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Sample records for family medicine research

  1. Comparison of Research Trends in Korean and International Family Medicine in Journals of Family Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Jeon, Jin-Kyung; Lee, Jungun

    2014-01-01

    Background Research is important for the development of family medicine as a professional field in primary care. The aim of this study was to suggest directions for the development of family medicine research by analyzing research trends in original papers published in the Korean Journal of Family Medicine (KJFM) and international journals. Methods We investigated original research papers published in KJFM and 4 international journals from August 2009 to July 2010. Analysis was conducted according to research topics, authors, methods, participants, and data sources. Results 'Clinical research' was the most common research topic in both the KJFM (88.3%) and international journals (57.3%); however, international journals had more studies in other domains ('education and research,' 'health service,' and 'family medicine'). More authors other than family physicians participated in international journals than in the KJFM (58% and 3.3%, respectively). Most studies were 'cross-sectional' in KJFM (77.0%) and international journals (51.5%): however, the latter had more 'qualitative' studies, 'cohort' studies, and 'systematic reviews' than the former. The largest study population was 'visitors of health promotion center' in the KJFM and 'outpatients' in international journals. Most of the study sources were 'survey' and 'medical records' in both. Conclusion There were limitations of diversity in the papers of the KJFM. Future investigation on papers of other than family medicine journals should be planned to assess research trends of family physicians. PMID:25426274

  2. Topics for Family Medicine Research in Obstetrics

    PubMed Central

    Hogg, William E.; Calonge, Ned

    1988-01-01

    Primarily because of improvements in care of the low-birthweight neonate, Canada's neonatal mortality rates have declined significantly over the last 20 years. To make further improvement, research is now focused on the prevention of prematurity. However, benefits from the implementation of such research and the maintenance of the current neonatal mortality rate depend on the availability of obstetric care providers in rural areas. The recent trend among family physicians to drop the practice of obstetrics significantly jeopardizes access to obstetric care for inhabitants of rural areas, and a significant body of literature suggests that such declines in access will be accompanied by an increase in the neonatal death rate. A logical research agenda for rural family physicians would include the forecasting of the effect of the decrease in obstetric care manpower, follwed by the study of factors behind this trend, and the evaluation programs designed to prevent family physicians abandoning obstetric practice. PMID:21253225

  3. Interdisciplinary, interinstitutional and international collaboration of family medicine researchers in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Yi-Hsuan; Tseng, Yen-Han; Chang, Hsiao-Ting; Lin, Ming-Hwai; Tseng, Yen-Chiang; Hwang, Shinn-Jang

    2015-01-01

    The family medicine researches flourished worldwide in the past decade. However, the collaborative patterns of family medicine publications had not been reported. Our study analyzed the collaborative activity of family medicine researchers in Taiwan. We focused on the types of collaboration among disciplines, institutions and countries. We searched “family medicine” AND “Taiwan” in address field from Web of Science and documented the disciplines, institutions and countries of all authors. We analyzed the collaborative patterns of family medicine researchers in Taiwan from 2010 to 2014. The journal’s impact factor of each article in the same publication year was also retrieved. Among 1,217 articles from 2010 to 2014, interdisciplinary collaboration existed in 1,185 (97.3%) articles, interinstitutional in 1,012 (83.2%) and international in 142 (11.7%). Public health was the most common collaborative discipline. All international researches were also interdisciplinary and interinstitutional. The United States (75 articles), the United Kingdom (21) and the People’s Republic of China (20) were the top three countries with which family medicine researchers in Taiwan had collaborated. We found a high degree of interdisciplinary and interinstitutional collaboration of family medicine researches in Taiwan. However, the collaboration of family medicine researchers in Taiwan with family medicine colleagues of other domestic or foreign institutions was insufficient. The future direction of family medicine studies could focus on the promotion of communication among family medicine researchers. PMID:26500827

  4. Why does teaching research skills to family medicine trainees make sense?

    PubMed

    Kersnik, Janko; Ungan, Mehmet; Klemenc-Ketis, Zalika

    2015-01-01

    There are only a few countries in Europe that have incorporated research skills training in specialty training programmes. In the eyes of most practising family physicians, research traditionally is a field reserved for colleagues with academic ambitions; an activity that often is not associated with the clinical practice of family medicine. However, residents became aware that research is essential to improving healthcare provision. Research in family medicine has a long tradition. Performing or taking part in research projects opens new horizons to present and future family physicians and provides support to increase their self-esteem. Consequently, this could foster future family medicine development. The authors urge the whole family physician community to raise the awareness every single family physician towards teaching and learning research skills in specialty training and basic medical education as a generic subject. PMID:26414382

  5. [Family Medicine and university in Spain: initial reflections from a national research project].

    PubMed

    Martín Zurro, Amando; Villa, Josep Jiménez; Hijar, Antonio Monreal; Tuduri, Xavier Mundet; Puime, Angel Otero

    2011-04-01

    In 2006, a national research project was initially designed in Spain, with the basic aim of analysing the level of information on Primary Care that is available to medical students, their perception of the role of family medicine in the health system, and professional practice preferences, as well as the opinion expressed on the usefulness and need of specific teaching on primary care and family medicine during undergraduate studies. A questionnaire was prepared for each of the Spanish Faculties of Medicine to gather quantitative and qualitative data on the current situation on the teaching of primary care and family medicine. In this article, we give a short description of the characteristics of the project, the principle data obtained with this first questionnaire and, importantly, the first reflections on the academic situation of Family Medicine in Spain.

  6. Improving Health Care Globally: A Critical Review of the Necessity of Family Medicine Research and Recommendations to Build Research Capacity

    PubMed Central

    van Weel, Chris; Rosser, Walter W.

    2004-01-01

    An invitational conference led by the World Organization of Family Doctors (Wonca) involving selected delegates from 34 countries was held in Kingston, Ontario, Canada, March 8 to12, 2003. The conference theme was “Improving Health Globally: The Necessity of Family Medicine Research.” Guiding conference discussions was the value that to improve health care worldwide, strong, evidence-based primary care is indispensable. Eight papers reviewed before the meeting formed the basic material from which the conference developed 9 recommendations. Wonca, as an international body of family medicine, was regarded as particularly suited to pursue these conference recommendations: Research achievements in family medicine should be displayed to policy makers, health (insurance) authorities, and academic leaders in a systematic way. In all countries, sentinel practice systems should be developed to provide surveillance reports on illness and diseases that have the greatest impact on the population’s health and wellness in the community. A clearinghouse should be organized to provide a central repository of knowledge about family medicine research expertise, training, and mentoring. National research institutes and university departments of family medicine with a research mission should be developed. Practice-based research networks should be developed around the world. Family medicine research journals, conferences, and Web sites should be strengthened to disseminate research findings internationally, and their use coordinated. Improved representation of family medicine research journals in databases, such as Index Medicus, should be pursued. Funding of international collaborative research in family medicine should be facilitated. International ethical guidelines, with an international ethical review process, should be developed in particular for participatory (action) research, where researchers work in partnership with communities. When implementing these recommendations

  7. Federal Research Funding for Family Medicine: Highly Concentrated, with Decreasing New Investigator Awards.

    PubMed

    Cameron, Brianna J; Bazemore, Andrew W; Morley, Christopher P

    2016-01-01

    A small proportion of National Institutes of Health and other federal research funding is received by university departments of family medicine, the largest primary care specialty. That limited funding is also concentrated, with roughly a quarter of all National Institutes of Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality funding awarded to 3 departments, almost half of that funding coming from 3 agencies, and a recent trend away from funding for new investigators.

  8. Federal Research Funding for Family Medicine: Highly Concentrated, with Decreasing New Investigator Awards.

    PubMed

    Cameron, Brianna J; Bazemore, Andrew W; Morley, Christopher P

    2016-01-01

    A small proportion of National Institutes of Health and other federal research funding is received by university departments of family medicine, the largest primary care specialty. That limited funding is also concentrated, with roughly a quarter of all National Institutes of Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality funding awarded to 3 departments, almost half of that funding coming from 3 agencies, and a recent trend away from funding for new investigators. PMID:27613785

  9. Lost in Translation: NIH Funding for Family Medicine Research Remains Limited.

    PubMed

    Cameron, Brianna J; Bazemore, Andrew W; Morley, Christopher P

    2016-01-01

    Departments of Family Medicine (DFMs) in the United States consistently received around 0.2% of total research funding dollars and 0.3% of all awards awarded by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) across the years 2002 to 2014. We used the NIH Reporter tool to quantify the amount of funding and the number of grants received by DFMs from the NIH from 2002 to 2014, using criteria similar to those applied by previous researchers. NIH funding to DFMs as remained fairly consistent across the time period, at roughly 0.2% of total NIH funding and 0.3% of total grants awarded. Changing these proportions will likely require considerable effort to build research capacity within DFMs and their frontline practice research networks, and to shift policymaker and funder perceptions of the value of the FM research enterprise. PMID:27613784

  10. [The flexibility of family medicine].

    PubMed

    Minguet, C; Aubrege, A; Aubart, M; Cornuz, J; di Patrizio, P; Du Boullay, D; Farghadani, H; Flammang, M; Haas, N; Kacenelenbogen, N; Kopp, M; Leners, J C; Levêque, M; Mbengue, M; Paur, H; Paur, I; Raphaël, F; Rausch, S; Shetgen, M; Stein R; Tabouring, P; Thomas, J M; Vignon, G

    2015-01-01

    We are a European academic group of family doctors and we propose a definition of flexibility in family medicine. A review of the literature shows that flexibility and complexity are emerging concepts in the field of family practice. The outcomes of a workshop at the WONCA-Europe congress in 2014 are discussed. The flexibility is a capability of the general practitioner to deal with complex clinical situations in a biomedical and societal changing world. Flexibility is framed by ethics. It could improve the quality of care, be useful against burnout and used in medical research. In conclusion, family medicine should adopt a specific definition of the flexibility describing its specificity, a useful and teachable capacity. PMID:26946851

  11. An innovative family medicine clerkship.

    PubMed

    Smith, S R; MacLeod, N M

    1981-10-01

    A clinical clerkship in family medicine at Brown University has been developed utilizing many innovative educational modalities. These include games, simulations, group problem solving, research projects, videotaping, case presentations, field trips, sensitivity sessions, computer assisted instruction, patient management problems, slide-tape shows, and direct clinical experiences. These modalities are described together with a new approach to evaluation. Students' evaluations of the clerkship have been excellent, providing evidence that this clerkship offers a model of learning that is both effective and enjoyable.

  12. Family Medicine's Waltz with Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Downing, Raymond

    2012-01-01

    Family Medicine first formally confronted systems thinking with the adoption of the biopsychosocial model for understanding disease in a holistic manner; this is a description of a natural system. More recently, Family Medicine has been consciously engaged in developing itself as a system for delivering health care, an artificial system. We make…

  13. Family Medicine Specialty in Singapore

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Santosh Lional

    2013-01-01

    Family Medicine in Singapore has its roots in a generalist ethos and found its origin as a counter culture movement to the increasing sub-specialisation of medicine which resulted in a complex healthcare system where that patients are often cared for by multiple specialists potentially resulting in fragmentation of care. The aim of the discipline of Family Medicine was to train and develop more generalist physicians so as to promote holistic care. Family physicians are the largest pool of generalists who are trained to provide general medical care to patients in the context of the person, the family and the community that they live in. PMID:24479066

  14. Family Medicine: Bridge to Life.

    PubMed

    Luz, Clare

    2016-01-01

    Reflecting on the suicide of a close friend, this essay explores what comprises, and inspires a will to live, and how those in Family Medicine can address suicide risk even in the face of debilitating or terminal illness. Research indicates that the will to live is a measurable indicator of general well-being, distinct from depression, and an important predictor of a person's motivation to "hold on to life". As such, understanding what is at the heart of a desire to live should alter clinical practice. This essay offers ideas for ways in which to create bridges for patients that could help sustain life.

