein Z, protein Z-dependent protease inhibitor (ZPI), fibrinopeptide A (FPA), protein C activation peptide (PCP), activated protein C-protein C inhibitor complex (APC-PCI), activated protein C-alpha1-antitrypsin complex (APC-alpha1AT), prothrombin fragment 1.2 (F1.2) and d-dimer, using the variance component method in sequential oligo-genic linkage analysis routines (SOLAR). The highest heritability was found for measures of thrombin activity (PCP and FPA). High estimates were also found for prothrombin, FV, FIX, protein C, protein Z, ZPI, APC-PCI and APC-alpha1AT. An important influence of shared household effect on phenotypic variation was found for VWF, antithrombin, protein S and F1.2. We found strong evidence for the heritability of single coagulation factors and measures of a prethrombotic state. Hemostatic markers with statistically significant heritability constitute potential targets for the identification of novel genes involved in the control of quantitative trait loci.

  3. Genome-wide identification of CBL family and expression analysis of CBLs in response to potassium deficiency in cotton

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Lirong; Wang, Ji

    2017-01-01

    Calcineurin B-like (CBL) proteins, as calcium sensors, play pivotal roles in plant responses to diverse abiotic stresses and in growth and development through interaction with CBL-interacting protein kinases (CIPKs). However, knowledge about functions and evolution of CBLs in Gossypium plants is scarce. Here, we conducted a genome-wide survey and identified 13, 13 and 22 CBL genes in the progenitor diploid Gossypium arboreum and Gossypium raimondii, and the cultivated allotetraploid Gossypium hirsutum, respectively. Analysis of physical properties, chromosomal locations, conserved domains and phylogeny indicated rather conserved nature of CBLs among the three Gossypium species. Moreover, these CBLs have closer genetic evolutionary relationship with the CBLs from cocoa than with those from other plants. Most CBL genes underwent evolution under purifying selection in the three Gossypium plants. Additionally, nearly all G. hirsutum CBL (GhCBL) genes were expressed in the root, stem, leaf, flower and fiber. Many GhCBLs were preferentially expressed in the flower while several GhCBLs were mainly expressed in roots. Expression patterns of GhCBL genes in response to potassium deficiency were also studied. The expression of most GhCBLs were moderately induced in roots after treatments with low-potassium stress. Yeast two-hybrid experiments indicated that GhCBL1-2, GhCBL1-3, GhCBL4-4, GhCBL8, GhCBL9 and GhCBL10-3 interacted with GhCIPK23, respectively. Our results provided a comprehensive view of the CBLs and valuable information for researchers to further investigate the roles and functional mechanisms of the CBLs in Gossypium. PMID:28828254

  4. Deficiency of the mitochondrial phosphate carrier presenting as myopathy and cardiomyopathy in a family with three affected children.

    PubMed

    Mayr, Johannes A; Zimmermann, Franz A; Horváth, Rita; Schneider, Hans-Christian; Schoser, Benedikt; Holinski-Feder, Elke; Czermin, Birgit; Freisinger, Peter; Sperl, Wolfgang

    2011-11-01

    In a family three children presented with severe neonatal lactic acidosis, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and generalised muscular hypotonia. One child died in infancy, two survived a clinically severe neonatal period. At an age of 9 and 17years, respectively, they present with exercise intolerance, proximal muscle weakness, non-progressive hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and normal mental development. In a muscle biopsy normal activity of respiratory chain enzymes was found; however the amount of the mitochondrial phosphate carrier was decreased. This protein is expressed in two tissue-specific isoforms generated by mutually exclusive alternative splicing of the SLC25A3 gene transcript. We identified a homozygous mutation c.158-9A>G located in the 5'-intron next to exon 3A specific for heart and skeletal muscle. This creates a novel splice site resulting in a more than 95% decrease of the wild type allele.

  5. Molecular mechanism for familial protein C deficiency and thrombosis in protein CVermont (Glu20-->Ala and Val34-->Met).

    PubMed

    Lu, D; Bovill, E G; Long, G L

    1994-11-18

    The role of two protein C gamma-carboxyglutamic acid domain mutations in familial thrombosis, protein CVermont (Bovill, E. G., Tomczak, J. A., Grant, B., Bhushan, F., Pillemer, E., Rainville, I.R., and Long, G. L. (1992) Blood 79, 1456-1465), was investigated. Two single mutations (Glu20-->Ala and Val34-->Met) and the naturally occurring double mutation were created by site-directed mutagenesis and were expressed in human kidney 293 cells. Purified recombinant protein C with the mutation glutamate to alanine at position 20 is defective in the assays of activated partial thromboplastin time, factor Va inactivation, and fibrinolysis. Mutation from valine to methionine at position 34 has only a minor effect. Activation of Glu20 mutants by thrombin-thrombomodulin was not enhanced by phospholipid vesicles and showed a different calcium dependence compared with the wild type, suggesting that Gla20 is important in the interaction of the protein C Gla domain with a phospholipid-mediated site on the thrombomodulin molecule. Glu20-substituted protein C is not inhibited by calcium ion in its interaction with the calcium-dependent monoclonal antibody H-11, suggesting that this mutation has lost the calcium-induced, lipid-independent conformational transition of the protein C Gla domain. These data indicate that the loss of Gla20 causes the major familial dysfunction of protein C to associate with phospholipid as well as to undergo Ca(2+)-dependent, lipid-independent conformational changes and are consistent with the importance of Gla20 in both external and internal Ca2+ binding based upon the x-ray-derived structure of the homologous Gla domain in bovine prothrombin.

  6. Splicing analysis of CYP11B1 mutation in a family affected with 11β-hydroxylase deficiency: case report.

    PubMed

    Charnwichai, Pattaranatcha; Yeetong, Patra; Suphapeetiporn, Kanya; Supornsilchai, Vichit; Sahakitrungruang, Taninee; Shotelersuk, Vorasuk

    2016-06-17

    Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) due to steroid 11β-hydroxylase deficiency (11β-OHD) is a rare form of CAH associated with low renin hypertension, hypokalemia, hyperandrogenemia and ambiguous genitalia in affected females. Herein we describe the clinical, hormonal and molecular characteristics of two Uzbekistan siblings with 11β-OHD and analyze the effects of a splicing mutation. A 46,XX girl presented with genital ambiguity and low renin hypertension; her 46,XY brother presented with precocious puberty. Hormonal studies suggested 11β-OHD. Mutation analysis was performed by PCR followed by Sanger sequencing of the entire coding regions and their flanking introns of the CYP11B1 gene. Mutation analysis showed that both patients were compound heterozygous for IVS7 + 1G > A, and c.421C > T. Although the identified mutations have been previously described, this is, to our knowledge, the first report of these mutations in compound heterozygotes. A minigene assay was used to determine the effects of the splicing mutation. The constructs containing either the wild-type or the splice-site mutant CYP11B1 genomic DNA of exons-introns 6-9 were transfected into COS-7 cells; subsequently, RNA splicing was assessed by reversed transcribed-PCR of CYP11B1 complementary DNA. The minigene assay revealed that the IVS7 + 1G > A mutation resulted in two shorter incorrectly spliced products; one skipping the exon 7 and the other skipping the exons 7-8. The c.421C > T mutation leads to the introduction of a premature stop codon at residue 141 (p.R141X). These mutations are expected to code non-functional proteins. Compound heterozygous mutations (IVS7 + 1G > A and p.R141X) in the CYP11B1 gene were found to cause 11β-OHD. The IVS7 + 1G > A mutation causes aberrant splicing of CYP11B1 leading to exon skipping. This finding could facilitate the future novel therapies targeted on splicing modulation to treat human disease.

  7. Deficiency in Nucleotide Excision Repair Family Gene Activity, Especially ERCC3, Is Associated with Non-Pigmented Hair Fiber Growth

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Mei; Bell, Robert H.; Ho, Maggie M.; Leung, Gigi; Haegert, Anne; Carr, Nicholas; Shapiro, Jerry; McElwee, Kevin J.

    2012-01-01

    We conducted a microarray study to discover gene expression patterns associated with a lack of melanogenesis in non-pigmented hair follicles (HF) by microarray. Pigmented and non-pigmented HFs were collected and micro-dissected into the hair bulb (HB) and the upper hair sheaths (HS) including the bulge region. In comparison to pigmented HS and HBs, nucleotide excision repair (NER) family genes ERCC1, ERCC2, ERCC3, ERCC4, ERCC5, ERCC6, XPA, NTPBP, HCNP, DDB2 and POLH exhibited statistically significantly lower expression in non- pigmented HS and HBs. Quantitative PCR verified microarray data and identified ERCC3 as highly differentially expressed. Immunohistochemistry confirmed ERCC3 expression in HF melanocytes. A reduction in ERCC3 by siRNA interference in human melanocytes in vitro reduced their tyrosinase production ability. Our results suggest that loss of NER gene function is associated with a loss of melanin production capacity. This may be due to reduced gene transcription and/or reduced DNA repair in melanocytes which may eventually lead to cell death. These results provide novel information with regard to melanogenesis and its regulation. PMID:22615732

  8. A novel mutation of 5alpha-steroid reductase 2 deficiency (CD 65 ALA-PRO) with severe virilization defect in a Turkish family and difficulty in gender assignment.

    PubMed

    Savas Erdeve, Senay; Aycan, Zehra; Berberoglu, Merih; Siklar, Zeynep; Hacihamdioglu, Bulent; Sipahi, Kadir; Akar, Nejat; Ocal, Gonul

    2010-08-01

    Molecular genetic characterization of mutations in SRD5A2 gene is used as an essential procedure for the final diagnosis of 5alpha-reductase deficiency. Here, we report a novel homozygous point mutation of SRD5A2 gene at codon 65 in exon 1, due to a proline for alanine substitution in a Turkish family whose proband has severe undervirilization. This mutation has not been reported up to date in association with 5alpha-reductase deficiency in various ethnic groups. We discussed some questions about gender assignment in addition to the molecular and clinical characteristics of the disease.

  9. Overexpression of AtDOF4.7, an Arabidopsis DOF Family Transcription Factor, Induces Floral Organ Abscission Deficiency in Arabidopsis1[C][W

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Peng-Cheng; Tan, Feng; Gao, Xin-Qi; Zhang, Xiu-Qing; Wang, Gao-Qi; Xu, Heng; Li, Li-Juan; Chen, Jia; Wang, Xue-Chen

    2010-01-01

    After flower pollination, a programmed process called abscission occurs in which unwanted floral organs are actively shed from the main plant body. We found that a member of the DOF (for DNA binding with one finger) transcription factor family, Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) DOF4.7, was expressed robustly in the abscission zone. The Arabidopsis 35S::AtDOF4.7 lines with constitutive expression of AtDOF4.7 exhibited an ethylene-independent floral organ abscission deficiency. In these lines, anatomical analyses showed that the formation of the abscission zone was normal. However, dissolution of the middle lamella failed to separate between the cell walls. AtDOF4.7 was identified as a nucleus-localized transcription factor. This protein had both in vitro and in vivo binding activity to typical DOF cis-elements in the promoter of an abscission-related polygalacturonase (PG) gene, PGAZAT. Overexpression of AtDOF4.7 resulted in down-regulation of PGAZAT. AtDOF4.7 interacted with another abscission-related transcription factor, Arabidopsis ZINC FINGER PROTEIN2. Taken together, our results suggest that AtDOF4.7 participates in the control of abscission as part of the transcription complex that directly regulates the expression of cell wall hydrolysis enzymes. PMID:20466844

  10. Expression Profiling of the 14-3-3 Gene Family in Response to Salt Stress and Potassium and Iron Deficiencies in Young Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) Roots: Analysis by Real-time RT–PCR

    PubMed Central

    XU, WEI FENG; SHI, WEI MING

    2006-01-01

    • Background and Aims Mineral nutrient deficiencies and salinity constitute major limitations for crop plant growth on agricultural soils. 14-3-3 proteins are phosphoserine-binding proteins that regulate the activities of a wide array of targets via direct protein–protein interactions and may play an important role in responses to mineral nutrients deficiencies and salt stress. In the present study, the expression profiling of the 14-3-3 gene family in response to salt stress and potassium and iron deficiencies in young tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) roots was investigated in order to analyse the 14-3-3 roles of the proteins in these abiotic stresses. • Methods Sequence identities and phylogenetic tree creation were performed using DNAMAN version 4.0 (Lynnon Biosoft Company). Real-time RT–PCR was used to examine the expression of each 14-3-3 gene in response to salt stress and potassium and iron deficiencies in young tomato roots. • Key Results The phylogenetic tree shows that the 14-3-3 gene family falls into two major groups in tomato plants. By using real-time RT–PCR, it was found that (a) under normal growth conditions, there were significant differences in the mRNA levels of 14-3-3 gene family members in young tomato roots and (b) 14-3-3 proteins exhibited diverse patterns of gene expression in response to salt stress and potassium and iron deficiencies in tomato roots. • Conclusions The results suggest that (a) 14-3-3 proteins may be involved in the salt stress and potassium and iron deficiency signalling pathways in young tomato roots, (b) the expression pattern of 14-3-3 gene family members in tomato roots is not strictly related to the position of the corresponding proteins within a phylogenetic tree, (c) gene-specific expression patterns indicate that isoform-specificity may exist in the 14-3-3 gene family of tomato roots, and (d) 14-3-3 proteins (TFT7) might mediate cross-talk between the salt stress and potassium and iron-deficiency

  11. Deficiency of the purine metabolic gene HPRT dysregulates microRNA-17 family cluster and guanine-based cellular functions: a role for EPAC in Lesch-Nyhan syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Guibinga, Ghiabe-Henri; Murray, Fiona; Barron, Nikki; Pandori, William; Hrustanovic, Gorjan

    2013-01-01

    Lesch-Nyhan syndrome (LNS) is a neurodevelopmental disorder caused by mutations in the gene encoding the purine metabolic enzyme hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (HPRT). A series of motor, cognitive and neurobehavioral anomalies characterize this disease phenotype, which is still poorly understood. The clinical manifestations of this syndrome are believed to be the consequences of deficiencies in neurodevelopmental pathways that lead to disordered brain function. We have used microRNA array and gene ontology analysis to evaluate the gene expression of differentiating HPRT-deficient human neuron-like cell lines. We set out to identify dysregulated genes implicated in purine-based cellular functions. Our approach was based on the premise that HPRT deficiency affects preeminently the expression and the function of purine-based molecular complexes, such as guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) and small GTPases. We found that several microRNAs from the miR-17 family cluster and genes encoding GEF are dysregulated in HPRT deficiency. Most notably, our data show that the expression of the exchange protein activated by cAMP (EPAC) is blunted in HPRT-deficient human neuron-like cell lines and fibroblast cells from LNS patients, and is altered in the cortex, striatum and midbrain of HPRT knockout mouse. We also show a marked impairment in the activation of small GTPase RAP1 in the HPRT-deficient cells, as well as differences in cytoskeleton dynamics that lead to increased motility for HPRT-deficient neuron-like cell lines relative to control. We propose that the alterations in EPAC/RAP1 signaling and cell migration in HPRT deficiency are crucial for neuro-developmental events that may contribute to the neurological dysfunctions in LNS. PMID:23804752

  12. Deficiency of the purine metabolic gene HPRT dysregulates microRNA-17 family cluster and guanine-based cellular functions: a role for EPAC in Lesch-Nyhan syndrome.

    PubMed

    Guibinga, Ghiabe-Henri; Murray, Fiona; Barron, Nikki; Pandori, William; Hrustanovic, Gorjan

    2013-11-15

    Lesch-Nyhan syndrome (LNS) is a neurodevelopmental disorder caused by mutations in the gene encoding the purine metabolic enzyme hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (HPRT). A series of motor, cognitive and neurobehavioral anomalies characterize this disease phenotype, which is still poorly understood. The clinical manifestations of this syndrome are believed to be the consequences of deficiencies in neurodevelopmental pathways that lead to disordered brain function. We have used microRNA array and gene ontology analysis to evaluate the gene expression of differentiating HPRT-deficient human neuron-like cell lines. We set out to identify dysregulated genes implicated in purine-based cellular functions. Our approach was based on the premise that HPRT deficiency affects preeminently the expression and the function of purine-based molecular complexes, such as guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) and small GTPases. We found that several microRNAs from the miR-17 family cluster and genes encoding GEF are dysregulated in HPRT deficiency. Most notably, our data show that the expression of the exchange protein activated by cAMP (EPAC) is blunted in HPRT-deficient human neuron-like cell lines and fibroblast cells from LNS patients, and is altered in the cortex, striatum and midbrain of HPRT knockout mouse. We also show a marked impairment in the activation of small GTPase RAP1 in the HPRT-deficient cells, as well as differences in cytoskeleton dynamics that lead to increased motility for HPRT-deficient neuron-like cell lines relative to control. We propose that the alterations in EPAC/RAP1 signaling and cell migration in HPRT deficiency are crucial for neuro-developmental events that may contribute to the neurological dysfunctions in LNS.

  13. Birth control necessary to limit family size in tribal couples with aberrant heterosis of G-6-PD deficiency and sickle cell disorders in India: an urgency of creating awareness and imparting genetic counseling.

    PubMed

    Balgir, R S

    2010-06-01

    (i) To study the outcome of ignorance and lack of awareness about sickle cell disease and G-6-PD deficiency among Dhelki Kharia tribal families of Orissa, and (ii) to study the reproductive output in relation to clinical genetics and patho-physiological implications. A random genetic study of screening for hemoglobinopathies and G-6-PD deficiency among Dhelki Kharia tribal community in Sundargarh district of Orissa was carried out for intervention during the year 2000-2004. A total of 81 Dhelki Kharia families were screened and six families with double heterozygosity for above genetic anomalies were encountered. About 2-3 ml. intravenous blood samples were collected in EDTA by disposable syringes and needles after taking informed consent from each individual in the presence of a doctor and community leaders and sent to laboratory at Bhubaneswar for hematological investigations. Analysis was carried out following the standard procedures after cross checking for quality control. There were 12 (about 52%) children out of 23 who were either suffering from sickle cell trait or disease in concurrence with G-6-PD deficiency in hemizygous/heterozygous/homozygous condition in Dhelki Kharia tribal community of Orissa. There were on an average 3.83 number of surviving (range 2-6) children per mother in families of G-6-PD deficiency and sickle cell disorders. The average number of children (3.83) born (range 2-6 children) per mother to carrier/affected mother was much higher than the average for India (2.73). It is very difficult to maintain the normal health of an affected child with aberrant anomalies due to exorbitant cost of treatment, frequent transfusions and huge involvement of economy. One of the implications of aberrant heterosis is its adverse affects on routine individual physiology and hard activities. It is suggested to limit the family size in carrier couples to avoid aberrant heterosis of hereditary hemolytic disorders in their offsprings.

  14. Chronic nonspherocytic hemolytic anemia due to glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency: report of two families with novel mutations causing G6PD Bangkok and G6PD Bangkok Noi.

    PubMed

    Tanphaichitr, Voravarn S; Hirono, Akira; Pung-amritt, Parichat; Treesucon, Ajjima; Wanachiwanawin, Wanchai

    2011-07-01

    Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is one of the most common hereditary enzymopathies worldwide. Mostly G6PD deficient cases are asymptomatic though they may have the risk of neonatal jaundice (NNJ) and acute intravascular hemolysis during oxidative stress. Chronic nonspherocytic hemolytic anemia (CNSHA) due to G6PD deficiency is rare. In Thailand, one case was reported 40 years ago and by biochemical study this G6PD was reported to be a new variant G6PD Bangkok. We, herein, report two families with CNSHA due to G6PD deficiency. In the first family, we have been following up the clinical course of the patient with G6PD Bangkok. In addition to chronic hemolysis, he had three acute hemolytic episodes requiring blood transfusions during childhood period. Multiple gallstones were detected at the age of 27. His two daughters who inherited G6PD Bangkok from him and G6PD Vanua Lava from his wife are asymptomatic. Both of them had NNJ and persistent evidences of compensated hemolysis. Molecular analysis revealed a novel missense mutation 825 G→C predicting 275 Lys→Asn causing G6PD Bangkok. In the second family, two male siblings are affected. They had NNJ and several hemolytic episodes which required blood transfusions. On follow-up they have been diagnosed with chronic hemolysis as evidenced by reticulocytosis and indirect hyperbilirubinemia. Molecular analysis revealed combined missense mutations in exons 12 and 13. The first mutation was 1376 G→T predicting 459 Arg→Leu (known as G6PD Canton) and the second one was 1502 T→G predicting 501 Phe→Cys. We designated the resulting novel G6PD variant, G6PD Bangkok Noi.

  15. International Retrospective Chart Review of Treatment Patterns in Severe Familial Mediterranean Fever, Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor-Associated Periodic Syndrome, and Mevalonate Kinase Deficiency/Hyperimmunoglobulinemia D Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ozen, Seza; Kuemmerle-Deschner, Jasmin B; Cimaz, Rolando; Livneh, Avi; Quartier, Pierre; Kone-Paut, Isabelle; Zeft, Andrew; Spalding, Steve; Gul, Ahmet; Hentgen, Veronique; Savic, Sinisa; Foeldvari, Ivan; Frenkel, Joost; Cantarini, Luca; Patel, Dony; Weiss, Jeffrey; Marinsek, Nina; Degun, Ravi; Lomax, Kathleen G; Lachmann, Helen J

    2017-04-01

    Periodic fever syndrome (PFS) conditions are characterized by recurrent attacks of fever and localized inflammation. This study examined the diagnostic pathway and treatments at tertiary centers for familial Mediterranean fever (FMF), tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated periodic syndrome (TRAPS), and mevalonate kinase deficiency (MKD)/hyperimmunoglobulinemia D syndrome (HIDS). PFS specialists at medical centers in the US, the European Union, and the eastern Mediterranean participated in a retrospective chart review, providing de-identified data in an electronic case report form. Patients were treated between 2008 and 2012, with at least 1 year of followup; all had clinical and/or genetically proven disease and were on/eligible for biologic treatment. A total of 134 patients were analyzed: FMF (n = 49), TRAPS (n = 47), and MKD/HIDS (n = 38). Fever was commonly reported as severe across all indications. Other frequently reported severe symptoms were serositis for FMF patients and elevated acute-phase reactants and gastrointestinal upset for TRAPS and MKD/HIDS. A long delay from disease onset to diagnosis was seen within TRAPS and MKD/HIDS (5.8 and 7.1 years, respectively) compared to a 1.8-year delay in FMF patients. An equal proportion of TRAPS patients first received anti-interleukin-1 (anti-IL-1) and anti-tumor necrosis factor (anti-TNF) biologic agents, whereas IL-1 blockade was the main choice for FMF patients resistant to colchicine and MKD/HIDS patients. For TRAPS patients, treatment with anakinra versus anti-TNF treatments as first biologic agent resulted in significantly higher clinical and biochemical responses (P = 0.03 and P < 0.01, respectively). No significant differences in responses were observed between biologic agents among other cohorts. Referral patterns and diagnostic delays highlight the need for greater awareness and improved diagnostics for PFS. This real-world treatment assessment supports the need for further

  16. Carbonic anhydrase II deficiency syndrome in a Belgian family is caused by a point mutation at an invariant histidine residue (107 His----Tyr): complete structure of the normal human CA II gene.

    PubMed Central

    Venta, P J; Welty, R J; Johnson, T M; Sly, W S; Tashian, R E

    1991-01-01

    Carbonic anhydrase II (CA II), which has the highest turnover number and widest tissue distribution of any of the seven CA isozymes known in humans, is absent from the red blood cells and probably from other tissues of patients with CA II deficiency syndrome. We have sequenced the CA II gene in a patient from a consanguinous marriage in a Belgian family and identified the mutation that is probably the cause of the CA II deficiency in that family. The change is a C-to-T transition which results in the substitution of Tyr (TAT) for His (CAT) at position 107. This histidine is invariant in all amniotic CA isozymes sequenced to date, as well as the CAs from elasmobranch and algal sources and in a viral CA-related protein. His-107 appears to have a stabilizing function in the structure of all CA molecules, and its substitution by Tyr apparently disrupts the critical hydrogen bonding of His-107 to two other similarly invariant residues, Glu-117 and Tyr-194, resulting in an unstable CA II molecule. We have also completed the intron-exon structure of the normal human CA II gene, which has allowed us to prepare PCR primers for all exons. These primers will facilitate the determination of the mutations in other inherited CA II deficiencies. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:1928091

  17. Disaccharidase deficiency.

    PubMed

    Bayless, T M; Christopher, N L

    1969-02-01

    This review of the literature and current knowledge concerning a nutritional disorder of disaccharidase deficiency discusses the following topics: 1) a description of disorders of disaccharide digestion; 2) some historical perspective on the laboratory and bedside advances in the past 10 years that have helped define a group of these digestive disorders; 3) a classification of conditions causing disaccharide intolerance; and 4) a discussion of some of the specific clinical syndromes emphasizing nutritional consequences of these syndromes. The syndromes described include congenital lactase deficiency, acquired lactase deficiency in teenagers and adults, acquired generalized disaccharidase deficiency secondary to diffuse mucosal damage, acquired lactose intolerance secondary to alterations in the intestinal transit, sucrase-isomaltase deficiencies, and other disease associations connected with lactase deficiency such as colitis.

  18. Pituitary deficiencies.

    PubMed

    Greco, Deborah S

    2012-02-01

    Diabetes insipidus, arising from damage to or congenital abnormalities of the neurohypophysis, is the most common pituitary deficiency in animals. Hypopituitarism and isolated growth hormone or thyrotropin deficiency may result in growth abnormalities in puppies and kittens. In addition, treatment of associated hormone deficiencies, such as hypothyroidism and hypoadrenocorticism, in patients with panhypopituitarism is vital to restore adequate growth in dwarfed animals. Secondary hypoadrenocorticism is an uncommon clinical entity; however differentiation of primary versus secondary adrenal insufficiency is of utmost importance in determining optimal therapy. This article will focus on the pathogenesis, diagnosis and treatment of hormone deficiencies of the pituitary gland and neurohypophysis. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. Zinc deficiency.

    PubMed

    Tuerk, Melanie J; Fazel, Nasim

    2009-03-01

    Zinc plays an essential role in numerous biochemical pathways. Zinc deficiency affects many organ systems, including the integumentary, gastrointestinal, central nervous system, immune, skeletal, and reproductive systems. This article aims to discuss zinc metabolism and highlights a few of the diseases associated with zinc deficiency. Zinc deficiency results in dysfunction of both humoral and cell-mediated immunity and increases the susceptibility to infection. Supplementation of zinc has been shown to reduce the incidence of infection as well as cellular damage from increased oxidative stress. Zinc deficiency is also associated with acute and chronic liver disease. Zinc supplementation protects against toxin-induced liver damage and is used as a therapy for hepatic encephalopathy in patients refractory to standard treatment. Zinc deficiency has also been implicated in diarrheal disease, and supplementation has been effective in both prophylaxis and treatment of acute diarrhea. This article is not meant to review all of the disease states associated with zinc deficiency. Rather, it is an introduction to the influence of the many roles of zinc in the body, with an extensive discussion of the influence of zinc deficiency in selected diseases. Zinc supplementation may be beneficial as an adjunct to treatment of many disease states.

  20. Iron deficiency in Europe.

    PubMed

    Hercberg, S; Preziosi, P; Galan, P

    2001-04-01

    In Europe, iron deficiency is considered to be one of the main nutritional deficiency disorders affecting large fractions of the population, particularly such physiological groups as children, menstruating women and pregnant women. Some factors such as type of contraception in women, blood donation or minor pathological blood loss (haemorrhoids, gynaecological bleeding...) considerably increase the difficulty of covering iron needs. Moreover, women, especially adolescents consuming low-energy diets, vegetarians and vegans are at high risk of iron deficiency. Although there is no evidence that an absence of iron stores has any adverse consequences, it does indicate that iron nutrition is borderline, since any further reduction in body iron is associated with a decrease in the level of functional compounds such as haemoglobin. The prevalence of iron-deficient anaemia has slightly decreased in infants and menstruating women. Some positive factors may have contributed to reducing the prevalence of iron-deficiency anaemia in some groups of population: the use of iron-fortified formulas and iron-fortified cereals; the use of oral contraceptives and increased enrichment of iron in several countries; and the use of iron supplements during pregnancy in some European countries. It is possible to prevent and control iron deficiency by counseling individuals and families about sound iron nutrition during infancy and beyond, and about iron supplementation during pregnancy, by screening persons on the basis of their risk for iron deficiency, and by treating and following up persons with presumptive iron deficiency. This may help to reduce manifestations of iron deficiency and thus improve public health. Evidence linking iron status with risk of cardiovascular disease or cancer is unconvincing and does not justify changes in food fortification or medical practice, particularly because the benefits of assuring adequate iron intake during growth and development are well established

  1. [Preoperative monitoring of blood coagulation in urologic operations: diagnosis of familial factor XI deficiency within the scope of preoperative blood coagulation studies].

    PubMed

    Haushofer, A; Halbmayer, W M; Toth, E; Pflüger, H

    1993-01-01

    Presurgical coagulation diagnosis should--apart from coagulation monitoring in the laboratory based on a stepwise diagnosis for detection of coagulations disorders, starting with global tests (NT/APTT) followed by appropriate specific investigation in case of pathological findings--consist of an adequate hemostaseological anamnesis and physical checkup of the patient. This would allow detection of important signs of hemostaseological impairment during the pre-analytical phase already and permit subsequent initiation of more specific coagulation tests. The casuistics of a patient with factor XI-deficiency ("Minor Form"), a condition which is extremely infrequent in our country, demonstrates the coagulation diagnostic procedure which led to detection of his inherited factor XI-deficiency. In addition the pre-, peri- and postsurgical therapeutical management of this particular patient using an antifibrinolytic drug (tranexamic acid) is presented.

  2. Partial biotinidase deficiency: clinical and biochemical features.

    PubMed

    McVoy, J R; Levy, H L; Lawler, M; Schmidt, M A; Ebers, D D; Hart, P S; Pettit, D D; Blitzer, M G; Wolf, B

    1990-01-01

    Neonatal screening for profound biotinidase deficiency (less than 10% of the mean normal activity level) has identified a group of children with partial biotinidase deficiency (10% to 30% of mean normal activity). Because partial biotinidase deficiency may result in clinical consequences that may be prevented by treatment with biotin, we evaluated such individuals and their family members (1) to determine whether partial biotinidase deficiency is associated with symptoms and (2) to determine the inheritance pattern. We quantified serum biotinidase activity levels and obtained medical histories of probands, their parents and siblings, and additional family members. All children with partial deficiency were healthy at the time of diagnosis. One child, who was not initially treated with biotin, later developed hypotonia, hair loss, and skin rash, which resolved with biotin therapy. Four adults and three children with partial biotinidase deficiency were identified among family members of infants identified by neonatal screening. All these individuals were healthy, although one sibling had elevated urinary lactate excretion. A fifth adult with partial deficiency, found among clinically normal adult volunteers, later showed minor symptoms that resolved after biotin therapy. Like children with profound biotinidase deficiency, children with partial biotinidase deficiency are symptoms free at birth. However, the subsequent occurrence of symptoms of profound biotinidase deficiency in some persons with partial deficiency suggests that biotin therapy for this condition may be warranted.

  3. A mitochondrial mutation at nt 9101 in the ATP synthase 6 gene associated with deficient oxidative phosphorylation in a family with leber hereditary optic neuroretinopathy

    SciTech Connect

    Lamninen, T.; Junoven, V.; Aula, P.; Savontaus, M.L.; Majander, A.; Wikstroem, M.

    1995-05-01

    Leber hereditary optic neuroretinopathy (LHON) is a maternally inherited ocular disease resulting in bilateral optic atrophy in young adults. Several mtDNA point mutations have been proposed as being causative for LHON, all in complex I, III, or IV of the respiratory chain. The ND4/11778 mutation accounts for {approximately}50% of all LHON families, the ND1/3460 mutation is detected in {approximately}15% of cases, and {approximately}10% of LHON families have the ND6/14484 mutation. All these mutations are restricted to LHON families, and they change evolutionary conserved amino acids. Furthermore, these primary mutations have never been observed to occur simultaneously. Besides the primary mutations, several other replacement mutations have been found in LHON families. These mutations are also detected at low frequency in control individuals, and they change evolutionarily less conserved amino acids. 11 refs., 2 figs.

  4. Biotinidase deficiency: novel mutations in Algerian patients.

    PubMed

    Tiar, A; Mekki, A; Nagara, M; Rhouma, F Ben; Messaoud, O; Halim, N Ben; Kefi, R; Hamlaoui, M T; Lebied, A; Abdelhak, S

    2014-02-15

    Biotinidase deficiency is an autosomal recessive disorder of biotin metabolism leading to varying degrees of neurologic and cutaneous symptoms when untreated. In the present study, we report the clinical features and the molecular investigation of biotinidase deficiency in four unrelated consanguineous Algerian families including five patients with profound biotinidase deficiency and one child characterized as partial biotinidase deficiency. Mutation analysis revealed three novel mutations, c.del631C and c.1557T>G within exon 4 and c.324-325insTA in exon 3. Since newborn screening is not available in Algeria, cascade screening in affected families would be very helpful to identify at risk individuals.

  5. A complex phenotype in a child with familial HDL deficiency due to a novel frameshift mutation in APOA1 gene (apoA-IGuastalla).

    PubMed

    Pisciotta, Livia; Vitali, Cecilia; Favari, Elda; Fossa, Paola; Adorni, Maria Pia; Leone, Daniela; Artom, Nathan; Fresa, Raffaele; Calabresi, Laura; Calandra, Sebastiano; Bertolini, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    We describe a kindred with high-density lipoprotein (HDL) deficiency due to APOA1 gene mutation in which comorbidities affected the phenotypic expression of the disorder. An overweight boy with hypertriglyceridemia (HTG) and HDL deficiency (HDL cholesterol 0.39 mmol/L, apoA-I 40 mg/dL) was investigated. We sequenced the candidate genes for HTG (LPL, APOC2, APOA5, GPIHBP1, LMF1) and HDL deficiency (LCAT, ABCA1 and APOA1), analyzed HDL subpopulations, measured cholesterol efflux capacity (CEC) of sera and constructed a model of the mutant apoA-I. No mutations in HTG-related genes, ABCA1 and LCAT were found. APOA1 sequence showed that the proband, his mother and maternal grandfather were heterozygous of a novel frameshift mutation (c.546_547delGC), which generated a truncated protein (p.[L159Afs*20]) containing 177 amino acids with an abnormal C-terminal tail of 19 amino acids. Trace amounts of this protein were detectable in plasma. Mutation carriers had reduced levels of LpA-I, preβ-HDL and large HDL and no detectable HDL-2 in their plasma; their sera had a reduced CEC specifically the ABCA1-mediated CEC. Metabolic syndrome in the proband explains the extremely low HDL cholesterol level (0.31 mmol/L), which was half of that found in the other carriers. The proband's mother and grandfather, both presenting low plasma low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, were carriers of the β-thalassemic trait, a condition known to be associated with a reduced low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and a reduced prevalence of cardiovascular disease. This trait might have delayed the development of atherosclerosis related to HDL deficiency. In these heterozygotes for apoA-I truncation, the metabolic syndrome has deleterious effect on HDL system, whereas β-thalassemia trait may delay the onset of cardiovascular disease. Copyright © 2015 National Lipid Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Cobalamin deficiency.

    PubMed

    Herrmann, Wolfgang; Obeid, Rima

    2012-01-01

    Cobalamin (Cbl, vitamin B12) consists of a corrinoid structure with cobalt in the centre of the molecule. Neither humans nor animals are able to synthesize this vitamin. Foods of animal source are the only natural source of cobalamin in human diet. There are only two enzymatic reactions in mammalian cells that require cobalamin as cofactor. Methylcobolamin is a cofactor for methionine synthase. The enzyme methylmalonyl-CoA-mutase requires adenosylcobalamin as a cofactor. Therefore, serum concentrations of homocysteine (tHcy) and methylmalonic acid (MMA) will increase in cobalamin deficiency. The cobalamin absorption from diet is a complex process that involves different proteins: haptocorrin, intrinsic factor and transcobalamin (TC). Cobalamin that is bound to TC is called holotranscobalamin (holoTC) which is the metabolically active vitamin B12 fraction. HoloTC consists 6 and 20% of total cobalamin whereas 80% of total serum cobalamin is bound to another binding protein, haptocorrin. Cobalamin deficiency is common worldwide. Cobalamin malabsorption is common in elderly subjects which might explain low vitamin status. Subjects who ingest low amount of cobalamin like vegetarians develop vitamin deficiency. No single parameter can be used to diagnose cobalamin deficiency. Total serum cobalamin is neither sensitive nor it is specific for cobalamin deficiency. This might explain why many deficient subjects would be overlooked by utilizing total cobalamin as status marker. Concentration of holotranscobalamin (holoTC) in serum is an earlier marker that becomes decreased before total serum cobalamin. Concentrations of MMA and tHcy increase in blood of cobalamin deficient subjects. Despite limitations of these markers in patients with renal dysfunction, concentrations of MMA and tHcy are useful functional markers of cobalamin status. The combined use of holoTC and MMA assays may better indicate cobalamin status than either of them. Because Cbl deficiency is a risk factor

  7. Deficiency of dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase due to two mutant alleles (E340K and G101del). Analysis of a family and prenatal testing.

    PubMed

    Hong, Y S; Kerr, D S; Liu, T C; Lusk, M; Powell, B R; Patel, M S

    1997-12-31

    A male child with metabolic acidosis was diagnosed as having dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase (E3) deficiency. E3 activity of the proband's cultured fibroblasts and blood lymphocytes was 3-9% of normal, while in the parent's lymphocytes it was about 60% of normal. The proband's pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC) and the alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex activities from cultured skin fibroblasts were 12% and 6% of normal, respectively. PDC activity in the parents cultured fibroblasts was 25-31% of normal. Western and Northern blot analyses showed similar quantities of E3 protein and mRNA in cultured fibroblasts from the proband and his parents. DNA sequencing of cloned full-length E3 cDNAs, from the proband and the parents, showed two mutations on different alleles of proband were inherited from the parents. One mutation is a three nucleotide (AGG) deletion, from the mother, resulting in deletion of Gly101 in the FAD binding domain. The other mutation is a nucleotide substitution (G to A), from the father, leading to substitution of Lys for Glu340 in the central domain. The same deletion mutation was found in E3 cDNA from a chorionic villus sample and cultured fibroblasts obtained from the mother's subsequent offspring. This finding illustrates the possibility of successful prenatal diagnosis of E3 deficiency utilizing mutations characterized prior to initiation of pregnancy.

  8. Early Diagnosis and Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation for IL10R Deficiency Leading to Very Early-Onset Inflammatory Bowel Disease Are Essential in Familial Cases

    PubMed Central

    Aksu, Guzide; Ulusoy, Ezgi; Gozmen, Salih; Genel, Ferah; Akarcan, Sanem; Gulez, Nesrin; Hirschmugl, Tatjana; Kansoy, Savas; Boztug, Kaan

    2016-01-01

    Alterations of immune homeostasis in the gut may result in development of inflammatory bowel disease. A five-month-old girl was referred for recurrent respiratory and genitourinary tract infections, sepsis in neonatal period, chronic diarrhea, perianal abscess, rectovaginal fistula, and hyperemic skin lesions. She was born to second-degree consanguineous, healthy parents. Her elder siblings were lost at 4 months of age due to sepsis and 1 year of age due to inflammatory bowel disease, respectively. Absolute neutrophil and lymphocyte counts, immunoglobulin levels, and lymphocyte subsets were normal ruling out severe congenital neutropenia and classic severe combined immunodeficiencies. Quantitative determination of oxidative burst was normal, excluding chronic granulomatous disease. Colonoscopy revealed granulation, ulceration, and pseudopolyps, compatible with colitis. Very early-onset colitis and perianal disease leading to fistula formation suggested probability of inherited deficiencies of IL-10 or IL-10 receptor. A mutation at position c.G477A in exon of the IL10RB gene, resulting in a stop codon at position p.W159X, was identified. The patient underwent myeloablative hematopoietic stem cell transplantation from full matched father at 11 months of age. Perianal lesions, chronic diarrhea, and recurrent infections resolved after transplantation. IL-10/IL-10R deficiencies must be considered in patients with early-onset enterocolitis. PMID:27699073

  9. Molecular characterisation of six patients with prolidase deficiency: identification of the first small duplication in the prolidase gene and of a mutation generating symptomatic and asymptomatic outcomes within the same family

    PubMed Central

    Lupi, A; Rossi, A; Campari, E; Pecora, F; Lund, A M; Elcioglu, N H; Gultepe, M; Rocco, M Di; Cetta, G; Forlino, A

    2006-01-01

    Prolidase deficiency (PD) is a rare autosomal recessive connective tissue disorder caused by mutations in the prolidase gene. The PD patients show a wide range of clinical outcomes characterised mainly by intractable skin ulcers, mental retardation and recurrent respiratory infections. Here we describe five different PEPD mutations in six European patients. We identified two new PEPD mutant alleles: a 13 bp duplication in exon 8, which is the first reported duplication in the prolidase gene and a point mutation resulting in a change in amino acid E412, a highly conserved residue among different species. The E412K substitution is responsible for the first reported phenotypic variability within a family with severe and asymptomatic outcomes. PMID:17142620

  10. Partial glutathione reductase deficiency as a cause of diverse clinical manifestations in a family with unstable hemoglobin (Hemoglobin Haná, β63(E7) His-Asn).

    PubMed

    Mojzikova, Renata; Dolezel, Petr; Pavlicek, Jiri; Mlejnek, Petr; Pospisilova, Dagmar; Divoky, Vladimir

    2010-10-15

    Hemoglobin Haná [β63(E7) His-Asn] is an unstable hemoglobin variant that was described in a Czech proband and her sister with Heinz body hemolytic anemia. The mother bearing the same mutation was asymptomatic; nevertheless, all three carriers had the same proportion of the mutant globin chains. Assessment of several erythrocyte antioxidant parameters revealed that both symptomatic children, unlike their asymptomatic mother, had significantly decreased glutathione reductase (GR) activity. Their GR activities were restorable in vitro by flavin adenine dinucleotide. The riboflavin supplementation improved their glutathione metabolism and ameliorated their hemolysis. Pre- and post-treatment assessment of the B(2) vitamers indicated suboptimal pre-treatment vitamin B(2) status in both children. This study provides evidence that partial GR deficiency may alter the clinical manifestation of an unstable hemoglobinopathy. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Specific digestive deficiency of phagocytes in paracoccidioidomycosis. Its absence in peripheral blood neutrophils of members of the nuclear family of patients. An initial report.

    PubMed

    Urquiola, G; Goihman-Yahr, M; Bastardo de Albornoz, M C; Istúriz, G; Viloria, N; Saavedra, N; Carrasquero, M; Pereira, J; de Gómez, M H; Román, A

    1993-01-01

    Paracoccidioidomycosis (PARA) affects only a minority of individuals, who have presumably been exposed to the causative fungus (Paracoccidioides brasiliensis). Neutrophils (PMNs) from patients with PARA show a significant and specific digestive deficiency phagocytosed P. brasiliensis in vitro. It is not known whether the defect is acquired after contact with the fungus, or precedes it. We studied the spouses and offspring of three patients with PARA. Individuals studied stayed in the same house as their husband or father. None of the relatives had evidence of PARA, and their PMNs showed no defect in their ability to digest or kill the fungus. Relatives showed no indication of sensitization against P. brasiliensis. These results are compatible with the view that effective contact with P. brasiliensis may occur only under restricted conditions and that the defect in digestive ability is an infrequent and specific occurrence.

