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Sample records for family history age

  1. Family History

    MedlinePlus

    Your family history includes health information about you and your close relatives. Families have many factors in common, including their genes, ... as heart disease, stroke, and cancer. Having a family member with a disease raises your risk, but ...

  2. Searching for the Kinkeepers: Historian Gender, Age, and Type 2 Diabetes Family History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giordimaina, Alicia M.; Sheldon, Jane P.; Kiedrowski, Lesli A.; Jayaratne, Toby Epstein

    2015-01-01

    Kinkeepers facilitate family communication and may be key to family medical history collection and dissemination. Middle-aged women are frequently kinkeepers. Using type 2 diabetes (T2DM) as a model, we explored whether the predicted gender and age effects of kinkeeping can be extended to family medical historians. Through a U.S. telephone survey,…

  3. Association of Family History of Epilepsy with Earlier Age Onset of Juvenile Myoclonic Epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    NAJAFI, Mohammad Reza; NAJAFI, Mohammad Amin; SAFAEI, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Objective Juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME) is supposedly the most frequent subtype of idiopathic generalized epilepsies (IGE). The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of JME and comparison of patients’ demographics as well as timeline of the disease between positive family history epileptic patients (PFHE) and negative family history epileptic patients (NFHE) among sample of Iranian epileptic patients. Materials & Methods From Feb. 2006 to Oct. 2009, 1915 definite epileptic patients (873 females) referred to epilepsy clinics in Isfahan, central Iran, were surveyed and among them, 194 JME patients were diagnosed. JME was diagnosed by its specific clinical and EEG criteria. Patients were divided into two groups as PFHE and NFHE and data were compared between them. Results JME was responsible for 10% (194 patients) of all types of epilepsies. Of JME patients, 53% were female. In terms of family history of epilepsy, 40% were positive. No significant differences was found between PFHE and NFHE groups as for gender (P>0.05). Age of epilepsy onset was significantly earlier in PFHE patients (15 vs. 22 yr, P<0.001). Occurrence of JME before 18 yr old among PFHE patients was significantly higher (OR=2.356, P=0.007). Conclusion A family history of epilepsy might be associated with an earlier age of onset in patients with JME. PMID:27247579

  4. Psychosocial Adjustment in School-age Girls With a Family History of Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Bradbury, Angela R.; Patrick-Miller, Linda; Schwartz, Lisa; Egleston, Brian; Sands, Colleen Burke; Chung, Wendy K.; Glendon, Gord; McDonald, Jasmine A.; Moore, Cynthia; Rauch, Paula; Tuchman, Lisa; Andrulis, Irene L.; Buys, Saundra S.; Frost, Caren J.; Keegan, Theresa H.M.; Knight, Julia A.; Terry, Mary Beth; John, Esther M.; Daly, Mary B.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Understanding how young girls respond to growing up with breast cancer family histories is critical given expansion of genetic testing and breast cancer messaging. We examined the impact of breast cancer family history on psychosocial adjustment and health behaviors among >800 girls in the multicenter LEGACY Girls Study. METHODS Girls aged 6 to 13 years with a family history of breast cancer or familial BRCA1/2 mutation (BCFH+), peers without a family history (BCFH−), and their biological mothers completed assessments of psychosocial adjustment (maternal report for 6- to 13-year-olds, self-report for 10- to 13-year-olds), breast cancer–specific distress, perceived risk of breast cancer, and health behaviors (10- to 13-year-olds). RESULTS BCFH+ girls had better general psychosocial adjustment than BCFH− peers by maternal report. Psychosocial adjustment and health behaviors did not differ significantly by self-report among 10- to 13-year-old girls. BCFH+ girls reported higher breast cancer–specific distress (P = .001) and were more likely to report themselves at increased breast cancer risk than BCFH− peers (38.4% vs 13.7%, P < .001), although many girls were unsure of their risk. In multivariable analyses, higher daughter anxiety was associated with higher maternal anxiety and poorer family communication. Higher daughter breast cancer–specific distress was associated with higher maternal breast cancer-specific distress. CONCLUSIONS Although growing up in a family at risk for breast cancer does not negatively affect general psychosocial adjustment among preadolescent girls, those from breast cancer risk families experience greater breast cancer–specific distress. Interventions to address daughter and mother breast cancer concerns and responses to genetic or familial risk might improve psychosocial outcomes of teen daughters. PMID:26482668

  5. Role of Family Resources and Paternal History of Substance Use Problems in Psychosocial Adjustment among School-Aged Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peleg-Oren, Neta; Rahav, Giora; Teichman, Meir

    2009-01-01

    The present study examines the role of family resources (parenting style and family cohesion) and paternal history of substance abuse on the psychosocial adjustment of their school-aged children. Data were collected from 148 children aged 8-11 (72 of fathers with history of substance use disorder, 76 children of fathers with no substance use…

  6. Paternal age effect on age of onset in bipolar I disorder is mediated by sex and family history.

    PubMed

    Grigoroiu-Serbanescu, Maria; Wickramaratne, Priya J; Mihailescu, Radu; Prelipceanu, Dan; Sima, Dorina; Codreanu, Marina; Grimberg, Mihaela; Elston, Robert C

    2012-07-01

    This study investigated for the first time in the psychiatric literature the effect of parental age on age-of-onset (AO) in bipolar I disorder (BPI) in relation to proband sex and family history (FH) for major psychoses in a sample of 564 BPI probands. All probands, 72.68% of their first-degree and 12.13% of their second-degree relatives were directly interviewed. The FH-method was used for all unavailable relatives. The diagnoses were made according to DSM-IV(TR) . The impact of parental age on proband early/late AO was evaluated through logistic regression with the cut-off for early AO determined through commingling analysis. We found evidence for a significant influence of increasing paternal age, and especially age ≥ 35 years, on AO of BPI disorder in the total sample (OR = 0.54, CI: 0.35-0.80), in the female subsample (OR = 0.44, CI: 0.25-0.78), in the sporadic subsample (OR = 0.64, CI: 0.38-0.95), and in the subsample with FH of recurrent unipolar major depression (Mdd-RUP) (OR = 0.55, CI: 0.34-0.87). No significant effect of paternal age on disease AO was found in patients with FH of bipolar (BP), schizoaffective disorders (SA), or schizophrenia (SCZ), nor in males. Mean age was significantly higher in fathers of sporadic cases and of cases with FH of Mdd-RUP than in fathers of cases with FH of BP/SA/SCZ (P = 0.011). Maternal age had no significant effect either in the total sample or in subsamples defined by proband sex or FH. In conclusion, in our sample increasing paternal age lowered the onset of BPI selectively, the effect being related to the female sex and FH-type.

  7. Family History Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bookmark, 1991

    1991-01-01

    The 12 articles in this issue focus on the theme of family history resources: (1) "Introduction: Family History Resources" (Joseph F. Shubert); (2) "Work, Credentials, and Expectations of a Professional Genealogist" (Coreen P. Hallenbeck and Lewis W. Hallenbeck); (3) "Computers and Genealogy" (Theresa C. Strasser); (4) "Finding Historical Records…

  8. White matter microstructure in late middle-age: Effects of apolipoprotein E4 and parental family history of Alzheimer's disease

    PubMed Central

    Adluru, Nagesh; Destiche, Daniel J.; Lu, Sharon Yuan-Fu; Doran, Samuel T.; Birdsill, Alex C.; Melah, Kelsey E.; Okonkwo, Ozioma C.; Alexander, Andrew L.; Dowling, N. Maritza; Johnson, Sterling C.; Sager, Mark A.; Bendlin, Barbara B.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Little is still known about the effects of risk factors for Alzheimer's disease (AD) on white matter microstructure in cognitively healthy adults. The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to assess the effect of two well-known risk factors for AD, parental family history and APOE4 genotype. Methods This study included 343 participants from the Wisconsin Registry for Alzheimer's Prevention, who underwent diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). A region of interest analysis was performed on fractional anisotropy maps, in addition to mean, radial, and axial diffusivity maps, aligned to a common template space using a diffeomorphic, tensor-based registration method. The analysis focused on brain regions known to be affected in AD including the corpus callosum, superior longitudinal fasciculus, fornix, cingulum, and uncinate fasciculus. Analyses assessed the impact of APOE4, parental family history of AD, age, and sex on white matter microstructure in late middle-aged participants (aged 47–76 years). Results Both APOE4 and parental family history were associated with microstructural white matter differences. Participants with parental family history of AD had higher FA in the genu of the corpus callosum and the superior longitudinal fasciculus. We observed an interaction between family history and APOE4, where participants who were family history positive but APOE4 negative had lower axial diffusivity in the uncinate fasciculus, and participants who were both family history positive and APOE4 positive had higher axial diffusivity in this region. We also observed an interaction between APOE4 and age, whereby older participants (=65 years of age) who were APOE4 carriers, had higher MD in the superior longitudinal fasciculus and in the portion of the cingulum bundle running adjacent to the cingulate cortex, compared to non-carriers. Older participants who were APOE4 carriers also showed higher radial diffusivity in the genu compared to non-carriers. Across

  9. Creating a Family Health History

    MedlinePlus

    ... Health History? Click for more information A Family Tree for Health A family health history is a ... family members grew up. It's like a family tree for health. Click for more information What a ...

  10. Using Family Health History for Chronic Disease Prevention in the Age of Genomics: Translation to Health Education Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanson, Carl; Novilla, Lelinneth; Barnes, Michael; De La Cruz, Natalie; Meacham, Aaron

    2007-01-01

    Advances in the field of human genomics have important implications for the prevention of chronic disease. In response to these advancements, public health professionals--including health educators--must become competent in the principles underlying the interface between genomics and the use of family health history. Family health history captures…

  11. A prospective study of cognitive health in the elderly (Oregon Brain Aging Study): effects of family history and apolipoprotein E genotype.

    PubMed Central

    Payami, H; Grimslid, H; Oken, B; Camicioli, R; Sexton, G; Dame, A; Howieson, D; Kaye, J

    1997-01-01

    The oldest old are the fastest-growing segment of our population and have the highest prevalence of dementia. Little is known about the genetics of cognitive health in the very old. The aim of this study was to determine whether the genetic risk factors for Alzheimer disease (AD)--namely, apolipoprotein E (APOE) epsilon4 allele and a family history of dementia-continue to be important factors in the cognitive health of the very old. Case-control studies suggest that the effect of genetic factors diminishes at age >75 years. The present prospective study provided evidence to the contrary. We studied 114 Caucasian subjects who were physically healthy and cognitively intact at age 75 years and who were followed, for an average of 4 years, with neurological, psychometric, and neuroimaging examinations. Excellent health at entry did not protect against cognitive decline. Incidence of cognitive decline rose sharply with age. epsilon4 and a family history of dementia (independent of epsilon4) were associated with an earlier age at onset of dementia. Subjects who had epsilon4 or a family history of dementia had a ninefold-higher age-specific risk for dementia than did those who had neither epsilon4 nor a family history of dementia. These observations suggest that the rate of cognitive decline increases with age and that APOE and other familial/genetic factors influence the onset age throughout life. PMID:9106542

  12. Family history in primary care pediatrics.

    PubMed

    Tarini, Beth A; McInerney, Joseph D

    2013-12-01

    The family history has been called the first genetic test; it was a core element of primary care long before the current wave of genetics technologies and services became clinically relevant. Risk assessment based on family history allows providers to personalize and prioritize health messages, shifts the focus of health care from treatment to prevention, and can empower individuals and families to be stewards of their own health. In a world of rising health care costs, the family history is an important tool, with its primary cost being the clinician's time. However, a recent National Institutes of Health conference highlighted the lack of substantive evidence to support the clinical utility of family histories. Annual collection of a comprehensive 3-generation family history has been held up as the gold standard for practice. However, interval family histories targeted to symptoms and family histories tailored to a child's life stage (ie, age-based health) may be important and underappreciated methods of collecting family history that yield clinically actionable data and supplement existing family history information. In this article, we review the various applications, as well as capabilities and limitations, of the family history for primary care providers.

  13. Family History in Primary Care Pediatrics

    PubMed Central

    McInerney, Joseph D.

    2013-01-01

    The family history has been called the first genetic test; it was a core element of primary care long before the current wave of genetics technologies and services became clinically relevant. Risk assessment based on family history allows providers to personalize and prioritize health messages, shifts the focus of health care from treatment to prevention, and can empower individuals and families to be stewards of their own health. In a world of rising health care costs, the family history is an important tool, with its primary cost being the clinician’s time. However, a recent National Institutes of Health conference highlighted the lack of substantive evidence to support the clinical utility of family histories. Annual collection of a comprehensive 3-generation family history has been held up as the gold standard for practice. However, interval family histories targeted to symptoms and family histories tailored to a child’s life stage (ie, age-based health) may be important and underappreciated methods of collecting family history that yield clinically actionable data and supplement existing family history information. In this article, we review the various applications, as well as capabilities and limitations, of the family history for primary care providers. PMID:24298128

  14. ERBB4 Polymorphism and Family History of Psychiatric Disorders on Age-Related Cortical Changes in Healthy Children

    PubMed Central

    Douet, Vanessa; Chang, Linda; Lee, Kristin; Ernst, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Background Genetic variations in ERBB4 were associated with increased susceptibility for schizophrenia (SCZ) and bipolar disorders (BPD). Structural imaging studies showed cortical abnormalities in adolescents and adults with SCZ or BPD. However, less is known about subclinical cortical changes or the influence of ERBB4 on cortical development. Methods 971 healthy children (ages 3–20 years old; 462 girls and 509 boys) were genotyped for the ERBB4-rs7598440 variants, had structural MRI, and cognitive evaluation (NIH Toolbox ®). We investigated the effects of ERBB4 variants and family history of SCZ and/or BPD (FH) on cortical measures and cognitive performances across ages 3–20 years using a general additive model. Results Variations in ERBB4 and FH impact differentially the age-related cortical changes in regions often affected by SCZ and BPD. The ERBB4-TT-risk genotype children with no FH had subtle cortical changes across the age span, primarily located in the left temporal lobe and superior parietal cortex. In contrast, the TT-risk genotype children with FH had more pronounced age-related changes, mainly in the frontal lobes compared to the non-risk genotype children. Interactive effects of age, FH and ERBB4 variations were also found on episodic memory and working memory, which are often impaired in SCZ and BPD. Conclusions Healthy children carrying the risk-genotype in ERBB4 and/or with FH had cortical measures resembling those reported in SCZ or BPD. These subclinical cortical variations may provide early indicators for increased risk of psychiatric disorders and improve our understanding of the effect of the NRG1–ERBB4 pathway on brain development. PMID:25744101

  15. The Relative Importance of Family History, Gender, Mode of Onset, and Age at Onset in Predicting Clinical Features of First-Episode Psychotic Disorders.

    PubMed

    Compton, Michael T; Berez, Chantal; Walker, Elaine F

    2014-11-01

    Objective: Family history of psychosis, gender, mode of onset, and age at onset are considered prognostic factors important to clinicians evaluating first-episode psychosis; yet, clinicians have little guidance as to how these four factors differentially predict early-course substance abuse, symptomatology, and functioning. We conducted a "head-to-head comparison" of these four factors regarding their associations with key clinical features at initial hospitalization. We also assessed potential interactions between gender and family history with regard to age at onset of psychosis and symptom severity.Methods: Consecutively admitted first-episode patients (n=334) were evaluated in two studies that rigorously assessed a number of early-course variables. Associations among variables of interest were examined using Pearson correlations, ÷2 tests, Student's t-tests, and 2x2 factorial analyses of variance.Results: Substance (nicotine, alcohol, and cannabis) abuse and positive symptom severity were predicted only by male gender. Negative symptom severity and global functioning impairments were predicted by earlier age at onset of psychosis. General psychopathology symptom severity was predicted by both mode of onset and age at onset. Interaction effects were not observed with regard to gender and family history in predicting age at onset or symptom severity.Conclusions: The four prognostic features have differential associations with substance abuse, domains of symptom severity, and global functioning. Gender and age at onset of psychosis appear to be more predictive of clinical features at the time of initial evaluation (and thus presumably longer-term outcomes) than the presence of a family history of psychosis and a more gradual mode of onset. PMID:25367167

  16. The Relative Importance of Family History, Gender, Mode of Onset, and Age at Onset in Predicting Clinical Features of First-Episode Psychotic Disorders.

    PubMed

    Compton, Michael T; Berez, Chantal; Walker, Elaine F

    2014-11-01

    Objective: Family history of psychosis, gender, mode of onset, and age at onset are considered prognostic factors important to clinicians evaluating first-episode psychosis; yet, clinicians have little guidance as to how these four factors differentially predict early-course substance abuse, symptomatology, and functioning. We conducted a "head-to-head comparison" of these four factors regarding their associations with key clinical features at initial hospitalization. We also assessed potential interactions between gender and family history with regard to age at onset of psychosis and symptom severity.Methods: Consecutively admitted first-episode patients (n=334) were evaluated in two studies that rigorously assessed a number of early-course variables. Associations among variables of interest were examined using Pearson correlations, ÷2 tests, Student's t-tests, and 2x2 factorial analyses of variance.Results: Substance (nicotine, alcohol, and cannabis) abuse and positive symptom severity were predicted only by male gender. Negative symptom severity and global functioning impairments were predicted by earlier age at onset of psychosis. General psychopathology symptom severity was predicted by both mode of onset and age at onset. Interaction effects were not observed with regard to gender and family history in predicting age at onset or symptom severity.Conclusions: The four prognostic features have differential associations with substance abuse, domains of symptom severity, and global functioning. Gender and age at onset of psychosis appear to be more predictive of clinical features at the time of initial evaluation (and thus presumably longer-term outcomes) than the presence of a family history of psychosis and a more gradual mode of onset.

  17. Asteroid family ages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spoto, Federica; Milani, Andrea; Knežević, Zoran

    2015-09-01

    A new family classification, based on a catalog of proper elements with ∼384,000 numbered asteroids and on new methods is available. For the 45 dynamical families with >250 members identified in this classification, we present an attempt to obtain statistically significant ages: we succeeded in computing ages for 37 collisional families. We used a rigorous method, including a least squares fit of the two sides of a V-shape plot in the proper semimajor axis, inverse diameter plane to determine the corresponding slopes, an advanced error model for the uncertainties of asteroid diameters, an iterative outlier rejection scheme and quality control. The best available Yarkovsky measurement was used to estimate a calibration of the Yarkovsky effect for each family. The results are presented separately for the families originated in fragmentation or cratering events, for the young, compact families and for the truncated, one-sided families. For all the computed ages the corresponding uncertainties are provided, and the results are discussed and compared with the literature. The ages of several families have been estimated for the first time, in other cases the accuracy has been improved. We have been quite successful in computing ages for old families, we have significant results for both young and ancient, while we have little, if any, evidence for primordial families. We found 2 cases where two separate dynamical families form together a single V-shape with compatible slopes, thus indicating a single collisional event. We have also found 3 examples of dynamical families containing multiple collisional families, plus a dubious case: for these we have obtained discordant slopes for the two sides of the V-shape, resulting in distinct ages. We have found 2 cases of families containing a conspicuous subfamily, such that it is possible to measure the slope of a distinct V-shape, thus the age of the secondary collision. We also provide data on the central gaps appearing in

  18. Neuropsychological Performance and Family History in Children at Age 7 who Develop Adult Schizophrenia or Bipolar Psychosis in the New England Family Studies

    PubMed Central

    Seidman, Larry J.; Cherkerzian, Sara; Goldstein, Jill M.; Agnew-Blais, Jessica; Tsuang, Ming T.; Buka, Stephen L.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Persons developing schizophrenia (SCZ) manifest various premorbid neuropsychological deficits, studied most often by measures of IQ. Far less is known about premorbid neuropsychological functioning in individuals who later develop bipolar psychoses (BP). We evaluated the specificity and impact of family history (FH) of psychosis on premorbid neuropsychological functioning. Methods We conducted a nested case-control study investigating the associations of neuropsychological data systematically collected at age 7 years for 99 adults with psychotic diagnoses (including 45 SCZ and 35 BP) and 101 controls, drawn from the New England cohort of the Collaborative Perinatal Project. A mixed model approach evaluated Full Scale IQ, four neuropsychological factors derived from principal components analysis, and the profile of 10 intelligence and achievement tests, controlling for maternal education, race, and intrafamilial correlation. We used a deviant responder approach (< 10%tile) to calculate rates of impairment. Results There was a significant linear trend, with the SCZ group performing worst. The profile of childhood deficits for persons with SCZ did not differ significantly from BP. 42.2% of SCZ, 22.9% of BP, and 7% of controls were neuropsychologically impaired. Presence of psychosis in first-degree relatives (FH+) significantly increased the severity of childhood impairment for SCZ but not for BP. Conclusions Premorbid neuropsychological deficits are found in a substantial proportion of children who later develop SCZ, especially in the SCZ FH+ subgroup, but less so in BP, suggesting especially impaired neurodevelopment underlying cognition in pre-SCZ children. Future work should assess genetic and environmental factors that explain this FH effect. PMID:22575089

  19. Assessment of association of D3 dopamine receptor MscI polymorphism with schizophrenia: Analysis of symptom ratings, family history, age at onset, and movement disorders

    SciTech Connect

    Gaitonde, E.J.; Mollon, J.D.; McKenna, P.J.

    1996-09-20

    Several studies have reported an association between schizophrenia and homozygosity for the MscI restriction site in exon 1 of the D3 dopamine receptor gene, but other studies have failed to find this association. Recent reports have suggested that the association is most salient in male patients with a family history of schizophrenia. We examined this restriction site in a group of schizophrenic patients (n = 84) and in normal controls (n = 77). Patients were subdivided according to demographic and clinical features, particular attention being paid to movement disorders. No significant difference in allelic or genotypic distribution was seen between the two groups. No association was seen between homozygosity and a positive family history, age at onset of illness, clinical subtype, negative symptom score, or movement disorder scores. 33 refs., 2 tabs.

  20. Intertemporal Choice Behavior in Emerging Adults and Adults: Effects of Age Interact with Alcohol Use and Family History Status

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Christopher T.; Steel, Eleanor A.; Parrish, Michael H.; Kelm, Mary K.; Boettiger, Charlotte A.

    2015-01-01

    Adults with alcohol use disorders (AUDs) show marked immediate reward selection (or “Now”) bias in intertemporal choice tasks. This Now bias persists long into abstinence, suggesting an irreversible consequence of chronic alcohol abuse or a pre-existing AUD intermediate phenotype. However, some data show substantial Now bias among emerging adults (18–25), regardless of drinking behavior, suggesting age-dependent effects on Now bias. The objectives of the present study were to determine (1) whether Now bias is greater among emerging adults relative to adults, (2) whether any such age effect on Now bias is diminished in sub-clinical heavy alcohol users, and (3) whether having a problem drinking first degree relative is independently associated with elevated Now bias. To achieve these objectives, we used an intertemporal choice task to quantify Now bias in n = 237 healthy participants (ages 18–40; 50% female), and a wide range of non-zero alcohol use, based on the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT). We found that among non-heavy drinkers, Now bias inversely correlated with age; this relationship was not present among heavy drinkers. We found no significant relationship between AUDIT score and Now bias among emerging adults, but AUDIT scores and Now bias were positively correlated among 26–40 year olds. Additionally, non-heavy drinking adults who reported a problem drinking first degree relative showed greater Now bias compared to those not reporting familial problem drinking. While not definitive, these findings lend support for elevated Now bias in adulthood as an intermediate phenotype for AUDs. Moreover, non-additive effects of age and heavy drinking on Now bias suggest perturbations in largely common neural circuits in both groups. PMID:26635580

  1. Family Health History and Diabetes

    MedlinePlus

    ... History Prevent Type 2 Diabetes in Your Family Contact Us Health Information Center Phone: 1-800-860- ... encourages people to share this content freely. [ Top ] ​​​​​ Contact Us Health Information Center Phone: 1-800-860- ...

  2. Gastric cancer and family history

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Yoon Jin; Kim, Nayoung

    2016-01-01

    Gastric cancer is associated with high morbidity and mortality rates worldwide. Identifying individuals at high risk is important for surveillance and prevention of gastric cancer. Having first-degree relatives diagnosed with gastric cancer is a strong and consistent risk factor for gastric cancer, but the pathogenic mechanisms behind this familial aggregation are unclear. Against this background, we reviewed the risk factors for gastric cancer in those with a first-degree relative with gastric cancer, and the possible causes for familial clustering of gastric cancer including bacterial factors, inherited genetic susceptibility, environmental factors or a combination thereof. Among individuals with a family history, current or past Helicobacter pylori infection, having two or more first-degree affected relatives or female gender was associated with an increased risk of developing gastric cancer. To date, no specific single nucleotide polymorphism has been shown to be associated with familial clustering of gastric cancer. H. pylori eradication is the most important strategy for preventing gastric cancer in first-degree relatives of gastric cancer patients, particularly those in their 20s and 30s. Early H. pylori eradication could prevent the progression to intestinal metaplasia and reduce the synergistic effect on gastric carcinogenesis in individuals with both H. pylori infection and a family history. Endoscopic surveillance is also expected to benefit individuals with a family history. Further large-scale, prospective studies are warranted to evaluate the cost-effectiveness and optimal time point for endoscopy in this population. Moreover, genome-wide association studies that incorporate environmental and dietary factors on a ‘big data’ basis will increase our understanding of the pathogenesis of gastric cancer. PMID:27809451

  3. Family Ties: The Role of Family Context in Family Health History Communication About Cancer.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Vivian M; Corona, Rosalie; Bodurtha, Joann N; Quillin, John M

    2016-01-01

    Family health history about cancer is an important prevention and health promotion tool. Yet few studies have identified family context factors that promote such discussions. We explored relations among family context (cohesion, flexibility, and openness), self-efficacy, and cancer communication (gathering family history, sharing cancer risk information, and frequency) in a diverse group of women enrolled in a randomized control trial. Baseline survey data for 472 women were analyzed. The women's average age was 34 years, 59% identified as Black, 31% had graduated high school, and 75% reported a family history of any cancer. Results showed that greater family cohesion and flexibility were related to higher communication frequency and sharing cancer information. Women who reported greater self-efficacy were more likely to have gathered family history, shared cancer risk information, and communicated more frequently with relatives. Openness was not associated with communication but was related to greater family cohesion and flexibility. Adjusting for demographic variables, self-efficacy, and family cohesion significantly predicted communication frequency. Women with higher self-efficacy were also more likely to have gathered family health history about cancer and shared cancer risk information. Future research may benefit from considering family organization and self-efficacy when developing psychosocial theories that in turn inform cancer prevention interventions.

  4. Selected Internet Resources on Family History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mintz, Steven

    2001-01-01

    Provides a list of Internet resources on family history that cover topics such as colonial families, shifting family ideals, families in the Early Republic, families in bondage, westward migration, families during the Great Depression, journals, reference sources, and lesson plans. (CMK)

  5. The Validity of the Family History Screen for Assessing Family History of Mental Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Milne, B.J.; Caspi, A.; Crump, R.; Poulton, R.; Rutter, M.; Sears, M.R.; Moffitt, T.E.

    2013-01-01

    There is a need to collect psychiatric family history information quickly and economically (e.g., for genome-wide studies and primary care practice). We sought to evaluate the validity of family history reports using a brief screening instrument, the Family History Screen (FHS). We assessed the validity of parents’ reports of seven psychiatric disorders in their adult children probands from the Dunedin Study (n=959, 52% male), using the proband’s diagnosis as the criterion outcome. We also investigated whether there were informant characteristics that enhanced accuracy of reporting or were associated with reporting biases. Using reports from multiple informants, we obtained sensitivities ranging from 31.7% (alcohol dependence) to 60.0% (conduct disorder) and specificities ranging from 76.0% (major depressive episode) to 97.1% (suicide attempt). There was little evidence that any informant characteristics enhanced accuracy of reporting. However, three reporting biases were found: the probability of reporting disorder in the proband was greater for informants with versus without a disorder, for female versus male informants, and for younger versus older informants. We conclude that the FHS is as valid as other family history instruments (e.g., the FH-RDC, FISC), and its brief administration time makes it a cost-effective method for collecting family history data. To avoid biasing results, researchers who aim to compare groups in terms of their family history should ensure that the informants reporting on these groups do not differ in terms of age, sex or personal history of disorder. PMID:18449865

  6. Positive family history of idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss.

    PubMed

    Gäckler, A; Eickelmann, A K; Brors, D; Dazert, S; Epplen, J T; Kunstmann, E

    2010-12-01

    Idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss (ISSNHL) is a heterogenic disease. Multiple factors influencing aetiology and prognosis are discussed. A retrospective clinical characterisation and analysis of family history of ISSNHL patients was performed to investigate influences on the disease. 186 inpatients diagnosed with ISSNHL were characterised by health records and a standardised questionnaire. Audiograms were observed. 75 controls that had never experienced an event of ISSNHL were questioned about family members being affected by ISSNHL. 63.4% of all patients could be assigned to at least one group with similar causes of ISSNHL (noise exposure, positive family history, infectious diseases, hypothyroidism and fibromuscular dysplasia). A positive family history for ISSNHL has not been reported so far. Therefore, we accentuated the characterisation of patients with positive family history. 21.4% affirmed a positive family history. In ten families, at least two family members were reported as ISSNHL patients. In comparison with patients with negative family history, they tend to be younger, experience more events of ISSNHL and show less improvement of hearing abilities under therapeutic treatment (non-significant). Differences intensified between smokers with positive family history and non-smokers with negative family history. Differences concerning average age were statistically significant (p = 0.001). Within 75 controls 11 families were reported with one member being affected by ISSNHL. In the control group we did not detect any family with more than one ISSNHL patient. The results indicated that patients with positive family history tend to have an aggravated course of ISSNHL. Further studies should help to confirm these results and to identify environmental or genetic factors leading to ISSNHL. This might support a better understanding of the aetiology of ISSNHL and offer new possibilities for prevention and therapy.

  7. History repeats itself: the family medication history and pharmacogenomics.

    PubMed

    Smith, Thomas R; Kearney, Elizabeth; Hulick, Peter J; Kisor, David F

    2016-05-01

    Related to many drug gene-product interactions, application of pharmacogenomics can lead to improved medication efficacy while decreasing or avoiding adverse drug reactions. However, utilizing pharmacogenomics without other information does not allow for optimal medication therapy. Currently, there is a lack of documentation of family medication history, in other words, inefficacy and adverse reactions across family members throughout generations. The family medication history can serve as an impetus for pharmacogenomic testing to explain lack of medication efficacy or an adverse drug reaction and pre-emptive testing can drive recognition and documentation of medication response in family members. We propose combining the family medication history via pedigree construction with pharmacogenomics to further optimize medication therapy. We encourage clinicians to combine family medication history with pharmacogenomics.

  8. Stressful Events, Social Support, and Cognitive Function in Middle-aged Adults with a Family History of Alzheimer’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Zuelsdorff, Megan L.; Engelman, Corinne D.; Friedman, Elliot M.; Koscik, Rebecca L.; Jonaitis, Erin M.; La Rue, Asenath; Sager, Mark A.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To examine the associations of stressful experiences and social support with cognitive function in a sample of middle-aged adults with a family history of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Methods Using data from the Wisconsin Registry for Alzheimer’s Prevention (WRAP; N=623), we evaluated relationships between stressful events experienced in the past year, as well as social support, and cognitive performance in four domains: speed and flexibility, immediate memory, verbal learning and memory, and working memory. We assessed interactions between psychosocial predictors, and with APOE ε4 status. Results Greater number of stressful events was associated with poorer performance on tests of speed and flexibility. Greater social support was associated with better performance in the same domain; this relationship was diminished by presence of the ε4 allele. No associations were seen in the remaining three domains. Discussion Psychosocial factors may influence cognition in at-risk individuals; influence varies by cognitive domain and ε4 status. PMID:23945762

  9. Why Is It Important to Know My Family Medical History?

    MedlinePlus

    ... history? Why is it important to know my family medical history? A family medical history is a ... a healthcare professional regularly. For more information about family medical history: NIHSeniorHealth, a service of the National ...

  10. Family Structure History and Adolescent Romance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavanagh, Shannon E.; Crissey, Sarah R.; Raley, R. Kelly

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the association between family structure history and adolescent romance. Using a national sample drawn from Add Health (N = 13,570), family structure at Wave I was associated with the likelihood that adolescents were involved in a romantic relationship at Wave II and, among those in a relationship, the number of relationships…

  11. T cells, precocious aging, and familial neoplasia.

    PubMed

    Fudenberg, H H; Schuman, S H; Goust, J M; Jorgenson, R

    1978-01-01

    A 15-year-old girl presented with precocious aging and was found to have low levels of active and total T cells. Family history revealed a high familial incidence of cancer on both the maternal and paternal sides, and activ T cell levels were found to be low in several living family members. The patient developed osteogenic sarcoma 13 months after initial study. Since our previous studies have reported low active and total T cells in patients with cancer, the present results suggest that subjects with low active T cells should be monitored frequently to detect possible neoplasia in it early stages. They also suggest that impaired cellular immunity in humans is associated with, if not the cause of, accelerated aging. PMID:304823

  12. Coalescent histories for caterpillar-like families.

    PubMed

    Rosenberg, Noah A

    2013-01-01

    A coalescent history is an assignment of branches of a gene tree to branches of a species tree on which coalescences in the gene tree occur. The number of coalescent histories for a pair consisting of a labeled gene tree topology and a labeled species tree topology is important in gene tree probability computations, and more generally, in studying evolutionary possibilities for gene trees on species trees. Defining the Tr-caterpillar-like family as a sequence of n-taxon trees constructed by replacing the r-taxon subtree of n-taxon caterpillars by a specific r-taxon labeled topology Tr, we examine the number of coalescent histories for caterpillar-like families with matching gene tree and species tree labeled topologies. For each Tr with size r≤8, we compute the number of coalescent histories for n-taxon trees in the Tr-caterpillar-like family. Next, as n→∞, we find that the limiting ratio of the numbers of coalescent histories for the Tr family and caterpillars themselves is correlated with the number of labeled histories for Tr. The results support a view that large numbers of coalescent histories occur when a tree has both a relatively balanced subtree and a high tree depth, contributing to deeper understanding of the combinatorics of gene trees and species trees.

  13. Coalescent histories for caterpillar-like families.

    PubMed

    Rosenberg, Noah A

    2013-01-01

    A coalescent history is an assignment of branches of a gene tree to branches of a species tree on which coalescences in the gene tree occur. The number of coalescent histories for a pair consisting of a labeled gene tree topology and a labeled species tree topology is important in gene tree probability computations, and more generally, in studying evolutionary possibilities for gene trees on species trees. Defining the Tr-caterpillar-like family as a sequence of n-taxon trees constructed by replacing the r-taxon subtree of n-taxon caterpillars by a specific r-taxon labeled topology Tr, we examine the number of coalescent histories for caterpillar-like families with matching gene tree and species tree labeled topologies. For each Tr with size r≤8, we compute the number of coalescent histories for n-taxon trees in the Tr-caterpillar-like family. Next, as n→∞, we find that the limiting ratio of the numbers of coalescent histories for the Tr family and caterpillars themselves is correlated with the number of labeled histories for Tr. The results support a view that large numbers of coalescent histories occur when a tree has both a relatively balanced subtree and a high tree depth, contributing to deeper understanding of the combinatorics of gene trees and species trees. PMID:24524157

  14. Digital family histories for data mining.

    PubMed

    Hoyt, Robert; Linnville, Steven; Chung, Hui-Min; Hutfless, Brent; Rice, Courtney

    2013-01-01

    As we move closer to ubiquitous electronic health records (EHRs), genetic, familial, and clinical information will need to be incorporated into EHRs as structured data that can be used for data mining and clinical decision support. While the Human Genome Project has produced new and exciting genomic data, the cost to sequence the human personal genome is high, and significant controversies regarding how to interpret genomic data exist. Many experts feel that the family history is a surrogate marker for genetic information and should be part of any paper-based or electronic health record. A digital family history is now part of the Meaningful Use Stage 2 menu objectives for EHR reimbursement, projected for 2014. In this study, a secure online family history questionnaire was designed to collect data on a unique cohort of Vietnam-era repatriated male veterans and a comparison group in order to compare participant and family disease rates on common medical disorders with a genetic component. This article describes our approach to create the digital questionnaire and the results of analyzing family history data on 319 male participants. PMID:24159269

  15. Family History in Patients Who Present with Functional Articulation Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alaraifi, Jehad Ahmad; Kamal, Sana Mohammed; Qa'dan, Wa'el Nafith; Haj-Tas, Maisa Atef

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to examine family history of functional articulation disorders (FAD) among Jordanian patients who present with FAD, as well as to investigate the relation of other factors related to the disorder (age, gender, genetic connection between parents, sounds affected, and type of disorder). A convenience sample of 45 patients (ages…

  16. Family history and oral health: findings from the Dunedin Study

    PubMed Central

    Shearer, Dara M; Thomson, W. Murray; Caspi, Avshalom; Moffitt, Terrie E; Broadbent, Jonathan M; Poulton, Richie

    2011-01-01

    Context The effects of the oral health status of one generation on that of the next within families are unclear. Objective To determine whether parental oral health history is a risk factor for oral disease. Methods Oral examination and interview data were collected during the age-32 assessments in the Dunedin Study. Parental data were also collected on this occasion. The sample was divided into two familial-risk groups for caries/tooth loss (high risk and low risk) based on parents’ self-reported history of tooth loss at the age-32 assessment interview. Main outcome measures Probands’ dental caries and tooth loss status at age 32, together with lifelong dental caries trajectory (age 5–32). Results Caries/tooth-loss risk analysis was conducted for 640 proband-parents groups. Referent groups were the low-familial-risk groups. After controlling for confounding factors (sex, episodic use of dental services, socio-economic status and plaque trajectory), the prevalence ratio (PR) for having lost 1+ teeth by age 32 for the high-familial-risk group was 1.41 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.05, 1.88) and the rate ratio for DMFS at age 32 was 1.41 (95% CI 1.24, 1.60). In the high-familial-risk group, the PR of following a high caries trajectory was 2.05 (95% CI 1.37, 3.06). Associations were strongest when information was available about both parents’ oral health. Nonetheless, when information was available for one parent only, associations were significant for some proband outcomes. Conclusions People with poor oral health tend to have parents with poor oral health. Family/parental history of oral health is a valid representation of the intricacies of the shared genetic and environmental factors that contribute to an individual’s oral health status. Associations were strongest when data from both parents can be obtained. PMID:22022823

  17. Breast and Ovarian Cancer and Family History Risk Categories

    MedlinePlus

    ... Diseases Genomic Resources Breast and Ovarian Cancer and Family History Risk Categories Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ... Screening. U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. February 2016. Family Health History, Breast and Ovarian Cancer Risk, and ...

  18. Theme: The Family in an Aging World.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, George C.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Includes "The World Ages, the Family Ages" (Myers, Agree); "Grandparents as Parents in Developing Countries" (Tout); "Grandparents as Parents: The American Experience" (Minkler); "Playing for Informal Care" (Evers, Leichsenring); "Family Care in America" (Keigher, Stone); "Concerns for Carers: Family Support in Denmark" (Leeson, Tufte);…

  19. Variability in Adaptive Behavior in Autism: Evidence for the Importance of Family History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazefsky, Carla A.; Williams, Diane L.; Minshew, Nancy J.

    2008-01-01

    Adaptive behavior in autism is highly variable and strongly related to prognosis. This study explored family history as a potential source of variability in adaptive behavior in autism. Participants included 77 individuals (mean age = 18) with average or better intellectual ability and autism. Parents completed the Family History Interview about…

  20. The associations between family history of coronary heart disease, physical activity, dietary intake and body size.

    PubMed

    Slattery, M L; Schumacher, M C; Hunt, S C; Williams, R R

    1993-02-01

    Physical activity has been associated with coronary heart disease (CHD) as well as several CHD risk factors. In this study, we examine the association of a positive family history of CHD and physical activity on dietary intake and body size indicators among 891 healthy young adults (18 to 39 years of age) and 471 older adults (40 to 83) observed between 1980 and 1986. Participants reported the number of times per week they walked and/or jogged one mile, biked three miles, participated in sports, or performed other intense activities. Older men with a family history of CHD reported more physical activity than men without a family history of CHD (60% compared to 28.6%; p = 0.002). Younger women without a family history of CHD reported more physical activity than women with a family history of CHD (30.2% compared to 15.9%; p = 0.004). Fruit and vegetable intake increased with increasing levels of physical activity in younger adults. The only dietary association with family history was higher levels of fatty foods reported among older women with a family history versus those without a family history (p = 0.03). Young women with a family history of CHD were more likely to have higher BMI levels at all levels of physical activity and a higher percent of their ideal body weight per unit of physical activity (p = 0.01). For instance, young women who were most active with a family history of CHD were at 115% of their ideal body weight, while those without a family history were at 110.2% of their ideal body weight. There were no significant interactions between physical activity and CHD family history in this population. These findings suggest that family history of CHD alone may not be adequate to stimulate one to adopt a more healthy lifestyle.

  1. Healthy Family 2009: Assuring Healthy Aging

    MedlinePlus

    ... Issue Past Issues Healthy Family 2009 Assuring Healthy Aging Past Issues / Winter 2009 Table of Contents For ... please turn Javascript on. 7 Smart Steps to Aging Well 1. Control Blood Pressure You can have ...

  2. Variability in Adaptive Behavior in Autism: Evidence for the Importance of Family History

    PubMed Central

    Mazefsky, C. A.; Williams, D. L.; Minshew, N. J.

    2008-01-01

    Adaptive behavior in autism is highly variable and strongly related to prognosis. This study explored family history as a potential source of variability in adaptive behavior in autism. Participants included 77 individuals (mean age=18) with average or better intellectual ability and autism. Parents completed the Family History Interview about the presence of broader autism phenotype symptoms and major psychiatric disorders in first degree relatives. Adaptive behavior was assessed via the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales (VABS). Based on family history variables, age, and intelligence quotient (IQ), 87% of participants were correctly classified as having impaired or average VABS scores. Family history of depression and shyness accounted for the most variance in VABS scores, and they had the greatest influence on VABS Socialization scores in particular. Possible underlying mechanisms include genetics, psychosocial factors, and social resources. This study provides initial evidence of the importance of family history to adaptive behavior in autism and has implications for genetics and treatment. PMID:18188537

  3. Early Predictors of Dyslexia in Chinese Children: Familial History of Dyslexia, Language Delay, and Cognitive Profiles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McBride-Chang, Catherine; Lam, Fanny; Lam, Catherine; Chan, Becky; Fong, Cathy Y. C.; Wong, Terry T. Y.; Wong, Simpson W. L.

    2011-01-01

    Background: This work tested the rates at which Chinese children with either language delay or familial history of dyslexia at age 5 manifested dyslexia at age 7, identified which cognitive skills at age 5 best distinguished children with and without dyslexia at age 7, and examined how these early abilities predicted subsequent literacy skills.…

  4. Family history of autoimmune thyroid disease and childhood acute leukemia.

    PubMed

    Perillat-Menegaux, Florence; Clavel, Jacqueline; Auclerc, Marie-Françoise; Baruchel, André; Leverger, Guy; Nelken, Brigitte; Philippe, Noël; Sommelet, Danièle; Vilmer, Etienne; Hémon, Denis

    2003-01-01

    The association between a familial history of autoimmune disease and childhood acute leukemia was investigated in a French case-control study that, overall, was designed to assess the role of perinatal, infectious, environmental, and genetic factors in the etiology of childhood acute leukemia. Familial histories of autoimmune disease in first- and second-degree relatives were compared in 279 incident cases, 240 cases of acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) and 39 cases of acute non-lymphoblastic leukemia (ANLL), and 285 controls. Recruitment was frequency matched by age, gender, hospital, and ethnic origin. Odds ratios (OR) were estimated using an unconditional regression model taking into account the stratification variables, socioeconomic status, and familial structure. A statistically significant association between a history of autoimmune disease in first- or second-degree relatives and ALL (OR, 1.7; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.0-2.8) was found. A relationship between thyroid diseases overall and ALL (OR, 2.0; 95% CI, 1.0-3.9) was observed. This association was more pronounced for potentially autoimmune thyroid diseases (Grave's disease and/or hyperthyroidism and Hashimoto's disease and/or hypothyroidism) (OR, 3.5; 95% CI, 1.1-10.7 and OR, 5.6; 95% CI, 1.0-31.1, respectively for ALL and ANLL), whereas it was not statistically significant for the other thyroid diseases (thyroid goiter, thyroid nodule, and unspecified thyroid disorders) (OR, 1.6; 95% CI, 0.7-3.5 and OR, 1.3; 95% CI, 0.2-7.0, respectively, for ALL and ANLL). The results suggest that a familial history of autoimmune thyroid disease may be associated with childhood acute leukemia.

  5. Aging and Family Life: A Decade Review

    PubMed Central

    Silverstein, Merril; Giarrusso, Roseann

    2010-01-01

    In this review, we summarize and critically evaluate the major empirical, conceptual, and theoretical directions that studies of aging families have taken during the first decade of the 21st century. The field has benefited from an expanded perspective based on four overarching themes: (a) complexity in emotional relations, (b) diversity in family structures and households, (c) interdependence of family roles and functions, and (d) patterns and outcomes of caregiving. Although research on aging families has advanced theory and applied innovative statistical techniques, the literature has fallen short in fully representing diverse populations and in applying the broadest set of methodological tools available. We discuss these and other frontier areas of scholarship in light of the aging of baby boomers and their families. PMID:22930600

  6. Time trends in pathologic features of radical prostatectomy--impact of family history.

    PubMed

    Marotte, Jeffrey B; Ferrari, Michelle K; McNeal, John E; Brooks, James D; Presti, Joseph C

    2004-01-01

    We investigated whether the clinical or pathological features of patients with a family history of prostate cancer treated by radical prostatectomy differ from patients without a family history. A retrospective analysis of patients treated by radical prostatectomy between 1989 through 2000 was performed. The clinical and pathologic features of patients with a family history (defined as at least one first-degree relative with prostate cancer, N = 103) were compared with those with no family history (N = 456). In addition, the patients were stratified into two groups, those treated from 1989 through 1992 and those treated after 1992. In the entire cohort from 1989 through 2000, patients with a family history had a greater proportion of well-differentiated tumors than the NFH group (26.2% vs. 17.8%; P = 0.05). From 1989 to 1992 there was no statistical difference between patients with a family history (FH) and those without a family history (NFH) with respect to age, prostate specific antigen (PSA), PSA density, clinical or pathologic stage, Gleason grade, or total tumor volume. However, after 1992 the FH group tended to be younger than the NFH group (61.1 vs. 63.4; P = 0.02) and have a lower PSA (6.8 vs. 7.9; P = 0.01) at the time of diagnosis. We believe these differences are predominantly driven by more aggressive screening in patients with a family history of prostate cancer rather than any true genetic differences.

  7. Genealogy and Family History in the Academic Library.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Null, David G.

    1985-01-01

    Addresses public and scholarly interest in the fields of family history and genealogy. Highlights include attitudes before and after publication of Alex Haley's "Roots," library literature on genealogy, history of the family as a field of study, and academic library collection development and services. Twenty-five references are provided. (EJS)

  8. Aging family caregivers: policies and practices.

    PubMed

    Heller, Tamar; Caldwell, Joe; Factor, Alan

    2007-01-01

    This review examines later life family support for adults with developmental disabilities from a life course perspective that takes into account social trends and changes in service patterns and in attitudes of families. Key issues addressed include: (1) trends affecting family caregiving, (2) health and social outcomes of life-long caregiving, (3) support needs of families, (4) family support policies and practices, and (5) recommendations for a research and policy agenda. Research examining outcomes of life-long caregiving has shown that most families adapt well to having a family member with disabilities. However, some families are at risk for poorer physical and mental health outcomes. These include cultural minorities and families of adults with behavioral challenges. Caregiving does seem to have a negative impact on maternal employment and family income as mothers often give up or cut back on employment to care for a child with developmental disabilities, who is more likely to continue living in the family home throughout adulthood than other adult children. Federal and state initiatives are addressing issues of family support through both the developmental disabilities and aging service systems.

  9. Family history: an opportunity for early interventions and improved control of hypertension, obesity and diabetes.

    PubMed Central

    van der Sande, M. A.; Walraven, G. E.; Milligan, P. J.; Banya, W. A.; Ceesay, S. M.; Nyan, O. A.; McAdam, K. P.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine whether a family history of high-risk groups for major noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) was a significant risk factor for these conditions among family members in a study population in the Gambia, where strong community and family coherence are important determinants that have to be taken into consideration in promoting lifestyle changes. METHODS: We questioned 5389 adults as to any first-degree family history of major noncommunicable diseases (hypertension, obesity, diabetes and stroke), and measured their blood pressure (BP) and body mass index (BMI). Total blood cholesterol, triglyceride, uric acid, and creatinine concentrations were measured in a stratified subsample, as well as blood glucose (2 hours after ingesting 75 g glucose) in persons aged > or = 35 years. FINDINGS: A significant number of subjects reported a family history of hypertension (8.0%), obesity (5.4%), diabetes (3.3%) and stroke (1.4%), with 14.6% of participants reporting any of these NCDs. Subjects with a family history of hypertension had a higher diastolic BP and BMI, higher cholesterol and uric acid concentrations, and an increased risk of obesity. Those with a family history of obesity had a higher BMI and were at increased risk of obesity. Individuals with a family history of diabetes had a higher BMI and higher concentrations of glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides and uric acid, and their risk of obesity and diabetes was increased. Subjects with a family history of stroke had a higher BMI, as well as higher cholesterol, triglyceride and uric acid concentrations. CONCLUSIONS: A family history of hypertension, obesity, diabetes, or stroke was a significant risk factor for obesity and hyperlipidaemia. With increase of age, more pathological manifestations can develop in this high-risk group. Health professionals should therefore utilize every opportunity to include direct family members in health education. PMID:11357211

  10. Talking (or Not) about Family Health History in Families of Latino Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corona, Rosalie; Rodríguez, Vivian; Quillin, John; Gyure, Maria; Bodurtha, Joann

    2013-01-01

    Although individuals recognize the importance of knowing their family's health history for their own health, relatively few people (e.g., less than a third in one national survey) collect this type of information. This study examines the rates of family communication about family health history of cancer, and predictors of communication in a…

  11. Interrogating Identity and Social Contexts through "Critical Family History"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, John; Sleeter, Christine; Kumashiro, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    Tracing one's family genealogy is a complex process that requires situating a family's narratives within a historical context. This article reviews the use of critical family history research in an undergraduate Asian American studies course to examine not only the diversity and experiences of Asian Americans but also the unspoken narratives that…

  12. Patterns of family health history communication among older African American adults.

    PubMed

    Hovick, Shelly R; Yamasaki, Jill S; Burton-Chase, Allison M; Peterson, Susan K

    2015-01-01

    This qualitative study examined patterns of communication regarding family health history among older African American adults. The authors conducted 5 focus groups and 6 semi-structured interviews with African Americans aged 60 years and older (N = 28). The authors identified 4 distinct patterns of family health history communication: noncommunication, open communication, selective communication (communication restricted to certain people or topics), and one-way communication (communication not reciprocated by younger family members). In general, participants favored open family health history communication, often resulting from desires to change patterns of noncommunication in previous generations regarding personal and family health history. Some participants indicated that they were selective about what and with whom they shared health information in order to protect their privacy and not worry others. Others described family health history communication as one-way or unreciprocated by younger family members who appeared uninterested or unwilling to share personal and family health information. The communication patterns that the authors identified are consistent with communication privacy management theory and with findings from studies focused on genetic testing results for hereditary conditions, suggesting that individuals are consistent in their communication of health and genetic risk information. Findings may guide the development of health message strategies for African Americans to increase family health history communication.

  13. The Schulhof Family: Solving the Age Puzzle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vokrouhlický, David; Ďurech, Josef; Pravec, Petr; Kušnirák, Peter; Hornoch, Kamil; Vraštil, Jan; Krugly, Yurij N.; Inasaridze, Raguli Ya.; Ayvasian, Vova; Zhuzhunadze, Vasili; Molotov, Igor E.; Pray, Donald; Husárik, Marek; Pollock, Joseph T.; Nesvorný, David

    2016-03-01

    The Schulhof family, a tight cluster of small asteroids around the central main belt body (2384) Schulhof, belongs to a so far rare class of very young families (estimated ages less than 1 Myr). Characterization of these asteroid clusters may provide important insights into the physics of the catastrophic disruption of their parent body. The case of the Schulhof family has been up to now complicated by the existence of two proposed epochs of its origin. In this paper, we first use our own photometric observations, as well as archival data, to determine the rotation rate and spin axis orientation of the largest fragment (2384) Schulhof. Our data also allow us to better constrain the absolute magnitude of this asteroid, and thus also improve the determination of its geometric albedo. Next, using the up-to-date catalog of asteroid orbits, we perform a new search of smaller members in the Schulhof family, increasing their number by 50%. Finally, the available data are used to access Schulhof's family age anew. We now find that the younger of the previously proposed two ages of this family is not correct, resulting from a large orbital uncertainty of single-opposition members. Our new runs reveal a single age solution of about 800 kyr with a realistic uncertainty of 200 kyr.

  14. Family history and the risk of colorectal cancer: The importance of patients' history of colonoscopy.

    PubMed

    Weigl, Korbinian; Jansen, Lina; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Knebel, Phillip; Hoffmeister, Michael; Brenner, Hermann

    2016-11-15

    Registry-based studies on the risk of colorectal cancer (CRC) for persons with a family history (FH) typically did not control for important covariates, such as history of colonoscopy. We aimed to quantify the association between FH and CRC risk, carefully accounting for potential confounders. We conducted a population-based case-control study in Germany. A total of 4,313 patients with a first diagnosis of CRC (cases) and 3,153 controls recruited from 2003 to 2014 were included. We used multiple logistic regression analyses to assess the association between FH and risk of CRC with odds ratios (OR) and the resulting 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). A total of 582 cases (13.5%) and 321 (10.2%) controls reported a history of CRC in a first-degree relative, which was associated with a 41% increase in risk of CRC (OR: 1.41, 95% CI 1.22-1.63) after adjustment for sex and age. The OR substantially increased to 1.73 (95% CI, 1.48-2.03) after comprehensive adjustment including previous colonoscopies. Irrespective of their FH status, persons with history of colonoscopies had a lower CRC risk compared with persons without previous colonoscopies and without family history (OR: 0.25, 95% CI, 0.22-0.28 for persons without FH and OR 0.45, 95% CI, 0.36-0.56 for persons with FH). In an era of widespread use of colonoscopy, adjusting for previous colonoscopy is therefore crucial for deriving valid estimates of FH-related CRC risk. Colonoscopy reduces the risk of CRC among those with FH far below levels of people with no FH and no colonoscopy. PMID:27459311

  15. Family history and the risk of colorectal cancer: The importance of patients' history of colonoscopy.

    PubMed

    Weigl, Korbinian; Jansen, Lina; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Knebel, Phillip; Hoffmeister, Michael; Brenner, Hermann

    2016-11-15

    Registry-based studies on the risk of colorectal cancer (CRC) for persons with a family history (FH) typically did not control for important covariates, such as history of colonoscopy. We aimed to quantify the association between FH and CRC risk, carefully accounting for potential confounders. We conducted a population-based case-control study in Germany. A total of 4,313 patients with a first diagnosis of CRC (cases) and 3,153 controls recruited from 2003 to 2014 were included. We used multiple logistic regression analyses to assess the association between FH and risk of CRC with odds ratios (OR) and the resulting 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). A total of 582 cases (13.5%) and 321 (10.2%) controls reported a history of CRC in a first-degree relative, which was associated with a 41% increase in risk of CRC (OR: 1.41, 95% CI 1.22-1.63) after adjustment for sex and age. The OR substantially increased to 1.73 (95% CI, 1.48-2.03) after comprehensive adjustment including previous colonoscopies. Irrespective of their FH status, persons with history of colonoscopies had a lower CRC risk compared with persons without previous colonoscopies and without family history (OR: 0.25, 95% CI, 0.22-0.28 for persons without FH and OR 0.45, 95% CI, 0.36-0.56 for persons with FH). In an era of widespread use of colonoscopy, adjusting for previous colonoscopy is therefore crucial for deriving valid estimates of FH-related CRC risk. Colonoscopy reduces the risk of CRC among those with FH far below levels of people with no FH and no colonoscopy.

  16. Family history of mental illness or alcohol abuse and the irritable bowel syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Knight, James R.; Locke, G. Richard; Zinsmeister, Alan R.; Schleck, Cathy D.; Talley, Nicholas J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective We have observed that many patients with IBS drink very little alcohol, and postulated this may reflect membership in families affected by alcoholism and mental illness. We aimed to evaluate whether a family history of substance or alcohol abuse, or psychiatric illness, is associated with IBS. Methods A valid GI questionnaire was mailed to a randomly selected population-based cohort to identify IBS and healthy controls. The electronic medical record was reviewed to record the subjects’ self-reported personal and family health histories. Results 2300 subjects responded (response rate 55%; IBS 13% n=287). 230 subjects with IBS and 318 controls were eligible. Family history of alcohol/substance abuse was reported by 33% of cases and 25% of controls (OR 1.4, 95% CI 1.0–2.1, p=0.06). Family history of psychiatric illness was reported by 37% of cases and 22% of controls (OR 2.0, 95% CI 1.3–2.9, p<0.001). In the absence of a personal history of alcohol use, a family history of alcohol/substance abuse was predictive of IBS status (OR adjusted for age and gender 1.5, 95% CI 1.0–2.3, p=0.05). In the absence of a personal history of alcohol use, reporting both a family history of alcohol/substance abuse and anxiety/depression/mental illness was clearly predictive of IBS status (OR 2.5, 95% CI 1.4–4.5; p<0.005). Substance abuse as a child was associated with an increased risk of IBS (OR 2.3, 95% CI 1.1–4.8; p<0.03). Conclusion IBS is independently associated with a family history of psychiatric illness and may be linked to a family history of alcohol/substance abuse. PMID:25582802

  17. Family History and Functional Outcome in Korean Stroke Patients: A Preliminary Study

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hee Jung; Kim, Tae Uk; Hyun, Jung Keun

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the association of family history of stroke with functional outcomes in stroke patients in Korea. Methods A case-control study was conducted. A total of 170 patients who were admitted to a rehabilitation unit were included. Risk factors for stroke such as age, sex, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, atrial fibrillation, smoking, high blood cholesterol and homocysteine level, obesity, and family history of stroke were taken into account. Stroke subtypes were the following: large vessel infarct, small vessel infarct, embolic infarct, subarachnoid hemorrhage, and intracranial hemorrhage. Stroke severity as assessed with the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS), functional outcomes using the Korean version of the Modified Barthel index (K-MBI), Functional Independence Measurement (FIM), and cognitive function using the Korean version of Mini-Mental State Examination (K-MMSE) were assessed at admission and discharge. Results Subjects with a family history of stroke were more likely to have an ischemic stroke (90.7%) than were those without a family history (70.9%). The K-MBI, FIM, NIHSS, and K-MMSE scores did not show significant differences between patients with or without family history. Conclusion Family history of stroke was significantly associated with ischemic stroke, but not with functional outcomes. Other prognostic factors of stroke were not distributed differently between patients included in this study with or without a family history of stroke. PMID:26798613

  18. Family History Predicts Stress Fracture in Active Female Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Loud, Keith J.; Micheli, Lyle J.; Bristol, Stephanie; Austin, S. Bryn; Gordon, Catherine M.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Increased physical activity and menstrual irregularity have been associated with increased risk for stress fracture among adult women active in athletics. The purposes of this study were to determine whether menstrual irregularity is also a risk factor for stress fracture in active female adolescents and to estimate the quantity of exercise associated with an increased risk for this injury. PATIENTS AND METHODS A case-control study was conducted of 13- to 22-year-old females diagnosed with their first stress fracture, each matched prospectively on age and self-reported ethnicity with 2 controls. Patients with chronic illnesses or use of medications known to affect bone mineral density were excluded, including use of hormonal preparations that could alter menstrual cycles. The primary outcome, stress fracture in any extremity or the spine, was confirmed radiographically. Girls with stress fracture had bone mineral density measured at the lumbar spine by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. RESULTS The mean ± SD age of the 168 participants was 15.9 ± 2.1 years; 91.7% were postmenarchal, with a mean age at menarche of 13.1 ± 1.1 years. The prevalence of menstrual irregularity was similar among cases and controls. There was no significant difference in the mean hours per week of total physical activity between girls in this sample with stress fracture (8.2 hours/week) and those without (7.4 hours/week). In multivariate models, case subjects had nearly 3 times the odds of having a family member with osteoporosis or osteopenia. In secondary analyses, participants with stress fracture had a low mean spinal bone mineral density for their age. CONCLUSIONS Among highly active female adolescents, only family history was independently associated with stress fracture. The magnitude of this association suggests that further investigations of inheritable skeletal factors are warranted in this population, along with evaluation of bone mineral density in girls with stress

  19. Relationship of lipoprotein(a) levels to physical activity and family history of coronary heart disease.

    PubMed Central

    Martín, S; Elosua, R; Covas, M I; Pavesi, M; Vila, J; Marrugat, J

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study evaluated the association of physical activity with serum lipoprotein(a) [La(a)] levels in individuals according to whether they had a family history of coronary heart disease (CHD). METHODS: Lp(a) levels in 332 healthy Spanish men aged 20 to 60 years were measured. Physical activity and family history of CHD were assessed. RESULTS: For men with a family history of CHD, the odds ratio for Lp(a) levels above the median value was 0.13 (95% confidence interval = 0.03, 0.50) in very active men (energy expended in physical activity > 300 kcal/day) compared with active men (energy expended in physical activity < 300 kcal/day). CONCLUSIONS: Regular daily physical activity in individuals with a family history of CHD could be useful for controlling Lp(a) levels. PMID:10076490

  20. A Family History Study of Asperger Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghaziuddin, Mohammad

    2005-01-01

    Asperger syndrome (AS) is a childhood-onset disorder often described as a mild variant of autism. Although classified as a distinct disorder in the DSM-IV, its overlap with autism continues to be a matter of ongoing debate. While the family genetic origins of autism are well established, few studies have investigated this topic in AS using current…

  1. Family Structure History and Adolescent Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavanagh, Shannon E.

    2008-01-01

    As patterns of union formation and dissolution in adult lives become complex, the living arrangements of American children are becoming increasingly fluid. With a sample (N = 12,843) drawn from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, this study attempted to capture this complexity by mapping out children's family structure histories…

  2. Identifying Family History and Substance Use Associations for Adult Epilepsy from the Electronic Health Record.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yan; Chen, Elizabeth S; Leppik, Ilo; Pakhomov, Serguei; Sarkar, Indra Neil; Melton, Genevieve B

    2016-01-01

    Epilepsy is a prevalent chronic neurological disorder afflicting about 50 million people worldwide. There is evidence of a strong relationship between familial risk factors and epilepsy, as well as associations with substance use. The goal of this study was to explore the interactions between familial risk factors and substance use based on structured data from the family and social history modules of an electronic health record system for adult epilepsy patients. A total of 8,957patients with 38,802 family history entries and 8,822 substance use entries were gathered and mined for associations at different levels of granularity for three age groupings (>18, 18-64, and ≥65 years old). Our results demonstrate the value of an association rule mining approach to validate knowledge of familial risk factors. The preliminary findings also suggest that substance use does not demonstrate significant association between social and familial risk factors for epilepsy. PMID:27570679

  3. Identifying Family History and Substance Use Associations for Adult Epilepsy from the Electronic Health Record

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yan; Chen, Elizabeth S.; Leppik, Ilo; Pakhomov, Serguei; Sarkar, Indra Neil; Melton, Genevieve B.

    2016-01-01

    Epilepsy is a prevalent chronic neurological disorder afflicting about 50 million people worldwide. There is evidence of a strong relationship between familial risk factors and epilepsy, as well as associations with substance use. The goal of this study was to explore the interactions between familial risk factors and substance use based on structured data from the family and social history modules of an electronic health record system for adult epilepsy patients. A total of 8,957patients with 38,802 family history entries and 8,822 substance use entries were gathered and mined for associations at different levels of granularity for three age groupings (>18, 18-64, and ≥65 years old). Our results demonstrate the value of an association rule mining approach to validate knowledge of familial risk factors. The preliminary findings also suggest that substance use does not demonstrate significant association between social and familial risk factors for epilepsy. PMID:27570679

  4. A new estimate of family disease history providing improved prediction of disease risks

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Rui; McClure, Leslie A.; Tiwari, Hemant K.; Howard, George

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY Complex diseases often aggregate within families and using the history of family members’ disease can potentially increase the accuracy of the risk assessment and allow clinicians to better target on high risk individuals. However, available family risk scores do not reflect the age of disease onset, gender and family structures simultaneously. In this paper, we propose an alternative approach for a family risk score, the stratified log-rank family score (SLFS), which incorporates the age of disease onset of family members, gender differences and the relationship among family members. Via simulation, we demonstrate that the new SLFS is more closely associated with the true family risk for the disease and more robust to family sizes than two existing methods. We apply our proposed method and the two existing methods to a study of stroke and heart disease. The results show that assessing family history can improve the prediction of disease risks and the SLFS has strongest positive associations with both myocardial infarction and stroke. PMID:19170247

  5. Maternal Family History of Diabetes Is Associated With a Reduced Risk of Cardiovascular Disease in Women With Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Bruce, David G.; Van Minnen, Kylie; Davis, Wendy A.; Mudhar, Jaspreet; Perret, Michael; Subawickrama, Dayani P.; Venkitachalam, Stephanie; Ravine, David; Davis, Timothy M.E.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To investigate whether parental family history of diabetes influences cardiovascular outcomes in type 2 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We studied 1,294 type 2 diabetic patients (mean age 64.1 years, 51.2% female) recruited to a community-based cohort study from 1993 to 1996 and followed until mid-2006. A data linkage system assessed all-cause and cardiac mortality, incident myocardial infarction, and stroke. Cox proportional hazards modeling was used to determine the influence of maternal or paternal family history on these outcomes. RESULTS A maternal family history of diabetes was reported by 20.4% of the cohort, 8.3% reported paternal family history, and 2.0% reported both parents affected. Maternal and paternal family history was associated with earlier age of diabetes onset, and maternal family history was associated with worse glycemic control. For all patients, maternal family history was significantly associated with reduced risk of all-cause mortality and cardiac mortality. When analyzed by sex, maternal family history had no effect on male patients, whereas female patients with diabetic mothers had significantly reduced hazard ratios for death from all causes (0.63 [95% CI 0.41–0.96]; P = 0.033), for death from cardiac causes (0.32 [0.14–0.72]; P = 0.006), and for first myocardial infarction (0.45 [0.26–0.76]; P = 0.003). Paternal family history status was not associated with these outcomes. CONCLUSIONS A maternal family history of diabetes confers relative protection against cardiovascular disease in female patients but not in male patients with type 2 diabetes. Paternal family history is associated with risks equivalent to those without a family history of diabetes. Some of the clinical heterogeneity of type 2 diabetes is related to maternal transmission effects with differential impact on male and female patients. PMID:20368412

  6. World History in a Global Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geyer, Michael; Bright, Charles

    1995-01-01

    Argues that for years the emphasis on historical specialization relegated world history to the academic dustbin. Maintains that the globalization of culture, economics, and societies has created a reimagining of world history. Discusses issues and presents recommendations on research and curriculum development in world history. (CFR)

  7. Association of Family History of ESRD, Prevalent Albuminuria, and Reduced GFR With Incident ESRD

    PubMed Central

    McClellan, William M.; Warnock, David G.; Judd, Suzanne; Muntner, Paul; Patzer, Rachel E.; Bradbury, Brian D.; McClure, Leslie A.; Newsome, Britt B.; Howard, George

    2013-01-01

    Background The contribution of albuminuria to the increased risk of incident end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in individuals with a family history of ESRD has not been well studied. Study Design Prospective cohort study. Study Setting & Participants We analyzed data for family history of ESRD collected from 19,409 participants of the Renal REGARDS (Reasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke) cohort study. Predictor Family history of ESRD was ascertained by asking “Has anyone in your immediate family ever been told that he or she had kidney failure? This would be someone who is on or had been on dialysis or someone who had a kidney transplant.” Study Outcomes Incidence rate for ESRD. Measurements Morning urine albumin-creatinine ratio (ACR) and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). Incident cases of ESRD were identified through the US Renal Data System. Results A family history of ESRD was reported by 11.1% of participants. Mean eGFRs for those with and without a family history of ESRD were 87.5 ± 22.2 (SD) and 86.5 ± 19.3 mL/min/1.73 m2, respectively (P = 0.05) and the respective geometric mean ACRs were 12.2 and 9.7 mg/g (P < 0.001). ESRD incidence rates for those with and without a family history of ESRD were 244.3 and 106.1/100,000 person-years, respectively. After adjusting for age, sex, and race, the ESRD HR for those with versus those without a family history of ESRD was 2.13 (95% CI, 1.18-3.83). Adjustment for comorbid conditions and socioeconomic status attenuated this association (HR, 1.82; 95% CI, 1.00-3.28), and further adjustment for baseline eGFR and ACR completely attenuated the association between family history of ESRD and incident ESRD (HR, 1.12; 95% CI, 0.69-1.80). Limitations The report of a family history of ESRD was not validated. Conclusion Family history of ESRD is common in older Americans and the increased risk of ESRD associated with a family history reflects lower GFR, higher albuminuria, and comorbid conditions

  8. The genetic history of Ice Age Europe

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Qiaomei; Posth, Cosimo; Hajdinjak, Mateja; Petr, Martin; Mallick, Swapan; Fernandes, Daniel; Furtwängler, Anja; Haak, Wolfgang; Meyer, Matthias; Mittnik, Alissa; Nickel, Birgit; Peltzer, Alexander; Rohland, Nadin; Slon, Viviane; Talamo, Sahra; Lazaridis, Iosif; Lipson, Mark; Mathieson, Iain; Schiffels, Stephan; Skoglund, Pontus; Derevianko, Anatoly P.; Drozdov, Nikolai; Slavinsky, Vyacheslav; Tsybankov, Alexander; Cremonesi, Renata Grifoni; Mallegni, Francesco; Gély, Bernard; Vacca, Eligio; González Morales, Manuel R.; Straus, Lawrence G.; Neugebauer-Maresch, Christine; Teschler-Nicola, Maria; Constantin, Silviu; Moldovan, Oana Teodora; Benazzi, Stefano; Peresani, Marco; Coppola, Donato; Lari, Martina; Ricci, Stefano; Ronchitelli, Annamaria; Valentin, Frédérique; Thevenet, Corinne; Wehrberger, Kurt; Grigorescu, Dan; Rougier, Hélène; Crevecoeur, Isabelle; Flas, Damien; Semal, Patrick; Mannino, Marcello A.; Cupillard, Christophe; Bocherens, Hervé; Conard, Nicholas J.; Harvati, Katerina; Moiseyev, Vyacheslav; Drucker, Dorothée G.; Svoboda, Jiří; Richards, Michael P.; Caramelli, David; Pinhasi, Ron; Kelso, Janet; Patterson, Nick; Krause, Johannes; Pääbo, Svante; Reich, David

    2016-01-01

    Modern humans arrived in Europe ~45,000 years ago, but little is known about their genetic composition before the start of farming ~8,500 years ago. We analyze genome-wide data from 51 Eurasians from ~45,000-7,000 years ago. Over this time, the proportion of Neanderthal DNA decreased from 3–6% to around 2%, consistent with natural selection against Neanderthal variants in modern humans. Whereas the earliest modern humans in Europe did not contribute substantially to present-day Europeans, all individuals between ~37,000 and ~14,000 years ago descended from a single founder population which forms part of the ancestry of present-day Europeans. A ~35,000 year old individual from northwest Europe represents an early branch of this founder population which was then displaced across a broad region, before reappearing in southwest Europe during the Ice Age ~19,000 years ago. During the major warming period after ~14,000 years ago, a new genetic component related to present-day Near Easterners appears in Europe. These results document how population turnover and migration have been recurring themes of European pre-history. PMID:27135931

  9. Cholesterol and family history: when genetics matters.

    PubMed

    Vengoechea, Jaime; McKelvey, Kent D

    2015-02-01

    Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is an inherited, autosomal codominant disease that increases the risk for cardiovascular mortality by 100 fold. Patients usually have LDL levels above 300 mg/dl. Although signs such as tendon xanthomas, xanthelasmas and corneal arcus may suggest the diagnosis, genetic testing is the'most accurate way of diagnosing FH. Genetic testing has been shown to be a cost-efficient method to screen individuals and their relatives for FH. Establishing an accurate diagnosis is important: high potency statins are first-choice agents, the treatment goal is at least a 50% reduction in LDL cholesterol, and LDL apheresis may be indicated.