  15. Family consent and the pursuit of better medicines through genetic research.

    PubMed

    Renegar, G; Rieser, P; Manasco, P

    2001-01-01

    Rapid changes in the science and technology related to genetic research are challenging scientists, health care providers, ethicists, regulators, patient groups, and the pharmaceutical industry to keep pace with ethically grounded, workable guidelines for both the research and clinical applications of human genetics. We describe the genetic research being conducted by one pharmaceutical company (GlaxoSmithKline) and how the company is addressing the ethical, legal, and social issues surrounding this research; discuss an industry working group's attempt to advance pharmacogenetic research by openly addressing and disseminating information on related ethical, legal, and regulatory issues; identify scientific and ethical differences among various types of genetic research; discuss potential implications of family consent on subject privacy and autonomy, data collection, and study conduct; and suggest points to consider when study sponsors, investigators, and ethics committees evaluate research proposals. Public and expert opinion regarding informed consent in genetic research is evolving as a result of increased education, discussion, and understanding of the relevant issues. Five years ago, there was strong support for anonymity in genetic research as a privacy safeguard. Now, an increasingly popular school of thought advocates against anonymity to preserve an individual's ability to withdraw and, if desired, access research results. It is important to recognize this evolution and address consent issues in a reasoned, practical, and consistent way, including input from patients and their families, health care providers, ethicists, scientists, regulatory bodies, research sponsors, and the lay community. Responsibility for assessing issues related to family consent for research should remain with local investigators, ethics boards, and study sponsors. A "one-size-fits-all" perspective in the form of new regulations, for example, would likely be a disservice to all.

  16. Who Goes into Family Medicine?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rezler, A. G.; Kalishman, S. G.

    The results of a study to identify criteria that could help select applicants to medical school who have a lasting commitment to family medicine are presented. During the past 15 years major efforts have been made to increase the number of family physicians in the United States. Although primary care programs attract more students whose initial…

  17. Academic family medicine in Canada.

    PubMed Central

    Hennen, B K

    1993-01-01

    Fifty years ago family practice in Canada had no academic presence. Stimulated by a number of general practitioners and with the support of the Canadian Medical Association, the College of General Practitioners of Canada (CGPC) was founded in 1954. In 1962, conferences on education for general practice attended by the Association of Canadian Medical Colleges and the CGPC led to pilot postgraduate residencies in family practice supported by Department of National Health and Welfare. The first certification examination was held in 1969 and, by 1974, all Canadian medical schools had a family medicine residency program. Today departments of family medicine contribute substantially to undergraduate education in all 16 schools. In Canada, the medical profession, governments and the medical schools have demonstrated the importance they place on appropriate education for family physicians. PMID:8477381

  18. Rural family medicine training site

    PubMed Central

    Liskowich, Sarah; Walker, Kathryn; Beatty, Nicolas; Kapusta, Peter; McKay, Shari; Ramsden, Vivian R.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective To develop a framework for a successful rural family medicine training program and to assess the potential for a rural family medicine residency training program using the Weyburn and Estevan areas of Saskatchewan as test sites. Design A mixed-method design was used; however, the focus of this article was on the qualitative data collected. Questions formulated for the semistructured interviews evolved from the literature. Setting Rural Saskatchewan. Participants Community physicians and representatives from the Sun Country Regional Health Authority, the Saskatchewan Ministry of Health, and the University of Saskatchewan. Methods The data were documented during the interviews using a laptop computer, and the responses were reviewed with participants at the end of their interviews to ensure accuracy. The qualitative data collected were analyzed using inductive thematic analysis. Main findings Through the analysis of the data several themes emerged related to implementing a rural family medicine residency training program. Key predictors of success were physical resources, physician champions, physician teachers, educational support, administrative support, and other specialist support. Barriers to the development of a rural family medicine training site were differing priorities, lack of human resources, and lack of physical resources. Conclusion A project of this magnitude requires many people at different levels collaborating to be successful. PMID:26380856

  19. Decision making in family medicine

    PubMed Central

    Labrecque, Michel; Ratté, Stéphane; Frémont, Pierre; Cauchon, Michel; Ouellet, Jérôme; Hogg, William; McGowan, Jessie; Gagnon, Marie-Pierre; Njoya, Merlin; Légaré, France

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Objective To compare the ability of users of 2 medical search engines, InfoClinique and the Trip database, to provide correct answers to clinical questions and to explore the perceived effects of the tools on the clinical decision-making process. Design Randomized trial. Setting Three family medicine units of the family medicine program of the Faculty of Medicine at Laval University in Quebec city, Que. Participants Fifteen second-year family medicine residents. Intervention Residents generated 30 structured questions about therapy or preventive treatment (2 questions per resident) based on clinical encounters. Using an Internet platform designed for the trial, each resident answered 20 of these questions (their own 2, plus 18 of the questions formulated by other residents, selected randomly) before and after searching for information with 1 of the 2 search engines. For each question, 5 residents were randomly assigned to begin their search with InfoClinique and 5 with the Trip database. Main outcome measures The ability of residents to provide correct answers to clinical questions using the search engines, as determined by third-party evaluation. After answering each question, participants completed a questionnaire to assess their perception of the engine’s effect on the decision-making process in clinical practice. Results Of 300 possible pairs of answers (1 answer before and 1 after the initial search), 254 (85%) were produced by 14 residents. Of these, 132 (52%) and 122 (48%) pairs of answers concerned questions that had been assigned an initial search with InfoClinique and the Trip database, respectively. Both engines produced an important and similar absolute increase in the proportion of correct answers after searching (26% to 62% for InfoClinique, for an increase of 36%; 24% to 63% for the Trip database, for an increase of 39%; P = .68). For all 30 clinical questions, at least 1 resident produced the correct answer after searching with either

  20. Journal of the American Board of Family Medicine Sixth Annual Practice-based Research Network theme issue--They just keep getting better and better.

    PubMed

    Bowman, Marjorie A; Neale, Anne Victoria

    2011-01-01

    We have quite a rich issue this month related to practice-based research networks (PBRNs)--reflections on where they have been, where they should go, how they should happen; lessons learned about recruiting physicians and patients and new research methods; and several clinical studies from existing PBRNs. We had an amazing number of manuscripts submitted this year for the PBRN issue; as a result, this is a powerful issue. Some are under revision for future issues of the Journal of the American Board of Family Medicine, just as we have some articles from PBRNs appearing in most issues. PBRNs have deepened the family medicine research tradition. The importance of primary care research to build the evidence base of our clinical practice, plus the useful work building the methods of primary care research, distinguishes the pioneers in PBRNs. PBRNs are Health Improvement Networks and national treasures to be nurtured.

  1. Family medicine residents’ practice intentions

    PubMed Central

    Grierson, Lawrence E.M.; Fowler, Nancy; Kwan, Matthew Y.W.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective To assess residents’ practice intentions since the introduction of the College of Family Physicians of Canada’s Triple C curriculum, which focuses on graduating family physicians who will provide comprehensive care within traditional and newer models of family practice. Design A survey based on Ajzen’s theory of planned behaviour was administered on 2 occasions. Setting McMaster University in Hamilton, Ont. Participants Residents (n = 135) who were enrolled in the Department of Family Medicine Postgraduate Residency Program at McMaster University in July 2012 and July 2013; 54 of the 60 first-year residents who completed the survey in 2012 completed it again in 2013. Main outcome measures The survey was modeled so as to measure the respondents’ intentions to practise with a comprehensive scope; determine the degree to which their attitudes, subjective norms, and perceptions of control about comprehensive practice influence those intentions; and investigate how these relationships change as residents progress through the curriculum. The survey also queried the respondents about their intentions with respect to particular medical services that underpin comprehensive practice. Results The responses indicate that the factors modeled by the theory of planned behaviour survey account for 60% of the variance in the residents’ intentions to adopt a comprehensive scope of practice upon graduation, that there is room for curricular improvement with respect to encouraging residents to practise comprehensive care, and that targeting subjective norms about comprehensive practice might have the greatest influence on improving resident intentions. Conclusion The theory of planned behaviour presents an effective approach to assessing curricular effects on resident practice intentions while also providing meaningful information for guiding further program evaluation efforts in the Department of Family Medicine at McMaster University. PMID:26889508

  2. Family Medicine in Rural Communities

    PubMed Central

    Hirsh, Michael; Wootton, J.S.C.

    1990-01-01

    Recruitment of physicians for rural communities is a continuing problem in Canada. Medical schools can be involved through preferential admission policies. Departments of family medicine across the country are including on-site training in rural communities and are seeking to improve their rural program curriculum. The McGill rural program is described from its origins to its present state. A rural coordinator oversees 12 sites at which both residents and students are trained. One site at Shawville, Que, is described from a rural physician's point of view. Imagesp2011-ap2012-ap2014-a PMID:21233945

  3. Rural family medicine training in Canada.

    PubMed Central

    Rourke, J. T.; Rourke, L. L.

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the status of postgraduate family medicine training that occurs in rural family practice settings in Canada and to identify problems and how they are addressed. DESIGN: A retrospective questionnaire sent to all 18 Canadian family medicine training programs followed by a focus group discussion of results. SETTING: Canadian university family medicine training programs. PARTICIPANTS: Chairs or program directors of all 18 Canadian family medicine training programs and people attending a workshop at the Section of Teachers of Family Medicine annual meeting. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Extent of training offered, educational models used, common problems for residents and teachers. RESULTS: Nine of 18 programs offer some family medicine training in a rural practice setting to some or all of their first-year family medicine residents, and 99 of 684 first-year family medicine residents did some training in a rural practice. All programs offer some training in a rural practice to some or all of the second-year residents, and 567 of 702 second-year residents did some training in a rural setting. In 12 of 18 programs, a rural family medicine block is compulsory. Education models for training for rural family practice vary widely. Isolation, accommodation, and supervision are common problems for rural family medicine residents. Isolation and faculty development are common problems for rural physician-teachers. Programs use various approaches to address these problems. CONCLUSIONS: The variety of postgraduate training models for rural family practice used in the 18 training programs reflects different regional health care needs and resources. There is no common rural family medicine curriculum. Networking through a rural physician-teachers group or a faculty of rural medicine could further the development of education for rural family practice. PMID:7780331

  4. Family medicine 360°: Global exchanges in family medicine

    PubMed Central

    Barata, Ana N.; Rigon, Sara

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The global world of the 21st century has created communities and cultures that are interconnected, thanks to the development both in the field of transportation and technology. In this global intercultural community, future physicians, and even more so future general practitioners (GPs)/family physicians (FPs), need to be clinically competent and culturally sensitive and flexible in order to adapt to different social settings while delivering holistic care in multiethnic teams and environments with professionalism. As such, exchange programs are exceptional opportunities for international collaboration and the development of personal and professional competencies of these health care professionals. Materials and Methods: This article presents a review of the literature on the value of exchanges as well as the results of exchange programs with educational content that are aimed at junior GPs/FPs. Results: Exchange programs have been growing in popularity, especially among junior GPs/FPs. Since its launch in 2013, The “Family Medicine 360° (FM360°) program has been receiving up to 163 inquires till date, promoting global cooperation among the World Organization of family Doctors (WONCA)'s Young Doctors’ Movementd (YDMs). Conclusions: By participating in an exchange program, future GPs/FPs are given the chance to experience intercultural communication and peer collaboration. They also develop personal and professional skills and thus, actively contribute to the growth and development of primary care all over the world. PMID:26288763

