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  1. Family History

    MedlinePlus

    Your family history includes health information about you and your close relatives. Families have many factors in common, including their genes, ... as heart disease, stroke, and cancer. Having a family member with a disease raises your risk, but ...

  2. Searching for the Kinkeepers: Historian Gender, Age, and Type 2 Diabetes Family History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giordimaina, Alicia M.; Sheldon, Jane P.; Kiedrowski, Lesli A.; Jayaratne, Toby Epstein

    2015-01-01

    Kinkeepers facilitate family communication and may be key to family medical history collection and dissemination. Middle-aged women are frequently kinkeepers. Using type 2 diabetes (T2DM) as a model, we explored whether the predicted gender and age effects of kinkeeping can be extended to family medical historians. Through a U.S. telephone survey,…

  3. Searching for the Kinkeepers: Historian Gender, Age, and Type 2 Diabetes Family History.

    PubMed

    Giordimaina, Alicia M; Sheldon, Jane P; Kiedrowski, Lesli A; Jayaratne, Toby Epstein

    2015-12-01

    Kinkeepers facilitate family communication and may be key to family medical history collection and dissemination. Middle-aged women are frequently kinkeepers. Using type 2 diabetes (T2DM) as a model, we explored whether the predicted gender and age effects of kinkeeping can be extended to family medical historians. Through a U.S. telephone survey, nondiabetic Mexican Americans (n = 385), Blacks (n = 387), and Whites (n = 396) reported family histories of T2DM. Negative binomial regressions used age and gender to predict the number of affected relatives reported. Models were examined for the gender gap, parabolic age effect, and gender-by-age interaction predicted by kinkeeping. Results demonstrated support for gender and parabolic age effects but only among Whites. Kinkeeping may have application to the study of White family medical historians, but not Black or Mexican American historians, perhaps because of differences in family structure, salience of T2DM, and/or gender roles.

  4. Alcohol expectancies: effects of gender, age, and family history of alcoholism.

    PubMed

    Lundahl, L H; Davis, T M; Adesso, V J; Lukas, S E

    1997-01-01

    To explore the effects of gender, age, and positive (FH+) and negative (FH-) family history of alcoholism on alcohol-related expectancies, the Alcohol Expectancy Questionnaire (AEQ) was administered to 627 college students (female n = 430). In an attempt to control for consumption effects, only individuals who described themselves as heavy drinkers were included in the study. A 2 (Family History) x 2 (Gender) x 2 (Age Range) multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) was conducted on the six scales of the AEQ. Results indicated that FH+ females under the age of 20 years reported stronger expectancies of social and physical pleasure than did FH- females. Results also suggested that females over the age of 20 reported significantly lower expectancies of global, positive effects compared to all other subjects, regardless of family history of alcoholism. Finally, both male and female subjects under the age of 20 reported greater expectancies of global, positive effects, sexual enhancement, feelings of increased power and aggression, and social assertion compared to individuals over the age of 20. These results indicate that alcohol-related expectancies vary as a function of age, gender, and family history of alcoholism.

  5. Association of Family History of Epilepsy with Earlier Age Onset of Juvenile Myoclonic Epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    NAJAFI, Mohammad Reza; NAJAFI, Mohammad Amin; SAFAEI, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Objective Juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME) is supposedly the most frequent subtype of idiopathic generalized epilepsies (IGE). The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of JME and comparison of patients’ demographics as well as timeline of the disease between positive family history epileptic patients (PFHE) and negative family history epileptic patients (NFHE) among sample of Iranian epileptic patients. Materials & Methods From Feb. 2006 to Oct. 2009, 1915 definite epileptic patients (873 females) referred to epilepsy clinics in Isfahan, central Iran, were surveyed and among them, 194 JME patients were diagnosed. JME was diagnosed by its specific clinical and EEG criteria. Patients were divided into two groups as PFHE and NFHE and data were compared between them. Results JME was responsible for 10% (194 patients) of all types of epilepsies. Of JME patients, 53% were female. In terms of family history of epilepsy, 40% were positive. No significant differences was found between PFHE and NFHE groups as for gender (P>0.05). Age of epilepsy onset was significantly earlier in PFHE patients (15 vs. 22 yr, P<0.001). Occurrence of JME before 18 yr old among PFHE patients was significantly higher (OR=2.356, P=0.007). Conclusion A family history of epilepsy might be associated with an earlier age of onset in patients with JME. PMID:27247579

  6. Psychosocial Adjustment in School-age Girls With a Family History of Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Bradbury, Angela R.; Patrick-Miller, Linda; Schwartz, Lisa; Egleston, Brian; Sands, Colleen Burke; Chung, Wendy K.; Glendon, Gord; McDonald, Jasmine A.; Moore, Cynthia; Rauch, Paula; Tuchman, Lisa; Andrulis, Irene L.; Buys, Saundra S.; Frost, Caren J.; Keegan, Theresa H.M.; Knight, Julia A.; Terry, Mary Beth; John, Esther M.; Daly, Mary B.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Understanding how young girls respond to growing up with breast cancer family histories is critical given expansion of genetic testing and breast cancer messaging. We examined the impact of breast cancer family history on psychosocial adjustment and health behaviors among >800 girls in the multicenter LEGACY Girls Study. METHODS Girls aged 6 to 13 years with a family history of breast cancer or familial BRCA1/2 mutation (BCFH+), peers without a family history (BCFH−), and their biological mothers completed assessments of psychosocial adjustment (maternal report for 6- to 13-year-olds, self-report for 10- to 13-year-olds), breast cancer–specific distress, perceived risk of breast cancer, and health behaviors (10- to 13-year-olds). RESULTS BCFH+ girls had better general psychosocial adjustment than BCFH− peers by maternal report. Psychosocial adjustment and health behaviors did not differ significantly by self-report among 10- to 13-year-old girls. BCFH+ girls reported higher breast cancer–specific distress (P = .001) and were more likely to report themselves at increased breast cancer risk than BCFH− peers (38.4% vs 13.7%, P < .001), although many girls were unsure of their risk. In multivariable analyses, higher daughter anxiety was associated with higher maternal anxiety and poorer family communication. Higher daughter breast cancer–specific distress was associated with higher maternal breast cancer-specific distress. CONCLUSIONS Although growing up in a family at risk for breast cancer does not negatively affect general psychosocial adjustment among preadolescent girls, those from breast cancer risk families experience greater breast cancer–specific distress. Interventions to address daughter and mother breast cancer concerns and responses to genetic or familial risk might improve psychosocial outcomes of teen daughters. PMID:26482668

  7. Family history of gynaecological cancers: relationships to the incidence of breast cancer prior to age 55.

    PubMed

    Thompson, W D; Schildkraut, J M

    1991-09-01

    As part of a multi-centre epidemiological study of cancer in women between the ages of 20 and 54, data were collected concerning family history of gynaecological cancers in the female relatives of 4730 women with newly diagnosed breast cancer and the relatives of 4688 women from the general population. Women who were diagnosed with breast cancer prior to age 45 were more likely than controls to have a mother or sister with ovarian cancer (odds ratio (OR): 1.50), endometrial cancer (1.29), and cervical cancer (1.53), although none of these elevations achieved statistical significance. The corresponding odds ratios for women diagnosed with breast cancer between the ages of 45 and 54 were 1.88, 0.84 and 0.93. The association with ovarian cancer was statistically significant in this group (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.11-3.19). In this latter group, having a first degree relative with ovarian cancer was associated approximately as strongly with breast cancer as was having a first degree relative with breast cancer. The results suggest that there may be a shared genetic basis for some cancers of the breast and ovary. From a clinical perspective, the results indicate that in setting appropriate levels of screening for breast cancer and in establishing an appropriate age at which to begin such screening for a particular woman, her family history of ovarian cancer should be considered in addition to her family history of breast cancer.

  8. Creating a Family Health History

    MedlinePlus

    ... please turn Javascript on. Creating a Family Health History Why Create a Family Health History? Click for more information A Family Tree for ... Click for more information What a Family Health History May Reveal You can use a family health ...

  9. Creating a family health history

    MedlinePlus

    Family health history; Create a family health history; Family medical history ... Many factors affect your health. These include your: Genes Diet and exercise habits Environment Family members tend to share certain behaviors, genetic traits, and habits. ...

  10. Using Family Health History for Chronic Disease Prevention in the Age of Genomics: Translation to Health Education Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanson, Carl; Novilla, Lelinneth; Barnes, Michael; De La Cruz, Natalie; Meacham, Aaron

    2007-01-01

    Advances in the field of human genomics have important implications for the prevention of chronic disease. In response to these advancements, public health professionals--including health educators--must become competent in the principles underlying the interface between genomics and the use of family health history. Family health history captures…

  11. Family History in Primary Care Pediatrics

    PubMed Central

    McInerney, Joseph D.

    2013-01-01

    The family history has been called the first genetic test; it was a core element of primary care long before the current wave of genetics technologies and services became clinically relevant. Risk assessment based on family history allows providers to personalize and prioritize health messages, shifts the focus of health care from treatment to prevention, and can empower individuals and families to be stewards of their own health. In a world of rising health care costs, the family history is an important tool, with its primary cost being the clinician’s time. However, a recent National Institutes of Health conference highlighted the lack of substantive evidence to support the clinical utility of family histories. Annual collection of a comprehensive 3-generation family history has been held up as the gold standard for practice. However, interval family histories targeted to symptoms and family histories tailored to a child’s life stage (ie, age-based health) may be important and underappreciated methods of collecting family history that yield clinically actionable data and supplement existing family history information. In this article, we review the various applications, as well as capabilities and limitations, of the family history for primary care providers. PMID:24298128

  12. Family history in primary care pediatrics.

    PubMed

    Tarini, Beth A; McInerney, Joseph D

    2013-12-01

    The family history has been called the first genetic test; it was a core element of primary care long before the current wave of genetics technologies and services became clinically relevant. Risk assessment based on family history allows providers to personalize and prioritize health messages, shifts the focus of health care from treatment to prevention, and can empower individuals and families to be stewards of their own health. In a world of rising health care costs, the family history is an important tool, with its primary cost being the clinician's time. However, a recent National Institutes of Health conference highlighted the lack of substantive evidence to support the clinical utility of family histories. Annual collection of a comprehensive 3-generation family history has been held up as the gold standard for practice. However, interval family histories targeted to symptoms and family histories tailored to a child's life stage (ie, age-based health) may be important and underappreciated methods of collecting family history that yield clinically actionable data and supplement existing family history information. In this article, we review the various applications, as well as capabilities and limitations, of the family history for primary care providers.

  13. A prospective study of cognitive health in the elderly (Oregon Brain Aging Study): effects of family history and apolipoprotein E genotype.

    PubMed Central

    Payami, H; Grimslid, H; Oken, B; Camicioli, R; Sexton, G; Dame, A; Howieson, D; Kaye, J

    1997-01-01

    The oldest old are the fastest-growing segment of our population and have the highest prevalence of dementia. Little is known about the genetics of cognitive health in the very old. The aim of this study was to determine whether the genetic risk factors for Alzheimer disease (AD)--namely, apolipoprotein E (APOE) epsilon4 allele and a family history of dementia-continue to be important factors in the cognitive health of the very old. Case-control studies suggest that the effect of genetic factors diminishes at age >75 years. The present prospective study provided evidence to the contrary. We studied 114 Caucasian subjects who were physically healthy and cognitively intact at age 75 years and who were followed, for an average of 4 years, with neurological, psychometric, and neuroimaging examinations. Excellent health at entry did not protect against cognitive decline. Incidence of cognitive decline rose sharply with age. epsilon4 and a family history of dementia (independent of epsilon4) were associated with an earlier age at onset of dementia. Subjects who had epsilon4 or a family history of dementia had a ninefold-higher age-specific risk for dementia than did those who had neither epsilon4 nor a family history of dementia. These observations suggest that the rate of cognitive decline increases with age and that APOE and other familial/genetic factors influence the onset age throughout life. PMID:9106542

  14. A prospective study of cognitive health in the elderly (Oregon Brain Aging Study): effects of family history and apolipoprotein E genotype.

    PubMed

    Payami, H; Grimslid, H; Oken, B; Camicioli, R; Sexton, G; Dame, A; Howieson, D; Kaye, J

    1997-04-01

    The oldest old are the fastest-growing segment of our population and have the highest prevalence of dementia. Little is known about the genetics of cognitive health in the very old. The aim of this study was to determine whether the genetic risk factors for Alzheimer disease (AD)--namely, apolipoprotein E (APOE) epsilon4 allele and a family history of dementia-continue to be important factors in the cognitive health of the very old. Case-control studies suggest that the effect of genetic factors diminishes at age >75 years. The present prospective study provided evidence to the contrary. We studied 114 Caucasian subjects who were physically healthy and cognitively intact at age 75 years and who were followed, for an average of 4 years, with neurological, psychometric, and neuroimaging examinations. Excellent health at entry did not protect against cognitive decline. Incidence of cognitive decline rose sharply with age. epsilon4 and a family history of dementia (independent of epsilon4) were associated with an earlier age at onset of dementia. Subjects who had epsilon4 or a family history of dementia had a ninefold-higher age-specific risk for dementia than did those who had neither epsilon4 nor a family history of dementia. These observations suggest that the rate of cognitive decline increases with age and that APOE and other familial/genetic factors influence the onset age throughout life.

  15. Family Histories: Collecting, Connecting, Celebrating.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Damkoehler, Dee; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Describes an integrated curriculum for grade two at Metcalf Laboratory School, Normal, Illinois, that celebrates family histories and American immigration. Reports that the journey begins with the teachers sharing their own family backgrounds, followed by story reading, sharing the family history project with parents, collecting oral histories,…

  16. Effect of a family history of psoriasis and age on comorbidities and quality of life in patients with moderate to severe psoriasis: Results from the ARIZONA study.

    PubMed

    López-Estebaranz, Jose Luis; Sánchez-Carazo, Jose Luis; Sulleiro, Sara

    2016-04-01

    Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory skin disease whose clinical characteristics vary from patient to patient. We aimed to analyze how comorbidities and quality of life (QoL, as per the Dermatology Life Quality Index [DLQI]) may be affected by a family history of psoriasis and by age. The ARIZONA study was a multicenter, cross-sectional study in 1022 adult patients diagnosed with moderate to severe psoriasis at least 6 months prior to inclusion. The severity of psoriasis and the proportion of patients with comorbidities were not affected by the presence of a family history. The regression analysis revealed that the presence of a family history of psoriasis was associated with the effect on the patient's QoL (P = 0.002), regardless of disease severity. The mean DLQI total score varied significantly across age groups (5.1 ± 5.3 for the 18-30-year group, 5.7 ± 6.5 for the 31-60-year group and 3.8 ± 5.1 for the >60-year group; P = 0.001). In conclusion, the presence of a family history of psoriasis appears to disrupt QoL in patients with moderate to severe psoriasis, but it hardly affected the prevalence of comorbid conditions. The effect of age on QoL was particularly noticeable in younger patients, highlighting its negative impact. As expected, older patients appeared to be burdened with a higher number of comorbidities than their younger counterparts.

  17. Surgeon General's Family Health History Initiative

    MedlinePlus

    ... Start Your Family Health History My Family Health Portrait Tool English Web Tool Printable Versions Source Code ... your family's health history. My Family Health History Portrait Tool Find out about this web-based tool ...

  18. Neuropsychological Performance and Family History in Children at Age 7 who Develop Adult Schizophrenia or Bipolar Psychosis in the New England Family Studies

    PubMed Central

    Seidman, Larry J.; Cherkerzian, Sara; Goldstein, Jill M.; Agnew-Blais, Jessica; Tsuang, Ming T.; Buka, Stephen L.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Persons developing schizophrenia (SCZ) manifest various premorbid neuropsychological deficits, studied most often by measures of IQ. Far less is known about premorbid neuropsychological functioning in individuals who later develop bipolar psychoses (BP). We evaluated the specificity and impact of family history (FH) of psychosis on premorbid neuropsychological functioning. Methods We conducted a nested case-control study investigating the associations of neuropsychological data systematically collected at age 7 years for 99 adults with psychotic diagnoses (including 45 SCZ and 35 BP) and 101 controls, drawn from the New England cohort of the Collaborative Perinatal Project. A mixed model approach evaluated Full Scale IQ, four neuropsychological factors derived from principal components analysis, and the profile of 10 intelligence and achievement tests, controlling for maternal education, race, and intrafamilial correlation. We used a deviant responder approach (< 10%tile) to calculate rates of impairment. Results There was a significant linear trend, with the SCZ group performing worst. The profile of childhood deficits for persons with SCZ did not differ significantly from BP. 42.2% of SCZ, 22.9% of BP, and 7% of controls were neuropsychologically impaired. Presence of psychosis in first-degree relatives (FH+) significantly increased the severity of childhood impairment for SCZ but not for BP. Conclusions Premorbid neuropsychological deficits are found in a substantial proportion of children who later develop SCZ, especially in the SCZ FH+ subgroup, but less so in BP, suggesting especially impaired neurodevelopment underlying cognition in pre-SCZ children. Future work should assess genetic and environmental factors that explain this FH effect. PMID:22575089

  19. Assessment of association of D3 dopamine receptor MscI polymorphism with schizophrenia: Analysis of symptom ratings, family history, age at onset, and movement disorders

    SciTech Connect

    Gaitonde, E.J.; Mollon, J.D.; McKenna, P.J.

    1996-09-20

    Several studies have reported an association between schizophrenia and homozygosity for the MscI restriction site in exon 1 of the D3 dopamine receptor gene, but other studies have failed to find this association. Recent reports have suggested that the association is most salient in male patients with a family history of schizophrenia. We examined this restriction site in a group of schizophrenic patients (n = 84) and in normal controls (n = 77). Patients were subdivided according to demographic and clinical features, particular attention being paid to movement disorders. No significant difference in allelic or genotypic distribution was seen between the two groups. No association was seen between homozygosity and a positive family history, age at onset of illness, clinical subtype, negative symptom score, or movement disorder scores. 33 refs., 2 tabs.

  20. Aging and the Family.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, C. Roberta

    1984-01-01

    Discusses emotional, social, medical, and nutritional needs of older people, and stresses the need for education of the families of the elderly and the need for a coordinated approach to service delivery to this population. In this way, maximum independence of the aged can be achieved. (NRJ)

  1. Family Health History and Diabetes

    MedlinePlus

    ... History Prevent Type 2 Diabetes in Your Family Contact Us Health Information Center Phone: 1-800-860- ... encourages people to share this content freely. [ Top ] ​​​​​ Contact Us Health Information Center Phone: 1-800-860- ...

  2. Gastric cancer and family history

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Yoon Jin; Kim, Nayoung

    2016-01-01

    Gastric cancer is associated with high morbidity and mortality rates worldwide. Identifying individuals at high risk is important for surveillance and prevention of gastric cancer. Having first-degree relatives diagnosed with gastric cancer is a strong and consistent risk factor for gastric cancer, but the pathogenic mechanisms behind this familial aggregation are unclear. Against this background, we reviewed the risk factors for gastric cancer in those with a first-degree relative with gastric cancer, and the possible causes for familial clustering of gastric cancer including bacterial factors, inherited genetic susceptibility, environmental factors or a combination thereof. Among individuals with a family history, current or past Helicobacter pylori infection, having two or more first-degree affected relatives or female gender was associated with an increased risk of developing gastric cancer. To date, no specific single nucleotide polymorphism has been shown to be associated with familial clustering of gastric cancer. H. pylori eradication is the most important strategy for preventing gastric cancer in first-degree relatives of gastric cancer patients, particularly those in their 20s and 30s. Early H. pylori eradication could prevent the progression to intestinal metaplasia and reduce the synergistic effect on gastric carcinogenesis in individuals with both H. pylori infection and a family history. Endoscopic surveillance is also expected to benefit individuals with a family history. Further large-scale, prospective studies are warranted to evaluate the cost-effectiveness and optimal time point for endoscopy in this population. Moreover, genome-wide association studies that incorporate environmental and dietary factors on a ‘big data’ basis will increase our understanding of the pathogenesis of gastric cancer. PMID:27809451

  3. Medical History: Compiling Your Medical Family Tree

    MedlinePlus

    ... family medical history, sometimes called a medical family tree, is a record of illnesses and medical conditions ... to consult family documents, such as existing family trees, baby books, old letters, obituaries or records from ...

  4. Family History May Magnify Your Hangover

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_164499.html Family History May Magnify Your Hangover People whose relatives ... 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Researchers say people with a family history of alcoholism seem to recall the misery ...

  5. Family Ties: The Role of Family Context in Family Health History Communication about Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez, Vivian M.; Corona, Rosalie; Bodurtha, Joann N.; Quillin, John M.

    2016-01-01

    Family health history about cancer is an important prevention and health promotion tool. Yet, few studies have identified family context factors that promote such discussions. We explored relations among family context (cohesion, flexibility, and openness), self-efficacy, and cancer communication (gathering family history, sharing cancer risk information, and frequency) in a diverse group of women enrolled in a randomized control trial. Baseline survey data for 472 women were analyzed. Average age was 34 years, 59% identified as Black, 31% graduated high school, and 75% reported a family history of any cancer. Results showed that greater family cohesion and flexibility were related to higher communication frequency and sharing cancer information. Women who reported greater self-efficacy were more likely to have gathered family history, shared cancer risk information, and communicated more frequently with relatives. Openness was not associated with communication but was related to greater family cohesion and flexibility. Adjusting for demographic variables, self-efficacy and family cohesion significantly predicted communication frequency. Women with higher self-efficacy were also more likely to have gathered family health history about cancer and shared cancer risk information. Future research may benefit from considering family organization and self-efficacy when developing psychosocial theories that, in turn, inform cancer prevention interventions. PMID:26735646

  6. BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation status and cancer family history of Danish women affected with multifocal or bilateral breast cancer at a young age

    PubMed Central

    Bergthorsson, J; Ejlertsen, B; Olsen, J; Borg, A; Nielsen, K; Barkardottir, R; Klausen, S; Mouridsen, H; Winther, K; Fenger, K; Niebuhr, A; Harboe, T; Niebuhr, E

    2001-01-01

    INTRODUCTION—A small fraction of breast cancer is the result of germline mutations in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 cancer susceptibility genes. Mutation carriers frequently have a positive family history of breast and ovarian cancer, are often diagnosed at a young age, and may have a higher incidence of double or multiple primary breast tumours than breast cancer patients in general.
OBJECTIVES—To estimate the prevalence and spectrum of BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations in young Danish patients affected with bilateral or multifocal breast cancer and to determine the relationship of mutation status to family history of cancer.
SUBJECTS—From the files of the Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group (DBCG), we selected 119 breast cancer patients diagnosed before the age of 46 years with either bilateral (n=59) or multifocal (n=61) disease.
METHODS—DNA from the subjects was screened for BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations using single strand conformation analysis (SSCA) and the protein truncation test (PTT). Observed and expected cancer incidence in first degree relatives of the patients was estimated using data from the Danish Cancer Registry.
RESULTS—Twenty four mutation carriers were identified (20%), of whom 13 had a BRCA1 mutation and 11 carried a BRCA2 mutation. Two mutations in BRCA1 were found repeatedly in the material and accounted for seven of the 24 (29%) mutation carriers. The mutation frequency was about equal in patients with bilateral (22%) and multifocal breast cancer (18%). The incidence of breast and ovarian cancer was greatly increased in first degree relatives of BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers, but to a much lesser degree in relatives of non-carriers. An increased risk of cancer was also noted in brothers of non-carriers.
CONCLUSIONS—A relatively broad spectrum of germline mutations was observed in BRCA1 and BRCA2 and most of the mutations are present in other populations. Our results indicate that a diagnosis of bilateral and multifocal breast

  7. Selected Internet Resources on Family History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mintz, Steven

    2001-01-01

    Provides a list of Internet resources on family history that cover topics such as colonial families, shifting family ideals, families in the Early Republic, families in bondage, westward migration, families during the Great Depression, journals, reference sources, and lesson plans. (CMK)

  8. Stress-induced change in serum BDNF is related to quantitative family history of alcohol use disorder and age at first alcohol use.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Shobhit; Graham, Reiko; Rohde, Rodney; Ceballos, Natalie A

    2017-02-01

    Previous research in animal models suggests that brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is involved in stress-modulated alcohol consumption. However, relatively few studies have investigated this issue in humans, and results of existing studies have been heterogeneous. The primary aim of the current study was to examine the within-subjects effect of acute stress (timed math plus cold pressor) on serum BDNF levels (ΔBDNF: post- minus pre-stress) in healthy social drinkers (N=68, 20 male). A secondary aim was to explore which heritable and environmental factors in our limited sample might exert the greatest influences on ΔBDNF. Importantly, presence versus absence of the BDNF Val(66)Met polymorphism (rs6265), which has often been discounted in studies of human serum BDNF, was included as a between-subjects control variable in all statistical analyses. Our results indicated that acute stress decreased serum BDNF. Further, multiple regression analyses revealed that quantitative family history of alcohol use disorder (qFH) and age at first alcohol use together accounted for 15% of the variance in ΔBDNF. Thus, the influences of qFH and age at first alcohol use may explain some of the heterogeneity that exists in previous studies of human serum BDNF. These results parallel findings in animal models and suggest that stress-related changes in serum BDNF are influenced by both heritable (qFH) and environmental (early alcohol consumption) factors.

  9. Family history and prostate cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Lesko, S M; Rosenberg, L; Shapiro, S

    1996-12-01

    The authors examined the relation between family history of prostate cancer and the risk of this cancer in a population-based case-control study conducted in Massachusetts between December 1992 and October 1994. Cases were all incident cases of prostate cancer in men younger than 70 years (n = 563); controls were men with no history of the disease matched to the cases on age and town of residence (n = 703). Prostate cancer risk was increased among men who reported a history of this cancer in either their fathers or brothers (odds ratio (OR) = 2.3, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.7-3.3). Risk varied with the number of relatives affected and their relationship to the case. For a history of prostate cancer in one relative, the OR was 2.2 (95% CI 1.5-3.2); if two or more relatives were affected, it was 3.9 (95% CI 1.7-5.2). For prostate cancer in the father, the OR was 1.9 (95% CI 1.2-3.0); for prostate cancer in a brother, it was 3.0 (95% CI 1.8-4.9). Risk was inversely related to the subject's age and to age at diagnosis of prostate cancer in his affected relative. Among probands younger than 60 years, the OR was 5.3 (95% CI 2.5-12); for those 60-64 years of age, the OR was 2.7 (95% CI 1.3-5.5); and for those 65 years of age and older, the OR was 1.6 (95% CI 1.0-2.5). For prostate cancer diagnosed in a relative before age 65, the OR was 4.1 (95% CI 2.3-7.3); for detection of the disease after age 74, the OR was 0.76 (95% CI 0.38-1.5). The association was present both among men with local and advanced stage disease and among men whose prostate cancer was detected either by screening or because of symptoms. These data provide evidence that after controlling for diet and other potential confounders, familial factors are significantly associated with the risk of prostate cancer.

  10. Family history influences the early onset of hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Park, Chung-Hwa; Jeong, Seung-Hee; Yim, Hyeon-Woo; Kim, Jin Dong; Bae, Si Hyun; Choi, Jong Young; Yoon, Seung Kew

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the relationship between a positive family history of primary liver cancer and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) development in Korean HCC patients. METHODS: We studied a total of 2242 patients diagnosed with HCC between January 1990 and July 2008, whose family history of primary liver cancer was clearly described in the medical records. RESULTS: Of the 2242 patients, 165 (7.4%) had a positive family history of HCC and 2077 (92.6%) did not. The male to female ratio was 3.6:1, and the major causes of HCC were chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection in 75.1%, chronic hepatitis C virus infection in 13.2% and alcohol in 3.1%. The median ages at diagnosis in the positive- and negative-history groups were 52 years (range: 29-79 years) and 57 years (range: 18-89 years), respectively (P < 0.0001). Furthermore, among 1713 HCC patients with HBV infection, the number of patients under 45 years of age out of 136 patients with positive family history was 26 (19.1%), whereas those out of 1577 patients with negative family history was 197 (12.5%), suggesting that a positive family history may be associated with earlier development of HCC in the Korean population (P = 0.0028). CONCLUSION: More intensive surveillance maybe recommended to those with a positive family history of HCC for earlier diagnosis and proper management especially when HBV infection is present. PMID:22690075

  11. Instance testing of the family history ontology.

    PubMed

    Peace, Jane; Brennan, Patricia Flatley; Brennan, Patti

    2008-11-06

    The Family History Ontology formalizes nursing conceptualization about family and family history. Traditional methods of instance testing were applied to evaluate the completeness of the ontology and demonstrated favorable domain coverage. Testing also revealed a need for a new category of instance test results, "by inference", for data that can be represented through the use of inference rules associated with the ontology rather than requiring direct manual entry.

  12. Family Oral Histories for Multicultural Curriculum Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olmedo, Irma M.

    1997-01-01

    Describes a rationale and an approach for helping teachers use the life histories of parents and members of the community as scaffolds to teach social studies and history concepts. Examples from a case study are presented involving an extended Puerto Rican family and abstracts of teacher reflections on the process. (GR)

  13. Why Is It Important to Know My Family Medical History?

    MedlinePlus

    ... to know my family medical history? Why is it important to know my family medical history? A ... certificates) can help complete a family medical history. It is important to keep this information up-to- ...

  14. Familial aggregation and coaggregation of history of hypertension and stroke.

    PubMed

    Kondo, T; Toyoshima, H; Tsuzuki, Y; Hori, Y; Yatsuya, H; Tamakoshi, K; Tamakoshi, A; Ohno, Y

    2005-02-01

    We attempted to evaluate familial aggregation and coaggregation of history of hypertension and stroke. Past and family history of hypertension and stroke for 83 089 probands and their relatives were obtained from a data set for the Japan Collaborative Cohort Study for Evaluation of Cancer Risk sponsored by the Ministry of Education (JACC Study), which was initiated from 1988 to 1990. First, evaluation was performed for familial aggregation of each of two disorders using ordinal logistic regression of the generalized estimation equations (GEE) to account for dependence of observations within families. Secondly, in order to evaluate the familial congregation of the history of hypertension and stroke, a GEE-based multivariate probed predictive model was applied. After adjusting for the proband's age, level of obesity, smoking status, drinking status, habitation area, and the gender and type of the relatives, the estimated odds ratios for the intraindividual clustering and familial aggregation of the disease history showed statistically significant relationships. In addition, the history of the two disorders showed a significant relationship in terms of familial coaggregation independently of the aggregation of each disorder itself. Our results confirmed that hypertension and stroke coaggregate strongly within families through possible effects of genetic factors, which, alone or in conjunction with environmental factors, influence susceptibility to both hypertension and stroke.

  15. Family Structure History and Adolescent Romance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavanagh, Shannon E.; Crissey, Sarah R.; Raley, R. Kelly

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the association between family structure history and adolescent romance. Using a national sample drawn from Add Health (N = 13,570), family structure at Wave I was associated with the likelihood that adolescents were involved in a romantic relationship at Wave II and, among those in a relationship, the number of relationships…

  16. Digital family histories for data mining.

    PubMed

    Hoyt, Robert; Linnville, Steven; Chung, Hui-Min; Hutfless, Brent; Rice, Courtney

    2013-01-01

    As we move closer to ubiquitous electronic health records (EHRs), genetic, familial, and clinical information will need to be incorporated into EHRs as structured data that can be used for data mining and clinical decision support. While the Human Genome Project has produced new and exciting genomic data, the cost to sequence the human personal genome is high, and significant controversies regarding how to interpret genomic data exist. Many experts feel that the family history is a surrogate marker for genetic information and should be part of any paper-based or electronic health record. A digital family history is now part of the Meaningful Use Stage 2 menu objectives for EHR reimbursement, projected for 2014. In this study, a secure online family history questionnaire was designed to collect data on a unique cohort of Vietnam-era repatriated male veterans and a comparison group in order to compare participant and family disease rates on common medical disorders with a genetic component. This article describes our approach to create the digital questionnaire and the results of analyzing family history data on 319 male participants.

  17. Bipolar II disorder family history using the family history screen: findings and clinical implications.

    PubMed

    Benazzi, Franco

    2004-01-01

    Psychiatric family history of bipolar II disorder is understudied. The aims of the current study were to find the psychiatric family history of bipolar II patients using a new structured interview, the Family History Screen by Weissman et al (2000), and to find bipolar disorders family history predicting power for the diagnosis of bipolar II. One hundred sixty-four consecutive unipolar major depressive disorder (MDD) and 241 consecutive bipolar II major depressive episode (MDE) outpatients were interviewed with the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV (SCID). The Family History Screen was used. Sensitivity and specificity of predictors of the diagnosis of bipolar II (bipolar [type I and II] family history, bipolar II family history, atypical depression, depressive mixed state, many MDE recurrences, early onset) were studied. Bipolar II subjects had significantly more bipolar I, more bipolar II (50.7%), more MDE, and more social phobia in first-degree relatives than did unipolar subjects. Bipolar II subjects had many more first-degree relatives with bipolar II than with bipolar I. Among the predictors of the diagnosis of bipolar II, bipolar II family history had the highest specificity (82.8%), while early onset had the highest sensitivity. Discriminant analysis of predictor variables found that bipolar II family history and early onset were highly significant predictors. In conclusion, bipolar II family history was common in bipolar II patients, and it had high specificity for predicting bipolar II. If detected, it could reduce bipolar II misdiagnosis by inducing careful probing for a history of hypomania.

  18. Pattern of family history in stone patients.

    PubMed

    Marickar, Y M Fazil; Salim, Abiya; Vijay, Adarsh

    2009-12-01

    Genetic predisposition to urolithiasis is a much discussed topic. The objective of this paper is to identify the types of family members of proved urinary stone patients, who have a history of urinary stone formation. The study population consisted of 2,157 urinary stone patients interviewed in 2003-2007 in the urinary stone clinic. Family members with stone history were classified as group 1--first order single (one person in the immediate family-father, mother, siblings, or children), group 2--first order multiple (more than one member in the above group), group 3--second order single (one person in the blood relatives in family--grandparents, grandchildren, uncles, aunts, cousins, etc.) and group 4--second order multiple (more than one member in the above group). Of the 2,157 patients studied, 349 patients gave positive history of stone disease constituting 16.18%. Of these, 321 were males and 28 were females. Subdivision of the family members showed that 282 patients (80.80%) had single family member with stones and the rest 67 (19.20%) had multiple family members with history of stone disease. Group 1 which constituted one family member in the immediate family had 255 involvements (father: 88, mother: 16, brother: 135, sister: 2, son: 10, and daughter: 4); Group 2 with multiple members in the immediate family constituted 51 relatives; of these, father and brother combination was the most common with 35 occurrences. Group 3 with one person in the distant relatives in family namely grandparents, grand children, uncles, aunts, cousins, etc. constituted 27 occurrences and Group 4 with more than one member in the distant family constituted 16 occurrences. It is concluded that single family member involvement was more than multiple involvements. Males predominated. Stone occurrence was more in the immediate family members than distant relatives. Brothers formed the most common group to be involved with stone disease. Study of stone risk in the family members should

  19. Strong family history and early onset of schizophrenia: about 2 families in Northern Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Nuhu, Folorunsho Tajudeen; Eseigbe, Edwin Ehi; Issa, Baba Awoye; Gomina, Michael Omeiza

    2016-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a highly heritable psychotic disorder and high genetic loading is associated with early onset of the disease. The outcome of schizophrenia has also been linked with the age of onset as well as the presence of family history of the disease. Therefore families with patients with early onset Schizophrenia are subpopulations for genetic studies. We present 2 families with heavy genetic loading who have adolescents with schizophrenia. PMID:28154637

  20. Family History in Patients Who Present with Functional Articulation Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alaraifi, Jehad Ahmad; Kamal, Sana Mohammed; Qa'dan, Wa'el Nafith; Haj-Tas, Maisa Atef

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to examine family history of functional articulation disorders (FAD) among Jordanian patients who present with FAD, as well as to investigate the relation of other factors related to the disorder (age, gender, genetic connection between parents, sounds affected, and type of disorder). A convenience sample of 45 patients (ages…

  1. Family History Fails to Detect the Majority of Children with High Capillary Blood Total Cholesterol.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidson, Dennis M.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    To examine the predictive value of family history in detecting children with high blood cholesterol, finger-stick screening was done in children (n=1,118) ages 9-10 with parental and grandparental history of cardiovascular disease and risk factors. Findings showed that screening only children with positive family histories will leave most problems…

  2. Teaching Family History: Papers from Old Sturbridge Village.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Family History, 1981

    1981-01-01

    Essays in this special issue of the "Journal of Family History" focus on the teaching of family history by using artifacts. The articles were written by the staff at Old Sturbridge Village (OSV). The first article discusses how family history is taught at OSV. Students study a real family using demographic information and artifacts such as…

  3. Family History in Patients with Bipolar Disorder

    PubMed Central

    ÖZDEMİR, Osman; COŞKUN, Salih; AKTAN MUTLU, Elif; ÖZDEMİR, Pınar Güzel; ATLI, Abdullah; YILMAZ, Ekrem; KESKİN, Sıddık

    2016-01-01

    Introduction In this study, we aimed to better understand the genetic transmission of bipolar disorder by examining the family history of patients. Methods Sixty-three patients with bipolar disorder and their families were included. The final sample comprised 156 bipolar patients and their family members. An inclusion criterion was the presence of bipolar disorder history in the family. The diagnosis of other family members was confirmed by analyzing their files, hospital records, and by calling them to the hospital. Results Sixty-five patients were women (41.6%) and 91 were men (58.3%) (ratio of men/women: 1.40). When analyzing the results in terms of the transition of disease from the mother’s or father’s side, similar results were obtained: 25 patients were from the mother’s side and 25 patients were from the father’s side in 63 cases. Conclusion The results of our study support the fact that a significant relationship exists between the degree of kinship and the heritability of bipolar disorder and, furthermore, that the effect of the maternal and paternal sides is similar on the transmission of genetic susceptibility. PMID:28373808

  4. Importance of updating family cancer history in childhood cancer survivors.

    PubMed

    Russo, Selena; Warby, Meera; Tucker, Katherine M; Wakefield, Claire E; Cohn, Richard J

    2017-04-12

    Estimates of the number of childhood cancers with a genetic basis range from 5-8.5% found in germline samples to 29% based on clinical criteria. Family history-taking practice is a fundamental first step in detecting at risk individuals and families. This study focused on Li-Fraumeni Syndrome (LFS), a highly penetrant cancer syndrome. Reported family history in a cohort of 648 of cancer survivor cohort (CCS) was examined. Eligible CCS were: (i) aged up to 14 years at diagnosis; (ii) more than 5 years postdiagnosis; (iii) treated for a childhood cancer at the study hospitals in NSW, Australia; (iv) in remission for more than 3 years. CCS completed self-administered questionnaires. Medical records confirmed diagnosis and treatment-related information. Our findings reveal an increased cancer risk among sibling and relatives of CCS. 91% of siblings diagnosed with cancer were diagnosed under the age of 40 and about 30% diagnosed under the aged of 15 revealing a 5- (RR = 5.1; 95% CI, 3.3-7.9) and 44-fold (RR = 44.6; 95% CI, 18.4-108.3) increased risked of cancer compared with the Australian population, respectively. About 2% of CCS reported that they had been diagnosed with a genetic cancer syndrome. However, 11% of survivors described a family history pattern which met Chompret criteria for screening for TP53 mutations associated with LFS. Our data suggests that familial cancer predispositions may be initially overlooked. Aperiodic and accurate ascertainment of family cancer history of childhood cancer patients and survivors is therefore recommended.

  5. Family History of Colon Cancer Calls for Earlier Screening

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_164202.html Family History of Colon Cancer Calls for Earlier Screening ... 2017 (HealthDay News) -- If you've got a family history of colon or rectal cancers, you probably ...

  6. Breast and Ovarian Cancer and Family History Risk Categories

    MedlinePlus

    ... Diseases Genomic Resources Breast and Ovarian Cancer and Family History Risk Categories Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ... Screening. U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. February 2016. Family Health History, Breast and Ovarian Cancer Risk, and ...

  7. Sociodemographic characteristics, smoking, medical and family history, and breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Ghadirian, P; Lacroix, A; Perret, C; Maisonneuve, P; Boyle, P

    1998-01-01

    The relationship between sociodemographic characteristics, lifestyle, family history of cancer, medical history, and reproductive factors and breast cancer was investigated in a population-based case-control study of French Canadians in Montreal. In this study, a total of 414 French-Canadian cases and 429 age- and language-matched population controls were interviewed. Ever-married women showed significantly lower risk (OR: 0.64 [0.45-0.92]) for breast cancer, as did smokers (OR: 0.73 [0.55-0.98]), particularly of nonfilter cigarettes (OR: 0.36 [0.17-0.72]). Weight history, both for the year before the diagnosis of breast cancer and 10 years previously, was associated with risk for the disease. A strong inverse relationship was found between the number of full-term pregnancies (OR: 0.48 [0.28-0.82]) and the risk of breast cancer, while the p trend for late age at first pregnancy (p = 0.02) and menopause (p = 0.004) was statistically significant. A history of breast problems (OR: 1.87 [1.34-2.60]) and a history of breast cancer in relatives (OR: 2.95 [1.63-5.34]) were strongly associated with risk. This study confirms the risk factors of late age at first full-term pregnancy, nulliparity, late age at menopause, and positive family history of breast cancer in the etiology of this disease. Perhaps the protective effect of smoking against breast cancer could be due to its antiestrogenic influence.

  8. Theme: The Family in an Aging World.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, George C.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Includes "The World Ages, the Family Ages" (Myers, Agree); "Grandparents as Parents in Developing Countries" (Tout); "Grandparents as Parents: The American Experience" (Minkler); "Playing for Informal Care" (Evers, Leichsenring); "Family Care in America" (Keigher, Stone); "Concerns for Carers: Family Support in Denmark" (Leeson, Tufte);…

  9. Variability in Adaptive Behavior in Autism: Evidence for the Importance of Family History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazefsky, Carla A.; Williams, Diane L.; Minshew, Nancy J.

    2008-01-01

    Adaptive behavior in autism is highly variable and strongly related to prognosis. This study explored family history as a potential source of variability in adaptive behavior in autism. Participants included 77 individuals (mean age = 18) with average or better intellectual ability and autism. Parents completed the Family History Interview about…

  10. Healthy Family 2009: Assuring Healthy Aging

    MedlinePlus

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Healthy Family 2009 Assuring Healthy Aging Past Issues / Winter 2009 ... for steady, modest loss. Seek emotional support from family and friends. Expect setbacks; forgive yourself. Make physical ...

  11. The additive effect on suicidality of family history of suicidal behavior and early traumatic experiences.

    PubMed

    Lopez-Castroman, J; Guillaume, S; Olié, E; Jaussent, I; Baca-García, E; Courtet, P

    2015-01-01

    Family history of suicidal behavior and personal history of childhood abuse are reported risk factors for suicide attempts and suicide completion. We aim to quantify the additive effect of family history of suicidal behavior and different subtypes of childhood abuse on suicidal behavior. We examined a sample of 496 suicide attempters, comparing individuals with family history of suicidal behavior and personal history of childhood (physical or sexual) abuse, individuals with family history of suicidal behavior only, individuals with history of early traumatic experiences only, and individuals with none of these two risk factors with regards to suicidal features. An additive effect was found for the age at the first attempt in suicide attempters with both family history of suicidal behavior and either physical or sexual abuse. No significant interactions were found between family history of suicidal behavior and childhood trauma in relation to any characteristics of suicidal behavior. Subjects presenting family history of suicidal behavior and childhood abuse attempt suicide earlier in life than subjects with just one or none of them, particularly if they were sexually abused. Other suicidality indexes were only partially or not associated with this combination of risk factors. A careful assessment of patients with both family history of suicidal behavior and childhood abuse could help to prevent future suicide attempts, particularly in young people.

  12. Early Predictors of Dyslexia in Chinese Children: Familial History of Dyslexia, Language Delay, and Cognitive Profiles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McBride-Chang, Catherine; Lam, Fanny; Lam, Catherine; Chan, Becky; Fong, Cathy Y. C.; Wong, Terry T. Y.; Wong, Simpson W. L.

    2011-01-01

    Background: This work tested the rates at which Chinese children with either language delay or familial history of dyslexia at age 5 manifested dyslexia at age 7, identified which cognitive skills at age 5 best distinguished children with and without dyslexia at age 7, and examined how these early abilities predicted subsequent literacy skills.…

  13. Aging Parents as Family Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenberg, Jan S.; Becker, Marion

    1988-01-01

    Investigated extent to which aging parents experience stress when problems arise in lives of their adult children, and ways in which they serve as resources to their children in need. Findings from 29 couples over age 60 revealed that mothers experienced significant stress resulting from adult children's problems, whereas fathers experienced…

  14. Announcement: National Family History Day - November 24, 2016.

    PubMed

    2016-11-25

    In 2004, the U.S. Surgeon General declared that Thanksgiving would be National Family History Day, a day designed to encourage American families to learn about and create a written record of their family health history. Family history can identify those persons with a higher-than-average risk for many common diseases, such as heart disease, cancer, and type 2 diabetes. Having at least one first-degree relative with a disease can increase a person's risk twofold or more (1). Family history is also a determinant of less common diseases like sickle cell disease and cystic fibrosis (1). Persons who might be at increased risk because of family history might benefit from screening or other interventions to prevent disease or detect it earlier.

  15. Aging and Family Life: A Decade Review

    PubMed Central

    Silverstein, Merril; Giarrusso, Roseann

    2010-01-01

    In this review, we summarize and critically evaluate the major empirical, conceptual, and theoretical directions that studies of aging families have taken during the first decade of the 21st century. The field has benefited from an expanded perspective based on four overarching themes: (a) complexity in emotional relations, (b) diversity in family structures and households, (c) interdependence of family roles and functions, and (d) patterns and outcomes of caregiving. Although research on aging families has advanced theory and applied innovative statistical techniques, the literature has fallen short in fully representing diverse populations and in applying the broadest set of methodological tools available. We discuss these and other frontier areas of scholarship in light of the aging of baby boomers and their families. PMID:22930600

  16. A Course in Latin American Family History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balmori, Diana

    1981-01-01

    Presents a bibliographic review essay on Latin American families. The essay is presented in three major categories: (1) the family and enterprise; (2) the family--different regions, time periods, and socioeconomic conditions and (3) family networks. Entries include historical literature and articles in the English language, films, and novels. (DB)

  17. Genealogy and Family History in the Academic Library.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Null, David G.

    1985-01-01

    Addresses public and scholarly interest in the fields of family history and genealogy. Highlights include attitudes before and after publication of Alex Haley's "Roots," library literature on genealogy, history of the family as a field of study, and academic library collection development and services. Twenty-five references are provided. (EJS)

  18. Understanding family member suicide narratives by investigating family history.

    PubMed

    Ratnarajah, Dorothy; Maple, Myfanwy; Minichiello, Victor

    2014-01-01

    The complex family environments in which a suicide death had previously occurred were explored in a qualitative study of narratives of suicide-bereaved participants. The participants searched for reasons why the suicide occurred in their family. Family patterning stories and the context of the environment in which the suicide death occurred provided an additional depth of meaning into the relational aspects of the family. Fractured families emerged as an important theme. Shared in the narratives were stories of conditions within the family that may have contributed to vulnerability towards persistent negative feelings about their lives, their family, and their future. The study also identifies the strengths of family culture that led to resilience in the suicide bereaved. These stories highlight the importance of support for those bereaved by the suicide of a close family member and the issues that places people in vulnerable situations that perhaps may explain the increased risk of suicide for those bereaved family members.

  19. Family history: an opportunity for early interventions and improved control of hypertension, obesity and diabetes.

    PubMed Central

    van der Sande, M. A.; Walraven, G. E.; Milligan, P. J.; Banya, W. A.; Ceesay, S. M.; Nyan, O. A.; McAdam, K. P.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine whether a family history of high-risk groups for major noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) was a significant risk factor for these conditions among family members in a study population in the Gambia, where strong community and family coherence are important determinants that have to be taken into consideration in promoting lifestyle changes. METHODS: We questioned 5389 adults as to any first-degree family history of major noncommunicable diseases (hypertension, obesity, diabetes and stroke), and measured their blood pressure (BP) and body mass index (BMI). Total blood cholesterol, triglyceride, uric acid, and creatinine concentrations were measured in a stratified subsample, as well as blood glucose (2 hours after ingesting 75 g glucose) in persons aged > or = 35 years. FINDINGS: A significant number of subjects reported a family history of hypertension (8.0%), obesity (5.4%), diabetes (3.3%) and stroke (1.4%), with 14.6% of participants reporting any of these NCDs. Subjects with a family history of hypertension had a higher diastolic BP and BMI, higher cholesterol and uric acid concentrations, and an increased risk of obesity. Those with a family history of obesity had a higher BMI and were at increased risk of obesity. Individuals with a family history of diabetes had a higher BMI and higher concentrations of glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides and uric acid, and their risk of obesity and diabetes was increased. Subjects with a family history of stroke had a higher BMI, as well as higher cholesterol, triglyceride and uric acid concentrations. CONCLUSIONS: A family history of hypertension, obesity, diabetes, or stroke was a significant risk factor for obesity and hyperlipidaemia. With increase of age, more pathological manifestations can develop in this high-risk group. Health professionals should therefore utilize every opportunity to include direct family members in health education. PMID:11357211

  20. Accuracy of reporting of family history of colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, R J; Brewster, D; Campbell, H; Porteous, M E M; Wyllie, A H; Bird, C C; Dunlop, M G

    2004-01-01

    Background and aims: Family history is used extensively to estimate the risk of colorectal cancer but there is considerable potential for recall bias and inaccuracy. Hence we systematically assessed the accuracy of family history reported at interview compared with actual cancer experience in relatives. Methods: Using face to face interviews, we recorded family history from 199 colorectal cancer cases and 133 community controls, totalling 5637 first and second degree relatives (FDRs/SDRs). We linked computerised cancer registry data to interview information to determine the accuracy of family history reporting. Results: Cases substantially underreported colorectal cancer arising both in FDRs (sensitivity 0.566 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.433, 0.690); specificity 0.990 (95% CI 0.983, 0.994)) and SDRs (sensitivity 0.271 (95% CI 0.166, 0.410); specificity 0.996 (95% CI 0.992, 0.998)). There was no observable difference in accuracy of reporting family history between case and control interviewees. Control subjects similarly underreported colorectal cancer in FDRs (sensitivity 0.529 (95% CI 0.310, 0.738); specificity 0.995 (95% CI 0.989, 0.998)) and SDRs (sensitivity 0.333 (95% CI 0.192, 0.512); specificity 0.995 (95% CI 0.991, 0.995)). To determine practical implications of inaccurate family history, we applied family history criteria before and after record linkage. Only two of five families reported at interview to meet surveillance criteria did so after validation, whereas only two of six families that actually merited surveillance were identified by interview. Conclusions: This study has quantified the inaccuracy of interview in identifying people at risk of colorectal cancer due to a family history. Colorectal cancer was substantially underreported and so family history information should be interpreted with caution. These findings have considerable relevance to identifying patients who merit surveillance colonoscopy and to epidemiological studies. PMID

  1. The context of collecting family health history: examining definitions of family and family communication about health among African American women.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Tess; Seo, Joann; Griffith, Julia; Baxter, Melanie; James, Aimee; Kaphingst, Kimberly A

    2015-04-01

    Public health initiatives encourage the public to discuss and record family health history information, which can inform prevention and screening for a variety of conditions. Most research on family health history discussion and collection, however, has predominantly involved White participants and has not considered lay definitions of family or family communication patterns about health. This qualitative study of 32 African American women-16 with a history of cancer-analyzed participants' definitions of family, family communication about health, and collection of family health history information. Family was defined by biological relatedness, social ties, interactions, and proximity. Several participants noted using different definitions of family for different purposes (e.g., biomedical vs. social). Health discussions took place between and within generations and were influenced by structural relationships (e.g., sister) and characteristics of family members (e.g., trustworthiness). Participants described managing tensions between sharing health information and protecting privacy, especially related to generational differences in sharing information, fear of familial conflict or gossip, and denial (sometimes described as refusal to "own" or "claim" a disease). Few participants reported that anyone in their family kept formal family health history records. Results suggest family health history initiatives should address family tensions and communication patterns that affect discussion and collection of family health history information.

  2. Talking (or Not) about Family Health History in Families of Latino Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corona, Rosalie; Rodríguez, Vivian; Quillin, John; Gyure, Maria; Bodurtha, Joann

    2013-01-01

    Although individuals recognize the importance of knowing their family's health history for their own health, relatively few people (e.g., less than a third in one national survey) collect this type of information. This study examines the rates of family communication about family health history of cancer, and predictors of communication in a…

  3. Interrogating Identity and Social Contexts through "Critical Family History"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, John; Sleeter, Christine; Kumashiro, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    Tracing one's family genealogy is a complex process that requires situating a family's narratives within a historical context. This article reviews the use of critical family history research in an undergraduate Asian American studies course to examine not only the diversity and experiences of Asian Americans but also the unspoken narratives that…

  4. Patterns of family health history communication among older African American adults.

    PubMed

    Hovick, Shelly R; Yamasaki, Jill S; Burton-Chase, Allison M; Peterson, Susan K

    2015-01-01

    This qualitative study examined patterns of communication regarding family health history among older African American adults. The authors conducted 5 focus groups and 6 semi-structured interviews with African Americans aged 60 years and older (N = 28). The authors identified 4 distinct patterns of family health history communication: noncommunication, open communication, selective communication (communication restricted to certain people or topics), and one-way communication (communication not reciprocated by younger family members). In general, participants favored open family health history communication, often resulting from desires to change patterns of noncommunication in previous generations regarding personal and family health history. Some participants indicated that they were selective about what and with whom they shared health information in order to protect their privacy and not worry others. Others described family health history communication as one-way or unreciprocated by younger family members who appeared uninterested or unwilling to share personal and family health information. The communication patterns that the authors identified are consistent with communication privacy management theory and with findings from studies focused on genetic testing results for hereditary conditions, suggesting that individuals are consistent in their communication of health and genetic risk information. Findings may guide the development of health message strategies for African Americans to increase family health history communication.

  5. Cancer Visibility among Iranian Familial Networks: To What Extent Can We Rely on Family History Reports?

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Objective Patients’ unawareness of their cancer diagnosis (PUAW) and their tendency for non-disclosure (TTND) to relatives leads to a lack of cancer visibility among familial networks. Lack of familial cancer visibility could affect the accuracy of family cancer history (FCH) reports. In this study, we investigated familial cancer visibility and its potential determinants. Patients and Methods A sample of patients with a confirmed cancer diagnosis was interviewed. Participants were asked about their number of relatives, number of their relatives who are aware about the cancer diagnosis, and the number of relatives from whom they intended to conceal their diagnosis. PUAW was also assessed. Point estimates and 95% confidence intervals were calculated using the bootstrap technique. Multivariate analyses were conducted using mixed Poisson and logistic regression analyses. Results A total of 415 participants with a mean age of 53±15 years and a male to female ratio of 0.53 were enrolled in this study. The rates of PUAW, TTND, and familial cancer visibility in the total sample were 0.20 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.16, 0.24), 0.16 (95% CI: 0.12, 0.19), and 0.86 (95% CI: 0.83, 0.89), respectively. PUAW (adjusted rate ratio (RR) = 1.32, 95% CI: 1.27, 1.38), TTND (RR = 0.92, 95% CI: 0.91, 0.93), and the patients’ gender (RR = 0.92, 95% CI: 0.82, 0.95) were the most important determinants of familial cancer visibility. Conclusion Familial cancer visibility may be a point of concern among the Iranian population. Self-reported cancer histories and FCHs may have low sensitivities (not exceeding 80% and 86%, respectively) in this population. However, these estimates may vary across different societies, because of societal and cultural contexts. PMID:26308087

  6. THE SCHULHOF FAMILY: SOLVING THE AGE PUZZLE

    SciTech Connect

    Vokrouhlický, David; Ďurech, Josef; Pravec, Petr; Kušnirák, Peter; Hornoch, Kamil; Vraštil, Jan; Krugly, Yurij N.; Inasaridze, Raguli Ya.; Ayvasian, Vova; Zhuzhunadze, Vasili; Pray, Donald; Husárik, Marek; Pollock, Joseph T.; Nesvorný, David

    2016-03-15

    The Schulhof family, a tight cluster of small asteroids around the central main belt body (2384) Schulhof, belongs to a so far rare class of very young families (estimated ages less than 1 Myr). Characterization of these asteroid clusters may provide important insights into the physics of the catastrophic disruption of their parent body. The case of the Schulhof family has been up to now complicated by the existence of two proposed epochs of its origin. In this paper, we first use our own photometric observations, as well as archival data, to determine the rotation rate and spin axis orientation of the largest fragment (2384) Schulhof. Our data also allow us to better constrain the absolute magnitude of this asteroid, and thus also improve the determination of its geometric albedo. Next, using the up-to-date catalog of asteroid orbits, we perform a new search of smaller members in the Schulhof family, increasing their number by 50%. Finally, the available data are used to access Schulhof's family age anew. We now find that the younger of the previously proposed two ages of this family is not correct, resulting from a large orbital uncertainty of single-opposition members. Our new runs reveal a single age solution of about 800 kyr with a realistic uncertainty of 200 kyr.

  7. Maternal family history of hypertension attenuates neonatal pain response.

    PubMed

    France, Christopher R; Taddio, Anna; Shah, Vibhuti S; Pagé, M Gabrielle; Katz, Joel

    2009-04-01

    Reduced sensitivity to naturally occurring and laboratory pain stimuli has been observed in individuals with hypertension, high-normal blood pressure, and a family history of hypertension. The present study sought to extend these findings by examining the relationship between familial history of hypertension and pain responsivity in neonates. Eighty infants had intramuscular (IM) injections of vitamin K performed in the delivery room within 1h of birth as per institutional practice. Video recordings of the injection procedure were used by trained observers to code infant pain responses using facial grimacing and cry duration. Prior to the birth of the child, the infants' parents each completed a family blood pressure history survey and these responses were used to identify infants with and without a maternal and paternal family history of hypertension. As compared to infants without a maternal family history of hypertension, infants with a maternal family history of hypertension had significantly shorter crying times, F(1,74)=6.96, p=.01, eta(2)=.086, and marginally lower facial grimacing scores, F(1,74)=2.68, p=.10, eta(2)=.035, during vitamin K injection. The presence of attenuated responses to the IM injection in neonates with a maternal family history of hypertension provides important and novel evidence that reduced pain responding in individuals at risk for hypertension is not a learned response style, but rather may arise from prenatal or genetic influences.

  8. Relationship of lipoprotein(a) levels to physical activity and family history of coronary heart disease.

    PubMed Central

    Martín, S; Elosua, R; Covas, M I; Pavesi, M; Vila, J; Marrugat, J

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study evaluated the association of physical activity with serum lipoprotein(a) [La(a)] levels in individuals according to whether they had a family history of coronary heart disease (CHD). METHODS: Lp(a) levels in 332 healthy Spanish men aged 20 to 60 years were measured. Physical activity and family history of CHD were assessed. RESULTS: For men with a family history of CHD, the odds ratio for Lp(a) levels above the median value was 0.13 (95% confidence interval = 0.03, 0.50) in very active men (energy expended in physical activity > 300 kcal/day) compared with active men (energy expended in physical activity < 300 kcal/day). CONCLUSIONS: Regular daily physical activity in individuals with a family history of CHD could be useful for controlling Lp(a) levels. PMID:10076490

  9. Family History Is Important for Your Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... death certificates and family medical records, if possible. Collect information about your grandparents, parents, aunts and uncles, nieces and nephews, siblings, and children. The type of information to collect includes • major medical conditions and causes of death, • ...

  10. Relationship between family history of alcohol addiction, parents' education level, and smartphone problem use scale scores.

    PubMed

    Beison, Ashley; Rademacher, David J

    2017-03-01

    Background and aims Smartphones are ubiquitous. As smartphones increased in popularity, researchers realized that people were becoming dependent on their smartphones. The purpose here was to provide a better understanding of the factors related to problematic smartphone use (PSPU). Methods The participants were 100 undergraduates (25 males, 75 females) whose ages ranged from 18 to 23 (mean age = 20 years). The participants completed questionnaires to assess gender, ethnicity, year in college, father's education level, mother's education level, family income, age, family history of alcoholism, and PSPU. The Family Tree Questionnaire assessed family history of alcoholism. The Mobile Phone Problem Use Scale (MPPUS) and the Adapted Cell Phone Addiction Test (ACPAT) were used to determine the degree of PSPU. Whereas the MPPUS measures tolerance, escape from other problems, withdrawal, craving, and negative life consequences, the ACPAT measures preoccupation (salience), excessive use, neglecting work, anticipation, lack of control, and neglecting social life. Results Family history of alcoholism and father's education level together explained 26% of the variance in the MPPUS scores and 25% of the variance in the ACPAT scores. The inclusion of mother's education level, ethnicity, family income, age, year in college, and gender did not significantly increase the proportion of variance explained for either MPPUS or ACPAT scores. Discussion and conclusions Family history of alcoholism and father's education level are good predictors of PSPU. As 74%-75% of the variance in PSPU scale scores was not explained, future studies should aim to explain this variance.

  11. The role of pediatricians in families with a history of familial adenomatous polyposis.

    PubMed

    Augustyn, Ann Marie; Wallerstein, Robert

    2009-07-01

    Colon cancer is not an entity that pediatricians routinely confront; however, a family history of colon cancer can have pediatric implications when it is part of familial adenomatous polyposis syndrome. Colonic (multiple intestinal polyps) and extracolonic manifestations (such as hepatoblastoma or brain tumors) can be the presenting features in children. The authors present 2 patients from different families with familial adenomatous polyposis who presented with the extracolonic manifestation of this syndrome and a family history of colon cancer. Identification of these families and education of their primary care givers can lead to improved screening and management of these high-risk individuals.

  12. Family history of cancer, personal history of medical conditions and risk of oral cavity cancer in France: the ICARE study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of family history of cancer and personal history of other medical conditions in the aetiology of the oral cavity cancer in France. Methods We used data from 689 cases of oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma and 3481 controls included in a population-based case–control study, the ICARE study. Odds-ratios (ORs) associated with family history of cancer and personal medical conditions and their 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were estimated by unconditional logistic regression and were adjusted for age, gender, area of residence, education, body mass index, tobacco smoking and alcohol drinking. Results Personal history of oral candidiasis was related to a significantly increased risk of oral cavity cancer (OR 5.0, 95% CI 2.1-12.1). History of head and neck cancers among the first-degree relatives was associated with an OR of 1.9 (95% CI 1.2-2.8). The risk increased with the number of first-degree relatives with head and neck cancer. Conclusion A family history of head and neck cancer is a marker of an increased risk of oral cavity cancer and should be taken into account to target prevention efforts and screening. Further studies are needed to clarify the association between oral cavity cancer and personal history of candidiasis. PMID:24286495

  13. Aging and Family Life: A Decade Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silverstein, Merril; Giarrusso, Roseann

    2010-01-01

    In this review, we summarize and critically evaluate the major empirical, conceptual, and theoretical directions that studies of aging families have taken during the first decade of the 21st century. The field has benefited from an expanded perspective based on four overarching themes: (a) complexity in emotional relations, (b) diversity in family…

  14. Is a positive family history predictive for recurrent acute otitis media in children? An evidence-based case report.

    PubMed

    Albersen, Monique; Bulatović, Maja; Lindner, Sanneke H; van Stiphout, Feikje; van der Heijden, Geert J M G; Schilder, Anne G M; Rovers, Maroeska M

    2010-01-01

    In this evidence-based case report, we studied the clinical question: Is a positive family history of acute otitis media (AOM) predictive for recurrent acute otitis media (rAOM) in children between zero and two years of age? The search yielded 3178 articles, of which only two were relevant and had a high validity regarding our clinical question. Neither of these two studies provided the final answer to our clinical question because they did not report stratified absolute risks for a positive family history. Fortunately, we were able to study the absolute risks in one of the two studies. The absolute risk of rAOM without distinguishing family history was 33 percent; the risk was 27 percent for children without a family history and 45 percent for children with a positive family history. Family history increases the absolute risk, but not in a way that it will help to predict rAOM accurately.

  15. Family Structure History and Adolescent Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavanagh, Shannon E.

    2008-01-01

    As patterns of union formation and dissolution in adult lives become complex, the living arrangements of American children are becoming increasingly fluid. With a sample (N = 12,843) drawn from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, this study attempted to capture this complexity by mapping out children's family structure histories…

  16. The genetic history of Ice Age Europe

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Qiaomei; Posth, Cosimo; Hajdinjak, Mateja; Petr, Martin; Mallick, Swapan; Fernandes, Daniel; Furtwängler, Anja; Haak, Wolfgang; Meyer, Matthias; Mittnik, Alissa; Nickel, Birgit; Peltzer, Alexander; Rohland, Nadin; Slon, Viviane; Talamo, Sahra; Lazaridis, Iosif; Lipson, Mark; Mathieson, Iain; Schiffels, Stephan; Skoglund, Pontus; Derevianko, Anatoly P.; Drozdov, Nikolai; Slavinsky, Vyacheslav; Tsybankov, Alexander; Cremonesi, Renata Grifoni; Mallegni, Francesco; Gély, Bernard; Vacca, Eligio; González Morales, Manuel R.; Straus, Lawrence G.; Neugebauer-Maresch, Christine; Teschler-Nicola, Maria; Constantin, Silviu; Moldovan, Oana Teodora; Benazzi, Stefano; Peresani, Marco; Coppola, Donato; Lari, Martina; Ricci, Stefano; Ronchitelli, Annamaria; Valentin, Frédérique; Thevenet, Corinne; Wehrberger, Kurt; Grigorescu, Dan; Rougier, Hélène; Crevecoeur, Isabelle; Flas, Damien; Semal, Patrick; Mannino, Marcello A.; Cupillard, Christophe; Bocherens, Hervé; Conard, Nicholas J.; Harvati, Katerina; Moiseyev, Vyacheslav; Drucker, Dorothée G.; Svoboda, Jiří; Richards, Michael P.; Caramelli, David; Pinhasi, Ron; Kelso, Janet; Patterson, Nick; Krause, Johannes; Pääbo, Svante; Reich, David

    2016-01-01

    Modern humans arrived in Europe ~45,000 years ago, but little is known about their genetic composition before the start of farming ~8,500 years ago. We analyze genome-wide data from 51 Eurasians from ~45,000-7,000 years ago. Over this time, the proportion of Neanderthal DNA decreased from 3–6% to around 2%, consistent with natural selection against Neanderthal variants in modern humans. Whereas the earliest modern humans in Europe did not contribute substantially to present-day Europeans, all individuals between ~37,000 and ~14,000 years ago descended from a single founder population which forms part of the ancestry of present-day Europeans. A ~35,000 year old individual from northwest Europe represents an early branch of this founder population which was then displaced across a broad region, before reappearing in southwest Europe during the Ice Age ~19,000 years ago. During the major warming period after ~14,000 years ago, a new genetic component related to present-day Near Easterners appears in Europe. These results document how population turnover and migration have been recurring themes of European pre-history. PMID:27135931

  17. Evolutionary history of the Asr gene family.

    PubMed

    Frankel, Nicolás; Carrari, Fernando; Hasson, Esteban; Iusem, Norberto D

    2006-08-15

    The Asr gene family is widespread in higher plants. Most Asr genes are up-regulated under different environmental stress conditions and during fruit ripening. ASR proteins are localized in the nucleus and their likely function is transcriptional regulation. In cultivated tomato, we identified a novel fourth family member, named Asr4, which maps close to its sibling genes Asr1-Asr2-Asr3 and displays an unshared region coding for a domain containing a 13-amino acid repeat. In this work we were able to expand our previous analysis for Asr2 and investigated the coding regions of the four known Asr paralogous genes in seven tomato species from different geographic locations. In addition, we performed a phylogenetic analysis on ASR proteins. The first conclusion drawn from this work is that tomato ASR proteins cluster together in the tree. This observation can be explained by a scenario of concerted evolution or birth and death of genes. Secondly, our study showed that Asr1 is highly conserved at both replacement and synonymous sites within the genus Lycopersicon. ASR1 protein sequence conservation might be associated with its multiple functions in different tissues while the low rate of synonymous substitutions suggests that silent variation in Asr1 is selectively constrained, which is probably related to its high expression levels. Finally, we found that Asr1 activation under water stress is not conserved between Lycopersicon species.