  10. Practising family history: 'identity' as a category of social practice.

    PubMed

    Bottero, Wendy

    2015-09-01

    Research on family history argues it performs the task of anchoring a sense of 'self' through tracing ancestral connection and cultural belonging, seeing it as a form of storied 'identity-work'. This paper draws on a small-scale qualitative study to think further on the identity-work of family history. Using practice theory, and a disaggregated notion of 'identity', it explores how the storying of family histories relates to genealogy as a leisure hobby, a form of historical research, and an information-processing activity; and examines the social organization of that narrativity, where various practical engagements render certain kinds of genealogical information more, or less, 'storyable'. Key features of 'identity-work' in family history, such as the construction of genealogy as a personal journey of discovery and identification with particular ancestors, emerge as a consequence of the procedures of family history, organized as a set of practical tasks. The paper explores 'identity-work' as a consequence of people's engagement in specific social practices which provide an internal logic to their actions, with various components of 'identity' emerging as categories of practice shaped within, and for, use. Focusing on 'identity' as something produced when we are engaged in doing other things, the paper examines how the practical organization of 'doing other things' helps produce 'identity' in particular ways.

  11. Practising family history: 'identity' as a category of social practice.

    PubMed

    Bottero, Wendy

    2015-09-01

    Research on family history argues it performs the task of anchoring a sense of 'self' through tracing ancestral connection and cultural belonging, seeing it as a form of storied 'identity-work'. This paper draws on a small-scale qualitative study to think further on the identity-work of family history. Using practice theory, and a disaggregated notion of 'identity', it explores how the storying of family histories relates to genealogy as a leisure hobby, a form of historical research, and an information-processing activity; and examines the social organization of that narrativity, where various practical engagements render certain kinds of genealogical information more, or less, 'storyable'. Key features of 'identity-work' in family history, such as the construction of genealogy as a personal journey of discovery and identification with particular ancestors, emerge as a consequence of the procedures of family history, organized as a set of practical tasks. The paper explores 'identity-work' as a consequence of people's engagement in specific social practices which provide an internal logic to their actions, with various components of 'identity' emerging as categories of practice shaped within, and for, use. Focusing on 'identity' as something produced when we are engaged in doing other things, the paper examines how the practical organization of 'doing other things' helps produce 'identity' in particular ways. PMID:26173995

  12. Family history, body mass index and survival in Japanese patients with stomach cancer: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Minami, Yuko; Kawai, Masaaki; Fujiya, Tsuneaki; Suzuki, Masaki; Noguchi, Tetsuya; Yamanami, Hideaki; Kakugawa, Yoichiro; Nishino, Yoshikazu

    2015-01-15

    Family history and nutritional status may affect the long-term prognosis of stomach cancer, but evidence is insufficient and inconsistent. To clarify the prognostic factors of stomach cancer, we conducted a prospective study of 1,033 Japanese patients with histologically confirmed stomach cancer who were admitted to a single hospital between 1997 and 2005. Family history of stomach cancer and pretreatment body mass index (BMI) were assessed using a self-administered questionnaire. Clinical data were retrieved from a hospital-based cancer registry. All patients were completely followed up until December, 2008. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated according to family history in parents and siblings and BMI category. During a median follow-up of 5.3 years, 403 all-cause and 279 stomach cancer deaths were documented. Although no association with family history was observed in the patients overall, analysis according to age group found an increased risk of all-cause death associated with a history in first degree relatives (HR = 1.61, 95% CI: 0.93-2.78, p = 0.09) and with a parental history (HR = 1.86, 95% CI: 1.06-3.26) among patients aged under 60 years at diagnosis. BMI was related to all-cause and stomach cancer death among patients aged 60 and over, showing a J-shaped pattern (HR of all-cause death = 2.28 for BMI < 18.5; HR = 1.61 for 25 ≤ vs. ≥ 23.0 to < 25.0 kg/m(2)). A family history of stomach cancer, especially parental history, may affect mortality among younger stomach cancer patients, whereas nutritional status may be a prognostic factor in older patients.

  13. CXCR4 pathway associated with family history of melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wen-Qing; Han, Jiali; Widlund, Hans R.; Correll, Mick; Wang, Yaoyu E.; Quackenbush, John; Mihm, Martin C.; Canales, Alvaro Laga; Wu, Shaowei; Golub, Todd; Hoshida, Yujin; Hunter, David J.; Murphy, George; Kupper, Thomas S.; Qureshi, Abrar A.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Genetic predisposition plays a major role in the etiology of melanoma, but known genetic markers only account for a limited fraction of family history-associated melanoma cases. Expression microarrays have offered the opportunity to identify further genomic profiles correlated with family history of melanoma. We aimed to distinguish mRNA expression signatures between melanoma cases with and without a family history of melanoma. Methods Based on the Nurses’ Health Study, family history was defined as having one or more first-degree family members diagnosed with melanoma. Melanoma diagnosis was confirmed by reviewing pathology reports and tumor blocks were collected by mail from across the United States. Genomic interrogation was accomplished through evaluating expression profiling of formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues from 78 primary cutaneous invasive melanoma cases, on either a 6K or whole-genome (24K) Illumina gene chip. Gene Set Enrichment Analysis was performed for each batch to determine the differentially enriched pathways and key contributing genes. Results The CXC chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4) pathway was consistently up-regulated within cases of familial melanoma in both platforms. Leading edge analysis showed four genes from the CXCR4 pathway, including MAPK1, PLCG1, CRK, and PTK2, were among the core members that contributed to the enrichment of this pathway. There was no association between the enrichment of CXCR4 pathway and NRAS, BRAF mutation, or Breslow thickness of the primary melanoma cases. Conclusions We found that the CXCR4 pathway might constitute a novel susceptibility pathway associated with family history of melanoma in first-degree relatives. PMID:24158781

  14. Notes for a cultural history of family therapy.

    PubMed

    Beels, C Christian

    2002-01-01

    The official history of family therapy describes its beginnings as a daring technical and philosophical departure from traditional individual treatment in the 1960s, inspired especially by the "system thinking" of Gregory Bateson. This celebrated origin story needs to be supplemented with a longer and larger history of both practice and thought about the family, and that is the subject of this article. The longer history goes back to the founding of social work by Mary Richmond, of pragmatism by William James, and of the organic view of social systems intervention by John Dewey. Seen against this background, family therapy is, among other things, a consequence of the development of persistent elements of American professional culture, experience, and philosophy. The taking of this historical-anthropological view discloses also the origins of two other histories that have made their contribution to the development of family therapy: a science of observing communication processes that starts with Edward Sapir and leads to contemporary conversation analysis, and a history of mesmerism in the United States that culminates in Milton Erickson and his followers. PMID:11924091

  15. Notes for a cultural history of family therapy.

    PubMed

    Beels, C Christian

    2002-01-01

    The official history of family therapy describes its beginnings as a daring technical and philosophical departure from traditional individual treatment in the 1960s, inspired especially by the "system thinking" of Gregory Bateson. This celebrated origin story needs to be supplemented with a longer and larger history of both practice and thought about the family, and that is the subject of this article. The longer history goes back to the founding of social work by Mary Richmond, of pragmatism by William James, and of the organic view of social systems intervention by John Dewey. Seen against this background, family therapy is, among other things, a consequence of the development of persistent elements of American professional culture, experience, and philosophy. The taking of this historical-anthropological view discloses also the origins of two other histories that have made their contribution to the development of family therapy: a science of observing communication processes that starts with Edward Sapir and leads to contemporary conversation analysis, and a history of mesmerism in the United States that culminates in Milton Erickson and his followers.

  16. The Influence of AD Family History and APOE4 on Mesial Temporal Lobe Activation

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Sterling C.; Schmitz, Taylor W.; Trivedi, Mehul A.; Ries, Michele L.; Torgerson, Britta M.; Carlsson, Cynthia; Asthana, Sanjay; Hermann, Bruce P.; Sager, Mark A.

    2009-01-01

    First-degree family history of sporadic Alzheimer Disease (AD) and the apolipoprotein E ε4 (APOE4) are risk factors for developing AD. Although the role of APOE4 in AD pathogenesis has been well studied, family history remains a rarely studied and poorly understood risk factor. Both putatively cause early brain changes prior to symptomatic disease, but the relative contribution of each on brain function is unknown. We examined 68 middle-aged participants with a parent diagnosed with AD (+FH) and 64 age- and education-matched controls without a first-degree family history of any dementia (−FH). All underwent cognitive testing, APOE genotyping and a functional MRI (fMRI) encoding task that required discrimination of novel items from previously learned items. A 2 × 2 factorial ANOVA (presence/absence of parental family history and presence/absence of the APOE4) was used to detect group effects. A greater response to novel items was detected in the mesial temporal lobe and fusiform gyrus bilaterally among persons without a first-degree family history of AD. In hippocampal areas, the −FH +ε4 group exhibited the greatest signal change, and the +FH +ε4 group the least. These findings indicate that FH of AD is an important predictor of hippocampal activation during encoding and that FH may modulate the effect of APOE4 in these middle-aged adults, suggesting that an as yet unspecified factor embodied in first-degree family history of AD is influencing the expression of APOE4 on brain function. PMID:16738250

  17. Positive family history for coronary heart disease and 'midband lipoproteins' are potential risk factors of carotid atherosclerosis in familial hypercholesterolemia.

    PubMed

    Taira, Kouichi; Bujo, Hideaki; Kobayashi, Junji; Takahashi, Kazuo; Miyazaki, Akira; Saito, Yasushi

    2002-02-01

    Patients with heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) were examined with B-mode ultrasound in order to determine intima-media thickness (IMT) in the common carotid artery, and to uncover potential risk factors responsible for the development of IMT. Ninety seven FH subjects and 132 non FH type IIa hyperlipidemic subjects were involved in the present study. Age was found to correlate positively with IMT in both FH and non FH groups. FH individuals showed a higher IMT, along with elevated low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels, compared with age-matched non FH individuals. To clarify potential factors contributing to the formation and development of carotid atherosclerosis, we divided the FH subjects into two subgroups, namely FH with high IMT group (HIG), and those with low IMT group (LIG). We investigated those two subgroups on the presence of angiographically documented coronary heart disease (CHD), of family history of CHD and of 'midband lipoproteins' by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) analysis, by matching for age and LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C) level. Fifty percent of FH men in HIG was found to have CHD, whereas only 14% of those in LIG had CHD (P<0.05). Thirty-three percent of FH women in HIG was found to have CHD, whereas only 12% of those in LIG had CHD (P<0.05). Fifty percent of FH men in HIG was found to have 'midband lipoproteins', whereas only 7% of those in LIG had 'midband lipoproteins' (P<0.01). Seventy-three percent of FH women in HIG had 'midband lipoproteins', whereas only 21% of those in LIG had 'midband lipoproteins' (P<0.0005). Fifty-five percent of FH men in HIG was had positive family history for CHD, whereas only 14% of those in LIG had positive family history for CHD (P<0.05). Sixty-three percent of FH women in HIG was found to have positive family history for CHD, whereas only 29% of those in LIG had positive family history for CHD (P<0.05). Based on these findings, we propose that, besides age and elevated levels

  18. Exploring Gaps of Family History Documentation in EHR for Precision Medicine -A Case Study of Familial Hypercholesterolemia Ascertainment.

    PubMed

    Mehrabi, Saeed; Wang, Yanshan; Ihrke, Donna; Liu, Hongfang

    2016-01-01

    In the era of precision medicine, accurately identifying familial conditions is crucial for providing target treatment. However, it is challenging to identify familial conditions without detailed family history information. In this work, we studied the documentation of family history of premature cardiovascular disease and hypercholesterolemia. The information on patients' family history of stroke within the Patient-provided information (PPI) forms was compared with the information gathered by clinicians in clinical notes. The agreement between PPI and clinical notes on absence of family history information in PPI was substantially higher compared to presence of family history. PMID:27570664

  19. Exploring Gaps of Family History Documentation in EHR for Precision Medicine -A Case Study of Familial Hypercholesterolemia Ascertainment

    PubMed Central

    Mehrabi, Saeed; Wang, Yanshan; Ihrke, Donna; Liu, Hongfang

    2016-01-01

    In the era of precision medicine, accurately identifying familial conditions is crucial for providing target treatment. However, it is challenging to identify familial conditions without detailed family history information. In this work, we studied the documentation of family history of premature cardiovascular disease and hypercholesterolemia. The information on patients’ family history of stroke within the Patient-provided information (PPI) forms was compared with the information gathered by clinicians in clinical notes. The agreement between PPI and clinical notes on absence of family history information in PPI was substantially higher compared to presence of family history. PMID:27570664

  20. Analysis of Risk Alleles and Complement Activation Levels in Familial and Non-Familial Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Saksens, Nicole T. M.; Lechanteur, Yara T. E.; Verbakel, Sanne K.; Groenewoud, Joannes M. M.; Daha, Mohamed R.; Schick, Tina; Fauser, Sascha; Boon, Camiel J. F.; Hoyng, Carel B.; den Hollander, Anneke I.

    2016-01-01

    Aims Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a multifactorial disease, in which complement-mediated inflammation plays a pivotal role. A positive family history is an important risk factor for developing AMD. Certain lifestyle factors are shown to be significantly associated with AMD in non-familial cases, but not in familial cases. This study aimed to investigate whether the contribution of common genetic variants and complement activation levels differs between familial and sporadic cases with AMD. Methods and Results 1216 AMD patients (281 familial and 935 sporadic) and 1043 controls (143 unaffected members with a family history of AMD and 900 unrelated controls without a family history of AMD) were included in this study. Ophthalmic examinations were performed, and lifestyle and family history were documented with a questionnaire. Nine single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) known to be associated with AMD were genotyped, and serum concentrations of complement components C3 and C3d were measured. Associations were assessed in familial and sporadic individuals. The association with risk alleles of the age-related maculopathy susceptibility 2 (ARMS2) gene was significantly stronger in sporadic AMD patients compared to familial cases (p = 0.017 for all AMD stages and p = 0.003 for advanced AMD, respectively). ARMS2 risk alleles had the largest effect in sporadic cases but were not significantly associated with AMD in densely affected families. The C3d/C3 ratio was a significant risk factor for AMD in sporadic cases and may also be associated with familial cases. In patients with a densely affected family this effect was particularly strong with ORs of 5.37 and 4.99 for all AMD and advanced AMD respectively. Conclusion This study suggests that in familial AMD patients, the common genetic risk variant in ARMS2 is less important compared to sporadic AMD. In contrast, factors leading to increased complement activation appear to play a larger role in patients with a

  1. Correlates of family health history discussions between college students and physicians: does family cancer history make a difference?

    PubMed

    Smith, Matthew Lee; Sosa, Erica T; Hochhalter, Angela K; Covin, Julie; Ory, Marcia G; McKyer, E Lisako J

    2011-12-01

    Effective communication between young adults and their healthcare providers can contribute to early detection of risk for developing cancer and establishment of lifelong habits for engagement in healthcare and health promotion behaviors. Our objectives were to examine factors influencing family health history discussions between college students and physicians and factors associated with perceptions about who is responsible for initiating such discussions. Data from an internet-based study of 632 college students were analyzed. Approximately 60% of college student participants reported they had discussed their family health history with a physician. The perception that physicians are responsible for initiating family health history discussions was associated with being non-White and less than completely knowledgeable about cancer. Having a discussion with a physician was associated with being female, having a regular physician, perceiving genetics as a risk for developing cancer, and having a family member diagnosed with cancer. Understanding variation among college students' perceptions about their role in initiating health-history-related discussions and characteristics of those who have or have not discussed family health issues with physicians can inform healthcare practice to foster optimal healthcare interactions in early adulthood.

  2. Predictive factors of diabetic complications: a possible link between family history of diabetes and diabetic retinopathy

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was assessment of predictive factors of diabetic retinopathy. Methods A cross-sectional study was designed by recruiting 1228 type 2 diabetic patients from a diabetes referral clinic over a six-month period (from July to December, 2012). Diabetes risk factors, complications, laboratory results have been recorded. Results Of the 1228 diabetic patients (54% women, mean age 58.48 ± 9.94 years), prevalence of diabetes retinopathy was 26.6%. There were significant associations between retinopathy and family history of diabetes (p = 0.04), hypertension (p = 0.0001), diabetic duration (p = 0.0001), poor glycemic control (p = 0.0001) and age of onset of diabetes (p = 0.0001). However, no significant associations were found between retinopathy with dyslipidemia and obesity. In logistic regression model, poor glycemic control (p = 0.014), hypertension (p = 0.0001), duration of diabetes (p = 0.0001) and family history of diabetes (p = 0.012) independently predicted retinopathy after adjustment for age and sex. Conclusions Diabetic complications are resulting from an interaction from genes and environmental factors. A family history of diabetes is pointing toward a possible genetic and epigenetic basis for diabetic retinopathy. Our findings suggest the role of epigenetic modifications and metabolic memory in diabetic retinopathy in subjects with family history of diabetes. PMID:24860795

  3. The influence of family history on prostate cancer risk: implications for clinical management.

    PubMed

    Madersbacher, Stephan; Alcaraz, Antonio; Emberton, Mark; Hammerer, Peter; Ponholzer, Anton; Schröder, Fritz H; Tubaro, Andrea

    2011-03-01

    • The most recent evidence for the link between a family history of prostate cancer and individual risk for future disease was examined, with the aim of understanding what the existence and nature of a family history of prostate cancer does to a man's risk of developing the disease. • Our findings highlighted the clear association between a family history of prostate cancer and increased risk of developing the disease; with a greater proximity of relatedness, greater number of family members affected and/or earlier age at diagnosis of the family member elevating risk further. • These findings have important clinical implications for the identification and subsequent management of men deemed to be at increased risk of developing prostate cancer. The evidence for prostate cancer risk reduction with the mono 5α-reductase inhibitor (5ARI) finasteride in a low-risk population and, more recently, with the dual 5ARI dutasteride in a population at increased risk of developing the disease, has potential to expand management options for men at risk of developing prostate cancer beyond more frequent and/or earlier surveillance. • Given that family history can be easily assessed in routine clinical practice, it should be regarded as an important parameter to consider alongside PSA level for prostate cancer risk assessment. PMID:21166744

  4. Correlates of Family Health History Discussions between College Students and Physicians: Does Family Cancer History Make a Difference?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Matthew Lee; Sosa, Erica T.; Hochhalter, Angela K.; Covin, Julie; Ory, Marcia G.; McKyer, E. Lisako J.

    2011-01-01

    Effective communication between young adults and their healthcare providers can contribute to early detection of risk for developing cancer and establishment of lifelong habits for engagement in healthcare and health promotion behaviors. Our objectives were to examine factors influencing family health history discussions between college students…

  5. Perceptions of family history and genetic testing and feasibility of pedigree development among African Americans with hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Pettey, Christina M; McSweeney, Jean C; Stewart, Katharine E; Price, Elvin T; Cleves, Mario A; Heo, Seongkum; Souder, Elaine

    2016-01-01

    Background Pedigree development, family history, and genetic testing are thought to be useful in improving outcomes of chronic illnesses such as hypertension (HTN). However, the clinical utility of pedigree development is still unknown. Further, little is known about African Americans’ (AAs’) perceptions of family history and genetic testing. Aims This study examined the feasibility of developing pedigrees for AAs with HTN and explored perceptions of family history and genetic research among AAs with HTN. Methods The US Surgeon General’s My Family Health Portrait was administered, and 30–60 minute in-person individual interviews were conducted. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze pedigree data. Interview transcripts were analyzed with content analysis and constant comparison. Results Twenty-nine AAs with HTN were recruited from one free clinic (15 women, 14 men; mean age 49 years, SD 9.6). Twenty-six (90%) reported their family history in sufficient detail to develop a pedigree. Perceptions of family history included knowledge of HTN in the family, culturally influenced family teaching about HTN, and response to family history of HTN. Most participants agreed to future genetic testing and DNA collection because they wanted to help others; some said they needed more information and others expressed a concern for privacy. Conclusion The majority of AAs in this sample possessed extensive knowledge of HTN within their family and were able to develop a three generation pedigree with assistance. The majority were willing to participate in future genetic research. PMID:25322748

  6. Morphologic features of culprit lesions in sudden coronary death with family history of premature coronary artery disease.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ming Chang; Shen, Yiwen; Xue, Aimin; He, Meng; Cresswell, Nathaniel; Li, Ling; Zhao, Ziqin; Jiang, Yan; Burke, Allen

    2016-09-01

    The morphologic features of familial coronary artery disease (CAD) resulting in sudden coronary death (SCD) are poorly studied. The presence and type of culprit lesions may have important implications in the genetic basis for familial heart disease. Autopsies of SCD victims over a 5-year period from a statewide medical examiner's office were studied. Premature familial disease was defined as sudden death at ≤50 years in women and ≤45 years in men, with premature SCD or acute coronary syndrome in a first-degree relative. Culprit lesion was defined as acute plaque rupture, plaque erosion, and severe narrowing without thrombus (stable plaque). There were 174 acute plaque ruptures (age 49±10 years, 9% women), 49 plaque erosions (age 45±8 years, 37% women), and 213 stable plaques (age 53±11 years, 22% women). There were 8 plaque rupture with family history. There were 9 plaque erosions with family history. There were 7 stable plaques with family history. The rate of familial history in premature coronary disease was 18.4% in erosions, 4.6% in ruptures (p=.02 vs. erosion), and 3.3% in stable plaque (p=.002 vs. erosion). We concluded that the frequency of family history of premature sudden death due to CAD may be higher in plaque erosion as compared to patients dying with acute plaque rupture or stable plaque.

  7. Family history of esophageal cancer increases the risk of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Chen, Tiantian; Cheng, Hongwei; Chen, Xingdong; Yuan, Ziyu; Yang, Xiaorong; Zhuang, Maoqiang; Lu, Ming; Jin, Li; Ye, Weimin

    2015-01-01

    A population-based case-control was performed to explore familial aggregation of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). Family history of cancer was assessed by a structured questionnaire, and from which 2 cohorts of relatives of cases and controls were reconstructed. Unconditional logistic regression and Cox proportional hazards regression were applied for case-control design and reconstructed cohort design, respectively. We observed a close to doubled risk of ESCC associated with a positive family history of esophageal cancer among first degree relatives (odds ratio [OR] = 1.85, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.42-2.41), after adjusting age, sex, family size and other confounders. The excess risks of ESCC increased with the increasing of first-degree relatives affected by esophageal cancer (p < 0.001). In particular, those individuals whose both parents with esophageal cancer had an 8-fold excess risk of ESCC (95% CI: 1.74-36.32). The reconstructed cohort analysis showed that the cumulative risk of esophageal cancer to age 75 was 12.2% in the first-degree relatives of cases and 7.0% in those of controls (hazard ratio = 1.91, 95% CI: 1.54-2.37). Our results suggest family history of esophageal cancer significantly increases the risk for ESCC. Future studies are needed to understand how the shared genetic susceptibility and/or environmental exposures contribute to the observed excess risk.

  8. The Pacific Age in World History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Korhonen, Pekka

    1996-01-01

    Tracks the intermittent appearances and variations of the historical concept of a "Pacific Age" from the 1890s to the present. Discusses the social, economic, and historical conditions that resulted in the term's heralding of either economic optimism or racist peril. Suggests these interpretations come in cycles. (MJP)

  9. History of the Calendar : In Different Countries Through the Ages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saha, M. N.; Lahiri, N. C.

    This volume contains Part of the Report of the Calendar Reform Committee appointed by the Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR) on history of the Calendar in different countries through the Ages.

  10. Family history in breast cancer is not a prognostic factor?

    PubMed

    Jobsen, J J; Meerwaldt, J H; van der Palen, J

    2000-04-01

    The aim of this study is to determine if breast conservative treatment is justified for patients with a positive family history of breast cancer and to investigate whether they have a worse prognosis. We performed a prospective cohort study of breast cancer patients, treated with breast conservative treatment with radiotherapy at the Radiotherapy Department of the Medisch Spectrum Twente. Between 1984 and 1996, 1204 patients with T1 and T2 < or =3 cm were treated. Family history (FH) was recorded according to first degree relative (FDR). Treatment consisted of lumpectomy with axillary dissection followed by radiotherapy to the whole breast with a boost to the primary area. Adjuvant systemic therapy was given to patients with positive nodes. A positive FH was noted in 243 (20.5%) patients, of whom 208 (17.6%) had one FDR, and 35 (3.0%) > or =2 FDRs. The local recurrence rate was 4.1%, with similar rates for all groups. In young patients, < or =40 years, a significant relation between local recurrence and FH was found. The distant metastasis rate was 15.5%, with the lowest rate (5.7%) among patients with > or =2 FDRs. Patients with a positive FH had significantly more contralateral tumours. The 5-year corrected survival was 91.3%. Among patients with a positive FH, a 5-year corrected survival of 91% was observed and the survival 100% among patients with one and > or =2 FDR. Family history is not a contraindication for breast conservative treatment and is not associated with a worse prognosis. Family history is not a prognostic factor for local recurrence rate in patients older than 40 years. PMID:14731704

  11. Family history in breast cancer is not a prognostic factor?

    PubMed

    Jobsen, J J; Meerwaldt, J H; van der Palen, J

    2000-04-01

    The aim of this study is to determine if breast conservative treatment is justified for patients with a positive family history of breast cancer and to investigate whether they have a worse prognosis. We performed a prospective cohort study of breast cancer patients, treated with breast conservative treatment with radiotherapy at the Radiotherapy Department of the Medisch Spectrum Twente. Between 1984 and 1996, 1204 patients with T1 and T2 < or =3 cm were treated. Family history (FH) was recorded according to first degree relative (FDR). Treatment consisted of lumpectomy with axillary dissection followed by radiotherapy to the whole breast with a boost to the primary area. Adjuvant systemic therapy was given to patients with positive nodes. A positive FH was noted in 243 (20.5%) patients, of whom 208 (17.6%) had one FDR, and 35 (3.0%) > or =2 FDRs. The local recurrence rate was 4.1%, with similar rates for all groups. In young patients, < or =40 years, a significant relation between local recurrence and FH was found. The distant metastasis rate was 15.5%, with the lowest rate (5.7%) among patients with > or =2 FDRs. Patients with a positive FH had significantly more contralateral tumours. The 5-year corrected survival was 91.3%. Among patients with a positive FH, a 5-year corrected survival of 91% was observed and the survival 100% among patients with one and > or =2 FDR. Family history is not a contraindication for breast conservative treatment and is not associated with a worse prognosis. Family history is not a prognostic factor for local recurrence rate in patients older than 40 years.

  12. Family Day Care and the School-Age Child.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seltzer, Michelle Seligson

    This paper provides portions of a workshop discussion at the Wheelock Conference on School-Age Child Care concerning the role of family day care for school-age children. The workshop participants included family day care providers affiliated with the day care system in the Greater Boston area, administrators of a family day care system which also…

  13. FAMILY HISTORY OF PROSTATE CANCER IN A BLACK POPULATION

    PubMed Central

    Nemesure, Barbara; Wu, Suh-Yuh; Hennis, Anselm; Leske, M. Cristina

    2012-01-01

    Background Although family history of prostate cancer (PC) is an established risk factor for the disease, few studies have investigated this relationship among men with an African heritage. Methods The Prostate Cancer in a Black Population (PCBP) study is a large, nationwide case-control study conducted in Barbados, West Indies from 2002–2011. Results In the PCBP study, a family history of PC in fathers or brothers was associated with a 3-fold increased risk of disease (OR=3.04, 95% CI (2.18, 4.22)) and a strong positive relationship was noted for the number of affected first degree relatives. Tumor grade did not generally influence the relationship between family history and PC. Discussion The magnitude of risks associated with having a father affected with the disease was slightly higher in the PCBP study compared to other populations. It remains unclear whether this finding is the result of an increased genetic susceptibility in African-Barbadian men. PMID:22936456

  14. Meningioma and schwannoma risk in adults in relation to family history of cancer

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Deirdre A.; Linet, Martha S.; Black, Peter M.; Fine, Howard A.; Selker, Robert G.; Shapiro, William R.; Inskip, Peter D.

    2004-01-01

    Relatively little is known about factors that contribute to the development of meningioma and vestibular schwannoma, two intracranial nervous system tumors. We evaluated the risk of these tumors in relation to family history of malignant or benign tumors. Incident cases of meningioma (n = 197) or schwannoma (n = 96) were identified at three U.S. referral hospitals between June 1994 and August 1998. Controls (n = 799) admitted to the same hospitals for nonmalignant conditions were matched to cases on age, sex, race/ethnicity, hospital, and proximity of residence to hospital. We found that risk of meningioma was increased among persons reporting a family history of a benign brain tumor (odds ratio [OR], 4.5; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.0–21.0; n = 5) or melanoma (OR, 4.2; 95% CI, 1.2–15.0; n = 5). A family history of breast cancer was associated with an elevated meningioma risk among participants aged 18 to 49 years (OR, 3.9; 95% CI, 1.4 –11.0; n = 8) but a reduced risk among older respondents (OR, 0.2; 95% CI, 0.1–0.7; n = 3). Family history of cancer did not differ between schwannoma cases and controls, although the statistical power to detect associations was limited. Some relative risk estimates were based on a small number of observations and may have arisen by chance. Inheritance of predisposing genes, shared environmental factors, or both within families with a history of benign brain tumors, melanoma, or possibly breast cancer may be related to altered meningioma risk. PMID:15494094

  15. Families with school-age children.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Kathleen; Schneider, Barbara; Butler, Donnell

    2011-01-01

    Most working parents face a common dilemma--how to care for their children when they are not in school but the parents are at work. In this article Kathleen Christensen, Barbara Schneider, and Donnell Butler describe the predictable and unpredictable scheduling demands school-age children place on working couples and single working parents. The authors assess the potential capacity of schools to help meet the needs of working families through changes in school schedules and after-school programs and conclude that the flexibility parents need to balance family-work responsibilities probably cannot be found in the school setting. They argue that workplaces are better able than schools to offer the flexibility that working parents need to attend to basic needs of their children, as well as to engage in activities that enhance their children's academic performance and emotional and social well-being. Two types of flexible work practices seem especially well suited to parents who work: flextime arrangements that allow parents to coordinate their work schedules with their children's school schedules, and policies that allow workers to take short periods of time off--a few hours or a day or two-to attend a parent-teacher conference, for example, or care for a child who has suddenly fallen ill. Many companies that have instituted such policies have benefited through employees' greater job satisfaction and employee retention. Yet despite these measured benefits to employers, workplaces often fall short of being family friendly. Many employers do not offer such policies or offer them only to employees at certain levels or in certain types of jobs. Flexible work practices are almost nonexistent for low-income workers, who are least able to afford alternative child care and may need flexibility the most. Moreover the authors find that even employees in firms with flexible practices such as telecommuting may be reluctant to take advantage of them, because the workplace culture

  16. Family history of breast and ovarian cancer and triple negative subtype in hispanic/latina women.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Kristin; Thompson, Patricia A; Wertheim, Betsy C; Martin, Lorena; Komenaka, Ian K; Bondy, Melissa; Daneri-Navarro, Adrian; Meza-Montenegro, Maria Mercedes; Gutierrez-Millan, Luis Enrique; Brewster, Abenaa; Madlensky, Lisa; Tobias, Malaika; Natarajan, Loki; Martínez, María Elena

    2014-01-01

    Familial breast and ovarian cancer prevalence was assessed among 1150 women of Mexican descent enrolled in a case-only, binational breast cancer study. Logistic regression was conducted to compare odds of triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) to non-TNBC according to family history of breast and breast or ovarian cancer among 914 of these women. Prevalence of breast cancer family history in a first- and first- or second-degree relative was 13.1% and 24.1%, respectively; that for breast or ovarian cancer in a first-degree relative was 14.9%. After adjustment for age and country of residence, women with a first-degree relative with breast cancer were more likely to be diagnosed with TNBC than non-TNBC (OR=1.98; 95% CI, 1.26-3.11). The odds of TNBC compared to non-TNBC were 1.93 (95% CI, 1.26-2.97) for women with a first-degree relative with breast or ovarian cancer. There were non-significant stronger associations between family history and TNBC among women diagnosed at age <50 compared to ≥50 years for breast cancer in a first-degree relative (P-interaction = 0.14) and a first- or second-degree relative (P-interaction = 0.07). Findings suggest that familial breast cancers are associated with triple negative subtype, possibly related to BRCA mutations in Hispanic/Latina women, which are strongly associated with TNBC. Family history is an important tool to identify Hispanic/Latina women who may be at increased risk of TNBC, and could benefit from prevention and early detection strategies. PMID:25713754

  17. Passive absolute age and temperature history sensor

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, Alex; Vianco, Paul T.

    2015-11-10

    A passive sensor for historic age and temperature sensing, including a first member formed of a first material, the first material being either a metal or a semiconductor material and a second member formed of a second material, the second material being either a metal or a semiconductor material. A surface of the second member is in contact with a surface of the first member such that, over time, the second material of the second member diffuses into the first material of the first member. The rate of diffusion for the second material to diffuse into the first material depends on a temperature of the passive sensor. One of the electrical conductance, the electrical capacitance, the electrical inductance, the optical transmission, the optical reflectance, or the crystalline structure of the passive sensor depends on the amount of the second material that has diffused into the first member.

  18. The genetic history of Ice Age Europe.

    PubMed

    Fu, Qiaomei; Posth, Cosimo; Hajdinjak, Mateja; Petr, Martin; Mallick, Swapan; Fernandes, Daniel; Furtwängler, Anja; Haak, Wolfgang; Meyer, Matthias; Mittnik, Alissa; Nickel, Birgit; Peltzer, Alexander; Rohland, Nadin; Slon, Viviane; Talamo, Sahra; Lazaridis, Iosif; Lipson, Mark; Mathieson, Iain; Schiffels, Stephan; Skoglund, Pontus; Derevianko, Anatoly P; Drozdov, Nikolai; Slavinsky, Vyacheslav; Tsybankov, Alexander; Cremonesi, Renata Grifoni; Mallegni, Francesco; Gély, Bernard; Vacca, Eligio; Morales, Manuel R González; Straus, Lawrence G; Neugebauer-Maresch, Christine; Teschler-Nicola, Maria; Constantin, Silviu; Moldovan, Oana Teodora; Benazzi, Stefano; Peresani, Marco; Coppola, Donato; Lari, Martina; Ricci, Stefano; Ronchitelli, Annamaria; Valentin, Frédérique; Thevenet, Corinne; Wehrberger, Kurt; Grigorescu, Dan; Rougier, Hélène; Crevecoeur, Isabelle; Flas, Damien; Semal, Patrick; Mannino, Marcello A; Cupillard, Christophe; Bocherens, Hervé; Conard, Nicholas J; Harvati, Katerina; Moiseyev, Vyacheslav; Drucker, Dorothée G; Svoboda, Jiří; Richards, Michael P; Caramelli, David; Pinhasi, Ron; Kelso, Janet; Patterson, Nick; Krause, Johannes; Pääbo, Svante; Reich, David

    2016-05-01

    Modern humans arrived in Europe ~45,000 years ago, but little is known about their genetic composition before the start of farming ~8,500 years ago. Here we analyse genome-wide data from 51 Eurasians from ~45,000-7,000 years ago. Over this time, the proportion of Neanderthal DNA decreased from 3-6% to around 2%, consistent with natural selection against Neanderthal variants in modern humans. Whereas there is no evidence of the earliest modern humans in Europe contributing to the genetic composition of present-day Europeans, all individuals between ~37,000 and ~14,000 years ago descended from a single founder population which forms part of the ancestry of present-day Europeans. An ~35,000-year-old individual from northwest Europe represents an early branch of this founder population which was then displaced across a broad region, before reappearing in southwest Europe at the height of the last Ice Age ~19,000 years ago. During the major warming period after ~14,000 years ago, a genetic component related to present-day Near Easterners became widespread in Europe. These results document how population turnover and migration have been recurring themes of European prehistory.

  19. The genetic history of Ice Age Europe.

    PubMed

    Fu, Qiaomei; Posth, Cosimo; Hajdinjak, Mateja; Petr, Martin; Mallick, Swapan; Fernandes, Daniel; Furtwängler, Anja; Haak, Wolfgang; Meyer, Matthias; Mittnik, Alissa; Nickel, Birgit; Peltzer, Alexander; Rohland, Nadin; Slon, Viviane; Talamo, Sahra; Lazaridis, Iosif; Lipson, Mark; Mathieson, Iain; Schiffels, Stephan; Skoglund, Pontus; Derevianko, Anatoly P; Drozdov, Nikolai; Slavinsky, Vyacheslav; Tsybankov, Alexander; Cremonesi, Renata Grifoni; Mallegni, Francesco; Gély, Bernard; Vacca, Eligio; Morales, Manuel R González; Straus, Lawrence G; Neugebauer-Maresch, Christine; Teschler-Nicola, Maria; Constantin, Silviu; Moldovan, Oana Teodora; Benazzi, Stefano; Peresani, Marco; Coppola, Donato; Lari, Martina; Ricci, Stefano; Ronchitelli, Annamaria; Valentin, Frédérique; Thevenet, Corinne; Wehrberger, Kurt; Grigorescu, Dan; Rougier, Hélène; Crevecoeur, Isabelle; Flas, Damien; Semal, Patrick; Mannino, Marcello A; Cupillard, Christophe; Bocherens, Hervé; Conard, Nicholas J; Harvati, Katerina; Moiseyev, Vyacheslav; Drucker, Dorothée G; Svoboda, Jiří; Richards, Michael P; Caramelli, David; Pinhasi, Ron; Kelso, Janet; Patterson, Nick; Krause, Johannes; Pääbo, Svante; Reich, David

    2016-06-01

    Modern humans arrived in Europe ~45,000 years ago, but little is known about their genetic composition before the start of farming ~8,500 years ago. Here we analyse genome-wide data from 51 Eurasians from ~45,000-7,000 years ago. Over this time, the proportion of Neanderthal DNA decreased from 3-6% to around 2%, consistent with natural selection against Neanderthal variants in modern humans. Whereas there is no evidence of the earliest modern humans in Europe contributing to the genetic composition of present-day Europeans, all individuals between ~37,000 and ~14,000 years ago descended from a single founder population which forms part of the ancestry of present-day Europeans. An ~35,000-year-old individual from northwest Europe represents an early branch of this founder population which was then displaced across a broad region, before reappearing in southwest Europe at the height of the last Ice Age ~19,000 years ago. During the major warming period after ~14,000 years ago, a genetic component related to present-day Near Easterners became widespread in Europe. These results document how population turnover and migration have been recurring themes of European prehistory. PMID:27135931

  20. Personal Factors Associated with Reported Benefits of Huntington Disease Family History or Genetic Testing

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Janet K.; Erwin, Cheryl; Juhl, Andrew; Mills, James; Brossman, Bradley

    2010-01-01

    Aims: A family history of Huntington disease (HD) or receiving results of HD predictive genetic testing can influence individual well-being, family relationships, and social interactions in positive and negative ways. The aim of this study was to examine benefits reported by people with an HD family history or those who have undergone predictive HD testing, as well as the personal variables associated with perceived benefits. Methods: Seventy-four of 433 people completing the International Response of a Sample Population to HD risk (I-RESPOND-HD) survey reported benefits. Knowledge and understanding was perceived as the most common benefit from participants in both groups. The next most frequent perceived benefits from a family history were connecting with others and achieving life meaning and insights. The next most common perceived benefits from genetic testing were life planning and social support. The least common perceived benefit for both groups was renewed hope and optimism. Older age and spirituality were significantly associated with benefits in both groups. Conclusions: Perceptions of benefit may not be as likely until later years in people with prodromal HD. A developed sense of spirituality is identified as a personal resource associated with the perception of benefit from genetic testing for HD. Associations among spirituality, perceived benefits, and other indicators of personal and family well-being may be useful in genetic counseling and health care of people with prodromal HD. PMID:20722493

  1. Fragile Families, Fragile Solutions: A History of Supportive Services for Families in Poverty.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halpern, Robert

    This book examines the history of supportive social services to examine ways in which those services have been helpful, and sometimes unhelpful, to poor families; the factors that have constrained service provision and reform; and what would make the service enterprise viable in the coming years. Discussed are formative influences on the…

  2. Prostate cancer risk prediction based on complete prostate cancer family history

    PubMed Central

    Albright, Frederick; Stephenson, Robert A; Agarwal, Neeraj; Teerlink, Craig C; Lowrance, William T; Farnham, James M; Albright, Lisa A Cannon

    2015-01-01

    Background Prostate cancer (PC) relative risks (RRs) are typically estimated based on status of close relatives or presence of any affected relatives. This study provides RR estimates using extensive and specific PC family history. Methods A retrospective population-based study was undertaken to estimate RRs for PC based on complete family history of PC. A total of 635,443 males, all with ancestral genealogy data, were analyzed. RRs for PC were determined based upon PC rates estimated from males with no PC family history (without PC in first, second, or third degree relatives). RRs were determined for a variety of constellations, for example, number of first through third degree relatives; named (grandfather, father, uncle, cousins, brothers); maternal, paternal relationships, and age of onset. Results In the 635,443 males analyzed, 18,105 had PC. First-degree RRs ranged from 2.46 (=1 first-degree relative affected, CI = 2.39–2.53) to 7.65 (=4 first-degree relatives affected, CI = 6.28–9.23). Second-degree RRs for probands with 0 affected first-degree relatives ranged from 1.51 (≥1 second-degree relative affected, CI = 1.47–1.56) to 3.09 (≥5 second-degree relatives affected, CI = 2.32–4.03). Third-degree RRs with 0 affected first- and 0 affected second-degree relatives ranged from 1.15 (≥1 affected third-degree relative, CI = 1.12–1.19) to 1.50 (≥5 affected third-degree relatives, CI = 1.35–1.66). RRs based on age at diagnosis were higher for earlier age at diagnoses; for example, RR = 5.54 for ≥1 first-degree relative diagnosed before age 50 years (CI = 1.12–1.19) and RR = 1.78 for >1 second-degree relative diagnosed before age 50 years, CI = 1.33, 2.33. RRs for equivalent maternal versus paternal family history were not significantly different. Conclusions A more complete PC family history using close and distant relatives and age at diagnosis results in a wider range of estimates of individual RR

  3. Family history and apoE genotype interaction in Alzheimer`s disease (AD)

    SciTech Connect

    Jarvik, G.P.; Kukull, W.A.; Goddards, K.

    1994-09-01

    The apoE {epsilon}4 allele is associated with increased risk and decreased age of onset of AD. The {epsilon}4 allele may have opposing effects. We determined that family history of a parent or sib with memory problems (famhx+) modified the effect of apoE genotype in a population-based, case (n=165, 72 famhx+)-control (n=233, 73 famhx+) sample. Logistic regression analyses detected a significant apoE genotype (E) by family history (F) by age (A) interaction (ExFxA, p=0.003) and ExF interaction (p=0.0001) in the prediction of AD. ExFxA remained significant when only {epsilon}4+ genotypes were included (p<0.01). ExFxSex (p=0.04) and ExF (p<0.0001) were significant when only {epsilon}4- genotypes were included. Similary, multiple regression detected significant ExF interaction in the prediction of age of AD onset for {epsilon}4+ genotypes (p=0.04) or {epsilon}4- genotypes (p=0.04). Sex did not interact in the prediction of age of onset. Famhx+ increased risk of AD differentially and reduced age of onset except in {epsilon}2+ genotypes. Family history modifies the apoE genotype influence on risk and onset age of AD, suggesting that non-apoE genetic effects interact with apoE in AD. It is most predictive of risk in those with the {epsilon}2{epsilon}3 genotype. Variation in risk and onset among both {epsilon}4+ and {epsilon}4- genotypes demonstrate that {epsilon}2 and {epsilon}3 mediate {epsilon}4 allele effects in AD.

  4. The impact of stratifying by family history in colorectal cancer screening programs.

    PubMed

    Goede, Simon Lucas; Rabeneck, Linda; Lansdorp-Vogelaar, Iris; Zauber, Ann G; Paszat, Lawrence F; Hoch, Jeffrey S; Yong, Jean H E; van Hees, Frank; Tinmouth, Jill; van Ballegooijen, Marjolein

    2015-09-01

    In the province-wide colorectal cancer (CRC) screening program in Ontario, Canada, individuals with a family history of CRC are offered colonoscopy screening and those without are offered guaiac fecal occult blood testing (gFOBT, Hemoccult II). We used microsimulation modeling to estimate the cumulative number of CRC deaths prevented and colonoscopies performed between 2008 and 2038 with this family history-based screening program, compared to a regular gFOBT program. In both programs, we assumed screening uptake increased from 30% (participation level in 2008 before the program was launched) to 60%. We assumed that 11% of the population had a family history, defined as having at least one first-degree relative diagnosed with CRC. The programs offered screening between age 50 and 74 years, every two years for gFOBT, and every ten years for colonoscopy. Compared to opportunistic screening (2008 participation level kept constant at 30%), the gFOBT program cumulatively prevented 6,700 more CRC deaths and required 570,000 additional colonoscopies by 2038. The family history-based screening program increased these numbers to 9,300 and 1,100,000, a 40% and 93% increase, respectively. If biennial gFOBT was replaced with biennial fecal immunochemical test (FIT), annual Hemoccult Sensa or five-yearly sigmoidoscopy screening, both the added benefits and colonoscopies required would decrease. A biennial gFOBT screening program that identifies individuals with a family history of CRC and recommends them to undergo colonoscopy screening would prevent 40% (range in sensitivity analyses: 20-51%) additional deaths while requiring 93% (range: 43-116%) additional colonoscopies, compared to a regular gFOBT screening program.

  5. The Impact of Stratifying by Family History in Colorectal Cancer Screening Programs

    PubMed Central

    Goede, S. Lucas; Rabeneck, Linda; Lansdorp-Vogelaar, Iris; Zauber, Ann G.; Paszat, Lawrence F.; Hoch, Jeffrey S.; Yong, Jean H.E.; van Hees, Frank; Tinmouth, Jill; van Ballegooijen, Marjolein

    2015-01-01

    In the province-wide colorectal cancer (CRC) screening program in Ontario, Canada, individuals with a family history of CRC are offered colonoscopy screening and those without are offered guaiac fecal occult blood testing (gFOBT, Hemoccult II). We used microsimulation modeling to estimate the cumulative number of CRC deaths prevented and colonoscopies performed between 2008 and 2038 with this family history-based screening program, compared to a regular gFOBT program. In both programs, we assumed screening uptake increased from 30% (participation level in 2008 before the program was launched) to 60%. We assumed that 11% of the population had a family history, defined as having at least one first-degree relative diagnosed with CRC. The programs offered screening between age 50-74 years, every two years for gFOBT, and every ten years for colonoscopy. Compared to opportunistic screening (2008 participation level kept constant at 30%), the gFOBT program cumulatively prevented 6,700 more CRC deaths and required 570,000 additional colonoscopies by 2038. The family history-based screening program increased these numbers to 9,300 and 1,100,000, a 40% and 93% increase, respectively. If biennial gFOBT was replaced with biennial fecal immunochemical test (FIT), annual Hemoccult Sensa or five-yearly sigmoidoscopy screening, both the added benefits and colonoscopies required would decrease. A biennial gFOBT screening program that identifies individuals with a family history of CRC and recommends them to undergo colonoscopy screening would prevent 40% (range in sensitivity analyses: 20-51%) additional deaths while requiring 93% (range: 43-116%) additional colonoscopies, compared to a regular gFOBT screening program. PMID:25663135

  6. Allergic and non-allergic rhinitis: relationship with nasal polyposis, asthma and family history.

    PubMed

    Gelardi, M; Iannuzzi, L; Tafuri, S; Passalacqua, G; Quaranta, N

    2014-02-01

    Rhinitis and rhinosinusitis (with/without polyposis), either allergic or non-allergic, represent a major medical problem. Their associated comorbidities and relationship with family history have so far been poorly investigated. We assessed these aspects in a large population of patients suffering from rhinosinusal diseases. Clinical history, nasal cytology, allergy testing and direct nasal examination were performed in all patients referred for rhinitis/rhinosinusitis. Fibre optic nasal endoscopy, CT scan and nasal challenge were used for diagnosis, when indicated. A total of 455 patients (60.7% male, age range 4-84 years) were studied; 108 (23.7%) had allergic rhinitis, 128 (28.1%) rhinosinusitis with polyposis, 107 (23.5%) non-allergic rhinitis (negative skin test); 112 patients had associated allergic and non-allergic rhinitis, the majority with eosinophilia. There was a significant association between non-allergic rhinitis and family history of nasal polyposis (OR = 4.45; 95%CI = 1.70-11.61; p = 0.0019), whereas this association was no longer present when allergic rhinitis was also included. Asthma was equally frequent in non-allergic and allergic rhinitis, but more frequent in patients with polyposis. Aspirin sensitivity was more frequent in nasal polyposis, independent of the allergic (p = 0.03) or non-allergic (p = 0.01) nature of rhinitis. Nasal polyposis is significantly associated with asthma and positive family history of asthma, partially independent of the allergic aetiology of rhinitis.

  7. Genetic Variants and Family History predict Prostate Cancer similar to PSA

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, S. Lilly; Sun, Jielin; Wiklund, Fredrik; Gao, Zhengrong; Stattin, Pär; Purcell, Lina D.; Adami, Hans-Olov; Hsu, Fang-Chi; Zhu, Yi; Adolfsson, Jan; Johansson, Jan-Erik; Turner, Aubrey R.; Adams, Tamara S.; Liu, Wennuan; Duggan, David; Carpten, John D.; Chang, Bao-Li; Isaacs, William B.; Xu, Jianfeng; Grönberg, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    Purpose While PSA is the best biomarker for predicting prostate cancer, its predictive performance needs to be improved. Results from the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial (PCPT) revealed the overall performance measured by the areas under curve (AUC) of the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) at 0.68. The goal of the present study is to assess the ability of genetic variants as a PSA independent method to predict prostate cancer risk. Experimental Design We systematically evaluated all prostate cancer risk variants that were identified from genome-wide association studies during the past year in a large population-based prostate cancer case-control study population in Sweden, including 2,893 prostate cancer patients and 1,781 men without prostate cancer. Results Twelve SNPs were independently associated with prostate cancer risk in this Swedish study population. Using a cutoff of any 11 risk alleles or family history, the sensitivity and specificity for predicting prostate cancer were 0.25 and 0.86, respectively. The overall predictive performance of prostate cancer using genetic variants, family history, and age, measured by AUC was 0.65 (95% CI: 0.63–0.66), significantly improved over that of family history and age (0.61%, 95% CI: 0.59–0.62), P = 2.3 × 10−10. Conclusion The predictive performance for prostate cancer using genetic variants and family history is similar to that of PSA. The utility of genetic testing, alone and in combination with PSA levels, should be evaluated in large studies such as the European Randomized Study for Prostate Cancer trial and PCPT. PMID:19188186

  8. The promiscuous evolutionary history of the family Bromoviridae.

    PubMed

    Codoñer, Francisco M; Elena, Santiago F

    2008-07-01

    Recombination and segment reassortment are important contributors to the standing genetic variation of RNA viruses and are often involved in the genesis of new, emerging viruses. This study explored the role played by these two processes in the evolutionary radiation of the plant virus family Bromoviridae. The evolutionary history of this family has been explored previously using standard molecular phylogenetic methods, but incongruences have been found among the trees inferred from different gene sequences. This would not be surprising if RNA exchange was a common event, as it is well known that recombination and reassortment of genomes are poorly described by standard phylogenetic methods. In an attempt to reconcile these discrepancies, this study first explored the extent of segment reassortment and found that it was common at the origin of the bromoviruses and cucumoviruses and at least at the origin of alfalfa mosaic virus, American plum line pattern virus and citrus leaf rugose virus. Secondly, recombination analyses were performed on each of the three genomic RNAs and it was found that recombination was very common in members of the genera Bromovirus, Cucumovirus and Ilarvirus. Several cases of recombination involving species from different genera were also identified. Finally, a phylogenetic network was constructed reflecting these genetic exchanges. The network confirmed the taxonomic status of the different genera within the family, despite the phylogenetic noise introduced by genetic exchange.

  9. Personal and family history of cancer and the risk of Barrett's esophagus in men.

    PubMed

    Khalaf, N; Ramsey, D; Kramer, J R; El-Serag, H B

    2015-04-01

    The association between Barrett's esophagus (BE) and a personal or family history of cancer other than gastroesophageal remains unknown. To evaluate the effect of personal and family history of certain cancers and cancer treatments on the risk of BE, we analyzed data from a Veterans Affairs case-control study that included 264 men with definitive BE (cases) and 1486 men without BE (controls). Patients with history of esophageal or gastric cancer were excluded. Patients underwent elective esophagogastroduodenoscopy or a study esophagogastroduodenoscopy concurrently with screening colonoscopy to determine BE status. Personal and family history of several types of cancer was obtained from self-reported questionnaires, supplemented and verified by electronic medical-record reviews. We estimated the association between personal and family history of cancer or radiation/chemotherapy, and BE. Personal history of oropharyngeal cancer (1.5% vs. 0.4%) or prostate cancer (7.2% vs. 4.4%) was more frequently present in cases than controls. The association between BE and prostate cancer persisted in multivariable analyses (adjusted odds ratio 1.90; 95% confidence interval 1.07-3.38, P = 0.028) while that with oropharyngeal cancer (adjusted odds ratio 3.63; 95% confidence interval 0.92-14.29, P = 0.066) was attenuated after adjusting for retained covariates of age, race, gastroesophageal reflux disease, hiatal hernia, and proton pump inhibitor use. Within the subset of patients with cancer, prior treatment with radiation or chemotherapy was not associated with BE. There were no significant differences between cases and controls in the proportions of subjects with several specific malignancies in first- or second-degree relatives. In conclusion, the risk of BE in men may be elevated with prior personal history of oropharyngeal or prostate cancer. However, prior cancer treatments and family history of cancer were not associated with increased risk of BE. Further studies are needed

  10. Effects of Family History of Alcohol Use Disorders on Spatial Working Memory BOLD Response in Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Spadoni, Andrea D.; Norman, Andria L.; Schweinsburg, Alecia D.; Tapert, Susan F.

    2008-01-01

    Background A positive family history (FH) of alcohol use disorders (AUD) has been linked to increased risk for the development of AUD, and neurocognitive factors have been postulated as important underlying mechanisms of familial alcoholism transmission. Methods We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during a spatial working memory (SWM) and vigilance paradigm to investigate potential neurodevelopmental differences linked to familial density of AUD in 72 adolescents aged 12 to 14 years. Results Youth with denser family histories of AUD showed less activation during a simple vigilance condition relative to SWM in cingulate and medial frontal gyri (β = 0.28, p = 0.03), and a trend for more relative activity during rest (β = −0.25, p = 0.07) in this cluster. Conclusions Youth with greater familial densities of AUD may be less successful at modulating activity of the default network, potentially indicating a greater propensity for task-independent thought or reduced inhibition of task-irrelevant processing. Failure to moderate activation of the default network may have implications for cognitive efficiency and goal directed behavior in youth with dense FH. Further, aberrant activation in cingulate regions may be linked to genetic variation in GABA receptor units, suggesting a useful endophenotype for risk associated with alcohol dependence. PMID:18540914

  11. The psychological impact of mammographic screening on women with a family history of breast cancer--a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Watson, Eila K; Henderson, Bethan J; Brett, Joanne; Bankhead, Clare; Austoker, Joan

    2005-11-01

    This systematic review aims to assess the psychological impact of mammographic screening on women with a family history of breast cancer. Women with a family history, and hence increased risk, of breast cancer are known to experience higher levels of anxiety about cancer. They are also often offered screening from an earlier age. The psychological consequences of screening are therefore of particular importance for this group of women. A comprehensive search of 4 electronic databases was conducted from 1982 to 2003, combining sets of terms relating to (1) breast screening or mammography (breast screen*; mammogra*), (2) psychological impact (adverse effects; anxi*; distress; nervous; psych*, psychological consequences; stress; worry) and (3) family history. Reference lists from relevant papers were examined for additional papers. The review identified seven papers from four countries. Overall, the findings indicate that, similar to women in the general population, most women with a family history do not appear to experience high levels of anxiety associated with mammographic screening. Although women who are recalled for further tests do experience increased anxiety the levels appear to be no greater than for women without a family history. We conclude that further research on this topic is required--this should include studies designed specifically to consider both the negative and positive impact of mammographic screening on women with a family history, using validated measures of anxiety and worry in combination with qualitative research.

  12. The Inextricable Link between Age and Criminal History in Sentencing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bushway, Shawn D.; Piehl, Anne Morrison

    2007-01-01

    In sentencing research, significant negative coefficients on age research have been interpreted as evidence that actors in the criminal justice system discriminate against younger people. This interpretation is incomplete. Criminal sentencing laws generally specify punishment in terms of the number of past events in a defendant's criminal history.…

  13. Inpatient detection of cardiac-inherited disease: the impact of improving family history taking

    PubMed Central

    Waddell-Smith, Kathryn E; Donoghue, Tom; Oates, Stephanie; Graham, Amanda; Crawford, Jackie; Stiles, Martin K; Aitken, Andrew; Skinner, Jonathan R

    2016-01-01

    Objectives ‘Idiopathic’ cardiac conditions such as dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) and resuscitated sudden cardiac death (RSCD) may be familial. We suspected that inpatient cardiology services fail to recognise this. Our objective was to compare diagnostic value of family histories recorded by inpatient cardiology teams with a multigenerational family tree obtained by specially trained allied professionals. Methods 2 experienced cardiology nurses working in 2 tertiary adult cardiac units were trained in cardiac-inherited diseases and family history (FHx) taking, and established as regional coordinators for a National Cardiac Inherited Disease Registry. Over 6 months they sought ‘idiopathic’ cardiology inpatients with conditions with a possible familial basis, reviewed the FHx in the clinical records and pursued a minimum 3-generation family tree for syncope, young sudden death and cardiac disease (full FHx). Results 37 patients (22 males) were selected: mean age 51 years (range 15–79). Admission presentations included (idiopathic) RSCD (14), dyspnoea or heart failure (11), ventricular tachycardia (2), other (10). 3 patients had already volunteered their familial diagnosis to the admitting team. FHx was incompletely elicited in 17 (46%) and absent in 20 (54%). 29 patients (78%) provided a full FHx to the coordinator; 12 of which (41%) were strongly consistent with a diagnosis of a cardiac-inherited disease (DCM 7, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy 3, long QT 1, left ventricular non-compaction 1). Overall, a familial diagnostic rate rose from 3/37(8%) to 12/37 (32%). Conclusions Adult cardiology inpatient teams are poor at recording FHx and need to be reminded of its powerful diagnostic value. PMID:26925241

  14. History, Pathogenesis, and Management of Familial Gastric Cancer: Original Study of John XXIII's Family

    PubMed Central

    Corso, Giovanni; Roncalli, Fabrizio; Marrelli, Daniele; Carneiro, Fátima; Roviello, Franco

    2013-01-01

    Background. Hereditary diffuse gastric cancer is associated with the E-cadherin germline mutations, but genetic determinants have not been identified for familial intestinal gastric carcinoma. The guidelines for hereditary diffuse gastric cancer are clearly established; however, there are no defined recommendations for the management of familial intestinal gastric carcinoma. Methods. In this study we describe Pope John XXIII's pedigree that harboured gastric cancer as well as six other family members. Family history was analysed according to the International Gastric Cancer Linkage Consortium criteria, and gastric tumours were classified in accord with the last Japanese guidelines. Results. Seven out of 109 members in this pedigree harboured gastric cancer, affecting two consecutive generations. John XXIII's clinical tumour (cTN) was classified as cT4bN3a (IV stage). In two other cases, gastric carcinomas were classified as intestinal histotype and staged as pT1bN0 and pT2N2, respectively. Conclusions. Pope John XXIII's family presents a strong aggregation for gastric cancer affecting almost seven members; it spreads through two consecutive generations. In absence of defined genetic causes and considering the increased risk of gastric cancer's development in these families, as well as the high mortality rates and advanced stages, we propose an intensive surveillance protocol for asymptomatic members. PMID:23484115

  15. Machine learning amplifies the effect of parental family history of Alzheimer's disease on list learning strategy.

    PubMed

    Chang, Timothy S; Coen, Michael H; La Rue, Asenath; Jonaitis, Erin; Koscik, Rebecca L; Hermann, Bruce; Sager, Mark A

    2012-05-01

    Identification of preclinical Alzheimer's disease (AD) is an essential first step in developing interventions to prevent or delay disease onset. In this study, we examine the hypothesis that deeper analyses of traditional cognitive tests may be useful in identifying subtle but potentially important learning and memory differences in asymptomatic populations that differ in risk for developing Alzheimer's disease. Subjects included 879 asymptomatic higher-risk persons (middle-aged children of parents with AD) and 355 asymptotic lower-risk persons (middle-aged children of parents without AD). All were administered the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test at baseline. Using machine learning approaches, we constructed a new measure that exploited finer differences in memory strategy than previous work focused on serial position and subjective organization. The new measure, based on stochastic gradient descent, provides a greater degree of statistical separation (p = 1.44 × 10-5) than previously observed for asymptomatic family history and non-family history groups, while controlling for apolipoprotein epsilon 4, age, gender, and education level. The results of our machine learning approach support analyzing memory strategy in detail to probe potential disease onset. Such distinct differences may be exploited in asymptomatic middle-aged persons as a potential risk factor for AD.

  16. A Young Patient with a Family History of Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The evaluation of causes of hypertension in young adults with a family history of hypertension needs to be methodical to identify potentially treatable causes. Renal- and renovascular imaging and measurement of plasma aldosterone and plasma renin activity are at the core of this evaluation in most patients. Pertinent aspects of hypertension in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease are discussed with a focus on the role of the endothelium in mediating early hypertension and a review of treatment strategies. Finally, the possibility that autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease and primary aldosteronism are connected beyond coincidence is explored; evidence to support it is scant, although there is a likely role for aldosterone excess and the resultant hypokalemia in promoting cyst growth. PMID:25092599

  17. Does Family History Of Prostate Cancer Affect Outcomes Following Radiotherapy?

    PubMed Central

    Bagshaw, Hilary; Ruth, Karen; Horwitz, Eric M.; Chen, David Y.T.; Buyyounouski, Mark K.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To examine family history (FH) as a prognostic factor following radiotherapy (RT). Materials and Methods Between 1989 and 2007, 1,711 men with clinically localized prostate cancer and complete family history who had received RT (median RT dose = 74 Gy) without androgen deprivation therapy were analyzed. FH was defined as any prostate cancer in a first degree relative. For the biochemical failure (BF) outcome, this sample size has 85% power to detect a hazard ratio of 1.56 for positive versus negative FH. Results With a median follow-up of 71 months, there was no significant difference in the distribution of Gleason score (GS) or prostate specific antigen (PSA) based on FH. A positive FH was not an independent predictor of BF, distant metastasis (DM), prostate cancer specific mortality (PCSM), or overall mortality (OM) in Cox proportional multivariable analysis. On further analysis in a Cox proportional multivariable analysis, men with two or more first degree relatives with prostate cancer had a significantly higher likelihood of BF and DM than those with no FH, although there was no difference in PCSM or OM. Men with a positive FH (23%) were more likely to be younger, have a lower PSA, and non-palpable disease. There was no interaction between a positive FH and neither race nor treatment era (pre-PSA vs. PSA era). Conclusions A positive FH is not a prognostic factor following RT and should not alter standard treatment recommendations. Patients with two or more first degree relatives with prostate cancer had a higher likelihood of BF and DM, but there was no effect on survival. There was no interaction between a positive FH and African American race or treatment era. A positive FH was however, associated with more favorable PSA values and T-stage that may be the result of earlier screening. PMID:24560758

  18. Liminality and low-income aging families by choice: meanings of family and support.

    PubMed

    McDaniel, Susan; Gazso, Amber

    2014-12-01

    Through the lens of individualization, aging families demonstrate changes both in family composition and in meanings of family and support. So, also, do low-income families that - in order to survive - choose flexible, sometimes novel, social-support relations, including kin and non-kin: these are aging families by choice. Applying the concept of liminality (transitional states of being) created through individualization, we explored the experiences of close relations in low-income families consisting of aging kin and non-kin members. Qualitative interviews with respondents representing two or three generations of aging families of choice illustrated how these families perceive the meanings of family and social support. We find that reciprocity is less vital to relationships of older with younger members in familial networks than may be expected. Liminality contours meanings and exchanges in low-income aging families of choice such that no matter how tenuous relations may be, they provide a sense of belonging and meaning. PMID:25298078

  19. Tooth agenesis association with self-reported family history of cancer.

    PubMed

    Küchler, E C; Lips, A; Tannure, P N; Ho, B; Costa, M C; Granjeiro, J M; Vieira, A R

    2013-02-01

    It has been proposed that tooth agenesis and cancer development share common molecular pathways. We performed a cross-sectional study to investigate the epidemiological and molecular association between tooth agenesis and self-reported family history of cancer. Eighty-two individuals with tooth agenesis and 328 individuals with no birth defect were recruited from the same institution. Tooth agenesis was assessed in permanent teeth and was defined based on the age of the participants and when initial tooth formation should be radiographically visible. We also investigated the role of genes involved in dental development that have been implicated in tumorigenesis, and 14 markers in AXIN2, FGF3, FGF10, and FGFR2 were genotyped. Individuals with tooth agenesis had an increased risk of having a family history of cancer (p = 0.00006; OR = 2.7; 95% C.I., 1.6-4.4). There were associations between AXIN2, FGF3, FGF10, and FGFR2 with tooth agenesis [i.e., individuals who carried the polymorphic allele of FGFR2 (rs1219648) presented higher risk for having premolar agenesis (p = 0.02; OR = 1.8; 95% C.I., 1.1-3.0)]. In conclusion, tooth agenesis was associated with positive self-reported family history of cancer and with variants in AXIN2, FGF3, FGF10, and FGFR2. Prospective studies are needed to confirm if tooth agenesis can be used as a risk marker for cancer.

  20. Family Extrusion of the Aged Patient: Family Homeostasis and Sexual Conflict

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Michael B.; And Others

    1975-01-01

    Case studies demonstrate that when chronic sexual conflict constitutes a factor in family homeostasis, nursing home placement of the aged ill is a likely event when either there is a shift in family dynamics due to death or illness of a key member or the aged becomes overtly psychiatrically disabled. (Author)

  1. Acculturation, Behavioral Factors, and Family History of Breast Cancer among Mexican and Mexican-American Women

    PubMed Central

    Nodora, Jesse N.; Cooper, Renee; Talavera, Gregory A.; Gallo, Linda; Montenegro, María Mercedes Meza; Komenaka, Ian; Natarajan, Loki; Millán, Luis Enrique Gutierrez; Daneri-Navarro, Adrian; Bondy, Melissa; Brewster, Abenaa; Thompson, Patricia; Martinez, María Elena

    2016-01-01

    Background Incidence rates for breast cancer are higher among Mexican-American (MA) women in the United States than women living in Mexico. Studies have shown higher prevalence of breast cancer risk factors in more acculturated than less acculturated Hispanic/Latinas in the United States. We compared the prevalence of behavioral risk factors and family history of breast cancer by level of acculturation and country of residence in women of Mexican descent. Methods Data were collected from 1,201 newly diagnosed breast cancer patients living in Mexico (n = 581) and MAs in the United States (n = 620). MA participants were categorized into three acculturation groups (Spanish dominant, bilingual, and English dominant); women living in Mexico were used as the referent group. The prevalence of behavioral risk factors and family history of breast cancer were assessed according to acculturation level, adjusting for age at diagnosis and education. Results In the adjusted models, bilingual and English-dominant MAs were significantly more likely to have a body mass index of 30 kg/m2 or greater, consume more than one alcoholic beverage a week, and report having a family history of breast cancer than women living in Mexico. All three U.S. acculturation groups were significantly more likely to have lower total energy expenditure (≤533 kcal/d) than women in Mexico. English-dominant women were significantly less likely to ever smoke cigarettes than the Mexican group. Conclusions Our findings add to the limited scientific literature on the relationships among acculturation, health behavior, and family history of breast cancer in Mexican and MA women. PMID:26189937

  2. Germline BAP1 Mutational Landscape of Asbestos-Exposed Malignant Mesothelioma Patients with Family History of Cancer.

    PubMed

    Ohar, Jill A; Cheung, Mitchell; Talarchek, Jacqueline; Howard, Suzanne E; Howard, Timothy D; Hesdorffer, Mary; Peng, Hongzhuang; Rauscher, Frank J; Testa, Joseph R

    2016-01-15

    Heritable mutations in the BAP1 tumor suppressor gene predispose individuals to mesothelioma and other cancers. However, a large-scale assessment of germline BAP1 mutation incidence and associated clinical features in mesothelioma patients with a family history of cancer has not been reported. Therefore, we examined the germline BAP1 mutation status of 150 mesothelioma patients with a family history of cancer, 50 asbestos-exposed control individuals with a family history of cancers other than mesothelioma, and 153 asbestos-exposed individuals without familial cancer. No BAP1 alterations were found in control cohorts, but were identified in nine of 150 mesothelioma cases (6%) with a family history of cancer. Alterations among these cases were characterized by both missense and frameshift mutations, and enzymatic activity of BAP1 missense mutants was decreased compared with wild-type BAP1. Furthermore, BAP1 mutation carriers developed mesothelioma at an earlier age that was more often peritoneal than pleural (five of nine) and exhibited improved long-term survival compared to mesothelioma patients without BAP1 mutations. Moreover, many tumors harboring BAP1 germline mutations were associated with BAP1 syndrome, including mesothelioma and ocular/cutaneous melanomas, as well as renal, breast, lung, gastric, and basal cell carcinomas. Collectively, these findings suggest that mesothelioma patients presenting with a family history of cancer should be considered for BAP1 genetic testing to identify those individuals who might benefit from further screening and routine monitoring for the purpose of early detection and intervention. PMID:26719535

  3. Ideal ages for family formation among immigrants in Europe.

    PubMed

    Holland, Jennifer A; de Valk, Helga A G

    2013-12-01

    This paper investigates ideal ages for marriage and parenthood among immigrants from over 160 countries origins living in 25 European countries. Ideals regarding the timing of family formation are indicative of how individuals perceive the family life course and provide insight into family-life aspirations and the meaning attached to these transitions. Using data from the European Social Survey (Round 3, 2006; N=6330) and a cross-classified multilevel modeling approach, we investigate associations between the influences of the dominant family formation timing patterns in countries of origin and settlement, individual-level characteristics, and ideal ages. We make innovative use of a standard demographic measure, the singulate mean age of marriage, to measure family formation patterns. Results suggest that residential context influences are associated with the timing ideals of all migrants, but origin influences seem to be associated with the ideals of only the most recent migrants.