  5. Family Medicine Residency Program Directors Attitudes and Knowledge of Family Medicine CAM Competencies

    PubMed Central

    Gardiner, Paula; Filippelli, Amanda C.; Lebensohn, Patricia; Bonakdar, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Context Little is known about the incorporation of integrative medicine (IM) and complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) into family medicine residency programs. Objective The Society for Teachers of Family Medicine (STFM) approved a set of CAM/IM competencies for family medicine residencies. We hope to evaluate with an online survey tool, whether residency programs are implementing such competencies into their curriculum. We also hope to assess the knowledge and attitudes of Residency Directors (RDs) on the CAM/IM competencies. Design A survey was distributed by the CAFM (Council of Academic Family Medicine) Educational Research Alliance to RDs via email. The survey was distributed to 431 RDs. Of those who received it, 212 responded for a response rate of 49.1%. Questions assessed the knowledge and attitudes of CAM/IM competencies and incorporation of CAM/IM into residency curriculum. Results Forty-five percent of RDs were aware of the competencies. In term of RD attitudes, 58% reported that CAM/IM is an important component of residents' curriculum yet, 60% report not having specific learning objectives for CAM/IM in their residency curriculum. Among all programs, barriers to CAM/IM implementation included: time in residents' schedules (77%); faculty training (75%); access to CAM experts (43%); lack of reimbursement (43%), and financial resources (29%). Conclusions While many RDs are aware of the STFM CAM/IM competencies and acknowledge their role in residence education, there are many barriers preventing residencies to implementing the STFM CAM/IM competencies. PMID:24021471

  6. Health Is Primary: Family Medicine for America’s Health

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, Robert L.; Pugno, Perry A.; Saultz, John W.; Tuggy, Michael L.; Borkan, Jeffrey M.; Hoekzema, Grant S.; DeVoe, Jennifer E.; Weida, Jane A.; Peterson, Lars E.; Hughes, Lauren S.; Kruse, Jerry E.; Puffer, James C.

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE More than a decade ago the American Academy of Family Physicians, American Academy of Family Physicians Foundation, American Board of Family Medicine, Association of Departments of Family Medicine, Association of Family Practice Residency Directors, North American Primary Care Research Group, and Society of Teachers of Family Medicine came together in the Future of Family Medicine (FFM) to launch a series of strategic efforts to “renew the specialty to meet the needs of people and society,” some of which bore important fruit. Family Medicine for America’s Health was launched in 2013 to revisit the role of family medicine in view of these changes and to position family medicine with new strategic and communication plans to create better health, better health care, and lower cost for patients and communities (the Triple Aim). METHODS Family Medicine for America’s Health was preceded and guided by the development of a family physician role definition. A consulting group facilitated systematic strategic plan development over 9 months that included key informant interviews, formal stakeholder surveys, future scenario testing, a retreat for family medicine organizations and stakeholder representatives to review strategy options, further strategy refinement, and finally a formal strategic plan with draft tactics and design for an implementation plan. A second communications consulting group surveyed diverse stakeholders in coordination with strategic planning to develop a communication plan. The American College of Osteopathic Family Physicians joined the effort, and students, residents, and young physicians were included. RESULTS The core strategies identified include working to ensure broad access to sustained, primary care relationships; accountability for increasing primary care value in terms of cost and quality; a commitment to helping reduce health care disparities; moving to comprehensive payment and away from fee-for-service; transformation of

  7. [Research in tropical medicine].

    PubMed

    Dumas, Michel; Preux, Pierre-Marie

    2013-10-01

    In France, research in tropical medicine is carried out by the Institute for Research and Development (IRD), university-affiliated institutes, and other research organizations such as INSERM, CNRS and the Pasteur Institute. Currently, this research is highly fragmented and therefore inefficient. As a result, despite significant financial means, French research in this field is not sufficiently competitive. This research activity should be coordinated by creating a "federation ", that would 1) facilitate the sharing of material and human resources, thereby improving efficiency and resulting in cost savings; 2) valorize French research in tropical medicine and its expert know-how, thus favoring the nomination of French experts in large international research programs (French experts in tropical medicine are currently under-recognized); 3) attract young researchers from France and elsewhere; and 4) adapt to the ongoing demographic and economic evolution of tropical countries. The creation of a Federation of French researchers would also make research in tropical medicine more visible. The objectives to which it leads already must include 1) a better understanding of the priorities of countries in the southern hemisphere, taking into account the social, cultural and economic contexts and ensuring the consistency of current and future projects ; 2) strengthening of research networks in close and equal partnership with researchers in the southern hemisphere, with pooling of resources (scientific, human and material) to reach the critical mass required for major projects ; 3) promoting the emergence of centers of excellence for health research in tropical countries ; and 4) contributing more effectively to training, because there can be no training without research, and no research without training This consolidation will help to empower research in tropical medicine, as in other Western countries, and will allow France to recover the place it deserves. The specific

  8. Training experts in family medicine teaching.

    PubMed

    Švab, Igor; Allen, Justin; Žebiene, Egle; Petek Šter, Marija; Windak, Adam

    2016-01-01

    Family medicine teachers require specific educational skills. A framework for their professional development is essential for future development of the discipline in Europe. EURACT developed a framework on educational expertise, and subsequently applied it in a curriculum of teaching-skills courses of various levels. The aim of this article is to describe the development of the teaching framework, and of an international three-level course programme for 'teaching-the-teachers'. Furthermore, we describe our experiences and lessons learned, in particular with regard to the level-three programme for proficient teachers, which was new. We conclude that it is possible to develop a theoretical framework of family medicine teaching expertise and to apply it in an international high-level educational programme for future experts in family medicine education. Research evidence of the usefulness of this approach is needed, and the threats for its further development into a sustainable activity are its high teacher/student ratio associated with relatively high costs and difficulties in recruiting suitable participants.

  9. Series: The research agenda for general practice/family medicine and primary health care in Europe. Part 2. Results: Primary care management and community orientation.

    PubMed

    Hummers-Pradier, Eva; Beyer, Martin; Chevallier, Patrick; Eilat-Tsanani, Sophia; Lionis, Christos; Peremans, Lieve; Petek, Davorina; Rurik, Imre; Soler, Jean Karl; Stoffers, Henri Ejh; Topsever, Pinar; Ungan, Mehmet; van Royen, Paul

    2010-03-01

    At the WONCA Europe conference 2009 the recently published 'Research Agenda for General Practice/Family Medicine and Primary Health Care in Europe' was presented. It is a background paper and reference manual, providing advocacy of general practice/family medicine (GP/FM) in Europe. The Research Agenda summarizes the evidence relating to the core competencies and characteristics of the WONCA Europe definition of GP/FM, and its implications for general practitioners/family doctors, researchers and policy makers. The European Journal of General Practice publishes a series of articles based on this document. In a first article, background, objectives, and methodology were discussed. In this second article, the results for the core competencies 'primary care management' and 'community orientation' are presented. Though there is a large body of research on various aspects of 'primary care management', it represents a very scattered rather than a meta view. Many studies focus on care for specific diseases, the primary/secondary care interface, or the implications of electronic patient records. Cost efficiency or process indicators of quality are current outcomes. Current literature on community orientation is mainly descriptive, and focuses on either care for specific diseases, or specific patient populations, or on the uptake of preventive services. Most papers correspond poorly to the WONCA concept. For both core competencies, there is a lack of research with a longitudinal perspective and/or relevant health or quality of life outcomes as well as research on patients' preferences and education for organizational aspects of GP/FM.

  10. The Future of Family Medicine: A Collaborative Project of the Family Medicine Community

    PubMed Central

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND Recognizing fundamental flaws in the fragmented US health care systems and the potential of an integrative, generalist approach, the leadership of 7 national family medicine organizations initiated the Future of Family Medicine (FFM) project in 2002. The goal of the project was to develop a strategy to transform and renew the discipline of family medicine to meet the needs of patients in a changing health care environment. METHODS A national research study was conducted by independent research firms. Interviews and focus groups identified key issues for diverse constituencies, including patients, payers, residents, students, family physicians, and other clinicians. Subsequently, interviews were conducted with nationally representative samples of 9 key constituencies. Based in part on these data, 5 task forces addressed key issues to meet the project goal. A Project Leadership Committee synthesized the task force reports into the report presented here. RESULTS The project identified core values, a New Model of practice, and a process for development, research, education, partnership, and change with great potential to transform the ability of family medicine to improve the health and health care of the nation. The proposed New Model of practice has the following characteristics: a patient-centered team approach; elimination of barriers to access; advanced information systems, including an electronic health record; redesigned, more functional offices; a focus on quality and outcomes; and enhanced practice finance. A unified communications strategy will be developed to promote the New Model of family medicine to multiple audiences. The study concluded that the discipline needs to oversee the training of family physicians who are committed to excellence, steeped in the core values of the discipline, competent to provide family medicine’s basket of services within the New Model, and capable of adapting to varying patient needs and changing care technologies

  11. The family and family medicine: should this marriage be saved?

    PubMed

    Merkel, W T

    1983-11-01

    Although there have been many noteworthy attempts to integrate a family focus into family medicine, there is little evidence that this integration has occurred in either residency education or community practice. When the specialty was founded, a family emphasis may have been politically useful as a way to differentiate the new family physician from the old general practitioner. Now, however, it is unclear what specific family-related material should be taught or who should teach it since few family practice faculty are trained in understanding families. If a practicing family physician actually wants to see a family, practical problems concerning time, space, and money arise. Furthermore, the medicolegal system is structured to protect the confidential relationship between one patient and one physician. Other obstacles to the integration include the difficult epistemological shift required to apply systems theory, the current chaos in the family field, and family medicine's need to gain professional stature by being proficient in traditional medicine. It may be time for the family and family medicine to reconsider their well-intended but ill-advised relationship. PMID:6631349

  12. Global Health in Family Medicine Summer Primer

    PubMed Central

    Rouleau, Katherine; Janakiram, Praseedha; Nicolle, Eileen; Godoy-Ruiz, Paula; Pakes, Barry N.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Problem addressed Despite the rapid emergence of global health training across North American universities, there remains a gap in educational programs focusing on the unique role of family medicine and primary care in global health. Objective of program The objective of the Global Health in Family Medicine Summer Primer, developed in 2013 by the Department of Family and Community Medicine at the University of Toronto in Ontario, is to strengthen global health competencies among family medicine residents and faculty. Program description The course covers the meaning of global health; global health ethics; the place of family medicine, primary care, and primary health care in the global health context; epidemiology; infectious diseases; the social determinants of health; and care of vulnerable populations locally and globally. The course is delivered in an intensive 5-day format with didactic lectures, group discussions, interactive workshops, and lived-experience panels. Conclusion The Global Health in Family Medicine Summer Primer has proven to be a successful educational initiative and provides valuable lessons learned for other academic science centres in developing global health training programs for family medicine residents and faculty. PMID:26380854