  18. Practising family history: 'identity' as a category of social practice.

    PubMed

    Bottero, Wendy

    2015-09-01

    Research on family history argues it performs the task of anchoring a sense of 'self' through tracing ancestral connection and cultural belonging, seeing it as a form of storied 'identity-work'. This paper draws on a small-scale qualitative study to think further on the identity-work of family history. Using practice theory, and a disaggregated notion of 'identity', it explores how the storying of family histories relates to genealogy as a leisure hobby, a form of historical research, and an information-processing activity; and examines the social organization of that narrativity, where various practical engagements render certain kinds of genealogical information more, or less, 'storyable'. Key features of 'identity-work' in family history, such as the construction of genealogy as a personal journey of discovery and identification with particular ancestors, emerge as a consequence of the procedures of family history, organized as a set of practical tasks. The paper explores 'identity-work' as a consequence of people's engagement in specific social practices which provide an internal logic to their actions, with various components of 'identity' emerging as categories of practice shaped within, and for, use. Focusing on 'identity' as something produced when we are engaged in doing other things, the paper examines how the practical organization of 'doing other things' helps produce 'identity' in particular ways.

  19. Cabbage family affairs: the evolutionary history of Brassicaceae.

    PubMed

    Franzke, Andreas; Lysak, Martin A; Al-Shehbaz, Ihsan A; Koch, Marcus A; Mummenhoff, Klaus

    2011-02-01

    Life without the mustard family (Brassicaceae) would be a world without many crop species and the model organism Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) that has revolutionized our knowledge in almost every field of modern plant biology. Despite this importance, research breakthroughs in understanding family-wide evolutionary patterns and processes within this flowering plant family were not achieved until the past few years. In this review, we examine recent outcomes from diverse botanical disciplines (taxonomy, systematics, genomics, paleobotany and other fields) to synthesize for the first time a holistic view on the evolutionary history of the mustard family.

  20. Family history of suicide and interpersonal functioning in suicide attempters.

    PubMed

    Rajalin, Mia; Hirvikoski, Tatja; Salander Renberg, Ellinor; Åsberg, Marie; Jokinen, Jussi

    2017-01-01

    Difficulties in interpersonal relationships are associated with a wide range of psychiatric diagnoses and have been reported as a trigger for suicidal behavior, too. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between interpersonal problems and family history of suicide in suicide attempters and to describe relevant patterns of interpersonal problems in this patient group. The study involves 181 patients having their clinical follow-up after a suicide attempt. Family history of suicide was assessed by using the Karolinska Self Harm History Interview or retrieved in patient records. The Inventory of Interpersonal Problems was used to assess personal style in an interpersonal context. Suicide attempters with a family history of suicide had significantly more often an intrusive personal style. The results remained significant after adjustment for personality disorder. The specific interpersonal patterns associated with family history of suicide may interfere with the ability to create stable, long-lasting relationships. In regards to treatment, these personal qualities could cause difficulties in the alliance with health care personnel and make it harder for suicide attempters to accept or benefit from treatment. Attention to suicide attempters' interpersonal problems is of importance to lower their distress.

  1. Notes for a cultural history of family therapy.

    PubMed

    Beels, C Christian

    2002-01-01

    The official history of family therapy describes its beginnings as a daring technical and philosophical departure from traditional individual treatment in the 1960s, inspired especially by the "system thinking" of Gregory Bateson. This celebrated origin story needs to be supplemented with a longer and larger history of both practice and thought about the family, and that is the subject of this article. The longer history goes back to the founding of social work by Mary Richmond, of pragmatism by William James, and of the organic view of social systems intervention by John Dewey. Seen against this background, family therapy is, among other things, a consequence of the development of persistent elements of American professional culture, experience, and philosophy. The taking of this historical-anthropological view discloses also the origins of two other histories that have made their contribution to the development of family therapy: a science of observing communication processes that starts with Edward Sapir and leads to contemporary conversation analysis, and a history of mesmerism in the United States that culminates in Milton Erickson and his followers.

  2. Exploring Gaps of Family History Documentation in EHR for Precision Medicine -A Case Study of Familial Hypercholesterolemia Ascertainment

    PubMed Central

    Mehrabi, Saeed; Wang, Yanshan; Ihrke, Donna; Liu, Hongfang

    2016-01-01

    In the era of precision medicine, accurately identifying familial conditions is crucial for providing target treatment. However, it is challenging to identify familial conditions without detailed family history information. In this work, we studied the documentation of family history of premature cardiovascular disease and hypercholesterolemia. The information on patients’ family history of stroke within the Patient-provided information (PPI) forms was compared with the information gathered by clinicians in clinical notes. The agreement between PPI and clinical notes on absence of family history information in PPI was substantially higher compared to presence of family history. PMID:27570664

  3. Assessing family history of chronic disease in primary care

    PubMed Central

    Carroll, June C.; Campbell-Scherer, Denise; Permaul, Joanne A.; Myers, Jesse; Manca, Donna P.; Meaney, Christopher; Moineddin, Rahim; Grunfeld, Eva

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Objective To assess the proportion of primary care patients who report a family history (FH) of type 2 diabetes, coronary artery disease, breast cancer, or colorectal cancer (CRC); assess concordance of FH information derived from the electronic medical record (EMR) compared with patient-completed health questionnaires; and assess whether appropriate screening was informed by risk based solely on FH. Design Data from the BETTER (Building on Existing Tools to Improve Chronic Disease Prevention and Screening in Primary Care) trial were used. Patients were mailed questionnaires. Baseline FH and screening data were obtained for enrolled patients from the EMR and health questionnaires. Setting Ontario and Alberta. Participants Randomly selected patients from 8 family practices. Main outcome measures Agreement on FH between the EMR and questionnaire was determined; logistic regression was used to assess significant predictors of screening. Results In total, 775 of 789 (98%) patients completed the health questionnaire. The mean age of participants was 52.5 years and 72% were female. A minimum of 12% of patients (range 12% to 36%) had a reported FH of 1 of 4 chronic diseases. Among patients with positive FH, the following proportions of patients had that FH recorded in the EMR compared with the questionnaire: diabetes, 24% in the EMR versus 36% on the questionnaire, κ = 0.466; coronary artery disease, 35% in the EMR versus 22% on the questionnaire, κ = 0.225; breast cancer, 21% in the EMR versus 22% on the questionnaire, κ = 0.241; and CRC, 12% in the EMR versus 14% on the questionnaire, κ = 0.510. There was moderate agreement for diabetes and CRC. The presence of FH was a significant predictor of CRC screening (odds ratio 1.9, 95% CI 1.1 to 3.1). Conclusion A moderate prevalence of FH was found for 4 conditions for which screening recommendations vary with risk based on FH. Having patients self-complete an FH was thought to be feasible; however, questions

  4. Family history of cardiovascular disease is associated with cardiovascular responses to stress in healthy young men and women.

    PubMed

    Wright, Caroline E; O'Donnell, Katie; Brydon, Lena; Wardle, Jane; Steptoe, Andrew

    2007-03-01

    Heightened cardiovascular stress responsivity is associated with cardiovascular disease, but the origins of heightened responsivity are unclear. The present study investigated whether disturbances in cardiovascular responsivity were evident in individuals with a family history of cardiovascular disease risk. Data were collected from 60 women and 31 men with an average age of 21.4 years. Family history of cardiovascular disease risk was defined by the presence of coronary heart disease, hypertension, diabetes or high cholesterol in participants' parents and grandparents; 75 participants had positive, and 16 had negative family histories. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure (BP), heart rate and heart rate variability were measured continuously for 5 min periods at baseline, during two mental stress tasks (Stroop and speech task) and at 10-15 min, 25-30 min and 40-45 min post-stress. Individuals with a positive family history exhibited significantly greater diastolic BP reactivity and poorer systolic and diastolic BP recovery from the stressors in comparison with family history negative individuals. In addition, female participants with a positive family history had heightened heart rate and heart rate variability reactivity to stressors. These effects were independent of baseline cardiovascular activity, body mass index, waist to hip ratio and smoking status. Family history of hypertension alone was not associated with stress responsivity. The findings indicate that a family history of cardiovascular disease risk influences stress responsivity which may in turn contribute to risk of future cardiovascular disorders.

  5. Correlates of Family Health History Discussions between College Students and Physicians: Does Family Cancer History Make a Difference?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Matthew Lee; Sosa, Erica T.; Hochhalter, Angela K.; Covin, Julie; Ory, Marcia G.; McKyer, E. Lisako J.

    2011-01-01

    Effective communication between young adults and their healthcare providers can contribute to early detection of risk for developing cancer and establishment of lifelong habits for engagement in healthcare and health promotion behaviors. Our objectives were to examine factors influencing family health history discussions between college students…

  6. Perceptions of family history and genetic testing and feasibility of pedigree development among African Americans with hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Pettey, Christina M; McSweeney, Jean C; Stewart, Katharine E; Price, Elvin T; Cleves, Mario A; Heo, Seongkum; Souder, Elaine

    2016-01-01

    Background Pedigree development, family history, and genetic testing are thought to be useful in improving outcomes of chronic illnesses such as hypertension (HTN). However, the clinical utility of pedigree development is still unknown. Further, little is known about African Americans’ (AAs’) perceptions of family history and genetic testing. Aims This study examined the feasibility of developing pedigrees for AAs with HTN and explored perceptions of family history and genetic research among AAs with HTN. Methods The US Surgeon General’s My Family Health Portrait was administered, and 30–60 minute in-person individual interviews were conducted. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze pedigree data. Interview transcripts were analyzed with content analysis and constant comparison. Results Twenty-nine AAs with HTN were recruited from one free clinic (15 women, 14 men; mean age 49 years, SD 9.6). Twenty-six (90%) reported their family history in sufficient detail to develop a pedigree. Perceptions of family history included knowledge of HTN in the family, culturally influenced family teaching about HTN, and response to family history of HTN. Most participants agreed to future genetic testing and DNA collection because they wanted to help others; some said they needed more information and others expressed a concern for privacy. Conclusion The majority of AAs in this sample possessed extensive knowledge of HTN within their family and were able to develop a three generation pedigree with assistance. The majority were willing to participate in future genetic research. PMID:25322748

  7. Family history and psychiatric comorbidity in persons with kleptomania.

    PubMed

    Grant, Jon E

    2003-01-01

    The current study was constructed to examine the family history and psychiatric comorbidity of a group of persons with kleptomania. Thirty-one subjects with DSM-IV kleptomania were administered the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV (SCID) and the Minnesota Impulse Disorders Inventory (MIDI). The Family History Research Diagnostic Criteria (FH-RDC) were used to collect information about psychiatric disorders in first-degree relatives. Subjects with kleptomania were more likely than comparison subjects to have any lifetime impulse-control disorder (chi2=12.569; df=1; P<.001) and to have a first-degree relative with an alcohol use disorder (chi2=6.994; df=1; P=.008) or any psychiatric disorder (chi2=12.056; df=1; P=.001). Persons with kleptomania appear to have a higher lifetime prevalence of impulse-control disorders and are more likely to have first-degree relatives with alcohol problems than are comparison subjects.

  8. Impact of national guidelines on family history breast cancer surveillance.

    PubMed

    Saldanha, J D; Garrett, R M; Snaddon, L; Longmuir, M; Bradshaw, N; Watt, C; George, W D; Wilson, C R; Doughty, J C; Stallard, S; Reid, I; Murday, V; Davidson, R

    2011-11-01

    The breast cancer risk of women already under family history surveillance was accurately assessed according to national guidelines in an attempt to rationalize the service. Women attending two breast units in Glasgow between November 2003 and February 2005 were included. One thousand and five women under annual surveillance were assessed and had their relatives diagnoses verified. Four hundred and ninety-seven women were at significantly increased risk and eligible for follow-up. Five hundred and eight (50%) women attending were not eligible for family history surveillance, and 498 (98%) of these women accepted discharge. In conclusion, national guidelines have helped to more clearly define women who should undergo surveillance. This avoids unnecessary and potentially harmful routine investigations, and the service has been improved.

  9. Family history in breast cancer is not a prognostic factor?

    PubMed

    Jobsen, J J; Meerwaldt, J H; van der Palen, J

    2000-04-01

    The aim of this study is to determine if breast conservative treatment is justified for patients with a positive family history of breast cancer and to investigate whether they have a worse prognosis. We performed a prospective cohort study of breast cancer patients, treated with breast conservative treatment with radiotherapy at the Radiotherapy Department of the Medisch Spectrum Twente. Between 1984 and 1996, 1204 patients with T1 and T2 < or =3 cm were treated. Family history (FH) was recorded according to first degree relative (FDR). Treatment consisted of lumpectomy with axillary dissection followed by radiotherapy to the whole breast with a boost to the primary area. Adjuvant systemic therapy was given to patients with positive nodes. A positive FH was noted in 243 (20.5%) patients, of whom 208 (17.6%) had one FDR, and 35 (3.0%) > or =2 FDRs. The local recurrence rate was 4.1%, with similar rates for all groups. In young patients, < or =40 years, a significant relation between local recurrence and FH was found. The distant metastasis rate was 15.5%, with the lowest rate (5.7%) among patients with > or =2 FDRs. Patients with a positive FH had significantly more contralateral tumours. The 5-year corrected survival was 91.3%. Among patients with a positive FH, a 5-year corrected survival of 91% was observed and the survival 100% among patients with one and > or =2 FDR. Family history is not a contraindication for breast conservative treatment and is not associated with a worse prognosis. Family history is not a prognostic factor for local recurrence rate in patients older than 40 years.

  10. Nme protein family evolutionary history, a vertebrate perspective

    PubMed Central

    Desvignes, Thomas; Pontarotti, Pierre; Fauvel, Christian; Bobe, Julien

    2009-01-01

    Background The Nme family, previously known as Nm23 or NDPK, is involved in various molecular processes including tumor metastasis and some members of the family, but not all, exhibit a Nucleoside Diphosphate Kinase (NDPK) activity. Ten genes are known in humans, in which some members have been extensively studied. In non-mammalian species, the Nme protein family has received, in contrast, far less attention. The picture of the vertebrate Nme family remains thus incomplete and orthology relationships with mammalian counterparts were only partially characterized. The present study therefore aimed at characterizing the Nme gene repertoire in vertebrates with special interest for teleosts, and providing a comprehensive overview of the Nme gene family evolutionary history in vertebrates. Results In the present study, we present the evolutionary history of the Nme family in vertebrates and characterize the gene family repertoire for the first time in several non-mammalian species. Our observations show that vertebrate Nme genes can be separated in two evolutionary distinct groups. Nme1, Nme2, Nme3, and Nme4 belong to Group I while vertebrate Nme5, Nme6, Nme7, Nme8, and Nme9 belong to Group II. The position of Nme10 is in contrast more debatable due to its very specific evolutionary history. The present study clearly indicates that Nme5, Nme6, Nme7, and Nme8 originate from duplication events that occurred before the chordate radiation. In contrast, Nme genes of the Group I have a very different evolutionary history as our results suggest that they all arise from a common gene present in the chordate ancestor. In addition, expression patterns of all zebrafish nme transcripts were studied in a broad range of tissues by quantitative PCR and discussed in the light of the function of their mammalian counterparts. Conclusion This work offers an evolutionary framework that will pave the way for future studies on vertebrate Nme proteins and provides a unified vertebrate Nme

  11. The Context of Collecting Family Health History: Examining Definitions of Family and Family Communication About Health Among African American Women

    PubMed Central

    THOMPSON, TESS; SEO, JOANN; GRIFFITH, JULIA; BAXTER, MELANIE; JAMES, AIMEE; KAPHINGST, KIMBERLY A.

    2015-01-01

    Public health initiatives encourage the public to discuss and record family health history (FHH) information, which can inform prevention and screening for a variety of conditions. Most research on FHH discussion and collection, however, has involved predominantly White participants and has not considered lay definitions of family or family communication patterns about health. This qualitative study of 32 African American women, 16 with a history of cancer, analyzed participants’ definitions of family, family communication about health, and collection of FHH information. “Family” was defined by biological relatedness, social ties, interactions, and proximity. Several participants noted using different definitions of family for different purposes (e.g. biomedical vs. social). Health discussions took place between and within generations and were influenced by structural relationships (e.g. sister) and characteristics of family members (e.g. trustworthiness). Participants described managing tensions between sharing health information and protecting privacy, especially related to generational differences in sharing information, fear of familial conflict or gossip, and denial (sometimes described as refusal to “own” or “claim” a disease). Few participants reported that anyone in their family kept formal FHH records. Results suggest FHH initiatives should address family tensions and communication patterns that affect discussion and collection of FHH information. PMID:25730634

  12. Renal outcomes in children with lupus and a family history of autoimmune disease.

    PubMed

    Apenteng, T; Kaplan, B; Meyers, K

    2006-01-01

    Genetic factors play an important role in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) susceptibility and development of lupus nephritis (LN). The significance, however, of a positive family history of autoimmune disease on renal outcome in SLE patients is unknown. This retrospective study of 64 children with LN investigates whether children with LN and a family history of AID (autoimmune disease; 34 patients) had worse renal outcomes when compared with children who did not have a family history (26 patients) of AID. In four patients the family history was unknown. The primary endpoint was doubling of serum creatinine (sCr) and the secondary endpoint was requiring dialysis or transplant (ESRD). Demographic variables for family history + versus mean age in years (range) at onset of LN were 13.5 (7.4-15.9) versus 13.2 (6.4-19.7); female 26: 34 (76%) versus 24: 26 (92%), P = 0.097; race Black 23 (68%), Caucasian 7 (21%), Asian 1 (2%), Hispanic 3(9%) versus Black 14 (54%), Caucasian 6 (23%), Asian 2 (8%), Hispanic 4 (15%). Three patients died (1.6%); sCr doubled in 6/34 (17.6%) versus 2/26 (7.7%), P = 0.45, followed for 2.8 years (0.8-5.8) and 1.8 years (1.8-1.9), respectively, P = 0.24; sCr doubled plus ESRD in 10/34 (29%) versus 6/26 (23%), P = 0.77, followed for 2.7 years (0.8-5.8) and 2.0 years (0.7-4.1) respectively, P = 0.29. In the family history + group, more Black versus non-Black patients doubled their sCr or reached ESRD, 8/23 (35%) versus 2/11 (18%), P = 0.44. More males and Black patients with LN had a positive family history for AID and were more likely to double their sCr or reach ESRD. These results suggest that a family history of AID impacts on renal outcome in children with SLE.

  13. Families with school-age children.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Kathleen; Schneider, Barbara; Butler, Donnell

    2011-01-01

    Most working parents face a common dilemma--how to care for their children when they are not in school but the parents are at work. In this article Kathleen Christensen, Barbara Schneider, and Donnell Butler describe the predictable and unpredictable scheduling demands school-age children place on working couples and single working parents. The authors assess the potential capacity of schools to help meet the needs of working families through changes in school schedules and after-school programs and conclude that the flexibility parents need to balance family-work responsibilities probably cannot be found in the school setting. They argue that workplaces are better able than schools to offer the flexibility that working parents need to attend to basic needs of their children, as well as to engage in activities that enhance their children's academic performance and emotional and social well-being. Two types of flexible work practices seem especially well suited to parents who work: flextime arrangements that allow parents to coordinate their work schedules with their children's school schedules, and policies that allow workers to take short periods of time off--a few hours or a day or two-to attend a parent-teacher conference, for example, or care for a child who has suddenly fallen ill. Many companies that have instituted such policies have benefited through employees' greater job satisfaction and employee retention. Yet despite these measured benefits to employers, workplaces often fall short of being family friendly. Many employers do not offer such policies or offer them only to employees at certain levels or in certain types of jobs. Flexible work practices are almost nonexistent for low-income workers, who are least able to afford alternative child care and may need flexibility the most. Moreover the authors find that even employees in firms with flexible practices such as telecommuting may be reluctant to take advantage of them, because the workplace culture

  14. Family history in public health practice: a genomic tool for disease prevention and health promotion.

    PubMed

    Valdez, Rodolfo; Yoon, Paula W; Qureshi, Nadeem; Green, Ridgely Fisk; Khoury, Muin J

    2010-01-01

    Family history is a risk factor for many chronic diseases, including cancer, cardiovascular disease, and diabetes. Professional guidelines usually include family history to assess health risk, initiate interventions, and motivate behavioral changes. The advantages of family history over other genomic tools include a lower cost, greater acceptability, and a reflection of shared genetic and environmental factors. However, the utility of family history in public health has been poorly explored. To establish family history as a public health tool, it needs to be evaluated within the ACCE framework (analytical validity; clinical validity; clinical utility; and ethical, legal, and social issues). Currently, private and public organizations are developing tools to collect standardized family histories of many diseases. Their goal is to create family history tools that have decision support capabilities and are compatible with electronic health records. These advances will help realize the potential of family history as a public health tool.

  15. Gastric cancer risk factors in subjects with family history.

    PubMed

    Muñoz, S E; Ferraroni, M; La Vecchia, C; Decarli, A

    1997-02-01

    Until now, it has been unclear whether there are differences in various risk factor profiles for familial gastric cancer, i.e., gastric cancer among subjects with a family history of the disease. A total of 722 gastric cancer patients and 2024 controls were admitted between 1985 and 1992 to a network of hospitals in the Greater Milan area. Of these, 88 cases and 103 controls who reported a family history of gastric cancer in first degree relatives were considered in the present analysis. There was no relationship between gastric cancer risk and tobacco smoking or alcohol drinking. Shorter duration of electrical refrigerator use was related to a nonsignificant increased risk and a high daily meal frequency was associated with an increased gastric cancer risk. Significant direct trends of risk were observed for pasta (odds ratio, OR = 4.20 for the highest versus the lowest tertile), bread (OR, 2.86), red meat (OR, 3.38), and preserved meat (OR, 1.90). Inverse associations were observed for increasing consumption of selected vegetables and fruits, chiefly peppers (OR = 0.31), total fruits (OR, 0.47), and citrus fruits (OR, 0.38). With reference to selected micronutrients, a significant inverse trend in risk with increasing consumption for beta-carotene (OR, 0.27) and ascorbic acid (OR, 0.20) was observed. These results suggest that dietary risk factors for subjects with a family history of gastric cancer in first-degree relatives are not appreciably different from well-established risk factors of the disease in the general population.

  16. Risk of Second Cancer in Hodgkin Lymphoma Survivors and Influence of Family History.

    PubMed

    Sud, Amit; Thomsen, Hauke; Sundquist, Kristina; Houlston, Richard S; Hemminki, Kari

    2017-03-13

    Purpose Although advances in Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) treatment have led to improved disease-free survival, this has been accompanied by an increased risk of second cancers. We sought to quantify the second cancer risks and to investigate the impact of family history. Patients and Methods Using the Swedish Family-Cancer Project Database, we identified 9,522 individuals with primary HL diagnosed between 1965 and 2012. We calculated standardized incidence ratios and cumulative incidence of second cancer in HL survivors and compared the standardized incidence ratios of lung, breast, colorectal, and all second cancers in HL survivors with and without a site-specific family history of cancer. Interactions between family history of cancer and HL treatment were evaluated under additive and multiplicative models. Results Overall, the risk of a second cancer in HL survivors was increased 2.39-fold (95% CI, 2.29 to 2.53). The 30-year cumulative incidence of breast cancer in women diagnosed with HL at younger than 35 years of age was 13.8%. We observed no significant difference in cancer risk over successive time periods. The risk of all second cancers was 1.3-fold higher for HL survivors with a first-degree relative with cancer ( P < .001), with 3.3-fold, 2.1-fold, and 1.8-fold differences shown for lung, colorectal, and breast cancers, respectively. Moreover, a greater than additive interaction between family history of lung cancer and HL treatment was shown ( P = .03). Conclusion HL survivorship is associated with a substantive risk of a second cancer. Notably, the risk is higher in individuals with a family history of cancer. This information should be used to inform risk-adapted therapy and to assist in screening to reduce long-term morbidity and mortality in patients with HL.

  17. Factors associated with young adults' knowledge regarding family history of Stroke 1

    PubMed Central

    Lima, Maria Jose Melo Ramos; Moreira, Thereza Maria Magalhães; Florêncio, Raquel Sampaio; Braga, Predro

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: to analyze the factors associated with young adults' knowledge regarding family history of stroke. Method: an analytical transversal study, with 579 young adults from state schools, with collection of sociodemographic, clinical and risk factor-related variables, analyzed using logistic regression (backward elimination). Results: a statistical association was detected between age, civil status, and classification of arterial blood pressure and abdominal circumference with knowledge of family history of stroke. In the final logistic regression model, a statistical association was observed between knowledge regarding family history of stroke and the civil status of having a partner (ORa=1.61[1.07-2.42]; p=0.023), abdominal circumference (ORa=0.98[0.96-0.99]; p=0.012) and normal arterial blood pressure (ORa=2.56[1.19-5.52]; p=0.016). Conclusion: an association was observed between socioeconomic factors and risk factors for stroke and knowledge of family history of stroke, suggesting the need for health education or even educational programs on this topic for the clientele in question. PMID:27878217

  18. The Effect of Positive Family History of Autoimmunity in Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis Characteristics; a Case Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Khani, Mehdi; Ziaee, Vahid; Moradinejad, Mohamad-Hassan; Parvaneh, Nima

    2013-01-01

    Objective To compare Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis (JIA) patients with and without family history of autoimmune disease with respect to clinical features and laboratory data. Methods Sixteen JIA patients with family history of autoimmune disease were identified during study, 32 patients were chosen for comparative group from referred patients to the rheumatology clinic according to the date of referral. Two groups were compared with respect to age of onset, sex, subtype, disease activity, duration of active disease and laboratory variables. Findings The age of onset was significantly lower in JIA patients with family history of autoimmunity (4.7 years vs. 7.0 years; P=0.02), polyarthicular subtype was more frequent in patients with positive family history (50% vs.25%; P=0.04) most of JIA patients with positive family history were in the active phase at the time of study (64% vs 25%; P=0.02) and had a longer duration of active disease (21.0 months vs 12.3 months; P=0.04). Patients with positive family history had more positive ANA (43.5%% vs 12.5%; P=0.01) and also more positive ADA (75% vs 20.8%; P=0.002). Two groups were similar according to sex, and other laboratory variables. Conclusion JIA patients with family history of autoimmune disease seem to have a more severe disease than patients without such family history, they are younger at the onset, and have mostly poyarthicular subtype. They also have more ANA and ADA positivity. These findings are different from familial JIA case-control studies according to active disease duration, subtype, and ANA positivity. PMID:24800019

  19. Assessment of the role of general, biochemical and family history characteristics in kidney stone formation

    PubMed Central

    Jabbar, Faiza; Asif, Muhammad; Dutani, Hajirah; Hussain, Abrar; Malik, Arif; Kamal, Mohammad Amjad; Rasool, Mahmood

    2014-01-01

    Aim The main objective of the study was to determine the urinary risk factors involved in kidney stone formation. Method In this study a total number of 101 patients (64 males and 37 females) between the age group 2 and 70 years were selected. Personal characteristics like age, family history, clinical sign and symptoms, education, monthly income, living style, smoking or tobacco chewing habit, dietary intake and daily amount of drinking water were recorded. Results The study showed that the risk of kidney stone formation was high in the median age group (16–25 years) both in male and female population. The most important factors associated with this were lack of drinking clean water, over weight and obesity as well as family history (37.5% and 27.02% in men and women, respectively). Conclusion Our study has confirmed that lack of drinking sufficient amount of water, increasing weight and obesity and family history are some major factors contributing to the increased risk of kidney stone formation. Therefore it is very important to live a healthy life, drink clean water and control weight to prevent such diseases. PMID:25561886

  20. Passive absolute age and temperature history sensor

    DOEpatents

    Robinson, Alex; Vianco, Paul T.

    2015-11-10

    A passive sensor for historic age and temperature sensing, including a first member formed of a first material, the first material being either a metal or a semiconductor material and a second member formed of a second material, the second material being either a metal or a semiconductor material. A surface of the second member is in contact with a surface of the first member such that, over time, the second material of the second member diffuses into the first material of the first member. The rate of diffusion for the second material to diffuse into the first material depends on a temperature of the passive sensor. One of the electrical conductance, the electrical capacitance, the electrical inductance, the optical transmission, the optical reflectance, or the crystalline structure of the passive sensor depends on the amount of the second material that has diffused into the first member.

  1. Personal Factors Associated with Reported Benefits of Huntington Disease Family History or Genetic Testing

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Janet K.; Erwin, Cheryl; Juhl, Andrew; Mills, James; Brossman, Bradley

    2010-01-01

    Aims: A family history of Huntington disease (HD) or receiving results of HD predictive genetic testing can influence individual well-being, family relationships, and social interactions in positive and negative ways. The aim of this study was to examine benefits reported by people with an HD family history or those who have undergone predictive HD testing, as well as the personal variables associated with perceived benefits. Methods: Seventy-four of 433 people completing the International Response of a Sample Population to HD risk (I-RESPOND-HD) survey reported benefits. Knowledge and understanding was perceived as the most common benefit from participants in both groups. The next most frequent perceived benefits from a family history were connecting with others and achieving life meaning and insights. The next most common perceived benefits from genetic testing were life planning and social support. The least common perceived benefit for both groups was renewed hope and optimism. Older age and spirituality were significantly associated with benefits in both groups. Conclusions: Perceptions of benefit may not be as likely until later years in people with prodromal HD. A developed sense of spirituality is identified as a personal resource associated with the perception of benefit from genetic testing for HD. Associations among spirituality, perceived benefits, and other indicators of personal and family well-being may be useful in genetic counseling and health care of people with prodromal HD. PMID:20722493

  2. Family history of cancer and the risk of laryngeal cancer: a case-control study from Italy and Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Garavello, Werner; Turati, Federica; Bosetti, Cristina; Talamini, Renato; Levi, Fabio; Lucenteforte, Ersilia; Chiesa, Fausto; Franceschi, Silvia; La Vecchia, Carlo; Negri, Eva

    2012-02-01

    Only limited data is available on the relationship between family history of laryngeal and other neoplasms and laryngeal cancer risk. We investigated the issue using data from a multicentre case-control study conducted in Italy and Switzerland between 1992 and 2009 including 852 cases with histologically confirmed laryngeal cancer and 1970 controls admitted to hospital for acute, non neoplastic conditions. Unconditional logistic regression models adjusted for age, sex, study center, education, tobacco smoking, alcohol drinking and number of siblings were used to estimate the odds ratios (ORs) of laryngeal cancer. The multivariate OR was 2.8 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.5-5.3) in subjects reporting a first-degree relative with laryngeal cancer, as compared to subjects with no family history. The OR was higher when the relative was diagnosed before 60 years of age (OR = 3.5, 95% CI 1.4-8.8). As compared to subjects without family history, non-smokers, and moderate drinkers, the OR was 37.1 (95% CI 9.9-139.4) for current smokers, heavy drinkers, with family history of laryngeal cancer. Family history of colorectal (OR = 1.5, 95% CI 1.0-2.3) and kidney (OR = 3.8, 95% CI 1.2-12.1) cancer were also associated to an increased risk of laryngeal cancer, while no significant increase in risk was found for family history of cancer at all sites, excluding the larynx (OR = 1.1).

  3. The genetic history of Ice Age Europe.

    PubMed

    Fu, Qiaomei; Posth, Cosimo; Hajdinjak, Mateja; Petr, Martin; Mallick, Swapan; Fernandes, Daniel; Furtwängler, Anja; Haak, Wolfgang; Meyer, Matthias; Mittnik, Alissa; Nickel, Birgit; Peltzer, Alexander; Rohland, Nadin; Slon, Viviane; Talamo, Sahra; Lazaridis, Iosif; Lipson, Mark; Mathieson, Iain; Schiffels, Stephan; Skoglund, Pontus; Derevianko, Anatoly P; Drozdov, Nikolai; Slavinsky, Vyacheslav; Tsybankov, Alexander; Cremonesi, Renata Grifoni; Mallegni, Francesco; Gély, Bernard; Vacca, Eligio; Morales, Manuel R González; Straus, Lawrence G; Neugebauer-Maresch, Christine; Teschler-Nicola, Maria; Constantin, Silviu; Moldovan, Oana Teodora; Benazzi, Stefano; Peresani, Marco; Coppola, Donato; Lari, Martina; Ricci, Stefano; Ronchitelli, Annamaria; Valentin, Frédérique; Thevenet, Corinne; Wehrberger, Kurt; Grigorescu, Dan; Rougier, Hélène; Crevecoeur, Isabelle; Flas, Damien; Semal, Patrick; Mannino, Marcello A; Cupillard, Christophe; Bocherens, Hervé; Conard, Nicholas J; Harvati, Katerina; Moiseyev, Vyacheslav; Drucker, Dorothée G; Svoboda, Jiří; Richards, Michael P; Caramelli, David; Pinhasi, Ron; Kelso, Janet; Patterson, Nick; Krause, Johannes; Pääbo, Svante; Reich, David

    2016-06-09

    Modern humans arrived in Europe ~45,000 years ago, but little is known about their genetic composition before the start of farming ~8,500 years ago. Here we analyse genome-wide data from 51 Eurasians from ~45,000-7,000 years ago. Over this time, the proportion of Neanderthal DNA decreased from 3-6% to around 2%, consistent with natural selection against Neanderthal variants in modern humans. Whereas there is no evidence of the earliest modern humans in Europe contributing to the genetic composition of present-day Europeans, all individuals between ~37,000 and ~14,000 years ago descended from a single founder population which forms part of the ancestry of present-day Europeans. An ~35,000-year-old individual from northwest Europe represents an early branch of this founder population which was then displaced across a broad region, before reappearing in southwest Europe at the height of the last Ice Age ~19,000 years ago. During the major warming period after ~14,000 years ago, a genetic component related to present-day Near Easterners became widespread in Europe. These results document how population turnover and migration have been recurring themes of European prehistory.

  4. Family history and apoE genotype interaction in Alzheimer`s disease (AD)

    SciTech Connect

    Jarvik, G.P.; Kukull, W.A.; Goddards, K.

    1994-09-01

    The apoE {epsilon}4 allele is associated with increased risk and decreased age of onset of AD. The {epsilon}4 allele may have opposing effects. We determined that family history of a parent or sib with memory problems (famhx+) modified the effect of apoE genotype in a population-based, case (n=165, 72 famhx+)-control (n=233, 73 famhx+) sample. Logistic regression analyses detected a significant apoE genotype (E) by family history (F) by age (A) interaction (ExFxA, p=0.003) and ExF interaction (p=0.0001) in the prediction of AD. ExFxA remained significant when only {epsilon}4+ genotypes were included (p<0.01). ExFxSex (p=0.04) and ExF (p<0.0001) were significant when only {epsilon}4- genotypes were included. Similary, multiple regression detected significant ExF interaction in the prediction of age of AD onset for {epsilon}4+ genotypes (p=0.04) or {epsilon}4- genotypes (p=0.04). Sex did not interact in the prediction of age of onset. Famhx+ increased risk of AD differentially and reduced age of onset except in {epsilon}2+ genotypes. Family history modifies the apoE genotype influence on risk and onset age of AD, suggesting that non-apoE genetic effects interact with apoE in AD. It is most predictive of risk in those with the {epsilon}2{epsilon}3 genotype. Variation in risk and onset among both {epsilon}4+ and {epsilon}4- genotypes demonstrate that {epsilon}2 and {epsilon}3 mediate {epsilon}4 allele effects in AD.

  5. The LEGACY Girls Study: Growth and development in the context of breast cancer family history

    PubMed Central

    John, Esther M.; Terry, Mary Beth; Keegan, Theresa H.M.; Bradbury, Angela R.; Knight, Julia A.; Chung, Wendy K.; Frost, Caren J.; Lilge, Lothar; Patrick-Miller, Linda; Schwartz, Lisa A.; Whittemore, Alice S.; Buys, Saundra S.; Daly, Mary B.; Andrulis, Irene L.

    2017-01-01

    Background Although the timing of pubertal milestones has been associated with breast cancer risk, few studies of girls’ development include girls at increased breast cancer risk due to their family history. Methods The LEGACY (Lessons in Epidemiology and Genetics of Adult Cancer from Youth) Girls Study was initiated in 2011 in the USA and Canada to assess the relation between early-life exposures and intermediate markers of breast cancer risk (e.g., pubertal development, breast tissue characteristics) and to investigate psychosocial well-being and health behaviors in the context of family history. We describe the methods used to establish and follow a cohort of 1,040 girls ages 6–13 years at baseline, half with a breast cancer family history, and the collection of questionnaire data (family history, early-life exposures, growth and development, psychosocial and behavioral), anthropometry, biospecimens, and breast tissue characteristics using optical spectroscopy. Results During this initial 5-year phase of the study, follow-up visits are conducted every six months for repeated data and biospecimen collection. Participation in baseline components was high (98% for urine, 97.5% for blood or saliva, and 98% for anthropometry). At enrollment, 77% of girls were pre-menarcheal and 49% were at breast Tanner stage T1. Conclusions This study design allows thorough examination of events affecting girls’ growth and development and how they differ across the spectrum of breast cancer risk. A better understanding of early-life breast cancer risk factors will be essential to enhance prevention across the lifespan for those with and without a family history of the disease. PMID:26829160

  6. Age Trends in the Experience of Family Discord in Single-Mother Families across Adolescence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dworkin, Jodi B.; Larson, Reed

    2001-01-01

    Utilized the Family Environment Scale and the Experience Sampling Method to evaluate how family discord was related to adolescents' age, in 101 single-mother families. Mothers' reports of overall discord decreased across adolescence. In immediate interactions, boys reported feeling more anger towards their mothers with age, while girls reported…

  7. The association between family history of mental disorder and delusional-like experiences: a general population study.

    PubMed

    Varghese, Daniel; Saha, Sukanta; Scott, James D; Chan, Raymond C K; McGrath, John J

    2011-06-01

    Recent studies have indicated that isolated delusional-like experiences (DLE) are common in the general population. Furthermore, there is preliminary evidence to suggest that these experiences are more common in those with a family history of mental disorders. We had the opportunity to explore the association between family history of a wide range of mental disorders and DLE in an Australian general population survey. The Australian National Survey of Mental Health and Wellbeing 2007 examined 8,841 adult community residents. The Composite International Diagnostic Interview was used to generate various DSM-IV lifetime diagnoses and to assess DLE. The participants were asked to report mental disorders in their first-degree relatives. The influence of family history of mental disorders on DLE endorsement was assessed with logistic regression, with adjustments for age, sex, and the presence of comorbid psychiatric diagnoses in the respondents. A family history of anxiety, depression, schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, or alcohol or illicit drug abuse/dependence was each significantly associated with endorsement of DLE, and these associations remained significant when we adjusted for the presence of mental illness in the respondents. When we examined a more restrictive definition of DLE, only a family history of depression and schizophrenia remained significantly associated with DLE. DLE are associated with a family history of a wide range of mental disorders. These findings suggest that familial factors associated with DLE may be shared with a wide range of common mental disorders.

  8. Does family history of depression predict major depression in midlife women? Study of Women's Health Across the Nation Mental Health Study (SWAN MHS).

    PubMed

    Colvin, Alicia; Richardson, Gale A; Cyranowski, Jill M; Youk, Ada; Bromberger, Joyce T

    2014-08-01

    This study aims to determine whether family history of depression predicts major depression in midlife women independent of psychosocial and health profiles at midlife. Participants were 303 African American and Caucasian women (42-52 years at baseline) recruited into the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation (SWAN) and the Women's Mental Health Study (MHS) in Pittsburgh. Major depression was assessed annually with the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV. Family mental health history was collected at the ninth or tenth follow-up. Multivariable logistic regression was used to determine whether family history of depression predicted major depression in midlife, adjusting for covariates. The odds of experiencing major depression during the study were three times greater for those with a family history than for those without a family history (OR = 3.22, 95% CI = 1.95-5.31). Family history predicted depression (OR = 2.67, 95% CI = 1.50-4.78) after adjusting for lifetime history of depression, age, trait anxiety, chronic medical conditions, and stressful life events. In analyses stratified by lifetime history of depression, family history significantly predicted depression only among women with a lifetime history of depression. Family history of depression predicts major depression in midlife women generally, but particularly in those with a lifetime history of depression prior to midlife.

  9. Allergic and non-allergic rhinitis: relationship with nasal polyposis, asthma and family history.

    PubMed

    Gelardi, M; Iannuzzi, L; Tafuri, S; Passalacqua, G; Quaranta, N

    2014-02-01

    Rhinitis and rhinosinusitis (with/without polyposis), either allergic or non-allergic, represent a major medical problem. Their associated comorbidities and relationship with family history have so far been poorly investigated. We assessed these aspects in a large population of patients suffering from rhinosinusal diseases. Clinical history, nasal cytology, allergy testing and direct nasal examination were performed in all patients referred for rhinitis/rhinosinusitis. Fibre optic nasal endoscopy, CT scan and nasal challenge were used for diagnosis, when indicated. A total of 455 patients (60.7% male, age range 4-84 years) were studied; 108 (23.7%) had allergic rhinitis, 128 (28.1%) rhinosinusitis with polyposis, 107 (23.5%) non-allergic rhinitis (negative skin test); 112 patients had associated allergic and non-allergic rhinitis, the majority with eosinophilia. There was a significant association between non-allergic rhinitis and family history of nasal polyposis (OR = 4.45; 95%CI = 1.70-11.61; p = 0.0019), whereas this association was no longer present when allergic rhinitis was also included. Asthma was equally frequent in non-allergic and allergic rhinitis, but more frequent in patients with polyposis. Aspirin sensitivity was more frequent in nasal polyposis, independent of the allergic (p = 0.03) or non-allergic (p = 0.01) nature of rhinitis. Nasal polyposis is significantly associated with asthma and positive family history of asthma, partially independent of the allergic aetiology of rhinitis.

  10. Impact of family hypertension history on exercise-induced cardiac remodeling.

    PubMed

    Baggish, Aaron L; Weiner, Rory B; Yared, Kibar; Wang, Francis; Kupperman, Eli; Hutter, Adolph M; Picard, Michael H; Wood, Malissa J

    2009-07-01

    Left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy is a well-established, but highly variable, finding among exercise-trained persons. The causes for the variability in LV remodeling in response to exercise training remain incompletely understood. The present study sought to determine whether a family history of hypertension is a determinant of the cardiac response to exercise training. The cardiac parameters in 60 collegiate rowers (30 men/30 women; age 19.8 +/- 1.1 years) with (family history positive [FH+], n = 22) and without (family history negative [FH-], n = 38) a FH of hypertension were studied with echocardiography before and after 90 days of rowing training. The LV mass increased significantly in both groups. However, the LV mass increased significantly more in FH- persons (Delta 17 +/- 5 g/m(2)) than in FH+ persons (Delta 9 +/- 6 g/m(2), p <0.001) with distinctly differently patterns of LV hypertrophy between the 2 groups. FH- athletes experienced eccentric LV hypertrophy (relative wall thickness index 0.39 +/- 0.4) characterized by LV dilation. In contrast, FH+ athletes developed concentric LV hypertrophy (relative wall thickness index 0.44 +/- 0.3; p <0.001) characterized by LV wall thickening. Furthermore, the eccentric LV remodeling in FH- athletes was associated with a more robust enhancement of LV diastolic function than the concentric LV remodeling that occurred in FH+ athletes. In conclusion, these findings suggest that patterns of exercise-induced LV remodeling are strongly associated with FH history status.

  11. Lay perceptions of predictive testing for diabetes based on DNA test results versus family history assessment: a focus group study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background This study assessed lay perceptions of issues related to predictive genetic testing for multifactorial diseases. These perceived issues may differ from the "classic" issues, e.g. autonomy, discrimination, and psychological harm that are considered important in predictive testing for monogenic disorders. In this study, type 2 diabetes was used as an example, and perceptions with regard to predictive testing based on DNA test results and family history assessment were compared. Methods Eight focus group interviews were held with 45 individuals aged 35-70 years with (n = 3) and without (n = 1) a family history of diabetes, mixed groups of these two (n = 2), and diabetes patients (n = 2). All interviews were transcribed and analysed using Atlas-ti. Results Most participants believed in the ability of a predictive test to identify people at risk for diabetes and to motivate preventive behaviour. Different reasons underlying motivation were considered when comparing DNA test results and a family history risk assessment. A perceived drawback of DNA testing was that diabetes was considered not severe enough for this type of risk assessment. In addition, diabetes family history assessment was not considered useful by some participants, since there are also other risk factors involved, not everyone has a diabetes family history or knows their family history, and it might have a negative influence on family relations. Respect for autonomy of individuals was emphasized more with regard to DNA testing than family history assessment. Other issues such as psychological harm, discrimination, and privacy were only briefly mentioned for both tests. Conclusion The results suggest that most participants believe a predictive genetic test could be used in the prevention of multifactorial disorders, such as diabetes, but indicate points to consider before both these tests are applied. These considerations differ with regard to the method of assessment (DNA test or obtaining

  12. The Succession of Lineage Roles as Families Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenthal, Carolyn J.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Studied the succession of roles adopted from generation to generation as patterned in relation to the family life course, changes in health and dependency of various generations and factors such as family size, birth order, and sex. Proposes a conceptual framework for an analysis of aging and the family. (Author)

  13. Recurrence of Preterm Delivery in Women with a Family History of Preterm Delivery.

    PubMed

    Sherf, Yehonatan; Sheiner, Eyal; Vardi, Ilana Shoham; Sergienko, Ruslan; Klein, Jamie; Bilenko, Natalya

    2017-03-01

    Objective This study aims to evaluate the role of a family history of preterm delivery on the risk of preterm delivery in the next generation. Study Design A retrospective population-based study was conducted. Perinatal information was gathered from 2,303 familial triads, composed of mothers (F1), daughters (F2), and children (F3). All births occurred in the same regional medical center between the years 1991 and 2013. Statistical analysis using logistic regression was performed to define the risk of F2 delivering a preterm baby (F3) if she was born preterm herself, and then to define the risk of F2 delivering preterm if her mother (F1) gave birth preterm during any of her birthing events. Results The risk for preterm delivery of the F2 parturient was 34% greater if their mother (F1) at any of her births had delivered preterm, controlling for parity, maternal age at delivery, and preeclampsia (adjusted odds ratio: 1.34, 95% confidence interval: -1.01 to 1.77; p = 0.042). Conclusion The family history of preterm delivery is an independent risk factor for preterm delivery. The family history includes the mother as well as one of the mother's sisters (F2 generation) being born preterm.

  14. Expanded IT-15 genes in patients without known family history of Huntington Disease

    SciTech Connect

    Buchanan, J.A.; Klock, R.J.; Kennedu, D.

    1994-09-01

    The NYGH laboratory is funded by the Ontario Ministry of Health to provide DNA-based diagnostic and predictive testing for HD through a network of provincial Genetics centres. To date, samples from 146 apparently independent kindreds were received to test and/or bank for HD. Not all have been assayed for size of the IT-15 gene, but in 19 cases an expansion (> 39 CAG repeats) was found despite lack of known family history. These cases were classified according to the likelihood that they are true {open_quotes}new{close_quotes} full expansions in IT-15. Six were unlikely, due to a lack of information (adoption, history uncertain, or pedigree not provided). Ten cases were considered possible or probable based on a good negative family history with parents who were asymptomatic beyond age 50 but family samples unavailable. For one of those, parents are deceased, but inference of parental alleles from the proband`s sibship suggests a pre-mutation allele of approximately 30 repeats. In 3 cases, a new expansion was considered proven. One was first ascertained by another laboratory and reported elsewhere. For another, the proband`s father has one allele of about 35 repeats. In a third remarkable case, the proband has an expanded allele near 50 repeats and a normal sized allele that matches one maternal allele. The father`s larger allele has 30+/-1 repeats. Paternity was established by concordance of 10 independent polymorphic alleles. Additional family samples may help to assess the allelic stability. This prevalence of new HD cases was unanticipated before discovery of the predisposing gene, but has emerged over the first year of direct diagnostic testing and may foreshadow greater demand for testing as the extended families become aware of their risks. These cases provoke new questions about interpretation of DNA data for patients, raise ethical concerns about informing extended families, and special counselling issues for families to whom HD is a new entity.

  15. Evolutionary History of the Cancer Immunity Antigen MAGE Gene Family

    PubMed Central

    Katsura, Yukako; Satta, Yoko

    2011-01-01

    The evolutionary mode of a multi-gene family can change over time, depending on the functional differentiation and local genomic environment of family members. In this study, we demonstrate such a change in the melanoma antigen (MAGE) gene family on the mammalian X chromosome. The MAGE gene family is composed of ten subfamilies that can be categorized into two types. Type I genes are of relatively recent origin, and they encode epitopes for human leukocyte antigen (HLA) in cancer cells. Type II genes are relatively ancient and some of their products are known to be involved in apoptosis or cell proliferation. The evolutionary history of the MAGE gene family can be divided into four phases. In phase I, a single-copy state of an ancestral gene and the evolutionarily conserved mode had lasted until the emergence of eutherian mammals. In phase II, eight subfamily ancestors, with the exception for MAGE-C and MAGE-D subfamilies, were formed via retrotransposition independently. This would coincide with a transposition burst of LINE elements at the eutherian radiation. However, MAGE-C was generated by gene duplication of MAGE-A. Phase III is characterized by extensive gene duplication within each subfamily and in particular the formation of palindromes in the MAGE-A subfamily, which occurred in an ancestor of the Catarrhini. Phase IV is characterized by the decay of a palindrome in most Catarrhini, with the exception of humans. Although the palindrome is truncated by frequent deletions in apes and Old World monkeys, it is retained in humans. Here, we argue that this human-specific retention stems from negative selection acting on MAGE-A genes encoding epitopes of cancer cells, which preserves their ability to bind to highly divergent HLA molecules. These findings are interpreted with consideration of the biological factors shaping recent human MAGE-A genes. PMID:21695252

  16. Surveillance survey of family history in children with neural tube defects.

    PubMed

    Dupépé, Esther B; Patel, Daxa M; Rocque, Brandon G; Hopson, Betsy; Arynchyna, Anastasia A; Bishop, E Ralee'; Blount, Jeffrey P

    2017-03-31

    OBJECTIVE Although there are known risk factors for the development of neural tube defects (NTDs), little is known regarding the role of family history. The authors' goal in this study is to describe the family history in their population of patients with NTDs. METHODS Surveys were completed for 254 patients who were accompanied by their biological mother during their annual visit to the multidisciplinary Spina Bifida Clinic at Children's of Alabama. An NTD has been diagnosed in all patients who are seen in this clinic (myelomeningocele, lipomeningocele, split cord malformation, and congenital dermal sinus tract). Each mother answered questions regarding known NTD risk factors and their pregnancy, as well as the family history of NTDs, other CNS disorders, and birth defects. RESULTS The overall prevalence of family history of NTDs in children with an NTD was 16.9% (n = 43), of which 3.1% (n = 8) were in first-degree relatives. In patients with myelomeningocele, 17.7% (n = 37) had a positive family history for NTDs, with 3.8% in first-degree relatives. Family history in the paternal lineage for all NTDs was 8.7% versus 10.6% in the maternal lineage. Twenty-two patients (8.7%) had a family history of other congenital CNS disorders. Fifteen (5.9%) had a family history of Down syndrome, 12 (4.7%) had a family history of cerebral palsy, and 13 (5.1%) patients had a family history of clubfoot. Fourteen (5.5%) had a family history of cardiac defect, and 13 (5.1%) had a family history of cleft lip or palate. CONCLUSIONS The family history of NTDs was 16.9% in children with NTD without a difference between maternal and paternal lineage. This high rate of positive family history suggests that genetics and epigenetics may play a larger role in the pathogenesis of NTD in the modern era of widespread folate supplementation.

  17. Systemic inflammation and family history in relation to the prevalence of type 2 diabetes based on an alternating decision tree

    PubMed Central

    Uemura, Hirokazu; Ghaibeh, A. Ammar; Katsuura-Kamano, Sakurako; Yamaguchi, Miwa; Bahari, Tirani; Ishizu, Masashi; Moriguchi, Hiroki; Arisawa, Kokichi

    2017-01-01

    To investigate unknown patterns associated with type 2 diabetes in the Japanese population, we first used an alternating decision tree (ADTree) algorithm, a powerful classification algorithm from data mining, for the data from 1,102 subjects aged 35–69 years. On the basis of the investigated patterns, we then evaluated the associations of serum high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) as a biomarker of systemic inflammation and family history of diabetes (negative, positive or unknown) with the prevalence of type 2 diabetes because their detailed associations have been scarcely reported. Elevated serum hs-CRP levels were proportionally associated with the increased prevalence of type 2 diabetes after adjusting for probable covariates, including body mass index and family history of diabetes (P for trend = 0.016). Stratified analyses revealed that elevated serum hs-CRP levels were proportionally associated with increased prevalence of diabetes in subjects without a family history of diabetes (P for trend = 0.020) but not in those with a family history or with an unknown family history of diabetes. Our study demonstrates that systemic inflammation was proportionally associated with increased prevalence of type 2 diabetes even after adjusting for body mass index, especially in subjects without a family history of diabetes. PMID:28361994

  18. Systemic inflammation and family history in relation to the prevalence of type 2 diabetes based on an alternating decision tree.

    PubMed

    Uemura, Hirokazu; Ghaibeh, A Ammar; Katsuura-Kamano, Sakurako; Yamaguchi, Miwa; Bahari, Tirani; Ishizu, Masashi; Moriguchi, Hiroki; Arisawa, Kokichi

    2017-03-31

    To investigate unknown patterns associated with type 2 diabetes in the Japanese population, we first used an alternating decision tree (ADTree) algorithm, a powerful classification algorithm from data mining, for the data from 1,102 subjects aged 35-69 years. On the basis of the investigated patterns, we then evaluated the associations of serum high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) as a biomarker of systemic inflammation and family history of diabetes (negative, positive or unknown) with the prevalence of type 2 diabetes because their detailed associations have been scarcely reported. Elevated serum hs-CRP levels were proportionally associated with the increased prevalence of type 2 diabetes after adjusting for probable covariates, including body mass index and family history of diabetes (P for trend = 0.016). Stratified analyses revealed that elevated serum hs-CRP levels were proportionally associated with increased prevalence of diabetes in subjects without a family history of diabetes (P for trend = 0.020) but not in those with a family history or with an unknown family history of diabetes. Our study demonstrates that systemic inflammation was proportionally associated with increased prevalence of type 2 diabetes even after adjusting for body mass index, especially in subjects without a family history of diabetes.

  19. Effects of Family History of Alcohol Use Disorders on Spatial Working Memory BOLD Response in Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Spadoni, Andrea D.; Norman, Andria L.; Schweinsburg, Alecia D.; Tapert, Susan F.

    2008-01-01

    Background A positive family history (FH) of alcohol use disorders (AUD) has been linked to increased risk for the development of AUD, and neurocognitive factors have been postulated as important underlying mechanisms of familial alcoholism transmission. Methods We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during a spatial working memory (SWM) and vigilance paradigm to investigate potential neurodevelopmental differences linked to familial density of AUD in 72 adolescents aged 12 to 14 years. Results Youth with denser family histories of AUD showed less activation during a simple vigilance condition relative to SWM in cingulate and medial frontal gyri (β = 0.28, p = 0.03), and a trend for more relative activity during rest (β = −0.25, p = 0.07) in this cluster. Conclusions Youth with greater familial densities of AUD may be less successful at modulating activity of the default network, potentially indicating a greater propensity for task-independent thought or reduced inhibition of task-irrelevant processing. Failure to moderate activation of the default network may have implications for cognitive efficiency and goal directed behavior in youth with dense FH. Further, aberrant activation in cingulate regions may be linked to genetic variation in GABA receptor units, suggesting a useful endophenotype for risk associated with alcohol dependence. PMID:18540914

  20. The Inextricable Link between Age and Criminal History in Sentencing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bushway, Shawn D.; Piehl, Anne Morrison

    2007-01-01

    In sentencing research, significant negative coefficients on age research have been interpreted as evidence that actors in the criminal justice system discriminate against younger people. This interpretation is incomplete. Criminal sentencing laws generally specify punishment in terms of the number of past events in a defendant's criminal history.…

  1. History, Pathogenesis, and Management of Familial Gastric Cancer: Original Study of John XXIII's Family

    PubMed Central

    Corso, Giovanni; Roncalli, Fabrizio; Marrelli, Daniele; Carneiro, Fátima; Roviello, Franco

    2013-01-01

    Background. Hereditary diffuse gastric cancer is associated with the E-cadherin germline mutations, but genetic determinants have not been identified for familial intestinal gastric carcinoma. The guidelines for hereditary diffuse gastric cancer are clearly established; however, there are no defined recommendations for the management of familial intestinal gastric carcinoma. Methods. In this study we describe Pope John XXIII's pedigree that harboured gastric cancer as well as six other family members. Family history was analysed according to the International Gastric Cancer Linkage Consortium criteria, and gastric tumours were classified in accord with the last Japanese guidelines. Results. Seven out of 109 members in this pedigree harboured gastric cancer, affecting two consecutive generations. John XXIII's clinical tumour (cTN) was classified as cT4bN3a (IV stage). In two other cases, gastric carcinomas were classified as intestinal histotype and staged as pT1bN0 and pT2N2, respectively. Conclusions. Pope John XXIII's family presents a strong aggregation for gastric cancer affecting almost seven members; it spreads through two consecutive generations. In absence of defined genetic causes and considering the increased risk of gastric cancer's development in these families, as well as the high mortality rates and advanced stages, we propose an intensive surveillance protocol for asymptomatic members. PMID:23484115

  2. Family History of Skin Cancer is Associated with Early-Onset Basal Cell Carcinoma Independent of MC1R Genotype

    PubMed Central

    Berlin, Nicholas L.; Cartmel, Brenda; Leffell, David J.; Bale, Allen E.; Mayne, Susan T.; Ferrucci, Leah M.

    2015-01-01

    Background As a marker of genetic susceptibility and shared lifestyle characteristics, family history of cancer is often used to evaluate an individual’s risk for developing a particular malignancy. With comprehensive data on pigment characteristics, lifestyle factors, and melanocortin-1 receptor (MC1R) gene sequence, we sought to clarify the role of family history of skin cancer in early-onset basal cell carcinoma (BCC). Materials and Methods Early onset BCC cases (n=376) and controls with benign skin conditions (n=383) under age 40 were identified through Yale Dermatopathology. Self-report data on family history of skin cancer (melanoma and non-melanoma skin cancer), including age of onset in relatives, was available from a structured interview. Participants also provided saliva samples for sequencing of MC1R. Results A family history of skin cancer was associated with an increased risk of early-onset BCC (OR 2.49, 95% CI 1.80–3.45). In multivariate models, family history remained a strong risk factor for early-onset BCC after adjustment for pigment characteristics, UV exposure, and MC1R genotype (OR 2.41, 95% CI 1.74–3.35). Conclusions Risk for BCC varied based upon the type and age of onset of skin cancer among affected relatives; individuals with a first-degree relative diagnosed with skin cancer prior to age 50 were at highest risk for BCC (OR 4.79, 95% CI 2.90–7.90). Even after taking into account potential confounding effects of MC1R genotype and various lifestyle factors that close relatives may share, family history of skin cancer remained strongly associated with early-onset BCC. PMID:26381319

  3. Machine learning amplifies the effect of parental family history of Alzheimer's disease on list learning strategy.

    PubMed

    Chang, Timothy S; Coen, Michael H; La Rue, Asenath; Jonaitis, Erin; Koscik, Rebecca L; Hermann, Bruce; Sager, Mark A

    2012-05-01

    Identification of preclinical Alzheimer's disease (AD) is an essential first step in developing interventions to prevent or delay disease onset. In this study, we examine the hypothesis that deeper analyses of traditional cognitive tests may be useful in identifying subtle but potentially important learning and memory differences in asymptomatic populations that differ in risk for developing Alzheimer's disease. Subjects included 879 asymptomatic higher-risk persons (middle-aged children of parents with AD) and 355 asymptotic lower-risk persons (middle-aged children of parents without AD). All were administered the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test at baseline. Using machine learning approaches, we constructed a new measure that exploited finer differences in memory strategy than previous work focused on serial position and subjective organization. The new measure, based on stochastic gradient descent, provides a greater degree of statistical separation (p = 1.44 × 10-5) than previously observed for asymptomatic family history and non-family history groups, while controlling for apolipoprotein epsilon 4, age, gender, and education level. The results of our machine learning approach support analyzing memory strategy in detail to probe potential disease onset. Such distinct differences may be exploited in asymptomatic middle-aged persons as a potential risk factor for AD.

  4. Family History Density of Alcoholism Relates to Left Nucleus Accumbens Volume in Adolescent Girls

    PubMed Central

    Cservenka, Anita; Gillespie, Alicia J; Michael, Paul G; Nagel, Bonnie J

    2015-01-01

    Objective: A family history of alcoholism is a significant risk factor for the development of alcohol use disorders (AUDs). Because common structural abnormalities are present in reward and affective brain regions in alcoholics and those with familial alcoholism, the current study examined the relationship between familial loading of AUDs and volumes of the amygdala and nucleus accumbens (NAcc) in largely alcohol-naive adolescents, ages 12–16 years (N = 140). Method: The amygdala and NAcc were delineated on each participant’s T1-weighted anatomical scan, using FMRIB Software Library’s FMRIB Integrated Registration & Segmentation Tool, and visually inspected for accuracy and volume outliers. In the 140 participants with accurate segmentation (75 male/65 female), subcortical volumes were represented as a ratio to intracranial volume (ICV). A family history density (FHD) score was calculated for each adolescent based on the presence of AUDs in first- and second-degree relatives (range: 0.03–1.50; higher scores represent a greater prevalence of familial AUDs). Multiple regressions, with age and sex controlled for, examined the association between FHD and left and right amygdala and NAcc volume/ICV. Results: There was a significant positive relationship between FHD and left NAcc volume/ICV (ΔR2 = .04, p = .02). Post hoc regressions indicated that this effect was only significant in females (ΔR2 = .11, p = .006). Conclusions: This finding suggests that the degree of familial alcoholism, genetic or otherwise, is associated with alterations in reward-related brain structure. Further work will be necessary to examine whether FHD is related to future alcohol-related problems and reward-related behaviors. PMID:25486393

  5. Family history of hypertension and arterial elasticity characteristics in healthy young people.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Lin; Chen, Yuanyuan; Sun, Ningling; Liu, Xirong

    2008-05-01

    Family history of hypertension is a primary predictor of high blood pressure (BP). This study attempted to determine whether there is a gradual increase in BP and an early change in arterial elasticity characteristics between young healthy individuals with or without a family history of hypertension and whether or not this increase is apparent in males as well as in females. A total of 270 normotensive healthy individuals (112 men and 158 women, aged 16 to 30 years) with or without a family history of hypertension, participated in conventional BP measurement and completed questionnaires covering basic information and a detailed family history of cardiovascular disease. Large arterial (capacitive) compliance (C1) and small arterial (oscillatory or reflective) compliance (C2) were derived from HDI/PulseWave CR-2000 (Hypertension Diagnostics, Minneapolis, USA). Based on family history information about parents and grandparents, three groups were formed: subjects with at least one hypertensive parent (group A), subjects with only hypertensive grandparents (group B), and subjects with normotensive parents and grandparents (group C). Men in group A had lower C1 and C2 along with higher systolic BP (SBP), diastolic BP (DBP), and heart rate than men in group C. Those in group B had intermediate C1, C2 and BP levels. C1 had a linear relationship with SBP, DBP, and heart rate. In the logistic regression model of family history of hypertension, C2 was lower in young normotensive males with parental hypertension (B = -0.315, exp B = 0.73, p = 0.03), independently of SBP, DBP, and heart rate. Among females, subjects with parental hypertension had higher systolic, mean arterial pressure, and pulse pressure (p < 0.05), and there were no significant differences in C1 and C2 between those with and those without parental hypertension. In conclusion, compared with normotensive offspring of normotensive parents, normotensive offspring of hypertensive parents had increased BP and

  6. Family History and Breast Cancer Hormone Receptor Status in a Spanish Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Chavez-Uribe, Elisabet; Rodriguez, Beatriz Fernandez; Muñoz, Catuxa Celeiro; Redondo, Carmen M.; Fernandez, Maite Peña; Dominguez, Alejandro Novo; Pereira, Carina Doris; Martínez, María Elena; García-Caballero, Tomás; Rodriguez, Máximo Fraga; Antúnez, José; Carracedo, Angel; Forteza-Vila, Jerónimo; Gago-Dominguez, Manuela

    2012-01-01

    Background Breast cancer is a heterogenous disease that impacts racial/ethnic groups differently. Differences in genetic composition, lifestyles, reproductive factors, or environmental exposures may contribute to the differential presentation of breast cancer among Hispanic women. Materials and Methods A population-based study was conducted in the city of Santiago de Compostela, Spain. A total of 645 women diagnosed with operable invasive breast cancer between 1992 and 2005 participated in the study. Data on demographics, breast cancer risk factors, and clinico-pathological characteristics of the tumors were collected. Hormone receptor negative tumors were compared with hormone receptor postive tumors on their clinico-pathological characteristics as well as risk factor profiles. Results Among the 645 breast cancer patients, 78% were estrogen receptor-positive (ER+) or progesterone receptor-positive (PR+), and 22% were ER−&PR−. Women with a family history of breast cancer were more likely to have ER−&PR− tumors than women without a family history (Odds ratio, 1.43; 95% confidence interval, 0.91–2.26). This association was limited to cancers diagnosed before age 50 (Odds ratio, 2.79; 95% confidence interval, 1.34–5.81). Conclusions An increased proportion of ER−&PR− breast cancer was observed among younger Spanish women with a family history of the disease. PMID:22238615

  7. A positive family history of hypertension might be associated with an accelerated onset of type 2 diabetes: Results from the National Center Diabetes Database (NCDD-02).