  4. Increased Pre- and Early-Adolescent Stress in Youth with a Family History of Substance Use Disorder and Early Substance Use Initiation.

    PubMed

    Charles, Nora E; Mathias, Charles W; Acheson, Ashley; Bray, Bethany C; Ryan, Stacy R; Lake, Sarah L; Liang, Yuanyuan; Dougherty, Donald M

    2015-10-01

    Individuals with a family history of substance use disorders (Family History Positive) are more likely to have early-onset substance use (i.e., prior to age 15), which may contribute to their higher rates of substance use disorders. One factor that may differentiate Family History Positive youth who engage in early-onset substance use from other Family History Positive youth is exposure to stressors. The aim of this study was to quantify how exposure to stressors from age 11-15 varies as a function of family history of substance use disorders and early-onset substance use. Self-reported stressors were prospectively compared in a sample of predominately (78.9%) Hispanic youth that included 68 Family History Positive youth (50% female) who initiated substance use by age 15 and demographically matched non-users with (n = 136; 52.9% female) and without (n = 75; 54.7% female) family histories of substance use disorders. Stressors were assessed at 6-month intervals for up to 4 years. Both the severity of stressors and the degree to which stressors were caused by an individual's own behavior were evaluated. All three groups differed from one another in overall exposure to stressors and rates of increase in stressors over time, with Family History Positive youth who engaged in early-onset substance use reporting the greatest exposure to stressors. Group differences were more pronounced for stressors caused by the participants' behavior. Family History Positive users had higher cumulative severity of stressors of this type, both overall and across time. These results indicate greater exposure to stressors among Family History Positive youth with early-onset substance use, and suggest that higher rates of behavior-dependent stressors may be particularly related to early-onset use.

  5. Iranian Adolescents' Intended Age of Marriage and Desired Family Size.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tashakkori, Abbas; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Examined questionnaire data pertaining to intended age of marriage and desired family size from Iranian 12th graders. Proximal factors (individual level variables such as self-concept and school success) were stronger predictors on both dependent measures than were distal factors (parental education, sibling size, and family modernity). Proximal…

  6. Differences in DNA methylation by extent of breast cancer family history in unaffected women.

    PubMed

    Delgado-Cruzata, Lissette; Wu, Hui-Chen; Liao, Yuyan; Santella, Regina M; Terry, Mary Beth

    2014-02-01

    Breast cancer clusters within families but genetic factors identified to date explain only a portion of this clustering. Lower global DNA methylation in white blood cells (WBC) has been associated with increased breast cancer risk. We examined whether WBC DNA methylation varies by extent of breast cancer family history in unaffected women from high-risk breast cancer families. We evaluated DNA methylation levels in LINE-1, Alu and Sat2 in 333 cancer-free female family members of the New York site of the Breast Cancer Family Registry, the minority of which were known BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation carriers. We used generalized estimated equation models to test for differences in DNA methylation levels by extent of their breast cancer family history after adjusting for age. All unaffected women had at least one sister affected with breast cancer. LINE-1 and Sat2 DNA methylation levels were lower in individuals with 3 or more (3+) first-degree relatives with breast cancer relative to women with only one first-degree relative. For LINE-1, Alu, and Sat2, having 3+ affected first-degree relatives was associated with a decrease of 23.4% (95%CI = -46.8%, 0.1%), 17.9% (95%CI = -39.5%, 3.7%) and 11.4% (95% CI = -20.3%, -2.5%), respectively, relative to individuals with only one affected first-degree relative, but the results were only statistically significant for Sat2. Individuals having an affected mother had 17.9% lower LINE-1 DNA methylation levels (95% CI = -28.8%, -7.1%) when compared with those not having an affected mother. No associations were observed for Alu or Sat2 by maternal breast cancer status. If replicated, these results indicate that lower global WBC DNA methylation levels in families with extensive cancer histories may be one explanation for the clustering of cancers in these families. Family clustering of disease may reflect epigenetic as well as genetic and shared environmental factors.

  7. Families with School-Age Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christensen, Kathleen; Schneider, Barbara; Butler, Donnell

    2011-01-01

    Most working parents face a common dilemma--how to care for their children when they are not in school but the parents are at work. In this article Kathleen Christensen, Barbara Schneider, and Donnell Butler describe the predictable and unpredictable scheduling demands school-age children place on working couples and single working parents. The…

  8. Intergenerational continuity in periodontal health: findings from the Dunedin Family History Study

    PubMed Central

    Shearer, Dara M; Thomson, W. Murray; Caspi, Avshalom; Moffitt, Terrie E; Broadbent, Jonathan M; Poulton, Richie

    2011-01-01

    Objective To determine whether parental periodontal disease history is a risk factor for periodontal disease in adult offspring. Methods Proband periodontal examination (combined attachment loss (CAL) at age 32, and incidence of CAL from ages 26–32) and interview data were collected during the age-32 assessments in the Dunedin Study. Parental data were also collected. The sample was divided into two familial-risk groups for periodontal disease (high- and low-risk) based on parents’ self-reported periodontal disease. Results Periodontal risk analysis involved 625 proband-parent(s) groups. After controlling for confounding factors, the high-familial-risk periodontal group was more likely to have 1+ sites with 4+mm CAL (RR 1.45; 95% CI 1.11–1.88), 2+ sites with 4+mm CAL (RR 1.45; 95% CI 1.03–2.05), 1+ sites with 5+mm CAL (RR 1.60; 95% CI 1.02–2.50) and 1+ sites with 3+mm incident CAL (RR 1.64; 95% CI 1.01–2.66) than the low-familial-risk group. Predictive validity was enhanced when information was available from both parents. Conclusions Parents with poor periodontal health tend to have offspring with poor periodontal health. Family/parental history of oral health is a valid representation of the shared genetic and environmental factors that contribute to an individual’s periodontal status, and may help predict patient prognosis and preventive treatment need. PMID:21281332

  9. Family history of hepatocellulcar carcinoma is not associated with its patients’ prognosis after hepatectomy

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Family history of liver cancer is a major risk factor for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). In this study, we investigated the prognosis of patients with HCC with or without family history. Methods Data for 1,313 patients who underwent hepatectomy as initial treatment for HCC between 2000 and 2008 at a tertiary cancer center hospital were retrieved from a prospective database. A positive family history was defined as a self-reported history of HCC in first-degree relatives. Clinicopathologic characteristics were compared by family history. Kaplan-Meier method and Cox proportional hazards regressions were applied for overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS). Results Of 1,313 patients, 169 patients (12.9%) had first-degree relatives with a history of HCC. There were no significant differences between patients with or without family history in basic clinicopathologic characteristics. In either whole group or each stage according to the TNM staging system, first-degree family history was not associated with survival in all patients, hepatitis B virus-positive patients, as well as male patients. Multivariate analysis revealed that first-degree family history was not a prognostic factor, either for OS or DFS. Conclusion A first-degree family history of HCC is not associated with its patients’ prognosis after hepatectomy. PMID:24134117

  10. The effect of chronic disease family history on healthcare provider practice and patient behavior among Oregonians.

    PubMed

    Zlot, A I; Cox, S L; Silvey, K; Leman, R

    2012-01-01

    Family history is an independent risk factor for many chronic conditions. Therefore, efforts to prevent these diseases among asymptomatic people at high familial risk are justified to reduce the health burden of these chronic conditions. We analyzed 2006-2009 Oregon Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System data to examine associations between family history of diabetes, cardiovascular disease (CVD), colorectal cancer (CRC), breast cancer (BC), and: (1) patient-reported clinician recommendations, (2) adoption of preventive and screening behaviors, and (3) chronic disease risk factors among respondents without a personal history of the condition. A positive family history was associated with a higher likelihood of reported discussion by clinicians of CRC and BC screening and a greater likelihood of respondents having cholesterol and CRC screening. The combination of family history and clinician recommendations significantly increased the odds of CRC and BC screening compared to family history alone. A positive family history was also associated with respondents reporting lifestyle changes to prevent diabetes, CVD, and CRC, but not BC. Awareness of family history prompts clinicians to recommend screening and may motivate patients to be screened. Understanding positive family history may also motivate patients to adopt healthy lifestyles.

  11. Familial history of cancer and childhood acute leukemia: a French population-based case-control study

    PubMed Central

    Ripert, Mahaut; Menegaux, Florence; Perel, Yves; Méchinaud, Françoise; Plouvier, Emmanuel; Gandemer, Virginie; Lutz, Patrick; Vannier, Jean-Pierre; Lamagnére, Jean-Pierre; Margueritte, Geneviève; Boutard, Patrick; Robert, Alain; Armari-Alla, Corinne; Munzer, Martine; Millot, Frédéric; de Lumley, Lionel; Berthou, Christian; Rialland, Xavier; Pautard, Brigitte; Clavel, Jacqueline

    2007-01-01

    Objective A case-control study was conducted to investigate the role of a familial history of cancer in the etiology of childhood acute leukemia (AL). Methods The history of cancer in the relatives of 472 cases was compared to that of 567 population-based controls. Recruitment was frequency matched on age, gender and region. The familial history of cancer in each child’s relatives was reported by the mother in response to a standardized self-administered questionnaire. Results A familial history of solid tumor in first- or second-degree relatives was associated with an increased risk of ALL (OR=1.6 [1.2–2.1]), while a familial history of hematopoietic malignancies in first- or second-degree relatives was associated with an increased risk of AML (OR=4.3 [1.4–13]). The ORs for the histories of cancer increased with the number of relatives with cancer (OR=1.5 [1.1–2.0] for one relative and OR=2.3 [1.3–3.8] for two relatives or more; ptrend<0.0001). Significant associations between childhood AL and familial history of genital cancers and brain tumor were also observed (OR=2.7 [1.2–5.8], OR=10.7 [1.3–86], respectively). Conclusion This study supports the hypothesis that a familial history of cancer may play a role in the etiology of childhood acute leukemia. It also evidences some specific associations that require further investigation. PMID:17923819

  12. No differences in ventral striatum responsivity between adolescents with a positive family history of alcoholism and controls.

    PubMed

    Müller, Kathrin U; Gan, Gabriela; Banaschewski, Tobias; Barker, Gareth J; Bokde, Arun L W; Büchel, Christian; Conrod, Patricia; Fauth-Bühler, Mira; Flor, Herta; Gallinat, Jürgen; Garavan, Hugh; Gowland, Penny; Heinz, Andreas; Ittermann, Bernd; Lawrence, Claire; Loth, Eva; Mann, Karl; Martinot, Jean-Luc; Nees, Frauke; Paus, Tomáš; Pausova, Zdenka; Rietschel, Marcella; Ströhle, Andreas; Struve, Maren; Schumann, Gunter; Smolka, Michael N

    2015-05-01

    Individuals with alcohol-dependent parents show an elevated risk of developing alcohol-related problems themselves. Modulations of the mesolimbic reward circuit have been postulated as a pre-existing marker of alcoholism. We tested whether a positive family history of alcoholism is correlated with ventral striatum functionality during a reward task. All participants performed a modified version of the monetary incentive delay task while their brain responses were measured with functional magnetic resonance imaging. We compared 206 healthy adolescents (aged 13-15) who had any first- or second-degree relative with alcoholism to 206 matched controls with no biological relative with alcoholism. Reward anticipation as well as feedback of win recruited the ventral striatum in all participants, but adolescents with a positive family history of alcoholism did not differ from their matched peers. Also we did not find any correlation between family history density and reward anticipation or feedback of win. This finding of no differences did not change when we analyzed a subsample of 77 adolescents with at least one parent with alcohol use disorder and their matched controls. Because this result is in line with another study reporting no differences between children with alcohol-dependent parents and controls at young age, but contrasts with studies of older individuals, one might conclude that at younger age the effect of family history has not yet exerted its influence on the still developing mesolimbic reward circuit.

  13. A Qualitative Study of Early Family Histories and Transitions of Homeless Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tyler, Kimberly A.

    2006-01-01

    Using intensive qualitative interviews with 40 homeless youth, this study examined their early family histories for abuse, neglect, and other family problems and the number and types of transitions that youth experienced. Multiple forms of child maltreatment, family alcoholism, drug use, and criminal activity characterized early family histories…

  14. Work, Health, and Family at Older Ages in Japan.

    PubMed

    Raymo, James M; Liang, Jersey; Kobayashi, Erika; Sugihara, Yoko; Fukaya, Taro

    2009-03-01

    In this paper, we investigate ways in which the relationship between health and labor force exit at older ages is moderated by family characteristics. Using two waves of data from a national sample of older Japanese men collected 1999 and 2002, we estimate logistic regression models for labor force exit beyond age 63 as a function of health change, family characteristics, and their interactions. We confirm that poor health is strongly associated with labor force exit and find evidence that moderating influences of family context depend upon the level of health. However, results are only partially consistent with hypotheses that the relationship between health and the likelihood of labor force exit should be stronger for (a) those with good health and family incentives to exit the labor force and (b) those with poor health and family incentives to remain in the labor force.

  15. The prognostic value of family history among patients with urinary bladder cancer.

    PubMed

    Egbers, Lieke; Grotenhuis, Anne J; Aben, Katja K; Alfred Witjes, J; Kiemeney, Lambertus A; Vermeulen, Sita H

    2015-03-01

    A history of urinary bladder cancer (UBC) in first-degree relatives increases UBC risk by twofold. The influence of positive family history on UBC prognosis is unknown. Here, we investigated association of first-degree UBC family history with clinicopathological characteristics and prognosis of UBC patients. Detailed clinical data of 1,465 non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) and 250 muscle-invasive or metastatic bladder cancer (MIBC) patients, diagnosed from 1995 to 2010, were collected through medical file review. Competing risk analyses were used to compare recurrence-free survival (RFS) and progression-free survival (PFS) of NMIBC patients according to self-reported UBC family history. Overall survival in MIBC patients was estimated using Kaplan-Meier analysis. The added value of family history in prediction of NMIBC prognosis was quantified with Harrell's concordance-index. Hundred (6.8%) NMIBC and 14 (5.6%) MIBC patients reported UBC in first-degree relatives. Positive family history was statistically significantly associated with smaller tumor size and non-significantly with more favorable distribution of other tumor characteristics. In univariable analyses, positive family history correlated with longer RFS (p = 0.11) and PFS (p = 0.04). Hazard ratios for positive vs. negative family history after adjustment for clinicopathological characteristics were 0.75 (95% CI = 0.53-1.07) and 0.45 (95% CI = 0.18-1.12) for RFS and PFS, respectively. Five familial and 48 sporadic MIBC patients (Kaplan-Meier 10-year risk: 41% and 25%) died within 10 years. Family history did not improve the c-index of prediction models. This study shows that a first-degree family history of UBC is not clearly associated with NMIBC prognosis. Family history does not aid in prediction of NMIBC recurrence or progression.

  16. Setting up a breast cancer family history clinic.

    PubMed Central

    Saunders, C.; Vijay, V.; Stein, J.; Baum, M.

    1999-01-01

    Breast cancer causes around 21,000 deaths per year in the UK, the vast majority of these occurring in women aged over 50 years with no genetic predisposition to the disease. Screening and symptomatic services for these women, although by no means perfect or homogeneous, have gradually improved over the last 10 years and, perhaps as a result of this, together with increased use of adjuvant systemic therapy, mortality in this group has fallen. Despite this reassuring state of affairs, media interest in the disease and patients' perception of their risk of developing breast cancer have risen. Part of this is undoubtedly due to the new scientific developments in cancer genetics and, in particular, identification of the BRCA1 gene in 1994 and BRCA2 gene shortly afterwards. These genes are dominantly inherited with up to 80% penetrance; thus, women (and occasionally men) inherit these genes and have a high lifetime risk of developing breast cancer, usually at a younger age than average and possibly of a more aggressive phenotype. Unaffected family members can now be screened and, if they prove carriers, screening for early detection and prevention strategies such as bilateral prophylactic mastectomy can be offered. Because of the high risk of ovarian cancer in BRCA1 carriers, screening or prophylactic ovariectomy may also be considered. PMID:10655892

  17. Substantial Family History of Prostate Cancer in Black Men Recruited for Prostate Cancer Screening

    PubMed Central

    Mastalski, Kathleen; Coups, Elliot J.; Ruth, Karen; Raysor, Susan; Giri, Veda N.

    2008-01-01

    Background Black men are at increased risk for prostate cancer (PCA), particularly with a family history (FH) of the disease. Previous reports have raised concern for suboptimal screening of Black men with a FH of PCA. We report on the extent of FH of PCA from a prospective, longitudinal PCA screening program for high-risk men. Methods Black men ages 35-69 are eligible for PCA screening through the Prostate Cancer Risk Assessment Program (PRAP) regardless of FH. Rates of self-reported FH of PCA, breast, and colon cancer at baseline were compared with an age-matched sample of Black men from the 2005 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) using standard statistical methods. Results As of January 2007, 332 Black men with pedigree information were enrolled in PRAP and FH of PCA was compared to 838 Black men from the 2005 NHIS. Black men in PRAP reported significantly more first-degree relatives with PCA compared to Black men in the 2005 NHIS (34.3%, 95% CI 29.2-39.7 vs. 5.7%, 95% CI 3.9-7.4). Black men in PRAP also had more FH of breast cancer compared to the 2005 NHIS (11.5%, 95% CI 8.2-15.4 vs 6.3%, 95% CI 4.6-8.0). Conclusions FH of PCA appears to be a motivating factor for Black men seeking PCA screening. Targeted recruitment and education among Black families should improve PCA screening rates. Efforts to recruit Black men without a FH of PCA are also needed. Condensed Abstract Black men seeking prostate cancer screening have a substantial burden of family history of prostate cancer. Targeted education and enhancing discussion in Black families should increase prostate cancer screening and adherence. PMID:18816608

  18. Family Histories and Multiple Transitions Among Homeless Young Adults: Pathways to Homelessness

    PubMed Central

    Tyler, Kimberly A.; Schmitz, Rachel M.

    2013-01-01

    This study explored the early family histories of homeless young adults, the types and number of transitions they experienced, and their pathways to the street. Intensive qualitative interviews were audio taped and transcribed with 40 homeless young adults 19 to 21 years of age in the Midwest. Findings show that family backgrounds were generally characterized by substance use, child maltreatment, and witnessing violence, all of which provide social context for understanding why so many of these young people opted to leave home in search of an alternative living situation. The current findings also reveal that while some young adults ran away from home as adolescents, others were “pushed out” (i.e., told to leave), or removed by state agencies. Current study findings illustrate that young adults’ trajectories are marked by multiple living arrangements such as home, foster care, detention facility, and drug rehabilitation. Overall, study results show that young adults’ family histories place them on trajectories for early independence marked by multiple transitions and numerous living situations, culminating in a lack of a permanent residence to call home. PMID:24151346

  19. Childhood stress exposure among preadolescents with and without family histories of substance use disorders.

    PubMed

    Charles, Nora E; Ryan, Stacy R; Acheson, Ashley; Mathias, Charles W; Liang, Yuanyuan; Dougherty, Donald M

    2015-03-01

    Having a family history of substance use disorders (FH+) increases risk for developing a substance use disorder. This risk may be at least partially mediated by increased exposure to childhood stressors among FH+ individuals. However, measures typically used to assess exposure to stressors are narrow in scope and vary across studies. The nature of stressors that disproportionately affect FH+ children and how these stressors relate to later substance use in this population are not well understood. The purpose of this study was to assess exposure to a broad range of stressors among FH+ and FH- children to better characterize how exposure to childhood stressors relates to increased risk for substance misuse among FH+ individuals. A total of 386 children (305 FH+, 81 FH-; ages 10-12) were assessed using the Stressful Life Events Schedule before the onset of regular substance use. Both the number and severity of stressors were compared. Preliminary follow-up analyses were done for 53 adolescents who subsequently reported initiation of substance use. FH+ children reported more frequent and severe stressors than did FH- children, specifically in the areas of housing, family, school, crime, peers, and finances. Additionally, risk for substance use initiation during early adolescence was influenced directly by having a family history of substance use disorders and also indirectly through increased exposure to stressors among FH+ individuals. In conclusion, FH+ children experience greater stress across multiple domains, which contributes to their risk for substance misuse and related problems during adolescence and young adulthood. (PsycINFO Database Record

  20. Family history characteristics, tumor microsatellite instability and germline MSH2 and MLH1 mutations in hereditary colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Bapat, B V; Madlensky, L; Temple, L K; Hiruki, T; Redston, M; Baron, D L; Xia, L; Marcus, V A; Soravia, C; Mitri, A; Shen, W; Gryfe, R; Berk, T; Chodirker, B N; Cohen, Z; Gallinger, S

    1999-02-01

    Recent characterization of the molecular genetic basis of hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer provides an important opportunity for identification of individuals and their families with germline mutations in mismatch repair genes. Cancer family history criteria that accurately define hereditary colorectal cancer are necessary for cost-effective testing for germline mutations in mismatch repair genes. The present report describes the results of analysis of 33 colorectal cancer cases/families that satisfy our modified family history criteria (Mount Sinai criteria) for colorectal cancer. Fourteen of these families met the more stringent Amsterdam criteria. Germline MSH2 and MLH1 mutations were identified by the reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and the protein truncation test, and confirmed by sequencing. Microsatellite instability analysis was performed on available tumors from affected patients. MSH2 or MLH1 mutations were detected in 8 of 14 Amsterdam criteria families and in 5 of the remaining 19 cases/families that only satisfied the Mount Sinai criteria. Three of the latter families had features of the Muir-Torre syndrome. A high level of microsatellite instability (MSI-H) was detected in almost all (16/18) colorectal cancers from individuals with MSH2 and MLH1 mutations, and infrequently (1/21) in colorectal cancer specimens from cases without detectable mutations. Families with germline MSH2 and MLH1 mutations tended to have individuals affected at younger ages and with multiple tumors. The Amsterdam criteria are useful, but not sufficient, for detecting hereditary colorectal cancer families with germline MSH2 and MLH1 mutations, since a proportion of cases and families with mutations in mismatch repair genes will be missed. Further development of cancer family history criteria are needed, using unbiased prospectively collected cases, to define more accurately those who will benefit from MSH2 and MLH1 mutation analysis. PMID:10190329

  1. Family history of cancer as a risk factor for second malignancies after Hodgkin's lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Andersson, A; Enblad, G; Tavelin, B; Björkholm, M; Linderoth, J; Lagerlöf, I; Merup, M; Sender, M; Malmer, B

    2008-01-01

    This study estimated the risk of second primary malignancies after Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL) in relation to family history of cancer, age at diagnosis and latency, among 6946 patients treated for HL in Sweden in 1965–1995 identified through the Swedish Cancer Register (SCR). First-degree relatives (FDRs) to the HL patients and their malignancies were then ascertained together with their malignancies through the Multi-Generation Registry and SCR. The HL patient cohort was stratified on the number of FDRs with cancer, and standardised incidence ratios (SIRs) of developing SM were analysed. In the HL cohort, 781 SM were observed 1 year or longer after HL diagnosis. The risk for developing SM increased with the number of FDRs with cancer, SIRs being 2.26, 3.01, and 3.45 with 0, 1, or ⩾2 FDRs with cancer, respectively. Hodgkin's lymphoma long-term survivors treated at a young age with a family history of cancer carry an increased risk for developing SM and may represent a subgroup where standardised screening for the most common cancer sites could be offered in a stringent surveillance programme. PMID:18268493

  2. Effect of parental family history of Alzheimer’s disease on serial position profiles

    PubMed Central

    La Rue, Asenath; Hermann, Bruce; Jones, Jana E.; Johnson, Sterling; Asthana, Sanjay; Sager, Mark A.

    2009-01-01

    Background An exaggerated recency effect (i.e., disproportionate recall of last-presented items) has been consistently observed in the word list learning of patients with Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Our study sought to determine if there were similar alterations in serial position learning among asymptomatic persons at risk for AD due to parental family history. Methods Subjects included 623 asymptomatic middle-aged children of patients with AD (median = 53 years) and 157 control participants whose parents survived to at least age 70 without AD or other memory disorders. All participants were administered the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test which requires learning and recall of 15 unrelated nouns. Results There was no significant difference in total words recalled between the AD children and control groups. However, compared to controls, AD children showed a significantly greater tendency to recall words from the end (recency) versus beginning (primacy) of the list. Serial position effects were unrelated to apolipoprotein allele epsilon 4 (APOE ε4) or depressive symptoms. Conclusions Asymptomatic persons at risk for AD by virtue of family history do not show a difference in total words recalled compared to controls, but exhibit a distinctly different serial position curve suggesting greater reliance on immediate as opposed to episodic memory. This is the same serial position pattern observed in mild AD, seen here in reduced severity. Longitudinal follow-up is planned to determine whether changes in serial position patterns are a meaningful marker for preclinical detection of AD. PMID:18631980

  3. Frequency of family history of acute myocardial infarction in patients with acute myocardial infarction. Argentine FRICAS (Factores de Riesgo Coronario en America del Sur) Investigators.

    PubMed

    Ciruzzi, M; Schargrodsky, H; Rozlosnik, J; Pramparo, P; Delmonte, H; Rudich, V; Piskorz, D; Negri, E; Soifer, S; La Vecchia, C

    1997-07-15

    The relation between family history of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and the risk of AMI was analyzed using data of a case-control study conducted in Argentina between 1992 and 1994. Case patients were 1,060 subjects with AMI admitted to 35 coronary care units, and controls were 1,071 subjects admitted to the same network of hospitals where cases had been identified, for a wide spectrum of acute conditions unrelated to known or likely risk factors for AMI: 31% of cases versus 15% of controls reported > or = 1 first-degree relative with history of AMI. Compared with subjects without family history of AMI, the odds ratio (OR) of AMI, after allowance for age, sex, cholesterolemia, smoking, diabetes, hypertension, body mass index, education, social class, and physical exercise, was 2.18 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.74 to 2.74) for those with family history of AMI. The OR was 2.04 (95% CI 1.60 to 2.60) for subjects with 1 relative, and 3.18 (95% C 1.86 to 5.44) for those reporting > or = 2 relatives with AMI. In women the OR for any family history of AMI was 2.83, and in men 2.01. The association was of similar magnitude if the mother (OR 1.98), the father (OR 2.13), or a sibling (OR 2.48) had had an AMI. The association with family history was stronger at a younger age because the OR for subjects reporting > or = 2 more relatives with a history of AMI was 4.42 for subjects aged < 55 years, and 3.00 for those aged > or = 55 years. The association between AMI and family history of AMI was consistent across separate strata of education, social class, smoking, and serum cholesterol, but was less strong in subjects with history of diabetes and hypertension. When the interaction of known risk factors with family history of AMI was analyzed, hypercholesterolemia, hypertension, and smoking had approximately multiplicative effects on the relative risk. The OR was 4.50 for subjects with family history and cholesterol > or = 240 ml/dl, 4.52 for those with hypertension, and

  4. Using a family history questionnaire to identify adult patients with increased genetic risk for sarcoma

    PubMed Central

    Schiavi, A.; Lavigne, J.; Turcotte, R.; Kasprzak, L.; Dumas, N.; Chong, G.; Freeman, C.; Alameldin, M.; Galiatsatos, P.; Palma, L.; Foulkes, W.D.

    2015-01-01

    Background Sarcomas in adults can be associated with hereditary cancer syndromes characterized by early-onset predisposition to numerous types of cancer. Because of variability in familial presentation and the largely unexplained genetic basis of sarcomas, ascertainment of patients for whom a genetics evaluation is most indicated poses challenges. We assessed the utility of a Sarcoma Clinic Genetic Screening (scgs) questionnaire in facilitating that task. Methods Between 2008 and 2012, 169 patients (median age: 53 years; range: 17–88 years) completed a self-administered scgs questionnaire. A retrospective chart review was completed for all respondents, and descriptive statistics were reported. Probands were divided into two groups depending on whether they did or did not report a family history of Li–Fraumeni syndrome–type cancers. Results A family history of cancer (as far as 3rd-degree relatives) was reported in 113 of 163 sarcoma patients (69%). Eeles Li–Fraumeni–like (lfl) criteria were fulfilled in 46 probands (28%), Chompret lfl in 21 (13%), Birch lfl in 8 (5%), and classic Li–Fraumeni in none. In the 10 probands tested for TP53 mutations, 1 pathogenic mutation was found. Further investigation of selected families led to the discovery of germline mutations in MLH1, MSH2, and APC genes in 3 individuals. Conclusions The scgs questionnaire was useful for ascertaining probands with sarcoma who could benefit from a genetic assessment. The tool allowed us to identify high-risk families fitting the criteria for lfl and, surprisingly, other hereditary cancer syndromes. Similar questionnaires could be used in other cancer-specific clinics to increase awareness of the genetic component of these cancers. PMID:26628864

  5. Ar-Ar ages and thermal histories of enstatite meteorites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogard, Donald D.; Dixon, Eleanor T.; Garrison, Daniel H.

    2010-05-01

    Compared with ordinary chondrites, there is a relative paucity of chronological and other data to define the early thermal histories of enstatite parent bodies. In this study, we report 39Ar-40Ar dating results for five EL chondrites: Khairpur, Pillistfer, Hvittis, Blithfield, and Forrest; five EH chondrites: Parsa, Saint Marks, Indarch, Bethune, and Reckling Peak 80259; three igneous-textured enstatite meteorites that represent impact melts on enstatite chondrite parent bodies: Zaklodzie, Queen Alexandra Range 97348, and Queen Alexandra Range 97289; and three aubrites, Norton County, Bishopville, and Cumberland Falls Several Ar-Ar age spectra show unusual 39Ar recoil effects, possibly the result of some of the K residing in unusual sulfide minerals, such as djerfisherite and rodderite, and other age spectra show 40Ar diffusion loss. Few additional Ar-Ar ages for enstatite meteorites are available in the literature. When all available Ar-Ar data on enstatite meteorites are considered, preferred ages of nine chondrites and one aubrite show a range of 4.50-4.54Ga, whereas five other meteorites show only lower age limits over 4.35-4.46Ga. Ar-Ar ages of several enstatite chondrites are as old or older as the oldest Ar-Ar ages of ordinary chondrites, which suggests that enstatite chondrites may have derived from somewhat smaller parent bodies, or were metamorphosed to lower temperatures compared to other chondrite types. Many enstatite meteorites are brecciated and/or shocked, and some of the younger Ar-Ar ages may record these impact events. Although impact heating of ordinary chondrites within the last 1Ga is relatively common for ordinary chondrites, only Bethune gives any significant evidence for such a young event.

  6. Family History, Self-Perceptions, Attitudes and Cognitive Abilities Are Associated with Early Adolescent Reading Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conlon, Elizabeth G.; Zimmer-Gembeck, Melanie J.; Creed, Peter A.; Tucker, Melinda

    2006-01-01

    This study evaluated a model of reading skills among early adolescents (N=174). Measures of family history, achievement, cognitive processes and self-perceptions of abilities were obtained. Significant relationships were found between family history and children's single-word reading skills, spelling, reading comprehension, orthographic processing…

  7. Suicide Attempts and Family History of Suicide in Three Psychiatric Populations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tremeau, Fabien; Staner, Luc; Duval, Fabrice; Correa, Humberto; Crocq, Marc-Antoine; Darreye, Angelina; Czobor, Pal; Dessoubrais, Cecile; Macher, Jean-Paul

    2005-01-01

    The influence of a family history of suicide on suicide attempt rate and characteristics in depression, schizophrenia, and opioid dependence was examined. One hundred sixty inpatients with unipolar depression, 160 inpatients with schizophrenia, and 160 opioid-dependent patients were interviewed. Overall, a family history of suicide was associated…

  8. Family health history communication networks of older adults: importance of social relationships and disease perceptions.

    PubMed

    Ashida, Sato; Kaphingst, Kimberly A; Goodman, Melody; Schafer, Ellen J

    2013-10-01

    Older individuals play a critical role in disseminating family health history (FHH) information that can facilitate disease prevention among younger family members. This study evaluated the characteristics of older adults and their familial networks associated with two types of communication (have shared and intend to share new FHH information with family members) to inform public health efforts to facilitate FHH dissemination. Information on 970 social network members enumerated by 99 seniors (aged 57 years and older) at 3 senior centers in Memphis, Tennessee, through face-to-face interviews was analyzed. Participants shared FHH information with 27.5% of the network members; 54.7% of children and 24.4% of siblings. Two-level logistic regression models showed that participants had shared FHH with those to whom they provided emotional support (odds ratio [OR] = 1.836) and felt close to (OR = 1.757). Network-members were more likely to have received FHH from participants with a cancer diagnosis (OR = 2.617) and higher familiarity with (OR = 1.380) and importance of sharing FHH with family (OR = 1.474). Participants intended to share new FHH with those who provide tangible support to (OR = 1.804) and were very close to them (OR = 2.112). Members with whom participants intend to share new FHH were more likely to belong to the network of participants with higher perceived severity if family members encountered heart disease (OR = 1.329). Many first-degree relatives were not informed of FHH. Perceptions about FHH and disease risk as well as quality of social relationships may play roles in whether seniors communicate FHH with their families. Future studies may consider influencing these perceptions and relationships.

  9. Increased mortality exposure within the family rather than individual mortality experiences triggers faster life-history strategies in historic human populations.

    PubMed

    Störmer, Charlotte; Lummaa, Virpi

    2014-01-01

    Life History Theory predicts that extrinsic mortality risk is one of the most important factors shaping (human) life histories. Evidence from contemporary populations suggests that individuals confronted with high mortality environments show characteristic traits of fast life-history strategies: they marry and reproduce earlier, have shorter birth intervals and invest less in their offspring. However, little is known of the impact of mortality experiences on the speed of life histories in historical human populations with generally higher mortality risk, and on male life histories in particular. Furthermore, it remains unknown whether individual-level mortality experiences within the family have a greater effect on life-history decisions or family membership explains life-history variation. In a comparative approach using event history analyses, we study the impact of family versus individual-level effects of mortality exposure on two central life-history parameters, ages at first marriage and first birth, in three historical human populations (Germany, Finland, Canada). Mortality experience is measured as the confrontation with sibling deaths within the natal family up to an individual's age of 15. Results show that the speed of life histories is not adjusted according to individual-level mortality experiences but is due to family-level effects. The general finding of lower ages at marriage/reproduction after exposure to higher mortality in the family holds for both females and males. This study provides evidence for the importance of the family environment for reproductive timing while individual-level mortality experiences seem to play only a minor role in reproductive life history decisions in humans.

  10. Opposite Cannabis-Cognition Associations in Psychotic Patients Depending on Family History.

    PubMed

    González-Pinto, Ana; González-Ortega, Itxaso; Alberich, Susana; Ruiz de Azúa, Sonia; Bernardo, Miguel; Bioque, Miquel; Cabrera, Bibiana; Corripio, Iluminada; Arango, Celso; Lobo, Antonio; Sánchez-Torres, Ana M; Cuesta, Manuel J

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate cognitive performance in a first-episode psychosis sample, when stratifying the interaction by cannabis use and familial or non-familial psychosis. Hierarchical-regression models were used to analyse this association in a sample of 268 first-episode psychosis patients and 237 controls. We found that cannabis use was associated with worse working memory, regardless of family history. However, cannabis use was clearly associated with worse cognitive performance in patients with no family history of psychosis, in cognitive domains including verbal memory, executive function and global cognitive index, whereas cannabis users with a family history of psychosis performed better in these domains. The main finding of the study is that there is an interaction between cannabis use and a family history of psychosis in the areas of verbal memory, executive function and global cognition: that is, cannabis use is associated with a better performance in patients with a family history of psychosis and a worse performance in those with no family history of psychosis. In order to confirm this hypothesis, future research should explore the actual expression of the endocannabinoid system in patients with and without a family history of psychosis.

  11. Opposite Cannabis-Cognition Associations in Psychotic Patients Depending on Family History

    PubMed Central

    González-Pinto, Ana; González-Ortega, Itxaso; Alberich, Susana; Ruiz de Azúa, Sonia; Bernardo, Miguel; Bioque, Miquel; Cabrera, Bibiana; Corripio, Iluminada; Arango, Celso; Lobo, Antonio; Sánchez-Torres, Ana M.; Cuesta, Manuel J.

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate cognitive performance in a first-episode psychosis sample, when stratifying the interaction by cannabis use and familial or non-familial psychosis. Hierarchical-regression models were used to analyse this association in a sample of 268 first-episode psychosis patients and 237 controls. We found that cannabis use was associated with worse working memory, regardless of family history. However, cannabis use was clearly associated with worse cognitive performance in patients with no family history of psychosis, in cognitive domains including verbal memory, executive function and global cognitive index, whereas cannabis users with a family history of psychosis performed better in these domains. The main finding of the study is that there is an interaction between cannabis use and a family history of psychosis in the areas of verbal memory, executive function and global cognition: that is, cannabis use is associated with a better performance in patients with a family history of psychosis and a worse performance in those with no family history of psychosis. In order to confirm this hypothesis, future research should explore the actual expression of the endocannabinoid system in patients with and without a family history of psychosis. PMID:27513670

  12. Opposite Cannabis-Cognition Associations in Psychotic Patients Depending on Family History.

    PubMed

    González-Pinto, Ana; González-Ortega, Itxaso; Alberich, Susana; Ruiz de Azúa, Sonia; Bernardo, Miguel; Bioque, Miquel; Cabrera, Bibiana; Corripio, Iluminada; Arango, Celso; Lobo, Antonio; Sánchez-Torres, Ana M; Cuesta, Manuel J

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate cognitive performance in a first-episode psychosis sample, when stratifying the interaction by cannabis use and familial or non-familial psychosis. Hierarchical-regression models were used to analyse this association in a sample of 268 first-episode psychosis patients and 237 controls. We found that cannabis use was associated with worse working memory, regardless of family history. However, cannabis use was clearly associated with worse cognitive performance in patients with no family history of psychosis, in cognitive domains including verbal memory, executive function and global cognitive index, whereas cannabis users with a family history of psychosis performed better in these domains. The main finding of the study is that there is an interaction between cannabis use and a family history of psychosis in the areas of verbal memory, executive function and global cognition: that is, cannabis use is associated with a better performance in patients with a family history of psychosis and a worse performance in those with no family history of psychosis. In order to confirm this hypothesis, future research should explore the actual expression of the endocannabinoid system in patients with and without a family history of psychosis. PMID:27513670

  13. Family history in the Finnish Prostate Cancer Screening Trial.

    PubMed

    Saarimäki, Lasse; Tammela, Teuvo L; Määttänen, Liisa; Taari, Kimmo; Kujala, Paula M; Raitanen, Jani; Auvinen, Anssi

    2015-05-01

    Family history (FH) is one of the few known risk factors for prostate cancer (PC). There is also new evidence about mortality reduction in screening of PC with prostate-specific antigen (PSA). Therefore, we conducted a prospective study in the Finnish Prostate Cancer Screening Trial to evaluate the impact of FH on outcomes of PC screening. Of the 80,144 men enrolled, 31,866 men were randomized to the screening arm and were invited for screening with PSA test (cut-off 4 ng/ml) every 4 years. At the time of each invitation, FH of PC (FH) was assessed through a questionnaire. The analysis covered a follow-up of 12 years from randomization for all men with data on FH. Of the 23,702 (74.3%) invited men attending screening, 22,756 (96.0%) provided information of their FH. Altogether 1,723 (7.3%) men reported at least one first-degree relative diagnosed with PC and of them 235 (13.6%) were diagnosed with PC. Men with a first-degree FH had increased risk for PC (risk ratio (RR) 1.31, p < 0.001) and the risk was especially elevated for interval cancer (RR 1.65, 95% CI 1.27-2.15). Risk for low-grade (Gleason 2-6) tumors was increased (RR 1.46, 95% CI 1.15-1.69), but it was decreased for Gleason 8-10 tumors (RR 0.48, 95% CI 0.25-0.95). PSA test performance (sensitivity and specificity) was slightly inferior for FH positives. No difference in PC mortality was observed in terms of FH. Our findings provide no support for selective PSA screening targeting men with FH of PC.

  14. Acting Out History from the Ice Age to the Modern Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mattioli, Denee J.; Drake, Frederick

    1999-01-01

    Addresses the teaching methods of Michael Welch, a seventh grade teacher, who incorporates the humanities, such as drama and literature, into his history classroom in order to help students learn to question, think analytically, solve problems, and make decisions. Summarizes a particular unit on the Ice Age. (CMK)

  15. Family History of Venous Thromboembolism and Identifying Factor V Leiden Carriers During Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Horton, Amanda L.; Momirova, Valerija; Dizon-Townson, Donna; Wenstrom, Katharine; Wendel, George; Samuels, Philip; Sibai, Baha; Spong, Catherine Y.; Cotroneo, Margaret; Sorokin, Yoram; Miodovnik, Menachem; O’Sullivan, Mary J.; Conway, Deborah; Wapner, Ronald J.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To estimate whether there is a correlation between family history of venous thromboembolism and factor V Leiden mutation carriage in gravid women without personal history of venous thromboembolism. Methods This is a secondary analysis of a prospective observational study of the frequency of pregnancy-related thromboembolic events among carriers of the factor V Leiden mutation. Family history of venous thromboembolism in either first- or second-degree relatives was self-reported. Sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of family history to predict factor V Leiden mutation carrier status were calculated. Results Women with a negative personal venous thromboembolism history and available DNA were included (n=5,168). One-hundred forty women (2.7%, 95%CI 2.3- 3.2%) were factor V Leiden mutation-positive. Four-hundred twelve women (8.0%, 95%CI 7.3–8.7%) reported a family history of venous thromboembolism. Women with a positive family history were twofold more likely to be factor V Leiden mutation carriers than those with a negative family history (23/412 (5.6%) versus 117/4,756 (2.5%), p<.001). The sensitivity, specificity and positive predictive value of a family history of a first or second degree relative for identifying factor V Leiden carriers were 16.4% (95%CI 10.7–23.6%), 92.3% (95%CI 91.5–93.0%) and 5.6% (95%CI 3.6–8.3 %), respectively. Conclusion While a family history of venous thromboembolism is associated with factor V Leiden mutation in thrombosis- free gravid women, the sensitivity and positive predictive values are too low to recommend screening women for the factor V Leiden mutation based solely on a family history. PMID:20177282

  16. The importance of the family history in caring for families with long QT syndrome and dilated cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Ruiter, Jolien S; Berkenbosch-Nieuwhof, Karin; van den Berg, Maarten P; van Dijk, Rene; Middel, Berrie; van Tintelen, J Peter

    2010-03-01

    In potentially inherited cardiac diseases, the family history is of great importance. We looked at the way cardiologists take a family history in patients with idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) or long QT syndrome (LQTS) and whether this led to screening of relatives or other follow-up. We performed retrospective cross-sectional analyses of adult index patients with DCM or LQTS in a general hospital (GH) or a University Medical Center (UMC). We identified 82 index patients with DCM (34 GH; 48 UMC) and 20 with LQTS (all UMC) between 1996 and 2005. Mean follow-up was 58 months. A family history was recorded in 90% of both LQTS and DCM patients most of the cases restricted to first-degree family members. The genetic aspects, counseling and screening of family members was discussed significantly more often with LQTS than DCM patients (all P < 0.05). Also follow-up (screening of family members, DNA analysis and referral) was performed significantly more often in LQTS than DCM patients. Cardiologists in the UMC referred DCM index patients for genetic counseling more often than those in the GH (25% vs. 6%; P < 0.05). Only a few index patients with DCM were referred to a clinical genetics department. One-third of DCM cases and nearly all LQTS cases are familial. Since early recognition and treatment may reduce morbidity and mortality we recommend cardiologists take a more thorough family history and always consider referring to a clinical genetics department in such index patients.

  17. Association of waist to hip ratio and family history with the prevalence of NIDDM among 25,272 adult, white females.

    PubMed Central

    Morris, R D; Rimm, A A

    1991-01-01

    The independent association of waist to hip ratio (WHR), relative weight, and family history with the prevalence of non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) was investigated in a population of 25,254 White females in the United States and Canada. A multivariate logistic analysis yielded standardized odds ratios of 1.47, 1.46, 1.54, and 1.14 for family history index, WHR, relative weight, and age, respectively. PMID:2003637

  18. Lipoprotein (a) in childhood: correlations with family history of cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    De Simone, M; Verrotti, A; Cappa, M; Iughetti, L; Di Cesare, E; Palumbo, M; Bernabei, R; Rosato, T

    2003-05-01

    The association between lipoprotein (a) [Lp(a)] and cardiovascular diseases is well known. Lp(a) is an independent risk factor for the development of atherosclerosis. Little information concerning Lp(a) during childhood is available. The aim of the present investigation was to determine the Lp(a) concentration in a cohort of children aged between 4 and 15 yr and to correlate Lp(a) with: a) overweight status; b) body fat distribution; c) family history of vascular diseases in their parents and grandparents. Six hundred and eighty-nine children (350 males, 339 females), were enrolled in the study. BMI as index of being overweight was calculated; the waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) and the waist-to-thigh ratio (WTR) were calculated to obtain two anthropometric indexes for the pattern of body fat distribution. The areas of visceral (VAT) and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) were evaluated by MRI at the L4-L5 level in only 30 overweight subjects. The serum of Lp(a), total cholesterol (TC), HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and triglycerides were evaluated in the whole population. Moreover, the same biochemical study was performed in 70 children's parents randomly chosen. A structured questionnaire was administered to the children's parents to investigate the presence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in family stories. Our data show no Lp(a) serum differences between children according to sex, age and body composition. The strong correlation between the children's and the parents' Lp(a) concentrations and the occurrence of CVD in their grandparents suggests that Lp(a) represents an important independent early risk factor for the development of CVD in adulthood. Measurements of Lp(a) in childhood may help to evaluate this risk in subjects with family history of cardiovascular diseases.

  19. Family Health History Communication Networks of Older Adults: Importance of Social Relationships and Disease Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashida, Sato; Kaphingst, Kimberly A.; Goodman, Melody; Schafer, Ellen J.

    2013-01-01

    Older individuals play a critical role in disseminating family health history (FHH) information that can facilitate disease prevention among younger family members. This study evaluated the characteristics of older adults and their familial networks associated with two types of communication ("have shared" and "intend to share…

  20. Reflections on the Construction of a Digital Family Oral History and Its Impact on Adult Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Londt, Susan Cole

    2013-01-01

    The Digital Family Oral History Pilot (DFOHP) data were collected and catalogued on a private website blog for family members to learn about their grandfather (ALP) who died without telling his own story. This study examined the outcomes and perceptions of the family members who were engaged with the pilot. A self-selected sample of 17 family…

  1. Family Support in Nursing Homes Serving Residents with a Mental Health History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frahm, Kathryn; Gammonley, Denise; Zhang, Ning Jackie; Paek, Seung Chun

    2010-01-01

    Using 2003 nursing home data from the Minimum Data Set (MDS) database, this study investigated the role of family support among nursing homes serving residents with a mental health history. Exploratory factor analysis was used to create and test a conceptual model of family support using indicators located within the MDS database. Families were…

  2. Association of Family History with Cancer Recurrence and Survival Among Patients with Stage III Colon Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Jennifer A.; Meyerhardt, Jeffrey A.; Niedzwiecki, Donna; Hollis, Donna; Saltz, Leonard B.; Mayer, Robert J.; Thomas, James; Schaefer, Paul; Whittom, Renaud; Hantel, Alexander; Goldberg, Richard M.; Warren, Robert S.; Bertagnolli, Monica; Fuchs, Charles S.

    2011-01-01

    Context A family history of colorectal cancer in a first-degree relative increases the risk of developing colorectal cancer. However, the influence of family history on cancer recurrence and survival among patients with established disease remains uncertain. Objective To examine the association of family history of colorectal cancer with cancer recurrence and survival of patients with colon cancer. Design, Setting, and Participants Prospective observational study of 1,087 patients with stage III colon cancer enrolled in a randomized adjuvant chemotherapy trial (CALGB 89803) between April 1999 and May 2001. Patients provided data on family history at baseline and were followed up until March 2007 for disease recurrence and death (median follow-up 5.6 years). In a subset of patients, we assessed microsatellite instability (MSI) and expression of the mismatch repair (MMR) proteins, MLH1 and MSH2, in tumor specimens. Main Outcome Measure Disease-free survival, recurrence-free survival, and overall survival according to the presence or absence of a family history of colorectal cancer. Results Among 1,087 eligible patients, 195 (17.9%) reported a family history of colorectal cancer in a first-degree relative. Cancer recurrence or death occurred in 57/195 patients (29%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 23%-36%) with a family history of colorectal cancer and 343/892 patients (38%; 95% CI, 35%-42%) without a family history. Compared to patients without a family history, the adjusted hazard ratios (HR) among those with ≥1 affected first-degree relatives were 0.72 (95% CI, 0.54-0.96) for disease-free survival (DFS), 0.74 (95% CI, 0.55-0.99) for recurrence-free survival (RFS), and 0.75 (95% CI, 0.54-1.05) for overall survival (OS). This reduction in risk of cancer recurrence or death associated with a family history became stronger with an increasing number of affected first-degree relatives. Compared to participants without a family history of colorectal cancer, those with 1

  3. LIFE HISTORY. Age-related mortality explains life history strategies of tropical and temperate songbirds.

    PubMed

    Martin, Thomas E

    2015-08-28

    Life history theory attempts to explain why species differ in offspring number and quality, growth rate, and parental effort. I show that unappreciated interactions of these traits in response to age-related mortality risk challenge traditional perspectives and explain life history evolution in songbirds. Counter to a long-standing paradigm, tropical songbirds grow at similar overall rates to temperate species but grow wings relatively faster. These growth tactics are favored by predation risk, both in and after leaving the nest, and are facilitated by greater provisioning of individual offspring by parents. Increased provisioning of individual offspring depends on partitioning effort among fewer young because of constraints on effort from adult and nest mortality. These growth and provisioning responses to mortality risk finally explain the conundrum of small clutch sizes of tropical birds.

  4. Pediatric bipolar disorder and ADHD: Family history comparison in the LAMS clinical sample

    PubMed Central

    Arnold, L. Eugene; Mount, Katherine; Frazier, Thomas; Demeter, Christine; Youngstrom, Eric A.; Fristad, Mary A.; Birmaher, Boris; Horwitz, Sarah; Findling, Robert L.; Kowatch, Robert; Axelson, David

    2013-01-01

    Background Transgenerational association of bipolar spectrum disorder (BPSD) and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has been reported, but inconclusively. Method Children ages 6–12 were systematically recruited at first outpatient visit at 9 clinics at four universities and reliably diagnosed; 621 had elevated symptoms of mania (>12 on the Parent General Behavior Inventory 10-Item Mania Scale); 86 had scores below 12. We analyzed baseline data to test a familial association hypothesis: compared to children with neither BPSD nor ADHD, those with either BPSD or ADHD would have parents with higher rates of both bipolar and ADHD symptoms, and parents of comorbid children would have even higher rates of both. Results Of 707 children, 421 had ADHD without BPSD, 45 BPSD without ADHD, 117 comorbid ADHD+BPSD, and 124 neither. The rate of parental manic symptoms was similar for the comorbid and BPSD-alone groups, significantly greater than for ADHD alone and “neither” groups, which had similar rates. ADHD symptoms in parents of children with BPSD alone were significantly less frequent than in parents of children with ADHD (alone or comorbid), and no greater than for children with neither diagnosis. Family history of manic symptoms, but not ADHD symptoms, was associated with parent-rated child manic-symptom severity over and above child diagnosis. Limitations The sample was not epidemiologic, parent symptoms were based on family history questions, and alpha was 0.05 despite multiple tests. Conclusions These results do not support familial linkage of BPSD and ADHD; they are compatible with heritability of each disorder separately with coincidental overlap. PMID:22464937

  5. Notification of a family history of breast cancer: issues of privacy and confidentiality.

    PubMed

    Winter, P R; Wiesner, G L; Finnegan, J; Bartels, D; LeRoy, B; Chen, P L; Sellers, T A

    1996-12-01

    Little information is available about notifying individuals with a family history of cancer about their risk of cancer. With the recent identification of BRCA1, an important predisposition gene for breast and ovarian cancer, genetic testing is becoming available to high-risk women and their families. Some of these individuals, may not be aware of their family history and may be notified of their family history by medical personnel or biomedical investigators. This disclosure could be detrimental to the individual by changing their perception of risk, sense of privacy, or psychosocial well-being. Members of 544 breast cancer families are currently being contacted as part of an epidemiologic follow-up study at the University of Minnesota. Some family members were unaware of their relative's diagnosis and therefore, notification occurred when they were contacted by study personnel. To determine the impact of risk notification in this context, 376 male and female relatives of 160 breast cancer probands were surveyed to assess their prior knowledge of their family history of cancer, issues relating to study participation, and their concerns regarding the possibility of developing cancer. Following a telephone interview about family history, family members were administered a short, open-ended questionnaire. The majority of individuals (82%) were blood relatives of the proband and 71% were either first- or second-degree relatives. A proportion of blood relatives (24%) were not aware of their family history of breast cancer. More blood relatives (76%) than nonblood relatives (62%, P < 0.01) were aware of their family history. 43 respondents (12%) expressed specific concerns about participating in the large genetic follow-up study and 16 comments concerned privacy issues. Neither the reasons for participation nor an individual's concern about developing cancer was associated with gender of the respondent, relationship to the proband, or awareness of breast cancer in the

  6. Resting state functional connectivity of the nucleus accumbens in youth with a family history of alcoholism

    PubMed Central

    Cservenka, Anita; Casimo, Kaitlyn; Fair, Damien; Nagel, Bonnie

    2014-01-01

    Adolescents with a family history of alcoholism (FHP) are at heightened risk for developing alcohol use disorders (AUDs). The nucleus accumbens (NAcc), a key brain region for reward processing, is implicated in the development of AUDs. Thus, functional connectivity of the NAcc may be an important marker of risk in FHP youth. Resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fcMRI) was used to examine the intrinsic connectivity of the NAcc in 47 FHP and 50 family history negative (FHN) youth, ages 10–16 years old. FHP and FHN adolescents showed significant group differences in resting state synchrony between the left NAcc and bilateral inferior frontal gyri and the left postcentral gyrus (PG). Additionally, FHP youth differed from FHN youth in right NAcc functional connectivity with the left orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), left superior temporal gyrus, right cerebellum, left PG, and right occipital cortex. These results indicate that FHP youth have less segregation between the NAcc and executive functioning brain regions, and less integration with reward-related brain areas, such as the OFC. The findings of the current study highlight that premorbid atypical connectivity of appetitive systems, in the absence of heavy alcohol use, may be a risk marker in FHP adolescents. PMID:24440571

  7. Race and colorectal cancer screening compliance among persons with a family history of cancer

    PubMed Central

    Laiyemo, Adeyinka O; Thompson, Nicole; Williams, Carla D; Idowu, Kolapo A; Bull-Henry, Kathy; Sherif, Zaki A; Lee, Edward L; Brim, Hassan; Ashktorab, Hassan; Platz, Elizabeth A; Smoot, Duane T

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To determine compliance to colorectal cancer (CRC) screening guidelines among persons with a family history of any type of cancer and investigate racial differences in screening compliance. METHODS: We used the 2007 Health Information National Trends Survey and identified 1094 (27.4%) respondents (weighted population size = 21959672) without a family history of cancer and 3138 (72.6%) respondents (weighted population size = 58201479) with a family history of cancer who were 50 years and older. We defined compliance with CRC screening as the use of fecal occult blood testing within 1 year, sigmoidoscopy within 5 years, or colonoscopy within 10 years. We compared compliance with CRC screening among those with and without a family member with a history of cancer. RESULTS: Overall, those with a family member with cancer were more likely to be compliant with CRC screening (64.9% vs 55.1%; OR = 1.45; 95%CI: 1.20-1.74). The absolute increase in screening rates associated with family history of cancer was 8.2% among whites. Hispanics had lowest screening rates among those without family history of cancer 41.9% but had highest absolute increase (14.7%) in CRC screening rate when they have a family member with cancer. Blacks had the lowest absolute increase in CRC screening (5.3%) when a family member has a known history of cancer. However, the noted increase in screening rates among blacks and Hispanics when they have a family member with cancer were not higher than whites without a family history of cancer: (54.5% vs 58.7%; OR = 1.16; 95%CI: 0.72-1.88) for blacks and (56.7% vs 58.7%; OR = 1.25; 95%CI: 0.72-2.18) for Hispanics. CONCLUSION: While adults with a family history of any cancer were more likely to be compliant with CRC screening guidelines irrespective of race/ethnicity, blacks and Hispanics with a family history of cancer were less likely to be compliant than whites without a family history. Increased burden from CRC among blacks may be related to poor

  8. The history and illustration of anatomy in the Middle Ages.

    PubMed

    Gurunluoglu, Raffi; Gurunluoglu, Aslin; Williams, Susan A; Cavdar, Safiye

    2013-11-01

    This article reviews the influence of key figures on the pictorial representation of anatomy and the evolution of anatomical illustration during the Middle Ages until the time of the Renaissance, based on medical history books, journals and ancient medical books. During the early period in the Middle Ages, most illustrations were traditional drawings of emblematic nature, oftentimes unrealistic, not only because the precise knowledge of anatomy was lacking but also because the objective was to elucidate certain principles for teaching purposes. Five figure-series that came down to us through ancient manuscripts and textbooks represent the best examples of such traditional illustrations. With the advent of human dissection in the 13th and 14th centuries, a significant transformation in the depiction of anatomy began to project the practice of human dissection, as we see in the works of Mondino de Luzzi, Henri de Mondeville and Guido de Vigevano. After the invention of book printing in the second half of the 15th century, the reproduction of books was commonly practised and the woodcut made multiplication of pictures easier. Peter of Abano, Hieronymous Brunschwig, Johannes de Ketham, Johannes Peyligk, Gregory Reisch, Magnus Hundt, Laurentius Phryesen and many more included several anatomical illustrations in their treatises that demonstrated the development of anatomical illustration during the later Middle Ages.

  9. The history and illustration of anatomy in the Middle Ages.

    PubMed

    Gurunluoglu, Raffi; Gurunluoglu, Aslin; Williams, Susan A; Cavdar, Safiye

    2013-11-01

    This article reviews the influence of key figures on the pictorial representation of anatomy and the evolution of anatomical illustration during the Middle Ages until the time of the Renaissance, based on medical history books, journals and ancient medical books. During the early period in the Middle Ages, most illustrations were traditional drawings of emblematic nature, oftentimes unrealistic, not only because the precise knowledge of anatomy was lacking but also because the objective was to elucidate certain principles for teaching purposes. Five figure-series that came down to us through ancient manuscripts and textbooks represent the best examples of such traditional illustrations. With the advent of human dissection in the 13th and 14th centuries, a significant transformation in the depiction of anatomy began to project the practice of human dissection, as we see in the works of Mondino de Luzzi, Henri de Mondeville and Guido de Vigevano. After the invention of book printing in the second half of the 15th century, the reproduction of books was commonly practised and the woodcut made multiplication of pictures easier. Peter of Abano, Hieronymous Brunschwig, Johannes de Ketham, Johannes Peyligk, Gregory Reisch, Magnus Hundt, Laurentius Phryesen and many more included several anatomical illustrations in their treatises that demonstrated the development of anatomical illustration during the later Middle Ages. PMID:24585828

  10. International renal-cell-cancer study. VI. the role of medical and family history.

    PubMed

    Schlehofer, B; Pommer, W; Mellemgaard, A; Stewart, J H; McCredie, M; Niwa, S; Lindblad, P; Mandel, J S; McLaughlin, J K; Wahrendorf, J

    1996-06-11

    A number of medical conditions have been linked with renal-cell cancer, although the evidence is not consistent in every case. In a large international case-control study of renal-cell cancer, we examined, among other hypotheses, associations with a personal history of certain medical conditions and a family history of cancer of the kidney or thyroid. Relative risks (RR), adjusted for the effects of age, gender, body-mass index, tobacco smoking and study centre, were significantly increased by a history of kidney stones or thyroid or kidney disease. The RR were not altered by additional adjustment for hypertension, or when diagnoses were restricted to those made at least 5 or 10 years before 1987 (the usual "cut-off" date). The link with kidney injury is particularly likely to be affected by recall bias. Increased RR of borderline significance were found for kidney infection (RR, 1.2) and diabetes (RR, 1.4). Having one first-degree relative with kidney cancer was associated with a significantly increased risk of renal-cell cancer (RR, 1.6; 95% Cl, 1.1-2.4). Seven cases reported 2 first-degree relatives with kidney cancer. No controls had first-degree relatives with kidney cancer. None of our participants reported having von Hippel-Lindau disease. The data suggests that a few conditions of the kidney are strongly associated with renal-cell cancer and that heredity plays a role in a small proportion of cases.

  11. History of allergy in the middle ages and renaissance.

    PubMed

    Ring, Johannes

    2014-01-01

    In the Middle Ages little innovative medical literature came from Western Europe. The Greek-Roman tradition with the scriptures of Hippocrates and Galenos was preserved in Byzantium and then in the Middle East by Arabic medicine; it then returned to Europe in Latin translations mostly made in Italy and Spain. There were innovative developments in Arabic medicine also with regard to the history of allergy, especially with the first description of 'rose fever', which is described as very similar in symptomatology to hay fever. Under Arabic influence, the first medical university in Salerno was famous for its well-known text Tacuinum sanitatis in which a description of asthma can be found. With the beginning of renaissance new developments were also registered in Europe, with new observations and a new way of thinking.

  12. History of allergy in the middle ages and renaissance.

    PubMed

    Ring, Johannes

    2014-01-01

    In the Middle Ages little innovative medical literature came from Western Europe. The Greek-Roman tradition with the scriptures of Hippocrates and Galenos was preserved in Byzantium and then in the Middle East by Arabic medicine; it then returned to Europe in Latin translations mostly made in Italy and Spain. There were innovative developments in Arabic medicine also with regard to the history of allergy, especially with the first description of 'rose fever', which is described as very similar in symptomatology to hay fever. Under Arabic influence, the first medical university in Salerno was famous for its well-known text Tacuinum sanitatis in which a description of asthma can be found. With the beginning of renaissance new developments were also registered in Europe, with new observations and a new way of thinking. PMID:24925380

  13. Genetic variation at 8q24, family history of cancer, and upper gastrointestinal cancers in a Chinese population

    PubMed Central

    Tarleton, Heather P.; Chang, Shen-Chih; Park, Sungshim Lani; Cai, Lin; Ding, Baoguo; He, Na; Hussain, Shehnaz K.; Jiang, Qingwu; Mu, Li-Na; Rao, Jianyu; Wang, Hua; You, Nai-Chieh Y.; Yu, Shun-Zhang; Zhao, Jin-Kou; Zhang, Zuo-Feng

    2013-01-01

    Genetic variation at 8q24 is associated with prostate, bladder, breast, colorectal, thyroid, lung, ovarian, UADT, liver and stomach cancers. However, a role for variation at 8q24 in familial clustering of upper gastrointestinal cancers has not been studied. In order to explore potential inherited susceptibility, we analyzed epidemiologic data from a population-based case-control study of upper gastrointestinal cancers from Taixing, China. The study population includes 204 liver, 206 stomach, and 218 esophageal cancer cases and 415 controls. Associations between 8q24 rs1447295, rs16901979, rs6983267 and these cancers were stratified by family history of cancer. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were adjusted for potential confounders: age, sex, education, tobacco smoking, alcohol consumption, and BMI at interview. We also adjusted for hepatitis B and aflatoxin (liver cancer) and Helicobacter pylori (stomach cancer). In a dominant model, among those with a family history of cancer, rs1447295 was positively associated with liver cancer (ORadj 2.80; 95% CI 1.15–6.80). Heterogeneity was observed (Pheterogeneity=0.029) with rs6983267 and liver cancer, with positive association in the dominant model among those with a family history of cancer and positive association in the recessive model among those without a family history of cancer. When considered in a genetic risk score model, each additional 8q24 risk genotype increased the odds of liver cancer by two-fold among those with a family history of cancer (ORadj 2.00; 95% CI 1.15–3.47). These findings suggest that inherited susceptibility to liver cancer may exist in the Taixing population and that variation at 8q24 might be a genetic component of that inherited susceptibility. PMID:24030569

  14. Influence of family dynamics on burden among family caregivers in aging Japan

    PubMed Central

    Kusaba, Tesshu; Sato, Kotaro; Fukuma, Shingo; Yamada, Yukari; Matsui, Yoshinori; Matsuda, Satoshi; Ando, Takashi; Sakushima, Ken; Fukuhara, Shunichi

    2016-01-01

    Background. Long-term care for the elderly is largely shouldered by their family, representing a serious burden in a hyper-aging society. However, although family dynamics are known to play an important role in such care, the influence of caring for the elderly on burden among caregiving family members is poorly understood. Objective. To examine the influence of family dynamics on burden experienced by family caregivers. Methods. We conducted a cross-sectional study at six primary care clinics, involving 199 caregivers of adult care receivers who need long-term care. Participants were divided into three groups based on tertile of Index of Family Dynamics for Long-term Care (IF-Long score), where higher scores imply poorer relationships between care receivers and caregiving family: best, <2; intermediate, 2 to <5; worst, ≥5. The mean differences in burden index of caregivers (BIC-11) between the three groups were estimated by linear regression model with adjustment for care receiver’s activity of daily living and cognitive function. Results. Mean age of caregivers was 63.2 years (with 40.7% aged ≥ 65 years). BIC-11 scores were higher in the worst IF-Long group (adjusted mean difference: 4.4, 95% confidence interval: 1.2 to 7.5) than in the best IF-Long group. We also detected a positive trend between IF-Long score and BIC-11 score (P-value for trend <0.01). Conclusion. Our findings indicate that family dynamics strongly influences burden experienced by caregiving family members, regardless of the care receiver’s degree of cognitive impairment. These results underscore the importance of evaluating relationships between care receivers and their caregivers when discussing a care regimen for care receivers. PMID:27450988

  15. Germline rearrangements in families with strong family history of glioma and malignant melanoma, colon, and breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Andersson, Ulrika; Wibom, Carl; Cederquist, Kristina; Aradottir, Steina; Borg, Åke; Armstrong, Georgina N.; Shete, Sanjay; Lau, Ching C.; Bainbridge, Matthew N.; Claus, Elizabeth B.; Barnholtz-Sloan, Jill; Lai, Rose; Il'yasova, Dora; Houlston, Richard S.; Schildkraut, Joellen; Bernstein, Jonine L.; Olson, Sara H.; Jenkins, Robert B.; Lachance, Daniel H.; Wrensch, Margaret; Davis, Faith G.; Merrell, Ryan; Johansen, Christoffer; Sadetzki, Siegal; Bondy, Melissa L.; Melin, Beatrice S.; Adatto, Phyllis; Morice, Fabian; Payen, Sam; McQuinn, Lacey; McGaha, Rebecca; Guerra, Sandra; Paith, Leslie; Roth, Katherine; Zeng, Dong; Zhang, Hui; Yung, Alfred; Aldape, Kenneth; Gilbert, Mark; Weinberger, Jeffrey; Colman, Howard; Conrad, Charles; de Groot, John; Forman, Arthur; Groves, Morris; Levin, Victor; Loghin, Monica; Puduvalli, Vinay; Sawaya, Raymond; Heimberger, Amy; Lang, Frederick; Levine, Nicholas; Tolentino, Lori; Saunders, Kate; Thach, Thu-Trang; Iacono, Donna Dello; Sloan, Andrew; Gerson, Stanton; Selman, Warren; Bambakidis, Nicholas; Hart, David; Miller, Jonathan; Hoffer, Alan; Cohen, Mark; Rogers, Lisa; Nock, Charles J; Wolinsky, Yingli; Devine, Karen; Fulop, Jordonna; Barrett, Wendi; Shimmel, Kristen; Ostrom, Quinn; Barnett, Gene; Rosenfeld, Steven; Vogelbaum, Michael; Weil, Robert; Ahluwalia, Manmeet; Peereboom, David; Staugaitis, Susan; Schilero, Cathy; Brewer, Cathy; Smolenski, Kathy; McGraw, Mary; Naska, Theresa; Rosenfeld, Steven; Ram, Zvi; Blumenthal, Deborah T.; Bokstein, Felix; Umansky, Felix; Zaaroor, Menashe; Cohen, Avi; Tzuk-Shina, Tzeela; Voldby, Bo; Laursen, René; Andersen, Claus; Brennum, Jannick; Henriksen, Matilde Bille; Marzouk, Maya; Davis, Mary Elizabeth; Boland, Eamon; Smith, Marcel; Eze, Ogechukwu; Way, Mahalia; Lada, Pat; Miedzianowski, Nancy; Frechette, Michelle; Paleologos, Nina; Byström, Gudrun; Svedberg, Eva; Huggert, Sara; Kimdal, Mikael; Sandström, Monica; Brännström, Nikolina; Hayat, Amina; Tihan, Tarik; Zheng, Shichun; Berger, Mitchel; Butowski, Nicholas; Chang, Susan; Clarke, Jennifer; Prados, Michael; Rice, Terri; Sison, Jeannette; Kivett, Valerie; Duo, Xiaoqin; Hansen, Helen; Hsuang, George; Lamela, Rosito; Ramos, Christian; Patoka, Joe; Wagenman, Katherine; Zhou, Mi; Klein, Adam; McGee, Nora; Pfefferle, Jon; Wilson, Callie; Morris, Pagan; Hughes, Mary; Britt-Williams, Marlin; Foft, Jessica; Madsen, Julia; Polony, Csaba; McCarthy, Bridget; Zahora, Candice; Villano, John; Engelhard, Herbert; Borg, Ake; Chanock, Stephen K; Collins, Peter; Elston, Robert; Kleihues, Paul; Kruchko, Carol; Petersen, Gloria; Plon, Sharon; Thompson, Patricia; Johansen, C.; Sadetzki, S.; Melin, B.; Bondy, Melissa L.; Lau, Ching C.; Scheurer, Michael E.; Armstrong, Georgina N.; Liu, Yanhong; Shete, Sanjay; Yu, Robert K.; Aldape, Kenneth D.; Gilbert, Mark R.; Weinberg, Jeffrey; Houlston, Richard S.; Hosking, Fay J.; Robertson, Lindsay; Papaemmanuil, Elli; Claus, Elizabeth B.; Claus, Elizabeth B.; Barnholtz-Sloan, Jill; Sloan, Andrew E.; Barnett, Gene; Devine, Karen; Wolinsky, Yingli; Lai, Rose; McKean-Cowdin, Roberta; Il'yasova, Dora; Schildkraut, Joellen; Sadetzki, Siegal; Yechezkel, Galit Hirsh; Bruchim, Revital Bar-Sade; Aslanov, Lili; Sadetzki, Siegal; Johansen, Christoffer; Kosteljanetz, Michael; Broholm, Helle; Bernstein, Jonine L.; Olson, Sara H.; Schubert, Erica; DeAngelis, Lisa; Jenkins, Robert B.; Yang, Ping; Rynearson, Amanda; Andersson, Ulrika; Wibom, Carl; Henriksson, Roger; Melin, Beatrice S.; Cederquist, Kristina; Aradottir, Steina; Borg, Åke; Merrell, Ryan; Lada, Patricia; Wrensch, Margaret; Wiencke, John; Wiemels, Joe; McCoy, Lucie; McCarthy, Bridget J.; Davis, Faith G.