  12. [Thyrotropic deficiency].

    PubMed

    Chanson, P

    1998-11-15

    Central hypothyroidism (thyrotropic deficiency) is due to a defect in TSH secretion by thyrotrophs (or alternatively to an altered bioactivity of TSH). Central hypothyroidism is rare and is often associated with other pituitary deficiencies as it is generally encountered in case of hypothalamo-pituitary tumoral process. Clinical symptoms are milder than those of primary thyroid failure. Diagnosis is based on free T4 measurement whose level is decreased while TSH concentration is normal or minimally increased, reflecting an alteration in the bioactivity of TSH. Replacement therapy is monitored by T4 level measurement: the objective is to obtain normal T4 levels. TSH concentration must not be taken into account for the adjustment of the thyroxine doses.

  13. Parp1 deficient mice are protected from streptozotocin-induced diabetes but not caerulein-induced pancreatitis, independent of the induction of Reg family genes.

    PubMed

    Li, Bing; Luo, Chen; Chowdhury, Subrata; Gao, Zu-Hua; Liu, Jun-Li

    2013-09-10

    Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (Parp) 1 is a key regulator of cell death, its inhibition prevented streptozotocin-induced diabetes and attenuated caerulein-induced acute pancreatitis. Reg family proteins are significantly induced by Parp1 inhibitor, experimental diabetes and/or acute pancreatitis. We propose that Reg proteins are involved in the protection of pancreatic cells by Parp1 inhibition. To test this possibility, Parp1-/- and wild-type mice were injected with streptozotocin to induce diabetes. Separately, acute pancreatitis was induced with repeated injections of caerulein. Upon streptozotocin administration, Parp1-/- mice displayed much decreased hyperglycemia and preserved serum insulin level. The treatment induced similar levels of Reg1, -2, -3α and -3β genes in the pancreas of both wild-type and Parp1-/- mice, suggesting that the upregulation of Reg family genes during streptozotocin-induced diabetes was independent of Parp1 ablation. In caerulein-induced pancreatitis, unlike being reported, Parp1 knockout caused no relief on the severity of pancreatitis; the upregulation of pancreatic Reg1, -2, -3α and -3β genes upon caerulein was unaffected by Parp1 deletion. Our results reconfirmed the protective effect of Parp1 gene deletion on islet β-cells but questioned its effect on the acinar cells. In either case, the significant induction of Reg family genes seemed independent of Parp1-mediated cell death.

  14. Evidence for a partial deficiency of the LDL (apo B,E) receptor within a family of rhesus monkeys with a spontaneous hypercholesterolemia

    SciTech Connect

    Scanu, A.M.; Khalil, A.; Tidore, M.; Kaiser, M.; Pfaffinger, D.; Carey, D.; Dawson, G.

    1987-05-01

    Spontaneous hypercholesterolemia is rare among non-human primates. Through screening of a rhesus monkey colony they have identified a family in which 3 out of its 6 members have a persistent hypercholesterolemia on a cholesterol-free Purina Chow diet and are high responders to a dietary fat challenge. On a basal diet the 3 affected animals also exhibited high plasma levels of LDL and apoB. To shed light on the mechanism of the hypercholesterolemia they have grown in culture fibroblasts from skin biopsies obtained from all members of the rhesus monkey family and 12 control. Binding studies at 4/sup 0/C and ligand blotting experiments using /sup 125/I-LDL of either normolipidemic rhesus monkeys or human subjects have shown that the fibroblasts from the 3 monkeys with a spontaneous hypercholesterolemia have a significant reduction of the number of LDL receptor and to the same extent as fibroblasts derived from subjects with heterozygous FH studied at the same time. The data suggest that the spontaneous elevation of plasma cholesterol observed in the 3 family members is related, at least in part, to a defective uptake of LDL by the LDL receptor pathway.

  15. Plasminogen deficiency.

    PubMed

    Celkan, Tiraje

    2017-01-01

    Plasminogen plays an important role in fibrinolysis as well as wound healing, cell migration, tissue modeling and angiogenesis. Congenital plasminogen deficiency is a rare autosomal recessive disorder that leads to the development of thick, wood-like pseudomembranes on mucosal surfaces, mostly seen in conjunctivas named as ''ligneous conjunctivitis''. Local conjunctival use of fresh frozen plazma (FFP) in combination with other eye medications such as cyclosporin and artificial tear drops may relieve the symptoms. Topical treatment with plasminogen eye drops is the most promising treatment that is not yet available in Turkey.

  16. Low testosterone elevates interleukin family cytokines in a rodent model: a possible mechanism for the potentiation of vascular disease in androgen-deficient males.

    PubMed

    Freeman, Brian M; Mountain, Deidra J H; Brock, Timothy C; Chapman, Jason R; Kirkpatrick, Stacy S; Freeman, Michael B; Klein, Frederick A; Grandas, Oscar H

    2014-07-01

    Androgen deficiency (AD) is associated with increased risk of atherosclerosis, cardiovascular, and peripheral arterial disease. Although the biochemical and molecular mechanisms underlying this risk remain unclear, higher testosterone (TST) levels correlate to significant immunoprotective molecular and cellular responses. Our group has previously demonstrated that female sex hormones influence vascular pathogenesis via inflammatory-modulated matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) regulation. Here we investigated the role of AD and androgen replacement therapy in the modulation of these hormonally responsive pathways that could be playing a role in the development of vascular pathogenesis. Aged orchiectomized male rats underwent TST supplementation per controlled release pellet implantation (0-150 mg). Young and aged intact groups served as controls. Serum was collected at 0-4 wk and analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, qualitative cytokine screening, and quantitative multiplex analyses. Human aortic smooth muscle cells were treated with 4,5α-dihydrotestosterone (DHT; 0-3000 nM) before or after interleukin 1β (IL-1β; 5 ng/mL) stimulation. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction and in-gel zymography was used to assay the effect on MMP expression and activity. Subphysiological, physiological, and supraphysiological levels of TST were achieved with 0.5, 2.5, and 35 mg TST pellet implants in vivo, respectively. Inflammatory arrays indicated that interleukin cytokines, specifically IL-2, IL-6, IL-10, IL-12, and IL-13, were elevated at subphysiological level of TST, whereas TST supplementation decreased interleukins. Supraphysiological TST resulted in a significant increase in MMP-9 and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1) in vivo. Pretreatment with IL-1β slightly increased membrane type 1-MMP (MT1-MMP) and MMP-2 expression at low to mid-level DHT exposure in vitro, although these trends were not statistically significant. Here we demonstrate AD

  17. IKAP/hELP1 deficiency in the cerebrum of familial dysautonomia patients results in down regulation of genes involved in oligodendrocyte differentiation and in myelination.

    PubMed

    Cheishvili, David; Maayan, Channa; Smith, Yoav; Ast, Gil; Razin, Aharon

    2007-09-01

    The gene affected in the congenital neuropathy familial dysautonomia (FD) is IKBKAP that codes for the IKAP/hELP1 protein. Several different functions have been suggested for this protein, but none of them have been verified in vivo or shown to have some link with the FD phenotype. In an attempt to elucidate the involvement of IKAP/hELP1 in brain function, we searched for IKAP/hELP1 target genes associated with neuronal function. In a microarray expression analysis using RNA extracted from the cerebrum of two FD patients as well as sex and age matched controls, no genes were found to be upregulated in the FD cerebrum. However, 25 genes were downregulated more than 2-fold in the cerebrum of both the male FD child and female FD mature woman. Thirteen of them are known to be involved in oligodendrocyte development and myelin formation. The down regulation of all these genes was verified by real-time PCR. Four of these genes were also confirmed to be downregulated at the protein level. These results are statistically significant and have high biological relevance, since seven of the downregulated genes in the cerebrum of the FD patients were shown by others to be upregulated during oligodendrocyte differentiation in vitro. Our results therefore suggest that IKAP/hELP1 may play a role in oligodendrocyte differentiation and/or myelin formation.

  18. Tissue Doppler imaging for detection of radial and longitudinal myocardial dysfunction in a family of cats affected by dystrophin-deficient hypertrophic muscular dystrophy.

    PubMed

    Chetboul, Valérie; Blot, Stephane; Sampedrano, Carolina Carlos; Thibaud, Jean-Laurent; Granger, Nicolas; Tissier, Renaud; Bruneval, Patrick; Gaschen, Frederic; Gouni, Vassiliki; Nicolle, Audrey P; Pouchelon, Jean-Louis

    2006-01-01

    Diagnosis of feline hypertrophic cardiomyopathy currently is based on the presence of myocardial hypertrophy detected using conventional echocardiography. The accuracy of tissue Doppler imaging (TDI) for earlier detection of the disease has never been described. The objective of this sudy was to quantify left ventricular free wall (LVFW) velocities in cats with hypertrophic muscular dystrophy (HFMD) during preclinical cardiomyopathy using TDI. The study animals included 22 healthy controls and 7 cats belonging to a family of cats with HFMD (2 affected adult males, 2 heterozygous adult females, one 2.5-month-old affected male kitten, and 2 phenotypically normal female kittens from the same litter). All cats were examined via conventional echocardiography and 2-dimensional color TDI. No LVFW hypertrophy was detected in the 2 carriers or in the affected kitten when using conventional echocardiography and histologic examination, respectively. The LVFW also was normal for 1 affected male and at the upper limit of normal for the 2nd male. Conversely, LVFW dysfunction was detected in all affected and carrier cats with HFMD when using TDI. TDI consistently detects LVFW dysfunction in cats with HFMD despite the absence of myocardial hypertrophy. Therefore, TDI appears more sensitive than conventional echocardiography in detecting regional myocardial abnormalities.

  19. PAPSS2 Deficiency Causes Androgen Excess via Impaired DHEA Sulfation—In Vitro and in Vivo Studies in a Family Harboring Two Novel PAPSS2 Mutations

    PubMed Central

    Oostdijk, Wilma; Idkowiak, Jan; Mueller, Jonathan W.; House, Philip J.; Taylor, Angela E.; O'Reilly, Michael W.; Hughes, Beverly A.; de Vries, Martine C.; Kant, Sarina G.; Santen, Gijs W. E.; Verkerk, Annemieke J. M. H.; Uitterlinden, André G.; Wit, Jan M.; Losekoot, Monique

    2015-01-01

    Context: PAPSS2 (PAPS synthase 2) provides the universal sulfate donor PAPS (3′-phospho-adenosine-5′-phosphosulfate) to all human sulfotransferases, including SULT2A1, responsible for sulfation of the crucial androgen precursor dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA). Impaired DHEA sulfation is thought to increase the conversion of DHEA toward active androgens, a proposition supported by the previous report of a girl with inactivating PAPSS2 mutations who presented with low serum DHEA sulfate and androgen excess, clinically manifesting with premature pubarche and early-onset polycystic ovary syndrome. Patients and Methods: We investigated a family harboring two novel PAPSS2 mutations, including two compound heterozygous brothers presenting with disproportionate short stature, low serum DHEA sulfate, but normal serum androgens. Patients and parents underwent a DHEA challenge test comprising frequent blood sampling and urine collection before and after 100 mg DHEA orally, with subsequent analysis of DHEA sulfation and androgen metabolism by mass spectrometry. The functional impact of the mutations was investigated in silico and in vitro. Results: We identified a novel PAPSS2 frameshift mutation, c.1371del, p.W462Cfs*3, resulting in complete disruption, and a novel missense mutation, c.809G>A, p.G270D, causing partial disruption of DHEA sulfation. Both patients and their mother, who was heterozygous for p.W462Cfs*3, showed increased 5α-reductase activity at baseline and significantly increased production of active androgens after DHEA intake. The mother had a history of oligomenorrhea and chronic anovulation that required clomiphene for ovulation induction. Conclusions: We provide direct in vivo evidence for the significant functional impact of mutant PAPSS2 on DHEA sulfation and androgen activation. Heterozygosity for PAPSS2 mutations can be associated with a phenotype resembling polycystic ovary syndrome. PMID:25594860

  20. The novel extremely acidophilic, cell-wall-deficient archaeon Cuniculiplasma divulgatum gen. nov., sp. nov. represents a new family, Cuniculiplasmataceae fam. nov., of the order Thermoplasmatales

    PubMed Central

    Lünsdorf, Heinrich; Kublanov, Ilya V.; Goldenstein, Nadine I.; Hinrichs, Kai-Uwe; Golyshin, Peter N.

    2016-01-01

    Two novel cell-wall-less, acidophilic, mesophilic, organotrophic and facultatively anaerobic archaeal strains were isolated from acidic streamers formed on the surfaces of copper-ore-containing sulfidic deposits in south-west Spain and North Wales, UK. Cells of the strains varied from 0.1 to 2 μm in size and were pleomorphic, with a tendency to form filamentous structures. The optimal pH and temperature for growth for both strains were 1.0–1.2 and 37–40 °C, with the optimal substrates for growth being beef extract (3 g l− 1) for strain S5T and beef extract with tryptone (3 and 1 g l− 1, respectively) for strain PM4. The lipid composition was dominated by intact polar lipids consisting of a glycerol dibiphytanyl glycerol tetraether (GDGT) core attached to predominantly glycosidic polar headgroups. In addition, free GDGT and small relative amounts of intact and core diether lipids were present. Strains S5T and PM4 possessed mainly menaquinones with minor fractions of thermoplasmaquinones. The DNA G+C content was 37.3 mol% in strain S5T and 37.16 mol% for strain PM4. A similarity matrix of 16S rRNA gene sequences (identical for both strains) showed their affiliation to the order Thermoplasmatales, with 73.9–86.3 % identity with sequences from members of the order with validly published names. The average nucleotide identity between genomes of the strains determined in silico was 98.75 %, suggesting, together with the 16S rRNA gene-based phylogenetic analysis, that the strains belong to the same species. A novel family, Cuniculiplasmataceae fam. nov., genus Cuniculiplasma gen. nov. and species Cuniculiplasma divulgatum sp. nov. are proposed based on the phylogenetic, chemotaxonomic analyses and physiological properties of the two isolates, S5T and PM4 ( = JCM 30641 = VKM B-2940). The type strain of Cuniculiplasma divulgatum is S5T ( = JCM 30642T = VKM B-2941T). PMID:26518885

  1. Histomorphometric Parameters of the Growth Plate and Trabecular Bone in Wild-Type and Trefoil Factor Family 3 (Tff3)-Deficient Mice Analyzed by Free and Open-Source Image Processing Software.

    PubMed

    Bijelić, Nikola; Belovari, Tatjana; Stolnik, Dunja; Lovrić, Ivana; Baus Lončar, Mirela

    2017-08-01

    Trefoil factor family 3 (Tff3) peptide is present during intrauterine endochondral ossification in mice, and its deficiency affects cancellous bone quality in secondary ossification centers of mouse tibiae. The aim of this study was to quantitatively analyze parameters describing the growth plate and primary ossification centers in tibiae of 1-month-old wild-type and Tff3 knock-out mice (n=5 per genotype) by using free and open-source software. Digital photographs of the growth plates and trabecular bone were processed by open-source computer programs GIMP and FIJI. Histomorphometric parameters were calculated using measurements made with FIJI. Tff3 knock-out mice had significantly smaller trabecular number and significantly larger trabecular separation. Trabecular bone volume, trabecular bone surface, and trabecular thickness showed no significant difference between the two groups. Although such histomorphological differences were found in the cancellous bone structure, no significant differences were found in the epiphyseal plate histomorphology. Tff3 peptide probably has an effect on the formation and quality of the cancellous bone in the primary ossification centers, but not through disrupting the epiphyseal plate morphology. This work emphasizes the benefits of using free and open-source programs for morphological studies in life sciences.

  2. Familial lipoprotein lipase deficiency: a case of compound heterozygosity of a novel duplication (R44Kfs*4) and a common mutation (N291S) in the lipoprotein lipase gene.

    PubMed

    Overgaard, Martin; Brasen, Claus Lohman; Svaneby, Dea; Feddersen, Søren; Nybo, Mads

    2013-07-01

    Familial lipoprotein lipase (LPL) deficiency (FLLD) is a rare autosomal recessive genetic disorder caused by homozygous or compound heterozygous mutations in the LPL gene. FLLD individuals usually express an impaired or non-functional LPL enzyme with low or absent triglyceride (TG) hydrolysis activity causing severe hypertriglyceridaemia. Here we report a case of FLLD in a 29-year-old man, who initially presented with eruptive cutaneous xanthomata, elevated plasma TG concentration but no other co-morbidities. Subsequent genetic testing of the patient revealed compound heterozygosity of a novel duplication (p.R44Kfs*4) leading to a premature stop codon in exon 2 and a known mutation (N291S) in exon 5 of the LPL gene. Further biochemical analysis of the patient's postheparin plasma confirmed a reduction of total lipase activity compared with his heterozygous father carrying the common N291S mutation and to a healthy control. Also the patient showed increased (1.85-fold) activity of hepatic lipase (HL), indicating a functional link between HL and LPL. In summary, we report a case of FLLD caused by compound heterozygosity of a new duplication and a common mutation in the LPL gene, resulting in residual LPL activity. With such mutations, individuals may not receive a diagnosis before classical FLLD symptoms appear later in adulthood. Nevertheless, early diagnosis and lipid-lowering treatment may favour a reduced risk of premature cardiovascular disease or acute pancreatitis in such individuals.

  3. Hereditary galactokinase deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Cook, J. G. H.; Don, N. A.; Mann, Trevor P.

    1971-01-01

    A baby with galactokinase deficiency, a recessive inborn error of galactose metabolism, is described. The case is exceptional in that there was no evidence of gypsy blood in the family concerned. The investigation of neonatal hyperbilirubinaemia led to the discovery of galactosuria. As noted by others, the paucity of presenting features makes early diagnosis difficult, and detection by biochemical screening seems desirable. Cataract formation, of early onset, appears to be the only severe persisting complication and may be due to the biosynthesis and accumulation of galactitol in the lens. Ophthalmic surgeons need to be aware of this enzyme defect, because with early diagnosis and dietary treatment these lens changes should be reversible. PMID:5109408

  4. Unilateral Isolated Proximal Femoral Focal Deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Doğer, Emek; Köpük, Şule Y.; Çakıroğlu, Yiğit; Çakır, Özgür; Yücesoy, Gülseren

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To discuss a patient with a prenatal diagnosis of unilateral isolated femoral focal deficiency. Case. Antenatal diagnosis of unilateral isolated femoral focal deficiency was made at 20 weeks of gestation. The length of left femur was shorter than the right, and fetal femur length was below the fifth percentile. Proximal femoral focal deficiency was diagnosed. After delivery, the diagnosis was confirmed with skeletal radiographs and magnetic resonance imaging. In prenatal ultrasonographic examination, the early recognition and exclusion of skeletal dysplasias is important; moreover, treatment plans should be initiated, and valuable information should be provided to the family. PMID:23984135

  5. Iron-refractory iron deficiency anemia (IRIDA).

    PubMed

    Heeney, Matthew M; Finberg, Karin E

    2014-08-01

    Iron deficiency anemia is a common global problem whose etiology is typically attributed to acquired inadequate dietary intake and/or chronic blood loss. However, in several kindreds multiple family members are affected with iron deficiency anemia that is unresponsive to oral iron supplementation and only partially responsive to parenteral iron therapy. The discovery that many of these cases harbor mutations in the TMPRSS6 gene led to the recognition that they represent a single clinical entity: iron-refractory iron deficiency anemia (IRIDA). This article reviews clinical features of IRIDA, recent genetic studies, and insights this disorder provides into the regulation of systemic iron homeostasis.

  6. Deficiency of Adenosine Deaminase 2 Causes Antibody Deficiency.

    PubMed

    Schepp, Johanna; Bulashevska, Alla; Mannhardt-Laakmann, Wilma; Cao, Hongzhi; Yang, Fang; Seidl, Maximilian; Kelly, Susan; Hershfield, Michael; Grimbacher, Bodo

    2016-04-01

    Determining the monogenic cause of antibody deficiency and immune dysregulation in a non-consanguineous family with healthy parents, two affected children, and one unaffected child. Whole Exome Sequencing (WES) was performed in the index family. WES results were confirmed by Sanger Sequencing. Dried plasma spots of the male patient and his mother were analyzed for ADA2 enzymatic activity. Following data analysis of WES, we found a compound heterozygous mutation in CECR1 (encoding adenosine deaminase 2, ADA2) that segregated in the two affected children. Enzyme activity measurement confirmed a severely diminished ADA2 activity in our patient. The 32 year old index patient was suffering from recurrent respiratory infections and was previously diagnosed with common variable immunodeficiency (CVID), showing no signs of vasculitis. His sister had a systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)-like phenotype and died at age 17. Deficiency of ADA2 (DADA2) has been reported to cause vasculopathy and early-onset stroke. Our case suggests that it should also be considered when evaluating patients with antibody deficiencies and immune dysregulation syndromes.

  7. Growth hormone deficiency: an update.

    PubMed

    Audí, L; Fernández-Cancio, M; Camats, N; Carrascosa, A

    2013-03-01

    Growth hormone (GH) deficiency (GHD) in humans manifests differently according to the individual developmental stage (early after birth, during childhood, at puberty or in adulthood), the cause or mechanism (genetic, acquired or idiopathic), deficiency intensity and whether it is the only pituitary-affected hormone or is combined with that of other pituitary hormones or forms part of a complex syndrome. Growing knowledge of the genetic basis of GH deficiency continues to provide us with useful information to further characterise mutation types and mechanisms for previously described and new candidate genes. Despite these advances, a high proportion of GH deficiencies with no recognisable acquired basis continue to be labelled as idiopathic, although less frequently when they are congenital and/or familial. The clinical and biochemical diagnoses continue to be a conundrum despite efforts to harmonise biochemical assays for GH and IGF-1 analysis, probably because the diagnosis based on the so-called GH secretion stimulation tests will prove to be of limited usefulness for predicting therapy indications.

  8. Failure of hematocrit to detect iron deficiency in infants.

    PubMed

    Kazal, L A

    1996-03-01

    Infants of low-income families have three times the risk of iron deficiency as those of families above the poverty level. Psychomotor deficits have been associated with iron deficiency once it produces anemia. High-risk infants are usually screened for iron deficiency between 9 and 12 months of age with a hematocrit measurement. This type of screening may miss iron-deficient infants who are not yet anemic. In the well-child clinics for low-income families in Houston, Texas, a hematocrit (Hct) < or = 33% is the standard screening criterion for iron deficiency. Three hundred twenty-one infants between the ages of 9 and 18 months had capillary blood drawn for Hct testing. Serum ferritin levels were simultaneously measured. Six (1.9%) of the 321 infants were anemic, but none because of iron deficiency. Fifty-one infants (15.9%) were iron deficient (ferritin <10 micrograms/L), none of whom were anemic. Hematocrit and ferritin levels did not correlate statistically. The Hct is not an adequate screening test for iron deficiency in this population of infants. Although this population is usually considered high-risk, iron deficiency was mild. Selective screening of high-risk infants in this population may be appropriate, but a more sensitive screening test is required. Further studies are needed to determine the prevalences of iron deficiency in this and other high-risk populations.

  9. Pyruvate kinase deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... the second most common cause, after glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency . PKD is found in people ... Read More Anemia Autosomal recessive Enzyme Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency Hemolytic anemia Review Date 10/27/ ...

  10. Epidemiology of iodine deficiency.

    PubMed

    Vanderpump, Mark P

    2017-04-01

    Iodine is an essential component of the thyroid hormones thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3) produced by the thyroid gland. Iodine deficiency impairs thyroid hormone production and has adverse effects throughout life, particularly early in life as it impairs cognition and growth. Iodine deficiency remains a significant problem despite major national and international efforts to increase iodine intake, primarily through the voluntary or mandatory iodization of salt. Recent epidemiological data suggest that iodine deficiency is an emerging issue in industrialized countries, previously thought of as iodine-sufficient. International efforts to control iodine deficiency are slowing, and reaching the third of the worldwide population that remains deficient poses major challenges.

  11. Recessive inheritance of the adult type of intestinal lactase deficiency.

    PubMed Central

    Lisker, R; Gonzalez, B; Daltabuit, M

    1975-01-01

    In order to investigate the genetic control of the adult type of intestinal lactase deficiency, 61 families with 177 children over 6 years of age were investigated. The results strongly suggest that this deficiency is inherited as a simple Mendelian recessive trait. PMID:1163538

  12. Infections Revealing Complement Deficiency in Adults

    PubMed Central

    Audemard-Verger, A.; Descloux, E.; Ponard, D.; Deroux, A.; Fantin, B.; Fieschi, C.; John, M.; Bouldouyre, A.; Karkowsi, L.; Moulis, G.; Auvinet, H.; Valla, F.; Lechiche, C.; Davido, B.; Martinot, M.; Biron, C.; Lucht, F.; Asseray, N.; Froissart, A.; Buzelé, R.; Perlat, A.; Boutboul, D.; Fremeaux-Bacchi, V.; Isnard, S.; Bienvenu, B.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Complement system is a part of innate immunity, its main function is to protect human from bacterial infection. As genetic disorders, complement deficiencies are often diagnosed in pediatric population. However, complement deficiencies can also be revealed in adults but have been poorly investigated. Herein, we describe a case series of infections revealing complement deficiency in adults to study clinical spectrum and management of complement deficiencies. A nationwide retrospective study was conducted in French university and general hospitals in departments of internal medicine, infectious diseases enrolling patients older than 15 years old who had presented at least one infection leading to a complement deficiency diagnosis. Forty-one patients included between 2002 and 2015 in 19 different departments were enrolled in this study. The male-to-female ratio was 1.3 and the mean age at diagnosis was 28 ± 14 (15–67) years. The main clinical feature was Neisseria meningitidis meningitis 75% (n = 31/41) often involving rare serotype: Y (n = 9) and W 135 (n = 7). The main complement deficiency observed was the common final pathway deficiency 83% (n = 34/41). Half of the cohort displayed severe sepsis or septic shock at diagnosis (n = 22/41) but no patient died. No patient had family history of complement deficiency. The mean follow-up was 1.15 ± 1.95 (0.1–10) years. Half of the patients had already suffered from at least one infection before diagnosis of complement deficiency: meningitis (n = 13), pneumonia (n = 4), fulminans purpura (n = 1), or recurrent otitis (n = 1). Near one-third (n = 10/39) had received prophylactic antibiotics (cotrimoxazole or penicillin) after diagnosis of complement deficiency. The vaccination coverage rate, at the end of the follow-up, for N meningitidis, Streptococcus pneumonia, and Haemophilius influenzae were, respectively, 90% (n = 33/37), 47% (n = 17/36), and 35

  13. Colour vision deficiency.

    PubMed

    Simunovic, M P

    2010-05-01

    Colour vision deficiency is one of the commonest disorders of vision and can be divided into congenital and acquired forms. Congenital colour vision deficiency affects as many as 8% of males and 0.5% of females--the difference in prevalence reflects the fact that the commonest forms of congenital colour vision deficiency are inherited in an X-linked recessive manner. Until relatively recently, our understanding of the pathophysiological basis of colour vision deficiency largely rested on behavioural data; however, modern molecular genetic techniques have helped to elucidate its mechanisms. The current management of congenital colour vision deficiency lies chiefly in appropriate counselling (including career counselling). Although visual aids may be of benefit to those with colour vision deficiency when performing certain tasks, the evidence suggests that they do not enable wearers to obtain normal colour discrimination. In the future, gene therapy remains a possibility, with animal models demonstrating amelioration following treatment.

  14. Acquired color vision deficiency.

    PubMed

    Simunovic, Matthew P

    2016-01-01

    Acquired color vision deficiency occurs as the result of ocular, neurologic, or systemic disease. A wide array of conditions may affect color vision, ranging from diseases of the ocular media through to pathology of the visual cortex. Traditionally, acquired color vision deficiency is considered a separate entity from congenital color vision deficiency, although emerging clinical and molecular genetic data would suggest a degree of overlap. We review the pathophysiology of acquired color vision deficiency, the data on its prevalence, theories for the preponderance of acquired S-mechanism (or tritan) deficiency, and discuss tests of color vision. We also briefly review the types of color vision deficiencies encountered in ocular disease, with an emphasis placed on larger or more detailed clinical investigations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Vitamin B12 deficiency.

    PubMed

    Green, Ralph; Allen, Lindsay H; Bjørke-Monsen, Anne-Lise; Brito, Alex; Guéant, Jean-Louis; Miller, Joshua W; Molloy, Anne M; Nexo, Ebba; Stabler, Sally; Toh, Ban-Hock; Ueland, Per Magne; Yajnik, Chittaranjan

    2017-06-29

    Vitamin B12 (B12; also known as cobalamin) is a B vitamin that has an important role in cellular metabolism, especially in DNA synthesis, methylation and mitochondrial metabolism. Clinical B12 deficiency with classic haematological and neurological manifestations is relatively uncommon. However, subclinical deficiency affects between 2.5% and 26% of the general population depending on the definition used, although the clinical relevance is unclear. B12 deficiency can affect individuals at all ages, but most particularly elderly individuals. Infants, children, adolescents and women of reproductive age are also at high risk of deficiency in populations where dietary intake of B12-containing animal-derived foods is restricted. Deficiency is caused by either inadequate intake, inadequate bioavailability or malabsorption. Disruption of B12 transport in the blood, or impaired cellular uptake or metabolism causes an intracellular deficiency. Diagnostic biomarkers for B12 status include decreased levels of circulating total B12 and transcobalamin-bound B12, and abnormally increased levels of homocysteine and methylmalonic acid. However, the exact cut-offs to classify clinical and subclinical deficiency remain debated. Management depends on B12 supplementation, either via high-dose oral routes or via parenteral administration. This Primer describes the current knowledge surrounding B12 deficiency, and highlights improvements in diagnostic methods as well as shifting concepts about the prevalence, causes and manifestations of B12 deficiency.

  16. Cerebral creatine deficiencies: a group of treatable intellectual developmental disorders.

    PubMed

    Stockler-Ipsiroglu, Sylvia; van Karnebeek, Clara D M

    2014-07-01

    Currently there are 91 treatable inborn errors of metabolism that cause intellectual developmental disorders. Cerebral creatine deficiencies (CDD) comprise three of these: arginine: glycine amidinotransferase [AGAT], guanidinoacetate methyltransferase [GAMT], and X-linked creatine transporter deficiency [SLC6A8]. Intellectual developmental disorder and cerebral creatine deficiency are the hallmarks of CDD. Additional clinical features include prominent speech delay, autism, epilepsy, extrapyramidal movement disorders, and signal changes in the globus pallidus. Patients with GAMT deficiency exhibit the most severe clinical spectrum. Myopathy is a distinct feature in AGAT deficiency. Guanidinoacetate (GAA) is the immediate product in the creatine biosynthetic pathway. Low GAA concentrations in urine, plasma, and cerebrospinal fluid are characteristic diagnostic markers for AGAT deficiency, while high GAA concentrations are characteristic markers for GAMT deficiency. An elevated ratio of urinary creatine /creatinine excretion serves as a diagnostic marker in males with SLC6A8 deficiency. Treatment strategies include oral supplementation of high-dose creatine-monohydrate for all three CDD. Guanidinoacetate-reducing strategies (high-dose ornithine, arginine-restricted diet) are additionally employed in GAMT deficiency. Supplementation of substrates for intracerebral creatine synthesis (arginine, glycine) has been used additionally to treat SLC6A8 deficiency. Early recognition and treatment improves outcomes. Normal outcomes in neonatally ascertained siblings from index families with AGAT and GAMT deficiency suggest a potential benefit of newborn screening for these disorders.

  17. Issues in the Diagnosis and Management of Hereditary Antithrombin Deficiency.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Kenneth A; Nguyen-Cao, Tam M; Spears, Jeffrey B

    2016-09-01

    To review insights gained in the past several years about hereditary antithrombin (AT) deficiency and to outline approaches to the management of patients with AT deficiency in the acute and chronic settings. An extensive literature search of Scopus (January 2008-April 2016) was performed for the terms congenital antithrombin deficiency, inherited antithrombin deficiency, or hereditary antithrombin deficiency Additional references were identified by reviewing literature citations. All relevant English-language case reports, reviews, clinical studies, meeting abstracts, and book chapters assessing hereditary AT deficiency were included. AT deficiency significantly increases the risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE). The risk of VTE is particularly high during pregnancy, the postpartum period, and following major surgery. Effective clinical management includes determination of the appropriate type and duration of antithrombotic therapy (ie, AT replacement for acute situations) while minimizing the risk of bleeding. For persons newly diagnosed with AT deficiency, age, lifestyle, concurrent medical conditions, family history, and personal treatment preferences can be used to individualize patient management. Patients should be informed of the risks associated with hormonal therapy, pregnancy, surgical procedures, and immobility, which further increase the risk of VTE in patients with AT deficiency. AT deficiency poses the highest risk for VTE among the hereditary thrombophilias, often requiring long-term anticoagulation. Undertaking an evaluation for hereditary thrombophilia is controversial; however, a diagnosis of VTE in association with AT deficiency can have management implications. An important treatment option for patients with this disorder in high-risk situations is AT concentrate. © The Author(s) 2016.

  18. MENTAL DEFICIENCY. SECOND EDITION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    HILLIARD, L.T.; KIRMAN, BRIAN H.

    REVISED TO INCLUDE LEGISLATIVE AND ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURES NEW IN BRITAIN SINCE THE 1957 EDITION, THE TEXT INCLUDES RECENT ADVANCES IN ETIOLOGY, PATHOLOGY, AND TREATMENT OF MENTAL DEFICIENCY. CONSIDERATION OF THE BACKGROUND OF MENTAL DEFICIENCY INCLUDES HISTORICAL AND LEGAL ASPECTS, THE SOCIAL BACKGROUND OF MENTAL DEFECT, PRENATAL CAUSES OF…

  19. Cerebral Folate Deficiency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Neil

    2009-01-01

    Cerebral folate deficiency (CFD) is associated with low levels of 5-methyltetrahydrofolate in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) with normal folate levels in the plasma and red blood cells. The onset of symptoms caused by the deficiency of folates in the brain is at around 4 to 6 months of age. This is followed by delayed development, with deceleration…

  20. Biotinidase deficiency: presymptomatic treatment.

    PubMed Central

    Wallace, S J

    1985-01-01

    Biotinidase deficiency presents with clinical signs of biotin deficiency at the age of 3 months, or soon after. In an infant in whom the diagnosis was made on cord blood, vision and hearing were normal before presymptomatic treatment with biotin. Physical and mental development are good at 14 months. PMID:4015175

  1. Biotinidase deficiency: presymptomatic treatment.

    PubMed

    Wallace, S J

    1985-06-01

    Biotinidase deficiency presents with clinical signs of biotin deficiency at the age of 3 months, or soon after. In an infant in whom the diagnosis was made on cord blood, vision and hearing were normal before presymptomatic treatment with biotin. Physical and mental development are good at 14 months.

  2. Cerebral Folate Deficiency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Neil

    2009-01-01

    Cerebral folate deficiency (CFD) is associated with low levels of 5-methyltetrahydrofolate in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) with normal folate levels in the plasma and red blood cells. The onset of symptoms caused by the deficiency of folates in the brain is at around 4 to 6 months of age. This is followed by delayed development, with deceleration…

  3. Iron induced nickel deficiency

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    It is increasingly apparent that economic loss due to nickel (Ni) deficiency likely occurs in horticultural and agronomic crops. While most soils contain sufficient Ni to meet crop requirements, situations of Ni deficiency can arise due to antagonistic interactions with other metals. This study asse...

  4. Vitamin Deficiency Anemia

    MedlinePlus

    ... used to treat cancer can interfere with the metabolism of folate. Vitamin B-12 deficiency anemia risk factors include: Lack of intrinsic factor. Most people with a vitamin B-12 deficiency anemia lack intrinsic factor — a protein secreted by the stomach that is necessary for ...

  5. MENTAL DEFICIENCY. SECOND EDITION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    HILLIARD, L.T.; KIRMAN, BRIAN H.

    REVISED TO INCLUDE LEGISLATIVE AND ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURES NEW IN BRITAIN SINCE THE 1957 EDITION, THE TEXT INCLUDES RECENT ADVANCES IN ETIOLOGY, PATHOLOGY, AND TREATMENT OF MENTAL DEFICIENCY. CONSIDERATION OF THE BACKGROUND OF MENTAL DEFICIENCY INCLUDES HISTORICAL AND LEGAL ASPECTS, THE SOCIAL BACKGROUND OF MENTAL DEFECT, PRENATAL CAUSES OF…

  6. The sulfatase gene family.

    PubMed

    Parenti, G; Meroni, G; Ballabio, A

    1997-06-01

    During the past few years, molecular analyses have provided important insights into the biochemistry and genetics of the sulfatase family of enzymes, identifying the molecular bases of inherited diseases caused by sulfatase deficiencies. New members of the sulfatase gene family have been identified in man and other species using a genomic approach. These include the gene encoding arylsulfatase E, which is involved in X-linked recessive chondrodysplasia punctata, a disorder of cartilage and bone development. Another important breakthrough has been the discovery of the biochemical basis of multiple sulfatase deficiency, an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by a severe of all sulfatase activities. These discoveries, together with the resolution of the crystallographic structure of sulfatases, have improved our understanding of the function and evolution of this fascinating family of enzymes.

  7. Iron deficiency anemia from diagnosis to treatment in children

    PubMed Central

    Özdemir, Nihal

    2015-01-01

    Iron deficiency is the most common nutritional deficiency worldwide and an important public health problem especially in developing countries. Since the most important indicator of iron deficieny is anemia, the terms “iron deficiency” and “iron deficiency anemia” are often used interchangeably. However, iron deficiency may develop in the absence of anemia and the tissues may be affected from this condition. The most common causes of iron deficiency in children include insufficient intake together with rapid growth, low birth weight and gastrointestinal losses related to excessive intake of cow’s milk. If insufficient intake can be excluded and there is insufficient response to oral iron treatment in patients with iron deficiency especially in older children, blood loss should be considered as the underlying cause. The main principles in management of iron deficiency anemia include investigation and elimination of the cause leading to iron deficiency, replacement of deficiency, improvement of nutrition and education of the patient and family. In this article, the practical approaches in the diagnosis and treatment of iron deficiency and the experience of our center have been reviewed. PMID:26078692

  8. Model of how plants sense zinc deficiency.

    PubMed

    Assunção, Ana G L; Persson, Daniel P; Husted, Søren; Schjørring, Jan K; Alexander, Ross D; Aarts, Mark G M

    2013-09-01

    Plants are capable of inducing a range of physico-chemical and microbial modifications of the rhizosphere which can mobilize mineral nutrients or prevent toxic elements from entering the roots. Understanding how plants sense and adapt to variations in nutrient availability is essential in order to develop plant-based solutions addressing nutrient-use-efficiency and adaptation to nutrient-limited or -toxic soils. Recently two transcription factors of the bZIP family (basic-region leucine zipper) have been identified in Arabidopsis and shown to be pivotal in the adaptation response to zinc deficiency. They represent not only the first regulators of zinc homeostasis identified in plants, but also a very promising starting-point that can provide new insights into the molecular basis of how plants sense and adapt to the stress of zinc deficiency. Considering the available information thus far we propose in this review a putative model of how plants sense zinc deficiency.

  9. Paroxysmal Nonepileptic Events in Glut1 Deficiency.

    PubMed

    Klepper, Joerg; Leiendecker, Baerbel; Eltze, Christin; Heussinger, Nicole

    2016-01-01

    View Supplementary Video Movement disorders are a major feature of Glut1 deficiency. As recently identified in adults with paroxysmal exercise-induced dystonia, similar events were reported in pediatric Glut1 deficiency. In a case series, parent videos of regular motor state and paroxysmal events were requested from children with Glut1 deficiency on clinical follow-up. A questionnaire was sent out to 60 families. Videos of nonparoxysmal/paroxysmal states in 3 children illustrated the ataxic-dystonic, choreatiform, and dyskinetic-dystonic nature of paroxysmal events. Fifty-six evaluated questionnaires confirmed this observation in 73% of patients. Events appeared to increase with age, were triggered by low ketosis, sleep deprivation, and physical exercise, and unrelated to sex, hypoglycorrhachia, SLC2A1 mutations, or type of ketogenic diet. We conclude that paroxysmal events are a major clinical feature in Glut1 deficieny, linking the pediatric disease to adult Glut1D-associated exercise-induced paroxysmal dyskinesias.

  10. Drugs producing vitamin deficiencies.

    PubMed

    Montenero, A S

    1980-01-01

    Many drugs produce vitamin deficiencies. They belong to the most important and common therapeutical classes: analgesics, antianemics, antibacterial and antiblastic agents, antibiotics, antidiabetics, antimalarials, antiphlogistics, antipyretics, diuretics, laxatives and purgatives, tranquilizers and anticonvulsives, radiomimetics, hormones and vitamins themselves. The vitamin deprivation processes may be produced by a variety of mechanisms and may involve all vitamins. Recent experiments indicate that there is a competition for binding sites on proteins between vitamin C and salicylate and between dicoumarol and vitamin K. Usually a drug exerts a "devitaminizing" action with respect to only one vitamin. However there are examples of multiple vitamin deficiencies induced by a single drug, like salicylate which deprives the organism of vitamins C, K and pantothenate. These deficiencies may develop either all at the same time or successively. A direct and concomitant vitamin depriving action occurs when an antibiotic blocks the production of vitamins by the enteric flora. A different mode of action occurs in the drug induced folic acid deficiency, which in turn induces a deficiency of vitamin B12. It has been reported that a vitamin deficiency may result from intake of high pharmacological doses of other vitamins. These data need confirmation in patients treated with high doses of nicotinic acid. The drug induced vitamin deficiencies are studied with the same methodology employed for avitaminoses in general; hence they can be diagnosed using the same criteria.

  11. Betaine deficiency in maize

    SciTech Connect

    Lerma, C. ); Rich, P.J.; Ju, G.C.; Yang, Wenju; Rhodes, D. ); Hanson, A.D. )

    1991-04-01

    Maize (Zea mays L.) is a betaine-accumulating species, but certain maize genotypes lack betaine almost completely; a single recessive gene has been implicated as the cause of this deficiency. This study was undertaken to determine whether betaine deficiency in diverse maize germplasm is conditioned by the same genetic locus, and to define the biochemical lesion(s) involved. Complementation tests indicated that all 13 deficient genotypes tested shared a common locus. One maize population (P77) was found to be segregating for betaine deficiency, and true breeding individuals were used to produce related lines with and without betaine. Leaf tissue of both betaine-positive and betaine-deficient lines readily converted supplied betaine aldehyde to betaine, but only the betaine-containing line was able to oxidize supplied choline to betaine. This locates the lesion in betaine-deficient plants at the choline {r arrow} betaine aldehyde step of betaine synthesis. Consistent with this location, betaine-deficient plants were shown to have no detectable endogenous pool of betaine aldehyde.

  12. Iron Deficiency Anemia.

    PubMed

    DeLoughery, Thomas G

    2017-03-01

    Iron deficiency is one of the most common causes of anemia. The 2 main etiologies of iron deficiency are blood loss due to menstrual periods and blood loss due to gastrointestinal bleeding. Beyond anemia, lack of iron has protean manifestations, including fatigue, hair loss, and restless legs. The most efficient test for the diagnosis of iron deficiency is the serum ferritin. Iron replacement can be done orally, or in patients in whom oral iron is not effective or contraindicated, with intravenous iron. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Iodine deficiency: Clinical implications.