    PubMed

    Yamamoto-Honda, Ritsuko; Takahashi, Yoshihiko; Mori, Yasumichi; Yamashita, Shigeo; Yoshida, Yoko; Kawazu, Shoji; Iwamoto, Yasuhiko; Kajio, Hiroshi; Yanai, Hidekatsu; Mishima, Shuichi; Handa, Nobuhiro; Shimokawa, Kotaro; Yoshida, Akiko; Watanabe, Hiroki; Ohe, Kazuhiko; Shimbo, Takuro; Noda, Mitsuhiko

    2017-03-18

    Type 2 diabetes, which is characterized by a combination of decreased insulin secretion and decreased insulin sensitivity, can be delayed or prevented by healthy lifestyle behaviors. Therefore, it is important that the population in general understands their personal risk at an early age to reduce their chances of ever developing the disease. A family history of hypertension is known to be associated with insulin resistance, but the effect of a family history of hypertension on the onset of type 2 diabetes has not well been examined. We performed a retrospective study examining patient age at the time of the diagnosis of type 2 diabetes by analyzing a dataset of 1,299 patients (1,021 men and 278 women) who had been diagnosed as having type 2 diabetes during a health checkup. The mean ± standard deviation of the patient age at the time of the diagnosis of diabetes was 49.1 ± 10.4 years for patients with a family history of hypertension and 51.8 ± 11.4 years for patients without a family history of hypertension (p < 0.001). A multivariate linear regression analysis showed a significant association between a family history of hypertension and a younger age at the time of the diagnosis of type 2 diabetes, independent of a family history of diabetes mellitus and a male sex, suggesting that a positive family history of hypertension might be associated with the accelerated onset of type 2 diabetes.

  8. Family Extrusion of the Aged Patient: Family Homeostasis and Sexual Conflict

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Michael B.; And Others

    1975-01-01

    Case studies demonstrate that when chronic sexual conflict constitutes a factor in family homeostasis, nursing home placement of the aged ill is a likely event when either there is a shift in family dynamics due to death or illness of a key member or the aged becomes overtly psychiatrically disabled. (Author)

  9. Acculturation, Behavioral Factors, and Family History of Breast Cancer among Mexican and Mexican-American Women

    PubMed Central

    Nodora, Jesse N.; Cooper, Renee; Talavera, Gregory A.; Gallo, Linda; Montenegro, María Mercedes Meza; Komenaka, Ian; Natarajan, Loki; Millán, Luis Enrique Gutierrez; Daneri-Navarro, Adrian; Bondy, Melissa; Brewster, Abenaa; Thompson, Patricia; Martinez, María Elena

    2016-01-01

    Background Incidence rates for breast cancer are higher among Mexican-American (MA) women in the United States than women living in Mexico. Studies have shown higher prevalence of breast cancer risk factors in more acculturated than less acculturated Hispanic/Latinas in the United States. We compared the prevalence of behavioral risk factors and family history of breast cancer by level of acculturation and country of residence in women of Mexican descent. Methods Data were collected from 1,201 newly diagnosed breast cancer patients living in Mexico (n = 581) and MAs in the United States (n = 620). MA participants were categorized into three acculturation groups (Spanish dominant, bilingual, and English dominant); women living in Mexico were used as the referent group. The prevalence of behavioral risk factors and family history of breast cancer were assessed according to acculturation level, adjusting for age at diagnosis and education. Results In the adjusted models, bilingual and English-dominant MAs were significantly more likely to have a body mass index of 30 kg/m2 or greater, consume more than one alcoholic beverage a week, and report having a family history of breast cancer than women living in Mexico. All three U.S. acculturation groups were significantly more likely to have lower total energy expenditure (≤533 kcal/d) than women in Mexico. English-dominant women were significantly less likely to ever smoke cigarettes than the Mexican group. Conclusions Our findings add to the limited scientific literature on the relationships among acculturation, health behavior, and family history of breast cancer in Mexican and MA women. PMID:26189937

  10. Germline BAP1 Mutational Landscape of Asbestos-Exposed Malignant Mesothelioma Patients with Family History of Cancer.

    PubMed

    Ohar, Jill A; Cheung, Mitchell; Talarchek, Jacqueline; Howard, Suzanne E; Howard, Timothy D; Hesdorffer, Mary; Peng, Hongzhuang; Rauscher, Frank J; Testa, Joseph R

    2016-01-15

    Heritable mutations in the BAP1 tumor suppressor gene predispose individuals to mesothelioma and other cancers. However, a large-scale assessment of germline BAP1 mutation incidence and associated clinical features in mesothelioma patients with a family history of cancer has not been reported. Therefore, we examined the germline BAP1 mutation status of 150 mesothelioma patients with a family history of cancer, 50 asbestos-exposed control individuals with a family history of cancers other than mesothelioma, and 153 asbestos-exposed individuals without familial cancer. No BAP1 alterations were found in control cohorts, but were identified in nine of 150 mesothelioma cases (6%) with a family history of cancer. Alterations among these cases were characterized by both missense and frameshift mutations, and enzymatic activity of BAP1 missense mutants was decreased compared with wild-type BAP1. Furthermore, BAP1 mutation carriers developed mesothelioma at an earlier age that was more often peritoneal than pleural (five of nine) and exhibited improved long-term survival compared to mesothelioma patients without BAP1 mutations. Moreover, many tumors harboring BAP1 germline mutations were associated with BAP1 syndrome, including mesothelioma and ocular/cutaneous melanomas, as well as renal, breast, lung, gastric, and basal cell carcinomas. Collectively, these findings suggest that mesothelioma patients presenting with a family history of cancer should be considered for BAP1 genetic testing to identify those individuals who might benefit from further screening and routine monitoring for the purpose of early detection and intervention.

  11. Germline BAP1 mutational landscape of asbestos-exposed malignant mesothelioma patients with family history of cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ohar, Jill A.; Cheung, Mitchell; Talarchek, Jacqueline; Howard, Suzanne E.; Howard, Timothy D.; Hesdorffer, Mary; Peng, Hongzhuang; Rauscher, Frank J.; Testa, Joseph R.

    2015-01-01

    Heritable mutations in the BAP1 tumor suppressor gene predispose individuals to mesothelioma and other cancers. However, a large-scale assessment of germline BAP1 mutation incidence and associated clinical features in mesothelioma patients with a family history of cancer has not been reported. Therefore, we examined the germline BAP1 mutation status of 150 mesothelioma patients with a family history of cancer, 50 asbestos-exposed control individuals with a family history of cancers other than mesothelioma, and 153 asbestos-exposed individuals without familial cancer. No BAP1 alterations were found in control cohorts, but were identified in 9 of 150 mesothelioma cases (6%) with a family history of cancer. Alterations among these cases were characterized by both missense and frameshift mutations, and enzymatic activity of BAP1 missense mutants was decreased compared to wild-type BAP1. Furthermore, BAP1 mutation carriers developed mesothelioma at an earlier age that was more often peritoneal than pleural (5 of 9), and exhibited improved long-term survival compared to mesothelioma patients without BAP1 mutations. Moreover, many tumors harboring BAP1 germline mutations were associated with BAP1 syndrome, including mesothelioma and ocular/cutaneous melanomas, as well as renal, breast, lung, gastric, and basal cell carcinomas. Collectively, these findings suggest that mesothelioma patients presenting with a family history of cancer should be considered for BAP1 genetic testing to identify those individuals who might benefit from further screening and routine monitoring for the purpose of early detection and intervention. PMID:26719535

  12. Family history of alcoholism interacts with alcohol to affect brain regions involved in behavioral inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Kareken, David A.; Dzemidzic, Mario; Wetherill, Leah; Eiler, William; Oberlin, Brandon G.; Harezlak, Jaroslaw; Wang, Yang; O’Connor, Sean J.

    2013-01-01

    Rationale Impulsive behavior is associated with both alcohol use disorders and a family history of alcoholism (FHA). One operational definition of impulsive behavior is the stop signal task (SST), which measures the time needed to stop a ballistic hand movement. Objective Employ functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to study right frontal responses to stop signals in heavy drinking subjects with and without FHA, and as a function of alcohol exposure. Methods Twenty two family history positive (FHP; age = 22.7 years, SD= 1.9) and 18 family history negative (FHN; age = 23.7, SD= 1.8) subjects performed the SST in fMRI in two randomized visits: once during intravenous infusion of alcohol, clamped at a steady-state breath alcohol (BrAC) concentration of 60mg%, and once during infusion of placebo saline. An independent reference group (n= 13, age= 23.7, SD= 1.8) was used to identify a priori right prefrontal regions activated by successful inhibition (Inh) trials, relative to ‘Go’ trials that carried no need for inhibition (Inh > Go). Results FHA interacted with alcohol exposure in right prefrontal cortex, where alcohol reduced [Inh > Go] activation in FHN subjects, but not in FHP subjects. Within this right frontal cortical region, stop signal reaction time (SSRT) also correlated negatively with [Inh > Go] activation, suggesting that the [Inh > Go] activity was related to inhibitory behavior. Conclusions The results are consistent with the low level of response theory (Schuckit, 1980; Quinn & Fromme, 2011), with FHP being less sensitive to alcohol’s effects. PMID:23468100

  13. Ideal ages for family formation among immigrants in Europe.

    PubMed

    Holland, Jennifer A; de Valk, Helga A G

    2013-12-01

    This paper investigates ideal ages for marriage and parenthood among immigrants from over 160 countries origins living in 25 European countries. Ideals regarding the timing of family formation are indicative of how individuals perceive the family life course and provide insight into family-life aspirations and the meaning attached to these transitions. Using data from the European Social Survey (Round 3, 2006; N=6330) and a cross-classified multilevel modeling approach, we investigate associations between the influences of the dominant family formation timing patterns in countries of origin and settlement, individual-level characteristics, and ideal ages. We make innovative use of a standard demographic measure, the singulate mean age of marriage, to measure family formation patterns. Results suggest that residential context influences are associated with the timing ideals of all migrants, but origin influences seem to be associated with the ideals of only the most recent migrants.

  14. The interpretability of family history reports of alcoholism in general community samples: Findings in a Midwestern US twin birth cohort

    PubMed Central

    Waldron, Mary; Madden, Pamela A. F.; Nelson, Elliot C.; Knopik, Valerie S.; Glowinski, Anne L.; Grant, Julia D.; Lynskey, Michael T.; Jacob, Theodore; Sher, Kenneth J.; Bucholz, Kathleen K.; Heath, Andrew C.

    2011-01-01

    Background Although there is a long tradition in alcoholism research of using family history ratings, the interpretability of family history reports of alcoholism from general community samples has yet to be established. Methods Telephone interview data obtained from a large cohort of female like-sex twins (N = 3787, median age 22) and their biological parents (N = 2928, assessed at twins’ median age 15) were analyzed to determine agreement between parent self-report, parent ratings of coparent, and twin narrow (alcohol problems) versus broad (problem or excessive drinking) ratings of each parent. Results In European ancestry (EA) families, high tetrachoric correlations were observed between twin and cotwin ratings of parental alcohol problems, between twin and parent ratings of coparent alcohol problems using symptom-based and single-item assessments, as well as moderately high correlations between twin and both mother and father self-reports. In African American (AA) families, inter-rater agreement was substantially lower than for EA families, with no cases where father ratings of maternal alcohol problems agreed with either twin ratings or mother self-report; and both cotwin agreement and mother-twin agreement were reduced. Differences between EA and AA families were not explained by differences in years of cohabitation with father or mother’s education; however, underreporting of problems by AA parents may have contributed. Conclusions Results support the use of family history ratings of parental alcoholism in general community surveys for European ancestry families, but suggest that family history assessment in African American families requires improved methods. PMID:22235921

  15. Mammography Screening Among African-American Women With a Family History of Breast Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-02-01

    screening practices , beliefs, and psychosocial interventions targeting African-American women, especially those with a family history of breast cancer...knowledge about breast cancer screening practices and beliefs of women with a family history of the disease have focused primarily on white rather than...Among African-American Women with a Family History of Breast Cancer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Isaac Lipkus, Ph.D. CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION: Duke

  16. Differences in DNA methylation by extent of breast cancer family history in unaffected women.

    PubMed

    Delgado-Cruzata, Lissette; Wu, Hui-Chen; Liao, Yuyan; Santella, Regina M; Terry, Mary Beth

    2014-02-01

    Breast cancer clusters within families but genetic factors identified to date explain only a portion of this clustering. Lower global DNA methylation in white blood cells (WBC) has been associated with increased breast cancer risk. We examined whether WBC DNA methylation varies by extent of breast cancer family history in unaffected women from high-risk breast cancer families. We evaluated DNA methylation levels in LINE-1, Alu and Sat2 in 333 cancer-free female family members of the New York site of the Breast Cancer Family Registry, the minority of which were known BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation carriers. We used generalized estimated equation models to test for differences in DNA methylation levels by extent of their breast cancer family history after adjusting for age. All unaffected women had at least one sister affected with breast cancer. LINE-1 and Sat2 DNA methylation levels were lower in individuals with 3 or more (3+) first-degree relatives with breast cancer relative to women with only one first-degree relative. For LINE-1, Alu, and Sat2, having 3+ affected first-degree relatives was associated with a decrease of 23.4% (95%CI = -46.8%, 0.1%), 17.9% (95%CI = -39.5%, 3.7%) and 11.4% (95% CI = -20.3%, -2.5%), respectively, relative to individuals with only one affected first-degree relative, but the results were only statistically significant for Sat2. Individuals having an affected mother had 17.9% lower LINE-1 DNA methylation levels (95% CI = -28.8%, -7.1%) when compared with those not having an affected mother. No associations were observed for Alu or Sat2 by maternal breast cancer status. If replicated, these results indicate that lower global WBC DNA methylation levels in families with extensive cancer histories may be one explanation for the clustering of cancers in these families. Family clustering of disease may reflect epigenetic as well as genetic and shared environmental factors.

  17. Differences in DNA methylation by extent of breast cancer family history in unaffected women

    PubMed Central

    Delgado-Cruzata, Lissette; Wu, Hui-Chen; Liao, Yuyan; Santella, Regina M; Terry, Mary Beth

    2014-01-01

    Breast cancer clusters within families but genetic factors identified to date explain only a portion of this clustering. Lower global DNA methylation in white blood cells (WBC) has been associated with increased breast cancer risk. We examined whether WBC DNA methylation varies by extent of breast cancer family history in unaffected women from high-risk breast cancer families. We evaluated DNA methylation levels in LINE-1, Alu and Sat2 in 333 cancer-free female family members of the New York site of the Breast Cancer Family Registry, the minority of which were known BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation carriers. We used generalized estimated equation models to test for differences in DNA methylation levels by extent of their breast cancer family history after adjusting for age. All unaffected women had at least one sister affected with breast cancer. LINE-1 and Sat2 DNA methylation levels were lower in individuals with 3 or more (3+) first-degree relatives with breast cancer relative to women with only one first-degree relative. For LINE-1, Alu, and Sat2, having 3+ affected first-degree relatives was associated with a decrease of 23.4% (95%CI = −46.8%, 0.1%), 17.9% (95%CI = −39.5%, 3.7%) and 11.4% (95% CI = −20.3%, −2.5%), respectively, relative to individuals with only one affected first-degree relative, but the results were only statistically significant for Sat2. Individuals having an affected mother had 17.9% lower LINE-1 DNA methylation levels (95% CI = −28.8%, −7.1%) when compared with those not having an affected mother. No associations were observed for Alu or Sat2 by maternal breast cancer status. If replicated, these results indicate that lower global WBC DNA methylation levels in families with extensive cancer histories may be one explanation for the clustering of cancers in these families. Family clustering of disease may reflect epigenetic as well as genetic and shared environmental factors. PMID:24172832

  18. Families with School-Age Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christensen, Kathleen; Schneider, Barbara; Butler, Donnell

    2011-01-01

    Most working parents face a common dilemma--how to care for their children when they are not in school but the parents are at work. In this article Kathleen Christensen, Barbara Schneider, and Donnell Butler describe the predictable and unpredictable scheduling demands school-age children place on working couples and single working parents. The…

  19. Phenylthiocarbamide tasting and family history of depression, revisited: low rates of depression in families of supertasters.

    PubMed

    Joiner, Thomas E; Perez, Marisol

    2004-04-15

    Past studies suggest that phenylthiocarbamide (PTC) taste status is related to vulnerability to depression, such that those sensitive to PTC are more vulnerable. We questioned this, reasoning that those insensitive to PTC may be more vulnerable (because they may have lower hedonic tone and higher risk for alcohol abuse). Forty-two volunteers responded to questionnaires regarding family history of depression, and were assigned to supertaster, taster, or non-taster categories based on taste reactions to a 3.80 x 1.43 cm piece of commercially prepared paper treated with PTC. Supertasters were significantly less likely to report first-degree relatives with a history of depression than were tasters and non-tasters. Supertasters may be afforded some protection from depression; elucidating the mechanisms of this protection is a potentially interesting avenue for future research.

  20. The effect of chronic disease family history on healthcare provider practice and patient behavior among Oregonians.

    PubMed

    Zlot, A I; Cox, S L; Silvey, K; Leman, R

    2012-01-01

    Family history is an independent risk factor for many chronic conditions. Therefore, efforts to prevent these diseases among asymptomatic people at high familial risk are justified to reduce the health burden of these chronic conditions. We analyzed 2006-2009 Oregon Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System data to examine associations between family history of diabetes, cardiovascular disease (CVD), colorectal cancer (CRC), breast cancer (BC), and: (1) patient-reported clinician recommendations, (2) adoption of preventive and screening behaviors, and (3) chronic disease risk factors among respondents without a personal history of the condition. A positive family history was associated with a higher likelihood of reported discussion by clinicians of CRC and BC screening and a greater likelihood of respondents having cholesterol and CRC screening. The combination of family history and clinician recommendations significantly increased the odds of CRC and BC screening compared to family history alone. A positive family history was also associated with respondents reporting lifestyle changes to prevent diabetes, CVD, and CRC, but not BC. Awareness of family history prompts clinicians to recommend screening and may motivate patients to be screened. Understanding positive family history may also motivate patients to adopt healthy lifestyles.

  1. Familial history of cancer and childhood acute leukemia: a French population-based case-control study

    PubMed Central

    Ripert, Mahaut; Menegaux, Florence; Perel, Yves; Méchinaud, Françoise; Plouvier, Emmanuel; Gandemer, Virginie; Lutz, Patrick; Vannier, Jean-Pierre; Lamagnére, Jean-Pierre; Margueritte, Geneviève; Boutard, Patrick; Robert, Alain; Armari-Alla, Corinne; Munzer, Martine; Millot, Frédéric; de Lumley, Lionel; Berthou, Christian; Rialland, Xavier; Pautard, Brigitte; Clavel, Jacqueline

    2007-01-01

    Objective A case-control study was conducted to investigate the role of a familial history of cancer in the etiology of childhood acute leukemia (AL). Methods The history of cancer in the relatives of 472 cases was compared to that of 567 population-based controls. Recruitment was frequency matched on age, gender and region. The familial history of cancer in each child’s relatives was reported by the mother in response to a standardized self-administered questionnaire. Results A familial history of solid tumor in first- or second-degree relatives was associated with an increased risk of ALL (OR=1.6 [1.2–2.1]), while a familial history of hematopoietic malignancies in first- or second-degree relatives was associated with an increased risk of AML (OR=4.3 [1.4–13]). The ORs for the histories of cancer increased with the number of relatives with cancer (OR=1.5 [1.1–2.0] for one relative and OR=2.3 [1.3–3.8] for two relatives or more; ptrend<0.0001). Significant associations between childhood AL and familial history of genital cancers and brain tumor were also observed (OR=2.7 [1.2–5.8], OR=10.7 [1.3–86], respectively). Conclusion This study supports the hypothesis that a familial history of cancer may play a role in the etiology of childhood acute leukemia. It also evidences some specific associations that require further investigation. PMID:17923819

  2. Bone age, social deprivation, and single parent families.

    PubMed Central

    Cole, T J; Cole, A J

    1992-01-01

    It is well known that deprivation affects bone growth. The study was set up to investigate what aspects of deprivation are of greatest importance. Bone ages of 1593 child trauma patients aged 0-19 years from Middlesbrough General Hospital, Cleveland, were related to local authority ward indices of socioeconomic status (51 wards). After adjustment for chronological age and sex, the mean bone ages in each ward were highly significantly negatively associated with five ward indices of deprivation: the rate of single parent families, low care ownership, unemployment, rented housing, and overcrowding. There was a mean four month deficit in bone age among children living in wards with the highest single parent family rates. The inverse association between deprivation and bone age is unlikely to be causal throughout childhood, as older and younger children were affected to the same extent. However the bone age deficit could be caused by deprivation retarding skeletal maturation during a critical period in early life. PMID:1444529

  3. A Qualitative Study of Early Family Histories and Transitions of Homeless Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tyler, Kimberly A.

    2006-01-01

    Using intensive qualitative interviews with 40 homeless youth, this study examined their early family histories for abuse, neglect, and other family problems and the number and types of transitions that youth experienced. Multiple forms of child maltreatment, family alcoholism, drug use, and criminal activity characterized early family histories…

  4. No differences in ventral striatum responsivity between adolescents with a positive family history of alcoholism and controls.

    PubMed

    Müller, Kathrin U; Gan, Gabriela; Banaschewski, Tobias; Barker, Gareth J; Bokde, Arun L W; Büchel, Christian; Conrod, Patricia; Fauth-Bühler, Mira; Flor, Herta; Gallinat, Jürgen; Garavan, Hugh; Gowland, Penny; Heinz, Andreas; Ittermann, Bernd; Lawrence, Claire; Loth, Eva; Mann, Karl; Martinot, Jean-Luc; Nees, Frauke; Paus, Tomáš; Pausova, Zdenka; Rietschel, Marcella; Ströhle, Andreas; Struve, Maren; Schumann, Gunter; Smolka, Michael N

    2015-05-01

    Individuals with alcohol-dependent parents show an elevated risk of developing alcohol-related problems themselves. Modulations of the mesolimbic reward circuit have been postulated as a pre-existing marker of alcoholism. We tested whether a positive family history of alcoholism is correlated with ventral striatum functionality during a reward task. All participants performed a modified version of the monetary incentive delay task while their brain responses were measured with functional magnetic resonance imaging. We compared 206 healthy adolescents (aged 13-15) who had any first- or second-degree relative with alcoholism to 206 matched controls with no biological relative with alcoholism. Reward anticipation as well as feedback of win recruited the ventral striatum in all participants, but adolescents with a positive family history of alcoholism did not differ from their matched peers. Also we did not find any correlation between family history density and reward anticipation or feedback of win. This finding of no differences did not change when we analyzed a subsample of 77 adolescents with at least one parent with alcohol use disorder and their matched controls. Because this result is in line with another study reporting no differences between children with alcohol-dependent parents and controls at young age, but contrasts with studies of older individuals, one might conclude that at younger age the effect of family history has not yet exerted its influence on the still developing mesolimbic reward circuit.

  5. [The combined effects of family history of cardiovascular disease and overweight on ischemic stroke incidence among the Mongolian population].

    PubMed

    Tian, Y F; Zhang, J H; Lu, H M; Liu, Y Y; Zhou, Y P; Lu, Q; Buren, Rbt; Zhang, Y H

    2016-09-06

    Objective: To investigate the cumulative effect of family history of cardiovascular disease(CVD)and overweight on ischemic stroke events in the Mongolian population. Methods: Study participants were recruited from 32 villages from May 2002 to August 2012 in Kezuohou Banner(county)and Naiman Banner in Inner Mongolia, China. Among 3 457 Mongolian people aged ≥20 years old living in these villages, 2 589 were selected to participate in this study. None of the participants had chronic kidney disease, malignant tumor, thyroid disease or adrenalopathy, or acute infectious disease. The 2 589 participants were followed for a mean of 9.2 years. Six participants were lost to follow up, resulting in a follow-up rate of 99.8%. Information collected included demographic characteristics, lifestyle risk factors, alcohol consumption, cigarette smoking, history of disease, family history of CVD, and physical examination. Ischemic stroke incidence information was collected during follow-up. All participants were categorized into four subgroups according to family history of CVD and overweight status. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate the hazard ratios(HR)and 95% CI of ischemic stroke events among subgroups, compared with the subgroup with no family history of CVD and body mass index(BMI)<24 kg/m(2)(the reference group). Results: Among 2 589 participants, 76 ischemic stroke events occurred after follow-up, and 8 were excluded because of lack of key data. Finally, 2 581 participants were included in the analysis, and the incidence density was 323/100 000 person-years. The cumulative incidence rates of ischemic stroke were 2.48%, 1.86%, 6.67% and 9.00% in the no family history of CVD and BMI <24 kg/m(2), no family history of CVD and BMI ≥24 kg/m(2), family history of CVD and BMI <24 kg/m(2) and family history of CVD and BMI ≥ 24 kg/m(2) subgroups, respectively. Using the Cox proportional hazards model, after further adjustment for age, gender, smoking

  6. Work, Health, and Family at Older Ages in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Raymo, James M.; Liang, Jersey; Kobayashi, Erika; Sugihara, Yoko; Fukaya, Taro

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate ways in which the relationship between health and labor force exit at older ages is moderated by family characteristics. Using two waves of data from a national sample of older Japanese men collected 1999 and 2002, we estimate logistic regression models for labor force exit beyond age 63 as a function of health change, family characteristics, and their interactions. We confirm that poor health is strongly associated with labor force exit and find evidence that moderating influences of family context depend upon the level of health. However, results are only partially consistent with hypotheses that the relationship between health and the likelihood of labor force exit should be stronger for (a) those with good health and family incentives to exit the labor force and (b) those with poor health and family incentives to remain in the labor force. PMID:23082037

  7. Birth Order, Age-Spacing, IQ Differences, and Family Relations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pfouts, Jane H.

    1980-01-01

    Very close age spacing was an obstacle to high academic performance for later borns. In family relations and self-esteem, first borns scored better and performed in school as well as their potentially much more able younger siblings, regardless of age spacing. (Author)

  8. Mixed-Age Interactions in Family Child Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunn, Loraine; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Examined how preschoolers' experiences with mixed-age peers in family child care homes affect development. Found that interaction with younger and same-age peers was associated with less complex social and cognitive play and lower receptive language scores. Interaction with older peers was related to more complex cognitive play. The setting…

  9. Home Renovation, Family History of Atopy, and Respiratory Symptoms and Asthma Among Children Living in China

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Guang-Hui; Wang, Jing; Trevathan, Edwin; Liu, Miao-Miao; Wang, Da; Ren, Wan-Hui; Chen, Weiqing; Simckes, Maayan; Zelicoff, Alan

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. To investigate the association of indoor air pollution with the respiratory health of children, we evaluated the associations of children’s respiratory symptoms with asthma and recent home renovation. Methods. We conducted a cross-sectional survey in a school recruitment sample of 31 049 children aged 2 to 14 years in 25 districts of 7 cities of northeast China in 2008–2009. The children’s parents completed standardized questionnaires characterizing the children’s histories of respiratory symptoms and illness, recent home renovation information, and other associated risk factors. Results. The effects of home renovation in the past 2 years were significantly associated with cough, phlegm, current wheeze, doctor-diagnosed asthma, and current asthma. The associations we computed when combining the status of home renovation and family history of atopy were higher than were those predicted from the combination of the separate effects. However, the interactions between home renovation and family history of atopy on a multiplicative scale were not statistically significant (P > .05). Conclusions. Home renovation is associated with increases in the prevalence of respiratory symptoms and asthma in children. The effects of different renovation materials on child respiratory health should be studied further. PMID:24228648

  10. Family Histories and Multiple Transitions Among Homeless Young Adults: Pathways to Homelessness

    PubMed Central

    Tyler, Kimberly A.; Schmitz, Rachel M.

    2013-01-01

    This study explored the early family histories of homeless young adults, the types and number of transitions they experienced, and their pathways to the street. Intensive qualitative interviews were audio taped and transcribed with 40 homeless young adults 19 to 21 years of age in the Midwest. Findings show that family backgrounds were generally characterized by substance use, child maltreatment, and witnessing violence, all of which provide social context for understanding why so many of these young people opted to leave home in search of an alternative living situation. The current findings also reveal that while some young adults ran away from home as adolescents, others were “pushed out” (i.e., told to leave), or removed by state agencies. Current study findings illustrate that young adults’ trajectories are marked by multiple living arrangements such as home, foster care, detention facility, and drug rehabilitation. Overall, study results show that young adults’ family histories place them on trajectories for early independence marked by multiple transitions and numerous living situations, culminating in a lack of a permanent residence to call home. PMID:24151346

  11. Childhood stress exposure among preadolescents with and without family histories of substance use disorders

    PubMed Central

    Charles, Nora E.; Ryan, Stacy R.; Acheson, Ashley; Mathias, Charles W.; Liang, Yuanyuan; Dougherty, Donald M.

    2015-01-01

    Rationale Having a family history of substance use disorders (FH+) increases risk for developing a substance use disorder. This risk may be at least partially mediated by increased exposure to childhood stressors among FH+ individuals. However, measures typically used to assess exposure to stressors are narrow in scope and vary across studies. The nature of stressors that disproportionately affect FH+ children, and how these stressors relate to later substance use in this population, are not well understood. Objectives The purpose of this study was to assess exposure to a broad range of stressors among FH+ and FH− children to better characterize how exposure to childhood stressors relates to increased risk for substance misuse among FH+ individuals. Methods A total of 386 children (305 FH+, 81 FH−; ages 10-12) were assessed using the Stressful Life Events Schedule prior to the onset of regular substance use. Both the number and severity of stressors were compared. Preliminary follow-up analyses were done for 53 adolescents who subsequently reported initiation of substance use. Results FH+ children reported more frequent and severe stressors than did FH− children, specifically in the areas of housing, family, school, crime, peers, and finances. Additionally, risk for substance use initiation during early adolescence was influenced directly by having a family history of substance use disorders and also indirectly through increased exposure to stressors among FH+ individuals. Conclusions FH+ children experience greater stress across multiple domains, which contributes to their risk for substance misuse and related problems during adolescence and young adulthood. PMID:25134029

  12. Frequency of family history of acute myocardial infarction in patients with acute myocardial infarction. Argentine FRICAS (Factores de Riesgo Coronario en America del Sur) Investigators.

    PubMed

    Ciruzzi, M; Schargrodsky, H; Rozlosnik, J; Pramparo, P; Delmonte, H; Rudich, V; Piskorz, D; Negri, E; Soifer, S; La Vecchia, C

    1997-07-15

    The relation between family history of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and the risk of AMI was analyzed using data of a case-control study conducted in Argentina between 1992 and 1994. Case patients were 1,060 subjects with AMI admitted to 35 coronary care units, and controls were 1,071 subjects admitted to the same network of hospitals where cases had been identified, for a wide spectrum of acute conditions unrelated to known or likely risk factors for AMI: 31% of cases versus 15% of controls reported > or = 1 first-degree relative with history of AMI. Compared with subjects without family history of AMI, the odds ratio (OR) of AMI, after allowance for age, sex, cholesterolemia, smoking, diabetes, hypertension, body mass index, education, social class, and physical exercise, was 2.18 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.74 to 2.74) for those with family history of AMI. The OR was 2.04 (95% CI 1.60 to 2.60) for subjects with 1 relative, and 3.18 (95% C 1.86 to 5.44) for those reporting > or = 2 relatives with AMI. In women the OR for any family history of AMI was 2.83, and in men 2.01. The association was of similar magnitude if the mother (OR 1.98), the father (OR 2.13), or a sibling (OR 2.48) had had an AMI. The association with family history was stronger at a younger age because the OR for subjects reporting > or = 2 more relatives with a history of AMI was 4.42 for subjects aged < 55 years, and 3.00 for those aged > or = 55 years. The association between AMI and family history of AMI was consistent across separate strata of education, social class, smoking, and serum cholesterol, but was less strong in subjects with history of diabetes and hypertension. When the interaction of known risk factors with family history of AMI was analyzed, hypercholesterolemia, hypertension, and smoking had approximately multiplicative effects on the relative risk. The OR was 4.50 for subjects with family history and cholesterol > or = 240 ml/dl, 4.52 for those with hypertension, and

  13. Arterial hypertension in migraine: Role of familial history and cardiovascular phenotype.

    PubMed

    Babayan, Laura; Mamontov, Oleg V; Amelin, Alexander V; Bogachev, Mikhail; Kamshilin, Alexei A

    2017-03-01

    Recent studies indicate that migraine is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular diseases. However, links between autonomic cardiovascular regulation, arterial hypertension (AH) and migraine are still little explored. In this study, we evaluated autonomic regulation in migraine patients with and without hypertension. We studied 104 patients with migraine, aged 34±10 y, including 28 with and 76 without hypertension (M+AH and M-AH groups, respectively). The control group consisted of 88 healthy volunteers matched by age and sex. The autonomic regulation of circulation was examined with the tilt-table test, deep-breathing and Valsalva Maneuver, handgrip test, cold-stress induced vasoconstriction, arterial baroreflex, and blood pressure variability measurements. We found that migraine patients with concomitant hypertension demonstrated reduced arterial baroreflex, whereas other parameters of cardiac autonomic regulation were unchanged. In contrast, most indicators of vasomotor reactivity (blood pressure response to the hand-grip, Valsalva maneuver and cold vasoconstriction) were enhanced in migraine patients with no significant differences between migraine patients with and without hypertension. Patients from both M+AH and M-AH groups more commonly had a family history of cardiovascular disorders. Our data revealed increased vasomotor reactivity in migraine patients, with or without concomitant hypertension. This was associated with the family history of cardiovascular diseases.

  14. Personal history of dieting and family history of obesity are unrelated: implications for understanding weight gain proneness.

    PubMed

    Lowe, M R; Shank, L M; Mikorski, R; Butryn, M L

    2015-04-01

    Identifying predictors of future weight gain is important in obesity prevention efforts. Both family history of obesity and personal dieting history have been established as predictors of future weight gain; however, it is unknown if they are independent or overlapping predictors. The purpose of this study was to examine the degree of overlap between these two predictors using cross-sectional data. Baseline data from four studies were examined separately and in combination for a total of 561 female participants, and analyses were conducted to examine parent anthropometric variables by dieting status within and across studies. All participants were female university students between the ages of 17 and 30. For each study, as well as for the entire sample combined, parent anthropometric variables were examined by dieting status using factorial ANOVAs. No meaningful pattern was found when examining parent anthropometric variables by dieting status, which suggests that the two risk factors are largely independent. This suggests that the processes associated with the development of future weight gain by each variable are different; therefore, future research should use a longitudinal study to test the hypothesis that using both variables to predict future weight gain would account for more variance than using either variable alone.

  15. Defining the Flora Family: Reflectance Properties and Age

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dykhuis, Melissa J.; Molnar, Lawrence A.; Van Kooten, Samuel J; Greenberg, Richard

    2014-05-01

    The Flora family resides in the densely populated inner main belt, bounded in semimajor axis by the ν6 secular resonance and the Jupiter 3:1 mean motion resonance. The presence of several large families that overlap dynamically with the Floras (e.g. the Vesta, Baptistina, and Nysa-Polana families), and the removal of a significant fraction of Floras via the nearby ν6 resonance have historically complicated the Flora family's distinction in both proper orbital elements and reflectance properties. Here we use orbital information from AstDyS, color information from SDSS, and albedo information from WISE, to obtain the characteristic orbital and reflectance properties of the Floras, by sampling the core of the family in multidimensional phase space. We find the characteristic Flora SDSS colors to be a* = 0.127 ± 0.012 and i-z = -0.038 ± 0.008; the characteristic Flora albedo is pV = 0.295 ± 0.006. These properties allow us to select a high-purity sample of Floras with similar orbital and reflectance properties as required for a detailed dynamical study. We then use the young Karin family, for which we have an age determined via direct backward integration of members' orbits, to calibrate the Yarkovsky drift rates for the Flora family without having to estimate the Floras' material properties. The size-dependent dispersion of the Flora members in semimajor axis (the "V" plot) then yields an age for the family of 940+160-120 My. We discuss the effects on our age estimate of two independent processes that both introduce obliquity variations among the family members on short (My) timescales: 1) the capture of Flora members in spin-orbit resonance, and 2) YORP-driven obliquity variation through YORP cycles. Accounting for these effects does not significantly change the age determination.

  16. Family Structure History: Links to Relationship Formation Behaviors in Young Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Suzanne; Franzetta, Kerry; Schelar, Erin; Manlove, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    Using data from three waves of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (N = 4,667), we examined the intergenerational link between parental family structure history and relationship formation in young adulthood. We investigated (a) whether parental family structure history is associated with young adults' own relationship formation…

  17. Writing the Social History of One's Family...Revised Guidelines for Faculty Members and Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Richard; Hareven, Tamara K.

    The Anonymous Families History Project of the University of Minnesota developed guidelines for college students researching and writing the social histories of their families. Included in the guidelines are interview questions, tips for conducting an oral interview, a primary source list, and a bibliography of background reading. Question topics…

  18. Suicide Attempts and Family History of Suicide in Three Psychiatric Populations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tremeau, Fabien; Staner, Luc; Duval, Fabrice; Correa, Humberto; Crocq, Marc-Antoine; Darreye, Angelina; Czobor, Pal; Dessoubrais, Cecile; Macher, Jean-Paul

    2005-01-01

    The influence of a family history of suicide on suicide attempt rate and characteristics in depression, schizophrenia, and opioid dependence was examined. One hundred sixty inpatients with unipolar depression, 160 inpatients with schizophrenia, and 160 opioid-dependent patients were interviewed. Overall, a family history of suicide was associated…

  19. Opposite Cannabis-Cognition Associations in Psychotic Patients Depending on Family History

    PubMed Central

    González-Pinto, Ana; González-Ortega, Itxaso; Alberich, Susana; Ruiz de Azúa, Sonia; Bernardo, Miguel; Bioque, Miquel; Cabrera, Bibiana; Corripio, Iluminada; Arango, Celso; Lobo, Antonio; Sánchez-Torres, Ana M.; Cuesta, Manuel J.

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate cognitive performance in a first-episode psychosis sample, when stratifying the interaction by cannabis use and familial or non-familial psychosis. Hierarchical-regression models were used to analyse this association in a sample of 268 first-episode psychosis patients and 237 controls. We found that cannabis use was associated with worse working memory, regardless of family history. However, cannabis use was clearly associated with worse cognitive performance in patients with no family history of psychosis, in cognitive domains including verbal memory, executive function and global cognitive index, whereas cannabis users with a family history of psychosis performed better in these domains. The main finding of the study is that there is an interaction between cannabis use and a family history of psychosis in the areas of verbal memory, executive function and global cognition: that is, cannabis use is associated with a better performance in patients with a family history of psychosis and a worse performance in those with no family history of psychosis. In order to confirm this hypothesis, future research should explore the actual expression of the endocannabinoid system in patients with and without a family history of psychosis. PMID:27513670

  20. Opposite Cannabis-Cognition Associations in Psychotic Patients Depending on Family History.

    PubMed

    González-Pinto, Ana; González-Ortega, Itxaso; Alberich, Susana; Ruiz de Azúa, Sonia; Bernardo, Miguel; Bioque, Miquel; Cabrera, Bibiana; Corripio, Iluminada; Arango, Celso; Lobo, Antonio; Sánchez-Torres, Ana M; Cuesta, Manuel J

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate cognitive performance in a first-episode psychosis sample, when stratifying the interaction by cannabis use and familial or non-familial psychosis. Hierarchical-regression models were used to analyse this association in a sample of 268 first-episode psychosis patients and 237 controls. We found that cannabis use was associated with worse working memory, regardless of family history. However, cannabis use was clearly associated with worse cognitive performance in patients with no family history of psychosis, in cognitive domains including verbal memory, executive function and global cognitive index, whereas cannabis users with a family history of psychosis performed better in these domains. The main finding of the study is that there is an interaction between cannabis use and a family history of psychosis in the areas of verbal memory, executive function and global cognition: that is, cannabis use is associated with a better performance in patients with a family history of psychosis and a worse performance in those with no family history of psychosis. In order to confirm this hypothesis, future research should explore the actual expression of the endocannabinoid system in patients with and without a family history of psychosis.

  1. Family health history communication networks of older adults: importance of social relationships and disease perceptions.

    PubMed

    Ashida, Sato; Kaphingst, Kimberly A; Goodman, Melody; Schafer, Ellen J

    2013-10-01

    Older individuals play a critical role in disseminating family health history (FHH) information that can facilitate disease prevention among younger family members. This study evaluated the characteristics of older adults and their familial networks associated with two types of communication (have shared and intend to share new FHH information with family members) to inform public health efforts to facilitate FHH dissemination. Information on 970 social network members enumerated by 99 seniors (aged 57 years and older) at 3 senior centers in Memphis, Tennessee, through face-to-face interviews was analyzed. Participants shared FHH information with 27.5% of the network members; 54.7% of children and 24.4% of siblings. Two-level logistic regression models showed that participants had shared FHH with those to whom they provided emotional support (odds ratio [OR] = 1.836) and felt close to (OR = 1.757). Network-members were more likely to have received FHH from participants with a cancer diagnosis (OR = 2.617) and higher familiarity with (OR = 1.380) and importance of sharing FHH with family (OR = 1.474). Participants intended to share new FHH with those who provide tangible support to (OR = 1.804) and were very close to them (OR = 2.112). Members with whom participants intend to share new FHH were more likely to belong to the network of participants with higher perceived severity if family members encountered heart disease (OR = 1.329). Many first-degree relatives were not informed of FHH. Perceptions about FHH and disease risk as well as quality of social relationships may play roles in whether seniors communicate FHH with their families. Future studies may consider influencing these perceptions and relationships.

  2. The Long History of Old Age The Long History of Old Age Thane Pat Thames & Hudson £25 320 0 500 25126 6 0500251266 [Formula: see text].

    PubMed

    2006-01-01

    This book provides an absorbing overview of 'old age', charting the history of ageing within society. It aims to right the misconceptions of ageing throughout history by writing about topics that have been 'for too long surrounded by taboo' and by challenging some of the misconceptions associated with getting older.

  3. Acting Out History from the Ice Age to the Modern Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mattioli, Denee J.; Drake, Frederick

    1999-01-01

    Addresses the teaching methods of Michael Welch, a seventh grade teacher, who incorporates the humanities, such as drama and literature, into his history classroom in order to help students learn to question, think analytically, solve problems, and make decisions. Summarizes a particular unit on the Ice Age. (CMK)

  4. Impact of early personal-history characteristics on the Pace of Aging: implications for clinical trials of therapies to slow aging and extend healthspan.

    PubMed

    Belsky, Daniel W; Caspi, Avshalom; Cohen, Harvey J; Kraus, William E; Ramrakha, Sandhya; Poulton, Richie; Moffitt, Terrie E

    2017-04-12

    Therapies to extend healthspan are poised to move from laboratory animal models to human clinical trials. Translation from mouse to human will entail challenges, among them the multifactorial heterogeneity of human aging. To inform clinical trials about this heterogeneity, we report how humans' pace of biological aging relates to personal-history characteristics. Because geroprotective therapies must be delivered by midlife to prevent age-related disease onset, we studied young-adult members of the Dunedin Study 1972-73 birth cohort (n = 954). Cohort members' Pace of Aging was measured as coordinated decline in the integrity of multiple organ systems, by quantifying rate of decline across repeated measurements of 18 biomarkers assayed when cohort members were ages 26, 32, and 38 years. The childhood personal-history characteristics studied were known predictors of age-related disease and mortality, and were measured prospectively during childhood. Personal-history characteristics of familial longevity, childhood social class, adverse childhood experiences, and childhood health, intelligence, and self-control all predicted differences in cohort members' adulthood Pace of Aging. Accumulation of more personal-history risks predicted faster Pace of Aging. Because trials of anti-aging therapies will need to ascertain personal histories retrospectively, we replicated results using cohort members' retrospective personal-history reports made in adulthood. Because many trials recruit participants from clinical settings, we replicated results in the cohort subset who had recent health system contact according to electronic medical records. Quick, inexpensive measures of trial participants' early personal histories can enable clinical trials to study who volunteers for trials, who adheres to treatment, and who responds to anti-aging therapies.

  5. Assisting adoptive families: children adopted at older ages.

    PubMed

    Singer, Ellen; Krebs, Madeleine

    2008-01-01

    Understanding the adoption experience can help health care providers develop sensitivity to the special tasks of adopted children and their families. Children who are adopted at older ages may face particular challenges. Age at adoptive placement, the burden of loss, pre-adoptive experiences, and the challenge of attachment are all significant issues in older-child adoption. Pediatric nurses demonstrate sensitivity and support to adopted children and their families by using appropriate language about adoption; understanding the significance of missing health information; providing appropriate referrals as needed; and displaying an open, caring attitude.

  6. Heavy cigarette smoking is strongly associated with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), particularly in patients without a family history of RA

    PubMed Central

    Hutchinson, D; Shepstone, L; Moots, R; Lear, J; Lynch, M

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—To investigate the potential relation between cumulative exposure to cigarette smoking in patients with or without rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and a positive family history of the disease.
METHODS—239 outpatient based patients with RA were compared with 239 controls matched for age, sex, and social class. A detailed smoking history was recorded and expressed as pack years smoked. Conditional logistic regression was used to calculate the association between RA and pack years smoked. The patients with RA were also interviewed about a family history of disease and recorded as positive if a first or second degree relative had RA. The smoking history at the time of the study of the patients with RA with or without a family history of the disease was compared directly with that of their respective controls. Patients with RA with or without a family history of the disease were also compared retrospectively for current smoking at the time of disease onset.
RESULTS—An increasing association between increased pack years smoked and RA was found. There was a striking association between heavy cigarette smoking and RA. A history for 41-50 pack years smoked was associated with RA (odds ratio (OR) 13.54, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 2.89 to 63.38; p<0.001). The association between ever having smoked and RA was modest (OR 1.81, CI 1.22 to 2.19; p=0.002). Furthermore, cigarette smoking in the patients with RA without a positive family history of RA was more prevalent than in the patients with a positive family history of RA for ever having smoked (72% v 54%; p=0.006), the number of pack years smoked (median 25.0 v 4.0; p<0.001), and for smoking at the time of disease onset (58% v 39%; p=0.003).
CONCLUSIONS—Heavy cigarette smoking, but not smoking itself, is strongly associated with RA requiring hospital follow up and is markedly more prevalent in patients with RA without a family history of RA.

 PMID:11171682

  7. Reflections on the Construction of a Digital Family Oral History and Its Impact on Adult Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Londt, Susan Cole

    2013-01-01

    The Digital Family Oral History Pilot (DFOHP) data were collected and catalogued on a private website blog for family members to learn about their grandfather (ALP) who died without telling his own story. This study examined the outcomes and perceptions of the family members who were engaged with the pilot. A self-selected sample of 17 family…

  8. Family Support in Nursing Homes Serving Residents with a Mental Health History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frahm, Kathryn; Gammonley, Denise; Zhang, Ning Jackie; Paek, Seung Chun

    2010-01-01

    Using 2003 nursing home data from the Minimum Data Set (MDS) database, this study investigated the role of family support among nursing homes serving residents with a mental health history. Exploratory factor analysis was used to create and test a conceptual model of family support using indicators located within the MDS database. Families were…

  9. Family Health History Communication Networks of Older Adults: Importance of Social Relationships and Disease Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashida, Sato; Kaphingst, Kimberly A.; Goodman, Melody; Schafer, Ellen J.

    2013-01-01

    Older individuals play a critical role in disseminating family health history (FHH) information that can facilitate disease prevention among younger family members. This study evaluated the characteristics of older adults and their familial networks associated with two types of communication ("have shared" and "intend to share…

  10. Defining the Flora Family: Orbital properties, reflectance properties and age

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dykhuis, Melissa J.; Molnar, Lawrence; Van Kooten, Samuel J.; Greenberg, Richard

    2014-11-01

    The Flora family resides in the densely populated inner main belt, bounded in semimajor axis by the ν6 secular resonance and the Jupiter 3:1 mean motion resonance. The presence of several large families that overlap dynamically with the Floras (e.g., the Vesta, Baptistina, and Nysa-Polana families), and the removal of a significant fraction of Floras via the nearby ν6 resonance complicates the Flora family's distinction in both proper orbital elements and reflectance properties. Here we use orbital information from the Asteroids Dynamic Site (AstDyS), color information from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), and albedo information from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) to obtain the median orbital and reflectance properties of the Floras by sampling the core of the family in multidimensional phase space. We find the median Flora SDSS colors to be a∗ = 0.126 ± 0.007 and i -z =-0.037±0.007 ; the median Flora albedo is pV = 0.291 ± 0.012. These properties allow us to define ranges for the Flora family in orbital and reflectance properties, as required for a detailed dynamical study. We use the young Karin family, for which we have an age determined via direct backward integration of members' orbits, to calibrate the Yarkovsky drift rates for the Flora family without having to estimate the Floras' material properties. The size-dependent dispersion of the Flora members in semimajor axis (the "V" plot) then yields an age for the family of 950-170+200 My, with the uncertainty dominated by the uncertainty in the material properties of the family members (e.g., density and surface thermal properties). We discuss the effects on our age estimate of two independent processes that both introduce obliquity variations among the family members on short (My) timescales: (1) the capture of Flora members in spin-orbit resonance, and (2) YORP-driven obliquity variation through YORP cycles. Accounting for these effects does not significantly change this age

  11. LIFE HISTORY. Age-related mortality explains life history strategies of tropical and temperate songbirds.

    PubMed

    Martin, Thomas E

    2015-08-28

    Life history theory attempts to explain why species differ in offspring number and quality, growth rate, and parental effort. I show that unappreciated interactions of these traits in response to age-related mortality risk challenge traditional perspectives and explain life history evolution in songbirds. Counter to a long-standing paradigm, tropical songbirds grow at similar overall rates to temperate species but grow wings relatively faster. These growth tactics are favored by predation risk, both in and after leaving the nest, and are facilitated by greater provisioning of individual offspring by parents. Increased provisioning of individual offspring depends on partitioning effort among fewer young because of constraints on effort from adult and nest mortality. These growth and provisioning responses to mortality risk finally explain the conundrum of small clutch sizes of tropical birds.

  12. Family History of Alzheimer's Disease is Associated with Impaired Perceptual Discrimination of Novel Objects.

    PubMed

    Mason, Emily J; Hussey, Erin P; Molitor, Robert J; Ko, Philip C; Donahue, Manus J; Ally, Brandon A

    2017-03-10

    Early detection may be the key to developing therapies that will combat Alzheimer's disease (AD). It has been consistently demonstrated that one of the main pathologies of AD, tau, is present in the brain decades before a clinical diagnosis. Tau pathology follows a stereotypical route through the medial temporal lobe beginning in the entorhinal and perirhinal cortices. If early pathology leads to very subtle changes in behavior, it may be possible to detect these changes in subjects years before a clinical diagnosis can currently be made. We aimed to discover if cognitively normal middle-aged adults (40-60 years old) at increased risk for AD due to family history would have impaired performance on a cognitive task known to challenge the perirhinal cortex. Using an oddity detection task, we found that subjects with a family history of AD had lowered accuracy without demonstrating differences in rate of acquisition. There were no differences between subjects' medial temporal lobe volume or cortical thickness, indicating that the changes in behavior were not due to significant atrophy. These results demonstrate that subtle changes in perceptual processing are detectable years before a typical diagnosis even when there are no differences detectable in structural imaging data. Anatomically-targeted cognitive testing may be useful in identifying subjects in the earliest stages of AD.

  13. Resting state functional connectivity of the nucleus accumbens in youth with a family history of alcoholism.

    PubMed

    Cservenka, Anita; Casimo, Kaitlyn; Fair, Damien A; Nagel, Bonnie J

    2014-03-30

    Adolescents with a family history of alcoholism (FHP) are at heightened risk for developing alcohol use disorders (AUDs). The nucleus accumbens (NAcc), a key brain region for reward processing, is implicated in the development of AUDs. Thus, functional connectivity of the NAcc may be an important marker of risk in FHP youth. Resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fcMRI) was used to examine the intrinsic connectivity of the NAcc in 47 FHP and 50 family history negative (FHN) youth, ages 10-16 years old. FHP and FHN adolescents showed significant group differences in resting state synchrony between the left NAcc and bilateral inferior frontal gyri and the left postcentral gyrus (PG). Additionally, FHP youth differed from FHN youth in right NAcc functional connectivity with the left orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), left superior temporal gyrus, right cerebellum, left PG, and right occipital cortex. These results indicate that FHP youth have less segregation between the NAcc and executive functioning brain regions, and less integration with reward-related brain areas, such as the OFC. The findings of the current study highlight that premorbid atypical connectivity of appetitive systems, in the absence of heavy alcohol use, may be a risk marker in FHP adolescents.

  14. Pancreatic cancer screening in different risk individuals with family history of pancreatic cancer-a prospective cohort study in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Ming-Chu; Wu, Chih-Horng; Yang, Shih-Hung; Liang, Po-Chin; Chen, Bang-Bin; Jan, I-Shiow; Chang, Yu-Ting; Jeng, Yung-Ming

    2017-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer (PC) is usually diagnosed at advanced stage. Our aim was to investigate the risk of malignant and premalignant pancreatic lesions in individuals with family history of PC. Individuals at risk of PC were enrolled prospectively in a screening program in Taiwan. All risk individuals received genetic testing of cationic trypsinogen (PRSS1) gene and the serine protease inhibitor Kazal type 1 (SPINK1) gene. They were stratified into three risk groups (high, moderate, and low) based on the family history and genetic testing. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatogram (MRCP) were performed in all screened individuals. A total of three hundred and three risk individuals in 165 families were enrolled with the mean age of 51.1 years, 38.3% of whom were male. A total of 24 of 303 (7.9%) screened individuals had the PRSS1 mutation, and 7/234 (0.3%) had the SPINK1 mutation. Nineteen (6.3%) risk individuals had pancreatic pathology including seven with pancreatic cancer, and four with pancreatic mucinous neoplasms. The earliest age of onset of PC in affected members was an independent factor associated with risk of developing PC in all risk groups. DM was associated with much-increased risk of developing PC in low and moderate risk groups (OR45.8. 95% CI. 13.82-151.64, P=0.001). Combined family history of non-PC malignancy in the family in the low-risk individual was associated with abnormal findings on MRI (OR8.4, 95% CI 3.29-21.88, P < 0.0001). There was no any complication of screening. In summary, pancreatic cancer screening may benefit in risk individuals with family history of pancreatic cancer in our population. The diagnostic yield is similar to prior studies. MRCP as initial screening modality is safe and effective. Future study will be needed to tailor PC screening strategy in different risk populations. PMID:28337383

  15. The history and illustration of anatomy in the Middle Ages.

    PubMed

    Gurunluoglu, Raffi; Gurunluoglu, Aslin; Williams, Susan A; Cavdar, Safiye

    2013-11-01

    This article reviews the influence of key figures on the pictorial representation of anatomy and the evolution of anatomical illustration during the Middle Ages until the time of the Renaissance, based on medical history books, journals and ancient medical books. During the early period in the Middle Ages, most illustrations were traditional drawings of emblematic nature, oftentimes unrealistic, not only because the precise knowledge of anatomy was lacking but also because the objective was to elucidate certain principles for teaching purposes. Five figure-series that came down to us through ancient manuscripts and textbooks represent the best examples of such traditional illustrations. With the advent of human dissection in the 13th and 14th centuries, a significant transformation in the depiction of anatomy began to project the practice of human dissection, as we see in the works of Mondino de Luzzi, Henri de Mondeville and Guido de Vigevano. After the invention of book printing in the second half of the 15th century, the reproduction of books was commonly practised and the woodcut made multiplication of pictures easier. Peter of Abano, Hieronymous Brunschwig, Johannes de Ketham, Johannes Peyligk, Gregory Reisch, Magnus Hundt, Laurentius Phryesen and many more included several anatomical illustrations in their treatises that demonstrated the development of anatomical illustration during the later Middle Ages.

  16. Association between family history of psychiatric disorders and long-term outcome in schizophrenia - The Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966 study.

    PubMed

    Käkelä, Juha; Marttila, Riikka; Keskinen, Emmi; Veijola, Juha; Isohanni, Matti; Koivumaa-Honkanen, Heli; Haapea, Marianne; Jääskeläinen, Erika; Miettunen, Jouko

    2017-03-01

    Family history of psychiatric disorders has been associated with impaired outcome in schizophrenia, but very few studies have investigated its long-term social and occupational outcome. We investigated the association of family history of psychiatric disorders, especially psychosis, with long-term social, occupational, clinical and global outcome in schizophrenia. The study sample comprises of the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966. Cohort members with psychosis were detected by Finnish national registers. Altogether 69 individuals with schizophrenia spectrum diagnosis participated, mean age 43, after on average 17 years since onset of illness. The information regarding family history of psychiatric disorders were gathered from registers and interviews. A Strauss-Carpenter Outcome Scale, PANSS and SOFAS were conducted to assess the outcome. Results showed that the family history of any psychiatric disorder was associated with more severe positive and emotional symptoms in PANSS. The family history of psychosis was not associated with outcomes. These findings suggest that family history of psychiatric disorders has a small association with outcome in schizophrenia. Despite family history of psychosis being a strong risk factor for schizophrenia, after years of illness it does not seem to affect outcome.

  17. Genetic variation at 8q24, family history of cancer, and upper gastrointestinal cancers in a Chinese population.

    PubMed

    Tarleton, Heather P; Chang, Shen-Chih; Park, Sungshim Lani; Cai, Lin; Ding, Baoguo; He, Na; Hussain, Shehnaz K; Jiang, Qingwu; Mu, Li-Na; Rao, Jianyu; Wang, Hua; You, Nai-Chieh Y; Yu, Shun-Zhang; Zhao, Jin-Kou; Zhang, Zuo-Feng

    2014-03-01

    Genetic variation at 8q24 is associated with prostate, bladder, breast, colorectal, thyroid, lung, ovarian, UADT, liver and stomach cancers. However, a role for variation at 8q24 in familial clustering of upper gastrointestinal cancers has not been studied. In order to explore potential inherited susceptibility, we analyzed epidemiologic data from a population-based case-control study of upper gastrointestinal cancers from Taixing, China. The study population includes 204 liver, 206 stomach, and 218 esophageal cancer cases and 415 controls. Associations between 8q24 rs1447295, rs16901979, rs6983267 and these cancers were stratified by family history of cancer. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were adjusted for potential confounders: age, sex, education, tobacco smoking, alcohol consumption, and BMI at interview. We also adjusted for hepatitis B and aflatoxin (liver cancer) and Helicobacter pylori (stomach cancer). In a dominant model, among those with a family history of cancer, rs1447295 was positively associated with liver cancer (OR(adj) 2.80; 95% CI 1.15-6.80). Heterogeneity was observed (P(heterogeneity) = 0.029) with rs6983267 and liver cancer, with positive association in the dominant model among those with a family history of cancer and positive association in the recessive model among those without a family history of cancer. When considered in a genetic risk score model, each additional 8q24 risk genotype increased the odds of liver cancer by two-fold among those with a family history of cancer (OR(adj) 2.00; 95% CI 1.15-3.47). These findings suggest that inherited susceptibility to liver cancer may exist in the Taixing population and that variation at 8q24 might be a genetic component of that inherited susceptibility.

  18. Evolutionary history of bovine endogenous retroviruses in the Bovidae family

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Endogenous retroviruses (ERVs) are genomic elements of retroviral origin that are present in the genomes of almost all vertebrates. In cattle, more than 13,000 elements related to ERVs have been detected, and based on the pol gene, 24 families or groups of bovine ERVs have been described. However, information about ERVs in other bovids and the presence of families of related bovine ERVs in different species of the Bovidae family is scarce. Results The 24 families of bovine ERVs previously detected in cattle (Bos taurus) were also detected in zebus (Bos indicus) and yaks (Bos grunniens). In addition, six new families, named BoERV25 to BoERV30, were detected in the three Bos species. Five more ruminant species were screened for related ERVs: 26 families were detected in these species, but four families (BoERV24, BoERV26, BoERV28 and BoERV29) were specific to cattle, zebus, yaks and buffalo. An analysis of the homology of the ERVs of cattle, zebus and yaks revealed that the level of LTR divergence was similar between ERVs from cattle and zebus but was less similar between with ERVs from cattle and yaks. In addition, purifying selection was detected in the genes and retroviral regions of clusters of ERVs of cattle, zebus and yaks. Conclusions In this work, the 24 ERV families previously identified in cattle were also found in two other species in the Bos genus. In addition, six new bovine ERV families were detected. Based on LTR divergence, the most recently inserted families are from Class II. The divergence of the LTR, used as an indirect estimate of the ERV insertion time, seemed to be influenced by the differences in genome evolution since the divergence of the species. In addition, purifying selection could be acting on clusters of ERVs from different species. PMID:24256121

  19. Family history of atherosclerotic vascular disease is associated with the presence of abdominal aortic aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Ye, Zi; Bailey, Kent R; Austin, Erin; Kullo, Iftikhar J

    2016-02-01

    We investigated whether family history (FHx) of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) was associated with presence of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). The study cohort comprised of 696 patients with AAA (70±8 years, 84% men) and 2686 controls (68±10 years, 61% men) recruited from noninvasive vascular and stress electrocardiogram (ECG) laboratories at Mayo Clinic. AAA was defined as a transverse diameter of abdominal aorta ⩾ 3 cm or history of AAA repair. Controls were not known to have AAA. FHx was defined as having at least one first-degree relative with aortic aneurysm or with onset of ASCVD (coronary, cerebral or peripheral artery disease) before age 65 years. FHx of aortic aneurysm or ASCVD were each associated with presence of AAA after adjustment for age, sex, conventional risk factors and ASCVD: adjusted odds ratios (OR; 95% confidence interval): 2.17 (1.66-2.83, p < 0.01) and 1.31 (1.08-1.59, p < 0.01), respectively. FHx of ASCVD remained associated with AAA after additional adjustment for FHx of aortic aneurysm: adjusted OR: 1.27 (1.05-1.55, p = 0.01). FHx of ASCVD in multiple arterial locations was associated with higher odds of having AAA: the adjusted odds were 1.23 times higher for each additionally affected arterial location reported in the FHx (1.08-1.40, p = 0.01). Our results suggest both unique and shared environmental and genetic factors mediating susceptibility to AAA and ASCVD.

  20. History of allergy in the middle ages and renaissance.

    PubMed

    Ring, Johannes

    2014-01-01

    In the Middle Ages little innovative medical literature came from Western Europe. The Greek-Roman tradition with the scriptures of Hippocrates and Galenos was preserved in Byzantium and then in the Middle East by Arabic medicine; it then returned to Europe in Latin translations mostly made in Italy and Spain. There were innovative developments in Arabic medicine also with regard to the history of allergy, especially with the first description of 'rose fever', which is described as very similar in symptomatology to hay fever. Under Arabic influence, the first medical university in Salerno was famous for its well-known text Tacuinum sanitatis in which a description of asthma can be found. With the beginning of renaissance new developments were also registered in Europe, with new observations and a new way of thinking.

  1. Complex exposure histories for meteorites with "short" exposure ages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herzog, G. F.; Vogt, S.; Albrecht, A.; Xue, S.; Fink, D.; Klein, J.; Middleton, R.; Weber, H. W.; Schultz, L.

    1997-05-01

    We report measurements of 26Al and 10Be activities in nine ordinary chondrites and of the light noble gas concentrations and 36Cl and 41Ca activities in subsets of those meteorites. All but Murray have low 21Ne concentrations (<1.0 (10-8 cm3 STP/g), and have previously been used to estimate 21Ne production rates. Ladder Creek, Murchison, Sena, and Timochin have inventories of cosmogenic radionuclides compatible with a single stage of irradiation and give 21Ne production rates consistent with the standard L-chondrite value of ~0.33 ( 10-8 cm3 STP/g-My. In contrast, Cullison, Guenie, Shaw, and Tsarev experienced complex irradiation histories. They and several other meteorites with low nominal exposure ages also have lower 3He/21Ne ratios than expected based on their 22Ne/21Ne ratios. A general association between low 21Ne contents and 3He losses suggests that meteorites with short lifetimes often occupy orbits with small perihelia. Meteorites with low 21Ne contents, one-stage exposure histories, and losses of cosmogenic 3He are rare, however. Possible explanations for the scarcity are 1) statistical; 2) that it is harder for more deeply buried proto-meteoroids to lose gas in a liberating collision; and 3) that it is harder to insert more deeply buried proto-meteoroids directly into orbits with small perihelia.

  2. Life Stress and Family History for Depression: The Moderating Role of Past Depressive Episodes

    PubMed Central

    Monroe, Scott M.; Slavich, George M.; Gotlib, Ian H.

    2014-01-01

    Three of the most consistently reported and powerful predictors of depression are a recent major life event, a positive family history for depression, and a personal history of past depressive episodes. Little research, however, has evaluated the inter-relations among these predictors in depressed samples. Such information is descriptively valuable and potentially etiologically informative. In the present article we summarize the existing literature and test four predictions in a sample of 62 clinically depressed individuals: (1) participants who experienced a major life event prior to onset would be less likely than participants who did not experience a major life event to have a positive family history for depression; (2) participants with a recent major life event would have fewer lifetime episodes of depression than would participants without; (3) participants with a positive family history for depression would have more lifetime episodes of depression than would participants with a negative family history for depression; and (4) we would obtain a 3-way interaction in which participants with a positive family history and without a major life event would have the most lifetime episodes, whereas participants with a negative family history and a major life event would have the fewest lifetime episodes. The first three predictions were confirmed, and the fourth prediction partially confirmed. These novel findings begin to elucidate the complex relations among these three prominent risk factors for depression, and point to avenues of research that may help illuminate the origins of depressive episodes. PMID:24308926

  3. Life stress and family history for depression: the moderating role of past depressive episodes.

    PubMed

    Monroe, Scott M; Slavich, George M; Gotlib, Ian H

    2014-02-01

    Three of the most consistently reported and powerful predictors of depression are a recent major life event, a positive family history for depression, and a personal history of past depressive episodes. Little research, however, has evaluated the inter-relations among these predictors in depressed samples. Such information is descriptively valuable and potentially etiologically informative. In the present article we summarize the existing literature and test four predictions in a sample of 62 clinically depressed individuals: (1) participants who experienced a major life event prior to onset would be less likely than participants who did not experience a major life event to have a positive family history for depression; (2) participants with a recent major life event would have fewer lifetime episodes of depression than would participants without; (3) participants with a positive family history for depression would have more lifetime episodes of depression than would participants with a negative family history for depression; and (4) we would obtain a 3-way interaction in which participants with a positive family history and without a major life event would have the most lifetime episodes, whereas participants with a negative family history and a major life event would have the fewest lifetime episodes. The first three predictions were confirmed, and the fourth prediction partially confirmed. These novel findings begin to elucidate the complex relations among these three prominent risk factors for depression, and point to avenues of research that may help illuminate the origins of depressive episodes.