  13. Revolutionary leadership and family medicine education.

    PubMed

    Saultz, John W

    2008-04-01

    Reform of the payment and delivery systems in American health care is now being discussed at the highest levels of business and government. Family medicine educators, researchers, and program leaders have an opportunity to provide substantial leadership to this process in their own communities and nationally. To do so, they must reconsider the assumptions made in creating our current systems of practice and education, and this will require new leadership skills that focus on innovation and adaptability. It will also require a more aggressive willingness to test new ideas and a new scientific method to prove or disprove their value. This essay outlines essential elements of such leadership for those responsible for the education of future generations of family physicians. PMID:18382841

  14. What shall we do for family medicine?

    PubMed

    Grainge Biggs, John Sydney

    2016-06-01

    In November 2014 the Pakistan Medical and Dental Council directed that Family Medicine should be taught to final year medical students. Family Medicine will be strengthened as a result. This paper considers some implications of the decision, identifying first the need for more information on primary care services, especially in the private sector, to enable planning of the curriculum and attachments to public and private units. The challenges to medical colleges in providing what will be largely experiential learning are described and the importance of training practitioners is emphasised. The urgent need to overcome the virtual absence in Pakistan of postgraduate training in Family Medicine described, and the quality standards of primary care are explored and the need for attention in the face of student learning is described. Recommendations are offered, including an advisory board on Family Medicine to audit its introduction and performance. PMID:27339579

  15. Family Medicine Mandatory Assessment of Progress

    PubMed Central

    Leung, Fok-Han; Herold, Jodi; Iglar, Karl

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective To report the results of a pilot in-training progress test, the Family Medicine Mandatory Assessment of Progress, taken by first- and second-year postgraduate family medicine trainees. Design Assessment of resident performance on a key-features approach multiple-choice progress test. Test questions were developed by competency content area experts. Setting University of Toronto in Ontario. Participants First- and second-year family medicine residents. Main outcome measures Construct validity was assessed based on performance on the test by first- and second-year residents, Canadian and international medical graduates, and residents with more or less than 1 month of relevant clinical experience. Results Pilot progress testing of family medicine residents (N = 255) at the University of Toronto revealed a significant 1.6% difference (P < .01) in mean scores between first- and second-year postgraduate family medicine trainees and achieved construct validity across many parameters studied. The agreement coefficients for residents being identified as the poorest performers ranged from 0.88 to 0.90 depending on the domain of practice assessed. Conclusion Competency-based progress testing using the key-features model is a valid means of assessing the progress of family medicine residents.

  16. Family Theory and Family Health Research

    PubMed Central

    Doherty, William J.

    1991-01-01

    Different family theories can be applied to different aspects of how families experience health and illness. The family health and illness cycle describes the phases of a family's experience, beginning with health promotion and risk reduction, then family vulnerability and disease onset or relapse, family illness appraisal, family acute response, and finally family adaptation to illness and recovery. For each phase, specific family theories that are most appropriate for guiding family and health research are discussed. PMID:21229056

  17. Defining competency-based evaluation objectives in family medicine

    PubMed Central

    Donoff, Michel; Lawrence, Kathrine; Allen, Tim; Brailovsky, Carlos; Crichton, Tom; Bethune, Cheri; Laughlin, Tom; Wetmore, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Objective To develop and describe observable evaluation objectives for assessing competence in professionalism, which are grounded in the experience of practising physicians. Design Modified nominal group technique. Setting The College of Family Physicians of Canada in Mississauga, Ont. Participants An expert group of 7 family physicians and 1 educational consultant, all of whom had experience in assessing competence in family medicine. Group members represented the Canadian context with respect to region, sex, language, community type, and experience. Methods Using an iterative process, the expert group defined a list of observable behaviours that are indicative of professionalism, or not, in the family medicine setting. Themes relate to professional behaviour in family medicine; specific observable behaviours are those that family physicians believe are indicative of professionalism for each theme. Main findings The expert group identified 12 themes and 140 specific observable behaviours to assist in the observation and discussion of professional behaviour in family medicine workplace settings. Conclusion Competency-based education literature emphasizes the importance of formative evaluation and feedback. Such feedback is particularly challenging in the domain of professionalism because of its personal nature and the potential for emotional reactions. Effective dialogue between learners and teachers begins with clear expectations and reference to descriptions of relevant, specific behaviour. This research has generated a competency-based resource to assist the assessment of professional behaviour in family medicine educational programs. PMID:23064939

  18. Pharmacists teaching in family medicine residency programs

    PubMed Central

    Jorgenson, Derek; Muller, Andries; Whelan, Anne Marie; Buxton, Kelly

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Objective To determine the percentage of family medicine residency programs that have pharmacists directly involved in teaching residents, the types and extent of teaching provided by pharmacists in family medicine residency programs, and the primary source of funding for the pharmacists. Design Web-based survey. Setting One hundred fifty-eight resident training sites within the 17 family medicine residency programs in Canada. Participants One hundred residency program directors who were responsible for overseeing the training sites within the residency programs were contacted to determine the percentage of training sites in which pharmacists were directly involved in teaching. Pharmacists who were identified by the residency directors were invited to participate in the Web-based survey. Main outcome measures The percentage of training sites for family medicine residency that have pharmacists directly involved in teaching residents. The types and the extent of teaching performed by the pharmacists who teach in the residency programs. The primary source of funding that supports the pharmacists’ salaries. Results More than a quarter (25.3%) of family medicine residency training sites include direct involvement of pharmacist teachers. Pharmacist teachers reported that they spend a substantial amount of their time teaching residents using a range of teaching modalities and topics, but have no formal pharmacotherapy curriculums. Nearly a quarter (22.6%) of the pharmacists reported that their salaries were primarily funded by the residency programs. Conclusion Pharmacists have a role in training family medicine residents. This is a good opportunity for family medicine residents to learn about issues related to pharmacotherapy; however, the role of pharmacists as educators might be optimized if standardized teaching methods, curriculums, and evaluation plans were in place. PMID:21918131

  19. State of family medicine practice in Lebanon

    PubMed Central

    Helou, Mariana; Rizk, Grace Abi

    2016-01-01

    Background: Many difficulties are encountered in family medicine practice and were subject to multinational studies. To date, no study was conducted in Lebanon to assess the challenges that family physicians face. This study aims to evaluate the family medicine practice in Lebanon stressing on the difficulties encountered by Lebanese family physicians. Materials and Methods: A questionnaire was sent to all 96 family medicine physicians practicing in Lebanon. Participants answered questions about characteristics of family medicine practice, evaluation of the quality of work, identification of obstacles, and their effect on the medical practice. Results: The response rate was 59%, and the average number of years of practice was 10.7 years. Physicians complain mainly of heavy load at work, too many bureaucratic tasks, demanding patients, and being undervalued by the specialists. Most physicians are able to adapt between their professional and private life. Conclusion: Despite all the obstacles encountered, Lebanese family physicians have a moderate satisfaction toward their practice. They remain positive and enthusiastic about their profession. Until the ministry of public health revises its current health system, the primary care profession in Lebanon will remain fragile as a profession. PMID:27453843

  20. The research agenda for general practice/family medicine and primary health care in Europe. Part 3. Results: person centred care, comprehensive and holistic approach.

    PubMed

    Van Royen, Paul; Beyer, Martin; Chevallier, Patrick; Eilat-Tsanani, Sophia; Lionis, Christos; Peremans, Lieve; Petek, Davorina; Rurik, Imre; Soler, Jean Karl; Stoffers, Henri E J H; Topsever, Pinar; Ungan, Mehmet; Hummers-Pradier, Eva

    2010-06-01

    The recently published 'Research Agenda for General Practice/Family Medicine and Primary Health Care in Europe' summarizes the evidence relating to the core competencies and characteristics of the Wonca Europe definition of GP/FM, and its implications for general practitioners/family doctors, researchers and policy makers. The European Journal of General Practice publishes a series of articles based on this document. In a first article, background, objectives, and methodology were discussed. In a second article, the results for the two core competencies 'primary care management' and 'community orientation' were presented. This article reflects on the three core competencies, which deal with person related aspects of GP/FM, i.e. 'person centred care', 'comprehensive approach' and 'holistic approach'. Though there is an important body of opinion papers and (non-systematic) reviews, all person related aspects remain poorly defined and researched. Validated instruments to measure these competencies are lacking. Concerning patient-centredness, most research examined patient and doctor preferences and experiences. Studies on comprehensiveness mostly focus on prevention/care of specific diseases. For all domains, there has been limited research conducted on its implications or outcomes.

  1. The Evolution of Family Medicine Resident Projects at Dalhousie University

    PubMed Central

    O'Connor, John F.

    1989-01-01

    The Dalhousie Family Medicine Residency Program has always attempted to meet the research objectives of the College of Family Physicians of Canada. From a “Monitored Reading and Research” program, where projects were encouraged, the department developed a program which involved a mandatory project, preferably involving research, that is formally and objectively evaluated and supervised by faculty. The background, rationale, and problems encountered, as well as attempted solutions, are outlined. PMID:21249037

  2. [Family medicine in Mexico: Present and future].

    PubMed

    Varela-Rueda, Carlos E; Reyes-Morales, Hortensia; Albavera-Hernández, Cidronio; Ochoa-Díaz-López, Héctor; Gómez-Dantés, Héctor; García-Peña, Carmen

    2016-01-01

    Analyzing the challenges and the future scenario of Family Medicine is a priority to address challenges such as the reduction of benefits granted by social security; to adapt their practice to the changing health profile; and to curb demand for specialized services and contain the high costs of care in the second and third level. The program is aimed at three professional roles: medical care, research, and education. It is imperative review these in the light of changing demographic conditions, the type of health needs arising from new social determinants, the public expectations for greater participation in their care, and the evolution of the health system itself with the advancement of technology and a variety of organizational options with frequently limited resources. For primary care, as the core of a health system that covers principles of equity, solidarity, universality, participation, decentralization, and intra- and inter-sectorial coordination, it is necessary to put at the center of the primary care team the family doctor and not an administrator, who plays an important role in supporting the care team, but can not take the lead. PMID:26927655

  3. [Family medicine in Mexico: Present and future].

    PubMed

    Varela-Rueda, Carlos E; Reyes-Morales, Hortensia; Albavera-Hernández, Cidronio; Ochoa-Díaz-López, Héctor; Gómez-Dantés, Héctor; García-Peña, Carmen

    2016-01-01

    Analyzing the challenges and the future scenario of Family Medicine is a priority to address challenges such as the reduction of benefits granted by social security; to adapt their practice to the changing health profile; and to curb demand for specialized services and contain the high costs of care in the second and third level. The program is aimed at three professional roles: medical care, research, and education. It is imperative review these in the light of changing demographic conditions, the type of health needs arising from new social determinants, the public expectations for greater participation in their care, and the evolution of the health system itself with the advancement of technology and a variety of organizational options with frequently limited resources. For primary care, as the core of a health system that covers principles of equity, solidarity, universality, participation, decentralization, and intra- and inter-sectorial coordination, it is necessary to put at the center of the primary care team the family doctor and not an administrator, who plays an important role in supporting the care team, but can not take the lead.