    PubMed

    Niwattisaiwong, Soamsiri; Burman, Kenneth D; Li-Ng, Melissa

    2017-03-01

    Iodine is crucial for thyroid hormone synthesis and fetal neurodevelopment. Major dietary sources of iodine in the United States are dairy products and iodized salt. Potential consequences of iodine deficiency are goiter, hypothyroidism, cretinism, and impaired cognitive development. Although iodine status in the United States is considered sufficient at the population level, intake varies widely across the population, and the percentage of women of childbearing age with iodine deficiency is increasing. Physicians should be aware of the risks of iodine deficiency and the indications for iodine supplementation, especially in women who are pregnant or lactating.

  14. Monocyte esterase deficiency in malignant neoplasia.

    PubMed Central

    Markey, G M; McCormick, J A; Morris, T C; Alexander, H D; Nolan, L; Morgan, L M; Reynolds, M E; Edgar, S; Bell, A L; McCaigue, M D

    1990-01-01

    A survey of the incidence of monocyte esterase deficiency in 4000 inpatients (including 808 with malignant neoplastic disease) and 474 normal controls was performed using an automated esterase method. A highly significant excess of patients with malignant disease and the deficiency was evident when compared with normal controls or all other patients. Within the group of patients with malignant disease the demonstrable excess occurred in B chronic lymphocytic leukaemia, non-Hodgkin's and Hodgkin's lymphoma, and carcinoma of the gastrointestinal tract. There was also a significant excess of patients with the deficiency attending the renal unit, both among patients who had had renal transplants and those who had not. A familial incidence of monocyte esterase deficiency was found in 19 (35%) of first degree relatives of those patients in whom family studies were done. It is suggested that the reason for the increased prevalence of the anomaly in these disorders might be that the diminution of esterase activity has a role in their development. PMID:2341564

  15. Pbx3 Deficiency Results in Central Hypoventilation

    PubMed Central

    Rhee, Joon Whan; Arata, Akiko; Selleri, Licia; Jacobs, Yakop; Arata, Satoru; Onimaru, Hiroshi; Cleary, Michael L.

    2004-01-01

    Pbx proteins comprise a family of TALE (three amino acid loop extension) class homeodomain transcription factors that are implicated in developmental gene expression through their abilities to form hetero-oligomeric DNA-binding complexes and function as transcriptional regulators in numerous cell types. We demonstrate here that one member of this family, Pbx3, is expressed at high levels predominantly in the developing central nervous system, including a region of the medulla oblongata that is implicated in the control of respiration. Pbx3-deficient mice develop to term but die within a few hours of birth from central respiratory failure due to abnormal activity of inspiratory neurons in the medulla. This partially phenocopies the defect in mice deficient for Rnx, a metaHox homeodomain transcription factor, that we demonstrate here is capable of forming a DNA-binding complex with Pbx3. Rnx expression is unperturbed in Pbx3-deficient mice, but its ability to enhance transcription in vitro as a complex with TALE proteins is compromised in the absence of Pbx3. Thus, Pbx3 is essential for respiration and, like its DNA-binding partner Rnx, is critical for proper development of medullary respiratory control mechanisms. Pbx3-deficient mice provide a model for congenital central hypoventilation syndrome and suggest that Pbx3 mutations may promote the pathogenesis of this disorder. PMID:15466398

  16. Pbx3 deficiency results in central hypoventilation.

    PubMed

    Rhee, Joon Whan; Arata, Akiko; Selleri, Licia; Jacobs, Yakop; Arata, Satoru; Onimaru, Hiroshi; Cleary, Michael L

    2004-10-01

    Pbx proteins comprise a family of TALE (three amino acid loop extension) class homeodomain transcription factors that are implicated in developmental gene expression through their abilities to form hetero-oligomeric DNA-binding complexes and function as transcriptional regulators in numerous cell types. We demonstrate here that one member of this family, Pbx3, is expressed at high levels predominantly in the developing central nervous system, including a region of the medulla oblongata that is implicated in the control of respiration. Pbx3-deficient mice develop to term but die within a few hours of birth from central respiratory failure due to abnormal activity of inspiratory neurons in the medulla. This partially phenocopies the defect in mice deficient for Rnx, a metaHox homeodomain transcription factor, that we demonstrate here is capable of forming a DNA-binding complex with Pbx3. Rnx expression is unperturbed in Pbx3-deficient mice, but its ability to enhance transcription in vitro as a complex with TALE proteins is compromised in the absence of Pbx3. Thus, Pbx3 is essential for respiration and, like its DNA-binding partner Rnx, is critical for proper development of medullary respiratory control mechanisms. Pbx3-deficient mice provide a model for congenital central hypoventilation syndrome and suggest that Pbx3 mutations may promote the pathogenesis of this disorder.

  17. Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... much as 20 years. AAT deficiency has no cure, but treatments are available. Treatments often are based on the type of disease you develop. Rate This Content: NEXT >> Updated: October 11, 2011 Twitter Facebook YouTube ...

  18. Growth hormone deficiency - children

    MedlinePlus

    Growth hormone deficiency means the pituitary gland does not make enough growth hormone. ... The pituitary gland is located at the base of the brain. This gland controls the body's balance of hormones. It ...

  19. Alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... liver from damage. The condition can lead to emphysema and liver disease ( cirrhosis ). ... descent. Adults with severe A1AT deficiency will develop emphysema, often before 40 years of age. Smoking can ...

  20. Sleep Deprivation and Deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Are Sleep Deprivation and Deficiency? Sleep deprivation (DEP-rih-VA- ... Rate This Content: NEXT >> Updated: June 7, 2017 Sleep Infographic Sleep Disorders & Insufficient Sleep: Improving Health through ...

  1. DOCK8 Deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... care at NIAID, visit the NIAID PIDD site . Credit: NIAID Scientist at microscope. Causes DOCK8 deficiency is ... The End of an Era Acknowledgments References Photo Credits Dr. Joseph Kinyoun: Selected Bibliography NIAID 60th Anniversary ...

  2. Adenine phosphoribosyltransferase deficiency.

    PubMed

    Bollée, Guillaume; Harambat, Jérôme; Bensman, Albert; Knebelmann, Bertrand; Daudon, Michel; Ceballos-Picot, Irène

    2012-09-01

    Complete adenine phosphoribosyltransferase (APRT) deficiency is a rare inherited metabolic disorder that leads to the formation and hyperexcretion of 2,8-dihydroxyadenine (DHA) into urine. The low solubility of DHA results in precipitation of this compound and the formation of urinary crystals and stones. The disease can present as recurrent urolithiasis or nephropathy secondary to crystal precipitation into renal parenchyma (DHA nephropathy). The diagnostic tools available-including stone analysis, crystalluria, and APRT activity measurement-make the diagnosis easy to confirm when APRT deficiency is suspected. However, the disease can present at any age, and the variability of symptoms can present a diagnostic challenge to many physicians. The early recognition and treatment of APRT deficiency are of crucial importance for preventing irreversible loss of renal function, which still occurs in a non-negligible proportion of cases. This review summarizes the genetic and metabolic mechanisms underlying stone formation and renal disease, along with the diagnosis and management of APRT deficiency.

  3. [Selenium deficiency in pregnancy?].

    PubMed

    Lechner, W; Jenewein, I; Ritzberger, G; Sölder, E; Waitz-Penz, A; Schirmer, M; Abfalter, E

    1990-07-15

    Selenium content was investigated by atomic absorbtion spectroscopy in 32 normal pregnant women in the 38th-42, week of pregnancy. In congruence with other investigations from middle and northern Europe, selenium deficiency was stated in all of the patients.

  4. Vitamin D deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Gani, Linsey Utami; How, Choon How

    2015-01-01

    Vitamin D deficiency is common and may contribute to osteopenia, osteoporosis and falls risk in the elderly. Screening for vitamin D deficiency is important in high-risk patients, especially for patients who suffered minimal trauma fractures. Vitamin D deficiency should be treated according to the severity of the deficiency. In high-risk adults, follow-up serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration should be measured 3–4 months after initiating maintenance therapy to confirm that the target level has been achieved. All patients should maintain a calcium intake of at least 1,000 mg for women aged ≤ 50 years and men ≤ 70 years, and 1,300 mg for women > 50 years and men > 70 years. PMID:26311908

  5. Galactose Epimerase Deficiency: Expanding the Phenotype.

    PubMed

    Dias Costa, Filipa; Ferdinandusse, Sacha; Pinto, Carla; Dias, Andrea; Keldermans, Liesbeth; Quelhas, Dulce; Matthijs, Gert; Mooijer, Petra A; Diogo, Luísa; Jaeken, Jaak; Garcia, Paula

    2017-03-01

    Galactose epimerase deficiency is an inborn error of metabolism due to uridine diphosphate-galactose-4'-epimerase (GALE) deficiency. We report the clinical presentation, genetic and biochemical studies in two siblings with generalized GALE deficiency.Patient 1: The first child was born with a dysmorphic syndrome. Failure to thrive was noticed during the first year. Episodes of heart failure due to dilated cardiomyopathy, followed by liver failure, occurred between 12 and 42 months. The finding of a serum transferrin isoelectrofocusing (IEF) type 1 pattern led to the suspicion of a congenital disorder of glycosylation (CDG). Follow-up disclosed psychomotor disability, deafness, and nuclear cataracts.Patient 2: The sibling of patient 1 was born with short limbs and hip dysplasia. She is deceased in the neonatal period due to intraventricular hemorrhage in the context of liver failure. Investigation disclosed galactosuria and normal transferrin glycosylation.Next-generation sequence panel analysis for CDG syndrome revealed the previously reported c.280G>A (p.[V94M]) homozygous mutation in the GALE gene. Enzymatic studies in erythrocytes (patient 1) and fibroblasts (patients 1 and 2) revealed markedly reduced GALE activity confirming generalized GALE deficiency. This report describes the fourth family with generalized GALE deficiency, expanding the clinical spectrum of this disorder, since major cardiac involvement has not been reported before.

  6. Prolidase deficiency and systemic lupus erythematosus

    PubMed Central

    Shrinath, M; Walter, J; Haeney, M; Couriel, J; Lewis, M; Herrick, A

    1997-01-01

    Accepted 31 January 1997
 Two children with prolidase deficiency, an inborn error of proline metabolism, developed clinical and immunological abnormalities consistent with a diagnosis of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). The first child died from septicaemia, and SLE was only diagnosed during his terminal illness. As a result of this diagnosis his cousin, who was already known to have prolidase deficiency, was investigated further and a diagnosis of SLE confirmed. Following treatment with oral prednisolone her clinical condition has improved, although she has a persistently raised erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and florid facial rash. Both prolidase deficiency and SLE are associated with disturbances in immune function and have clinical features in common. It is likely that prolidase deficiency is a risk factor for the development of SLE. Additionally, patients with SLE should—where there is a family history or presentation in childhood—be specifically investigated for prolidase deficiency, since standard immunological or haematological investigations will not identify the characteristic biochemical abnormalities.

 PMID:9196362

  7. Vitamin B12 deficiency.

    PubMed

    Oh, Robert; Brown, David L

    2003-03-01

    Vitamin B12 (cobalamin) deficiency is a common cause of macrocytic anemia and has been implicated in a spectrum of neuropsychiatric disorders. The role of B12 deficiency in hyperhomocysteinemia and the promotion of atherosclerosis is only now being explored. Diagnosis of vitamin B12 deficiency is typically based on measurement of serum vitamin B12 levels; however, about 50 percent of patients with subclinical disease have normal B12 levels. A more sensitive method of screening for vitamin B12 deficiency is measurement of serum methylmalonic acid and homocysteine levels, which are increased early in vitamin B12 deficiency. Use of the Schilling test for detection of pernicious anemia has been supplanted for the most part by serologic testing for parietal cell and intrinsic factor antibodies. Contrary to prevailing medical practice, studies show that supplementation with oral vitamin B12 is a safe and effective treatment for the B12 deficiency state. Even when intrinsic factor is not present to aid in the absorption of vitamin B12 (pernicious anemia) or in other diseases that affect the usual absorption sites in the terminal ileum, oral therapy remains effective.

  8. [Iron deficiency and pica].

    PubMed

    Muñoz, J A; Marcos, J; Risueño, C E; de Cos, C; López, R; Capote, F J; Martín, M V; Gil, J L

    1998-02-01

    To study the relationship between pica and iron-lack anaemia in a series of iron-deficiency patients in order to establish the pathogenesis of such relationship. Four-hundred and thirty-three patients were analysed. Pica was studied by introducing certain diet queries into the clinical history. All patients received oral iron and were periodically controlled with the usual clinico-haematological procedures. Pica was present in 23 patients (5.3%). Eight nourishing (namely, coffee grains, almonds, chocolate, ice, lettuce, carrots, sunflower seeds and bread) and 2 non-nourishing (clay and paper) substances were involved. A second episode of pica appeared in 9 cases upon relapsing of iron deficiency. Both anaemia and pica were cured by etiologic and substitutive therapy in all instances. No clear correlation was found with either socio-economic status or pathogenetic causes of iron deficiency and pica, and no haematological differences were seen between patients with pica and those without this alteration. (1) The pathogenesis of pica is unclear, although it appears unrelated to the degree of iron deficiency. (2) According to the findings in this series, pica seems a consequence of iron deficiency rather than its cause. (3) Adequate therapy can cure both conditions, although pica may reappear upon relapse of iron deficiency.

  9. Studies on the C2-deficiency gene in man.

    PubMed Central

    Mortensen, J P; Buskjaer, L; Lamm, L U

    1980-01-01

    A one-step haemolytic assay using cellular intermediates was used to determine C2 levels in 50 HLA-A25 and B18 positive blood donors and four families suspected to have the C2-deficiency gene. The method clearly discriminated between homozygous normals and heterozygous deficient individuals, and it was found that approx. 50% of individuals with the haplotype HLA-A25, B18 had low levels of functional C2. In the four families studied, the close linkage of the C2-deficiency gene and the haplotype HLA-A25, B18 was confirmed. Furthermore, the C2-deficiency gene was shown to be a silent or null allele at the structural locus. PMID:7380478

  10. Across sectional study: the knowledge, attitude, perception, misconception and views (KAPMV) of adult family members of people living with human immune virus-HIV acquired immune deficiency syndrome-AIDS (PLWHA).

    PubMed

    Bhagavathula, Akshaya Srikanth; Bandari, Deepak Kumar; Elnour, Asim Ahmad; Ahmad, Akram; Khan, Muhammad Umair; Baraka, Mohamed; Hamad, Farah; Shehab, Abdulla

    2015-01-01

    We intended to assess knowledge, attitude, perception, misconception and views (KAP-MV) of family members of PLWHA. A cross-sectional retrospective study conducted in Anti-retroviral centre of Mahatma Gandhi Memorial-MGM hospital, Warangal, Telangana, South-India from July to September 2014. A questionnaire containing 41 items was distributed among adult family members accompanying patients living with HIV/AIDS-PLWHA. Level of KAP-MV was categorized into poor (0-28), average (29-55) and good (56-82). Analysis was performed by Pearson's Chi square, analysis of variance and Spearman's correlation test on 41 variables using SPSS version 21 and p < 0.01. 538 questionnaires were distributed, response rate was (96 %). On knowledge scale, respondents had a mean score of 8.0 ± 1.7, attitude 5.8 ± 3.4, perception 23.4 ± 4.1, misconceptions 8.0 ± 2.1 and views 8.0 ± 3.9. The respondents mean score was 53.2 ± 9.1 (64.9 %). Overall, level of education, marital status, religious beliefs, and employment status has significant (p < 0.001) associations with KAP-MV. Knowledge was significantly correlated with respondents' attitude (r = -0.15, p < 0.001), perception (0.39; p < 0.001), and views (0.381; p < 0.001). Family members of PLWHA with less knowledge score had more negative attitude, perception and views. Level of education, marital status, religious beliefs and employment status were identified as key barriers. Interventions targeting family members of PLWHA are warranted. Practice implications are as follows: Encourage role of family members.Deploy interventions.Minimize barriers.Change misconceptions.

  11. Deep Dermatophytosis and Inherited CARD9 Deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Vincent, Quentin B.; Liu, Luyan; Cypowyj, Sophie; Prando, Carolina; Migaud, Mélanie; Taibi, Lynda; Ammar-Khodja, Aomar; Stambouli, Omar Boudghene; Guellil, Boumediene; Jacobs, Frederique; Goffard, Jean-Christophe; Schepers, Kinda; del Marmol, Véronique; Boussofara, Lobna; Denguezli, Mohamed; Larif, Molka; Bachelez, Hervé; Michel, Laurence; Lefranc, Gérard; Hay, Rod; Jouvion, Gregory; Chretien, Fabrice; Fraitag, Sylvie; Bougnoux, Marie-Elisabeth; Boudia, Merad

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Deep dermatophytosis is a severe and sometimes life-threatening fungal infection caused by dermatophytes. It is characterized by extensive dermal and subcutaneous tissue invasion and by frequent dissemination to the lymph nodes and, occasionally, the central nervous system. The condition is different from common superficial dermatophyte infection and has been reported in patients with no known immunodeficiency. Patients are mostly from North African, consanguineous, multiplex families, which strongly suggests a mendelian genetic cause. METHODS We studied the clinical features of deep dermatophytosis in 17 patients with no known immunodeficiency from eight unrelated Tunisian, Algerian, and Moroccan families. Because CARD9 (caspase recruitment domain–containing protein 9) deficiency has been reported in an Iranian family with invasive fungal infections, we also sequenced CARD9 in the patients. RESULTS Four patients died, at 28, 29, 37, and 39 years of age, with clinically active deep dermatophytosis. No other severe infections, fungal or otherwise, were reported in the surviving patients, who ranged in age from 37 to 75 years. The 15 Algerian and Tunisian patients, from seven unrelated families, had a homozygous Q289X CARD9 allele, due to a founder effect. The 2 Moroccan siblings were homozygous for the R101C CARD9 allele. Both alleles are rare deleterious variants. The familial segregation of these alleles was consistent with autosomal recessive inheritance and complete clinical penetrance. CONCLUSIONS All the patients with deep dermatophytosis had autosomal recessive CARD9 deficiency. Deep dermatophytosis appears to be an important clinical manifestation of CARD9 deficiency. (Funded by Agence Nationale pour la Recherche and others.) PMID:24131138

  12. Deep dermatophytosis and inherited CARD9 deficiency.

    PubMed

    Lanternier, Fanny; Pathan, Saad; Vincent, Quentin B; Liu, Luyan; Cypowyj, Sophie; Prando, Carolina; Migaud, Mélanie; Taibi, Lynda; Ammar-Khodja, Aomar; Stambouli, Omar Boudghene; Guellil, Boumediene; Jacobs, Frederique; Goffard, Jean-Christophe; Schepers, Kinda; Del Marmol, Véronique; Boussofara, Lobna; Denguezli, Mohamed; Larif, Molka; Bachelez, Hervé; Michel, Laurence; Lefranc, Gérard; Hay, Rod; Jouvion, Gregory; Chretien, Fabrice; Fraitag, Sylvie; Bougnoux, Marie-Elisabeth; Boudia, Merad; Abel, Laurent; Lortholary, Olivier; Casanova, Jean-Laurent; Picard, Capucine; Grimbacher, Bodo; Puel, Anne

    2013-10-31

    Deep dermatophytosis is a severe and sometimes life-threatening fungal infection caused by dermatophytes. It is characterized by extensive dermal and subcutaneous tissue invasion and by frequent dissemination to the lymph nodes and, occasionally, the central nervous system. The condition is different from common superficial dermatophyte infection and has been reported in patients with no known immunodeficiency. Patients are mostly from North African, consanguineous, multiplex families, which strongly suggests a mendelian genetic cause. We studied the clinical features of deep dermatophytosis in 17 patients with no known immunodeficiency from eight unrelated Tunisian, Algerian, and Moroccan families. Because CARD9 (caspase recruitment domain-containing protein 9) deficiency has been reported in an Iranian family with invasive fungal infections, we also sequenced CARD9 in the patients. Four patients died, at 28, 29, 37, and 39 years of age, with clinically active deep dermatophytosis. No other severe infections, fungal or otherwise, were reported in the surviving patients, who ranged in age from 37 to 75 years. The 15 Algerian and Tunisian patients, from seven unrelated families, had a homozygous Q289X CARD9 allele, due to a founder effect. The 2 Moroccan siblings were homozygous for the R101C CARD9 allele. Both alleles are rare deleterious variants. The familial segregation of these alleles was consistent with autosomal recessive inheritance and complete clinical penetrance. All the patients with deep dermatophytosis had autosomal recessive CARD9 deficiency. Deep dermatophytosis appears to be an important clinical manifestation of CARD9 deficiency. (Funded by Agence Nationale pour la Recherche and others.).

  13. Iron deficiency anaemia.

    PubMed

    Lopez, Anthony; Cacoub, Patrice; Macdougall, Iain C; Peyrin-Biroulet, Laurent

    2016-02-27

    Anaemia affects roughly a third of the world's population; half the cases are due to iron deficiency. It is a major and global public health problem that affects maternal and child mortality, physical performance, and referral to health-care professionals. Children aged 0-5 years, women of childbearing age, and pregnant women are particularly at risk. Several chronic diseases are frequently associated with iron deficiency anaemia--notably chronic kidney disease, chronic heart failure, cancer, and inflammatory bowel disease. Measurement of serum ferritin, transferrin saturation, serum soluble transferrin receptors, and the serum soluble transferrin receptors-ferritin index are more accurate than classic red cell indices in the diagnosis of iron deficiency anaemia. In addition to the search for and treatment of the cause of iron deficiency, treatment strategies encompass prevention, including food fortification and iron supplementation. Oral iron is usually recommended as first-line therapy, but the most recent intravenous iron formulations, which have been available for nearly a decade, seem to replenish iron stores safely and effectively. Hepcidin has a key role in iron homoeostasis and could be a future diagnostic and therapeutic target. In this Seminar, we discuss the clinical presentation, epidemiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis, and acute management of iron deficiency anaemia, and outstanding research questions for treatment.

  14. Iodine deficiency in children.

    PubMed

    Pearce, Elizabeth N

    2014-01-01

    Iodine is an essential trace mineral, required for the production of thyroid hormone. Iodine deficiency may result in goiter, hypothyroidism, miscarriage, stillbirth, congenital anomalies, infant and neonatal mortality, and impaired growth. Adequate thyroid hormone is critically important for normal growth and neurodevelopment in fetal life, infancy and childhood. The population iodine status is most commonly assessed using median urinary iodine concentration values, but goiter prevalence (determined by palpation or by ultrasound), serum thyroglobulin levels, and neonatal thyroid-stimulating hormone values can also be used. Universal salt iodization programs have been the mainstay of public health efforts to eliminate iodine deficiency worldwide. However, in some regions targeted fortification of foods such as bread has been used to combat iodine deficiency. Iodine supplementation may be required in areas where dietary fortification is not feasible or where it is not sufficient for vulnerable groups such as pregnant women. Although international public health efforts over the past several decades have been highly effective, nearly one third of children worldwide remain at risk for iodine deficiency, and iodine deficiency is considered the leading preventable cause of preventable intellectual deficits.

  15. Congenital prothrombin deficiency.

    PubMed

    Lancellotti, Stefano; De Cristofaro, Raimondo

    2009-06-01

    Prothrombin deficiency is among the rarest inherited coagulation disorders, with a prevalence of approximately 1:2,000,000. Two main phenotypes can be distinguished: (1) hypoprothrombinemia (type I deficiency), characterized by concomitantly low levels of activity and antigen; and (2) dysprothrombinemia (type II deficiency), characterized by the normal or near-normal synthesis of a dysfunctional protein. In some cases, hypoprothrombinemia associated with dysprothrombinemia was also described in compound heterozygous defects. No living patient with undetectable plasma prothrombin has been reported to date. Prothrombin is encoded by a gene of approximately 21 kb located on chromosome 11 and containing 14 exons. Forty different mutations have been identified and characterized in prothrombin deficiency. Many of them surround the catalytic site, whereas another "hot spot" is localized in the recognition domain called anion binding exosite I, also called fibrinogen recognition site. Recently, mutations were identified also in the Na (+)-binding loop and in the light A-chain of thrombin. Most hypoprothrombinemia-associated mutations are missense, but there are also nonsense mutations leading to stop codons and one single nucleotide deletion. Finally, the main aspects of clinical manifestations and therapy of congenital prothrombin deficiency are presented and discussed.

  16. Biotin and biotinidase deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Zempleni, Janos; Hassan, Yousef I; Wijeratne, Subhashinee SK

    2009-01-01

    Biotin is a water-soluble vitamin that serves as an essential coenzyme for five carboxylases in mammals. Biotin-dependent carboxylases catalyze the fixation of bicarbonate in organic acids and play crucial roles in the metabolism of fatty acids, amino acids and glucose. Carboxylase activities decrease substantially in response to biotin deficiency. Biotin is also covalently attached to histones; biotinylated histones are enriched in repeat regions in the human genome and appear to play a role in transcriptional repression of genes and genome stability. Biotin deficiency may be caused by insufficient dietary uptake of biotin, drug–vitamin interactions and, perhaps, by increased biotin catabolism during pregnancy and in smokers. Biotin deficiency can also be precipitated by decreased activities of the following proteins that play critical roles in biotin homeostasis: the vitamin transporters sodium-dependent multivitamin transporter and monocarboxylate transporter 1, which mediate biotin transport in the intestine, liver and peripheral tissues, and renal reabsorption; holocarboxylase synthetase, which mediates the binding of biotin to carboxylases and histones; and biotinidase, which plays a central role in the intestinal absorption of biotin, the transport of biotin in plasma and the regulation of histone biotinylation. Symptoms of biotin deficiency include seizures, hypotonia, ataxia, dermatitis, hair loss, mental retardation, ketolactic acidosis, organic aciduria and also fetal malformations. This review focuses on the deficiencies of both biotin and biotinidase, and the medical management of such cases. PMID:19727438

  17. Biotin and biotinidase deficiency.

    PubMed

    Zempleni, Janos; Hassan, Yousef I; Wijeratne, Subhashinee Sk

    2008-11-01

    Biotin is a water-soluble vitamin that serves as an essential coenzyme for five carboxylases in mammals. Biotin-dependent carboxylases catalyze the fixation of bicarbonate in organic acids and play crucial roles in the metabolism of fatty acids, amino acids and glucose. Carboxylase activities decrease substantially in response to biotin deficiency. Biotin is also covalently attached to histones; biotinylated histones are enriched in repeat regions in the human genome and appear to play a role in transcriptional repression of genes and genome stability. Biotin deficiency may be caused by insufficient dietary uptake of biotin, drug-vitamin interactions and, perhaps, by increased biotin catabolism during pregnancy and in smokers. Biotin deficiency can also be precipitated by decreased activities of the following proteins that play critical roles in biotin homeostasis: the vitamin transporters sodium-dependent multivitamin transporter and monocarboxylate transporter 1, which mediate biotin transport in the intestine, liver and peripheral tissues, and renal reabsorption; holocarboxylase synthetase, which mediates the binding of biotin to carboxylases and histones; and biotinidase, which plays a central role in the intestinal absorption of biotin, the transport of biotin in plasma and the regulation of histone biotinylation. Symptoms of biotin deficiency include seizures, hypotonia, ataxia, dermatitis, hair loss, mental retardation, ketolactic acidosis, organic aciduria and also fetal malformations. This review focuses on the deficiencies of both biotin and biotinidase, and the medical management of such cases.

  18. Cobalamin deficiency presenting as obsessive compulsive disorder: case report.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Vivek; Biswas, Devdutta

    2012-01-01

    Cobalamin deficiency commonly presents with a wide range of neuropsychiatric manifestations ranging from myelopathy, neuropathy, optic neuritis and dementia to mood disorders, chronic fatigue and psychosis even without classical hematological abnormalities like anemia and macrocytosis. However, obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) in relation to vitamin B12 deficiency has not been described so far. We report a case of middle-aged man presenting with OCD, low serum cobalamin and a positive family history of vitamin B12 deficiency who responded well to methylcobalamin replacement. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. [Vitamin deficiencies and hypervitaminosis].

    PubMed

    Mino, M

    1999-10-01

    There have recently been very few deficiencies with respect to fat soluble and water soluble vitamins in Japan All-trans-retinoic acid as induction or maintenance treatment improves disease free and overall survival against acute promyelocytic leukemia. In the isolated vitamin E deficiencies gene mutation has been cleared for alpha-tocopherol transferprotein. Recently, a relation of nutritional vitamin K intake and senile osteoporosis in women was epidemiologically demonstrated on a prospective study. Thiamin was yet noticed as development of deficiency in alcoholism, while the importance of supplemental folic acid during pregnancy has become especially clear in light of studies showing that folic acid supplements reduce the risk of neural tube defects in the fetus. With respect to hypervitaminosis, the Council for Responsible Nutrition (CRN), USA, has established safe intakes by identifying the NOAEL (No Observed Adverse Effect Level) and LOAEL (Lowest Observed Adverse Effect Level). Summaries of NOAEL and LOAEL for individual vitamins were shown.

  20. Antepartum ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency.

    PubMed

    Nakajima, Hitoshi; Sasaki, Yosuke; Maeda, Tadashi; Takeda, Masako; Hara, Noriko; Nakanishi, Kazushige; Urita, Yoshihisa; Hattori, Risa; Miura, Ken; Taniguchi, Tomoko

    2014-01-01

    Ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency (OTCD) is the most common type urea cycle enzyme deficiencies. This syndrome results from a deficiency of the mitochondrial enzyme ornithine transcarbamylase, which catalyzes the conversion of ornithine and carbamoyl phosphate to citrullin. Our case was a 28-year-old female diagnosed with OTCD following neurocognitive deficit during her first pregnancy. Although hyperammonemia was suspected as the cause of the patient's mental changes, there was no evidence of chronic liver disease. Plasma amino acid and urine organic acid analysis revealed OTCD. After combined modality treatment with arginine, sodium benzoate and hemodialysis, the patient's plasma ammonia level stabilized and her mental status returned to normal. At last she recovered without any damage left.

  1. Thiamine Deficiency and Delirium

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Shahid; Freeman, C.; Barker, Narviar C.; Jabeen, Shagufta; Maitra, Sarbani; Olagbemiro, Yetunde; Richie, William; Bailey, Rahn K.

    2013-01-01

    Thiamine is an essential vitamin that plays an important role in cellular production of energy from ingested food and enhances normal neuronal actives. Deficiency of this vitamin leads to a very serious clinical condition known as delirium. Studies performed in the United States and other parts of the world have established the link between thiamine deficiency and delirium. This literature review examines the physiology, pathophysiology, predisposing factors, clinical manifestations (e.g., Wernicke’s encephalopathy, Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome, structural and functional brain injuries) and diagnosis of thiamine deficiency and delirium. Current treatment practices are also discussed that may improve patient outcome, which ultimately may result in a reduction in healthcare costs. PMID:23696956

  2. [Prevalence of iron deficiency].

    PubMed

    Dupont, C

    2017-05-01

    Studies of prévalence in iron deficiency separate iron depletion (defined as decreased blood ferritin) and iron deficiency anemia (defined as blood decrease in both ferritin and hemoglobin). In Europe, most studies are outdated. Prevalence of iron depletion varies from 7 to 18 % and 24 to 36% in toddlers and adolescents, respectively. Prevalence of iron deficiency anemia varies from 2 to 8.5% and 7 to 10% in toddlers and adolescents. In French speaking African countries, Demography Health Surveys show that 80% of children aged 0 to 2 years are anemic, severely for 5 to 9% of them. © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. Tous droits réservés.

  3. Natural killer cell deficiency.

    PubMed

    Orange, Jordan S

    2013-09-01

    Natural killer (NK) cells are part of the innate immune defense against infection and cancer and are especially useful in combating certain viral pathogens. The utility of NK cells in human health has been underscored by a growing number of persons who are deficient in NK cells and/or their functions. This can be in the context of a broader genetically defined congenital immunodeficiency, of which there are more than 40 presently known to impair NK cells. However, the abnormality of NK cells in certain cases represents the majority immunologic defect. In aggregate, these conditions are termed NK cell deficiency. Recent advances have added clarity to this diagnosis and identified defects in 3 genes that can cause NK cell deficiency, as well as some of the underlying biology. Appropriate consideration of these diagnoses and patients raises the potential for rational therapeutic options and further innovation.

  4. [Vitamin D-deficiency rickets: a case report from Burkina Faso].

    PubMed

    Sagna, Y; Ouédraogo, D-D; Dao, F; Diallo, O; Tiéno, H; Guira, O; Traoré, L O; Yanogo, A R D; Drabo, Y J

    2013-01-01

    Deficiency rickets results from a deficiency of vitamin D that is responsible for deficient calcium absorption, leading to failure of bone mineralization and cartilage bone growth, especially in children. We report the case of a 9-year-old girl who shows signs of rickets. Her family history, which includes similar malformations in several family members, led us to suggest vitamin D-resistant rickets, but all laboratory tests and response to treatment indicated deficiency rickets. Prophylaxis, at least for some very poor people, should be proposed for certain populations at risk, even in tropical zones.

  5. Multiple sulfatase deficiency.

    PubMed

    Soong, B W; Casamassima, A C; Fink, J K; Constantopoulos, G; Horwitz, A L

    1988-08-01

    Multiple sulfatase deficiency is an inherited disorder characterized by a deficiency of several sulfatases and the accumulation of sulfatides, glycosaminoglycans, sphingolipids, and steroid sulfates in tissues and body fluids. The clinical manifestations represent the summation of two diseases: late infantile metachromatic leukodystrophy and mucopolysaccharidosis. We present a 9-year-old girl with a phenotype similar to a mucopolysaccharidosis: short stature, microcephaly, and mild facial dysmorphism, along with dysphagia, retinal degeneration, developmental arrest, and ataxia. We discuss the importance of measuring the sulfatase activities in the leukocytes, and the instability of sulfatases in the cultured skin fibroblasts.

  6. Family Therapy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Family therapy is a type of psychological counseling (psychotherapy) that helps family members improve communication and resolve ... organizations? Do you have specialty training in family psychotherapy? What is your experience with my family's type ...

  7. Prenatal monitoring in a family at high risk for ornithine transcarbamylase (OTC) deficiency: A new mutation of an A-to-C transversion in position +4 of intron 1 of the OTC gene that is likely to abolish enzyme activity

    SciTech Connect

    Hoshide, Ryuuji; Matsuura, Toshinobu; Endo, Fumio

    1996-08-23

    DNA analysis of a male propositus with ornithine transcarbamylase (OTC) deficiency documented an A-to-C substitution in position +4 of intron 1. No other abnormalities were observed in the OTC gene, or at 563 bp upstream of the 5{prime} site, which included a promoter region, or at 383 bp downstream of the termination codon, which included a polyadenylation signal sequence. This mutation produces an RsaI site in the sequence, which was used for prenatal monitoring in the fourth and fifth pregnancies. DNA from amniotic cells in the former case were positive for RsaI digestion and the SRY gene (sex determinant region Y), indicating hemizygosity for the mutant allele. OTC activity was not measureable, and mRNA of the OTC gene was not detected by Northern blotting in the affected fetal liver. RT-PCR (reverse transcription-PCR) demonstrated only the wild-type allele. Thus, the mutation interferes with RNA processing, and an extremely low amount of normally spliced mRNA for the OTC gene seems to have caused the disease in our patient. The fetus of the fifth pregnancy was a normal male, as confirmed postnatally. 25 refs., 5 figs.

  8. Prenatal monitoring in a family at high risk for ornithine transcarbamylase (OTC) deficiency: a new mutation of an A-to-C transversion in position +4 of intron 1 of the OTC gene that is likely to abolish enzyme activity.

    PubMed

    Hoshide, R; Matsuura, T; Sagara, Y; Kubo, T; Shimadzu, M; Endo, F; Matsuda, I

    1996-08-23

    DNA analysis of a male propositus with ornithine transcarbamylase (OTC) deficiency documented an A-to-C substitution in position +4 of intron 1. No other abnormalities were observed in the OTC gene, or at 563 bp upstream of the 5' site, which included a promoter region, or at 383 bp downstream of the termination codon, which included a polyadenylation signal sequence. This mutation produces an RsaI site in the sequence, which was used for prenatal monitoring in the fourth and fifth pregnancies. DNA from amniotic cells in the former case were positive for RsaI digestion and the SRY gene (sex determinant region Y), indicating hemizygosity for the mutant allele. OTC activity was not measurable, and mRNA of the OTC gene was not detected by Northern blotting in the affected fetal liver. RT-PCR (reverse transcription-PCR) demonstrated only the wild-type allele. Thus, the mutation interferes with RNA processing, and an extremely low amount of normally spliced mRNA for the OTC gene seems to have caused the disease in our patient. The fetus of the fifth pregnancy was a normal male, as confirmed postnatally.

  9. Prevention of Vitamin K Deficiency Bleeding.

    PubMed

    Phillippi, Julia C; Holley, Sharon L; Morad, Anna; Collins, Michelle R

    2016-07-07

    The risk that a newborn will develop vitamin K deficiency bleeding is 1700/100,000 (one out of 59) if vitamin K is not administered. When intramuscular vitamin K is administered, the risk of vitamin K deficiency bleeding is reduced to 1/100,000. While women may have misconceptions about vitamin K prophylaxis for their newborns, health care providers should be prepared with factual information. Prophylaxis is needed even for healthy newborns without risk factors for bleeding. Other forms of vitamin K supplementation, including oral administration of Food and Drug Administration-approved vitamin K preparations and maternal supplements during pregnancy or lactation, do not have the same effectiveness as the parenteral form. The formulations of vitamin K approved for use in the United States have not been associated with childhood leukemia or other childhood health problems. Care providers need to give accurate information to families regarding the risks and benefits of vitamin K prophylaxis. An interprofessional approach to education can be effective in increasing acceptance of vitamin K prophylaxis and decreasing the incidence of vitamin K deficiency bleeding. This article uses a case study approach to highlight common misconceptions about vitamin K prophylaxis and discuss a recent interprofessional collaboration to prevent vitamin K deficiency bleeding.

  10. Color vision deficiencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vannorren, D.

    1982-04-01

    Congenital and acquired color vision defects are described in the context of physiological data. Light sources, photometry, color systems and test methods are described. A list of medicines is also presented. The practical social consequences of color vision deficiencies are discussed.

  11. Diagnosing oceanic nutrient deficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, C. Mark

    2016-11-01

    The supply of a range of nutrient elements to surface waters is an important driver of oceanic production and the subsequent linked cycling of the nutrients and carbon. Relative deficiencies of different nutrients with respect to biological requirements, within both surface and internal water masses, can be both a key indicator and driver of the potential for these nutrients to become limiting for the production of new organic material in the upper ocean. The availability of high-quality, full-depth and global-scale datasets on the concentrations of a wide range of both macro- and micro-nutrients produced through the international GEOTRACES programme provides the potential for estimation of multi-element deficiencies at unprecedented scales. Resultant coherent large-scale patterns in diagnosed deficiency can be linked to the interacting physical-chemical-biological processes which drive upper ocean nutrient biogeochemistry. Calculations of ranked deficiencies across multiple elements further highlight important remaining uncertainties in the stoichiometric plasticity of nutrient ratios within oceanic microbial systems and caveats with regards to linkages to upper ocean nutrient limitation. This article is part of the themed issue 'Biological and climatic impacts of ocean trace element chemistry'.

  12. Vitamin B12 deficiency

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Vitamin B12 (B12; also known as cobalamin) is a B vitamin that has an important role in cellular metabolism, especially in DNA synthesis, methylation and mitochondrial metabolism. Clinical B12 deficiency with classic haematological and neurological manifestations is relatively uncommon. However, sub...

  13. Isolated sulfite oxidase deficiency.

    PubMed

    Rupar, C A; Gillett, J; Gordon, B A; Ramsay, D A; Johnson, J L; Garrett, R M; Rajagopalan, K V; Jung, J H; Bacheyie, G S; Sellers, A R

    1996-12-01

    Isolated sulfite oxidase (SO) deficiency is an autosomal recessively inherited inborn error of sulfur metabolism. In this report of a ninth patient the clinical history, laboratory results, neuropathological findings and a mutation in the sulfite oxidase gene are described. The data from this patient and previously published patients with isolated sulfite oxidase deficiency and molybdenum cofactor deficiency are summarized to characterize this rare disorder. The patient presented neonatally with intractable seizures and did not progress developmentally beyond the neonatal stage. Dislocated lenses were apparent at 2 months. There was increased urine excretion of sulfite and S-sulfocysteine and a decreased concentration of plasma cystine. A lactic acidemia was present for 6 months. Liver sulfite oxidase activity was not detectable but xanthine dehydrogenase activity was normal. The boy died of respiratory failure at 32 months. Neuropathological findings of cortical necrosis and extensive cavitating leukoencephalopathy were reminiscent of those seen in severe perinatal asphyxia suggesting an etiology of energy deficiency. A point mutation that resulted in a truncated protein missing the molybdenum-binding site has been identified.

  14. [Biochemical studies on familial neuroblastoma].

    PubMed

    Plöchl, E

    1978-01-01

    According to the two-mutation model of neuroblastoma several investigations were performed in order to find the gene carrier in a family with familial neuroblastoma. The results of these former studies are as follows: 1. Neither chromosomal analyses of the peripheral blood nor the examinations of catecholamines nor of cystathionine in the urine could mark the first step to neuroblastoma. 2. Since cystathioniuria was not only seen in blood-relations but also in relatives by marriage and since vitamin B6 deficiency was revealed, cystathioninuria was interpreted as secondary to vitamin B6 deficiency. In this study the normal values of cystathioninuria and vitamin B6 supply were examined. Furthermore the effect of oral vitamin B6 loading on cystathioninuria and oxaluria in familial neuroblastoma was investigated and the vitamin B6 supply in the neighbours of the family was analysed. The results permitted the following conclusions: 1. In 46 of 58 children and adults cystathioninuria was found in an immeasurable range by column chromatography. Only in 12 persons it could be measured quantitatively. With the exception of 6 explanable elevations no value exceeded 20 mumol/24 hr. These results show that the acceptance of the limiting value of 20 mumol/24 hr for increased cystathioninuria is justified. 2. Vitamine B6 deficiency was found in two of 7 patients. In one child this could be explained by the underlying disease. This finding supports the suggestion that vitamine B6 deficiency can relative frequently observed. 3. The examinations of cystathioninuria and oxaluria before and after loading with vitamine B6 showed different results. Whereas oxaluria decreased after loading cystathioninuria was not surely influenced. 4. The neighbours of the members with familial neuroblastoma showed mostly a reduced vitamine B6 supply. This fact could be an indication of exogenous reason of vitamine B6 deficiency in familial neuroblastoma.

  15. Genetic basis of human complement C8[beta] deficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Kaufmann, T.; Rittner, C.; Schneider, P.M. ); Haensch, G. ); Spaeth, P. ); Tedesco, F. )

    1993-06-01

    The eighth component of human complement (c8) is a serum protein consisting of three chains ([alpha], [beta], and [gamma]) and encoded by three different genes, C8A, C8B, and C8G. C8A and C8B are closely linked on chromosome 1p, whereas C8G is located on chromosome 9q. In the serum the [beta] subunit is non-covalently bound to the disulfide-linked [alpha]-[gamma] subunit. Patients with C8[beta] deficiency suffer from recurrent neisserial infections such as meningitis. Exon-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification with primer pairs from the flanking intron sequences was used to amplify all 12 C8B exons separately. No difference regarding the exon sizes was observed in a C8[beta]-deficient patient compared with a normal person. Therefore, direct sequence analysis of all exon-specific PCR products from normal and C8[beta]-deficient individuals was carried out. As a cause for C8[beta] deficiency, we found a single C-T exchange in exon 9 leading to a stop codon. An allele-specific PCR system was designed to detect the normal and the deficiency allele simultaneously. Using this approach as well as PCR typing of the Taql polymorphism located in intron 11, five families with 7 C8[beta]-deficient members were investigated. The mutation was not found to be restricted to one of the two Taql RFLP alleles. The mutant allele was observed in all families investigated and can therefore be regarded as a major cause of C8[beta] deficiency in the Caucasian population. In addition, two C8[beta]-deficient patients were found to be heterozygous for the C-T exchange. The molecular basis of the alleles without this point mutation also causing deficiency has not yet been defined. 23 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  16. Sanitary Surveys & Significant Deficiencies Presentation

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Sanitary Surveys & Significant Deficiencies Presentation highlights some of the things EPA looks for during drinking water system site visits, how to avoid significant deficiencies and what to do if you receive one.