  4. [The history and library the Goda family of medical doctors].

    PubMed

    Machi, Senjuro; Kosoto, Hiroshi; Amano, Yosuke; Hanawa, Toshihiko

    2005-12-01

    The Goda family discussed in this paper is a family lineage that served as the official physicians to the Sakakibara family that ruled Takada han in Echigo province from the middle of the Edo period. Last year old medical materials and writings that had been transmitted by the family were transferred to the Oriental Medicine Research Center of the Kitasato Institute. The authors have had the opportunity to study the family genealogy and collate these archives. The Goda family has continued through eight generations. These are, respectively- (1) the founder Heizo; (2) Chuzo; (3) Shojun; (4) Yoan; (5) Yoshinobu; (6) Hitoshi; (7) Hiroshi; and (8) the present head, Takashi. We have identified two lines of physicians in collateral families (from Susumu and Akira, both sons of Yoshinobu). The archive as received is comprised of 138 separate items from a total of 450 volumes. Of these, medical works constitute 102 items in 283 volumes. The library provides valuable material which sheds light on the standard of medicine in the Takada area of Echigo from the late Edo through the Meiji periods.

  5. MD Family Medicine - Calicut experience: History is made here

    PubMed Central

    Roshni, M.

    2016-01-01

    Government Medical College, Calicut, Kerala - the first medical college in India to start Doctor of Medicine (MD) in family medicine as a postgraduate course. This was in the year 2012. Till date, this is the only medical college to have MD Family Medicine program in India. The college was allowed two MD Family Medicine seats per year by the Medical Council of India, and this is a 3 year course. The first batch of MD Family Medicine students has passed out from the Government Medical College, Calicut in July 2015. In this article, the author, who has been working as an assistant professor in the Department of Family Medicine, ever since the department started in the year 2012, shares her experiences in setting up the department, its functioning and the achievement of bringing out the first batch of successful MD Family Medicine specialists. Another laurel, of which the institution is proud of, is that they were able to incorporate family medicine teaching program in the MBBS curriculum. A brief introduction about Government Medical College, Calicut, is also given. PMID:27843820

  6. Collecting Family Health History using an Online Social Network: a Nationwide Survey among Potential Users

    PubMed Central

    Welch, Brandon M.; O’Connell, Nathaniel S.; Qanungo, Suparna; Halbert-Hughes, Chanita; Schiffman, Joshua D.

    2015-01-01

    Family health history (FHx) is one of the most important risk factors for disease. Unfortunately, collection and use of FHx is under-utilized in the clinical setting. Efforts to improve collection of FHx have had minimal impact. A novel approach to collect FHx using social networking capabilities is being explored. We conducted a nationwide survey of 5,258 respondents to 1- assess the interest in using an online social network for FHx, 2- identify if such a tool would have clinical utility, and 3- identify notable trends and potential concerns. We found survey respondents to be very supportive of the proposed approach and interesting trends related to age, education, and race were identified. Results from this survey will be used to guide future research and development of a proposed FHx social network application. PMID:26958272

  7. [Metabolic syndrome prevalence in Chilean children and adolescent with family history of chronic noncommunicable diseases].

    PubMed

    Burrows, Raquel; Atalah, Eduardo; Leiva, Laura; Rojas, Pamela; Maza, María Pía de la; Vásquez, Fabian; Lera, Lydia; Díaz, Erick

    2012-06-01

    Family history (FH+) of non transmisible chronic diseases (NTCD) increase MetS risk. In Chile, the MetS affects 27% of overweight children, and fasting hyperglycemia is very low prevalent (4,0%). The objective was to study the prevalence of MetS and the cardiovascular risk factors (CVRF) in overweight children with a family background of NTCD and analyze its association with the number of relatives witth NTCD and with parental history (PH). In 183 overweight children (BMI > or = p85) mean age 11,8 +/- 1,8 (86 males) with a FH+ (parental or grandparental) of NTCD, were assessed the BMI z (CDC / NCHS), waist circumference, blood arterial pressure, fasting Glucose and Insulin (RIA), triglycerides, HDL chol. The MetS and the CVRF were diagnosed using the Cook phenotype and the insulin resistance (IR) through the HOMA-IR. Chi2, ANOVA, t Student and Willcoxon test were performed. The frequency of FH+ of DM2, hypertension and dyslipidemia were 81,4%, 88,0% and 71,6 % respectively. The MeTS prevalence was 46,5 % associated to overweight magnitude an parental history of NTCD. The prevalence of hypertriglyceridemia was 54,6%, while fasting hyperglycemia affected 31,4% of the sample. There was no association between number of relatives with NTCD and CV risk profile. We conclude that in overweight children with FH+ of NTCD, the prevalence of MetS, dyslipidemia and fasting hyperglycemia are significantly higher, than those observed in the general population of obese children.

  8. Influence of family dynamics on burden among family caregivers in aging Japan

    PubMed Central

    Kusaba, Tesshu; Sato, Kotaro; Fukuma, Shingo; Yamada, Yukari; Matsui, Yoshinori; Matsuda, Satoshi; Ando, Takashi; Sakushima, Ken; Fukuhara, Shunichi

    2016-01-01

    Background. Long-term care for the elderly is largely shouldered by their family, representing a serious burden in a hyper-aging society. However, although family dynamics are known to play an important role in such care, the influence of caring for the elderly on burden among caregiving family members is poorly understood. Objective. To examine the influence of family dynamics on burden experienced by family caregivers. Methods. We conducted a cross-sectional study at six primary care clinics, involving 199 caregivers of adult care receivers who need long-term care. Participants were divided into three groups based on tertile of Index of Family Dynamics for Long-term Care (IF-Long score), where higher scores imply poorer relationships between care receivers and caregiving family: best, <2; intermediate, 2 to <5; worst, ≥5. The mean differences in burden index of caregivers (BIC-11) between the three groups were estimated by linear regression model with adjustment for care receiver’s activity of daily living and cognitive function. Results. Mean age of caregivers was 63.2 years (with 40.7% aged ≥ 65 years). BIC-11 scores were higher in the worst IF-Long group (adjusted mean difference: 4.4, 95% confidence interval: 1.2 to 7.5) than in the best IF-Long group. We also detected a positive trend between IF-Long score and BIC-11 score (P-value for trend <0.01). Conclusion. Our findings indicate that family dynamics strongly influences burden experienced by caregiving family members, regardless of the care receiver’s degree of cognitive impairment. These results underscore the importance of evaluating relationships between care receivers and their caregivers when discussing a care regimen for care receivers. PMID:27450988

  9. Family History of Alcoholism: Are You at Risk?

    MedlinePlus

    ... abuse or alcoholism: Al–Anon Family Group Headquarters Internet address: www.al–anon.alateen.org Makes referrals ... Anonymous (AA) World Services Phone: (212) 870–3400 Internet address: www.aa.org Makes referrals to local ...

  10. Placement History of Foster Children: A Study of Placement History and Outcomes in Long-Term Family Foster Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strijker, Johan; Knorth, Erik J.; Knot-Dickscheit, Jana

    2008-01-01

    The files of 419 children in family foster care and kinship foster care were used in a retrospective longitudinal design study that examined their placement histories in child welfare. Significant associations were found between the number of placements on one hand, and the prevalence of attachment disorders, severity of behavioral problems, and…

  11. Associations of phenylthiocarbamide tasting to alcohol problems and family history of alcoholism differ by gender.

    PubMed

    Driscoll, Kimberly A; Perez, Marisol; Cukrowicz, Kelly C; Butler, Melanie; Joiner, Thomas E

    2006-06-30

    Past research associating phenylthiocarbamide/propylthiouracil (PTC/PROP) taste status with alcoholism has produced equivocal results. Some have found higher proportions of nontasters among those with a family history of alcoholism than controls, whereas others have not. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between PTC taste status, alcohol problems, and family history of alcoholism. A total of 244 undergraduate students participated in this study, with a gender distribution of 75% female and 25% male. We found support for our hypothesis that male supertasters would report fewer problems with alcohol and a less significant family history of alcoholism. Interestingly, we also found that female supertasters had a greater family history of alcoholism and more current problems associated with alcohol use. Implications for the genetic link between PTC taste status and alcoholism are discussed.

  12. Family History of Alcohol Abuse Moderates Effectiveness of a Group Motivational Enhancement Intervention in College Women

    PubMed Central

    LaBrie, Joseph W.; Feres, Nashla; Kenney, Shannon R.; Lac, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    This study examined whether a self-reported family history of alcohol abuse (FH+) moderated the effects of a female-specific group motivational enhancement intervention with first-year college women. First-year college women (N= 287) completed an initial questionnaire and attended an intervention (n=161) or control (n=126) group session, of which 118 reported FH+. Repeated measures ANCOVA models were estimated to investigate whether the effectiveness of the intervention varied as a function of one’s reported family history of alcohol abuse. Results revealed that family history of alcohol abuse moderated intervention efficacy. Although the intervention was effective in producing less risky drinking relative to controls, among those participants who received the intervention, FH+ women drank less across five weeks of follow-up than FH− women. The current findings provide preliminary support for the differential effectiveness of motivational enhancement interventions with FH+ women. Keywords: college women, intervention, alcohol abuse, family history, motivational interviewing PMID:19162406

  13. Family History of Alzheimer's Disease and Cortical Thickness in Patients With Dementia.

    PubMed

    Ganske, Steffi; Haussmann, Robert; Gruschwitz, Antonia; Werner, Annett; Osterrath, Antje; Baumgaertel, Johanna; Lange, Jan; Donix, Katharina L; Linn, Jennifer; Donix, Markus

    2016-08-01

    A first-degree family history of Alzheimer's disease reflects genetic risks for the neurodegenerative disorder. Recent imaging data suggest localized effects of genetic risks on brain structure in healthy people. It is unknown whether this association can also be found in patients who already have dementia. Our aim was to investigate whether family history risk modulates regional medial temporal lobe cortical thickness in patients with Alzheimer's disease. We performed high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging and cortical unfolding data analysis on 54 patients and 53 nondemented individuals. A first-degree family history of Alzheimer's disease was associated with left hemispheric cortical thinning in the subiculum among patients and controls. The contribution of Alzheimer's disease family history to regional brain anatomy changes independent of cognitive impairment may reflect genetic risks that modulate onset and clinical course of the disease.

  14. Association between family history of diabetes and cardiovascular disease and lifestyle risk factors in the United States population: The 2009-2012 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    PubMed

    Akhuemonkhan, Eboselume; Lazo, Mariana

    2017-03-01

    Family history is a well-known risk factor for diabetes and cardiovascular disease (CVD) and modification of lifestyle risk factors can significantly lessen such risk. Our aim was to assess the association between family history of diabetes and/or CVD and lifestyle behaviors and risk factors (smoking, low physical activity, excessive dietary sodium and cholesterol intake and obesity) in a nationally representative sample of U.S. adults. We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2009-2012. Family history, lifestyle behaviors and risk factors were defined using self-reported and physical examination data. The study sample included 10,988 participants with a mean age of 47years. Among the U.S. adult population, 29.5%, 5.7% and 6.5% had a family history of diabetes, CVD and both diseases respectively. Compared to participants with no family history, participants with a family history of diabetes, CVD and both diabetes and CVD were more likely to be current smokers (OR=1.18[95% CI, 1.03-1.35], OR=1.68[95% CI, 1.31-2.17] and OR=1.71[95% CI, 1.30-2.26] respectively). Participants with a family history of diabetes (OR=1.42[95% CI, 1.26-1.61]) and both diabetes and CVD were more likely to be overweight/obese (OR=2.06[95% CI, 1.57-2.69]). There was no association between family history and dietary factors or physical activity. In the U.S., there is a high prevalence of modifiable risk factors among persons with a family history of diabetes and/or CVD. Healthcare providers have a significant role to play in targeting these individuals for lifestyle changes.

  15. Family History of Cancer and Risk of Sporadic Differentiated Thyroid Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Li; Li, Guojun; Wei, Qingyi; El-Naggar, Adel K.; Sturgis, Erich M.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND Thyroid cancer incidence in the United States, particularly in women, has increased dramatically since 1980s. While the causes of thyroid cancer in most patients remain largely unknown, evidence suggests the existence of an inherited predisposition to development of differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC). Therefore, we explored the association between sporadic DTC and family history of cancer. METHODS In a retrospective hospital-based case-control study of prospectively recruited subjects who completed the study questionnaire upon enrollment, unconditional logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) as estimates of the DTC risk associated with first-degree family history of cancer. RESULTS The study included 288 patients with sporadic DTC and 591 cancer-free controls. Family history of thyroid cancer in first-degree relatives was associated with increased DTC risk (adjusted OR = 4.1, 95% CI: 1.7–9.9). All DTC cases in patients with a first-degree family history of thyroid cancer were cases of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) (adjusted OR = 4.6, 95 CI%: 1.9–11.1). Notably, the risk of PTC was highest in subjects with a family history of thyroid cancer in siblings (OR = 7.4, 95% CI: 1.8–30.4). In addition, multifocal primary tumor was more common among PTC patients with first-degree family history of thyroid cancer than among PTC patients with no first-degree family history of thyroid cancer (68.8% vs. 35.5%, p = 0.01). CONCLUSIONS Our study suggests that family history of thyroid cancer in first-degree relatives, particularly in siblings, is associated with an increased risk of sporadic PTC. PMID:21800288

  16. All in the family? Analyzing the impact of family history in addition to genotype on medullary thyroid carcinoma aggressiveness in MEN2A patients.

    PubMed

    Long, Kristin L; Etzel, Carol; Rich, Thereasa; Hyde, Samuel; Perrier, Nancy D; Graham, Paul H; Lee, Jeffrey E; Hu, Mimi I; Cote, Gilbert J; Gagel, Robert; Grubbs, Elizabeth G

    2017-04-01

    Several guidelines for patients with multiple endocrine neoplasia 2A (MEN2A) take into account genotype and family history of medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) disease aggressiveness. We sought to determine if an association exists independent of genotype, which could provide important information for counseling MEN2A patients in management of their MTC. Pedigrees of patients with ≥5 family members with MEN2A were retrospectively reviewed. Analysis was performed among kindreds with the most frequently observed codon mutation (RET 634). Familial MTC disease aggressiveness was evaluated using: (1) mean age at diagnosis of MTC, (2) current mean age of carriers without MTC, (3) proportion of kindred with MTC with metastatic disease at diagnosis, (4) proportion of kindred with MTC with metastasis/death from MTC as worst outcome, and (5) proportion of kindred with disease progression. 170 affected patients from 12 different MEN2A kindreds met inclusion criteria. The number of affected family members available for study per kindred ranged from 8 to 43 individuals. A difference in mean age of MTC diagnosis was found in screened patients (p = 0.01); mean age of MTC-free patients did not differ (p = 0.93). No differences were noted among kindreds in disease stage at presentation, worst outcome, or progression; marked variation in these measures was noted within families. In conclusion, a difference in age of MTC diagnosis among different RET 634 kindreds was identified. In contrast, notable intra-familial variability in disease aggressiveness was observed. Based on these findings, we recommend counseling patients with codon 634 mutations that their MTC disease course cannot be predicted by that of their relatives.

  17. Family history of colorectal cancer: clinicians' preventive recommendations and patient behavior.

    PubMed

    Zlot, Amy I; Silvey, Kerry; Newell, Nanette; Coates, Ralph J; Leman, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Few population-based studies have addressed the role that family history of colorectal cancer (CRC) plays in clinician decision making or patient health choices. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of family history of CRC on clinician practice, patient CRC screening, and patient preventive behavior. We analyzed 2008 Oregon Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System data to examine associations between family history of CRC and 1) patient-reported clinician recommendations, 2) perceived risk of developing CRC, 3) adoption of preventive and screening behaviors, and 4) CRC risk factors among 1,795 respondents without CRC. A family history of CRC was positively associated with a higher likelihood of respondents reporting that their clinicians discussed colorectal cancer screening (OR, 4.2; 95% CI, 2.4-7.4) and of respondents having colorectal screening within the recommended time period (OR, 2.2; 95% CI, 1.3-3.9). A family history of CRC was also associated with respondents reporting lifestyle changes to prevent CRC (OR, 2.6; 95% CI, 1.7-4.0). A family history of CRC may prompt clinicians to recommend screening and preventive behavior changes and motivate patients to adopt such strategies.

  18. Using family history information to promote healthy lifestyles and prevent diseases; a discussion of the evidence

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background A family history, reflecting genetic susceptibility as well as shared environmental and behavioral factors, is an important risk factor for common chronic multifactorial diseases such as cardiovascular diseases, type 2 diabetes and many cancers. Discussion The purpose of the present paper is to discuss the evidence for the use of family history as a tool for primary prevention of common chronic diseases, in particular for tailored interventions aimed at promoting healthy lifestyles. The following questions are addressed: (1) What is the value of family history information as a determinant of personal disease risk?; (2)How can family history information be used to motivate at-risk individuals to adopt and maintain healthy lifestyles in order to prevent disease?; and (3) What additional studies are needed to assess the potential value of family history information as a tool to promote a healthy lifestyle? Summary In addition to risk assessment, family history information can be used to personalize health messages, which are potentially more effective in promoting healthy lifestyles than standardized health messages. More research is needed on the evidence for the effectiveness of such a tool. PMID:20465810

  19. Factors Associated with Colorectal Cancer Risk Perception: The Role of Polyps and Family History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stark, Jennifer Rider; Bertone-Johnson, Elizabeth R.; Costanza, Mary E.; Stoddard, Anne M.

    2006-01-01

    It is unclear how objective risk factors influence the factors associated with colorectal cancer (CRC) risk perception. The goals of this study were to investigate factors associated with perceived risk of CRC and to explore how these relationships were modified by personal history of polyps or family history of CRC. The study involved a mailed…

  20. Building Community through Shared Aesthetic Experience: A Multimedia Family History Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCrary, Nancye E.

    2012-01-01

    Family history projects have been used extensively in social studies education. They help to personalize history and mediate an awareness of self in relation to others. This article details how one such project, implemented in a teacher education program, promoted dialogues of respect and fostered community among pre-service teachers. It includes…

  1. Families, social life, and well-being at older ages.

    PubMed

    Waite, Linda; Das, Aniruddha

    2010-01-01

    As people age, many aspects of their lives tend to change, including the constellation of people with whom they are connected, their social context, their families, and their health--changes that are often interrelated. Wave I of the National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project (NSHAP) has yielded rich information on intimate ties, especially dyads and families, and on social connections generally. Combined with extensive biological and other health measures, NSHAP enables researchers to address key questions on health and aging. We begin with recent findings on intimate dyads, then move to social participation, and finally to elder mistreatment. Among dyads, we find that whereas sexual activity drops sharply with age for both women and men, gender differences in partner loss as well as psychosocial and normative pressures constrain women's sex more than men's. However, surviving partnerships tend to be emotionally and physically satisfying and are marked by relatively frequent sex. In contrast to sex, nonsexual intimacy is highly prevalent at older ages, especially among women. Older adults are also socially resilient--adapting to the loss of social ties by increasing involvement with community and kin networks. Despite these social assets, older adults remain vulnerable to mistreatment. Overall, these findings yield a mixed picture of gender-differentiated vulnerabilities balanced by proactive adaptation and maintenance of social and dyadic assets.

  2. [A family with creatine transporter deficiency diagnosed with urinary creatine/creatinine ratio and the family history: the third Japanese familial case].

    PubMed

    Nozaki, Fumihito; Kumada, Tomohiro; Shibata, Minoru; Fujii, Tatsuya; Wada, Takahito; Osaka, Hitoshi

    2015-01-01

    Creatine transporter deficiency (CRTR-D) is an X-linked disorder characterized by hypotonia, developmental delay, and seizures. We report the third Japanese family with CRTR-D. The proband was an 8-year-old boy who presented with hypotonia, severe intellectual disability and two episodes of seizures associated with/without fever. Among 7 siblings (4 males, 3 females), the eldest brother had severe intellectual disability, epilepsy, and sudden death at 17 years of age, while 18-year-old third elder brother had severe intellectual disability, autism, and drug-resistant epilepsy. The proband's urinary creatine/creatinine ratio was increased. A reduced creatine peak on brain magnetic resonance spectroscopy and a known pathogenic mutation in the SLC6A8 gene (c.1661 C > T;p.Pro554Leu) confirmed the diagnosis of CRTR-D. The same mutation was found in the third elder brother. Their mother was a heterozygote. Symptoms of CRTR-D are non-specific. Urinary creatine/creatinine ratio should be measured in patients with hypotonia, developmental delay, seizure and autism whose family history indicates an X-linked inheritance.

  3. Influence of Family History of Cancer on Engagement in Protective Health Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amuta, Ann O.; Barry, Adam E.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Approximately 1580 people die from cancer each day. Family history is highlighted as an especially important indicator of cancer risk. Purpose: To determine whether having a family member with cancer influences preventive behaviors (e.g., smoking, physical activity, and screenings). Methods: We conducted a secondary data analysis…

  4. Evaluation of the Relationship Between Family History of Breast Cancer and Risk Perception and Impacts on Repetition of Mammography.

    PubMed

    Khoshravesh, Sahar; Taymoori, Parvaneh; Roshani, Daem

    2016-01-01

    Since the mean age of breast cancer in women living in developing countries, compared with those in developed countries, is lower by about 10 years, repetition of mammography can play an important role in reducing morbidity and mortality. Hence, this study aimed to investigate the relationship between family history of breast cancer and risk perception and its impact on repetition of mammography. In this cross-sectional study, 1,507 women aged 50 years and older, referred to the mammography center of Regions 1 and 6 in Tehran, Iran, were enrolled. Data were collected using a self-report questionnaire and analyzed using SPSS and LISREL. According to our findings, knowledge about the time interval of mammography was found to have the highest correlation with repetition of mammography (r =0.4). Among the demographic variables, marital status (β= -0.1) and family history of breast cancer (β=0.1) had the most direct and significant impact on repetition of mammography (P <0.05). Among the other variables studied, knowledge (β=-0.5) had the highest direct and significant impact on repetition of mammography (P <0.05). Family history of breast cancer was one of the predictors of repetition of mammography, but the results did not prove any relationship with risk perception. Further studies are needed to assess the effect of risk perception and knowledge about time interval on the initiation and continuation of mammography.

  5. "That was grown folks' business": narrative reflection and response in older adults' family health history communication.

    PubMed

    Yamasaki, Jill; Hovick, Shelly R

    2015-01-01

    Given the importance of family health history and the pivotal role of older adults in communicating it, this study examines how African American older adults (a) characterize their understandings of health-related conditions in their family histories and (b) rationalize their motivations and constraints for sharing this information with current family members. Using narrative theory as a framework, we illustrate how the participants reflect on prior health-related experiences within the family to respond to moral and practical calls for communicating family health information to current relatives. Specifically, our analysis highlights how storied family secrets--as constructed by 28 participants in group and individual interviews--reveal and inform shifting cultural and generational practices that shape the lived health behaviors and communication of older adults at greater risk for health disparities.

  6. Age-of-Recall Effects on Family-of-Origin Ratings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hampson, Robert B.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    College students (n=141) completed Self-Report Family Inventory on Beavers Systems Model of Family Functioning, rating current family, family when they were 10 years old, and family when they were 16 years old. Found significant differences between age-of-recall groups, with recall ratings from age 10 significantly more competent, cohesive, and…

  7. THE ASSOCIATION BETWEEN ADULT MORTALITY RISK AND FAMILY HISTORY OF LONGEVITY: THE MODERATING EFFECTS OF SOCIOECONOMIC STATUS

    PubMed Central

    TEMBY, OWEN F.; SMITH, KEN R.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Studies consistently show that increasing levels of socioeconomic status (SES) and having a familial history of longevity reduce the risk of mortality. But do these two variables interact, such that individuals with lower levels of SES, for example, may experience an attenuated longevity penalty by virtue of having long-lived relatives? This article examines this interaction by analysing survival past age 40 based on data from the Utah Population Database on an extinct cohort of men born from the years 1840 to 1909. Cox proportional hazards regression and logistic regression are used to test for the main and interaction mortality effects of SES and familial excess longevity (FEL), a summary measure of an individual’s history of longevity among his or her relatives. This research finds that the mortality hazard rate for men in the top 15th percentile of occupational status decreases more as FEL increases than it does among men in the bottom 15th percentile. In addition, the mortality hazard rate among farmers decreases more as FEL increases than it does for non-farmers. With a strong family history of longevity as a proxy for a genetic predisposition, this research suggests that a gene–environment interaction occurs whereby the benefits of familial excess longevity are more available to those who have occupations with more autonomy and greater economic resources and/or opportunities for physical activity. PMID:24103415

  8. The association between adult mortality risk and family history of longevity: the moderating effects of socioeconomic status.

    PubMed

    Temby, Owen F; Smith, Ken R

    2014-11-01

    Studies consistently show that increasing levels of socioeconomic status (SES) and having a familial history of longevity reduce the risk of mortality. But do these two variables interact, such that individuals with lower levels of SES, for example, may experience an attenuated longevity penalty by virtue of having long-lived relatives? This article examines this interaction by analysing survival past age 40 based on data from the Utah Population Database on an extinct cohort of men born from the years 1840 to 1909. Cox proportional hazards regression and logistic regression are used to test for the main and interaction mortality effects of SES and familial excess longevity (FEL), a summary measure of an individual's history of longevity among his or her relatives. This research finds that the mortality hazard rate for men in the top 15th percentile of occupational status decreases more as FEL increases than it does among men in the bottom 15th percentile. In addition, the mortality hazard rate among farmers decreases more as FEL increases than it does for non-farmers. With a strong family history of longevity as a proxy for a genetic predisposition, this research suggests that a gene-environment interaction occurs whereby the benefits of familial excess longevity are more available to those who have occupations with more autonomy and greater economic resources and/or opportunities for physical activity.

  9. CTA Characteristics of the Circle of Willis and Intracranial Aneurysm in a Chinese Crowd with Family History of Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Zhang-ning; Dong, Wen-tao; Cai, Xin-wang; Zhang, Zhen; Zhang, Li-tong; Gao, Feng; Kang, Xiao-kui; Li, Jia; Wang, Hai-ning; Gao, Nan-nan; Ning, Xian-jia; Tu, Jun; Li, Feng-tan; Zhang, Jing; Jiang, Ying-jian; Li, Nai-xin; Yang, Shu-yuan; Zhang, Jian-ning; Wang, Jing-hua; Yang, Xin-yu

    2016-01-01

    Background and Purpose. The vascular morphology in crowd with family history of stroke remains unclear. The present study clarified the characteristics of the intracranial vascular CoW and prevalence of intracranial aneurysms in subjects with family history of stroke. Methods. A stratified cluster, random sampling method was used for subjects with family history of stroke among rural residents in Jixian, Tianjin, China. All the subjects underwent a physical examination, head computed tomography (CT) scan, and cephalic and cervical computed tomography angiography (CTA) scan. Anatomic variations in the Circle of Willis and cerebrovascular disease in this population were analyzed. Results. In the crowd with similar living environment, stable genetic background, and family history of stroke and without obvious nerve function impairment (1) hypoplasia or absence of A1 segment was significantly different in gender (male versus female: 9.8% versus 18.8%, p = 0.031), especially the right-side A1 (male versus female: 5.9% versus 16.4%, p = 0.004). (2) Hypoplasia or absence of bilateral posterior communicating arteries was more common in men than women (58.2% versus 45.3%, p = 0.032). Unilateral fetal posterior cerebral artery was observed more often in women than men (17.2% versus 8.5%, p = 0.028). (3) The percentage of subjects with incomplete CoW did not increase significantly with age. Compared to healthy Chinese people, the crowd had a higher percentage of incomplete CoW (p < 0.001). (4) No obvious correlation between risk factors and CoW was found. (5) The prevalence of aneurysm was 10.3% in the special crowd. Conclusions. The certain variations of CoW showed significant relation to gender, but not to age in people with family history of stroke. The incomplete circle may be a dangerous factor that is independent of common risk factors for stroke and tend to lead to cerebral ischemia in the crowd with family history of stroke. The prevalence of intracranial aneurysm is

  10. Canada basin: age and history of its continental margin

    SciTech Connect

    Sweeney, J.F.

    1985-02-01

    Presently available age controls suggest that the Canada basin formed during the Cretaceous Period between about 131 and 79 Ma. The opening process began with continental breakup that may have involved all parts of the North American polar margin at about the same time. The opening was completed by the formation of oceanic crust during the extended Cretaceous interval of normal geomagnetic polarity. Features characteristics of continental breakup, insofar as they are known, show systematic regional differences. From Brock to Axel Heiberg Island, continental breakup was associated with an extended (100 + Ma) stratigraphic hiatus and, northeastward from Ellef Ringnes Island, with extensive tholeiitic igneous activity. From Banks Island to northeastern Alaska, the breakup interval was abbreviated (20-30 Ma), and sparse igneous activity occurred. These differences can be produced by changes in the rate and/or amount of crustal stretching during margin formation and would imply relatively faster or more stretching northeast of Brock island. A continental margin of fixed age, exhibiting the indicated pattern of crustal stretching, could be produced along the trailing edge of a rotating block (Arctic Alaska terrane AA) with its pivot near the Mackenzie delta. When the rotation is restored, however, geological discrepancies are evident between Devonian and older rocks across the conjugate margins, suggesting an earlier history of drifting for the AA. Early Paleozoic correlations appear improved if the AA is placed, polar margin to polar margin, against northern Ellesmere Island and Greenland, where in the middle Paleozoic, it was sheared sinistrally along the Canadian margin to its pre-rotated position opposite Banks Island.

  11. Perceived Costs of Combining Career and Family Roles: The Influence of Early Family History on Adult Role Decisions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berson, Janet S.

    This study attempts to clarify part of the decision-making process centering around combining family and career. There are two aspects of the study. In the first, perceived costs of combining roles are assessed and evaluated in light of mother's employment history. The subjects in this part of the study were 141 single women and 43 married women.…

  12. Selective Disclosure in a First Conversation about a Family Death in James Agee's Novel "A Death in the Family"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rober, Peter; Rosenblatt, Paul C.

    2013-01-01

    The first conversation of a family about a family death is a neglected but potentially important topic. In a first conversation in James Agee's (1957/2006) novel "A Death in the Family," the member who knows the most about the accidental death of another member discloses information selectively. The first conversation in Agee's novel suggests that…

  13. A primary care audit of familial risk in patients with a personal history of breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Nathan, Paul; Ahluwalia, Aneeta; Chorley, Wendy

    2014-12-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer diagnosed in women, both in the UK and worldwide. A small proportion of women are at very high risk of breast cancer, having a particularly strong family history. The National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) has advised that practitioners should not, in most instances, actively seek to identify women with a family history of breast cancer. An audit was undertaken at an urban primary care practice of 15,000 patients, using a paper-based, self-administered questionnaire sent to patients identified with a personal history of breast cancer. The aim of this audit was to determine whether using targeted screening of relatives of patients with breast cancer to identify familial cancer risk is worthwhile in primary care. Since these patients might already expected to have been risk assessed following their initial diagnosis, this audit acts as a quality improvement exercise. The audit used a validated family history questionnaire and risk assessment tool as a screening approach for identifying and grading familial risk in line with the NICE guidelines, to guide referral to the familial cancer screening service. The response rate to family history questionnaires was 54 % and the majority of patients responded positively to their practitioner seeking to identify familial cancer risks in their family. Of the 57 returned questionnaires, over a half (54 %) contained pedigrees with individuals eligible for referral. Patients and their relatives who are often registered with the practice welcome the discussion. An appropriate referral can therefore be made. The findings suggest a role for primary care practitioners in the identification of those at higher familial risk. However integrated systems and processes need designing to facilitate this work.

  14. Different evolutionary histories of two cation/proton exchanger gene families in plants

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Gene duplication events have been proposed to be involved in the adaptation of plants to stress conditions; precisely how is unclear. To address this question, we studied the evolution of two families of antiporters. Cation/proton exchangers are important for normal cell function and in plants, Na+,K+/H+ antiporters have also been implicated in salt tolerance. Two well-known plant cation/proton antiporters are NHX1 and SOS1, which perform Na+ and K+ compartmentalization into the vacuole and Na+ efflux from the cell, respectively. However, our knowledge about the evolution of NHX and SOS1 stress responsive gene families is still limited. Results In this study we performed a comprehensive molecular evolutionary analysis of the NHX and SOS1 families. Using available sequences from a total of 33 plant species, we estimated gene family phylogenies and gene duplication histories, as well as examined heterogeneous selection pressure on amino acid sites. Our results show that, while the NHX family expanded and specialized, the SOS1 family remained a low copy gene family that appears to have undergone neofunctionalization during its evolutionary history. Additionally, we found that both families are under purifying selection although SOS1 is less constrained. Conclusions We propose that the different evolution histories are related with the proteins’ function and localization, and that the NHX and SOS1 families are examples of two different evolutionary paths through which duplication events may result in adaptive evolution of stress tolerance. PMID:23822194

  15. Wastewater management through the ages: a history of mankind.

    PubMed

    Lofrano, Giusy; Brown, Jeanette

    2010-10-15

    Although much has been written about the history of water supply systems, there is a lack of corresponding information on wastewater management. This is surprising since the lack of sanitation affects human development to the same or even greater extent as the lack of clean water. While there may be an added stigma to discussing waste treatment, sanitation is widely perceived as meriting a significant claim on financial and political resources as well on the evolution of mankind. A literature review is presented on the evolution of wastewater management through the ages and its concurrent impact on human health and environment. Hopefully this information will improve the awareness of the past with a view to impacting future policies and technical developments. The review highlights the connection of environmental contamination with the ability to measure it, as well as the ways pollution control has been changed by advances in scientific knowledge. Attention is also drawn to the effects of political and societal events on wastewater management. A sanitation timeline has been constructed pointing out significant developments in the treatment of wastewater and improvements in analytical environmental chemistry. This review has been written in the belief that historical research showing the collective experience and "philosophy of sanitation" can provide inspiration to face future challenges.

  16. Implications of living with a strong family history of breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Maheu, Christine

    2009-06-01

    The findings presented here are from a qualitative study in which data were gathered from 20 women who had received inconclusive genetic testing results for inherited breast cancer susceptibility. Before describing the significance, for them, of their genetic test results, all of the participants related what it was like to live with a strong family history of breast cancer. The focus of this article is the women's experience of living with a personal and strong family history of breast cancer. For these women, having such a history had become a fact of life that could not be ignored.Three themes were identified in the data: expecting and dealing with a diagnosis of breast cancer protecting oneself and others, and increasing exposure to cancer screening procedures. These themes address the underlying reality that having a personal and family history of breast cancer is not an isolated situation but part of one's journey in choosing to undergo genetic testing for inherited breast cancer susceptibility.

  17. The application of computer-based tools in obtaining the genetic family history.

    PubMed

    Giovanni, Monica A; Murray, Michael F

    2010-07-01

    Family health history is both an adjunct to and a focus of current genetic research, having long been known to be a powerful predictor of individual disease risk. As such, it has been primarily used as a proxy for genetic information. Over the past decade, new roles for family history have emerged, perhaps most importantly as a primary tool for guiding decision-making on the use of expensive genetic testing. The collection of family history information is an important but time-consuming process. Efforts to engage the patient or research subject in preliminary data collection have the potential to improve data accuracy and allow clinicians and researchers more time for analytic tasks. The U.S. Surgeon General, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), and others have developed tools for electronic family history collection. This unit describes the utility of the Web-based My Family Health Portrait (https://familyhistory.hhs.gov) as the prototype for patient-entered family history.

  18. Size and Age Dependence of Koronis Family Colors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molnar, L. A.

    2011-10-01

    The ancient and massive Koronis family now has four identified subfamilies (asteroid families made by the breakup of fragments of the ancient collision), with ages running from 5.7 to 290 My. This presents unique opportunities to explore space weathering processes, along with dynamical processes such as collisions and binary formation and destruction. Analysis of family members with accurate SDSS measurements shows a correlation of average subfamily color with age that for the first time is highly statistically significant. Yet Thomas et al. (2011) report a size dependence of the colors of the ancient family that demands caution when comparing subfamilies with differing size distributions. Reanalyis of the Thomas et al. data show the reported break near asteroid diameter 5 km is not significant. However, analysis of the much more extensive SDSS data set show a significant break past diameter 2.5 km, with smaller objects systematically bluer. The break is not present in the Karin subfamily (the youngest at 5.7 My), but is already fully developed in the Eriphyla subfamily (only 220 My). The reddening trend with age remains even when comparing only asteroids of similar size, confirming the presence of space weathering phenomena. The meaning of the trend with size is not immediately clear. We consider briefly the strengths and weaknesses of several interpretations of the bluer colors for small objects: 1) those objects receive more jolts from random collisions capable of shaking the regolith and exposing fresh material beneath; 2) those objects receive more jolts from the cycle of fission and recombination driven by YORP; and 3) the lower gravity on those objects retains regolith less well.

  19. Caring for families with a family history of cancer: why concerns about genetic predisposition are missing from the palliative agenda.

    PubMed

    Lillie, Alison Kate; Clifford, Collette; Metcalfe, Alison

    2011-03-01

    Care of the family is integral to palliative care, but little attention has been paid to the way nurses, or other healthcare professionals, are responding to the needs of families who are concerned about whether their family history of cancer is associated with an inherited genetic predisposition. This paper discusses how palliative care nurses perceive the care needs of patients with a family history of cancer. Data were collected through recorded, semi-structured interviews with 10 nurses who had worked in specialist palliative care. The findings show that there are cogent arguments and concerns about raising the issue of an inherited genetic predisposition at the end of life (especially when the patient is close to death and there is a lack of knowledge about genetics). Nevertheless, exemplar cases are used to illustrate the reasons why it is important that nurses working in specialist palliative care settings are aware of the needs of this patient group. The paper highlights that nurses not only need an appropriate knowledge base but also an insight of what can be achieved when supporting patients with a family history of cancer.

  20. Microsatellite instability in adenocarcinomas of the upper gastrointestinal tract. Relation to clinicopathological data and family history.

    PubMed Central

    Keller, G.; Rotter, M.; Vogelsang, H.; Bischoff, P.; Becker, K. F.; Mueller, J.; Brauch, H.; Siewert, J. R.; Höfler, H.

    1995-01-01

    We analyzed 66 adenocarcinomas arising in the upper gastrointestinal tract for microsatellite instability at eight microsatellite loci to investigate the role of these genetic alterations in the etiology of these tumors. We identified alterations in at least one locus in 11/46 adenocarcinomas of the stomach, in 2/15 adenocarcinomas arising in Barrett's esophagus, and in 1/5 adenocarcinomas of the duodenum and jejunum. Microsatellite instability in gastric tumors was found in 5/22 of intestinal, 1/3 of mixed, and 5/21 of diffuse type tumors. No relationship to the tumor stage (TNM), age, and survival time of the patients was observed. One patient had two synchronous gastric tumors both exhibiting microsatellite instability at multiple loci. His family history revealed four individuals in the maternal line afflicted with gastric carcinoma in three generations. Our data show that microsatellite instability is a genetic event in 11 to 24% of tumors of the upper gastrointestinal tract. The observation of microsatellite instability and a familial clustering of gastric tumors may suggest a genetic predisposition for a subset of gastric tumors, which may be identified by microsatellite analysis. Images Figure 1 PMID:7677173

  1. [Inheritance of psoriasis. Analysis of 2035 family histories].

    PubMed

    Andressen, C; Henseler, T

    1982-04-01

    Detailed pedigrees were established in 2,035 families with psoriasis, including 30 twin pairs, and evaluated by means of computer analysis. The following results on the devolution of psoriasis were drawn: the hypotheses of the irregular dominant and the bifactorial recessive inheritance appear to be inacceptable. The findings suggest a multifactorial etiology of psoriasis with a polygenic mode of inheritance. The risk for relatives to be affected by psoriasis is calculated.

  2. Family history is an independent risk factor for the progression of gastric atrophy among patients with Helicobacter pylori infection

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Hidekazu; Sakitani, Kosuke; Yamashita, Hiroharu; Yoshida, Shuntaro; Hata, Keisuke; Kanazawa, Takamitsu; Fujiwara, Naoto; Kanai, Takanori; Yahagi, Naohisa; Toyoshima, Osamu

    2016-01-01

    Background and aim Risk factors for progression of gastric atrophy have not been fully elucidated. The aim of this study was to evaluate the risk factors for the development of atrophic gastritis in patients with Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori ) infection. Methods We reviewed 206 H. pylori-infected patients retrospectively. Endoscopic gastric atrophy was classified into closed- and open-type. We conducted univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses on the contribution of age, sex, body mass index, past history of cancer, the first-degree family history of gastric cancer, habitual smoking and alcohol drinking, and endoscopic findings of gastric ulcer or duodenal ulcer for open-type gastric atrophy. Results On multivariate analysis, age (odds ratio = 1.079, 95% confidence interval = 1.048–1.11, p < 0.001), family history of gastric cancer (odds ratio = 3.967, 95% confidence interval = 1.414–10.6, p = 0.006) and duodenal ulcer (odds ratio = 0.834, 95% confidence interval = 0.711–0.977, p = 0.024) were the factors independently associated with open-type gastric atrophy. Conclusions A first-degree family history of gastric cancer, absence of duodenal ulcer, and old age were independent risk factors for the progression of gastric atrophy among H. pylori-infected patients. Careful examination with upper gastrointestinal endoscopy is necessary in patients with such risk factors.

  3. Influence of family history of major depression, bipolar disorder, and suicide on clinical features in patients with major depression and bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Serretti, Alessandro; Chiesa, Alberto; Calati, Raffaella; Linotte, Sylvie; Sentissi, Othman; Papageorgiou, Konstantinos; Kasper, Siegfried; Zohar, Joseph; De Ronchi, Diana; Mendlewicz, Julien; Amital, Daniela; Montgomery, Stuart; Souery, Daniel

    2013-03-01

    The extent to which a family history of mood disorders and suicide could impact on clinical features of patients suffering from major depression (MD) and bipolar disorder (BD) has received relatively little attention so far. The aim of the present work is, therefore, to assess the clinical implications of the presence of at least one first- and/or second-degree relative with a history of MD, BD and suicide in a large sample of patients with MD or BD. One thousand one hundred and fifty-seven subjects with MD and 686 subjects with BD were recruited within the context of two large projects. The impact of a family history of MD, BD, and suicide-considered both separately and together-on clinical and socio-demographic variables was investigated. A family history of MD, BD, and suicide was more common in BD patients than in MD patients. A positive family history of mood disorders and/or suicide as well as a positive family history of MD and BD separately considered, but not a positive history of suicide alone, were significantly associated with a comorbidity with several anxiety disorders and inversely associated with age of onset. The clinical implications as well as the limitations of our findings are discussed.

  4. Medical History, Lifestyle, Family History, and Occupational Risk Factors for Sporadic Burkitt Lymphoma/Leukemia: The Interlymph Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma Subtypes Project

    PubMed Central

    Morton, Lindsay M.; Sampson, Joshua N.; Chang, Ellen T.; Costas, Laura; de Sanjosé, Silvia; Lightfoot, Tracy; Kelly, Jennifer; Friedberg, Jonathan W.; Cozen, Wendy; Marcos-Gragera, Rafael; Slager, Susan L.; Birmann, Brenda M.; Weisenburger, Dennis D.

    2014-01-01

    Background The etiologic role of medical history, lifestyle, family history, and occupational risk factors in sporadic Burkitt lymphoma (BL) is unknown, but epidemiologic and clinical evidence suggests that risk factors may vary by age. Methods We investigated risk factors for sporadic BL in 295 cases compared with 21818 controls in a pooled analysis of 18 case–control studies in the International Lymphoma Epidemiology Consortium (InterLymph). Cases were defined to include typical BL or Burkitt-like lymphoma. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for associations were calculated separately for younger (<50 years) and older (≥50 years) BL using multivariate logistic regression. Results Cases included 133 younger BL and 159 older BL (age was missing for three cases) and they were evenly split between typical BL (n = 147) and Burkitt-like lymphoma (n = 148). BL in younger participants was inversely associated with a history of allergy (OR = 0.58; 95% CI = 0.32 to 1.05), and positively associated with a history of eczema among individuals without other atopic conditions (OR = 2.54; 95% CI = 1.20 to 5.40), taller height (OR = 2.17; 95% CI = 1.08 to 4.36), and employment as a cleaner (OR = 3.49; 95% CI = 1.13 to 10.7). BL in older participants was associated with a history of hepatitis C virus seropositivity (OR = 4.19; 95% CI = 1.05 to 16.6) based on three exposed cases. Regardless of age, BL was inversely associated with alcohol consumption and positively associated with height. Conclusions Our data suggest that BL in younger and older adults may be etiologically distinct. PMID:25174031

  5. The impact of family history of breast cancer on knowledge, attitudes, and early detection practices of Mexican women along the Mexico-US border.

    PubMed

    Bird, Yelena; Banegas, Matthew P; Moraros, John; King, Sasha; Prapasiri, Surasri; Thompson, Beti

    2011-10-01

    Rates of breast cancer (BC) have increased in Mexico, with the highest incidence and mortality rates observed in the northern Mexican states. This study aimed to describe the BC knowledge, attitudes and screening practices among Mexican women with and without a family history of BC residing along the Mexico-US border, and identify factors associated with screening behaviors. One hundred and twenty eight Mexican women aged 40 and older completed an interviewer-administered questionnaire on sociodemographic characteristics, knowledge, family history, and screening practices. There were no significant differences between Mexican women with and without a family history. Over 60% of women in both groups had never had a mammogram/breast ultrasound, and more than 50% had never obtained a clinical breast exam. Age, marital status, insurance, and breast cancer knowledge significantly influenced BC screening behaviors among Mexican women. Further research is needed to examine other key factors associated with screening utilization, in effort of improving BC rates.

  6. The Impact of Family History of Breast Cancer on Knowledge, Attitudes, and Early Detection Practices of Mexican Women Along the Mexico-US Border

    PubMed Central

    Bird, Yelena; Moraros, John; King, Sasha; Prapasiri, Surasri; Thompson, Beti

    2014-01-01

    Rates of breast cancer (BC) have increased in Mexico, with the highest incidence and mortality rates observed in the northern Mexican states. This study aimed to describe the BC knowledge, attitudes and screening practices among Mexican women with and without a family history of BC residing along the Mexico-US border, and identify factors associated with screening behaviors. One hundred and twenty eight Mexican women aged 40 and older completed an interviewer-administered questionnaire on sociodemographic characteristics, knowledge, family history, and screening practices. There were no significant differences between Mexican women with and without a family history. Over 60% of women in both groups had never had a mammogram/breast ultrasound, and more than 50% had never obtained a clinical breast exam. Age, marital status, insurance, and breast cancer knowledge significantly influenced BC screening behaviors among Mexican women. Further research is needed to examine other key factors associated with screening utilization, in effort of improving BC rates. PMID:21104130

  7. Pectus Excavatum and Pectus Carinatum: Associated Conditions, Family History, and Postoperative Patient Satisfaction

    PubMed Central

    Kuru, Pinar; Cakiroglu, Aylin; Er, Aynur; Ozbakir, Hincal; Cinel, Ali Emin; Cangut, Busra; Iris, Merve; Canbaz, Berkay; Pıçak, Ebru; Yuksel, Mustafa

    2016-01-01

    Background Pectus excavatum (PE) and pectus carinatum (PC) are the most common chest wall deformities. In this study, we aimed to characterize how patients obtained information about these deformities, as well as patients’ family history, associated medical problems, and postoperative satisfaction after the Nuss and Abramson procedures. Methods This cross-sectional retrospective study included patients who were operated by a single surgeon between 2006 and 2013. Follow-up calls were made after approval of our institution’s ethics committee. We reached 207 of the 336 PE patients (61.6%) and 73 of the 96 PC patients (76%). Results The majority of the patients were male (85% of the PE patients and 91.8% of the PC patients). The age of diagnosis of PE was 14.52±0.51 years and the age at the time of operation was 17.89±0.42 years; for PC patients, the corresponding ages were 15.23±0.55 years and 16.77±0.55 years, respectively. A total of 70% of the PE patients and 63.8% of the PC patients obtained information about pectus deformities through the Internet. In 27.1% of the PE patients with an associated anomaly, 57.1% (n=13) had scoliosis, while 41.1% of the PC patients with an associated anomaly had kyphosis (n=5). Postoperative satisfaction, as evaluated on a scale from 0 to 10, was 8.17±0.15 for PE patients and 8.37±0.26 for PC patients. The postoperative pain duration was 51.93±5.18 days for PE patients and 38.5±6.88 days for PC patients. Conclusion In this study, we found that most patients with pectus deformities were male. The Internet was an important resource for patients to learn about their deformities. Family history and associated anomalies were identified as important aspects for consideration in the clinical setting. The patients reported high levels of postoperative satisfaction, and pain management was found to be one of the most important elements of postoperative care. PMID:26889443

  8. Health maintenance in school-aged children: Part I. History, physical examination, screening, and immunizations.

    PubMed

    Riley, Margaret; Locke, Amy B; Skye, Eric P

    2011-03-15

    The goals of the well-child examination in school-aged children (kindergarten through early adolescence) are promoting health, detecting disease, and counseling to prevent injury and future health problems. A complete history should address any concerns from the patient and family and screen for lifestyle habits, including diet, physical activity, daily screen time (e.g., television, computer, video games), hours of sleep per night, dental care, and safety habits. School performance can be used for developmental surveillance. A full physical examination should be performed; however, the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommends against routine scoliosis screening and testicular examination. Children should be screened for obesity, which is defined as a body mass index at or above the 95th percentile for age and sex, and resources for comprehensive, intensive behavioral interventions should be provided to children with obesity. Although the evidence is mixed regarding screening for hypertension before 18 years of age, many experts recommend checking blood pressure annually beginning at three years of age. The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends vision and hearing screening annually or every two years in school-aged children. There is insufficient evidence to recommend screening for dyslipidemia in children of any age, or screening for depression before 12 years of age. All children should receive at least 400 IU of vitamin D daily, with higher doses indicated in children with vitamin D deficiency. Children who live in areas with inadequate fluoride in the water (less than 0.6 ppm) should receive a daily fluoride supplement. Age-appropriate immunizations should be given, as well as any missed immunizations.

  9. Maternal Chronological Age, Prenatal and Perinatal History, Social Support, and Parenting of Infants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bornstein, Marc H.; Putnick, Diane L.; Suwalsky, Joan T. D.; Gini, Motti

    2006-01-01

    The role of maternal chronological age in prenatal and perinatal history, social support, and parenting practices of new mothers (N=335) was examined. Primiparas of 5-month-old infants ranged in age from 13 to 42 years. Age effects were zero, linear, and nonlinear. Nonlinear age effects were significantly associated up to a certain age with little…

  10. Multiple myeloma and family history of lymphohaematopoietic cancers: Results from the International Multiple Myeloma Consortium.

    PubMed

    Schinasi, Leah H; Brown, Elizabeth E; Camp, Nicola J; Wang, Sophia S; Hofmann, Jonathan N; Chiu, Brian C; Miligi, Lucia; Beane Freeman, Laura E; de Sanjose, Silvia; Bernstein, Leslie; Monnereau, Alain; Clavel, Jacqueline; Tricot, Guido J; Atanackovic, Djordje; Cocco, Pierluigi; Orsi, Laurent; Dosman, James A; McLaughlin, John R; Purdue, Mark P; Cozen, Wendy; Spinelli, John J; de Roos, Anneclaire J

    2016-10-01

    Family clusters of multiple myeloma (MM) suggest disease heritability. Nevertheless, patterns of inheritance and the importance of genetic versus environmental risk factors in MM aetiology remain unclear. We pooled data from eleven case-control studies from the International Multiple Myeloma Consortium to characterize the association of MM risk with having a first-degree relative with a history of a lympho-haematapoietic cancer. Unconditional logistic regression models, adjusted for study, sex, age and education level, were used to estimate associations between MM risk and having a first-degree relative with a history of non-Hodgkin lymphoma, Hodgkin lymphoma, leukaemia or MM. Sex, African American race/ethnicity and age were explored as effect modifiers. A total of 2843 cases and 11 470 controls were included. MM risk was elevated in association with having a first-degree relative with any lympho-haematapoietic cancer (Odds Ratio (OR) = 1·29, 95% Confidence Interval (CI): 1·08-1·55). The association was particularly strong for having a first-degree relative with MM (OR = 1·90, 95% CI: 1·26-2·87), especially among men (OR = 4·13, 95% CI: 2·17-7·85) and African Americans (OR = 5·52, 95% CI: 1·87-16·27).These results support the hypothesis that genetic inheritance plays a role in MM aetiology. Future studies are warranted to characterize interactions of genetic markers with environmental exposures.

  11. Perception of risk and surveillance practices of women with a family history of breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Martin, Wanda; Degner, Lesley

    2006-01-01

    A retrospective study was designed to examine the relationship between perception of risk and surveillance activities (mammography and clinical breast examination) in women with a family history of breast cancer. The Revised Susceptibility, Benefits, and Barriers Scale for Mammography Screening, the Centre for Epidemiology Studies--Depression Scale (CES-D), and a demographic form were administered to a convenience sample of 56 women. There were no significant relationships between perceived risk and screening activities. No significant correlations were found between age or depressive symptoms with either perceived risk or screening behaviors. Women with postsecondary qualifications were more likely to obtain regular mammograms. A substantial portion (34.5%) of participants reported depressive symptoms at a level associated with clinically significant levels of depression (>or=16 on the CES-D). Women over age 50 reported significantly more depressive symptoms than younger women. Perceived risk was not associated with screening; however, depression should be considered closely when dealing with women with higher-than-average risk of breast cancer.

  12. Accuracy of Family History of Hemochromatosis or Iron Overload: The Hemochromatosis and Iron Overload Screening Study

    PubMed Central

    Acton, Ronald T.; Barton, James C.; Passmore, Leah V.; Adams, Paul C.; Mclaren, Gordon D.; Leiendecker–Foster, Catherine; Speechley, Mark R.; Harris, Emily L.; Castro, Oswaldo; Reiss, Jacob A.; Snively, Beverly M.; Harrison, Barbara W.; Mclaren, Christine E.

    2013-01-01

    Background & Aims The aim of this study was to assess the analytic validity of self-reported family history of hemochromatosis or iron overload. Methods A total of 141 probands, 549 family members, and 641 controls participated in the primary care Hemochromatosis and Iron Overload Screening Study. Participants received a postscreening clinical examination and completed questionnaires about personal and family histories of hemochromatosis or iron overload, arthritis, diabetes, liver disease, and heart disease. We evaluated sensitivities and specificities of proband-reported family history, and concordance of HFE genotype C282Y/C282Y in probands and siblings who reported having hemochromatosis or iron overload. Results The sensitivities of proband-reported family history ranged from 81.4% for hemochromatosis or iron overload to 18.4% for liver disease; specificities for diabetes, liver disease, and heart disease were greater than 94%. Hemochromatosis or iron overload was associated with a positive family history across all racial/ethnic groups in the study (odds ratio, 14.53; 95% confidence intervals, 7.41–28.49; P < .0001) and among Caucasians (odds ratio, 16.98; 95% confidence intervals, 7.53–38.32; P < .0001). There was 100% concordance of HFE genotype C282Y/C282Y in 6 probands and 8 of their siblings who reported having hemochromatosis or iron overload. Conclusions Self-reported family history of hemochromatosis or iron overload can be used to identify individuals whose risk of hemochromatosis or iron overload and associated conditions is increased. These individuals could benefit from further evaluation with iron phenotyping and HFE mutation analysis. PMID:18585964

  13. Significance of a positive family history for coronary heart disease in patients with a zero coronary artery calcium score (from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis).

    PubMed

    Cohen, Randy; Budoff, Matthew; McClelland, Robyn L; Sillau, Stefan; Burke, Gregory; Blaha, Michael; Szklo, Moyses; Uretsky, Seth; Rozanski, Alan; Shea, Steven

    2014-10-15

    Although a coronary artery calcium (CAC) score of 0 is associated with a very low 10-year risk for cardiac events, this risk is nonzero. Subjects with a family history of coronary heart disease (CHD) has been associated with more subclinical atherosclerosis than subjects without a family history of CHD. The purpose of this study was to assess the significance of a family history for CHD in subjects with a CAC score of 0. The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis cohort includes 6,814 participants free of clinical cardiovascular disease (CVD) at baseline. Positive family history was defined as reporting a parent, sibling, or child who had a heart attack. Time to incident CHD or CVD event was modeled using the multivariable Cox regression; 3,185 subjects were identified from the original Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis cohort as having a baseline CAC score of 0 (mean age 58 years, 37% men). Over a median follow-up of 10 years, 101 participants (3.2%) had CVD events and 56 (1.8%) had CHD events. In age- and gender-adjusted analyses, a family history of CHD was associated with an ∼70% increase in CVD (hazard ratio 1.73, 95% confidence interval 1.17 to 2.56) and CHD (hazard ratio 1.72, 95% confidence interval 1.01 to 2.91) events. CVD events remained significant after further adjustment for ethnicity, risk factors, and baseline medication use. In conclusion, asymptomatic subjects with a 0 CAC score and a positive family history of CHD are at increased risk for CVD and CHD events compared with those without a family history of CHD, although absolute event rates remain low.

  14. The impact of reproductive life on breast cancer risk in women with family history or BRCA mutation.

    PubMed

    Toss, Angela; Grandi, Giovanni; Cagnacci, Angelo; Marcheselli, Luigi; Pavesi, Silvia; De Matteis, Elisabetta; Razzaboni, Elisabetta; Tomasello, Chiara; Cascinu, Stefano; Cortesi, Laura

    2017-02-07

    Reproductive history and exogenous hormonal exposures are acknowledged risk factors for breast cancer in the general population. In women at increased breast cancer risk for genetic predisposition or positive family history, data regarding these risk factors are limited or conflicting, and recommendations for these categories are unclear. We evaluated the characteristics of reproductive life in 2522 women at increased genetic or familial breast cancer risk attending our Family Cancer Center. Breast cancers in BRCA mutation carriers were more likely to be hormone receptor negative, diagnosed at 35 years or before and multiple during the lifetime than tumors in women at increased familial risk, while the distribution of invasive cancers and HER2 positive tumors was similar in the different risk groups. At least one full-term pregnancy (HR 0.27; 95% CI 0.12-0.58; p = 0.001), breastfeeding either less (HR 0.24; 95% CI 0.09-0.66; p = 0.005) or more (HR 0.25; 95% IC 0.08-0.82; p = 0.022) than one year and late age at menopause (HR 0.10; 95% CI 0.01-0.82; p = 0.033) showed to be protective factors in BRCA mutation carriers, while in women at increased familial risk early age at first full-term pregnancy (HR 0.62; 95% IC 0.38-0.99; p = 0.048) and late menarche (HR 0.61; 95% CI 0.42-0.85; p = 0.004) showed to be the main protective factors. Finally, for the entire population, combined hormonal contraceptives demonstrated to do not increase breast cancer risk. The results of our study suggest that women at high familial risk and mutation carries develop tumors with different clinical-pathological characteristics and, consequently, are influenced by different protective and risk factors.

  15. Selective disclosure in a first conversation about a family death in James Agee's novel A Death in the Family.

    PubMed

    Rober, Peter; Rosenblatt, Paul C

    2013-02-01

    The first conversation of a family about a family death is a neglected but potentially important topic. In a first conversation in James Agee's (1957/ 2006) novel A Death in the Family, the member who knows the most about the accidental death of another member discloses information selectively. The first conversation in Agee's novel suggests that communication and caring in the first family conversation about a death is attuned to family member emotions, particularly those of the family member considered most vulnerable, and that the aim is not a shared narrative that is true, but one that people can live with.

  16. Women criminality--the influence of socio-familial history and status.

    PubMed

    Luta, Veronica; Pasca, Viorel; Enache, Alexandra; Ciopec, Flavius; Ursachi, Georgeta; Radu, Daniel; Stratul, Stefan; Zarie, Gabriela; Mutiu, Florentina

    2009-04-01

    Our interdisciplinary study aims at the influence of social and familial history and status in a sample of Romanian female offenders. We collected data regarding the social and familial environment and status in the moment of committing a crime from 235 women incarcerated in four Romanian prisons. We applied a 67 item questionnaire conceived by the members of the research group. The items we compared refer to: the type of offence, the offender's marital status and the number of children in the moment of committing the crime, the situation in the family of origin and the offender's evaluation of the relationship with the parents and brothers, the monthly income, the type of relationship with the partner as described by the offender, history of substance abuse and violence in the family of origin and in the own family. We also analyzed the answers regarding the motivation for the criminal act. The paper shows the distribution of various types of criminal offences in correlation with the level of education, the relevance of a stable familial environment and monthly income. The history of criminality, substance abuse and interpersonal violence in the families of origin is also taken into account.

  17. Learning from e-Family History: A Model of Online Family Historian Research Behaviour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friday, Kate

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: This paper reports on doctoral research which investigated the online research behaviour of family historians, from the overall perspective of local studies collections and developing online services for family historians. Method: A hybrid (primarily ethnographic) study was employed using qualitative diaries and shadowing, to examine…

  18. Digital Family History Data Mining with Neural Networks: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Hoyt, Robert; Linnville, Steven; Thaler, Stephen; Moore, Jeffrey

    2016-01-01

    Following the passage of the Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health (HITECH) Act of 2009, electronic health records were widely adopted by eligible physicians and hospitals in the United States. Stage 2 meaningful use menu objectives include a digital family history but no stipulation as to how that information should be used. A variety of data mining techniques now exist for these data, which include artificial neural networks (ANNs) for supervised or unsupervised machine learning. In this pilot study, we applied an ANN-based simulation to a previously reported digital family history to mine the database for trends. A graphical user interface was created to display the input of multiple conditions in the parents and output as the likelihood of diabetes, hypertension, and coronary artery disease in male and female offspring. The results of this pilot study show promise in using ANNs to data mine digital family histories for clinical and research purposes.

  19. Digital Family History Data Mining with Neural Networks: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Hoyt, Robert; Linnville, Steven; Thaler, Stephen; Moore, Jeffrey

    2016-01-01

    Following the passage of the Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health (HITECH) Act of 2009, electronic health records were widely adopted by eligible physicians and hospitals in the United States. Stage 2 meaningful use menu objectives include a digital family history but no stipulation as to how that information should be used. A variety of data mining techniques now exist for these data, which include artificial neural networks (ANNs) for supervised or unsupervised machine learning. In this pilot study, we applied an ANN-based simulation to a previously reported digital family history to mine the database for trends. A graphical user interface was created to display the input of multiple conditions in the parents and output as the likelihood of diabetes, hypertension, and coronary artery disease in male and female offspring. The results of this pilot study show promise in using ANNs to data mine digital family histories for clinical and research purposes. PMID:26903781

  20. Family history of cancer and childhood rhabdomyosarcoma: a report from the Children's Oncology Group and the Utah Population Database

    PubMed Central

    Lupo, Philip J; Danysh, Heather E; Plon, Sharon E; Curtin, Karen; Malkin, David; Hettmer, Simone; Hawkins, Douglas S; Skapek, Stephen X; Spector, Logan G; Papworth, Karin; Melin, Beatrice; Erhardt, Erik B; Grufferman, Seymour; Schiffman, Joshua D

    2015-01-01

    Relatively little is known about the epidemiology and factors underlying susceptibility to childhood rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS). To better characterize genetic susceptibility to childhood RMS, we evaluated the role of family history of cancer using data from the largest case–control study of RMS and the Utah Population Database (UPDB). RMS cases (n = 322) were obtained from the Children's Oncology Group (COG). Population-based controls (n = 322) were pair-matched to cases on race, sex, and age. Conditional logistic regression was used to evaluate the association between family history of cancer and childhood RMS. The results were validated using the UPDB, from which 130 RMS cases were identified and matched to controls (n = 1300) on sex and year of birth. The results were combined to generate summary odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Having a first-degree relative with a cancer history was more common in RMS cases than controls (ORs = 1.39, 95% CI: 0.97–1.98). Notably, this association was stronger among those with embryonal RMS (ORs = 2.44, 95% CI: 1.54–3.86). Moreover, having a first-degree relative who was younger at diagnosis of cancer (<30 years) was associated with a greater risk of RMS (ORs = 2.37, 95% CI: 1.34–4.18). In the largest analysis of its kind, we found that most children diagnosed with RMS did not have a family history of cancer. However, our results indicate an increased risk of RMS (particularly embryonal RMS) in children who have a first-degree relative with cancer, and among those whose relatives were diagnosed with cancer at <30 years of age. PMID:25809884

  1. Re-Examining the Associations between Family Backgrounds and Children's Cognitive Developments in Early Ages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tu, Yu-Kang; Law, Graham R.

    2010-01-01

    A recent English study found that children from poor families who did well in cognitive tests at age three are expected to be overtaken in the cognitive test by the age of seven by children from rich families who did poorly in cognitive tests at age three. The conclusion was that family background seems to have a dominant influence on a child's…

  2. Autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome (ALPS). Case report and family history.

    PubMed

    Ries, F; Ferster, A; Rieux-Laucat, F; Biwer, A; Dicato, M

    2010-01-01

    Autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome (ALPS) is a rare disease caused by defective lymphocyte apoptosis and is characterized by non-malignant lymphoproliferation, hepatosplenomegaly, autoimmune manifestations and increased risk of both Hodgkin's and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Most forms of the disease are due to germ line mutations of the FAS gene and manifest during the first years of life with fluctuating lymphadenopathies, hemolysis, immune thrombocytopenia. During the second decade of life disease manifestations improve spontaneously but autoimmune problems still occur and there is an increased risk of lymphoproliferative malignancy. We describe a typical case of ALPS in a now 44 year old man, followed since the age of 2 for disease manifestations that were unclear at the beginning.

  3. Martian Meteorite Ages and Implications for Martian Cratering History

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nyquist, Laurence E.

    2006-01-01

    New radiometrically determined ages of Martian meteorites add to the growing number with crystallization ages < 1.4 Ga. The observation of mainly geologically young ages for the Martian meteorites, the only exception being the 4.5 Ga ALH84001 [1], is paradoxical when viewed in context of a Martian surface thought to be mostly much older as inferred from the surface density of meteorite craters [2]. There appears to be at least a twofold difference between the observed ages of Martian meteorites and their expected ages as inferred from the ages of Martian surfaces obtained from crater densities.