    2014-01-01

    Background Although familial susceptibility to glioma is known, the genetic basis for this susceptibility remains unidentified in the majority of glioma-specific families. An alternative approach to identifying such genes is to examine cancer pedigrees, which include glioma as one of several cancer phenotypes, to determine whether common chromosomal modifications might account for the familial aggregation of glioma and other cancers. Methods Germline rearrangements in 146 glioma families (from the Gliogene Consortium; http://www.gliogene.org/) were examined using multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification. These families all had at least 2 verified glioma cases and a third reported or verified glioma case in the same family or 2 glioma cases in the family with at least one family member affected with melanoma, colon, or breast cancer.The genomic areas covering TP53, CDKN2A, MLH1, and MSH2 were selected because these genes have been previously reported to be associated with cancer pedigrees known to include glioma. Results We detected a single structural rearrangement, a deletion of exons 1-6 in MSH2, in the proband of one family with 3 cases with glioma and one relative with colon cancer. Conclusions Large deletions and duplications are rare events in familial glioma cases, even in families with a strong family history of cancers that may be involved in known cancer syndromes. PMID:24723567

  16. Family history of alcoholism and the stability of personality in young adulthood.

    PubMed

    Larkins, Jenny M; Sher, Kenneth J

    2006-12-01

    The authors examined the magnitude and durability of personality differences related to family history of alcoholism (FH) and the development of alcohol use disorders (AUDs) in late adolescence and early adulthood. Data were taken from a longitudinal sample (N = 487; approximately half FH-positive [+]) who completed the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (H. J. Eysenck & S. B. G. Eysenck, 1975) at 3 points spanning 11 years (participants were 18 years old at baseline). Hierarchical linear analyses showed that FH+ participants had higher levels of neuroticism and psychoticism over the study period, independent of AUD. Despite relatively large mean decreases in neuroticism (as well as extraversion), the magnitude of the between-groups differences found at age 18 were maintained over the next decade. These changes thus reflect stable underlying differences in personality and not artifacts of higher rates of AUDs in FH+ individuals, recently living in an alcoholic home, vulnerability to the developmental challenge of leaving home, and/or a developmental lag.

  17. Collecting Family Health History using an Online Social Network: a Nationwide Survey among Potential Users

    PubMed Central

    Welch, Brandon M.; O’Connell, Nathaniel S.; Qanungo, Suparna; Halbert-Hughes, Chanita; Schiffman, Joshua D.

    2015-01-01

    Family health history (FHx) is one of the most important risk factors for disease. Unfortunately, collection and use of FHx is under-utilized in the clinical setting. Efforts to improve collection of FHx have had minimal impact. A novel approach to collect FHx using social networking capabilities is being explored. We conducted a nationwide survey of 5,258 respondents to 1- assess the interest in using an online social network for FHx, 2- identify if such a tool would have clinical utility, and 3- identify notable trends and potential concerns. We found survey respondents to be very supportive of the proposed approach and interesting trends related to age, education, and race were identified. Results from this survey will be used to guide future research and development of a proposed FHx social network application. PMID:26958272

  18. [Metabolic syndrome prevalence in Chilean children and adolescent with family history of chronic noncommunicable diseases].

    PubMed

    Burrows, Raquel; Atalah, Eduardo; Leiva, Laura; Rojas, Pamela; Maza, María Pía de la; Vásquez, Fabian; Lera, Lydia; Díaz, Erick

    2012-06-01

    Family history (FH+) of non transmisible chronic diseases (NTCD) increase MetS risk. In Chile, the MetS affects 27% of overweight children, and fasting hyperglycemia is very low prevalent (4,0%). The objective was to study the prevalence of MetS and the cardiovascular risk factors (CVRF) in overweight children with a family background of NTCD and analyze its association with the number of relatives witth NTCD and with parental history (PH). In 183 overweight children (BMI > or = p85) mean age 11,8 +/- 1,8 (86 males) with a FH+ (parental or grandparental) of NTCD, were assessed the BMI z (CDC / NCHS), waist circumference, blood arterial pressure, fasting Glucose and Insulin (RIA), triglycerides, HDL chol. The MetS and the CVRF were diagnosed using the Cook phenotype and the insulin resistance (IR) through the HOMA-IR. Chi2, ANOVA, t Student and Willcoxon test were performed. The frequency of FH+ of DM2, hypertension and dyslipidemia were 81,4%, 88,0% and 71,6 % respectively. The MeTS prevalence was 46,5 % associated to overweight magnitude an parental history of NTCD. The prevalence of hypertriglyceridemia was 54,6%, while fasting hyperglycemia affected 31,4% of the sample. There was no association between number of relatives with NTCD and CV risk profile. We conclude that in overweight children with FH+ of NTCD, the prevalence of MetS, dyslipidemia and fasting hyperglycemia are significantly higher, than those observed in the general population of obese children. PMID:23610902

  19. Class Struggles: Teaching History in the Postmodern Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilton, Shirley

    1999-01-01

    Describes Generation X students. Believes that teaching history to Generation X requires rebuilding the connections between community college teachers and four year schools that invent the "new history." Discusses how teachers can use the new history, "reflexive methodology," pictures from art history, and storytelling in the postmodern classroom.…

  20. Family History of Alcoholism: Are You at Risk?

    MedlinePlus

    ... abuse or alcoholism: Al–Anon Family Group Headquarters Internet address: www.al–anon.alateen.org Makes referrals ... Anonymous (AA) World Services Phone: (212) 870–3400 Internet address: www.aa.org Makes referrals to local ...

  1. Placement History of Foster Children: A Study of Placement History and Outcomes in Long-Term Family Foster Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strijker, Johan; Knorth, Erik J.; Knot-Dickscheit, Jana

    2008-01-01

    The files of 419 children in family foster care and kinship foster care were used in a retrospective longitudinal design study that examined their placement histories in child welfare. Significant associations were found between the number of placements on one hand, and the prevalence of attachment disorders, severity of behavioral problems, and…

  2. High accuracy of family history of melanoma in Danish melanoma cases.

    PubMed

    Wadt, Karin A W; Drzewiecki, Krzysztof T; Gerdes, Anne-Marie

    2015-12-01

    The incidence of melanoma in Denmark has immensely increased over the last 10 years making Denmark a high risk country for melanoma. In the last two decades multiple public campaigns have sought to increase the awareness of melanoma. Family history of melanoma is a known major risk factor but previous studies have shown that self-reported family history of melanoma is highly inaccurate. These studies are 15 years old and we wanted to examine if a higher awareness of melanoma has increased the accuracy of self-reported family history of melanoma. We examined the family history of 181 melanoma probands who reported 199 cases of melanoma in relatives, of which 135 cases where in first degree relatives. We confirmed the diagnosis of melanoma in 77% of all relatives, and in 83% of first degree relatives. In 181 probands we validated the negative family history of melanoma in 748 first degree relatives and found only 1 case of melanoma which was not reported in a 3 case melanoma family. Melanoma patients in Denmark report family history of melanoma in first and second degree relatives with a high level of accuracy with a true positive predictive value between 77 and 87%. In 99% of probands reporting a negative family history of melanoma in first degree relatives this information is correct. In clinical practice we recommend that melanoma diagnosis in relatives should be verified if possible, but even unverified reported melanoma cases in relatives should be included in the indication of genetic testing and assessment of melanoma risk in the family. PMID:26094006

  3. Evolutionary history of trihelix family and their functional diversification.

    PubMed

    Qin, Yao; Ma, Xin; Yu, Guanghui; Wang, Qi; Wang, Liang; Kong, Lingrang; Kim, Wook; Wang, Hong Wei

    2014-10-01

    In this study, we carried out an evolutionary, transcriptional, and functional analyses of the trihelix transcription factor family. A total of 319 trihelix members, identified from 11 land plant species, were classified into five clades. The results of phylogeny indicate the binding domains of GT1 and GT2 diverged early in the existence of land plants. Genomic localization revealed that the trihelix family members were highly conserved among cereal species, even though some homeologs generated during the tetraploidy of maize were lost. Three-dimensional structural analyses and an examination of subcellular localization of this family supported the involvement of all five clades in transcriptional regulation. Furthermore, the family members from all clades in sorghum and rice showed a broad and dynamic expression pattern in response to abiotic stresses, indicating regulatory subfunctionalization of their original functions. This finding is further supported by the phenotypes of enhanced tolerance to cold, salt, and drought in transgenic plants overexpressing Sb06g023980 and Sb06g024110. In contrast, few Arobidopsis genes showed inducible expression under abiotic stress conditions, which may indicate a functional shift. Finally, our co-expression analysis points to the involvement of this family in various metabolic processes, implying their further functional divergence. PMID:24864043

  4. Family history of colorectal cancer: clinicians' preventive recommendations and patient behavior.

    PubMed

    Zlot, Amy I; Silvey, Kerry; Newell, Nanette; Coates, Ralph J; Leman, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Few population-based studies have addressed the role that family history of colorectal cancer (CRC) plays in clinician decision making or patient health choices. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of family history of CRC on clinician practice, patient CRC screening, and patient preventive behavior. We analyzed 2008 Oregon Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System data to examine associations between family history of CRC and 1) patient-reported clinician recommendations, 2) perceived risk of developing CRC, 3) adoption of preventive and screening behaviors, and 4) CRC risk factors among 1,795 respondents without CRC. A family history of CRC was positively associated with a higher likelihood of respondents reporting that their clinicians discussed colorectal cancer screening (OR, 4.2; 95% CI, 2.4-7.4) and of respondents having colorectal screening within the recommended time period (OR, 2.2; 95% CI, 1.3-3.9). A family history of CRC was also associated with respondents reporting lifestyle changes to prevent CRC (OR, 2.6; 95% CI, 1.7-4.0). A family history of CRC may prompt clinicians to recommend screening and preventive behavior changes and motivate patients to adopt such strategies.

  5. The CCC2000 Birth Cohort Study of Register-Based Family History of Mental Disorders and Psychotic Experiences in Offspring.

    PubMed

    Jeppesen, Pia; Larsen, Janne Tidselbak; Clemmensen, Lars; Munkholm, Anja; Rimvall, Martin Kristian; Rask, Charlotte Ulrikka; van Os, Jim; Petersen, Liselotte; Skovgaard, Anne Mette

    2015-09-01

    Psychotic experiences (PE) in individuals of the general population are hypothesized to mark the early expression of the pathology underlying psychosis. This notion of PE as an intermediate phenotype is based on the premise that PE share genetic liability with psychosis. We examined whether PE in childhood was predicted by a family history of mental disorder with psychosis rather than a family history of nonpsychotic mental disorder and whether this association differed by severity of PE. The study examined data on 1632 children from a general population birth cohort assessed at age 11-12 years by use of a semistructured interview covering 22 psychotic symptoms. The Danish national registers were linked to describe the complete family history of hospital-based psychiatric diagnoses. Uni- and multivariable logistic regressions were used to test whether a family history of any mental disorder with psychosis, or of nonpsychotic mental disorder, vs no diagnoses was associated with increased risk of PE in offspring (hierarchical exposure variable). The occurrence of PE in offspring was significantly associated with a history of psychosis among the first-degree relatives (adjusted relative risk [RR] = 3.29, 95% CI: 1.82-5.93). The risk increased for combined hallucinations and delusions (adjusted RR = 5.90, 95% CI: 2.64-13.16). A history of nonpsychotic mental disorders in first-degree relatives did not contribute to the risk of PE in offspring nor did any mental disorder among second-degree relatives. Our findings support the notion of PE as a vulnerability marker of transdiagnostic psychosis. The effect of psychosis in first-degree relatives may operate through shared genetic and environmental factors.

  6. Paranoid psychosis (delusional disorder) and schizophrenia. A family history study.

    PubMed

    Kendler, K S; Hays, P

    1981-05-01

    Family studies have played a central role in the controversy over the nosologic status of paranoid psychosis or delusional disorder (DD). In this study, 12 cases of DD were blindly rediagnosed from a cohort of 146 schizophrenics. The prevalence of schizophrenia in the relatives of the DD probands was significantly less than that found in the relatives of the schizophrenics. Affective illness was equally uncommon in both groups of relatives. Inferiority feelings clustered significantly in the relatives of the DD probands. From a familial perspective, DD is not closely related to schizophrenia or affective illness but does have a familial link to inferiority feelings. Investigators should take cognizance of the entity of DD as one possible source of the heterogeneity within "schizophrenia."

  7. Factors Associated with Colorectal Cancer Risk Perception: The Role of Polyps and Family History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stark, Jennifer Rider; Bertone-Johnson, Elizabeth R.; Costanza, Mary E.; Stoddard, Anne M.

    2006-01-01

    It is unclear how objective risk factors influence the factors associated with colorectal cancer (CRC) risk perception. The goals of this study were to investigate factors associated with perceived risk of CRC and to explore how these relationships were modified by personal history of polyps or family history of CRC. The study involved a mailed…

  8. Age-of-Recall Effects on Family-of-Origin Ratings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hampson, Robert B.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    College students (n=141) completed Self-Report Family Inventory on Beavers Systems Model of Family Functioning, rating current family, family when they were 10 years old, and family when they were 16 years old. Found significant differences between age-of-recall groups, with recall ratings from age 10 significantly more competent, cohesive, and…

  9. Focus Group Evaluation of Customized Family Health History Education Materials in a North Carolina Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, Karen; Edelson, Vaughn; O'Leary, James; Christianson, Carol; Henrich, Vincent

    2011-01-01

    The "Does It Run In The Family?" booklets provide educational materials about family health history (FHH) and basic genetics to readers of all levels and are customizable for local communities. Purpose: The booklets were customized and provided to focus groups to evaluate their usefulness in conveying health information at a low reading level.…

  10. Family History of Speech and Language Impairment in African American Children: Implications for Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pruitt, Sonja L.; Garrity, April W.; Oetting, Janna B.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: We explored the prevalence of a positive family history of speech and language impairment in African American children as a function of their socioeconomic status (SES), receipt of speech-language services, and diagnosis of specific language impairment (SLI). Method: Data were collected in 2 phases. Phase 1 included family questionnaires…

  11. Influence of Family History of Cancer on Engagement in Protective Health Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amuta, Ann O.; Barry, Adam E.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Approximately 1580 people die from cancer each day. Family history is highlighted as an especially important indicator of cancer risk. Purpose: To determine whether having a family member with cancer influences preventive behaviors (e.g., smoking, physical activity, and screenings). Methods: We conducted a secondary data analysis…

  12. FROM THE HISTORY OF PHYSICS My father and my family

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ginzburg, Vitaly L.

    2011-02-01

    In what proved to be his last paper, Vitaly Lazarevich Ginzburg gives some autobiographical information about his family tree, relatives, ancestors, and descendents and where the name Ginzburg comes from. A major part of V L Ginzburg's memoir is about his father — making up for what he considered to be a 'somewhat neglected' filial duty.

  13. Engaging Students: Discovering Family and Consumer Sciences History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nickols, Sharon Y.; Sewell, Darby; Wilmarth, Melissa

    2008-01-01

    The centennial of the American Association of Family and Consumer Sciences (AAFCS) provides an opportunity to explore local as well as national aspects of the field. Studying events that shaped FCS and the women and men who provided early leadership reinforces the role of FCS in improving daily living conditions for the past century. Engaging…

  14. "That was grown folks' business": narrative reflection and response in older adults' family health history communication.

    PubMed

    Yamasaki, Jill; Hovick, Shelly R

    2015-01-01

    Given the importance of family health history and the pivotal role of older adults in communicating it, this study examines how African American older adults (a) characterize their understandings of health-related conditions in their family histories and (b) rationalize their motivations and constraints for sharing this information with current family members. Using narrative theory as a framework, we illustrate how the participants reflect on prior health-related experiences within the family to respond to moral and practical calls for communicating family health information to current relatives. Specifically, our analysis highlights how storied family secrets--as constructed by 28 participants in group and individual interviews--reveal and inform shifting cultural and generational practices that shape the lived health behaviors and communication of older adults at greater risk for health disparities.

  15. Canada basin: age and history of its continental margin

    SciTech Connect

    Sweeney, J.F.

    1985-02-01

    Presently available age controls suggest that the Canada basin formed during the Cretaceous Period between about 131 and 79 Ma. The opening process began with continental breakup that may have involved all parts of the North American polar margin at about the same time. The opening was completed by the formation of oceanic crust during the extended Cretaceous interval of normal geomagnetic polarity. Features characteristics of continental breakup, insofar as they are known, show systematic regional differences. From Brock to Axel Heiberg Island, continental breakup was associated with an extended (100 + Ma) stratigraphic hiatus and, northeastward from Ellef Ringnes Island, with extensive tholeiitic igneous activity. From Banks Island to northeastern Alaska, the breakup interval was abbreviated (20-30 Ma), and sparse igneous activity occurred. These differences can be produced by changes in the rate and/or amount of crustal stretching during margin formation and would imply relatively faster or more stretching northeast of Brock island. A continental margin of fixed age, exhibiting the indicated pattern of crustal stretching, could be produced along the trailing edge of a rotating block (Arctic Alaska terrane AA) with its pivot near the Mackenzie delta. When the rotation is restored, however, geological discrepancies are evident between Devonian and older rocks across the conjugate margins, suggesting an earlier history of drifting for the AA. Early Paleozoic correlations appear improved if the AA is placed, polar margin to polar margin, against northern Ellesmere Island and Greenland, where in the middle Paleozoic, it was sheared sinistrally along the Canadian margin to its pre-rotated position opposite Banks Island.

  16. Selective Disclosure in a First Conversation about a Family Death in James Agee's Novel "A Death in the Family"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rober, Peter; Rosenblatt, Paul C.

    2013-01-01

    The first conversation of a family about a family death is a neglected but potentially important topic. In a first conversation in James Agee's (1957/2006) novel "A Death in the Family," the member who knows the most about the accidental death of another member discloses information selectively. The first conversation in Agee's novel suggests that…

  17. Wastewater management through the ages: a history of mankind.

    PubMed

    Lofrano, Giusy; Brown, Jeanette

    2010-10-15

    Although much has been written about the history of water supply systems, there is a lack of corresponding information on wastewater management. This is surprising since the lack of sanitation affects human development to the same or even greater extent as the lack of clean water. While there may be an added stigma to discussing waste treatment, sanitation is widely perceived as meriting a significant claim on financial and political resources as well on the evolution of mankind. A literature review is presented on the evolution of wastewater management through the ages and its concurrent impact on human health and environment. Hopefully this information will improve the awareness of the past with a view to impacting future policies and technical developments. The review highlights the connection of environmental contamination with the ability to measure it, as well as the ways pollution control has been changed by advances in scientific knowledge. Attention is also drawn to the effects of political and societal events on wastewater management. A sanitation timeline has been constructed pointing out significant developments in the treatment of wastewater and improvements in analytical environmental chemistry. This review has been written in the belief that historical research showing the collective experience and "philosophy of sanitation" can provide inspiration to face future challenges.

  18. CTA Characteristics of the Circle of Willis and Intracranial Aneurysm in a Chinese Crowd with Family History of Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Zhang-ning; Dong, Wen-tao; Cai, Xin-wang; Zhang, Zhen; Zhang, Li-tong; Gao, Feng; Kang, Xiao-kui; Li, Jia; Wang, Hai-ning; Gao, Nan-nan; Ning, Xian-jia; Tu, Jun; Li, Feng-tan; Zhang, Jing; Jiang, Ying-jian; Li, Nai-xin; Yang, Shu-yuan; Zhang, Jian-ning; Wang, Jing-hua; Yang, Xin-yu

    2016-01-01

    Background and Purpose. The vascular morphology in crowd with family history of stroke remains unclear. The present study clarified the characteristics of the intracranial vascular CoW and prevalence of intracranial aneurysms in subjects with family history of stroke. Methods. A stratified cluster, random sampling method was used for subjects with family history of stroke among rural residents in Jixian, Tianjin, China. All the subjects underwent a physical examination, head computed tomography (CT) scan, and cephalic and cervical computed tomography angiography (CTA) scan. Anatomic variations in the Circle of Willis and cerebrovascular disease in this population were analyzed. Results. In the crowd with similar living environment, stable genetic background, and family history of stroke and without obvious nerve function impairment (1) hypoplasia or absence of A1 segment was significantly different in gender (male versus female: 9.8% versus 18.8%, p = 0.031), especially the right-side A1 (male versus female: 5.9% versus 16.4%, p = 0.004). (2) Hypoplasia or absence of bilateral posterior communicating arteries was more common in men than women (58.2% versus 45.3%, p = 0.032). Unilateral fetal posterior cerebral artery was observed more often in women than men (17.2% versus 8.5%, p = 0.028). (3) The percentage of subjects with incomplete CoW did not increase significantly with age. Compared to healthy Chinese people, the crowd had a higher percentage of incomplete CoW (p < 0.001). (4) No obvious correlation between risk factors and CoW was found. (5) The prevalence of aneurysm was 10.3% in the special crowd. Conclusions. The certain variations of CoW showed significant relation to gender, but not to age in people with family history of stroke. The incomplete circle may be a dangerous factor that is independent of common risk factors for stroke and tend to lead to cerebral ischemia in the crowd with family history of stroke. The prevalence of intracranial aneurysm is

  19. Familial appearance of congenital penile curvature – case history of two brothers

    PubMed Central

    Matuszewski, Marcin; Krajka, Kazimierz; Rębała, Krzysztof

    2013-01-01

    The true prevalence of congenital penile curvature (CPC) is difficult to determine. Some study reports suggests that this problem may occur in as many as 10% of the male population [1]. However, a literature search of the Medline database revealed no reference concerning familial appearance of congenital penile curvature. For that reason we would like to present our case series. Two brothers aged 25 and 26 respectively were admitted to the department of urology due to congenital penile curvature. Each patient was assessed by a history, physical examination, auto-photography of the erect penis, and a thorough sexual history. Concomitant anomalies of penile layers were absent in both cases. The Yachia [2] and Essed-Schroeder [3] corporoplasty technique were applied respectively. In follow-up both brothers reported straight erections. A survey of the fetal penis at different stages of development shows some degree of curvature in a considerable number of embryos [4]. Penile curvature may thus be considered almost physiological in embryos between 35 and 45 mm in length. Thus, it has also been proposed that penile curvature is secondary to an arrest in normal penile development [5]. Therefore, some form of congenital local androgen deficiency may be responsible for inherited penile curvature. PMID:24579033

  20. Size and Age Dependence of Koronis Family Colors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molnar, L. A.

    2011-10-01

    The ancient and massive Koronis family now has four identified subfamilies (asteroid families made by the breakup of fragments of the ancient collision), with ages running from 5.7 to 290 My. This presents unique opportunities to explore space weathering processes, along with dynamical processes such as collisions and binary formation and destruction. Analysis of family members with accurate SDSS measurements shows a correlation of average subfamily color with age that for the first time is highly statistically significant. Yet Thomas et al. (2011) report a size dependence of the colors of the ancient family that demands caution when comparing subfamilies with differing size distributions. Reanalyis of the Thomas et al. data show the reported break near asteroid diameter 5 km is not significant. However, analysis of the much more extensive SDSS data set show a significant break past diameter 2.5 km, with smaller objects systematically bluer. The break is not present in the Karin subfamily (the youngest at 5.7 My), but is already fully developed in the Eriphyla subfamily (only 220 My). The reddening trend with age remains even when comparing only asteroids of similar size, confirming the presence of space weathering phenomena. The meaning of the trend with size is not immediately clear. We consider briefly the strengths and weaknesses of several interpretations of the bluer colors for small objects: 1) those objects receive more jolts from random collisions capable of shaking the regolith and exposing fresh material beneath; 2) those objects receive more jolts from the cycle of fission and recombination driven by YORP; and 3) the lower gravity on those objects retains regolith less well.

  1. Premenopausal Trabecular Bone Loss is Associated with a Family History of Fragility Fracture

    PubMed Central

    Prior, J. C.; Hitchcock, C. L.; Vigna, Y. M.; Seifert-Klauss, V.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Although a fragility fracture family history (FFFH+) has repeatedly been shown to be associated with lower bone mineral density (BMD), its relationship to human BMD change is unclear. Animal research, however, documented that different purebred strains within rodent species have wide ranges in rates of bone acquisition during growth as well as in change post-ovariectomy. Our objective was to compare the rate of premenopausal spinal trabecular BMD change between women with and without a general family history of fragility fracture. Participants and Methods: Healthy premenopausal community women participated in prospective observational studies at two academic medical research centres: Vancouver, Canada (n = 66) and Munich, Germany (n = 20). The primary outcome was annual spinal BMD change, measured by quantitative computed tomography (QCT). The two studies employed similar methodologies for assessing QCT and FFFH. Results: Volunteer community participants had a mean age of 36.0 (SD, 6.9) years, body mass index 22.5 (2.4) and baseline QCT of 150.2 (22.5) mg/cm3 trabecular bone. The rates of BMD change were similar in both cities: − 3.5 (5.1)/year Vancouver, − 2.0 (3.4)/year Munich (95 % CI of difference: − 3.9, 0.9). Over a third of the women (31 of the 86, 36 %) reported FFFH+. Those with and without a FFFH were similar in demographics, nutrition, exercise, menstrual cycle and luteal phase lengths and physiological measures (serum calcium, osteocalcin and estradiol). However, women with FFFH+ lost trabecular BMD more rapidly: FFFH+, − 4.9 (5.0), FFFH−, − 2.2 (4.4) mg/cm3/year (95 % CI diff − 0.7 to − 4.8, F1.83 = 7.88, p = 0.006). FFFH+ explained 7.7 % of the variance in QCT volumetric trabecular spinal bone change/year in these healthy premenopausal women. Conclusion: This study shows for the first time that having a history of a fragility fracture in a family member is associated with a greater

  2. Predictors of Self-Reported Family Health History of Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Ricks-Santi, Luisel J; Thompson, Nicole; Ewing, Altovise; Harrison, Barbara; Higginbotham, Kimberly; Spencer, Cherie; Laiyemo, Adeyinka; DeWitty, Robert; Wilson, Lori; Horton, Sara; Dunmore-Griffith, Jacqueline; Williams, Carla; Frederick, Wayne

    2016-10-01

    The objective of this study was to identify predictors of self-reported family health history of breast cancer in an ethnically diverse population of women participating in a breast cancer screening program. Participants completed a self-administered questionnaire about their demography, health, breast health and family health history of breast cancer. The association between family health history of breast cancer and categorical variables were analyzed using the T test, chi square, and multi-nominal logistic regression. Those who were least likely to report a family history of cancer were African Americans (p = 0.02), and immigrant women from South America (p < 0.001) and Africa (p = 0.04). However, 34.4 % reported having a second-degree maternal relative with breast cancer compared to 6.9 % who reported having a second degree paternal relative with breast cancer. Therefore, there is a need to increase efforts to educate families about the importance of collecting and sharing one's family health history.

  3. Predictors of Self-Reported Family Health History of Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Ricks-Santi, Luisel J; Thompson, Nicole; Ewing, Altovise; Harrison, Barbara; Higginbotham, Kimberly; Spencer, Cherie; Laiyemo, Adeyinka; DeWitty, Robert; Wilson, Lori; Horton, Sara; Dunmore-Griffith, Jacqueline; Williams, Carla; Frederick, Wayne

    2016-10-01

    The objective of this study was to identify predictors of self-reported family health history of breast cancer in an ethnically diverse population of women participating in a breast cancer screening program. Participants completed a self-administered questionnaire about their demography, health, breast health and family health history of breast cancer. The association between family health history of breast cancer and categorical variables were analyzed using the T test, chi square, and multi-nominal logistic regression. Those who were least likely to report a family history of cancer were African Americans (p = 0.02), and immigrant women from South America (p < 0.001) and Africa (p = 0.04). However, 34.4 % reported having a second-degree maternal relative with breast cancer compared to 6.9 % who reported having a second degree paternal relative with breast cancer. Therefore, there is a need to increase efforts to educate families about the importance of collecting and sharing one's family health history. PMID:26201692

  4. A comparison of genetic risk score with family history for estimating prostate cancer risk

    PubMed Central

    Helfand, Brian T

    2016-01-01

    Prostate cancer (PCa) testing is recommended by most authoritative groups for high-risk men including those with a family history of the disease. However, family history information is often limited by patient knowledge and clinician intake, and thus, many men are incorrectly assigned to different risk groups. Alternate methods to assess PCa risk are required. In this review, we discuss how genetic variants, referred to as PCa-risk single-nucleotide polymorphisms, can be used to calculate a genetic risk score (GRS). GRS assigns a relatively unique value to all men based on the number of PCa-risk SNPs that an individual carries. This GRS value can provide a more precise estimate of a man's PCa risk. This is particularly relevant in situations when an individual is unaware of his family history. In addition, GRS has utility and can provide a more precise estimate of risk even among men with a positive family history. It can even distinguish risk among relatives with the same degree of family relationships. Taken together, this review serves to provide support for the clinical utility of GRS as an independent test to provide supplemental information to family history. As such, GRS can serve as a platform to help guide-shared decision-making processes regarding the timing and frequency of PCa testing and biopsies. PMID:27004541

  5. Impaired Fasting Glucose in Omani Adults with no Family History of Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Al-Sinani, Sawsan; Al-Shafaee, Mohammed; Al-Mamari, Ali; Woodhouse, Nicolas; El-Shafie, Omayma; Hassan, Mohammed O.; Al-Yahyaee, Said; Albarwani, Sulayma; Jaju, Deepali; Al-Hashmi, Khamis; Al-Abri, Mohammed; Rizvi, Syed; Bayoumi, Riad

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of impaired fasting glucose (IFG) among Omani adults with no family history (FH) of diabetes and to investigate the factors behind the risk of developing type 2 diabetes (T2D), while excluding a FH of diabetes. Methods: A total of 1,182 Omani adults, aged ≥40 years, visited the Family Medicine & Community Health Clinic at Sultan Qaboos University Hospital, Oman, on days other than the Diabetes Clinic days, from July 2010 to July 2011. The subjects were interviewed and asked if they had T2D or a FH of T2D. Results: Only 191 (16%) reported no personal history of T2D or FH of the disease. Of these, anthropometric and biochemical data was complete in 159 subjects. Of these a total of 42 (26%) had IFG according to the American Diabetes Association criteria. Body mass index, fasting insulin, haemoglobin A1C and blood pressure (BP), were significantly higher among individuals with IFG (P <0.01, P <0.05, P <0.01 and P <0.01, respectively). In addition, fasting insulin, BP and serum lipid profile were correlated with obesity indices (P <0.05). Obesity indices were strongly associated with the risk of IFG among Omanis, with waist circumference being the strongest predictor. Conclusion: Despite claiming no FH of diabetes, a large number of Omani adults in this study had a high risk of developing diabetes. This is possibly due to environmental factors and endogamy. The high prevalence of obesity combined with genetically susceptible individuals is a warning that diabetes could be a future epidemic in Oman. PMID:24790740

  6. Health maintenance in school-aged children: Part I. History, physical examination, screening, and immunizations.

    PubMed

    Riley, Margaret; Locke, Amy B; Skye, Eric P

    2011-03-15

    The goals of the well-child examination in school-aged children (kindergarten through early adolescence) are promoting health, detecting disease, and counseling to prevent injury and future health problems. A complete history should address any concerns from the patient and family and screen for lifestyle habits, including diet, physical activity, daily screen time (e.g., television, computer, video games), hours of sleep per night, dental care, and safety habits. School performance can be used for developmental surveillance. A full physical examination should be performed; however, the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommends against routine scoliosis screening and testicular examination. Children should be screened for obesity, which is defined as a body mass index at or above the 95th percentile for age and sex, and resources for comprehensive, intensive behavioral interventions should be provided to children with obesity. Although the evidence is mixed regarding screening for hypertension before 18 years of age, many experts recommend checking blood pressure annually beginning at three years of age. The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends vision and hearing screening annually or every two years in school-aged children. There is insufficient evidence to recommend screening for dyslipidemia in children of any age, or screening for depression before 12 years of age. All children should receive at least 400 IU of vitamin D daily, with higher doses indicated in children with vitamin D deficiency. Children who live in areas with inadequate fluoride in the water (less than 0.6 ppm) should receive a daily fluoride supplement. Age-appropriate immunizations should be given, as well as any missed immunizations. PMID:21404978

  7. Health maintenance in school-aged children: Part I. History, physical examination, screening, and immunizations.

    PubMed

    Riley, Margaret; Locke, Amy B; Skye, Eric P

    2011-03-15

    The goals of the well-child examination in school-aged children (kindergarten through early adolescence) are promoting health, detecting disease, and counseling to prevent injury and future health problems. A complete history should address any concerns from the patient and family and screen for lifestyle habits, including diet, physical activity, daily screen time (e.g., television, computer, video games), hours of sleep per night, dental care, and safety habits. School performance can be used for developmental surveillance. A full physical examination should be performed; however, the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommends against routine scoliosis screening and testicular examination. Children should be screened for obesity, which is defined as a body mass index at or above the 95th percentile for age and sex, and resources for comprehensive, intensive behavioral interventions should be provided to children with obesity. Although the evidence is mixed regarding screening for hypertension before 18 years of age, many experts recommend checking blood pressure annually beginning at three years of age. The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends vision and hearing screening annually or every two years in school-aged children. There is insufficient evidence to recommend screening for dyslipidemia in children of any age, or screening for depression before 12 years of age. All children should receive at least 400 IU of vitamin D daily, with higher doses indicated in children with vitamin D deficiency. Children who live in areas with inadequate fluoride in the water (less than 0.6 ppm) should receive a daily fluoride supplement. Age-appropriate immunizations should be given, as well as any missed immunizations.

  8. How much colonoscopy screening should be recommended to individuals with a varying degree of family history of colorectal cancer?

    PubMed Central

    Wilschut, Janneke A.; Steyerberg, Ewout W.; van Leerdam, Monique E.; Lansdorp-Vogelaar, Iris; Habbema, J. Dik F.; van Ballegooijen, Marjolein

    2011-01-01

    Background Individuals with a family history of colorectal cancer (CRC) are at increased risk for CRC. Current screening recommendations for these individuals are based on expert opinion. We investigated optimal screening strategies for individuals with a varying degree of family history of CRC based on a cost-effectiveness analysis. Methods We used the MISCAN-Colon micro-simulation model to estimate costs and effects of CRC screening strategies, varying by age to start and stop screening and screening interval. We defined four risk groups, characterized by the number of affected first degree relatives (FDR) and their age at CRC diagnosis. For all risk groups, the optimal screening strategy had an incremental cost effectiveness ratio (ICER) of approximately $50,000 per life-year gained. Results The optimal screening strategy for individuals with 1 FDR diagnosed after age 50 was 6 colonoscopies every 5 years starting at age 50, compared to 4 colonoscopies every 7 years starting at age 50 for average risk individuals. The optimal strategy had 10 colonoscopies every 4 years for individuals with 1 FDR diagnosed before age 50, 13 colonoscopies every 3 years for individuals with 2 or more FDRs diagnosed after age 50, and 15 colonoscopies every 3 years for individuals with two or more FDRs of which at least 1 is diagnosed before age 50. Conclusions The optimal screening strategy varies considerably with the number of affected FDRs and their age of diagnosis. Shorter screening intervals than the currently recommended 5 years may be appropriate for the highest risk individuals. PMID:21387272

  9. Family history of alcoholism does not predict neuropsychological performance in alcoholics.

    PubMed

    Reed, R; Grant, I; Adams, K M

    1987-08-01

    We examined the relationship of history of alcoholism in first-degree relatives to neuropsychological performance of alcoholics abstinent from several weeks to several years. Eighty-four men were assigned to four groups based on "strength" of family history of alcoholism. The groups were: (1) "strong history," a parent plus another first-degree relative positive; (2) "moderate," parent only positive; (3) "weak," nonparent first-degree relative only positive; and (4) "negative," no first-degree relative positive. There were no significant between-group differences in NP performance. In other analyses there were no NP differences between alcoholics classified positive or negative purely on basis of paternal alcoholism, and no differences between subjects who had multigenerational versus unigenerational versus negative familial histories of alcoholism. It is concluded that genetic loading for alcoholism does not significantly affect the NP status of abstinent alcoholic groups equated for education, drinking history, and medical risk.

  10. Maternal Chronological Age, Prenatal and Perinatal History, Social Support, and Parenting of Infants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bornstein, Marc H.; Putnick, Diane L.; Suwalsky, Joan T. D.; Gini, Motti

    2006-01-01

    The role of maternal chronological age in prenatal and perinatal history, social support, and parenting practices of new mothers (N=335) was examined. Primiparas of 5-month-old infants ranged in age from 13 to 42 years. Age effects were zero, linear, and nonlinear. Nonlinear age effects were significantly associated up to a certain age with little…

  11. Family, caring and ageing in the United Kingdom.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, Tony; Powell, Jason L

    2005-03-01

    This paper provides a critical exploration of the assumptions and narratives underpinning the development of social policy initiatives targeting caring relationships based upon family ties. Using a narrative approach attention is drawn to the ways in which family identities are open to a far greater range of negotiation than is assumed by policy. Drawing on the United Kingdom as a case example, questions are posed about intergenerational relations and the nature of late life citizenship. The comparatively recent invention of narratives supporting 'informal care' and the link with neo-liberal and 'third way' notions of active citizenship are explored. As is the failure of policy developments to take into account the diversity of care giving styles and the complexity of caring relationships. It is argued that the uneven and locally specific ways in which policy develops enables the co-existence of a complex range of narratives about family, caring and ageing which address diverse aspects of the family life of older people in often contradictory ways.

  12. Pectus Excavatum and Pectus Carinatum: Associated Conditions, Family History, and Postoperative Patient Satisfaction

    PubMed Central

    Kuru, Pinar; Cakiroglu, Aylin; Er, Aynur; Ozbakir, Hincal; Cinel, Ali Emin; Cangut, Busra; Iris, Merve; Canbaz, Berkay; Pıçak, Ebru; Yuksel, Mustafa

    2016-01-01

    Background Pectus excavatum (PE) and pectus carinatum (PC) are the most common chest wall deformities. In this study, we aimed to characterize how patients obtained information about these deformities, as well as patients’ family history, associated medical problems, and postoperative satisfaction after the Nuss and Abramson procedures. Methods This cross-sectional retrospective study included patients who were operated by a single surgeon between 2006 and 2013. Follow-up calls were made after approval of our institution’s ethics committee. We reached 207 of the 336 PE patients (61.6%) and 73 of the 96 PC patients (76%). Results The majority of the patients were male (85% of the PE patients and 91.8% of the PC patients). The age of diagnosis of PE was 14.52±0.51 years and the age at the time of operation was 17.89±0.42 years; for PC patients, the corresponding ages were 15.23±0.55 years and 16.77±0.55 years, respectively. A total of 70% of the PE patients and 63.8% of the PC patients obtained information about pectus deformities through the Internet. In 27.1% of the PE patients with an associated anomaly, 57.1% (n=13) had scoliosis, while 41.1% of the PC patients with an associated anomaly had kyphosis (n=5). Postoperative satisfaction, as evaluated on a scale from 0 to 10, was 8.17±0.15 for PE patients and 8.37±0.26 for PC patients. The postoperative pain duration was 51.93±5.18 days for PE patients and 38.5±6.88 days for PC patients. Conclusion In this study, we found that most patients with pectus deformities were male. The Internet was an important resource for patients to learn about their deformities. Family history and associated anomalies were identified as important aspects for consideration in the clinical setting. The patients reported high levels of postoperative satisfaction, and pain management was found to be one of the most important elements of postoperative care. PMID:26889443

  13. The impact of family history of breast cancer on knowledge, attitudes, and early detection practices of Mexican women along the Mexico-US border.

    PubMed

    Bird, Yelena; Banegas, Matthew P; Moraros, John; King, Sasha; Prapasiri, Surasri; Thompson, Beti

    2011-10-01

    Rates of breast cancer (BC) have increased in Mexico, with the highest incidence and mortality rates observed in the northern Mexican states. This study aimed to describe the BC knowledge, attitudes and screening practices among Mexican women with and without a family history of BC residing along the Mexico-US border, and identify factors associated with screening behaviors. One hundred and twenty eight Mexican women aged 40 and older completed an interviewer-administered questionnaire on sociodemographic characteristics, knowledge, family history, and screening practices. There were no significant differences between Mexican women with and without a family history. Over 60% of women in both groups had never had a mammogram/breast ultrasound, and more than 50% had never obtained a clinical breast exam. Age, marital status, insurance, and breast cancer knowledge significantly influenced BC screening behaviors among Mexican women. Further research is needed to examine other key factors associated with screening utilization, in effort of improving BC rates.

  14. The Impact of Family History of Breast Cancer on Knowledge, Attitudes, and Early Detection Practices of Mexican Women Along the Mexico-US Border

    PubMed Central

    Bird, Yelena; Moraros, John; King, Sasha; Prapasiri, Surasri; Thompson, Beti

    2014-01-01

    Rates of breast cancer (BC) have increased in Mexico, with the highest incidence and mortality rates observed in the northern Mexican states. This study aimed to describe the BC knowledge, attitudes and screening practices among Mexican women with and without a family history of BC residing along the Mexico-US border, and identify factors associated with screening behaviors. One hundred and twenty eight Mexican women aged 40 and older completed an interviewer-administered questionnaire on sociodemographic characteristics, knowledge, family history, and screening practices. There were no significant differences between Mexican women with and without a family history. Over 60% of women in both groups had never had a mammogram/breast ultrasound, and more than 50% had never obtained a clinical breast exam. Age, marital status, insurance, and breast cancer knowledge significantly influenced BC screening behaviors among Mexican women. Further research is needed to examine other key factors associated with screening utilization, in effort of improving BC rates. PMID:21104130

  15. Comparison of the effectiveness of duloxetine in depressed patients with and without a family history of affective disorders in first-degree relatives

    PubMed Central

    WANG, Shiliang; QIAN, Mincai; ZHONG, Hua; SONG, Guohua; LU, Meijuan; FENG, Rui; ZHANG, Lei; NI, Jianliang; CHEN, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Background It remains unclear whether or not a positive family history of affective disorders predicts the effectiveness of antidepressant treatment of depression. Aims Assess the relationship of a family history of affective disorders to the efficacy of duloxetine in the treatment of depressive disorder. Methods Seventy-seven patients with depressive disorder (as defined by the 10th edition of the International Classification of Diseases, ICD-10) were enrolled in the study and treated with standard doses of duloxetine for 12 weeks. Among these patients 37 had a family history of affective disorder in first-degree relatives and 40 did not. The Hamilton Depression rating scale (HAMD-17), Hamilton Anxiety rating scale (HAMA), Side Effects Rating Scale (SERS), Snaith-Hamilton Pleasure Scale (SHAPS), and Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) were assessed at baseline and at the end of the 2nd, 4th, 6th, 8th, and 12th week after enrollment. Repeated measures analysis of variance and logistic regression were used to analyze the association between a family history of affective disorders and the efficacy of duloxetine. Results Patients with a positive family history of affective disorders had an earlier age of onset, a longer duration of illness, a higher level of psychic anxiety, and more prominent anhedonia. Repeated measures analysis of variance showed a significant improvement in the severity of depression over the 12 weeks but no differences in the magnitude or speed of improvement between the two groups. Treatment was considered effective (i.e., drop in baseline HAMD-17 total score of ≥50%) in 75.7% of those with a family history of affective disorders and in 77.5% of those without a family history (X2=0.04, p=0.850). Conclusions Family history of affective disorders is not associated with the effectiveness of duloxetine in the acute treatment of depressive disorder. PMID:26549960

  16. Enhancing the Collection, Discussion and Use of Family Health History by Consumers, Nurses and Other Health Care Providers: Because Family Health History Matters.

    PubMed

    Underwood, Sandra Millon; Kelber, Sheryl

    2015-09-01

    The family health history (FHH) has long been used by nurses and other health care providers in clinical practice to determine if an individual, their family members, or their future generations are at an increased risk of heritable disease development. Information gleaned from the FHH can be used to better integrate preventive strategies into the plan of care. This report presents a summary of an exploratory pilot study that focused on the collection and use of FHH among a targeted group of Midwestern men and women. Findings suggest a need for efforts to further enhance the public's awareness of the importance of FHH.

  17. Multiple myeloma and family history of lymphohaematopoietic cancers: Results from the International Multiple Myeloma Consortium.

    PubMed

    Schinasi, Leah H; Brown, Elizabeth E; Camp, Nicola J; Wang, Sophia S; Hofmann, Jonathan N; Chiu, Brian C; Miligi, Lucia; Beane Freeman, Laura E; de Sanjose, Silvia; Bernstein, Leslie; Monnereau, Alain; Clavel, Jacqueline; Tricot, Guido J; Atanackovic, Djordje; Cocco, Pierluigi; Orsi, Laurent; Dosman, James A; McLaughlin, John R; Purdue, Mark P; Cozen, Wendy; Spinelli, John J; de Roos, Anneclaire J

    2016-10-01

    Family clusters of multiple myeloma (MM) suggest disease heritability. Nevertheless, patterns of inheritance and the importance of genetic versus environmental risk factors in MM aetiology remain unclear. We pooled data from eleven case-control studies from the International Multiple Myeloma Consortium to characterize the association of MM risk with having a first-degree relative with a history of a lympho-haematapoietic cancer. Unconditional logistic regression models, adjusted for study, sex, age and education level, were used to estimate associations between MM risk and having a first-degree relative with a history of non-Hodgkin lymphoma, Hodgkin lymphoma, leukaemia or MM. Sex, African American race/ethnicity and age were explored as effect modifiers. A total of 2843 cases and 11 470 controls were included. MM risk was elevated in association with having a first-degree relative with any lympho-haematapoietic cancer (Odds Ratio (OR) = 1·29, 95% Confidence Interval (CI): 1·08-1·55). The association was particularly strong for having a first-degree relative with MM (OR = 1·90, 95% CI: 1·26-2·87), especially among men (OR = 4·13, 95% CI: 2·17-7·85) and African Americans (OR = 5·52, 95% CI: 1·87-16·27).These results support the hypothesis that genetic inheritance plays a role in MM aetiology. Future studies are warranted to characterize interactions of genetic markers with environmental exposures.

  18. Family history of atherosclerotic vascular disease is associated with the presence of abdominal aortic aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Ye, Zi; Bailey, Kent R; Austin, Erin; Kullo, Iftikhar J

    2016-02-01

    We investigated whether family history (FHx) of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) was associated with presence of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). The study cohort comprised of 696 patients with AAA (70±8 years, 84% men) and 2686 controls (68±10 years, 61% men) recruited from noninvasive vascular and stress electrocardiogram (ECG) laboratories at Mayo Clinic. AAA was defined as a transverse diameter of abdominal aorta ⩾ 3 cm or history of AAA repair. Controls were not known to have AAA. FHx was defined as having at least one first-degree relative with aortic aneurysm or with onset of ASCVD (coronary, cerebral or peripheral artery disease) before age 65 years. FHx of aortic aneurysm or ASCVD were each associated with presence of AAA after adjustment for age, sex, conventional risk factors and ASCVD: adjusted odds ratios (OR; 95% confidence interval): 2.17 (1.66-2.83, p < 0.01) and 1.31 (1.08-1.59, p < 0.01), respectively. FHx of ASCVD remained associated with AAA after additional adjustment for FHx of aortic aneurysm: adjusted OR: 1.27 (1.05-1.55, p = 0.01). FHx of ASCVD in multiple arterial locations was associated with higher odds of having AAA: the adjusted odds were 1.23 times higher for each additionally affected arterial location reported in the FHx (1.08-1.40, p = 0.01). Our results suggest both unique and shared environmental and genetic factors mediating susceptibility to AAA and ASCVD. PMID:26566659

  19. Family history of cancer and germline BRCA2 mutations in sporadic exocrine pancreatic cancer

    PubMed Central

    Real, F X; Malats, N; Lesca, G; Porta, M; Chopin, S; Lenoir, G M; Sinilnikova, O

    2002-01-01

    Background: Hereditary factors have been reported in 5–10% of cases with exocrine pancreatic cancer and recent data support a role for BRCA2. Aims: We have studied the prevalence of germline BRCA2 mutations in two groups of patients with exocrine pancreatic cancer from an unselected series in Spain: group A included 24 cases showing familial aggregation of cancer and group B included 54 age, sex, and hospital matched cases without such evidence. Methods: Information was obtained by interview of patients and was validated by a telephone interview with a structured questionnaire. In patients from group A, >80% of the coding sequence of BRCA2 was analysed; in patients from group B, the regions in which germline BRCA2 mutations have been described to be associated with pancreatic cancer were screened. Results: Telephone interviews led to reclassification of 7/54 cases (13%). Familial aggregation of cancer was found in 24/165 cases (14.5%); six patients had a first degree relative with pancreatic cancer (3.6%) and nine patients had relatives with breast cancer. Germline BRCA2 mutations were not identified in any patient from group A (0/23). Among group B cases, one germline variant (T5868G>Asn1880Lys) was found in a 59 year old male without a family history of cancer. The 6174delT mutation was not found in any of the 71 cases analysed. Conclusions: The overall prevalence of BRCA2 mutations among patients with pancreatic cancer in Spain is low and the 6174delT mutation appears to be very infrequent. Our data do not support screening patients with cancer of the pancreas for germline BRCA2 mutations to identify relatives at high risk of developing this tumour. PMID:11950811

  20. Alcohol dependence, family history, and D2 dopamine receptor function as neuroendocrinologically assessed with apomorphine.

    PubMed

    Wiesbeck, G A; Mauerer, C; Thome, J; Jakob, F; Boening, J

    1995-11-01

    Fifteen alcohol dependent men with an alcohol dependent first degree relative (i.e. family history positive or FHP), 15 well matched alcohol dependent men without a family history for alcohol dependence (i.e. family history negative or FHN), and 15 healthy controls (CONTR) participated in this study. The three groups were compared according to their postsynaptic D2 dopamine receptor function as assessed by growth hormone release after stimulation with the dopamine receptor agonist apomorphine. Statistical evaluation was done by planned comparisons within a one-way ANOVA. Alcohol dependent subjects significantly differed from CONTRs as long as family history was not taken into account (t(42) = 2.38; P = 0.022*). When differentiating according to family history, both FHPs and FHNs maintained a blunted growth hormone response. However, the difference between FHNs and CONTRs, though present, dropped out of statistical significance (t(42) = 1.65; P = 0.105); at the same time, the difference between FHPs and CONTRs became slightly stronger (t(42) = 2.47; p = 0.017*). In conclusion, our data give neuroendocrinological support to the assumption that a reduced D2 dopamine receptor function in alcohol dependent men is not only a state marker of residual heavy drinking but also a genetically determined trait marker.

  1. Teaching History in a Post-Industrial Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bianchetti, Ann

    2004-01-01

    As a social studies teacher, the author emphasizes the story of history (sticking to the facts as much as they are known) and the human qualities of the players. Middle school kids are in the throes of exploring self-identity and attempting to define their worlds. They love drama, and history provides plenty of it. The author finds that teaching…

  2. Deriving consumer-facing disease concepts for family health histories using multi-source sampling.

    PubMed

    Hulse, Nathan C; Wood, Grant M; Haug, Peter J; Williams, Marc S

    2010-10-01

    The family health history has long been recognized as an effective way of understanding individuals' susceptibility to familial disease; yet electronic tools to support the capture and use of these data have been characterized as inadequate. As part of an ongoing effort to build patient-facing tools for entering detailed family health histories, we have compiled a set of concepts specific to familial disease using multi-source sampling. These concepts were abstracted by analyzing family health history data patterns in our enterprise data warehouse, collection patterns of consumer personal health records, analyses from the local state health department, a healthcare data dictionary, and concepts derived from genetic-oriented consumer education materials. Collectively, these sources yielded a set of more than 500 unique disease concepts, represented by more than 2500 synonyms for supporting patients in entering coded family health histories. We expect that these concepts will be useful in providing meaningful data and education resources for patients and providers alike. PMID:20382264

  3. Learning from e-Family History: A Model of Online Family Historian Research Behaviour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friday, Kate

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: This paper reports on doctoral research which investigated the online research behaviour of family historians, from the overall perspective of local studies collections and developing online services for family historians. Method: A hybrid (primarily ethnographic) study was employed using qualitative diaries and shadowing, to examine…

  4. Roots run deep: Investigating psychological mechanisms between history of family aggression and abusive supervision.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Patrick Raymund James M; Restubog, Simon Lloyd D; Kiewitz, Christian; Scott, Kristin L; Tang, Robert L

    2014-09-01

    In this article, we examine the relationships between supervisor-level factors and abusive supervision. Drawing from social learning theory (Bandura, 1973), we argue that supervisors' history of family aggression indirectly impacts abusive supervision via both hostile cognitions and hostile affect, with angry rumination functioning as a first-stage moderator. Using multisource data, we tested the proposed relationships in a series of 4 studies, each providing evidence of constructive replication. In Study 1, we found positive relationships between supervisors' history of family aggression, hostile affect, explicit hostile cognitions, and abusive supervision. We obtained the same pattern of results in Studies 2, 3, and 4 using an implicit measure of hostile cognitions and controlling for previously established antecedents of abusive supervision. Angry rumination moderated the indirect relationship between supervisors' history of family aggression and abusive supervision via hostile affect only. Overall, the results highlight the important role of supervisor-level factors in the abusive supervision dynamics. PMID:24731179

  5. Martian Meteorite Ages and Implications for Martian Cratering History

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nyquist, Laurence E.

    2006-01-01

    New radiometrically determined ages of Martian meteorites add to the growing number with crystallization ages < 1.4 Ga. The observation of mainly geologically young ages for the Martian meteorites, the only exception being the 4.5 Ga ALH84001 [1], is paradoxical when viewed in context of a Martian surface thought to be mostly much older as inferred from the surface density of meteorite craters [2]. There appears to be at least a twofold difference between the observed ages of Martian meteorites and their expected ages as inferred from the ages of Martian surfaces obtained from crater densities.

  6. Natural history of age-related lobular involution and impact on breast cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Radisky, Derek C; Visscher, Daniel W; Frank, Ryan D; Vierkant, Robert A; Winham, Stacey; Stallings-Mann, Melody; Hoskin, Tanya L; Nassar, Aziza; Vachon, Celine M; Denison, Lori A; Hartmann, Lynn C; Frost, Marlene H; Degnim, Amy C

    2016-02-01

    Age-related lobular involution (LI) is a physiological process in which the terminal duct lobular units of the breast regress as a woman ages. Analyses of breast biopsies from women with benign breast disease (BBD) have found that extent of LI is negatively associated with subsequent breast cancer development. Here we assess the natural course of LI within individual women, and the impact of progressive LI on breast cancer risk. The Mayo Clinic BBD cohort consists of 13,455 women with BBD from 1967 to 2001. The BBD cohort includes 1115 women who had multiple benign biopsies, 106 of whom had developed breast cancer. Within this multiple biopsy cohort, the progression of the LI process was examined by age at initial biopsy and time between biopsies. The relationship between LI progression and breast cancer risk was assessed using standardized incidence ratios and by Cox proportional hazards analysis. Women who had multiple biopsies were younger age and had a slightly higher family history of breast cancer as compared with the overall BBD cohort. Extent of LI at subsequent biopsy was greater with increasing time between biopsies and for women age 55 + at initial biopsy. Among women with multiple biopsies, there was a significant association of higher breast cancer risk among those with involution stasis (lack of progression, HR 1.63) as compared with those with involution progression, p = 0.036. The multiple biopsy BBD cohort allows for a longitudinal study of the natural progression of LI. The majority of women in the multiple biopsy cohort showed progression of LI status between benign biopsies, and extent of progression was highest for women who were in the perimenopausal age range at initial biopsy. Progression of LI status between initial and subsequent biopsy was associated with decreased breast cancer risk. PMID:26846985

  7. Protein families, natural history and biotechnological aspects of spider silk.

    PubMed

    Bittencourt, D; Oliveira, P F; Prosdocimi, F; Rech, E L

    2012-01-01

    Spiders are exceptionally diverse and abundant organisms in terrestrial ecosystems and their evolutionary success is certainly related to their capacity to produce different types of silks during their life cycle, making a specialized use on each of them. Presenting particularly tandemly arranged amino acid repeats, silk proteins (spidroins) have mechanical properties superior to most synthetic or natural high-performance fibers, which makes them very promising for biotechnology industry, with putative applications in the production of new biomaterials. During the evolution of spider species, complex behaviors of web production and usage have been coupled with anatomical specialization of spinning glands. Spiders retaining ancestral characters, such as the ones belonging to the Mygalomorph group, present simpler sorts of webs used mainly to build burrows and egg sacs, and their silks are produced by globular undifferentiated spinning glands. In contrast, Araneomorphae spiders have a complex spinning apparatus, presenting up to seven morphologically distinct glands, capable to produce a more complex set of silk polymers with different degrees of rigidness and elasticity associated with distinct behaviors. Aiming to provide a discussion involving a number of spider silks' biological aspects, in this review we present descriptions of members from each family of spidroin identified from five spider species of the Brazilian biodiversity, and an evolutionary study of them in correlation with the anatomical specialization of glands and spider's spinning behaviors. Due to the biotechnological importance of spider silks for the production of new biomaterials, we also discuss about the new possible technical and biomedical applications of spider silks and the current status of it. PMID:22911606

  8. Protein families, natural history and biotechnological aspects of spider silk.

    PubMed

    Bittencourt, D; Oliveira, P F; Prosdocimi, F; Rech, E L

    2012-01-01

    Spiders are exceptionally diverse and abundant organisms in terrestrial ecosystems and their evolutionary success is certainly related to their capacity to produce different types of silks during their life cycle, making a specialized use on each of them. Presenting particularly tandemly arranged amino acid repeats, silk proteins (spidroins) have mechanical properties superior to most synthetic or natural high-performance fibers, which makes them very promising for biotechnology industry, with putative applications in the production of new biomaterials. During the evolution of spider species, complex behaviors of web production and usage have been coupled with anatomical specialization of spinning glands. Spiders retaining ancestral characters, such as the ones belonging to the Mygalomorph group, present simpler sorts of webs used mainly to build burrows and egg sacs, and their silks are produced by globular undifferentiated spinning glands. In contrast, Araneomorphae spiders have a complex spinning apparatus, presenting up to seven morphologically distinct glands, capable to produce a more complex set of silk polymers with different degrees of rigidness and elasticity associated with distinct behaviors. Aiming to provide a discussion involving a number of spider silks' biological aspects, in this review we present descriptions of members from each family of spidroin identified from five spider species of the Brazilian biodiversity, and an evolutionary study of them in correlation with the anatomical specialization of glands and spider's spinning behaviors. Due to the biotechnological importance of spider silks for the production of new biomaterials, we also discuss about the new possible technical and biomedical applications of spider silks and the current status of it.

  9. Assessment of family history of alcoholism in sons of alcoholic fathers.

    PubMed

    Cowley, D S; Godon, C

    1995-01-01

    Results of studies of sons of alcoholics (SOAs) may vary depending on the density of the family history of alcoholism of the SOA subjects selected. To assess how reliably SOA subjects report a history of alcoholism in first- and second-degree relatives, we compared family histories obtained from 20 SOAs with those provided by their fathers. In all 20 cases, SOAs and their fathers agreed that the father met criteria for alcohol dependence but for no other primary Axis I psychiatric disorder. However, agreement was not as good for whether other paternal relatives in addition to the father were affected (kappa = 0.36) or for whether the family history was unigenerational or multigenerational for alcoholism (kappa = 0.44). Whether this discrepancy was due to under-reporting by the son or over-reporting by the father is unclear. These results suggest that 18-25 year old SOAs are reliable sources regarding alcohol dependence in their fathers, but that for determination of density of the family history of alcoholism, other relatives should also be interviewed directly.

  10. Summary of workgroup meeting on use of family history information in pediatric primary care and public health.

    PubMed

    Green, Ridgely Fisk

    2007-09-01

    A workgroup meeting on the use of family history information in pediatric primary care and public health sponsored by the National Center on Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention was held February 24 to 25, 2006. The workgroup participants met to discuss how to improve the use of family history information in pediatric settings. Topics addressed at the meeting included current practices, needs, and barriers for use of family history information in pediatric primary care and public health. Other considerations included how available family history tools might be applicable to pediatric settings and which areas require additional research. Specific model conditions were presented that illustrated issues involved in the use of family history information in pediatric settings, including cystic fibrosis, fragile X syndrome, polycystic kidney disease, hyperlipidemia and coronary artery disease, and birth defects. Ethical, economic, and technologic concerns involved in integration of family history information into pediatric settings were discussed also.

  11. Family Psychiatric History, Peritraumatic Reactivity, and Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms: A Prospective Study of Police

    PubMed Central

    Inslicht, Sabra S.; McCaslin, Shannon E.; Metzler, Thomas J.; Henn-Haase, Clare; Hart, Stacey L.; Maguen, Shira; Neylan, Thomas C.; Marmar, Charles R.

    2009-01-01

    Background Family history of psychiatric and substance use disorders has been associated with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in cross-sectional studies. Method Using a prospective design, we examined the relationships of family history of psychiatric and substance use disorders to posttraumatic stress symptoms in 278 healthy police recruits. During academy training, recruits were interviewed on family and personal psychopathology, prior cumulative civilian trauma exposure, and completed self-report questionnaires on nonspecific symptoms of distress and alcohol use. Twelve months after commencement of active duty, participants completed questionnaires on critical incident exposure over the previous year, peritraumatic distress to the worst critical incident during this time, and posttraumatic stress symptoms. Results A path model indicated: 1) family loading for mood and anxiety disorders had an indirect effect on posttraumatic stress symptoms at 12 months that was mediated through peritraumatic distress to the officer’s self-identified worst critical incident; 2) family loading for substance use disorders also predicted posttraumatic stress symptoms at 12 months and this relationship was mediated through peritraumatic distress. Conclusion These findings support a model in which family histories of psychopathology and substance abuse are pre-existing vulnerability factors for experiencing greater peritraumatic distress to critical incident exposure which, in turn, increases the risk for development of symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder. Replication in other first responders, military and civilians will be important to determine generalizability of these findings. PMID:19683259

  12. Beer flavor provokes striatal dopamine release in male drinkers: mediation by family history of alcoholism.

    PubMed

    Oberlin, Brandon G; Dzemidzic, Mario; Tran, Stella M; Soeurt, Christina M; Albrecht, Daniel S; Yoder, Karmen K; Kareken, David A

    2013-08-01

    Striatal dopamine (DA) is increased by virtually all drugs of abuse, including alcohol. However, drug-associated cues are also known to provoke striatal DA transmission- a phenomenon linked to the motivated behaviors associated with addiction. To our knowledge, no one has tested if alcohol's classically conditioned flavor cues, in the absence of a significant pharmacologic effect, are capable of eliciting striatal DA release in humans. Employing positron emission tomography (PET), we hypothesized that beer's flavor alone can reduce the binding potential (BP) of [(11)C]raclopride (RAC; a reflection of striatal DA release) in the ventral striatum, relative to an appetitive flavor control. Forty-nine men, ranging from social to heavy drinking, mean age 25, with a varied family history of alcoholism underwent two [(11)C]RAC PET scans: one while tasting beer, and one while tasting Gatorade. Relative to the control flavor of Gatorade, beer flavor significantly increased self-reported desire to drink, and reduced [(11)C]RAC BP, indicating that the alcohol-associated flavor cues induced DA release. BP reductions were strongest in subjects with first-degree alcoholic relatives. These results demonstrate that alcohol-conditioned flavor cues can provoke ventral striatal DA release, absent significant pharmacologic effects, and that the response is strongest in subjects with a greater genetic risk for alcoholism. Striatal DA responses to salient alcohol cues may thus be an inherited risk factor for alcoholism.

  13. Diverse Family Types and Out-Of-School Learning Time of Young School Age Children

    PubMed Central

    Ono, Hiromi

    2010-01-01

    =Sources of differentials in out-of-school learning time between children in first marriage biological parent families and children in six nontraditional family types are identified. Analyses of time diaries reveal that children in four of the six nontraditional family types spend fewer minutes learning than do children in first marriage biological parent families. In all four cases, however, the differentials are explained by the presence of siblings age 18+, lower levels of family income, or younger maternal age. PMID:21532970

  14. Meta-Analysis at Middle Age: A Personal History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glass, Gene V.

    2015-01-01

    The 40-year history of meta-analysis is traced from the vantage point of one of its originators. Research syntheses leading to the first examples of meta-analysis are identified. Early meta-analyses of the literature on psychotherapy outcomes and school class size are recounted. The influence on the development of meta-analysis of several…

  15. American Memory--History Meets the Age of Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hagenbruch, Harriet

    1994-01-01

    Describes American Memory, a multimedia computer system that incorporates CD-ROM and videodisk to provide access in electronic format to some of the Library of Congress archival materials on American history. Highlights include participating libraries; contents of the collections; searching; evaluation; and examples of the system's use at Barnard…

  16. The influence of hostility and family history of cardiovascular disease on autonomic activation in response to controllable versus noncontrollable stress, anger imagery induction, and relaxation imagery.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Charles; Franks, Susan; Brose, Andrea; Raven, Peter; Williamson, Jon; Shi, Xiangrong; McGill, Jerry; Harrell, Ernest

    2005-06-01

    Autonomic activation in response to controllable versus noncontrollable stress, anger imagery induction, and relaxation imagery was studied among 80 participants between the ages of 18 and 34 years. Participants differed in level of trait hostility and family history of cardiovascular disease. Results were obtained through power spectral analyses of electrocardiograph R-R intervals, which produced an index of autonomic nervous system activation. For both male and female populations, parasympathetic regulation was diminished during anger induction for individuals with high levels of trait hostility and having a family history of cardiovascular disease. Similar results were obtained for women during the uncontrolled stress condition. Based on family history of cardiovascular disease and trait hostility, men responded differentially to relaxation imagery induction, whereas no differences were found among females. PMID:16015455

  17. Identification and management of women with a family history of breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Heisey, Ruth; Carroll, June C.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective To summarize the best evidence on strategies to identify and manage women with a family history of breast cancer. Sources of information A PubMed search was conducted using the search terms breast cancer, guidelines, risk, family history, management, and magnetic resonance imaging screening from 2000 to 2016. Most evidence is level II. Main message Taking a good family history is essential when assessing breast cancer risk in order to identify women suitable for referral to a genetic counselor for possible genetic testing. Offering risk-reducing surgery (bilateral prophylactic mastectomy, bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy) to women with BRCA genetic mutations can save lives. All women with a family history of breast cancer should be encouraged to stay active and limit alcohol intake to less than 1 drink per day; some will qualify for chemoprevention. Women with a 20% to 25% or greater lifetime risk of breast cancer should be offered enhanced screening with annual magnetic resonance imaging in addition to mammography. Conclusion Healthy living and chemoprevention (for suitable women) could reduce breast cancer incidence; enhanced screening could result in earlier detection. Referring women who carry BRCA mutations for risk-reducing surgery will save lives. PMID:27737975

  18. Family Foundations: A New Program for Pregnant and Parenting Women Offenders with Substance Abuse Histories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiewel, Brenda; Mosley, Toni

    2006-01-01

    A new program in California partners the California Department of Corrections with a non-profit drug treatment agency on behalf of pregnant or parenting women who are drug offenders with substance abuse histories. The women are sentenced to the family foundations facility for one year and receive a range of special services to prepare for…

  19. Sexually Active Adolescent Women: Assessing Family and Peer Relationships Using Event History Calendars

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saftner, Melissa Ann; Martyn, Kristy Kiel; Lori, Jody Rae

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study is to explore family and peer relationships (including support and influence on risk behavior) among sexually active European American and African American adolescent girls in the context of risk behaviors documented on retrospective event history calendars (EHCs) and in interviews. The EHCs were completed by…

  20. History from Children's Perspectives: Learning to Read and Write Historical Accounts Using Family Sources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Maria Auxiliadora; Garcia, Tania Maria F. Braga

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the results of an investigation which was part of a project called "Recreating Histories". It is concerned with the analysis of historical narratives created by the children who participated in the project and an analysis of historical sources kept by families who live in Campina Grande do Sul (Brazil). It draws on the…

  1. Real-Life Spatial Skills, Handedness, and Family History of Handedness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ecuyer-Dab, I.; Tremblay, T.; Joanette, Y.; Passini, R.

    2005-01-01

    According to Annett (1985), pronounced left hemisphere lateralization for language abilities in women, as in female absolute right-handers, limits their right hemisphere capacity and spatial abilities. This study examines the degree of handedness and the family history of non-right-handedness with respect to real-life spatial abilities in women.…

  2. Speech and Language Difficulties in Children with and without a Family History of Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carroll, Julia M.; Myers, Joanne M.

    2010-01-01

    Comorbidity between SLI and dyslexia is well documented. Researchers have variously argued that dyslexia is a separate disorder from SLI, or that children with dyslexia show a subset of the difficulties shown in SLI. This study examines these hypotheses by assessing whether family history of dyslexia and speech and language difficulties are…

  3. "Object Lesson": Using Family Heirlooms to Engage Students in Art History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rose, Marice

    2012-01-01

    This first written assignment of the semester for the author's undergraduate introductory art history class--an essay where students describe and reflect upon the significance of a family heirloom--is instrumental in meeting class objectives. The author's objectives in this class are for students: (1) to broaden their conception of what art is…

  4. Obesity and its association with generalised epilepsy, idiopathic syndrome, and family history of epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Ladino, Lady D; Hernández-Ronquillo, Lizbeth; Téllez-Zenteno, José F

    2014-09-01

    Aim. Previous studies support the concept that obesity is a common comorbid condition in patients with epilepsy (PWE). In this study, we present the body mass index (BMI) and data from a survey to assess physical activity in a sample of PWE from an epilepsy clinic. Methods. Between June of 2011 and January of 2013, 100 PWE from an adult epilepsy clinic were included. We obtained BMI, waist circumference, and information regarding physical activity using a standardised questionnaire. Clinical, demographic, electrographic, and imaging parameters were collected from charts. Results. Mean age of patients was 40 ± 14 (18-77) years. The BMI distribution was as follows: 2 patients (2%) underweight, 26 (26%) normal weight, 34 (34%) overweight, 25 (25%) obese, and 13 (13%) with morbid obesity. In our study, obesity was defined as having a BMI ≥ 30. We found 38 (38%) patients in this range. There was no difference in the rate of drug-resistant epilepsy between obese and non-obese patients (55 vs. 55%; p=0.05). Leisure time habit was reported in 82% of obese patients and 79% of patients without obesity. Overall, the most frequent activity was walking (70%). Factors associated with obesity were generalised epilepsy (OR: 2.7, 1.1-6.6; p=0.012), idiopathic syndrome (OR: 2.7, 1.04-7; p=0.018), and family history of epilepsy (OR: 6.1, 1.5-24.2; p=0.002). Conclusion. Our study suggests an association between obesity, idiopathic generalised epilepsy, and family history of epilepsy. Our study shows that PWE are physically active and there is no clear relation between exercise and obesity. We could not identify any association between drug-resistant epilepsy and obesity. Absence of direct comparison with a control non-epileptic population; a cross-sectional design not allowing evaluation of a causal association among variables; and reliance on self-reported physical activity are to be considered as limitations of the present study. PMID:25179745

  5. The Relationship between Attitudes toward Suicide and Family History of Suicide in Nagano Prefecture, Japan.

    PubMed

    Tsukahara, Teruomi; Arai, Hiroaki; Kamijo, Tomoko; Kobayashi, Yoshikiyo; Washizuka, Shinsuke; Arito, Heihachiro; Nomiyama, Tetsuo

    2016-01-01

    Certain attitudes toward suicide may be a risk factor for suicide among the bereaved. To explore this possibility, we examined the relationship between attitudes toward suicide and family history of suicide. We focused on two specific attitudes indicating resignation in a survey: #1 "When a person chooses to die by suicide, the suicide is inevitable" (i.e., inevitability belief); and #2 "A suicide cannot be stopped by any person, because suicide is unpreventable" (i.e., unpreventable belief). The data of 5117 fully completed questionnaires were analyzed. Logistic regression analysis revealed that the two attitudes of resignation were significantly associated with a family history of suicide. The adjusted odds ratio for #1 was 1.39 (95% CI, 1.07-1.79) for individuals having experienced suicide by a family member or relative, while that for #2 was 1.57 (95% CI, 1.27-1.95) for experiencing a suicide by a family member or relative and 1.25 (95% CI, 1.05-1.49) for experiencing a suicide by a friend, business associate, partner or other. These two attitudes of resignation toward suicide were significantly associated with a family history of suicide. These attitudes might increase suicide risk among the bereaved. PMID:27338441

  6. The Relationship between Attitudes toward Suicide and Family History of Suicide in Nagano Prefecture, Japan.

    PubMed

    Tsukahara, Teruomi; Arai, Hiroaki; Kamijo, Tomoko; Kobayashi, Yoshikiyo; Washizuka, Shinsuke; Arito, Heihachiro; Nomiyama, Tetsuo

    2016-01-01

    Certain attitudes toward suicide may be a risk factor for suicide among the bereaved. To explore this possibility, we examined the relationship between attitudes toward suicide and family history of suicide. We focused on two specific attitudes indicating resignation in a survey: #1 "When a person chooses to die by suicide, the suicide is inevitable" (i.e., inevitability belief); and #2 "A suicide cannot be stopped by any person, because suicide is unpreventable" (i.e., unpreventable belief). The data of 5117 fully completed questionnaires were analyzed. Logistic regression analysis revealed that the two attitudes of resignation were significantly associated with a family history of suicide. The adjusted odds ratio for #1 was 1.39 (95% CI, 1.07-1.79) for individuals having experienced suicide by a family member or relative, while that for #2 was 1.57 (95% CI, 1.27-1.95) for experiencing a suicide by a family member or relative and 1.25 (95% CI, 1.05-1.49) for experiencing a suicide by a friend, business associate, partner or other. These two attitudes of resignation toward suicide were significantly associated with a family history of suicide. These attitudes might increase suicide risk among the bereaved.