  17. Genetics Home Reference: prothrombin deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... II deficiency University of Iowa Health Care: Prothrombin Gene Mutation (PDF) Patient Support and Advocacy Resources (2 links) Canadian Hemophilia Society National Hemophilia Foundation: Factor II Deficiency ClinicalTrials. ...

  18. Genetics Home Reference: biotinidase deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... links) Children Living With Inherited Metabolic Diseases (CLIMB) (UK): Biotinidase Deficiency (PDF) Disease InfoSearch: Biotinidase Deficiency Illinois ... Group Children Living with Inherited Metabolic Diseases (CLIMB) (UK) National Organization for Rare Disorders (NORD) GeneReviews (1 ...

  19. Biotinidase deficiency and our champagne legacy.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Barry

    2016-09-10

    Biotinidase is the enzyme that is necessary for the recycling of the vitamin, biotin. Biotinidase deficiency is an autosomal recessively inherited metabolic disorder. If untreated, individuals with biotinidase deficiency usually develop neurological and cutaneous symptoms that can result in coma or death. Symptomatic individuals can be markedly improved by treating them with pharmacological doses of biotin; however, some clinical features may be irreversible. Fortunately, essentially all symptoms can be prevented if treatment is initiated at birth or before the symptoms develop. Because of this, the disorder is currently screened for in newborns in all states in the United States and in many countries around the world. This is the story of one laboratory's work in bringing basic science research from the discovery of the disorder to its translation into clinical medicine and its impact on the individuals with the disorder and their families.

  20. Biotinidase deficiency: an atypical presentation.

    PubMed

    Jagadeesh, Sujatha; Suresh, Beena; Seshadri, Suresh; Suzuki, Yoichi

    2013-01-01

    Biotinidase deficiency is a rare metabolic disorder which can cause dermatological manifestations and lead to severe neurological sequelae if untreated. Holocarboxylase synthetase deficiency also has similar manifestations and needs to be differentiated. We present a neonate who had atypical early onset symptoms and was diagnosed to have biotinidase deficiency. Copyright 2012, NMJI.

  1. Isolated sulfite oxidase deficiency.

    PubMed

    Relinque, B; Bardallo, L; Granero, M; Jiménez, P J; Luna, S

    2015-03-10

    Sulfite oxidase deficiency is an uncommon metabolic disease. Only few cases of its isolated form have been reported in the literature. We report a case of severe neonatal onset. A newborn baby of 41 weeks gestational age, weighted at birth of 3240 grams and had an Apgar score of 6-10-10. Fifty-three hours after being born, the baby started with seizures that were refractory to antiepileptic treatment. Brain function was monitored using a-EEG. Laboratory and imaging tests were performed. All of them were consistent with sulfite oxidase deficiency. The diagnosis was confirmed by genetic testing. We highlight the importance of this disease as part of the differential diagnosis of seizures during the neonatal period, as well as the importance of the therapeutic support based on dietary restrictions. It's also remarkable the possibility of prenatal diagnosis by quantifying enzyme activity and it's also possible carrying out DNA mutational analysis.

  2. Biotinidase deficiency in childhood.

    PubMed

    Venkataraman, Viswanathan; Balaji, Padma; Panigrahi, Debasis; Jamal, Rafat

    2013-01-01

    This study reports the clinical, laboratory profile and outcome in seven patients with biotinidase deficiency. The serum biotinidase activity was assayed using spectrophotometric analysis. The age at presentation varied from day 1 of life to the 5 th month. Seizures were the presenting complaint in six patients and clonic seizures were the predominant seizure type. Sparse hair was seen in four patients, while three did not have any cutaneous manifestation. None of the patients had acidosis or hyperammonemia. The clinical response to biotin was dramatic with seizure control in all patients. One patient had neurological deficit at follow-up, while none had optic atrophy or sensorineural hearing loss. Biotinidase deficiency, a potentially treatable condition, should be thought of in any child presenting with neurological symptoms, especially seizures, even in the absence of cutaneous or laboratory manifestations.

  3. [Selective immunoglobulin A deficiency].

    PubMed

    Binek, Alicja; Jarosz-Chobot, Przemysława

    2012-01-01

    Immunoglobulin class A is the main protein of the mucosal immune system. Selective immunoglobulin A deficiency (sIgAD) is the most common primary immunodeficiency in Caucasians. sIGAD is strongly associated with the certain major histocompatibility complex region. Most individuals with sIgAD are asymptomatic and identified coincidentally. However, some patients may present with recurrent infections, allergic disorders and autoimmune manifestations. Several autoimmune diseases, such as systemic lupus erythematosus, diabetes mellitus type 1, Graves disease and celiac disease, are associated with an increased prevalence of sIgAD. Screening for sIgAD in coeliac disease is essential. Patients need treatment of associated diseases. It is also known that IgA deficiency may progress into a common variable immunodeficiency (CVID). Pathogenesis and molecular mechanism involved in sIgAD should be elucidated in the future.

  4. Language deficiency in children.

    PubMed

    Morehead, D M; Morehead, K E; Morehead, W A

    1980-01-01

    Research in cognition and language has provided useful constructs which suggests that specific deficits underlie language deficiencies in children. In addition, this research has provided procedures that the determine what a child knows about language at a particular level of development and has established a sequence of linguistic development that maps the specific content and structure of training programs. Two new areas of research offer additional approaches to assessment and remediation. One approach focuses on the actual principles and strategies that normal children use to learn language, making it possible to determine which methods are most efficient. The second research approach looks at the contextual conditions adults and children provide the first language learner. Preliminary work suggests that the natural conditions found universally in first language learning may be the best indicators of how to proceed with language-deficient children.

  5. Cutaneous Manifestations of DOCK8 Deficiency Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Emily Y.; Freeman, Alexandra F.; Jing, Huie; Cowen, Edward W.; Davis, Joie; Su, Helen C.; Holland, Steven M.; Chanco Turner, Maria L.

    2014-01-01

    Background Mutations in the dedicator of cytokinesis 8 gene (DOCK8) cause a combined primary immunodeficiency syndrome that is characterized by elevated serum IgE levels, depressed IgM levels, eosinophilia, sinopulmonary infections, cutaneous viral infections, and lymphopenia. Many patients with DOCK8 deficiency were previously thought to have a variant of Job’s syndrome. Distinguishing between DOCK8 deficiency and Job’s syndrome, also referred to as autosomal dominant hyper-IgE syndrome, on the basis of clinical findings alone is challenging. The discovery of the DOCK8 mutation has made it possible to differentiate the cutaneous manifestations of these hyper-IgE syndromes. Observations Twenty-one patients from 14 families with confirmed homozygous or compound heterozygous mutations in DOCK8 were evaluated. Clinical findings included dermatitis, asthma, food and environmental allergies, recurrent sinopulmonary infections, staphylococcal skin abscesses, and severe cutaneous viral infections. Malignant neoplasms, including aggressive cutaneous T-cell lymphoma, anal and vulvar squamous cell carcinomas, and diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, developed in 5 patients during adolescence and young adulthood. Conclusions DOCK8 deficiency and Job’s syndrome share several clinical features, including elevated serum IgE levels, dermatitis, recurrent sinopulmonary infections, and cutaneous staphylococcal abscesses. However, the presence of recalcitrant, widespread cutaneous viral infections, asthma, and food and environmental allergies, as well as the absence of newborn rash and coarse facies, favors the clinical diagnosis of DOCK8 deficiency. Rates of malignancy and overall mortality in patients with DOCK8 deficiency were higher than in those with Job’s syndrome, highlighting the value of distinguishing between these conditions and the importance of close monitoring for neoplasia. PMID:21931011

  6. Micronutrient deficiency in children.

    PubMed

    Bhan, M K; Sommerfelt, H; Strand, T

    2001-05-01

    Malnutrition increases morbidity and mortality and affects physical growth and development, some of these effects resulting from specific micronutrient deficiencies. While public health efforts must be targeted to improve dietary intakes in children through breast feeding and appropriate complementary feeding, there is a need for additional measures to increase the intake of certain micronutrients. Food-based approaches are regarded as the long-term strategy for improving nutrition, but for certain micronutrients, supplementation, be it to the general population or to high risk groups or as an adjunct to treatment must also be considered. Our understanding of the prevalence and consequences of iron, vitamin A and iodine deficiency in children and pregnant women has advanced considerably while there is still a need to generate more knowledge pertaining to many other micronutrients, including zinc, selenium and many of the B-vitamins. For iron and vitamin A, the challenge is to improve the delivery to target populations. For disease prevention and growth promotion, the need to deliver safe but effective amounts of micronutrients such as zinc to children and women of fertile age can be determined only after data on deficiency prevalence becomes available and the studies on mortality reduction following supplementation are completed. Individual or multiple micronutrients must be used as an adjunct to treatment of common infectious diseases and malnutrition only if the gains are substantial and the safety window sufficiently wide. The available data for zinc are promising with regard to the prevention of diarrhea and pneumonia. It should be emphasized that there must be no displacement of important treatment such as ORS in acute diarrhea by adjunct therapy such as zinc. Credible policy making requires description of not only the clinical effects but also the underlying biological mechanisms. As findings of experimental studies are not always feasible to extrapolate to

  7. The prevalence of moderate and severe FXII (Hageman factor) deficiency among the normal population: evaluation of the incidence of FXII deficiency among 300 healthy blood donors.

    PubMed

    Halbmayer, W M; Haushofer, A; Schön, R; Mannhalter, C; Strohmer, E; Baumgarten, K; Fischer, M

    1994-01-01

    Factor XII (FXII) deficiency has been reported to be a risk factor for the development of arterial and venous thromboembolism. However, no data are available on the prevalence of FXII deficiency within the normal population. Measuring APTT and FXII activity, seven FXII deficiencies could be detected among 300 healthy blood donors. This corresponds to an incidence of FXII deficiency of 2.3%. On the basis of these data the prevalence of severe and mild FXII deficiency in the normal population can be estimated to be 1.5-3.0%. Assessment of FXII antigen levels revealed, that all seven FXII deficient individuals had FXII antigen levels matching the activity. One presented a severe FXII deficiency (1/300, 0.3%) without detectable FXII activity and an APTT prolongation of more than 120 s. The remaining six FXII deficiencies (6/300, 2.0%) were moderate variations with FXII activities ranging from 20-45% and less prolonged APTTs. Among the 300 healthy donors 16 (5.3%) subjects with prolonged APTTs were identified. Causes for APTT-prolongation were FXII deficiency (7/16), lupus anticoagulant (6/16), mild FVIII deficiency (1/16) and hepatic disorder (1/16). In the remaining sample (1/16) the cause for the prolongation of the APTT remained unexplained. Although 8.7% (26/300) of the donors had a positive family-history of thromboembolism (TE-FHx), none of the FXII deficient subjects were among those with positive TE-FHx.

  8. How Is Iron-Deficiency Anemia Treated?

    MedlinePlus

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. How Is Iron-Deficiency Anemia Treated? Treatment for iron-deficiency anemia will ... cases, surgery may be advised. Treatments for Severe Iron-Deficiency Anemia Blood Transfusion If your iron-deficiency anemia ...

  9. Inherited deficiency of the second component of complement. Rheumatic disease associations.

    PubMed Central

    Glass, D; Raum, D; Gibson, D; Stillman, J S; Schur, P H

    1976-01-01

    The prevalence of homozygous and heterozygous deficiency of the second component of complement (C2) was determined in patients with rheumatic disease including 137 with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), 274 with juvenile rheumatoid arthritis, and 134 with rheumatoid arthritis. 1 C2 homozygous deficient and 19 possible heterozygous deficient individuals were identified by using both immunochemical and functional assays to determine C2 levels. Of the 20, 8 had SLE (5.9%), 10 had juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (3.7%), and 2 had rheumatoid arthritis (1.4%), the homozygous deficient individual having SLE. The prevalence of C2 deficiency in the SLE and juvenile rheumatoid arthritis patients was significantly increased (P = 0.0009 and P = 0.02, respectively) when compared with controls, 6 (1.2%) of 509 blood donors having C2 levels consistent with heterozygous deficiency. 15 of the 20 C2 deficient patients were HLA typed and found to have antigens A10(Aw25), B18, or both. The patients with C2 deficiency and SLE had earlier age of onset of disease and less antinuclear antibody when compared with the C2 normal SLE patients. 11 families of the propositi were studied and found to have one or more C2 heterozygous deficient individuals. The family members had an equal distribution of rheumatic disease and antinuclear antibody in the C2 deficient and C2 normal groups. C2 deficient individuals were found to have significantly lower levels of properdin Factor B (242 mug/ml+/-54) when compared with the non-C2 deficient family members (282 mug/ml+/-73). These data support the concept that inherited deficiency of C2 is significantly associated with both SLE and juvenile rheumatoid arthritis. PMID:965492

  10. Generalized verrucosis in a patient with GATA2 deficiency.

    PubMed

    West, E S; Kingsbery, M Y; Mintz, E M; Hsu, A P; Holland, S M; Rady, P L; Tyring, S K; Grossman, M E

    2014-05-01

    Generalized verrucosis is a characteristic of several genetic and immunodeficiency disorders including epidermodysplasia verruciformis; warts, hypogammaglobulinaemia, infections and myelokathexis (WHIM) syndrome; warts, immunodeficiency, lymphoedema and anogenital dysplasia (WILD) syndrome; severe combined immune deficiency and HIV, among others. In recent years, it has been consistently recognized in patients with GATA2 deficiency, a novel immunodeficiency syndrome characterized by monocytopenia, B-cell and natural killer-cell lymphopenia, and a tendency to develop myeloid leukaemias and disseminated mycobacterial, human papillomavirus (HPV) and opportunistic fungal infections. Mutations in GATA2 cause haploinsufficiency and track in families as an autosomal dominant immunodeficiency. GATA2 is a transcription factor involved in early haematopoietic differentiation and lymphatic and vascular development. We describe a case of generalized verrucosis with HPV type 57 presenting in a young man with GATA2 deficiency. GATA2 deficiency is a novel dominant immunodeficiency that is often recognized later in life and should be considered in the differential diagnosis of patients with generalized verrucosis.

  11. Phenylalanine hydroxylase deficiency.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, John J; Trakadis, Yannis J; Scriver, Charles R

    2011-08-01

    Phenylalanine hydroxylase deficiency is an autosomal recessive disorder that results in intolerance to the dietary intake of the essential amino acid phenylalanine. It occurs in approximately 1:15,000 individuals. Deficiency of this enzyme produces a spectrum of disorders including classic phenylketonuria, mild phenylketonuria, and mild hyperphenylalaninemia. Classic phenylketonuria is caused by a complete or near-complete deficiency of phenylalanine hydroxylase activity and without dietary restriction of phenylalanine most children will develop profound and irreversible intellectual disability. Mild phenylketonuria and mild hyperphenylalaninemia are associated with lower risk of impaired cognitive development in the absence of treatment. Phenylalanine hydroxylase deficiency can be diagnosed by newborn screening based on detection of the presence of hyperphenylalaninemia using the Guthrie microbial inhibition assay or other assays on a blood spot obtained from a heel prick. Since the introduction of newborn screening, the major neurologic consequences of hyperphenylalaninemia have been largely eradicated. Affected individuals can lead normal lives. However, recent data suggest that homeostasis is not fully restored with current therapy. Treated individuals have a higher incidence of neuropsychological problems. The mainstay of treatment for hyperphenylalaninemia involves a low-protein diet and use of a phenylalanine-free medical formula. This treatment must commence as soon as possible after birth and should continue for life. Regular monitoring of plasma phenylalanine and tyrosine concentrations is necessary. Targets of plasma phenylalanine of 120-360 μmol/L (2-6 mg/dL) in the first decade of life are essential for optimal outcome. Phenylalanine targets in adolescence and adulthood are less clear. A significant proportion of patients with phenylketonuria may benefit from adjuvant therapy with 6R-tetrahydrobiopterin stereoisomer. Special consideration must be

  12. Biallelic IRF8 Mutations Causing NK Cell Deficiency.

    PubMed

    López-Soto, Alejandro; Lorenzo-Herrero, Seila; Gonzalez, Segundo

    2017-03-01

    Human primary immunodeficiencies result in an exacerbated susceptibility to contracting infectious diseases. Recent work by Mace et al., published in the Journal of Clinical Investigation, unveils a novel genetic cause for the development of familial natural killer (NK) cell deficiency: a biallelic compound heterozygous mutation in IRF8, which leads to impaired NK cell development and cytotoxic activity.

  13. 32 CFR 48.603 - Correction of administrative deficiencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Correction of administrative deficiencies. 48.603 Section 48.603 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE PERSONNEL, MILITARY AND CIVILIAN RETIRED SERVICEMAN'S FAMILY PROTECTION PLAN Miscellaneous § 48.603 Correction...

  14. 32 CFR 48.603 - Correction of administrative deficiencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Correction of administrative deficiencies. 48.603 Section 48.603 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE PERSONNEL, MILITARY AND CIVILIAN RETIRED SERVICEMAN'S FAMILY PROTECTION PLAN Miscellaneous § 48.603 Correction...

  15. 32 CFR 48.603 - Correction of administrative deficiencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Correction of administrative deficiencies. 48.603 Section 48.603 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE PERSONNEL, MILITARY AND CIVILIAN RETIRED SERVICEMAN'S FAMILY PROTECTION PLAN Miscellaneous § 48.603 Correction...

  16. 32 CFR 48.603 - Correction of administrative deficiencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Correction of administrative deficiencies. 48.603 Section 48.603 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE PERSONNEL, MILITARY AND CIVILIAN RETIRED SERVICEMAN'S FAMILY PROTECTION PLAN Miscellaneous § 48.603 Correction...

  17. 32 CFR 48.603 - Correction of administrative deficiencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Correction of administrative deficiencies. 48.603 Section 48.603 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE PERSONNEL, MILITARY AND CIVILIAN RETIRED SERVICEMAN'S FAMILY PROTECTION PLAN Miscellaneous § 48.603 Correction...

  18. Family History

    MedlinePlus

    Your family history includes health information about you and your close relatives. Families have many factors in common, including their genes, ... as heart disease, stroke, and cancer. Having a family member with a disease raises your risk, but ...

  19. Family Folklore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kotkin, Amy J.; Baker, Holly C.

    1977-01-01

    Discusses the Family Folklore Program of the Smithsonian Institution's annual Festival of American Folklife, in which the whole family can be involved in tracing family history through story telling, photographs, etc. (MS)

  20. Family History

    MedlinePlus

    ... Aneurysms » Diagnosis » Family History A- A A+ Family History Familial intracranial aneurysms are generally defined as the ... patients with an Intracranial Aneurysm (IA) have a history of smoking at some time in their life. ...

  1. Family Folklore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kotkin, Amy J.; Baker, Holly C.

    1977-01-01

    Discusses the Family Folklore Program of the Smithsonian Institution's annual Festival of American Folklife, in which the whole family can be involved in tracing family history through story telling, photographs, etc. (MS)

  2. Biochemical and molecular characteristics of citrin deficiency in Korean children.

    PubMed

    Oh, Seak Hee; Lee, Beom Hee; Kim, Gu-Hwan; Choi, Jin-Ho; Kim, Kyung Mo; Yoo, Han-Wook

    2017-02-01

    Mutations in SLC25A13 cause citrin deficiency, which has three phenotypes: neonatal intrahepatic cholestasis caused by citrin deficiency (NICCD), failure to thrive and dyslipidemia caused by citrin deficiency (FTTDCD) and adult-onset type 2 citrullinemia (CTLN2). The purpose of this study was to determine the mutation spectrum and the clinical and biochemical characteristics of citrin deficiency in Korean patients. Thirty-four patients were diagnosed with citrin deficiency based on mutations in SLC25A13, as verified by direct sequencing and long PCR screening of a large transposon insertion. A total of 66 alleles from 33 unrelated families of 34 patients with citrin deficiency (27 NICCD, 2 FTTDCD and 5 CTLN2) were retrospectively identified. The common pathogenic alleles were IVS16ins3kb (33%), c.851_854del (30%) and c.1177+1G>A (12%), and three novel variants were identified. Levels of citrulline, threonine, methionine, tyrosine and arginine and the threonine-to-serine ratio were higher in children with neonatal intrahepatic cholestasis caused by NICCD compared with that in patients with idiopathic neonatal hepatitis (INH). We concluded that Korean patients with citrin deficiency showed the highest frequency of the IVS16ins3kb mutation and that plasma amino-acid profiles can be used to differentiate between NICCD and INH.

  3. Family Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holloway, John H.

    2004-01-01

    Research indicates that family literacy programs can provide opportunities for educational success for parents and children. The benefits reaped by the children in family literacy workshops are presented.

  4. Carnitine palmitoyltransferase II deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Roe, C R.; Yang, B-Z; Brunengraber, H; Roe, D S.; Wallace, M; Garritson, B K.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Carnitine palmitoyltransferase II (CPT II) deficiency is an important cause of recurrent rhabdomyolysis in children and adults. Current treatment includes dietary fat restriction, with increased carbohydrate intake and exercise restriction to avoid muscle pain and rhabdomyolysis. Methods: CPT II enzyme assay, DNA mutation analysis, quantitative analysis of acylcarnitines in blood and cultured fibroblasts, urinary organic acids, the standardized 36-item Short-Form Health Status survey (SF-36) version 2, and bioelectric impedance for body fat composition. Diet treatment with triheptanoin at 30% to 35% of total daily caloric intake was used for all patients. Results: Seven patients with CPT II deficiency were studied from 7 to 61 months on the triheptanoin (anaplerotic) diet. Five had previous episodes of rhabdomyolysis requiring hospitalizations and muscle pain on exertion prior to the diet (two younger patients had not had rhabdomyolysis). While on the diet, only two patients experienced mild muscle pain with exercise. During short periods of noncompliance, two patients experienced rhabdomyolysis with exercise. None experienced rhabdomyolysis or hospitalizations while on the diet. All patients returned to normal physical activities including strenuous sports. Exercise restriction was eliminated. Previously abnormal SF-36 physical composite scores returned to normal levels that persisted for the duration of the therapy in all five symptomatic patients. Conclusions: The triheptanoin diet seems to be an effective therapy for adult-onset carnitine palmitoyltransferase II deficiency. GLOSSARY ALT = alanine aminotransferase; AST = aspartate aminotransferase; ATP = adenosine triphosphate; BHP = β-hydroxypentanoate; BKP = β-ketopentanoate; BKP-CoA = β-ketopentanoyl–coenzyme A; BUN = blood urea nitrogen; CAC = citric acid cycle; CoA = coenzyme A; CPK = creatine phosphokinase; CPT II = carnitine palmitoyltransferase II; LDL = low-density lipoprotein; MCT

  5. Iatrogenic nutritional deficiencies.

    PubMed

    Young, R C; Blass, J P

    1982-01-01

    This article catalogs the nutritional deficiencies inadvertently introduced by certain treatment regimens. Specifically, the iatrogenic effects on nutrition of surgery, hemodialysis, irradiation, and drugs are reviewed. Nutritional problems are particularly frequent consequences of surgery on the gastrointestinal tract. Gastric surgery can lead to deficiencies of vitamin B12, folate, iron, and thiamine, as well as to metabolic bone disease. The benefits of small bowel bypass are limited by the potentially severe nutritional consequences of this procedure. Following bypass surgery, patients should be monitored for signs of possible nutritional probems such as weight loss, neuropathy, cardiac arrhythmias, loss of stamina, or changes in mental status. Minimal laboratory tests should include hematologic evaluation, B12, folate, iron, albumin, calcium, phosphorus, alkaline phosphatase, transaminases, sodium, potassium, chloride, and carbon dioxide levels. Roentgenologic examination of the bone should also be obtained. Loss of bone substance is a major consequence of many forms of treatment, and dietary supplementation with calcium is warranted. Patients undergoing hemodialysis have shown carnitine and choline deficiencies, potassium depletion, and hypovitaminosis, as well as osteomalacia. Chronic drug use may alter intake, synthesis, absorption, transport, storage, metabolism, or excretion of nutrients. Patients vary markedly in the metabolic effects of drugs, and recommendations for nutrition must be related to age, sex, reproductive status, and genetic endowment. Moreover, the illness being treated can itself alter nutritional requirements and the effect of the treatment on nutrient status. The changes in nutritional levels induced by use of estrogen-containing oral contraceptives (OCs) are obscure; however, the effects on folate matabolism appear to be of less clinical import than previously suggested. Reduction in pyridoxine and serum vitamin B12 levels has been

  6. Hypothesis and case reports: possible thiamin deficiency.

    PubMed

    Lonsdale, D

    1990-02-01

    Three family members are reported with functional symptoms considered to be caused by intracellular deficiency of thiamin. Persistence of desaturation of erythrocyte transketolase in the face of megadose thiamin hydrochloride (THCl), accompanied by a balanced multivitamin and mineral formula, suggested a familial thiamin dependency state. Each of three individuals responded clinically to the administration of thiamin tetrahydrofurfuryl disulfide (TTFD), and erythrocyte transketolase (TKA) became fully saturated with thiamin pyrophosphate (TPP). Dysautonomic symptoms observed are compared with those seen in classical beriberi, the nutritional prototype for dysautonomia, and changes in blood pressure are described which support this premise. Although there is no proof from the laboratory, it is hypothesized that the biochemical lesion might be due either to malabsorption of thiamin or its inadequate phosphorylation.

  7. The Unravelling of the Genetic Architecture of Plasminogen Deficiency and its Relation to Thrombotic Disease

    PubMed Central

    Martin-Fernandez, Laura; Marco, Pascual; Corrales, Irene; Pérez, Raquel; Ramírez, Lorena; López, Sonia; Vidal, Francisco; Soria, José Manuel

    2016-01-01

    Although plasminogen is a key protein in fibrinolysis and several mutations in the plasminogen gene (PLG) have been identified that result in plasminogen deficiency, there are conflicting reports to associate it with the risk of thrombosis. Our aim was to unravel the genetic architecture of PLG in families with plasminogen deficiency and its relationship with spontaneous thrombotic events in these families. A total of 13 individuals from 4 families were recruited. Their genetic risk profile of thromboembolism was characterized using the Thrombo inCode kit. Only one family presented genetic risk of thromboembolism (homozygous carrier of F12 rs1801020 and F13A1 rs5985). The whole PLG was tested using Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) and 5 putative pathogenic mutations were found (after in silico predictions) and associated with plasminogen deficiency. Although we can not find genetic risk factors of thrombosis in 3 of 4 families, even the mutations associated with plasminogen deficiency do not cosegregated with thrombosis, we can not exclude plasminogen deficiency as a susceptibility risk factor for thrombosis, since thrombosis is a multifactorial and complex disease where unknown genetic risk factors, in addition to plasminogen deficiency, within these families may explain the thrombotic tendency. PMID:27976734

  8. Palmoplantar Keratoderma in Slurp2-Deficient Mice.

    PubMed

    Allan, Christopher M; Procaccia, Shiri; Tran, Deanna; Tu, Yiping; Barnes, Richard H; Larsson, Mikael; Allan, Bernard B; Young, Lorraine C; Hong, Cynthia; Tontonoz, Peter; Fong, Loren G; Young, Stephen G; Beigneux, Anne P

    2016-02-01

    SLURP1, a member of the lymphocyte antigen 6 protein family, is secreted by suprabasal keratinocytes. Mutations in SLURP1 cause a palmoplantar keratoderma (PPK) known as mal de Meleda. SLURP2, another secreted lymphocyte antigen 6 protein, is encoded by a gene located ?20 kb downstream from SLURP1. SLURP2 is produced by suprabasal keratinocytes. To investigate the importance of SLURP2, we first examined Slurp2 knockout mice in which exon 2-3 sequences had been replaced with lacZ and neo cassettes. Slurp2(-/-) mice exhibited hyperkeratosis on the volar surface of the paws (i.e., palmoplantar keratoderma), increased keratinocyte proliferation, and an accumulation of lipid droplets in the stratum corneum. They also exhibited reduced body weight and hind limb clasping. These phenotypes are similar to those of Slurp1(-/-) mice. To solidify a link between Slurp2 deficiency and palmoplantar keratoderma and to be confident that the disease phenotypes in Slurp2(-/-) mice were not secondary to the effects of the lacZ and neo cassettes on Slurp1 expression, we created a new line of Slurp2 knockout mice (Slurp2X(-/-)) in which Slurp2 was inactivated with a simple nonsense mutation. Slurp2X(-/-) mice exhibited the same disease phenotypes. Thus, Slurp2 deficiency and Slurp1 deficiencies cause the same disease phenotypes.

  9. Cellular glutathione peroxidase deficiency and endothelial dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Forgione, Marc A; Weiss, Norbert; Heydrick, Stanley; Cap, André; Klings, Elizabeth S; Bierl, Charlene; Eberhardt, Robert T; Farber, Harrison W; Loscalzo, Joseph

    2002-04-01

    Cellular glutathione peroxidase (GPx-1) is the most abundant intracellular isoform of the GPx antioxidant enzyme family. In this study, we hypothesized that GPx-1 deficiency directly induces an increase in vascular oxidant stress, with resulting endothelial dysfunction. We studied vascular function in a murine model of homozygous deficiency of GPx-1 (GPx-1(-/-)). Mesenteric arterioles of GPx-1(-/-) mice demonstrated paradoxical vasoconstriction to beta-methacholine and bradykinin, whereas wild-type (WT) mice showed dose-dependent vasodilation in response to both agonists. One week of treatment of GPx-1(-/-) mice with L-2-oxothiazolidine-4-carboxylic acid (OTC), which increases intracellular thiol pools, resulted in restoration of normal vascular reactivity in the mesenteric bed of GPx-1(-/-) mice. We observed an increase of the isoprostane iPF(2alpha)-III, a marker of oxidant stress, in the plasma and aortas of GPx-1(-/-) mice compared with WT mice, which returned toward normal after OTC treatment. Aortic sections from GPx-1(-/-) mice showed increased binding of an anti-3-nitrotyrosine antibody in the absence of frank vascular lesions. These findings demonstrate that homozygous deficiency of GPx-1 leads to impaired endothelium-dependent vasodilator function presumably due to a decrease in bioavailable nitric oxide and to increased vascular oxidant stress. These vascular abnormalities can be attenuated by increasing bioavailable intracellular thiol pools.

  10. Family Privilege

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seita, John R.

    2014-01-01

    Family privilege is defined as "strengths and supports gained through primary caring relationships." A generation ago, the typical family included two parents and a bevy of kids living under one roof. Now, every variation of blended caregiving qualifies as family. But over the long arc of human history, a real family was a…

  11. Family Literacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington, Charles W., Ed.

    1996-01-01

    This newsletter theme issue focuses on the impact of learning disabilities within families, specifically families with low literacy skills. It explores the effectiveness of family literacy programs, examines the connection between the field of family literacy and learning disabilities (LD), and offers suggestions on how to work with students with…

  12. Family Privilege

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seita, John R.

    2014-01-01

    Family privilege is defined as "strengths and supports gained through primary caring relationships." A generation ago, the typical family included two parents and a bevy of kids living under one roof. Now, every variation of blended caregiving qualifies as family. But over the long arc of human history, a real family was a…

  13. by Cu Deficiencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Tian-Ran; Li, Fu; Li, Jing-Feng

    2014-06-01

    This work revealed that the Cu-deficient ternary compounds Cu3- x SbSe4 free of Te and Pb exhibit enhanced thermoelectric performance. Cu3- x SbSe4 ( x = 0, 0.025, 0.050, 0.075) polycrystalline materials with high phase purity were fabricated by a facile method combining mechanical alloying and spark plasma sintering. Effects of Cu deficiencies on crystal structures, microstructures, element chemical states, and thermoelectric properties were systematically studied. High carrier concentration was obtained for the compositions Cu2.95SbSe4 and Cu2.925SbSe4 due to additional Cu vacancies, contributing to a remarkable increase in electrical conductivity. Together with a satisfactorily large Seebeck coefficient above 300 μV/K, a high power factor of about 890 μW/m-K2 at 523 K was achieved for Cu2.95SbSe4 and Cu2.925SbSe4, almost 60% larger than that of the stoichiometric sample with x = 0. The maximum ZT value was increased to 0.50 at 673 K in the Cu2.925SbSe4 sample sintered at a high temperature (703 K); this is the highest value reported so far for the undoped Cu3SbSe4 system.

  14. Subclinical cobalamin deficiency.

    PubMed

    Carmel, Ralph

    2012-03-01

    This review focuses on recent developments and controversies in the diagnosis, consequences, and management of subclinical cobalamin deficiency (SCCD), which affects many elderly persons. Diagnosis of SCCD depends exclusively on biochemical tests whose individual limitations suggest that combinations of tests are needed, especially in epidemiologic research. The causes of SCCD are unknown in more than 60% of cases, which limits prognostic predictions and identification of health consequences. After years of varying, often inconclusive associations, new clinical trials suggest that homocysteine reduction by high doses of folic acid, cobalamin, and pyridoxine may reduce progression of structural brain changes and cognitive impairment, especially in predisposed individuals. The causative or contributory roles, if any, of SCCD itself in cognitive dysfunction require direct study. If the findings are confirmed, high-dose supplementation with three vitamins will probably be more effective than fortification of the diet. The story of SCCD, which is severalfold times more common in the elderly than clinical cobalamin deficiency but also differs from it in arising only infrequently from severe malabsorption and thus being less likely to progress, continues to evolve. Preventive benefits need to be confirmed and expanded, and will require fuller understanding of SCCD pathophysiology, natural history, and health consequences.

  15. Vitamin D Deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Alshishtawy, Moeness Moustafa

    2012-01-01

    Recently, scientists have generated a strong body of evidence providing new information about the preventive effect of vitamin D on a broad range of disorders. This evidence suggests that vitamin D is much more than a nutrient needed for bone health; it is an essential hormone required for regulation of a large number of physiological functions. Sufficient concentration of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D is essential for optimising human health. This article reviews the present state-of-the-art knowledge about vitamin D’s status worldwide and refers to recent articles discussing some of the general background of vitamin D, including sources, benefits, deficiencies, and dietary requirements, especially in pregnancy. They offer evidence that vitamin D deficiency could be a major public health burden in many parts of the world, mostly because of sun deprivation. The article also discusses the debate about optimal concentration of circulating serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D, and explores different views on the amount of vitamin D supplementation required to achieve and maintain this concentration. PMID:22548132

  16. Iron-deficiency anaemia.

    PubMed

    Cook, J D

    1994-12-01

    Iron-deficiency anaemia (IDA) is a common clinical problem throughout the world and an enormous public health problem in developing countries. The cornerstone of the laboratory identification of IDA is a low haemoglobin and serum ferritin concentration although a normal serum ferritin does exclude IDA. When the serum ferritin is normal in an anaemic patient with iron-deficient erythropoiesis, it is common practise to perform a bone marrow examination to diagnose IDA. The recent introduction of serum transferrin receptor measurements is a useful alternative for distinguishing IDA from the anaemia of chronic disease because the serum receptor concentration is usually elevated in patients with IDA but normal in patients with anaemia due to inflammation or neoplasia. It is helpful for the clinican to be aware of the causes of physiological IDA. The most important are increased rate of body growth, excessive menstrual blood loss, pregnancy, regular blood donation, intensive endurance training, chronic aspirin use and a vegetarian diet. Without these, a careful search for unsuspected gastrointestinal blood loss must be made and even when the suspicion of physiological IDA is high, it is prudent to screen for fecal occult blood. In most patients, IDA responds promptly to oral iron therapy. Patients who experience troublesome side-effects with oral iron might benefit from a gastric delivery system for oral iron which eliminates nausea and vomiting and improves iron absorption when given with food.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  17. Identification of three novel mutations in hereditary protein S deficiency.

    PubMed

    Bustorff, T C; Freire, I; Gago, T; Crespo, F; David, D

    1997-01-01

    We report the application of single-stranded conformation polymorphism (SSCP) analysis to the screening of 15 functionally important Protein S (PS) gene (PS alpha) regions (4.243 Kb) in 6 unrelated families with PS deficiencies. Direct sequencing of the fragments with altered migration patterns led to the identification of the corresponding molecular alterations. A missense mutation, G to T transversion at codon Cys598, and two different alterations, leading either to allelic exclusion, or premature termination of the protein translation: a G to A transition at codon Trp465 and a 1 nt (T) insertion at codon 265, were identified. The 1 nt insertion was observed in three apparently unrelated families but with a common geographical origin and the mutated allele was undetectable in platelet mRNAs of affected individuals. Family analysis confirmed, in each case, a perfect cosegregation of the mutation with the PS deficiency. We conclude that these alterations represent the causative mutations.

  18. [Iron deficiency and digestive disorders].

    PubMed

    Cozon, G J N

    2014-11-01

    Iron deficiency anemia still remains problematic worldwide. Iron deficiency without anemia is often undiagnosed. We reviewed, in this study, symptoms and syndromes associated with iron deficiency with or without anemia: fatigue, cognitive functions, restless legs syndrome, hair loss, and chronic heart failure. Iron is absorbed through the digestive tract. Hepcidin and ferroportin are the main proteins of iron regulation. Pathogenic micro-organisms or intestinal dysbiosis are suspected to influence iron absorption.

  19. Psychotic mania in glucose-6-phosphate-dehydrogenase-deficient subjects

    PubMed Central

    Bocchetta, Alberto

    2003-01-01

    Background Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency has been associated with acute psychosis, catatonic schizophrenia, and bipolar disorders by previous inconclusive reports. A particularly disproportionate rate of enzyme deficiency was found in manic schizoaffective patients from 662 lithium patients surveyed in Sardinia. The purpose of this study was to describe clinical characteristics which may be potentially associated with G6PD deficiency. Methods Characteristics of episodes, course of illness, family pattern of illness, laboratory tests, and treatment response of 29 G6PD-deficient subjects with a Research Diagnostic Criteria diagnosis of manic schizoaffective disorder were abstracted from available records. Results The most peculiar pattern was that of acute recurrent psychotic manic episodes, mostly characterized by loosening of associations, agitation, catatonic symptoms, and/or transient confusion, concurrent hyperbilirubinemia, positive psychiatric family history, and partial response to long-term lithium treatment. Conclusions A relationship between psychiatric disorder and G6PD deficiency is to be searched in the bipolar spectrum, particularly among patients with a history of acute episodes with psychotic and/or catatonic symptoms or with transient confusion. PMID:12844366

  20. Biochemical and immunologic characterization of serum biotinidase in partial biotinidase deficiency.

    PubMed

    Hart, P S; Hymes, J; Wolf, B

    1992-03-01

    Newborn screening for biotinidase deficiency has identified children with profound biotinidase deficiency (less than 10% of mean normal activity) and about an equal number of children with partial biotinidase deficiency (10 to 30% of mean normal activity). Partial biotinidase deficiency was initially considered a variant without clinical consequences until one child, during an episode of gastroenteritis, developed symptoms of biotinidase deficiency that resolved with biotin therapy. Biochemical and immunologic characterization of biotinidase was performed in sera from 23 children with partial biotinidase deficiency from 19 families and 18 of their parents. As expected, all patients had cross-reacting material in their serum. Patients with partial biotinidase deficiency can be classified into six distinct biochemical phenotypes on the basis of the number of isoforms and the distribution frequency of the isoforms. Kinetic studies were performed on samples from 17 of the patients and were found to be normal in all cases. The patient with partial deficiency who became symptomatic has an isoform profile that is not different from 10 other asymptomatic, partially deficient children. The parents had normal isoform patterns. The isoform patterns observed in the patients with partial biotinidase deficiency were not different from those of the profoundly deficient patients who had cross-reacting material.

  1. The African American Family and AIDS: Counseling Issues and Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowe, Patrick; Beamish, Patricia M.

    This document discusses the application of a systems approach for family counseling for African American families with a family member infected with Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS). It begins by citing statistics that illustrate that there exists a disproportionate representation of cases of AIDS among African Americans. A discussion on…

  2. Silent Casualties: Partners, Families, and Spouses of Persons with AIDS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, R. Jane; Stafford, William B.

    1991-01-01

    Surveys the literature currently available on needs and support of partners, families, and spouses of persons with Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS). Broad effects of the AIDS diagnosis are noted as well as unique effects on gay male partners, families of intravenous drug abusers, families giving in-home care to their persons with AIDS…

  3. Molecular basis of human carbonic anhydrase II deficiency.

    PubMed Central

    Roth, D E; Venta, P J; Tashian, R E; Sly, W S

    1992-01-01

    Deficiency of carbonic anhydrase II (carbonate hydro-lyase, EC 4.2.1.1) is the primary defect in the syndrome of osteopetrosis, renal tubular acidosis, and cerebral calcification. In this report we describe the molecular basis for carbonic anhydrase II deficiency in the American family in which the association of carbonic anhydrase II deficiency with this syndrome was first recognized. The three affected siblings from this family are compound heterozygotes, each having inherited two different mutations in the structural gene for carbonic anhydrase II. The paternal mutation is a splice acceptor site mutation at the 3' end of intron 5. The maternal mutation is a missense mutation in exon 3 that substitutes a tyrosine for histidine-107. We show that the mutant enzyme expressed in bacteria from the cDNA containing the His-107----Tyr mutation has detectable, though greatly reduced, activity. We suggest that residual activity of the His-107----Tyr mutant enzyme may explain the absence of mental retardation and the relatively mild phenotype of carbonic anhydrase II deficiency in affected members of this family. Images PMID:1542674

  4. [Vitamin deficiencies in breastfed children due to maternal dietary deficiency].

    PubMed

    Kollée, L A A

    2006-03-04

    Dietary deficiencies of vitamin B12 and vitamin D during pregnancy and lactation may result in health problems in exclusively breastfed infants. Vitamin-B12 deficiency in these infants results in irritability, anorexia and failure to thrive during the first 4-8 months of life. Severe and permanent neurodevelopmental disturbances may occur. The most at risk for vitamin-B12 deficiency are breast-fed infants ofveganist and vegetarian mothers. Mothers who cover their skin prevent exposure to the sun and may consequently be at risk for vitamin-D deficiency, as well as putting their offspring at risk. In prenatal and perinatal care, it is important to take the maternal dietary history in order to be able to prevent or treat these disorders. Guidelines for obstetrical and neonatal care should include the topic of vitamin deficiency.

  5. Family Violence and Family Physicians

    PubMed Central

    Herbert, Carol P.