  4. Survey of family history taking and genetic testing in pediatric practice.

    PubMed

    Saul, Robert A; Trotter, Tracy; Sease, Kerry; Tarini, Beth

    2017-04-01

    Family health history collection and genetic testing are core elements for the successful translation of genomics into primary care practice. Yet, little is known about how pediatric providers implement these elements in practice. We surveyed the membership of the American Academy of Pediatrics regarding family health history (FHH) collection and genetic testing in the primary care setting. Three hundred forty-nine (349) responses were analyzed with the initial response rate of 43.3%. Four principal findings were noted-(1) family health history is still recognized as a critical part of the medical evaluation; (2) perceived obstacles for FHH are time in obtaining the FHH and concerns about the family's knowledge of their FHH; (3) a 3-generation family history is out of the scope of routine care and alternate methods should be considered; (4) most primary care providers (PCPs) do not feel comfortable ordering, interpreting, and counseling regarding current genetic testing. Expanded genetic/genomic education at multiple levels (undergraduate medical education, graduate medical education, and maintenance of certification) is clearly indicated to allow PCPs to integrate these vital elements into a current evaluation (acute care or health maintenance) in the primary care setting.

  5. Natural history of age-related lobular involution and impact on breast cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Radisky, Derek C; Visscher, Daniel W; Frank, Ryan D; Vierkant, Robert A; Winham, Stacey; Stallings-Mann, Melody; Hoskin, Tanya L; Nassar, Aziza; Vachon, Celine M; Denison, Lori A; Hartmann, Lynn C; Frost, Marlene H; Degnim, Amy C

    2016-02-01

    Age-related lobular involution (LI) is a physiological process in which the terminal duct lobular units of the breast regress as a woman ages. Analyses of breast biopsies from women with benign breast disease (BBD) have found that extent of LI is negatively associated with subsequent breast cancer development. Here we assess the natural course of LI within individual women, and the impact of progressive LI on breast cancer risk. The Mayo Clinic BBD cohort consists of 13,455 women with BBD from 1967 to 2001. The BBD cohort includes 1115 women who had multiple benign biopsies, 106 of whom had developed breast cancer. Within this multiple biopsy cohort, the progression of the LI process was examined by age at initial biopsy and time between biopsies. The relationship between LI progression and breast cancer risk was assessed using standardized incidence ratios and by Cox proportional hazards analysis. Women who had multiple biopsies were younger age and had a slightly higher family history of breast cancer as compared with the overall BBD cohort. Extent of LI at subsequent biopsy was greater with increasing time between biopsies and for women age 55 + at initial biopsy. Among women with multiple biopsies, there was a significant association of higher breast cancer risk among those with involution stasis (lack of progression, HR 1.63) as compared with those with involution progression, p = 0.036. The multiple biopsy BBD cohort allows for a longitudinal study of the natural progression of LI. The majority of women in the multiple biopsy cohort showed progression of LI status between benign biopsies, and extent of progression was highest for women who were in the perimenopausal age range at initial biopsy. Progression of LI status between initial and subsequent biopsy was associated with decreased breast cancer risk.

  6. Vascular and baroreceptor abnormalities in young males with a family history of hypertension.

    PubMed

    Boutcher, Yati N; Park, Young J; Boutcher, Stephen H

    2009-12-01

    Vascular and baroreceptor abnormalities in 44 young males, mean age 21 years, comprising of offspring with (FH(+); n = 22) and without (FH(-); n = 22) hypertensive parents, were investigated. Peak forearm blood flow (FBF), which was defined as the highest blood flow obtained following reactive hyperaemia, was assessed using strain gauge plethysmography following 5 min of ischemia. Cardiopulmonary baroreceptor sensitivity was assessed using lower body negative pressure for 5 min at -20 mmHg and was determined by calculating change of stroke volume and forearm vascular resistance (FVR) to lower body negative pressure. Carotid baroreceptor sensitivity was assessed using neck suction at -20, -40, -60, and -80 mmHg and was calculated by dividing RR interval by systolic blood pressure. Augmentation index, a measure of wave reflection, was assessed using applanation tonometry and was calculated as the ratio of augmented pressure and pulse pressure. Peak FBF of FH(+) was 19% lower than the FH(-) (p = 0.02). Also FH(+) had 17% higher peak FVR compared to FH(-) (p = 0.04). However, there were no significant differences between groups for cardiopulmonary, carotid baroreceptor sensitivity, and augmentation index. These results suggest that peripheral vascular dysfunction appears earlier than abnormal baroreceptor sensitivity in young males with a family history of hypertension.

  7. My Family Medical History and Me: A pilot feasibility study of a cardiovascular risk reduction intervention

    PubMed Central

    Imes, Christopher C.; Lewis, Frances M.; Austin, Melissa A.; Dougherty, Cynthia M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Evaluate the feasibility and acceptability of a behaviorally-focused intervention designed to increase perceived cardiovascular disease (CVD) and coronary heart disease (CHD) risk in young adults with a family history (FH) of CVD/CHD. Design Single group, pre-post-test design. Sample Fifteen, mostly female (n=13, 86.7%), White, young adults (mean age 20.8 years) with a minimum of a high school education with a FH of CVD/CHD. Measurements Feasibility examined the recruitment strategy, study procedures, appropriateness and quality of the study instruments, and problems that occurred during delivery of the intervention. Acceptability examined participants' engagement in the in person sessions and at home exercises and their feedback about the intervention. Intervention Two, in person sessions provided personalized, tailored messages about ten-year and lifetime CHD risk based on risk factors, FH from a three-generation pedigree, lipid levels, blood pressure, and smoking status, and brief counseling about how to engage in a healthy lifestyle to decrease CVD/CHD risk. Results The intervention was feasible and acceptable. Participants requested more information on healthy food choices, including which foods to avoid and which exercises most improve cardiovascular health. Conclusions Although requiring refinement, the intervention has potential public health implications and deserves further testing. PMID:24840334

  8. Beer Flavor Provokes Striatal Dopamine Release in Male Drinkers: Mediation by Family History of Alcoholism

    PubMed Central

    Oberlin, Brandon G; Dzemidzic, Mario; Tran, Stella M; Soeurt, Christina M; Albrecht, Daniel S; Yoder, Karmen K; Kareken, David A

    2013-01-01

    Striatal dopamine (DA) is increased by virtually all drugs of abuse, including alcohol. However, drug-associated cues are also known to provoke striatal DA transmission- a phenomenon linked to the motivated behaviors associated with addiction. To our knowledge, no one has tested if alcohol's classically conditioned flavor cues, in the absence of a significant pharmacologic effect, are capable of eliciting striatal DA release in humans. Employing positron emission tomography (PET), we hypothesized that beer's flavor alone can reduce the binding potential (BP) of [11C]raclopride (RAC; a reflection of striatal DA release) in the ventral striatum, relative to an appetitive flavor control. Forty-nine men, ranging from social to heavy drinking, mean age 25, with a varied family history of alcoholism underwent two [11C]RAC PET scans: one while tasting beer, and one while tasting Gatorade. Relative to the control flavor of Gatorade, beer flavor significantly increased self-reported desire to drink, and reduced [11C]RAC BP, indicating that the alcohol-associated flavor cues induced DA release. BP reductions were strongest in subjects with first-degree alcoholic relatives. These results demonstrate that alcohol-conditioned flavor cues can provoke ventral striatal DA release, absent significant pharmacologic effects, and that the response is strongest in subjects with a greater genetic risk for alcoholism. Striatal DA responses to salient alcohol cues may thus be an inherited risk factor for alcoholism. PMID:23588036

  9. Sexually Active Adolescent Women: Assessing Family and Peer Relationships Using Event History Calendars

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saftner, Melissa Ann; Martyn, Kristy Kiel; Lori, Jody Rae

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study is to explore family and peer relationships (including support and influence on risk behavior) among sexually active European American and African American adolescent girls in the context of risk behaviors documented on retrospective event history calendars (EHCs) and in interviews. The EHCs were completed by…

  10. Speech and Language Difficulties in Children with and without a Family History of Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carroll, Julia M.; Myers, Joanne M.

    2010-01-01

    Comorbidity between SLI and dyslexia is well documented. Researchers have variously argued that dyslexia is a separate disorder from SLI, or that children with dyslexia show a subset of the difficulties shown in SLI. This study examines these hypotheses by assessing whether family history of dyslexia and speech and language difficulties are…

  11. Acceptability and feasibility of a virtual counselor (VICKY) to collect family health histories

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Catharine; Bickmore, Timothy; Bowen, Deborah J.; Norkunas, Tricia; Campion, MaryAnn; Cabral, Howard; Winter, Michael; Paasche-Orlow, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To overcome literacy-related barriers in the collection of electronic family health histories, we developed VICKY, an animated “virtual counselor”. This study examines the acceptability and accuracy of using VICKY to collect family histories, among underserved patients, compared to My Family Health Portrait (MFHP). Methods Participants were recruited from a patient registry at a safety net hospital and randomized to use either VICKY or MFHP. Accuracy was determined by comparing tool-collected histories to those obtained by a genetic counselor. Results A total of 70 participants completed this study. Participants rated VICKY easy to use (91%) and easy to follow (92%), would recommend VICKY to others (83%) and were highly satisfied (77%). VICKY identified 86% of first degree relatives, and 42% of second degree relatives; combined accuracy was 55%. Compared to MFHP, VICKY identified a greater number of health conditions overall (49% VICKY vs 31% MFHP, IRR: 1.59, 95% CI 1.13, 2.25, p=.008); in particular, hypertension (47% vs 15%; IRR = 3.18; 95% CI: 1.66, 6.10; p=.001) and type 2 diabetes (54% vs 22%; IRR = 2.47; 95% CI: 1.33, 4.60; p=.004). Conclusion These results demonstrate that technological support for documenting family history risks can be highly accepted, feasible, and effective. PMID:25590980

  12. Identification and management of women with a family history of breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Heisey, Ruth; Carroll, June C.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective To summarize the best evidence on strategies to identify and manage women with a family history of breast cancer. Sources of information A PubMed search was conducted using the search terms breast cancer, guidelines, risk, family history, management, and magnetic resonance imaging screening from 2000 to 2016. Most evidence is level II. Main message Taking a good family history is essential when assessing breast cancer risk in order to identify women suitable for referral to a genetic counselor for possible genetic testing. Offering risk-reducing surgery (bilateral prophylactic mastectomy, bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy) to women with BRCA genetic mutations can save lives. All women with a family history of breast cancer should be encouraged to stay active and limit alcohol intake to less than 1 drink per day; some will qualify for chemoprevention. Women with a 20% to 25% or greater lifetime risk of breast cancer should be offered enhanced screening with annual magnetic resonance imaging in addition to mammography. Conclusion Healthy living and chemoprevention (for suitable women) could reduce breast cancer incidence; enhanced screening could result in earlier detection. Referring women who carry BRCA mutations for risk-reducing surgery will save lives. PMID:27737975

  13. Things Are Happening: A Survey Report of North American Family History Activity. Series 340.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennion, Roy B.; Nichols, Elizabeth L.

    To find out about grass roots activities and projects in family history, a survey form was distributed through periodicals and newsletters of genealogical and historical organizations and through general periodicals; telephone calls were made to all state boards of education; and data were gathered from projects already in the researchers'…

  14. "Object Lesson": Using Family Heirlooms to Engage Students in Art History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rose, Marice

    2012-01-01

    This first written assignment of the semester for the author's undergraduate introductory art history class--an essay where students describe and reflect upon the significance of a family heirloom--is instrumental in meeting class objectives. The author's objectives in this class are for students: (1) to broaden their conception of what art is…

  15. Sweet preferences and analgesia during childhood: effects of family history of alcoholism and depression

    PubMed Central

    Mennella, Julie A.; Pepino, M. Yanina; Lehmann-Castor, Sara M.; Yourshaw, Lauren M.

    2010-01-01

    Aim To determine whether depression and family history of alcoholism are associated with heightened sweet preferences in children, before they have experienced alcohol or tobacco and at a time during the life-span when sweets are particularly salient. Design Between- and within-subject experimental study. Participants Children, 5–12 years old (n = 300), formed four groups based on family history of alcohol dependence up to second-degree relatives [positive (FHP) versus negative (FHN)] and depressive symptoms as determined by the Pictorial Depression Scale [depressed (PDEP) versus non-depressed (NDEP)]. Measurements Children were tested individually to measure sucrose preferences, sweet food liking and, for a subset of the children, the analgesic properties of sucrose versus water during the cold pressor test. Findings The co-occurrence of having a family history of alcoholism and self-reports of depressive symptomatology was associated significantly with a preference for a more concentrated sucrose solution, while depressive symptomatology alone was associated with greater liking for sweet-tasting foods and candies and increased pain sensitivity. Depression antagonized the analgesic properties of sucrose. Conclusions While children as a group innately like sweets and feel better after eating them, the present study reveals significant contributions of family history of alcoholism and depression to this effect. Whether the heightened sweet preference and the use of sweets to alleviate depression are markers for developing alcohol-related problems or responses that are protective are important areas for future research. PMID:20148789

  16. History from Children's Perspectives: Learning to Read and Write Historical Accounts Using Family Sources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Maria Auxiliadora; Garcia, Tania Maria F. Braga

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the results of an investigation which was part of a project called "Recreating Histories". It is concerned with the analysis of historical narratives created by the children who participated in the project and an analysis of historical sources kept by families who live in Campina Grande do Sul (Brazil). It draws on…

  17. Family Foundations: A New Program for Pregnant and Parenting Women Offenders with Substance Abuse Histories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiewel, Brenda; Mosley, Toni

    2006-01-01

    A new program in California partners the California Department of Corrections with a non-profit drug treatment agency on behalf of pregnant or parenting women who are drug offenders with substance abuse histories. The women are sentenced to the family foundations facility for one year and receive a range of special services to prepare for…

  18. Real-Life Spatial Skills, Handedness, and Family History of Handedness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ecuyer-Dab, I.; Tremblay, T.; Joanette, Y.; Passini, R.

    2005-01-01

    According to Annett (1985), pronounced left hemisphere lateralization for language abilities in women, as in female absolute right-handers, limits their right hemisphere capacity and spatial abilities. This study examines the degree of handedness and the family history of non-right-handedness with respect to real-life spatial abilities in women.…

  19. Diverse Family Types and Out-Of-School Learning Time of Young School Age Children

    PubMed Central

    Ono, Hiromi

    2010-01-01

    =Sources of differentials in out-of-school learning time between children in first marriage biological parent families and children in six nontraditional family types are identified. Analyses of time diaries reveal that children in four of the six nontraditional family types spend fewer minutes learning than do children in first marriage biological parent families. In all four cases, however, the differentials are explained by the presence of siblings age 18+, lower levels of family income, or younger maternal age. PMID:21532970

  20. Teaching African-American History in the Age of Obama

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Millward, Jessica

    2009-01-01

    When the author proposed a spring course on major topics in African-American history, drawing a large enrollment was her chief concern. She had previously taught the course under a different title at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, a campus with a sizable African-American presence among students and faculty members. She now teaches…

  1. The History Walk: Integrated Multi-Age Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Ronald V.

    2000-01-01

    This article describes a learning activity, the Texas History Walk, in which third- and seventh-grade gifted students learn about life in the 1870s on the Texas frontier. The younger students interact with the actors, seventh graders role-playing characters of the 1870s. Benefits of the activity include its interdisciplinary nature, the cross-age…

  2. Meta-Analysis at Middle Age: A Personal History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glass, Gene V.

    2015-01-01

    The 40-year history of meta-analysis is traced from the vantage point of one of its originators. Research syntheses leading to the first examples of meta-analysis are identified. Early meta-analyses of the literature on psychotherapy outcomes and school class size are recounted. The influence on the development of meta-analysis of several…

  3. The Relationship between Attitudes toward Suicide and Family History of Suicide in Nagano Prefecture, Japan

    PubMed Central

    Tsukahara, Teruomi; Arai, Hiroaki; Kamijo, Tomoko; Kobayashi, Yoshikiyo; Washizuka, Shinsuke; Arito, Heihachiro; Nomiyama, Tetsuo

    2016-01-01

    Certain attitudes toward suicide may be a risk factor for suicide among the bereaved. To explore this possibility, we examined the relationship between attitudes toward suicide and family history of suicide. We focused on two specific attitudes indicating resignation in a survey: #1 “When a person chooses to die by suicide, the suicide is inevitable” (i.e., inevitability belief); and #2 “A suicide cannot be stopped by any person, because suicide is unpreventable” (i.e., unpreventable belief). The data of 5117 fully completed questionnaires were analyzed. Logistic regression analysis revealed that the two attitudes of resignation were significantly associated with a family history of suicide. The adjusted odds ratio for #1 was 1.39 (95% CI, 1.07–1.79) for individuals having experienced suicide by a family member or relative, while that for #2 was 1.57 (95% CI, 1.27–1.95) for experiencing a suicide by a family member or relative and 1.25 (95% CI, 1.05–1.49) for experiencing a suicide by a friend, business associate, partner or other. These two attitudes of resignation toward suicide were significantly associated with a family history of suicide. These attitudes might increase suicide risk among the bereaved. PMID:27338441

  4. The Relationship between Attitudes toward Suicide and Family History of Suicide in Nagano Prefecture, Japan.

    PubMed

    Tsukahara, Teruomi; Arai, Hiroaki; Kamijo, Tomoko; Kobayashi, Yoshikiyo; Washizuka, Shinsuke; Arito, Heihachiro; Nomiyama, Tetsuo

    2016-06-22

    Certain attitudes toward suicide may be a risk factor for suicide among the bereaved. To explore this possibility, we examined the relationship between attitudes toward suicide and family history of suicide. We focused on two specific attitudes indicating resignation in a survey: #1 "When a person chooses to die by suicide, the suicide is inevitable" (i.e., inevitability belief); and #2 "A suicide cannot be stopped by any person, because suicide is unpreventable" (i.e., unpreventable belief). The data of 5117 fully completed questionnaires were analyzed. Logistic regression analysis revealed that the two attitudes of resignation were significantly associated with a family history of suicide. The adjusted odds ratio for #1 was 1.39 (95% CI, 1.07-1.79) for individuals having experienced suicide by a family member or relative, while that for #2 was 1.57 (95% CI, 1.27-1.95) for experiencing a suicide by a family member or relative and 1.25 (95% CI, 1.05-1.49) for experiencing a suicide by a friend, business associate, partner or other. These two attitudes of resignation toward suicide were significantly associated with a family history of suicide. These attitudes might increase suicide risk among the bereaved.

  5. Family history of hypertension and left ventricular mass in youth: possible mediating parameters.

    PubMed

    Cook, B B; Treiber, F A; Mensah, G; Jindal, M; Davis, H C; Kapuku, G K

    2001-04-01

    Whether positive family history (FH) of essential hypertension (EH) in normotensive youth is associated with increased left ventricular mass (LVM) and hemodynamic, anthropometric, and demographic parameters previously associated with increased LVM in adults is unknown. To examine these issues, 323 healthy youth (mean age, 13.6 +/- 1.3 years), 194 with positive FH of EH (61% African Americans, 39% whites) and 129 with negative FH of EH (33% African Americans, 67% whites) were evaluated. Hemodynamics were measured at rest and during four stressors (ie, postural change, car driving simulation, video game, forehead cold). Echocardiographic-derived measures of LVM were indexed separately to body surface area and height(2.7). Controlling for age and race differences (ie, 74% of African Americans v 47% of whites had positive FH), the positive FH group exhibited greater LVM/height(2.7), LVM/body surface area, higher systolic (SBP) and diastolic blood pressures (DBP), and total peripheral resistance index (TPRI) and lower cardiac index at rest (P < .05 for all). The positive FH group also displayed higher peak SBP or DBP and higher TPRI increases to each stressor and came from lower socioeconomic status backgrounds (P < .05 for all). Regression analyses indicated that FH of EH was not a significant determinant of LVM/height(2.7) after accounting for contributions of gender (greater in men), general adiposity, resting cardiac index and blood pressure (BP), and TPRI responsivity to video game and cold stimulation (P < .05 for all). Thus, greater LVM index in positive FH of EH youth appears in part related to their greater BP and TPRI at rest and during stress.

  6. Differentiation of alcoholics. Childhood history of minimal brain dysfunction, family history, and drinking pattern.

    PubMed

    Tarter, R E; McBride, H; Buonpane, N; Schneider, D U

    1977-07-01

    Alcoholics were differentiated into two subgroups on the basis of drinking patterns and subjective response to alcohol. Severe drinkers (primary alcoholics) retrospectively reported more symptoms of childhood minimal brain dysfunction than less severe drinkers (secondary alcoholics), psychiatric patients, and normals. The alcoholics as a group reported a greater incidence of familial alcohol abuse than the psychiatric subjects, but a difference on this factor was not observed between the primary and secondary subgroups. In terms of clinical status, the primary alcoholics presented Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory profile more indicative of normality than the other groups, but scored significantly higher on the MacAndrew Alcoholism Scale. These findings are discussed in light of further delineating a specific subtype of alcoholism that may have a genetic-constitutional relationship with other pathological disorders.

  7. CDC Grand Rounds: Family History and Genomics as Tools for Cancer Prevention and Control.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Juan L; Thomas, Cheryll C; Massetti, Greta M; Duquette, Debra; Avner, Lindsay; Iskander, John; Khoury, Muin J; Richardson, Lisa C

    2016-11-25

    Although many efforts in cancer prevention and control have routinely focused on behavioral risk factors, such as tobacco use, or on the early detection of cancer, such as colorectal cancer screening, advances in genetic testing have created new opportunities for cancer prevention through evaluation of family history and identification of cancer-causing inherited mutations. Through the collection and evaluation of a family cancer history by a trained health care provider, patients and families at increased risk for a hereditary cancer syndrome can be identified, referred for genetic counseling and testing, and make informed decisions about options for cancer risk reduction (1). Although hereditary cancers make up a small proportion of all cancers, the number of affected persons can be large, and the level of risk among affected persons is high. Two hereditary cancer syndromes for which public health professionals have worked to reduce the burden of morbidity and mortality are hereditary breast and ovarian cancer syndrome (HBOC) and Lynch syndrome.

  8. Age at migration, family instability, and timing of sexual onset.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, Rachel E; Tienda, Marta; Adserà, Alícia

    2017-03-01

    This study builds on and extends previous research on nativity variations in adolescent health and risk behavior by addressing three questions: (1) whether and how generational status and age at migration are associated with timing of sexual onset among U.S. adolescents; (2) whether and how family instability mediates associations between nativity and sexual debut; and (3) whether and how these associations vary by gender. We find that first- and second-generation immigrant youth initiate sexual activity later than native youth. Foreign-born youth who migrate after the start of adolescence exhibit the latest sexual onset; boys' sexual behavior is particularly sensitive to age at migration. Parental union stability is protective for first- and second-generation youth, especially boys; however, instability in co-residence with parents accelerates sexual debut for foreign-born girls, and dilutes protections from parental marital stability. Use of a non-English language at home delays sexual onset for immigrant girls, but not boys.

  9. History of family violence, childhood behavior problems, and adolescent high-risk behaviors as predictors of girls' repeated patterns of dating victimization in two developmental periods.

    PubMed

    Vézina, Johanne; Hébert, Martine; Poulin, François; Lavoie, Francine; Vitaro, Frank; Tremblay, Richard E

    2015-04-01

    This study aims to document the prevalence of repeated patterns of dating victimization and to examine, within the frameworks of an ecological model and lifestyle/routine activities theories, associations between such patterns and family, peer, and individual factors. Dating victimization in adolescence (age 15) and early adulthood (age 21) was evaluated in 443 female participants. Multinomial logistic regression analyses revealed that history of family violence, childhood behavior problems, and adolescent high-risk behaviors were associated with an increased risk for girls of being victimized (psychologically and/or physically/sexually) in their dating relationships, either in adolescence or early adulthood, or at both developmental periods.

  10. Evolutionary History of Cathepsin L (L-like) Family Genes in Vertebrates

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Jin; Zhang, Yao-Yang; Li, Qing-Yun; Cai, Zhong-Hua

    2015-01-01

    Cathepsin L family, an important cysteine protease found in lysosomes, is categorized into cathepsins B, F, H, K, L, S, and W in vertebrates. This categorization is based on their sequence alignment and traditional functional classification, but the evolutionary relationship of family members is unclear. This study determined the evolutionary relationship of cathepsin L family genes in vertebrates through phylogenetic construction. Results showed that cathepsins F, H, S and K, and L and V were chronologically diverged. Tandem-repeat duplication was found to occur in the evolutionary history of cathepsin L family. Cathepsin L in zebrafish, cathepsins S and K in xenopus, and cathepsin L in mice and rats underwent evident tandem-repeat events. Positive selection was detected in cathepsin L-like members in mice and rats, and amino acid sites under positive selection pressure were calculated. Most of these sites appeared at the connection of secondary structures, suggesting that the sites may slightly change spatial structure. Severe positive selection was also observed in cathepsin V (L2) of primates, indicating that this enzyme had some special functions. Our work provided a brief evolutionary history of cathepsin L family and differentiated cathepsins S and K from cathepsin L based on vertebrate appearance. Positive selection was the specific cause of differentiation of cathepsin L family genes, confirming that gene function variation after expansion events was related to interactions with the environment and adaptability. PMID:26221069

  11. Evolutionary History of Cathepsin L (L-like) Family Genes in Vertebrates.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jin; Zhang, Yao-Yang; Li, Qing-Yun; Cai, Zhong-Hua

    2015-01-01

    Cathepsin L family, an important cysteine protease found in lysosomes, is categorized into cathepsins B, F, H, K, L, S, and W in vertebrates. This categorization is based on their sequence alignment and traditional functional classification, but the evolutionary relationship of family members is unclear. This study determined the evolutionary relationship of cathepsin L family genes in vertebrates through phylogenetic construction. Results showed that cathepsins F, H, S and K, and L and V were chronologically diverged. Tandem-repeat duplication was found to occur in the evolutionary history of cathepsin L family. Cathepsin L in zebrafish, cathepsins S and K in xenopus, and cathepsin L in mice and rats underwent evident tandem-repeat events. Positive selection was detected in cathepsin L-like members in mice and rats, and amino acid sites under positive selection pressure were calculated. Most of these sites appeared at the connection of secondary structures, suggesting that the sites may slightly change spatial structure. Severe positive selection was also observed in cathepsin V (L2) of primates, indicating that this enzyme had some special functions. Our work provided a brief evolutionary history of cathepsin L family and differentiated cathepsins S and K from cathepsin L based on vertebrate appearance. Positive selection was the specific cause of differentiation of cathepsin L family genes, confirming that gene function variation after expansion events was related to interactions with the environment and adaptability.

  12. Petrology, chemistry, age and irradiation history of Luna 24 samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wasserburg, G. J.; Papanastassiou, D. A.; Mcculloch, M. T.; Huneke, J. C.; Dymek, R. F.; Depaolo, D. J.; Chodos, A. A.; Albee, A. L.; Radicati Di Brozolo, F.

    1978-01-01

    The results of petrological, chemical, isotopic age determination and irradiation studies of sample 24170 from the 170 cm depth of the regolith core returned from Mare Crisium by Luna 24 are presented. The sample is found to be comprised of fragments from a single igneous rock, with mineralogical evidence indicating it to be a mare basalt. The crystallization age is determined by Sm-Nd and Ar(40)-Ar(39) ages to be 3.30 AE, establishing the presence of relatively young flows. All soil samples show low trace element compositions with minimum contamination by KREEPUTh-rich materials. Rb-Sr and Sm-Nd relations reflect the absence of significant fractionation at ages younger than 4.5 AE. One soil sample shows extremely large neutron capture effects, imposing a new lower limit to the neutron production rate in the regolith and requiring the addition of irradiated materials from depth.

  13. 45 CFR 1305.4 - Age of children and family income eligibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Age of children and family income eligibility... FAMILIES, HEAD START PROGRAM ELIGIBILITY, RECRUITMENT, SELECTION, ENROLLMENT AND ATTENDANCE IN HEAD START § 1305.4 Age of children and family income eligibility. (a) To be eligible for Head Start services,...

  14. Staff-family relationships in residential aged care facilities: the views of residents' family members and care staff.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Michael; Fetherstonhaugh, Deirdre; Tarzia, Laura; Chenco, Carol

    2014-08-01

    The aim of the study was to examine staff and family members' perceptions of each other's roles and responsibilities in the Australian residential aged care setting. Data was collected by interview and focus group from 27 staff and 14 family members at five residential aged care facilities in the state of Victoria, Australia. Findings highlight "communication" as the core category supporting the formation of constructive staff-family relationships, as described by three main themes; "building trust," "involvement," and "keeping the family happy." Staff attitudes, mutual cooperation, meaningful engagement, and shared expectations lay the foundation for relationships. Findings suggest that further efforts to establish and sustain good relationships with families are required by facilities. Characteristics, roles, and expectations of staff and family that can both promote and hinder the formation of constructive staff-family relationships are discussed.

  15. Family History

    MedlinePlus

    ... Compartir This page no longer exists in this location. If there is a problem with the automatic ... RSS ABOUT About CDC Jobs Funding LEGAL Policies Privacy FOIA No Fear Act OIG 1600 Clifton Road ...

  16. Family History

    MedlinePlus

    ... of Research The Southern NH & Merrimack Valley Awareness Train Chair of Research TeamCindy Alcatraz Chair of Research ... of Research The Southern NH & Merrimack Valley Awareness Train Chair of Research TeamCindy Alcatraz Chair of Research ...

  17. The modern Chinese family in light of economic and legal history.

    PubMed

    Huang, Philip C C

    2011-01-01

    Most social science theory and the currently powerful Chinese ideology of modernizationism assume that, with modern development, family-based peasant farm production will disappear, to be replaced by individuated industrial workers and the three-generation family by the nuclear family. The actual record of China’s economic history, however, shows the powerful persistence of the small family farm, as well as of the three-generation family down to this day, even as China’s GDP becomes the second largest in the world. China’s legal system, similarly, encompasses a vast informal sphere, in which familial principles operate more than individualist ones. And, in between the informal-familial and the formal-individualist, there is an enormous intermediate sphere in which the two tendencies are engaged in a continual tug of war. The economic behavior of the Chinese family unit reveals great contrasts with what is assumed by conventional economics. It has a different attitude toward labor from that of both the individual worker and the capitalist firm. It also has a different structural composition, and a different attitude toward investment, children’s education, and marriage. Proper attention to how Chinese modernity differs socially, economically, and legally from the modern West points to the need for a different kind of social science; it also lends social–economic substance to claims for a modern Chinese culture different from the modern West’s.

  18. Medical History, Lifestyle, Family History, and Occupational Risk Factors for Mantle Cell Lymphoma: The InterLymph Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma Subtypes Project

    PubMed Central

    Sampson, Joshua N.; Turner, Jennifer J.; Slager, Susan L.; Maynadié, Marc; Roman, Eve; Habermann, Thomas M.; Flowers, Christopher R.; Berndt, Sonja I.; Bracci, Paige M.; Hjalgrim, Henrik; Weisenburger, Dennis D.; Morton, Lindsay M.

    2014-01-01

    Background The etiology of mantle cell lymphoma (MCL), a distinctive subtype accounting for 2%–10% of all non-Hodgkin lymphoma, is not known. Methods We investigated associations with self-reported medical history, lifestyle, family history, and occupational risk factors in a pooled analysis of 557 patients with MCL and 13766 controls from 13 case–control studies in Europe, North America, and Australia. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) associated with each exposure were examined using multivariate logistic regression models. Results The median age of the MCL patients was 62 years and 76% were men. Risk of MCL was inversely associated with history of hay fever (OR = 0.63, 95% CI = 0.48 to 0.82), and the association was independent of other atopic diseases and allergies. A hematological malignancy among first-degree relatives was associated with a twofold increased risk of MCL (OR = 1.99, 95% CI = 1.39 to 2.84), which was stronger in men (OR = 2.21, 95% CI = 1.44 to 3.38) than women (OR = 1.61, 95% CI = 0.82 to 3.19). A modestly increased risk of MCL was also observed in association with ever having lived on a farm (OR = 1.40, 95% CI = 1.03 to 1.90). Unlike some other non-Hodgkin lymphoma subtypes, MCL risk was not statistically significantly associated with autoimmune disorders, tobacco smoking, alcohol intake, body mass index, or ultraviolet radiation. Conclusions The novel observations of a possible role for atopy and allergy and farm life in risk of MCL, together with confirmatory evidence of a familial link, suggest a multifactorial etiology of immune-related environmental exposures and genetic susceptibility. These findings provide guidance for future research in MCL etiology. PMID:25174028

  19. Family history of chronic disease and meeting public health guidelines for physical activity: the cooper center longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Shuval, Kerem; Chiu, Chung-Yi; Barlow, Carolyn E; Gabriel, Kelley Pettee; Kendzor, Darla E; Businelle, Michael S; Skinner, Celette Sugg; Balasubramanian, Bijal A

    2013-06-01

    We aimed to assess whether a family history of coronary heart disease, diabetes, or cancer is linked to meeting public health guidelines for health-promoting physical activity. To achieve this objective, we analyzed data on 29,513 adults who came to the Cooper Clinic (Dallas, Texas) between January 1, 1990, and December 31, 2010, for a preventive medicine visit. Patients completed a comprehensive medical survey including information on family medical history, physical activity, and other lifestyle behaviors. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression were used to examine the relationship between having a family history of chronic disease and meeting physical activity guidelines. The results indicated that individuals with a family history of disease had reduced odds for meeting or exceeding physical activity guidelines. For example, participants with a family history of 3 diseases were 36% less likely to meet or exceed physical activity guidelines than their counterparts without a family history of disease (odds ratio, 0.64; 95% CI, 0.58-0.72), while controlling for covariates. Among this large sample of adults, those with a family history of chronic disease were less inclined to regularly engage in physical activity. Thus, targeted programs encouraging adoption and maintenance of health-promoting physical activity might be warranted, specifically targeting individuals with familial history of disease.

  20. Diet, Lifestyles, Family History, and Prostate Cancer Incidence in an East Algerian Patient Group

    PubMed Central

    Lassed, Somia; Deus, Cláudia M.; Lourenço, Nuno; Dahdouh, Abderrezak

    2016-01-01

    Prostate cancer (PC) is the fourth most common cancer in men and the sixth leading cause of death in Algeria. To examine the relationship between lifestyle factors, including diet, and family history and PC risk, a case-control study was performed in an eastern Algerian population, comprising 90 patients with histologically confirmed PC and 190 controls. Data collection was carried out through a structured questionnaire and statistical analysis was performed to evaluate the different variables. The data showed that consumption of lamb and beef meat and high intake of animal fat and dairy products increased PC risk. Seven to thirteen vegetables servings per week and fourteen or more servings decreased PC risk by 62% and 96%, respectively. Seven to fourteen fruit servings per week decrease PC risk by 98%. Green tea consumption reduced the risk of PC but the results were statistically borderline. Increased risk was observed for individuals with family history of PC in first and in second degree. A positive strong association was also found for alcohol and smoking intake and a dose-response relationship existed for quantity and history of smoking. This study suggests that dietary habits, lifestyle factors, and family history have influence on the development of PC in Algerian population. PMID:27975054

  1. Age and Thermal History of the Bushveld Complex, South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renne, P. R.; Feinberg, J. M.; Mundil, R.; Nomade, S.; Merkle, R.

    2004-12-01

    The Bushveld Complex (BC) is one of the largest, most economically important and well-studied layered mafic intrusions in the world. Despite plentiful radioisotopic studies over the past 30 years, the age and emplacement chronology of the BC are not well-constrained. Biotite 40Ar/39Ar data from the UG-2 chromitite layer yield consistent plateau ages around 2042 Ma (IUGS 1977 constants; 28.02 Ma for FCs here and throughout), implying either a slow cooling rate or systematic error when compared with the available Pb/Pb ages of 2059 to 2061 Ma (Nomade et al., 2004, J. Geol. Soc. Lond., 161: 411-420). We are acquiring 40Ar/39Ar and U/Pb data to evaluate the rapid emplacement and cooling suggested by petrological and heat-conduction studies (Cawthorn and Walraven, 1998, J. Petrol. 39: 1669-1687). Biotite and hornblende are present as intercumulus phases in gabbros and also in ubiquitous pegmatoid veins cutting the mafic and ultramafic rocks. Preliminary 40Ar/39Ar results from both the eastern and western limbs of the BC show biotite integrated ages clustering between 2030 and 2050 Ma, slightly older than hornblende plateau ages (2030-2040 Ma). Biotites are locally subject to discordance suggestive of 39Ar recoil redistribution with an interlayer alteration phase; as in other such cases the integrated ages are more consistent and sensible whereas plateau ages are in some cases impossibly old. Biotite from an Fe-rich ultramafic pegmatoid in the western limb (Karee Mine) yields duplicate ~100% concordant plateaux spectra that average 0.8% older than the average of 4 hornblende plateaux. The cause of this apparent discordance (biotite age > hornblende age) is not understood although it is possible that the biotites have unusually high closure temperatures due to large diffusion radii related to the coarse (~5 mm) grain size. Initial ID-TIMS U/Pb single-zircon analyses indicate an age of 2058 Ma for the late-stage Nebo Granite, as displayed by concordant ages on crystals pre

  2. The Association of Family History of Premature Cardiovascular Disease or Diabetes Mellitus on the Occurrence of Gestational Hypertensive Disease and Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Dong-Ju; Yoon, Chang-Hwan; Lee, Heesun; Ahn, So-Yeon; Oh, Kyung Joon; Park, Hyun-Young; Lee, Hea Young; Cho, Myeong Chan; Chung, Ick-Mo; Shin, Mi-Seung; Park, Sung-Ji; Shim, Chi Young; Han, Seong Woo; Chae, In-Ho

    2016-01-01

    Background Gestational hypertensive diseases (GHD) and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) increase the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) later in life. However, the association between gestational medical diseases and familial history of CVD has not been investigated to date. In the present study, we examined the association between familial history of CVD and GHD or GDM via reliable questionnaires in a large cohort of registered nurses. Methods The Korean Nurses’ Survey was conducted through a web-based computer-assisted self-interview, which was developed through consultation with cardiologists, gynecologists, and statisticians. We enrolled a total of 9,989 female registered nurses who reliably answered the questionnaires including family history of premature CVD (FHpCVD), hypertension (FHH), and diabetes mellitus (FHDM) based on their medical knowledge. Either multivariable logistic regression analysis or generalized estimation equation was used to clarify the effect of positive family histories on GHD and GDM in subjects or at each repeated pregnancy in an individual. Results In this survey, 3,695 subjects had at least 1 pregnancy and 8,783 cumulative pregnancies. Among them, 247 interviewees (6.3%) experienced GHD and 120 (3.1%) experienced GDM. In a multivariable analysis adjusted for age, obstetric, and gynecologic variables, age at the first pregnancy over 35 years (adjusted OR 1.61, 95% CI 1.02–2.43) and FHpCVD (adjusted OR 1.60, 95% CI 1.16–2.22) were risk factors for GHD in individuals, whereas FHH was not. FHDM and history of infertility therapy were risk factors for GDM in individuals (adjusted OR 2.68, 95% CI 1.86–3.86; 1.84, 95% CI 1.05–3.23, respectively). In any repeated pregnancies in an individual, age at the current pregnancy and at the first pregnancy, and FHpCVD were risk factors for GHD, while age at the current pregnancy, history of infertility therapy, and FHDM were risk factors for GDM. Conclusions The FHpCVD and FHDM are

  3. Medical History, Lifestyle, Family History, and Occupational Risk Factors for Lymphoplasmacytic Lymphoma/Waldenström’s Macroglobulinemia: The InterLymph Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma Subtypes Project

    PubMed Central

    Landgren, Ola; McMaster, Mary L.; Slager, Susan L.; Brooks-Wilson, Angela; Smith, Alex; Staines, Anthony; Dogan, Ahmet; Ansell, Stephen M.; Sampson, Joshua N.; Morton, Lindsay M.; Linet, Martha S.

    2014-01-01

    Background Lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma/Waldenström’s macroglobulinemia (LPL/WM), a rare non-Hodgkin lymphoma subtype, shows strong familial aggregation and a positive association with chronic immune stimulation, but evidence regarding other risk factors is very limited. Methods The International Lymphoma Epidemiology Consortium (InterLymph) pooled data from 11 predominantly population-based case–control studies from North America, Europe, and Australia to examine medical history, lifestyle, family history, and occupational risk factors for LPL/WM. Age-, sex-, race/ethnicity-, and study-adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using logistic regression for a total of 374 LPL/WM cases and 23 096 controls. Results In multivariate analysis including all putative risk factors, LPL/WM risk was associated with history of Sjögren’s syndrome (OR = 14.0, 95% CI = 3.60 to 54.6), systemic lupus erythematosus (OR = 8.23, 95% CI = 2.69 to 25.2), hay fever (OR = 0.73, 95% CI = 0.54 to 0.99), positive hepatitis C serology (OR = 2.51, 95% CI = 1.03 to 6.17), hematologic malignancy in a first-degree relative (OR = 1.64, 95% CI = 1.02 to 2.64), adult weight (OR = 0.61, 95% CI = 0.44 to 0.85 for highest vs. lowest quartile), duration of cigarette smoking (OR = 1.46, 95% CI = 1.04 to 2.05 for ≥ 40 years vs. nonsmokers), and occupation as a medical doctor (OR = 5.54, 95% CI = 2.19 to 14.0). There was no association with other medical conditions, lifestyle factors, or occupations. Conclusions This pooled analysis confirmed associations with immune conditions and family history of hematologic malignancy, and identified new associations with hay fever, weight, smoking, and occupation, and no association with other lifestyle factors. These findings offer clues to LPL/WM biology and prevention. PMID:25174029

  4. Family Structure and the Timing of Transitions from 70 to 103 Years of Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Colleen L.; Troll, Lillian

    1996-01-01

    Using a cross-sectional analysis of 250 white individuals, 70-103 years of age, this article questions whether a vertical family structure is found with increasing age. Findings indicate, among other things, that at least until age 90 the proportion of individuals with a vertical family structure with four generations never exceeds the numbers of…

  5. Attention problems among children with a positive family history of alcohol abuse or dependence and controls. Prevalence and course for the period from preteen to early teen years.

    PubMed

    Barnow, Sven; Schuckit, Marc; Smith, Tom; Spitzer, Carsten; Freyberger, Harald-J

    2007-01-01

    This longitudinal study investigated the scope and course of attention problems over a period of time from preteen (ages 7-12 years) to early teen years (ages 13-17 years). We compared symptoms in subjects with and without a family history (FH) of alcohol abuse or dependence from among families without evidence of antisocial personality disorder. Evaluations of attention problems for the offspring were based on the Child Behavior Checklist and a validated semistructured interview carried out with the mother. The findings indicate no higher risk for attention problems and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)-like symptoms in the children of families with an alcohol use disorder. Regarding the course of problems, the ADHD symptom count tended to decrease over time, especially for children without a FH of alcohol abuse or dependence. Further research will be needed to determine whether results can be replicated with families from different social strata and including subjects with the antisocial personality disorder.

  6. Mammographic surveillance in women aged 35-39 at enhanced familial risk of breast cancer (FH02).

    PubMed

    Evans, D G; Thomas, S; Caunt, J; Roberts, L; Howell, A; Wilson, M; Fox, R; Sibbering, D M; Moss, S; Wallis, M G; Eccles, D M; Duffy, S

    2014-03-01

    Although there have been encouraging recent studies showing a potential benefit from annual mammography in women aged 40-49 years of age with an elevated breast cancer risk due to family history there is little evidence of efficacy in women aged <40 years of age. A prospective study (FH02) has been developed to assess the efficacy of mammography screening in women aged 35-39 years of age with a lifetime breast cancer risk of ≥ 17 % who are not receiving MRI screening. Retrospective analyses from five centres with robust recall systems identified 47 breast cancers (n = 12 in situ) with an interval cancer rate of 15/47 (32%). Invasive tumour size, lymph node status and current vital status were all significantly better than in two control groups of unscreened women (including those with a family history) recruited to the POSH study. Further evaluation of the prospective arm of FH02 is required to assess the potential added value of digital mammography and the cancer incidence rates in moderate and high risk women in order to inform cost effectiveness analyses.

  7. Genome-wide association study reveals greater polygenic loading for schizophrenia in cases with a family history of illness.

    PubMed

    Bigdeli, Tim B; Ripke, Stephan; Bacanu, Silviu-Alin; Lee, Sang Hong; Wray, Naomi R; Gejman, Pablo V; Rietschel, Marcella; Cichon, Sven; St Clair, David; Corvin, Aiden; Kirov, George; McQuillin, Andrew; Gurling, Hugh; Rujescu, Dan; Andreassen, Ole A; Werge, Thomas; Blackwood, Douglas H R; Pato, Carlos N; Pato, Michele T; Malhotra, Anil K; O'Donovan, Michael C; Kendler, Kenneth S; Fanous, Ayman H

    2016-03-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of schizophrenia have yielded more than 100 common susceptibility variants, and strongly support a substantial polygenic contribution of a large number of small allelic effects. It has been hypothesized that familial schizophrenia is largely a consequence of inherited rather than environmental factors. We investigated the extent to which familiality of schizophrenia is associated with enrichment for common risk variants detectable in a large GWAS. We analyzed single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) data for cases reporting a family history of psychotic illness (N = 978), cases reporting no such family history (N = 4,503), and unscreened controls (N = 8,285) from the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium (PGC1) study of schizophrenia. We used a multinomial logistic regression approach with model-fitting to detect allelic effects specific to either family history subgroup. We also considered a polygenic model, in which we tested whether family history positive subjects carried more schizophrenia risk alleles than family history negative subjects, on average. Several individual SNPs attained suggestive but not genome-wide significant association with either family history subgroup. Comparison of genome-wide polygenic risk scores based on GWAS summary statistics indicated a significant enrichment for SNP effects among family history positive compared to family history negative cases (Nagelkerke's R(2 ) = 0.0021; P = 0.00331; P-value threshold <0.4). Estimates of variability in disease liability attributable to the aggregate effect of genome-wide SNPs were significantly greater for family history positive compared to family history negative cases (0.32 and 0.22, respectively; P = 0.031). We found suggestive evidence of allelic effects detectable in large GWAS of schizophrenia that might be specific to particular family history subgroups. However, consideration of a polygenic risk score indicated a significant

  8. Dissimilar evolutionary histories of two resistance gene families in the genus Solanum.

    PubMed

    Segura, Diana María; Masuelli, Ricardo Williams; Sanchez-Puerta, M Virginia

    2017-01-01

    Genomic analyses have shown that most genes in eukaryotic lineages belong to families. Gene families vary in terms of number of members, nucleotide similarity, gene integrity, expression, and function. Often, the members of gene families are arranged in clusters, which contribute to maintaining similarity among gene copies and also to generate duplicates through replication errors. Gene families offer us an opportunity to examine the forces involved in the evolution of the genomes and to study recombination events and genomic rearrangements. In this work, we focused on the evolution of two plant resistance gene families, Sw5 and Mi-1, and analyzed the completely sequenced nuclear genomes of potato and tomato. We first noticed that the potato genome carries larger resistance gene families than tomato, but all gene copies are pseudogenes. Second, phylogenetic analyses indicated that Sw5 and Mi-1 gene families had dissimilar evolutionary histories. In contrast to Sw5, Mi-1 homologues suffered repeated gene conversion events among the gene copies, particularly in the tomato genome.

  9. Family Sponsorship and Late-Age Immigration in Aging America: Revised and Expanded Estimates of Chained Migration

    PubMed Central

    Carr, Stacie; Tienda, Marta

    2013-01-01

    We use the Immigrants Admitted to the United States (micro-data) supplemented with special tabulations from the Department of Homeland Security to examine how family reunification impacts the age composition of new immigrant cohorts since 1980. We develop a family migration multiplier measure for the period 1981 to 2009 that improves on prior studies by including immigrants granted legal status under the 1986 Immigration Reform and Control Act and relaxing unrealistic assumptions required by synthetic cohort measures. Results show that every 100 initiating immigrants admitted between 1981–85 sponsored an average of 260 family members; the comparable figure for initiating immigrants for the 1996–2000 cohort is 345 family members. Furthermore, the number of family migrants ages 50 and over rose from 44 to 74 per 100 initiating migrants. The discussion considers the health and welfare implications of late-age immigration in a climate of growing fiscal restraint and an aging native population. PMID:24415816

  10. Family Sponsorship and Late-Age Immigration in Aging America: Revised and Expanded Estimates of Chained Migration.

    PubMed

    Carr, Stacie; Tienda, Marta

    2013-12-01

    We use the Immigrants Admitted to the United States (micro-data) supplemented with special tabulations from the Department of Homeland Security to examine how family reunification impacts the age composition of new immigrant cohorts since 1980. We develop a family migration multiplier measure for the period 1981 to 2009 that improves on prior studies by including immigrants granted legal status under the 1986 Immigration Reform and Control Act and relaxing unrealistic assumptions required by synthetic cohort measures. Results show that every 100 initiating immigrants admitted between 1981-85 sponsored an average of 260 family members; the comparable figure for initiating immigrants for the 1996-2000 cohort is 345 family members. Furthermore, the number of family migrants ages 50 and over rose from 44 to 74 per 100 initiating migrants. The discussion considers the health and welfare implications of late-age immigration in a climate of growing fiscal restraint and an aging native population.

  11. New technologies applied to family history: a particular case of southern Europe in the eighteenth century.

    PubMed

    García, Manuel Pérez

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author explains how the support of new technologies has helped historians to develop their research over the last few decades. The author, therefore, summarizes the application of both database and genealogical programs for the southern Europe family studies as a methodological tool. First, the author will establish the importance of the creation of databases using the File Maker program, after which they will explain the value of using genealogical programs such as Genopro and Heredis. The main aim of this article is to give detail about the use of these new technologies as applied to a particular study of southern Europe, specifically the Crown of Castile, during the late modern period. The use of these computer programs has helped to develop the field of social sciences and family history, in particular, social history, during the last decade.

  12. Prevalence and Correlates of Vitamin and Supplement Usage among Men with a Family History of Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Bauer, Christina M.; Ishak, Miriam B.; Johnson, Emilie K.; Beebe-Dimmer, Jennifer L.; Cooney, Kathleen A.

    2011-01-01

    Hypotheses Men who have a brother with prostate cancer have a two-fold increased risk of being diagnosed with prostate cancer. Strategies employed by these men to reduce prostate cancer risk are not well understood. Preliminary studies have shown that men with a family history of prostate cancer have a high rate of vitamin and supplement usage aimed at the prevention of prostate cancer. Study Design We analyzed data from a cross-sectional study of men with familial and hereditary prostate cancer and their unaffected brothers. We interviewed 542 unaffected men who had at least one brother who had been diagnosed with prostate cancer regarding their use of vitamins and supplements, as well as the motivation for use. Methods The associations between subject characteristics and vitamin and supplement use were evaluated using an unconditional logistic regression modeling approach. Results Overall, 59.2 and 36.5 percent of men reported ever using and currently using, respectively, one or more vitamins or supplements (including multivitamins). One-third of men took a vitamin or supplement that has been targeted for prostate health or cancer prevention, including green tea, magnesium, male hormones, saw palmetto, selenium, soy, vitamins A, C, E and zinc. Increasing age at time of survey was associated with vitamin/supplement use (OR=1.03; 95% CI=1.01–1.0). After adjusting for age at time of survey, being younger than an affected brother was associated with vitamin and supplement use (OR=1.51; 95% CI=1.01–2.25). 25% of men reported obtaining information from books or articles as the most common source of information. Conclusions Our findings indicate that men at an increased risk for prostate cancer report a high rate of vitamin and supplement use, including supplements targeted for prostate cancer prevention. Men with a family history of prostate cancer represent a target population for future chemopreventative agents. PMID:21821653

  13. Lifestyle, family history, and risk of idiopathic Parkinson disease: a large Danish case-control study.

    PubMed

    Kenborg, Line; Lassen, Christina F; Ritz, Beate; Andersen, Klaus K; Christensen, Jane; Schernhammer, Eva S; Hansen, Johnni; Wermuth, Lene; Rod, Naja H; Olsen, Jørgen H

    2015-05-15

    The relationship between Parkinson disease (PD) and smoking has been examined in several studies, but little is known about smoking in conjunction with other behaviors and a family history of PD. Using unconditional logistic regression analysis, we studied individual and joint associations of these factors with idiopathic PD among 1,808 Danish patients who were diagnosed in 1996-2009 and matched to 1,876 randomly selected population controls. Although there was a downward trend in duration of smoking, this was not observed for daily tobacco consumption. A moderate intake of caffeine (3.1-5 cups/day) was associated with a lower odds ratio for PD (0.45, 95% confidence interval: 0.34, 0.62), as was a moderate intake of alcohol (3.1-7 units/week) (odds ratio = 0.60, 95% confidence interval: 0.58, 0.84); a higher daily intake did not reduce the odds further. When these behaviors were studied in combination with smoking, the odds ratios were lower than those for each one alone. Compared with never smokers with no family history of PD, never smokers who did have a family history had an odds ratio of 2.81 (95% confidence interval: 1.91, 4.13); for smokers with a family history, the odds ratio was 1.60 (95% confidence interval: 1.15, 2.23). In conclusion, duration of smoking seems to be more important than intensity in the relationship between smoking and idiopathic PD. The finding of lower risk estimates for smoking in combination with caffeine or alcohol requires further confirmation.

  14. A history of the future: the emergence of contemporary anti-ageing medicine.

    PubMed

    Everts Mykytyn, Courtney

    2010-02-01

    The emergence of anti-ageing medicine over the past 20 years has posed tremendous challenges for the understanding of ageing and the concomitant responsibilities of biomedicine. Though highly contentious and loosely organised at best, anti-ageing targets ageing for biomedical intervention. This article examines a history of anti-ageing in the United States from 1993 to 2008, outlining its evolution from a scientific 'backwater' to a field with such promise that many within and outside the field believe efficacious therapies are an inevitability. In large part, the language of anti-ageing has shifted from predictions to expectations; it has become less a question of 'if' and more a question of 'when' and 'how' this rhetorical shift is directly linked with increasing legitimacy constructed upon a complex web of factors including mounting practitioner involvement, research interest, media attention, and popular desire. In this article I briefly review this history alongside the strategic histories marshalled by the various proponents and opponents to support their claims of legitimacy. The history of anti-ageing medicine is one of an emerging scientific and clinical practice as well as a history of an idea that has very recently made its way out of science fiction and into science future.

  15. From the Axial Age to the New Age: Religion as a Dynamic of World History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tucker, Carlton H.

    In order to broaden student understanding of past and contemporary situations, the world history survey course needs to consider religion as a vehicle through which history moves. The course proposal includes prehistory and paleolithic times to contemporary Islamic culture. The course is thematic and comparative in orientation, but moves through…

  16. Isotopes, ice ages, and terminal Proterozoic earth history.

    PubMed

    Kaufman, A J; Knoll, A H; Narbonne, G M

    1997-06-24

    Detailed correlations of ancient glacial deposits, based on temporal records of carbon and strontium isotopes in seawater, indicate four (and perhaps five) discrete ice ages in the terminal Proterozoic Eon. The close and repeated stratigraphic relationship between C-isotopic excursions and glaciogenic rocks suggests that unusually high rates of organic carbon burial facilitated glaciation by reducing atmospheric greenhouse capacity. The emerging framework of time and environmental change contributes to the improved resolution of stratigraphic and evolutionary pattern in the early fossil record of animals.

  17. History of a Bronze Age tell and its environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovács, Gabriella; Füleky, György; Vicze, Magdolna

    2016-04-01

    Százhalombatta-Földvár is the most excessively researched Bronze Age tell site in Hungary. Parallel to the investigation of the settlement structure and activity patterns the changes of the landscape and the effect of human alteration is also studied. Significant changes of the landscape can be detected from the Bronze Age until the recent natural and cultural heritage protection of the area. Archaeological, soil analytical and thin section soil micromorphological methods are used to reconstruct the past 4000 years of the tell and its immediate surroundings. Prior to the Bronze Age the area was covered by forest vegetation, so the initial settling could only be realised after deforestation (2000 BC). The result of the soil corings and the prepared soil thin sections are solid proves of this action. It also became evident that at some areas - so far it seems that at locales where house floors were laid for the very first time - even the topsoil was removed so intensively that only the B horizon of the relict forest soil can be found. This observation needs to be further tested outside the habitation area to define the horizontal extension of the forest clearance and the topsoil removal. The northern side of the settlement is bordered by a natural erosion gully. At 2000 BC it was just a natural depression, but by 1500 BC it was deepened to serve as a fortification ditch. Around 1200 BC the ditch started to be filled in and by 1000 BC it was refilled to such an extent that its surface was utilised again. At about 600 BC (Late Iron Age) a smaller inner rampart was erected on the southern side of the ditch for inner separation. Not much is known about the Roman period of this area (200 AD) but the remnants of a watchtower indicate their presence. During the 18th century AD the area was used for grape cultivation and later for hobby gardens up until the protection of the area in the late 20th century. Since then species of the original vegetation started to grow back

  18. The SU(11) family unified model and the thermal history of the very early universe.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jizong, Lu; Li, Xinzhou; Zhang, Guangyen

    1991-12-01

    Ellis and Steigman have shown that in the SU(5) grand unified theory (GUT) the thermal history of the very early universe is trivial, i.e. in thermal equilibrium. Ogino pointed out that if torsion particles were introduced in the SU(5) GUT, the thermal history of the very early universe would become complex. One of more realistic grand unified models is the SU(11) family unified model suggested by Georgi. In this paper, the authors discuss the thermal history of the very early universe in the frame of Georgi's SU(11) model. Because a lot of superheavy fermions will appear in the SU(11) model, Ogino's results must be modified. These quantitative modifications have been calculated.

  19. Learning from history: the legacy of Title VII in academic family medicine.

    PubMed

    Newton, Warren; Arndt, Jane E

    2008-11-01

    The current renaissance of interest in primary care could benefit from reviewing the history of federal investment in academic family medicine. The authors review 30 years of experience with the Title VII, Section 747 Training in Primary Care Medicine and Dentistry (Title VII) grant program, addressing three questions: (1) What Title VII grant programs were available to family medicine, and what were their goals? (2) How did Title VII change the discipline? and (3) What impact did Title VII family medicine programs have outside the discipline?Title VII grant programs evolved from broad support for the new discipline of family medicine to a sharper focus on specific national workforce objectives such as improving care for underserved and vulnerable populations and increasing diversity in the health professions. Grant programs were instrumental in establishing family medicine in nearly all medical schools and in supporting the educational underpinnings of the field. Title VII grants helped enhance the social capital of the discipline. Outside family medicine, Title VII fostered the development of innovative ambulatory education, institutional initiatives focusing on underserved and vulnerable populations, and primary care research capacity. Adverse effects include relative inattention to clinical and research missions in family medicine academic units and, institutionally, the development of medical education initiatives without core institutional support, which has put innovation and extension of education to communities at risk as grant funding has decreased. Reinvestment in academic family medicine can yield substantial benefits for family medicine and help reorient academic health centers. This article is part of a theme issue of Academic Medicine on the Title VII health professions training programs.

  20. History of Animals using Isotope Records (HAIR): A 6-year dietary history of one family of African elephants

    PubMed Central

    Cerling, Thure E.; Wittemyer, George; Ehleringer, James R.; Remien, Christopher H.; Douglas-Hamilton, Iain

    2009-01-01

    The dietary and movement history of individual animals can be studied using stable isotope records in animal tissues, providing insight into long-term ecological dynamics and a species niche. We provide a 6-year history of elephant diet by examining tail hair collected from 4 elephants in the same social family unit in northern Kenya. Sequential measurements of carbon, nitrogen, and hydrogen isotope rations in hair provide a weekly record of diet and water resources. Carbon isotope ratios were well correlated with satellite-based measurements of the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) of the region occupied by the elephants as recorded by the global positioning system (GPS) movement record; the absolute amount of C4 grass consumption is well correlated with the maximum value of NDVI during individual wet seasons. Changes in hydrogen isotope ratios coincided very closely in time with seasonal fluctuations in rainfall and NDVI whereas diet shifts to relatively high proportions of grass lagged seasonal increases in NDVI by ≈2 weeks. The peak probability of conception in the population occurred ≈3 weeks after peak grazing. Spatial and temporal patterns of resource use show that the only period of pure browsing by the focal elephants was located in an over-grazed, communally managed region outside the protected area. The ability to extract time-specific longitudinal records on animal diets, and therefore the ecological history of an organism and its environment, provides an avenue for understanding the impact of climate dynamics and land-use change on animal foraging behavior and habitat relations. PMID:19365077

  1. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis in a patient with a family history of huntington disease: genetic counseling challenges.

    PubMed

    Smith, Andrea L; Teener, James W; Callaghan, Brian C; Harrington, Jack; Uhlmann, Wendy R

    2014-10-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and Huntington disease (HD) are generally considered to be distinct and easily differentiated neurologic conditions. However, there are case reports of the co-occurrence of ALS with HD. We present a 57-year-old male with a clinical diagnosis of sporadic ALS in the context of a family history of HD. This case adds to the limited literature regarding individuals with a family history of HD who present with features of ALS. There were several genetic counseling challenges in counseling this patient including the diagnostic consideration of two fatal conditions, complex risk information, the personal and familial implications, and the patient's inability to communicate verbally or through writing due to disease progression. DNA banking effectively preserved the right of our patient and his wife not to learn his HD genetic status during a stressful time of disease progression while providing the option for family members to learn this information in the future if desired. We present lessons learned and considerations for other clinical genetics professionals who are presented with similar challenging issues.

  2. Baking, ageing, diabetes: a short history of the Maillard reaction.

    PubMed

    Hellwig, Michael; Henle, Thomas

    2014-09-22

    The reaction of reducing carbohydrates with amino compounds described in 1912 by Louis-Camille Maillard is responsible for the aroma, taste, and appearance of thermally processed food. The discovery that non-enzymatic conversions also occur in organisms led to intensive investigation of the pathophysiological significance of the Maillard reaction in diabetes and ageing processes. Dietary Maillard products are discussed as "glycotoxins" and thus as a nutritional risk, but also increasingly with regard to positive effects in the human body. In this Review we give an overview of the most important discoveries in Maillard research since it was first described and show that the complex reaction, even after over one hundred years, has lost none of its interdisciplinary actuality.

  3. Investigating uncertainty and emotions in conversations about family health history: a test of the theory of motivated information management.

    PubMed

    Rauscher, Emily A; Hesse, Colin

    2014-01-01

    Although the importance of being knowledgeable of one's family health history is widely known, very little research has investigated how families communicate about this important topic. This study investigated how young adults seek information from parents about family health history. The authors used the Theory of Motivated Information Management as a framework to understand the process of uncertainty discrepancy and emotion in seeking information about family health history. Results of this study show the Theory of Motivated Information Management to be a good model to explain the process young adults go through in deciding to seek information from parents about family health history. Results also show that emotions other than anxiety can be used with success in the Theory of Motivated Information Management framework.

  4. Sexually active adolescent women: assessing family and peer relationships using event history calendars.

    PubMed

    Saftner, Melissa Ann; Martyn, Kristy Kiel; Lori, Jody Rae

    2011-06-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study is to explore family and peer relationships (including support and influence on risk behavior) among sexually active European American and African American adolescent girls in the context of risk behaviors documented on retrospective event history calendars (EHCs) and in interviews. The EHCs were completed by the adolescents prior to a clinic visit with a nurse practitioner at a school-based clinic in Southeast Michigan, and interviews were conducted after the visit. Constant comparative analysis of EHCs and interview data of 19 sexually active 15 to 19-year-old girls revealed that those with positive familial and peer support were less likely to report risk behaviors compared to those with poor family and peer relationships. School nurses and other providers working with adolescents to prevent risk behaviors could utilize the EHC to determine risks and develop education plans and interventions to reduce risk behaviors.

  5. Infant feeding patterns in families with a diabetes history – observations from The Environmental Determinants of Diabetes in the Young (TEDDY) birth cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Hummel, Sandra; Vehik, Kendra; Uusitalo, Ulla; McLeod, Wendy; Aronsson, Carin Andrén; Frank, Nicole; Gesualdo, Patricia; Yang, Jimin; Norris, Jill M; Virtanen, Suvi M

    2014-01-01

    Objective To assess the association between diabetes family history and infant feeding patterns. Design Data on breast-feeding duration and age at first introduction of cow’s milk and gluten-containing cereals were collected in 3-month intervals during the first 24 months of life. Setting Data from the multicentre TEDDY (The Environmental Determinants of Diabetes in the Young) study, including centres in the USA, Sweden, Finland and Germany. Subjects A total of 7026 children, including children with a mother with type 1 diabetes (T1D; n 292), gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM; n 404) or without diabetes but with a father and/or sibling with T1D (n 464) and children without diabetes family history (n 5866). Results While exclusive breast-feeding ended earlier and cow’s milk was introduced earlier in offspring of mothers with T1D and GDM, offspring of non-diabetic mothers but a father and/or sibling with T1D were exclusively breast-fed longer and introduced to cow’s milk later compared with infants without diabetes family history. The association between maternal diabetes and shorter exclusive breast-feeding duration was attenuated after adjusting for clinical variables (delivery mode, gestational age, Apgar score and birth weight). Country-specific analyses revealed differences in these associations, with Sweden showing the strongest and Finland showing no association between maternal diabetes and breast-feeding duration. Conclusions Family history of diabetes is associated with infant feeding patterns; however, the associations clearly differ by country, indicating that cultural differences are important determinants of infant feeding behaviour. These findings need to be considered when developing strategies to improve feeding patterns in infants with a diabetes family history. PMID:24477208

  6. Temperament and IQ mediate the effects of family history of substance abuse and family dysfunction on academic achievement.

    PubMed

    Blackson, T C

    1995-01-01

    In this study of sons of substance-abusing (n = 57) and normal (n = 71) fathers, it was hypothesized that sons' positive affective temperament (PAT) and intellectual ability (FSIQ) would mediate the effects of paternal substance abuse and family dysfunction on sons' reading achievement scores. Hierarchical, linear, and path analytic regression analyses were computed to test the hypotheses. It was found that (1) sons' FSIQ and PAT each partially mediated the effects of paternal substance abuse on sons' reading achievement scores and (2) that sons' PAT mediated the relationship between family dysfunction and their reading achievement scores. Because reading achievement is pivotal to academic success and school failure is associated with early age substance use, the importance of identifying processes that promote academic success is discussed.

  7. Effects of psychiatric history on cognitive performance in old-age depression

    PubMed Central

    Pantzar, Alexandra; Atti, Anna Rita; Bäckman, Lars; Laukka, Erika J.