  4. Teaching Core Content in Family Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Rudnick, K. V.; Craven, Marilyn

    1985-01-01

    Core content in family medicine has been difficult to define, given that family practice has differed widely from physician to physician, according to locale and availability of resources. Since family medicine has been taught, educators have been attempting to define its core content—and find ways of teaching it. At the McMaster University Medical Centre Family Practice Unit we have put the problems first: residents present a problem in patient care and the group discusses the problem in relation to a precirculated article on the topic. Lecturing is kept to a minimum, and articles are chosen according to the principles of critical appraisal. An attempt at evaluation generated a positive response. PMID:21274213

  5. Hypnosis and Hypnotism in Family Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Nadeau, Gaetan

    1992-01-01

    This article attempts to define and demystify hypnosis and to present the range of its applications in family medicine. The author reviews definitions and describes hypnotic phenomena, suggestibility, and the use of suggestion, as well as traditional, semitraditional, and Ericksonian induction methods, precautions, and dangers. Clinical uses are then presented for the family physician to apply to surgery, obstetrics, pain treatment, psychosomatic disorders, and psychotherapy. Imagesp2076-a PMID:21221278

  6. Family Medicine: Reassessment of Two Educational Objectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christensen, Danis J.

    1983-01-01

    Emphasis on family medicine has resulted in three problems: definition, discrepancies between objectives and practice, and the lack of a specialized body of knowledge. Training should concentrate on simple but more effective goals, enhanced compassion and empathy, and improved communication skills, understanding of emotional needs, and counseling…

  7. Family Medicine Curriculum Guide to Substance Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liepman, Michael R., Ed.; And Others

    This curriculum guide on substance abuse is intended for teachers of family medicine. Comments, learning objectives, teaching hints, and evaluations of knowledge are provided for each area in all chapters. Chapter 1 focuses on the pharmacology of commonly abused drugs including depressants, opioids, stimulants, hallucinogens, inhalants, and…

  8. Generation to Generation: The Heart of Family Medicine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winter, Robin O.

    2012-01-01

    According to the American Board of Family Medicine, "The scope of family medicine encompasses all ages, both sexes, each organ system and every disease entity." What makes the seemingly daunting task of practicing family medicine possible is that family physicians learn to utilize similar clinical reasoning for all of their patients regardless of…

  9. Series: The research agenda for general practice/family medicine and primary health care in Europe. Part 4. Results: specific problem solving skills.

    PubMed

    Hummers-Pradier, Eva; Beyer, Martin; Chevallier, Patrick; Eilat-Tsanani, Sophia; Lionis, Christos; Peremans, Lieve; Petek, Davorina; Rurik, Imre; Soler, Jean Karl; Stoffers, Henri Ejh; Topsever, Pinar; Ungan, Mehmet; van Royen, Paul

    2010-09-01

    The 'Research Agenda for General Practice/Family Medicine and Primary Health Care in Europe' summarizes the evidence relating to the core competencies and characteristics of the Wonca Europe definition of GP/FM, and its implications for general practitioners/family doctors, researchers and policy makers. The European Journal of General Practice publishes a series of articles based on this document. The previous articles presented background, objectives, and methodology, as well results on 'primary care management' and 'community orientation' and the person-related core competencies of GP/FM. This article reflects on the general practitioner's 'specific problem solving skills'. These include decision making on diagnosis and therapy of specific diseases, accounting for the properties of primary care, but also research questions related to quality management and resource use, shared decision making, or professional education and development. Clinical research covers most specific diseases, but often lacks pragmatism and primary care relevance. Quality management is a stronghold of GP/FM research. Educational interventions can be effective when well designed for a specific setting and situation. However, their message that 'usual care' by general practitioners is insufficient may be problematic. GP and their patients need more research into diagnostic reasoning with a step-wise approach to increase predictive values in a setting characterized by uncertainty and low prevalence of specific diseases. Pragmatic comparative effectiveness studies of new and established drugs or non-pharmaceutical therapy are needed. Multi-morbidity and complexity should be addressed. Studies on therapy, communication strategies and educational interventions should consider impact on health and sustainability of effects.

  10. Attractiveness of family medicine for medical students

    PubMed Central

    Vanasse, Alain; Orzanco, Maria Gabriela; Courteau, Josiane; Scott, Sarah

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Objective To examine the association between students’ personal characteristics, backgrounds, and medical schools and their intention to enter a family medicine (FM) specialty. Design Descriptive study using data from the 2007 National Physician Survey. Setting Canada. Participants Clinical (n = 1109) and preclinical (n = 829) medical student respondents to the 2007 National Physician Survey. Main outcome measures The main variable was hoping to enter an FM specialty, and 40 independent variables were included in regression and classification-tree models. Results Fewer than 1 medical student in 3 (30.2% at the preclinical level and 31.4% at the clinical level) hoped to enter into an FM career. Those who did were more likely to be female, were slightly older, were more frequently married or living with partners, were typically born in Canada, and were more likely to have previous exposure to non-urban environments. The most important predictor for both populations was the debt related to medical studies, which acted in the opposite direction of whether or not students were interested in research. Students interested in research were attracted by specialties with high earning potential, while those not interested in research looked for short residency programs, such as FM, so they could begin to pay off debt sooner. Therefore, the interest in research appears to be inversely related to the choice of FM. Conclusion Less than one-third of medical students were looking for residencies in FM in Canada. This is far below the goals of 45% set at the national level and 50% set by some provinces like Quebec. Debt and interest in research have strong influences on the choice of residency by medical students. PMID:21673198

  11. Family medicine training--the international experience.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Richard G; Hunt, Vincent R; Kulie, Teresa I; Schmidt, Wesley; Schirmer, Julie M; Villanueva, Tiago; Wilson, C Ruth

    2011-06-01

    Family medicine is undergoing dramatic transformation around the world. Its organisation, delivery, and funding are changing in profound ways. While the specifics of primary care reform vary, a common emerging strategy involves establishment of primary health care teams that provide improved access, use electronic records, are networked with other teams, and are paid using blended payment schemes. More family doctors are needed in all countries. New approaches beyond the traditional apprenticeships or residency programs will be required to meet global demand. Training of family doctors must change to prepare tomorrow's family physician for a different practice reality. Curricula are more competency-oriented, rather than time-focused. Today's trainees can anticipate a career that includes periodic reassessment of their knowledge base and competency. This article explores these trends and offers some strategies that have proved effective in various parts of the world for training increased numbers of qualified family doctors. PMID:21644860

  12. The European General Practice Research Network Presents the Translations of Its Comprehensive Definition of Multimorbidity in Family Medicine in Ten European Languages

    PubMed Central

    Le Reste, Jean Yves; Nabbe, Patrice; Rivet, Charles; Lygidakis, Charilaos; Doerr, Christa; Czachowski, Slawomir; Lingner, Heidrun; Argyriadou, Stella; Lazic, Djurdjica; Assenova, Radost; Hasaganic, Melida; Munoz, Miquel Angel; Thulesius, Hans; Le Floch, Bernard; Derriennic, Jeremy; Sowinska, Agnieska; Van Marwijk, Harm; Lietard, Claire; Van Royen, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Background Multimorbidity, according to the World Health Organization, exists when there are two or more chronic conditions in one patient. This definition seems inaccurate for the holistic approach to Family Medicine (FM) and long-term care. To avoid this pitfall the European General Practitioners Research Network (EGPRN) designed a comprehensive definition of multimorbidity using a systematic literature review. Objective To translate that English definition into European languages and to validate the semantic, conceptual and cultural homogeneity of the translations for further research. Method Forward translation of the EGPRN’s definition of multimorbidity followed by a Delphi consensus procedure assessment, a backward translation and a cultural check with all teams to ensure the homogeneity of the translations in their national context. Consensus was defined as 70% of the scores being higher than 6. Delphi rounds were repeated in each country until a consensus was reached Results 229 European medical expert FPs participated in the study. Ten consensual translations of the EGPRN comprehensive definition of multimorbidity were achieved. Conclusion A comprehensive definition of multimorbidity is now available in English and ten European languages for further collaborative research in FM and long-term care. PMID:25607642

  13. Home visits in family medicine residency

    PubMed Central

    Jakubovicz, Difat; Srivastava, Anita

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Problem addressed There has been a decline in family physicians providing home visits to housebound patients. Objective of program To increase family medicine residents’ exposure to home visits; their comfort and skills in providing home visits; and their willingness to provide home visits after graduation. Program description Between 2000 and 2010, each family practice resident at St Joseph’s Health Centre Family Medicine Teaching Unit in Toronto, Ont, was assigned at least 1 housebound patient to care for longitudinally over 2 years; the rationale for this was to increase the sense of “ownership” and responsibility among residents for their assigned homebound patients. Starting in 2003, until the program’s conclusion in 2010, residents were asked to fill out surveys before and after the program to assess their comfort with and confidence in providing home visits, as well as their satisfaction with the program. Survey responses were analyzed for changes over the course of residency training. A total of 85 residents completed the home visit teaching program between 2003 and 2010 inclusive. Conclusion While residents’ willingness to provide home visits did not increase over the course of residency, their confidence in making housecalls did increase. There was also a trend toward increased confidence among residents in working with community agencies. Thus, having home visit patients be a part of resident practices might play an important role in increasing the likelihood that future family physicians will continue to care for their patients when those patients are no longer ambulatory. PMID:26052599

  14. Family medicine and the life course paradigm.

    PubMed

    Daaleman, Timothy P; Elder, Glen H

    2007-01-01

    A unique characteristic of family physicians is that they seek to understand individual patients within the context of their families and larger social environments. Unfortunately, the intellectual development of family medicine is hampered by the reliance on epidemiologic, health service, and biomedical paradigms that are limited in their contextual perspectives on patients' lives. However, another paradigm, that of the life course, represents an interdisciplinary framework that views persons in context over time. It provides an ecological understanding of individual people by examining phenomena at the nexus of social pathways, developmental or health trajectories, and social change. A life course paradigm provides a way of thinking about patients in both proximal (eg, lived lives and family) and distal (eg, health care system) contexts over a life span. Five core principles define the life course as a paradigmatic framework: (1) human development and aging as lifelong processes, (2) human agency, (3) historical time and place, (4) the timing of events in a life, and (5) linked lives. At the individual level, the life course orients physicians to the opportunities and constraints that frame the health care choices, plans, and initiatives of people who maintain health and also face illness. At the organizational level, the life course offers an intellectual infrastructure for the New Model of Family Medicine by depicting an idealized delivery system that may be longitudinally integrated. It also emphasizes health and illness trajectories by linking health and other service organizations that assist individuals at different stages of their lives.

  15. [Family and community medicine and the university. SESPAS report 2010].