    1991-01-01

    The acronym IDEALS summarizes family physicians' obligations when violence is suspected: to identify family violence; document injuries; educate families and ensure safety for victims; access resources and coordinate care; co-operate in the legal process; and provide support for families. Failure to respond reflects personal and professional experience and attitudes, fear of legal involvement, and lack of knowledge. Risks of intervention include physician burnout, physician overfunctioning, escalation of violence, and family disruption. PMID:21228987

  6. Nuclear magnetic resonance metabolomics of iron deficiency in soybean leaves.

    PubMed

    Lima, Marta R M; Diaz, Sílvia O; Lamego, Inês; Grusak, Michael A; Vasconcelos, Marta W; Gil, Ana M

    2014-06-06

    Iron (Fe) deficiency is an important agricultural concern that leads to lower yields and crop quality. A better understanding of the condition at the metabolome level could contribute to the design of strategies to ameliorate Fe-deficiency problems. Fe-sufficient and Fe-deficient soybean leaf extracts and whole leaves were analyzed by liquid (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and high-resolution magic-angle spinning NMR spectroscopy, respectively. Overall, 30 compounds were measurable and identifiable (comprising amino and organic acids, fatty acids, carbohydrates, alcohols, polyphenols, and others), along with 22 additional spin systems (still unassigned). Thus, metabolite differences between treatment conditions could be evaluated for different compound families simultaneously. Statistically relevant metabolite changes upon Fe deficiency included higher levels of alanine, asparagine/aspartate, threonine, valine, GABA, acetate, choline, ethanolamine, hypoxanthine, trigonelline, and polyphenols and lower levels of citrate, malate, ethanol, methanol, chlorogenate, and 3-methyl-2-oxovalerate. The data indicate that the main metabolic impacts of Fe deficiency in soybean include enhanced tricarboxylic acid cycle activity, enhanced activation of oxidative stress protection mechanisms and enhanced amino acid accumulation. Metabolites showing accumulation differences in Fe-starved but visually asymptomatic leaves could serve as biomarkers for early detection of Fe-deficiency stress.

  7. Iron deficiency and iron deficiency anemia in women.

    PubMed

    Coad, Jane; Pedley, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    Iron deficiency is one of the most common nutritional problems in the world and disproportionately affects women and children. Stages of iron deficiency can be characterized as mild deficiency where iron stores become depleted, marginal deficiency where the production of many iron-dependent proteins is compromised but hemoglobin levels are normal and iron deficiency anemia where synthesis of hemoglobin is decreased and oxygen transport to the tissues is reduced. Iron deficiency anemia is usually assessed by measuring hemoglobin levels but this approach lacks both specificity and sensitivity. Failure to identify and treat earlier stages of iron deficiency is concerning given the neurocognitive implications of iron deficiency without anemia. Most of the daily iron requirement is derived from recycling of senescent erythrocytes by macrophages; only 5-10 % comes from the diet. Iron absorption is affected by inhibitors and enhancers of iron absorption and by the physiological state. Inflammatory conditions, including obesity, can result in iron being retained in the enterocytes and macrophages causing hypoferremia as a strategic defense mechanism to restrict iron availability to pathogens. Premenopausal women usually have low iron status because of iron loss in menstrual blood. Conditions which further increase iron loss, compromise absorption or increase demand, such as frequent blood donation, gastrointestinal lesions, athletic activity and pregnancy, can exceed the capacity of the gastrointestinal tract to upregulate iron absorption. Women of reproductive age are at particularly high risk of iron deficiency and its consequences however there is a controversial argument that evolutionary pressures have resulted in an iron deficient phenotype which protects against infection.

  8. Peroxisomal bifunctional enzyme deficiency.

    PubMed Central

    Watkins, P A; Chen, W W; Harris, C J; Hoefler, G; Hoefler, S; Blake, D C; Balfe, A; Kelley, R I; Moser, A B; Beard, M E

    1989-01-01

    Peroxisomal function was evaluated in a male infant with clinical features of neonatal adrenoleukodystrophy. Very long chain fatty acid levels were elevated in both plasma and fibroblasts, and beta-oxidation of very long chain fatty acids in cultured fibroblasts was significantly impaired. Although the level of the bile acid intermediate trihydroxycoprostanoic acid was slightly elevated in plasma, phytanic acid and L-pipecolic acid levels were normal, as was plasmalogen synthesis in cultured fibroblasts. The latter three parameters distinguish this case from classical neonatal adrenoleukodystrophy. In addition, electron microscopy and catalase subcellular distribution studies revealed that, in contrast to neonatal adrenoleukodystrophy, peroxisomes were present in the patient's tissues. Immunoblot studies of peroxisomal beta-oxidation enzymes revealed that the bifunctional enzyme (enoyl-CoA hydratase/3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase) was deficient in postmortem liver samples, whereas acyl-CoA oxidase and the mature form of beta-ketothiolase were present. Density gradient centrifugation of fibroblast homogenates confirmed that intact peroxisomes were present. Immunoblots of fibroblasts peroxisomal fractions showed that they contained acyl-CoA oxidase and beta-ketothiolase, but bifunctional enzyme was not detected. Northern analysis, however, revealed that mRNA coding for the bifunctional enzyme was present in the patient's fibroblasts. These results indicate that the primary biochemical defect in this patient is a deficiency of peroxisomal bifunctional enzyme. It is of interest that the phenotype of this patient resembled neonatal adrenoleukodystrophy and would not have been distinguished from this disorder by clinical study alone. Images PMID:2921319

  9. Iodine deficiency in Europe.

    PubMed

    Delange, F

    1995-01-18

    Iodine is a trace element present in the human body in minute amounts (15-20 mg in adults, i.e. 0.0285 x 10(-3)% of body weight). The only confirmed function of iodine is to constitute an essential substrate for the synthesis of thyroid hormones, tetraiodothyronine, thyroxine or T4 and triiodothyronine, T3 (1). In thyroxine, iodine is 60% by weight. Thyroid hormones, in turn, play a decisive role in the metabolism of all cells of the organism (2) and in the process of early growth and development of most organs, especially of the brain (3). Brain development in humans occurs from fetal life up to the third postnatal year (4). Consequently, a deficit in iodine and/or in thyroid hormones occurring during this critical period of life will result not only in the slowing down of the metabolic activities of all the cells of the organism but also in irreversible alterations in the development of the brain. The clinical consequence will be mental retardation (5). When the physiological requirements of iodine are not met in a given population, a series of functional and developmental abnormalities occur (Table 1), including thyroid function abnormalities and, when iodine deficiency is severe, endemic goiter and cretinism, endemic mental retardation, decreased fertility rate, increased perinatal death, and infant mortality. These complications, which constitute an hindrance to the development of the affected population, are grouped under the general heading of Iodine Deficiency Disorders, IDD (6). Broad geographic areas exist in which the population is affected by IDD.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  10. Diversity in expression of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency in females.

    PubMed

    Abdulrazzaq, Y M; Micallef, R; Qureshi, M; Dawodu, A; Ahmed, I; Khidr, A; Bastaki, S M; Al-Khayat, A; Bayoumi, R A

    1999-01-01

    The aims of this study were to determine the prevalence of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency in the United Arab Emirates (UAE), to describe the different mutations in the population, to determine its prevalence, and to study inheritance patterns in families of G6PD-deficient individuals. All infants born at Tawam Hospital, Al-Ain, UAE from January 1994 to September 1996 were screened at birth for their G6PD status. In addition, those attending well-baby clinics during the period were also screened for the disorder. Families of 40 known G6PD-deficient individuals, selected randomly from the records of three hospitals in the country, were assessed for G6PD deficiency. Where appropriate, this was followed by definition of G6PD mutations. Of 8198 infants, 746 (9.1%), comprising 15% of males and 5% of females tested, were found to be G6PD deficient. A total of 27 families were further assessed: of these, all but one family had the nt563 Mediterranean mutation. In one family, two individuals had the nt202 African mutation. The high manifestation of G6PD deficiency in women may be due to the preferential expression of the G6PD-deficient gene and X-inactivation of the normal gene, and/or to the presence of an 'enhancer' gene that makes the expression of the G6PD deficiency more likely. The high level of consanguinity which, theoretically, should result in a high proportion of homozygotes and consequently a higher proportion of females with the deficiency, was not found to be a significant factor.

  11. Basic Skills: Dealing with Deficiencies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New Mexico State Univ., Las Cruces.

    Research findings on college instruction and basic skills deficiencies are discussed in 12 papers from the first Regional Conference on University Teaching. Titles and authors are as follows: "Basic Skills: Dealing with Deficiencies" (Susanne D. Roueche, with responses by Gary B. Donart, Betty Harris, and James Nordyke); "Is Higher Education an…

  12. The Cardiomyopathy of Iron Deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Hegde, Nikita; Rich, Michael W.; Gayomali, Charina

    2006-01-01

    Iron-deficiency anemia can have deleterious effects on the heart. Herein, we describe the effects of iron deficiency on the heart as corroborated with electrocardiography, radiology, echocardiography, and cardiac catheterization. We review the pathophysiology, clinical features, and management of iron-deficiency–induced cardiomyopathy. PMID:17041692

  13. Basic Skills: Dealing with Deficiencies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New Mexico State Univ., Las Cruces.

    Research findings on college instruction and basic skills deficiencies are discussed in 12 papers from the first Regional Conference on University Teaching. Titles and authors are as follows: "Basic Skills: Dealing with Deficiencies" (Susanne D. Roueche, with responses by Gary B. Donart, Betty Harris, and James Nordyke); "Is Higher Education an…

  14. Congenital deficiency of meibomian glands.

    PubMed Central

    Bron, A J; Mengher, L S

    1987-01-01

    A 16-year-old girl presented with contact lens intolerance. She was found to have a marked deficiency of meibomian glands in the upper lids and almost total absence in the lower lids. Evidence of tear film instability was found and attributed to deficient lid oil production. A daily wear soft contact lens was later fitted and tolerated. PMID:3580344

  15. Iron deficiency anemia in children.

    PubMed

    Subramaniam, Girish; Girish, Meenakshi

    2015-06-01

    Iron deficiency is not just anemia; it can be responsible for a long list of other manifestations. This topic is of great importance, especially in infancy and early childhood, for a variety of reasons. Firstly, iron need is maximum in this period. Secondly, diet in infancy is usually deficient in iron. Thirdly and most importantly, iron deficiency at this age can result in neurodevelopmental and cognitive deficits, which may not be reversible. Hypochromia and microcytosis in a complete blood count (CBC) makes iron deficiency anemia (IDA) most likely diagnosis. Absence of response to iron should make us look for other differential diagnosis like β thalassemia trait and anemia of chronic disease. Celiac disease is the most important cause of true IDA not responding to oral iron therapy. While oral ferrous sulphate is the cheapest and most effective therapy for IDA, simple nonpharmacological and pharmacological measures can go a long way in prevention of iron deficiency.

  16. Iron deficiency: definition and diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Cook, J D; Skikne, B S

    1989-11-01

    There has been a continuous refinement over the past several decades of methods to detect iron deficiency and assess its magnitude. The optimal combination of measurements differs for clinical and epidemiological assessment. Clinically, the major problem is to distinguish true iron deficiency from other causes of iron-deficient erythropoiesis, such as the anaemia of chronic disease. Epidemiologically, techniques that provide quantified estimates of body iron are preferable. For both purposes, the serum ferritin is the focal point of the laboratory detection of iron deficiency. Serum ferritin measurements provide a reliable index of body iron stores in healthy individuals, a cost-effective method of screening for iron deficiency, and a useful alternative to bone marrow examinations in the evaluation of anaemic patients. Preliminary studies indicate that measurement of the serum transferrin receptor may be the most reliable way to assess deficits in tissue iron supply.

  17. Family Life

    MedlinePlus

    ... Family and Friends Talking About Cancer Family Life Parenting While Living With Cancer How A Child Understands ... Learn more about how to get support for parenting while living with cancer . The importance of communication ...

  18. Family Violence

    MedlinePlus

    ... help. About Military OneSource Benefits Home and Family Finances Legal Issues Personal Financial Management and Taxes Taxes ... Surveys Site Map Categories Confidential Help Family & Relationships Finance & Legal Health & Wellness Education & Employment On & Off-Base ...

  19. Familial gigantism

    PubMed Central

    de Herder, Wouter W.

    2012-01-01

    Familial GH-secreting tumors are seen in association with three separate hereditary clinical syndromes: multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1, Carney complex, and familial isolated pituitary adenomas. PMID:22584702

  20. Interactions between copper deficiency, selenium deficiency and adriamycin toxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, J.; Tackett, R.; Johnson, M.A. )

    1991-03-15

    The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that there are interactions between copper (Cu) and selenium (Se) status, and adriamycin (ADR) toxicity. Male Sprague Dawley rats were fed Cu,Se adequate; Cu deficient, Se adequate ({minus}Cu); Cu adequate, Se deficient; or Cu,Se deficient diets for 38-41 days. ADR or saline (SAL) were administered weekly for the last 4 weeks of the study. Cu deficiency was confirmed by a 3-fold decrease in liver Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase and liver Cu, and a 5-fold decrease in RBC Cu,Zn-SOD. Se deficiency was confirmed by a 10-fold decrease in liver glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px). ADR, Cu deficiency and Se deficiency all caused EKG abnormalities. However, Cu and Se deficiencies did not enhance ADR's influence on EKGs. ADR increased lipid peroxidation in liver by 15% and in heart by 18% (NS). Cu deficiency decreased ADR-induced lipid peroxidation in heart tissue by 25%. ADR influenced Se status by significantly increasing heart GSH-Px, and Cu status by increasing liver Cu, plasma ceruloplasmin and liver Cu, Zn-SOD. These elevations in Cu,Zn-SOD and GSH-Px may be a consequence of the increased lipid peroxidation initiated by ADR. In {minus}Cu rats, ADR caused severe hemolytic anemia characterized by a 19% decrease in hematocrit and a 17-fold increase in splenic Fe. These data suggest that there are numerous interactions between ADR toxicity and Cu and Se status.

  1. Family Support.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wieck, Colleen, Ed.; McBride, Marijo, Ed.

    1990-01-01

    This "Feature Issue" of the quarterly journal "Impact" presents 19 brief articles on family support systems in the United States for persons with developmental disabilities and their families. Emphasis is on provisions of Public Law 99-457. Articles include: "Family Support in the United States: Setting a Course for the…

  2. Family Matters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Featherstone, Joseph

    1979-01-01

    Emphasizing the family as the center of political/policy debates is the result of the tradition of romanticizing family virtues and a set of events ("the sixities"). Author sees the family emerging as a symbol in communal social policy development. Warns of dangers inherent in seeking private solutions to collective problems. (Author/CSS)

  3. Family Involvement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liontos, Lynn Balster

    1992-01-01

    Family involvement in schools will work only when perceived as an enlarged concept focusing on all children, including those from at-risk families. Each publication reviewed here is specifically concerned with family involvement strategies concerned with all children or targeted at primarily high risk students. Susan McAllister Swap looks at three…

  4. Genetics Home Reference: lysosomal acid lipase deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home Health Conditions lysosomal acid lipase deficiency lysosomal acid lipase deficiency Printable PDF Open All Close All ... to view the expand/collapse boxes. Description Lysosomal acid lipase deficiency is an inherited condition characterized by ...

  5. Genetics Home Reference: protein C deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... Management Genetic Testing (1 link) Genetic Testing Registry: Thrombophilia, hereditary, due to protein C deficiency, autosomal dominant ... my area? Other Names for This Condition hereditary thrombophilia due to protein C deficiency PROC deficiency Related ...

  6. Genetics Home Reference: glucose phosphate isomerase deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... Me Understand Genetics Home Health Conditions GPI deficiency glucose phosphate isomerase deficiency Enable Javascript to view the ... boxes. Download PDF Open All Close All Description Glucose phosphate isomerase (GPI) deficiency is an inherited disorder ...

  7. Genetics Home Reference: isolated growth hormone deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... Genetic Testing (4 links) Genetic Testing Registry: Ateleiotic dwarfism Genetic Testing Registry: Autosomal dominant isolated somatotropin deficiency ... in my area? Other Names for This Condition dwarfism, growth hormone deficiency dwarfism, pituitary growth hormone deficiency ...

  8. Gender Dependent Evaluation of Autism like Behavior in Mice Exposed to Prenatal Zinc Deficiency.

    PubMed

    Grabrucker, Stefanie; Boeckers, Tobias M; Grabrucker, Andreas M

    2016-01-01

    Zinc deficiency has recently been linked to the etiology of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) as environmental risk factor. With an estimated 17% of the world population being at risk of zinc deficiency, especially zinc deficiency during pregnancy might be a common occurrence, also in industrialized nations. On molecular level, zinc deficiency has been shown to affect a signaling pathway at glutamatergic synapses that has previously been identified through genetic mutations in ASD patients, the Neurexin-Neuroligin-Shank pathway, via altering zinc binding Shank family members. In particular, prenatal zinc deficient but not acute zinc deficient animals have been reported to display autism like behavior in some behavioral tests. However, a full behavioral analysis of a possible autism like behavior has been lacking so far. Here, we performed an extensive behavioral phenotyping of mice born from mothers with mild zinc deficiency during all trimesters of pregnancy. Prenatal zinc deficient animals were investigated as adults and gender differences were assessed. Our results show that prenatal zinc deficient mice display increased anxiety, deficits in nest building and various social interaction paradigm, as well as mild alterations in ultrasonic vocalizations. A gender specific analysis revealed only few sex specific differences. Taken together, given that similar behavioral abnormalities as reported here are frequently observed in ASD mouse models, we conclude that prenatal zinc deficient animals even without specific genetic susceptibility for ASD, already show some features of ASD like behavior.

  9. Gender Dependent Evaluation of Autism like Behavior in Mice Exposed to Prenatal Zinc Deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Grabrucker, Stefanie; Boeckers, Tobias M.; Grabrucker, Andreas M.

    2016-01-01

    Zinc deficiency has recently been linked to the etiology of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) as environmental risk factor. With an estimated 17% of the world population being at risk of zinc deficiency, especially zinc deficiency during pregnancy might be a common occurrence, also in industrialized nations. On molecular level, zinc deficiency has been shown to affect a signaling pathway at glutamatergic synapses that has previously been identified through genetic mutations in ASD patients, the Neurexin-Neuroligin-Shank pathway, via altering zinc binding Shank family members. In particular, prenatal zinc deficient but not acute zinc deficient animals have been reported to display autism like behavior in some behavioral tests. However, a full behavioral analysis of a possible autism like behavior has been lacking so far. Here, we performed an extensive behavioral phenotyping of mice born from mothers with mild zinc deficiency during all trimesters of pregnancy. Prenatal zinc deficient animals were investigated as adults and gender differences were assessed. Our results show that prenatal zinc deficient mice display increased anxiety, deficits in nest building and various social interaction paradigm, as well as mild alterations in ultrasonic vocalizations. A gender specific analysis revealed only few sex specific differences. Taken together, given that similar behavioral abnormalities as reported here are frequently observed in ASD mouse models, we conclude that prenatal zinc deficient animals even without specific genetic susceptibility for ASD, already show some features of ASD like behavior. PMID:26973485

  10. Italian families and family interventions.

    PubMed

    Casacchia, Massimo; Roncone, Rita

    2014-06-01

    In Italy, as in many countries, relatives are closely involved in caring for persons with physical and mental disorders. The Italian scenario lends itself to routine involvement of family members in psychiatric treatment because, despite becoming smaller and smaller, Italian families keep close ties, and men and women do not leave the parental home until relatively late. The authors describe the impact of international family psychosocial research on the Italian mental health services (MHSs) and the main psychosocial interventions currently in use, including family psychoeducational interventions and the "Milan family therapy approach." They also highlight the contribution Italian researchers have given to the study of important variables in integrated mental disorder care, such as family burden of care, relatives' attitudes, family functioning, and satisfaction with the MHSs. Finally, they discuss the difficulties of implementing and disseminating family interventions within the Italian MHS, despite the growing evidence of their effectiveness.

  11. Factors associated with iron deficiency anemia in Brazilian preschool children.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Carlos A N de; Ricco, Rubens G; Ciampo, Luiz A del; Souza, Ana M; Pinho, Adriana P; Oliveira, José E Dutra de

    2004-01-01

    To examine the determining factors of anemia and iron deficiency in children attending two day care centers in the town of Pontal, southeast of Brazil. Cross-sectional study was conducted in 192 children aged 12 to 72 months. Personal data (age, sex, use of medicinal iron supplements, duration of breast-feeding, type of delivery, prenatal care, weight, and height), and socioeconomic data (number of co-inhabitants, parental schooling, and per capita family income) were obtained and evaluated together with hemoglobin, serum transferrin receptor, ferritin, and iron deficiency anemia. Age was the variable that most affected iron nutritional status, with higher hemoglobin values, lower transferrin receptor concentrations, higher ferritin values and lower iron deficiency anemia being detected with increasing age. The other studied variables did not show any correlation with iron nutritional status. The obtained data suggest that control strategies for this preschool population should be especially directed at younger children.

  12. Hemolytic anemia caused by glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency.

    PubMed

    Olivares, N; Medina, C; Sánchez-Corona, J; Rivas, F; Rivera, H; Hernández, A; Delgado, J L; Ibarra, B; Cantú, J M; Vaca, G; Martínez, C

    1979-01-01

    Results are reported concerning quantitation of glucose -6- phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) enzyme activity where in one of the members of a family a clinical diagnosis of acute hemolytic anemia due to G6PD deficiency had been established. In the propositus, G6PD levels were found to be less than 10 per cent thus confirming diagnosis; the same enzymatic deficiency was identified in one of the siblings without a history of hematologic pathology and in a maternal cousin with a history of neonatal jaundice as well as two obliged carriers. Electrophoretical enzyme phenotype was similar to A variant in three affected males. Advantages of prevention and medical care possible with early diagnosis of G6PD deficiency are discussed.

  13. Hypocretin ligand deficiency in narcolepsy: recent basic and clinical insights.

    PubMed

    Ritchie, Cayde; Okuro, Masashi; Kanbayashi, Takashi; Nishino, Seiji

    2010-05-01

    Narcolepsy is a chronic sleep disorder characterized by excessive daytime sleepiness, cataplexy, hypnagogic hallucinations, and sleep paralysis. Both sporadic and familial forms exist in humans. Recently, the major pathophysiology of human narcolepsy was indicated, based on discovery, through animal study, of narcolepsy genes involved in the pathology of hypocretin/orexin ligand and its receptor. Hypocretin ligand deficiency is found in most patients with narcolepsy with cataplexy. This deficiency likely is the result of postnatal cell death of hypocretin neurons, and involvement of autoimmune mechanisms is suggested. Hypocretin deficiency also is found in symptomatic narcolepsy and excessive daytime sleepiness with neurologic conditions, including immune-mediated neurologic disorders. These findings have significant clinical relevance and promote understanding of hypocretin cell death mechanisms. Already, discoveries in humans have led to a new diagnostic test for narcolepsy. Currently, hypocretin replacement therapy has emerged as a promising therapeutic option, and experiments using gene therapy and cell transplantation are in progress.

  14. Classical factor X deficiency. Report of a further case.

    PubMed

    Girolami, A; Coser, P; Brunetti, A; Prinoth, O

    1975-01-01

    A case of classical factor X deficiency is reported. The propositus is a 28-year-old male who presented easy bruising, epistaxis, hematomas, hematuria and occasional hemartrosis since early childhood. The severely prolonged prothrombin time was corrected by normal serum but not by adsorbed normal plasma. The abnormality was not corrected by the plasma of a patient with factor X deficiency, but by the plasma of patients with factor II or VII deficiencies. Partial thromboplastin time, prothrombin consumption and the thromboplastin generation test were abnormal. The thromboelastogram showed a prolonged 'K' and 'r' together with a normal 'ma'. Factor X was very low (smaller than 1%). Platelet tests were normal. No factor X band or precipitates were seen on electroimmunoassay and on the cross-over electrophoresis. The non-consanguineous parents and several other members of the family were found to be heterozygotes.

  15. Prevention of iron deficiency.

    PubMed

    Hallberg, L

    1994-12-01

    This chapter discusses different methods to prevent iron deficiency--to reduce iron losses (e.g. reducing menstrual iron losses by using a contraceptive pill or combating of hookworm infestation) or to increase iron absorption. Iron absorption can be increased (1) by modifying the composition of meals--increasing the content of dietary factors enhancing iron absorption (e.g. meat and ascorbic acid) or reducing the content of factors inhibiting iron absorption such as phytate and iron-binding phenolic compounds, (2) by increasing the iron content of the diet by fortification with iron, or by (3) supplementation with iron tablets. Several factors to consider in the choice of strategy are discussed such as the importance of the bioavailability of the diet for the efficacy of iron fortification, the choice of vehicle for iron fortification that is compatible with the iron compound used, the feasibility to increase the bioavailability of the dietary iron by modification of the composition of the diet and the short time available in pregnancy to ensure a sufficient supply of the extra iron needed limiting the effective measures available to supplementation with iron tablets.

  16. Iron deficiency and thrombocytosis.

    PubMed

    Holbro, A; Volken, T; Buser, A; Sigle, J P; Halter, J P; Passweg, J R; Tichelli, A; Infanti, L

    2017-01-01

    According to many textbooks, iron deficiency (ID) is associated with reactive thrombocytosis. In this study, we aimed to investigate the correlation between serum ferritin levels and platelet counts in a large cohort of healthy blood donors. We included all whole blood and apheresis donors aged 18 years or older with at least one ferritin measurement and one platelet count performed at the same visit between 1996 and 2014. A total of 130 345 blood counts and ferritin measurements obtained from 22 046 healthy donors were analysed. Overall, no correlation between serum ferritin and platelet count was observed (r = -0.03, ρ = 0.04 for males, and r = 0.01, ρ = -0.02 for females, respectively). Associations remained clinically negligible after adjusting for age, time since previous blood donation, number of donations and restricting the analysis to ferritin deciles. In this large, retrospective single-centre study, correlations between low ferritin and platelet count in a large and homogeneous cohort of healthy donors were negligible. Further studies in patients with more severe anaemia and patients with inflammation are warranted.

  17. Lymphopoiesis in Protein Deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Bhuyan, U. N.; Ramalingaswami, V.

    1974-01-01

    In view of the depressed immunity in protein malnutrition, an assessment of the lymphoproliferative activity of the constantly stimulated mesenteric lymph node of the guinea pig was undertaken. A significant reduction of this activity was observed in protein deficiency. a) The germinal centers were reduced in number and size; new formation in the medulla was rarely seen. Lymphoid cells showed lowering of mitotic index and mitotic rate and prolongation of mitotic duration and turnover time. Nuclear labeling with 3H-thymidine was focal and localized to the peripheral zone. b) Mitotic activity and nuclear labeling were less pronounced in the outer cortex and medulla and least in the paracortical area. Specific uptake of 3H-thymidine paralleled the low labeling index. c) No appreciable reduction in the number of plasma cells in the medulla was observed. Serum γ-globulin levels were not significantly altered, but albumin levels were consistently reduced. This was suggestive of preferential preservation of plasma cell activity in the malnourished host. d) There were significant lymphopenia and neutropenia with relative increase of neutrophils in the peripheral blood. This might indicate more severe involvement of lymphopoiesis than myelopoiesis in protein malnutrition. ImagesFig 5Fig 6Fig 7Fig 8Fig 1Fig 2Fig 3Fig 4 PMID:4132687

  18. Iron Deficiency Anemia in Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Breymann, Christian

    2015-10-01

    Anemia is a common problem in obstetrics and perinatal care. Any hemoglobin below 10.5 g/dL can be regarded as true anemia regardless of gestational age. Reasons for anemia in pregnancy are mainly nutritional deficiencies, parasitic and bacterial diseases, and inborn red blood cell disorders such as thalassemias. The main cause of anemia in obstetrics is iron deficiency, which has a worldwide prevalence between estimated 20%-80% and consists of a primarily female population. Stages of iron deficiency are depletion of iron stores, iron-deficient erythropoiesis without anemia, and iron deficiency anemia, the most pronounced form of iron deficiency. Pregnancy anemia can be aggravated by various conditions such as uterine or placental bleedings, gastrointestinal bleedings, and peripartum blood loss. In addition to the general consequences of anemia, there are specific risks during pregnancy for the mother and the fetus such as intrauterine growth retardation, prematurity, feto-placental miss ratio, and higher risk for peripartum blood transfusion. Besides the importance of prophylaxis of iron deficiency, the main therapy options for the treatment of pregnancy anemia are oral iron and intravenous iron preparations.

  19. Betaine Deficiency in Maize 1

    PubMed Central

    Lerma, Claudia; Rich, Patrick J.; Ju, Grace C.; Yang, Wen-Ju; Hanson, Andrew D.; Rhodes, David

    1991-01-01

    Maize (Zea mays L.) is a betaine-accumulating species, but certain maize genotypes lack betaine almost completely; a single recessive gene has been implicated as the cause of this deficiency (D Rhodes, PJ Rich [1988] Plant Physiol 88: 102-108). This study was undertaken to determine whether betaine deficiency in diverse maize germplasm is conditioned by the same genetic locus, and to define the biochemical lesion(s) involved. Complementation tests indicated that all 13 deficient genotypes tested shared a common locus. One maize population (P77) was found to be segregating for betaine deficiency, and true breeding individuals were used to produce related lines with and without betaine. Leaf tissue of both betaine-positive and betaine-deficient lines readily converted supplied betaine aldehyde to betaine, but only the betaine-containing line was able to oxidize supplied choline to betaine. This locates the lesion in betaine-deficient plants at the choline → betaine aldehyde step of betaine synthesis. Consistent with this location, betaine-deficient plants were shown to have no detectable endogenous pool of betaine aldehyde. PMID:16668098

  20. Iatrogenic limbal stem cell deficiency.

    PubMed Central

    Holland, E J; Schwartz, G S

    1997-01-01

    PURPOSE: To describe a group of patients with limbal stem cell (SC) deficiency without prior diagnosis of a specific disease entity known to be causative of SC deficiency. METHODS: We performed a retrospective review of the records of all patients with ocular surface disease presenting to the University of Minnesota between 1987 and 1996. Patients were categorized according to etiology of limbal deficiency. Patients who did not have a specific diagnosis previously described as being causative for limbal deficiency were analyzed. Risk factors, clinical findings and sequelae were evaluated. RESULTS: Eight eyes of six patients with stem cell deficiency not secondary to a known diagnosis were described. All eyes had prior ocular surgery involving the corneoscleral limbus. Six eyes had been on chronic topical medications and all eyes had concurrent external disease such as pterygium, keratoconjunctivitis sicca, rosacea or herpes simplex virus keratitis. All eyes had superior quadrants affected corresponding to areas of prior limbal surgery. Sequelae of disease included corneal scarring and neo-vascularization, and five eyes had with visual acuity of 20/200 or worse. CONCLUSIONS: Because the epitheliopathy started peripherally and extended centrally in all patients, we feel it represents a stem cell deficiency. The fact that all patients were affected superiorly, at sites of a prior limbal surgical incision, points to surgical trauma to the SC as the likely major etiologic factor for the deficiency. The surgical trauma to the limbal SC probably made these cells more susceptible to damage from other external disease influences and toxicity from chronic topical medications. Because the stem cell deficiency is secondary to prior ocular surgery and chronic topical medications, we propose the term "iatrogenic limbal stem cell deficiency". Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 2A FIGURE 2B FIGURE 3A FIGURE 3B PMID:9440165

  1. Organophosphates and monocyte esterase deficiency.

    PubMed Central

    McClean, E; Mackey, H; Markey, G M; Morris, T C

    1995-01-01

    AIMS--To examine the possibility that monocyte esterase deficiency (MED) could be caused by exposure to organophosphates. METHODS--Pseudocholinesterase, paraoxonase and arylesterase activities were measured in the serum and acetylcholinesterase activity was measured in the red cells of a group of monocyte esterase deficient subjects and compared with the enzyme activities of a control group of monocyte esterase positive subjects. RESULTS--No significant difference was found between the enzyme activities of the monocyte esterase deficient group and the control group for any of the esterases investigated. CONCLUSION--Current or recent exposure to organophosphorus is not the cause of MED. PMID:7560207

  2. Genetics Home Reference: hereditary antithrombin deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... Merck Manual Home Edition for Patients and Caregivers: Thrombophilia National Blood Clot Alliance: Antithrombin Deficiency Orphanet: Hereditary thrombophilia due to congenital antithrombin deficiency Patient Support and ...

  3. [Niacin deficiency and cutaneous immunity].

    PubMed

    Ikenouchi-Sugita, Atsuko; Sugita, Kazunari

    2015-01-01

    Niacin, also known as vitamin B3, is required for the synthesis of coenzymes, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADP). Niacin binds with G protein-coupled receptor (GPR) 109A on cutaneous Langerhans cells and causes vasodilation with flushing in head and neck area. Niacin deficiency due to excessive alcohol consumption, certain drugs or inadequate uptake in diet causes pellagra, a photosensitivity dermatitis. Recently several studies have revealed the mechanism of photosensitivity in niacin deficiency, which may pave a way for new therapeutic approaches. The expression level of prostaglandin E synthase (PTGES) is up-regulated in the skin of both pellagra patients and niacin deficient pellagra mouse models. In addition, pellagra is mediated through prostaglandin E₂-EP4 (PGE₂-EP4) signaling via reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in keratinocytes. In this article, we have reviewed the role of niacin in immunity and the mechanism of niacin deficiency-induced photosensitivity.

  4. Genetics Home Reference: tetrahydrobiopterin deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... Epub 2007 Dec 3. Citation on PubMed Liu TT, Chiang SH, Wu SJ, Hsiao KJ. Tetrahydrobiopterin-deficient ... Shen M, Zhou Z, Zhang Z, Shen S, Liu TT, Hsiao KJ. Long-term outcome and neuroradiological findings ...

  5. Reconstructive surgery for fibular deficiency.

    PubMed

    Shatilov, O E; Rozkov, A V; Cheminova, T V

    1991-08-01

    Three types of fibular deficiency are described which determine the nature of the surgery and prosthesis required. The surgical management of 50 patients who had a total of 103 operations is described.

  6. [Deficiency, disability, neurology and television series].

    PubMed

    Collado-Vázquez, Susana; Martínez-Martínez, Ariadna; Cano-de-la-Cuerda, Roberto

    2015-06-01

    The portrayal of neurological disability and deficiency on television has not always been approached in the same way, but has instead tended to reflect the standpoint taken by society with regard to these issues and how they are dealt with according to the prevailing conceptions and values at each particular time. To address the appearance of neurological pathologies in television series and to ponder on the image they have in such contexts. Deficiency and disability of neurological origin have often been depicted on television in series, telefilms and documentaries, and in a wide variety of ways. Here we examine different television series and how they have dealt with neurological pathology, its diagnosis and its treatment, as well as the figure of the healthcare professional and social-familial adaptation. Examples cited include series such as House MD, Glee, American Horror Story, Homeland or Game of Thrones. Television series are a useful tool for making some neurological pathologies better known to the public and for dispelling the myths surrounding others, provided that the pathologies are dealt with in a realistic manner, which is not always the case. More care should be taken with regard to the way in which health professionals are portrayed in television series, as it is not always done correctly and may mislead viewers, who take what they see on the TV as being real.

  7. Human beta-mannosidase deficiency associated with peripheral neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Levade, T; Graber, D; Flurin, V; Delisle, M B; Pieraggi, M T; Testut, M F; Carrière, J P; Salvayre, R

    1994-01-01

    Human beta-mannosidosis is an inherited lysosomal storage disorder described in only seven families. We present a further case in a black African 14-year-old boy with severely deficient beta-mannosidase activity, bilateral thenar and hypothenar amyotrophy, electrophysiologically demonstrable demyelinating peripheral neuropathy, and cytoplasmic vacuolation of skin fibroblasts and lymphoid cells. The clinical and biochemical features of our patient are compared to those of previously reported patients.

  8. Iodine deficiency among goiter patients in rural South Sudan.

    PubMed

    Chuot, Chep C; Galukande, Moses; Ibingira, Charles; Kisa, Nicholas; Fualal, Jane Odubu

    2014-10-23

    It is estimated that 2.2 billion or approximately 30% of the world's population live in iodine-deficient areas. In a 2005 study households consuming iodized salt in South Sudan increased from 40% to 73%. Despite this achievement, there are still many goiter cases in rural South Sudan and iodine deficiency remains as a major public health problem in this part of sub Saharan Africa.The purpose of this study therefore was to determine the prevalence of iodine deficiency among rural Southern Sudan goiter patients. A cross-sectional study was carried out in three South Sudan counties, adults with goiter were from three centers following a mobilization campaign that lasted 4 weeks for free medical care. They were clinically evaluated and completed interviewer administered questionnaires to determine their age, gender, diet, family history, drug history, and medical history. Urine samples were then taken for urinary iodine levels. The outcome was iodine deficiency measured as urinary iodine less than 100 μg per/ L. Multiple logistic regression was used to establish the factors associated with iodine deficiency in South Sudan. Ethical approval was obtained. A total of 286 goitre patients were recruited. The mean age was 38 years (SD 9), 262(92%) were females (F: M ratio 11:1), and 257(90%) were rural- peasants, 25% (20/286) had moderate to severe iodine deficiency. 174(62%) consumed non-iodized salts. Iodine deficiency is highly prevalent among rural South Sudan communities and a likely cause for goiters. Rural poor women are highly vulnerable.

  9. Nutritional deficiency in oral candidosis.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, W M; Macfarlane, T W; Ferguson, M M; Mason, D K

    1977-08-01

    A retrospective study of 108 patients was carried out to investigate the possible relationship between infection of the mouth with Candida albicans and blood levels of iron, folic acid and vitamin B12. The patients were separated into two groups--those with hyperplastic and those with atrophic candidal lesions--and compared with separate control groups. Twenty-one patients had chronic hyperplastic candidosis and seven were iron deficient. Comparison with an age- and sex-matched control group showed the differences to be significant only at the p less than 0.1 level. Seven of the patients with hyperplastic lesions had folic acid deficiency and the difference between patients and controls was statistically significant (less than 0.05). However, no significant differences in iron or folic acid deficiency were noted between 87 patients with atrophic candidosis and 65 conttrols, and vitamin B12 deficiency was not statistically significant for either the hyperplastic or the atrophic group. It is concluded that deficiency of iron, folic acid or vitamin B12 alone does not promote growth of Candida albicans on the oral mucous membrane but that in some susceptible individuals, iron or folic deficiency may facilitate epithelial invasion by hyphae of Candida albicans.

  10. The neurology of biotinidase deficiency.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Barry

    2011-01-01

    Biotinidase deficiency is an autosomal recessively inherited metabolic disorder in which the enzyme, biotinidase, is defective and the vitamin, biotin, is not recycled. Individuals with biotinidase deficiency, if not treated with biotin, usually exhibit neurological and cutaneous abnormalities. Biotin treatment can ameliorate or prevent symptoms. Biotinidase deficiency meets the major criteria for inclusion in newborn screening programs. With the advent of universal newborn screening for the disorder, the "window-of-opportunity" to characterize the consequences of the untreated disease is essentially gone. To understand the neurology of biotinidase deficiency, we must depend on what is already known about symptomatic individuals with the disorder. Therefore, in this review, the neurological findings of symptomatic individuals with profound biotinidase deficiency have been compiled to catalog the characteristic features of the disorder and the consequences of biotin treatment on these findings. In addition, based on the available evidence, I have speculated on the cause of neurological problems associated with the disorder. Future studies in biotinidase-deficient animals should allow us to demonstrate more definitively if these speculations are correct. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Phenotypic variation in biotinidase deficiency.

    PubMed

    Wolf, B; Grier, R E; Allen, R J; Goodman, S I; Kien, C L; Parker, W D; Howell, D M; Hurst, D L

    1983-08-01

    Biotinidase deficiency is the usual biochemical defect in biotin-responsive late-onset multiple carboxylase deficiency. We reviewed the clinical features of six patients with the enzyme deficiency and compared them with features described in the literature in children with late-onset MCD. In all of the reported probands, MCD was diagnosed because they had metabolic ketoacidosis and organic aciduria in addition to various neurologic and cutaneous symptoms, such as seizures, ataxia, skin rash, and alopecia. Although in several of our patients biotinidase deficiency was also diagnosed because they manifested a similar spectrum of findings, others never had ketoacidosis or organic aciduria. Thus the initial features of biotinidase deficiency usually include neurologic or cutaneous symptoms, whereas organic aciduria and MCD are delayed, secondary manifestations of the disease. These findings suggest that biotinidase deficiency should be considered in any infant or child with any of these neurologic or cutaneous findings, with or without ketoacidosis or organic aciduria. If the diagnosis cannot be excluded, such individuals should be given a therapeutic trial of pharmacologic doses of biotin.

  12. How We Manage Adenosine Deaminase-Deficient Severe Combined Immune Deficiency (ADA SCID).

    PubMed

    Kohn, Donald B; Gaspar, H Bobby

    2017-02-14

    Adenosine deaminase-deficient severe combined immune deficiency (ADA SCID) accounts for 10-15% of cases of human SCID. From what was once a uniformly fatal disease, the prognosis for infants with ADA SCID has improved greatly based on the development of multiple therapeutic options, coupled with more frequent early diagnosis due to implementation of newborn screening for SCID. We review the various treatment approaches for ADA SCID including allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) from a human leukocyte antigen-matched sibling or family member or from a matched unrelated donor or a haplo-identical donor, autologous HSCT with gene correction of the hematopoietic stem cells (gene therapy-GT), and enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) with polyethylene glycol-conjugated adenosine deaminase. Based on growing evidence of safety and efficacy from GT, we propose a treatment algorithm for patients with ADA SCID that recommends HSCT from a matched family donor, when available, as a first choice, followed by GT as the next option, with allogeneic HSCT from an unrelated or haplo-identical donor or long-term ERT as other options.

  13. Early intervention for late-onset ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency.

    PubMed

    Fujisawa, Daisuke; Mitsubuchi, Hiroshi; Matsumoto, Shirou; Iwai, Masanori; Nakamura, Kimitoshi; Hoshide, Ryuji; Harada, Nawomi; Yoshino, Makoto; Endo, Fumio

    2015-01-01

    We report the case of a family with late-onset ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency (OTCD). Several family members had died from OTCD, and the c.221G>A, p.Lys221Lys mutation was detected at the 3' end of exon 6 of OTC in the X-chromosome of some members. We provided genetic counseling on pregnancy, delivery, and neonate management to a 4th-generation female carrier and decided on metabolic management of her child from birth. Two male patients were diagnosed with late-onset OTCD on the basis of blood amino acid and genetic analysis, and they received arginine supplementation from the asymptomatic, early neonatal period. These children grew and developed normally, without decompensation. Patients with late-onset OTCD can and should be diagnosed and treated in the early neonatal period, especially those from families already diagnosed with late-onset OTCD, and family members must be provided with genetic counseling.

  14. The Skeletal Phenotype of Chondroadherin Deficient Mice

    PubMed Central

    Wenglén, Christina; Petzold, Christiane; Tanner, Elizabeth K.; Brorson, Sverre-Henning; Baekkevold, Espen S.; Önnerfjord, Patrik; Reinholt, Finn P.; Heinegård, Dick

    2013-01-01

    Chondroadherin, a leucine rich repeat extracellular matrix protein with functions in cell to matrix interactions, binds cells via their α2β1 integrin as well as via cell surface proteoglycans, providing for different sets of signals to the cell. Additionally, the protein acts as an anchor to the matrix by binding tightly to collagens type I and II as well as type VI. We generated mice with inactivated chondroadherin gene to provide integrated studies of the role of the protein. The null mice presented distinct phenotypes with affected cartilage as well as bone. At 3–6 weeks of age the epiphyseal growth plate was widened most pronounced in the proliferative zone. The proteome of the femoral head articular cartilage at 4 months of age showed some distinct differences, with increased deposition of cartilage intermediate layer protein 1 and fibronectin in the chondroadherin deficient mice, more pronounced in the female. Other proteins show decreased levels in the deficient mice, particularly pronounced for matrilin-1, thrombospondin-1 and notably the members of the α1-antitrypsin family of proteinase inhibitors as well as for a member of the bone morphogenetic protein growth factor family. Thus, cartilage homeostasis is distinctly altered. The bone phenotype was expressed in several ways. The number of bone sialoprotein mRNA expressing cells in the proximal tibial metaphysic was decreased and the osteoid surface was increased possibly indicating a change in mineral metabolism. Micro-CT revealed lower cortical thickness and increased structure model index, i.e. the amount of plates and rods composing the bone trabeculas. The structural changes were paralleled by loss of function, where the null mice showed lower femoral neck failure load and tibial strength during mechanical testing at 4 months of age. The skeletal phenotype points at a role for chondroadherin in both bone and cartilage homeostasis, however, without leading to altered longitudinal growth. PMID

  15. Iron-Deficiency Anemia (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Habits for TV, Video Games, and the Internet Iron-Deficiency Anemia KidsHealth > For Parents > Iron-Deficiency Anemia Print ... anemia, a common nutritional deficiency in children. About Iron-Deficiency Anemia Every red blood cell in the body ...