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive deficits in old-age depression vary as a function of multiple factors; one rarely examined factor is long-term psychiatric history. We investigated effects of psychiatric history on cognitive performance in old-age depression and in remitted persons. In the population-based Swedish National Study on Aging and Care in Kungsholmen study, older persons (≥60 years) without dementia were tested with a cognitive battery and matched to the Swedish National Inpatient Register (starting 1969). Participants were grouped according to current depression status and psychiatric history and compared to healthy controls (n = 96). Group differences were observed for processing speed, attention, executive functions, and verbal fluency. Persons with depression and psychiatric inpatient history (n = 20) and late-onset depression (n = 49) performed at the lowest levels, whereas cognitive performance in persons with self-reported recurrent unipolar depression (n = 52) was intermediate. Remitted persons with inpatient history of unipolar depression (n = 38) exhibited no cognitive deficits. Heart disease burden, physical inactivity, and cumulative inpatient days modulated the observed group differences in cognitive performance. Among currently depressed persons, those with inpatient history, and late onset performed at the lowest levels. Importantly, remitted persons showed no cognitive deficits, possibly reflecting the extended time since the last admission (m = 15.6 years). Thus, the present data suggest that cognitive deficits in unipolar depression may be more state- than trait-related. Information on profiles of cognitive performance, psychiatric history, and health behaviors may be useful in tailoring individualized treatment. PMID:26175699

  8. Impact of family history of alcoholism on glutamine/glutamate ratio in anterior cingulate cortex in substance-naïve adolescents.

    PubMed

    Cohen-Gilbert, Julia E; Sneider, Jennifer T; Crowley, David J; Rosso, Isabelle M; Jensen, J Eric; Silveri, Marisa M

    2015-12-01

    Neuroimaging studies of individuals with family histories of alcoholism provide evidence suggesting neurobiological risk factors for alcoholism. Youth family history positive (FH+) for alcoholism exhibit increased impulsivity compared to family history negative (FH-) peers in conjunction with altered functional activation in prefrontal cortex, including anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). This study examined glutamate (Glu) and glutamine (Gln), amino acids vital to protein synthesis, cellular metabolism and neurotransmission, acquired from ACC and parieto-occipital cortex (POC) using magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) at 4T. Participants were 28 adolescents (13 male, 12-14 yrs) and 31 emerging adults (16 male, 18-25 yrs), stratified into FH- and FH+ groups. Significantly higher ACC Gln/Glu was observed in emerging adults versus adolescents in FH- but not FH+ groups. In FH- adolescents, higher impulsivity was significantly associated with higher ACC Gln/Glu. In FH+ emerging adults, higher impulsivity was negatively associated with ACC Gln/Glu. No differences or associations were observed for POC. These findings provide preliminary evidence that family history of alcoholism is associated with a neurochemical profile that may influence normative age differences in glutamatergic metabolites and their association with impulse control, which together could confer greater genetic risk of addiction later in life.

  9. New standards and enhanced utility for family health history information in the electronic health record: an update from the American Health Information Community's Family Health History Multi-Stakeholder Workgroup.

    PubMed

    Feero, W Gregory; Bigley, Mary Beth; Brinner, Kristin M

    2008-01-01

    Family health history is a complex, multifaceted tool for assessing disease risk that can offer insight into the interplay between inherited and social factors relevant to patient care. Family health history tools in electronic health records can enable the user to collect, represent, and interpret structured data that properly supports clinical decisions. If these data can be made interoperable, important health information can be shared with minimal duplication of effort among entities involved in the continuum of patient care. This paper reviews the efforts by the American Health Information Community's Family Health History Multi-Stakeholder Workgroup to create a core data set for family health history information and to determine requirements to promote incorporation of such information in electronic health records. The Workgroup is a component of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services' Personalized Health Care Initiative.

  10. Menarcheal age and subsequent patterns of family formation.

    PubMed

    Riley, A P; Weinstein, M; Ridley, J C; Mormino, J; Gorrindo, T

    2001-01-01

    We examine whether age at menarche affects age at first marriage or first birth using two samples of U.S. women. Data are drawn from the Tremin Trust, a longitudinal study of menstrual cycles that recruited white women who were students at the University of Minnesota and from a survey of a nationally representative sample of white women born between 1900 and 1910. Regression models with cubic splines were used to analyze the relationship between age at menarche and age at first marriage. Cox proportional hazard models were used to examine the effect of age at menarche on the interval between marriage and first birth. Unlike earlier work, we found that once secular trends in both age at marriage and age at menarche were taken into account, there was no evidence that age at menarche affects either age at marriage or the timing of first births in these U.S. women.

  11. Attachment Stability in Children Aged 6 to 9 Years in Extended and Nuclear Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seven, Serdal; Ogelman, Hulya Gulay

    2012-01-01

    Research Findings: The main aim of this study was to identify whether the attachment security of children living in nuclear and extended families is stable from ages 6 to 9 years in a sample of Turkish children. In total, 54 children participated in the study, of whom 27 lived in nuclear families and the other 27 lived in extended families in Mus…

  12. Early Family System Types Predict Children's Emotional Attention Biases at School Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindblom, Jallu; Peltola, Mikko J.; Vänskä, Mervi; Hietanen, Jari K.; Laakso, Anu; Tiitinen, Aila; Tulppala, Maija; Punamäki, Raija-Leena

    2017-01-01

    The family environment shapes children's social information processing and emotion regulation. Yet, the long-term effects of early family systems have rarely been studied. This study investigated how family system types predict children's attentional biases toward facial expressions at the age of 10 years. The participants were 79 children from…

  13. Notes on the Age of Maternity, Population Growth and Family Structure in the Past

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mendels, Franklin F.

    1978-01-01

    Emphasizes that the age of marriage was effective in determining the birth rate and the rate of population growth; measures the magnitude of the effects of the age of marriage; and offers some observations on the relationships between age of marriage, age of male and female fertility, and family structure. (Author)

  14. Birth history, age structure, and post World War II fertility in ten developed countries: an exploratory empirical analysis.

    PubMed

    Artzrouni, M A; Easterlin, R A

    1982-01-01

    A post World War 2 swing in fertility occurred in many industrialized countries. Research focusing chiefly on the US has suggested that a country's prior birth history has, through its effects on age structure, been an important cause of this fertility swing. The reasoning is that the pre-World War 2 depression in fertility and post World War 2 baby boom produced after 1945 1st a scarcity and then an abundance of those in family-forming ages relative to older adults. The relative scarcity of young adults, in turn, created favorable economic and psychological conditions among those in child bearing ages and promoted marriage and child bearing; the relative abundance had the opposite effect. This paper examines the relation between birth history and fertility from 1951-76 in England, Wales, France, Netherlands, Sweden, Finland, Denmark, Switzerland, Spain, Italy, and the US and explores the implications of the analysis for experience in the remainder of this century. The analysis builds on the well-known proposition that age structure is primarily determined by a country's birth history. Birth data can be thought of as yielding an imputed age ratio, that which would prevail in the absence of mortality and migration. Analysis of data indicates that the pattern of change in the imputed ratio usually approximates fairly closely that in the actual ratio. A ratio of old to young can be thought of as consisting of an upper age limit, lower age limit, and an intermediate age that divides the population into young and old. With all 3 of these ages free to vary, a computer program then determines within certain constraints which of all possible imputed ratios of old to young has the highest (positive or negative) correlation with the total fertility rate from 1951-76. In all countries except Italy the results support the hypothesis that a scarcity of adults in the younger adult ages relative to those in older ages leads to a relatively high total fertility rate; a relative

  15. The frequency of aneuploidy in cultured lymphocytes is correlated with age and gender but not with reproductive history.

    PubMed Central

    Nowinski, G P; Van Dyke, D L; Tilley, B C; Jacobsen, G; Babu, V R; Worsham, M J; Wilson, G N; Weiss, L

    1990-01-01

    The clinical significance of low numbers of aneuploid cells in routine cytogenetic studies of cultured lymphocytes is not always clear. We compared the frequencies of chromosome loss and gain among five groups of subjects whose karyotypes were otherwise normal; these groups were (1) subjects studied because of multiple miscarriages, (2) parents of live borns with autosomal trisomy, (3) subjects studied because they had a relative with Down syndrome, (4) an age-matched control group of phenotypically normal adults studied for other reasons (e.g., parent of a dysmorphic child or member of a translocation family), and (5) other mostly younger and phenotypically abnormal subjects who could not be assigned to the first four groups (e.g., individuals with multiple congenital anomalies or mental retardation). No significant age, sex, or group effects were observed for autosomal loss (hypodiploidy) or gain (hyperdiploidy). Autosomal loss was inversely correlated with relative chromosome length, but autosomal gain was not. Sex-chromosome gain was significantly more frequent in females than in males, but sex-chromosome loss was not significantly different between the sexes. Significant age effects were observed for both gain and loss of sex chromosomes. When age and sex were accounted for, the frequencies of sex-chromosome loss and gain were not significantly different among the five clinical groups. In general, low numbers of aneuploid cells are not clinically important when observed in blood chromosome preparations of subjects studied because of multiple miscarriages or a family history of autosomal trisomy. PMID:2339703

  16. Chinese Americans’ Views and Use of Family Health History: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Lei-Shih; Li, Ming; Talwar, Divya; Xu, Lei; Zhao, Mei

    2016-01-01

    Objective Family health history (FHH) plays a significant role in early disease detection and prevention. Although Asian Americans are the fastest growing U.S. immigrant group, no data exists regarding Chinese Americans’ (the largest Asian subgroup) views and use of FHH. This study examines this important issue. Methods Forty-nine adults from southern U.S. Chinese American communities participated in this qualitative, semi-structured, in-depth interview study. Interviews were audio recorded, transcribed, and analyzed with a content analysis approach. Results Although the majority of participants perceived the importance of collecting FHH, most lacked FHH knowledge and failed to collect FHH information. Barriers affecting FHH collection and discussion among family members included long-distance separation from family members, self-defined “healthy family,” and Chinese cultural beliefs. Lack of doctors’ inquiries, never/rarely visiting physicians, self-defined “healthy family,” perceived insignificance of discussing FHH with doctors, and Chinese cultural beliefs were the obstacles in communicating FHH with physicians. Conclusions Chinese Americans had limited usage of their FHH and faced cultural, distance, knowledge-, and healthcare system-related barriers that influenced their FHH use. Developing FHH education programs for Chinese Americans is highly recommended. PMID:27649411

  17. Accommodation and resistance to the dominant cultural discourse on psychiatric mental health: oral history accounts of family members.

    PubMed

    Boschma, Geertje

    2007-12-01

    Oral history makes a critical contribution in articulating the perspectives of people often overlooked in histories written from the standpoint of dominating class, gender, ethnic or professional groups. Using three interrelated approaches - life stories, oral history, and narrative analysis - this paper analyzes family responses to psychiatric care and mental illness in oral history interviews with family members who experienced mental illness themselves or within their family between 1930 and 1975. Interviews with three family members in Alberta, Canada are the primary focus. These stories provide an important avenue to understand the meaning and transformations of mental health-care from the point of view of families. Family members' stories reveal contradictory responses to the dominant cultural discourse. Using a performative framework of interpretation, the narratives reveal a complex interplay between medical, social and cultural conceptions of mental illness, deepening our understanding of its meaning. The history of mental health-care can be substantially enriched by the analysis of family members' stories, not only revealing the constructed nature of mental illness, but also illustrating the family as a mediating context in which the meaning of mental illness is negotiated.

  18. The baboon model (Papio hamadryas) of fetal loss: Maternal weight, age, reproductive history and pregnancy outcome

    PubMed Central

    Schlabritz-Loutsevitch, Natalia; Moore, Charleen M.; Lopez-Alvarenga, Juan Carlos; Dunn, Betty G.; Dudley, Donald; Hubbard, Gene B.

    2010-01-01

    Background Several risk factors are associated with the incidence of human stillbirths. The prevention of stillbirths in women is a pressing clinical problem. Methods We reviewed 402 pathology records of fetal loss occurring in a large baboon (Papio spp.) colony during a 15-year period. Clinical histories of 565 female baboons with one or more fetal losses during a 20-year period were analyzed for weight, age, and reproductive history. Results Fetal loss was most common at term (35.57%) and preterm (28.61%) and less common in the first half of gestation (11.20%) and post-term (5.22%). Greater maternal weight, older age, history of stillbirth and higher parity were independent predictors for stillbirth. An exponential increase in the incidence of fetal loss was observed beginning at age 14 years in baboons. Conclusion Fetal loss and maternal risk factors associated with stillbirths in baboons were similar to those documented in women. PMID:19017195

  19. Genetic counseling for women with an intermediate family history of breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Burke, W; Culver, J O; Bowen, D; Lowry, D; Durfy, S; McTiernan, A; Andersen, M R

    2000-02-28

    Women with a family history of breast cancer often over-estimate their personal risk for cancer and may view themselves as candidates for genetic testing even when the likelihood of an informative test result is low. We report here on genetic counseling of women with an intermediate family history of breast cancer, defined as women who have one or more biological relatives with breast cancer but whose pedigree suggests a low likelihood of autosomal dominant transmission. A genetic counseling protocol based on traditional genetic counseling strategies was developed with additional components added to address the needs of women with moderately increased breast cancer risk. These additional components included information about non-genetic risk factors, comparisons of high and moderate risk pedigrees, and evaluation of personal risk based on both genetic and nongenetic risk factors. Most participants liked the genetic counseling and found it useful. At baseline, participants over-estimated both their personal risk of breast cancer and that of the average woman. After counseling, estimates of personal and average risk of breast cancer were lower, although both remained higher than actual risk. Most participants reported that they felt less worried about breast cancer after receiving their personal-risk estimate. At baseline, most women judged themselves to be candidates for genetic testing and expressed interest in testing. The number who considered themselves candidates for testing was reduced after counseling (60% versus 82%) but still constituted a majority. Similarly, interest in testing was partially reduced by counseling (60% versus 91%). We conclude that genetic counseling can help women with an intermediate family history of breast cancer to develop more accurate views of their risk, reduce their breast cancer worry, and aid some of them in developing a more realistic view of genetic testing.

  20. Profiling Fast Healthcare Interoperability Resources (FHIR) of Family Health History based on the Clinical Element Models

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jaehoon; Hulse, Nathan C.; Wood, Grant M.; Oniki, Thomas A.; Huff, Stanley M.

    2016-01-01

    In this study we developed a Fast Healthcare Interoperability Resources (FHIR) profile to support exchanging a full pedigree based family health history (FHH) information across multiple systems and applications used by clinicians, patients, and researchers. We used previously developed clinical element models (CEMs) that are capable of representing the FHH information, and derived essential data elements including attributes, constraints, and value sets. We analyzed gaps between the FHH CEM elements and existing FHIR resources. Based on the analysis, we developed a profile that consists of 1) FHIR resources for essential FHH data elements, 2) extensions for additional elements that were not covered by the resources, and 3) a structured definition to integrate patient and family member information in a FHIR message. We implemented the profile using an open-source based FHIR framework and validated it using patient-entered FHH data that was captured through a locally developed FHH tool. PMID:28269871

  1. Profiling Fast Healthcare Interoperability Resources (FHIR) of Family Health History based on the Clinical Element Models.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jaehoon; Hulse, Nathan C; Wood, Grant M; Oniki, Thomas A; Huff, Stanley M

    2016-01-01

    In this study we developed a Fast Healthcare Interoperability Resources (FHIR) profile to support exchanging a full pedigree based family health history (FHH) information across multiple systems and applications used by clinicians, patients, and researchers. We used previously developed clinical element models (CEMs) that are capable of representing the FHH information, and derived essential data elements including attributes, constraints, and value sets. We analyzed gaps between the FHH CEM elements and existing FHIR resources. Based on the analysis, we developed a profile that consists of 1) FHIR resources for essential FHH data elements, 2) extensions for additional elements that were not covered by the resources, and 3) a structured definition to integrate patient and family member information in a FHIR message. We implemented the profile using an open-source based FHIR framework and validated it using patient-entered FHH data that was captured through a locally developed FHH tool.

  2. The phylogeny and evolutionary history of the Lesion Simulating Disease (LSD) gene family in Viridiplantae.

    PubMed

    Cabreira, Caroline; Cagliari, Alexandro; Bücker-Neto, Lauro; Margis-Pinheiro, Márcia; de Freitas, Loreta B; Bodanese-Zanettini, Maria Helena

    2015-12-01

    The Lesion Simulating Disease (LSD) genes encode a family of zinc finger proteins that play a role in programmed cell death (PCD) and other biological processes, such as plant growth and photosynthesis. In the present study, we report the reconstruction of the evolutionary history of the LSD gene family in Viridiplantae. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the monocot and eudicot genes were distributed along the phylogeny, indicating that the expansion of the family occurred prior to the diversification between these clades. Sequences encoding proteins that present one, two, or three LSD domains formed separate groups. The secondary structure of these different LSD proteins presented a similar composition, with the β-sheets being their main component. The evolution by gene duplication was identified only to the genes that contain three LSD domains, which generated proteins with equal structure. Moreover, genes encoding proteins with one or two LSD domains evolved as single-copy genes and did not result from loss or gain in LSD domains. These results were corroborated by synteny analysis among regions containing paralogous/orthologous genes in Glycine max and Populus trichocarpa. The Ka/Ks ratio between paralogous/orthologous genes revealed that a subfunctionalization process possibly could be occurring with the LSD genes, explaining the involvement of LSD members in different biological processes, in addition to the negative regulation of PCD. This study presents important novelty in the evolutionary history of the LSD family and provides a basis for future research on individual LSD genes and their involvement in important pathway networks in plants.

  3. Cosmic Ray Exposure Ages, Ar-Ar Ages, and the Origin and History of Eucrites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wakefield, Kelli; Bogard, Donald; Garrison, Daniel

    2004-01-01

    HED meteorites likely formed at different depths on the large asteroid 4-Vesta, but passed through Vesta-derived, km-sized intermediary bodies (Vestoids), before arriving at Earth. Most eucrites and diogenites (and all howardites) are brecciated, and impact heating disturbed or reset the K-Ar ages (and some Rb-Sr ages) of most eucrites in the time period of approx. 3.4 - 4.1 Gyr ago. Some basaltic eucrites and most cumulate eucrites, however, are not brecciated. We recently showed that the Ar-39 - Ar-40 ages for several of these eucrites tightly cluster about a value of 4.48 +/- 0.02 Gyr, and we argue that this time likely represents a single large impact event on Vesta, which ejected these objects from depth and quenched their temperatures. A different parent body has been suggested for cumulate eucrites, although the Ar-Ar ages argue for a common parent. Similarities in the cosmic-ray (space) exposure ages for basaltic eucrites and diogenites also have been used to infer a common parent body for some HEDs. Here we present CRE ages of several cumulate and unbrecciated basaltic (UB) eucrites and compare these with CRE ages of other HEDs. This comparison also has some interesting implications for the relative locations of various HED types on Vesta and/or the Vestoids.

  4. Associations between maternal older age, family environment and parent and child wellbeing in families using assisted reproductive techniques to conceive.

    PubMed

    Boivin, J; Rice, Frances; Hay, Dale; Harold, Gordon; Lewis, Allyson; van den Bree, Marianne M B; Thapar, Anita

    2009-06-01

    Maternal age effects on parenting and family outcomes are of increasing interest because of the demographic shift toward older maternal age at first birth. Maternal age is also of interest because of the greater use of assisted reproductive techniques (ART) to bypass age-related infertility in couples trying to conceive late in the reproductive life cycle of the woman. The aim of the present study was to investigate maternal age effects associated with delayed parenting by comparing families of mothers who gave birth at a younger (<31 years) or older (>38 years) age and to ascertain whether associations were linear associations by comparing these groups to women who had conceived in between these ages (i.e., >31 and <38 years). All children (4-11 year olds) were first-born and conceived using ART. Participants were recruited from one of 20 fertility clinics and mothers (n=642) and fathers (n=439) completed a postal questionnaire about demographic and reproductive characteristics, family environment as well as parent and child wellbeing. Our results demonstrate that parenthood via assisted conception later in the reproductive life cycle is not associated with a negative impact on child wellbeing. Despite maternal age-group differences on demographic (education, income) and reproductive characteristics (bleeding during pregnancy, caesarean rate, breast feeding), and parental warmth and depressive symptoms, child wellbeing was similar across mother age groups. We conclude that the parenting context is different for older mother families (more depressive symptoms in mothers and fathers, less expressed warmth in the couple) but that this difference is not associated with child wellbeing in early and middle childhood.

  5. Exploring opportunities for healthy aging among older persons with a history of homelessness in Toronto, Canada.

    PubMed

    Waldbrook, Natalie

    2015-03-01

    Within the areas of literature on both population aging and health and homelessness, little attention has been given to the opportunities and barriers to healthy aging among older persons with a history of homelessness. Set in the context of inner-city Toronto, Canada, this article reports on the findings from qualitative interviews with 29 formerly homeless older persons. The findings illustrate participants' experiences of positive health change since moving into a stable housing environment and the aspects of housing they perceive to have improved their health and wellbeing. The qualitative findings also draw attention to the ongoing barriers to healthy aging that can be experienced among older persons with a history of homelessness. Overall, this study draws on the lived experiences of formerly homeless older persons to offer a better understanding of the long-term effects of homelessness on health, wellbeing, and aging.

  6. Relationship between Family Functioning and Parenting Beliefs and Feelings among Women Who Have a History of Sexual Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hernandez, Guadalupe; Lam, Brian Trung

    2012-01-01

    This study explored the relationship between family functioning and parenting beliefs and feelings among women with a history of child sexual abuse (CSA). This study utilized secondary data obtained in 2001 from the National Data Archive on Child Abuse and Neglect. The sample included 107 women. Most respondents had a highly functional family;…

  7. Widowhood in old age: Viewed in a family context☆

    PubMed Central

    Moss, Miriam S.; Moss, Sidney Z.

    2014-01-01

    Researchers and clinicians have traditionally explored widowhood as an intrapersonal process. We expand the paradigm of bereavement research to explore the widow's perceptions of her experience within a family context. In a study of family bereavement, 24 widows each participated in 2 separate qualitative interviews, followed by standard qualitative analyses of the transcribed narratives. Three inter-related central topics emerged. (1) Widows stress the importance of their independence vis a vis their family as central to their sense of identity. (2) Widows perceive that they and their adult children avoid expressing their feelings of sadness and loss with each other. (3) Widows believe that their children are unable to understand the meaning of the widows' loss because of differences in generations and life situations. Two inter-woven underlying themes emerged: protection of self and of other, and boundaries between widow and children. Just as protection is rooted in a dynamic of separation between widow and child, boundaries are rooted in their deep bond. When researchers and clinicians recognize the dynamics of these two themes they can potentially increase understanding of widowhood within the context of the family. PMID:24655677

  8. Widowhood in old age: viewed in a family context.

    PubMed

    Moss, Miriam S; Moss, Sidney Z

    2014-04-01

    Researchers and clinicians have traditionally explored widowhood as an intrapersonal process. We expand the paradigm of bereavement research to explore the widow's perceptions of her experience within a family context. In a study of family bereavement, 24 widows each participated in 2 separate qualitative interviews, followed by standard qualitative analyses of the transcribed narratives. Three inter-related central topics emerged. (1) Widows stress the importance of their independence vis a vis their family as central to their sense of identity. (2) Widows perceive that they and their adult children avoid expressing their feelings of sadness and loss with each other. (3) Widows believe that their children are unable to understand the meaning of the widows' loss because of differences in generations and life situations. Two inter-woven underlying themes emerged: protection of self and of other, and boundaries between widow and children. Just as protection is rooted in a dynamic of separation between widow and child, boundaries are rooted in their deep bond. When researchers and clinicians recognize the dynamics of these two themes they can potentially increase understanding of widowhood within the context of the family.

  9. Power analysis for case–control association studies of samples with known family histories

    PubMed Central

    Li, Biao; Han, Younghun; Amos, Christopher I.

    2014-01-01

    Genome-wide case–control studies have been widely used to identify genetic variants that predispose to human diseases. Such studies are powerful in detecting common genetic variants with moderate effects, but quickly lose power as allele frequency and genotype relative risk decrease. Because patients with one or more affected relatives are more likely to inherit disease-predisposing alleles of a genetic disease than patients without family histories of the disease, sampling patients with affected relatives almost always increases the frequency of disease predisposing alleles in cases and improves the power of case–control association studies. This paper evaluates the power of case–control studies that select cases and/or controls according to their family histories of disease. Our results showed that this study design can dramatically increase the power of a case–control association study for a wide range of disease types. Because each additional affected relative of a patient reduces the required sample size roughly by a pair of case and control, inclusion of cases with affected relatives can dramatically decrease the required sample size and thus the cost of such studies. PMID:20383776

  10. A Psycho-Educational Intervention for People with a Family History of Depression: Pilot Results.

    PubMed

    Meiser, Bettina; Peate, Michelle; Levitan, Charlene; Mitchell, Philip B; Trevena, Lyndal; Barlow-Stewart, Kristine; Dobbins, Timothy; Christensen, Helen; Sherman, Kerry A; Dunlop, Kate; Schofield, Peter R

    2017-04-01

    We developed and pilot-tested the first online psycho-educational intervention that specifically targets people with a family history of depression ('LINKS'). LINKS provides genetic risk information and evidence-rated information on preventive strategies for depression and incorporates a risk assessment tool and several videos using professional actors. LINKS was pilot-tested in the general practitioner (GP) setting. The patient sample included people with a family history of at least one first-degree relative (FDR) with major depressive disorder (MDD) or bipolar disorder (BD). Patients attending participating GP practices were invited to enroll in the study by letter from their GP. Patients who self-identified as having at least one first-degree relative (FDR) with MDD or BD were eligible. Patients completed questionnaires, pre-post viewing LINKS, with measures assessing satisfaction, relevance, emotional impact and perceived improvement of understanding. Six GP practices participated, and 24 patients completed both questionnaires. Of these, all reported that they were satisfied or very satisfied with LINKS, and 74 % reported that LINKS met their expectations, and 21 % that it exceeded their expectations. LINKS was judged highly acceptable by this sample of GP attendees, and results indicate that an assessment of its effectiveness in a larger controlled trial is warranted.

  11. Integrating the Family and the Community into the History Classroom: An Oral History Project in Joliet, Illinois

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyons, John F.

    2007-01-01

    History instructors working in a community college face two major challenges. First, to make history interesting and relevant to the students, many of whom have to take history courses as a requirement. And second, to fulfill one of the missions of a community college which is to forge a connection between the school and the people in the local…

  12. Microsatellite instability and loss of heterozygosity in gastric carcinoma in comparison to family history.

    PubMed Central

    Keller, G.; Rudelius, M.; Vogelsang, H.; Grimm, V.; Wilhelm, M. G.; Mueller, J.; Siewert, J. R.; Höfler, H.

    1998-01-01

    We compared 29 gastric carcinomas from patients with a variably strong family history for gastric cancer (group 1) with 36 gastric carcinomas from patients without a family history of this disease (group 2) for microsatellite instability (MSI) and loss of heterozygosity (LOH) with 12 microsatellite markers. Both study groups had similar proportions of histological types and tumor locations. Widespread MSI (alterations at > or = 6 loci) was seen in 5 of 29 (17%) of the tumors belonging to group 1 and in 4 of 36 (11%) group 2 tumors. MSI at a low level (alterations at 1 to 3 loci) was observed in 12 of 29 (41%) of tumors in group 1 and in 10 of 36 (28%) of tumors in group 2, differences that were not statistically significant. A significant difference with respect to low level MSI was observed between the two groups when considering the overall mutation rate of microsatellites. Seventeen of 281 (6%) analyzed microsatellite loci showed alterations in group 1 and 11 of 381 (2.9%) in group 2 (P = 0.046). Comparison of both types of MSI to the clinicopathological parameters in both groups revealed a significant association of low level MSI with advanced tumor stages (P = 0.046) in the group 2, whereas no such association was observed in group 1. In respect to LOH, a significant difference between the two groups was observed at chromosome 17p12, as 13 of 22 (59%) informative cases of group 1 showed LOH in comparison with 7 of 26 (27%) (P = 0.024) in group 2. No correlation of LOH at chromosome 17p12 to the pathological or clinical data was observed either in the two groups or in the study as a whole. Our data show that gastric carcinomas of patients with a positive family history of gastric cancer in group 1 are characterized by a higher mutation rate in respect to low level MSI, particularly at dinucleotide repeats, and by a higher frequency of LOH at chromosome 17p12, indicating that different genetic pathways are involved in the pathogenesis of gastric carcinomas

  13. Family history and disease outcomes in patients with Crohn’s disease: A comparison between China and the United States

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Pei-Qi; Hu, Jun; Al Kazzi, Elie S; Akhuemonkhan, Eboselume; Zhi, Min; Gao, Xiang; de Paula Pessoa, Raquel Holand; Ghazaleh, Sami; Cornelius, Tuhina; Sabunwala, Suhel Abbas; Ghadermarzi, Shadi; Tripathi, Kartikeya; Lazarev, Mark; Hu, Pin-Jin; Hutfless, Susan

    2016-01-01

    AIM To investigate the differences in family history of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and clinical outcomes among individuals with Crohn’s disease (CD) residing in China and the United States. METHODS We performed a survey-based cross-sectional study of participants with CD recruited from China and the United States. We compared the prevalence of IBD family history and history of ileal involvement, CD-related surgeries and IBD medications in China and the United States, adjusting for potential confounders. RESULTS We recruited 49 participants from China and 145 from the United States. The prevalence of family history of IBD was significantly lower in China compared with the United States (China: 4.1%, United States: 39.3%). The three most commonly affected types of relatives were cousin, sibling, and parent in the United States compared with child and sibling in China. Ileal involvement (China: 63.3%, United States: 63.5%) and surgery for CD (China: 51.0%, United States: 49.7%) were nearly equivalent in the two countries. CONCLUSION The lower prevalence of familial clustering of IBD in China may suggest that the etiology of CD is less attributed to genetic background or a family-shared environment compared with the United States. Despite the potential difference in etiology, surgery and ileal involvement were similar in the two countries. Examining the changes in family history during the continuing rise in IBD may provide further insight into the etiology of CD. PMID:27867689

  14. Meeting Report: International Symposium on the Genetics of Aging and Life History II.

    PubMed

    Artan, Murat; Hwang, Ara B; Lee, Seung V; Nam, Hong Gil

    2015-06-01

    The second International Symposium on the Genetics of Aging and Life History was held at the campus of Daegu Gyeongbuk Institute of Science and Technology (DGIST), Daegu, South Korea, from May 14 to 16, 2014. Many leading scientists in the field of aging research from all over the world contributed to the symposium by attending and presenting their recent work and thoughts. The aim of the symposium was to stimulate international collaborations and interactions among scientists who work on the biology of aging. In the symposium, the most recent and exciting work on aging research was presented, covering a wide range of topics, including the genetics of aging, age-associated diseases, and cellular senescence. The work was conducted in various organisms, includingC. elegans, mice, plants, and humans. Topics covered in the symposium stimulated discussion of novel directions for future research on aging. The meeting ended with a commitment for the third International Symposium on the Genetics of Aging and Life History, which will be held in 2016.

  15. Association Between Adolescent Pregnancy And a Family History of Teenage Births

    PubMed Central

    East, Patricia L.; Reyes, Barbara T.; Horn, Emily J.

    2013-01-01

    CONTEXT The extent to which young women’s risk of adolescent pregnancy is associated with having a mother who was a teenage parent, a sister who was a teenage parent or both is not known. METHODS A sample of 127 Latina and black adolescent females completed in-depth surveys at three time points between 1994 and 2000. Logistic regression analyses were used to examine whether socioeconomic factors, mothers’ parenting characteristics and certain sibling relationship qualities explain the association between a family history of teenage births and young women’s risk of pregnancy. RESULTS Compared with young women with no family history of teenage births, young women whose sister had had a teenage birth and those whose sister and mother both had had teenage births were significantly more likely to experience a teenage pregnancy (odds ratios, 4.8 and 5.1, respectively). Young women who had only a sister who had had a teenage birth had greater odds of pregnancy than young women who had only a mother who had had a teenage birth (4.5). Having both a mother and a sister who had had teenage births was independently associated with an elevated risk of pregnancy (3.7), even after controlling for socioeconomic and mothers’ parenting characteristics. Frequent companionship with an older sister was associated with increased odds of teenage pregnancy (4.5); frequent conflict with an older sister who had had a teenage birth was marginally associated with decreased odds of the outcome (0.3). CONCLUSION Pregnancy prevention interventions targeting young women according to maternal and sibling teenage birth histories may be effective. PMID:17565624

  16. The value of family history in the diagnosis of hypersensitivity pneumonitis in children*

    PubMed Central

    Cardoso, Joana; Carvalho, Isabel

    2014-01-01

    Hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP), or extrinsic allergic alveolitis, is an immunologically mediated disease resulting from the inhalation of organic substances that trigger an inflammatory response in the alveolar wall, bronchioles, and interstitium in susceptible individuals. Although HP is predominantly an occupational disease, seen in adulthood, cases in children have been described. The diagnosis of HP requires a high degree of suspicion. The treatment consists in avoiding contact with the antigen, and, in some cases, systemic corticosteroids might be necessary in order to prevent its progression to pulmonary fibrosis. We report the clinical cases of three children with a history of contact with birds and a family history of HP. All three patients presented with cough and dyspnea on exertion. The disease was diagnosed on the basis of the clinical history and ancillary diagnostic test results consistent with the diagnosis, including a predominance of lymphocytes (> 60%, CD8+ T lymphocytes in particular) in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and a ground-glass pattern seen on HRCT of the chest. Early diagnosis is crucial in order to prevent HP from progressing to pulmonary fibrosis. Hereditary factors seem to influence the onset of the disease. PMID:24831404

  17. The relationship between religion, illness and death in life histories of family members of children with life-threatening diseases.

    PubMed

    Bousso, Regina Szylit; Serafim, Taís de Souza; Misko, Maira Deguer

    2010-01-01

    This qualitative study aimed to get to know the relationship between the experiences of families of children with a life-threatening disease and their religion, illness and life histories. The methodological framework was based on Oral History. The data were collected through interviews and the participants were nine families from six different religions who had lived the experience of having a child with a life-threatening disease. The interviews, held with one or two family members, were transcribed, textualized and, through their analysis, the Vital Tone was elaborated, representing the moral synthesis of each narrative. Three dimensions of spirituality were related to illness and death in their life histories: a Higher Being with a healing power; Development and Maintenance of a Connection with God and Faith Encouraging Optimism. The narratives demonstrated the family's search to attribute meanings to their experiences, based on their religious beliefs.

  18. Familial adenomatous polyposis in pediatrics: natural history, emerging surveillance and management protocols, chemopreventive strategies, and areas of ongoing debate.

    PubMed

    Septer, Seth; Lawson, Caitlin E; Anant, Shrikant; Attard, Thomas

    2016-07-01

    Familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) is a hereditary condition with a near 100 % lifetime risk of colorectal cancer without prophylactic colectomy. Most patients with FAP have a mutation in the adenomatous polyposis coli gene on chromosome 5q22. This condition frequently presents in children with polyps developing most frequently in the second decade of life and surveillance colonoscopy is required starting at age ten. Polyps are found not only in the colon, but in the stomach and duodenum. Knowledge of the natural history of FAP is important as there are several extra-colonic sequelae which also require surveillance. In infants and toddlers, there is an increased risk of hepatoblastoma, while in teenagers and adults duodenal carcinomas, desmoid tumors, thyroid cancer and medulloblastoma are more common in FAP than in the general population. Current chemopreventive strategies include several medications and natural products, although to this point there is no consensus on the most efficacious and safe agent. Genetic counseling is an important part of the diagnostic process for FAP. Appropriate use and interpretation of genetic testing is best accomplished with genetic counselor involvement as many families also have concerns regarding future insurability or discrimination when faced with genetic testing.

  19. Inherited Mutations in 17 Breast Cancer Susceptibility Genes Among a Large Triple-Negative Breast Cancer Cohort Unselected for Family History of Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Couch, Fergus J.; Hart, Steven N.; Sharma, Priyanka; Toland, Amanda Ewart; Wang, Xianshu; Miron, Penelope; Olson, Janet E.; Godwin, Andrew K.; Pankratz, V. Shane; Olswold, Curtis; Slettedahl, Seth; Hallberg, Emily; Guidugli, Lucia; Davila, Jaime I.; Beckmann, Matthias W.; Janni, Wolfgang; Rack, Brigitte; Ekici, Arif B.; Slamon, Dennis J.; Konstantopoulou, Irene; Fostira, Florentia; Vratimos, Athanassios; Fountzilas, George; Pelttari, Liisa M.; Tapper, William J.; Durcan, Lorraine; Cross, Simon S.; Pilarski, Robert; Shapiro, Charles L.; Klemp, Jennifer; Yao, Song; Garber, Judy; Cox, Angela; Brauch, Hiltrud; Ambrosone, Christine; Nevanlinna, Heli; Yannoukakos, Drakoulis; Slager, Susan L.; Vachon, Celine M.; Eccles, Diana M.; Fasching, Peter A.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Recent advances in DNA sequencing have led to the development of breast cancer susceptibility gene panels for germline genetic testing of patients. We assessed the frequency of mutations in 17 predisposition genes, including BRCA1 and BRCA2, in a large cohort of patients with triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) unselected for family history of breast or ovarian cancer to determine the utility of germline genetic testing for those with TNBC. Patients and Methods Patients with TNBC (N = 1,824) unselected for family history of breast or ovarian cancer were recruited through 12 studies, and germline DNA was sequenced to identify mutations. Results Deleterious mutations were identified in 14.6% of all patients. Of these, 11.2% had mutations in the BRCA1 (8.5%) and BRCA2 (2.7%) genes. Deleterious mutations in 15 other predisposition genes were detected in 3.7% of patients, with the majority observed in genes involved in homologous recombination, including PALB2 (1.2%) and BARD1, RAD51D, RAD51C, and BRIP1 (0.3% to 0.5%). Patients with TNBC with mutations were diagnosed at an earlier age (P < .001) and had higher-grade tumors (P = .01) than those without mutations. Conclusion Deleterious mutations in predisposition genes are present at high frequency in patients with TNBC unselected for family history of cancer. Mutation prevalence estimates suggest that patients with TNBC, regardless of age at diagnosis or family history of cancer, should be considered for germline genetic testing of BRCA1 and BRCA2. Although mutations in other predisposition genes are observed among patients with TNBC, better cancer risk estimates are needed before these mutations are used for clinical risk assessment in relatives. PMID:25452441

  20. The Predictive Power of Family History Measures of Alcohol and Drug Problems and Internalizing Disorders In A College Population

    PubMed Central

    Kendler, Kenneth S; Edwards, Alexis; Myers, John; Cho, Seung Bin; Adkins, Amy; Dick, Danielle

    2015-01-01

    A family history (FH) of psychiatric and substance use problems is a potent risk factor for common internalizing and externalizing disorders. In a large web-based assessment of mental health in college students, we developed a brief set of screening questions for a FH of alcohol problems (AP), drug problems (DP) and depression-anxiety in four classes of relatives (father, mother, aunts/uncles/grandparents, and siblings) as reported by the student. Positive reports of a history of AP, DP, and depression-anxiety were substantially correlated within relatives. These FH measures predicted in the student, in an expected pattern, dimensions of personality and impulsivity, alcohol consumption and problems, smoking and nicotine dependence, use of illicit drugs, and symptoms of depression and anxiety. Using the mean score from the four classes of relatives was more predictive than using a familial/sporadic dichotomy. Interactions were seen between the FH of AP, DP, and depression-anxiety and peer deviance in predicting symptoms of alcohol and tobacco dependence. As the students aged, the FH of AP became a stronger predictor of alcohol problems. While we cannot directly assess the validity of these FH reports, the pattern of findings suggest that our brief screening items were able to assess, with some accuracy, the FH of substance misuse and internalizing psychiatric disorders in relatives. If correct, these measures can play an important role in the creation of developmental etiologic models for substance and internalizing psychiatric disorders which constitute one of the central goals of the overall project. PMID:25946510

  1. S18 family of mitochondrial ribosomal proteins: evolutionary history and Gly132 polymorphism in colon carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Mushtaq, Muhammad; Ali, Raja Hashim; Kashuba, Vladimir; Klein, George; Kashuba, Elena

    2016-08-23

    S18 family of mitochondrial ribosomal proteins (MRPS18, S18) consists of three members, S18-1 to -3. Earlier, we found that overexpression of S18-2 protein resulted in immortalization and eventual transformation of primary rat fibroblasts. The S18-1 and -3 have not exhibited such abilities. To understand the differences in protein properties, the evolutionary history of S18 family was analyzed. The S18-3, followed by S18-1 and S18-2 emerged as a result of ancient gene duplication in the root of eukaryotic species tree, followed by two metazoan-specific gene duplications. However, the most conserved metazoan S18 homolog is the S18-1; it shares the most sequence similarity with S18 proteins of bacteria and of other eukaryotic clades. Evolutionarily conserved residues of S18 proteins were analyzed in various cancers. S18-2 is mutated at a higher rate, compared with S18-1 and -3 proteins. Moreover, the evolutionarily conserved residue, Gly132 of S18-2, shows genetic polymorphism in colon adenocarcinomas that was confirmed by direct DNA sequencing.Concluding, S18 family represents the yet unexplored important mitochondrial ribosomal proteins.

  2. S18 family of mitochondrial ribosomal proteins: evolutionary history and Gly132 polymorphism in colon carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Mushtaq, Muhammad; Ali, Raja Hashim; Kashuba, Vladimir; Klein, George; Kashuba, Elena

    2016-01-01

    S18 family of mitochondrial ribosomal proteins (MRPS18, S18) consists of three members, S18-1 to −3. Earlier, we found that overexpression of S18-2 protein resulted in immortalization and eventual transformation of primary rat fibroblasts. The S18-1 and −3 have not exhibited such abilities. To understand the differences in protein properties, the evolutionary history of S18 family was analyzed. The S18-3, followed by S18-1 and S18-2 emerged as a result of ancient gene duplication in the root of eukaryotic species tree, followed by two metazoan-specific gene duplications. However, the most conserved metazoan S18 homolog is the S18-1; it shares the most sequence similarity with S18 proteins of bacteria and of other eukaryotic clades. Evolutionarily conserved residues of S18 proteins were analyzed in various cancers. S18-2 is mutated at a higher rate, compared with S18-1 and −3 proteins. Moreover, the evolutionarily conserved residue, Gly132 of S18-2, shows genetic polymorphism in colon adenocarcinomas that was confirmed by direct DNA sequencing. Concluding, S18 family represents the yet unexplored important mitochondrial ribosomal proteins. PMID:27489352

  3. Constraining the Star Forming History in Monoceros: A Study of Embedded Cluster Ages and Spatial Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marinas, Naibi; Lada, Elizabeth; Ybarra, Jason; Fleming, Scott

    2010-08-01

    We propose to use FLAMINGOS multi-object spectrometer on the KPNO 4 meter telescope to complete a spectroscopic survey of 5 clusters in the Monoceros GMC. The data will be combined with existing FLAMINGOS photometry to determine the ages and masses of the stars in the clusters using the HR Diagram and PMS evolutionary models. This information, combined with the spatial distribution of clusters in the cloud, determined from previous observations, will allow us to investigate the ages and age spreads of the embedded clusters and the star forming histories of the clusters and the molecular cloud.

  4. Constraining the Star Forming History in Monoceros: A Study of Embedded Cluster Ages and Spatial Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lada, Elizabeth A.; Marinas, Naibi; Levine, Joanna L.; Ferreira, Bruno

    2009-08-01

    We propose to use FLAMINGOS multi-object spectrometer on the KPNO 4 meter telescope to complete a spectroscopic survey of 7 clusters in the Monoceros GMC. The data will be combined with existing FLAMINGOS photometry to determine the ages and masses of the stars in the clusters using the HR Diagram and PMS evolutionary models. This information, combined with the spatial distribution of clusters in the cloud, determined from previous observations, will allow us to investigate the ages and age spreads of the embedded clusters and the star forming histories of the clusters and the molecular cloud.

  5. Transmission and age-at-onset patterns in familial Alzheimer's disease: evidence for heterogeneity.

    PubMed

    Farrer, L A; Myers, R H; Cupples, L A; St George-Hyslop, P H; Bird, T D; Rossor, M N; Mullan, M J; Polinsky, R; Nee, L; Heston, L

    1990-03-01

    We evaluated age at onset and lifetime risk for Alzheimer's disease (AD) in 70 kindreds with familial AD (designated FAD) composed of 541 affected and 1,066 unaffected offspring of demented parents who were identified retrospectively. Using a survival analysis method which takes into account affected persons with unknown onset ages and unaffected persons with unknown censoring ages, we found lifetime risk of AD among at-risk offspring by age 87 to be 64%. Analysis of age at onset among kindreds showed evidence for a bimodal distribution: in this sample, families with a mean onset age of less than 58 years were designated as having early-onset, while late-onset families had a mean onset age greater than 58 years. At-risk offspring in early-onset families had an estimated lifetime risk for dementia of 53%, which is significantly less than the risk of 86% that was estimated for offspring in late-onset families. Men and women in early-onset families had equivalent risk of dementia. In late-onset families, the risk to female offspring was somewhat higher than to male offspring but this difference was marginally significant. Lifetime risk of dementia in early-onset FAD kindreds is consistent with an autosomal dominant inheritance model. Our results may suggest that late-onset FAD has at least 2 etiologies; AD in some families may be transmitted as a dominant trait, whereas a proportion of cases in these and other late-onset families may be caused by other genetic or shared environmental factors.

  6. Meeting Report: International Symposium on the Genetics of Aging and Life History II

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Seung‐Jae V.; Nam, Hong Gil

    2015-01-01

    The second International Symposium on the Genetics of Aging and Life History was held at the campus of Daegu Gyeongbuk Institute of Science and Technology (DGIST), Daegu, South Korea, from May 14 to 16, 2014. Many leading scientists in the field of aging research from all over the world contributed to the symposium by attending and presenting their recent work and thoughts. The aim of the symposium was to stimulate international collaborations and interactions among scientists who work on the biology of aging. In the symposium, the most recent and exciting work on aging research was presented, covering a wide range of topics, including the genetics of aging, age‐associated diseases, and cellular senescence. The work was conducted in various organisms, including C. elegans, mice, plants, and humans. Topics covered in the symposium stimulated discussion of novel directions for future research on aging. The meeting ended with a commitment for the third International Symposium on the Genetics of Aging and Life History, which will be held in 2016. PMID:26115541

  7. The Nuclear War Age Barrier within the Nuclear Family.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McConnell, Stephen C.; And Others

    This document notes that the literature addressing children's nuclear fears suggests that children are introduced to the nuclear threat by ways that do not provide dialogue and without regard to the age appropriate needs of the child, and that parents seem to be protecting their children from the horror of a holocaust by not talking about the…

  8. Family Stress, Perception of Pregnancy, and Age of First Menarche among Pregnant Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ravert, April A; Martin, Jennifer

    1997-01-01

    Examines family-of-origin stress, age of first menarche, and the perceptions of pregnancy as a life event in 97 pregnant adolescents. Participants' reported high levels of family stress with only a moderate level of impact or stress attributed to the pregnancy. As a group, the girls' first menarche matched national averages. (RJM)

  9. Dancing across the Curriculum: Family Folklore in a Multi-Age Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ingwersen, Henry

    1993-01-01

    A teacher introduced folklore to multiage groups of students aged 5-12 by encouraging them to work together on projects that included locating family origins on a map, collecting family recipes for a cookbook, compiling a photo album, and writing a play based on war stories gathered from relatives. (LP)

  10. How to Talk to a School Age Child about a Suicide Attempt in Your Family

    MedlinePlus

    ... Talk to a School Age Child about a Suicide Attempt in Your Family This information is intended to help inform and ... six to twelve year old child after a suicide attempt in the family. It is not intended to replace the advice ...

  11. Family Care of the Aged in the United States: Policy Issues from an International Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kosberg, Jordan I.

    This paper addresses issues related to the care of the aged by informal caregivers, government support of such care, and policy changes that might result in improved care of the elderly population. In its treatment of family responsibility for the elderly, it calls attention to several trends: (1) family members will be increasingly unavailable to…

  12. Gender Differences in the Age-Changing Relationship between Instrumentality and Family Contact in Emerging Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sneed, Joel R.; Johnson, Jeffrey G.; Cohen, Patricia; Gilligan, Carol; Chen, Henian; Crawford, Thomas N.; Kasen, Stephanie

    2006-01-01

    Data from the Children in the Community Transitions Study were used to examine gender differences in the impact of family contact on the development of finance and romance instrumentality from ages 17 to 27 years. Family contact decreased among both men and women across emerging adulthood, although it decreased more rapidly in men than in women.…

  13. Family Economic Hardship and Progression of Poor Mental Health in Middle-Aged Husbands and Wives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wickrama, K. A. S.; Surjadi, Florensia F.; Lorenz, Frederick O.; Conger, Rand D.; O'Neal, Catherine Walker

    2012-01-01

    Using prospective data from 370 middle-aged husbands and wives during a 12-year period, we investigated the intra-individual and dyadic influence of family economic hardship on the levels of depressive symptoms of husbands and wives over their middle years. The results suggest that family economic hardship during the early middle years contributes…

  14. Predicting Treatment Dropout in Parent Training Interventions for Families of School-Aged Children with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneider, Brian W.; Gerdes, Alyson C.; Haack, Lauren M.; Lawton, Katie E.

    2013-01-01

    Premature treatment dropout is a problem for many families seeking mental health services for their children. Research is currently limited in identifying factors that increase the likelihood of dropout in families of school-aged children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Thus, the goal of the current study was to examine…

  15. Activities, family relationships and feelings about aging in a multicultural elderly sample.

    PubMed

    Harris, M B; Begay, C; Page, P

    1989-01-01

    This study looked at ethnic and gender differences in activities, family relationships, and feelings about aging in 128 American Indian, Anglo, and Hispanic adults over sixty. Reading, visiting, and watching television were the most popular activities for all subjects, with a number of sex and ethnic differences appearing. Most subjects reported improved relationships with their families on various dimensions after turning sixty. A number of advantages and disadvantages of aging were mentioned. Few ethnic or gender differences were found on these latter variables.

  16. The evolutionary history of the catenin gene family during metazoan evolution

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Catenin is a gene family composed of three subfamilies; p120, beta and alpha. Beta and p120 are homologous subfamilies based on sequence and structural comparisons, and are members of the armadillo repeat protein superfamily. Alpha does not appear to be homologous to either beta or p120 based on the lack of sequence and structural similarity, and the alpha subfamily belongs to the vinculin superfamily. Catenins link the transmembrane protein cadherin to the cytoskeleton and thus function in cell-cell adhesion. To date, only the beta subfamily has been evolutionarily analyzed and experimentally studied for its functions in signaling pathways, development and human diseases such as cancer. We present a detailed evolutionary study of the whole catenin family to provide a better understanding of how this family has evolved in metazoans, and by extension, the evolution of cell-cell adhesion. Results All three catenin subfamilies have been detected in metazoans used in the present study by searching public databases and applying species-specific BLAST searches. Two monophyletic clades are formed between beta and p120 subfamilies using Bayesian phylogenetic inference. Phylogenetic analyses also reveal an array of duplication events throughout metazoan history. Furthermore, numerous annotation issues for the catenin family have been detected by our computational analyses. Conclusions Delta2/ARVCF catenin in the p120 subfamily, beta catenin in the beta subfamily, and alpha2 catenin in the alpha subfamily are present in all metazoans analyzed. This implies that the last common ancestor of metazoans had these three catenin subfamilies. However, not all members within each subfamily were detected in all metazoan species. Each subfamily has undergone duplications at different levels (species-specific, subphylum-specific or phylum-specific) and to different extents (in the case of the number of homologs). Extensive annotation problems have been resolved in each of the

  17. [The history of family planning among women who opt for surgical sterilization in the Social Security Fund of Panama].

    PubMed

    Austin, K L; Grajales, B; De León, A O; Guerrero, F

    1994-05-01

    In this study, the previous history of family planning and prior usage of contraceptive methods are analyzed, in a sample of 175 women who voluntarily opted for surgical sterilization as a permanent method of fertility regulation, in the Panamanian Social Security System. A questionnaire was applied during the second trimester of pregnancy, by which information would be gathered in regard to knowledge, usage and adverse effects of the contraceptive methods used prior to the intervention. Results showed that 99% of the sample had heard, on some occasion about oral contraceptives (OC) and, in lesser proportion to intrauterine devices (IUD), barrier methods and hormonal inyectables. The first contraceptive method used, and the one of longest usage, was the combined OC, of which 43% begun between 17 and 25 years of age. In contrast, 7.4% initiated contraception with IUD, from the age of 26 years. The health personnel constituted the major source of recommendation for contraceptive usage and, despite the fact that 37% of the sample did not use contraception prior to the last pregnancy, over half of the subjects responded that combined OC were considered as the most secure method.

  18. Relation Between Family History of Premature Coronary Artery Disease and the Risk of Death in Patients With Coronary Artery Disease.

    PubMed

    Abdi-Ali, Ahmed; Shaheen, AbdelAziz; Southern, Danielle; Zhang, Mei; Knudtson, Merril; White, James; Graham, Michelle; James, Mathew T; Wilton, Stephen B

    2016-02-01

    Family history (FHx) of premature coronary artery disease (CAD) is a risk factor for development of incident cardiovascular disease. However the association between FHx and outcomes in patients with established CAD is unclear. We followed 84,373 patients with angiographic CAD enrolled in the inclusive Alberta Provincial Project for Outcomes Assessment in Coronary Heart Disease registry between April 2002 and March 2013. Overall, 25,566 (30%) self-reported an FHx of CAD, defined as a first-degree relative with premature CAD (men, age <55 years; women, age <65 years). We tested the association between FHx and all-cause mortality using multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression. After adjusting for baseline differences in clinical characteristics, indication, and extent of CAD, FHx was associated with reduced all-cause mortality over a median 5.6 years in follow-up (hazard ratio [HR] 0.77 [95% CI 0.73 to 0.80]). The magnitude of this protective association was weaker in those with versus without a previous myocardial infarction (HR 0.87 [95% CI 0.81 to 0.93] versus 0.72 [0.69 to 0.76], interaction p <0.0001) and slightly stronger in those presenting with versus without an acute coronary syndrome (HR 0.74 [0.70 to 0.79] versus 0.80 [0.75 to 0.85], interaction p = 0.08). There was attenuation of association with increasing age, but FHx remained protective even in those aged older than 80 years (HR 0.86 [0.77 to 0.95]). In conclusion, in patients with angiographic CAD, self-reported FHx of premature CAD is associated with improved long-term survival rate, independent of clinical characteristics, mode of presentation, and extent of disease. Further investigation of potential patient- and system-level mediators of this seemingly paradoxical relation is required.

  19. [Family dynamics in the caring context of adults on the fourth age].

    PubMed

    Polaro, Sandra Helena Isse; Gonçalves, Lucia Hisako Takase; Nassar, Silvia Modesto; Lopes, Márcia Maria Bragança; Ferreira, Viviane Ferraz; Monteiro, Hellen Karinna

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the pattern of family functioning on everyday care relationships of adults in the fourth age. This is a study of diagnostic-evaluative nature of adults with 80 or more years old who depend on care, and of their relatives as caregivers. The participants were selected among the registered patients of a Family Health Unit in a district in the suburbs of Belém-PA, Brazil. They were evaluated according to the dynamics of their family, and quality of life related health lifestyle. Most of the elderly rated their families with good functionality. However, data on the elderly and caregivers' quality of life and caregivers' life style only reached the median level, showing some difficulty in the family functioning system. It was concluded that the multiple results obtained through the assessments indicate some practical implications of care to the family unity and confirm the need for multidimensional assessment about the family intervention.

  20. The evolutionary history of the stearoyl-CoA desaturase gene family in vertebrates

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Stearoyl-CoA desaturases (SCDs) are key enzymes involved in de novo monounsaturated fatty acid synthesis. They catalyze the desaturation of saturated fatty acyl-CoA substrates at the delta-9 position, generating essential components of phospholipids, triglycerides, cholesterol esters and wax esters. Despite being crucial for interpreting SCDs roles across species, the evolutionary history of the SCD gene family in vertebrates has yet to be elucidated, in particular their isoform diversity, origin and function. This work aims to contribute to this fundamental effort. Results We show here, through comparative genomics and phylogenetics that the SCD gene family underwent an unexpectedly complex history of duplication and loss events. Paralogy analysis hints that SCD1 and SCD5 genes emerged as part of the whole genome duplications (2R) that occurred at the stem of the vertebrate lineage. The SCD1 gene family expanded in rodents with the parallel loss of SCD5 in the Muridae family. The SCD1 gene expansion is also observed in the Lagomorpha although without the SCD5 loss. In the amphibian Xenopus tropicalis we find a single SCD1 gene but not SCD5, though this could be due to genome incompleteness. In the analysed teleost species no SCD5 is found, while the surrounding SCD5-less locus is conserved in comparison to tetrapods. In addition, the teleost SCD1 gene repertoire expanded to two copies as a result of the teleost specific genome duplication (3R). Finally, we describe clear orthologues of SCD1 and SCD5 in the chondrichthian, Scyliorhinus canicula, a representative of the oldest extant jawed vertebrate clade. Expression analysis in S. canicula shows that whilst SCD1 is ubiquitous, SCD5 is mainly expressed in the brain, a pattern which might indicate an evolutionary conserved function. Conclusion We conclude that the SCD1 and SCD5 genes emerged as part of the 2R genome duplications. We propose that the evolutionary conserved gene expression between distinct

  1. Risk of Breast Cancer Associated with Reproductive and Fertility Factors According to a Family History of Breast Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-10-01

    mutation (C677T) in the MTHFR gene is associated with reduced enzyme ac- tions in one of five DNA-mismatch repair (MMR) genes (hMSH2, hMLH1, hPMS1,VyA... mutations than in noncarriers. 2 1 Since a family history of breast cancer may not only reflect shared genes but also shared exposures, a family study...unchanged. To study families most likely to be carrying a mutation in BRCA1 or BRCA2, analyses were conducted in high-risk families defined by the number

  2. Frontoparietal connectivity in substance-naïve youth with and without a family history of alcoholism.

    PubMed

    Wetherill, Reagan R; Bava, Sunita; Thompson, Wesley K; Boucquey, Veronique; Pulido, Carmen; Yang, Tony T; Tapert, Susan F

    2012-01-13

    Frontoparietal connections underlie key executive cognitive functions. Abnormalities in the frontoparietal network have been observed in chronic alcoholics and associated with alcohol-related cognitive deficits. It remains unclear whether neurobiological differences in frontoparietal circuitry exist in substance-naïve youth who are at-risk for alcohol use disorders. This study used functional connectivity magnetic resonance imaging and diffusion tensor imaging to examine frontoparietal connectivity and underlying white matter microstructure in 20 substance-naïve youth with a family history of alcohol dependence and 20 well-matched controls without familial substance use disorders. Youth with a family history of alcohol dependence showed significantly less functional connectivity between posterior parietal and dorsolateral prefrontal seed regions (ps<.05), as compared to family history negative controls; however, they did not show differences in white matter architecture within tracts subserving frontoparietal circuitry (ps>.34). Substance-naïve youth with a family history of alcohol dependence show less frontoparietal functional connectivity in the absence of white matter microstructural abnormalities as compared to youth with no familial risk. This may suggest a potential neurobiological marker for the development of substance use disorders.

  3. The age of the Veritas asteroid family deduced by chaotic chronology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milani, Andrea; Farinella, Paolo

    1994-07-01

    ASTEROID families are groups of objects produced in disruptive collisions of a parent body. Although family members are widely dispersed in real space, they cluster in the parameter space defined by their so-called proper elements, and can thus be distinguished from the background asteroid population1-3. For most asteroids, these parameters are very close to being invariants of motion and families are still apparent billions of years after their formation4'5. But these parameters undergo chaotic diffusion, and in some cases the rate of diffusion might be large enough that a family member exits from the region of proper-element space occupied by the family after a characteristic time which is shorter than the lifetime of the Solar System. In this case, the characteristic time should provide an approximate upper bound to the age of the family. Here we use this 'chaotic chronology' method to estimate the lifetime of the unusually compact Veritas family. Calculations of the evolu-tion of the proper elements of the family show that two members (including the largest, 490 Veritas) wander outside the borders of the family on a timescale of about 50 Myr, indicating that the family has an age of less than this.

  4. Limited significance of family history for presence of BRCA1 gene mutation in Polish breast and ovarian cancer cases.

    PubMed

    Brozek, Izabela; Ratajska, Magdalena; Piatkowska, Magdalena; Kluska, Anna; Balabas, Aneta; Dabrowska, Michalina; Nowakowska, Dorota; Niwinska, Anna; Rachtan, Jadwiga; Steffen, Jan; Limon, Janusz

    2012-09-01

    It is estimated that about 5-10% of ovarian and 2-5% of all breast cancer patients are carriers of a germline BRCA1 or BRCA2 gene mutation. Most families with detected BRCA1 or BRCA2 gene mutation are qualified for molecular testing on the basis of family history of breast or ovarian cancers. The purpose of our study was to establish the frequency of positive family history of cancer in a series of Polish consecutive breast and ovarian cancer patients in two groups, with and without the BRCA1 gene mutations. We analysed the prevalence of four of the most common BRCA1 mutations: 5382insC (c.5266dupC), 300T>G (p.181T>G), 185delAG (c.68_69delAG) and 3819del5 (c.3700_3704del5). The patient group consisted of 1,845 consecutive female breast and 363 ovarian cancer cases. 19 out of 37 (51%) of BRCA1-positive ovarian cancer patients and 21 out of 55 (39%) BRCA1-positive breast cancer had negative family history of breast and/or ovarian cancer among first- and second-degree relatives. In ovarian cancer patients, negative family history was more frequent in those with 300T>G BRCA1 gene mutation than in 5382insC carriers. This finding indicates the necessity of searching for 300T>G mutation in families with a single diagnosis of ovarian cancer in family. The high frequency of mutations detected in breast cancer patients lacking obvious family history shows that breast cancer patients should be qualified for genetic testing on the basis of wide clinical and pathological criteria.

  5. Implementation of health risk assessments with family health history: barriers and benefits.

    PubMed

    Wu, R Ryanne; Orlando, Lori A

    2015-09-01

    Health risk assessments provide an opportunity to emphasise health promotion and disease prevention for individuals and populations at large. A key component of health risk assessments is the detailed collection of family health history information. This information is helpful in determining risk both for common chronic conditions and more rare diseases as well. While the concept of health risk assessments has been around since the Framingham Heart Study was launched in the 1950s, and such assessments are commonly performed in the workplace today, the US healthcare system has been slow to embrace them and the emphasis on prevention that they represent. Before wider implementation of health risk assessments within healthcare can be seen, several concerns must be addressed: (1) provider impact, (2) patient impact, (3) validity of patient-entered data and (4) health outcomes effect. Here, we describe recent developments in health risk assessment design that are helping to address these issues.

  6. Family migration and employment: the importance of migration history and gender.

    PubMed

    Bailey, A J; Cooke, T J

    1998-01-01

    "This article uses event history data to specify a model of employment returns to initial migration, onward migration, and return migration among newly married persons in the U.S. Husbands are more likely to be full-time employed than wives, and being a parent reduces the employment odds among married women. Employment returns to repeated migration differ by gender, with more husbands full-time employed after onward migration and more wives full-time employed after return migration events. We interpret these empirical findings in the context of family migration theory, segmented labor market theory, and gender-based responsibilities." Data are from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth from 1979 to 1991.

  7. Ecological determinants of mean family age of angiosperm trees in forest communities in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, Hong; Chen, Shengbin

    2016-06-01

    Species assemblage in a local community is determined by the interplay of evolutionary and ecological processes. The Tropical Niche Conservatism hypothesis proposes mechanisms underlying patterns of biodiversity in biological communities along environmental gradients. This hypothesis predicts that, among other things, clades in areas with warm or wet environments are, on average, older than those in areas with cold or dry environments. Focusing on angiosperm trees in forests, this study tested the age-related prediction of the Tropical Niche Conservatism hypothesis. We related the mean family age of angiosperm trees in 57 local forests from across China with 23 current and paleo-environmental variables, which included all major temperature- and precipitation-related variables. Our study shows that the mean family age of angiosperm trees in local forests was positively correlated with temperature and precipitation. This finding is consistent with the age-related prediction of the Tropical Niche Conservatism hypothesis. Approximately 85% of the variance in the mean family age of angiosperm trees was explained by temperature-related variables, and 81% of the variance in the mean family age of angiosperm trees was explained by precipitation-related variables. Climatic conditions at the Last Glacial Maximum did not explain additional variation in mean family age after accounting for current environmental conditions.

  8. Ecological determinants of mean family age of angiosperm trees in forest communities in China

    PubMed Central

    Qian, Hong; Chen, Shengbin

    2016-01-01

    Species assemblage in a local community is determined by the interplay of evolutionary and ecological processes. The Tropical Niche Conservatism hypothesis proposes mechanisms underlying patterns of biodiversity in biological communities along environmental gradients. This hypothesis predicts that, among other things, clades in areas with warm or wet environments are, on average, older than those in areas with cold or dry environments. Focusing on angiosperm trees in forests, this study tested the age-related prediction of the Tropical Niche Conservatism hypothesis. We related the mean family age of angiosperm trees in 57 local forests from across China with 23 current and paleo-environmental variables, which included all major temperature- and precipitation-related variables. Our study shows that the mean family age of angiosperm trees in local forests was positively correlated with temperature and precipitation. This finding is consistent with the age-related prediction of the Tropical Niche Conservatism hypothesis. Approximately 85% of the variance in the mean family age of angiosperm trees was explained by temperature-related variables, and 81% of the variance in the mean family age of angiosperm trees was explained by precipitation-related variables. Climatic conditions at the Last Glacial Maximum did not explain additional variation in mean family age after accounting for current environmental conditions. PMID:27354109

  9. Work-family conflict among members of full-time dual-earner couples: an examination of family life stage, gender, and age.

    PubMed

    Allen, Tammy D; Finkelstein, Lisa M

    2014-07-01

    Based on cross-sectional data from the 2008 National Study of the Changing Workforce, this study investigates relationships between gender, age, and work-family conflict across 6 family life stages. Participants were 690 married/partnered employees who worked 35 or more hours a week. Results indicated a small but negative relationship between age and work-family conflict. Work-family conflict was also associated with family stage, with the least amount of conflict occurring during the empty nest stage and the most occurring when the youngest child in the home was 5 years of age or younger. Gender differences were also observed. Specifically, men reported more work interference with family than did women when the youngest child in the home was a teen. Women overall reported more family interference with work than did men. Results concerning age and gender revealed a different pattern demonstrating that family stage is not simply a proxy for age. Age had a main effect on work-to-family conflict that was monotonic in nature and on family to-work conflict that was linear in nature. In conclusion, the results indicate gender, age, and family stage each uniquely relate to work-family conflict.

  10. Working Memory and Decision-Making Biases in Young Adults With a Family History of Alcoholism: Studies from the Oklahoma Family Health Patterns Project

    PubMed Central

    Lovallo, William R.; Yechiam, Eldad; Sorocco, Kristen H.; Vincent, Andrea S.; Collins, Frank L.