  7. The Relationship between Attitudes toward Suicide and Family History of Suicide in Nagano Prefecture, Japan

    PubMed Central

    Tsukahara, Teruomi; Arai, Hiroaki; Kamijo, Tomoko; Kobayashi, Yoshikiyo; Washizuka, Shinsuke; Arito, Heihachiro; Nomiyama, Tetsuo

    2016-01-01

    Certain attitudes toward suicide may be a risk factor for suicide among the bereaved. To explore this possibility, we examined the relationship between attitudes toward suicide and family history of suicide. We focused on two specific attitudes indicating resignation in a survey: #1 “When a person chooses to die by suicide, the suicide is inevitable” (i.e., inevitability belief); and #2 “A suicide cannot be stopped by any person, because suicide is unpreventable” (i.e., unpreventable belief). The data of 5117 fully completed questionnaires were analyzed. Logistic regression analysis revealed that the two attitudes of resignation were significantly associated with a family history of suicide. The adjusted odds ratio for #1 was 1.39 (95% CI, 1.07–1.79) for individuals having experienced suicide by a family member or relative, while that for #2 was 1.57 (95% CI, 1.27–1.95) for experiencing a suicide by a family member or relative and 1.25 (95% CI, 1.05–1.49) for experiencing a suicide by a friend, business associate, partner or other. These two attitudes of resignation toward suicide were significantly associated with a family history of suicide. These attitudes might increase suicide risk among the bereaved. PMID:27338441

  8. Family history of hypertension and left ventricular mass in youth: possible mediating parameters.

    PubMed

    Cook, B B; Treiber, F A; Mensah, G; Jindal, M; Davis, H C; Kapuku, G K

    2001-04-01

    Whether positive family history (FH) of essential hypertension (EH) in normotensive youth is associated with increased left ventricular mass (LVM) and hemodynamic, anthropometric, and demographic parameters previously associated with increased LVM in adults is unknown. To examine these issues, 323 healthy youth (mean age, 13.6 +/- 1.3 years), 194 with positive FH of EH (61% African Americans, 39% whites) and 129 with negative FH of EH (33% African Americans, 67% whites) were evaluated. Hemodynamics were measured at rest and during four stressors (ie, postural change, car driving simulation, video game, forehead cold). Echocardiographic-derived measures of LVM were indexed separately to body surface area and height(2.7). Controlling for age and race differences (ie, 74% of African Americans v 47% of whites had positive FH), the positive FH group exhibited greater LVM/height(2.7), LVM/body surface area, higher systolic (SBP) and diastolic blood pressures (DBP), and total peripheral resistance index (TPRI) and lower cardiac index at rest (P < .05 for all). The positive FH group also displayed higher peak SBP or DBP and higher TPRI increases to each stressor and came from lower socioeconomic status backgrounds (P < .05 for all). Regression analyses indicated that FH of EH was not a significant determinant of LVM/height(2.7) after accounting for contributions of gender (greater in men), general adiposity, resting cardiac index and blood pressure (BP), and TPRI responsivity to video game and cold stimulation (P < .05 for all). Thus, greater LVM index in positive FH of EH youth appears in part related to their greater BP and TPRI at rest and during stress. PMID:11336181

  9. Family history of hypertension and left ventricular mass in youth: possible mediating parameters.

    PubMed

    Cook, B B; Treiber, F A; Mensah, G; Jindal, M; Davis, H C; Kapuku, G K

    2001-04-01

    Whether positive family history (FH) of essential hypertension (EH) in normotensive youth is associated with increased left ventricular mass (LVM) and hemodynamic, anthropometric, and demographic parameters previously associated with increased LVM in adults is unknown. To examine these issues, 323 healthy youth (mean age, 13.6 +/- 1.3 years), 194 with positive FH of EH (61% African Americans, 39% whites) and 129 with negative FH of EH (33% African Americans, 67% whites) were evaluated. Hemodynamics were measured at rest and during four stressors (ie, postural change, car driving simulation, video game, forehead cold). Echocardiographic-derived measures of LVM were indexed separately to body surface area and height(2.7). Controlling for age and race differences (ie, 74% of African Americans v 47% of whites had positive FH), the positive FH group exhibited greater LVM/height(2.7), LVM/body surface area, higher systolic (SBP) and diastolic blood pressures (DBP), and total peripheral resistance index (TPRI) and lower cardiac index at rest (P < .05 for all). The positive FH group also displayed higher peak SBP or DBP and higher TPRI increases to each stressor and came from lower socioeconomic status backgrounds (P < .05 for all). Regression analyses indicated that FH of EH was not a significant determinant of LVM/height(2.7) after accounting for contributions of gender (greater in men), general adiposity, resting cardiac index and blood pressure (BP), and TPRI responsivity to video game and cold stimulation (P < .05 for all). Thus, greater LVM index in positive FH of EH youth appears in part related to their greater BP and TPRI at rest and during stress.

  10. Cancer Risk Awareness and Concern among Women with a Family History of Breast or Ovarian Cancer.

    PubMed

    Andersen, M Robyn; Thorpe, Jason; Buist, Diana S M; Beatty, J David; Watabayashi, Kate; Hanson, Nancy; Resta, Robert; Chubak, Jessica; Urban, Nicole

    2016-01-01

    Women with a documented deleterious mutation in BRCA1 or BRCA2 are at substantially elevated risk for ovarian cancer. To understand what percentage of women with high-risk family histories know their risk is elevated we surveyed 1,885 women with a high- or moderate-risk family history and no personal history of breast or ovarian cancer, and asked about their perceived risk of breast and ovarian cancer. Among high-risk women, fewer than 20% reported use of genetic counseling, and knowledge of elevated risk of ovarian cancer was low. Prior genetic counseling was associated with greater perceived risk for ovarian cancer. Results suggest that most high-risk women (>75%) do not know their risk for ovarian cancer. Identification of potentially high-risk women for referral to genetic counseling may improve informed ovarian cancer risk management.

  11. Identification of Patients with Family History of Pancreatic Cancer--Investigation of an NLP System Portability.

    PubMed

    Mehrabi, Saeed; Krishnan, Anand; Roch, Alexandra M; Schmidt, Heidi; Li, DingCheng; Kesterson, Joe; Beesley, Chris; Dexter, Paul; Schmidt, Max; Palakal, Mathew; Liu, Hongfang

    2015-01-01

    In this study we have developed a rule-based natural language processing (NLP) system to identify patients with family history of pancreatic cancer. The algorithm was developed in a Unstructured Information Management Architecture (UIMA) framework and consisted of section segmentation, relation discovery, and negation detection. The system was evaluated on data from two institutions. The family history identification precision was consistent across the institutions shifting from 88.9% on Indiana University (IU) dataset to 87.8% on Mayo Clinic dataset. Customizing the algorithm on the the Mayo Clinic data, increased its precision to 88.1%. The family member relation discovery achieved precision, recall, and F-measure of 75.3%, 91.6% and 82.6% respectively. Negation detection resulted in precision of 99.1%. The results show that rule-based NLP approaches for specific information extraction tasks are portable across institutions; however customization of the algorithm on the new dataset improves its performance.

  12. Genetic and environmental components of family history in type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Cornelis, Marilyn C; Zaitlen, Noah; Hu, Frank B; Kraft, Peter; Price, Alkes L

    2015-02-01

    Family history of diabetes is a major risk factor for type 2 diabetes (T2D), but whether this association derives from shared genetic or environmental factors is unclear. To address this question, we developed a statistical framework that models four components of variance, including known and unknown genetic and environmental factors, using a liability threshold model. Focusing on parental history, we simulated case-control studies with two first-degree relatives for each individual, assuming 50 % genetic similarity and a range of values of environmental similarity. By comparing the association of parental history with T2D in our simulations to case-control studies of T2D nested in the Nurses' Health Study and Health Professionals Follow-up Study, we estimate that first-degree relatives have a correlation of 23 % (95 % CI 15-27 %) in their environmental contribution to T2D liability and that this shared environment is responsible for 32 % (95 % CI 24-36 %) of the association between parental history and T2D, with the remainder due to shared genetics. Estimates are robust to varying model parameter values and our framework can be extended to different definitions of family history. In conclusion, we find that the association between parental history and T2D derives from predominately genetic but also environmental effects.

  13. 45 CFR 1305.4 - Age of children and family income eligibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Age of children and family income eligibility... § 1305.4 Age of children and family income eligibility. (a) To be eligible for Head Start services, a... are programs serving children of migrant families and Early Head Start programs. (b)(1) At least...

  14. Evolutionary History of Cathepsin L (L-like) Family Genes in Vertebrates

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Jin; Zhang, Yao-Yang; Li, Qing-Yun; Cai, Zhong-Hua

    2015-01-01

    Cathepsin L family, an important cysteine protease found in lysosomes, is categorized into cathepsins B, F, H, K, L, S, and W in vertebrates. This categorization is based on their sequence alignment and traditional functional classification, but the evolutionary relationship of family members is unclear. This study determined the evolutionary relationship of cathepsin L family genes in vertebrates through phylogenetic construction. Results showed that cathepsins F, H, S and K, and L and V were chronologically diverged. Tandem-repeat duplication was found to occur in the evolutionary history of cathepsin L family. Cathepsin L in zebrafish, cathepsins S and K in xenopus, and cathepsin L in mice and rats underwent evident tandem-repeat events. Positive selection was detected in cathepsin L-like members in mice and rats, and amino acid sites under positive selection pressure were calculated. Most of these sites appeared at the connection of secondary structures, suggesting that the sites may slightly change spatial structure. Severe positive selection was also observed in cathepsin V (L2) of primates, indicating that this enzyme had some special functions. Our work provided a brief evolutionary history of cathepsin L family and differentiated cathepsins S and K from cathepsin L based on vertebrate appearance. Positive selection was the specific cause of differentiation of cathepsin L family genes, confirming that gene function variation after expansion events was related to interactions with the environment and adaptability. PMID:26221069

  15. Ascertainment through family history of disease often decreases the power of family-based association studies.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Manuel A R; Sham, Pak; Daly, Mark J; Purcell, Shaun

    2007-07-01

    Selection of cases with additional affected relatives has been shown to increase the power of the case-control association design. We investigated whether this strategy can also improve the power of family-based association studies that use the transmission disequilibrium test (TDT), while accounting for the effects of residual polygenic and environmental factors on disease liability. Ascertainment of parent-offspring trios conditional on the proband having affected first-degree relatives almost always reduced the power of the TDT. For many disease models, this reduction was quite considerable. In contrast, for the same sample size, designs that analyzed more than one affected offspring per family often improved power when compared to the standard parent-offspring trio design. Together, our results suggest that (1) residual polygenic and environmental influences should be considered when estimating the power of the TDT for studies that ascertain families with multiple affected relatives; (2) if trios are selected conditional on having additional affected offspring, then it is important to genotype and include in the analysis the additional siblings; (3) the ascertainment strategy should be considered when interpreting results from TDT analyses. Our analytic approach to estimate the asymptotic power of the TDT is implemented online at http://pngu.mgh.harvard.edu/ ~purcell/gpc/. PMID:17372818

  16. Family History

    MedlinePlus

    ... The Christopher C. Getch, MD Chair of Research Carol W. Harvey Memorial Chair of Research The Karen ... The Christopher C. Getch, MD Chair of Research Carol W. Harvey Memorial Chair of Research The Karen ...

  17. The modern Chinese family in light of economic and legal history.

    PubMed

    Huang, Philip C C

    2011-01-01

    Most social science theory and the currently powerful Chinese ideology of modernizationism assume that, with modern development, family-based peasant farm production will disappear, to be replaced by individuated industrial workers and the three-generation family by the nuclear family. The actual record of China’s economic history, however, shows the powerful persistence of the small family farm, as well as of the three-generation family down to this day, even as China’s GDP becomes the second largest in the world. China’s legal system, similarly, encompasses a vast informal sphere, in which familial principles operate more than individualist ones. And, in between the informal-familial and the formal-individualist, there is an enormous intermediate sphere in which the two tendencies are engaged in a continual tug of war. The economic behavior of the Chinese family unit reveals great contrasts with what is assumed by conventional economics. It has a different attitude toward labor from that of both the individual worker and the capitalist firm. It also has a different structural composition, and a different attitude toward investment, children’s education, and marriage. Proper attention to how Chinese modernity differs socially, economically, and legally from the modern West points to the need for a different kind of social science; it also lends social–economic substance to claims for a modern Chinese culture different from the modern West’s.

  18. The modern Chinese family in light of economic and legal history.

    PubMed

    Huang, Philip C C

    2011-01-01

    Most social science theory and the currently powerful Chinese ideology of modernizationism assume that, with modern development, family-based peasant farm production will disappear, to be replaced by individuated industrial workers and the three-generation family by the nuclear family. The actual record of China’s economic history, however, shows the powerful persistence of the small family farm, as well as of the three-generation family down to this day, even as China’s GDP becomes the second largest in the world. China’s legal system, similarly, encompasses a vast informal sphere, in which familial principles operate more than individualist ones. And, in between the informal-familial and the formal-individualist, there is an enormous intermediate sphere in which the two tendencies are engaged in a continual tug of war. The economic behavior of the Chinese family unit reveals great contrasts with what is assumed by conventional economics. It has a different attitude toward labor from that of both the individual worker and the capitalist firm. It also has a different structural composition, and a different attitude toward investment, children’s education, and marriage. Proper attention to how Chinese modernity differs socially, economically, and legally from the modern West points to the need for a different kind of social science; it also lends social–economic substance to claims for a modern Chinese culture different from the modern West’s. PMID:22145178

  19. Medical History, Lifestyle, Family History, and Occupational Risk Factors for Mantle Cell Lymphoma: The InterLymph Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma Subtypes Project

    PubMed Central

    Sampson, Joshua N.; Turner, Jennifer J.; Slager, Susan L.; Maynadié, Marc; Roman, Eve; Habermann, Thomas M.; Flowers, Christopher R.; Berndt, Sonja I.; Bracci, Paige M.; Hjalgrim, Henrik; Weisenburger, Dennis D.; Morton, Lindsay M.

    2014-01-01

    Background The etiology of mantle cell lymphoma (MCL), a distinctive subtype accounting for 2%–10% of all non-Hodgkin lymphoma, is not known. Methods We investigated associations with self-reported medical history, lifestyle, family history, and occupational risk factors in a pooled analysis of 557 patients with MCL and 13766 controls from 13 case–control studies in Europe, North America, and Australia. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) associated with each exposure were examined using multivariate logistic regression models. Results The median age of the MCL patients was 62 years and 76% were men. Risk of MCL was inversely associated with history of hay fever (OR = 0.63, 95% CI = 0.48 to 0.82), and the association was independent of other atopic diseases and allergies. A hematological malignancy among first-degree relatives was associated with a twofold increased risk of MCL (OR = 1.99, 95% CI = 1.39 to 2.84), which was stronger in men (OR = 2.21, 95% CI = 1.44 to 3.38) than women (OR = 1.61, 95% CI = 0.82 to 3.19). A modestly increased risk of MCL was also observed in association with ever having lived on a farm (OR = 1.40, 95% CI = 1.03 to 1.90). Unlike some other non-Hodgkin lymphoma subtypes, MCL risk was not statistically significantly associated with autoimmune disorders, tobacco smoking, alcohol intake, body mass index, or ultraviolet radiation. Conclusions The novel observations of a possible role for atopy and allergy and farm life in risk of MCL, together with confirmatory evidence of a familial link, suggest a multifactorial etiology of immune-related environmental exposures and genetic susceptibility. These findings provide guidance for future research in MCL etiology. PMID:25174028

  20. Life-History Related Differences in Possible Selves in Very Old Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoppmann, Christiane; Smith, Jacqui

    2007-01-01

    The impact of early life events that take place under specific historical and societal circumstances on adult development have rarely been investigated in old age. We examined whether having started a family in young adulthood was related to the contents of possible selves generated by women aged 85 to 100+ in the Berlin Aging Study (N = 129; M…

  1. Implications of living with a strong family history of breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Maheu, Christine

    2009-06-01

    The findings presented here are from a qualitative study in which data were gathered from 20 women who had received inconclusive genetic testing results for inherited breast cancer susceptibility. Before describing the significance, for them, of their genetic test results, all of the participants related what it was like to live with a strong family history of breast cancer. The focus of this article is the women's experience of living with a personal and strong family history of breast cancer. For these women, having such a history had become a fact of life that could not be ignored.Three themes were identified in the data: expecting and dealing with a diagnosis of breast cancer protecting oneself and others, and increasing exposure to cancer screening procedures. These themes address the underlying reality that having a personal and family history of breast cancer is not an isolated situation but part of one's journey in choosing to undergo genetic testing for inherited breast cancer susceptibility. PMID:19650516

  2. Politics as Social History: Political Cartoons in the Gilded Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Rebecca

    1999-01-01

    Provides analyses of four political cartoons in order to suggest approaches to Gilded Age politics that reveal key issues, such as gender, religion, and ethnicity, as well as the struggles over material resources in a stratified economy. Maintains that political cartoons assist students in understanding the ideology of a past era. (CMK)

  3. Medical History, Lifestyle, Family History, and Occupational Risk Factors for Lymphoplasmacytic Lymphoma/Waldenström’s Macroglobulinemia: The InterLymph Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma Subtypes Project

    PubMed Central

    Landgren, Ola; McMaster, Mary L.; Slager, Susan L.; Brooks-Wilson, Angela; Smith, Alex; Staines, Anthony; Dogan, Ahmet; Ansell, Stephen M.; Sampson, Joshua N.; Morton, Lindsay M.; Linet, Martha S.

    2014-01-01

    Background Lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma/Waldenström’s macroglobulinemia (LPL/WM), a rare non-Hodgkin lymphoma subtype, shows strong familial aggregation and a positive association with chronic immune stimulation, but evidence regarding other risk factors is very limited. Methods The International Lymphoma Epidemiology Consortium (InterLymph) pooled data from 11 predominantly population-based case–control studies from North America, Europe, and Australia to examine medical history, lifestyle, family history, and occupational risk factors for LPL/WM. Age-, sex-, race/ethnicity-, and study-adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using logistic regression for a total of 374 LPL/WM cases and 23 096 controls. Results In multivariate analysis including all putative risk factors, LPL/WM risk was associated with history of Sjögren’s syndrome (OR = 14.0, 95% CI = 3.60 to 54.6), systemic lupus erythematosus (OR = 8.23, 95% CI = 2.69 to 25.2), hay fever (OR = 0.73, 95% CI = 0.54 to 0.99), positive hepatitis C serology (OR = 2.51, 95% CI = 1.03 to 6.17), hematologic malignancy in a first-degree relative (OR = 1.64, 95% CI = 1.02 to 2.64), adult weight (OR = 0.61, 95% CI = 0.44 to 0.85 for highest vs. lowest quartile), duration of cigarette smoking (OR = 1.46, 95% CI = 1.04 to 2.05 for ≥ 40 years vs. nonsmokers), and occupation as a medical doctor (OR = 5.54, 95% CI = 2.19 to 14.0). There was no association with other medical conditions, lifestyle factors, or occupations. Conclusions This pooled analysis confirmed associations with immune conditions and family history of hematologic malignancy, and identified new associations with hay fever, weight, smoking, and occupation, and no association with other lifestyle factors. These findings offer clues to LPL/WM biology and prevention. PMID:25174029

  4. Age-Specific Incidence Rates for Dementia and Alzheimer Disease in NIA-LOAD/NCRAD and EFIGA Families

    PubMed Central

    Vardarajan, Badri N.; Faber, Kelley M.; Bird, Thomas D.; Bennett, David A.; Rosenberg, Roger; Boeve, Bradley F.; Graff-Radford, Neill R.; Goate, Alison M.; Farlow, Martin; Sweet, Robert A.; Lantigua, Rafael; Medrano, Martin Z.; Ottman, Ruth; Schaid, Daniel J.; Foroud, Tatiana M.; Mayeux, Richard

    2014-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Late-onset Alzheimer disease (LOAD), defined as onset of symptoms after age 65 years, is the most common form of dementia. Few reports investigate incidence rates in large family-based studies in which the participants were selected for family history of LOAD. OBJECTIVE To determine the incidence rates of dementia and LOAD in unaffected members in the National Institute on Aging Genetics Initiative for Late-Onset Alzheimer Disease/National Cell Repository for Alzheimer Disease (NIA-LOAD/NCRAD) and Estudio Familiar de Influencia Genetica en Alzheimer (EFIGA) family studies. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Families with 2 or more affected siblings who had a clinical or pathological diagnosis of LOAD were recruited as a part of the NIA-LOAD/NCRAD Family Study. A cohort of Caribbean Hispanics with familial LOAD was recruited in a different study at the Taub Institute for Research on Alzheimer’s Disease and the Aging Brain in New York and from clinics in the Dominican Republic as part of the EFIGA study. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Age-specific incidence rates of LOAD were estimated in the unaffected family members in the NIA-LOAD/NCRAD and EFIGA data sets. We restricted analyses to families with follow-up and complete phenotype information, including 396 NIA-LOAD/NCRAD and 242 EFIGA families. Among the 943 at-risk family members in the NIA-LOAD/NCRAD families, 126 (13.4%) developed dementia, of whom 109 (86.5%) met criteria for LOAD. Among 683 at-risk family members in the EFIGA families, 174 (25.5%) developed dementia during the study period, of whom 145 (83.3%) had LOAD. RESULTS The annual incidence rates of dementia and LOAD in the NIA-LOAD/NCRAD families per person-year were 0.03 and 0.03, respectively, in participants aged 65 to 74 years; 0.07 and 0.06, respectively, in those aged 75 to 84 years; and 0.08 and 0.07, respectively, in those 85 years or older. Incidence rates in the EFIGA families were slightly higher, at 0.03 and 0.02, 0.06 and 0.05, 0

  5. Bombardment History of the Galilean Satellites and Derived Ages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neukum, G.; Wagner, R.; Wolf, U.; Head, J. W., III; Pappalardo, R.; Chapman, C. R.; Merline, W.; Belton, M. S.

    1997-07-01

    During the first seven Galileo flybys, high resolution imagery of the three Galilean moons, Europa, Ganymede and Callisto have been obtained. The new imaging data allow to measure crater diameters as small as ~ 100 m. In combination with Voyager data, size-frequency distribution characteristics in the size range of ~ 100 m to ~ 100 km have been determined. Crater distributions show steep slopes (cumulative index about -3) at smaller diameters on each satellite and are shallower at larger diameters, similar to what is seen on the Moon and the asteroids Gaspra and Ida. % % At D = 1 km, crater densities differ by about a factor of 10 between % average dark terrain of Galileo Regio and youngest bright resurfaced areas % on Ganymede. % Crater densities on the most heavily cratered regions on both Ganymede and Callisto are fairly comparable. On Europa, crater densities have turned out to be about a factor of 10 lower than on the youngest bright terrain in the Uruk Sulcus region of Ganymede. The similarity to crater size-frequency distributions found in the inner solar system suggests a similar origin of the projectiles, probably mainly stemming from the asteroid belt, and the impact rate on the Galilean satellites may have had a lunar-like decay with time. Under this assumption, absolute ages may be derived making use of the idea of the ''marker horizon'', i. e. formation of the youngest basins, such as Gilgamesh on Ganymede, about 3.8 b.y. ago. Thus, the most densely cratered dark terrains on both Ganymede and Callisto have likely ages of 4.1 - 4.3 b.y. Basins such as Neith (on Ganymede) or Adlinda (on Callisto) yield likely ages of about 3.9 b.y. Some areas on Europa may be as old as 3 - 3.3 b.y. Other scenarios based on values proposed for the present-day comet impact rate in the Jovian system with non-lunar-like flux time dependences are conceivable and would result in generally younger ages, possibly as young as 10 m.y. These young ages and impact rates for Europa

  6. Family Sponsorship and Late-Age Immigration in Aging America: Revised and Expanded Estimates of Chained Migration.

    PubMed

    Carr, Stacie; Tienda, Marta

    2013-12-01

    We use the Immigrants Admitted to the United States (micro-data) supplemented with special tabulations from the Department of Homeland Security to examine how family reunification impacts the age composition of new immigrant cohorts since 1980. We develop a family migration multiplier measure for the period 1981 to 2009 that improves on prior studies by including immigrants granted legal status under the 1986 Immigration Reform and Control Act and relaxing unrealistic assumptions required by synthetic cohort measures. Results show that every 100 initiating immigrants admitted between 1981-85 sponsored an average of 260 family members; the comparable figure for initiating immigrants for the 1996-2000 cohort is 345 family members. Furthermore, the number of family migrants ages 50 and over rose from 44 to 74 per 100 initiating migrants. The discussion considers the health and welfare implications of late-age immigration in a climate of growing fiscal restraint and an aging native population. PMID:24415816

  7. Family Sponsorship and Late-Age Immigration in Aging America: Revised and Expanded Estimates of Chained Migration

    PubMed Central

    Carr, Stacie; Tienda, Marta

    2013-01-01

    We use the Immigrants Admitted to the United States (micro-data) supplemented with special tabulations from the Department of Homeland Security to examine how family reunification impacts the age composition of new immigrant cohorts since 1980. We develop a family migration multiplier measure for the period 1981 to 2009 that improves on prior studies by including immigrants granted legal status under the 1986 Immigration Reform and Control Act and relaxing unrealistic assumptions required by synthetic cohort measures. Results show that every 100 initiating immigrants admitted between 1981–85 sponsored an average of 260 family members; the comparable figure for initiating immigrants for the 1996–2000 cohort is 345 family members. Furthermore, the number of family migrants ages 50 and over rose from 44 to 74 per 100 initiating migrants. The discussion considers the health and welfare implications of late-age immigration in a climate of growing fiscal restraint and an aging native population. PMID:24415816

  8. Buying into the Computer Age: A Look at Hispanic Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilhelm, Anthony

    Ownership rates of advanced communication technologies among Hispanic families are lower than the national average. Going beyond socioeconomic (i.e., family income, educational attainment, and occupation) indicators as key predictors of the so-called technology gap, this paper relies on qualitative analysis of Hispanic families' attitudes and…

  9. Genome-wide association study reveals greater polygenic loading for schizophrenia in cases with a family history of illness.

    PubMed

    Bigdeli, Tim B; Ripke, Stephan; Bacanu, Silviu-Alin; Lee, Sang Hong; Wray, Naomi R; Gejman, Pablo V; Rietschel, Marcella; Cichon, Sven; St Clair, David; Corvin, Aiden; Kirov, George; McQuillin, Andrew; Gurling, Hugh; Rujescu, Dan; Andreassen, Ole A; Werge, Thomas; Blackwood, Douglas H R; Pato, Carlos N; Pato, Michele T; Malhotra, Anil K; O'Donovan, Michael C; Kendler, Kenneth S; Fanous, Ayman H

    2016-03-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of schizophrenia have yielded more than 100 common susceptibility variants, and strongly support a substantial polygenic contribution of a large number of small allelic effects. It has been hypothesized that familial schizophrenia is largely a consequence of inherited rather than environmental factors. We investigated the extent to which familiality of schizophrenia is associated with enrichment for common risk variants detectable in a large GWAS. We analyzed single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) data for cases reporting a family history of psychotic illness (N = 978), cases reporting no such family history (N = 4,503), and unscreened controls (N = 8,285) from the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium (PGC1) study of schizophrenia. We used a multinomial logistic regression approach with model-fitting to detect allelic effects specific to either family history subgroup. We also considered a polygenic model, in which we tested whether family history positive subjects carried more schizophrenia risk alleles than family history negative subjects, on average. Several individual SNPs attained suggestive but not genome-wide significant association with either family history subgroup. Comparison of genome-wide polygenic risk scores based on GWAS summary statistics indicated a significant enrichment for SNP effects among family history positive compared to family history negative cases (Nagelkerke's R(2 ) = 0.0021; P = 0.00331; P-value threshold <0.4). Estimates of variability in disease liability attributable to the aggregate effect of genome-wide SNPs were significantly greater for family history positive compared to family history negative cases (0.32 and 0.22, respectively; P = 0.031). We found suggestive evidence of allelic effects detectable in large GWAS of schizophrenia that might be specific to particular family history subgroups. However, consideration of a polygenic risk score indicated a significant

  10. Childhood hemiplegia: is the side of lesion influenced by a family history of left-handedness?

    PubMed

    Goodman, R

    1994-05-01

    Family histories of left-handedness were obtained for 396 children with congenital or acquired hemiplegia. As in other studies, right-sided hemiplegia was substantially more common than left-sided hemiplegia. The excess of right hemiplegia was entirely accounted for by children with left-handed relatives. This is contrary to what would be expected if the preponderance of right hemiplegia reflected a greater vulnerability of the dominant hemisphere to early damage. Though the observed association between right hemiplegia and a family history of left-handedness may well have occurred by chance, it could potentially reflect some heritable aspect of cerebral asymmetry (such as slow development of the left hemisphere) that predisposes an individual both to left-handedness and to left-hemisphere injury. PMID:8168659

  11. Prenatal Detection of Peters' Plus Syndrome in a Patient with No Known Family History.

    PubMed

    Shima, Yoshio; Migita, Makoto

    2016-01-01

    Peters' plus syndrome is a rare autosomal recessive condition characterized by a combination of typical ocular defects and other systemic abnormalities. We present a case of this uncommon syndrome that we diagnosed during a fetal ultrasonographical examination. Because the patient exhibited microcephaly and anterior staphyloma of the right eye and because impending rupture was feared, we performed ophthalmectomy during the neonatal period. Fetal ophthalmological anomalies are often detected during ultrasonographic examination targeting other systemic abnormalities, with positive family histories providing important diagnostic clues. This case is, to our knowledge, the first to be reported of prenatally diagnosed Peters' plus syndrome in a patient with no known family history in whom total blindness was prevented with an early referral to specialists. PMID:27430178

  12. Association of urinary 90 kDa angiotensin- converting enzyme with family history of hypertension and endothelial function in normotensive individuals.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, A M S; Plavnik, F L; Fernandes, F B; Marson, O; Christofalo, D M J; Ajzen, S A; Sesso, R; Franco, M C; Casarini, D E

    2008-05-01

    We described angiotensin-I-converting enzyme (ACE) isoforms with molecular masses of 190, 90, and 65 kDa in the urine of normotensive offspring of hypertensive subjects. Since they did not appear in equal amounts, we suggested that 90 kDa ACE might be a marker for hypertension. We evaluated the endothelial response in normotensive offspring with or without family history of hypertension and its association with the 90 kDa ACE in urine. Thirty-five normotensive subjects with a known family history of hypertension and 20 subjects without a family history of hypertension, matched for age, sex, body weight, and blood pressure, were included in the study. Endothelial function was assessed by ultrasound and a sample of urine was collected for determination of ACE isoforms. In the presence of a family history of hypertension and detection of 90 kDa ACE, we noted a maximal flow mediated dilation of 12.1 +/- 5.0 vs 16.1 +/- 6.0% in those without a previous history of hypertension and lacking urinary 90 kDa ACE (P < 0.05). In subjects with a family history of hypertension and presenting 90 kDa ACE, there were lower levels of HDL-cholesterol (P < 0.05) and higher levels of triglycerides (P < 0.05). Subjects with 90 kDa ACE irrespective of hypertensive history presented a trend for higher levels of triglycerides and HDL-cholesterol (P = 0.06) compared to subjects without 90 kDa ACE. Our data suggest that the 90 kDa ACE may be a marker for hypertension which may be related to the development of early atherosclerotic changes. PMID:18516470

  13. History of a Bronze Age tell and its environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovács, Gabriella; Füleky, György; Vicze, Magdolna

    2016-04-01

    Százhalombatta-Földvár is the most excessively researched Bronze Age tell site in Hungary. Parallel to the investigation of the settlement structure and activity patterns the changes of the landscape and the effect of human alteration is also studied. Significant changes of the landscape can be detected from the Bronze Age until the recent natural and cultural heritage protection of the area. Archaeological, soil analytical and thin section soil micromorphological methods are used to reconstruct the past 4000 years of the tell and its immediate surroundings. Prior to the Bronze Age the area was covered by forest vegetation, so the initial settling could only be realised after deforestation (2000 BC). The result of the soil corings and the prepared soil thin sections are solid proves of this action. It also became evident that at some areas - so far it seems that at locales where house floors were laid for the very first time - even the topsoil was removed so intensively that only the B horizon of the relict forest soil can be found. This observation needs to be further tested outside the habitation area to define the horizontal extension of the forest clearance and the topsoil removal. The northern side of the settlement is bordered by a natural erosion gully. At 2000 BC it was just a natural depression, but by 1500 BC it was deepened to serve as a fortification ditch. Around 1200 BC the ditch started to be filled in and by 1000 BC it was refilled to such an extent that its surface was utilised again. At about 600 BC (Late Iron Age) a smaller inner rampart was erected on the southern side of the ditch for inner separation. Not much is known about the Roman period of this area (200 AD) but the remnants of a watchtower indicate their presence. During the 18th century AD the area was used for grape cultivation and later for hobby gardens up until the protection of the area in the late 20th century. Since then species of the original vegetation started to grow back

  14. A history of the future: the emergence of contemporary anti-ageing medicine.

    PubMed

    Everts Mykytyn, Courtney

    2010-02-01

    The emergence of anti-ageing medicine over the past 20 years has posed tremendous challenges for the understanding of ageing and the concomitant responsibilities of biomedicine. Though highly contentious and loosely organised at best, anti-ageing targets ageing for biomedical intervention. This article examines a history of anti-ageing in the United States from 1993 to 2008, outlining its evolution from a scientific 'backwater' to a field with such promise that many within and outside the field believe efficacious therapies are an inevitability. In large part, the language of anti-ageing has shifted from predictions to expectations; it has become less a question of 'if' and more a question of 'when' and 'how' this rhetorical shift is directly linked with increasing legitimacy constructed upon a complex web of factors including mounting practitioner involvement, research interest, media attention, and popular desire. In this article I briefly review this history alongside the strategic histories marshalled by the various proponents and opponents to support their claims of legitimacy. The history of anti-ageing medicine is one of an emerging scientific and clinical practice as well as a history of an idea that has very recently made its way out of science fiction and into science future.

  15. Increased fibrillar amyloid-{beta} burden in normal individuals with a family history of late-onset Alzheimer's.

    PubMed

    Mosconi, Lisa; Rinne, Juha O; Tsui, Wai H; Berti, Valentina; Li, Yi; Wang, Huiyu; Murray, John; Scheinin, Noora; Någren, Kjell; Williams, Schantel; Glodzik, Lidia; De Santi, Susan; Vallabhajosula, Shankar; de Leon, Mony J

    2010-03-30

    Having a parent affected with late-onset Alzheimer's disease (LOAD) is a major risk factor among cognitively normal (NL) individuals. This (11)C-Pittsburgh Compound B (PiB)-PET study examines whether NL individuals with LOAD parents show increased fibrillar amyloid-beta (Abeta) deposition, a hallmark of Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology and whether there are parent-of-origin effects. Forty-two 50- to 80-year-old NL persons were examined with PiB-PET. These individuals included 14 NL subjects with a maternal family history (FH) of LOAD (FHm), 14 NL subjects with a paternal FH (FHp), and 14 NL subjects with a negative family history of any dementia (FH-). Statistical parametric mapping and automated regions-of-interest were used to compare cerebral-to-cerebellar PiB standardized uptake value ratios, reflecting fibrillar Abeta burden, across groups. FH groups did not differ in age, gender, education, and apolipoprotein E (ApoE) status. NL FHm subjects showed higher PiB retention in AD-affected anterior and posterior cingulate cortex (PCC), precuneus, parietal, temporal, occipital, and frontal cortices, right basal ganglia, and thalamus, compared with FH- and FHp subjects. FHp subjects showed increased PiB retention in the PCC and frontal cortex, intermediate between FHm and FH- subjects. Results remained significant after controlling for age, gender, education, and ApoE status. Children of parents with LOAD, particularly those with affected mothers, have increased fibrillar Abeta load in AD-vulnerable regions compared with controls, perhaps accounting for the known increased risk for AD. Present findings may motivate further research on familial transmission and parent-of-origin effects in LOAD.

  16. Increased fibrillar amyloid-β burden in normal individuals with a family history of late-onset Alzheimer’s

    PubMed Central

    Mosconi, Lisa; Rinne, Juha O.; Tsui, Wai H.; Berti, Valentina; Li, Yi; Wang, Huiyu; Murray, John; Scheinin, Noora; Någren, Kjell; Williams, Schantel; Glodzik, Lidia; De Santi, Susan; Vallabhajosula, Shankar; de Leon, Mony J.

    2010-01-01

    Having a parent affected with late-onset Alzheimer's disease (LOAD) is a major risk factor among cognitively normal (NL) individuals. This 11C-Pittsburgh Compound B (PiB)-PET study examines whether NL individuals with LOAD parents show increased fibrillar amyloid-beta (Aβ) deposition, a hallmark of Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology and whether there are parent-of-origin effects. Forty-two 50- to 80-year-old NL persons were examined with PiB-PET. These individuals included 14 NL subjects with a maternal family history (FH) of LOAD (FHm), 14 NL subjects with a paternal FH (FHp), and 14 NL subjects with a negative family history of any dementia (FH−). Statistical parametric mapping and automated regions-of-interest were used to compare cerebral-to-cerebellar PiB standardized uptake value ratios, reflecting fibrillar Aβ burden, across groups. FH groups did not differ in age, gender, education, and apolipoprotein E (ApoE) status. NL FHm subjects showed higher PiB retention in AD-affected anterior and posterior cingulate cortex (PCC), precuneus, parietal, temporal, occipital, and frontal cortices, right basal ganglia, and thalamus, compared with FH− and FHp subjects. FHp subjects showed increased PiB retention in the PCC and frontal cortex, intermediate between FHm and FH− subjects. Results remained significant after controlling for age, gender, education, and ApoE status. Children of parents with LOAD, particularly those with affected mothers, have increased fibrillar Aβ load in AD-vulnerable regions compared with controls, perhaps accounting for the known increased risk for AD. Present findings may motivate further research on familial transmission and parent-of-origin effects in LOAD. PMID:20231448

  17. Maternal chronological age, prenatal and perinatal history, social support, and parenting of infants.

    PubMed

    Bornstein, Marc H; Putnick, Diane L; Suwalsky, Joan T D; Gini, Motti

    2006-01-01

    The role of maternal chronological age in prenatal and perinatal history, social support, and parenting practices of new mothers (N=335) was examined. Primiparas of 5-month-old infants ranged in age from 13 to 42 years. Age effects were zero, linear, and nonlinear. Nonlinear age effects were significantly associated up to a certain age with little or no association afterward; by spline regression, estimated points at which the slope of the regression line changed were 25 years for prenatal and perinatal history, 31 years for social supports, and 27 years for parenting practices. Given the expanding age range of first-time parents, these findings underscore the importance of incorporating maternal age as a factor in studies of parenting and child development. PMID:16942495

  18. From the Axial Age to the New Age: Religion as a Dynamic of World History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tucker, Carlton H.

    In order to broaden student understanding of past and contemporary situations, the world history survey course needs to consider religion as a vehicle through which history moves. The course proposal includes prehistory and paleolithic times to contemporary Islamic culture. The course is thematic and comparative in orientation, but moves through…

  19. Personality variables as mediators and moderators of family history risk for alcoholism: conceptual and methodological issues.

    PubMed

    Rogosch, F; Chassin, L; Sher, K J

    1990-07-01

    Recently there has been great interest in possible mediators and moderators of family history risk for alcoholism. However, previous studies have failed to employ appropriate designs and data analytic strategies to identify moderators and mediators. This article uses a large data set to illustrate such analyses. In the current data, both presumed personality risk and dispositional self-awareness were found to play moderator (rather than mediator) roles. The conceptual, methodological and data analytic implications of the mediator-moderator distinction are discussed.

  20. Family history of diabetes links impaired substrate switching and reduced mitochondrial content in skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Ukropcova, Barbara; Sereda, Olga; de Jonge, Lilian; Bogacka, Iwona; Nguyen, Tuong; Xie, Hui; Bray, George A; Smith, Steven R

    2007-03-01

    Insulin resistance is associated with metabolic inflexibility, impaired switching of substrate oxidation from fatty acids to glucose in response to insulin. Impaired switching to fat oxidation in response to a high-fat diet (HFD) is hypothesized to contribute to insulin resistance. The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that defects in substrate switching in response to insulin and a HFD are linked to reduced mitochondrial biogenesis and occur before the development of diabetes. Metabolic flexibility was measured in young sedentary men with (n = 16) or without (n = 34) a family history of diabetes by euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp. Flexibility correlated with fat oxidation measured in a respiratory chamber after a 3-day HFD. Muscle mitochondrial content was higher in flexible subjects with high fat oxidation after a HFD and contributed 49% of the variance. Subjects with a family history of diabetes were inflexible and had reduced HFD-induced fat oxidation and muscle mitochondrial content but did not differ in the amount of body or visceral fat. Metabolic inflexibility, lower adaptation to a HFD, and reduced muscle mitochondrial mass cluster together in subjects with a family history of diabetes, supporting the role of an intrinsic metabolic defect of skeletal muscle in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance. PMID:17327442

  1. Baking, ageing, diabetes: a short history of the Maillard reaction.

    PubMed

    Hellwig, Michael; Henle, Thomas

    2014-09-22

    The reaction of reducing carbohydrates with amino compounds described in 1912 by Louis-Camille Maillard is responsible for the aroma, taste, and appearance of thermally processed food. The discovery that non-enzymatic conversions also occur in organisms led to intensive investigation of the pathophysiological significance of the Maillard reaction in diabetes and ageing processes. Dietary Maillard products are discussed as "glycotoxins" and thus as a nutritional risk, but also increasingly with regard to positive effects in the human body. In this Review we give an overview of the most important discoveries in Maillard research since it was first described and show that the complex reaction, even after over one hundred years, has lost none of its interdisciplinary actuality. PMID:25044982

  2. Association between history of abortion and metabolic syndrome in middle-aged and elderly Chinese women.

    PubMed

    Xu, Baihui; Zhang, Jie; Xu, Yu; Lu, Jieli; Xu, Min; Chen, Yuhong; Bi, Yufang; Ning, Guang

    2013-03-01

    Epidemiologic studies have suggested that abortion may cause long term health consequences such as cardiovascular disease. Until recently, studies focusing on the association between history of abortion and metabolic diseases were limited. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the association between history of abortion and metabolic syndrome (MetS) in middle-aged and elderly Chinese women. A cross-sectional survey was performed in 6302 women (age ≥ 40 years) in Shanghai. Standardized questionnaire was used to obtain the information about reproductive histories. Overall, we observed a positive association between history of induced abortion and the prevalence of MetS, independent of potential confounding factors. A multivariable-adjusted logistic regression analysis revealed that compared to those without a history of induced abortion, women with a history of induced abortion remained at 1.25 times more likely to have MetS (OR = 1.25, 95% CI = 1.06-1.47, P < 0.05), and the association was number-dependent. However, no significant association between history of spontaneous abortion and the prevalence of MetS was observed. Compared to those without a history of spontaneous abortion, the multivariate-adjusted odds ratio associated with a history of spontaneous abortion for MetS was 0.88 (95% CI = 0.65-1.19, P > 0.05).

  3. History of Animals using Isotope Records (HAIR): a 6-year dietary history of one family of African elephants.

    PubMed

    Cerling, Thure E; Wittemyer, George; Ehleringer, James R; Remien, Christopher H; Douglas-Hamilton, Iain

    2009-05-19

    The dietary and movement history of individual animals can be studied using stable isotope records in animal tissues, providing insight into long-term ecological dynamics and a species niche. We provide a 6-year history of elephant diet by examining tail hair collected from 4 elephants in the same social family unit in northern Kenya. Sequential measurements of carbon, nitrogen, and hydrogen isotope rations in hair provide a weekly record of diet and water resources. Carbon isotope ratios were well correlated with satellite-based measurements of the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) of the region occupied by the elephants as recorded by the global positioning system (GPS) movement record; the absolute amount of C(4) grass consumption is well correlated with the maximum value of NDVI during individual wet seasons. Changes in hydrogen isotope ratios coincided very closely in time with seasonal fluctuations in rainfall and NDVI whereas diet shifts to relatively high proportions of grass lagged seasonal increases in NDVI by approximately 2 weeks. The peak probability of conception in the population occurred approximately 3 weeks after peak grazing. Spatial and temporal patterns of resource use show that the only period of pure browsing by the focal elephants was located in an over-grazed, communally managed region outside the protected area. The ability to extract time-specific longitudinal records on animal diets, and therefore the ecological history of an organism and its environment, provides an avenue for understanding the impact of climate dynamics and land-use change on animal foraging behavior and habitat relations. PMID:19365077

  4. History of Animals using Isotope Records (HAIR): a 6-year dietary history of one family of African elephants.

    PubMed

    Cerling, Thure E; Wittemyer, George; Ehleringer, James R; Remien, Christopher H; Douglas-Hamilton, Iain

    2009-05-19

    The dietary and movement history of individual animals can be studied using stable isotope records in animal tissues, providing insight into long-term ecological dynamics and a species niche. We provide a 6-year history of elephant diet by examining tail hair collected from 4 elephants in the same social family unit in northern Kenya. Sequential measurements of carbon, nitrogen, and hydrogen isotope rations in hair provide a weekly record of diet and water resources. Carbon isotope ratios were well correlated with satellite-based measurements of the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) of the region occupied by the elephants as recorded by the global positioning system (GPS) movement record; the absolute amount of C(4) grass consumption is well correlated with the maximum value of NDVI during individual wet seasons. Changes in hydrogen isotope ratios coincided very closely in time with seasonal fluctuations in rainfall and NDVI whereas diet shifts to relatively high proportions of grass lagged seasonal increases in NDVI by approximately 2 weeks. The peak probability of conception in the population occurred approximately 3 weeks after peak grazing. Spatial and temporal patterns of resource use show that the only period of pure browsing by the focal elephants was located in an over-grazed, communally managed region outside the protected area. The ability to extract time-specific longitudinal records on animal diets, and therefore the ecological history of an organism and its environment, provides an avenue for understanding the impact of climate dynamics and land-use change on animal foraging behavior and habitat relations.

  5. The predictive power of family history measures of alcohol and drug problems and internalizing disorders in a college population.

    PubMed

    Kendler, Kenneth S; Edwards, Alexis; Myers, John; Cho, Seung Bin; Adkins, Amy; Dick, Danielle

    2015-07-01

    A family history (FH) of psychiatric and substance use problems is a potent risk factor for common internalizing and externalizing disorders. In a large web-based assessment of mental health in college students, we developed a brief set of screening questions for a FH of alcohol problems (AP), drug problems (DP) and depression-anxiety in four classes of relatives (father, mother, aunts/uncles/grandparents, and siblings) as reported by the student. Positive reports of a history of AP, DP, and depression-anxiety were substantially correlated within relatives. These FH measures predicted in the student, in an expected pattern, dimensions of personality and impulsivity, alcohol consumption and problems, smoking and nicotine dependence, use of illicit drugs, and symptoms of depression and anxiety. Using the mean score from the four classes of relatives was more predictive than using a familial/sporadic dichotomy. Interactions were seen between the FH of AP, DP, and depression-anxiety and peer deviance in predicting symptoms of alcohol and tobacco dependence. As the students aged, the FH of AP became a stronger predictor of alcohol problems. While we cannot directly assess the validity of these FH reports, the pattern of findings suggest that our brief screening items were able to assess, with some accuracy, the FH of substance misuse and internalizing psychiatric disorders in relatives. If correct, these measures can play an important role in the creation of developmental etiologic models for substance and internalizing psychiatric disorders which constitute one of the central goals of the overall project.

  6. Back to the future: reflections on the history of the future of family medicine.

    PubMed

    Doohan, Noemi C; Endres, Jill; Koehn, Nerissa; Miller, John; Scherger, Joseph E; Martin, James; Devoe, Jennifer E

    2014-01-01

    These are historic times for family medicine. The profession is moving beyond the visionary blueprint of the Future of Family Medicine (FFM) report while working to harness the momentum created by the FFM movement. Preparing for, and leading through, the next transformative wave of change (FFM version 2.0) will require the engagement of multigenerational and multidisciplinary visionaries who bring wisdom from diverse experiences. Active group reflection on the past will potentiate the collective work being done to best chart the future. Historical competency is critically important for family medicine's future. This article describes the historical context of the development and launch of the FFM report, emphasizing the professional activism that preceded and followed it. This article is intended to spark intergenerational dialog by providing a multigenerational reflection on the history of FFM and the evolution that has occurred in family medicine over the past decade. Such intergenerational conversations enable our elders to share wisdom with our youth, while allowing our discipline to visualize history through the eyes of future generations. PMID:25381082

  7. Investigating uncertainty and emotions in conversations about family health history: a test of the theory of motivated information management.

    PubMed

    Rauscher, Emily A; Hesse, Colin

    2014-01-01

    Although the importance of being knowledgeable of one's family health history is widely known, very little research has investigated how families communicate about this important topic. This study investigated how young adults seek information from parents about family health history. The authors used the Theory of Motivated Information Management as a framework to understand the process of uncertainty discrepancy and emotion in seeking information about family health history. Results of this study show the Theory of Motivated Information Management to be a good model to explain the process young adults go through in deciding to seek information from parents about family health history. Results also show that emotions other than anxiety can be used with success in the Theory of Motivated Information Management framework.

  8. Effects of a diagnosis or family history of alcoholism on the taste intensity and hedonic value of sucrose.

    PubMed

    Tremblay, Kristen A; Bona, Jessica M; Kranzler, Henry R

    2009-01-01

    Given inconsistent findings in published studies, we examined whether a personal lifetime history of alcohol dependence (AD) or a parental history of alcoholism affected preference for sweet solutions. Ninety-three alcohol-dependent subjects rated the intensity and hedonic value of five different sucrose solutions, which was compared with similar data from 122 subjects screened to exclude alcohol dependence. The effect of a family history of alcoholism (FH) was examined in the AD group. Neither the diagnosis of AD nor a family history of alcoholism was associated with ratings of sweetness intensity or sweet preference. These findings do not support the hypothesis that sucrose preference is positively associated with either a personal lifetime history of AD or a family history of alcoholism.

  9. Fifteen percent of myocardial infarctions and coronary revascularizations explained by family history unrelated to conventional risk factors. The Reykjavik Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Andresdottir, M B; Sigurdsson, G; Sigvaldason, H; Gudnason, V

    2002-11-01

    Aims To examine the relationship between history of myocardial infarction in first-degree relatives and the risk of developing coronary heart disease (myocardial infarction or coronary revascularization). Methods and Results A total of 9328 males and 10062 females, randomly selected residents of the Reykjavik area, aged 33-81 years, were examined in the period from 1967 to 1996 in a prospective cohort study. Cardiovascular risk assessment was based on characteristics at baseline. Information on history of myocardial infarction in first-degree relatives was obtained from a health questionnaire. Mean follow-up was 18 and 19 years for men and women, respectively. During follow-up 2700 men and 1070 women developed coronary heart disease. Compared with subjects without a family history, the hazard ratio of coronary heart disease was 1.75 (95% confidence interval, CI, 1.59-1.92) for men and 1.83 (95% CI, 1.60-2.11) for women, with one or more first-degree relatives with myocardial infarction. The risk factor profile was significantly worse in individuals with a positive family history. After allowance for these risk factors, the hazard ratio was still highly significant, 1.66 (CI, 1.51-1.82) and 1.64 (CI, 1.43-1.89) for men and women, respectively. Family history of myocardial infarction was attributed to 15.1% of all cases of coronary heart disease in men and 16.6% in women, independent of other known risk factors. Conclusion Family history of myocardial infarction increases the risk of developing coronary heart disease in both men and women and is largely independent of other classic risk factors. Approximately 15% of all myocardial infarctions can be attributed to familial factors that have not been measured in the study or remain to be elucidated. PMID:12398822

  10. Birth history, age structure, and post World War II fertility in ten developed countries: an exploratory empirical analysis.

    PubMed

    Artzrouni, M A; Easterlin, R A

    1982-01-01

    A post World War 2 swing in fertility occurred in many industrialized countries. Research focusing chiefly on the US has suggested that a country's prior birth history has, through its effects on age structure, been an important cause of this fertility swing. The reasoning is that the pre-World War 2 depression in fertility and post World War 2 baby boom produced after 1945 1st a scarcity and then an abundance of those in family-forming ages relative to older adults. The relative scarcity of young adults, in turn, created favorable economic and psychological conditions among those in child bearing ages and promoted marriage and child bearing; the relative abundance had the opposite effect. This paper examines the relation between birth history and fertility from 1951-76 in England, Wales, France, Netherlands, Sweden, Finland, Denmark, Switzerland, Spain, Italy, and the US and explores the implications of the analysis for experience in the remainder of this century. The analysis builds on the well-known proposition that age structure is primarily determined by a country's birth history. Birth data can be thought of as yielding an imputed age ratio, that which would prevail in the absence of mortality and migration. Analysis of data indicates that the pattern of change in the imputed ratio usually approximates fairly closely that in the actual ratio. A ratio of old to young can be thought of as consisting of an upper age limit, lower age limit, and an intermediate age that divides the population into young and old. With all 3 of these ages free to vary, a computer program then determines within certain constraints which of all possible imputed ratios of old to young has the highest (positive or negative) correlation with the total fertility rate from 1951-76. In all countries except Italy the results support the hypothesis that a scarcity of adults in the younger adult ages relative to those in older ages leads to a relatively high total fertility rate; a relative

  11. Attachment Stability in Children Aged 6 to 9 Years in Extended and Nuclear Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seven, Serdal; Ogelman, Hulya Gulay

    2012-01-01

    Research Findings: The main aim of this study was to identify whether the attachment security of children living in nuclear and extended families is stable from ages 6 to 9 years in a sample of Turkish children. In total, 54 children participated in the study, of whom 27 lived in nuclear families and the other 27 lived in extended families in Mus…

  12. Impact of family history of alcoholism on glutamine/glutamate ratio in anterior cingulate cortex in substance-naïve adolescents.

    PubMed

    Cohen-Gilbert, Julia E; Sneider, Jennifer T; Crowley, David J; Rosso, Isabelle M; Jensen, J Eric; Silveri, Marisa M

    2015-12-01

    Neuroimaging studies of individuals with family histories of alcoholism provide evidence suggesting neurobiological risk factors for alcoholism. Youth family history positive (FH+) for alcoholism exhibit increased impulsivity compared to family history negative (FH-) peers in conjunction with altered functional activation in prefrontal cortex, including anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). This study examined glutamate (Glu) and glutamine (Gln), amino acids vital to protein synthesis, cellular metabolism and neurotransmission, acquired from ACC and parieto-occipital cortex (POC) using magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) at 4T. Participants were 28 adolescents (13 male, 12-14 yrs) and 31 emerging adults (16 male, 18-25 yrs), stratified into FH- and FH+ groups. Significantly higher ACC Gln/Glu was observed in emerging adults versus adolescents in FH- but not FH+ groups. In FH- adolescents, higher impulsivity was significantly associated with higher ACC Gln/Glu. In FH+ emerging adults, higher impulsivity was negatively associated with ACC Gln/Glu. No differences or associations were observed for POC. These findings provide preliminary evidence that family history of alcoholism is associated with a neurochemical profile that may influence normative age differences in glutamatergic metabolites and their association with impulse control, which together could confer greater genetic risk of addiction later in life.

  13. 45 CFR 1305.4 - Age of children and family income eligibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Age of children and family income eligibility. 1305.4 Section 1305.4 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) OFFICE OF HUMAN... § 1305.4 Age of children and family income eligibility. (a) To be eligible for Head Start services,...

  14. 45 CFR 1305.4 - Age of children and family income eligibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Age of children and family income eligibility. 1305.4 Section 1305.4 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) OFFICE OF HUMAN... § 1305.4 Age of children and family income eligibility. (a) To be eligible for Head Start services,...

  15. 45 CFR 1305.4 - Age of children and family income eligibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Age of children and family income eligibility. 1305.4 Section 1305.4 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) OFFICE OF HUMAN... § 1305.4 Age of children and family income eligibility. (a) To be eligible for Head Start services,...

  16. 45 CFR 1305.4 - Age of children and family income eligibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Age of children and family income eligibility. 1305.4 Section 1305.4 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) OFFICE OF HUMAN... § 1305.4 Age of children and family income eligibility. (a) To be eligible for Head Start services,...

  17. Familiality of mood repair responses among youth with and without histories of depression.

    PubMed

    Bylsma, Lauren M; Yaroslavsky, Ilya; Rottenberg, Jonathan; Kiss, Enikő; Kapornai, Krisztina; Halas, Kitti; Dochnal, Roberta; Lefkovics, Eszter; Baji, Ildikό; Vetrό, Ágnes; Kovacs, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Affect regulation skills develop in the context of the family environment, wherein youths are influenced by their parents', and possibly their siblings', regulatory responses and styles. Regulatory responses to sadness (mood repair) that exacerbate or prolong dysphoria (maladaptive mood repair) may represent one way in which depression is transmitted within families. We examined self-reported adaptive and maladaptive mood repair responses across cognitive, social and behavioural domains in Hungarian 11- to 19-year-old youth and their parents. Offspring included 214 probands with a history of childhood-onset depressive disorder, 200 never depressed siblings and 161 control peers. Probands reported the most problematic mood repair responses, with siblings reporting more modest differences from controls. Mood repair responses of parents and their offspring, as well as within sib-pairs, were related, although results differed as a function of the regulatory response domain. Results demonstrate familiality of maladaptive and adaptive mood repair responses in multiple samples. These familial associations suggest that relationships with parents and siblings within families may impact the development of affect regulation in youth. PMID:25849259

  18. Chinese Americans’ Views and Use of Family Health History: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Lei-Shih; Li, Ming; Talwar, Divya; Xu, Lei; Zhao, Mei

    2016-01-01

    Objective Family health history (FHH) plays a significant role in early disease detection and prevention. Although Asian Americans are the fastest growing U.S. immigrant group, no data exists regarding Chinese Americans’ (the largest Asian subgroup) views and use of FHH. This study examines this important issue. Methods Forty-nine adults from southern U.S. Chinese American communities participated in this qualitative, semi-structured, in-depth interview study. Interviews were audio recorded, transcribed, and analyzed with a content analysis approach. Results Although the majority of participants perceived the importance of collecting FHH, most lacked FHH knowledge and failed to collect FHH information. Barriers affecting FHH collection and discussion among family members included long-distance separation from family members, self-defined “healthy family,” and Chinese cultural beliefs. Lack of doctors’ inquiries, never/rarely visiting physicians, self-defined “healthy family,” perceived insignificance of discussing FHH with doctors, and Chinese cultural beliefs were the obstacles in communicating FHH with physicians. Conclusions Chinese Americans had limited usage of their FHH and faced cultural, distance, knowledge-, and healthcare system-related barriers that influenced their FHH use. Developing FHH education programs for Chinese Americans is highly recommended. PMID:27649411

  19. Impulsive Aggression, Delay Discounting, and Adolescent Suicide Attempts: Effects of Current Psychotropic Medication Use and Family History of Suicidal Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Reynolds, Brady; McBee-Strayer, Sandra M.; Sheftall, Arielle H.; Ackerman, John; Stevens, Jack; Mendoza, Kristen; Campo, John V.; Brent, David A.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective: Impulsive-aggressive behaviors have been consistently implicated in the phenomenology, neurobiology, and familial aggregation of suicidal behavior. The purpose of this study was to extend previous work by examining laboratory behavioral measures of delayed reward impulsivity and impulsive aggression in adolescent suicide attempters and never-suicidal comparison subjects. Methods: Using the Point Subtraction Aggression Paradigm (PSAP) and the Delay Discounting Task (DDQ), the authors examined delay discounting and impulsive aggression in 40 adolescent suicide attempters, ages 13–18, and 40 never-suicidal, demographically matched psychiatric comparison subjects. Results: Overall, suicide attempters and comparison subjects performed similarly on the PSAP and DDQ. There was a significant group by current psychotropic medication use interaction (p=0.013) for mean aggressive responses on the PSAP. Group comparisons revealed that attempters emitted more aggressive responses per provocation than comparison subjects, only in those not on psychotropic medication (p=0.049), whereas for those currently treated with psychotropic medication, there were no group differences (p>0.05). This interaction effect was specific to current antidepressant use. Among all subjects, family history of suicidal behavior (suicide or suicide attempt) in first degree relatives was significantly correlated with both delay discounting (r=−0.22, p=0.049), and aggressive responding (r=0.27, p=0.015). Family history of suicidal behavior was associated with delay discounting, but not with aggressive responding on the PSAP, after controlling for relevant covariates. Conclusions: In this study, impulsive-aggressive responding was associated with suicide attempt only in those not being treated with antidepressants. Future work to replicate and extend these findings could have important therapeutic implications for the treatment of depressed suicide attempters, many of whom are

  20. The baboon model (Papio hamadryas) of fetal loss: Maternal weight, age, reproductive history and pregnancy outcome

    PubMed Central

    Schlabritz-Loutsevitch, Natalia; Moore, Charleen M.; Lopez-Alvarenga, Juan Carlos; Dunn, Betty G.; Dudley, Donald; Hubbard, Gene B.

    2010-01-01

    Background Several risk factors are associated with the incidence of human stillbirths. The prevention of stillbirths in women is a pressing clinical problem. Methods We reviewed 402 pathology records of fetal loss occurring in a large baboon (Papio spp.) colony during a 15-year period. Clinical histories of 565 female baboons with one or more fetal losses during a 20-year period were analyzed for weight, age, and reproductive history. Results Fetal loss was most common at term (35.57%) and preterm (28.61%) and less common in the first half of gestation (11.20%) and post-term (5.22%). Greater maternal weight, older age, history of stillbirth and higher parity were independent predictors for stillbirth. An exponential increase in the incidence of fetal loss was observed beginning at age 14 years in baboons. Conclusion Fetal loss and maternal risk factors associated with stillbirths in baboons were similar to those documented in women. PMID:19017195

  1. The presence of family history and the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus risk factors in rural children.

    PubMed

    Adams, Marsha Howell; Lammon, Carol Ann Barnett

    2007-10-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus is reaching epidemic proportions among children and adolescents. School health fairs offer an opportunity to identify children with risk factors for the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus. This study identified selected risk factors (i.e., high-risk racial/ethnic group, obesity, elevated blood pressure, elevated casual blood glucose, elevated total cholesterol, and the presence of acanthosis nigricans) for development of type 2 diabetes mellitus in rural children with or without a family history of diabetes during annual school health fairs. Of the children screened, 40% (673) presented with two or more of the identified risk factors for type 2 diabetes mellitus. The presence of multiple risk factors in participants reporting a positive family history of diabetes mellitus versus those with no family history was not statistically significant. Based on the study results, factors other than family history may be more predictive for the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus in rural school children.

  2. An ex utero intrapartum treatment procedure in a patient with a family history of malignant hyperthermia.

    PubMed

    Hofer, I S; Mahoney, B; Rebarber, A; Beilin, Y

    2013-04-01

    In the EXIT (ex utero intrapartum treatment) procedure, after uterine incision, uterine relaxation is maintained to prevent placental separation and the fetus is supported via the placenta until the airway is successfully established. The traditional method to maintain uterine relaxation is with the use of high-dose potent inhaled anesthetics during general anesthesia. A patient with a family history of malignant hyperthermia required an EXIT procedure. The history of malignant hyperthermia precluded the use of potent inhaled anesthetics and an alternate plan using propofol and remifentanil infusions for anesthesia and nitroglycerin 16 μg/kg/min for uterine relaxation allowed for good surgical conditions. The presence of malignant hyperthermia required an alternate plan and close collaboration in order to ensure good patient outcome. PMID:23481416

  3. Mining and Visualizing Family History Associations in the Electronic Health Record: A Case Study for Pediatric Asthma.

    PubMed

    Chen, Elizabeth S; Melton, Genevieve B; Wasserman, Richard C; Rosenau, Paul T; Howard, Diantha B; Sarkar, Indra Neil

    2015-01-01

    Asthma is the most common chronic childhood disease and has seen increasing prevalence worldwide. While there is existing evidence of familial and other risk factors for pediatric asthma, there is a need for further studies to explore and understand interactions among these risk factors. The goal of this study was to develop an approach for mining, visualizing, and evaluating association rules representing pairwise interactions among potential familial risk factors based on information documented as part of a patient's family history in the electronic health record. As a case study, 10,260 structured family history entries for a cohort of 1,531 pediatric asthma patients were extracted and analyzed to generate family history associations at different levels of granularity. The preliminary results highlight the potential of this approach for validating known knowledge and suggesting opportunities for further investigation that may contribute to improving prediction of asthma risk in children.

  4. Brain activity classifies adolescents with and without a familial history of substance use disorders

    PubMed Central

    Qiao, Jianping; Wang, Zhishun; Geronazzo-Alman, Lupo; Amsel, Lawrence; Duarte, Cristiane; Lee, Seonjoo; Musa, George; Long, Jun; He, Xiaofu; Doan, Thao; Hirsch, Joy; Hoven, Christina W.

    2015-01-01

    We aimed to uncover differences in brain circuits of adolescents with parental positive or negative histories of substance use disorders (SUD), when performing a task that elicits emotional conflict, testing whether the brain circuits could serve as endophenotype markers to distinguish these adolescents. We acquired functional magnetic resonance imaging data from 11 adolescents with a positive familial history of SUD (FH+ group) and seven adolescents with a negative familial history of SUD (FH− group) when performing an emotional stroop task. We extracted brain features from the conflict-related contrast images in group level analyses and granger causality indices (GCIs) that measure the causal interactions among regions. Support vector machine (SVM) was applied to classify the FH+ and FH− adolescents. Adolescents with FH+ showed greater activity and weaker connectivity related to emotional conflict, decision making and reward system including anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), prefrontal cortex (PFC), and ventral tegmental area (VTA). High classification accuracies were achieved with leave-one-out cross validation (89.75% for the maximum conflict, 96.71% when combining maximum conflict and general conflict contrast, 97.28% when combining activity of the two contrasts and GCIs). Individual contributions of the brain features to the classification were further investigated, indicating that activation in PFC, ACC, VTA and effective connectivity from PFC to ACC play the most important roles. We concluded that fundamental differences of neural substrates underlying cognitive behaviors of adolescents with parental positive or negative histories of SUD provide new insight into potential neurobiological mechanisms contributing to the elevated risk of FH+ individuals for developing SUD. PMID:25954186

  5. Cosmic Ray Exposure Ages, Ar-Ar Ages, and the Origin and History of Eucrites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wakefield, Kelli; Bogard, Donald; Garrison, Daniel

    2004-01-01

    HED meteorites likely formed at different depths on the large asteroid 4-Vesta, but passed through Vesta-derived, km-sized intermediary bodies (Vestoids), before arriving at Earth. Most eucrites and diogenites (and all howardites) are brecciated, and impact heating disturbed or reset the K-Ar ages (and some Rb-Sr ages) of most eucrites in the time period of approx. 3.4 - 4.1 Gyr ago. Some basaltic eucrites and most cumulate eucrites, however, are not brecciated. We recently showed that the Ar-39 - Ar-40 ages for several of these eucrites tightly cluster about a value of 4.48 +/- 0.02 Gyr, and we argue that this time likely represents a single large impact event on Vesta, which ejected these objects from depth and quenched their temperatures. A different parent body has been suggested for cumulate eucrites, although the Ar-Ar ages argue for a common parent. Similarities in the cosmic-ray (space) exposure ages for basaltic eucrites and diogenites also have been used to infer a common parent body for some HEDs. Here we present CRE ages of several cumulate and unbrecciated basaltic (UB) eucrites and compare these with CRE ages of other HEDs. This comparison also has some interesting implications for the relative locations of various HED types on Vesta and/or the Vestoids.

  6. Crystal Histories and Crustal Magmas: Insights into Magma Storage from U-Series Crystal Ages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, K. M.

    2014-12-01

    The dynamic processes operating within crustal magma reservoirs control many aspects of the chemical composition of erupted magmas, and crystals in volcanic rocks can provide a temporally-constrained archive of these changing environments. A new compilation of 238U-230Th ages of accessory phases and 238U-230Th-226Ra ages of bulk mineral separates of major phases documents that crystals in individual samples often have ages spanning most of the history of a volcanic center. Somewhat surprisingly, this observation holds for surface analyses as well as interior analyses, indicating that the latest stages of growth took place at different times for different grains. Nevertheless, average ages of surfaces are younger than interiors (as expected), and the dominant surface age population is often within error of eruption age. In contrast to accessory phase ages, less than half of the bulk separate 238U-230Th-226Ra ages for major phases are more than 10 kyr older than eruption. This suggests that major phases may in general reflect a later stage of development of an eruptible magma body than do accessory phases, or that the extent of discordance between ages of major and accessory phases reflects the extent to which a crystal mush was remobilized during processes leading to eruption. Crystal ages are most useful for illuminating magmatic processes when combined with crystal-scale trace-element or isotopic data, and I will present several case studies where such combined data sets exist. For example, at Yellowstone and at Okataina Caldera Complex, New Zealand, the combination zircon surface and interior analyses (of age, Hf isotopic, and trace-element data) with bulk dating and in-situ trace-element and isotopic compositions of feldspar allows a comparison of the early history of storage in a crystal mush with the later history of melt extraction and further crystallization prior to eruption, thus tracking development of erupted magma bodies from storage through eruption.

  7. Life histories and the evolution of aging in bacteria and other single-celled organisms.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Leah R; Mangel, Marc

    2006-10-01

    The disposable soma theory of aging was developed to explore how differences in lifespans and aging rates could be linked to life history trade-offs. Although generally applied for multicellular organisms, it is also useful for exploring life history strategies of single-celled organisms such as bacteria. Motivated by recent research of aging in E. coli, we explore the effects of aging on the fitness of simple single-celled organisms. Starting from the Euler-Lotka equation, we propose a mathematical model to explore how a finite reproductive lifespan affects fitness and resource allocation in simple organisms. This model provides quantitative predictions that have the potential for direct comparison with experiment, providing an opportunity to test the disposable soma theory more directly.