  16. Anthropometric measurements in patients with growth hormone deficiency before treatment with human growth hormone.

    PubMed

    Zachmann, M; Fernandez, F; Tassinari, D; Thakker, R; Prader, A

    1980-05-01

    In 74 children (52 males, 22 females) with growth hormone (GH) deficiency (30 cases with isolated GH-deficiency, two of them familial; 4 familial and one isolated case with tendency for formation of antibodies against hGH; 29 with other pituitary hormone defects; 10 craniopharyngiomas), various anthropometric measurements were analyzed before treatment with hGH. In all groups, standing height, sitting height, and subischial leg height were equally retarded, and bihumeral width was more retarded than biiliac width; the head was relatively large; fat tissue was increased with subscapular skinfolds being greater than triceps skinfolds, indicating relative obestiy of the trunk; muscle and/or bone mass was reduced. In isolated GH-deficiency, head shape was slightly scaphoid; in combined defects, it was round, and in craniopharyngioma cases, it was brachycephalic. It is concluded that antrhopometric measurements may help in differentiating the type of GH-deficiency.

  17. Red cell membrane protein deficiencies in Mexican patients with hereditary spherocytosis.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-López, J Yoaly; Camacho, Ana L; Magaña, Maria Teresa; Ibarra, Bertha; Perea, F Javier

    2003-01-01

    Twenty-seven families and four individual patients with hereditary spherocytosis (HS) from the northwestern region of Mexico were studied. An autosomal dominant inheritance pattern was identified in 59% of 22 families. Densitometric analysis of erythrocyte membrane proteins revealed individual protein deficiencies in 39% of the patients studied, in whom the principal altered proteins were the alpha spectrins (13%), band 3 protein (10%), ankyrin (6%), 4.2 protein (6%), and the beta spectrins (3%). A predominant deficiency of spectrins has also been observed in other Latin American and Mediterranean countries. However, it is well known that deficiencies in these proteins are heterogeneous across different ethnic groups. A combined protein deficiency was observed in 52% of patients, most frequently involving the spectrins, band 3 protein, 4.2 protein, and 4.1 protein. In three subjects, no abnormalities were detected (10%). We conclude that, despite the observed heterogeneity, the principal affected proteins are essentially similar to those observed in other ethnic groups.

  18. Family Empowerment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sinclair, Mary F., Ed.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    This feature issue of IMPACT focuses on the empowerment of families with a member who has a developmental disability. It presents strategies and models for a collaborative, respectful approach to service provision, and presents the experiences of families in seeking support and assistance. Feature articles include "Two Generations of…

  19. Family Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naturescope, 1986

    1986-01-01

    Focuses on various aspects of mammal family life ranging from ways different species are born to how different mammals are raised. Learning activities include making butter from cream, creating birth announcements for mammals, and playing a password game on family life. (ML)

  20. Family Potyviridae

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The International Committee on the Taxonomy of Viruses potyvirus study group has revised the description of the family Potyviridae for inclusion in the ICTV 9th report. Characteristic features of each genus within the family is presented. Revised criteria for demarcation and nomenclature of viral sp...

  1. Family, Extended

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patton, Jessica Rae

    2006-01-01

    Parents are a child's first and most influential teacher. People hear this truism often, yet nowhere has the author seen it more taken to heart than at Tower Street Elementary School. The school's efforts to form a true partnership with students' families--from involving families in the first day of school, to the principal making home visits, to…

  2. Family Workshops

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Dave; Rees-Jones, Tanny

    1978-01-01

    A Family Workshop is an informal, multidisciplined educational program for adults and children, organized by a team of teachers. This article discusses the Lavender Hill Family Workshop, one of many, which attempts to provide education in various subject areas for adults and for children while also integrating both objectives in order to educate…

  3. Family Workshops

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Dave; Rees-Jones, Tanny

    1978-01-01

    A Family Workshop is an informal, multidisciplined educational program for adults and children, organized by a team of teachers. This article discusses the Lavender Hill Family Workshop, one of many, which attempts to provide education in various subject areas for adults and for children while also integrating both objectives in order to educate…

  4. Family Reunification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wulczyn, Fred

    2004-01-01

    Reunifying children placed in foster care with their birth parents is a primary goal of the child welfare system. Yet, relatively little is known about the reunification process. This article analyzes new data on trends in family reunification and discovers: (1) Although most children still exit foster care through family reunification, exit…

  5. Family Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naturescope, 1986

    1986-01-01

    Focuses on various aspects of mammal family life ranging from ways different species are born to how different mammals are raised. Learning activities include making butter from cream, creating birth announcements for mammals, and playing a password game on family life. (ML)

  6. Pathogenesis of Rickets and Osteomalacia in Familial Hypophosphataemia

    PubMed Central

    Condon, J. R.; Nassim, J. R.; Rutter, A.

    1971-01-01

    Calcium and/or phosphate tolerance tests were performed on patients with familial hypophosphataemia, normal control subjects, and patients with vitamin D deficient osteomalacia. Intestinal calcium absorption was similar in patients with familial hypophosphataemia and control subjects. The phosphate tolerance test, which is known to be `flat' in patients with familial hypophosphataemia, was normal in patients with vitamin D deficient osteomalacia. These findings suggest that rickets and osteomalacia in familial and some cases of non-familial hypophosphataemia are unrelated to abnormal metabolism of vitamin D. This hypothesis is supported by the fact that intestinal calcium absorption as measured by calcium tolerance test is normal in familial hypophosphataemia. It is suggested that the primary abnormality in familial hypophosphataemia is a partial metabolic block in the intestinal absorption and renal tubular reabsorption of phosphate. PMID:5090660

  7. [Iron deficiency and iron deficiency anemia are global health problems].

    PubMed

    Dahlerup, Jens; Lindgren, Stefan; Moum, Björn

    2015-03-10

    Iron deficiency and iron deficiency anemia are global health problems leading to deterioration in patients' quality of life and more serious prognosis in patients with chronic diseases. The cause of iron deficiency and anemia is usually a combination of increased loss and decreased intestinal absorption and delivery from iron stores due to inflammation. Oral iron is first line treatment, but often hampered by intolerance. Intravenous iron is safe, and the preferred treatment in patients with chronic inflammation and bowel diseases. The goal of treatment is normalisation of hemoglobin concentration and recovery of iron stores. It is important to follow up treatment to ensure that these objectives are met and also long-term in patients with chronic iron loss and/or inflammation to avoid recurrence of anemia.

  8. Elevation of guanidinoacetate in newborn dried blood spots and impact of early treatment in GAMT deficiency.

    PubMed

    El-Gharbawy, Areeg H; Goldstein, Jennifer L; Millington, David S; Vaisnins, Amie E; Schlune, Andrea; Barshop, Bruce A; Schulze, Andreas; Koeberl, Dwight D; Young, Sarah P

    2013-06-01

    Guanidinoacetate methyltransferase (GAMT) deficiency is a good candidate disorder for newborn screening because early treatment appears to improve outcomes. We report elevation of guanidinoacetate in archived newborn dried blood spots for 3 cases (2 families) of GAMT deficiency compared with an unaffected carrier and controls. We also report a new case of a patient treated from birth with normal developmental outcome at the age of 42 months.

  9. AIDS: A Strain on Family Relations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cleveland, Peggy H.

    A diagnosis of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) has both a physical and psychosocial impact that require substantial support. Relating to the families of origin concerning an AIDS diagnosis is a difficult task which sometimes results in rejection and sometimes results in support. In this study subjects (N=32) with AIDS described their…

  10. AIDS: A Strain on Family Relations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cleveland, Peggy H.

    A diagnosis of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) has both a physical and psychosocial impact that require substantial support. Relating to the families of origin concerning an AIDS diagnosis is a difficult task which sometimes results in rejection and sometimes results in support. In this study subjects (N=32) with AIDS described their…

  11. Leaf Senescence by Magnesium Deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Tanoi, Keitaro; Kobayashi, Natsuko I.

    2015-01-01

    Magnesium ions (Mg2+) are the second most abundant cations in living plant cells, and they are involved in various functions, including photosynthesis, enzyme catalysis, and nucleic acid synthesis. Low availability of Mg2+ in an agricultural field leads to a decrease in yield, which follows the appearance of Mg-deficient symptoms such as chlorosis, necrotic spots on the leaves, and droop. During the last decade, a variety of physiological and molecular responses to Mg2+ deficiency that potentially link to leaf senescence have been recognized, allowing us to reconsider the mechanisms of Mg2+ deficiency. This review focuses on the current knowledge about the physiological responses to Mg2+ deficiency including a decline in transpiration, accumulation of sugars and starch in source leaves, change in redox states, increased oxidative stress, metabolite alterations, and a decline in photosynthetic activity. In addition, we refer to the molecular responses that are thought to be related to leaf senescence. With these current data, we give an overview of leaf senescence induced by Mg deficiency. PMID:27135350

  12. Iodine deficiency and thyroid disorders.

    PubMed

    Zimmermann, Michael B; Boelaert, Kristien

    2015-04-01

    Iodine deficiency early in life impairs cognition and growth, but iodine status is also a key determinant of thyroid disorders in adults. Severe iodine deficiency causes goitre and hypothyroidism because, despite an increase in thyroid activity to maximise iodine uptake and recycling in this setting, iodine concentrations are still too low to enable production of thyroid hormone. In mild-to-moderate iodine deficiency, increased thyroid activity can compensate for low iodine intake and maintain euthyroidism in most individuals, but at a price: chronic thyroid stimulation results in an increase in the prevalence of toxic nodular goitre and hyperthyroidism in populations. This high prevalence of nodular autonomy usually results in a further increase in the prevalence of hyperthyroidism if iodine intake is subsequently increased by salt iodisation. However, this increase is transient because iodine sufficiency normalises thyroid activity which, in the long term, reduces nodular autonomy. Increased iodine intake in an iodine-deficient population is associated with a small increase in the prevalence of subclinical hypothyroidism and thyroid autoimmunity; whether these increases are also transient is unclear. Variations in population iodine intake do not affect risk for Graves' disease or thyroid cancer, but correction of iodine deficiency might shift thyroid cancer subtypes toward less malignant forms. Thus, optimisation of population iodine intake is an important component of preventive health care to reduce the prevalence of thyroid disorders. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Iron Deficiency and Bariatric Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Jáuregui-Lobera, Ignacio

    2013-01-01

    It is estimated that the prevalence of anaemia in patients scheduled for bariatric surgery is higher than in the general population and the prevalence of iron deficiencies (with or without anaemia) may be higher as well. After surgery, iron deficiencies and anaemia may occur in a higher percentage of patients, mainly as a consequence of nutrient deficiencies. In addition, perioperative anaemia has been related with increased postoperative morbidity and mortality and poorer quality of life after bariatric surgery. The treatment of perioperative anaemia and nutrient deficiencies has been shown to improve patients’ outcomes and quality of life. All patients should undergo an appropriate nutritional evaluation, including selective micronutrient measurements (e.g., iron), before any bariatric surgical procedure. In comparison with purely restrictive procedures, more extensive perioperative nutritional evaluations are required for malabsorptive procedures due to their nutritional consequences. The aim of this study was to review the current knowledge of nutritional deficits in obese patients and those that commonly appear after bariatric surgery, specifically iron deficiencies and their consequences. As a result, some recommendations for screening and supplementation are presented. PMID:23676549

  14. Family Health and Family Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    World Health Organization, Copenhagen (Denmark). Regional Office for Europe.

    This document is made up of a selection of some of the papers distributed to participants in courses on "Family Health and Family Planning" which have been organized each year since 1973 by the International Children's Center and the World Health Organization Regional Office for Europe. Six courses, held between 1973 and 1978, brought together a…

  15. Family Health and Family Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    World Health Organization, Copenhagen (Denmark). Regional Office for Europe.

    This document is made up of a selection of some of the papers distributed to participants in courses on "Family Health and Family Planning" which have been organized each year since 1973 by the International Children's Center and the World Health Organization Regional Office for Europe. Six courses, held between 1973 and 1978, brought together a…

  16. Familial Risk for Exceptional Longevity

    PubMed Central

    Sebastiani, Paola; Andersen, Stacy L.; McIntosh, Avery I.; Nussbaum, Lisa; Stevenson, Meredith D.; Pierce, Leslie; Xia, Samantha; Salance, Kelly; Perls, Thomas T.

    2015-01-01

    One of the most glaring deficiencies in the current assessment of mortality risk is the lack of information concerning the impact of familial longevity. In this work, we update estimates of sibling relative risk of living to extreme ages using data from more than 1,700 sibships, and we begin to examine the trend for heritability for different birth-year cohorts. We also build a network model that can be used to compute the increased chance for exceptional longevity of a subject, conditional on his family history of longevity. The network includes familial longevity from three generations and can be used to understand the effects of paternal and maternal longevity on an individual's chance to live to an extreme age. PMID:27041978

  17. Familial Risk for Exceptional Longevity.

    PubMed

    Sebastiani, Paola; Andersen, Stacy L; McIntosh, Avery I; Nussbaum, Lisa; Stevenson, Meredith D; Pierce, Leslie; Xia, Samantha; Salance, Kelly; Perls, Thomas T

    2016-01-01

    One of the most glaring deficiencies in the current assessment of mortality risk is the lack of information concerning the impact of familial longevity. In this work, we update estimates of sibling relative risk of living to extreme ages using data from more than 1,700 sibships, and we begin to examine the trend for heritability for different birth-year cohorts. We also build a network model that can be used to compute the increased chance for exceptional longevity of a subject, conditional on his family history of longevity. The network includes familial longevity from three generations and can be used to understand the effects of paternal and maternal longevity on an individual's chance to live to an extreme age.

  18. Asteroid families

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nesvorný, David; Bottke, William F.; Vokrouhlický, David; Morbidelli, Alessandro; Jedicke, Robert

    An asteroid family is a group of asteroids with similar orbits and spectra that was produced by a collisional breakup of a large parent body. To identify asteroid families, researchers look for clusters of asteroid positions in the space of proper orbital elements. These elements, being more constant over time than osculating orbital elements, provide a dynamical criterion of whether a group of bodies has a common ancestor. More than fifty asteroid families have been identified to date. Their analysis produced several important insights into the physics of large scale collisions, dynamical processes affecting small bodies in the Solar System, and surface and interior properties of asteroids.

  19. Family structure and child anemia in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Schmeer, Kammi K

    2013-10-01

    Utilizing longitudinal data from the nationally-representative Mexico Family Life Survey, this study assesses the association between family structure and iron-deficient anemia among children ages 3-12 in Mexico. The longitudinal models (n = 4649), which control for baseline anemia status and allow for consideration of family structure transitions, suggest that children living in stable-cohabiting and single-mother families and those who have recently experienced a parental union dissolution have higher odds of anemia than those in stable-married, father-present family structures. Interaction effects indicate that unmarried family contexts have stronger associations with anemia in older children (over age five); and, that the negative effects of parental union dissolution are exacerbated in poorer households. Resident maternal grandparents have a significant beneficial effect on child anemia independent of parental family structure. These results highlight the importance of family structure for child micronutrient deficiencies and suggest that understanding social processes within households may be critical to preventing child anemia in Mexico.

  20. Phenotype and Genotype Characterization of Adenine Phosphoribosyltransferase Deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Bollée, Guillaume; Dollinger, Cécile; Boutaud, Lucile; Guillemot, Delphine; Bensman, Albert; Harambat, Jérôme; Deteix, Patrice; Daudon, Michel; Knebelmann, Bertrand

    2010-01-01

    Adenine phosphoribosyltransferase (APRT) deficiency is a rare autosomal recessive disorder causing 2,8-dihydroxyadenine stones and renal failure secondary to intratubular crystalline precipitation. Little is known regarding the clinical presentation of APRT deficiency, especially in the white population. We retrospectively reviewed all 53 cases of APRT deficiency (from 43 families) identified at a single institution between 1978 and 2009. The median age at diagnosis was 36.3 years (range 0.5 to 78.0 years). In many patients, a several-year delay separated the onset of symptoms and diagnosis. Of the 40 patients from 33 families with full clinical data available, 14 (35%) had decreased renal function at diagnosis. Diagnosis occurred in six (15%) patients after reaching ESRD, with five diagnoses made at the time of disease recurrence in a renal allograft. Eight (20%) patients reached ESRD during a median follow-up of 74 months. Thirty-one families underwent APRT sequencing, which identified 54 (87%) mutant alleles on the 62 chromosomes analyzed. We identified 18 distinct mutations. A single T insertion in a splice donor site in intron 4 (IVS4 + 2insT), which produces a truncated protein, accounted for 40.3% of the mutations. We detected the IVS4 + 2insT mutation in two (0.98%) of 204 chromosomes of healthy newborns. This report, which is the largest published series of APRT deficiency to date, highlights the underdiagnosis and potential severity of this disease. Early diagnosis is crucial for initiation of effective treatment with allopurinol and for prevention of renal complications. PMID:20150536

  1. Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase Deficiency.

    PubMed

    Luzzatto, Lucio; Nannelli, Caterina; Notaro, Rosario

    2016-04-01

    G6PD is a housekeeping gene expressed in all cells. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) is part of the pentose phosphate pathway, and its main physiologic role is to provide NADPH. G6PD deficiency, one of the commonest inherited enzyme abnormalities in humans, arises through one of many possible mutations, most of which reduce the stability of the enzyme and its level as red cells age. G6PD-deficient persons are mostly asymptomatic, but they can develop severe jaundice during the neonatal period and acute hemolytic anemia when they ingest fava beans or when they are exposed to certain infections or drugs. G6PD deficiency is a global health issue.

  2. [Vitamin A deficiency and xerophtalmia

    PubMed

    Diniz, A da S; Santos, L M

    2000-11-01

    OBJECTIVE: To review cases of vitamin A deficiency and the effects of vitamin A supplementation on child morbidity and mortality. METHODS: Articles published in scientific journals, technical and scientific books, and also publications by international organizations were used as source of information. RESULTS: Clinical manifestations of xerophthalmia affect the retina (night blindness), the conjunctiva (conjunctival xerosis, with or without Bitot spots), and the cornea (corneal xerosis). Corneal xerosis may lead to corneal ulceration and liquefactive necrosis (keratomalacia). A priori, these signs and symptoms are the best indicators of vitamin A deficiency; they are, however, extremely rare. Laboratory indicators include Conjunctival Impression Cytology and serum retinol concentrations. The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends the use of two biological markers in order to characterize vitamin A deficiency in a given population. If only one biological marker is used, this marker has to be backed up by a set of at least four additional risk factors. Corneal xerophthalmia should be treated as a medical emergency; In the event of suspected vitamin A deficiency, a 200,000 IU vitamin A dose should be administered orally, repeating the dose after 24 hours (half the dose for infants younger than one year). Vitamin A supplementation in endemic areas may cause a 23 to 30% reduction in the mortality rate of children aged between 6 months and five years, and attenuate the severity of diarrhea. The methods for the control of vitamin A deficiency are available in the short (supplementation with megadoses), medium (food fortification), and long run (diet diversification). CONCLUSION: There is evidence of vitamin A deficiency among Brazilian children. Pediatricians must be aware of the signs and symptoms of this disease, however sporadic they might be. It is of paramount importance that vitamin A be included in public policy plans so that we can ensure the survival of

  3. Iron deficiency in the tropics.

    PubMed

    Fleming, A F

    1982-06-01

    Iron in food is classified as belonging to the haem pool, the nonhaem pool, and extraneous sources. Haem iron is derived from vegetable and animal sources with varying bioavailability. Hookworm infestation of the intestinal tract affects 450 million people in the tropics. Schistosoma mansoni caused blood loss in 7 Egyptian patients of 7.5- 25.9 ml/day which is equivalent to a daily loss of iron of .6-7.3 mg daily urinary loss of iron in 9 Egyptian patients. Trichuris trichiura infestation by whipworm is widespread in children with blood loss of 5 ml/day/worm. The etiology of anemia in children besides iron deficiency includes malaria, bacterial or viral infections, folate deficiency and sickle-cell disease. Severe infections cause profound iron-deficiency anemia in children in central American and Malaysia. Plasmodium falciparum malaria-induced anaemia in tropical Africa lowers the mean haemoglobin concentration in the population by 2 g/dI, causing profound anaemia in some. The increased risk of premature delivery, low birthweight, fetal abnormalities, and fetal death is directly related to the degree of maternal anemia. Perinatal mortality was reduced from 38 to 4% in treated anemic mothers. Mental performance was significantly lower in anemic school children and improved after they received iron. Supplements of iron, soy-protein, calcium, and vitamins given to villagers with widespread malnutrition, iron deficiency, and hookworm infestation in Colombia reduced enteric infections in children. Severe iron-deficiency anemia was treated in adults in northern Nigeria by daily in Ferastral 10 ml, which is equivalent to 500 mg of iron per day. Choloroquine, folic acid, rephenium hydroxynaphthoate, and tetrachlorethylene treat adults with severe iron deficiency from hookworm infestation in rural tropical Africa. Blood transfusion is indicated if the patient is dying of anaemia or is pregnant with a haemoglobin concentration 6 gm/dl. In South East Asia, mg per day

  4. FAMILY PIOPHILIDAE.

    PubMed

    Wolff, Marta; Pérez, Sandra; Grisales, Diana

    2016-06-14

    Piophilidae is a little family poorly known in Colombia, with only Piophila casei (L.) and Stearibia nigriceps Meigen reported so far. This catalogue expands the distribution of these species to other localities in the country.

  5. Unusual families.

    PubMed

    Golombok, Susan

    2005-03-01

    The introduction of assisted reproduction has led to unusual forms of procreation. This article describes the social consequences of lesbian motherhood and of families headed by single heterosexual mothers.

  6. Family dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Hayaki, Chie; Anno, Kozo; Shibata, Mao; Iwaki, Rie; Kawata, Hiroshi; Sudo, Nobuyuki; Hosoi, Masako

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Previous studies have shown differences in the psychosocial factors related to chronic localized pain (CLP) and chronic widespread pain (CWP). However, no studies have done an evaluation of differences between CLP and CWP from the viewpoint of family functioning. We did a cross-sectional study in a tertiary care setting to investigate possible differences in the relation of CWP and CLP to family functioning. Patients with CLP (N = 126) or CWP (N = 75) were assessed for family functioning by the Family Assessment Device (FAD) and a comparison was done. Logistic regression analysis was used to estimate associations of family functioning subscales with pain status (CWP vs CLP), controlling for demographic variables, pain variables; pain duration, pain ratings, pain disability, and psychological factors; depression, anxiety, and catastrophizing. The odds ratios (ORs) for the presence of CWP were calculated. Compared to patients with CLP, patients with CWP showed a lower functional status for Roles and Affective Involvement. The ORs for CWP were significantly higher in lower functioning Roles (OR: 2.38, 95% CI: 1.21–4.65) and Affective Involvement (OR: 2.86, 95% CI: 1.56–5.24) after adjusting for demographic variables. The significant association of CWP to Roles and Affective Involvement remained after controlling for the pain variables and psychological factors. This study shows that the families of patients with CWP have poorer family functioning than those with CLP. Our findings suggest that early identification and interventions for the family dysfunction of chronic pain patients are important to the treatment and prevention of CWP. PMID:27930535

  7. Importance of Family Routines

    MedlinePlus

    ... Pediatrician Family Life Medical Home Family Dynamics Adoption & Foster Care Communication & Discipline Types of Families Media Work & Play Getting Involved in Your Community Healthy Children > Family Life > Family Dynamics > The Importance of Family ...

  8. Genetic causes and gene–nutrient interactions in mammalian zinc deficiencies: acrodermatitis enteropathica and transient neonatal zinc deficiency as examples.

    PubMed

    Kasana, Shakhenabat; Din, Jamila; Maret, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    Discovering genetic causes of zinc deficiency has been a remarkable scientific journey. It started with the description of a rare skin disease, its treatment with various agents, the successful therapy with zinc, and the identification of mutations in a zinc transporter causing the disease. The journey continues with defining the molecular and cellular pathways that lead to the symptoms caused by zinc deficiency. Remarkably, at least two zinc transporters from separate protein families are now known to be involved in the genetics of zinc deficiency. One is ZIP4, which is involved in intestinal zinc uptake. Its mutations can cause acrodermatitis enteropathica (AE) with autosomal recessive inheritance. The other one is ZnT2, the transporter responsible for supplying human milk with zinc. Mutations in this transporter cause transient neonatal zinc deficiency (TNZD) with symptoms similar to AE but with autosomal dominant inheritance. The two diseases can be distinguished in affected infants. AE is fatal if zinc is not supplied to the infant after weaning, whereas TNZD is a genetic defect of the mother limiting the supply of zinc in the milk, and therefore the infant usually will obtain enough zinc once weaned. Although these diseases are relatively rare, the full functional consequences of the numerous mutations in ZIP4 and ZnT2 and their interactions with dietary zinc are not known. In particular, it remains unexplored whether some mutations cause milder disease phenotypes or increase the risk for other diseases if dietary zinc requirements are not met or exceeded. Thus, it is not known whether widespread zinc deficiency in human populations is based primarily on a nutritional deficiency or determined by genetic factors as well. This consideration becomes even more significant with regard to mutations in the other 22 human zinc transporters, where associations with a range of diseases, including diabetes, heart disease, and mental illnesses have been observed

  9. Impact of micronutrient deficiencies on obesity.

    PubMed

    García, Olga P; Long, Kurt Z; Rosado, Jorge L

    2009-10-01

    Micronutrient deficiencies have been found in obese individuals across age groups worldwide. While the effects of micronutrient deficiencies on human functions have been studied widely in different populations, there is limited information on how these micronutrient deficiencies affect obese populations. An examination of the available literature suggests associations exist between micronutrient deficiencies and obesity in different populations. These associations and possible mechanisms of the deficiencies' metabolic effects, such as their influence on leptin and insulin metabolism, are discussed here. Further studies are needed to clarify the roles of the different micronutrient deficiencies with respect to obesity and its comorbid conditions.

  10. Prospective ascertainment of complete and partial serum biotinidase deficiency in the newborn.

    PubMed

    Dunkel, G; Scriver, C R; Clow, C L; Melançon, S; Lemieux, B; Grenier, A; Laberge, C

    1989-01-01

    We screened 163,000 newborn filter-paper blood samples for serum biotinidase deficiency (McKusick 25326) and found 15 probands: three had complete deficiency (incidence 18.4 cases per million live births, 95% confidence interval 4-54 cases per million); the others had partial deficiency. The positive predictive value of the test for either form of biotinidase deficiency was 9.86%. We found seasonal variation in biotinidase activity in filter-paper blood samples. The cost per test was Can.$0.27 (1987 dollar value) and per case of complete deficiency ascertained, $15,500. Family studies indicated that complete serum biotinidase deficiency is a homozygous phenotype and partial deficiency is the heterozygous form. Homozygous cases were treated with biotin and have shown no clinical manifestations (55 patient-months of observation). None of the heterozygotes (n = 42, age 3 months - 62 years) has clinical manifestations. The number of heterozygotes found by screening was much less than predicted probably because the screening test detects mainly the samples with very low (outlier) biotinidase activity. The variant allele(s) for biotinidase deficiency was more common in French Canadians than in other ethnic groups in Quebec; there was no evidence of regional clustering or founder effect.

  11. [The association between iron deficiency and learning disorders in preschoolers].

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez Sigler, D; Colomer Revuelta, J; Barona, C; Momparler, P; Colomer Revuelta, C

    1992-01-01

    With the aim preventing future problems of underachievement at school, we studied the possible relationship between learning difficulties and iron deficiency in nursery-school children. To do this, we determined the prevalence of iron deficiency and the prevalence or learning difficulties in the different areas of mental development in a sample of 136 nursery school children coming from the Alaquàs public school (Valencia), aged between four and five years. Their nutritional state and ferric state, socioeconomic and cultural level, and psychomotor development were evaluated. All the children were in a good nutritional state, coming from homogeneous families as regards their socio-cultural level and being divided into two groups as regards their economic situation. The iron deficiency prevalence was 17.6% in stage I (ferritina sérica < 12 ng/l) and 22.8% in stage III (anemia ferropénica). The coefficient for overall development was 85.95, the lowest marks being in the speech area. A positive association (prevalence ratio = 2; IC 95% = 1.1-8.3) between iron deficiency in its III stage and changes in the specific area of analysis and synthesis.

  12. Management of Iron Deficiency Anemia

    PubMed Central

    Jimenez, Kristine; Kulnigg-Dabsch, Stefanie

    2015-01-01

    Anemia affects one-fourth of the world’s population, and iron deficiency is the predominant cause. Anemia is associated with chronic fatigue, impaired cognitive function, and diminished well-being. Patients with iron deficiency anemia of unknown etiology are frequently referred to a gastroenterologist because in the majority of cases the condition has a gastrointestinal origin. Proper management improves quality of life, alleviates the symptoms of iron deficiency, and reduces the need for blood transfusions. Treatment options include oral and intravenous iron therapy; however, the efficacy of oral iron is limited in certain gastrointestinal conditions, such as inflammatory bowel disease, celiac disease, and autoimmune gastritis. This article provides a critical summary of the diagnosis and treatment of iron deficiency anemia. In addition, it includes a management algorithm that can help the clinician determine which patients are in need of further gastrointestinal evaluation. This facilitates the identification and treatment of the underlying condition and avoids the unnecessary use of invasive methods and their associated risks. PMID:27099596

  13. VISUAL DEFICIENCIES AND READING DISABILITY.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ROSEN, CARL L.

    THE ROLE OF VISUAL SENSORY DEFICIENCIES IN THE CAUSATION READING DISABILITY IS DISCUSSED. PREVIOUS AND CURRENT RESEARCH STUDIES DEALING WITH SPECIFIC VISUAL PROBLEMS WHICH HAVE BEEN FOUND TO BE NEGATIVELY RELATED TO SUCCESSFUL READING ACHIEVEMENT ARE LISTED--(1) FARSIGHTEDNESS, (2) ASTIGMATISM, (3) BINOCULAR INCOORDINATIONS, AND (4) FUSIONAL…

  14. Genetics Home Reference: arginase deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... of reactions that occurs in liver cells. This cycle processes excess nitrogen, generated when protein is used by the body, ... enzyme controls the final step of the urea cycle, which produces urea by removing nitrogen from arginine. In people with arginase deficiency , arginase ...

  15. Psychological Problems in Mental Deficiency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarason, Seymour B.; Doris, John

    A statement of goals and the rationale for organization precede a historical discussion of mental deficiency and society. The problem of labels like IQ and brain injured and the consequences of the diagnostic process are illustrated by case histories; case studies are also used to examine the criteria used to decide who is retarded and to discuss…

  16. Nutritional deficiencies after bariatric surgery.

    PubMed

    Davies, D J; Baxter, J M; Baxter, J N

    2007-09-01

    A current review of nutritional complications following bariatric procedures is presented, focusing on the most common and clinically important deficiencies. A brief outline of nutritional supplementation protocol is presented, highlighting the need for a standardized, national or international set of guidelines for pre- and postoperative nutritional screening and appropriate supplementation.

  17. Genetics Home Reference: transcobalamin deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... Epub 2008 Oct 29. Citation on PubMed Ratschmann R, Minkov M, Kis A, Hung C, Rupar T, Mühl A, Fowler B, Nexo E, Bodamer OA. Transcobalamin II deficiency at birth. Mol Genet Metab. 2009 Nov;98(3):285-8. doi: 10.1016/j.ymgme.2009.06.003. Epub 2009 Jun 6. ...

  18. Psychological Problems in Mental Deficiency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarason, Seymour B.; Doris, John

    A statement of goals and the rationale for organization precede a historical discussion of mental deficiency and society. The problem of labels like IQ and brain injured and the consequences of the diagnostic process are illustrated by case histories; case studies are also used to examine the criteria used to decide who is retarded and to discuss…

  19. Do diuretics cause magnesium deficiency?

    PubMed Central

    Davies, D L; Fraser, R

    1993-01-01

    1. Controlled trials, of which there are few, do not substantiate claims that diuretics play a role in causing magnesium deficiency. Consequently, the vast majority of patients taking conventional doses of thiazide diuretics (i.e. bendrofluazide 2.5 mg day-1 or equivalent) do not need magnesium supplements. On balance, potassium-sparing diuretics tend to increase serum and intracellular magnesium content; this should not be taken as evidence of prior magnesium deficiency. It remains theoretically possible that large doses of loop diuretics given more than once daily for long periods could induce negative magnesium balance and magnesium deficiency. However, it has been difficult to run appropriately controlled trials in conditions where such therapy is needed (i.e. heart failure) and until more reliable information becomes available no absolute recommendation can be made. 2. Methods for the measurement of intracellular free magnesium levels are now available and are more relevant to the assessment of magnesium deficiency than total intracellular magnesium content; the complex relationship between intracellular free and total magnesium content remains to be defined. Future work involving the effect of diuretics on intracellular free magnesium measurements should make every attempt to avoid the errors of trial design and multiple publication that litter current and past literature. PMID:8373706

  20. Case report: pyruvate kinase deficiency.

    PubMed

    Rothman, J M

    1995-09-01

    Pyruvate kinase deficiency is a rare cause of congenital hemolytic anemia. Despite a paucity of reports, splenectomy resulted in successful outcomes for two siblings with this disorder. The sisters were diagnosed at birth with profound jaundice and congenital nonspherocytic hemolytic anemia.

  1. Family welfare.

    PubMed

    Sinha, N K

    1992-01-01

    Between 1901-1921, India gained 12.9 million people because mortality remained high. The death rate fell between 1921-1951, but birth rates remained the same. Therefore 110 million people were added--2 times the population increase between 1891-1921. Between 1951-1981, the population increased to 324 million. Socioeconomic development was responsible for most of the downward trend in the birth rate during the 20th century. Even though large families were the norm in early India, religious leaders encouraged small family size. The 1st government family planning clinics in the world opened in Mysore and Bangalore in 1930. Right before Independence, the Bhore Committee made recommendations to reduce population growth such as increasing the age of marriage for girls. Since 1951 there has been a change in measures and policies geared towards population growth with each of the 7 5-Year Plans because policy makers applied what they learned from each previous plan. The 1st 5-Year Plan emphasized the need to understand what factors contribute to population growth. It also integrated family planning services into health services of hospitals and health centers. The government was over zealous in its implementation of the sterilization program (2nd 5-Year Plan, 1956-1961), however, which hurt family planning programs for many years. As of early 1992, sterilization, especially tubectomy, remained the most popular family planning method, however. The 7th 5-Year Plan changed its target of reaching a Net Reproductive Rate of 1 by 2001 to 2006-2011. It set a goal of 100% immunization coverage by 1990 but it did not occur. In 1986, the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare planned to make free contraceptives available in urban and rural areas and to involve voluntary organizations. The government needs to instill measures to increase women's status, women's literacy, and age of marriage as well as to eliminate poverty, ensure old age security, and ensure child survival and

  2. Iron deficiency: the global perspective.

    PubMed

    Cook, J D; Skikne, B S; Baynes, R D

    1994-01-01

    The prevelance of IDA in industrialized countries has declined in recent decades, but there has been little change in the worldwide prevalence. IDA is currently estimated to affect more than 500 million people. Recent studies have indicated that anemia per se, the most common manifestation of iron deficiency, is less important from a public health standpoint than liabilities associated with tissue iron deficiency. The most important of the latter are an impairment in psychomotor development and cognitive function in infants and preschoolers, a deficit in work performance in adults, and an increase in the frequency of low birth weight, prematurity, and perinatal mortality in pregnancy. There have been several recent advances in combatting nutritional iron deficiency. One of the major problems has been in distinguishing iron deficiency from other causes of anemia seen epidemiologically such as malaria, HIV infection, chronic inflammation, hemoglobinopathies, and protein energy malnutrition. When combined with serum ferritin and hemoglobin determinations, the serum transferrin receptor assay is a valuable addition in epidemiologic surveys because it provides a quantitative measure of functional iron deficiency and it distinguishes true IDA from the anemia of chronic disease. The most difficult challenge is to develop effective methods of supplying iron to large segments of a population. Supplementation with iron tablets is suitable for only brief periods of need such as during pregnancy. The poor compliance with existing supplementation programs is believed to be due mainly to the gastrointestinal side effects of oral iron which can be eliminated by the use of a gastric delivery system. The most effective long-term strategy is to increase the intake of bioavailable iron in the diet. The customary approach has been to fortify a food staple such as wheat, rice, sugar, or salt, and thereby increase the iron intake of the entire population. However, because of concerns

  3. Iron-deficiency anemia and the cycle of poverty among human immunodeficiency virus-infected women in the inner city.

    PubMed

    Semba, Richard D

    2003-01-01

    The prevalence of iron-deficiency anemia appears to be extremely high among female injection drug users in the inner city who have human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and/or hepatitis C (HCV) infections. Iron deficiency and its associated anemia may contribute to reduced energetic efficiency, lower aerobic capacity, decreased endurance, and fatigue. In practical terms, the functional limitations of iron deficiency and iron-deficiency anemia may affect the ability of women to participate in work, school, social, and family activities. Iron deficiency may contribute to the cycle of poverty in the inner city by limiting the ability of women to work, earn money, and afford iron-rich sources of food. Although iron supplementation may prevent or treat iron deficiency, the use of iron supplements needs to be approached with caution in women with HIV and HCV infections.

  4. Aromatase deficiency, a rare syndrome: case report.

    PubMed

    Baykan, Emine Kartal; Erdoğan, Mehmet; Özen, Samim; Darcan, Şükran; Saygılı, L Füsun

    2013-01-01

    Aromatase deficiency (AD) is a rare autosomal recessive inheritance syndrome. Its worldwide incidence is unknown, and there are few case reports in the literature. Aromatase dysfunction develops due to CYP19A1 gene mutation and a decrease in estrogen synthesis. Estrogen deficiency can induce delayed epiphyseal closure, eunuchoid body habitus, osteopenia, and osteoporosis in both genders. Our patient was a 27-year-old male who presented with bone pain, recurrent bone fractures associated with minimal trauma starting in puberty, and a progressive increase in height. Laboratory tests revealed that the blood levels of follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone were above normal, testosterone level was normal, and estrogen was undetectable. Plain bone radiography of the left wrist and hand demonstrated that the epiphyses were still unfused. Lumbar osteoporosis was detected in bone densitometry. In the genetic analysis, homozygous R375H guanine-adenine (G-A) mutation was detected in the CYP19A1 gene, and a diagnosis of AD was reached. Treatment with 25 μg transdermal estradiol was started. All family members were examined. Homozygous R375H G-A mutation was detected in the patient's younger brother. Heterozygous R375H G-A mutation was found in his mother, father, and older brother. In conclusion, this AD patient requires lifetime estrogen replacement in order to provide sufficient bone mineralization, to reduce the risk of bone fractures, and to lead a healthy life. The best method to prevent the possible complications is to diagnose the AD syndrome at early ages and to provide adequate estrogen replacement starting at puberty.

  5. Iron refractory iron deficiency anemia

    PubMed Central

    De Falco, Luigia; Sanchez, Mayka; Silvestri, Laura; Kannengiesser, Caroline; Muckenthaler, Martina U.; Iolascon, Achille; Gouya, Laurent; Camaschella, Clara; Beaumont, Carole

    2013-01-01

    Iron refractory iron deficiency anemia is a hereditary recessive anemia due to a defect in the TMPRSS6 gene encoding Matriptase-2. This protein is a transmembrane serine protease that plays an essential role in down-regulating hepcidin, the key regulator of iron homeostasis. Hallmarks of this disease are microcytic hypochromic anemia, low transferrin saturation and normal/high serum hepcidin values. The anemia appears in the post-natal period, although in some cases it is only diagnosed in adulthood. The disease is refractory to oral iron treatment but shows a slow response to intravenous iron injections and partial correction of the anemia. To date, 40 different Matriptase-2 mutations have been reported, affecting all the functional domains of the large ectodomain of the protein. In vitro experiments on transfected cells suggest that Matriptase-2 cleaves Hemojuvelin, a major regulator of hepcidin expression and that this function is altered in this genetic form of anemia. In contrast to the low/undetectable hepcidin levels observed in acquired iron deficiency, in patients with Matriptase-2 deficiency, serum hepcidin is inappropriately high for the low iron status and accounts for the absent/delayed response to oral iron treatment. A challenge for the clinicians and pediatricians is the recognition of the disorder among iron deficiency and other microcytic anemias commonly found in pediatric patients. The current treatment of iron refractory iron deficiency anemia is based on parenteral iron administration; in the future, manipulation of the hepcidin pathway with the aim of suppressing it might become an alternative therapeutic approach. PMID:23729726

  6. Dopamine transporter deficiency syndrome: phenotypic spectrum from infancy to adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Ng, Joanne; Zhen, Juan; Meyer, Esther; Erreger, Kevin; Li, Yan; Kakar, Naseebullah; Ahmad, Jamil; Thiele, Holger; Kubisch, Christian; Rider, Nicholas L.; Holmes Morton, D.; Strauss, Kevin A.; Puffenberger, Erik G.; D’Agnano, Daniela; Anikster, Yair; Carducci, Claudia; Hyland, Keith; Rotstein, Michael; Leuzzi, Vincenzo; Borck, Guntram; Reith, Maarten E. A.