    PubMed

    Casado Vicente, Verónica; Bonal Pitz, Pablo; Cucalón Arenal, José Manuel; Serrano Ferrández, Elena; Suárez Gonzalez, Félix

    2012-03-01

    Family and community medicine is an academic subject, a medical specialty and a health profession with distinct dimensions: healthcare, teaching, research and management. In this discipline, the object of knowledge is the person, understood as a whole. Family medicine, as an academic subject, and primary care, as a health education setting, should be incorporated into the core graduate and postgraduate curricula. The absence of these elements leads to training bias and has major repercussions on quality, coordination and patient safety. The development of the Health Professions Act and the construction of the European Higher Education Area (EHEA) have created a favorable climate for the presence of this discipline in the university. Since the 1960s, family medicine has been consolidated as an academic subject with its own departments in almost all European universities, and a significant number of family physicians are teachers. A balance has been achieved between the hospital-based system (based on theory, disease, and the biological model) and the patient-centred model (based on problem solving, community-oriented and the bio-psycho-social model). The introduction of family and community medicine as a specific subject, and as a transverse subject and as an option in practicals, represents the adaptation of the educational system to social needs. This adaptation also represents a convergence with other European countries and the various legal requirements protecting this convergence. However, this new situation requires a new structure (departments) and faculty (professors and associate and assistant professors). PMID:22055214

  16. Screening for Depression Patients in Family Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Alic, Alma; Pranjic, Nurka; Selmanovic, Senada; Alibasic, Esad; Alic, Fahrudin; Ramic, Enisa; Spahic-Sarajlic, Selvedina

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Goal: The aims are to establish the prevalence of newfound, unidentified cases of depressive disorder by screening with the Becks Depression scale; To establish a comparative relationship with self-identified cases of depression in the patients in the family medicine; To assess the significance of the BDI in screening practice of family medicine. Patients and methods: A prospective study was conducted anonymously by Beck's Depression scale (Beck Depression Questionnaire org.-BDI) and specially created short questionnaire. The study included 250 randomly selected patients (20-60 years), users of services in family medicine in “Dom Zdravlja” Zenica, and the final number of respondents with included in the study was 126 (51 male, 75 female; response or response rate 50.4%). Exclusion factor was previously diagnosed and treated mental disorder. Participation was voluntary and respondents acknowledge the validity of completing the questionnaire. BDI consists of 21 items. Answers to questions about symptoms were ranked according to the Likert type scale responses from 0-4 (from irrelevant to very much). Respondents expressed themselves on personal perception of depression, whether are or not depressed. Results: Depression was observed in 48% of patients compared to 31% in self estimate depression analyzed the questionnaires. The negative trend in the misrecognition of depression is -17% (48:31). Depression was significantly more frequent in unemployed compared to employed respondents (p=0.001). The leading symptom in both sexes is the perception of lost hope (59% of cases). Conclusion: All respondents in family medicine care in Zenica showed a high percentage of newly detected (17%) patients with previously unrecognized depression. BDI is a really simple and effective screening tool for the detection and identification of persons with symptoms of depression. PMID:24783910

  17. Medicinal uses, phytochemistry and pharmacology of family Sterculiaceae: a review.

    PubMed

    Al Muqarrabun, L M R; Ahmat, N

    2015-03-01

    The family Sterculiaceae is one of the most important families among flowering plants. Many of its members demonstrate medicinal properties and have been used for the treatment of various ailments and wounds. A wide range of compounds including alkaloids, phenyl propanoids, flavonoids, terpenoids and other types of compounds including hydrocarbons, sugars, quinones, phenolic acids, lactones, lignans, amine and amides have been isolated from several species in this family. Few studies have reported that some extracts and single compounds isolated from this family exhibited several biological activities, such as antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and cytotoxic activities. The present review is an effort to provide information about the traditional uses, phytochemistry and pharmacology of species from family Sterculiaceae, and to uncover the gaps and potentials requiring further research opportunities regarding the chemistry and pharmacy of this family.

  18. [General and family medicine: a gratifying choice].

    PubMed

    Gaspar, Dina

    2006-01-01

    The problematic discussion of speciality choice have been largely studied in other countries, where we can see the same setting of the announced crises of Primary Care and the so called decline of Family Medicine. In Portugal, many authors have shown an increasing concern in the way of getting more attention by the political policies/entities for the reduction of the number of family doctors. The decline of the interest of the medical students for Family Medicine is a complex and multifactorial problem that exists at international level, as in other generalist specialities, without technical procedures and technological investment. The importance of human values in medical education, by the new challenges that we have in the XXI century medicine, puts us the question about the students we are graduating today in our schools. The educational and health system reform, and the medical schools support, may influence the choices of medical graduates and motivate them for this speciality, developing a more real and more close medical care that responds to the interests and the needs of the population. PMID:17187715

  19. E-Learning Readiness in Medicine: Turkish Family Medicine (FM) Physicians Case

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parlakkiliç, Alaattin

    2015-01-01

    This research investigates e-learning readiness level of family medicine physicians (FM) in Turkey. The study measures the level of e-learning readiness of Turkish FM physicians by an online e-learning readiness survey. According to results five areas are ready at Turkish FM physicians but need a few improvements:…

  20. Satisfaction with civilian family medicine residency training

    PubMed Central

    Wolfrom, Brent; Hodgetts, Geoff; Kotecha, Jyoti; Pollock, Emily; Martin, Mary; Han, Han; Morissette, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective To evaluate satisfaction with civilian residency training programs among serving general duty medical officers within the Canadian Armed Forces. Design A 23-item, cross-sectional survey face-validated by the office of the Surgeon General of the Canadian Armed Forces. Setting Canada. Participants General duty medical officers serving in the Canadian Armed Forces as of February 2014 identified through the Directorate of Health Services Personnel of the Canadian Forces Health Services Group Headquarters. Main outcome measures Satisfaction with and time spent in 7 domains of training: trauma, critical care, emergency medicine, psychiatry, occupational health, sports medicine, and base clinic training. Overall preparedness for leading a health care team, caring for a military population, working in isolated and challenging environments, and being deployed were evaluated on a 5-point Likert scale. Results Among the survey respondents (n = 135, response rate 54%), 77% agreed or strongly agreed that their family medicine residency training was relevant to their role as a general duty medical officer. Most respondents were either satisfied or very satisfied with their emergency medicine training (77%) and psychiatry training (63%), while fewer were satisfied or very satisfied with their sports medicine (47%), base clinic (41%), and critical care (43%) training. Even fewer respondents were satisfied or very satisfied with their trauma (26%) and occupational health (12%) training. Regarding overall preparedness, 57% believed that they were adequately prepared to care for a military patient population, and 52% of respondents believed they were prepared for their first posting. Fewer respondents (38%) believed they were prepared to work in isolated, austere, or challenging environments, and even fewer (32%) believed that residency training prepared them to lead a health care team. Conclusion General duty medical officers were satisfied with many aspects of

  1. Herbal Medicine Research in Taiwan*

    PubMed Central

    Kaphle, Krishna; Wu, Leang-Shin; Yang, Nai-Yen Jack; Lin, Jen-Hsou

    2006-01-01

    Of all the countries in the world, why did you choose Taiwan to pursue your study? It is a question that I (comments of the first author) have answered a thousand times. My first visit to a laboratory at National Taiwan University opened my eyes to the possibilities of herbal medicine research, especially in the area of veterinary medicine. It became my ambition to link the knowledge of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) and Ayurveda from the Indian subcontinent and their integration with other systems of medicine, including Western medicine (WM), to achieve the concept of Sustainable Medicine, firstly for animals and then for humans. The Ministry of Economic Affairs (MOEA) has implemented a technology development program to quickly establish the key technologies, and this is a moment of opportunity for Taiwan's traditional herbal medicine industry to upgrade and transform itself. This paper, initially intended to be a student's narration, has evolved into a multi-author treatise on the present state and likely future scenario of herbal medicine research in Taiwan. PMID:16550238

  2. A nationwide postal survey on the perception of Malaysian public healthcare providers on family medicine specialists' (PERMFAMS) clinical performance, professional attitudes and research visibility.

    PubMed

    Chew, Boon-How; Yasin, Mazapuspavina Md; Cheong, Ai-Theng; Rashid, Mohd-Radzniwan A; Hamzah, Zuhra; Ismail, Mastura; Ali, Norsiah; Bashah, Baizury; Mohd-Salleh, Noridah

    2015-01-01

    Perception of healthcare providers who worked with family medicine specialists (FMSs) could translate into the effectiveness of primary healthcare delivery in daily practices. This study examined perceptions of public healthcare providers/professionals (PHCPs) on FMSs at public health clinics throughout Malaysia. This was a cross-sectional study in 2012-2013 using postal method targeting PHCPs from three categories of health facilities, namely health clinics, health offices and hospitals. A structured questionnaire was developed to assess PHCP's perception of FMS's clinical competency, safety practice, ethical and professional values, and research involvement. It consists of 37 items with Likert scale of strongly disagree (a score of 1) to strongly agree (a score of 5). Interaction and independent effect of the independent variables were tested and adjusted means score were reported. The participants' response rate was 58.0% (780/1345) with almost equal proportion from each of the three public healthcare facilities. There were more positive perceptions than negative among the PHCPs. FMSs were perceived to provide effective and safe treatment to their patients equally disregards of patient's social background. However, there were some concerns of FMSs not doing home visits, not seeing walk-in patients, had long appointment time, not active in scientific research, writing and publication. There were significant differences in perception based on a respondent's health care facility (p < 0.0001) and frequency of encounter (p < 0.0001). PHCPs had overall positive perceptions on FMSs across all the domains investigated. PHCPs from different health care facilities and frequency of encounter with FMSs had different perception. Practicing FMSs could improve on the critical service areas that were perceived to be important but lacking. FMSs might need further support in conducting research and writing for publication.

  3. Family Medicine Curriculum Resource Project: the future.

    PubMed

    Stearns, Jeffrey A; Stearns, Marjorie A; Paulman, Paul M; Chessman, Alexander W; Davis, Ardis K; Sherwood, Roger A; Sheets, Kent J; Steele, David J; Matson, Christine C

    2007-01-01

    Under contract to the Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA), the Society of Teachers of Family Medicine (STFM) created an undergraduate medical education curricular resource designed to train physicians to practice in the 21st century. An interdisciplinary group of more than 35 educators worked for 4 years to create the Family Medicine Curriculum Resource (FMCR). By consensus, the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) competencies were adopted as the theoretical framework for this project. The FMCR provides materials for the preclerkship years, the third-year family medicine clerkship, the postclerkship year, and faculty development, as well as guidance for integrating topics of special interest to the federal government (such as, geriatrics, Healthy People 2010, genetics, informatics) into a 4-year continuum of medical education. There are challenges inherent in implementing each component of the FMCR. For example, can the ACGME competency-based approach be adapted to undergraduate medical education? Can the densely packed preclerkship years be adapted to include more focused effort on developing these competencies, and whose job is it anyway? What is "core" to being a competent clinician, and what information can be obtained when needed from medical informatics sources? Will family medicine educators embrace the FMCR recommendations for their third-year clerkships? Will exit assessment of the competency levels of graduating medical students be achieved, and can it make them more capable residents? Can faculty in different clinical and educational settings integrate the teaching of "how to learn" into their repertoire? How will faculty development innovation progress in a time of increasing emphasis on clinical productivity? Developing a common language and adoption of core competencies for all levels of medical education is imperative in a society that is focusing on improving health care quality and outcomes. The FMCR Project

  4. Length of training debate in family medicine: idealism versus realism?

    PubMed

    Orientale, Eugene

    2013-06-01

    How long a resident must train to achieve competency is an ongoing debate in medicine. For family medicine, there is an Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME)-approved proposal to examine the benefits of lengthening family medicine training from 3 to 4 years. The rationale for adding another year of residency in family medicine has included the following: (1) overcoming the effect of the duty hour limits in further reducing educational opportunities, (2) reversing the growing number of first-time takers of the American Board of Family Medicine primary board who fail to pass the exam, (3) enhancing the family medicine training experience by "decompressing" the ever-growing number of Residency Review Committee requirements to maintain accreditation, and (4) improving the overall quality of family medicine graduates. PMID:24404258

  5. Length of Training Debate in Family Medicine: Idealism Versus Realism?

    PubMed Central

    Orientale, Eugene

    2013-01-01

    How long a resident must train to achieve competency is an ongoing debate in medicine. For family medicine, there is an Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME)–approved proposal to examine the benefits of lengthening family medicine training from 3 to 4 years. The rationale for adding another year of residency in family medicine has included the following: (1) overcoming the effect of the duty hour limits in further reducing educational opportunities, (2) reversing the growing number of first-time takers of the American Board of Family Medicine primary board who fail to pass the exam, (3) enhancing the family medicine training experience by “decompressing” the ever-growing number of Residency Review Committee requirements to maintain accreditation, and (4) improving the overall quality of family medicine graduates. PMID:24404258

  6. The research environment in family practice.

    PubMed

    Perkoff, G T

    1985-11-01

    Both the place of family practice in academic medicine and the intellectual underpinning of the specialty itself are thought by many to depend on the development of successful research programs in academic departments of family medicine. Yet many believe less research than desired is being done in such departments, even by faculty trained in research. To gain additional information on this important subject, a survey was conducted of the departmental research experiences of 42 graduates of the several Robert Wood Johnson Foundation Family Practice Academic Fellowship Programs who had had the opportunity for at least one year of faculty experience. The responses indicate that the majority of such graduates spend 20 percent or less of their time in research, that most perceive administrative duties as interfering with research, that a minority have budgeted research time, and few have departmental research funds. Despite these obstacles, those who do research publish with surprising frequency, about one paper per fellow per year. Several ways are presented to improve the research environment in departments of family practice and to lead to even more productive, secure research activities of these and other family practice faculty.