  8. Exploring opportunities for healthy aging among older persons with a history of homelessness in Toronto, Canada.

    PubMed

    Waldbrook, Natalie

    2015-03-01

    Within the areas of literature on both population aging and health and homelessness, little attention has been given to the opportunities and barriers to healthy aging among older persons with a history of homelessness. Set in the context of inner-city Toronto, Canada, this article reports on the findings from qualitative interviews with 29 formerly homeless older persons. The findings illustrate participants' experiences of positive health change since moving into a stable housing environment and the aspects of housing they perceive to have improved their health and wellbeing. The qualitative findings also draw attention to the ongoing barriers to healthy aging that can be experienced among older persons with a history of homelessness. Overall, this study draws on the lived experiences of formerly homeless older persons to offer a better understanding of the long-term effects of homelessness on health, wellbeing, and aging.

  9. Associations between maternal older age, family environment and parent and child wellbeing in families using assisted reproductive techniques to conceive.

    PubMed

    Boivin, J; Rice, Frances; Hay, Dale; Harold, Gordon; Lewis, Allyson; van den Bree, Marianne M B; Thapar, Anita

    2009-06-01

    Maternal age effects on parenting and family outcomes are of increasing interest because of the demographic shift toward older maternal age at first birth. Maternal age is also of interest because of the greater use of assisted reproductive techniques (ART) to bypass age-related infertility in couples trying to conceive late in the reproductive life cycle of the woman. The aim of the present study was to investigate maternal age effects associated with delayed parenting by comparing families of mothers who gave birth at a younger (<31 years) or older (>38 years) age and to ascertain whether associations were linear associations by comparing these groups to women who had conceived in between these ages (i.e., >31 and <38 years). All children (4-11 year olds) were first-born and conceived using ART. Participants were recruited from one of 20 fertility clinics and mothers (n=642) and fathers (n=439) completed a postal questionnaire about demographic and reproductive characteristics, family environment as well as parent and child wellbeing. Our results demonstrate that parenthood via assisted conception later in the reproductive life cycle is not associated with a negative impact on child wellbeing. Despite maternal age-group differences on demographic (education, income) and reproductive characteristics (bleeding during pregnancy, caesarean rate, breast feeding), and parental warmth and depressive symptoms, child wellbeing was similar across mother age groups. We conclude that the parenting context is different for older mother families (more depressive symptoms in mothers and fathers, less expressed warmth in the couple) but that this difference is not associated with child wellbeing in early and middle childhood. PMID:19346045

  10. Evolvability of an avian life history trait declines with father's age.

    PubMed

    Kim, S-Y; Drummond, H; Torres, R; Velando, A

    2011-02-01

    Studies of laboratory organisms have suggested that parental age affects the genetic variance of offspring traits. This effect can engender age-specific variance in genetic contributions to evolutionary change in heritable traits under directional selection, particularly in age-structured populations. Using long-term population data of the blue-footed booby (Sula nebouxii), we tested whether genetic variance of recruiting age varies with parental age. Using robust quantitative genetic models fitted to pedigree, we found a significant genotype-by-paternal age interaction for recruiting age. Genetic potential for adaptive change in recruiting age was greater in progeny of young (age 1-6 years) fathers (males: CV(A)=6.68; females: CV(A)=7.59) than those of middle age (7-9 years) fathers (males: CV(A) = 4.64; females: CV(A)=5.08) and old (10-14 years) fathers (CV(A)=0 for both sexes). Therefore, parental age dependence of heritable variance, in addition to age-related variation in survival and fecundity, should affect the strength of natural selection for evolutionary changes. Our results provide rare evidence for the influence of parental age on the evolutionary potential of a life history trait in a wild population.

  11. Evolvability of an avian life history trait declines with father's age.

    PubMed

    Kim, S-Y; Drummond, H; Torres, R; Velando, A

    2011-02-01

    Studies of laboratory organisms have suggested that parental age affects the genetic variance of offspring traits. This effect can engender age-specific variance in genetic contributions to evolutionary change in heritable traits under directional selection, particularly in age-structured populations. Using long-term population data of the blue-footed booby (Sula nebouxii), we tested whether genetic variance of recruiting age varies with parental age. Using robust quantitative genetic models fitted to pedigree, we found a significant genotype-by-paternal age interaction for recruiting age. Genetic potential for adaptive change in recruiting age was greater in progeny of young (age 1-6 years) fathers (males: CV(A)=6.68; females: CV(A)=7.59) than those of middle age (7-9 years) fathers (males: CV(A) = 4.64; females: CV(A)=5.08) and old (10-14 years) fathers (CV(A)=0 for both sexes). Therefore, parental age dependence of heritable variance, in addition to age-related variation in survival and fecundity, should affect the strength of natural selection for evolutionary changes. Our results provide rare evidence for the influence of parental age on the evolutionary potential of a life history trait in a wild population. PMID:21044208

  12. The Care Of The Aged: A Responsibility & Challenge For The Family Physician

    PubMed Central

    de Buda, Yvonne

    1979-01-01

    The population increase in the over 65 age group creates a challenge and responsibility for family physicians in the continuing and comprehensive care of the aged. Family physicians have to assess the medical, psychological and social needs of the elderly and provide them with the best care available by utilizing local facilities, community resources, health care personnel, and whenever possible, the cooperation of the patient's family. Medical students, family practice trainees and other health professionals require the appropriate training. New trends in the care of the elderly and medical education geared towards this task are discussed. PMID:20469307

  13. Widowhood in old age: Viewed in a family context☆

    PubMed Central

    Moss, Miriam S.; Moss, Sidney Z.

    2014-01-01

    Researchers and clinicians have traditionally explored widowhood as an intrapersonal process. We expand the paradigm of bereavement research to explore the widow's perceptions of her experience within a family context. In a study of family bereavement, 24 widows each participated in 2 separate qualitative interviews, followed by standard qualitative analyses of the transcribed narratives. Three inter-related central topics emerged. (1) Widows stress the importance of their independence vis a vis their family as central to their sense of identity. (2) Widows perceive that they and their adult children avoid expressing their feelings of sadness and loss with each other. (3) Widows believe that their children are unable to understand the meaning of the widows' loss because of differences in generations and life situations. Two inter-woven underlying themes emerged: protection of self and of other, and boundaries between widow and children. Just as protection is rooted in a dynamic of separation between widow and child, boundaries are rooted in their deep bond. When researchers and clinicians recognize the dynamics of these two themes they can potentially increase understanding of widowhood within the context of the family. PMID:24655677

  14. Relationship between Family Functioning and Parenting Beliefs and Feelings among Women Who Have a History of Sexual Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hernandez, Guadalupe; Lam, Brian Trung

    2012-01-01

    This study explored the relationship between family functioning and parenting beliefs and feelings among women with a history of child sexual abuse (CSA). This study utilized secondary data obtained in 2001 from the National Data Archive on Child Abuse and Neglect. The sample included 107 women. Most respondents had a highly functional family;…

  15. Differences between patients with borderline personality disorder who do and do not have a family history of bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Zimmerman, Mark; Martinez, Jennifer; Young, Diane; Chelminski, Iwona; Dalrymple, Kristy

    2014-10-01

    Diagnostic confusion sometimes exists between bipolar disorder and borderline personality disorder (BPD). To improve the recognition of bipolar disorder researchers have identified nondiagnostic factors that point toward bipolar disorder. One such factor is the presence of a family history of bipolar disorder. In the current report from the Rhode Island Methods to Improve Diagnostic Assessment and Services (MIDAS) project, we compared the demographic, clinical, and psychosocial characteristics of patients with BPD who did and did not have a family history of bipolar disorder. A large sample of psychiatric outpatients were interviewed with semi-structured interviews. Three hundred seventeen patients without bipolar disorder were diagnosed with DSM-IV borderline personality disorder. Slightly less than 10% of the 317 patients with BPD (9.5%, n=30) reported a family history of bipolar disorder in their first-degree relatives. There were no differences between groups in any specific Axis I or Axis II disorder. The patients with a positive family history were significantly less likely to report excessive or inappropriate anger, but there was no difference in the frequency of other criteria for BPD such as affective instability, impulsivity, or suicidal behavior. The patients with a positive family history reported a significantly higher rate of increased appetite and fatigue. There was no difference in overall severity of depression, scores on the Global Assessment of Functioning, history of psychiatric hospitalizations, suicide attempts, time unemployed due to psychiatric reasons during the 5 years before the evaluation, and ratings of current and adolescent social functioning. There was no difference on any of the 5 subscales of the childhood trauma questionnaire. Overall, we found few differences between BPD patients with and without a family history of bipolar disorder thereby suggesting that a positive family history of bipolar disorder was not a useful marker for

  16. Differential effects of wine consumption on colorectal cancer outcomes based on family history of the disease.

    PubMed

    Zell, Jason A; McEligot, Archana J; Ziogas, Argyrios; Holcombe, Randall F; Anton-Culver, Hoda

    2007-01-01

    Potentially favorable effects of wine consumption on colorectal cancer (CRC) incidence have been reported, but effects on clinical outcomes are unknown. This case-only analysis was designed to investigate outcomes among familial (n = 141) and sporadic (n = 358) CRC patients enrolled in the University of California Irvine CRC gene-environment study during 1994-1996 based on their reported frequency of wine consumption in the year prior to diagnosis. Cases were categorized as either regular or infrequent wine consumers. Univariate survival rate analyses were estimated using the Kaplan and Meier method and log-rank test. Multivariate survival analyses were performed using Cox proportional hazards ratios (HRs). Earlier stage at presentation (P = 0.034) was noted for familial (but not sporadic) CRC cases reporting regular wine consumption. An overall survival (OS) benefit was observed for familial (but not sporadic) CRC cases that were regular (10-yr OS = 75%) versus infrequent wine consumers (10-yr OS = 47%; P = 0.002). This survival improvement for familial CRC cases remained after adjustment for age, stage, treatment, and other clinically relevant factors (HR = 0.50, 95% confidence interval = 0.25-0.99). Our findings implicate favorable effects of wine consumption on stage at presentation and survival in CRC, selectively among familial CRC cases.

  17. Family Relationships and the Psychosocial Adjustment of School-Aged Children in Intact Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hakvoort, Esther M.; Bos, Henny M. W.; Van Balen, Frank; Hermanns, Jo M. A.

    2010-01-01

    The authors investigated whether the quality of three family relationships (i.e., marital, parent-child, sibling) in intact families are associated with each other and with children's psychosocial adjustment. Data were collected by means of maternal and child reports (N = 88) using standardized instruments (i.e., Marital Satisfaction Scale,…

  18. Meeting Report: International Symposium on the Genetics of Aging and Life History II.

    PubMed

    Artan, Murat; Hwang, Ara B; Lee, Seung V; Nam, Hong Gil

    2015-06-01

    The second International Symposium on the Genetics of Aging and Life History was held at the campus of Daegu Gyeongbuk Institute of Science and Technology (DGIST), Daegu, South Korea, from May 14 to 16, 2014. Many leading scientists in the field of aging research from all over the world contributed to the symposium by attending and presenting their recent work and thoughts. The aim of the symposium was to stimulate international collaborations and interactions among scientists who work on the biology of aging. In the symposium, the most recent and exciting work on aging research was presented, covering a wide range of topics, including the genetics of aging, age-associated diseases, and cellular senescence. The work was conducted in various organisms, includingC. elegans, mice, plants, and humans. Topics covered in the symposium stimulated discussion of novel directions for future research on aging. The meeting ended with a commitment for the third International Symposium on the Genetics of Aging and Life History, which will be held in 2016.

  19. Integrating the Family and the Community into the History Classroom: An Oral History Project in Joliet, Illinois

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyons, John F.

    2007-01-01

    History instructors working in a community college face two major challenges. First, to make history interesting and relevant to the students, many of whom have to take history courses as a requirement. And second, to fulfill one of the missions of a community college which is to forge a connection between the school and the people in the local…

  20. [Family, career and age as socialization factors of the middle and later adult years].

    PubMed

    Runge, I; Fischer, P

    1982-01-01

    The authors deal with the connections of age, family and vocational activity. By using Marx term "Gratisdienst" they develop an ideal of family functions for the vocational education of grown-up children. Family in this sense is individually and socially of importance as a medium of transmission. The authors also show the importance for society and give examples how the so called post-parental (post-familial) phases in family and lifecourse is orientated towards professional integration of the children. Some aspects how to use and explain this potential funds under socialist conditions in the GDR are discussed.

  1. [Family, career and age as socialization factors of the middle and later adult years].

    PubMed

    Runge, I; Fischer, P

    1982-01-01

    The authors deal with the connections of age, family and vocational activity. By using Marx term "Gratisdienst" they develop an ideal of family functions for the vocational education of grown-up children. Family in this sense is individually and socially of importance as a medium of transmission. The authors also show the importance for society and give examples how the so called post-parental (post-familial) phases in family and lifecourse is orientated towards professional integration of the children. Some aspects how to use and explain this potential funds under socialist conditions in the GDR are discussed. PMID:7164485

  2. Gastric Carcinomas in Young (Younger than 40 Years) Chinese Patients: Clinicopathology, Family History, and Postresection Survival.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Fan; Shi, Jiong; Fang, Cheng; Zou, Xiaoping; Huang, Qin

    2016-03-01

    Little is known about clinicopathological characteristics of gastric carcinoma (GC) in young (≤40 years) Chinese patients. We aimed in this study to analyze those features along with family history and prognostic factors after resection. We retrospectively reviewed all 4671 GC resections (surgical and endoscopic) performed at our center from 2004 to 2014 and identified 152 (3.2%) consecutive young patients. Patient demographics, clinical results, family history, and endoscopic-pathological findings were analyzed along with the older (>41 years) GC controls recruited in the same study period. Clinicopathological factors related to postresection outcomes were assessed statistically. The trend of GC resections in young patients was not changed over the study period. Compared to old GCs, the young GC cohort was predominant in women, positive family history, middle gastric location, the diffuse histology type, shorter duration of symptoms, and advanced stage (pIII+pIV, 53.3%). Radical resection was carried out in 90.1% (n = 137) with a better 5-year survival rate (70.3%) than palliative surgery (0%, n = 15). There was no significant difference in clinicopathological characteristics between familial GC (FGC, n = 38) and sporadic GC (SGC, n = 114) groups. Very young patients (≤ 30 years, n = 38) showed lower Helicobacter pylori (Hp) infection and significantly higher perineural invasion rates, compared to older (31-40 years) patients. Hp infection was more commonly seen in the Lauren's intestinal type and early pT stages (T1+T2). Independent prognostic factors for worse outcomes included higher serum CA 72-4, CA 125 levels, positive resection margin, and stage pIII-pIV tumors. The 5-year survival rate was significantly higher in patients with radical resection than those without. GCs in young Chinese patients were prevalent in women with advanced stages but showed no significant differences in clinicopathology between FGC and SGC groups. High serum

  3. Family history of alcoholism mediates the frontal response to alcoholic drink odors and alcohol in at-risk drinkers.

    PubMed

    Kareken, David A; Bragulat, Veronique; Dzemidzic, Mario; Cox, Cari; Talavage, Thomas; Davidson, Dena; O'Connor, Sean J

    2010-03-01

    Although a family history of alcoholism is the strongest risk factor for developing alcohol dependence, there are few studies of the association between familial alcoholism and the human brain's reward system activity. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to determine how family history affects the brain's response to subjects' preferred alcoholic drink odors (AO) as compared to appetitive control odors (ApCO). Fourteen non-dependent heavy drinkers (HD) who were family history positive (FHP) participated, as did 12 HD who were family history negative (FHN). Subjects were imaged under both alcohol intoxication and placebo, using intravenous infusion and pharmacokinetic modeling to target a blood alcohol level of 50 mg%. Under placebo, HD-FHP had a larger medial frontal [AO>ApCO] effect than did HD-FHN. Alcohol intoxication dampened this response in the HD-FHP but potentiated it in the HD-FHN. This suggests that a family history of alcoholism and brain exposure to alcohol interact in heavy drinkers to differentially affect how the brain responds to alcohol cues.

  4. The impact of media attention, family history, politics and maturation on women's decisions regarding hormone replacement therapy.

    PubMed

    Andrist, L C

    1998-01-01

    A purposeful sample of 21 well-educated European American women (42-53 years) were interviewed to explore how women make decisions about hormone replacement therapy (HRT) for natural menopause. Menopausal status included women who were premenopausal (n = 1), perimenopausal (n = 11), menopausal (n = 4), and postmenopausal (n = 5). Participants were grouped into 3 categories: taking or in favor of taking HRT (n = 6), undecided (n = 10) and stopped taking or opposed to taking HRT (n = 5). The impact of media attention was an important influence on women's thoughts and decisions-whether in favor, undecided, or opposed--particularly in conjunction with risk factors based on family history and what other family members were doing. Women in favor of taking HRT were interested in short-term symptomatic relief as well as prevention of disease in old age. Women who were undecided cited the scientific confusion in the media as contributing to their reticence about making a decision. The unprecedented number of magazine, book, and newspaper coverage of HRT during the study undoubtably influenced women's thoughts and decisions. PMID:9601305

  5. The value of family history in the diagnosis of hypersensitivity pneumonitis in children*

    PubMed Central

    Cardoso, Joana; Carvalho, Isabel

    2014-01-01

    Hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP), or extrinsic allergic alveolitis, is an immunologically mediated disease resulting from the inhalation of organic substances that trigger an inflammatory response in the alveolar wall, bronchioles, and interstitium in susceptible individuals. Although HP is predominantly an occupational disease, seen in adulthood, cases in children have been described. The diagnosis of HP requires a high degree of suspicion. The treatment consists in avoiding contact with the antigen, and, in some cases, systemic corticosteroids might be necessary in order to prevent its progression to pulmonary fibrosis. We report the clinical cases of three children with a history of contact with birds and a family history of HP. All three patients presented with cough and dyspnea on exertion. The disease was diagnosed on the basis of the clinical history and ancillary diagnostic test results consistent with the diagnosis, including a predominance of lymphocytes (> 60%, CD8+ T lymphocytes in particular) in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and a ground-glass pattern seen on HRCT of the chest. Early diagnosis is crucial in order to prevent HP from progressing to pulmonary fibrosis. Hereditary factors seem to influence the onset of the disease. PMID:24831404

  6. The relationship between religion, illness and death in life histories of family members of children with life-threatening diseases.

    PubMed

    Bousso, Regina Szylit; Serafim, Taís de Souza; Misko, Maira Deguer

    2010-01-01

    This qualitative study aimed to get to know the relationship between the experiences of families of children with a life-threatening disease and their religion, illness and life histories. The methodological framework was based on Oral History. The data were collected through interviews and the participants were nine families from six different religions who had lived the experience of having a child with a life-threatening disease. The interviews, held with one or two family members, were transcribed, textualized and, through their analysis, the Vital Tone was elaborated, representing the moral synthesis of each narrative. Three dimensions of spirituality were related to illness and death in their life histories: a Higher Being with a healing power; Development and Maintenance of a Connection with God and Faith Encouraging Optimism. The narratives demonstrated the family's search to attribute meanings to their experiences, based on their religious beliefs.

  7. The predictive power of family history measures of alcohol and drug problems and internalizing disorders in a college population.

    PubMed

    Kendler, Kenneth S; Edwards, Alexis; Myers, John; Cho, Seung Bin; Adkins, Amy; Dick, Danielle

    2015-07-01

    A family history (FH) of psychiatric and substance use problems is a potent risk factor for common internalizing and externalizing disorders. In a large web-based assessment of mental health in college students, we developed a brief set of screening questions for a FH of alcohol problems (AP), drug problems (DP) and depression-anxiety in four classes of relatives (father, mother, aunts/uncles/grandparents, and siblings) as reported by the student. Positive reports of a history of AP, DP, and depression-anxiety were substantially correlated within relatives. These FH measures predicted in the student, in an expected pattern, dimensions of personality and impulsivity, alcohol consumption and problems, smoking and nicotine dependence, use of illicit drugs, and symptoms of depression and anxiety. Using the mean score from the four classes of relatives was more predictive than using a familial/sporadic dichotomy. Interactions were seen between the FH of AP, DP, and depression-anxiety and peer deviance in predicting symptoms of alcohol and tobacco dependence. As the students aged, the FH of AP became a stronger predictor of alcohol problems. While we cannot directly assess the validity of these FH reports, the pattern of findings suggest that our brief screening items were able to assess, with some accuracy, the FH of substance misuse and internalizing psychiatric disorders in relatives. If correct, these measures can play an important role in the creation of developmental etiologic models for substance and internalizing psychiatric disorders which constitute one of the central goals of the overall project. PMID:25946510

  8. The Predictive Power of Family History Measures of Alcohol and Drug Problems and Internalizing Disorders In A College Population

    PubMed Central

    Kendler, Kenneth S; Edwards, Alexis; Myers, John; Cho, Seung Bin; Adkins, Amy; Dick, Danielle

    2015-01-01

    A family history (FH) of psychiatric and substance use problems is a potent risk factor for common internalizing and externalizing disorders. In a large web-based assessment of mental health in college students, we developed a brief set of screening questions for a FH of alcohol problems (AP), drug problems (DP) and depression-anxiety in four classes of relatives (father, mother, aunts/uncles/grandparents, and siblings) as reported by the student. Positive reports of a history of AP, DP, and depression-anxiety were substantially correlated within relatives. These FH measures predicted in the student, in an expected pattern, dimensions of personality and impulsivity, alcohol consumption and problems, smoking and nicotine dependence, use of illicit drugs, and symptoms of depression and anxiety. Using the mean score from the four classes of relatives was more predictive than using a familial/sporadic dichotomy. Interactions were seen between the FH of AP, DP, and depression-anxiety and peer deviance in predicting symptoms of alcohol and tobacco dependence. As the students aged, the FH of AP became a stronger predictor of alcohol problems. While we cannot directly assess the validity of these FH reports, the pattern of findings suggest that our brief screening items were able to assess, with some accuracy, the FH of substance misuse and internalizing psychiatric disorders in relatives. If correct, these measures can play an important role in the creation of developmental etiologic models for substance and internalizing psychiatric disorders which constitute one of the central goals of the overall project. PMID:25946510

  9. Constraining the Star Forming History in Monoceros: A Study of Embedded Cluster Ages and Spatial Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lada, Elizabeth A.; Marinas, Naibi; Levine, Joanna L.; Ferreira, Bruno

    2009-08-01

    We propose to use FLAMINGOS multi-object spectrometer on the KPNO 4 meter telescope to complete a spectroscopic survey of 7 clusters in the Monoceros GMC. The data will be combined with existing FLAMINGOS photometry to determine the ages and masses of the stars in the clusters using the HR Diagram and PMS evolutionary models. This information, combined with the spatial distribution of clusters in the cloud, determined from previous observations, will allow us to investigate the ages and age spreads of the embedded clusters and the star forming histories of the clusters and the molecular cloud.

  10. Constraining the Star Forming History in Monoceros: A Study of Embedded Cluster Ages and Spatial Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marinas, Naibi; Lada, Elizabeth; Ybarra, Jason; Fleming, Scott

    2010-08-01

    We propose to use FLAMINGOS multi-object spectrometer on the KPNO 4 meter telescope to complete a spectroscopic survey of 5 clusters in the Monoceros GMC. The data will be combined with existing FLAMINGOS photometry to determine the ages and masses of the stars in the clusters using the HR Diagram and PMS evolutionary models. This information, combined with the spatial distribution of clusters in the cloud, determined from previous observations, will allow us to investigate the ages and age spreads of the embedded clusters and the star forming histories of the clusters and the molecular cloud.

  11. Values of Alpha 1 Microglobulin Does Not Differ between Individuals with and without Family History of Balkan Endemic Nephropathy

    PubMed Central

    Trnacevic, Senaid; Hodzic, Emir; Atic, Mirza; Dugonjic, Maida; Hasanovic, Evlijana

    2014-01-01

    Aim. The aim of this study was to compare urinary alpha 1 microglobulin (A1MG) in healthy individuals with and without family burden for Balkan endemic nephropathy (BEN) in an endemic village. Methods. Otherwise healthy inhabitants with microalbuminuria or proteinuria were divided into two groups: with (n = 24) and without (n = 32) family BEN burden and screened for urinary A1MG and A1MG/urine creatinine ratio. Results. Average value of urinary A1MG was 10.35 ± 7.01 mg/L in group with and 10.79 ± 8.27 mg/L in group without family history for BEN (NS, P = 0.87). A1MG was higher than 10 mg/L in eight (33.33%) inhabitants with family history and in 12 (37.5%) without (NS, P = 0.187). Average values of urinary A1MG/creatinine ratio were 1.30 ± 1.59 and 0.94 ± 0.78 in group with and group without family BEN history (NS, P = 0.39, resp.). Elevated values of this ratio were found in 13 (54.17%) inhabitants with and 14 (43.75%) without family history for BEN (NS, P = 0.415). Conclusion. We did not find statistically significant difference in the examined markers between healthy individuals with and without family burden for BEN. We concluded that these markers are not predictive of risk for BEN. PMID:24563783

  12. Phylogenetic relationships and evolutionary history of the Mesoamerican endemic freshwater fish family Profundulidae (Cyprinodontiformes: Actinopterygii).

    PubMed

    Morcillo, Felipe; Ornelas-García, Claudia Patricia; Alcaraz, Lourdes; Matamoros, Wilfredo A; Doadrio, Ignacio

    2016-01-01

    Freshwater fishes of Profundulidae, which until now was composed of two subgenera, represent one of the few extant fish families endemic to Mesoamerica. In this study we investigated the phylogenetic relationships and evolutionary history of the eight recognized extant species (from 37 populations) of Profundulidae using three mitochondrial and one nuclear gene markers (∼2.9 Kbp). We applied a Bayesian species delimitation method as a first approach to resolving speciation patterns within Profundulidae considering two different scenarios, eight-species and twelve-species models, obtained in a previous phylogenetic analysis. Based on our results, each of the two subgenera was resolved as monophyletic, with a remarkable molecular divergence of 24.5% for mtDNA and 7.8% for nDNA uncorrected p distances, and thus we propose that they correspond to separate genera. Moreover, we propose a conservative taxonomic hypothesis with five species within Profundulus and three within Tlaloc, although both eight-species and twelve-species models were highly supported by the bayesian species delimitation analysis, providing additional evidence of higher taxonomic diversity than currently recognized in this family. According to our divergence time estimates, the family originated during the Upper Oligocene 26 Mya, and Profundulus and Tlaloc diverged in the Upper Oligocene or Lower Miocene about 20 Mya.

  13. Phylogenetic relationships and evolutionary history of the Mesoamerican endemic freshwater fish family Profundulidae (Cyprinodontiformes: Actinopterygii).

    PubMed

    Morcillo, Felipe; Ornelas-García, Claudia Patricia; Alcaraz, Lourdes; Matamoros, Wilfredo A; Doadrio, Ignacio

    2016-01-01

    Freshwater fishes of Profundulidae, which until now was composed of two subgenera, represent one of the few extant fish families endemic to Mesoamerica. In this study we investigated the phylogenetic relationships and evolutionary history of the eight recognized extant species (from 37 populations) of Profundulidae using three mitochondrial and one nuclear gene markers (∼2.9 Kbp). We applied a Bayesian species delimitation method as a first approach to resolving speciation patterns within Profundulidae considering two different scenarios, eight-species and twelve-species models, obtained in a previous phylogenetic analysis. Based on our results, each of the two subgenera was resolved as monophyletic, with a remarkable molecular divergence of 24.5% for mtDNA and 7.8% for nDNA uncorrected p distances, and thus we propose that they correspond to separate genera. Moreover, we propose a conservative taxonomic hypothesis with five species within Profundulus and three within Tlaloc, although both eight-species and twelve-species models were highly supported by the bayesian species delimitation analysis, providing additional evidence of higher taxonomic diversity than currently recognized in this family. According to our divergence time estimates, the family originated during the Upper Oligocene 26 Mya, and Profundulus and Tlaloc diverged in the Upper Oligocene or Lower Miocene about 20 Mya. PMID:26364972

  14. History vs. snapshot: how slab morphology relates to slab age evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garel, Fanny; Goes, Saskia; Davies, Rhodri; Davies, Huw; Lallemand, Serge; Kramer, Stephan; Wilson, Cian

    2016-04-01

    The age of the subducting plate at the trench ("slab age") spans a wide range, from less than 10 Myr in Central and South America to 150 Myr in the Marianas. The morphology of subducting slab in the upper mantle is also very variable, from slabs stagnating at the top of the lower mantle to slabs penetrating well beyond 1000 km depth. People have looked rather unsucessfully for correlations between slab morphology and subduction parameters, including age at the trench, on the basic assumption that old (thick) plates are likely to generate a large slab pull force that would influence slab dip. Thermo-mechanical models reveal complex feedbacks between temperature, strain rate and rheology, and are able to reproduce the evolution of plate ages as a function of time, subducting plate velocity and trench velocity. In particular, we show how initially young subducting plates can rapidly age at the surface because of a slow sinking velocity. As a consequence, different slab morphologies can exhibit similar ages at the trench provided that subduction history is different. We illustrate how models provide insights into Earth subduction zones for which we have to consider their history (evolution of trench velocity, relative plate ages at time of initiation) in order to unravel their present-day geometry.

  15. Meeting Report: International Symposium on the Genetics of Aging and Life History II

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Seung‐Jae V.; Nam, Hong Gil

    2015-01-01

    The second International Symposium on the Genetics of Aging and Life History was held at the campus of Daegu Gyeongbuk Institute of Science and Technology (DGIST), Daegu, South Korea, from May 14 to 16, 2014. Many leading scientists in the field of aging research from all over the world contributed to the symposium by attending and presenting their recent work and thoughts. The aim of the symposium was to stimulate international collaborations and interactions among scientists who work on the biology of aging. In the symposium, the most recent and exciting work on aging research was presented, covering a wide range of topics, including the genetics of aging, age‐associated diseases, and cellular senescence. The work was conducted in various organisms, including C. elegans, mice, plants, and humans. Topics covered in the symposium stimulated discussion of novel directions for future research on aging. The meeting ended with a commitment for the third International Symposium on the Genetics of Aging and Life History, which will be held in 2016. PMID:26115541

  16. What Are the School-Age Child Care Needs of Families in Rural Communities?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hobbs, Beverly B.; Chang, Joyce I.

    During 1994 and 1995, the Commissions on Children and Families in six rural Oregon counties joined with local elementary schools and the Oregon State University Extension Service to conduct surveys to determine the school-age child care needs of local families. Data were collected and analyzed, and individual reports were prepared by county. The…

  17. Predicting Treatment Dropout in Parent Training Interventions for Families of School-Aged Children with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneider, Brian W.; Gerdes, Alyson C.; Haack, Lauren M.; Lawton, Katie E.

    2013-01-01

    Premature treatment dropout is a problem for many families seeking mental health services for their children. Research is currently limited in identifying factors that increase the likelihood of dropout in families of school-aged children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Thus, the goal of the current study was to examine…

  18. Gender Differences in the Age-Changing Relationship between Instrumentality and Family Contact in Emerging Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sneed, Joel R.; Johnson, Jeffrey G.; Cohen, Patricia; Gilligan, Carol; Chen, Henian; Crawford, Thomas N.; Kasen, Stephanie

    2006-01-01

    Data from the Children in the Community Transitions Study were used to examine gender differences in the impact of family contact on the development of finance and romance instrumentality from ages 17 to 27 years. Family contact decreased among both men and women across emerging adulthood, although it decreased more rapidly in men than in women.…

  19. The Role of Age, Family Support, and Negative Cognitions in the Prediction of Depressive Symptoms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ostrander, Rick; Weinfurt, Kevin P.; Nay, W. Robert

    1998-01-01

    Study examines developmental changes in the relationship between negative cognitions and stressful family characteristics in the prediction of depression in young people. Hierarchical regression analysis demonstrates significant 3-way interaction between age, negative cognitions, and family unsupportiveness. Discusses results as they relate to…

  20. Family Economic Hardship and Progression of Poor Mental Health in Middle-Aged Husbands and Wives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wickrama, K. A. S.; Surjadi, Florensia F.; Lorenz, Frederick O.; Conger, Rand D.; O'Neal, Catherine Walker

    2012-01-01

    Using prospective data from 370 middle-aged husbands and wives during a 12-year period, we investigated the intra-individual and dyadic influence of family economic hardship on the levels of depressive symptoms of husbands and wives over their middle years. The results suggest that family economic hardship during the early middle years contributes…

  1. The Nuclear War Age Barrier within the Nuclear Family.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McConnell, Stephen C.; And Others

    This document notes that the literature addressing children's nuclear fears suggests that children are introduced to the nuclear threat by ways that do not provide dialogue and without regard to the age appropriate needs of the child, and that parents seem to be protecting their children from the horror of a holocaust by not talking about the…

  2. Natural history of obesity in 6,946 women between 50 and 59 years of age.

    PubMed Central

    Hartz, A J; Rimm, A A

    1980-01-01

    A health survey of 6946 50-to-59 year-old women of TOPS, an organization for weight reduction, was used to study the natural history of obesity. Weight history was compared for four groups of women divided on the basis of their per cent above ideal body weight (IBW) in their 50s (less than 20%, 20-49%, 50-99% and 100+%). In each of the four groups, the majority of women were not obese by age 20. Sixteen per cent of the women who were 100+% overweight in their 50s were not obese at anytime during their first 30 years of life. Thirty-six per cent of the women who were 50-99% about IBW were not overweight at anytime prior to their 30th birthday. The history of obesity prior to age 30 was not associated with weight gain between the ages of 30 and 50. These data suggest: 1) than there is no critical time for the development of obesity, and 2) that previous weight history is not a dominant factor in determining subsequent weight gain. PMID:7361956

  3. Relation Between Family History of Premature Coronary Artery Disease and the Risk of Death in Patients With Coronary Artery Disease.

    PubMed

    Abdi-Ali, Ahmed; Shaheen, AbdelAziz; Southern, Danielle; Zhang, Mei; Knudtson, Merril; White, James; Graham, Michelle; James, Mathew T; Wilton, Stephen B

    2016-02-01

    Family history (FHx) of premature coronary artery disease (CAD) is a risk factor for development of incident cardiovascular disease. However the association between FHx and outcomes in patients with established CAD is unclear. We followed 84,373 patients with angiographic CAD enrolled in the inclusive Alberta Provincial Project for Outcomes Assessment in Coronary Heart Disease registry between April 2002 and March 2013. Overall, 25,566 (30%) self-reported an FHx of CAD, defined as a first-degree relative with premature CAD (men, age <55 years; women, age <65 years). We tested the association between FHx and all-cause mortality using multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression. After adjusting for baseline differences in clinical characteristics, indication, and extent of CAD, FHx was associated with reduced all-cause mortality over a median 5.6 years in follow-up (hazard ratio [HR] 0.77 [95% CI 0.73 to 0.80]). The magnitude of this protective association was weaker in those with versus without a previous myocardial infarction (HR 0.87 [95% CI 0.81 to 0.93] versus 0.72 [0.69 to 0.76], interaction p <0.0001) and slightly stronger in those presenting with versus without an acute coronary syndrome (HR 0.74 [0.70 to 0.79] versus 0.80 [0.75 to 0.85], interaction p = 0.08). There was attenuation of association with increasing age, but FHx remained protective even in those aged older than 80 years (HR 0.86 [0.77 to 0.95]). In conclusion, in patients with angiographic CAD, self-reported FHx of premature CAD is associated with improved long-term survival rate, independent of clinical characteristics, mode of presentation, and extent of disease. Further investigation of potential patient- and system-level mediators of this seemingly paradoxical relation is required. PMID:26723106

  4. Influence of family history of dementia in the development and progression of late-onset Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Scarabino, Daniela; Gambina, Giuseppe; Broggio, Elisabetta; Pelliccia, Franca; Corbo, Rosa Maria

    2016-03-01

    Family history of dementia (FH) is a recognized risk factor for developing late-onset Alzheimer's disease (AD). We asked whether having FH increases AD risk and influences disease severity (age at onset and cognitive impairment) in 420 AD patients and 109 controls with (FH+) or without (FH-). The relationships of APOE and other AD risk genes with FH were analyzed as well. The proportion of APOE e4 allele carriers was higher among the FH+ than the FH- AD patients (49.6% vs. 38.9%; P = 0.04). The distribution of the risk genotypes of nine AD susceptibility genes previously examined (CHAT, CYP17, CYP19, ESR1, FSHR, P53, P73, P21, PPARG) did not differ between the FH+ and the FH- AD patients, indicating that none contributed significantly to familial clustering of disease. FH was associated with an increased AD risk (odds ratio [OR] 2.71, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.44-5.09; P = 0.002) independent of carrying the APOE e4 allele (OR 2.61, 95%CI 1.53-4.44; P = 0.0004). Having a first-degree relative or a parent with dementia was significantly associated with AD risk (OR 2.9, 95%CI 1.3-6.4; P = 0.009 and OR 2.7, 95%CI 1.1-6.2; P = 0.02) but having a sibling with dementia was not (OR 1.7, 95%CI 0.2 to 14.7; P = 0.6). Among the FH+ AD patients, having one or both parents affected seemed to raise the risk of earlier onset age (P = 0.02) and greater cognitive impairment (P = 0.02) than having only an affected sibling, whereas having two or more affected relatives did not. PMID:26531229

  5. Influence of family history of dementia in the development and progression of late-onset Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Scarabino, Daniela; Gambina, Giuseppe; Broggio, Elisabetta; Pelliccia, Franca; Corbo, Rosa Maria

    2016-03-01

    Family history of dementia (FH) is a recognized risk factor for developing late-onset Alzheimer's disease (AD). We asked whether having FH increases AD risk and influences disease severity (age at onset and cognitive impairment) in 420 AD patients and 109 controls with (FH+) or without (FH-). The relationships of APOE and other AD risk genes with FH were analyzed as well. The proportion of APOE e4 allele carriers was higher among the FH+ than the FH- AD patients (49.6% vs. 38.9%; P = 0.04). The distribution of the risk genotypes of nine AD susceptibility genes previously examined (CHAT, CYP17, CYP19, ESR1, FSHR, P53, P73, P21, PPARG) did not differ between the FH+ and the FH- AD patients, indicating that none contributed significantly to familial clustering of disease. FH was associated with an increased AD risk (odds ratio [OR] 2.71, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.44-5.09; P = 0.002) independent of carrying the APOE e4 allele (OR 2.61, 95%CI 1.53-4.44; P = 0.0004). Having a first-degree relative or a parent with dementia was significantly associated with AD risk (OR 2.9, 95%CI 1.3-6.4; P = 0.009 and OR 2.7, 95%CI 1.1-6.2; P = 0.02) but having a sibling with dementia was not (OR 1.7, 95%CI 0.2 to 14.7; P = 0.6). Among the FH+ AD patients, having one or both parents affected seemed to raise the risk of earlier onset age (P = 0.02) and greater cognitive impairment (P = 0.02) than having only an affected sibling, whereas having two or more affected relatives did not.

  6. Perceived familiarity with and importance of family health history among a medically underserved population.

    PubMed

    Ashida, Sato; Goodman, Melody S; Stafford, Jewel; Lachance, Christina; Kaphingst, Kimberly A

    2012-10-01

    Inadequate knowledge of family health history (FHH) continues to be a major obstacle limiting its usefulness in public health and clinical practice; strategies to facilitate FHH dissemination are needed. Data (N = 1,334) were obtained through waiting-room surveys completed by a diverse sample of patients attending three community health centers. Perceptions about the importance of genetic information (β = 0.13, p < 0.001; β = 0.11, p < 0.001) and higher genetic self-efficacy (β = 0.14, p < 0.001; β = 0.23, p < 0.001) were significantly associated with higher levels of perceived familiarity with and importance of FHH, respectively. Furthermore, beliefs about genetic causation of illnesses (β = 0.12, p < 0.001) and a wider reach of health communication within one's family (β = 0.15, p < 0.001) were associated with higher levels of perceived familiarity with one's FHH. Participants in the oldest group (>50 years) reported higher familiarity than those in the youngest (18-25 years). Those with higher familiarity were significantly less likely to answer "don't know" when reporting diabetes and heart disease diagnoses among immediate (OR = 0.35 and OR = 0.29, respectively) and extended (OR = 0.50 and OR = 0.46, respectively) family members. Having a wider health communication reach within a family may be beneficial in increasing familiarity with FHH; however, the reported levels of communication reach were limited among most participants. Women, older-generation family members, and those who believe in the importance of genetics in health or feel confident about using genetic information may be particularly important as targets of public health interventions to facilitate FHH dissemination within families.

  7. The age of the Veritas asteroid family deduced by chaotic chronology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milani, Andrea; Farinella, Paolo

    1994-07-01

    ASTEROID families are groups of objects produced in disruptive collisions of a parent body. Although family members are widely dispersed in real space, they cluster in the parameter space defined by their so-called proper elements, and can thus be distinguished from the background asteroid population1-3. For most asteroids, these parameters are very close to being invariants of motion and families are still apparent billions of years after their formation4'5. But these parameters undergo chaotic diffusion, and in some cases the rate of diffusion might be large enough that a family member exits from the region of proper-element space occupied by the family after a characteristic time which is shorter than the lifetime of the Solar System. In this case, the characteristic time should provide an approximate upper bound to the age of the family. Here we use this 'chaotic chronology' method to estimate the lifetime of the unusually compact Veritas family. Calculations of the evolu-tion of the proper elements of the family show that two members (including the largest, 490 Veritas) wander outside the borders of the family on a timescale of about 50 Myr, indicating that the family has an age of less than this.

  8. Ecological determinants of mean family age of angiosperm trees in forest communities in China

    PubMed Central

    Qian, Hong; Chen, Shengbin

    2016-01-01

    Species assemblage in a local community is determined by the interplay of evolutionary and ecological processes. The Tropical Niche Conservatism hypothesis proposes mechanisms underlying patterns of biodiversity in biological communities along environmental gradients. This hypothesis predicts that, among other things, clades in areas with warm or wet environments are, on average, older than those in areas with cold or dry environments. Focusing on angiosperm trees in forests, this study tested the age-related prediction of the Tropical Niche Conservatism hypothesis. We related the mean family age of angiosperm trees in 57 local forests from across China with 23 current and paleo-environmental variables, which included all major temperature- and precipitation-related variables. Our study shows that the mean family age of angiosperm trees in local forests was positively correlated with temperature and precipitation. This finding is consistent with the age-related prediction of the Tropical Niche Conservatism hypothesis. Approximately 85% of the variance in the mean family age of angiosperm trees was explained by temperature-related variables, and 81% of the variance in the mean family age of angiosperm trees was explained by precipitation-related variables. Climatic conditions at the Last Glacial Maximum did not explain additional variation in mean family age after accounting for current environmental conditions. PMID:27354109

  9. Ecological determinants of mean family age of angiosperm trees in forest communities in China.

    PubMed

    Qian, Hong; Chen, Shengbin

    2016-01-01

    Species assemblage in a local community is determined by the interplay of evolutionary and ecological processes. The Tropical Niche Conservatism hypothesis proposes mechanisms underlying patterns of biodiversity in biological communities along environmental gradients. This hypothesis predicts that, among other things, clades in areas with warm or wet environments are, on average, older than those in areas with cold or dry environments. Focusing on angiosperm trees in forests, this study tested the age-related prediction of the Tropical Niche Conservatism hypothesis. We related the mean family age of angiosperm trees in 57 local forests from across China with 23 current and paleo-environmental variables, which included all major temperature- and precipitation-related variables. Our study shows that the mean family age of angiosperm trees in local forests was positively correlated with temperature and precipitation. This finding is consistent with the age-related prediction of the Tropical Niche Conservatism hypothesis. Approximately 85% of the variance in the mean family age of angiosperm trees was explained by temperature-related variables, and 81% of the variance in the mean family age of angiosperm trees was explained by precipitation-related variables. Climatic conditions at the Last Glacial Maximum did not explain additional variation in mean family age after accounting for current environmental conditions. PMID:27354109

  10. Ecological determinants of mean family age of angiosperm trees in forest communities in China.

    PubMed

    Qian, Hong; Chen, Shengbin

    2016-06-29

    Species assemblage in a local community is determined by the interplay of evolutionary and ecological processes. The Tropical Niche Conservatism hypothesis proposes mechanisms underlying patterns of biodiversity in biological communities along environmental gradients. This hypothesis predicts that, among other things, clades in areas with warm or wet environments are, on average, older than those in areas with cold or dry environments. Focusing on angiosperm trees in forests, this study tested the age-related prediction of the Tropical Niche Conservatism hypothesis. We related the mean family age of angiosperm trees in 57 local forests from across China with 23 current and paleo-environmental variables, which included all major temperature- and precipitation-related variables. Our study shows that the mean family age of angiosperm trees in local forests was positively correlated with temperature and precipitation. This finding is consistent with the age-related prediction of the Tropical Niche Conservatism hypothesis. Approximately 85% of the variance in the mean family age of angiosperm trees was explained by temperature-related variables, and 81% of the variance in the mean family age of angiosperm trees was explained by precipitation-related variables. Climatic conditions at the Last Glacial Maximum did not explain additional variation in mean family age after accounting for current environmental conditions.

  11. Work-family conflict among members of full-time dual-earner couples: an examination of family life stage, gender, and age.

    PubMed

    Allen, Tammy D; Finkelstein, Lisa M

    2014-07-01

    Based on cross-sectional data from the 2008 National Study of the Changing Workforce, this study investigates relationships between gender, age, and work-family conflict across 6 family life stages. Participants were 690 married/partnered employees who worked 35 or more hours a week. Results indicated a small but negative relationship between age and work-family conflict. Work-family conflict was also associated with family stage, with the least amount of conflict occurring during the empty nest stage and the most occurring when the youngest child in the home was 5 years of age or younger. Gender differences were also observed. Specifically, men reported more work interference with family than did women when the youngest child in the home was a teen. Women overall reported more family interference with work than did men. Results concerning age and gender revealed a different pattern demonstrating that family stage is not simply a proxy for age. Age had a main effect on work-to-family conflict that was monotonic in nature and on family to-work conflict that was linear in nature. In conclusion, the results indicate gender, age, and family stage each uniquely relate to work-family conflict.

  12. Implementation of health risk assessments with family health history: barriers and benefits.

    PubMed

    Wu, R Ryanne; Orlando, Lori A

    2015-09-01

    Health risk assessments provide an opportunity to emphasise health promotion and disease prevention for individuals and populations at large. A key component of health risk assessments is the detailed collection of family health history information. This information is helpful in determining risk both for common chronic conditions and more rare diseases as well. While the concept of health risk assessments has been around since the Framingham Heart Study was launched in the 1950s, and such assessments are commonly performed in the workplace today, the US healthcare system has been slow to embrace them and the emphasis on prevention that they represent. Before wider implementation of health risk assessments within healthcare can be seen, several concerns must be addressed: (1) provider impact, (2) patient impact, (3) validity of patient-entered data and (4) health outcomes effect. Here, we describe recent developments in health risk assessment design that are helping to address these issues.

  13. Gerontology and Genealogy: Family Research as a Therapeutic Tool for the Aged.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenberg, Naomi Schubin

    Participation in genealogy projects can be beneficial to older adults. Such projects combine reminiscing about family histories with the creation of a product which can be shared with relatives. The result is improved self-esteem and a feeling of accomplishment. Genealogy projects can also provide a means by which younger people can interact with…

  14. Validity of self-reported family history of cancer: A systematic literature review on selected cancers.

    PubMed

    Fiederling, Jonas; Shams, Ahmad Zia; Haug, Ulrike

    2016-10-01

    Evidence regarding validity of self-reported family history of cancer (FHC) has been reviewed only for breast, colorectal, prostate, ovarian, endometrial and uterine cancer. We aimed to systematically review studies assessing validity of self-reported family history for the remaining cancer sites. We searched the Medline database for relevant studies published by January 2016. We extracted information on the study design and the positive predictive value (PPV) of self-reported FHC, defined as the proportion of reported cancer diagnoses among relatives that was confirmed by a reference standard (as a measure of over-reporting). We also extracted information on sensitivity of self-reported FHC (as a measure of underreporting). Overall, 21 studies were included that provided information on the PPV of self-reported FHC for relevant cancers and four studies also provided information on sensitivity. The PPV was highest (mostly >70%) for pancreatic, lung, thyroid and urinary system cancers and for leukemia and lymphoma, while it was lowest for stomach and liver cancer. Sensitivity was highest (>70%) for pancreatic cancer, lung cancer, brain cancer, melanoma, leukemia and lymphoma. For several cancers, sample sizes were low and the number of studies limited, particularly regarding sensitivity of self-reported FHC. In conclusion, for some cancers (e.g., pancreatic cancer, lung cancer, leukemia, lymphoma) self-reported FHC can be considered sufficiently valid to be useful, for example, in preventive counseling. For several cancers, it is not sufficiently studied or the pattern is inconsistent. This needs to be taken into account when using self-reported information about FHC in clinical practice or epidemiological research.

  15. Effects of abstinence and family history for alcoholism on platelet adenylyl cyclase activity.

    PubMed

    Menninger, J A; Barón, A E; Tabakoff, B

    1998-12-01

    Platelet adenylyl cyclase (AC) activity was measured in 32 alcohol-dependent subjects and 27 control subjects who were categorized as either family history-positive (FHP) or family history-negative (FHN) for alcoholism. The interview and blood sample collections were performed shortly after cessation of heavy drinking in the alcoholic group, and repeat blood samples were obtained at the end of the first and second weeks of monitored abstinence. Control subjects received the same interview and provided blood samples at the time of the interview. When subjects were not segregated for FHP or FHN status, there were no statistically significant differences in basal, cesium fluoride (CsF)-, or forskolin-stimulated mean AC activities between the controls and the alcoholics, at study entry or with 1 or 2 weeks of abstinence. On the other hand, over the 2-week course of sobriety from heavy drinking, the CsF-stimulated AC activity of FHP alcohol-dependent subjects decreased significantly (p = 0.03). FHP alcohol-dependent subjects after 2 weeks of sobriety had significantly lower mean CsF-stimulated AC activity than FHN controls (p = 0.04), whereas the FHN alcoholic subjects' CsF-stimulated AC activity did not differ significantly from FHN controls at this point in time. When all subjects were pooled and then categorized as either FHP or FHN, there was a significant difference in mean CsF-stimulated AC activity (p = 0.02) between the FHP and FHN subject groups. Genetic factors and abstinence appear to have roles in determining low platelet AC activity in alcoholic and nonalcoholic subjects. CsF-stimulated platelet AC activity, in particular, appears to act as a trait marker for a genetic vulnerability to developing alcoholism, but recent heavy drinking in male alcoholics is a factor that can mask differences between FHP and FHN subjects.

  16. Predictors of Care-Giver Stress in Families of Preschool-Aged Children with Developmental Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plant, K. M.; Sanders, M. R.

    2007-01-01

    Background: This study examined the predictors, mediators and moderators of parent stress in families of preschool-aged children with developmental disability. Method: One hundred and five mothers of preschool-aged children with developmental disability completed assessment measures addressing the key variables. Results: Analyses demonstrated that…

  17. Unmet Needs of Families of School-Aged Children with an Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Hilary K.; Ouellette-Kuntz, Helene; Hunter, Duncan; Kelley, Elizabeth; Cobigo, Virginie

    2012-01-01

    Background: To aid decision making regarding the allocation of limited resources, information is needed on the perceived unmet needs of parents of school-aged children with an autism spectrum disorder. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted of 101 Canadian families of school-aged children with an autism spectrum disorder.…

  18. Support to Aging Parents and Grown Children in Black and White Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fingerman, Karen L.; VanderDrift, Laura E.; Dotterer, Aryn M.; Birditt, Kira S.; Zarit, Steven H.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Black and White middle-aged adults typically are in a pivot position of providing support to generations above and below. Racial differences in support to each generation in the family remain unclear, however. Different factors may account for racial differences in support of grown children versus aging parents. Design and Methods:…

  19. Iron Age and Anglo-Saxon genomes from East England reveal British migration history

    PubMed Central

    Schiffels, Stephan; Haak, Wolfgang; Paajanen, Pirita; Llamas, Bastien; Popescu, Elizabeth; Loe, Louise; Clarke, Rachel; Lyons, Alice; Mortimer, Richard; Sayer, Duncan; Tyler-Smith, Chris; Cooper, Alan; Durbin, Richard

    2016-01-01

    British population history has been shaped by a series of immigrations, including the early Anglo-Saxon migrations after 400 CE. It remains an open question how these events affected the genetic composition of the current British population. Here, we present whole-genome sequences from 10 individuals excavated close to Cambridge in the East of England, ranging from the late Iron Age to the middle Anglo-Saxon period. By analysing shared rare variants with hundreds of modern samples from Britain and Europe, we estimate that on average the contemporary East English population derives 38% of its ancestry from Anglo-Saxon migrations. We gain further insight with a new method, rarecoal, which infers population history and identifies fine-scale genetic ancestry from rare variants. Using rarecoal we find that the Anglo-Saxon samples are closely related to modern Dutch and Danish populations, while the Iron Age samples share ancestors with multiple Northern European populations including Britain. PMID:26783965

  20. Iron Age and Anglo-Saxon genomes from East England reveal British migration history.

    PubMed

    Schiffels, Stephan; Haak, Wolfgang; Paajanen, Pirita; Llamas, Bastien; Popescu, Elizabeth; Loe, Louise; Clarke, Rachel; Lyons, Alice; Mortimer, Richard; Sayer, Duncan; Tyler-Smith, Chris; Cooper, Alan; Durbin, Richard

    2016-01-01

    British population history has been shaped by a series of immigrations, including the early Anglo-Saxon migrations after 400 CE. It remains an open question how these events affected the genetic composition of the current British population. Here, we present whole-genome sequences from 10 individuals excavated close to Cambridge in the East of England, ranging from the late Iron Age to the middle Anglo-Saxon period. By analysing shared rare variants with hundreds of modern samples from Britain and Europe, we estimate that on average the contemporary East English population derives 38% of its ancestry from Anglo-Saxon migrations. We gain further insight with a new method, rarecoal, which infers population history and identifies fine-scale genetic ancestry from rare variants. Using rarecoal we find that the Anglo-Saxon samples are closely related to modern Dutch and Danish populations, while the Iron Age samples share ancestors with multiple Northern European populations including Britain. PMID:26783965

  1. [Beyond the asylum -An other view on the history of psychiatry in the modern age].

    PubMed

    Fauvel, Aude

    2015-07-01

    If one thinks medicine, madness and the past, one image immediately pops into mind: that of the mental asylum. Following the famous work by Michel Foucault, Madness and Civilization: A History of Insanity in the Age of Reason, many historians have thus considered that the medicalization of insanity in the modern age had mostly led to a "great confinement" and a greater segregation of all individuals deemed mentally unfit during the "asylum era': However, new research demonstrates that this classic narrative of the psychiatric past needs to be revised. It discloses that, ever since the 191h century, a whole other medical culture existed as a challenge to asylums, a culture that advocated the integration of the mad and fought to disassociate psychiatry from the dominant model of confinement all throughout the occidental world. This article aims at presenting the results of these historical works that depict another aspect of the psychiatric history, exploring "boarding out" practices, instead of asylum ones.

  2. [Beyond the asylum -An other view on the history of psychiatry in the modern age].

    PubMed

    Fauvel, Aude

    2015-07-01

    If one thinks medicine, madness and the past, one image immediately pops into mind: that of the mental asylum. Following the famous work by Michel Foucault, Madness and Civilization: A History of Insanity in the Age of Reason, many historians have thus considered that the medicalization of insanity in the modern age had mostly led to a "great confinement" and a greater segregation of all individuals deemed mentally unfit during the "asylum era': However, new research demonstrates that this classic narrative of the psychiatric past needs to be revised. It discloses that, ever since the 191h century, a whole other medical culture existed as a challenge to asylums, a culture that advocated the integration of the mad and fought to disassociate psychiatry from the dominant model of confinement all throughout the occidental world. This article aims at presenting the results of these historical works that depict another aspect of the psychiatric history, exploring "boarding out" practices, instead of asylum ones. PMID:26111838

  3. Working Memory and Decision-Making Biases in Young Adults With a Family History of Alcoholism: Studies from the Oklahoma Family Health Patterns Project

    PubMed Central

    Lovallo, William R.; Yechiam, Eldad; Sorocco, Kristen H.; Vincent, Andrea S.; Collins, Frank L.

    2008-01-01

    Background Alcohol misuse is more common in persons with a family history of alcoholism (FH+) than in those with no such history (FH−). Among FH+, behavioral disinhibition and male sex seem to signal the presence of an increased risk. Methods This study examined cognitive and behavioral characteristics of 175 nonabusing 18- to 30-year-olds, 87 FH+ and 88 FH−, who were further characterized by their degree of behavioral disinhibition using the Sociability scale of the California Personality Inventory. Working memory and decision making were tested using the Stroop Color-Word Test and the Iowa Gambling Task, a simulated card game. Results Persons with a family history of alcoholism who were behaviorally disinhibited displayed significantly greater interference on the Stroop task than the other subgroups. On the Iowa Gambling Task, FH+ males, but not the females, were significantly more attentive to financial gains than other subgroups, and they had greater consistency in their choice behaviors. Conclusions Persons with a family history of alcoholism, in combination with behavioral disinhibition, appears to signal working memory deficits and in combination with male sex indicates an attraction to the rewarding aspects of a risk-taking challenge. These findings are not secondary to heavy exposure to alcohol or other drugs, but instead reflect intrinsic risk-related familial and personal characteristics of the subjects. PMID:16634844

  4. [A pilot study on adolescents of both sexes. Correlation between phenotype, athletic performances and family history to type 2 diabetes].

    PubMed

    Pomara, F; Grosso, F; Basile, D; Polizzi, V; Marcianò, C; Adamo, V; De Vita, A; Petrucci, M

    2010-10-01

    The authors have studied the influence of family history of type 2 diabetes on the physical phenotype of 47 health adolescents. In both sexes groups with positive family history (FH+) had the highest values of stature and body weight (P<0.05 for males, not significant for females), waist circumference (P<0.05 for males, not significant for females), and wrist circumference (P=0.05 for males, not significant for females). Considering athletic performance, FH+ males showed a significant higher performance in power exercises than FH- males; no significant differences were found between FH+ and FH- female groups. The study confirms that family history of type 2 diabetes can induce in both sexes precocious phenotype and athletic performances linked-related variations; larger studies are necessary to confirm these data and to verify preventive interventions promoting significant life-style changes. PMID:20940677

  5. The history of bronchial asthma from the ancient times till the Middle Ages.

    PubMed

    Cserháti, E

    2004-01-01

    The aim of the paper is to give an overview of the knowledge on asthma through the history of mankind. The text begins with ancient China and it is finished with the medicine of Middle Age. During this time, a lot of theories came and this appeared about the etiology and therapy of the disease. The paper is giving a short description of the changing medical views during this very long period including China, Egypt Greco-roman period, Mesopotamia, the Hebrews, the physicians of India, the pre-Columbian medicine in the America and the Arabic world, and partly the European medicine of the Middle Ages.

  6. The history of bronchial asthma from the ancient times till the Middle Ages.

    PubMed

    Cserháti, E

    2004-01-01

    The aim of the paper is to give an overview of the knowledge on asthma through the history of mankind. The text begins with ancient China and it is finished with the medicine of Middle Age. During this time, a lot of theories came and this appeared about the etiology and therapy of the disease. The paper is giving a short description of the changing medical views during this very long period including China, Egypt Greco-roman period, Mesopotamia, the Hebrews, the physicians of India, the pre-Columbian medicine in the America and the Arabic world, and partly the European medicine of the Middle Ages. PMID:16438118

  7. Prevalence of Helicobacter Pylori Infection in School and Pre-School Aged Children with C-14 Urea Breath Test and the Association with Familial and Environmental Factors

    PubMed Central

    Çınar, Alev; Sadıç, Murat; İkbal Atılgan, Hasan; Baskın, Aylin; Koca, Gökhan; Demirel, Koray; Korkmaz, Meliha

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the prevalence of Helicobacter pylori (Hp) infection in pre-school and school age children with C-14 urea breath test, and to explore its association with age and socioeconomic factors in Turkey. Methods: Hp infection status was determined by using Urea Breath Test (UBT). Patients who had previous gastric surgery, Hp eradication treatment or equivocal UBT results were excluded. A questionnaire was administered to elicit information on gender, age, ABO/Rh blood group type, presence of gastric disease in the family, domestic animal in the household, and treatment for idiopathic Iron Deficiency Anemia (IDA). Results: This retrospective study included 500 pediatric patients (179 boys, 321 girls, mean age 10.7±4.3 years) of whom 62 (12.4%) were aged ≤6 years and 438 (87.6%) were aged 7 to 16 years. Helicobacter pylori (Hp) was positive in 245 (49%) cases. In the pre-school age group, 21/62 cases (34%) had positive UBT while in the school age group 224/438 children (51%) had positive UBT. A family history of dyspepsia and pet ownership were not associated with Hp positivity. Hp positive 76 (29.8%) children were on IDA treatment but this was not statistically significant. Conclusion: The Hp infection positivity rate was 49% in the pediatric age study group. The positivity rate was significantly lower at preschool age than school age, and it increased with age. There was no association with gender, ABO/Rh blood groups, presence of domestic pets, IDA, or history of gastric disease in the family. PMID:26316471

  8. GENOMIC BASIS OF AGING AND LIFE HISTORY EVOLUTION IN DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER

    PubMed Central

    Remolina, Silvia C.; Chang, Peter L.; Leips, Jeff; Nuzhdin, Sergey V.; Hughes, Kimberly A.

    2015-01-01

    Natural diversity in aging and other life history patterns is a hallmark of organismal variation. Related species, populations, and individuals within populations show genetically based variation in life span and other aspects of age-related performance. Population differences are especially informative because these differences can be large relative to within-population variation and because they occur in organisms with otherwise similar genomes. We used experimental evolution to produce populations divergent for life span and late-age fertility and then used deep genome sequencing to detect sequence variants with nucleotide-level resolution. Several genes and genome regions showed strong signatures of selection, and the same regions were implicated in independent comparisons, suggesting that the same alleles were selected in replicate lines. Genes related to oogenesis, immunity, and protein degradation were implicated as important modifiers of late-life performance. Expression profiling and functional annotation narrowed the list of strong candidate genes to 38, most of which are novel candidates for regulating aging. Life span and early-age fecundity were negatively correlated among populations; therefore the alleles we identified also are candidate regulators of a major life-history trade-off. More generally, we argue that hitchhiking mapping can be a powerful tool for uncovering the molecular bases of quantitative genetic variation. PMID:23106705

  9. History of a prolific family: the Hes/Hey-related genes of the annelid Platynereis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The Hes superfamily or Hes/Hey-related genes encompass a variety of metazoan-specific bHLH genes, with somewhat fuzzy phylogenetic relationships. Hes superfamily members are involved in a variety of major developmental mechanisms in metazoans, notably in neurogenesis and segmentation processes, in which they often act as direct effector genes of the Notch signaling pathway. Results We have investigated the molecular and functional evolution of the Hes superfamily in metazoans using the lophotrochozoan Platynereis dumerilii as model. Our phylogenetic analyses of more than 200 Metazoan Hes/Hey-related genes revealed the presence of five families, three of them (Hes, Hey and Helt) being pan-metazoan. Those families were likely composed of a unique representative in the last common metazoan ancestor. The evolution of the Hes family was shaped by many independent lineage specific tandem duplication events. The expression patterns of 13 of the 15 Hes/Hey-related genes in Platynereis indicate a broad functional diversification. Nevertheless, a majority of these genes are involved in two crucial developmental processes in annelids: neurogenesis and segmentation, resembling functions highlighted in other animal models. Conclusions Combining phylogenetic and expression data, our study suggests an unusual evolutionary history for the Hes superfamily. An ancestral multifunctional annelid Hes gene may have undergone multiples rounds of duplication-degeneration-complementation processes in the lineage leading to Platynereis, each gene copies ensuring their maintenance in the genome by subfunctionalisation. Similar but independent waves of duplications are at the origin of the multiplicity of Hes genes in other metazoan lineages. PMID:25250171

  10. Aryl hydrocarbon receptor expression is associated with a family history of upper gastrointestinal tract cancer in a high-risk population exposed to aromatic hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect

    Roth, M.J.; Wei, W.Q.; Baer, J.; Abnet, C.C.; Wang, G.Q.; Sternberg, L.R.; Warner, A.C.; Johnson, L.L.; Lu, N.; Giffen, C.A.; Dawsey, S.M.; Qiao, Y.L.; Cherry, J.

    2009-09-15

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) exposure is a risk factor for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma, and PAHs are ligands of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). This study measured the expression of AhR and related genes in frozen esophageal cell samples from patients exposed to different levels of indoor air pollution, who did or did not have high-grade squamous dysplasia and who did or did not have a family history of upper gastrointestinal tract (UGI) cancer. 147 samples were evaluated, including 23 (16%) from patients with high-grade dysplasia and 48 (33%) from patients without dysplasia who heated their homes with coal, without a chimney (a 'high' indoor air pollution group), and 27 (18%) from patients with high-grade dysplasia and 49 (33%) from patients without dysplasia who did not heat their homes at all (a 'low' indoor air pollution group). Sixty-four (44%) had a family history of UGI cancer. RNA was extracted and quantitative PCR analysis was done. AhR gene expression was detectable in 85 (58%) of the samples and was >9-fold higher in those with a family history of UGI cancer (median expression (interquartile range), -1,964 (-18,000, -610) versus -18,000 (-18,000, -1036); P = 0.02, Wilcoxon rank-sum test). Heating status, dysplasia category, age, gender, and smoking were not associated with AhR expression (linear regression; all P values {ge} 0.1). AhR expression was higher in patients with a family history of UGI cancer. Such individuals may be more susceptible to the deleterious effects of PAH exposure, including PAH-induced cancer.

  11. Leveraging family values to decrease unhealthy alcohol use in aging Latino day laborers.

    PubMed

    del Pino, Homero E; Méndez-Luck, Carolyn; Bostean, Georgiana; Ramírez, Karina; Portillo, Marlom; Moore, Alison A

    2013-10-01

    In one Los Angeles study, 20 % of day laborers reported excessive drinking. Older adults are more sensitive to alcohol's effects, yet heavy drinking persists among Latinos until they are in their 60s. No interventions to reduce heavy drinking exist for aging day laborers. We recruited 14 day laborers aged 50 and older in Los Angeles. We identified their unhealthy alcohol use behaviors and comorbidities and conducted semi-structured interviews to understand their perceptions of unhealthy alcohol use. We found social disadvantages and conditions exacerbated by alcohol use, like depression. Participants were concerned with dying and premature aging, and reported that family could influence behavior change. An intervention should consider (1) integrating family values and (2) increasing knowledge about alcohol use and comorbidities. Further studies are needed to explore family influence on aging Latino day laborers.

  12. Effect of Family History on Outcomes in Patients Treated With Definitive Brachytherapy for Clinically Localized Prostate Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, Christopher A. Stock, Richard G.; Blacksburg, Seth R.; Stone, Nelson N.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the impact familial prostate cancer has on prognosis in men treated with brachytherapy for clinically localized prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: A total of 1,738 consecutive patients with prostate cancer (cT1-3, N0/X, M0) received low-dose-rate brachytherapy alone or in combination with external beam radiation therapy or hormone ablation from 1992 to 2005. The primary end-point was freedom from biochemical failure (FFBF) using the Phoenix definition. Minimum follow-up was 2 years and the median follow-up was 60 months (range, 24-197 months). Results: A total of 187 of 1,738 men (11%) had a family history of prostate cancer in a first-degree relative. For the low-risk patients, both groups had similar actuarial 5-year FFBF (97.2% vs. 95.5%, p = 0.516). For intermediate-risk patients, there was a trend toward improved biochemical control in men positive for family history (5-yr FFBF 100% vs. 93.6%, p = 0.076). For the high-risk patients, men with a positive family history had similar 5-year FFBF (92.8% vs. 85.2%, p = 0.124). On multivariate analysis, family history was not significant; use of hormones, high biologic effective dose, initial prostate-specific antigen value, and Gleason score were the significant variables predicting biochemical control. Conclusions: This is the first study to examine the relationship of familial prostate cancer and outcomed in men treated with brachytherapy alone or in combination therapy. Men with a positive family history have clinicopathologic characteristics and biochemical outcomes similar to those with sporadic disease.

  13. Adults with a family history of alcohol related problems are more impulsive on measures of response initiation and response inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Acheson, Ashley; Richard, Dawn M.; Mathias, Charles W.; Dougherty, Donald M.

    2011-01-01

    Background Previous studies have found individuals with family histories of alcohol use disorders are more impulsive on some but not all laboratory behavioral measures, suggesting deficits on specific forms of impulse control. However, drawing conclusions is tenuous because these different measures have not been administered together in the same group of participants. Methods In the present study, we compared healthy 21–35 year old adults with family histories of alcohol related problems (FHAP+) or without such histories (FHAP−) on behavioral measures of response inhibition, response initiation, and consequence sensitivity impulsivity. FHAP+ (n=36) and FHAP− (n=36) participants were compared on performance on the Immediate Memory Task (IMT, response initiation), GoStop Impulsivity Paradigm (GoStop, response inhibition), Two Choice Impulsivity Paradigm (TCIP, consequence sensitivity) and Single Key Impulsivity Paradigm (SKIP, consequence sensitivity). Results FHAP+ individuals were more impulsive on the IMT and GoStop but not on the TCIP or SKIP. Conclusions These results suggest that response initiation and response inhibition impulsivity are increased in individuals with family histories of alcohol related problems despite not having alcohol or drug use disorders themselves. In contrast, increased consequence sensitivity impulsivity may be associated with additional risk factors such as more severe family histories of alcohol use disorders, or it may be increased as a consequence of heavy drug or alcohol use. PMID:21376480

  14. Something Old, Something New: Using Family History and Genetic Testing to Diagnose and Manage Athletes with Inherited Cardiovascular Disease.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Matthew J; Battle, Robert W

    2015-07-01

    A primary objective of the preparticipation physical examination is to identify athletes at increased risk for sudden cardiac arrest (SCA). Review of an athlete's family history may identify those at risk for SCA. Genetic testing for inherited cardiovascular disease has emerged as a valuable addition to the repertoire of cardiologists facing the decision of clearing athletes with concerning clinical signs and/or family histories. Genetic testing may lead to various outcomes for an athlete including: reassurance, diagnosis in those with borderline clinical features, finding disease predisposition prior to the onset of clinical signs (ie, genotype-positive/phenotype-negative), or continued uncertainty.

  15. Family relationships and the psychosocial adjustment of school-aged children in intact families.

    PubMed

    Hakvoort, Esther M; Bos, Henny M W; van Balen, Frank; Hermanns, Jo M A

    2010-01-01

    The authors investigated whether the quality of three family relationships (i.e., marital, parent-child, sibling) in intact families are associated with each other and with children's psychosocial adjustment. Data were collected by means of maternal and child reports (N = 88) using standardized instruments (i.e., Marital Satisfaction Scale, Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire). The findings confirm associations between the marital and the parent-child relationship, and between the parent-child and the sibling relationship, Further, both father-child relationships and sibling relationships predict children's adjustment. Father-child conflicts contribute to children's problem behavior, while father-child acceptance and sibling affection contribute significantly to children's general self-esteem. However, contrary to previous studies no support was found for the association between marital relationship and sibling relationship, or for that between marital relationship quality and children's adjustment.