    2008-01-01

    Background Alcohol misuse is more common in persons with a family history of alcoholism (FH+) than in those with no such history (FH−). Among FH+, behavioral disinhibition and male sex seem to signal the presence of an increased risk. Methods This study examined cognitive and behavioral characteristics of 175 nonabusing 18- to 30-year-olds, 87 FH+ and 88 FH−, who were further characterized by their degree of behavioral disinhibition using the Sociability scale of the California Personality Inventory. Working memory and decision making were tested using the Stroop Color-Word Test and the Iowa Gambling Task, a simulated card game. Results Persons with a family history of alcoholism who were behaviorally disinhibited displayed significantly greater interference on the Stroop task than the other subgroups. On the Iowa Gambling Task, FH+ males, but not the females, were significantly more attentive to financial gains than other subgroups, and they had greater consistency in their choice behaviors. Conclusions Persons with a family history of alcoholism, in combination with behavioral disinhibition, appears to signal working memory deficits and in combination with male sex indicates an attraction to the rewarding aspects of a risk-taking challenge. These findings are not secondary to heavy exposure to alcohol or other drugs, but instead reflect intrinsic risk-related familial and personal characteristics of the subjects. PMID:16634844

  11. The effects of family history and personal experiences of illness on the inclination to change health-related behaviour.

    PubMed

    Andersson, Per; Sjöberg, Rickard L; Ohrvik, John; Leppert, Jerzy

    2009-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine how a personal experience of illness and a family history of cardiovascular disease (CVD), adjusted for sex, level of education and nationality, affect risk behaviour. Participants were 1,011 and 1,043, 50-year-old men and women from Sweden and Poland, respectively, who were recruited from a primary health care screening programme. Family history, personal experience of illness and risk behaviour (smoking and exercise habits, BMI level) were self-reported. The results showed that smoking behaviour was affected by a personal experience of illness but not by a family history of CVD. No effects of these variables were found on the remaining risk-related variables tested in this study. These results suggest that individuals with a personal experience of illness may be more inclined to change smoking behaviour than the average person. Smoking prevention strategies may therefore benefit from targeting this group in particular.

  12. Impact of Genetic Counseling in Women with a Family History of Breast Cancer in Italy.

    PubMed

    Godino, Lea; Razzaboni, Elisabetta; Bianconi, Margherita; Turchetti, Daniela

    2016-04-01

    As the impact of breast cancer (BC) risk assessment in asymptomatic women with a family history of BC had never been explored in Italy, we performed a study on a retrospective series of women who had undergone BC risk assessment. To this aim, a semi-structured telephone interview was administered to 82 women. Most participants considered the information received as clear (96.2 %) and helpful (76.8 %). Thirty-eight (46.3 %) stated that their perceived risk of BC had changed after the counseling: for 40.2 % it had decreased, for 6.1 % increased; however, women highly overestimating their risk at the baseline (≥ 4-fold) failed to show improvements in risk perception accuracy. Sixty-six women (80.5 %) stated they had followed the recommended surveillance, while 19.5 % had not, mainly due to difficulties in arranging examinations. Most women (89.0 %) had shared the information with their relatives, with 57.3 % reporting other family members had undertaken the recommended surveillance. BC risk assessment was associated with high rates of satisfaction and had a favorable impact on risk perception in a subgroup of women. The impact on surveillance adhesion extended to relatives. Organized programs for identification and surveillance may help identify a larger fraction of at-risk women and overcome the reported difficulties in arranging surveillance.

  13. Acyl-CoA Dehydrogenases: Dynamic History of Protein Family Evolution

    PubMed Central

    Mohsen, Al-Walid

    2014-01-01

    The acyl-CoA dehydrogenases (ACADs) are enzymes that catalyze the α,β-dehydrogenation of acyl-CoA esters in fatty acid and amino acid catabolism. Eleven ACADs are now recognized in the sequenced human genome, and several homologs have been reported from bacteria, fungi, plants, and nematodes. We performed a systematic comparative genomic study, integrating homology searches with methods of phylogenetic reconstruction, to investigate the evolutionary history of this family. Sequence analyses indicate origin of the family in the common ancestor of Archaea, Bacteria, and Eukaryota, illustrating its essential role in the metabolism of early life. At least three ACADs were already present at that time: ancestral glutaryl-CoA dehydrogenase (GCD), isovaleryl-CoA dehydrogenase (IVD), and ACAD10/11. Two gene duplications were unique to the eukaryotic domain: one resulted in the VLCAD and ACAD9 paralogs and another in the ACAD10 and ACAD11 paralogs. The overall patchy distribution of specific ACADs across the tree of life is the result of dynamic evolution that includes numerous rounds of gene duplication and secondary losses, interdomain lateral gene transfer events, alteration of cellular localization, and evolution of novel proteins by domain acquisition. Our finding that eukaryotic ACAD species are more closely related to bacterial ACADs is consistent with endosymbiotic origin of ACADs in eukaryotes and further supported by the localization of all nine previously studied ACADs in mitochondria. PMID:19639238

  14. Support to Aging Parents and Grown Children in Black and White Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fingerman, Karen L.; VanderDrift, Laura E.; Dotterer, Aryn M.; Birditt, Kira S.; Zarit, Steven H.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Black and White middle-aged adults typically are in a pivot position of providing support to generations above and below. Racial differences in support to each generation in the family remain unclear, however. Different factors may account for racial differences in support of grown children versus aging parents. Design and Methods:…

  15. Are Children of Young Mothers Disadvantaged because of Their Mother's Age or Family Background?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turley, Ruth N. Lopez

    2003-01-01

    Data from national sample of 3- to 16-year-olds show that lower test scores and increased behavior problems of children of younger mothers resulted from family background rather than maternal age. For nonfirstborns, maternal age at first birth, not at child's birth, influenced test scores. Disadvantage of children born to younger mothers was…

  16. Iron Age and Anglo-Saxon genomes from East England reveal British migration history.

    PubMed

    Schiffels, Stephan; Haak, Wolfgang; Paajanen, Pirita; Llamas, Bastien; Popescu, Elizabeth; Loe, Louise; Clarke, Rachel; Lyons, Alice; Mortimer, Richard; Sayer, Duncan; Tyler-Smith, Chris; Cooper, Alan; Durbin, Richard

    2016-01-19

    British population history has been shaped by a series of immigrations, including the early Anglo-Saxon migrations after 400 CE. It remains an open question how these events affected the genetic composition of the current British population. Here, we present whole-genome sequences from 10 individuals excavated close to Cambridge in the East of England, ranging from the late Iron Age to the middle Anglo-Saxon period. By analysing shared rare variants with hundreds of modern samples from Britain and Europe, we estimate that on average the contemporary East English population derives 38% of its ancestry from Anglo-Saxon migrations. We gain further insight with a new method, rarecoal, which infers population history and identifies fine-scale genetic ancestry from rare variants. Using rarecoal we find that the Anglo-Saxon samples are closely related to modern Dutch and Danish populations, while the Iron Age samples share ancestors with multiple Northern European populations including Britain.

  17. Iron Age and Anglo-Saxon genomes from East England reveal British migration history

    PubMed Central

    Schiffels, Stephan; Haak, Wolfgang; Paajanen, Pirita; Llamas, Bastien; Popescu, Elizabeth; Loe, Louise; Clarke, Rachel; Lyons, Alice; Mortimer, Richard; Sayer, Duncan; Tyler-Smith, Chris; Cooper, Alan; Durbin, Richard

    2016-01-01

    British population history has been shaped by a series of immigrations, including the early Anglo-Saxon migrations after 400 CE. It remains an open question how these events affected the genetic composition of the current British population. Here, we present whole-genome sequences from 10 individuals excavated close to Cambridge in the East of England, ranging from the late Iron Age to the middle Anglo-Saxon period. By analysing shared rare variants with hundreds of modern samples from Britain and Europe, we estimate that on average the contemporary East English population derives 38% of its ancestry from Anglo-Saxon migrations. We gain further insight with a new method, rarecoal, which infers population history and identifies fine-scale genetic ancestry from rare variants. Using rarecoal we find that the Anglo-Saxon samples are closely related to modern Dutch and Danish populations, while the Iron Age samples share ancestors with multiple Northern European populations including Britain. PMID:26783965

  18. [Beyond the asylum -An other view on the history of psychiatry in the modern age].

    PubMed

    Fauvel, Aude

    2015-07-01

    If one thinks medicine, madness and the past, one image immediately pops into mind: that of the mental asylum. Following the famous work by Michel Foucault, Madness and Civilization: A History of Insanity in the Age of Reason, many historians have thus considered that the medicalization of insanity in the modern age had mostly led to a "great confinement" and a greater segregation of all individuals deemed mentally unfit during the "asylum era': However, new research demonstrates that this classic narrative of the psychiatric past needs to be revised. It discloses that, ever since the 191h century, a whole other medical culture existed as a challenge to asylums, a culture that advocated the integration of the mad and fought to disassociate psychiatry from the dominant model of confinement all throughout the occidental world. This article aims at presenting the results of these historical works that depict another aspect of the psychiatric history, exploring "boarding out" practices, instead of asylum ones.

  19. The relationship between type 2 diabetes family history, body composition and blood basal glycemia in sedentary people.

    PubMed

    Bianco, Antonino; Pomara, Francesco; Raccuglia, Margherita; Bellafiore, Marianna; Battaglia, Giuseppe; Filingeri, Davide; Paoli, Antonio; Palma, Antonio

    2014-02-01

    The aim of this study was to verify whether there is a positive correlation between family history to type 2 diabetes mellitus and body mass and composition, and alterations in blood basal glycaemia levels in sedentary male and female. Anthropometric variables, blood parameters, body composition and body surface area were evaluated on 183 male and 237 female sedentary individuals. Participants were classified into two groups: FH(+) (family history positive) and FH(-) (familiar history negative) according to their medical history. The FH(+) group showed higher values of body mass and body surface area than FH(-) group. These differences were statistically significant (p < 0.05) for the female subgroup. When compared to the FH(-) group, FH(+) female individuals showed a significantly greater fat mass (p < 0.01) and a significantly lower free fat mass-to-fat mass ratio (FFM/FM ratio) (p < 0.05). FH(+) female individuals showed significant lower levels of basal glucose values for Kg of FFM (p < 0.05), FM (p < 0.01) and BSA (p < 0.01) than FH(-) group. The results of this study indicate that body mass and composition correlate positively to family history to type 2 diabetes. The relationship between family history and body composition is particularly evident in young FH(+) female. Thus, as family history might represent a risk factor for the development of type 2 diabetes, this could be considered as an important parameter able to predict the onset of the disease itself. This knowledge could be used to improve preventive interventions (i.e. increasing levels of physical activity) promoting healthy lifestyle.

  20. Prevalence of Helicobacter Pylori Infection in School and Pre-School Aged Children with C-14 Urea Breath Test and the Association with Familial and Environmental Factors

    PubMed Central

    Çınar, Alev; Sadıç, Murat; İkbal Atılgan, Hasan; Baskın, Aylin; Koca, Gökhan; Demirel, Koray; Korkmaz, Meliha

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the prevalence of Helicobacter pylori (Hp) infection in pre-school and school age children with C-14 urea breath test, and to explore its association with age and socioeconomic factors in Turkey. Methods: Hp infection status was determined by using Urea Breath Test (UBT). Patients who had previous gastric surgery, Hp eradication treatment or equivocal UBT results were excluded. A questionnaire was administered to elicit information on gender, age, ABO/Rh blood group type, presence of gastric disease in the family, domestic animal in the household, and treatment for idiopathic Iron Deficiency Anemia (IDA). Results: This retrospective study included 500 pediatric patients (179 boys, 321 girls, mean age 10.7±4.3 years) of whom 62 (12.4%) were aged ≤6 years and 438 (87.6%) were aged 7 to 16 years. Helicobacter pylori (Hp) was positive in 245 (49%) cases. In the pre-school age group, 21/62 cases (34%) had positive UBT while in the school age group 224/438 children (51%) had positive UBT. A family history of dyspepsia and pet ownership were not associated with Hp positivity. Hp positive 76 (29.8%) children were on IDA treatment but this was not statistically significant. Conclusion: The Hp infection positivity rate was 49% in the pediatric age study group. The positivity rate was significantly lower at preschool age than school age, and it increased with age. There was no association with gender, ABO/Rh blood groups, presence of domestic pets, IDA, or history of gastric disease in the family. PMID:26316471

  1. History of a prolific family: the Hes/Hey-related genes of the annelid Platynereis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The Hes superfamily or Hes/Hey-related genes encompass a variety of metazoan-specific bHLH genes, with somewhat fuzzy phylogenetic relationships. Hes superfamily members are involved in a variety of major developmental mechanisms in metazoans, notably in neurogenesis and segmentation processes, in which they often act as direct effector genes of the Notch signaling pathway. Results We have investigated the molecular and functional evolution of the Hes superfamily in metazoans using the lophotrochozoan Platynereis dumerilii as model. Our phylogenetic analyses of more than 200 Metazoan Hes/Hey-related genes revealed the presence of five families, three of them (Hes, Hey and Helt) being pan-metazoan. Those families were likely composed of a unique representative in the last common metazoan ancestor. The evolution of the Hes family was shaped by many independent lineage specific tandem duplication events. The expression patterns of 13 of the 15 Hes/Hey-related genes in Platynereis indicate a broad functional diversification. Nevertheless, a majority of these genes are involved in two crucial developmental processes in annelids: neurogenesis and segmentation, resembling functions highlighted in other animal models. Conclusions Combining phylogenetic and expression data, our study suggests an unusual evolutionary history for the Hes superfamily. An ancestral multifunctional annelid Hes gene may have undergone multiples rounds of duplication-degeneration-complementation processes in the lineage leading to Platynereis, each gene copies ensuring their maintenance in the genome by subfunctionalisation. Similar but independent waves of duplications are at the origin of the multiplicity of Hes genes in other metazoan lineages. PMID:25250171

  2. Aryl hydrocarbon receptor expression is associated with a family history of upper gastrointestinal tract cancer in a high-risk population exposed to aromatic hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect

    Roth, M.J.; Wei, W.Q.; Baer, J.; Abnet, C.C.; Wang, G.Q.; Sternberg, L.R.; Warner, A.C.; Johnson, L.L.; Lu, N.; Giffen, C.A.; Dawsey, S.M.; Qiao, Y.L.; Cherry, J.

    2009-09-15

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) exposure is a risk factor for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma, and PAHs are ligands of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). This study measured the expression of AhR and related genes in frozen esophageal cell samples from patients exposed to different levels of indoor air pollution, who did or did not have high-grade squamous dysplasia and who did or did not have a family history of upper gastrointestinal tract (UGI) cancer. 147 samples were evaluated, including 23 (16%) from patients with high-grade dysplasia and 48 (33%) from patients without dysplasia who heated their homes with coal, without a chimney (a 'high' indoor air pollution group), and 27 (18%) from patients with high-grade dysplasia and 49 (33%) from patients without dysplasia who did not heat their homes at all (a 'low' indoor air pollution group). Sixty-four (44%) had a family history of UGI cancer. RNA was extracted and quantitative PCR analysis was done. AhR gene expression was detectable in 85 (58%) of the samples and was >9-fold higher in those with a family history of UGI cancer (median expression (interquartile range), -1,964 (-18,000, -610) versus -18,000 (-18,000, -1036); P = 0.02, Wilcoxon rank-sum test). Heating status, dysplasia category, age, gender, and smoking were not associated with AhR expression (linear regression; all P values {ge} 0.1). AhR expression was higher in patients with a family history of UGI cancer. Such individuals may be more susceptible to the deleterious effects of PAH exposure, including PAH-induced cancer.

  3. Effect of Family History on Outcomes in Patients Treated With Definitive Brachytherapy for Clinically Localized Prostate Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, Christopher A. Stock, Richard G.; Blacksburg, Seth R.; Stone, Nelson N.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the impact familial prostate cancer has on prognosis in men treated with brachytherapy for clinically localized prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: A total of 1,738 consecutive patients with prostate cancer (cT1-3, N0/X, M0) received low-dose-rate brachytherapy alone or in combination with external beam radiation therapy or hormone ablation from 1992 to 2005. The primary end-point was freedom from biochemical failure (FFBF) using the Phoenix definition. Minimum follow-up was 2 years and the median follow-up was 60 months (range, 24-197 months). Results: A total of 187 of 1,738 men (11%) had a family history of prostate cancer in a first-degree relative. For the low-risk patients, both groups had similar actuarial 5-year FFBF (97.2% vs. 95.5%, p = 0.516). For intermediate-risk patients, there was a trend toward improved biochemical control in men positive for family history (5-yr FFBF 100% vs. 93.6%, p = 0.076). For the high-risk patients, men with a positive family history had similar 5-year FFBF (92.8% vs. 85.2%, p = 0.124). On multivariate analysis, family history was not significant; use of hormones, high biologic effective dose, initial prostate-specific antigen value, and Gleason score were the significant variables predicting biochemical control. Conclusions: This is the first study to examine the relationship of familial prostate cancer and outcomed in men treated with brachytherapy alone or in combination therapy. Men with a positive family history have clinicopathologic characteristics and biochemical outcomes similar to those with sporadic disease.

  4. Genomic basis of aging and life-history evolution in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Remolina, Silvia C; Chang, Peter L; Leips, Jeff; Nuzhdin, Sergey V; Hughes, Kimberly A

    2012-11-01

    Natural diversity in aging and other life-history patterns is a hallmark of organismal variation. Related species, populations, and individuals within populations show genetically based variation in life span and other aspects of age-related performance. Population differences are especially informative because these differences can be large relative to within-population variation and because they occur in organisms with otherwise similar genomes. We used experimental evolution to produce populations divergent for life span and late-age fertility and then used deep genome sequencing to detect sequence variants with nucleotide-level resolution. Several genes and genome regions showed strong signatures of selection, and the same regions were implicated in independent comparisons, suggesting that the same alleles were selected in replicate lines. Genes related to oogenesis, immunity, and protein degradation were implicated as important modifiers of late-life performance. Expression profiling and functional annotation narrowed the list of strong candidate genes to 38, most of which are novel candidates for regulating aging. Life span and early age fecundity were negatively correlated among populations; therefore, the alleles we identified also are candidate regulators of a major life-history trade-off. More generally, we argue that hitchhiking mapping can be a powerful tool for uncovering the molecular bases of quantitative genetic variation.

  5. Family history of suicide and high motor impulsivity distinguish suicide attempters from suicide ideators among college students.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yong-Guang; Chen, Shen; Xu, Zhi-Ming; Shen, Zhi-Hua; Wang, Yi-Quan; He, Xiao-Yan; Cao, Ri-Fang; Roberts, David L; Shi, Jian-Fei; Wang, Yi-Qiang

    2017-02-08

    Suicide in college students has become an important public health issue in China. The aim of this study was to identify the differences between suicide attempters and suicide ideators based on a cross-sectional survey. Our results indicate that although female gender, positive screening for psychiatric illness, positive family history of suicide, elevated overall impulsivity, and elevated motor impulsivity were correlated with suicidal ideation, only positive family history of suicide and high motor impulsivity could differentiate suicide attempters from suicidal ideators. Future research with a longitudinal and prospective study design should be conducted to confirm these findings.

  6. Something Old, Something New: Using Family History and Genetic Testing to Diagnose and Manage Athletes with Inherited Cardiovascular Disease.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Matthew J; Battle, Robert W

    2015-07-01

    A primary objective of the preparticipation physical examination is to identify athletes at increased risk for sudden cardiac arrest (SCA). Review of an athlete's family history may identify those at risk for SCA. Genetic testing for inherited cardiovascular disease has emerged as a valuable addition to the repertoire of cardiologists facing the decision of clearing athletes with concerning clinical signs and/or family histories. Genetic testing may lead to various outcomes for an athlete including: reassurance, diagnosis in those with borderline clinical features, finding disease predisposition prior to the onset of clinical signs (ie, genotype-positive/phenotype-negative), or continued uncertainty.

  7. The confounded effects of age and exposure history in response to influenza vaccination.

    PubMed

    Mosterín Höpping, Ana; McElhaney, Janet; Fonville, Judith M; Powers, Douglas C; Beyer, Walter E P; Smith, Derek J

    2016-01-20

    Numerous studies have explored whether the antibody response to influenza vaccination in elderly adults is as strong as it is in young adults. Results vary, but tend to indicate lower post-vaccination titers (antibody levels) in the elderly, supporting the concept of immunosenescence-the weakening of the immunological response related to age. Because the elderly in such studies typically have been vaccinated against influenza before enrollment, a confounding of effects occurs between age, and previous exposures, as a potential extrinsic reason for immunosenescence. We conducted a four-year study of serial annual immunizations with inactivated trivalent influenza vaccines in 136 young adults (16 to 39 years) and 122 elderly adults (62 to 92 years). Compared to data sets of previously published studies, which were designed to investigate the effect of age, this detailed longitudinal study with multiple vaccinations allowed us to also study the effect of prior vaccination history on the response to a vaccine. In response to the first vaccination, young adults produced higher post-vaccination titers, accounting for pre-vaccination titers, than elderly adults. However, upon subsequent vaccinations the difference in response to vaccination between the young and elderly age groups declined rapidly. Although age is an important factor when modeling the outcome of the first vaccination, this term lost its relevance with successive vaccinations. In fact, when we examined the data with the assumption that the elderly group had received (on average) as few as two vaccinations prior to our study, the difference due to age disappeared. Our analyses therefore show that the initial difference between the two age groups in their response to vaccination may not be uniquely explained by immunosenescence due to ageing of the immune system, but could equally be the result of the different pre-study vaccination and infection histories in the elderly.

  8. Fertility Decline, Gender Composition of Families, and Expectations of Old Age Support

    PubMed Central

    Allendorf, Keera

    2017-01-01

    Recent fertility declines in non-Western countries may have the potential to transform gender systems. One pathway for such transformations is the creation of substantial proportions of families with children of only one gender. Such families, particularly those with only daughters, may facilitate greater symmetry between sons and daughters. This article explores whether such shifts may influence gendered expectations of old age support. In keeping with patriarchal family systems, old age support is customarily provided by sons, but not daughters, in India. Using data from the 2005 Indian Human Development Survey, I find that women with sons overwhelmingly expect old age support from a son. By contrast, women with only daughters largely expect support from a daughter or a source besides a child. These findings suggest that fertility decline may place demographic pressure on gendered patterns of old age support and the gender system more broadly.

  9. Giuseppe and Aloysius Frari’s Works on Rabies and History of Frari Medical Family of Šibenik, Dalmatia

    PubMed Central

    Krnić, Anton

    2007-01-01

    This article is an attempt to reconstruct the family history of the Fraris, the famous Šibenik medical family. Three generations of physicians from the Frari family played an important role not only at medical and social scene of Šibenik in the 18th and 19th century, but also in Croatian and Italian medical history. I will try to provide important details on the lives, medical and social work, and publications of 5 members of the family, Giuseppe (Josip), Angelo Antonio (Anđeo Antun), Sebastiano (Sebastijan), Michele Carlo (Mihovil), and Aloysius (Luigi) Frari. I would also like to pay a special attention to the works on rabies, written by Giuseppe and Luigi Frari, which are among the earliest and most accurate Croatian works on the subject. To reconstruct the history of the family, I studied the relevant editions about the medical and social history of Šibenik, Dalmatia, Venice, and Croatia, together with the Fraris’ publications and reflections. This was the first time Italian and Latin language works by Giuseppe and Luigi Frari on rabies were analyzed. The story on Fraris also documents that medical publishing was a common practice in Dalmatia in the 18th and the 19th century. PMID:17589982

  10. Calcium urolithiasis course in young stone formers is influenced by the strength of family history: results from a retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Guerra, Angela; Ticinesi, Andrea; Allegri, Franca; Nouvenne, Antonio; Pinelli, Silvana; Lauretani, Fulvio; Maggio, Marcello; Cervellin, Gianfranco; Borghi, Loris; Meschi, Tiziana

    2016-12-09

    The role of the strength of family history of stones (FHS), i.e., degree of relatives with the disease, on the course of calcium urolithiasis (CU) is not fully understood, particularly in young patients where genetic background has the greatest influence on disease expression. Thus, with a retrospective cross-sectional design, we examined baseline clinical parameters and urinary chemistries of 369 subjects (196 M) with CU and 96 controls (41 M) aged between 15 and 25 at the time of the first visit at our stone clinic. Subjects with metabolic syndrome traits, known causes of CU or CU onset before the age of 15 were excluded. Clinical and metabolic parameters were compared among stone formers (SF) and controls, stratified by gender, the presence and type of FHS determined through the kinship coefficient of relatives with stones. No significant differences in clinical course were found between SF with and without FHS, except for the presence of bilateral stones (OR 2.01, 95% CI 1.20-3.39, p < 0.01). A significant age-, sex- and disease duration-adjusted trend for a higher number of colics (p for trend = 0.001), number of stones (p for trend = 0.002), stone rate (p for trend = 0.003) and the presence of retained stones (OR 1.60, 95% CI 1.14-2.21, p = 0.006) was detected with increasing FHS strength. Urinary chemistries were unaffected by FHS in both SF and controls, except for a higher calcium excretion in females with FHS (p < 0.05). The type of FHS, thus, significantly influences the clinical course of CU in young SF, mainly irrespective of urinary factors.

  11. Age at menopause, reproductive history and venous thromboembolism risk among postmenopausal women

    PubMed Central

    Canonico, Marianne; Plu-Bureau, Geneviève; O’Sullivan, Mary Jo; Stefanick, Marcia L.; Cochrane, Barbara; Scarabin, Pierre-Yves; Manson, JoAnn E.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To investigate VTE risk in relation to age at menopause, age at menarche, parity, bilateral oophorectomy and time since menopause, as well as any interaction with randomized HT assignment among postmenopausal women. Methods Using pooled data from the Women’s Health Initiative HT clinical trials including 27,035 postmenopausal women ages 50 to 79 years with no history of VTE, we assessed the risk of VTE in relation to age at menopause, age at menarche, parity, bilateral oophorectomy and time since menopause by Cox proportional hazard models. Linear trends, quadratic relationships and interactions of reproductive life characteristics with HT on VTE risk were systematically tested. Results During the follow-up, 426 women reported a first VTE, including 294 nonprocedure-related events. No apparent interaction of reproductive life characteristics with HT assignment on VTE risk was detected and there was any significant association of VTE with age at menarche, age at menopause, parity, oophorectomy or time since menopause. However, analyses restricted to nonprocedure-related VTE showed a U-shaped relationship between age at menopause and thrombotic risk that persisted after multivariable analysis (p<0.01). Compared to women aged 40 to 49 years at menopause, those with early menopause (age<40 years) or with late menopause (age>55 years) had a significant increased VTE risk (HR=1.8;95%CI:1.2–2.7 and HR=1.5;95%CI:1.0–2.4, respectively). Conclusion Reproductive life characteristics have little association with VTE and do not seem to influence the effect of HT on thrombotic risk among postmenopausal women. Nevertheless, early and late onset of menopause might be newly identified risk factors for nonprocedure-related VTE. PMID:23760439

  12. The Utilization of Local History in Teaching American Religious History: A Gilded Age and Progressive Era North Dakota Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, Christopher Neal

    2013-01-01

    Teachers of college-level courses on American religious history generally leave out the importance of local and regional histories when telling the story of religion in America. The study of local history provides a fertile ground for understanding broad national trends in a local context. This dissertation focuses upon a little-studied religious…

  13. Medical History, Lifestyle, Family History, and Occupational Risk Factors for Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia/Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma: The InterLymph Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma Subtypes Project

    PubMed Central

    Benavente, Yolanda; Blair, Aaron; Vermeulen, Roel; Cerhan, James R.; Costantini, Adele Seniori; Monnereau, Alain; Nieters, Alexandra; Clavel, Jacqueline; Call, Timothy G.; Maynadié, Marc; Lan, Qing; Clarke, Christina A.; Lightfoot, Tracy; Norman, Aaron D.; Sampson, Joshua N.; Casabonne, Delphine; Cocco, Pierluigi; de Sanjosé, Silvia

    2014-01-01

    Background Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) and small lymphocytic lymphoma (SLL) are two subtypes of non-Hodgkin lymphoma. A number of studies have evaluated associations between risk factors and CLL/SLL risk. However, these associations remain inconsistent or lacked confirmation. This may be due, in part, to the inadequate sample size of CLL/SLL cases. Methods We performed a pooled analysis of 2440 CLL/SLL cases and 15186 controls from 13 case-control studies from Europe, North America, and Australia. We evaluated associations of medical history, family history, lifestyle, and occupational risk factors with CLL/SLL risk. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Results We confirmed prior inverse associations with any atopic condition and recreational sun exposure. We also confirmed prior elevated associations with usual adult height, hepatitis C virus seropositivity, living or working on a farm, and family history of any hematological malignancy. Novel associations were identified with hairdresser occupation (OR = 1.77, 95% CI = 1.05 to 2.98) and blood transfusion history (OR = 0.79, 95% CI = 0.66 to 0.94). We also found smoking to have modest protective effect (OR = 0.9, 95% CI = 0.81 to 0.99). All exposures showed evidence of independent effects. Conclusions We have identified or confirmed several independent risk factors for CLL/SLL supporting a role for genetics (through family history), immune function (through allergy and sun), infection (through hepatitis C virus), and height, and other pathways of immune response. Given that CLL/SLL has more than 30 susceptibility loci identified to date, studies evaluating the interaction among genetic and nongenetic factors are warranted. PMID:25174025

  14. Age-dependent flea (Siphonaptera) parasitism in rodents: a host's life history matters.

    PubMed

    Krasnov, Boris R; Stanko, Michal; Morand, Serge

    2006-04-01

    We studied age-dependent patterns of flea infestation in 7 species of rodents from Slovakia (Apodemus agrarius, A. flavicollis, A. sylvaticus, A. uralensis, Clethrionomys glareolus, Microtus arvalis, and M. subterraneus). We estimated the age of the host from its body mass and expected the host age-dependent pattern of flea abundance, the level of aggregation, and prevalence to be in agreement with theoretical predictions. We expected that the mean abundance and the level of aggregation of fleas would be lowest in hosts of smallest and largest size classes and highest in hosts of medium size classes, whereas pattern of variation of prevalence with host age would be either convex or asymptotic. In general, mean abundance and species richness of fleas increased with an increase in host age, although the pressure of flea parasitism in terms of number of fleas per unit host body surface decreased with host age. We found 2 clear patterns of the change in flea aggregation and prevalence with host age. The first pattern demonstrated a peak of flea aggregation and a trough of flea prevalence in animals of middle age classes (Apodemus species and C. glareolus). The second pattern was an increase of both flea aggregation and flea prevalence with host age (both Microtus species). Consequently, we did not find unequivocal evidence for the main role of either parasite-induced host mortality or acquired resistance in host age-dependent pattern of flea parasitism. Our results suggest that this pattern can be generated by various processes and is strongly affected by natural history parameters of a host species such as dispersal pattern, spatial distribution, and structure of shelters.

  15. Altered fronto-cerebellar connectivity in alcohol-naïve youth with a family history of alcoholism.

    PubMed

    Herting, Megan M; Fair, Damien; Nagel, Bonnie J

    2011-02-14

    Fronto-cerebellar connections are thought to be involved in higher-order cognitive functioning. It is suspected that damage to this network may contribute to cognitive deficits in chronic alcoholics. However, it remains to be elucidated if fronto-cerebellar circuitry is altered in high-risk individuals even prior to alcohol use onset. The current study used functional connectivity MRI (fcMRI) to examine fronto-cerebellar circuitry in 13 alcohol-naïve, at-risk youth with a family history of alcoholism (FH+) and 14 age-matched controls. In addition, we examined how white matter microstructure, as evidenced by fractional anisotropy (FA), related to fcMRI. FH+youth showed significantly reduced functional connectivity between bilateral anterior prefrontal cortices and contralateral cerebellar seed regions compared to controls. We found that this reduction in connectivity significantly correlated with reduced FA in the anterior limb of the internal capsule and the superior longitudinal fasciculus. Taken together, our findings reflect associated aberrant functional and structural connectivity in substance-naïve FH+adolescents, perhaps suggesting an identifiable neurophenotypic precursor to substance use. Given the role of frontal and cerebellar brain regions in subserving executive functioning, the presence of premorbid abnormalities in fronto-cerebellar circuitry may heighten the risk for developing an alcohol use disorder in FH+youth through atypical control processing.

  16. Residential history, family characteristics and non-Hodgkin lymphoma, a population-based case-control study in the San Francisco Bay Area.

    PubMed

    Bracci, Paige M; Dalvi, Tapashi B; Holly, Elizabeth A

    2006-07-01

    A population-based, case-control study (N = 1,593 cases, N = 2,515 controls) was conducted in the San Francisco Bay Area, California, to determine risk factors for non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). This report examines residential characteristics, number of siblings, childhood infections, and allergic rhinitis to evaluate the association between NHL and the hygiene hypothesis. Adjusted unconditional logistic regression analyses included HIV-negative participants (N = 1,304 cases, N = 2,402 controls) ages 21 to 74 years, who completed in-person interviews. At childhood ages, odds ratios (OR) for NHL decreased with increasing number of household rooms (age 8 years, P(trend) = 0.08; age 15 years, P(trend) < 0.0001) and increased with more crowded living conditions (quartiles of no. people/no. rooms; age 8 years, P(trend) < 0.0001; age 15 years, P(trend) = 0.0004), whereas at older ages a greater number of people in the household and greater number of household rooms were positively associated with NHL. ORs increased with increasing number of siblings (P(trend) = 0.0003) and increasing birth order (P(trend) = 0.01). Participants with five or more younger siblings had a 50% increased OR for NHL. ORs for NHL decreased with an increasing number of different infections during childhood (age 8 years, P(trend) < 0.0001; age 15 years, P(trend) = 0.0003) and with history of allergic rhinitis (P < 0.0001). Our results are somewhat consistent with the hygiene hypothesis that less crowding and better sanitation results in fewer infections early in life and an increased incidence of immune-related conditions later in life. The role of the complex relationship between residential history, family characteristics, childhood infections, and immune function in the development of NHL warrants further investigation in pooled analyses.

  17. [Medicine, aging, masculinity: towards a cultural history of the male climacterium].

    PubMed

    Hofer, Hans-Georg

    2007-01-01

    Most historical studies on aging, gender and medicine have hitherto focused on menopausal women. There is comparatively little work on aging men and the contested idea of climacteric or "menopausal" men. This paper seeks to examine the male climacterium as a culturally and historically shaped idea in twentieth-century medicine. In the first part I shall map historical changes in understanding and defining the subject. In the second and third part, my main emphasis is put on answering the question: "What does it mean to write a cultural history of the male climacterium?" Drawing upon positions from cultural, gender and men's studies, I argue that the production of medical knowledge about the aging process of men is inevitably embedded in a cultural universe constituted by narratives, symbols, metaphors and images.

  18. Reconstructing the age and historical biogeography of the ancient flowering-plant family Hydatellaceae (Nymphaeales)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The aquatic flowering-plant family Hydatellaceae has a classic Gondwanan distribution, as it is found in Australia, India and New Zealand. To shed light on the biogeographic history of this apparently ancient branch of angiosperm phylogeny, we dated the family in the context of other seed-plant divergences, and evaluated its biogeography using parsimony and likelihood methods. We also explicitly tested the effect of different extinction rates on biogeographic inferences. Results We infer that the stem lineage of Hydatellaceae originated in the Lower Cretaceous; in contrast, its crown originated much more recently, in the early Miocene, with the bulk of its diversification after the onset of the Pliocene. Biogeographic reconstructions predict a mix of dispersal and vicariance events, but considerations of geological history preclude most vicariance events, besides a split at the root of the family between southern and northern clades. High extinction rates are plausible in the family, and when these are taken into account there is greater uncertainty in biogeographic inferences. Conclusions A stem origin for Hydatellaceae in the Lower Cretaceous is consistent with the initial appearance of fossils attributed to its sister clade, the water lilies. In contrast, the crown clade is young, indicating that vicariant explanations for species outside Australia are improbable. Although long-distance dispersal is likely the primary driver of biogeographic distribution in Hydatellaceae, we infer that the recent drying out of central Australia divided the family into tropical vs. subtropical/temperate clades around the beginning of the Miocene. PMID:24884487

  19. Glaucoma history and risk factors.

    PubMed

    McMonnies, Charles W

    Apart from the risk of developing glaucoma there is also the risk that it is not detected and irreversible loss of vision ensues. Some studies of methods of glaucoma diagnosis have examined the results of instrument-based examinations with great if not complete reliance on objective findings in arriving at a diagnosis. The very valuable advances in glaucoma detection instrument technologies, and apparent increasing dependence on them, may have led to reduced consideration of information available from a patient history in those studies. Dependence on objective evidence of glaucomatous pathology may reduce the possibility of detecting glaucoma suspects or patients at risk for becoming glaucoma suspects. A valid positive family history of glaucoma is very valuable information. However, negative family histories can often be unreliable due to large numbers of glaucoma cases being undiagnosed. No evidence of family history is appropriate rather than no family history. In addition the unreliability of a negative family history is increased when patients with glaucoma fail to inform their family members. A finding of no family history can only be stated as no known family history. In examining the potential diagnostic contribution from a patient history, this review considers, age, frailty, race, type and degree of refractive error, systemic hyper- and hypotension, vasospasm, migraine, pigmentary dispersion syndrome, pseudoexfoliation syndrome, obstructive sleep apnea syndrome, diabetes, medication interactions and side effects, the degree of exposure to intraocular and intracranial pressure elevations and fluctuations, smoking, and symptoms in addition to genetics and family history of the disease.

  20. The Axial Age and the Problems of the Twentieth Century: Du Bois, Jaspers, and Universal History.

    PubMed

    Boy, John D

    The axial age debate has put big questions of social and cultural change back on the agenda of sociology. This paper takes this development as an occasion to reflect on how social thought works with (and against) nineteenth-century intellectual traditions in its efforts to understand history on a macro scale. Karl Jaspers, who initially formulated the axial age thesis in The Origin and Goal of History, revised the Hegelian account of world history by broadening the scope of the narrative to encompass all civilizations participating in the events of the first millennium BCE that saw the rise of major philosophical and religious traditions. However, his account, like the earlier philosophical accounts he seeks to improve upon, privileges cognitive developments over material practices and social interactions, and as such offers little to those seeking to make sense of how cultural patterns interact with others and spread. Here another social theorist engaging with Hegel, W. E. B. Du Bois, provides a helpful contrast. His account of the development of double-consciousness in "Of Our Spiritual Strivings," the opening chapter of The Souls of Black Folk, helps us to understand experiences of encounter and the perduring historical effects they may have. Du Bois' relational theory reminds us of the importance of unpacking abstractions and understanding processes in terms of social interactions.

  1. Association between Health Behaviors and a Family History of Cancer among Korean Women

    PubMed Central

    Ham, Youngsun; Oh, Hea Young; Seo, Sang-Soo; Kim, Mi Kyung

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study was to examine the health-related behaviors related to a family history of cancer (FHCA) among Korean women underwent cancer screening. Materials and Methods A total of 8,956 women who underwent cancer screenings during 2001-2011 at the National Cancer Center, Korea, were analyzed. The association between health-related behaviors and a FHCA were assessed using multivariate logistic regression. Results Compared to women with no FHCA, women with FHCA were more likely to smoke (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 1.32; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.06 to 1.65), to be exposed to passive smoking (aOR, 1.21; 95% CI, 1.15 to 1.65), and less likely to engage in regular exercise (aOR, 1.20; 95% CI, 1.01 to 1.41). Combined effects of selected health behaviors for FHCA were significant, although no statistically significant interactions were observed between selected health behaviors. Compared to women with no FHCA, women with FHCA were more likely to simultaneously smoke and be exposed to passive smoking (aOR, 1.65; 95% CI, 1.17 to 2.31) and to simultaneously smoke and be physically inactive (aOR, 1.62; 95% CI, 1.00 to 2.64). Conclusion The study found that women with a FHCA exhibited unhealthy behaviors compared to women without FHCA. Higher emphasis on lifestyle modifications using a new standardized tool is strongly recommended for those with a FHCA, as well as individuals who are at high risk, together with their family members. PMID:26511810

  2. Predicting Adolescents' Organized Activity Involvement: The Role of Maternal Depression History, Family Relationship Quality, and Adolescent Cognitions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bohnert, Amy M.; Martin, Nina C.; Garber, Judy

    2007-01-01

    Although the potential benefits of organized activity involvement during high school have been documented, little is known about what familial and individual characteristics are associated with higher levels of participation. Using structural equation modeling, this longitudinal study examined the extent to which maternal depression history (i.e.,…

  3. Factors from Durkheim's Family Integration Related to Suicidal Ideation among Men with Histories of Child Sexual Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Easton, Scott D.; Renner, Lynette M.

    2013-01-01

    Men who were sexually abused during childhood represent a highly stigmatized, marginalized population at risk for a variety of long-term mental health problems. Using the family integration dimension of Durkheim's theory of suicide, factors associated with suicidal ideation among a purposive sample of 487 men with histories of child sexual…

  4. Voices of Our Past: Using Oral History To Explore Funds of Knowledge within a Puerto Rican Family.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olmedo, Irma M.

    1997-01-01

    Presents an educational rationale for using oral history to teach students that there are multiple sources of information and multiple ways to seek it. The case study of an extended Puerto Rican family is used to explore the funds of knowledge available in this way as well as to challenge some stereotypes about Latinas. (SLD)

  5. Use of Family History Information for Neural Tube Defect Prevention: Integration into State-Based Recurrence Prevention Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Ridgely Fisk; Ehrhardt, Joan; Ruttenber, Margaret F.; Olney, Richard S.

    2011-01-01

    A family history of neural tube defects (NTDs) can increase the risk of a pregnancy affected by an NTD. Periconceptional folic acid use decreases this risk. Purpose: Our objective was to determine whether second-degree relatives of NTD-affected children showed differences in folic acid use compared with the general population and to provide them…

  6. Distal and proximal factors related to aggression severity among patients in substance abuse treatment: family history, alcohol use and expectancies.

    PubMed

    Chermack, Stephen T; Wryobeck, John M; Walton, Maureen A; Blow, Frederic C

    2006-05-01

    This study examined the relationships among distal (paternal and maternal family history of alcohol problems and violence) and proximal (general alcohol use, acute use associated with conflict incidents, alcohol-aggression expectancies) factors and physical aggression severity among 125 men and 125 women recruited from substance abuse treatment. Paternal alcohol problem history (PA) was related to alcohol-aggression expectancies, but no family history factors were related to general or acute alcohol use. Separate analyses examining predictors of aggression were conducted, one with general alcohol use and one with acute alcohol use. In both analyses, alcohol use and the maternal violence (MV) by PA interaction were significant. Specifically, MV was associated with aggression severity for those with a history of PA. The general alcohol use model also revealed significant alcohol by expectancy and MV by gender interactions. The findings suggest that expectancies are not the primary mediator of the alcohol-aggression relationship, alcohol use measurement issues may impact whether expectancies are observed to moderate the alcohol-aggression relationship, and that both maternal and paternal family history factors appear to impact aggression severity.

  7. Interactive effects of working memory and trial history on Stroop interference in cognitively healthy aging.

    PubMed

    Aschenbrenner, Andrew J; Balota, David A

    2015-03-01

    Past studies have suggested that Stroop interference increases with age; however the robustness of this effect after controlling for processing speed has been questioned. Both working memory (WM) and the congruency of the immediately preceding trial have also been shown to moderate the magnitude of Stroop interference. Specifically, interference is smaller both for individuals with higher working memory capacity and following an incongruent trial. At present, it is unclear whether and how these 3 variables (age, WM and previous congruency) interact to predict interference effects in the standard Stroop color-naming task. We present analyses of Stroop interference in a large database of Stroop color-naming trials from a lifespan sample of well-screened, cognitively healthy, older adults. Our results indicated age-related increases in interference (after controlling for processing speed) that were exaggerated for individuals with low WM. This relationship between age and WM occurred primarily when the immediately preceding trial was congruent. Following an incongruent trial, interference increased consistently with age, regardless of WM. Taken together, these results support previous accounts of multiple mechanisms underlying control in the Stroop task and provide insight into how each component is jointly affected by age, WM, and trial history.

  8. Age-dependent genetic variance in a life-history trait in the mute swan.

    PubMed

    Charmantier, Anne; Perrins, Christopher; McCleery, Robin H; Sheldon, Ben C

    2006-01-22

    Genetic variance in characters under natural selection in natural populations determines the way those populations respond to that selection. Whether populations show temporal and/or spatial constancy in patterns of genetic variance and covariance is regularly considered, as this will determine whether selection responses are constant over space and time. Much less often considered is whether characters show differing amounts of genetic variance over the life-history of individuals. Such age-specific variation, if present, has important potential consequences for the force of natural selection and for understanding the causes of variation in quantitative characters. Using data from a long-term study of the mute swan Cygnus olor, we report the partitioning of phenotypic variance in timing of breeding (subject to strong natural selection) into component parts over 12 different age classes. We show that the additive genetic variance and heritability of this trait are strongly age-dependent, with higher additive genetic variance present in young and, particularly, old birds, but little evidence of any genetic variance for birds of intermediate ages. These results demonstrate that age can have a very important influence on the components of variation of characters in natural populations, and consequently that separate age classes cannot be assumed to be equivalent, either with respect to their evolutionary potential or response.

  9. National Needs of Family Planning Among US Men Aged 15 to 44 Years

    PubMed Central

    Gibbs, Susannah E.; Choiriyyah, Ifta; Sonenstein, Freya L.; Astone, Nan M.; Pleck, Joseph H.; Dariotis, Jacinda K.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. To estimate national need for family planning services among men in the United States according to background characteristics, access to care, receipt of services, and contraception use. Methods. We used weighted data from the 2006–2010 National Survey of Family Growth to estimate the percentage of men aged 15 to 44 years (n = 10 395) in need of family planning, based on sexual behavior, fecundity, and not trying to get pregnant with his partner. Results. Overall, 60% of men were in need of family planning, defined as those who ever had vaginal sex, were fecund, and had fecund partner(s) who were not trying to get pregnant with partner or partner(s) were not currently pregnant. The greatest need was among young and unmarried men. Most men in need of family planning had access to care, but few reported receiving family planning services (< 19%), consistently using condoms (26%), or having partners consistently using contraception (41%). Conclusions. The need for engaging men aged 15 to 44 years in family planning education and care is substantial and largely unmet despite national public health priorities to include men in reducing unintended pregnancies. PMID:26890180

  10. Family history of immigration from a tuberculosis endemic country and low family income are associated with a higher BCG vaccination coverage in Ile-de-France region, France.

    PubMed

    Guthmann, Jean-Paul; Chauvin, Pierre; Le Strat, Yann; Soler, Marion; Fonteneau, Laure; Lévy-Bruhl, Daniel

    2013-11-19

    After withdrawal of multipuncture BCG device from the French market in January 2006, vaccination coverage (VC) with the intradermal device has dropped and since remained sub-optimal in Ile-de-France, the only region of mainland France where BCG is recommended to all children. We conducted a cross-sectional study to identify socio-economic factors associated with BCG VC in children of Paris metropolitan area born after January 2006. Two-stage random sampling was used to include 425 children up to 5 years old from Paris and its suburbs. Information was collected through face-to-face interviews and vaccination status confirmed by a vaccination document. Poisson regression analyzed the association between VC and potential determinants. VC of children from families with the lowest incomes (first quartile of family income/consumption unit (CU) (<883 €) was close to 100% regardless of family origin. In families with higher incomes (≥ 883 €/CU), VC was significantly higher among children born to families from a tuberculosis highly endemic country (98.2%) compared with other children (76.2%) (p=0.004). Children of low socio-economic background as well as those with a family history of immigration, regardless of family income, are correctly identified as being at high risk of tuberculosis and properly vaccinated with BCG in this area.

  11. Development and Validation of a Primary Care-Based Family Health History and Decision Support Program (MeTree)

    PubMed Central

    Orlando, Lori A.; Buchanan, Adam H.; Hahn, Susan E.; Christianson, Carol A.; Powell, Karen P.; Skinner, Celette Sugg; Chesnut, Blair; Blach, Colette; Due, Barbara; Ginsburg, Geoffrey S.; Henrich, Vincent C.

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Family health history is a strong predictor of disease risk. To reduce the morbidity and mortality of many chronic diseases, risk-stratified evidence-based guidelines strongly encourage the collection and synthesis of family health history to guide selection of primary prevention strategies. However, the collection and synthesis of such information is not well integrated into clinical practice. To address barriers to collection and use of family health histories, the Genomedical Connection developed and validated MeTree, a Web-based, patient-facing family health history collection and clinical decision support tool. MeTree is designed for integration into primary care practices as part of the genomic medicine model for primary care. METHODS We describe the guiding principles, operational characteristics, algorithm development, and coding used to develop MeTree. Validation was performed through stakeholder cognitive interviewing, a genetic counseling pilot program, and clinical practice pilot programs in 2 community-based primary care clinics. RESULTS Stakeholder feedback resulted in changes to MeTree’s interface and changes to the phrasing of clinical decision support documents. The pilot studies resulted in the identification and correction of coding errors and the reformatting of clinical decision support documents. MeTree’s strengths in comparison with other tools are its seamless integration into clinical practice and its provision of action-oriented recommendations guided by providers’ needs. LIMITATIONS The tool was validated in a small cohort. CONCLUSION MeTree can be integrated into primary care practices to help providers collect and synthesize family health history information from patients with the goal of improving adherence to risk-stratified evidence-based guidelines. PMID:24044145

  12. Ice cream headache in students and family history of headache: a cross-sectional epidemiological study.

    PubMed

    Zierz, Antonia Maria; Mehl, Theresa; Kraya, Torsten; Wienke, Andreas; Zierz, Stephan

    2016-06-01

    Headache attributed to ingestion of a cold stimulus (ICHD-3 beta 4.5.1) is also known as ice cream headache (ICH). This cross-sectional epidemiological study included 283 students (10-14-year-olds) attending a grammar school in Germany, their parents (n = 401), and 41 teachers. A self-administered questionnaire was used to analyze the prevalence and characteristics of ICH based on the ICHD classification. Additionally, the association between ICH and other headaches was investigated in students and parents. Prevalence of ICH in students was 62 % without gender difference. In adults, only 36 % of females and 22 % of males reported ICH. There was an increased risk for ICH in students when mother (OR 10.7) or father (OR 8.4) had ICH. Other headaches in parents had no influence on the prevalence of ICH in students. However, in the groups of students and parents itself there was a highly significant association between ICH and other headaches (students: OR 2.4, mothers: OR 2.9, fathers: OR 6.8). There was a decreased risk for ICH when parents and students had no headache at all (OR < 0.4). ICH in students clearly shows a familial disposition by both father and mother. There was also an association between ICH and other headaches within the student and adult groups. The absence of headache history seems to be a protective factor for ICH.

  13. Evolutionary History of the Nesophontidae, the Last Unplaced Recent Mammal Family.

    PubMed

    Brace, Selina; Thomas, Jessica A; Dalén, Love; Burger, Joachim; MacPhee, Ross D E; Barnes, Ian; Turvey, Samuel T

    2016-12-01

    The mammalian evolutionary tree has lost several major clades through recent human-caused extinctions. This process of historical biodiversity loss has particularly affected tropical island regions such as the Caribbean, an area of great evolutionary diversification but poor molecular preservation. The most enigmatic of the recently extinct endemic Caribbean mammals are the Nesophontidae, a family of morphologically plesiomorphic lipotyphlan insectivores with no consensus on their evolutionary affinities, and which constitute the only major recent mammal clade to lack any molecular information on their phylogenetic placement. Here, we use a palaeogenomic approach to place Nesophontidae within the phylogeny of recent Lipotyphla. We recovered the near-complete mitochondrial genome and sequences for 17 nuclear genes from a ∼750-year-old Hispaniolan Nesophontes specimen, and identify a divergence from their closest living relatives, the Solenodontidae, more than 40 million years ago. Nesophontidae is thus an older distinct lineage than many extant mammalian orders, highlighting not only the role of island systems as "museums" of diversity that preserve ancient lineages, but also the major human-caused loss of evolutionary history.

  14. Medical History, Lifestyle, Family History, and Occupational Risk Factors for Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma: The InterLymph Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma Subtypes Project

    PubMed Central

    Kricker, Anne; Paltiel, Ora; Flowers, Christopher R.; Wang, Sophia S.; Monnereau, Alain; Blair, Aaron; Maso, Luigino Dal; Kane, Eleanor V.; Nieters, Alexandra; Foran, James M.; Miligi, Lucia; Clavel, Jacqueline; Bernstein, Leslie; Rothman, Nathaniel; Slager, Susan L.; Sampson, Joshua N.; Morton, Lindsay M.; Skibola, Christine F.

    2014-01-01

    Background Although risk factors for diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) have been suggested, their independent effects, modification by sex, and association with anatomical sites are largely unknown. Methods In a pooled analysis of 4667 cases and 22639 controls from 19 studies, we used stepwise logistic regression to identify the most parsimonious multivariate models for DLBCL overall, by sex, and for selected anatomical sites. Results DLBCL was associated with B-cell activating autoimmune diseases (odds ratio [OR] = 2.36, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.80 to 3.09), hepatitis C virus seropositivity (OR = 2.02, 95% CI = 1.47 to 2.76), family history of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (OR = 1.95, 95% CI = 1.54 to 2.47), higher young adult body mass index (OR = 1.58, 95% CI = 1.12 to 2.23, for 35+ vs 18.5 to 22.4 kg/m2), higher recreational sun exposure (OR = 0.78, 95% CI = 0.69 to 0.89), any atopic disorder (OR = 0.82, 95% CI = 0.76 to 0.89), and higher socioeconomic status (OR = 0.86, 95% CI = 0.79 to 0.94). Additional risk factors for women were occupation as field crop/vegetable farm worker (OR = 1.78, 95% CI = 1.22 to 2.60), hairdresser (OR = 1.65, 95% CI = 1.12 to 2.41), and seamstress/embroider (OR = 1.49, 95% CI = 1.13 to 1.97), low adult body mass index (OR = 0.46, 95% CI = 0.29 to 0.74, for <18.5 vs 18.5 to 22.4 kg/m2), hormone replacement therapy started age at least 50 years (OR = 0.68, 95% CI = 0.52 to 0.88), and oral contraceptive use before 1970 (OR = 0.78, 95% CI = 0.62 to 1.00); and for men were occupation as material handling equipment operator (OR = 1.58, 95% CI = 1.02 to 2.44), lifetime alcohol consumption (OR = 0.57, 95% CI = 0.44 to 0.75, for >400kg vs nondrinker), and previous blood transfusion (OR = 0.69, 95% CI = 0.57 to 0.83). Autoimmune disease, atopy, and family history of non-Hodgkin lymphoma showed similar associations across selected anatomical sites, whereas smoking was associated with central nervous system, testicular and cutaneous DLBCLs

  15. Coercive Family Process and Early-Onset Conduct Problems From Age 2 to School Entry

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Justin D.; Dishion, Thomas J.; Shaw, Daniel S.; Wilson, Melvin N.; Winter, Charlotte C.; Patterson, Gerald R.

    2013-01-01

    The emergence and persistence of conduct problems during early childhood is a robust predictor of behavior problems in school and future maladaptation. In this study we examined the reciprocal influences between observed coercive interactions between children and caregivers, oppositional and aggressive behavior, and growth in parent report of early childhood (ages 2–5) and school-age conduct problems (age 7.5 and 8.5). Participants were drawn from the Early Steps multisite randomized prevention trial that includes an ethnically diverse sample of male and female children and their families (N = 731). A parallel process growth model combining latent trajectory and cross-lagged approaches revealed the amplifying effect of observed coercive caregiver–child interactions on children's noncompliance, whereas child oppositional and aggressive behaviors did not consistently predict increased coercion. The slope and initial levels of child oppositional and aggressive behaviors and the stability of caregiver–child coercion were predictive of teacher-reported oppositional behavior at school age. Families assigned to the Family Check-Up condition had significantly steeper declines in child oppositional and aggressive behavior and moderate reductions in oppositional behavior in school and in coercion at age 3. Results were not moderated by child gender, race/ethnicity, or assignment to the intervention condition. The implications of these findings are discussed with respect to understanding the early development of conduct problems and to designing optimal strategies for reducing problem behavior in early childhood with families most in need. PMID:24690305

  16. Family income and tooth decay in US children: does the association change with age?

    PubMed

    Bernabé, E; Delgado-Angulo, E K; Murasko, J E; Marcenes, W

    2012-01-01

    This study explored whether the association of family income with tooth decay changes with age among children in the United States. A second objective was to explore the role of access to dental health care services in explaining the interrelationships between family income, child age and tooth decay. Data from 7,491 2- to 15-year-old children who participated in the 1999-2004 National and Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were analyzed. The association of family income with the prevalence of tooth decay in primary, permanent and primary or permanent teeth was first estimated in logistic regression models with all children, and then, separately in four age groups that reflect the development of the dentition (2-5, 6-8, 9-11 and 12-15 years, respectively). Findings showed that the income gradient in tooth decay attenuated significantly in 9- to 11-year-olds only to re-emerge in 12- to 15-year-olds. The age profile of the income gradient in tooth decay was not accounted for by a diverse set of family and child characteristics. This is the first study providing some evidence for age variations in the income gradient in tooth decay among children in the United States.

  17. Coercive family process and early-onset conduct problems from age 2 to school entry.

    PubMed

    Smith, Justin D; Dishion, Thomas J; Shaw, Daniel S; Wilson, Melvin N; Winter, Charlotte C; Patterson, Gerald R

    2014-11-01

    The emergence and persistence of conduct problems (CPs) during early childhood is a robust predictor of behavior problems in school and of future maladaptation. In this study we examined the reciprocal influences between observed coercive interactions between children and caregivers, oppositional and aggressive behavior, and growth in parent report of early childhood (ages 2-5) and school-age CPs (ages 7.5 and 8.5). Participants were drawn from the Early Steps multisite randomized prevention trial that includes an ethnically diverse sample of male and female children and their families (N = 731). A parallel-process growth model combining latent trajectory and cross-lagged approaches revealed the amplifying effect of observed coercive caregiver-child interactions on children's noncompliance, whereas child oppositional and aggressive behaviors did not consistently predict increased coercion. The slope and initial levels of child oppositional and aggressive behaviors and the stability of caregiver-child coercion were predictive of teacher-reported oppositional behavior at school age. Families assigned to the Family Check-Up condition had significantly steeper declines in child oppositional and aggressive behavior and moderate reductions in oppositional behavior in school and in coercion at age 3. Results were not moderated by child gender, race/ethnicity, or assignment to the intervention condition. The implications of these findings are discussed with respect to understanding the early development of CPs and to designing optimal strategies for reducing problem behavior in early childhood with families most in need.

  18. Mental retardation in a child with a {open_quotes}de novo{close_quotes} deletion of terminal 14q and a family history of dyslexia

    SciTech Connect

    Mak-Tam, E.; Capua, E.; Shugar, A.

    1994-09-01

    A couple presented for prenatal diagnosis for advanced maternal age. A review of the family history revealed that their elder daughter was mentally retarded while their second daughter was of normal intelligence. The father and his brother were both dyslexic. The paternal grandmother had lost three pregnancies, all female. The elder daughter had been fully assessed in the past, but no diagnosis had been made. During her first few years, she was frequently ill and failed to thrive. A developmental assessment at age 5 years concluded that she was moderately mentally retarded. She was minimally dysmorphic. DNA testing for fragile X and urine amnio acids, organic acids and metabolic screen were negative. Chromosome and FISH analyses revealed a satellited 14q with a deletion of 14q32.3. Parents did not show the karyotypic changes, but FISH studies on them and the dyslexic uncle are pending. A molecular work-up of chromosome 14 in this family is also in progress. In this child, the phenotype is probably related to the cytogenetic findings. The information about 14q terminal deletions in the literature is limited but a fairly consistent phenotype, which is slightly different from ring 14, is emerging. This is more obvious in infants that in older children. The family history of dyslexia could be unrelated to our patient`s findings but it is also possible that there is a recessive gene for dyslexia in this family which maps to 14q32.3. The current molecular map of this area provides no answer to this question. Genes mapped to 14q3.3 include the alpha-1-antitrypsin gene, the brain component of creative kinase (CKB) and the immunoglobulin heavy chain genes. Loss of heterozygosity of 14q has been associated with end stage human neuroblastoma and colonic neoplasia.

  19. Age-velocity dispersion relations and heating histories in disc galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aumer, Michael; Binney, James; Schönrich, Ralph

    2016-10-01

    We analyse the heating of stellar discs by non-axisymmetric structures and giant molecular clouds (GMCs) in N-body simulations of growing disc galaxies. The analysis resolves long-standing discrepancies between models and data by demonstrating the importance of distinguishing between measured age-velocity dispersion relations (AVRs) and the heating histories of the stars that make up the AVR. We fit both AVRs and heating histories with formulae ∝tβ and determine the exponents βR and βz derived from in-plane and vertical AVRs and tilde{β }_R and tilde{β }_z from heating histories. Values of βz are in almost all simulations larger than values of tilde{β }_z, whereas values of βR are similar to or mildly larger than values of tilde{β }_R. Moreover, values of βz (tilde{β }_z) are generally larger than values of βR (tilde{β }_R). The dominant cause of these relations is the decline over the life of the disc in importance of GMCs as heating agents relative to spiral structure and the bar. We examine how age errors and biases in solar neighbourhood surveys influence the measured AVR: they tend to decrease β values by smearing out ages and thus measured dispersions. We compare AVRs and velocity ellipsoid shapes σz/σR from simulations to solar neighbourhood data. We conclude that for the expected disc mass and dark halo structure, combined GMC and spiral/bar heating can explain the AVR of the Galactic thin disc. Strong departures of the disc mass or the dark halo structure from expectation spoil fits to the data.

  20. Pharmacotherapy guidelines for the aged by family doctors for the use of family doctors: part C--Special pharmacology.

    PubMed

    Bergert, F W; Conrad, D; Ehrenthal, K; Fessler, J; Gross, J; Gundermann, K; Kluthe, B; Lang Heinrich, W; Liesenfeld, A; Loew, P G; Luther, E; Pchalek, R; Seffrin, J; Sterzing, A; Wolfring, H-J; Zimmermann, U

    2009-03-01

    The part "Special pharmacology of the aged" of this guideline contains recommendations for typical conditions in the family doctors practice: in the January issue 2009 dementia and Morbus Parkinson, in this issue osteoporosis and urinary incontinence and in the next issue rectal incontinence and obstipation. This issue of the IJCPT contains the third part of the Pharmacotherapy guidelines for the aged by family doctors for family doctors. Part 3: Osteoporosis and urinary incontinence. Osteoporosis is a systematic disease characterized by low bone mass and declining bone structure. Exercise, adequate diet, nicotine abstinence as well as reduction of alcohol consumption may counteract the progression of the disease. Osteoporosis manifests in bone fractures with minimal trauma. Attention must be given to the risk of falling, e.g., by avoiding drugs that increase the risk of falling: e.g., psychotropic agents, analgesic drugs and antiarrhythmic agents. Specific osteoporosis medication e.g. calcium, vitamin D, biphosphonates and SERM (selective estrogen receptor modulators) is evaluated by family doctors according to indication, dosage, contraindications, long-term therapy and nature of any fracture. Duration of therapy is at least 3 - max. 5 years followed by reassessment of indication. There are 3 types of urine incontinence (urge-, stress-, and overflow-incontinence). Another standardization of urinary incontinence follows dysfunctions of the pelvic floor: detrusor muscle-dependent, due to sphincter spasm, prostate gland dependent. Urge incontinence with a dysfunction of the detrusor muscle is the most common type. Mixed types are frequent. Non-drug measures (e.g. pelvic muscle training, bladder training, toilet training are first choice treatments. Drug therapy (estrogen, imipramine) are without proven effect.

  1. Effect of aging and obesity on the expression of dyslipidaemia in children from families with familial combined hyperlipidaemia.

    PubMed

    ter Avest, Ewoud; Sniderman, Allan D; Bredie, Sebastian J H; Wiegman, Albert; Stalenhoef, Anton F H; de Graaf, Jacqueline

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to delineate the mechanism(s) responsible for the increased secretion of VLDL (very-low-density lipoprotein) particles in patients with FCH (familial combined hyperlipidaemia). In 194 young adults (<25 years of age) recruited from families with FCH, we investigated how plasma lipids, (apo)lipoproteins and BMI (body mass index) varied with age. Furthermore, we performed a 5-year follow-up study of clinical and biochemical characteristics of a subset of this population (n=85) stratified by apoB (apolipoprotein B) levels (below or above the 75th percentile adjusted for age and gender). Plasma apoB concentration (r=0.45, P<0.0001), triacylglycerol (triglyceride) concentration (r=0.45, P<0.0001), LDL (low-density lipoprotein) subfraction profile (r=-0.46, P<0.0001) and BMI (r=0.51, P<0.0001) were significantly associated with age. Plasma apoB concentration in the hyperapoB group was already elevated at a young age, whereas other characteristics of FCH, as observed in adults, including triacylglycerol levels >1.5 mmol/l and/or small-dense LDL, were observed only sporadically. After the 5-year follow-up, BMI increased in both groups, and this increase was associated with changes in apoB (r=0.27, P<0.05), triacylglycerol (r=0.30, P<0.01), VLDL cholesterol (r=0.22, P<0.05), VLDL triacylglycerol (r=0.25, P<0.05) and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (r=-0.27, P<0.05). In conclusion, we have found indirect evidence of a primary, presumably genetically determined, increase in plasma apoB concentration occurring early in life of offspring from families with FCH. However, aging-related post-maturation increases in adipose tissue mass also appear to contribute to an aggravation and/or modulation of this genetically determined apoB overproduction.

  2. Preferences regarding targeted education and risk assessment in people with a family history of major depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    Quinn, Veronica; Meiser, Bettina; Wilde, Alex; Cousins, Zoe; Barlow-Stewart, Kristine; Mitchell, Philip B; Schofield, Peter R

    2014-10-01

    Genetic testing for susceptibility to major depressive disorder (MDD) is not available for clinical use at present. Given this, family history remains the best predictor for development of MDD, and family-history-based risk assessment and information about familial aspects of MDD may be useful to clients at increased risk for MDD attending for genetic counseling. This study uses a mixed-methods design to assess the information needs and preferences of people at increased familial risk for MDD. Telephone interviews were conducted with 23 individuals, who had at least one first-degree relative with MDD and were recruited through advertisements placed on depression education websites. The most preferred way to access depression information was via the internet (87 % of participants), although this preference may have been due to the internet-based recruitment method. The second most preferred dissemination strategy (56 %) was face-to-face delivery through a health professional, including genetic counselors. Individuals reported a need for information about etiology and development of MDD, reproductive decision-making, early detection of symptoms and risk-reducing strategies. Nearly all participants expressed an interest in risk assessment. The present study found evidence of a high level of interest for information targeted to people at increased familial risk for MDD. Genetic counselors are likely to be called upon increasingly to provide supportive counseling to assist clients at increased familial risk in interpreting and contextualizing such information once it becomes available.