  7. Balance of trade: export-import in family medicine.

    PubMed

    Pust, Ronald E

    2007-01-01

    North American family physicians leaving for less-developed countries (LDCs) may not be aware of internationally validated diagnostic and treatment technologies originating in LDCs. Thus they may bring with them inappropriate models and methods of medical care. More useful "exports" are based in sharing our collaborative vocational perspective with dedicated indigenous generalist clinicians who serve their communities. More specifically, Western doctors abroad can promote local reanalyses of international evidence-based medicine (EBM) studies, efficient deployment of scarce clinical resources, and a family medicine/generalist career ladder, ultimately reversing the "brain drain" from LDCs. Balancing these exports, we should import the growing number of EBM best practices originated in World Health Organization and other LDCs research that are applicable in developed nations. Many generalist colleagues, expatriate and indigenous, with long-term LDC experience stand ready to help us import these practices and perspectives. PMID:17987419

  8. Remediation plans in family medicine residency

    PubMed Central

    Audétat, Marie-Claude; Voirol, Christian; Béland, Normand; Fernandez, Nicolas; Sanche, Gilbert

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective To assess use of the remediation instrument that has been implemented in training sites at the University of Montreal in Quebec to support faculty in diagnosing and remediating resident academic difficulties, to examine whether and how this particular remediation instrument improves the remediation process, and to determine its effects on the residents’ subsequent rotation assessments. Design A multimethods approach in which data were collected from different sources: remediation plans developed by faculty, program statistics for the corresponding academic years, and students’ academic records and rotation assessment results. Setting Family medicine residency program at the University of Montreal. Participants Family medicine residents in academic difficulty. Main outcome measures Assessment of the content, process, and quality of remediation plans, and students’ academic and rotation assessment results (successful, below expectations, or failure) both before and after the remediation period. Results The framework that was developed for assessing remediation plans was used to analyze 23 plans produced by 10 teaching sites for 21 residents. All plans documented cognitive problems and implemented numerous remediation measures. Although only 48% of the plans were of good quality, implementation of a remediation plan was positively associated with the resident’s success in rotations following the remediation period. Conclusion The use of remediation plans is well embedded in training sites at the University of Montreal. The residents’ difficulties were mainly cognitive in nature, but this generally related to deficits in clinical reasoning rather than knowledge gaps. The reflection and analysis required to produce a remediation plan helps to correct many academic difficulties and normalize the academic career of most residents in difficulty. Further effort is still needed to improve the quality of plans and to support teachers.

  9. Development and Validation of Search Filters to Identify Articles on Family Medicine in Online Medical Databases.

    PubMed

    Pols, David H J; Bramer, Wichor M; Bindels, Patrick J E; van de Laar, Floris A; Bohnen, Arthur M

    2015-01-01

    Physicians and researchers in the field of family medicine often need to find relevant articles in online medical databases for a variety of reasons. Because a search filter may help improve the efficiency and quality of such searches, we aimed to develop and validate search filters to identify research studies of relevance to family medicine. Using a new and objective method for search filter development, we developed and validated 2 search filters for family medicine. The sensitive filter had a sensitivity of 96.8% and a specificity of 74.9%. The specific filter had a specificity of 97.4% and a sensitivity of 90.3%. Our new filters should aid literature searches in the family medicine field. The sensitive filter may help researchers conducting systematic reviews, whereas the specific filter may help family physicians find answers to clinical questions at the point of care when time is limited.

  10. How medical schools can encourage students' interest in family medicine.

    PubMed

    Rohan-Minjares, Felisha; Alfero, Charles; Kaufman, Arthur

    2015-05-01

    The discipline of family medicine is essential to improving quality and reducing the cost of care in an effective health care system. Yet the slow growth of this field has not kept pace with national demand. In their study, Rodríguez and colleagues report on the influence of the social environment and academic discourses on medical students' identification with family medicine in four countries-the United Kingdom, Canada, France, and Spain. They conclude that these factors-the social environment and discursive activity within the medical school-influence students' specialty choices. While the discourses in Canada, France, and Spain were mostly negative, in the United Kingdom, family medicine was considered a prestigious academic discipline, well paying, and with a wide range of practice opportunities. Medical students in the United Kingdom also were exposed early and often to positive family medicine role models.In the United States, academic discourses about family medicine are more akin to those in Canada, France, and Spain. The hidden curriculum includes negative messages about family medicine, and "badmouthing" primary care occurs at many medical schools. National education initiatives highlight the importance of social determinants in medical education and the integration of public health and medicine in practice. Other initiatives expose students to family medicine role models and practice during their undergraduate training and promote primary care practice through new graduate medical education funding models. Together, these initiatives can reduce the negative effects of the social environment and create a more positive discourse about family medicine.

  11. Education and training in family medicine: progress and a proposed national vision for 2030

    PubMed Central

    Goh, Lee Gan; Ong, Chooi Peng

    2014-01-01

    This review provides an update of education and training in family medicine in Singapore and worldwide. Family medicine has progressed much since 1969 when it was recognised as the 20th medical discipline in the United States. Three salient changes in the local healthcare landscape have been noted over time, which are of defining relevance to family medicine in Singapore, namely the rise of noncommunicable chronic diseases, the care needs of an expanding elderly population, and the care of a larger projected population in 2030. The change in the vision of family medicine into the future refers to a new paradigm of one discipline in many settings, and not limited to the community. Family medicine needs to provide a patient-centred medical home, and the discipline’s education and training need to be realigned. The near-term training objectives are to address the service, training and research needs of a changing and challenging healthcare landscape. PMID:24664375

  12. Family Research Project Progress Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, David C.; Bell, Linda G.

    This document presents an overview and progress report on the Family Research Project, started in 1974 to (1) study the relationship between family process and individual development of family members, especially children, (2) conceptualize and measure system level variables describing family structure and process, (3) develop microanalytic…

  13. Forest medicine research in Japan.

    PubMed

    Miyazaki, Yoshifumi; Ikei, Harumi; Song, Chorong

    2014-01-01

    There has been growing attention on the effects of forest on physiological relaxation and immune recovery, particularly in forest medicine research, from a perspective of preventive medicine. Japan is a world leader in the accumulation of scientific data on forest medicine research. In this review, we summarize the research that has been conducted in this area since 1992. We conducted field experiment, involving 420 subjects at 35 different forests throughout Japan. After sitting in natural surroundings, these subjects showed decrease in the following physiological parameters compared with those in an urban control group: 12.4% decrease in the cortisol level, 7.0% decrease in sympathetic nervous activity, 1.4% decrease in systolic blood pressure, and 5.8% decrease in heart rate. This demonstrates that stressful states can be relieved by forest therapy. In addition, it should be noted that parasympathetic nervous activity was enhanced by 55.0%, indicating a relaxed state. The results of walking experiments provided similar results. Li et al. demonstrated that immune function was enhanced by forest therapy in middle-aged employees who volunteered to participate in these experiments. Natural killer cell activity, an indicator of immune function, was enhanced by 56% on the second day and returned to normal levels. A significant increase of 23% was maintained for 1 month even after returning to urban life, clearly illustrating the preventive benefits of forest therapy. In an indoor room experiment, we conducted tests with the following: 1) olfactory stimulation using wood smell, 2) tactile stimulation using wood, and 3) auditory stimulation using forest sounds. These indoor stimulations also decreased the blood pressure and pulse rate, and induced a physiological relaxation effect. We anticipate that forest medicine will play an increasingly important role in preventive medicine in the future. PMID:24858508

  14. Forest medicine research in Japan.

    PubMed

    Miyazaki, Yoshifumi; Ikei, Harumi; Song, Chorong

    2014-01-01

    There has been growing attention on the effects of forest on physiological relaxation and immune recovery, particularly in forest medicine research, from a perspective of preventive medicine. Japan is a world leader in the accumulation of scientific data on forest medicine research. In this review, we summarize the research that has been conducted in this area since 1992. We conducted field experiment, involving 420 subjects at 35 different forests throughout Japan. After sitting in natural surroundings, these subjects showed decrease in the following physiological parameters compared with those in an urban control group: 12.4% decrease in the cortisol level, 7.0% decrease in sympathetic nervous activity, 1.4% decrease in systolic blood pressure, and 5.8% decrease in heart rate. This demonstrates that stressful states can be relieved by forest therapy. In addition, it should be noted that parasympathetic nervous activity was enhanced by 55.0%, indicating a relaxed state. The results of walking experiments provided similar results. Li et al. demonstrated that immune function was enhanced by forest therapy in middle-aged employees who volunteered to participate in these experiments. Natural killer cell activity, an indicator of immune function, was enhanced by 56% on the second day and returned to normal levels. A significant increase of 23% was maintained for 1 month even after returning to urban life, clearly illustrating the preventive benefits of forest therapy. In an indoor room experiment, we conducted tests with the following: 1) olfactory stimulation using wood smell, 2) tactile stimulation using wood, and 3) auditory stimulation using forest sounds. These indoor stimulations also decreased the blood pressure and pulse rate, and induced a physiological relaxation effect. We anticipate that forest medicine will play an increasingly important role in preventive medicine in the future.

  15. Family Research: An Ethnographic Approach

    PubMed Central

    Stein, Howard F.

    1991-01-01

    An ethnographic approach based on in-depth interviewing, naturalistic and participant observation, narrative description, and contextual interpretation is proposed as a tool for family health care research. The multiple meanings of family, both for research clinicians and for society, are considered. The problem of how a family orientation is incorporated into biomedical' health care is discussed. PMID:21229058

  16. Family member interventions: research challenges.

    PubMed

    Leske, J S

    1991-07-01

    Numerous descriptive studies have provided a base for developing and testing interventions for family members after a critical illness event. The challenges of designing, conducting, and using research-based interventions for families are invitation for the researcher. Critical care nurses have much to offer and do make a difference with families. Accept the challenges! PMID:2071430

  17. [Issues of research in medicine].