  16. Giuseppe and Aloysius Frari’s Works on Rabies and History of Frari Medical Family of Šibenik, Dalmatia

    PubMed Central

    Krnić, Anton

    2007-01-01

    This article is an attempt to reconstruct the family history of the Fraris, the famous Šibenik medical family. Three generations of physicians from the Frari family played an important role not only at medical and social scene of Šibenik in the 18th and 19th century, but also in Croatian and Italian medical history. I will try to provide important details on the lives, medical and social work, and publications of 5 members of the family, Giuseppe (Josip), Angelo Antonio (Anđeo Antun), Sebastiano (Sebastijan), Michele Carlo (Mihovil), and Aloysius (Luigi) Frari. I would also like to pay a special attention to the works on rabies, written by Giuseppe and Luigi Frari, which are among the earliest and most accurate Croatian works on the subject. To reconstruct the history of the family, I studied the relevant editions about the medical and social history of Šibenik, Dalmatia, Venice, and Croatia, together with the Fraris’ publications and reflections. This was the first time Italian and Latin language works by Giuseppe and Luigi Frari on rabies were analyzed. The story on Fraris also documents that medical publishing was a common practice in Dalmatia in the 18th and the 19th century. PMID:17589982

  17. Age at menopause, reproductive history and venous thromboembolism risk among postmenopausal women

    PubMed Central

    Canonico, Marianne; Plu-Bureau, Geneviève; O’Sullivan, Mary Jo; Stefanick, Marcia L.; Cochrane, Barbara; Scarabin, Pierre-Yves; Manson, JoAnn E.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To investigate VTE risk in relation to age at menopause, age at menarche, parity, bilateral oophorectomy and time since menopause, as well as any interaction with randomized HT assignment among postmenopausal women. Methods Using pooled data from the Women’s Health Initiative HT clinical trials including 27,035 postmenopausal women ages 50 to 79 years with no history of VTE, we assessed the risk of VTE in relation to age at menopause, age at menarche, parity, bilateral oophorectomy and time since menopause by Cox proportional hazard models. Linear trends, quadratic relationships and interactions of reproductive life characteristics with HT on VTE risk were systematically tested. Results During the follow-up, 426 women reported a first VTE, including 294 nonprocedure-related events. No apparent interaction of reproductive life characteristics with HT assignment on VTE risk was detected and there was any significant association of VTE with age at menarche, age at menopause, parity, oophorectomy or time since menopause. However, analyses restricted to nonprocedure-related VTE showed a U-shaped relationship between age at menopause and thrombotic risk that persisted after multivariable analysis (p<0.01). Compared to women aged 40 to 49 years at menopause, those with early menopause (age<40 years) or with late menopause (age>55 years) had a significant increased VTE risk (HR=1.8;95%CI:1.2–2.7 and HR=1.5;95%CI:1.0–2.4, respectively). Conclusion Reproductive life characteristics have little association with VTE and do not seem to influence the effect of HT on thrombotic risk among postmenopausal women. Nevertheless, early and late onset of menopause might be newly identified risk factors for nonprocedure-related VTE. PMID:23760439

  18. The histories of ordinary chondrite parent bodies - U, Th-He age distributions

    SciTech Connect

    Wasson, J.T.; Wang, Sichao Purple Mountain Observatory, Nanjing )

    1991-06-01

    Age patterns observed in meteorite groups reflect the different thermal or impact histories experienced by their parent bodies. To assess the number of ordinary chondrite (OC) parent bodies, rare-gas data in the Schultz and Kruse (1989) data base were used to calculate U, Th-He gas-retention ages. Most H- and LL-chondrite ages are high; about 81 percent are greater than 2.2 Ga. In contrast, most L-chondrite ages are low; about 69 percent are not greater than 2.2 Ga, and about 35 percent are not greater than 0.9 Ga. The latter fraction is substantially lower than the value of 44 percent given by Heymann (1967). The difference is attributed to the preferential inclusion of shocked L chondrites in early studies. Broad age peaks in the H and LL groups near 3.4 Ga probably reflect thermal loss during metamorphism, but in the H distribution there is a hint of minor outgassing 'events' near 1 Ga. The L/LL chondrites have chemical properties intermediate between and unresolvable from L and LL chondrites. The high ages of most L/LL chondrites are evidence against these originating on the L parent body; the L/LL age distribution is consistent with an origin on the LL parent body or on an independent body. 22 refs.

  19. The histories of ordinary chondrite parent bodies - U, Th-He age distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wasson, John T.; Wang, Sichao

    1991-06-01

    Age patterns observed in meteorite groups reflect the different thermal or impact histories experienced by their parent bodies. To assess the number of ordinary chondrite (OC) parent bodies, rare-gas data in the Schultz and Kruse (1989) data base were used to calculate U, Th-He gas-retention ages. Most H- and LL-chondrite ages are high; about 81 percent are greater than 2.2 Ga. In contrast, most L-chondrite ages are low; about 69 percent are not greater than 2.2 Ga, and about 35 percent are not greater than 0.9 Ga. The latter fraction is substantially lower than the value of 44 percent given by Heymann (1967). The difference is attributed to the preferential inclusion of shocked L chondrites in early studies. Broad age peaks in the H and LL groups near 3.4 Ga probably reflect thermal loss during metamorphism, but in the H distribution there is a hint of minor outgassing "events" near 1 Ga. The L/LL chondrites have chemical properties intermediate between and unresolvable from L and LL chondrites. The high ages of most L/LL chondrites are evidence against these originating on the L parent body; the L/LL age distribution is consistent with an origin on the LL parent body or on an independent body.

  20. Updating patient histories every five years may improve screening

    Cancer.gov

    In order to maintain accurate family histories from their patients, physicians should get a comprehensive family history by age 30, and then update it every five to 10 years because histories change significantly between ages 30 and 50 years. According t

  1. The Utilization of Local History in Teaching American Religious History: A Gilded Age and Progressive Era North Dakota Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, Christopher Neal

    2013-01-01

    Teachers of college-level courses on American religious history generally leave out the importance of local and regional histories when telling the story of religion in America. The study of local history provides a fertile ground for understanding broad national trends in a local context. This dissertation focuses upon a little-studied religious…

  2. Association of the Colorectal CpG Island Methylator Phenotype with molecular features, risk factors and family history

    PubMed Central

    Long, Tiffany I.; Buchanan, Daniel D.; Walters, Rhiannon; Clendenning, Mark; Rosty, Christophe; Joshi, Amit D.; Stern, Mariana C.; LeMarchand, Loic; Lindor, Noralane M.; Daftary, Darshana; Gallinger, Steven; Selander, Teresa; Bapat, Bharati; Newcomb, Polly A.; Campbell, Peter T.; Casey, Graham; Ahnen, Dennis J.; Baron, John A.; Haile, Robert W.; Hopper, John L.; Young, Joanne P.; Laird, Peter W.; Siegmund, Kimberly D.

    2015-01-01

    Background The CpG Island Methylator Phenotype (CIMP) represents a subset of colorectal cancers (CRCs) characterized by widespread aberrant DNA hypermethylation at select CpG islands. The risk factors and environmental exposures contributing to etiologic heterogeneity between CIMP and non-CIMP tumors are not known. Methods We measured the CIMP status of 3,119 primary population-based CRC tumors from the multinational Colon Cancer Family Registry. Etiologic heterogeneity was assessed by a case-case study comparing risk factor frequency of CRC cases with CIMP and non-CIMP tumors using logistic regression to estimate the case-case odds ratio (ccOR). Results We found associations between tumor CIMP status and MSI-H (ccOR=7.6), BRAF V600E mutation (ccOR=59.8), proximal tumor site (ccOR=9) (all p<0.0001), female sex (ccOR=1.8; 95% CI=1.5-2.1), older age (ccOR=4.0 comparing over 70 years vs under 50; 95% CI=3.0-5.5) and family history of CRC (ccOR=0.6, 95% CI=0.5-0.7). While use of NSAIDs varied by tumor CIMP status for both males and females (p=0.0001 and p=0.02, respectively), use of multi-vitamin or calcium supplements did not. Only for female CRCs was CIMP status associated with increased pack-years of smoking (trend p < 0.001) and body mass index (BMI) (trend p = 0.03). Conclusions The frequency of several CRC risk factors varied by CIMP status, and the associations of smoking and obesity with tumor subtype were evident only for females. Impact Differences in the associations of a unique DNA methylation-based subgroup of CRC with important lifestyle and environmental exposures increase understanding of the molecular pathologic epidemiology of this heavily methylated subset of CRCs. PMID:25587051

  3. Attention problems among children with a positive family history of alcohol abuse or dependence and controls. Prevalence and course for the period from preteen to early teen years.

    PubMed

    Barnow, Sven; Schuckit, Marc; Smith, Tom; Spitzer, Carsten; Freyberger, Harald-J

    2007-01-01

    This longitudinal study investigated the scope and course of attention problems over a period of time from preteen (ages 7-12 years) to early teen years (ages 13-17 years). We compared symptoms in subjects with and without a family history (FH) of alcohol abuse or dependence from among families without evidence of antisocial personality disorder. Evaluations of attention problems for the offspring were based on the Child Behavior Checklist and a validated semistructured interview carried out with the mother. The findings indicate no higher risk for attention problems and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)-like symptoms in the children of families with an alcohol use disorder. Regarding the course of problems, the ADHD symptom count tended to decrease over time, especially for children without a FH of alcohol abuse or dependence. Further research will be needed to determine whether results can be replicated with families from different social strata and including subjects with the antisocial personality disorder. PMID:17172772

  4. Family history and perceived vulnerability to some common diseases: a study of young people and their parents.

    PubMed Central

    Ponder, M; Lee, J; Green, J; Richards, M

    1996-01-01

    During the last two decades, health promotion has concentrated on lifestyle factors. However, recent research in genetics has shown that inherited susceptibility may be important in many common conditions. This raises questions about how these two different messages are integrated into people's beliefs about their own susceptibility. We report a study based on interviews with 58 young people, who had all recently completed the National Curriculum science course including basic human genetics, and 54 of their parents. We aimed to examine the extent to which people take account of family history when considering their susceptibility to health risks, with comparisons being made between generations, gender, and between different diseases. Family health histories were compared between generations and the relationship between reported family history and perceived vulnerability was examined. Family health history was seen as more relevant for a perceived vulnerability to heart disease and diabetes than cancer, while actions and behaviour were seen as important in determining the chance of developing heart disease and cancer but less so for diabetes. Chance was seen as an important factor in the risk of cancer and diabetes, but was barely mentioned in connection with heart disease. Nearly half of those who reported affected family members with heart disease or cancer did not perceive this to have any effect on their own susceptibility. Notably, women were much more likely than men to see the presence or absence of affected relatives as being relevant to the chances of developing cancer. Differences were found between generations in the reporting of the family tree and in knowledge of health of family members. Although words such as genes, chromosomes, and DNA were used by both generations there was no evidence of any understanding of the process of inheritance in scientific terms. Images PMID:8782049

  5. FAMILY HISTORY OF SCHIZOPHRENIA AND BIPOLAR DISORDER AS RISK FACTORS FOR AUTISM

    PubMed Central

    Sullivan, Patrick F.; Magnusson, Cecilia; Reichenberg, Abraham; Boman, Marcus; Dalman, Christina; Davidson, Michael; Fruchter, Eyal; Hultman, Christina M.; Lundberg, Michael; Långström, Niklas; Weiser, Mark; Svensson, Anna C.; Lichtenstein, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Background The clinical and etiological relation between autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and schizophrenia is unclear. The degree to which these disorders share a basis in etiology has important implications for clinicians, researchers, and those affected. Our objective was to determine if a family history of schizophrenia and/or bipolar disorder was a risk factor for ASD. We conducted a case-control evaluation of histories of schizophrenia or bipolar disorder in first-degree relatives of probands in three samples, population registers in Sweden, Stockholm County, and Israel. Probands met criteria for ASD, and affection status of parents and siblings for schizophrenia and bipolar disorder were established. Findings The presence of schizophrenia in parents was associated with an increased risk for ASD in a Swedish national cohort (odds ratio 2.9, 95% CI 2.5–3.4) and in a Stockholm County cohort (odds ratio 2.9, 95% CI 2.0–4.1). Similarly, schizophrenia in a sibling was associated with an increased risk for ASD in a Swedish national cohort (odds ratio 2.6, 95% CI 2.0–3.2) and in an Israeli conscription cohort (odds ratio 12.1, 95% CI 4.5–32). Bipolar disorder showed a similar pattern of associations but of lesser magnitude. Interpretation Findings from these three registers along with consistent findings from a similar study in Denmark suggest that ASD, schizophrenia, and bipolar disorder share common etiological factors. Funding Swedish Council for Working Life and Social Research, the Swedish Research Council, and the Beatrice and Samuel A. Seaver Foundation. PMID:22752149

  6. Internet-based physical activity intervention for women with a family history of breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Hartman, Sheri J.; Dunsiger, Shira I.; Marinac, Catherine R.; Marcus, Bess H.; Rosen, Rochelle K.; Gans, Kim M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Physical inactivity is a modifiable risk factor for breast cancer. Physical activity interventions that can be delivered through the Internet have the potential to increase participant reach. The efficacy of an Internet-based physical activity intervention was tested in a sample of women at an elevated risk for breast cancer. Methods A total of 55 women with at least one first-degree relative with breast cancer (but no personal history of breast cancer) were randomized to a 3-month theoretically grounded Internet-based physical activity intervention or an active control arm. Minutes of moderate to vigorous physical activity, psychosocial mediators of physical activity adoption and maintenance, as well as worry and perceived risk of developing breast cancer were assessed at baseline, 3-month, and 5-month follow up. Results Participants were on average 46.2 (SD=11.4) years old with a BMI of 27.3 (SD=4.8) kg/m2. The intervention arm significantly increased minutes of moderate to vigorous physical activity compared to the active control arm at 3 months (213 vs. 129 min/week) and 5 months (208 vs. 119 min/week; both p<.001). Regression models indicated that participants in the intervention had significantly higher self-efficacy for physical activity at 3 months (p<.01) and borderline significantly higher self-efficacy at 5 months (p=0.05). Baseline breast cancer worry and perceived risk were not associated with physical activity. Conclusions Findings from this study suggest that an Internet-based physical activity intervention may substantially increase physical activity in women with a family history of breast cancer. PMID:26651471

  7. Sympathetic reactivity in young women with a family history of hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Greaney, Jody L.; Matthews, Evan L.

    2015-01-01

    Young adults with a family history of hypertension (+FH) have increased risk of developing hypertension. Furthermore, the blood pressure (BP) response to sympathoexcitatory stimuli in young adults can predict the future development of hypertension. Therefore, we hypothesized young women with a +FH would have exaggerated cardiovascular and sympathetic reactivity compared with young women without a family history of hypertension (−FH). Beat-by-beat mean arterial pressure (MAP) and muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) were measured in 14 women +FH (22 ± 1 yr, 21 ± 1 kg/m2, MAP 80 ± 2 mmHg) and 15 women −FH (22 ± 1 yr, 22 ± 1 kg/m2, MAP 78 ± 2 mmHg) during acute sympathoexcitatory maneuvers: cold pressor test, 2 min of isometric handgrip (HG) exercise at 30% of maximal voluntary contraction, and 3 min of postexercise ischemia (PEI; isolated activation of the skeletal muscle metaboreflex). During cold pressor test, the increase in BP was greater in women +FH (ΔMAP: +FH 16 ± 2 vs. −FH 11 ± 1 mmHg, P < 0.05), which was accompanied by an exaggerated increase in MSNA (ΔMSNA: +FH 17 ± 2 vs. −FH 8 ± 2 burst/min, P < 0.05). The increase in BP was greater in +FH during the last minute of HG (ΔMAP: +FH 23 ± 3 vs. −FH 12 ± 1 mmHg, P < 0.05) and during PEI (ΔMAP: +FH 17 ± 3 vs. −FH 9 ± 2 mmHg, P < 0.05). Similarly, the increase in MSNA was greater in +FH during both HG (ΔMSNA: +FH 12 ± 2 vs. −FH 6 ± 2 burst/min, P < 0.05) and PEI (ΔMSNA: +FH 16 ± 2 vs. −FH 4 ± 2 burst/min, P < 0.05). These data demonstrate that +FH women have greater BP and sympathetic reactivity compared with −FH women. PMID:25681430

  8. Diabetes mellitus, other medical conditions and familial history of cancer as risk factors for pancreatic cancer

    PubMed Central

    Silverman, D T; Schiffman, M; Everhart, J; Goldstein, A; Lillemoe, K D; Swanson, G M; Schwartz, A G; Brown, L M; Greenberg, R S; Schoenberg, J B; Pottern, L M; Hoover, R N; Fraumeni, J F

    1999-01-01

    In a population-based case-control study of pancreatic cancer conducted in three areas of the USA, 484 cases and 2099 controls were interviewed to evaluate the aetiologic role of several medical conditions/interventions, including diabetes mellitus, cholecystectomy, ulcer/gastrectomy and allergic states. We also evaluated risk associated with family history of cancer. Our findings support previous studies indicating that diabetes is a risk factor for pancreatic cancer, as well as a possible complication of the tumour. A significant positive trend in risk with increasing years prior to diagnosis of pancreatic cancer was apparent (P-value for test of trend = 0.016), with diabetics diagnosed at least 10 years prior to diagnosis having a significant 50% increased risk. Those treated with insulin had risks similar to those not treated with insulin (odds ratio (OR) = 1.6 and 1.5 respectively), and no trend in risk was associated with increasing duration of insulin treatment. Cholecystectomy also appeared to be a risk factor, as well as a consequence of the malignancy. Subjects with a cholecystectomy at least 20 years prior to the diagnosis of pancreatic cancer experienced a 70% increased risk, which was marginally significant. In contrast, subjects with a history of duodenal or gastric ulcer had little or no elevated risk (OR = 1.2; confidence interval = 0.9–1.6). Those treated by gastrectomy had the same risk as those not receiving surgery, providing little support for the hypothesis that gastrectomy is a risk factor for pancreatic cancer. A significant 40% reduced risk was associated with hay fever, a non-significant 50% decreased risk with allergies to animals, and a non-significant 40% reduced risk with allergies to dust/moulds. These associations, however, may be due to chance since no risk reductions were apparent for asthma or several other types of allergies. In addition, we observed significantly increased risks for subjects reporting a first-degree relative

  9. Sympathetic reactivity in young women with a family history of hypertension.

    PubMed

    Greaney, Jody L; Matthews, Evan L; Wenner, Megan M

    2015-04-15

    Young adults with a family history of hypertension (+FH) have increased risk of developing hypertension. Furthermore, the blood pressure (BP) response to sympathoexcitatory stimuli in young adults can predict the future development of hypertension. Therefore, we hypothesized young women with a +FH would have exaggerated cardiovascular and sympathetic reactivity compared with young women without a family history of hypertension (-FH). Beat-by-beat mean arterial pressure (MAP) and muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) were measured in 14 women +FH (22 ± 1 yr, 21 ± 1 kg/m(2), MAP 80 ± 2 mmHg) and 15 women -FH (22 ± 1 yr, 22 ± 1 kg/m(2), MAP 78 ± 2 mmHg) during acute sympathoexcitatory maneuvers: cold pressor test, 2 min of isometric handgrip (HG) exercise at 30% of maximal voluntary contraction, and 3 min of postexercise ischemia (PEI; isolated activation of the skeletal muscle metaboreflex). During cold pressor test, the increase in BP was greater in women +FH (ΔMAP: +FH 16 ± 2 vs. -FH 11 ± 1 mmHg, P < 0.05), which was accompanied by an exaggerated increase in MSNA (ΔMSNA: +FH 17 ± 2 vs. -FH 8 ± 2 burst/min, P < 0.05). The increase in BP was greater in +FH during the last minute of HG (ΔMAP: +FH 23 ± 3 vs. -FH 12 ± 1 mmHg, P < 0.05) and during PEI (ΔMAP: +FH 17 ± 3 vs. -FH 9 ± 2 mmHg, P < 0.05). Similarly, the increase in MSNA was greater in +FH during both HG (ΔMSNA: +FH 12 ± 2 vs. -FH 6 ± 2 burst/min, P < 0.05) and PEI (ΔMSNA: +FH 16 ± 2 vs. -FH 4 ± 2 burst/min, P < 0.05). These data demonstrate that +FH women have greater BP and sympathetic reactivity compared with -FH women. PMID:25681430

  10. Interactive effects of working memory and trial history on Stroop interference in cognitively healthy aging.

    PubMed

    Aschenbrenner, Andrew J; Balota, David A

    2015-03-01

    Past studies have suggested that Stroop interference increases with age; however the robustness of this effect after controlling for processing speed has been questioned. Both working memory (WM) and the congruency of the immediately preceding trial have also been shown to moderate the magnitude of Stroop interference. Specifically, interference is smaller both for individuals with higher working memory capacity and following an incongruent trial. At present, it is unclear whether and how these 3 variables (age, WM and previous congruency) interact to predict interference effects in the standard Stroop color-naming task. We present analyses of Stroop interference in a large database of Stroop color-naming trials from a lifespan sample of well-screened, cognitively healthy, older adults. Our results indicated age-related increases in interference (after controlling for processing speed) that were exaggerated for individuals with low WM. This relationship between age and WM occurred primarily when the immediately preceding trial was congruent. Following an incongruent trial, interference increased consistently with age, regardless of WM. Taken together, these results support previous accounts of multiple mechanisms underlying control in the Stroop task and provide insight into how each component is jointly affected by age, WM, and trial history.

  11. Parents of children with haemophilia at an early age: assessment of perceived stress and family functioning.

    PubMed

    Torres-Ortuño, A; Cuesta-Barriuso, R; Nieto-Munuera, J

    2014-11-01

    Haemophilia is a chronic disease that requires a multidisciplinary approach for proper management and control of its clinical manifestations. The perception and management of parents of children with haemophilia can be affected by stressful situations as a result of treatment or disease progression. The aim of this study was to evaluate the perception of stress and family functioning in parents of children with haemophilia 1-7 years. This is an observational clinical study involving 49 parents of children with haemophilia 1-7 years who attended the VIII Workshop for Parents of Children with haemophilia, organized by the Spanish Federation of Hemophilia in La Charca, Murcia (Spain). After obtaining parental consent, the questionnaires was applied to them, FACES III (family functioning) and Pediatric Inventory for Parents (perceived stress), and a record of data on the clinical characteristics and treatment. Significant differences in the perception of stressors by gender of parents were found. A family history of haemophilia, the use of port-a-cath, inhibitor development and gender of the parents were the descriptive variables most correlated with dependents variables. These variables, together with the type of haemophilia affect significantly in the parental stress and family functioning. Parents have difficulty adjusting to disease management, perceiving many stressors. Gender and family history, can hinder the proper compliance with treatments, reducing its effectiveness.

  12. Reconstructing the age and historical biogeography of the ancient flowering-plant family Hydatellaceae (Nymphaeales)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The aquatic flowering-plant family Hydatellaceae has a classic Gondwanan distribution, as it is found in Australia, India and New Zealand. To shed light on the biogeographic history of this apparently ancient branch of angiosperm phylogeny, we dated the family in the context of other seed-plant divergences, and evaluated its biogeography using parsimony and likelihood methods. We also explicitly tested the effect of different extinction rates on biogeographic inferences. Results We infer that the stem lineage of Hydatellaceae originated in the Lower Cretaceous; in contrast, its crown originated much more recently, in the early Miocene, with the bulk of its diversification after the onset of the Pliocene. Biogeographic reconstructions predict a mix of dispersal and vicariance events, but considerations of geological history preclude most vicariance events, besides a split at the root of the family between southern and northern clades. High extinction rates are plausible in the family, and when these are taken into account there is greater uncertainty in biogeographic inferences. Conclusions A stem origin for Hydatellaceae in the Lower Cretaceous is consistent with the initial appearance of fossils attributed to its sister clade, the water lilies. In contrast, the crown clade is young, indicating that vicariant explanations for species outside Australia are improbable. Although long-distance dispersal is likely the primary driver of biogeographic distribution in Hydatellaceae, we infer that the recent drying out of central Australia divided the family into tropical vs. subtropical/temperate clades around the beginning of the Miocene. PMID:24884487

  13. Familial Hypercholesterolemia: a Review of the Natural History, Diagnosis, and Management.

    PubMed

    Najam, Osman; Ray, Kausik K

    2015-06-01

    Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is an inherited disorder of lipid metabolism characterized by premature cardiovascular disease. It is one of the most common metabolic disorders affecting humans. There are two clinical manifestations: the milder heterozygous form and more severe homozygous form. Despite posing a significant health risk, FH is inadequately diagnosed and managed. As the clinical outcome is related to the degree and duration of exposure to elevated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels, early treatment is vital. Diagnosis can usually be made using a combination of clinical characteristics such as family history, lipid levels, and genetic testing. Mutations in the gene encoding the LDL receptor (LDLR), apolipoprotein B, the pro-protein convertase subtilisin/kexin 9 (PCSK9), and LDLR adaptor protein are the commonest abnormalities. Early identification and treatment of patients, as well as screening of relatives, helps significantly reduce the risk of premature disease. Although statins remain the first-line therapy in most cases, monotherapy is usually inadequate to control elevated LDL-C levels. Additional therapy with ezetimibe and bile acid sequestrants may be required. Newer classes of pharmacotherapy currently under investigation include lomitapide, mipomersen, and monoclonal antibodies to PCSK9. Lipoprotein apheresis may be required when multiple pharmacotherapies are inadequate, especially in the homozygous form. Effective early detection and treatment of the index individual and initiation of cascade screening will help reduce the complications associated with FH. In this article, we review the disease of FH, complexity of diagnosis and management, and the challenges faced in preventing the significant morbidity and mortality associated with it.

  14. Factors from Durkheim's Family Integration Related to Suicidal Ideation among Men with Histories of Child Sexual Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Easton, Scott D.; Renner, Lynette M.

    2013-01-01

    Men who were sexually abused during childhood represent a highly stigmatized, marginalized population at risk for a variety of long-term mental health problems. Using the family integration dimension of Durkheim's theory of suicide, factors associated with suicidal ideation among a purposive sample of 487 men with histories of child sexual…

  15. Use of Family History Information for Neural Tube Defect Prevention: Integration into State-Based Recurrence Prevention Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Ridgely Fisk; Ehrhardt, Joan; Ruttenber, Margaret F.; Olney, Richard S.

    2011-01-01

    A family history of neural tube defects (NTDs) can increase the risk of a pregnancy affected by an NTD. Periconceptional folic acid use decreases this risk. Purpose: Our objective was to determine whether second-degree relatives of NTD-affected children showed differences in folic acid use compared with the general population and to provide them…

  16. Anthropometry and physical fitness in individuals with family history of type-2 diabetes mellitus: A comparative study

    PubMed Central

    Padaki, Samata; Vijayakrishna, K.; Dambal, Amrut; Ankad, Roopa; Manjula, R.; Surekharani, Chinagudi; Herur, Anita; Patil, Shailaja

    2011-01-01

    Context: The risk of becoming a diabetic for an individual with a positive family history of diabetes increases by two- to fourfold. Aim: To record the anthropometric indices and the physical fitness in individuals with family history of type-2 diabetes mellitus and compare these results with those of controls. Settings and Design: This is a comparative study done in the department of physiology. Materials and Methods: Thirty-two apparently healthy medical students with family history of type-2 Diabetes Mellitus were chosen for the study and matched with equal number of controls. Anthropometric measurements (height, weight, waist circumference, hip circumference, thigh circumference, upper segment and lower segment) were recorded. Body mass index (BMI), waist–hip ratio (WHR), waist–thigh ratio (WTR), and upper to lower segment ratio (US/LS ratio) were calculated. Blood pressure and heart rate were measured. Physical fitness was evaluated using Queen's College step test protocol. Rate Pressure Product (RPP) and Physical Fitness Index (PFI) were calculated before and after exercise. Statistical Analysis: Statistical analysis was done using SPSS software. Results: BMI, WHR, US/LS ratio, and RPP at rest were significantly higher (P < 0.05), whereas WTR, PFI, and RPP after exercise lower (P > 0.05) in cases as compared to controls. Conclusions: It can be concluded that apparently healthy individuals with family history of type-2 diabetes mellitus have higher anthropometric values and lower physical fitness than the controls. PMID:22029005

  17. National Needs of Family Planning Among US Men Aged 15 to 44 Years

    PubMed Central

    Gibbs, Susannah E.; Choiriyyah, Ifta; Sonenstein, Freya L.; Astone, Nan M.; Pleck, Joseph H.; Dariotis, Jacinda K.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. To estimate national need for family planning services among men in the United States according to background characteristics, access to care, receipt of services, and contraception use. Methods. We used weighted data from the 2006–2010 National Survey of Family Growth to estimate the percentage of men aged 15 to 44 years (n = 10 395) in need of family planning, based on sexual behavior, fecundity, and not trying to get pregnant with his partner. Results. Overall, 60% of men were in need of family planning, defined as those who ever had vaginal sex, were fecund, and had fecund partner(s) who were not trying to get pregnant with partner or partner(s) were not currently pregnant. The greatest need was among young and unmarried men. Most men in need of family planning had access to care, but few reported receiving family planning services (< 19%), consistently using condoms (26%), or having partners consistently using contraception (41%). Conclusions. The need for engaging men aged 15 to 44 years in family planning education and care is substantial and largely unmet despite national public health priorities to include men in reducing unintended pregnancies. PMID:26890180

  18. Formative Evaluation of Clinician Experience with Integrating Family History-Based Clinical Decision Support into Clinical Practice

    PubMed Central

    Doerr, Megan; Edelman, Emily; Gabitzsch, Emily; Eng, Charis; Teng, Kathryn

    2014-01-01

    Family health history is a leading predictor of disease risk. Nonetheless, it is underutilized to guide care and, therefore, is ripe for health information technology intervention. To fill the family health history practice gap, Cleveland Clinic has developed a family health history collection and clinical decision support tool, MyFamily. This report describes the impact and process of implementing MyFamily into primary care, cancer survivorship and cancer genetics clinics. Ten providers participated in semi-structured interviews that were analyzed to identify opportunities for process improvement. Participants universally noted positive effects on patient care, including increases in quality, personalization of care and patient engagement. The impact on clinical workflow varied by practice setting, with differences observed in the ease of integration and the use of specific report elements. Tension between the length of the report and desired detail was appreciated. Barriers and facilitators to the process of implementation were noted, dominated by the theme of increased integration with the electronic medical record. These results fed real-time improvement cycles to reinforce clinician use. This model will be applied in future institutional efforts to integrate clinical genomic applications into practice and may be useful for other institutions considering the implementation of tools for personalizing medical management. PMID:25563219

  19. ApoE genotype and familial Alzheimer's disease: a possible influence on age of onset in APP717 Val-->Ile mutated families.

    PubMed

    Nacmias, B; Latorraca, S; Piersanti, P; Forleo, P; Piacentini, S; Bracco, L; Amaducci, L; Sorbi, S

    1995-01-01

    Recent studies have shown a genetic association of the apolipoprotein E (ApoE) epsilon 4 allele with late onset familial and sporadic Alzheimer's disease (AD). In this study we analysed the possible association of the genetic polymorphism of the ApoE gene with age of onset in Italian familial Alzheimer's disease (FAD) families including two early onset familial Alzheimer's (EOFAD) families with the APP717 Val-->Ile mutation in the amyloid precursor protein (APP) gene on chromosome 21. In none of the FAD families analysed was there a significant effect of the ApoE genotype on the age of onset with the exception of one of the two mutated EOFAD families in which the epsilon 2 allele delayed the age of onset. PMID:7746463

  20. Family history of immigration from a tuberculosis endemic country and low family income are associated with a higher BCG vaccination coverage in Ile-de-France region, France.

    PubMed

    Guthmann, Jean-Paul; Chauvin, Pierre; Le Strat, Yann; Soler, Marion; Fonteneau, Laure; Lévy-Bruhl, Daniel

    2013-11-19

    After withdrawal of multipuncture BCG device from the French market in January 2006, vaccination coverage (VC) with the intradermal device has dropped and since remained sub-optimal in Ile-de-France, the only region of mainland France where BCG is recommended to all children. We conducted a cross-sectional study to identify socio-economic factors associated with BCG VC in children of Paris metropolitan area born after January 2006. Two-stage random sampling was used to include 425 children up to 5 years old from Paris and its suburbs. Information was collected through face-to-face interviews and vaccination status confirmed by a vaccination document. Poisson regression analyzed the association between VC and potential determinants. VC of children from families with the lowest incomes (first quartile of family income/consumption unit (CU) (<883 €) was close to 100% regardless of family origin. In families with higher incomes (≥ 883 €/CU), VC was significantly higher among children born to families from a tuberculosis highly endemic country (98.2%) compared with other children (76.2%) (p=0.004). Children of low socio-economic background as well as those with a family history of immigration, regardless of family income, are correctly identified as being at high risk of tuberculosis and properly vaccinated with BCG in this area.

  1. Coercive Family Process and Early-Onset Conduct Problems From Age 2 to School Entry

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Justin D.; Dishion, Thomas J.; Shaw, Daniel S.; Wilson, Melvin N.; Winter, Charlotte C.; Patterson, Gerald R.

    2013-01-01

    The emergence and persistence of conduct problems during early childhood is a robust predictor of behavior problems in school and future maladaptation. In this study we examined the reciprocal influences between observed coercive interactions between children and caregivers, oppositional and aggressive behavior, and growth in parent report of early childhood (ages 2–5) and school-age conduct problems (age 7.5 and 8.5). Participants were drawn from the Early Steps multisite randomized prevention trial that includes an ethnically diverse sample of male and female children and their families (N = 731). A parallel process growth model combining latent trajectory and cross-lagged approaches revealed the amplifying effect of observed coercive caregiver–child interactions on children's noncompliance, whereas child oppositional and aggressive behaviors did not consistently predict increased coercion. The slope and initial levels of child oppositional and aggressive behaviors and the stability of caregiver–child coercion were predictive of teacher-reported oppositional behavior at school age. Families assigned to the Family Check-Up condition had significantly steeper declines in child oppositional and aggressive behavior and moderate reductions in oppositional behavior in school and in coercion at age 3. Results were not moderated by child gender, race/ethnicity, or assignment to the intervention condition. The implications of these findings are discussed with respect to understanding the early development of conduct problems and to designing optimal strategies for reducing problem behavior in early childhood with families most in need. PMID:24690305

  2. Medical History, Lifestyle, Family History, and Occupational Risk Factors for Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma: The InterLymph Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma Subtypes Project

    PubMed Central

    Kricker, Anne; Paltiel, Ora; Flowers, Christopher R.; Wang, Sophia S.; Monnereau, Alain; Blair, Aaron; Maso, Luigino Dal; Kane, Eleanor V.; Nieters, Alexandra; Foran, James M.; Miligi, Lucia; Clavel, Jacqueline; Bernstein, Leslie; Rothman, Nathaniel; Slager, Susan L.; Sampson, Joshua N.; Morton, Lindsay M.; Skibola, Christine F.

    2014-01-01

    Background Although risk factors for diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) have been suggested, their independent effects, modification by sex, and association with anatomical sites are largely unknown. Methods In a pooled analysis of 4667 cases and 22639 controls from 19 studies, we used stepwise logistic regression to identify the most parsimonious multivariate models for DLBCL overall, by sex, and for selected anatomical sites. Results DLBCL was associated with B-cell activating autoimmune diseases (odds ratio [OR] = 2.36, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.80 to 3.09), hepatitis C virus seropositivity (OR = 2.02, 95% CI = 1.47 to 2.76), family history of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (OR = 1.95, 95% CI = 1.54 to 2.47), higher young adult body mass index (OR = 1.58, 95% CI = 1.12 to 2.23, for 35+ vs 18.5 to 22.4 kg/m2), higher recreational sun exposure (OR = 0.78, 95% CI = 0.69 to 0.89), any atopic disorder (OR = 0.82, 95% CI = 0.76 to 0.89), and higher socioeconomic status (OR = 0.86, 95% CI = 0.79 to 0.94). Additional risk factors for women were occupation as field crop/vegetable farm worker (OR = 1.78, 95% CI = 1.22 to 2.60), hairdresser (OR = 1.65, 95% CI = 1.12 to 2.41), and seamstress/embroider (OR = 1.49, 95% CI = 1.13 to 1.97), low adult body mass index (OR = 0.46, 95% CI = 0.29 to 0.74, for <18.5 vs 18.5 to 22.4 kg/m2), hormone replacement therapy started age at least 50 years (OR = 0.68, 95% CI = 0.52 to 0.88), and oral contraceptive use before 1970 (OR = 0.78, 95% CI = 0.62 to 1.00); and for men were occupation as material handling equipment operator (OR = 1.58, 95% CI = 1.02 to 2.44), lifetime alcohol consumption (OR = 0.57, 95% CI = 0.44 to 0.75, for >400kg vs nondrinker), and previous blood transfusion (OR = 0.69, 95% CI = 0.57 to 0.83). Autoimmune disease, atopy, and family history of non-Hodgkin lymphoma showed similar associations across selected anatomical sites, whereas smoking was associated with central nervous system, testicular and cutaneous DLBCLs

  3. Microsurgical varicocelectomy for infertile couples with advanced female age: natural history in the era of ART.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Jeanne H; Bowles, Ben; Kamal, Khaled M; Jarvi, Keith; Zini, Armand

    2004-01-01

    Varicocele represents the most common cause of male infertility, and most reports indicate that varicocelectomy has a beneficial effect on male fertility and pregnancy outcome. Assisted reproductive technologies (ARTs) are an alternative to varicocelectomy for the management of couples with a varicocele. The age of the female partner is important in the decision-making process; however, the true influence of female age on pregnancy outcome following varicocelectomy or ART in these couples is unknown. We evaluated the outcomes of 2 cohorts of infertile men with a varicocele and a female partner 35 years of age or older; one group selected varicocelectomy and the other a nonsurgical approach. We reviewed a group of consecutive infertile men who underwent microsurgical varicocelectomy and whose partners are 35 years of age or older (n = 110). We also reviewed a consecutive group of men with varicoceles who elected not to have surgery and whose partners are 35 years of age or older (n = 94). The outcome measures included changes in semen parameters, pregnancy rates (assisted and unassisted), and use of ART. The surgical and nonsurgical groups had comparable semen parameters and female ages. Mean sperm concentration and motility increased significantly after varicocelectomy (P < .05). At a mean of 30 months follow-up, 35% of couples in the surgical group achieved a spontaneous pregnancy and an additional 6% achieved a pregnancy via ART (20% of this group attempted ART). In the nonsurgical group, 25% achieved a spontaneous pregnancy and an additional 16% achieved a pregnancy with ART (40% of this group attempted ART). This study on the natural history of infertile men with varicocele and advanced female age suggests that the surgical and nonsurgical approaches offer comparable pregnancy outcome (combined assisted and unassisted pregnancy rates are about 40%). Overall, these data suggest that varicocelectomy is an acceptable option for couples with advanced female age

  4. Family history of cancer, body weight, and p53 nuclear overexpression in Duke's C colorectal cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Z. F.; Zeng, Z. S.; Sarkis, A. S.; Klimstra, D. S.; Charytonowicz, E.; Pollack, D.; Vena, J.; Guillem, J.; Marshall, J. R.; Cordon-Cardo, C.

    1995-01-01

    To examine the hypothesis that colorectal carcinomas with and without TP53 mutations may be characterised by aetiological heterogeneity, we analysed a group of 107 patients with primary Dukes' C colorectal cancer seen at the Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center (MSKCC) from 1986 to 1990. We assessed p53 overexpression using the monoclonal antibody PAb 1801, and identified 42 (39%) patients displaying p53-positive phenotype, defined as > or = 25% of positive cells. Patients with two or more first-degree relatives with cancer had an odds ratio (OR) of 2.9 (95% CI 1.0-8.3) for p53 overexpression in comparison with those without a family history of cancer (trend test, P = 0.11). A possible association between body weight and p53 overexpression was observed. The ORs were 1.9 for the second quartile, 1.9 for the third quartile and 3.4 for the highest quartile in comparison with the lowest quartile (trend test, P = 0.06). No association between occupational physical activity, smoking, drinking, parity and p53 overexpression was identified. The results suggest that p53 overexpression may be related to genetic predisposition to colorectal cancer, and p53-positive and p53-negative colorectal cancers may be controlled by different aetiological pathways. Images Figure 1 PMID:7710960

  5. Ice cream headache in students and family history of headache: a cross-sectional epidemiological study.

    PubMed

    Zierz, Antonia Maria; Mehl, Theresa; Kraya, Torsten; Wienke, Andreas; Zierz, Stephan

    2016-06-01

    Headache attributed to ingestion of a cold stimulus (ICHD-3 beta 4.5.1) is also known as ice cream headache (ICH). This cross-sectional epidemiological study included 283 students (10-14-year-olds) attending a grammar school in Germany, their parents (n = 401), and 41 teachers. A self-administered questionnaire was used to analyze the prevalence and characteristics of ICH based on the ICHD classification. Additionally, the association between ICH and other headaches was investigated in students and parents. Prevalence of ICH in students was 62 % without gender difference. In adults, only 36 % of females and 22 % of males reported ICH. There was an increased risk for ICH in students when mother (OR 10.7) or father (OR 8.4) had ICH. Other headaches in parents had no influence on the prevalence of ICH in students. However, in the groups of students and parents itself there was a highly significant association between ICH and other headaches (students: OR 2.4, mothers: OR 2.9, fathers: OR 6.8). There was a decreased risk for ICH when parents and students had no headache at all (OR < 0.4). ICH in students clearly shows a familial disposition by both father and mother. There was also an association between ICH and other headaches within the student and adult groups. The absence of headache history seems to be a protective factor for ICH.

  6. Ice cream headache in students and family history of headache: a cross-sectional epidemiological study.

    PubMed

    Zierz, Antonia Maria; Mehl, Theresa; Kraya, Torsten; Wienke, Andreas; Zierz, Stephan

    2016-06-01

    Headache attributed to ingestion of a cold stimulus (ICHD-3 beta 4.5.1) is also known as ice cream headache (ICH). This cross-sectional epidemiological study included 283 students (10-14-year-olds) attending a grammar school in Germany, their parents (n = 401), and 41 teachers. A self-administered questionnaire was used to analyze the prevalence and characteristics of ICH based on the ICHD classification. Additionally, the association between ICH and other headaches was investigated in students and parents. Prevalence of ICH in students was 62 % without gender difference. In adults, only 36 % of females and 22 % of males reported ICH. There was an increased risk for ICH in students when mother (OR 10.7) or father (OR 8.4) had ICH. Other headaches in parents had no influence on the prevalence of ICH in students. However, in the groups of students and parents itself there was a highly significant association between ICH and other headaches (students: OR 2.4, mothers: OR 2.9, fathers: OR 6.8). There was a decreased risk for ICH when parents and students had no headache at all (OR < 0.4). ICH in students clearly shows a familial disposition by both father and mother. There was also an association between ICH and other headaches within the student and adult groups. The absence of headache history seems to be a protective factor for ICH. PMID:27039390

  7. Complex I polymorphisms, bigenomic heterogeneity, and family history in Virginians with Parkinson's disease

    PubMed Central

    Swerdlow, Russell H.; Weaver, Bradley; Grawey, Amy; Wenger, Connie; Freed, Eric; Worrall, Bradford B.

    2006-01-01

    The electron transport chain enzyme complex I may play a role in Parkinson's disease (PD) pathogenesis. Association studies considering whether or not complex I-relevant gene polymorphisms contribute to PD risk are discordant. We evaluated four complex I-relevant gene polymorphisms alternatively reported to associate and not associate with PD (tRNAGln T4336C, ND1 T4216C, ND2 G5460A, and the NDUFV2 exon 2 C182T transition). Our study included 111 PD subjects and 106 controls in central Virginia. Individuals with at least one copy of the NDUFV2 182T allele were more likely to report a PD family history than non-carriers, but aside from this no positive associations were found. Indeed, the tRNAGln 4336C variant occurred more frequently in controls. We also observed that individuals in both groups often carried more than one of the assayed polymorphisms, and for the first time show bigenomic polymorphic variation (between nuclear and mtDNA complex I subunit genes) commonly occurs within individuals. In an exploratory sub-analysis, more control than case women had an ND1 4216C, NDUFV2 homozygous 182C compound genotype. Complex I compound genotype variation commonly occurs and may explain why particular complex I gene polymorphisms associate with PD in some populations but not others. PMID:16784756

  8. Age-velocity dispersion relations and heating histories in disc galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aumer, Michael; Binney, James; Schönrich, Ralph

    2016-10-01

    We analyse the heating of stellar discs by non-axisymmetric structures and giant molecular clouds (GMCs) in N-body simulations of growing disc galaxies. The analysis resolves long-standing discrepancies between models and data by demonstrating the importance of distinguishing between measured age-velocity dispersion relations (AVRs) and the heating histories of the stars that make up the AVR. We fit both AVRs and heating histories with formulae ∝tβ and determine the exponents βR and βz derived from in-plane and vertical AVRs and tilde{β }_R and tilde{β }_z from heating histories. Values of βz are in almost all simulations larger than values of tilde{β }_z, whereas values of βR are similar to or mildly larger than values of tilde{β }_R. Moreover, values of βz (tilde{β }_z) are generally larger than values of βR (tilde{β }_R). The dominant cause of these relations is the decline over the life of the disc in importance of GMCs as heating agents relative to spiral structure and the bar. We examine how age errors and biases in solar neighbourhood surveys influence the measured AVR: they tend to decrease β values by smearing out ages and thus measured dispersions. We compare AVRs and velocity ellipsoid shapes σz/σR from simulations to solar neighbourhood data. We conclude that for the expected disc mass and dark halo structure, combined GMC and spiral/bar heating can explain the AVR of the Galactic thin disc. Strong departures of the disc mass or the dark halo structure from expectation spoil fits to the data.

  9. Understanding the contribution of family history to colorectal cancer risk and its clinical implications: A state-of-the-science review.

    PubMed

    Lowery, Jan T; Ahnen, Dennis J; Schroy, Paul C; Hampel, Heather; Baxter, Nancy; Boland, C Richard; Burt, Randall W; Butterly, Lynn; Doerr, Megan; Doroshenk, Mary; Feero, W Gregory; Henrikson, Nora; Ladabaum, Uri; Lieberman, David; McFarland, Elizabeth G; Peterson, Susan K; Raymond, Martha; Samadder, N Jewel; Syngal, Sapna; Weber, Thomas K; Zauber, Ann G; Smith, Robert

    2016-09-01

    Persons with a family history (FH) of colorectal cancer (CRC) or adenomas that are not due to known hereditary syndromes have an increased risk for CRC. An understanding of these risks, screening recommendations, and screening behaviors can inform strategies for reducing the CRC burden in these families. A comprehensive review of the literature published within the past 10 years has been performed to assess what is known about cancer risk, screening guidelines, adherence and barriers to screening, and effective interventions in persons with an FH of CRC and to identify FH tools used to identify these individuals and inform care. Existing data show that having 1 affected first-degree relative (FDR) increases the CRC risk 2-fold, and the risk increases with multiple affected FDRs and a younger age at diagnosis. There is variability in screening recommendations across consensus guidelines. Screening adherence is <50% and is lower in persons under the age of 50 years. A provider's recommendation, multiple affected relatives, and family encouragement facilitate screening; insufficient collection of FH, low knowledge of guidelines, and poor family communication are important barriers. Effective interventions incorporate strategies for overcoming barriers, but these have not been broadly tested in clinical settings. Four strategies for reducing CRC in persons with familial risk are suggested: 1) improving the collection and utilization of the FH of cancer, 2) establishing a consensus for screening guidelines by FH, 3) enhancing provider-patient knowledge of guidelines and communication about CRC risk, and 4) encouraging survivors to promote screening within their families and partnering with existing screening programs to expand their reach to high-risk groups. Cancer 2016. © 2016 American Cancer Society. Cancer 2016;122:2633-2645. © 2016 American Cancer Society.

  10. Mental retardation in a child with a {open_quotes}de novo{close_quotes} deletion of terminal 14q and a family history of dyslexia

    SciTech Connect

    Mak-Tam, E.; Capua, E.; Shugar, A.

    1994-09-01

    A couple presented for prenatal diagnosis for advanced maternal age. A review of the family history revealed that their elder daughter was mentally retarded while their second daughter was of normal intelligence. The father and his brother were both dyslexic. The paternal grandmother had lost three pregnancies, all female. The elder daughter had been fully assessed in the past, but no diagnosis had been made. During her first few years, she was frequently ill and failed to thrive. A developmental assessment at age 5 years concluded that she was moderately mentally retarded. She was minimally dysmorphic. DNA testing for fragile X and urine amnio acids, organic acids and metabolic screen were negative. Chromosome and FISH analyses revealed a satellited 14q with a deletion of 14q32.3. Parents did not show the karyotypic changes, but FISH studies on them and the dyslexic uncle are pending. A molecular work-up of chromosome 14 in this family is also in progress. In this child, the phenotype is probably related to the cytogenetic findings. The information about 14q terminal deletions in the literature is limited but a fairly consistent phenotype, which is slightly different from ring 14, is emerging. This is more obvious in infants that in older children. The family history of dyslexia could be unrelated to our patient`s findings but it is also possible that there is a recessive gene for dyslexia in this family which maps to 14q32.3. The current molecular map of this area provides no answer to this question. Genes mapped to 14q3.3 include the alpha-1-antitrypsin gene, the brain component of creative kinase (CKB) and the immunoglobulin heavy chain genes. Loss of heterozygosity of 14q has been associated with end stage human neuroblastoma and colonic neoplasia.

  11. Pharmacotherapy guidelines for the aged by family doctors for the use of family doctors: part C--Special pharmacology.

    PubMed

    Bergert, F W; Conrad, D; Ehrenthal, K; Fessler, J; Gross, J; Gundermann, K; Kluthe, B; Lang Heinrich, W; Liesenfeld, A; Loew, P G; Luther, E; Pchalek, R; Seffrin, J; Sterzing, A; Wolfring, H-J; Zimmermann, U

    2009-03-01

    The part "Special pharmacology of the aged" of this guideline contains recommendations for typical conditions in the family doctors practice: in the January issue 2009 dementia and Morbus Parkinson, in this issue osteoporosis and urinary incontinence and in the next issue rectal incontinence and obstipation. This issue of the IJCPT contains the third part of the Pharmacotherapy guidelines for the aged by family doctors for family doctors. Part 3: Osteoporosis and urinary incontinence. Osteoporosis is a systematic disease characterized by low bone mass and declining bone structure. Exercise, adequate diet, nicotine abstinence as well as reduction of alcohol consumption may counteract the progression of the disease. Osteoporosis manifests in bone fractures with minimal trauma. Attention must be given to the risk of falling, e.g., by avoiding drugs that increase the risk of falling: e.g., psychotropic agents, analgesic drugs and antiarrhythmic agents. Specific osteoporosis medication e.g. calcium, vitamin D, biphosphonates and SERM (selective estrogen receptor modulators) is evaluated by family doctors according to indication, dosage, contraindications, long-term therapy and nature of any fracture. Duration of therapy is at least 3 - max. 5 years followed by reassessment of indication. There are 3 types of urine incontinence (urge-, stress-, and overflow-incontinence). Another standardization of urinary incontinence follows dysfunctions of the pelvic floor: detrusor muscle-dependent, due to sphincter spasm, prostate gland dependent. Urge incontinence with a dysfunction of the detrusor muscle is the most common type. Mixed types are frequent. Non-drug measures (e.g. pelvic muscle training, bladder training, toilet training are first choice treatments. Drug therapy (estrogen, imipramine) are without proven effect.

  12. Settlement and landscape history of the Northern Franconian Jura during the Bronze and Iron Ages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kothieringer, Katja; Lambers, Karsten; Seregély, Timo; Schäfer, Andreas

    2014-05-01

    This paper describes the results of initial archaeological and geoarchaeological fieldwork in the Northern Franconian Jura between the cities of Bayreuth and Bamberg. Our research aims at the reconstruction of settlement patterns and strategies of land use during the Metal Ages (Bronze Age and Iron Age) in the catchment area of the river Weismain. The project is designed as a case study for research into the settlement and landscape history of a rural region of the Central German Uplands during the last two millennia before our era. During the Bronze Age and Iron Age (about 2.100 BC to 30 BC), the Northern Franconian Jura must have been densely populated, as evidenced by numerous burial monuments, prominent hillforts like the Staffelberg, and ritual places on the Jurassic plateau. However, little is known about small rural settlements and hamlets which would have accounted for most of the settlement activity in the region. Thus, we lack the most important element for understanding the cultural history and development of the region as well as the consequences of human impact on the landscape. This impact must have induced changes in vegetation and subsequent erosion processes, leading to the formation of geoarchives like colluvial layers. During our initial fieldwork we identified such colluvial layers in depressions on the Jurassic plateau or at footslope positions. As radiocarbon datings of charcoal fragments showed, some of them date from the Metal Ages. The type is wood of these charcoal fragments is oak, which recently only occurs sporadically in mixed forests with beeches. The quantification of the shift of sediments from the plateau to the valleys will be the next important step of geoarchaeological research. Thus, investigations both on the plateau and in the river valleys will accompany archaeological survey. Apart from landscape reconstruction, they will also provide information on the state of preservation and the conditions for identifying archaeological

  13. Ar-39-Ar-40 Ages of Euerites and the Thermal History of Asteroid 4-Vesta

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bogard, Donald D.; Garrison, Daniel H.

    2002-01-01

    Eucrite meteorites are igneous rocks that derive from a large asteroid, probably 4 Vesta. Prior studies have shown that after eucrites formed, most were subsequently metamorphosed to temperatures up to equal to or greater than 800 C, and much later many were brecciated and heated by large impacts into the parent body surface. The uncommon basaltic, unbrecciated eucrites also formed near the surface but presumably escaped later brecciation, whereas the cumulate eucrites formed at depth where metamorphism may have persisted for a considerable period. To further understand the complex HED parent body thermal history, we determined new Ar-39-Ar-40 ages for nine eucrites classified as basaltic but unbrecciated, six eucrites classified as cumulate, and several basaltic-brecciated eucrites. Relatively precise Ar-Ar ages of two cumulate eucrites (Moama and EET87520) and four unbrecciated eucrites give a tight cluster at 4.48 +/1 0.01 Gyr. Ar-Ar ages of six additional unbrecciated eucrites are consistent with this age, within their larger age uncertainties. In contrast, available literature data on Pb-Pb isochron ages of four cumulate eucrites and one unbrecciated eucrite vary over 4.4-4.515 Gyr, and Sm-147 - Nd-143 isochron ages of four cumulate and three unbrecciated eucrites vary over 4.41-4.55 Gyr. Similar Ar-Ar ages for cumulate and unbrecciated eucrites imply that cumulate eucrites do not have a younger formation age than basaltic eucrites, as previously proposed. Rather, we suggest that these cumulate and unbrecciated eucrites resided at depth where parent body temperatures were sufficiently high to cause the K-Ar and some other chronometers to remain open diffusion systems. From the strong clustering of Ar-Ar ages at approximately 4.48 Gyr, we propose that these meteorites were excavated from depth in a single large impact event approximately 4.48 Gyr ago, which quickly cooled the samples and started the K-Ar chronometer. A large (approximately 460 km) crater

  14. Exposure age and erosional history of an upland planation surface in the US Atlantic Piedmont

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stanford, S.D.; Seidl, M.A.; Ashley, G.M.

    2000-01-01

    The upland planation surface in the Piedmont of central New Jersey consists of summit flats, as much as 130 km2 in area, that truncate bedding and structure in diabase, basalt, sandstone, mudstone and gneiss. These flats define a low-relief regional surface that corresponds in elevation to residual hills in the adjacent Coastal Plain capped by a fluvial gravel of late Miocene age. A Pliocene fluvial sand is inset 50 m below the upland features. These associations suggest a late Miocene or early Pliocene age for the surface. To assess exposure age and erosional history, a 4??4 m core of clayey diabase saprolite on a 3 km2 remnant of the surface was sampled at six depths for atmospherically produced cosmogenic 10Be. The measured inventory, assuming a deposition rate of 1??3 x 106 atoms cm-2 a-1, yields a minimum exposure age of 227 000 years, or, assuming continuous surface erosion, a constant erosion rate of 10 m Ma-1. Because the sample site lies about 60 m above the aggradation surface of the Pliocene fluvial deposit, and itself supports a pre-Pliocene fluvial gravel lag, this erosion rate is too high. Rather, episodic surface erosion and runoff bypassing probably have produced an inventory deficit. Reasonable estimates of surface erosion (up to 10 m) and bypassing (up to 50 per cent of total precipitation) yield exposure ages of as much as 6??4 Ma. These results indicate that (1) the surface is probably of pre-Pleistocene age and has been modified by Pleistocene erosion, and (2) exposure ages based on 10Be inventories are highly sensitive to surface erosion and runoff bypassing. Copyright (C) 2000 John Wiley and Sons, Ltd.

  15. Lunar crater arcs. [origins, distribution and age classification of Pre-Imbrian families

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaffe, L. D.; Bulkley, E. O.

    1976-01-01

    An analysis has been made of the tendency of large lunar craters to lie along circles. A catalog of the craters at least 50 km in diameter was prepared first, noting position, diameter, rim sharpness and completion, nature of underlying surface, and geological age. The subset of those craters 50-400 km in diameter was then used as input to computer programs which identified each 'family' of four or more craters of selected geological age lying on a circular arc. For comparison, families were also identified for randomized crater models in which the crater spatial density was matched to that on the moon, either overall or separately for mare and highland areas. The observed frequency of lunar arcuate families was statistically highly significantly greater than for the randomized models, for craters classified as either late-pre-Imbrian (Nectarian), middle pre-Imbrian, or early pre-Imbrian, as well as for a number of larger age-classes. The lunar families tend to center in specific areas of the moon; these lie in highlands rather than maria and are different for families of Nectarian craters than for pre-Nectarian. The origin of the arcuate crater groupings is not understood.

  16. Lifecourse study of bone health at age 49–51 years: the Newcastle thousand families cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Pearce, M.; Birrell, F.; Francis, R.; Rawlings, D.; Tuck, S.; Parker, L.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To quantify the direct and indirect effects of fetal (position in family, weight, and social class at birth), childhood (breast feeding, growth, infections, and social class in childhood, age at menarche), and adult life (social class, alcohol consumption, smoking, diet, reproductive history, exercise, hormone replacement therapy use), and adult size (height, weight) on bone health at age 49–51 years, as measured by bone mineral density, total scanned bone area of the hip and lumbar spine, and femoral neck shaft angle. Design: Follow up study of the Newcastle thousand families birth cohort established in 1947. Participants: 171 men and 218 women who attended for dual energy x ray absorptiometry scanning. Main results: Fetal life explained around 6% of variation in adult bone mineral density for men, but accounted for less than 1% for women. Adult lifestyle, including effects mediated through adult weight accounted for over 10% of variation in density for men and around 6% for women. Almost half of variation in bone area for men was explained by early life. However, most of this was mediated through achieved adult height and weight. In women, less than 5% of variation in bone area was accounted for by early life, after adjusting for adult size. Most of the variation in each of the indicators for both sexes was contributed either directly or indirectly by adult lifestyle and achieved adult height and weight. Conclusions: The effect of fetal life on bone health in adulthood seems to be mediated through achieved adult height. PMID:15911643

  17. Early age of onset in fatal familial insomnia. Two novel cases and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Harder, A; Gregor, A; Wirth, T; Kreuz, F; Schulz-Schaeffer, W J; Windl, O; Plotkin, M; Amthauer, H; Neukirch, K; Kretzschmar, H A; Kuhlmann, T; Braas, R; Hahne, H H; Jendroska, K

    2004-06-01

    Fatal familial insomnia (FFI) is a prion disease exhibiting the PRNP D178N/129M genotype. Features of this autosomal dominant illness are progressive insomnia, dysautonomia, myoclonus, cognitive decline and motor signs associated with thalamic nerve cell loss and gliosis. In contrast to the new variant of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD) the onset of FFI is in middle to late adulthood. We report two male patients who belong to a large German FFI kindred. They were examined clinically, and postmortem neuropathological examination was carried out in collaboration with the German reference centre for prion disease. Additionally, the prion protein gene (PRNP) was analysed. To identify further patients with disease onset under 30 years of age a comprehensive literature review was carried out. Two male patients presented with typical symptoms of FFI at the age of 23 and 24 years. In their kindred, the age of onset has never before been under 44 years of age. Our literature review identified five additional early onset cases who died at age 21 to 25 years. In all 22 reviewed FFI families the median manifestation age was 49.5 years. Although phenotypic variability of FFI is common, age of onset under 30 years has been considered to be a hallmark of vCJD with a mean manifestation at 27 years of age. Our findings underline that in addition to vCJD, FFI must be considered in cases of young-onset prion disease. This has considerable impact on clinical management and genetic counselling.

  18. MEAN AGE GRADIENT AND ASYMMETRY IN THE STAR FORMATION HISTORY OF THE SMALL MAGELLANIC CLOUD

    SciTech Connect

    Cignoni, M.; Cole, A. A.; Tosi, M.; Gallagher, J. S.; Sabbi, E.; Anderson, J.; Nota, A.; Grebel, E. K.

    2013-10-01

    We derive the star formation history (SFH) in four regions of the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) using the deepest VI color-magnitude diagrams (CMDs) ever obtained for this galaxy. The images were obtained with the Advanced Camera for Surveys on board the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) and are located at projected distances of 0.°5-2° from the SMC center, probing the main body and the wing of the galaxy. We derived the SFHs of the four fields using two independent procedures to fit synthetic CMDs to the data. We compare the SFHs derived here with our earlier results for the SMC bar to create a deep pencil-beam survey of the global history of the central SMC. We find in all the six fields observed with HST a slow star formation (SF) pace from 13 to 5-7 Gyr ago, followed by a ≈2-3 times higher activity. This is remarkable because dynamical models do not predict a strong influence of either the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) or the Milky Way at that time. The level of the intermediate-age SF rate enhancement systematically increases toward the center, resulting in a gradient in the mean age of the population, with the bar fields being systematically younger than the outer ones. SF over the most recent 500 Myr is strongly concentrated in the bar, the only exception being the area of the SMC wing. The strong current activity of the latter is likely driven by interaction with the LMC. At a given age, there is no significant difference in metallicity between the inner and outer fields, implying that metals are well mixed throughout the SMC. The age-metallicity relations we infer from our best-fitting models are monotonically increasing with time, with no evidence of dips. This may argue against the major merger scenario proposed by Tsujimoto and Bekki in 2009, although a minor merger cannot be ruled out.

  19. Large impact crater histories of Mars: The effect of different model crater age techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robbins, Stuart J.; Hynek, Brian M.; Lillis, Robert J.; Bottke, William F.

    2013-07-01

    Impact events that produce large craters primarily occurred early in the Solar System's history because the largest bolides were remnants from planetary formation. Determining when large impacts occurred on a planetary surface such as Mars can yield clues to the flux of material in the early inner Solar System which, in turn, can constrain other planetary processes such as the timing and magnitude of resurfacing and the history of the martian core dynamo. We have used a large, global planetary database in conjunction with geomorphologic mapping to identify craters superposed on the rims of 78 larger craters with diameters D ⩾ 150 km on Mars, ≈78% of which have not been previously dated in this manner. The densities of superposed craters with diameters larger than 10, 16, 25, and 50 km, as well as isochron fits were used to derive model crater ages of these larger craters and basins from which we derived an impact flux. In discussing these ages, we point out several internal inconsistencies of crater-age modeling techniques and chronology systems and, all told, we explain why we think isochron-fitting is the most reliable indicator of an age. Our results point to a mostly obliterated crater record prior to ˜4.0 Ga with the oldest preserved mappable craters on Mars dating to ˜4.3-4.35 Ga. We have used our results to constrain the cessation time of the martian core dynamo which we found to have occurred between the formation of Ladon and Prometheus basins, approximately 4.06-4.09 Ga. We also show that, overall, surfaces on Mars older than ˜4.0-4.1 Ga have experienced >1 km of resurfacing, while those younger than ˜3.8-3.9 Ga have experienced significantly less.

  20. Women in American History: A Series. Book Two, Women in the Ages of Expansion and Reform 1820-1860.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanders, Beverly

    The document, one in a series of four on women in American history, discusses women in the ages of expansion and reform (1820-1860). Designed to supplement U.S. history textbooks, the book is presented in six chapters. Chapter I describes the "true woman," an ideal cultivated by women writers, educators, and magazine editors. The four virtues were…

  1. 5 CFR 894.307 - Are disabled children age 22 or over eligible as family members?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Are disabled children age 22 or over eligible as family members? 894.307 Section 894.307 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES DENTAL AND VISION INSURANCE...

  2. 5 CFR 894.307 - Are disabled children age 22 or over eligible as family members?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Are disabled children age 22 or over eligible as family members? 894.307 Section 894.307 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES DENTAL AND VISION INSURANCE...

  3. 5 CFR 894.307 - Are disabled children age 22 or over eligible as family members?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Are disabled children age 22 or over eligible as family members? 894.307 Section 894.307 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES DENTAL AND VISION INSURANCE...

  4. 5 CFR 894.307 - Are disabled children age 22 or over eligible as family members?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Are disabled children age 22 or over eligible as family members? 894.307 Section 894.307 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES DENTAL AND VISION INSURANCE...

  5. 5 CFR 894.307 - Are disabled children age 22 or over eligible as family members?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Are disabled children age 22 or over eligible as family members? 894.307 Section 894.307 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES DENTAL AND VISION INSURANCE...

  6. Aging Parents with Adult Mentally Retarded Children: Family Risk Factors and Sources of Support.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seltzer, Marsha Mailick; Krauss, Marty Wyngaarden

    1989-01-01

    Predictors of 4 indices of well-being (physical health, life satisfaction, burden, and parenting stress) were examined among 203 aging mothers of mentally retarded adults living at home. Predictive variables examined include maternal characteristics, retarded adult's characteristics, family social climate, mother's social support network, and…

  7. Use of Public Services for the Aged and the Role of the Family.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daatland, Svein Olav

    1983-01-01

    Examined the use of public services by 1,080 Norwegian older adults. Results showed more than one-third use public services for the aged (i.e., are institutionalized or receive home help or home nursing). The use of services is affected by both need and demand factors. The family's role is discussed. (JAC)

  8. Human insulin/IGF-1 and familial longevity at middle age

    PubMed Central

    Rozing, Maarten P.; Westendorp, Rudi G.J.; Frölich, Marijke; de Craen, Anton J.M.; Beekman, Marian; Heijmans, Bastiaan T.; Mooijaart, Simon P.; Blauw, Gerard-Jan; Slagboom, P. Eline; van Heemst, Diana; Group, on behalf of the Leiden Longevity Study (LLS)

    2009-01-01

    Recently, we have shown that compared to controls, long-lived familial nonagenarians (mean age: 93.4 years) from the Leiden Longevity Study displayed a lower mortality rate, and their middle-aged offspring displayed a lower prevalence of cardio-metabolic diseases, including diabetes mellitus. The evolutionarily conserved insulin/IGF-1 signaling (IIS) pathway has been implicated in longevity in model organisms, but its relevance for human longevity has generated much controversy. Here, we show that compared to their partners, the offspring of familial nonagenarians displayed similar non-fasted serum levels of IGF-1, IGFBP3 and insulin but lower non-fasted serum levels of glucose, indicating that familial longevity is associated with differences in insulin sensitivity. PMID:20157552

  9. [The cultural and medical significance of Xin an mingzuzhi(History of Famous Family in Xin'an)].

    PubMed

    Hu, A H; Wan, S M

    2016-01-28

    History of Famous Family in Xin'an includes abundant information and important value of the medical cultural history, including the medical family, medical ethics and the number of the famous doctors and its distribution, the medical books and its outline the medical ethics, the diseases. As for the 115 famous doctors recorded in this book, Shexian county owns the most while Jixi county owns the least, and of the average number of famous doctors among the 10, 000 local people, Yixian county owns the most while Xiuning county owns the least. History of Famous Family in Xin'an includes 26 medical books, ranging from medical literature study, gynecological treatment, external medical treatment, diagnosis and treatment of pediatric diseases, ancient medical case records, medical education, acu-moxibustion and summary of other medical experiences. The book also demonstrates the noble morality of doctors, development of doctor' family, and records of paralytic stroke, epistaxis, tuberculous consumptive diseases, furunculosis, dystocia and some infectious diseases. PMID:27049748

  10. Investigating diet and physical activity in Malaysia: education and family history of diabetes relate to lower levels of physical activity

    PubMed Central

    Tam, Cai Lian; Bonn, Gregory; Yeoh, Si Han; Wong, Chee Piau

    2014-01-01

    The National Health and Morbidity Survey (NHMS, 2011), estimates that the number of Malaysian adults suffering from type 2 diabetes has increased from 8.3 to 31.2% since 1996. This study is a preliminary investigation of possible factors contributing to this epidemic. Knowledge of diabetes, health locus of control, diet and exercise habits, as well as family history, education level and other demographic factors to better understand the correlates of risky and healthy behaviors. This was done as part of a larger initiative to improve prevention efforts. Questionnaires were completed by 770 individuals from three Malaysian states: Selangor, Penang, and Terengganu. Findings showed that people with better health knowledge and those who have a family history of type 2 diabetes were more likely to have healthy diets. Also, health knowledge related to lower alcohol consumption. Participants with diabetic family members, however, also reported higher levels of stress. Counterintuitively, higher educational levels, higher internal locus of control, better health knowledge, as well as a family history of diabetes all correlated with lower levels of physical activity. Thus, it is suggested that, while increasing health knowledge will be important in addressing the type 2 diabetes epidemic in Malaysia, especially in relation to diet, other cultural factors, specifically norms related to exercise and physical activity, also need to be addressed if the spread of type 2 diabetes is to be addressed over the long term. PMID:25520676

  11. Investigating diet and physical activity in Malaysia: education and family history of diabetes relate to lower levels of physical activity.

    PubMed

    Tam, Cai Lian; Bonn, Gregory; Yeoh, Si Han; Wong, Chee Piau

    2014-01-01

    The National Health and Morbidity Survey (NHMS, 2011), estimates that the number of Malaysian adults suffering from type 2 diabetes has increased from 8.3 to 31.2% since 1996. This study is a preliminary investigation of possible factors contributing to this epidemic. Knowledge of diabetes, health locus of control, diet and exercise habits, as well as family history, education level and other demographic factors to better understand the correlates of risky and healthy behaviors. This was done as part of a larger initiative to improve prevention efforts. Questionnaires were completed by 770 individuals from three Malaysian states: Selangor, Penang, and Terengganu. Findings showed that people with better health knowledge and those who have a family history of type 2 diabetes were more likely to have healthy diets. Also, health knowledge related to lower alcohol consumption. Participants with diabetic family members, however, also reported higher levels of stress. Counterintuitively, higher educational levels, higher internal locus of control, better health knowledge, as well as a family history of diabetes all correlated with lower levels of physical activity. Thus, it is suggested that, while increasing health knowledge will be important in addressing the type 2 diabetes epidemic in Malaysia, especially in relation to diet, other cultural factors, specifically norms related to exercise and physical activity, also need to be addressed if the spread of type 2 diabetes is to be addressed over the long term.