  3. Presymptomatic identification of CDH1 germline mutation in a healthy korean individual with family history of gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Choi, Hyun-Jung; Ki, Chang-Seok; Suh, Soon-Pal; Kim, Jong-Won

    2014-09-01

    Gastric cancer (GC) is one of the most common cancers with high morbidity and mortality. Familial GC is seen in 10% of cases, and approximately 3% of familial GC cases arise owing to hereditary diffuse gastric cancer (HDGC). CDH1, which encodes the protein E-cadherin, is the only gene whose mutations are associated with HDGC. Screening for the familial GC-predisposing gene has been neglected in high-risk countries such as Korea, China, and Japan, where all the cases have been attributed to Helicobacter pylori or other carcinogens. Screening for the GC-causing CDH1 mutation may provide valuable information for genetic counseling, testing, and risk-reduction management for the as-yet unaffected family members. An asymptomatic 44-yr-old Korean male visited our genetic clinic for consultation owing to his family history of GC. Eventually, c.1018A>G in CDH1, a known disease-causing mutation, was found. As of the publication time, the individual is alive without the evidence of GC, and is on surveillance. To our knowledge, this is the first Korean case of presymptomatic detection of CDH1 mutation, and it highlights the importance of genetic screening for individuals with a family history of GC, especially in high-risk geographical areas.

  4. Life history context of reproductive aging in a wild primate model

    PubMed Central

    Altmann, Jeanne; Gesquiere, Laurence; Galbany, Jordi; Onyango, Patrick O.; Alberts, Susan C.

    2012-01-01

    The pace of reproductive aging has been of considerable interest, especially in regard to the long postreproductive period in modern women. Here we use data for both sexes from a 37-year longitudinal study of a wild baboon population to place reproductive aging within a life history context for this species, a primate relative of humans that evolved in the same savannah habitat as humans did. We examine the patterns and pace of reproductive aging, including birth rates and reproductive hormones for both sexes, and compare reproductive aging to age-related changes in several other traits. Reproductive senescence occurs later in baboon females than males. Delayed senescence in females relative to males is also found in several other traits, such as dominance status and body condition, but not in molar wear or glucocorticoid profiles. Survival, health, and well-being are the product of risk factors in morphological, physiological, and behavioral traits that differ in rate of senescence and in dependence on social or ecological conditions; some will be very sensitive to differences in circumstances and others less so. PMID:20738283

  5. Settlement and landscape history of the Northern Franconian Jura during the Bronze and Iron Ages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kothieringer, Katja; Lambers, Karsten; Seregély, Timo; Schäfer, Andreas

    2014-05-01

    This paper describes the results of initial archaeological and geoarchaeological fieldwork in the Northern Franconian Jura between the cities of Bayreuth and Bamberg. Our research aims at the reconstruction of settlement patterns and strategies of land use during the Metal Ages (Bronze Age and Iron Age) in the catchment area of the river Weismain. The project is designed as a case study for research into the settlement and landscape history of a rural region of the Central German Uplands during the last two millennia before our era. During the Bronze Age and Iron Age (about 2.100 BC to 30 BC), the Northern Franconian Jura must have been densely populated, as evidenced by numerous burial monuments, prominent hillforts like the Staffelberg, and ritual places on the Jurassic plateau. However, little is known about small rural settlements and hamlets which would have accounted for most of the settlement activity in the region. Thus, we lack the most important element for understanding the cultural history and development of the region as well as the consequences of human impact on the landscape. This impact must have induced changes in vegetation and subsequent erosion processes, leading to the formation of geoarchives like colluvial layers. During our initial fieldwork we identified such colluvial layers in depressions on the Jurassic plateau or at footslope positions. As radiocarbon datings of charcoal fragments showed, some of them date from the Metal Ages. The type is wood of these charcoal fragments is oak, which recently only occurs sporadically in mixed forests with beeches. The quantification of the shift of sediments from the plateau to the valleys will be the next important step of geoarchaeological research. Thus, investigations both on the plateau and in the river valleys will accompany archaeological survey. Apart from landscape reconstruction, they will also provide information on the state of preservation and the conditions for identifying archaeological

  6. Differences in COPD Patient Care by Primary Family Caregivers: An Age-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Hsiao, Peng-Ching; Chu, Chi-Ming; Sung, Pei-Yi; Perng, Wann-Cherng; Wang, Kwua-Yun

    2014-01-01

    Background Because Taiwan has the fastest aging rate among developed countries, care for the elderly is becoming more prominent in the country. Primary family caregivers play an important role in patient health and health promotion behavior. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), an age-related disease, is a major public health problem with high morbidity and mortality and can be a long-term burden for family members; however, little attention has been given to the differences in COPD care between elder caregivers and other caregivers. This study aimed to investigate the differences between elder family caregivers and non-elder family caregivers caring for COPD patients in Taiwan, including caring behavior, caregiver response, and caring knowledge. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted between March 2007 and January 2008; 406 primary family caregivers of COPD patients from the thoracic outpatient departments of 6 hospitals in north-central Taiwan were recruited to answer questionnaires measuring COPD characteristics, care behavior, caregiver response, and COPD knowledge. All questionnaires, which addressed caregiver knowledge, care behaviors, and care reactions, were shown to have acceptable validity and reliability, and the data were analyzed using univariate and generalized linear model techniques. Results The elder caregivers group had 79 participants, and the non-elder caregivers comprised 327 participants. The COPD-related knowledge scale results were positively correlated with the family caregiver caring behavior scale, suggesting that better COPD-related knowledge among family caregivers may result in improved caring behavior. After adjusting for all possible confounding factors, the elder caregivers had significantly lower COPD-related knowledge than the non-elder caregivers (P<0.001). However, there were no significant differences in the family caregiver caring behavior scale or the caregiver reaction assessment scale between the two

  7. Ar-39-Ar-40 Ages of Euerites and the Thermal History of Asteroid 4-Vesta

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bogard, Donald D.; Garrison, Daniel H.

    2002-01-01

    Eucrite meteorites are igneous rocks that derive from a large asteroid, probably 4 Vesta. Prior studies have shown that after eucrites formed, most were subsequently metamorphosed to temperatures up to equal to or greater than 800 C, and much later many were brecciated and heated by large impacts into the parent body surface. The uncommon basaltic, unbrecciated eucrites also formed near the surface but presumably escaped later brecciation, whereas the cumulate eucrites formed at depth where metamorphism may have persisted for a considerable period. To further understand the complex HED parent body thermal history, we determined new Ar-39-Ar-40 ages for nine eucrites classified as basaltic but unbrecciated, six eucrites classified as cumulate, and several basaltic-brecciated eucrites. Relatively precise Ar-Ar ages of two cumulate eucrites (Moama and EET87520) and four unbrecciated eucrites give a tight cluster at 4.48 +/1 0.01 Gyr. Ar-Ar ages of six additional unbrecciated eucrites are consistent with this age, within their larger age uncertainties. In contrast, available literature data on Pb-Pb isochron ages of four cumulate eucrites and one unbrecciated eucrite vary over 4.4-4.515 Gyr, and Sm-147 - Nd-143 isochron ages of four cumulate and three unbrecciated eucrites vary over 4.41-4.55 Gyr. Similar Ar-Ar ages for cumulate and unbrecciated eucrites imply that cumulate eucrites do not have a younger formation age than basaltic eucrites, as previously proposed. Rather, we suggest that these cumulate and unbrecciated eucrites resided at depth where parent body temperatures were sufficiently high to cause the K-Ar and some other chronometers to remain open diffusion systems. From the strong clustering of Ar-Ar ages at approximately 4.48 Gyr, we propose that these meteorites were excavated from depth in a single large impact event approximately 4.48 Gyr ago, which quickly cooled the samples and started the K-Ar chronometer. A large (approximately 460 km) crater

  8. Lifecourse study of bone health at age 49–51 years: the Newcastle thousand families cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Pearce, M.; Birrell, F.; Francis, R.; Rawlings, D.; Tuck, S.; Parker, L.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To quantify the direct and indirect effects of fetal (position in family, weight, and social class at birth), childhood (breast feeding, growth, infections, and social class in childhood, age at menarche), and adult life (social class, alcohol consumption, smoking, diet, reproductive history, exercise, hormone replacement therapy use), and adult size (height, weight) on bone health at age 49–51 years, as measured by bone mineral density, total scanned bone area of the hip and lumbar spine, and femoral neck shaft angle. Design: Follow up study of the Newcastle thousand families birth cohort established in 1947. Participants: 171 men and 218 women who attended for dual energy x ray absorptiometry scanning. Main results: Fetal life explained around 6% of variation in adult bone mineral density for men, but accounted for less than 1% for women. Adult lifestyle, including effects mediated through adult weight accounted for over 10% of variation in density for men and around 6% for women. Almost half of variation in bone area for men was explained by early life. However, most of this was mediated through achieved adult height and weight. In women, less than 5% of variation in bone area was accounted for by early life, after adjusting for adult size. Most of the variation in each of the indicators for both sexes was contributed either directly or indirectly by adult lifestyle and achieved adult height and weight. Conclusions: The effect of fetal life on bone health in adulthood seems to be mediated through achieved adult height. PMID:15911643

  9. Lunar crater arcs. [origins, distribution and age classification of Pre-Imbrian families

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaffe, L. D.; Bulkley, E. O.

    1976-01-01

    An analysis has been made of the tendency of large lunar craters to lie along circles. A catalog of the craters at least 50 km in diameter was prepared first, noting position, diameter, rim sharpness and completion, nature of underlying surface, and geological age. The subset of those craters 50-400 km in diameter was then used as input to computer programs which identified each 'family' of four or more craters of selected geological age lying on a circular arc. For comparison, families were also identified for randomized crater models in which the crater spatial density was matched to that on the moon, either overall or separately for mare and highland areas. The observed frequency of lunar arcuate families was statistically highly significantly greater than for the randomized models, for craters classified as either late-pre-Imbrian (Nectarian), middle pre-Imbrian, or early pre-Imbrian, as well as for a number of larger age-classes. The lunar families tend to center in specific areas of the moon; these lie in highlands rather than maria and are different for families of Nectarian craters than for pre-Nectarian. The origin of the arcuate crater groupings is not understood.

  10. Family size, birth order, and parental age among male paraphilics and sex offenders.

    PubMed

    Langevin, Ron; Langevin, Mara; Curnoe, Suzanne

    2007-08-01

    A sample of 1823 male paraphilics, sex offenders, and non-sex offender controls were compared on family size, birth order, and parents' ages at the time of the probands' births. Sample data were also compared to population data from Statistics Canada. The men in all groups were from larger than average Canadian families and they tended to be later born. Paraphilics and sex offenders had even larger families than offender controls. Their parents tended to be older at their birth with 34.2% of mothers and 51.3% of fathers over 30 years of age, but there were no statistically significant subgroup differences. There were also significantly more multiparous teenage mothers than expected and more paraphilics' fathers who were younger than the mothers, both factors associated in the literature with increased risk of perinatal complications and abnormalities. The confounding influences of parental age, birth order, and family size were examined and indicated the need for large samples and multivariate analysis in evaluating the role of family variables associated with paraphilics and sex offenders.

  11. Exposure age and erosional history of an upland planation surface in the US Atlantic Piedmont

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stanford, S.D.; Seidl, M.A.; Ashley, G.M.

    2000-01-01

    The upland planation surface in the Piedmont of central New Jersey consists of summit flats, as much as 130 km2 in area, that truncate bedding and structure in diabase, basalt, sandstone, mudstone and gneiss. These flats define a low-relief regional surface that corresponds in elevation to residual hills in the adjacent Coastal Plain capped by a fluvial gravel of late Miocene age. A Pliocene fluvial sand is inset 50 m below the upland features. These associations suggest a late Miocene or early Pliocene age for the surface. To assess exposure age and erosional history, a 4??4 m core of clayey diabase saprolite on a 3 km2 remnant of the surface was sampled at six depths for atmospherically produced cosmogenic 10Be. The measured inventory, assuming a deposition rate of 1??3 x 106 atoms cm-2 a-1, yields a minimum exposure age of 227 000 years, or, assuming continuous surface erosion, a constant erosion rate of 10 m Ma-1. Because the sample site lies about 60 m above the aggradation surface of the Pliocene fluvial deposit, and itself supports a pre-Pliocene fluvial gravel lag, this erosion rate is too high. Rather, episodic surface erosion and runoff bypassing probably have produced an inventory deficit. Reasonable estimates of surface erosion (up to 10 m) and bypassing (up to 50 per cent of total precipitation) yield exposure ages of as much as 6??4 Ma. These results indicate that (1) the surface is probably of pre-Pleistocene age and has been modified by Pleistocene erosion, and (2) exposure ages based on 10Be inventories are highly sensitive to surface erosion and runoff bypassing. Copyright (C) 2000 John Wiley and Sons, Ltd.

  12. [Late middle-aged schizophrenic patient in the family (social-psychological problems)].

    PubMed

    Druz', V F

    1984-01-01

    Clinical and sociopsychological studies of 28 families have shown that the familial status and role of elderly schizophrenics are usually higher than in young patients which depends not only on the clinical course, the age at the onset of the disease and its duration but also on the structure of the family and on how well the relatives understand the nature and manifestations of disease. On reaching middle age schizophrenic males become more adaptive in the family due to the fact that in the course of the disease their psychopathlike and asocial behaviour becomes less marked. Females both young and elderly usually have a higher status although in the course of disease it tends to show a gradual lowering. The field of communication becomes more definite and is typically restricted to the spouse or daughter. Depending on the dominant factors of relations, three types of families have been identified: integrated, partially integrated and disintegrated. Disintegrated families are less common as compared with integrated ones.

  13. Women in American History: A Series. Book Two, Women in the Ages of Expansion and Reform 1820-1860.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanders, Beverly

    The document, one in a series of four on women in American history, discusses women in the ages of expansion and reform (1820-1860). Designed to supplement U.S. history textbooks, the book is presented in six chapters. Chapter I describes the "true woman," an ideal cultivated by women writers, educators, and magazine editors. The four virtues were…

  14. Identification of genetic modifiers of age-at-onset for familial Parkinson’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Hill-Burns, Erin M.; Ross, Owen A.; Wissemann, William T.; Soto-Ortolaza, Alexandra I.; Zareparsi, Sepideh; Siuda, Joanna; Lynch, Timothy; Wszolek, Zbigniew K.; Silburn, Peter A.; Mellick, George D.; Ritz, Beate; Scherzer, Clemens R.; Zabetian, Cyrus P.; Factor, Stewart A.; Breheny, Patrick J.; Payami, Haydeh

    2016-01-01

    Parkinson’s disease (PD) is the most common cause of neurodegenerative movement disorder and the second most common cause of dementia. Genes are thought to have a stronger effect on age-at-onset of PD than on risk, yet there has been a phenomenal success in identifying risk loci but not age-at-onset modifiers. We conducted a genome-wide study for age-at-onset. We analysed familial and non-familial PD separately, per prior evidence for strong genetic effect on age-at-onset in familial PD. GWAS was conducted in 431 unrelated PD individuals with at least one affected relative (familial PD) and 1544 non-familial PD from the NeuroGenetics Research Consortium (NGRC); an additional 737 familial PD and 2363 non-familial PD were used for replication. In familial PD, two signals were detected and replicated robustly: one mapped to LHFPL2 on 5q14.1 (PNGRC = 3E-8, PReplication = 2E-5, PNGRC + Replication = 1E-11), the second mapped to TPM1 on 15q22.2 (PNGRC = 8E-9, PReplication = 2E-4, PNGRC + Replication = 9E-11). The variants that were associated with accelerated onset had low frequencies (<0.02). The LHFPL2 variant was associated with earlier onset by 12.33 [95% CI: 6.2; 18.45] years in NGRC, 8.03 [2.95; 13.11] years in replication, and 9.79 [5.88; 13.70] years in the combined data. The TPM1 variant was associated with earlier onset by 15.30 [8.10; 22.49] years in NGRC, 9.29 [1.79; 16.79] years in replication, and 12.42 [7.23; 17.61] years in the combined data. Neither LHFPL2 nor TPM1 was associated with age-at-onset in non-familial PD. LHFPL2 (function unknown) is overexpressed in brain tumours. TPM1 encodes a highly conserved protein that regulates muscle contraction, and is a tumour-suppressor gene. PMID:27402877

  15. Large impact crater histories of Mars: The effect of different model crater age techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robbins, Stuart J.; Hynek, Brian M.; Lillis, Robert J.; Bottke, William F.

    2013-07-01

    Impact events that produce large craters primarily occurred early in the Solar System's history because the largest bolides were remnants from planetary formation. Determining when large impacts occurred on a planetary surface such as Mars can yield clues to the flux of material in the early inner Solar System which, in turn, can constrain other planetary processes such as the timing and magnitude of resurfacing and the history of the martian core dynamo. We have used a large, global planetary database in conjunction with geomorphologic mapping to identify craters superposed on the rims of 78 larger craters with diameters D ⩾ 150 km on Mars, ≈78% of which have not been previously dated in this manner. The densities of superposed craters with diameters larger than 10, 16, 25, and 50 km, as well as isochron fits were used to derive model crater ages of these larger craters and basins from which we derived an impact flux. In discussing these ages, we point out several internal inconsistencies of crater-age modeling techniques and chronology systems and, all told, we explain why we think isochron-fitting is the most reliable indicator of an age. Our results point to a mostly obliterated crater record prior to ˜4.0 Ga with the oldest preserved mappable craters on Mars dating to ˜4.3-4.35 Ga. We have used our results to constrain the cessation time of the martian core dynamo which we found to have occurred between the formation of Ladon and Prometheus basins, approximately 4.06-4.09 Ga. We also show that, overall, surfaces on Mars older than ˜4.0-4.1 Ga have experienced >1 km of resurfacing, while those younger than ˜3.8-3.9 Ga have experienced significantly less.

  16. Investigating diet and physical activity in Malaysia: education and family history of diabetes relate to lower levels of physical activity.

    PubMed

    Tam, Cai Lian; Bonn, Gregory; Yeoh, Si Han; Wong, Chee Piau

    2014-01-01

    The National Health and Morbidity Survey (NHMS, 2011), estimates that the number of Malaysian adults suffering from type 2 diabetes has increased from 8.3 to 31.2% since 1996. This study is a preliminary investigation of possible factors contributing to this epidemic. Knowledge of diabetes, health locus of control, diet and exercise habits, as well as family history, education level and other demographic factors to better understand the correlates of risky and healthy behaviors. This was done as part of a larger initiative to improve prevention efforts. Questionnaires were completed by 770 individuals from three Malaysian states: Selangor, Penang, and Terengganu. Findings showed that people with better health knowledge and those who have a family history of type 2 diabetes were more likely to have healthy diets. Also, health knowledge related to lower alcohol consumption. Participants with diabetic family members, however, also reported higher levels of stress. Counterintuitively, higher educational levels, higher internal locus of control, better health knowledge, as well as a family history of diabetes all correlated with lower levels of physical activity. Thus, it is suggested that, while increasing health knowledge will be important in addressing the type 2 diabetes epidemic in Malaysia, especially in relation to diet, other cultural factors, specifically norms related to exercise and physical activity, also need to be addressed if the spread of type 2 diabetes is to be addressed over the long term.

  17. The Family Support System: Comparative Analysis of Research Projects Funded by the Administration on Aging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hofer, Andrew

    This paper presents a comparative analysis of eight research projects funded by the Administration on Aging during the 1970s which focused on the family as caregivers and support systems for elderly relatives. A brief description is provided for each project analyzed in this report as well as highlights of major findings, including that the family…

  18. 5 CFR 894.307 - Are disabled children age 22 or over eligible as family members?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Are disabled children age 22 or over eligible as family members? 894.307 Section 894.307 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES DENTAL AND VISION INSURANCE...

  19. 5 CFR 894.307 - Are disabled children age 22 or over eligible as family members?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Are disabled children age 22 or over eligible as family members? 894.307 Section 894.307 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES DENTAL AND VISION INSURANCE...

  20. 5 CFR 894.307 - Are disabled children age 22 or over eligible as family members?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Are disabled children age 22 or over eligible as family members? 894.307 Section 894.307 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES DENTAL AND VISION INSURANCE...

  1. 5 CFR 894.307 - Are disabled children age 22 or over eligible as family members?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Are disabled children age 22 or over eligible as family members? 894.307 Section 894.307 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES DENTAL AND VISION INSURANCE...

  2. 5 CFR 894.307 - Are disabled children age 22 or over eligible as family members?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Are disabled children age 22 or over eligible as family members? 894.307 Section 894.307 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES DENTAL AND VISION INSURANCE...

  3. 45 CFR 1305.4 - Age of children and family income eligibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Age of children and family income eligibility. 1305.4 Section 1305.4 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) OFFICE OF HUMAN DEVELOPMENT SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN, YOUTH...

  4. 45 CFR 1305.4 - Age of children and family income eligibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Age of children and family income eligibility. 1305.4 Section 1305.4 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) OFFICE OF HUMAN DEVELOPMENT SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN, YOUTH...

  5. 45 CFR 1305.4 - Age of children and family income eligibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Age of children and family income eligibility. 1305.4 Section 1305.4 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) OFFICE OF HUMAN DEVELOPMENT SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN, YOUTH...

  6. 45 CFR 1305.4 - Age of children and family income eligibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Age of children and family income eligibility. 1305.4 Section 1305.4 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) OFFICE OF HUMAN DEVELOPMENT SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN, YOUTH...

  7. Human insulin/IGF-1 and familial longevity at middle age

    PubMed Central

    Rozing, Maarten P.; Westendorp, Rudi G.J.; Frölich, Marijke; de Craen, Anton J.M.; Beekman, Marian; Heijmans, Bastiaan T.; Mooijaart, Simon P.; Blauw, Gerard-Jan; Slagboom, P. Eline; van Heemst, Diana; Group, on behalf of the Leiden Longevity Study (LLS)

    2009-01-01

    Recently, we have shown that compared to controls, long-lived familial nonagenarians (mean age: 93.4 years) from the Leiden Longevity Study displayed a lower mortality rate, and their middle-aged offspring displayed a lower prevalence of cardio-metabolic diseases, including diabetes mellitus. The evolutionarily conserved insulin/IGF-1 signaling (IIS) pathway has been implicated in longevity in model organisms, but its relevance for human longevity has generated much controversy. Here, we show that compared to their partners, the offspring of familial nonagenarians displayed similar non-fasted serum levels of IGF-1, IGFBP3 and insulin but lower non-fasted serum levels of glucose, indicating that familial longevity is associated with differences in insulin sensitivity. PMID:20157552

  8. "It runs in my family …": The association of perceived family history with body dissatisfaction and weight bias internalization among overweight women.

    PubMed

    Eisenberg, Miriam H; Street, Richard L; Persky, Susan

    2017-04-01

    Aspects of poor body acceptance (BA), such as internalized weight bias and dissatisfaction with one's shape and size, are the strongest predictors of disordered eating and are associated with reduced engagement in healthy behaviors. Perceiving oneself as having a family history of overweight (PFH) could boost BA by increasing attributions for inherited, biological causes of weight. A community sample of 289 women who were overweight from the Washington, DC metropolitan area who were dissatisfied with their current weight (68% Black; 32% White) enrolled in this study in 2012. PFH of overweight was associated with decreased internalized weight bias among white women and marginally increased body shape satisfaction generally. The relationship between PFH and BA was not explained by biological attributions for weight. Perceptions that overweight runs in one's family can be protective with respect to BA. This is suggestive of the potential benefit of integrating family-based approaches into weight management interventions.

  9. Veterans’ experience in using the online Surgeon General’s family health history tool

    PubMed Central

    Arar, Nedal; Seo, Joann; Abboud, Hanna E; Parchman, Michael; Noel, Polly

    2011-01-01

    Aim To assess veterans’ experience and satisfaction in using the Surgeon General’s (SG) online family health history (FHH) tool, and determine the perceived facilitators and barriers to using the online SG-FHH tool. Materials & methods A mixed-method using both qualitative and quantitative approaches was employed in this study. A total of 35 veterans at the VA Medical Center in San Antonio, Texas, USA were invited to enter their FHH information using the online SG-FHH tool, complete the study’s satisfaction survey and participate in a short semi-structured interview. The goal of the semi-structured interviews was to assess participants perceived facilitators and barriers to using the online SG-FHH tool. All participants were also provided with a printed copy of their pedigree, which was generated by the SG-FHH tool and were encouraged to share it with their relatives and providers. Results The majority of participants (91%) said that they had access to a computer with internet capability and 77% reported that they knew how to use a computer. More than two-thirds of the participants felt that items on the SG-FHH tool were easy to read and felt that FHH categories were relevant to their family’s health. Approximately 94% of participants viewed the SG-FHH tool as useful, and the majority of participants (97%) indicated that they were likely to recommend the tool to others. Content analysis of the semi-structured interviews highlighted several barriers to veterans’ use of the SG-FHH tool and their FHH information. These included: lack of patients’ knowledge regarding their relatives’ FHH, and privacy and confidentiality concerns. Conclusion This study provides information on the performance and functionality of an inexpensive and widely accessible method for FHH collection. Furthermore, our findings highlight several opportunities and challenges facing the utilization of FHH information as a clinical and genomic tool at the Veterans Health Administration

  10. Breast cancer screening in women at increased risk according to different family histories: an update of the Modena Study Group experience

    PubMed Central

    Cortesi, Laura; Turchetti, Daniela; Marchi, Isabella; Fracca, Antonella; Canossi, Barbara; Rachele, Battista; Silvia, Ruscelli; Rita, Pecchi Anna; Pietro, Torricelli; Massimo, Federico

    2006-01-01

    Background Breast cancer (BC) detection in women with a genetic susceptibility or strong family history is considered mandatory compared with BC screening in the general population. However, screening modalities depend on the level of risk. Here we present an update of our screening programs based on risk classification. Methods We defined different risk categories and surveillance strategies to identify early BC in 1325 healthy women recruited by the Modena Study Group for familial breast and ovarian cancer. Four BC risk categories included BRCA1/2 carriers, increased, intermediate, and slightly increased risk. Women who developed BC from January 1, 1994, through December 31, 2005 (N = 44) were compared with the number of expected cases matched for age and period. BRCA1/2 carriers were identified by mutational analysis. Other risk groups were defined by different levels of family history for breast or ovarian cancer (OC). The standardized incidence ratio (SIR) was used to evaluate the observed and expected ratio among groups. All statistical tests were two-sided. Results After a median follow-up of 55 months, there was a statistically significant difference between observed and expected incidence [SIR = 4.9; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.6 to 7.6; p < 0.001]. The incidence observed among BRCA carriers (SIR = 20.3; 95% CI = 3.1 to 83.9; P < 0.001), women at increased (SIR = 4.5; 95% CI = 1.5 to 8.3; P < 0.001) or intermediate risk (SIR = 7.0, 95% CI = 2.0 to 17.1; P = 0.0018) was higher than expected, while the difference between observed and expected among women at slightly increased risk was not statistically significant (SIR = 2.4, 95% CI = 0.9 to 8.3; P = .74). Conclusion The rate of cancers detected in women at high risk according to BRCA status or strong family history, as defined according to our operational criteria, was significantly higher than expected in an age-matched general population. However, we failed to identify a greater incidence of BC in

  11. Jupiter-family comets in near-Earth orbits: Dynamical histories and potential source regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández, J.; Sosa, A.

    2014-07-01

    We analyze the dynamical histories of a sample of 58 Jupiter-family comets (JFCs) coming close to the Earth, namely with perihelion distances q < 1.3 au at the time of their discovery. We carry out orbit integrations for these objects for 10^4 yr in the past and in the future, considering the orbital elements provided by the NASA/JPL Small Body Database, and 50 clones of each comet whose orbital elements were taken randomly within their error bars. We find that most orbits are chaotic, where comets are subject to frequent close encounters with Jupiter. Therefore, it is difficult to follow accurately the trajectory of a given comet beyond a few hundred years. We then define a likely dynamical path, which is computed as the average of the orbits of a given comet and the set of 50 clones. In particular we measure the degree of instability of a comet orbit by the time it takes the average perihelion distance q of a comet and its 50 clones to decrease by 1 au previous to the discovery time. We define this time scale as the capture time within the near-Earth region. We find that most JFCs have short capture times, of a few hundred to a couple of thousands of years, suggesting a recent incorporation to the near-Earth region. This is what one should expect for bodies whose typical lifetimes as active comets should not exceed a few 10^3 yr. This behavior is in sharp contrast with near-Earth asteroids that show more stable orbits with much longer residence times in the near-Earth region. The most likely source region of most JFCs is the transneptunian region. On the other hand, we find that a few JFCs move on stable orbits over the studied period with capture times > 10^4 yr. These objects might have a different source region, probably the outer asteroid belt or the Jupiter Trojans.

  12. CDH1 germ-line missense mutation identified by multigene sequencing in a family with no history of diffuse gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Lajus, Tirzah Braz Petta; Sales, Roberto Magnus Duarte

    2015-09-01

    Germ-line mutation in CDH1 gene is associated with high risk for Hereditary Diffuse Gastric Cancer (HDGC) and Infiltrative Lobular Carcinoma (ILC). Although somatic CDH1 mutations were also detected in ILC with a frequency ranging from 10 to 56%, CDH1 alterations in more frequent infiltrative ductal carcinoma (IDC) appear to be rare, and no association with germ-line CDH1 mutation and IDC has been established. Here we report the case of a woman diagnosed with IDC at 39years of age, presenting extensive familial history of cancer at multiple sites with early-age onset and with no case of HDGC. Deep sequencing have revealed CDH1 missense mutation c.1849G>A (p.Ala617Thr) in heterozygous and four BRCA2 single nucleotide polymorphism in homozygosis. In this family, the mutation c.1849G>A in the CDH1 gene is not related to HDGC nor ILC. Therefore, here we highlight that multigene analysis is important to detect germ-line mutations and genetic variants in patients with cancers at multiple sites in the family, even if inconclusive genetic counseling can be offered, since hereafter, medical awareness will be held.

  13. Medical History, Lifestyle, Family History, and Occupational Risk Factors for Follicular Lymphoma: The InterLymph Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma Subtypes Project

    PubMed Central

    Vajdic, Claire M.; Morton, Lindsay M.; de Roos, Anneclaire J.; Skibola, Christine F.; Boffetta, Paolo; Cerhan, James R.; Flowers, Christopher R.; de Sanjosé, Silvia; Monnereau, Alain; Cocco, Pierluigi; Kelly, Jennifer L.; Smith, Alexandra G.; Weisenburger, Dennis D.; Clarke, Christina A.; Blair, Aaron; Bernstein, Leslie; Zheng, Tongzhang; Miligi, Lucia; Clavel, Jacqueline; Benavente, Yolanda; Chiu, Brian C. H.

    2014-01-01

    Background Follicular lymphoma (FL) has been linked with cigarette smoking and, inconsistently, with other risk factors. Methods We assessed associations of medical, hormonal, family history, lifestyle, and occupational factors with FL risk in 3530 cases and 22639 controls from 19 case–control studies in the InterLymph consortium. Age-, race/ethnicity-, sex- and study-adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using logistic regression. Results Most risk factors that were evaluated showed no association, except for a few modest or sex-specific relationships. FL risk was increased in persons: with a first-degree relative with non-Hodgkin lymphoma (OR = 1.99; 95% CI = 1.55 to 2.54); with greater body mass index as a young adult (OR = 1.15; 95% CI = 1.04 to 1.27 per 5kg/m2 increase); who worked as spray painters (OR = 2.66; 95% CI = 1.36 to 5.24); and among women with Sjögren syndrome (OR = 3.37; 95% CI = 1.23 to 9.19). Lower FL risks were observed in persons: with asthma, hay fever, and food allergy (ORs = 0.79–0.85); blood transfusions (OR = 0.78; 95% CI = 0.68 to 0.89); high recreational sun exposure (OR = 0.74; 95% CI = 0.65 to 0.86, fourth vs first quartile); who worked as bakers or millers (OR = 0.51; 95% CI = 0.28 to 0.93) or university/higher education teachers (OR = 0.58; 95% CI = 0.41 to 0.83). Elevated risks specific to women included current and longer duration of cigarette use, whereas reduced risks included current alcohol use, hay fever, and food allergies. Other factors, including other autoimmune diseases, eczema, hepatitis C virus seropositivity, hormonal drugs, hair dye use, sun exposure, and farming, were not associated with FL risk. Conclusions The few relationships observed provide clues suggesting a multifactorial etiology of FL but are limited in the extent to which they explain FL occurrence. PMID:25174024

  14. Metabolic profiles of biological aging in American Indians: the Strong Heart Family Study.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jinying; Zhu, Yun; Uppal, Karan; Tran, ViLinh T; Yu, Tianwei; Lin, Jue; Matsuguchi, Tet; Blackburn, Elizabeth; Jones, Dean; Lee, Elisa T; Howard, Barbara V

    2014-03-01

    Short telomere length, a marker of biological aging, has been associated with age-related metabolic disorders. Telomere attrition induces profound metabolic dysfunction in animal models, but no study has examined the metabolome of telomeric aging in human. Here we studied 423 apparently healthy American Indians participating in the Strong Family Heart Study. Leukocyte telomere length (LTL) was measured by qPCR. Metabolites in fasting plasma were detected by untargeted LC/MS. Associations of LTL with each metabolite and their combined effects were examined using generalized estimating equation adjusting for chronological age and other aging-related factors. Multiple testing was corrected using the q-value method (q<0.05). Of the 1,364 distinct m/z features detected, nineteen metabolites in the classes of glycerophosphoethanolamines, glycerophosphocholines, glycerolipids, bile acids, isoprenoids, fatty amides, or L-carnitine ester were significantly associated with LTL, independent of chronological age and other aging-related factors. Participants with longer (top tertile) and shorter (bottom tertile) LTL were clearly separated into distinct groups using a multi-marker score comprising of all these metabolites, suggesting that these newly detected metabolites could be novel metabolic markers of biological aging. This is the first study to interrogate the human metabolome of telomeric aging. Our results provide initial evidence for a metabolic control of LTL and may reveal previously undescribed new roles of various lipids in the aging process.

  15. An Ecostructural Family Therapy Approach to the Rehabilitation of the Latino Drug Abuser: History and Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scopetta, Mercedes A.

    An approach to the treatment of Hispanic (particularly Cuban) American families with drug abusing members is presented in this paper. The approach, developed by the Spanish Family Guidance Center in Miami, Florida, views dysfunctionality and drug abuse as emerging from a family's internal disorganization and ecological imbalance. In order to treat…

  16. Family Environment in Hispanic College Females with a History of Childhood Sexual Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenny, Maureen C.; McEachern, Adriana Garcia

    2007-01-01

    This study sought to examine the family environments of a sample of Hispanic women who reported childhood sexual abuse. Eighteen women, taken from a larger college sample, were individually interviewed and administered the Family Environment Scale (FES; Moos & Moos, 1994). Cultural values and the relationship of family characteristics to the…

  17. Impact of biological aging on arterial aging in American Indians: findings from the Strong Heart Family Study

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Hao; Zhu, Yun; Yeh, Fawn; Cole, Shelley A.; Best, Lyle G.; Lin, Jue; Blackburn, Elizabeth; Devereux, Richard B.; Roman, Mary J.; Lee, Elisa T.; Howard, Barbara V.; Zhao, Jinying

    2016-01-01

    Telomere length, a marker of biological aging, has been associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD). Increased arterial stiffness, an indicator of arterial aging, predicts adverse CVD outcomes. However, the relationship between telomere length and arterial stiffness is less well studied. Here we examined the cross-sectional association between leukocyte telomere length (LTL) and arterial stiffness in 2,165 American Indians in the Strong Heart Family Study (SHFS). LTL was measured by qPCR. Arterial stiffness was assessed by stiffness index β. The association between LTL and arterial stiffness was assessed by generalized estimating equation model, adjusting for sociodemographics (age, sex, education level), study site, metabolic factors (fasting glucose, lipids, systolic blood pressure, and kidney function), lifestyle (BMI, smoking, drinking, and physical activity), and prevalent CVD. Results showed that longer LTL was significantly associated with a decreased arterial stiffness (β=-0.070, P=0.007). This association did not attenuate after further adjustment for hsCRP (β=-0.071, P=0.005) or excluding participants with overt CVD (β=-0.068, P=0.012), diabetes (β=-0.070, P=0.005), or chronic kidney disease (β=-0.090, P=0.001). In summary, shorter LTL was significantly associated with an increased arterial stiffness, independent of known risk factors. This finding may shed light on the potential role of biological aging in arterial aging in American Indians. PMID:27540694

  18. High use of complementary and alternative medicine among a large cohort of women with a family history of breast cancer: the Sister Study.

    PubMed

    Greenlee, Heather; Sardo Molmenti, Christine L; Falci, Laura; Ulmer, Ross; Deming-Halverson, Sandra; DeRoo, Lisa A; Sandler, Dale P

    2016-04-01

    Use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is high among U.S. women, yet information is limited on use among women at increased breast cancer risk. We analyzed CAM use among women with a family history of breast cancer. CAM use was analyzed among women enrolled 2003-2009 in the Sister Study cohort. Eligible women were aged 35-74, U.S. or Puerto Rican residents, no personal history of breast cancer, and had ≥1 sister with breast cancer. Baseline data on CAM use in the past year were available for 49,734 women. Logistic regression models examined the association between CAM use and Gail Model breast cancer risk score. Results were compared to female participants in the 2007 National Health Interview Survey (n = 7965). Among Sister Study participants, there was high use of vitamin/mineral supplements (79 %), mind-body practices (41 %), manipulative/body-based practices (32 %), and botanicals (23 %). Overall use was higher than the U.S. female population. No association was observed between familial breast cancer risk and CAM use. Black women were more likely to use spirituality/meditation-based CAM modalities, while non-Hispanic white and Asian women were high users of dietary supplements. In a cohort of women with increased breast cancer risk due to family history, CAM use is higher than women in the general U.S. population and is associated with race/ethnicity. Use was not associated with breast cancer risk. Given the high prevalence of CAM use among women at risk for breast caner, research on the effectiveness of CAM use for disease prevention is needed.

  19. Lower CSF Aβ is Associated with HAND in HIV-Infected Adults with a Family History of Dementia

    PubMed Central

    Fazeli, Pariya. L.; Moore, David J.; Franklin, Donald R.; Umlauf, Anya; Heaton, Robert K.; Collier, Ann C.; Marra, Christina M.; Clifford, David B.; Gelman, Benjamin B.; Sacktor, Ned C.; Morgello, Susan; Simpson, David M.; McCutchan, John A.; Grant, Igor; Letendre, Scott L.

    2015-01-01

    Background Both family history of dementia (FHD) and lower levels of Aβ-42 are indepentently associated with worse neurocognitive functioning in HIV-infected patients. Objective To examine the relationships between cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) Aβ-42 and FHD with HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND). Methods One hundred eighty-three HIV+ adults underwent neuropsychological and neuromedical assessments, and determination of CSF Aβ-42 concentration and FHD (defined as a self-reported first or second-degree relative with a dementia diagnosis). Univariate analyses and multivariable logistic regressions were used. Results FHD was not associated with HAND (p = 0.24); however, CSF Aβ-42 levels were lower (p = 0.03) in the HAND group, but were not associated with FHD (p = 0.89). Multivariable models showed a main effect of CSF Aβ-42 (p = 0.03) and a trend-level (p = 0.06) interaction between FHD and CSF Aβ-42, such that lower CSF Aβ-42 was associated with HAND in those with FHD (p < 0.01) compared to those without FHD (p = 0.83). An analysis in those with follow-up data showed that higher baseline CSF Aβ-42 was associated with lower risk of neurocognitive decline (p = 0.02). While we did not find an FHD X CSF Aβ-42 interaction (p = 0.83), when analyses were stratified by FHD, lower CSF Aβ-42 was associated at the trend-level with neurocognitive decline in the FHD group (p = 0.08) compared to the no FHD group (p = 0.15). Conclusions FHD moderates the relationship between of CSF Aβ-42 and HAND. The findings highlight the complexities in interpreting the relationships between biomarkers of age-related neurodegeneration and HAND. PMID:26673902

  20. Prostate Cancer in a Patient with a Family History of BRCA Mutation: a Case Report and Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    One of the most significant risk factors for prostate cancer (PC) is a family history of the disease, with germ-line mutations in the breast cancer predisposition gene (BRCA) 2 conferring the highest risk. We here report a 56-year-old man presented with painful gait disturbance and diagnosed PC with multiple disseminated bone metastases. The patient had a strong family history of breast cancer with his 2 nieces affected. Furthermore, his aunts and uncles from both sides were diagnosed with stomach, ovarian, and colorectal cancers. His genomic sequencing analysis of the BRCA genes revealed the same BRCA2 deleterious mutation that his breast cancer-affected nieces carried. Previous studies have suggested that BRCA2-mutated PC is associated with a more aggressive phenotype and poor prognosis. Our experience in the present case also indicated the urgent needs for novel treatment modality and PC screening in this high-risk group of patients. PMID:28049253

  1. Prostate Cancer in a Patient with a Family History of BRCA Mutation: a Case Report and Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Song, Won Hoon; Kim, Sung Han; Joung, Jae Young; Park, Weon Seo; Seo, Ho Kyung; Chung, Jinsoo; Lee, Kang Hyun

    2017-02-01

    One of the most significant risk factors for prostate cancer (PC) is a family history of the disease, with germ-line mutations in the breast cancer predisposition gene (BRCA) 2 conferring the highest risk. We here report a 56-year-old man presented with painful gait disturbance and diagnosed PC with multiple disseminated bone metastases. The patient had a strong family history of breast cancer with his 2 nieces affected. Furthermore, his aunts and uncles from both sides were diagnosed with stomach, ovarian, and colorectal cancers. His genomic sequencing analysis of the BRCA genes revealed the same BRCA2 deleterious mutation that his breast cancer-affected nieces carried. Previous studies have suggested that BRCA2-mutated PC is associated with a more aggressive phenotype and poor prognosis. Our experience in the present case also indicated the urgent needs for novel treatment modality and PC screening in this high-risk group of patients.

  2. Stigma and Family Relationships of Middle-Aged Gay Men in Recovery

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Mignon R.; Dacus, Jagadisa-devasri; McCuller, William J.; Fernandez, Lawrence; Moore, Alison A.

    2016-01-01

    The primary objective of this study was to explore how middle-aged gay men in recovery cope with stigma and family relationships. For gay men, perceptions of acceptance of their sexual orientation and degree of social connectedness can play a role in their recovery from alcohol and substance use disorders. Yet gay men may have a more difficult time accessing certain family-level health resources because their families of origin may stigmatize, reject or silence them on account of their sexual orientation. Semi-structured interviews were used to explore how participants in recovery constructed and coped with their experiences of stigma, family relationships, and alcohol and substance use. Participants (30 gay men aged 50–64) completed a questionnaire and interview. We used constructivist Grounded Theory method and Minority Stress Theory as a theoretical framework to interpret the data. We identified the following themes: Internalization of Stigma, Changes in Coping Strategies, and Ongoing Stigma. Future research should explore how to incorporate familial support into gay men’s recovery, address ongoing internalized stigma, and develop a social response to stigma, rather than leaving it to individuals to confront on their own. PMID:27092028

  3. State Firearm Laws, Firearm Ownership, and Safety Practices Among Families of Preschool-Aged Children

    PubMed Central

    Martin-Storey, Alexa; Crosnoe, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We investigated how state-level firearms legislation is associated with firearm ownership and storage among families with preschool-aged children. Methods. Using 2005 nationally representative data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort (n = 8100), we conducted multinomial regression models to examine the associations between state-level firearms legislation generally, child access prevention (CAP) firearms legislation specifically, and parental firearm ownership and storage safety practices. Results. Overall, 8% of families with children aged 4 years living in states with stronger firearm laws and CAP laws owned firearms compared with 24% of families in states with weaker firearm laws and no CAP laws. Storage behaviors of firearm owners differed minimally across legislative contexts. When we controlled for family- and state-level characteristics, we found that firearm legislation and CAP laws interacted to predict ownership and storage behaviors, with unsafe storage least likely among families in states with both CAP laws and stronger firearm legislation. Conclusions. Broader firearm legislation is linked with the efficacy of child-specific legislation in promoting responsible firearm ownership. PMID:24825210

  4. Genotype by Sex and Genotype by Age Interactions with Sedentary Behavior: The Portuguese Healthy Family Study

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Daniel M. V.; Katzmarzyk, Peter T.; Diego, Vincent P.; Blangero, John; Souza, Michele C.; Freitas, Duarte L.; Chaves, Raquel N.; Gomes, Thayse N.; Santos, Fernanda K.; Maia, José A. R.

    2014-01-01

    Sedentary behavior (SB) expression and its underlying causal factors have been progressively studied, as it is a major determinant of decreased health quality. In the present study we applied Genotype x Age (GxAge) and Genotype x Sex (GxSex) interaction methods to determine if the phenotypic expression of different SB traits is influenced by an interaction between genetic architecture and both age and sex. A total of 1345 subjects, comprising 249 fathers, 327 mothers, 334 sons and 325 daughters, from 339 families of The Portuguese Healthy Family Study were included in the analysis. SB traits were assessed by means of a 3-d physical activity recall, the Baecke and IPAQ questionnaires. GxAge and GxSex interactions were analyzed using SOLAR 4.0 software. Sedentary behaviour heritability estimates were not always statistically significant (p>0.05) and ranged from 3% to 27%. The GxSex and GxAge interaction models were significantly better than the single polygenic models for TV (min/day), EEsed (kcal/day), personal computer (PC) usage and physical activty (PA) tertiles. The GxAge model is also significantly better than the polygenic model for Sed (min/day). For EEsed, PA tertiles, PC and Sed, the GxAge interaction was significant because the genetic correlation between SB environments was significantly different from 1. Further, PC and Sed variance heterogeneity among distinct ages were observed. The GxSex interaction was significant for EEsed due to genetic variance heterogeneity between genders and for PC due to a genetic correlation less than 1 across both sexes. Our results suggest that SB expression may be influenced by the interactions between genotype with both sex and age. Further, different sedentary behaviors seem to have distinct genetic architectures and are differentially affected by age and sex. PMID:25302714

  5. A Family History of Substance Dependence Obscures the Group Differences in Brain Function Associated with HIV-1 and ART

    PubMed Central

    Bauer, L.O.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND Recently, the NIH called for additional research on the topic of viral and host factors contributing to impaired cognitive and neural function in HIV/AIDS patients and their response to antiretroviral treatment. This investigation responds to that call by examining a host factor, a family history of substance dependence, often overlooked in cognitive and neuroimaging studies of HIV/AIDS. METHODS We categorized 146 HIV-1 seropositive patients receiving antiretroviral treatment (ART) and 92 seronegative volunteers by the presence or absence of alcohol, cocaine, or heroin dependence affecting a biological parent. Seropositive patients were further categorized by the estimated ability of their individual ART regimens to penetrate the CNS. The indicator of brain function was a 3–7 Hz oscillatory electroencephalographic response (theta ERO) evoked by target stimuli presented during a simple selective attention task. RESULTS The analysis revealed that the presence of a family history of substance dependence obscured the reduction in frontal theta ERO power accompanying the presence of HIV-1 as well as the improvement in frontal theta ERO power accompanying treatment with ART agents estimated to have greater (n=41) versus lesser (n=105) CNS penetrance. Secondary analyses employing sLORETA source localization techniques revealed that the source of the theta ERO response was similarly reduced by the presence of either HIV-1 or a family history of substance dependence. CONCLUSIONS We conclude that a family history of substance dependence complicates and obscures the subtle neurophysiological changes which typically accompany HIV/AIDS and ART. Studies of new therapeutic agents for HIV-1-associated cognitive and neurophysiological impairments must consider this complication and exclude or control it. PMID:22749564

  6. Demographic patterns of Ferocactus cylindraceus in relation to substrate age and grazing history

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bowers, Janice E.

    1997-01-01

    Three subpopulations of Ferocactus cylindraceus, a short-columnar cactus of the Sonoran and Mojave deserts, were sampled in Grand Canyon, Arizona, USA, at sites representing a range of substrate ages and different grazing histories. Age-height relations were determined from annual growth, then used to estimate probable year of establishment for each cohort. Eight years between 1944 and 1992 were especially favorable for establishment. Six of these 8 years coincided with El Nino-Southern Oscillation conditions, indicating that as for many woody plants in arid regions, somewhat unusual climatic conditions are necessary if populations are to replace themselves. Comparison of age structures showed that established and developing populations have somewhat different dynamics in that the rate of population increase was slowest on the youngest terrace. On the ancient terraces, about half the plants were less than 25 years old. Plants older than 40 years were few; however the oldest plants in the study (about 49 years) grew on the ancient terraces. On the recent terrace, 76% of the subpopulation was 25 years or younger, and the oldest living plant was about 36 years of age. The age structures of subpopulations on grazed and ungrazed sites also differed markedly. On ungrazed sites, subpopulations were more or less at equilibrium, with enough young plants to replace old ones as they died. In contrast, the subpopulation on the grazed site was in a state of marked disequilibrium. Grazing before 1981 largely extirpated a palatable subshrub that was probably an important nurse plant. Until the shrub population at Indian Canyon recovers from decades of burro grazing, a rebound in E cylindraceus establishment is not to be expected.

  7. The transtheoretical model, health belief model, and breast cancer screening among Iranian women with a family history of breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Farajzadegan, Ziba; Fathollahi-Dehkordi, Fariba; Hematti, Simin; Sirous, Reza; Tavakoli, Neda; Rouzbahani, Reza

    2016-01-01

    Background: Participation of Iranian women with a family history of breast cancer in breast cancer screening programs is low. This study evaluates the compliance of women having a family history of breast cancer with clinical breast exam (CBE) according to the stage of transtheoretical model (TTM) and health belief model (HBM). Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, we used Persian version of champion's HBM scale to collect factors associated with TTM stages applied to screening from women over 20 years and older. The obtained data were analyzed by SPSS, using descriptive statistics, Chi-square test, independent t-test, and analysis of covariance. Results: Final sample size was 162 women. Thirty-three percent were in action/maintenance stage. Older women, family history of breast cancer in first-degree relatives, personal history of breast disease, insurance coverage, and a history of breast self-examination were associated with action/maintenance stage. Furthermore, women in action/maintenance stages had significantly fewer perceived barriers in terms of CBE in comparison to women in other stages (P < 0.05). There was no significant difference in other HBM subscales scores between various stages of CBE screening behavior (P > 0.05). Conclusion: The finding indicates that the rate of women in action/maintenance stage of CBE is low. Moreover, results show a strong association between perceived barriers and having a regular CBE. These clarify the necessity of promoting national target programs for breast cancer screening, which should be considered as the first preference for reducing CBE barriers.

  8. Accessing probable thermal histories through dispersed, partially-reset zircon (U-Th)/He ages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Powell, Jeremy; Schneider, David

    2016-04-01

    exhibited by the datasets. We do not recommend selecting only the youngest dates from samples or averaging (U-Th)/He dates, as these methods do not acknowledge the complexity of the (U-Th)/He system and potentially exclude non-obvious, but equally probable, geologic scenarios. To this extent, using the vertical profile approach to assess exhumation rates from cooling age data may also provide an inaccurate result if the strata have not been buried to sufficient temperatures to completely reset any prior thermal history. As an alternative, we analyzed more grains from individual samples and combine data from similar structural regions to assess regional trends in thermal history. We believe that this approach does an appropriate job of acknowledging the errors and assumptions involved in the technique while providing meaningful information on thermal history of a region. Thermal modeling of the Mackenzie Mountains data reveals that (1) a substantial sedimentary package was deposited following the Devonian and removed during Permo-Triassic cooling, and (2) the Cordilleran deformation front propagated through the study area from the Albian to the Paleocene, with a moderate increase in cooling rates between 75-67 Ma in the southwest, and 60-55 Ma at the deformation front.

  9. Transcriptional analysis of histone deacetylase family members reveal similarities between differentiating and aging spermatogonial stem cells.

    PubMed

    Kofman, Amber E; Huszar, Jessica M; Payne, Christopher J

    2013-02-01

    The differentiation of adult stem cells involves extensive chromatin remodeling, mediated in part by the gene products of histone deacetylase (HDAC) family members. While the transcriptional downregulation of HDACs can impede stem cell self-renewal in certain contexts, it may also promote stem cell maintenance under other circumstances. In self-renewing, differentiating, and aging spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs), the gene expression dynamics of HDACs have not yet been characterized. To gain further insight with these studies, we analyzed the transcriptional profiles of six HDAC family members, previously identified to be the most highly expressed in self-renewing SSCs, during stem cell differentiation and aging. Here we discovered that in both differentiating and aging SSCs the expression of Sirt4 increases, while the expression of Hdac2, Hdac6, and Sirt1 decreases. When SSCs are exposed to the lifespan-enhancing drug rapamycin in vivo, the resultant HDAC gene expression patterns are opposite of those seen in the differentiating and aging SSCs, with increased Hdac2, Hdac6, and Sirt1 and decreased Hdac8, Hdac9, and Sirt4. Our findings suggest that HDACs important for stem cell maintenance and oxidative capacity are downregulated as adult stem cells differentiate or age. These results provide important insights into the epigenetic regulation of stem cell differentiation and aging in mammals.

  10. Controlling for Landform Age When Determining the Settlement History of the Kuril Islands

    PubMed Central

    MacInnes, Breanyn; Fitzhugh, Ben; Holman, Darryl

    2014-01-01

    Archaeological investigations of settlement patterns in dynamic landscapes can be strongly biased by the evolution of the Earth’s surface. The Kuril Island volcanic arc exemplifies such a dynamic landscape, where landscape-modifying geological forces were active during settlement, including sea-level changes, tectonic emergence, volcanic eruptive processes, coastal aggradation, and dune formation. With all these ongoing processes, in this paper we seek to understand how new landscape formation in the Holocene might bias archaeological interpretations of human settlement in the Kurils. Resolving this issue is fundamental to any interpretation of human settlement history derived from the distribution and age of archaeological sites from the region. On the basis of a comparison of landform ages and earliest archaeological occupation ages on those landforms, we conclude that landform creation did not significantly bias our aggregate archaeological evidence for earliest settlement. Some sections of the archipelago have larger proportions of landform creation dates closer to archaeological evidence of settlement and undoubtedly some archaeological sites have been lost to geomorphic processes. However, comparisons between regions reveal comparable archaeological establishment patterns irrespective of geomorphic antiquity. PMID:25684855

  11. Controlling for Landform Age When Determining the Settlement History of the Kuril Islands.

    PubMed

    MacInnes, Breanyn; Fitzhugh, Ben; Holman, Darryl

    2014-01-01

    Archaeological investigations of settlement patterns in dynamic landscapes can be strongly biased by the evolution of the Earth's surface. The Kuril Island volcanic arc exemplifies such a dynamic landscape, where landscape-modifying geological forces were active during settlement, including sea-level changes, tectonic emergence, volcanic eruptive processes, coastal aggradation, and dune formation. With all these ongoing processes, in this paper we seek to understand how new landscape formation in the Holocene might bias archaeological interpretations of human settlement in the Kurils. Resolving this issue is fundamental to any interpretation of human settlement history derived from the distribution and age of archaeological sites from the region. On the basis of a comparison of landform ages and earliest archaeological occupation ages on those landforms, we conclude that landform creation did not significantly bias our aggregate archaeological evidence for earliest settlement. Some sections of the archipelago have larger proportions of landform creation dates closer to archaeological evidence of settlement and undoubtedly some archaeological sites have been lost to geomorphic processes. However, comparisons between regions reveal comparable archaeological establishment patterns irrespective of geomorphic antiquity.

  12. Breast cancer risk perception and lifestyle behaviors among White and Black women with a family history of the disease.

    PubMed

    Spector, Denise; Mishel, Merle; Skinner, Celette Sugg; Deroo, Lisa A; Vanriper, Marcia; Sandler, Dale P

    2009-01-01

    Although researchers have investigated the relationships between perceived risk and behavioral risk factors for breast cancer, few qualitative studies have addressed the meaning of risk and its impact on decision making regarding lifestyle behaviors. This qualitative study explored factors involved in the formulation of perceived breast cancer risk and associations between risk perception and lifestyle behaviors in white and black women with a family history of breast cancer. Eligible participants were North Carolina residents in the Sister Study, a nationwide study of risk factors for breast cancer among women who have at least 1 sister diagnosed with breast cancer. Personal interviews were conducted with 32 women. Although most had heightened perceived risk, almost 20% considered themselves below-to-average risk. Participants with moderate-to-high perceived risk were more likely to report an affected sister and mother, a first-degree relative's diagnosis within 4 years, and death of a first-degree relative from breast cancer. Many women were unaware of associations between lifestyle behaviors and breast cancer risk. Only one-third of the women reported healthy lifestyle changes because of family history; dietary change was most frequently reported. Findings may be important for cancer nurses involved in developing breast cancer education programs for women with a family history of breast cancer.

  13. Culturally Tailored, Family-Centered, Behavioral Obesity Intervention for Latino-American Preschool-aged Children

    PubMed Central

    Gesell, Sabina B.; Po’e, Eli K.; Escarfuller, Juan; Tempesti, Tommaso

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To test the effect of a culturally tailored, family-centered, short-term behavioral intervention on BMI in Latino-American preschool-aged children. METHODS: In a randomized controlled trial, 54 parent–child dyads were allocated to the intervention and 52 dyads were allocated to an alternative school-readiness program as the control condition. Parent–child dyads were eligible if the parent self-defined Latino, was at least 18 years old, had a 2- to 6-year-old child not currently enrolled in another healthy lifestyle program, had a valid telephone number, and planned on remaining in the city for the next 6 months. The Salud Con La Familia (Health with the Family) program consisted of 12 weekly 90-minute skills-building sessions designed to improve family nutritional habits and increase physical activity. Both programs were conducted in a community recreation center serving an urban neighborhood of mostly Spanish-speaking residents. RESULTS: Forty-two percent of participating preschool-aged children were overweight or obese. Controlling for child age, gender, and baseline BMI, the effect of the treatment condition on postintervention absolute BMI was B = –0.59 (P < .001). The intervention effect seemed to be strongest for obese children. CONCLUSIONS: A skills-building, culturally tailored intervention involving parent–child dyads changed short-term early growth patterns in these Latino-American preschool-aged children. Examining long-term effects would be a prudent next step. PMID:22869834

  14. Associations of personal and family preeclampsia history with the risk of early-, intermediate- and late-onset preeclampsia.

    PubMed

    Boyd, Heather A; Tahir, Hassaan; Wohlfahrt, Jan; Melbye, Mads

    2013-12-01

    Preeclampsia encompasses multiple conditions of varying severity. We examined the recurrence and familial aggregation of preeclampsia by timing of onset, which is a marker for severity. We ascertained personal and family histories of preeclampsia for women who delivered live singletons in Denmark in 1978-2008 (almost 1.4 million pregnancies). Using log-linear binomial regression, we estimated risk ratios for the associations between personal and family histories of preeclampsia and the risk of early-onset (before 34 weeks of gestation, which is typically the most severe), intermediate-onset (at 34-36 weeks of gestation), and late-onset (after 36 weeks of gestation) preeclampsia. Previous early-, intermediate-, or late-onset preeclampsia increased the risk of recurrent preeclampsia with the same timing of onset 25.2 times (95% confidence interval (CI): 21.8, 29.1), 19.7 times (95% CI: 17.0, 22.8), and 10.3 times (95% CI: 9.85, 10.9), respectively, compared with having no such history. Preeclampsia in a woman's family was associated with a 24%-163% increase in preeclampsia risk, with the strongest associations for early- and intermediate-onset preeclampsia in female relatives. Preeclampsia in the man's family did not affect a woman's risk of early-onset preeclampsia and was only weakly associated with her risks of intermediate- and late-onset preeclampsia. Early-onset preeclampsia appears to have the largest genetic component, whereas environmental factors likely contribute most to late-onset preeclampsia. The role of paternal genes in the etiology of preeclampsia appears to be limited.

  15. Age Moderates the Relationships between Family Functioning and Neck Pain/Disability

    PubMed Central

    Guzy, Grażyna; Polczyk, Romuald; Szpitalak, Malwina; Vernon, Howard

    2016-01-01

    This cross-sectional clinical study was designed to explore the relationships between family functioning, coping styles, and neck pain and neck disability. It was hypothesized that better family functioning and more effective coping styles would be associated with less pain and pain-related disability. It also was hypothesized that these relationships would be stronger in older people because they have fewer resources, more limited coping styles, and may depend more on their family for support. In this study, 88 women with chronic non-traumatic neck pain completed the Family Assessment Measure (FAM), Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations (CISS), Neck Disability Index (NDI), and a Visual-Analogue Scale (VAS) measuring the subjective intensity of neck pain. Zero-order and partial correlations and hierarchical stepwise regression were performed. CISS was not correlated with the NDI orVAS. Good family functioning was correlated with lower NDI and VAS scores. Age was found to moderate the relationship between the FAM and both NDI and VAS. This relationship was significant and positive in older patients, but non-significant in younger patients. It was concluded that better family functioning is associated with lower neck disability and pain intensity, especially in the case of older women suffering from non-traumatic neck pain. PMID:27078854

  16. Age Moderates the Relationships between Family Functioning and Neck Pain/Disability.

    PubMed

    Guzy, Grażyna; Polczyk, Romuald; Szpitalak, Malwina; Vernon, Howard

    2016-01-01

    This cross-sectional clinical study was designed to explore the relationships between family functioning, coping styles, and neck pain and neck disability. It was hypothesized that better family functioning and more effective coping styles would be associated with less pain and pain-related disability. It also was hypothesized that these relationships would be stronger in older people because they have fewer resources, more limited coping styles, and may depend more on their family for support. In this study, 88 women with chronic non-traumatic neck pain completed the Family Assessment Measure (FAM), Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations (CISS), Neck Disability Index (NDI), and a Visual-Analogue Scale (VAS) measuring the subjective intensity of neck pain. Zero-order and partial correlations and hierarchical stepwise regression were performed. CISS was not correlated with the NDI orVAS. Good family functioning was correlated with lower NDI and VAS scores. Age was found to moderate the relationship between the FAM and both NDI and VAS. This relationship was significant and positive in older patients, but non-significant in younger patients. It was concluded that better family functioning is associated with lower neck disability and pain intensity, especially in the case of older women suffering from non-traumatic neck pain.

  17. Dynamic Evolution of Immune System Regulators: The History of the Interferon Regulatory Factor Family

    PubMed Central

    Nehyba, Jiří; Hrdličková, Radmila

    2009-01-01

    This manuscript presents the first extensive phylogenetics analysis of a key family of immune regulators, the interferon regulatory factor (IRF) family. The IRF family encodes transcription factors that play important roles in immune defense, stress responses, reproduction, development, and carcinogenesis. Several times during their evolution, the IRF genes have undergone expansion and diversification. These genes were also completely lost on two separate occasions in large groups of metazoans. The origin of the IRF family coincides with the appearance of multicellularity in animals. IRF genes are present in all principal metazoan groups, including sea sponges, placozoans, comb jellies, cnidarians, and bilaterians. Although the number of IRF family members does not exceed two in sponges and placozoans, this number reached five in cnidarians. At least four additional independent expansions lead up to 11 members in different groups of bilaterians. In contrast, the IRF genes either disappeared or mutated beyond recognition in roundworms and insects, the two groups that include most of the metazoan species. The IRF family separated very early into two branches ultimately leading to vertebrate IRF1 and IRF4 supergroups (SGs). Genes encoding the IRF-SGs are present in all bilaterians and cnidarians. The evolution of vertebrate IRF family members further proceeded with at least two additional steps. First, close to the appearance of the first vertebrate, the IRF family probably expanded to four family members, predecessors of the four vertebrate IRF groups (IRF1, 3, 4, 5 groups). In the second step, 10 vertebrate family members evolved from these four genes, likely as a result of the 2-fold duplication of the entire genome. Interestingly, the IRF family coevolved with the Rel/NF-κB family with which it shares some important evolutionary characteristics, including roles in defense responses, metazoan specificity, extensive diversification in vertebrates, and elimination

  18. "Math Talk" in Families of Preschool-Aged Children: Frequency and Relations to Children's Early Math Skills across Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Susperreguy Jorquera, Maria Ines

    2013-01-01

    Early math skills are the strongest predictors of later math achievement in school. This two-wave study addressed three research questions about the role of families in fostering these skills in preschool-aged children. First, how do families talk about math at home? Second, how do these conversations vary across families with different…

  19. Testosterone related to age and life-history stages in male baboons and geladas

    PubMed Central

    Beehner, Jacinta C.; Gesquiere, Laurence; Seyfarth, Robert M.; Cheney, Dorothy L.; Alberts, Susan C.; Altmann, Jeanne

    2013-01-01

    Despite significant advances in our knowledge of how testosterone mediates life-history trade-offs, this research has primarily focused on seasonal species. We know comparatively little about the relationship between testosterone and life-history stages for non-seasonally breeding species. Here we examine testosterone profiles across the lifespan of males from three non-seasonally breeding primates: yellow baboons (Papio cynocephalus or P. hamadryas cynocephalus), chacma baboons (Papio ursinus or P. h. ursinus), and geladas (Theropithecus gelada). First, we predict that testosterone profiles will track the reproductive profiles of each taxon across their respective breeding years. Second, we evaluate age-related changes in testosterone to determine whether several life-history transitions are associated with these changes. Subjects include males (>2.5 years) from wild populations of each taxon from whom we had fecal samples for hormone determination. Although testosterone profiles across species were broadly similar, considerable variability was found in the timing of two major changes: (1) the attainment of adult levels of testosterone, and (2) the decline in testosterone after the period of maximum production. Attainment of adult testosterone levels was delayed by one year in chacmas compared with yellows and geladas. With respect to the decline in testosterone, geladas and chacmas exhibited a significant drop after three years of maximum production, while yellows declined so gradually that no significant annual drop was ever detected. For both yellows and chacmas, increases in testosterone production preceded elevations in social dominance rank. We discuss these differences in the context of ecological and behavioral differences exhibited by these taxa. PMID:19712676

  20. Genotype-phenotype correlations in a prospective cohort study of paediatric plaque psoriasis: lack of correlation between HLA-C*06 and family history of psoriasis.

    PubMed

    Oostveen, Annet M; Bergboer, Judith G M; van de Kerkhof, Peter C M; Zeeuwen, Patrick L J M; de Jong, Elke M G J; Schalkwijk, Joost; Seyger, Marieke M B

    2014-11-01

    This study aims to investigate associations between observed clinical parameters and known genetic risk factors of psoriasis in a we