    2014-01-01

    Dopamine transporter deficiency syndrome due to SLC6A3 mutations is the first inherited dopamine ‘transportopathy’ to be described, with a classical presentation of early infantile-onset progressive parkinsonism dystonia. In this study we have identified a new cohort of patients with dopamine transporter deficiency syndrome, including, most significantly, atypical presentation later in childhood with a milder disease course. We report the detailed clinical features, molecular genetic findings and in vitro functional investigations undertaken for adult and paediatric cases. Patients presenting with parkinsonism dystonia or a neurotransmitter profile characteristic of dopamine transporter deficiency syndrome were recruited for study. SLC6A3 mutational analysis was undertaken in all patients. The functional consequences of missense variants on the dopamine transporter were evaluated by determining the effect of mutant dopamine transporter on dopamine uptake, protein expression and amphetamine-mediated dopamine efflux using an in vitro cellular heterologous expression system. We identified eight new patients from five unrelated families with dopamine transporter deficiency syndrome. The median age at diagnosis was 13 years (range 1.5–34 years). Most significantly, the case series included three adolescent males with atypical dopamine transporter deficiency syndrome of juvenile onset (outside infancy) and progressive parkinsonism dystonia. The other five patients in the cohort presented with classical infantile-onset parkinsonism dystonia, with one surviving into adulthood (currently aged 34 years) and labelled as having ‘juvenile parkinsonism’. All eight patients harboured homozygous or compound heterozygous mutations in SLC6A3, of which the majority are previously unreported variants. In vitro studies of mutant dopamine transporter demonstrated multifaceted loss of dopamine transporter function. Impaired dopamine uptake was universally present, and more

  7. B-cell deficiency and severe autoimmunity caused by deficiency of protein kinase C δ.

    PubMed

    Salzer, Elisabeth; Santos-Valente, Elisangela; Klaver, Stefanie; Ban, Sol A; Emminger, Wolfgang; Prengemann, Nina Kathrin; Garncarz, Wojciech; Müllauer, Leonhard; Kain, Renate; Boztug, Heidrun; Heitger, Andreas; Arbeiter, Klaus; Eitelberger, Franz; Seidel, Markus G; Holter, Wolfgang; Pollak, Arnold; Pickl, Winfried F; Förster-Waldl, Elisabeth; Boztug, Kaan

    2013-04-18

    Primary B-cell disorders comprise a heterogeneous group of inherited immunodeficiencies, often associated with autoimmunity causing significant morbidity. The underlying genetic etiology remains elusive in the majority of patients. In this study, we investigated a patient from a consanguineous family suffering from recurrent infections and severe lupuslike autoimmunity. Immunophenotyping revealed progressive decrease of CD19(+) B cells, a defective class switch indicated by low numbers of IgM- and IgG-memory B cells, as well as increased numbers of CD21(low) B cells. Combined homozygosity mapping and exome sequencing identified a biallelic splice-site mutation in protein C kinase δ (PRKCD), causing the absence of the corresponding protein product. Consequently, phosphorylation of myristoylated alanine-rich C kinase substrate was decreased, and mRNA levels of nuclear factor interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-6 were increased. Our study uncovers human PRKCD deficiency as a novel cause of common variable immunodeficiency-like B-cell deficiency with severe autoimmunity.

  8. Genetics Home Reference: beta-ureidopropionase deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... down N-carbamyl-beta-alanine to beta-alanine, ammonia, and carbon dioxide. Both beta-aminoisobutyric acid and ... beta-ureidopropionase deficiency Merck Manual Professional Version: Pyrimidine Metabolism Disorders Orphanet: Beta-ureidopropionase deficiency Patient Support and ...

  9. What Causes Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency?

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Causes Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency? Alpha-1 antitrypsin (AAT) ... develop. The most common faulty gene that can cause AAT deficiency is called PiZ. If you inherit ...

  10. Iron deficiency--facts and fallacies.

    PubMed

    Oski, F A

    1985-04-01

    Iron deficiency occurs in all strata of society, is primarily a result of postnatal feeding practices and not due to congenital deficiencies of iron, can be prevented by appropriate dietary guidance, and, when present, produces important nonhematologic manifestations.

  11. Cobalamin deficiency, hyperhomocysteinemia, and dementia

    PubMed Central

    Werder, Steven F

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Although consensus guidelines recommend checking serum B12 in patients with dementia, clinicians are often faced with various questions: (1) Which patients should be tested? (2) What test should be ordered? (3) How are inferences made from such testing? (4) In addition to serum B12, should other tests be ordered? (5) Is B12 deficiency compatible with dementia of the Alzheimer’s type? (6) What is to be expected from treatment? (7) How is B12 deficiency treated? Methods On January 31st, 2009, a Medline search was performed revealing 1,627 citations related to cobalamin deficiency, hyperhomocysteinemia, and dementia. After limiting the search terms, all abstracts and/or articles and other references were categorized into six major groups (general, biochemistry, manifestations, associations and risks, evaluation, and treatment) and then reviewed in answering the above questions. Results The six major groups above are described in detail. Seventy-five key studies, series, and clinical trials were identified. Evidence-based suggestions for patient management were developed. Discussion Evidence is convincing that hyperhomocysteinemia, with or without hypovitaminosis B12, is a risk factor for dementia. In the absence of hyperhomocysteinemia, evidence is less convincing that hypovitaminosis B12 is a risk factor for dementia. B12 deficiency manifestations are variable and include abnormal psychiatric, neurological, gastrointestinal, and hematological findings. Radiological images of individuals with hyperhomocysteinemia frequently demonstrate leukoaraiosis. Assessing serum B12 and treatment of B12 deficiency is crucial for those cases in which pernicious anemia is suspected and may be useful for mild cognitive impairment and mild to moderate dementia. The serum B12 level is the standard initial test: 200 picograms per milliliter or less is low, and 201 to 350 picograms per milliliter is borderline low. Other tests may be indicated, including plasma

  12. Multiple Carboxylase Deficiency (Late Onset) Due to Deficiency of Biotinidase

    PubMed Central

    Mukhopadhyay, Debadatta; Das, Manoj Kumar; Dhar, Sandipan; Mukhopadhyay, Maya

    2014-01-01

    Biotinidase is a ubiquitous mammalian cell enzyme occurring in liver, serum and kidney. It cleaves biotin from biocytin, which is a cofactor for biotin dependent enzymes, namely the human carboxylases. Biotinidase deficiency is associated with a wide spectrum of neurological, dermatological, immunological and ophthalmological abnormalities. This is a case of a 3-year-old boy presenting with delayed developmental milestones, tachypnea, progressively increasing ataxia, alopecia and dermatitis, all which dramatically responded to high doses of biotin. PMID:25284861

  13. CRM+ severe Fletcher factor deficiency associated with Graves' disease.

    PubMed

    Kyrle, P A; Niessner, H; Deutsch, E; Lechner, K; Korninger, C; Mannhalter, C

    1984-01-01

    A 59-year-old male patient with Graves' disease and severe hereditary Fletcher factor deficiency is described. PKK clotting activity as well as the activity by a chromogenic substrate method (Chromozym PK) was less then 0.01 U/ml. In contrast to functional tests, the immunological assay (Laurell method) showed a PKK antigen concentration of 0.25 U/ml, indicating the presence of an abnormal nonfunctional PKK molecule (CRM+ variant). An inhibitor was excluded since the patient plasma did not inactivate partially purified PKK. Investigation of 11 family members revealed a reduction of the PKK clotting activity in 9 relatives of the patient. Since Graves' disease is considered an autoimmune disease, our case represents an example of an association of a severe hereditary deficiency of a contact factor and an autoimmune disease.

  14. Human Metabolic Enzymes Deficiency: A Genetic Mutation Based Approach

    PubMed Central

    Chaturvedi, Swati; Singh, Ashok K.; Maity, Siddhartha; Sarkar, Srimanta

    2016-01-01

    One of the extreme challenges in biology is to ameliorate the understanding of the mechanisms which emphasize metabolic enzyme deficiency (MED) and how these pretend to have influence on human health. However, it has been manifested that MED could be either inherited as inborn error of metabolism (IEM) or acquired, which carries a high risk of interrupted biochemical reactions. Enzyme deficiency results in accumulation of toxic compounds that may disrupt normal organ functions and cause failure in producing crucial biological compounds and other intermediates. The MED related disorders cover widespread clinical presentations and can involve almost any organ system. To sum up the causal factors of almost all the MED-associated disorders, we decided to embark on a less traveled but nonetheless relevant direction, by focusing our attention on associated gene family products, regulation of their expression, genetic mutation, and mutation types. In addition, the review also outlines the clinical presentations as well as diagnostic and therapeutic approaches. PMID:27051561

  15. Metabolic characterization of a Sirt5 deficient mouse model.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jiujiu; Sadhukhan, Sushabhan; Noriega, Lilia G; Moullan, Norman; He, Bin; Weiss, Robert S; Lin, Hening; Schoonjans, Kristina; Auwerx, Johan

    2013-09-30

    Sirt5, localized in the mitochondria, is a member of sirtuin family of NAD⁺-dependent deacetylases. Sirt5 was shown to deacetylate and activate carbamoyl phosphate synthase 1. Most recently, Sirt5 was reported to be the predominant protein desuccinylase and demalonylase in the mitochondria because the ablation of Sirt5 enhanced the global succinylation and malonylation of mitochondrial proteins, including many metabolic enzymes. In order to determine the physiological role of Sirt5 in metabolic homeostasis, we generated a germline Sirt5 deficient (Sirt5⁻/⁻) mouse model and performed a thorough metabolic characterization of this mouse line. Although a global protein hypersuccinylation and elevated serum ammonia during fasting were observed in our Sirt5⁻/⁻ mouse model, Sirt5 deficiency did not lead to any overt metabolic abnormalities under either chow or high fat diet conditions. These observations suggest that Sirt5 is likely to be dispensable for the metabolic homeostasis under the basal conditions.

  16. Crossing the Frontier to Inland China: Family Social Capital for Minority Uighur Students in Chinese Boarding Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Yangbin

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines family influences on Uighur (a Muslim ethnic minority in northwestern China) students' experiences in Xinjiang classes in an inland China boarding school. Supported by the concept of family social capital, the paper argues that, although family structure becomes deficient for Uighur students away from home, their families can…

  17. Iron deficiency and iron deficiency anaemia in women.

    PubMed

    Percy, Laura; Mansour, Diana; Fraser, Ian

    2017-04-01

    Iron deficiency (ID) is the most common micronutrient deficiency worldwide with >20% of women experiencing it during their reproductive lives. Hepcidin, a peptide hormone mostly produced by the liver, controls the absorption and regulation of iron. Understanding iron metabolism is pivotal in the successful management of ID and iron deficiency anaemia (IDA) using oral preparations, parenteral iron or blood transfusion. Oral preparations vary in their iron content and can result in gastrointestinal side effects. Parenteral iron is indicated when there are compliance/tolerance issues with oral iron, comorbidities which may affect absorption or ongoing iron losses that exceed absorptive capacity. It may also be the preferred option when rapid iron repletion is required to prevent physiological decompensation or given preoperatively for non-deferrable surgery. As gynaecologists, we focus on managing women's heavy menstrual bleeding (HMB) and assume that primary care clinicians are treating the associated ID/IDA. We now need to take the lead in diagnosing, managing and initiating treatment for ID/IDA and treating HMB simultaneously. This dual management will significantly improve their quality of life. In this chapter we will summarise the importance of iron in cellular functioning, describe how to diagnose ID/IDA and help clinicians choose between the available treatment options. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Familial hypogonadotropic hypogonadism with alopecia.

    PubMed Central

    Slti, I S; Salem, Z

    1979-01-01

    In one family several male and female members had hypogonadism and frontoparietal alopecia, whereas other members with normal sexual development had normal scalp hair. Clinical and laboratory evaluation of three affected young men (two brothers and their cousin) revealed that the hypogonadism was the result of decreased serum concentrations of follicle stimulating and luteinizing hormones. There was no evidence of a deficiency of any other pituitary hormone. Long-term treatment of the three patients with human chorionic gonadotropin resulted in an increase in the serum testosterone concentration, the appearance of male secondary sex characteristics and an increase in the size of the external genitalia. Images FIG. 2 FIG. 4 PMID:466617

  19. Hereditary deficiency of the second component of complement (C2) in man: correlation of C2 haemolytic activity with immunochemical measurements of C2 protein

    PubMed Central

    Ruddy, S.; Klemperer, M. R.; Rosen, F. S.; Austen, K. F.; Kumate, J.

    1970-01-01

    Measurements of the nine components of complement in the serums of 16 members of a kindred have established the diagnosis of hereditary deficiency of the second component of complement (C2). The autosomal recessive mode of inheritance resembles that of previously described families with C2 deficiency. Both C2 activity determinations with a stoichiometric haemolytic assay and C2 protein measurements with electroimmunodiffusion against antibody monospecific for C2 detect the heterozygous deficient state. Antigenic analysis, in vitro reconstitution experiments, and the constant ratio of C2 function to C2 protein indicate that the C2 synthesized by heterozygotes is indistinguishable from normal human C2. Studies of neonatal homozygous deficient serum and maternal heterozygous deficient serum show that transplacental passage of C2 does not occur. C2 deficiency in this family is not associated with clinical defects in host resistance. ImagesFIG. 3 PMID:4987909

  20. Iron Deficiency in Autism and Asperger Syndrome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Latif, A.; Heinz, P.; Cook, R.

    2002-01-01

    Retrospective analysis of the full blood count and, when available, serum ferritin measurements of 96 children (52 with autism and 44 with Asperger syndrome) found six autistic children had iron deficiency and 12 of the 23 autistic children with serum ferritin measures were iron deficient. Far fewer Asperger children were iron deficient. Results…

  1. Iron Deficiency in Autism and Asperger Syndrome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Latif, A.; Heinz, P.; Cook, R.

    2002-01-01

    Retrospective analysis of the full blood count and, when available, serum ferritin measurements of 96 children (52 with autism and 44 with Asperger syndrome) found six autistic children had iron deficiency and 12 of the 23 autistic children with serum ferritin measures were iron deficient. Far fewer Asperger children were iron deficient. Results…

  2. [Clinical symptoms in IgA deficiency].

    PubMed

    De Oliveira-Serra, Flavio Augusto; Mosca, Tainá; Santos de Menezes, Maria da Conceição; Carvalho-Neves Forte, Wilma

    2017-01-01

    IgA deficiency is the most common primary immunodeficiency. Early diagnosis and clinical follow-up may improve the quality of life of patients with IgA deficiency. To this end, IgA deficiency should be further studied and better understood on its clinical manifestations. To determine IgA deficiency clinical manifestations. Cross-sectional, retrospective, exploratory study, where the medical records of 39 patients with IgA deficiency were analyzed. Among the analyzed cases, 10 patients were diagnosed with total IgA deficiency and 29 patients with partial IgA deficiency. Partial and total IgA deficiency main clinical manifestations were allergic rhinoconjunctivitis and allergic asthma. In total IgA deficiency, in addition to allergic diseases, a statistically significant number (p < 0.05) of cases of infection-related rhinosinusitis, tonsillitis and conjunctivitis were also observed. This study showed that the main clinical manifestations in IgA deficiency were allergic rhinoconjunctivitis and allergic asthma. In addition, patients with total IgA deficiency showed a significant increase in infection-related rhinosinusitis, tonsillitis and conjunctivitis, when compared with patients with partial IgA deficiency.

  3. Iron-induced nickel deficiency in pecan

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Economic loss due to nickel (Ni) deficiency can occur in horticultural and agronomic crops. This study assesses impact of excessive iron (Fe) on expression of Ni deficiency in pecan [Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh.) K. Koch]. Field and greenhouse experiments found Ni deficiency to be inducible by ei...

  4. Respiratory chain complex I deficiency caused by mitochondrial DNA mutations

    PubMed Central

    Swalwell, Helen; Kirby, Denise M; Blakely, Emma L; Mitchell, Anna; Salemi, Renato; Sugiana, Canny; Compton, Alison G; Tucker, Elena J; Ke, Bi-Xia; Lamont, Phillipa J; Turnbull, Douglass M; McFarland, Robert; Taylor, Robert W; Thorburn, David R

    2011-01-01

    Defects of the mitochondrial respiratory chain are associated with a diverse spectrum of clinical phenotypes, and may be caused by mutations in either the nuclear or the mitochondrial genome (mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA)). Isolated complex I deficiency is the most common enzyme defect in mitochondrial disorders, particularly in children in whom family history is often consistent with sporadic or autosomal recessive inheritance, implicating a nuclear genetic cause. In contrast, although a number of recurrent, pathogenic mtDNA mutations have been described, historically, these have been perceived as rare causes of paediatric complex I deficiency. We reviewed the clinical and genetic findings in a large cohort of 109 paediatric patients with isolated complex I deficiency from 101 families. Pathogenic mtDNA mutations were found in 29 of 101 probands (29%), 21 in MTND subunit genes and 8 in mtDNA tRNA genes. Nuclear gene defects were inferred in 38 of 101 (38%) probands based on cell hybrid studies, mtDNA sequencing or mutation analysis (nuclear gene mutations were identified in 22 probands). Leigh or Leigh-like disease was the most common clinical presentation in both mtDNA and nuclear genetic defects. The median age at onset was higher in mtDNA patients (12 months) than in patients with a nuclear gene defect (3 months). However, considerable overlap existed, with onset varying from 0 to >60 months in both groups. Our findings confirm that pathogenic mtDNA mutations are a significant cause of complex I deficiency in children. In the absence of parental consanguinity, we recommend whole mitochondrial genome sequencing as a key approach to elucidate the underlying molecular genetic abnormality. PMID:21364701

  5. Familial Investigations of Childhood Cancer Predisposition

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-10-11

    Acute Leukemia; Adenomatous Polyposis; Adrenocortical Carcinoma; AML; BAP1 Tumor Predisposition Syndrome; Carney Complex; Choroid Plexus Carcinoma; Constitutional Mismatch Repair Deficiency Syndrome; Diamond-Blackfan Anemia; DICER1 Syndrome; Dyskeratosis Congenita; Emberger Syndrome; Familial Acute Myeloid Leukaemia; Familial Adenomatous Polyposis; Fanconi Anemia; Familial Cancer; Familial Wilms Tumor; Familial Neuroblastoma; GIST; Hereditary Breast and Ovarian Cancer; Hereditary Paraganglioma-Pheochromocytoma Syndrome; Hodgkin Lymphoma; Juvenile Polyposis; Li-Fraumeni Syndrome; Lynch Syndrome; MDS; Melanoma Syndrome; Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 1; Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 2; Neuroblastoma; Neurofibromatosis Type 1; Neurofibromatosis Type II; Nevoid Basal Cell Carcinoma Syndrome; Non Hodgkin Lymphoma; Noonan Syndrome and Other Rasopathy; Overgrowth Syndromes; Pancreatic Cancer; Peutz-Jeghers Syndrome; Pheochromocytoma/Paraganglioma; PTEN Hamartoma Tumor Syndrome; Retinoblastoma; Rhabdoid Tumor Predisposition Syndrome; Rhabdomyosarcoma; Rothmund-Thomson Syndrome; Tuberous Sclerosis; Von Hippel-Lindau Disease

  6. Tobacco LSU-like protein couples sulphur-deficiency response with ethylene signalling pathway.

    PubMed

    Moniuszko, Grzegorz; Skoneczny, Marek; Zientara-Rytter, Katarzyna; Wawrzyńska, Anna; Głów, Dawid; Cristescu, Simona M; Harren, Frans J M; Sirko, Agnieszka

    2013-11-01

    Most genes from the plant-specific family encoding Response to Low Sulphur (LSU)-like proteins are strongly induced in sulphur (S)-deficient conditions. The exact role of these proteins remains unclear; however, some data suggest their importance for plants' adjustment to nutrient deficiency and other environmental stresses. This work established that the regulation of ethylene signalling is a part of plants' response to S deficiency and showed the interaction between UP9C, a tobacco LSU family member, and one of the tobacco isoforms of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid oxidase (ACO2A). Increase in ethylene level induced by S deficiency does not take place in tobacco plants with UP9C expressed in an antisense orientation. Based on transcriptomics data, this work also demonstrated that the majority of tobacco's response to S deficiency is misregulated in plants expressing UP9C-antisense. A link between response to S deficiency, ethylene sensing, and LSU-like proteins was emphasized by changes in expression of the genes encoding ethylene receptors and F-box proteins specific for the ethylene pathway.

  7. Meanings of eating deficiencies for people admitted to palliative home care.

    PubMed

    Wallin, Viktoria; Carlander, Ida; Sandman, P-O; Håkanson, Cecilia

    2015-10-01

    Food and eating are embedded in people's everyday social lives: at home with family members and as part of social interactions. For people with progressive life-limiting conditions, however, eating is often obstructed. The objective of the present study was to explore the meanings of living with eating deficiencies at the end of life among people admitted to specialist palliative home care. This qualitative inductive study employed an interpretive descriptive approach. A dozen persons, with various diagnoses and eating deficiencies, admitted to two specialist palliative home care units, participated. Data were collected through individual repeated interviews. Data collection and analysis were guided by the interpretive description method. The results reveal that eating deficiencies among people with progressive life-limiting conditions are existentially loaded markers of impending death. Finding ways to overcome declined food intake and hampered eating enabled our participants to feel able to influence their own well-being and remain hopeful. The results also showed that the eating deficiencies influenced participants' relationships and social interactions in ways that hampered their possibilities of sharing valuable moments together with friends and family members during the final period of life. Efforts to minimize the distress that people experience in relation to the challenges they face with eating deficiencies are important for well-being at the end of life. Person-centered approaches to acknowledge and support individuals' own ways of experiencing and dealing with their eating deficiencies are recommended that include a multidimensional perspective on food and eating.

  8. Tobacco LSU-like protein couples sulphur-deficiency response with ethylene signalling pathway

    PubMed Central

    Sirko, Agnieszka

    2013-01-01

    Most genes from the plant-specific family encoding Response to Low Sulphur (LSU)-like proteins are strongly induced in sulphur (S)-deficient conditions. The exact role of these proteins remains unclear; however, some data suggest their importance for plants’ adjustment to nutrient deficiency and other environmental stresses. This work established that the regulation of ethylene signalling is a part of plants’ response to S deficiency and showed the interaction between UP9C, a tobacco LSU family member, and one of the tobacco isoforms of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid oxidase (ACO2A). Increase in ethylene level induced by S deficiency does not take place in tobacco plants with UP9C expressed in an antisense orientation. Based on transcriptomics data, this work also demonstrated that the majority of tobacco’s response to S deficiency is misregulated in plants expressing UP9C-antisense. A link between response to S deficiency, ethylene sensing, and LSU-like proteins was emphasized by changes in expression of the genes encoding ethylene receptors and F-box proteins specific for the ethylene pathway. PMID:24085579

  9. Family Hypnotherapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Araoz, Daniel L.; Negley-Parker, Esther

    1985-01-01

    A therapeutic model to help families activate experiential and right hemispheric functioning through hypnosis is presented in detail, together with a clinical illustration. Different situations in which this model is effective are mentioned and one such set of circumstances is described. (Author)

  10. FAMILY TYMOVIRIDAE

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This article provides a brief review of the taxonomic structure, virion properties, genome organization and replication strategy, antigenic properties, and biological properties of viruses in the family Tymoviridae. Criteria for demarcation of genus and species are provided. A brief review of each...

  11. Familial hypercholesterolemia

    MedlinePlus

    A diet low in cholesterol and saturated fat and rich in unsaturated fat may help to control your LDL level. People with a family history of this condition, particularly if both parents carry the defective gene, may want to seek genetic counseling.

  12. Family Hypnotherapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Araoz, Daniel L.; Negley-Parker, Esther

    1985-01-01

    A therapeutic model to help families activate experiential and right hemispheric functioning through hypnosis is presented in detail, together with a clinical illustration. Different situations in which this model is effective are mentioned and one such set of circumstances is described. (Author)

  13. Family Violence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sorgen, Carol, Ed.

    1979-01-01

    This quarterly publication, issued by the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA), contains articles dealing with family violence and alcohol abuse, children of alcoholic parents, training programs for counselors, and confidentiality of client records. The three articles on alcohol abuse suggest that: (1) there is a clear…

  14. My Family.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alaska State-Operated Schools, Anchorage.

    This elementary reader is designed for use in a bilingual Inupiat-English program in Buckland and Deering, Alaska. It is the story of a small boy named Paul and his family. The Inupiat text and its English equivalent are never in opposition. The Inupiat text is presented on a picture page, with the English on the back. The illustrations, by J.…

  15. FAMILY SCATHOPHAGIDAE.

    PubMed

    Wolff, Marta; Grisales, Diana; Nihei, Silvio S

    2016-06-14

    Scathophagidae (Diptera, Calyptratae) is an uncommon group of flies. In Colombia there was no scientific record of this family until now. In this paper we report for the first time the genus Scatogera and the species S. primogenita Albuquerque, collected over 3000m. and previously collected in Ecuador.

  16. FAMILY ASILIDAE.

    PubMed

    Wolff, Marta; Lamas, Carlos José Einicker

    2016-06-14

    Asilidae is one of the largest Diptera families with more than 7,000 recognized species worldwide. All their species are predators on arthropods, mainly insects. This catalogue presents 71 species distributed in 26 genera, ten tribes or generic groups and four subfamilies. For each species we present the available geographical information and relevant references.

  17. Serving Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Link, Geoffrey; Beggs, Marjorie; Seiderman, Ethel

    Parent Services Project (PSP), the first comprehensive program of resources and mental health activities for parents offered at child care centers in the San Francisco Bay Area (California), has expanded to centers in six states, serving over 19,000 families. This report describes the program's history, aims, and achievements, along with specific…

  18. Serving Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Link, Geoffrey; Beggs, Marjorie; Seiderman, Ethel

    Parent Services Project (PSP), the first comprehensive program of resources and mental health activities for parents offered at child care centers in the San Francisco Bay Area (California), has expanded to centers in six states, serving over 19,000 families. This report describes the program's history, aims, and achievements, along with specific…

  19. Familial dysautonomia.

    PubMed

    Slaugenhaupt, Susan A; Gusella, James F

    2002-06-01

    Familial dysautonomia is a developmental disorder of the sensory and autonomic nervous system. Recent studies have shown that two mutations in the gene IKBKAP are responsible for the disease. IKAP, the IKBKAP-encoded protein, is a member of the recently identified human Elongator complex. The major FD mutation is a splice mutation that results in aberrant tissue-specific mRNA splicing.

  20. FAMILY LAUXANIIDAE.

    PubMed

    Silva, Vera Cristina

    2016-06-14

    An updated Catalogue of the Lauxaniidae of Colombia is presented. This acalyptratae family is poorly known in Colombia, with only 36 described species in 33 genera. This paper expands the distribution of 24 species to Colombia. At total, 63 species are reported here for Colombia.

  1. Iron deficiency and brain development.

    PubMed

    Lozoff, Betsy; Georgieff, Michael K

    2006-09-01

    Iron deficiency (ID) is common in pregnant women and infants worldwide. Rodent models show that ID during gestation/lactation alters neurometabolism, neurotransmitters, myelination, and gene/protein profiles before and after iron repletion at weaning. Human infants with iron deficiency anemia test lower in cognitive, motor, social-emotional, and neurophysiologic development than comparison group infants. Iron therapy does not consistently improve developmental outcome, with long-term differences observed. Poorer outcome has also been shown in human and monkey infants with fetal/neonatal ID. Recent randomized trials of infant iron supplementation show benefits, indicating that adverse effects can be prevented and/or reversed with iron earlier in development or before ID becomes severe or chronic. This body of research emphasizes the importance of protecting the developing brain from ID.

  2. [Is iodine deficiency still relevant?].

    PubMed

    Gärtner, R

    2007-02-22

    In Germany, iodine deficiency and its consequences is still a problem, although it is of less importance than it was twenty years ago. In accordance with the WHO definition, Germany still belongs among those countries with mild iodine deficiency and too low an intake of iodine. As a result groups at particular risk, such as pregnant and nursing women, must still receive iodine supplementation, since, in the absence of supplemental iodine,the amount of iodine in the mother's milk continues to be below average throughout Germany. Both in private households and in the food industry, the aim is to increase the use of iodized salt to more than go%. This entails no risk of an iodine overdose. The current average daily uptake of iodine of approximately 120 micrograms is responsible neither for the development or progression of an autoimmune disease nor a functional disorder of the thyroid gland.

  3. Iodine: deficiency and therapeutic considerations.

    PubMed

    Patrick, Lyn

    2008-06-01

    Iodine deficiency is generally recognized as the most commonly preventable cause of mental retardation and the most common cause of endocrinopathy (goiter and primary hypothyroidism). Iodine deficiency becomes particularly critical in pregnancy due to the consequences for neurological damage during fetal development as well as during lactation. The safety of therapeutic doses of iodine above the established safe upper limit of 1 mg is evident in the lack of toxicity in the Japanese population that consumes 25 times the median intake of iodine consumption in the United States. Japan's population suffers no demonstrable increased incidence of autoimmune thyroiditis or hypothyroidism. Studies using 3.0- to 6.0-mg doses to effectively treat fibrocystic breast disease may reveal an important role for iodine in maintaining normal breast tissue architecture and function. Iodine may also have important antioxidant functions in breast tissue and other tissues that concentrate iodine via the sodium iodide symporter.

  4. Iodine deficiency disorders in Europe.

    PubMed Central

    Delange, F.; Bürgi, H.

    1989-01-01

    Recent data on iodine excretion in the urine of adults, adolescents and newborns and on the iodine content of breast milk indicate a high prevalence of iodine deficiency (moderate in many cases and severe in a few) in many European countries. These cases may manifest as subclinical hypothyroidism in neonates and as goitre in adolescents and adults. Lack of iodine causes not only goitre, but also mental deficiency, hearing loss and other neurological impairments, and short stature due to thyroid insufficiency during fetal development and childhood. Although iodinated salt is available theoretically in most countries where it is needed, its quality and share of the market are often unsatisfactory. In many countries where only household salt is iodinated the iodine content has been set too low owing to an overestimation of household salt consumption. Governments are therefore urged to pass legislation and provide means for efficient iodination of salt wherever this is necessary. PMID:2670299

  5. Relative carnitine deficiency in autism.

    PubMed

    Filipek, Pauline A; Juranek, Jenifer; Nguyen, Minh T; Cummings, Christa; Gargus, J Jay

    2004-12-01

    A random retrospective chart review was conducted to document serum carnitine levels on 100 children with autism. Concurrently drawn serum pyruvate, lactate, ammonia, and alanine levels were also available in many of these children. Values of free and total carnitine (p < 0.001), and pyruvate (p = 0.006) were significantly reduced while ammonia and alanine levels were considerably elevated (p < 0.001) in our autistic subjects. The relative carnitine deficiency in these patients, accompanied by slight elevations in lactate and significant elevations in alanine and ammonia levels, is suggestive of mild mitochondrial dysfunction. It is hypothesized that a mitochondrial defect may be the origin of the carnitine deficiency in these autistic children.

  6. Family Members Affected by a Close Relative's Addiction: The Stress-Strain-Coping-Support Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orford, Jim; Copello, Alex; Velleman, Richard; Templeton, Lorna

    2010-01-01

    This article outlines the stress-strain-coping-support (SSCS) model which underpins the whole programme of work described in this supplement. The need for such a model is explained: previous models of substance misuse and the family have attributed dysfunction or deficiency to families or family members. In contrast, the SSCS model assumes that…

  7. Family Members Affected by a Close Relative's Addiction: The Stress-Strain-Coping-Support Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orford, Jim; Copello, Alex; Velleman, Richard; Templeton, Lorna

    2010-01-01

    This article outlines the stress-strain-coping-support (SSCS) model which underpins the whole programme of work described in this supplement. The need for such a model is explained: previous models of substance misuse and the family have attributed dysfunction or deficiency to families or family members. In contrast, the SSCS model assumes that…

  8. Family Structure and Functions Identified by Persons Living with HIV/AIDS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong-Wylie, Gina; Doherty-Poirier, Maryanne; Kieren, Dianne

    1999-01-01

    A study looked at the structural and functional aspects of family from the perspective of six people living with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) or human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Results showing how HIV/AIDS affects all members of the sufferer's family have implications for family practitioners. (Author/JOW)

  9. SAP deficiency mitigated atherosclerotic lesions in ApoE(-/-) mice.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Lingyun; Wu, Teng; Zeng, Cuiling; Li, Xiangli; Li, Xiaoqiang; Wen, Dingwen; Ji, Tianxing; Lan, Tian; Xing, Liying; Li, Jiangchao; He, Xiaodong; Wang, Lijing

    2016-01-01

    Serum amyloid P conpoent (SAP), a member of the pentraxin family, interact with pathogens and cell debris to promote their removal by macrophages and neutrophils and is co-localized with atherosclerotic plaques in patients. However, the exact mechanism of SAP in atherogenesis is still unclear. We investigated whether SAP influence macrophage recruitment and foam cell formation and ultimately affect atherosclerotic progression. we generated apoE(-/-); SAP(-/-) (DKO) mice and fed them western diet for 4 and 8 weeks to characterize atherosclerosis development. SAP deficiency effectively reduced plaque size both in the aorta (p = 0.0006 for 4 wks; p = 0.0001 for 8 wks) and the aortic root (p = 0.0061 for 4 wks; p = 0.0079 for 8wks) compared with apoE(-/-) mice. Meanwhile, SAP deficiency inhibited oxLDL-induced foam cell formation (p = 0.0004) compared with apoE(-/-) mice and SAP treatment increases oxLDL-induced foam cell formation (p = 0.002) in RAW cells. Besides, SAP deficiency reduced macrophages recruitment (p = 0.035) in vivo and in vitro (p = 0.026). Furthermore, SAP treatment enhanced CD36 (p = 0.007) and FcγRI (p = 0.031) expression induced by oxLDL through upregulating JNK and p38 MAPK phosphorylation whereas specific JNK1/2 inhibitor reduced CD36 (p = 0.0005) and FcγRI (P = 0.0007) expression in RAW cell. SAP deficiency also significantly decreased the expression of M1 and M2 macrophage markers and inflammatory cytokines in oxLDL-induced macrophages. SAP deficiency mitigated foam cell formation and atherosclerotic development in apoE(-/-) mice, due to reduction in macrophages recruitment, polarization and pro-inflammatory cytokines and inhibition the CD36/FcγR-dependent signaling pathway. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Oestrogen deficiency after tubal ligation.

    PubMed

    Cattanach, J

    1985-04-13

    4 of 7 women who had undergone tubal ligation within the past seven years were found to have oestrogen excretion concentrations at ovulation below the tenth percentile. A disturbance in the oestrogen/progesterone ratio as a consequence of localised hypertension at the ovary, when the utero-ovarian arterial loop is occluded at tubal ligation, is proposed as a possible cause of oestrogen deficiency syndrome, dysfunctional uterine bleeding, and menorrhagia after tubal ligation. Similar pathophysiology may occur after hysterectomy with ovarian conservation.

  11. Ophthalmologic findings in biotinidase deficiency.

    PubMed

    Salbert, B A; Astruc, J; Wolf, B

    1993-01-01

    Biotinidase deficiency is an autosomal recessively inherited metabolic disorder characterized by neurological and cutaneous manifestations and metabolic abnormalities. We studied 78 symptomatic children and found that 51% had ophthalmologic abnormalities. These include infections (30%), optic neuropathies and visual disturbances (13%), motility disturbances (13%), retinal pigment changes (4%) and pupillary findings (1%). The most commonly reported findings are optic atrophy and keratoconjunctivities. Although the disorder can be effectively treated with biotin therapy, untreated children are at risk of developing permanent neuro-ophthalmic damage.

  12. Congenital deficiency of factor VII.

    PubMed

    Sikka, M; Gomber, S; Madan, N; Rusia, U; Sharma, S

    1996-01-01

    A case of congenital factor VII deficiency in a five-year-old child is reported. The patient, born of a non-consanguineous marriage, presented with repeated bouts of epistaxis since childhood. The prothrombin time (PT) was markedly prolonged with a normal bleeding time (BT), partial thromboplastin time with Kaolin (PTTK) and platelet count. The patient has been on follow up for the last four years and is doing apparently well.

  13. Mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase deficiency.

    PubMed

    Rak, Malgorzata; Bénit, Paule; Chrétien, Dominique; Bouchereau, Juliette; Schiff, Manuel; El-Khoury, Riyad; Tzagoloff, Alexander; Rustin, Pierre

    2016-03-01

    As with other mitochondrial respiratory chain components, marked clinical and genetic heterogeneity is observed in patients with a cytochrome c oxidase deficiency. This constitutes a considerable diagnostic challenge and raises a number of puzzling questions. So far, pathological mutations have been reported in more than 30 genes, in both mitochondrial and nuclear DNA, affecting either structural subunits of the enzyme or proteins involved in its biogenesis. In this review, we discuss the possible causes of the discrepancy between the spectacular advances made in the identification of the molecular bases of cytochrome oxidase deficiency and the lack of any efficient treatment in diseases resulting from such deficiencies. This brings back many unsolved questions related to the frequent delay of clinical manifestation, variable course and severity, and tissue-involvement often associated with these diseases. In this context, we stress the importance of studying different models of these diseases, but also discuss the limitations encountered in most available disease models. In the future, with the possible exception of replacement therapy using genes, cells or organs, a better understanding of underlying mechanism(s) of these mitochondrial diseases is presumably required to develop efficient therapy. © 2016 Authors; published by Portland Press Limited.

  14. Current issues in iron deficiency.

    PubMed

    Baynes, R D; Cook, J D

    1996-03-01

    This brief review of developments relating to iron deficiency during the past year covers three main areas: iron supplementation, the regulation of iron absorption, and the use of the serum transferrin receptor for the assessment of iron status. The intermittent administration of iron supplement once or twice weekly rather than daily has been advocated by international health agencies in recent years, but radioiron absorption studies in human subjects have failed to demonstrate any absorptive advantage of the intermittent schedule. The value of prophylactic iron supplementation in elderly blood donors was evaluated and shown to offer limited benefit in maintaining donation frequency. A recent model of the regulation of iron absorption involving erythropoietic and store regulators is discussed and a recent article indicating a potential non-hematopoietic effect of hematopoietic growth factors on iron absorption by the gastrointestinal mucosal cell is reviewed. A new measure of functional iron deficiency, namely the serum transferrin receptor, is discussed, with particular reference to its mechanism of production and its great value in distinguishing iron deficiency anemia from the anemia of chronic disease.

  15. Progesterone Deficiency and Premature Labour

    PubMed Central

    Csapo, A. I.; Pohanka, O.; Kaihola, H. L.

    1974-01-01

    Plasma oestradiol 17β and progesterone levels in 11 patients admitted to hospital for threatened premature labour of unknown aetiology were compared with those of women at similar stages of gestation whose pregnancy was normal. Oestradiol levels in the study group were slightly higher than in the normal controls but their progesterone levels were significantly lower. This progesterone deficiency increased the oestradiol/progesterone ratio in the study group patients, and it increased still more as the progesterone withdrawal continued during premature labour. Since uterine activity during pregnancy is regulated by a balanced action of several factors a deficiency in progesterone, an opponent of uterine activity, creates a regulatory imbalance which, if uncorrected, provokes premature labour. An increase in uterine volume stimulates uterine activity, and the present study reinforced our previous conclusion that the uterine-volume/plasma-progesterone ratio is a more accurate measure of the state of regulatory balance than the progesterone level alone. The cause of the progesterone deficiency in these cases remains unexplained, but we suggest that placental growth and function are contributory factors. We are investigating ways of correcting the resulting imbalance in the regulatory mechanism. PMID:4812406

  16. Vitamin D deficiency and diabetes.

    PubMed

    Berridge, Michael J

    2017-03-24

    Vitamin D deficiency has been linked to the onset of diabetes. This review summarizes the role of Vitamin D in maintaining the normal release of insulin by the pancreatic beta cells (β-cells). Diabetes is initiated by the onset of insulin resistance. The β-cells can overcome this resistance by releasing more insulin, thus preventing hyperglycaemia. However, as this hyperactivity increases, the β-cells experience excessive Ca(2+) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) signalling that results in cell death and the onset of diabetes. Vitamin D deficiency contributes to both the initial insulin resistance and the subsequent onset of diabetes caused by β-cell death. Vitamin D acts to reduce inflammation, which is a major process in inducing insulin resistance. Vitamin D maintains the normal resting levels of both Ca(2+) and ROS that are elevated in the β-cells during diabetes. Vitamin D also has a very significant role in maintaining the epigenome. Epigenetic alterations are a feature of diabetes by which many diabetes-related genes are inactivated by hypermethylation. Vitamin D acts to prevent such hypermethylation by increasing the expression of the DNA demethylases that prevent hypermethylation of multiple gene promoter regions of many diabetes-related genes. What is remarkable is just how many cellular processes are maintained by Vitamin D. When Vitamin D is deficient, many of these processes begin to decline and this sets the stage for the onset of diseases such as diabetes.

  17. The Meniscus-Deficient Knee

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Allison J.; Erickson, Brandon J.; Cvetanovich, Gregory L.; Yanke, Adam B.; Bach, Bernard R.; Cole, Brian J.

    2015-01-01

    Meniscal tears are the most common knee injury, and partial meniscectomies are the most common orthopaedic surgical procedure. The injured meniscus has an impaired ability to distribute load and resist tibial translation. Partial or complete loss of the meniscus promotes early development of chondromalacia and osteoarthritis. The primary goal of treatment for meniscus-deficient knees is to provide symptomatic relief, ideally to delay advanced joint space narrowing, and ultimately, joint replacement. Surgical treatments, including meniscal allograft transplantation (MAT), high tibial osteotomy (HTO), and distal femoral osteotomy (DFO), are options that attempt to decrease the loads on the articular cartilage of the meniscus-deficient compartment by replacing meniscal tissue or altering joint alignment. Clinical and biomechanical studies have reported promising outcomes for MAT, HTO, and DFO in the postmeniscectomized knee. These procedures can be performed alone or in conjunction with ligament reconstruction or chondral procedures (reparative, restorative, or reconstructive) to optimize stability and longevity of the knee. Complications can include fracture, nonunion, patella baja, compartment syndrome, infection, and deep venous thrombosis. MAT, HTO, and DFO are effective options for young patients suffering from pain and functional limitations secondary to meniscal deficiency. PMID:26779547

  18. Mitochondrial Cytochrome c Oxidase Deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Rak, Malgorzata; Bénit, Paule; Chrétien, Dominique; Bouchereau, Juliette; Schiff, Manuel; El-Khoury, Riyad; Tzagoloff, Alexander; Rustin, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    As with other mitochondrial respiratory chain components, marked clinical and genetic heterogeneity is observed in patients with a cytochrome c oxidase deficiency. This constitutes a considerable diagnostic challenge and raises a number of puzzling questions. So far, pathological mutations have been reported in more than 30 genes, in both mitochondrial and nuclear DNA, affecting either structural subunits of the enzyme or proteins involved in its biogenesis. In this review, we discuss the possible causes of the discrepancy between the spectacular advances made in the identification of the molecular bases of cytochrome oxidase deficiency and the lack of any efficient treatment in diseases resulting from such deficiencies. This brings back many unsolved questions related to the frequent delay of clinical manifestation, variable course and severity, and tissue-involvement often associated with these diseases. In this context, we stress the importance to study different models of these diseases, but also discuss the limitations encountered in most available disease models. In the future, with the possible exception of replacement therapy using genes, cells or organs, a better understanding of underlying mechanism(s) of these mitochondrial diseases is presumably required to develop efficient therapy. PMID:26846578

  19. Nutritional Deficiencies and Phospholipid Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Gimenez, María S.; Oliveros, Liliana B.; Gomez, Nidia N.

    2011-01-01

    Phospholipids are important components of the cell membranes of all living species. They contribute to the physicochemical properties of the membrane and thus influence the conformation and function of membrane-bound proteins, such as receptors, ion channels, and transporters and also influence cell function by serving as precursors for prostaglandins and other signaling molecules and modulating gene expression through the transcription activation. The components of the diet are determinant for cell functionality. In this review, the effects of macro and micronutrients deficiency on the quality, quantity and metabolism of different phospholipids and their distribution in cells of different organs is presented. Alterations in the amount of both saturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids, vitamins A, E and folate, and other micronutrients, such as zinc and magnesium, are discussed. In all cases we observe alterations in the pattern of phospholipids, the more affected ones being phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine and sphingomyelin. The deficiency of certain nutrients, such as essential fatty acids, fat-soluble vitamins and some metals may contribute to a variety of diseases that can be irreversible even after replacement with normal amount of the nutrients. Usually, the sequelae are more important when the deficiency is present at an early age. PMID:21731449

  20. Strain Background Modifies Phenotypes in the ATP8B1-Deficient Mouse

    PubMed Central

    Vargas, Julie C.; Xu, Hongmei; Groen, Annamiek; Paulusma, Coen C.; Grenert, James P.; Pawlikowska, Ludmila; Sen, Saunak; Elferink, Ronald P. J. Oude; Bull, Laura N.