  12. Donor conceived offspring conceive of the donor: the relevance of age, awareness, and family form.

    PubMed

    Hertz, Rosanna; Nelson, Margaret K; Kramer, Wendy

    2013-06-01

    Rarely have donor conceived offspring been studied. Recently, it has become more common for parents to disclose the nature of conception to their offspring. This new development raises questions about the donor's place in the offspring's life and identity. Using surveys collected by the Donor Sibling Registry, the largest U.S. web-based registry, during a 15 week period from October 2009 to January 2010, we found that donor offspring view the donor as a whole person, rather than as simple genetic material (he can know you; he has looks; he can teach you about yourself); they also believe that the donor should act on his humanity (he should know about you and not remain an anonymous genetic contributor). Other new issues that emerge from this research include the findings that offspring may want to control the decision about contacting their sperm donor in order to facilitate a bond between themselves and the donor that is separate from their relationship with their parents. They also wish to assure their parents that their natal families are primary and will not be disrupted. We discuss how the age at which offspring learned about their donor conception and their current age each make a difference in their responses to what they want from contact with their donor. Family form (heterosexual two-parent families and lesbian two-parent families) also affects donor terminology. The role of the genetic father is reconsidered in both types of families. Donor conceived offspring raised in heterosexual families discover that their natal father no longer carries biological information and he is relegated to being "only" a social father. Offspring raised by lesbian couples experience a dissipation of the family narrative that they have no father. The donor, an imagined father, offers clues to the offspring's personal identity. The natal family is no longer the sole keeper of identity or ancestry.

  13. Implementation of an electronic genomic and family health history tool in primary prenatal care.

    PubMed

    Edelman, Emily A; Lin, Bruce K; Doksum, Teresa; Drohan, Brian; Edelson, Vaughn; Dolan, Siobhan M; Hughes, Kevin S; O'Leary, James; Galvin, Shelley L; Degroat, Nicole; Pardanani, Setul; Feero, W Gregory; Adams, Claire; Jones, Renee; Scott, Joan

    2014-03-01

    "The Pregnancy and Health Profile," (PHP) is a free genetic risk assessment software tool for primary prenatal providers that collects patient-entered family (FHH), personal, and obstetrical health history, performs risk assessment, and presents the provider with clinical decision support during the prenatal encounter. The tool is freely available for download at www.hughesriskapps.net. We evaluated the implementation of PHP in four geographically diverse clinical sites. Retrospective chart reviews were conducted for patients seen prior to the study period and for patients who used the PHP to collect data on documentation of FHH, discussion of cystic fibrosis (CF) and hemoglobinopathy (HB) carrier screening, and CF and HB interventions (tests, referrals). Five hundred pre-implementation phase and 618 implementation phase charts were reviewed. Documentation of a 3-generation FHH or pedigree improved at three sites; patient race/ethnicity at three sites, father of the baby (FOB) race/ethnicity at all sites, and ancestry for the patient and FOB at three sites (P < 0.001-0001). CF counseling improved for implementation phase patients at one site (8% vs. 48%, P < 0.0001) and CF screening/referrals at two (2% vs. 14%, P < 0.0001; 6% vs. 14%; P = 0.05). Counseling and intervention rates did not increase for HB. This preliminary study suggests that the PHP can improve documentation of FHH, race, and ancestry, as well as the compliance with current CF counseling and intervention guidelines in some prenatal clinics. Future evaluation of the PHP should include testing in a larger number of clinical environments, assessment of additional performance measures, and evaluation of the system's overall clinical utility. PMID:24616345

  14. Jupiter-family comets in near-Earth orbits: Dynamical histories and potential source regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández, J.; Sosa, A.

    2014-07-01

    We analyze the dynamical histories of a sample of 58 Jupiter-family comets (JFCs) coming close to the Earth, namely with perihelion distances q < 1.3 au at the time of their discovery. We carry out orbit integrations for these objects for 10^4 yr in the past and in the future, considering the orbital elements provided by the NASA/JPL Small Body Database, and 50 clones of each comet whose orbital elements were taken randomly within their error bars. We find that most orbits are chaotic, where comets are subject to frequent close encounters with Jupiter. Therefore, it is difficult to follow accurately the trajectory of a given comet beyond a few hundred years. We then define a likely dynamical path, which is computed as the average of the orbits of a given comet and the set of 50 clones. In particular we measure the degree of instability of a comet orbit by the time it takes the average perihelion distance q of a comet and its 50 clones to decrease by 1 au previous to the discovery time. We define this time scale as the capture time within the near-Earth region. We find that most JFCs have short capture times, of a few hundred to a couple of thousands of years, suggesting a recent incorporation to the near-Earth region. This is what one should expect for bodies whose typical lifetimes as active comets should not exceed a few 10^3 yr. This behavior is in sharp contrast with near-Earth asteroids that show more stable orbits with much longer residence times in the near-Earth region. The most likely source region of most JFCs is the transneptunian region. On the other hand, we find that a few JFCs move on stable orbits over the studied period with capture times > 10^4 yr. These objects might have a different source region, probably the outer asteroid belt or the Jupiter Trojans.

  15. Implementation of an electronic genomic and family health history tool in primary prenatal care.

    PubMed

    Edelman, Emily A; Lin, Bruce K; Doksum, Teresa; Drohan, Brian; Edelson, Vaughn; Dolan, Siobhan M; Hughes, Kevin S; O'Leary, James; Galvin, Shelley L; Degroat, Nicole; Pardanani, Setul; Feero, W Gregory; Adams, Claire; Jones, Renee; Scott, Joan

    2014-03-01

    "The Pregnancy and Health Profile," (PHP) is a free genetic risk assessment software tool for primary prenatal providers that collects patient-entered family (FHH), personal, and obstetrical health history, performs risk assessment, and presents the provider with clinical decision support during the prenatal encounter. The tool is freely available for download at www.hughesriskapps.net. We evaluated the implementation of PHP in four geographically diverse clinical sites. Retrospective chart reviews were conducted for patients seen prior to the study period and for patients who used the PHP to collect data on documentation of FHH, discussion of cystic fibrosis (CF) and hemoglobinopathy (HB) carrier screening, and CF and HB interventions (tests, referrals). Five hundred pre-implementation phase and 618 implementation phase charts were reviewed. Documentation of a 3-generation FHH or pedigree improved at three sites; patient race/ethnicity at three sites, father of the baby (FOB) race/ethnicity at all sites, and ancestry for the patient and FOB at three sites (P < 0.001-0001). CF counseling improved for implementation phase patients at one site (8% vs. 48%, P < 0.0001) and CF screening/referrals at two (2% vs. 14%, P < 0.0001; 6% vs. 14%; P = 0.05). Counseling and intervention rates did not increase for HB. This preliminary study suggests that the PHP can improve documentation of FHH, race, and ancestry, as well as the compliance with current CF counseling and intervention guidelines in some prenatal clinics. Future evaluation of the PHP should include testing in a larger number of clinical environments, assessment of additional performance measures, and evaluation of the system's overall clinical utility.

  16. Medical History, Lifestyle, Family History, and Occupational Risk Factors for Follicular Lymphoma: The InterLymph Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma Subtypes Project

    PubMed Central

    Vajdic, Claire M.; Morton, Lindsay M.; de Roos, Anneclaire J.; Skibola, Christine F.; Boffetta, Paolo; Cerhan, James R.; Flowers, Christopher R.; de Sanjosé, Silvia; Monnereau, Alain; Cocco, Pierluigi; Kelly, Jennifer L.; Smith, Alexandra G.; Weisenburger, Dennis D.; Clarke, Christina A.; Blair, Aaron; Bernstein, Leslie; Zheng, Tongzhang; Miligi, Lucia; Clavel, Jacqueline; Benavente, Yolanda; Chiu, Brian C. H.

    2014-01-01

    Background Follicular lymphoma (FL) has been linked with cigarette smoking and, inconsistently, with other risk factors. Methods We assessed associations of medical, hormonal, family history, lifestyle, and occupational factors with FL risk in 3530 cases and 22639 controls from 19 case–control studies in the InterLymph consortium. Age-, race/ethnicity-, sex- and study-adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using logistic regression. Results Most risk factors that were evaluated showed no association, except for a few modest or sex-specific relationships. FL risk was increased in persons: with a first-degree relative with non-Hodgkin lymphoma (OR = 1.99; 95% CI = 1.55 to 2.54); with greater body mass index as a young adult (OR = 1.15; 95% CI = 1.04 to 1.27 per 5kg/m2 increase); who worked as spray painters (OR = 2.66; 95% CI = 1.36 to 5.24); and among women with Sjögren syndrome (OR = 3.37; 95% CI = 1.23 to 9.19). Lower FL risks were observed in persons: with asthma, hay fever, and food allergy (ORs = 0.79–0.85); blood transfusions (OR = 0.78; 95% CI = 0.68 to 0.89); high recreational sun exposure (OR = 0.74; 95% CI = 0.65 to 0.86, fourth vs first quartile); who worked as bakers or millers (OR = 0.51; 95% CI = 0.28 to 0.93) or university/higher education teachers (OR = 0.58; 95% CI = 0.41 to 0.83). Elevated risks specific to women included current and longer duration of cigarette use, whereas reduced risks included current alcohol use, hay fever, and food allergies. Other factors, including other autoimmune diseases, eczema, hepatitis C virus seropositivity, hormonal drugs, hair dye use, sun exposure, and farming, were not associated with FL risk. Conclusions The few relationships observed provide clues suggesting a multifactorial etiology of FL but are limited in the extent to which they explain FL occurrence. PMID:25174024

  17. Metabolic profiles of biological aging in American Indians: the Strong Heart Family Study.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jinying; Zhu, Yun; Uppal, Karan; Tran, ViLinh T; Yu, Tianwei; Lin, Jue; Matsuguchi, Tet; Blackburn, Elizabeth; Jones, Dean; Lee, Elisa T; Howard, Barbara V

    2014-03-01

    Short telomere length, a marker of biological aging, has been associated with age-related metabolic disorders. Telomere attrition induces profound metabolic dysfunction in animal models, but no study has examined the metabolome of telomeric aging in human. Here we studied 423 apparently healthy American Indians participating in the Strong Family Heart Study. Leukocyte telomere length (LTL) was measured by qPCR. Metabolites in fasting plasma were detected by untargeted LC/MS. Associations of LTL with each metabolite and their combined effects were examined using generalized estimating equation adjusting for chronological age and other aging-related factors. Multiple testing was corrected using the q-value method (q<0.05). Of the 1,364 distinct m/z features detected, nineteen metabolites in the classes of glycerophosphoethanolamines, glycerophosphocholines, glycerolipids, bile acids, isoprenoids, fatty amides, or L-carnitine ester were significantly associated with LTL, independent of chronological age and other aging-related factors. Participants with longer (top tertile) and shorter (bottom tertile) LTL were clearly separated into distinct groups using a multi-marker score comprising of all these metabolites, suggesting that these newly detected metabolites could be novel metabolic markers of biological aging. This is the first study to interrogate the human metabolome of telomeric aging. Our results provide initial evidence for a metabolic control of LTL and may reveal previously undescribed new roles of various lipids in the aging process.

  18. Metabolic profiles of biological aging in American Indians: the Strong Heart Family Study.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jinying; Zhu, Yun; Uppal, Karan; Tran, ViLinh T; Yu, Tianwei; Lin, Jue; Matsuguchi, Tet; Blackburn, Elizabeth; Jones, Dean; Lee, Elisa T; Howard, Barbara V

    2014-03-01

    Short telomere length, a marker of biological aging, has been associated with age-related metabolic disorders. Telomere attrition induces profound metabolic dysfunction in animal models, but no study has examined the metabolome of telomeric aging in human. Here we studied 423 apparently healthy American Indians participating in the Strong Family Heart Study. Leukocyte telomere length (LTL) was measured by qPCR. Metabolites in fasting plasma were detected by untargeted LC/MS. Associations of LTL with each metabolite and their combined effects were examined using generalized estimating equation adjusting for chronological age and other aging-related factors. Multiple testing was corrected using the q-value method (q<0.05). Of the 1,364 distinct m/z features detected, nineteen metabolites in the classes of glycerophosphoethanolamines, glycerophosphocholines, glycerolipids, bile acids, isoprenoids, fatty amides, or L-carnitine ester were significantly associated with LTL, independent of chronological age and other aging-related factors. Participants with longer (top tertile) and shorter (bottom tertile) LTL were clearly separated into distinct groups using a multi-marker score comprising of all these metabolites, suggesting that these newly detected metabolites could be novel metabolic markers of biological aging. This is the first study to interrogate the human metabolome of telomeric aging. Our results provide initial evidence for a metabolic control of LTL and may reveal previously undescribed new roles of various lipids in the aging process. PMID:24799415

  19. Impact of biological aging on arterial aging in American Indians: findings from the Strong Heart Family Study.

    PubMed

    Peng, Hao; Zhu, Yun; Yeh, Fawn; Cole, Shelley A; Best, Lyle G; Lin, Jue; Blackburn, Elizabeth; Devereux, Richard B; Roman, Mary J; Lee, Elisa T; Howard, Barbara V; Zhao, Jinying

    2016-08-01

    Telomere length, a marker of biological aging, has been associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD). Increased arterial stiffness, an indicator of arterial aging, predicts adverse CVD outcomes. However, the relationship between telomere length and arterial stiffness is less well studied. Here we examined the cross-sectional association between leukocyte telomere length (LTL) and arterial stiffness in 2,165 American Indians in the Strong Heart Family Study (SHFS). LTL was measured by qPCR. Arterial stiffness was assessed by stiffness index β. The association between LTL and arterial stiffness was assessed by generalized estimating equation model, adjusting for sociodemographics (age, sex, education level), study site, metabolic factors (fasting glucose, lipids, systolic blood pressure, and kidney function), lifestyle (BMI, smoking, drinking, and physical activity), and prevalent CVD. Results showed that longer LTL was significantly associated with a decreased arterial stiffness (β=-0.070, P=0.007). This association did not attenuate after further adjustment for hsCRP (β=-0.071, P=0.005) or excluding participants with overt CVD (β=-0.068, P=0.012), diabetes (β=-0.070, P=0.005), or chronic kidney disease (β=-0.090, P=0.001). In summary, shorter LTL was significantly associated with an increased arterial stiffness, independent of known risk factors. This finding may shed light on the potential role of biological aging in arterial aging in American Indians.

  20. Impact of biological aging on arterial aging in American Indians: findings from the Strong Heart Family Study.

    PubMed

    Peng, Hao; Zhu, Yun; Yeh, Fawn; Cole, Shelley A; Best, Lyle G; Lin, Jue; Blackburn, Elizabeth; Devereux, Richard B; Roman, Mary J; Lee, Elisa T; Howard, Barbara V; Zhao, Jinying

    2016-08-01

    Telomere length, a marker of biological aging, has been associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD). Increased arterial stiffness, an indicator of arterial aging, predicts adverse CVD outcomes. However, the relationship between telomere length and arterial stiffness is less well studied. Here we examined the cross-sectional association between leukocyte telomere length (LTL) and arterial stiffness in 2,165 American Indians in the Strong Heart Family Study (SHFS). LTL was measured by qPCR. Arterial stiffness was assessed by stiffness index β. The association between LTL and arterial stiffness was assessed by generalized estimating equation model, adjusting for sociodemographics (age, sex, education level), study site, metabolic factors (fasting glucose, lipids, systolic blood pressure, and kidney function), lifestyle (BMI, smoking, drinking, and physical activity), and prevalent CVD. Results showed that longer LTL was significantly associated with a decreased arterial stiffness (β=-0.070, P=0.007). This association did not attenuate after further adjustment for hsCRP (β=-0.071, P=0.005) or excluding participants with overt CVD (β=-0.068, P=0.012), diabetes (β=-0.070, P=0.005), or chronic kidney disease (β=-0.090, P=0.001). In summary, shorter LTL was significantly associated with an increased arterial stiffness, independent of known risk factors. This finding may shed light on the potential role of biological aging in arterial aging in American Indians. PMID:27540694

  1. Impact of biological aging on arterial aging in American Indians: findings from the Strong Heart Family Study

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Hao; Zhu, Yun; Yeh, Fawn; Cole, Shelley A.; Best, Lyle G.; Lin, Jue; Blackburn, Elizabeth; Devereux, Richard B.; Roman, Mary J.; Lee, Elisa T.; Howard, Barbara V.; Zhao, Jinying

    2016-01-01

    Telomere length, a marker of biological aging, has been associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD). Increased arterial stiffness, an indicator of arterial aging, predicts adverse CVD outcomes. However, the relationship between telomere length and arterial stiffness is less well studied. Here we examined the cross-sectional association between leukocyte telomere length (LTL) and arterial stiffness in 2,165 American Indians in the Strong Heart Family Study (SHFS). LTL was measured by qPCR. Arterial stiffness was assessed by stiffness index β. The association between LTL and arterial stiffness was assessed by generalized estimating equation model, adjusting for sociodemographics (age, sex, education level), study site, metabolic factors (fasting glucose, lipids, systolic blood pressure, and kidney function), lifestyle (BMI, smoking, drinking, and physical activity), and prevalent CVD. Results showed that longer LTL was significantly associated with a decreased arterial stiffness (β=-0.070, P=0.007). This association did not attenuate after further adjustment for hsCRP (β=-0.071, P=0.005) or excluding participants with overt CVD (β=-0.068, P=0.012), diabetes (β=-0.070, P=0.005), or chronic kidney disease (β=-0.090, P=0.001). In summary, shorter LTL was significantly associated with an increased arterial stiffness, independent of known risk factors. This finding may shed light on the potential role of biological aging in arterial aging in American Indians. PMID:27540694

  2. Family Environment in Hispanic College Females with a History of Childhood Sexual Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenny, Maureen C.; McEachern, Adriana Garcia

    2007-01-01

    This study sought to examine the family environments of a sample of Hispanic women who reported childhood sexual abuse. Eighteen women, taken from a larger college sample, were individually interviewed and administered the Family Environment Scale (FES; Moos & Moos, 1994). Cultural values and the relationship of family characteristics to the…

  3. Young Men's Perceived Quality of Parenting Based on Familial History of Alcoholism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rutherford, Megan J.; Cacciola, John S.; Alterman, Arthur I.; McKay, James R.; Cook, Terry J.

    1997-01-01

    Gave Parental Bonding Inventories (PBI) to 173 males and analyzed scores based on the participants' familial risk for alcoholism. Results indicate that fathers of the high familial risk participants were rated by sons as being significantly less caring than the fathers of low familial risk participants. Other findings are reported. (RJM)

  4. High use of complementary and alternative medicine among a large cohort of women with a family history of breast cancer: the Sister Study.

    PubMed

    Greenlee, Heather; Sardo Molmenti, Christine L; Falci, Laura; Ulmer, Ross; Deming-Halverson, Sandra; DeRoo, Lisa A; Sandler, Dale P

    2016-04-01

    Use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is high among U.S. women, yet information is limited on use among women at increased breast cancer risk. We analyzed CAM use among women with a family history of breast cancer. CAM use was analyzed among women enrolled 2003-2009 in the Sister Study cohort. Eligible women were aged 35-74, U.S. or Puerto Rican residents, no personal history of breast cancer, and had ≥1 sister with breast cancer. Baseline data on CAM use in the past year were available for 49,734 women. Logistic regression models examined the association between CAM use and Gail Model breast cancer risk score. Results were compared to female participants in the 2007 National Health Interview Survey (n = 7965). Among Sister Study participants, there was high use of vitamin/mineral supplements (79 %), mind-body practices (41 %), manipulative/body-based practices (32 %), and botanicals (23 %). Overall use was higher than the U.S. female population. No association was observed between familial breast cancer risk and CAM use. Black women were more likely to use spirituality/meditation-based CAM modalities, while non-Hispanic white and Asian women were high users of dietary supplements. In a cohort of women with increased breast cancer risk due to family history, CAM use is higher than women in the general U.S. population and is associated with race/ethnicity. Use was not associated with breast cancer risk. Given the high prevalence of CAM use among women at risk for breast caner, research on the effectiveness of CAM use for disease prevention is needed.

  5. High use of complementary and alternative medicine among a large cohort of women with a family history of breast cancer: the Sister Study.

    PubMed

    Greenlee, Heather; Sardo Molmenti, Christine L; Falci, Laura; Ulmer, Ross; Deming-Halverson, Sandra; DeRoo, Lisa A; Sandler, Dale P

    2016-04-01

    Use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is high among U.S. women, yet information is limited on use among women at increased breast cancer risk. We analyzed CAM use among women with a family history of breast cancer. CAM use was analyzed among women enrolled 2003-2009 in the Sister Study cohort. Eligible women were aged 35-74, U.S. or Puerto Rican residents, no personal history of breast cancer, and had ≥1 sister with breast cancer. Baseline data on CAM use in the past year were available for 49,734 women. Logistic regression models examined the association between CAM use and Gail Model breast cancer risk score. Results were compared to female participants in the 2007 National Health Interview Survey (n = 7965). Among Sister Study participants, there was high use of vitamin/mineral supplements (79 %), mind-body practices (41 %), manipulative/body-based practices (32 %), and botanicals (23 %). Overall use was higher than the U.S. female population. No association was observed between familial breast cancer risk and CAM use. Black women were more likely to use spirituality/meditation-based CAM modalities, while non-Hispanic white and Asian women were high users of dietary supplements. In a cohort of women with increased breast cancer risk due to family history, CAM use is higher than women in the general U.S. population and is associated with race/ethnicity. Use was not associated with breast cancer risk. Given the high prevalence of CAM use among women at risk for breast caner, research on the effectiveness of CAM use for disease prevention is needed. PMID:27017506

  6. State Firearm Laws, Firearm Ownership, and Safety Practices Among Families of Preschool-Aged Children

    PubMed Central

    Martin-Storey, Alexa; Crosnoe, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We investigated how state-level firearms legislation is associated with firearm ownership and storage among families with preschool-aged children. Methods. Using 2005 nationally representative data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort (n = 8100), we conducted multinomial regression models to examine the associations between state-level firearms legislation generally, child access prevention (CAP) firearms legislation specifically, and parental firearm ownership and storage safety practices. Results. Overall, 8% of families with children aged 4 years living in states with stronger firearm laws and CAP laws owned firearms compared with 24% of families in states with weaker firearm laws and no CAP laws. Storage behaviors of firearm owners differed minimally across legislative contexts. When we controlled for family- and state-level characteristics, we found that firearm legislation and CAP laws interacted to predict ownership and storage behaviors, with unsafe storage least likely among families in states with both CAP laws and stronger firearm legislation. Conclusions. Broader firearm legislation is linked with the efficacy of child-specific legislation in promoting responsible firearm ownership. PMID:24825210

  7. Demographic patterns of Ferocactus cylindraceus in relation to substrate age and grazing history

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bowers, Janice E.

    1997-01-01

    Three subpopulations of Ferocactus cylindraceus, a short-columnar cactus of the Sonoran and Mojave deserts, were sampled in Grand Canyon, Arizona, USA, at sites representing a range of substrate ages and different grazing histories. Age-height relations were determined from annual growth, then used to estimate probable year of establishment for each cohort. Eight years between 1944 and 1992 were especially favorable for establishment. Six of these 8 years coincided with El Nino-Southern Oscillation conditions, indicating that as for many woody plants in arid regions, somewhat unusual climatic conditions are necessary if populations are to replace themselves. Comparison of age structures showed that established and developing populations have somewhat different dynamics in that the rate of population increase was slowest on the youngest terrace. On the ancient terraces, about half the plants were less than 25 years old. Plants older than 40 years were few; however the oldest plants in the study (about 49 years) grew on the ancient terraces. On the recent terrace, 76% of the subpopulation was 25 years or younger, and the oldest living plant was about 36 years of age. The age structures of subpopulations on grazed and ungrazed sites also differed markedly. On ungrazed sites, subpopulations were more or less at equilibrium, with enough young plants to replace old ones as they died. In contrast, the subpopulation on the grazed site was in a state of marked disequilibrium. Grazing before 1981 largely extirpated a palatable subshrub that was probably an important nurse plant. Until the shrub population at Indian Canyon recovers from decades of burro grazing, a rebound in E cylindraceus establishment is not to be expected.

  8. Accessing probable thermal histories through dispersed, partially-reset zircon (U-Th)/He ages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Powell, Jeremy; Schneider, David

    2016-04-01

    exhibited by the datasets. We do not recommend selecting only the youngest dates from samples or averaging (U-Th)/He dates, as these methods do not acknowledge the complexity of the (U-Th)/He system and potentially exclude non-obvious, but equally probable, geologic scenarios. To this extent, using the vertical profile approach to assess exhumation rates from cooling age data may also provide an inaccurate result if the strata have not been buried to sufficient temperatures to completely reset any prior thermal history. As an alternative, we analyzed more grains from individual samples and combine data from similar structural regions to assess regional trends in thermal history. We believe that this approach does an appropriate job of acknowledging the errors and assumptions involved in the technique while providing meaningful information on thermal history of a region. Thermal modeling of the Mackenzie Mountains data reveals that (1) a substantial sedimentary package was deposited following the Devonian and removed during Permo-Triassic cooling, and (2) the Cordilleran deformation front propagated through the study area from the Albian to the Paleocene, with a moderate increase in cooling rates between 75-67 Ma in the southwest, and 60-55 Ma at the deformation front.

  9. Pasteurella multocida in scavenging family chickens and ducks: carrier status, age susceptibility and transmission between species.

    PubMed

    Mbuthia, P G; Njagi, L W; Nyaga, P N; Bebora, L C; Minga, U; Kamundia, J; Olsen, J E

    2008-02-01

    Pasteurella multocida causes fowl cholera, a highly contagious and severe disease in chickens and water fowls. The disease is not well described in less intensive production systems, including scavenging family poultry production in developing countries. P. multocida was isolated from 25.9% of healthy-looking ducks and 6.2% of chickens from free-range family poultry farms and at slaughter slabs at market. On experimental infection with 1.2 to 2.0 x 10(8) organisms of the P. multocida type strain (NCTC 10322(T)), 12-week-old chickens expressed fowl cholera clinical signs significantly more times (372 signs) than those of 4-week-old, 8-week-old and 16-week-old chickens (173, 272 and 187 signs) and more signs were severe. In family ducks the 8-week-old birds expressed clinical signs significantly more times (188 signs) than those of the other age groups (117, 80, and 83 signs, respectively) and severe signs were more frequent. P. multocida transmitted from seeder birds (n=12) to sentinel birds (n=30), which developed clinical signs, and in some cases lesions of fowl cholera allowed bacterial re-isolation, whether infected ducks served as seeders for chickens or chickens served as seeder for ducks. This study has documented the occurrence of P. multocida among healthy-appearing family poultry in a tropical setting, and demonstrated that age susceptibility is highest in 12-week-old family chickens and 8-week-old family ducks when challenged with a low-virulent strain of P. multocida. It has further demonstrated that cross-transmission of fowl cholera may happen between family ducks and chickens, and vice versa. PMID:18202950

  10. Controlling for Landform Age When Determining the Settlement History of the Kuril Islands

    PubMed Central

    MacInnes, Breanyn; Fitzhugh, Ben; Holman, Darryl

    2014-01-01

    Archaeological investigations of settlement patterns in dynamic landscapes can be strongly biased by the evolution of the Earth’s surface. The Kuril Island volcanic arc exemplifies such a dynamic landscape, where landscape-modifying geological forces were active during settlement, including sea-level changes, tectonic emergence, volcanic eruptive processes, coastal aggradation, and dune formation. With all these ongoing processes, in this paper we seek to understand how new landscape formation in the Holocene might bias archaeological interpretations of human settlement in the Kurils. Resolving this issue is fundamental to any interpretation of human settlement history derived from the distribution and age of archaeological sites from the region. On the basis of a comparison of landform ages and earliest archaeological occupation ages on those landforms, we conclude that landform creation did not significantly bias our aggregate archaeological evidence for earliest settlement. Some sections of the archipelago have larger proportions of landform creation dates closer to archaeological evidence of settlement and undoubtedly some archaeological sites have been lost to geomorphic processes. However, comparisons between regions reveal comparable archaeological establishment patterns irrespective of geomorphic antiquity. PMID:25684855

  11. Culturally Tailored, Family-Centered, Behavioral Obesity Intervention for Latino-American Preschool-aged Children

    PubMed Central

    Gesell, Sabina B.; Po’e, Eli K.; Escarfuller, Juan; Tempesti, Tommaso

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To test the effect of a culturally tailored, family-centered, short-term behavioral intervention on BMI in Latino-American preschool-aged children. METHODS: In a randomized controlled trial, 54 parent–child dyads were allocated to the intervention and 52 dyads were allocated to an alternative school-readiness program as the control condition. Parent–child dyads were eligible if the parent self-defined Latino, was at least 18 years old, had a 2- to 6-year-old child not currently enrolled in another healthy lifestyle program, had a valid telephone number, and planned on remaining in the city for the next 6 months. The Salud Con La Familia (Health with the Family) program consisted of 12 weekly 90-minute skills-building sessions designed to improve family nutritional habits and increase physical activity. Both programs were conducted in a community recreation center serving an urban neighborhood of mostly Spanish-speaking residents. RESULTS: Forty-two percent of participating preschool-aged children were overweight or obese. Controlling for child age, gender, and baseline BMI, the effect of the treatment condition on postintervention absolute BMI was B = –0.59 (P < .001). The intervention effect seemed to be strongest for obese children. CONCLUSIONS: A skills-building, culturally tailored intervention involving parent–child dyads changed short-term early growth patterns in these Latino-American preschool-aged children. Examining long-term effects would be a prudent next step. PMID:22869834

  12. Cerebral blood flow is diminished in asymptomatic middle-aged adults with maternal history of Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Okonkwo, Ozioma C; Xu, Guofan; Oh, Jennifer M; Dowling, N Maritza; Carlsson, Cynthia M; Gallagher, Catherine L; Birdsill, Alex C; Palotti, Matthew; Wharton, Whitney; Hermann, Bruce P; LaRue, Asenath; Bendlin, Barbara B; Rowley, Howard A; Asthana, Sanjay; Sager, Mark A; Johnson, Sterling C

    2014-04-01

    Cerebral blood flow (CBF) provides an indication of the metabolic status of the cortex and may have utility in elucidating preclinical brain changes in persons at risk for Alzheimer's disease (AD) and related diseases. In this study, we investigated CBF in 327 well-characterized adults including patients with AD (n = 28), patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI, n = 23), older cognitively normal (OCN, n = 24) adults, and asymptomatic middle-aged adults (n = 252) with and without a family history (FH) of AD. Compared with the asymptomatic cohort, AD patients displayed significant hypoperfusion in the precuneus, posterior cingulate, lateral parietal cortex, and the hippocampal region. Patients with aMCI exhibited a similar but less marked pattern of hypoperfusion. Perfusion deficits within the OCN adults were primarily localized to the inferior parietal lobules. Asymptomatic participants with a maternal FH of AD showed hypoperfusion in hippocampal and parietofrontal regions compared with those without a FH of AD or those with only a paternal FH of AD. These observations persisted when gray matter volume was included as a voxel-wise covariate. Our findings suggest that having a mother with AD might confer a particular risk for AD-related cerebral hypoperfusion in midlife. In addition, they provide further support for the potential utility of arterial spin labeling for the measurement of AD-related neurometabolic dysfunction, particularly in situations where [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose imaging is infeasible or clinically contraindicated.

  13. Age Moderates the Relationships between Family Functioning and Neck Pain/Disability

    PubMed Central

    Guzy, Grażyna; Polczyk, Romuald; Szpitalak, Malwina; Vernon, Howard

    2016-01-01

    This cross-sectional clinical study was designed to explore the relationships between family functioning, coping styles, and neck pain and neck disability. It was hypothesized that better family functioning and more effective coping styles would be associated with less pain and pain-related disability. It also was hypothesized that these relationships would be stronger in older people because they have fewer resources, more limited coping styles, and may depend more on their family for support. In this study, 88 women with chronic non-traumatic neck pain completed the Family Assessment Measure (FAM), Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations (CISS), Neck Disability Index (NDI), and a Visual-Analogue Scale (VAS) measuring the subjective intensity of neck pain. Zero-order and partial correlations and hierarchical stepwise regression were performed. CISS was not correlated with the NDI orVAS. Good family functioning was correlated with lower NDI and VAS scores. Age was found to moderate the relationship between the FAM and both NDI and VAS. This relationship was significant and positive in older patients, but non-significant in younger patients. It was concluded that better family functioning is associated with lower neck disability and pain intensity, especially in the case of older women suffering from non-traumatic neck pain. PMID:27078854

  14. Age Moderates the Relationships between Family Functioning and Neck Pain/Disability.

    PubMed

    Guzy, Grażyna; Polczyk, Romuald; Szpitalak, Malwina; Vernon, Howard

    2016-01-01

    This cross-sectional clinical study was designed to explore the relationships between family functioning, coping styles, and neck pain and neck disability. It was hypothesized that better family functioning and more effective coping styles would be associated with less pain and pain-related disability. It also was hypothesized that these relationships would be stronger in older people because they have fewer resources, more limited coping styles, and may depend more on their family for support. In this study, 88 women with chronic non-traumatic neck pain completed the Family Assessment Measure (FAM), Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations (CISS), Neck Disability Index (NDI), and a Visual-Analogue Scale (VAS) measuring the subjective intensity of neck pain. Zero-order and partial correlations and hierarchical stepwise regression were performed. CISS was not correlated with the NDI orVAS. Good family functioning was correlated with lower NDI and VAS scores. Age was found to moderate the relationship between the FAM and both NDI and VAS. This relationship was significant and positive in older patients, but non-significant in younger patients. It was concluded that better family functioning is associated with lower neck disability and pain intensity, especially in the case of older women suffering from non-traumatic neck pain. PMID:27078854

  15. A Family History of Lethal Prostate Cancer and Risk of Aggressive Prostate Cancer in Patients Undergoing Radical Prostatectomy.

    PubMed

    Raheem, Omer A; Cohen, Seth A; Parsons, J Kellogg; Palazzi, Kerrin L; Kane, Christopher J

    2015-01-01

    We investigated whether a family history of lethal prostate cancer (PCa) was associated with high-risk disease or biochemical recurrence in patients undergoing radical prostatectomy. A cohort of radical prostatectomy patients was stratified into men with no family history of PCa (NFH); a first-degree relative with PCa (FH); and those with a first-degree relative who had died of PCa (FHD). Demographic, operative and pathologic outcomes were analyzed. Freedom from biochemical recurrence was examined using Kaplan-Meier log rank. A multivariate Cox logistic regression analysis was also performed. We analyzed 471 men who underwent radical prostatectomy at our institution with known family history. The three groups had: 355 patients (75%) in NFH; 97 patients (21%) in FH; and 19 patients (4%) in FHD. The prevalence of a Gleason score ≥8, higher pathologic T stage, and biochemical recurrence (BCR) rates did not significantly differ between groups. On Kaplan-Meier analysis there were no differences in short-term BCR rates (p = 0.212). In this cohort of patients undergoing radical prostatectomy, those with first-degree relatives who died of PCa did not have an increased likelihood of high-risk or aggressive PCa or shorter-term risk of BCR than those who did not.

  16. A Family History of Lethal Prostate Cancer and Risk of Aggressive Prostate Cancer in Patients Undergoing Radical Prostatectomy

    PubMed Central

    Raheem, Omer A.; Cohen, Seth A.; Parsons, J. Kellogg; Palazzi, Kerrin L.; Kane, Christopher J.

    2015-01-01

    We investigated whether a family history of lethal prostate cancer (PCa) was associated with high-risk disease or biochemical recurrence in patients undergoing radical prostatectomy. A cohort of radical prostatectomy patients was stratified into men with no family history of PCa (NFH); a first-degree relative with PCa (FH); and those with a first-degree relative who had died of PCa (FHD). Demographic, operative and pathologic outcomes were analyzed. Freedom from biochemical recurrence was examined using Kaplan-Meier log rank. A multivariate Cox logistic regression analysis was also performed. We analyzed 471 men who underwent radical prostatectomy at our institution with known family history. The three groups had: 355 patients (75%) in NFH; 97 patients (21%) in FH; and 19 patients (4%) in FHD. The prevalence of a Gleason score ≥8, higher pathologic T stage, and biochemical recurrence (BCR) rates did not significantly differ between groups. On Kaplan-Meier analysis there were no differences in short-term BCR rates (p = 0.212). In this cohort of patients undergoing radical prostatectomy, those with first-degree relatives who died of PCa did not have an increased likelihood of high-risk or aggressive PCa or shorter-term risk of BCR than those who did not. PMID:26112134

  17. "Math Talk" in Families of Preschool-Aged Children: Frequency and Relations to Children's Early Math Skills across Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Susperreguy Jorquera, Maria Ines

    2013-01-01

    Early math skills are the strongest predictors of later math achievement in school. This two-wave study addressed three research questions about the role of families in fostering these skills in preschool-aged children. First, how do families talk about math at home? Second, how do these conversations vary across families with different…

  18. Self-Defined Community Satisfactions of Mexican American Families in Metropolitan South Texas: Age Status and Place of Residence Comparisons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ballard, Chester C.

    Trained, indigenous, bilingual people conducted interviews with 172 Mexican American families from the Southmost area of Brownsville and rural communities in Brooks County, Texas, to ascertain metro-nonmetro community satisfaction, as determined by place of residence and age status differentiations among family members. Complete family study units…

  19. Testosterone related to age and life-history stages in male baboons and geladas

    PubMed Central

    Beehner, Jacinta C.; Gesquiere, Laurence; Seyfarth, Robert M.; Cheney, Dorothy L.; Alberts, Susan C.; Altmann, Jeanne

    2013-01-01

    Despite significant advances in our knowledge of how testosterone mediates life-history trade-offs, this research has primarily focused on seasonal species. We know comparatively little about the relationship between testosterone and life-history stages for non-seasonally breeding species. Here we examine testosterone profiles across the lifespan of males from three non-seasonally breeding primates: yellow baboons (Papio cynocephalus or P. hamadryas cynocephalus), chacma baboons (Papio ursinus or P. h. ursinus), and geladas (Theropithecus gelada). First, we predict that testosterone profiles will track the reproductive profiles of each taxon across their respective breeding years. Second, we evaluate age-related changes in testosterone to determine whether several life-history transitions are associated with these changes. Subjects include males (>2.5 years) from wild populations of each taxon from whom we had fecal samples for hormone determination. Although testosterone profiles across species were broadly similar, considerable variability was found in the timing of two major changes: (1) the attainment of adult levels of testosterone, and (2) the decline in testosterone after the period of maximum production. Attainment of adult testosterone levels was delayed by one year in chacmas compared with yellows and geladas. With respect to the decline in testosterone, geladas and chacmas exhibited a significant drop after three years of maximum production, while yellows declined so gradually that no significant annual drop was ever detected. For both yellows and chacmas, increases in testosterone production preceded elevations in social dominance rank. We discuss these differences in the context of ecological and behavioral differences exhibited by these taxa. PMID:19712676

  20. Robertsonian translocation between chromosomes (no.21/14) in relation to the history of spontaneous abortion in a family

    PubMed Central

    Hasanzadeh-NazarAbadi, Mohammad; Baghbani, Fatemeh; Namazi, Iman; Mirzaee, Salmeh

    2014-01-01

    Background: Approximately 205 million pregnancies occur each year in the worldwide. On the other hand, Spontaneous abortion has been reported in 15-20% of all diagnosed pregnancies. The most common cause of spontaneous abortion is chromosomal abnormalities of the embryo. Robertsonian translocation carriers specially 21-14 are the most common balanced rearrangement among the carrier couples with the history of spontaneous abortion. In order to search for balanced chromosomal rearrangement and cytogenetic disorders, 10 members of related family with consanguinity marriage with the history of recurrent miscarriage were assessed. Case: Cytogenetic evaluation on the basis G-banding technique at high resolution was performed in 3 couples and their related family with the history of idiopathic RSA in order to postulate any balanced chromosomal rearrangement. Conclusion: six members of them appeared with robertsonian balanced translocation between chromosome No.21 to No. 14 with the karyotype of 45, XX, t (14, 21) and 45, XY, t (14, 21), which this results are in agreement with several similar works which claimed that the risk of spontaneous abortion in couples with balanced chromosomal rearrangements is higher compared with general population. Considering to results of present study, it seems as if the cytogenetic analysis of couples with the history of recurrent abortions should be suggested compulsory to estimate the probable presence of any chromosomal rearrangement. This offer wills valuable information for genetic consulting. PMID:25408709

  1. Validity of self-reported history of endodontic treatment in the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging

    PubMed Central

    Gomes, Maximiliano Schünke; Hugo, Fernando Neves; Hilgert, Juliana Balbinot; Padilha, Dalva Maria Pereira; Simonsick, Eleanor Marie; Ferrucci, Luigi; Reynolds, Mark Allan

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Self-reported history of endodontic treatment (SRHET) has been used as a simplified method to estimate history of endodontic disease and treatment. This study aimed to quantify the validity of SRHET, as reported in the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging (BLSA), as a method to: 1- identify individuals who experienced endodontic treatment (ET); and 2- identify individuals who present with apical periodontitis (AP). Methods SRHET was collected through the BLSA questionnaire in 247 participants. Data on ET and AP were determined from panoramic radiographs. The total number of ET, AP and missing teeth were recorded for each individual. Validity of SRHET was determined based on ET and AP, separately. Accuracy, efficiency, sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values (+PV, −PV) and positive and negative likelihood ratios (+LR, −LR) were calculated according to standard methods. Results After exclusions, 229 participants were available for ET analysis and 129 for AP analysis. The SRHET validity values were: sensitivity (ET=0.915; AP=0.782), specificity (ET=0.891; AP=0.689), +PV (ET=0.824; AP=0.353), −PV (ET=0.949; AP=0.936), +LR (ET=8.394; AP=2.514) and −LR (ET=0.095; AP=0.316). Conclusions SRHET was found to be a highly accurate method to predict ET but a weak predictor of the presence of AP among participants in the BLSA. PMID:22515884

  2. Breast cancer-specific intrusions are associated with increased cortisol responses to daily life stressors in healthy women without personal or family histories of breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Dettenborn, Lucia; James, Gary D; Valdimarsdottir, Heiddis B; Montgomery, Guy H; Bovbjerg, Dana H

    2006-10-01

    Studies indicate that women fear breast cancer more than any other disease and that women's levels of breast cancer-specific intrusions are related to their perceived risk of breast cancer. Here, we explore possible biological consequences of higher breast cancer risk perceptions and intrusions in healthy women without personal or family histories of the disease. We hypothesized that women with higher perceived risk would have more intrusions about breast cancer, which would constitute a background stressor sufficient to increase hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA) responsivity to daily stress. HPA responses to an ordinary life stressor (work) were assessed in 141 employed women (age = 37.2+/-9.2) without personal or family histories of breast cancer. Urinary cortisol excretion rates were assessed with timed sample collections at work, home, and during sleep. Repeated measures ANOVA revealed a significant Group by Time interaction with higher work cortisol levels in women with breast cancer-specific intrusions compared to women without intrusions (p < 0.02). Regression analyses revealed a significant association between risk perceptions and intrusions (p < 0.001). Regression analysis with intrusions and risk perceptions predicting work cortisol indicated a significant contribution of intrusions (p < 0.04), but not risk perceptions (p = 0.53). Overestimation of breast cancer risk is associated with higher levels of breast cancer-specific intrusions that can result in increased cortisol responsivity to daily stressors. This heightened responsivity could have long-term negative health implications. PMID:16944305

  3. Apoptosis: its origin, history, maintenance and the medical implications for cancer and aging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaczanowski, Szymon

    2016-06-01

    Programmed cell death is a basic cellular mechanism. Apoptotic-like programmed cell death (called apoptosis in animals) occurs in both unicellular and multicellular eukaryotes, and some apoptotic mechanisms are observed in bacteria. Endosymbiosis between mitochondria and eukaryotic cells took place early in the eukaryotic evolution, and some of the apoptotic-like mechanisms of mitochondria that were retained after this event now serve as parts of the eukaryotic apoptotic machinery. Apoptotic mechanisms have several functions in unicellular organisms: they include kin-selected altruistic suicide that controls population size, sharing common goods, and responding to viral infection. Apoptotic factors also have non-apoptotic functions. Apoptosis is involved in the cellular aging of eukaryotes, including humans. In addition, apoptosis is a key part of the innate tumor-suppression mechanism. Several anticancer drugs induce apoptosis, because apoptotic mechanisms are inactivated during oncogenesis. Because of the ancient history of apoptosis, I hypothesize that there is a deep relationship between mitochondrial metabolism, its role in aerobic versus anaerobic respiration, and the connection between apoptosis and cancer. Whereas normal cells rely primarily on oxidative mitochondrial respiration, most cancer cells use anaerobic metabolism. According to the Warburg hypothesis, the remodeling of the metabolism is one of the processes that leads to cancer. Recent studies indicate that anaerobic, non-mitochondrial respiration is particularly active in embryonic cells, stem cells, and aggressive stem-like cancer cells. Mitochondrial respiration is particularly active during the pathological aging of human cells in neurodegenerative diseases. According to the reversed Warburg hypothesis formulated by Demetrius, pathological aging is induced by mitochondrial respiration. Here, I advance the hypothesis that the stimulation of mitochondrial metabolism leads to pathological aging.

  4. Apoptosis: its origin, history, maintenance and the medical implications for cancer and aging.

    PubMed

    Kaczanowski, Szymon

    2016-01-01

    Programmed cell death is a basic cellular mechanism. Apoptotic-like programmed cell death (called apoptosis in animals) occurs in both unicellular and multicellular eukaryotes, and some apoptotic mechanisms are observed in bacteria. Endosymbiosis between mitochondria and eukaryotic cells took place early in the eukaryotic evolution, and some of the apoptotic-like mechanisms of mitochondria that were retained after this event now serve as parts of the eukaryotic apoptotic machinery. Apoptotic mechanisms have several functions in unicellular organisms: they include kin-selected altruistic suicide that controls population size, sharing common goods, and responding to viral infection. Apoptotic factors also have non-apoptotic functions. Apoptosis is involved in the cellular aging of eukaryotes, including humans. In addition, apoptosis is a key part of the innate tumor-suppression mechanism. Several anticancer drugs induce apoptosis, because apoptotic mechanisms are inactivated during oncogenesis. Because of the ancient history of apoptosis, I hypothesize that there is a deep relationship between mitochondrial metabolism, its role in aerobic versus anaerobic respiration, and the connection between apoptosis and cancer. Whereas normal cells rely primarily on oxidative mitochondrial respiration, most cancer cells use anaerobic metabolism. According to the Warburg hypothesis, the remodeling of the metabolism is one of the processes that leads to cancer. Recent studies indicate that anaerobic, non-mitochondrial respiration is particularly active in embryonic cells, stem cells, and aggressive stem-like cancer cells. Mitochondrial respiration is particularly active during the pathological aging of human cells in neurodegenerative diseases. According to the reversed Warburg hypothesis formulated by Demetrius, pathological aging is induced by mitochondrial respiration. Here, I advance the hypothesis that the stimulation of mitochondrial metabolism leads to pathological aging

  5. Apoptosis: its origin, history, maintenance and the medical implications for cancer and aging.

    PubMed

    Kaczanowski, Szymon

    2016-05-11

    Programmed cell death is a basic cellular mechanism. Apoptotic-like programmed cell death (called apoptosis in animals) occurs in both unicellular and multicellular eukaryotes, and some apoptotic mechanisms are observed in bacteria. Endosymbiosis between mitochondria and eukaryotic cells took place early in the eukaryotic evolution, and some of the apoptotic-like mechanisms of mitochondria that were retained after this event now serve as parts of the eukaryotic apoptotic machinery. Apoptotic mechanisms have several functions in unicellular organisms: they include kin-selected altruistic suicide that controls population size, sharing common goods, and responding to viral infection. Apoptotic factors also have non-apoptotic functions. Apoptosis is involved in the cellular aging of eukaryotes, including humans. In addition, apoptosis is a key part of the innate tumor-suppression mechanism. Several anticancer drugs induce apoptosis, because apoptotic mechanisms are inactivated during oncogenesis. Because of the ancient history of apoptosis, I hypothesize that there is a deep relationship between mitochondrial metabolism, its role in aerobic versus anaerobic respiration, and the connection between apoptosis and cancer. Whereas normal cells rely primarily on oxidative mitochondrial respiration, most cancer cells use anaerobic metabolism. According to the Warburg hypothesis, the remodeling of the metabolism is one of the processes that leads to cancer. Recent studies indicate that anaerobic, non-mitochondrial respiration is particularly active in embryonic cells, stem cells, and aggressive stem-like cancer cells. Mitochondrial respiration is particularly active during the pathological aging of human cells in neurodegenerative diseases. According to the reversed Warburg hypothesis formulated by Demetrius, pathological aging is induced by mitochondrial respiration. Here, I advance the hypothesis that the stimulation of mitochondrial metabolism leads to pathological aging.

  6. Does history of childhood maltreatment make a difference in prison? A hierarchical approach on early family events and personality traits.

    PubMed

    Sergentanis, Theodoros N; Sakelliadis, Emmanouil I; Vlachodimitropoulos, Dimitrios; Goutas, Nikolaos; Sergentanis, Ioannis N; Spiliopoulou, Chara A; Papadodima, StavroulaA

    2014-12-30

    This study attempts to assess childhood maltreatment in prison through a hierarchical approach. The hierarchical approach principally aims to disentangle the independent effects of childhood maltreatment upon psychiatric morbidity/personality traits, if any, from the burden that the adverse family conditions have already imposed to the mental health of the maltreated individual-prisoner. To this direction, a conceptual framework with five hierarchical levels was constructed, namely: immutable demographic factors; family conditions; childhood maltreatment (physical abuse, neglect and sexual abuse); personality traits, habits and psychiatric morbidity; prison-related variables. A self-administered, anonymous set (battery) of questionnaires was administered to 173 male prisoners in the Chalkida prison, Greece; 26% of prisoners disclosed childhood maltreatment. Psychiatric condition in the family, parental alcoholism and parental divorce correlated with childhood maltreatment. After adjustment for immutable demographic factors and family conditions, childhood maltreatment was associated with aggression (both in terms of Lifetime History of Aggression and Buss–Perry Aggression Questionnaire scores), illicit substance use, personal history of psychiatric condition, current smoking, impulsivity and alcohol abuse. In conclusion, childhood maltreatment represents a pivotal, determining factor in the life course of male prisoners. Delinquents seem to suffer from long-term consequences of childhood maltreatment in terms of numerous mental health aspects. PMID:25468626

  7. Dietary patterns and associated lifestyles in individuals with and without familial history of obesity: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Paradis, Ann-Marie; Pérusse, Louis; Vohl, Marie-Claude

    2006-01-01

    Background Familial history of obesity (FHO) and certain dietary habits are risk factors for obesity. The objectives of this cross-sectional study were 1) to derive dietary patterns using factor analysis in a population of men and women with and without FHO; 2) to compare mean factor scores for each dietary pattern between individuals with and without FHO; and 3) to examine the association between these patterns and anthropometric, lifestyle and sociodemographic variables. Methods A total of 197 women and 129 men with a body mass index <30 kg/m2 were recruited. A positive FHO (FHO+) was defined as having at least one obese first-degree relative and a negative FHO (FHO-) as no obese first-degree relative. Dietary data were collected from a food frequency questionnaire. Factor analysis was performed to derive dietary patterns. Mean factor scores were compared using general linear model among men and women according to FHO. Regression analyses were performed to study the relationship between anthropometric, lifestyle and sociodemographic variables, and each dietary pattern. Results Two dietary patterns were identified in both men and women : the Western pattern characterized by a higher consumption of red meats, poultry, processed meats, refined grains as well as desserts, and the Prudent pattern characterized by greater intakes of vegetables, fruits, non-hydrogenated fat, and fish and seafood. Similar Western and Prudent factor scores were observed in individual with and without FHO. In men with FHO+, the Western pattern is negatively associated with age and positively associated with physical activity, smoking, and personal income. In women with FHO-, the Prudent pattern is negatively associated with BMI and smoking and these pattern is positively associated with age and physical activity. Conclusion Two dietary patterns have been identified among men and women with and without FHO. Although that FHO does not seem to influence the adherence to dietary patterns

  8. Family history and body mass index predict perceived risks of diabetes and heart attack among community-dwelling Caucasian, Filipino, Korean, and Latino Americans—DiLH Survey

    PubMed Central

    Fukuoka, Yoshimi; Choi, JiWon; Bender, Melinda S.; Gonzalez, Prisila; Arai, Shoshana

    2015-01-01

    Aim The purpose of the study was to explore the perceived risk for diabetes and heart attack and associated health status of Caucasian, Filipino, Korean, and Latino Americans without diabetes. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted with 904 urban adults (mean age 44.3 ± 16.1 years; 64.3% female) in English, Spanish or Korean between August and December 2013. Results Perceived risk for developing diabetes was indicated by 46.5% (n = 421), and 14.3% (n = 129) perceived themselves to be at risk for having a heart attack in their lifetime. Significant predictors of pessimistic diabetes risk perceptions: Filipino (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.7; 95% CI: 1.04–2.86) and Korean (AOR = 2.4; 1.33–4.48) ethnicity, family history of diabetes (AOR = 1.4; 1.00–1.84), female gender (AOR = 1.4; 1.04–1.96), high cholesterol (AOR= 1.6; 1.09–2.37) and higher body mass index (BMI) (AOR = 1.1; 1.08–1.15). Predictors of pessimistic heart attack risk perceptions were family history of an early heart attack (AOR = 2.9; 1.69–5.02), high blood pressure (AOR = 2.4; 1.45–3.84), and higher BMI (AOR = 1.1; 1.04–1.12) after controlling for socio-demographic factors. Older age, physical inactivity, smoking, and low HDL levels were not associated with risk perceptions. Conclusion Multiple risk factors were predictive of greater perceived diabetes risk, whereas, only family history of heart attack, high blood pressure and increases in BMI significantly contributed to perceived risk of heart attack among ethnically diverse at risk middle-aged adults. It is important that healthcare providers address the discordance between an individual’s risk perceptions and the presence of actual risk factors. PMID:25931282

  9. Exposure history and terrestrial ages of ordinary chondrites from the Dar al Gani region, Libya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welten, K. C.; Nishiizumi, K.; Finkel, R. C.; Hillegonds, D. J.; Jull, A. J. T.; Franke, L.; Schultz, L.

    2004-03-01

    We measured the concentrations of noble gases in 32 ordinary chondrites from the Dar al Gani (DaG) region, Libya, as well as concentrations of the cosmogenic radionuclides 14C, 10Be, 26Al, 36Cl, and 41Ca in 18 of these samples. Although the trapped noble gases in five DaG samples show ratios typical of solar or planetary gases, in all other DaG samples, they are dominated by atmospheric contamination, which increases with the degree of weathering. Cosmic ray exposure (CRE) ages of DaG chondrites range from ~1 Myr to 53 Myr. The CRE age distribution of 10 DaG L chondrites shows a cluster around 40 Myr due to four members of a large L6 chondrite shower. The CRE age distribution of 19 DaG H chondrites shows only three ages coinciding with the main H chondrite peak at ~7 Myr, while seven ages are <5 Myr. Two of these H chondrites with short CRE ages (DaG 904 and 908) show evidence of a complex exposure history. Five of the H chondrites show evidence of high shielding conditions, including low 22Ne/21Ne ratios and large contributions of neutron-capture 36Cl and 41Ca. These samples represent fragments of two or more large pre-atmospheric objects, which supports the hypothesis that the high H/L chondrite ratio at DaG is due to one or more large unrecognized showers. The 14C concentrations correspond to terrestrial ages <35 kyr, similar to terrestrial ages of chondrites from other regions in the Sahara but younger than two DaG achondrites. Despite the loss of cosmogenic 36Cl and 41Ca during oxidation of metal and troilite, concentrations of 36Cl and 41Ca in the silicates are also consistent with 14C ages <35 kyr. The only exception is DaG 343 (H4), which has a 41Ca terrestrial age of 150 ± 40 kyr. This old age shows that not only iron meteorites and achondrites but also chondrites can survive the hot desert environment for more than 50 kyr. A possible explanation is that older meteorites were covered by soils during wetter periods and were recently exhumed by removal of

  10. Medical History, Lifestyle, Family History, and Occupational Risk Factors for Mycosis Fungoides and Sézary Syndrome: The InterLymph Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma Subtypes Project

    PubMed Central

    Aschebrook-Kilfoy, Briseis; Cocco, Pierluigi; La Vecchia, Carlo; Chang, Ellen T.; Vajdic, Claire M.; Kadin, Marshall E.; Spinelli, John J.; Morton, Lindsay M.; Kane, Eleanor V.; Sampson, Joshua N.; Kasten, Carol; Feldman, Andrew L.; Wang, Sophia S.

    2014-01-01

    Background Mycosis fungoides and Sézary syndrome (MF/SS) are rare cutaneous T-cell lymphomas. Their etiology is poorly understood. Methods A pooled analysis of 324 MF/SS cases and 17217 controls from 14 case–control studies from Europe, North America, and Australia, as part of the International Lymphoma Epidemiology Consortium (InterLymph) Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma (NHL) Subtypes Project, was carried out to investigate associations with lifestyle, medical history, family history, and occupational risk factors. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to calculate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Results We found an increased risk of MF/SS associated with body mass index equal to or larger than 30kg/m2 (OR = 1.57, 95% CI = 1.03 to 2.40), cigarette smoking for 40 years or more (OR = 1.55, 95% CI = 1.04 to 2.31), eczema (OR = 2.38, 95% CI = 1.73 to 3.29), family history of multiple myeloma (OR = 8.49, 95% CI = 3.31 to 21.80), and occupation as crop and vegetable farmers (OR = 2.37, 95% CI = 1.14 to 4.92), painters (OR = 3.71, 95% CI = 1.94 to 7.07), woodworkers (OR = 2.20, 95% CI = 1.18 to 4.08), and general carpenters (OR = 4.07, 95% CI = 1.54 to 10.75). We also found a reduced risk of MF/SS associated with moderate leisure time physical activity (OR = 0.46, 95% CI = 0.22 to 0.97). Conclusions Our study provided the first detailed analysis of risk factors for MF/SS and further investigation is needed to confirm these findings in prospective data and in other populations. PMID:25174030

  11. Parental age and the origin of trisomy 21. A study of 302 families.

    PubMed

    Dagna Bricarelli, F; Pierluigi, M; Landucci, M; Arslanian, A; Coviello, D A; Ferro, M A; Strigini, P

    1989-04-01

    Several studies have attempted to define the role of parental age in determining the prevalence of 47, +21 according to the origin of nondisjunction. This report analyzes the original data of 197 informative families from Italy and reviews the available literature (96 families from Denmark and 201 from other countries). Mothers whose gametes showed nondisjunction are treated as cases, and those with normal meiosis as controls within each study. To utilize the data fully, maternal age at birth of a 47, +21 individual is treated as a continuous variable in a nonparametric comparison. The combined evidence indicates that nondisjunction in the female is associated with a significant age difference between cases and controls which is mostly due to errors in the second meiotic division. It may be inferred that in the general population, aging enhances nondisjunction at both first and second division in the female, while aging in the male is presumably associated mostly (or only) with first division errors. Implications and alternative models are discussed.

  12. Parental age and the origin of trisomy 21. A study of 302 families.

    PubMed

    Dagna Bricarelli, F; Pierluigi, M; Landucci, M; Arslanian, A; Coviello, D A; Ferro, M A; Strigini, P

    1989-04-01

    Several studies have attempted to define the role of parental age in determining the prevalence of 47, +21 according to the origin of nondisjunction. This report analyzes the original data of 197 informative families from Italy and reviews the available literature (96 families from Denmark and 201 from other countries). Mothers whose gametes showed nondisjunction are treated as cases, and those with normal meiosis as controls within each study. To utilize the data fully, maternal age at birth of a 47, +21 individual is treated as a continuous variable in a nonparametric comparison. The combined evidence indicates that nondisjunction in the female is associated with a significant age difference between cases and controls which is mostly due to errors in the second meiotic division. It may be inferred that in the general population, aging enhances nondisjunction at both first and second division in the female, while aging in the male is presumably associated mostly (or only) with first division errors. Implications and alternative models are discussed. PMID:2523851

  13. Familial Risk of Early Suicide: Variations by Age and Sex of Children and Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garssen, Joop; Deerenberg, Ingeborg; Mackenbach, Johan P.; Kerkhof, Ad; Kunst, Anton E.

    2011-01-01

    To determine familial risk of early suicide, data on cause of death of all Dutch residents aged 20-55 years who died between 1995 and 2001 were linked to data of their parents. Men whose father died by suicide had a higher odds of suicide themselves, relative to men whose father died of other causes (Odds Ratio (OR): 2.5; 95% confidence interval:…

  14. Intra- and extra-familial adverse childhood experiences and a history of childhood psychosomatic disorders among Japanese university students

    PubMed Central

    Masuda, Akinori; Yamanaka, Takao; Hirakawa, Tadatoshi; Koga, Yasuyuki; Minomo, Ryosuke; Munemoto, Takao; Tei, Chuwa

    2007-01-01

    Background Japan has been witnessing a considerable increase in the number of children with psychosomatic disorders. The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between the risk of psychosomatic disorder in adolescents and intra- and extra-familial adverse childhood experiences (ACEs). Methods A retrospective cohort study of 1592 Japanese university students (52% male, mean age 19.9 years) who completed a survey about intra- and extra-familial ACEs and the incidence of childhood psychosomatic disorders. Intra-familial ACEs included domestic violence, physical violence, emotional abuse, illness in household, parental divorce, no parental affection, and dysfunctional family. Extra-familial ACEs included physical violence or negative recognition by teachers, being bullied in elementary or junior high school, or sexual violence. Results The frequency of psychosomatic disorders among the respondents was 14.8%. Among the 7 intra-familial ACEs, emotional abuse (relative risk, RR = 1.9) and illness in household (RR = 1.7) increased the risk of psychosomatic disorders. Estimates of the relative risk for the 5 extra-familial ACEs were statistically significant and ranged from 1.5 for being bullied in elementary school or physical violence from teachers to 2.4. Students who had 3 or more intra-familial ACEs and 2 or more extra-familial ACEs had a 3.0 relative risk for psychosomatic disorder. Conclusion These results suggest that intra- and extra-familial ACEs are associated with the development of psychosomatic disorders. Therefore, sufficient evaluation of ACEs should be performed in adolescent patients with psychosomatic disorder. PMID:17407551

  15. Resource allocation as a driver of senescence: life history tradeoffs produce age patterns of mortality.

    PubMed

    Davison, Raziel; Boggs, Carol L; Baudisch, Annette

    2014-11-01

    We investigate the effects of optimal time and resource allocation on age patterns of fertility and mortality for a model organism with (1) fixed maximum lifespan, (2) distinct juvenile and adult diets, and (3) reliance on nonrenewable resources for reproduction. We ask when it is optimal to tolerate starvation vs. conserve resources and then examine the effects of these decisions on adult mortality rates. We find that (1) age-related changes in tradeoffs partition the life cycle into as many as four discrete phases with different optimal behavior and mortality patterns, and (2) given a cost of reproduction, terminal investment can produce a signal of actuarial senescence. Also, given limitations imposed by non-replenishable resources, individuals beginning adult life with more replenishable resources do not necessarily live longer, since they can engage in capital breeding and need not defer reproduction to forage; low reproductive overheads and low costs of starvation also encourage capital breeding and may lead to earlier terminal investment and earlier senescence. We conclude that, even for species with qualitatively similar life histories, differences in physiological, behavioral and environmental tradeoffs or constraints may strongly influence optimal allocation schedules and produce variation in mortality patterns and life expectancy. PMID:25051533

  16. COPD prevalence is increased in lung cancer, independent of age, sex and smoking history.

    PubMed

    Young, R P; Hopkins, R J; Christmas, T; Black, P N; Metcalf, P; Gamble, G D

    2009-08-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a common comorbid disease in lung cancer, estimated to affect 40-70% of lung cancer patients, depending on diagnostic criteria. As smoking exposure is found in 85-90% of those diagnosed with either COPD or lung cancer, coexisting disease could merely reflect a shared smoking exposure. Potential confounding by age, sex and pack-yr smoking history, and/or by the possible effects of lung cancer on spirometry, may result in over-diagnosis of COPD prevalence. In the present study, the prevalence of COPD (pre-bronchodilator Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease 2+ criteria) in patients diagnosed with lung cancer was 50% compared with 8% in a randomly recruited community control group, matched for age, sex and pack-yr smoking exposure (n = 602, odds ratio 11.6; p<0.0001). In a subgroup analysis of those with lung cancer and lung function measured prior to the diagnosis of lung cancer (n = 127), we found a nonsignificant increase in COPD prevalence following diagnosis (56-61%; p = 0.45). After controlling for important variables, the prevalence of COPD in newly diagnosed lung cancer cases was six-fold greater than in matched smokers; this is much greater than previously reported. We conclude that COPD is both a common and important independent risk factor for lung cancer.

  17. [The Use of History in Family Therapy: A Rejoinder to Sluzki and a Response.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordan, John R.; Sluzki, Carlos E.

    1982-01-01

    Contemporary psychodynamic family clinicians emphasize intervening in the transmission of emotional patterning over generations in families. While differences exist between this model and "systems" approaches, it is argued that integration of the two is possible. Provides Sluzki's response that the two models are independent. (Author/RC)

  18. Constructing a Family Health History to Facilitate Learning in a Health Psychology Seminar

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sumner, Kenneth E.; Lampmann, Jodi L.

    2003-01-01

    This article describes a project to reinforce learning in an undergraduate health psychology seminar. The project required students to (a) profile the physical and mental health status of at least 15 family members, (b) identify trends or patterns related to health and illness in their families, and (c) develop an action plan for maintaining good…

  19. The Role of "Family Snapshots" in Teaching Art History within a Dialogic Pedagogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baxter, Kristin

    2012-01-01

    Studying images of families in works of art and in snapshots is compelling, and the author wondered if looking at both types of images side by side might help students understand both kinds of images more fully. Snapshots often prompt detailed and vivid stories among family members and friends. Therefore, she wondered if dialogue about snapshots…

  20. Genetic analysis of age-at-onset traits based on case-control family data.

    PubMed

    Yip, Benjamin H; Moger, Tron Anders; Pawitan, Yudi

    2010-12-30

    Family studies are a useful alternative to twin studies for disentangling genetic and environmental effects on human diseases. However, although age-at-onset traits are often of interest, family-based quantitative genetic analysis of such data is still not commonly used. One reason is that we need multiple random components to capture the genetic and environmental contributions, so it becomes hard to use the existing frailty models for correlated survival data. In this paper we consider the alternative accelerated failure-time models with random effects. The method allows both left truncation and right censoring, and it can deal with an arbitrary family structure and multiple random components. For estimation we use the h-likelihood procedure, which avoids the integration of the random effects in the marginal likelihood approach. To deal with large cohort data, we propose a case-control scheme, where we ascertain all families with at least two events and a subsample of control families. A pseudo-h-likelihood approach is used to analyse the ascertained data. We study the performance of the method using simulated data, and provide an illustration with analysis of melanoma in the Swedish population.

  1. Family resemblance for anthropometric traits. II. Assessment of maternal occupational and age effects.

    PubMed

    Salces, I; Rebato, E; San Martin, L; Rosique, J; Vinagre, A; Susanne, C

    2002-01-01

    The present study was based on a cross-sectional sample of 1326 subjects (197 fathers, 466 mothers, 307 sons and 356 daughters) belonging to 488 nuclear families from the province of Biscay (Basque Country, Spain), with the purpose of estimating the degree of familial resemblance, for several anthropometric traits, by analysing the correlation coefficients between parent-offspring pairs. Height, weight, biacromial and bicrystal breadths, humerus and femur biepicondylar breadths, arm, waist and hip circumferences, biceps, triceps, subscapular, suprailiac, abdominal, thigh and calf skinfolds were taken from each individual. BMI, WHR and the sum of the seven skinfolds was computed. The mother's occupation and the age of offspring were taken into account, since the combination of all these factors might have an effect on familial resemblance. The mothers were classified into housewife (HM) and working mothers (WM). The offspring were divided into prepuberal, puberal and postpuberal subgroups. Standardised residuals were used to compute father-offspring (FO) and mother-offspring (MO) relations through correlation coefficients computed by maximum likelihood. The results confirm the influence of age on the correlations, since FO correlations revealed an increasing trend in HM's children for weight and another six variables as they grew older. On the other hand, the weight change tends to decrease with age in FO correlations within the WM group. Depending on mother's occupation and children's age, the global trend in the sample results in higher correlations in the second group (WM) than in the first one (HM) for the whole age range, but specially in FO correlations before puberty, where four variables (weight, bicrystal breadth, triceps and subscapular skinfolds) yield statistically significant differences.

  2. Motivation to Pursue Genetic Testing in Individuals with a Personal or Family History of Cardiac Events or Sudden Cardiac Death

    PubMed Central

    Erskine, Kathleen E.; Hidayatallah, Nadia Z.; Walsh, Christine A.; McDonald, Thomas V.; Cohen, Lilian; Marion, Robert W.; Dolan, Siobhan M.

    2014-01-01

    Genetic testing is becoming increasingly available for cardiac channelopathies, such as long QT syndrome and Brugada syndrome, which can lead to sudden cardiac death. Test results can be used to shape an individual’s medical management and to identify at-risk family members. In our qualitative study, all participants had a personal or family history of a diagnosed cardiac arrhythmia syndrome or sudden cardiac death. Open-ended interviews were conducted individually and in focus groups. Interviews were audio recorded, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed using a qualitative grounded-theory approach. Of 50 participants, 37 described their motivations for pursuing genetic testing for long QT syndrome or another cardiac channelopathy. Participants’ motivations included: to find an explanation for a family member’s sudden death, to relieve uncertainty regarding a diagnosis, to guide future medical management, to allay concern about children or other family members, and to comply with recommendations of physicians or family members. Perceived reasons not to pursue genetic testing included denial, fear, and lack of information. The genetic counseling and informed consent process can be enhanced by understanding and addressing an individual’s internal and external motivations either for or against pursuing genetic testing. PMID:24664857

  3. Motivation to pursue genetic testing in individuals with a personal or family history of cardiac events or sudden cardiac death.

    PubMed

    Erskine, Kathleen E; Hidayatallah, Nadia Z; Walsh, Christine A; McDonald, Thomas V; Cohen, Lilian; Marion, Robert W; Dolan, Siobhan M

    2014-10-01

    Genetic testing is becoming increasingly available for cardiac channelopathies, such as long QT syndrome and Brugada syndrome, which can lead to sudden cardiac death. Test results can be used to shape an individual's medical management and to identify at-risk family members. In our qualitative study, all participants had a personal or family history of a diagnosed cardiac arrhythmia syndrome or sudden cardiac death. Open-ended interviews were conducted individually and in focus groups. Interviews were audio recorded, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed using a qualitative grounded-theory approach. Of 50 participants, 37 described their motivations for pursuing genetic testing for long QT syndrome or another cardiac channelopathy. Participants' motivations included: to find an explanation for a family member's sudden death, to relieve uncertainty regarding a diagnosis, to guide future medical management, to allay concern about children or other family members, and to comply with recommendations of physicians or family members. Perceived reasons not to pursue genetic testing included denial, fear, and lack of information. The genetic counseling and informed consent process can be enhanced by understanding and addressing an individual's internal and external motivations either for or against pursuing genetic testing.

  4. Structure and evolutionary history of a large family of NLR proteins in the zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Zielinski, Julia; Kondrashov, Fyodor

    2016-01-01

    Multicellular eukaryotes have evolved a range of mechanisms for immune recognition. A widespread family involved in innate immunity are the NACHT-domain and leucine-rich-repeat-containing (NLR) proteins. Mammals have small numbers of NLR proteins, whereas in some species, mostly those without adaptive immune systems, NLRs have expanded into very large families. We describe a family of nearly 400 NLR proteins encoded in the zebrafish genome. The proteins share a defining overall structure, which arose in fishes after a fusion of the core NLR domains with a B30.2 domain, but can be subdivided into four groups based on their NACHT domains. Gene conversion acting differentially on the NACHT and B30.2 domains has shaped the family and created the groups. Evidence of positive selection in the B30.2 domain indicates that this domain rather than the leucine-rich repeats acts as the pathogen recognition module. In an unusual chromosomal organization, the majority