    2010-01-01

    Background Mutations in ATP8B1 (FIC1) underlie cases of cholestatic disease, ranging from chronic and progressive (progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis) to intermittent (benign recurrent intrahepatic cholestasis). The ATP8B1-deficient mouse serves as an animal model of human ATP8B1 deficiency. Methodology/Principal Findings We investigated the effect of genetic background on phenotypes of ATP8B1-deficient and wild-type mice, using C57Bl/6 (B6), 129, and (B6-129) F1 strain backgrounds. B6 background resulted in greater abnormalities in ATP8B1-deficient mice than did 129 and/or F1 background. ATP8B1-deficient pups of B6 background gained less weight. In adult ATP8B1-deficient mice at baseline, those of B6 background had lower serum cholesterol levels, higher serum alkaline phosphatase levels, and larger livers. After challenge with cholate-supplemented diet, these mice exhibited higher serum alkaline phosphatase and bilirubin levels, greater weight loss and larger livers. ATP8B1-deficient phenotypes in mice of F1 and 129 backgrounds are usually similar, suggesting that susceptibility to manifestations of ATP8B1 deficiency may be recessive. We also detected differences in hepatobiliary phenotypes between wild-type mice of differing strains. Conclusions/Significance Our results indicate that the ATP8B1-deficient mouse in a B6 background may be a better model of human ATP8B1 deficiency and highlight the importance of informed background strain selection for mouse models of liver disease. PMID:20126555

  1. Citrin deficiency and current treatment concepts.

    PubMed

    Saheki, Takeyori; Inoue, Kanako; Tushima, Anmi; Mutoh, Kozo; Kobayashi, Keiko

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we describe the historical aspects of citrin and citrin deficiency, characteristic food preference and food aversion of citrin-deficient subjects, and carbohydrate toxicity in relation to ureogenesis and issues of the conventional treatment procedures for hyperammonemia in citrin deficiency, leading to current treatment concepts for citrin deficiency. We also emphasize the importance of a citrin deficiency mouse model in elucidating the pathophysiology and developing novel therapeutics based on the pathophysiology, such as sodium pyruvate. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Dietary pattern and nutritional deficiencies among urban adolescents.

    PubMed

    Deka, Mrigen Kr; Malhotra, Anil Kumar; Yadav, Rashmi; Gupta, Shubhanshu

    2015-01-01

    Adolescents are considered to be a nutritionally vulnerable segment of the population. There is a greater need to look into the nutritional status of adolescents but unfortunately, precise estimates of their dietary intake, dietary practices as well as nutritional deficiencies have been the least explored area. The general objective for conducting this study was to assess the dietary pattern and nutritional deficiencies among adolescents. A cross-sectional study was conducted among adolescents in schools and colleges in the urban areas of Jhansi district in Uttar Pradesh. The study sample consisted of 400 school children in the age group of 10-19 years. Food consumption of the subjects was assessed using a 3-day food intake recall method. Mean age of the adolescents was 14.16 years. More than half of the children studied had malnutrition (53.5%). Mean intake of calorie, protein, fat, iron, and vitamins A and C were lower than the Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs). The habitual dietary pattern indicated poor consumption of milk, liver, and leafy vegetables. In comparison to boys (31.5%), more girls (46%) were underweight. On seeing the association, nutritional status of these adolescents within the normal limits were found to be significantly higher in those from nuclear families (P < 0.001), those with better educated parents (P < 0.000), and those from families of higher socioeconomic status (P < 0.000). Overall, among the participants, there were both macro- and micronutrients deficiencies. Therefore, there is a need to encourage people to adopt small family norms, and a need for the sensitization of both adolescents and their parents through health and nutrition education (HNE) to improve the health and nutritional status of the adolescents.

  3. Who is a carrier? Detection of unsuspected mutations in 21-hydroxylase deficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Witchel, S.S.; Lee, P.A.; Trucco, M.

    1996-01-02

    Congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency is a common autosomal-recessive disorder. During our routine genotyping of affected individuals and their relatives using allele-specific oligonucleotide hybridization and single-strand conformational polymorphism analysis, we identified two families each segregating three mutations. In both families, a mutation known to be associated with 21-hydroxylase deficiency was identified in healthy individuals but was not detected in the propositus. The propositus in family 1 was shown to be a homozygous carrier for G at nucleotide 655, which alters the splice acceptor site at exon 3. The propositus in family 2 carried the same splicing mutation on the maternal allele and a gene deletion/conversion on the paternal allele. In both families, other clinically unaffected relatives carried the Q318X mutation in exon 8. If molecular diagnostic studies had been limited to the mutation carried by the propositi, relatives would have been misinformed regarding their status as carriers or mildly affected individuals. The findings in these two families emphasize the high frequency of alleles causing 21-hydroxylase deficiency in the population. 29 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  4. Family Structure and Family Processes in Mexican American Families

    PubMed Central

    Zeiders, Katharine H.; Roosa, Mark W.; Tein, Jenn-Yun

    2010-01-01

    Despite increases in single-parent families among Mexican Americans (MA), few studies have examined the association of family structure and family adjustment. Utilizing a diverse sample of 738 Mexican American families (21.7% single parent), the current study examined differences across family structure on early adolescent outcomes, family functioning, and parent-child relationship variables. Results revealed that early adolescents in single parent families reported greater school misconduct, CD/ODD and MDD symptoms, and greater parent-child conflict than their counterparts in two parent families. Single parent mothers reported greater economic hardship, depression and family stress. Family stress and parent-child conflict emerged as significant mediators of the association between family structure and early adolescent outcomes, suggesting important processes linking MA single parent families and adolescent adjustment. PMID:21361925

  5. Family Physician Perspectives on Primary Immunodeficiency Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Orange, Jordan S.; Seeborg, Filiz O.; Boyle, Marcia; Scalchunes, Christopher; Hernandez-Trujillo, Vivian

    2016-01-01

    Primary immunodeficiency diseases (PIDs) include over 250 diverse disorders. The current study assessed management of PID by family practice physicians. The American Academy of Allergy, Asthma, and Immunology Primary Immunodeficiency Committee and the Immune Deficiency Foundation conducted an incentivized mail survey of family practice physician members of the American Medical Association and the American Osteopathic Association in direct patient care. Responses were compared with subspecialist immunologist responses from a similar survey. Surveys were returned by 528 (of 4500 surveys mailed) family practice physicians, of whom 44% reported following ≥1 patient with PID. Selective immunoglobulin A deficiency (21%) and chronic granulomatous disease (11%) were most common and were followed by significantly more subspecialist immunologists (P < 0.05). Use of intravenously administered immunoglobulin and live viral vaccinations across PID was significantly different (P < 0.05). Few family practice physicians were aware of professional guidelines for diagnosis and management of PID (4 vs. 79% of subspecialist immunologists, P < 0.05). Family practice physicians will likely encounter patients with PID diagnoses during their career. Differences in how family practice physicians and subspecialist immunologists manage patients with PID underscore areas where improved educational and training initiatives may benefit patient care. PMID:27066486

  6. [Family violence].

    PubMed

    Manoudi, F; Chagh, R; Es-soussi, M; Asri, F; Tazi, I

    2013-09-01

    Family violence is a serious public health problem, the scale of which is seriously increasing in Morocco. Although it has existed for a long time, we ignore the real characteristics of this plague in our country; our work consisted in an epidemiological approach of family violence in Marrakech during 2006. After elaborating a questionnaire, which allows the study of the demographic and social profile of the families, the study of violence exercised in the family and the evaluation of the depression in the women, we led an inquiry amongst 265 women. Analysis of the results obtained has allowed us to underline the following characteristics: 16.6% of the women in our sample had been physically beaten; the young age is a risk factor; the age range most affected by violence is in women between the ages of 30 and 40 and which represent 39% of the battered women; domestic violence touches all the social, economic and cultural classes: in our study, 63% of the women having undergone violence were housewives, 25% were managers and 3% senior executives; family problems were the most important cause of violence in our study, representing 32.32%. Requests for money was the cause in 11.3% of the cases, and imposed sexual relations were found in 6.8% of the cases; alcoholism is an aggravating factor of family violence; 27.3% of the spouses who assaulted their wives were drunk; 52% of the assaulted women were victims of violence in childhood and 36% had been witness to their father's violence; in 63.6% of the cases of violence, the children were witnesses, and in 25% of the cases the children were victims of violence at the same time as their mothers; 50% of the women victims of violence did not react, while 38.6% left home, and 9.1 filed for divorce. Thirty-two percent of the assaulted woman had been traumatised by the aggression; the association of depression and violence was very high, 343% of the battered women in our study suffered from severe depression. This work

  7. Should we screen newborns for glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency in the United States?

    PubMed

    Watchko, J F; Kaplan, M; Stark, A R; Stevenson, D K; Bhutani, V K

    2013-07-01

    Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency, a common X-linked enzymopathy can lead to severe hyperbilirubinemia, acute bilirubin encephalopathy and kernicterus in the United States. Neonatal testing for G6PD deficiency is not yet routine and the American Academy of Pediatrics recommends testing only in jaundiced newborns who are receiving phototherapy whose family history, ethnicity, or geographic origin suggest risk for the condition, or for infants whose response to phototherapy is poor. Screening tests for G6PD deficiency are available, are suitable for use in newborns and have been used in birth hospitals. However, US birth hospitals experience is limited and no national consensus has emerged regarding the need for newborn G6PD testing, its effectiveness or the best approach. Our review of current state of G6PD deficiency screening highlights research gaps and informs specific operational challenges to implement universal newborn G6PD testing concurrent to bilirubin screening in the United States.

  8. Family Therapy and Disturbed Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zuk, Gerald H., Ed.; Boszormenyi-Nagy, Ivan, Ed.

    Presented at a conference at which authors represented major theoretical positions in the field, most of the papers use family therapy as an important source of observations or ideas, or as a means to pinpoint methodological problems. Papers are grouped in sections as follows: four which introduce the reader to the field of specialization, provide…

  9. Family Therapy and Disturbed Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zuk, Gerald H., Ed.; Boszormenyi-Nagy, Ivan, Ed.

    Presented at a conference at which authors represented major theoretical positions in the field, most of the papers use family therapy as an important source of observations or ideas, or as a means to pinpoint methodological problems. Papers are grouped in sections as follows: four which introduce the reader to the field of specialization, provide…

  10. Physicians' Assessment of Deficiencies and Desire for Training in Adolescent Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blum, Robert

    1987-01-01

    In a survey, 351 internists, family practitioners, and pediatricians rated their own competency in 19 areas of adolescent health care. Most felt deficient in all areas, with some variation by physician specialty, but most did not find this an undesirable age group to work with and few wanted to improve their skills. (MSE)

  11. Lycopene Deficiency in Ageing and Cardiovascular Disease.

    PubMed

    Petyaev, Ivan M

    2016-01-01

    Lycopene is a hydrocarbon phytochemical belonging to the tetraterpene carotenoid family and is found in red fruit and vegetables. Eleven conjugated double bonds predetermine the antioxidant properties of lycopene and its ability to scavenge lipid peroxyl radicals, reactive oxygen species, and nitric oxide. Lycopene has a low bioavailability rate and appears in the blood circulation incorporated into chylomicrons and other apo-B containing lipoproteins. The recent body of evidence suggests that plasma concentration of lycopene is not only a function of intestinal absorption rate but also lycopene breakdown via enzymatic and oxidative pathways in blood and tissues. Oxidative stress and the accumulation of reactive oxygen species and nitric oxide may represent a major cause of lycopene depletion in ageing, cardiovascular disease, and type 2 diabetes mellitus. It has been shown recently that low carotenoid levels, and especially decreased serum lycopene levels, are strongly predictive of all-cause mortality and poor outcomes of cardiovascular disease. However, there is a poor statistical association between dietary and serum lycopene levels which occurs due to limited bioavailability of lycopene from dietary sources. Hence, it is very unlikely that nutritional intervention alone could be instrumental in the correction of lycopene and carotenoid deficiency. Therefore, new nutraceutical formulations of carotenoids with enhanced bioavailability are urgently needed.

  12. Lycopene Deficiency in Ageing and Cardiovascular Disease

    PubMed Central

    Petyaev, Ivan M.

    2016-01-01

    Lycopene is a hydrocarbon phytochemical belonging to the tetraterpene carotenoid family and is found in red fruit and vegetables. Eleven conjugated double bonds predetermine the antioxidant properties of lycopene and its ability to scavenge lipid peroxyl radicals, reactive oxygen species, and nitric oxide. Lycopene has a low bioavailability rate and appears in the blood circulation incorporated into chylomicrons and other apo-B containing lipoproteins. The recent body of evidence suggests that plasma concentration of lycopene is not only a function of intestinal absorption rate but also lycopene breakdown via enzymatic and oxidative pathways in blood and tissues. Oxidative stress and the accumulation of reactive oxygen species and nitric oxide may represent a major cause of lycopene depletion in ageing, cardiovascular disease, and type 2 diabetes mellitus. It has been shown recently that low carotenoid levels, and especially decreased serum lycopene levels, are strongly predictive of all-cause mortality and poor outcomes of cardiovascular disease. However, there is a poor statistical association between dietary and serum lycopene levels which occurs due to limited bioavailability of lycopene from dietary sources. Hence, it is very unlikely that nutritional intervention alone could be instrumental in the correction of lycopene and carotenoid deficiency. Therefore, new nutraceutical formulations of carotenoids with enhanced bioavailability are urgently needed. PMID:26881023

  13. The transcription factor IDEF1 regulates the response to and tolerance of iron deficiency in plants

    PubMed Central

    Kobayashi, Takanori; Ogo, Yuko; Itai, Reiko Nakanishi; Nakanishi, Hiromi; Takahashi, Michiko; Mori, Satoshi; Nishizawa, Naoko K.

    2007-01-01

    Iron is essential for most living organisms and is often the major limiting nutrient for normal growth. Plants induce iron utilization systems under conditions of low iron availability, but the molecular mechanisms of gene regulation under iron deficiency remain largely unknown. We identified the rice transcription factor IDEF1, which specifically binds the iron deficiency-responsive cis-acting element IDE1. IDEF1 belongs to an uncharacterized branch of the plant-specific transcription factor family ABI3/VP1 and exhibits the sequence recognition property of efficiently binding to the CATGC sequence within IDE1. IDEF1 transcripts are constitutively present in rice roots and leaves. Transgenic tobacco plants expressing IDEF1 under the control of the constitutive cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter transactivate IDE1-mediated expression only in iron-deficient roots. Transgenic rice plants expressing an introduced IDEF1 exhibit substantial tolerance to iron deficiency in both hydroponic culture and calcareous soil. IDEF1 overexpression leads to the enhanced expression of the iron deficiency-induced transcription factor gene OsIRO2, suggesting the presence of a sequential gene regulatory network. These findings reveal cis element/trans factor interactions that are functionally linked to the iron deficiency response. Manipulation of IDEF1 also provides another approach for producing crops tolerant of iron deficiency to enhance food and biomass production in calcareous soils. PMID:18025467

  14. The transcription factor IDEF1 regulates the response to and tolerance of iron deficiency in plants.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Takanori; Ogo, Yuko; Itai, Reiko Nakanishi; Nakanishi, Hiromi; Takahashi, Michiko; Mori, Satoshi; Nishizawa, Naoko K

    2007-11-27

    Iron is essential for most living organisms and is often the major limiting nutrient for normal growth. Plants induce iron utilization systems under conditions of low iron availability, but the molecular mechanisms of gene regulation under iron deficiency remain largely unknown. We identified the rice transcription factor IDEF1, which specifically binds the iron deficiency-responsive cis-acting element IDE1. IDEF1 belongs to an uncharacterized branch of the plant-specific transcription factor family ABI3/VP1 and exhibits the sequence recognition property of efficiently binding to the CATGC sequence within IDE1. IDEF1 transcripts are constitutively present in rice roots and leaves. Transgenic tobacco plants expressing IDEF1 under the control of the constitutive cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter transactivate IDE1-mediated expression only in iron-deficient roots. Transgenic rice plants expressing an introduced IDEF1 exhibit substantial tolerance to iron deficiency in both hydroponic culture and calcareous soil. IDEF1 overexpression leads to the enhanced expression of the iron deficiency-induced transcription factor gene OsIRO2, suggesting the presence of a sequential gene regulatory network. These findings reveal cis element/trans factor interactions that are functionally linked to the iron deficiency response. Manipulation of IDEF1 also provides another approach for producing crops tolerant of iron deficiency to enhance food and biomass production in calcareous soils.

  15. "The lion, the witch and the wardrobe": impact on sibs of individuals with AAT deficiency.

    PubMed

    Fanos, Joanna H; Strange, Charlie

    2004-10-15

    Alpha(1)-antitrypsin (AAT) deficiency is a genetic disorder that may cause serious pulmonary or liver impairment in children or adults. Although genetic sequencing of the AAT gene has only been available for 20 years, analysis of the amount and electrophoretic mobility of the AAT protein has allowed clinical phenotyping for more than 40 years. There have been no studies assessing the psychological impact of having a sib affected by AAT deficiency. Twenty-five participants drawn from the Alpha-1 Research Registry completed a questionnaire and semi-structured interview. Respondents were supportive of testing prior to adulthood for AAT status; 18 thought it was a good idea to test a child, three did not know, and four said children should not be tested, primarily citing insurance concerns. Of those 18 who stated it was a good idea, 14 would test at birth. Knowledge of genetics of AAT deficiency was limited; only 44% of respondents understood the inheritance pattern. We recommend: (1) parents and sibs need help in mourning the loss of children with AAT deficiency; young sibs are at risk for trauma and long-term developmental problems. (2) Teams evaluating donors for liver transplantation should be aggressive in ruling out AAT deficiency prior to invasive testing. (3) Testing should be offered to individuals with a family history of AAT deficiency to obtain the health benefits of lifestyle modification and limit the burden of disease discovery in symptomatic relatives. (4) Awareness of liver disease from AAT deficiency should be increased.

  16. Family Centers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-12-30

    quality service delivery to meet the needs of the DoD personnel and their families, in accordance with DoD Directive 1342.17 (reference (a)). 4...facility, and program standards. f. Develop and forward to ASD(FM&P), for review and approval, a comprehensive evaluation system to measure the...of future services and the continuation, expansion, or termination of others. (3) Service-wide measurement criteria for monitoring and evaluating the

  17. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... be available to those who have a family history of the condition. Alternative Names ... PG. Hemolytic anemias. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman's Cecil Medicine . 25th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2016:chap ...

  18. Genetics Home Reference: dihydropyrimidinase deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... line the small intestine and provide a large surface area with which to absorb nutrients. This condition, ... Population and family studies of dihydropyrimidinuria: prevalence, inheritance mode, and risk of fluorouracil toxicity. Am J Med ...

  19. [Familial hypercholesterolemia].

    PubMed

    Turpin, G; Bruckert, E

    1999-12-01

    Familial hypercholesterolemia is characterized by a high plasma LDL-cholesterol level. The low-density particles are the end-product of the triglyceride-rich particles, i.e. VLDL, synthetized by the liver. These triglyceride-rich particles are subsequently transformed into intermediate density lipoprotein by the lipoprotein lipase and LDL after further triglyceride hydrolysis by the hepatic lipase. The LDL particles are taken up in all cells by the mean of the LDL receptor. A large body of evidence (including experimental, clinical, epidemiological data as well as the results of large trial with lipid lowering drugs) has accumulated to establish that these particles are one of the major causative factor of atherosclerosis and its complications. Two different mechanisms may be at work in the familial hypercholesterolemia: a mutation in the LDL receptor or a single mutation in the apolipoprotein B100. Specific therapeutic intervention should be undertaken to decrease the risk to develop cardiovascular disease, mainly coronary heart disease. The therapeutic intervention includes both a diet low in saturated fatty acids and cholesterol and statins which are now the first line therapy. Fibrates are proposed to those who do not tolerate statins and LDL-apheresis is associated to statin in the rare homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia.

  20. Zinc Deficiency Impacts CO2 Assimilation and Disrupts Copper Homeostasis in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii*

    PubMed Central

    Malasarn, Davin; Kropat, Janette; Hsieh, Scott I.; Finazzi, Giovanni; Casero, David; Loo, Joseph A.; Pellegrini, Matteo; Wollman, Francis-André; Merchant, Sabeeha S.

    2013-01-01

    Zinc is an essential nutrient because of its role in catalysis and in protein stabilization, but excess zinc is deleterious. We distinguished four nutritional zinc states in the alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii: toxic, replete, deficient, and limited. Growth is inhibited in zinc-limited and zinc-toxic cells relative to zinc-replete cells, whereas zinc deficiency is visually asymptomatic but distinguished by the accumulation of transcripts encoding ZIP family transporters. To identify targets of zinc deficiency and mechanisms of zinc acclimation, we used RNA-seq to probe zinc nutrition-responsive changes in gene expression. We identified genes encoding zinc-handling components, including ZIP family transporters and candidate chaperones. Additionally, we noted an impact on two other regulatory pathways, the carbon-concentrating mechanism (CCM) and the nutritional copper regulon. Targets of transcription factor Ccm1 and various CAH genes are up-regulated in zinc deficiency, probably due to reduced carbonic anhydrase activity, validated by quantitative proteomics and immunoblot analysis of Cah1, Cah3, and Cah4. Chlamydomonas is therefore not able to grow photoautotrophically in zinc-limiting conditions, but supplementation with 1% CO2 restores growth to wild-type rates, suggesting that the inability to maintain CCM is a major consequence of zinc limitation. The Crr1 regulon responds to copper limitation and is turned on in zinc deficiency, and Crr1 is required for growth in zinc-limiting conditions. Zinc-deficient cells are functionally copper-deficient, although they hyperaccumulate copper up to 50-fold over normal levels. We suggest that zinc-deficient cells sequester copper in a biounavailable form, perhaps to prevent mismetallation of critical zinc sites. PMID:23439652

  1. Toward reassessing data-deficient species.

    PubMed

    Bland, Lucie M; Bielby, Jon; Kearney, Stephen; Orme, C David L; Watson, James E M; Collen, Ben

    2016-10-03

    One in 6 species (13,465 species) on the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red List is classified as data deficient due to lack of information on their taxonomy, population status, or impact of threats. Despite the chance that many are at high risk of extinction, data-deficient species are typically excluded from global and local conservation priorities, as well as funding schemes. The number of data-deficient species will greatly increase as the IUCN Red List becomes more inclusive of poorly known and speciose groups. A strategic approach is urgently needed to enhance the conservation value of data-deficient assessments. To develop this, we reviewed 2879 data-deficient assessments in 6 animal groups and identified 8 main justifications for assigning data-deficient status (type series, few records, old records, uncertain provenance, uncertain population status or distribution, uncertain threats, taxonomic uncertainty, and new species). Assigning a consistent set of justification tags (i.e., consistent assignment to assessment justifications) to species classified as data deficient is a simple way to achieve more strategic assessments. Such tags would clarify the causes of data deficiency; facilitate the prediction of extinction risk; facilitate comparisons of data deficiency among taxonomic groups; and help prioritize species for reassessment. With renewed efforts, it could be straightforward to prevent thousands of data-deficient species slipping unnoticed toward extinction.

  2. The changing epidemiology of iodine deficiency.

    PubMed

    Li, Mu; Eastman, Creswell J

    2012-04-03

    Globally, about 2 thousand million people are affected by iodine deficiency. Although endemic goitre is the most visible sign of iodine deficiency, its most devastating consequence is brain damage causing mental retardation in children. The relationship between iodine deficiency and brain damage was not clearly established until the 1980s when the term iodine deficiency disorders (IDDs), which encompass a spectrum of conditions caused by iodine deficiency, was introduced. This paradigm shift in the understanding of the clinical consequences of iodine deficiency led to a change in iodine deficiency assessment. The median urinary iodine excretion level has been recommended as the preferred indicator for monitoring population iodine deficiency status since 2001. The 2007 WHO urinary iodine data in schoolchildren from 130 countries revealed that iodine intake is still insufficient in 47 countries. Furthermore, about one-third of countries lack national estimates of the prevalence of iodine deficiency. The picture that has emerged from available data worldwide over the past two decades is that IDDs are not confined to remote, mountainous areas in developing countries, but are a global public health problem that affects most countries, including developed countries and island nations. The recognition of the universality of iodine deficiency highlights the need to develop and apply new strategies to establish and maintain sustainable IDD elimination and strengthen regular monitoring programmes.

  3. DNA Repair Deficiency in Neurodegeneration

    PubMed Central

    Jeppesen, Dennis Kjølhede; Bohr, Vilhelm A.; Stevnsner, Tinna

    2011-01-01

    Deficiency in repair of nuclear and mitochondrial DNA damage has been linked to several neurodegenerative disorders. Many recent experimental results indicate that the post-mitotic neurons are particularly prone to accumulation of unrepaired DNA lesions potentially leading to progressive neurodegeneration. Nucleotide excision repair is the cellular pathway responsible for removing helix-distorting DNA damage and deficiency in such repair is found in a number of diseases with neurodegenerative phenotypes, including Xeroderma Pigmentosum and Cockayne syndrome. The main pathway for repairing oxidative base lesions is base excision repair, and such repair is crucial for neurons given their high rates of oxygen metabolism. Mismatch repair corrects base mispairs generated during replication and evidence indicates that oxidative DNA damage can cause this pathway to expand trinucleotide repeats, thereby causing Huntington’s disease. Single-strand breaks are common DNA lesions and are associated with the neurodegenerative diseases, ataxia-oculomotor apraxia-1 and spinocerebellar ataxia with axonal neuropathy-1. DNA double-strand breaks are toxic lesions and two main pathways exist for their repair: homologous recombination and non-homologous end-joining. Ataxia telangiectasia and related disorders with defects in these pathways illustrate that such defects can lead to early childhood neurodegeneration. Aging is a risk factor for neurodegeneration and accumulation of oxidative mitochondrial DNA damage may be linked with the age-associated neurodegenerative disorders Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Mutation in the WRN protein leads to the premature aging disease Werner syndrome, a disorder that features neurodegeneration. In this article we review the evidence linking deficiencies in the DNA repair pathways with neurodegeneration. PMID:21550379

  4. Thymic deficiency in Down's syndrome.

    PubMed

    Levin, S; Schlesinger, M; Handzel, Z; Hahn, T; Altman, Y; Czernobilsky, B; Boss, J

    1979-01-01

    Children with Down's syndrome (DS) often have small and abnormal thymuses, with lymphocyte depletion, diminution of the cortex, and loss of corticomedullary demarcation--a picture resembling thymic involution. Besides this, they have markedly enlarged Hassall's corpuscles, some surrounded by a sheath of lymphocytes. Patients with DS are known to have increased numbers of respiratory infections; they also have a higher incidence of lymphatic leukemia than do individuals who do not have DS. Studies of cell-mediated (thymic-dependent) immunity demonstrate that children with DS have both diminished numbers of T cells as well as functional deficiency of these cells.

  5. Alcoholic Myelopathy and Nutritional Deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Koike, Haruki; Nakamura, Tomohiko; Ikeda, Shohei; Takahashi, Mie; Kawagashira, Yuichi; Iijima, Masahiro; Katsuno, Masahisa; Sobue, Gen

    2017-01-01

    A patient with chronic alcoholism presented with myelopathy and low serum folate and cobalamin levels. A 42-year-old alcoholic man had gait disturbance for 4 months. A neurological examination revealed marked spasticity with increased deep tendon reflexes and extensor plantar responses of the lower limbs. His cobalamin level was decreased and his serum folate level was particularly low. His plasma ammonia level was not increased. Abstinence and folic acid and cobalamin supplementation stopped the progression of his neurological deficits. This case indicates that nutritional deficiency should be monitored closely in patients with chronic alcoholism who present with myelopathy. PMID:28049986

  6. Diagnosis and Treatment of High Density Lipoprotein Deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Schaefer, Ernst J.; Anthanont, Pimjai; Diffenderfer, Margaret R.; Polisecki, Eliana; Asztalos, Bela F.

    2017-01-01

    Low serum high density lipoprotein cholesterol level (HDL-C) < 40 mg/dL in men and < 50 mg/dL in women are a significant independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD), and are often observed in patients with hypertriglyceridemia, obesity, insulin resistance, and diabetes. Patients with marked deficiency of HDL-C (< 20 mg/dL) in the absence of secondary causes are much less common (< 1% of the population). These patients may have homozygous, compound heterozygous, or heterozygous defects involving the apolipoprotein (APO)AI, ABCA1, or lecithin:cholesterol acyl transferase genes, associated with Apo A-I Deficiency, ApoA-I Variants, Tangier Disease, Familial Lecithin:Cholesteryl Ester Acyltransferase Deficiency, and Fish Eye Disease. There is marked variability in laboratory and clinical presentation, and DNA analysis is necessary for diagnosis. These patients can develop premature CVD, neuropathy, kidney failure, neuropathy, hepatosplenomegaly and anemia. Treatment should be directed at optimizing all non-HDL risk factors. PMID:27565770

  7. [Effects of zinc deficiency and vitamin D deficiency on bone calcification and development of rats].

    PubMed

    Xu, B; Zheng, D; Qian, Y; Wu, K

    1992-09-01

    Zinc deficiency rat model was made by feeding zinc deficiency diet. The level of bone calcium of the zinc deficiency rats was significantly lower than that of the control rats. Their bone cortex was thinner and bone density decreased. The counts of their cartilage cells and hypertrophic cells of epiphyseal plate were less frequent, and the diameter of their hypertrophic cells was smaller than that of the controls. It suggested that zinc deficiency caused defective bone calcification which was similar to that in vitamin D deficiency. Zinc deficiency seemed to hinder the linear growth of long bone and might be the cause of dwarf.

  8. From Family Therapy to Family Intervention.

    PubMed

    Josephson, Allan M

    2015-07-01

    For many, family therapy refers to sessions in which all family members are present. Yet in contemporary psychiatry there are many ways to work with families in addition to this classic concept. This article proposes family intervention as an encompassing term for a new family paradigm in child and adolescent psychiatry. Developmental psychopathology is a guiding principle of this paradigm. A full range of ways to work with families clinically is described with clinical examples. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. X-linked mental retardation: Linkage results in five unrelated families

    SciTech Connect

    Moraine, C.L.; Dessay, B.; Toutain, A.

    1994-09-01

    X-linked mental retardations are a very common cause of mental deficiency in males. Combined clinical and linkage studies in great families can help to distinguish between particular pathologies in this very heterogenous group. In five unrelated families, we have assigned the corresponding genes to Xp22.2-p21.2 for family 1, Xp21.2-p11.21 for family 2, Xp11.4-p11.23 for family 3, Xq12 for family 4, and Xq28.5-pter for family 5, respectively. Clinical features were characterized by severe hypotonia with seizures and distinctive facies (family 1), hypotonia and hypoactivity with severe mental deficiency but absence of neurological signs (family 2), neonatal hypotonia with poor sucking and moderate intrauterine growth retardation (family 3), severe neonatal hypotonia with visual impairment and profound mental deficiency and seizures (family 4), and non-specific moderate mental deficiency (family 5). These results confirm the frequent gene localizations in Xq28 and in the pericentromeric region. But more precise clinical description of so-called non-specific X-linked mental retardations is necessary (especially for the natural history of mental deficiency) with the intention to associate several families in a unique linkage study. However, the recent description of different clinical patterns in three families with mutation in the L1CAM gene suggests that allelism may be more frequent than expected, that the real number of X-L.M.R. genes could be less important than previously reported, and that testing of candidate genes by mRNA or genomic DNA studies appears as a necessary step.

  10. Hereditary juvenile cobalamin deficiency caused by mutations in the intrinsic factor gene.

    PubMed

    Tanner, Stephan M; Li, Zhongyuan; Perko, James D; Oner, Cihan; Cetin, Mualla; Altay, Cigdem; Yurtsever, Zekiye; David, Karen L; Faivre, Laurence; Ismail, Essam A; Gräsbeck, Ralph; de la Chapelle, Albert

    2005-03-15

    Hereditary juvenile megaloblastic anemia due to vitamin B12 (cobalamin) deficiency is caused by intestinal malabsorption of cobalamin. In Imerslund-Grasbeck syndrome (IGS), cobalamin absorption is completely abolished and not corrected by the administration of intrinsic factor (IF); if untreated, the disease is fatal. Biallelic mutations either in the cubilin (CUBN) or amnionless (AMN) gene cause IGS. In a series of families clinically diagnosed with likely IGS, at least six displayed no evidence of mutations in CUBN or AMN. A genome-wide search for linkage followed by mutational analysis of candidate genes was performed in five of these families. A region in chromosome 11 showed evidence of linkage in four families. The gastric IF (GIF) gene located in this region harbored homozygous nonsense and missense mutations in these four families and in three additional families. The disease in these cases therefore should be classified as hereditary IF deficiency. Clinically, these patients resembled those with typical IGS; radiocobalamin absorption tests had been inconclusive regarding the nature of the defect. In the diagnosis of juvenile cobalamin deficiency, mutational analysis of the CUBN, AMN, and GIF genes provides a molecular characterization of the underlying defect and may be the diagnostic method of choice.

  11. Management of ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Mendez-Figueroa, Hector; Lamance, Kerri; Sutton, V Reid; Aagaard-Tillery, Kjersti; Van den Veyver, Ignatia

    2010-11-01

    Ornithine transcarbamylase (OTC) deficiency is the most common enzymatic deficiency in the urea cycle. In catabolic states, such as the intrapartum and immediate postpartum periods, hyperammonemic comas with permanent neurological damage and death can develop. We report six cases of OTC deficiency during pregnancy managed at our institution and review the literature on OTC deficiency during pregnancy. Using the patient database from our Metabolic Clinic, pregnant OTC deficiency carriers were identified. The antenatal, intrapartum, and postpartum periods were analyzed. Corresponding literature was reviewed and an extensive multidisciplinary management plan developed. All six pregnant women had favorable outcomes. No hyperammonemic episodes occurred, and intensive care unit admissions and hemodialysis were not required. Although risk to women with OTC deficiency during the intra- and postpartum period exists, multidisciplinary management and a coherent plan usually result in successful labor, delivery, and postpartum. A comprehensive plan for patients who develop hyperammonemia is recommended.

  12. [Deficiency, disability, neurology and art].

    PubMed

    Cano de la Cuerda, Roberto; Collado-Vazquez, Susana

    2010-07-16

    Disability is a complex phenomenon, and the ways it has been conceived, explained and treated have varied notably throughout history. As the years go by, human beings have evolved and, at the same time, so have medicine and art. And therein lies the extraordinary value, from the ontological point of view, of many works of art, which would never have been produced without the intervention of disease and the practice of the medical art. The aim of this work is to address the study of some deficiencies, disabilities and neurological pathologies that have been represented in paintings at different times in history. This article begins with the study of pictures that deal with dwarves and other misnamed freaks of nature that have been represented by painters from Velazquez to Titian or Rubens. The study looks at paintings of cripples, pictures containing the mentally disabled, with examples by Bruegel the Elder or Munch, as well as certain neurological disorders that have been portrayed in paintings, such as Escaping criticism by Pere Borrell or Sad inheritance by Sorolla. Likewise, we also reflect on the trite concept of disease and artistic creativity. The artistic representation of deficiency and disability has evolved in parallel to the feelings of men and women in each period of history and, at the same time, their social evolution. Nowadays, this concept continues to advance and some artists no longer represent the sick person, but instead the illness itself.

  13. Mevalonate kinase deficiency: current perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Favier, Leslie A; Schulert, Grant S

    2016-01-01

    Mevalonate kinase deficiency (MKD) is a recessively inherited autoinflammatory disorder with a spectrum of manifestations, including the well-defined clinical phenotypes of hyperimmunoglobulinemia D and periodic fever syndrome and mevalonic aciduria. Patients with MKD have recurrent attacks of hyperinflammation associated with fever, abdominal pain, arthralgias, and mucocutaneous lesions, and more severely affected patients also have dysmorphisms and central nervous system anomalies. MKD is caused by mutations in the gene encoding mevalonate kinase, with the degree of residual enzyme activity largely determining disease severity. Mevalonate kinase is essential for the biosynthesis of nonsterol isoprenoids, which mediate protein prenylation. Although the precise pathogenesis of MKD remains unclear, increasing evidence suggests that deficiency in protein prenylation leads to innate immune activation and systemic hyperinflammation. Given the emerging understanding of MKD as an autoinflammatory disorder, recent treatment approaches have largely focused on cytokine-directed biologic therapy. Herein, we review the current genetic and pathologic understanding of MKD, its various clinical phenotypes, and the evolving treatment approach for this multifaceted disorder. PMID:27499643

  14. Clinical expression of familial Williams-Beuren syndrome in a Turkish family.

    PubMed

    Parlak, Mesut; Nur, Banu Güzel; Mıhçı, Ercan; Durmaz, Erdem; Karaüzüm, Sibel Berker; Akcurin, Sema; Bircan, İffet

    2014-01-01

    Williams-Beuren syndrome (WBS) is a rare genetic disorder characterized by distinctive facial features, intellectual disability with a typical neurobehavioral profile, cardiovascular anomalies, and occasional infantile hypercalcemia. Majority of cases occur sporadically, and only a few cases of familial WBS have been reported. Although pre- and post-natal growth retardation is a common clinical feature of the syndrome, growth hormone deficiency is detected only in a few patients. To our knowledge, there has only been one report about familial Williams-Beuren syndrome in the Turkish population. Here, we report on the three molecular cytogenetically confirmed familial Williams-Beuren syndromes detected in a family with familial short stature. The father, daughter, and son analyzed with clinical and laboratory findings, and reasons of the short stature in Williams-Beuren syndrome are discussed through the literature.

  15. Biotinidase deficiency: a novel vitamin recycling defect.

    PubMed

    Wolf, B; Grier, R E; Secor McVoy, J R; Heard, G S

    1985-01-01

    The recent finding that biotinidase deficiency is the primary biochemical defect in late-onset multiple carboxylase deficiency was stimulated new interest in the inherited disorders of biotin-dependent carboxylases. The clinical and biochemical features of biotinidase deficiency are discussed. We also speculate about two exciting areas currently being investigated: the localization of action biotinidase, and the possible role of the enzyme as a binding or carrier protein for biotin.

  16. Familial idiopathic pulmonary hemosiderosis.

    PubMed

    Beckerman, R C; Taussig, L M; Pinnas, J L

    1979-06-01

    Two brothers, aged 3 and 6 years, respectively, had their pulmonary conditions diagnosed as idiopathic pulmonary hemosiderosis (IPH). Both boys had severe iron-deficiency anemia, chronic cough, hemoptysis, and exertional dyspnea, and one had recurrent epistaxis. The results of light microscopic lung histopathologic studies in both patients showed numerous hemosiderinladen macrophages and chronic interstitial pneumonitis. No specific patterns of immunofluorescence of the alveolar capillary basement membranes were found. The results of electron microscopic examinations showed intact alveolar and capillary basement membranes and no evidence of electron-dense deposits. The lack of clinical or biochemical evidence for renal disease as well as the absence of serum antinuclear and antibasement membrane antibodies excluded associated autoimmune disorders. Evaluation for milk-protein allergy was negative and neither child demonstrated a clinical response to a milk-free diet. Sequential pulmonary function studies performed over four years showed episodes of acute obstructive airway disease that correlated with pulmonary hemorrhage and mild persistent restrictive lung disease. The results of this family study suggested that some cases of IPH may have a genetic basis.

  17. Characterization of a New Family of Metal Transporters

    SciTech Connect

    Mary Lou Geurinot; David Eide

    2002-04-29

    Metal ions are critical nutrients, yet overaccumulation of these same metals can also be toxic. To maintain appropriate intracellular levels, cells require specific metal uptake systems that are subject to precise homeostatic regulation. The long-range goal of our research is to define the molecular mechanism(s) and regulation of metal ion uptake in eukaryotic cells. Integrating genetic, molecular biological and biochemical approaches, we have examined these processes in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and the plant Arabidopsis thaliana. Both are proven model systems for studying fundamental cellular processes. Our work has focused on the ZIP family of metal transporters which we identified; this family has representatives in bacteria, fungi, plants and animals. IRT, one of the founding members of the ZIP family, is an essential cation transporter that is expressed in the epidermal cells of iron deficient plant roots and is responsible for uptake of iron from the soil. We now know that there are 15 ZIP genes in the Arabidopsis and the similarities among their encoded gene products. The ZIP family members display different substrate specificities for metals and different tissue distributions in Arabidopsis. Moreover, the family members respond differentially to metal deficiencies. For example, IRT1, ZIP6 and ZIP9 mRNA are expressed mainly in the roots of iron deficient plants whereas ZIP4 responds to both iron and zinc deficiency. Work in both yeast and Arabidopsis has addressed substrate specificity as well as how these transporters are regulated in response to metal availability

  18. Deficiencies in the Management of Iron Deficiency Anemia During Childhood.

    PubMed

    Powers, Jacquelyn M; Daniel, Catherine L; McCavit, Timothy L; Buchanan, George R

    2016-04-01

    Limited high-quality evidence supports the management of iron deficiency anemia (IDA). To assess our institutional performance in this area, we retrospectively reviewed IDA treatment practices in 195 consecutive children referred to our center from 2006 to mid-2010. The majority of children were ≤4 years old (64%) and had nutritional IDA (74%). In 11- to 18-year-old patients (31%), the primary etiology was menorrhagia (42%). Many were referred directly to the emergency department and/or prescribed iron doses outside the recommended range. Poor medication adherence and being lost-to-follow-up were common. Substantial improvements are required in the management of IDA. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. New insights into iron deficiency and iron deficiency anemia.

    PubMed

    Camaschella, Clara

    2017-02-13

    Recent advances in iron metabolism have stimulated new interest in iron deficiency (ID) and its anemia (IDA), common conditions worldwide. Absolute ID/IDA, i.e. the decrease of total body iron, is easily diagnosed based on decreased levels of serum ferritin and transferrin saturation. Relative lack of iron in specific organs/tissues, and IDA in the context of inflammatory disorders, are diagnosed based on arbitrary cut offs of ferritin and transferrin saturation and/or marker combination (as the soluble transferrin receptor/ferritin index) in an appropriate clinical context. Most ID patients are candidate to traditional treatment with oral iron salts, while high hepcidin levels block their absorption in inflammatory disorders. New iron preparations and new treatment modalities are available: high-dose intravenous iron compounds are becoming popular and indications to their use are increasing, although long-term side effects remain to be evaluated.

  20. Runx3 deficiency results in myeloproliferative disorder in aged mice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chelsia Qiuxia; Motoda, Lena; Satake, Masanobu; Ito, Yoshiaki; Taniuchi, Ichiro; Tergaonkar, Vinay; Osato, Motomi

    2013-07-25

    The RUNX family genes encode transcription factors that are involved in development and human diseases. RUNX1 is one of the most frequently mutated genes in human hematological malignancies and is a critical factor for the generation and maintenance of hematopoietic stem cells. Another Runx family gene, Runx3, is known to be expressed in hematopoietic cells. However, its involvement in hematopoiesis remains unclear. Here we show the hematopoietic phenotypes in Runx3 conditional knockout (KO) mice (Runx3(fl/fl);Mx1-Cre(+)): whereas young Runx3 KO mice did not exhibit any significant hematopoietic defects, aged Runx3 KO mice developed a myeloproliferative disorder characterized by myeloid-dominant leukocytosis, splenomegaly, and an increase of hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSPCs). Notably, Runx3-deficient cells showed hypersensitivity to granulocyte-colony stimulating factor, suggesting enhanced proliferative and mobilization capability of Runx3-deficient HSPCs when stimulated. These results suggest that, besides Runx1, Runx3 also plays a role in hematopoiesis.