    PubMed

    Topić, Elizabeta

    2006-01-01

    Research in medicine is liable to all rules and standards that apply to research in other natural sciences, since medicine as a science and service fully meets the general definition of science: it is a common, integrated, organized and systematized knowledge of mankind, whereby physician--being more or less aware of doing so-- in his daily activities applies scientific thinking and scientific methods. The procedure of problem solving in scientific work and in medical practice is characterized by many similarities as well as variation. In scientific research, the observation of some phenomenon that cannot be explained by the known facts and theories is followed by making a hypothesis, planning and carrying out experimental investigation resulting in some data. Interpretation of these data then provides evidence to confirm or reject the hypothesis. In medical practice, quite a similar procedure is followed; the initial examination of a patient, when his condition cannot be explained by the data thus obtained, is identical to the observation of a phenomenon which cannot be explained by the known facts; working diagnosis would correspond to making the hypothesis; and experimental investigation would compare to laboratory and other diagnostic studies. The working diagnosis is accepted or rejected depending on these results. Of course, there also are differences in the problem solving procedure between scientific research and daily medical practice. For example, in research a single hypothesis is posed, a single experiment with successive testing and/or repeats is performed, whereas in medical practice several hypotheses are made, multiple studies are concurrently performed to reject current hypotheses and to make new ones. Scientific investigation produces an abundance of systematic data, whereas in medical practice target data are being generated, yet not systematically. Definitive decision making also differs greatly, as in scientific research it only ensues from

  18. Family medicine education in India: A panoramic view

    PubMed Central

    Pati, Sanghamitra; Sharma, Anjali; Pati, Sandipana; Zodpey, Sanjay

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: In the recent years, there has been renewed interest in strengthening primary care for improved health services delivery. Family medicine with its holistic principles is an effective approach for building primary care workforce in resource constraint settings. Even though this discipline is well established and mainstreamed in Western countries, the same is yet to occur in low- and middle-income nations. India with its paradigm shift for universal health coverage is strategically poised to embrace family medicine as a core component of its health system. However, till date, a clear picture of family medicine teaching across the country is yet to be available. Methods: This paper makes an attempt to assess the landscape of family medicine teaching in India with an aim to contribute to a framework for bolstering its teaching and practice in coming years. The objective was to obtain relevant information through a detailed scan of the health professional curricula as well as mapping independent academic programs. Specific areas of interest included course content, structure, eligibility criteria, and accreditation. Results: Our findings indicate that teaching of family medicine is still in infancy in India and yet to be mainstreamed in health professional education. There are variations in family medicine teaching across academic programs. Conclusion: It is suggested that both medical and nursing colleges should develop dedicated Departments of Family Medicine for both undergraduate and postgraduate teaching. Further, more number of standalone diploma courses adopting blended learning methods should be made available for in-service practitioners. PMID:26985405

  19. Hospital grand rounds in family medicine. Content and educational structure.

    PubMed Central

    Lewkonia, R.; Sosnowski, M.; Murray, F.

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate hospital grand rounds in family medicine, to examine their content and organization, and to recommend improved educational structures for these ubiquitous continuing medical education events. DATA SELECTION: Retrospective analysis of titles and content of 358 family medicine grand rounds offered in the department of family medicine of a large urban hospital from mid-1983 to the end of 1994. FINDINGS: Only 10% of family medicine grand rounds were presented by family physicians. Most grand rounds were in the form of specialists exhibiting their own interests in a lecture format. Analysis of grand rounds titles showed no consistent pattern of topics but an emphasis on practical aspects of medical care. Patient-based presentations were uncommon, as were grand rounds with more than one speaker. CONCLUSIONS: The content and mix of topics appeared appropriate, but in the absence of a curricular structure, or evaluation of learning gain, it is difficult to assess the value of grand rounds. PMID:9222579

  20. [Effects of family medicine education on medical students' attitudes].

    PubMed

    Chou, M C; Lee, M C

    1991-07-01

    Undergraduate education is considered to be one of the main contributory factors for the development of family medicine through increasing the number of medical graduates opting for a career in family practice. To evaluate the effects of family medicine education on student's attitudes, 140 fifth year medical students were asked in 1989 to fill in a questionnaire both before and after their curricula. The average age of the 123 students who completed the questionnaire on both occasions was 24.9 years; 106 were males; 17 were tuition free and 26 took additional family medicine clerkships. On aggregate, the students' disposition toward family medicine before their curricula appeared to be uncertain. Mean scores on the attitude scale did not significantly differ between socioeconomic subgroups before the curricula. After the curricula, students' attitudes were significantly altered, especially toward the future development of family medicine in Taiwan. However, their disposition toward family practice as a career changed the least. The degree of alteration in students' attitude toward family medicine before and after the curricula was related to the intensity of the course and to their socioeconomic backgrounds.

  1. Crowdfunding for Personalized Medicine Research

    PubMed Central

    Fumagalli, Danielle C.; Gouw, Arvin M.

    2015-01-01

    Given the current funding situation of the National Institutes of Health, getting funding for rare disease research is extremely difficult. In light of the enormous potential for research in the rare diseases and the scarcity of research funding, we provide a case study of a novel successful crowdfunding approach at a non-profit organization called Rare Genomics Institute. We partner with biotechnology companies willing to donate their products, such as mouse models, gene editing software, and sequencing services, for which researchers can apply. First, we find that personal stories can be powerful tools to seek funding from sympathetic donors who do not have the same rational considerations of impact and profit. Second, for foundations facing funding restrictions, company donations can be a valuable tool in addition to crowdfunding. Third, rare disease research is particularly rewarding for scientists as they proceed to be pioneers in the field during their academic careers. Overall, by connecting donors, foundations, researchers, and patients, crowdfunding has become a powerful alternative funding mechanism for personalized medicine. PMID:26604866

  2. Crowdfunding for Personalized Medicine Research.

    PubMed

    Fumagalli, Danielle C; Gouw, Arvin M

    2015-12-01

    Given the current funding situation of the National Institutes of Health, getting funding for rare disease research is extremely difficult. In light of the enormous potential for research in the rare diseases and the scarcity of research funding, we provide a case study of a novel successful crowdfunding approach at a non-profit organization called Rare Genomics Institute. We partner with biotechnology companies willing to donate their products, such as mouse models, gene editing software, and sequencing services, for which researchers can apply. First, we find that personal stories can be powerful tools to seek funding from sympathetic donors who do not have the same rational considerations of impact and profit. Second, for foundations facing funding restrictions, company donations can be a valuable tool in addition to crowdfunding. Third, rare disease research is particularly rewarding for scientists as they proceed to be pioneers in the field during their academic careers. Overall, by connecting donors, foundations, researchers, and patients, crowdfunding has become a powerful alternative funding mechanism for personalized medicine.

  3. Complementary and Alternative Medicine: Core Competencies for Family Nurse Practitioners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burman, Mary E.

    2003-01-01

    Directors of family nurse practitioner education programs (n=141) reported inclusion of some complementary/alternative medicine content (CAM), most commonly interviewing patients about CAM, critical thinking, evidence-based medicine, laws, ethics, and spiritual/cultural beliefs. Definition of CAM was medically, not holistically based. More faculty…

  4. [Family medicine and practice in the Mexican Social Security Institute].

    PubMed

    Casas Patiño, Donovan; Jarillo Soto, Edgar; Rodríguez Torres, Alejandra

    2014-06-26

    The central ideas of this research paper are related to the practice of family medicine as a specialty. It focuses in its origins, problems, unique characteristics, limitations, scope, management, and processes within the context of primary care of the Mexican Social Security System. This approach was based on a qualitative, hermeneutical study closely related to the Structural Functionalism Theory. Within this framework, medical practice is seen as an equation: Meaning = action + function/structure. This offers an approach to the understanding of reality through surveys and observations in five categories: identity, activity, purpose, values/norms, and power/relationship. The practice of family medicine is defined as a medical act in the Mexican Social Security Institute. This act is limited to a brief encounter and a prescription, which makes it a short, fleeting, medicalized interaction. The result is a negative social imaginary of the physician, the patient and the whole of society. Thus, individuals and society host a negative social imaginary bestowed on doctors and users of the health system.

  5. Assessment of the Federal Grant Program for the Establishment of Departments of Family Medicine.

    PubMed

    Lawler, F H; Davis, J A

    1990-01-01

    As part of an evaluation of the Federal Establishment of Departments of Family Medicine Grant Program, nine departments of family medicine were visited from March to May 1988 to assess their development in the academic setting and to evaluate the role of the federal program in that developmental process. The study found that grant support has been useful in enhancing the status of family medicine by aiding research and curriculum development, supporting administrative infrastructure, and fostering other topics specific to individual departments. The flexibility with which departments can seek funds for specific needs makes broad measures of success impractical; however, it appears that funds from this grant program have been reasonably effective in advancing the academic stature of departments of family medicine. It is concluded from the study that the program should be continued and that its inherent flexibility should be preserved.

  6. Research Methodology of Family-Oriented Care

    PubMed Central

    Ransom, Donald C.

    1991-01-01

    Family practice and family-centered primary care have a special role in studying the family. A framework for conceptualizing research on families and health, illness, and care is presented. The author discusses ways in which families can influence the health of their members, current controversies about what family means, the logic of family research measurements, whether family research is warranted, and the question of variable-versus case- (person- versus family-) centered research design and analysis. PMID:21229057

  7. Workshops for Faculty Development in Family Medicine. Evaluation Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reineke, Robert A.; Welch, Wayne W.

    An evaluation was conducted of four faculty development workshops sponsored by the Society of Teachers of Family Medicine for faculty in family practice residency programs. Objectives of the evaluation were to determine the extent to which the workshops achieved the specified educational objectives and to assess the operational aspects of the…

  8. Training family medicine residents to care for children

    PubMed Central

    Duke, Pauline; Curran, Vernon; Hollett, Ann

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Problem addressed There is a lack of consensus around the optimal way to train family medicine residents to care for children. Objective of program Evaluation of an ambulatory versus an inpatient pediatrics rotation for family medicine residents. Program description A 4-week pediatrics rotation for second-year family medicine residents was introduced involving half-day ambulatory pediatric clinics. A nonequivalent control group evaluation study design was followed. Patient logbook entries, as well as residents’ satisfaction, knowledge, and self-reported confidence outcomes were compared between family medicine residents completing the new ambulatory rotation and those completing a traditional inpatient-ambulatory pediatrics rotation. Conclusion An ambulatory rotation in pediatrics is a feasible option for facilitating family medicine resident learning in child health care. Residents report exposure to more patient cases that reflect a family practice office setting and the same level of knowledge and confidence as residents completing an inpatient-ambulatory rotation. Intraprofessional collaboration, flexibility in scheduling, and the support of pediatric preceptors are key factors in the organization and implementation of an ambulatory rotation. PMID:21321160

  9. Teaching Humanities in Medicine: The University of Massachusetts Family Medicine Residency Program Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silk, Hugh; Shields, Sara

    2012-01-01

    Humanities in medicine (HIM) is an important aspect of medical education intended to help preserve humanism and a focus on patients. At the University of Massachusetts Family Medicine Residency Program, we have been expanding our HIM curriculum for our residents including orientation, home visit reflective writing, didactics and a department-wide…

  10. Tasks of research in forensic medicine - different study types in clinical research and forensic medicine.

    PubMed

    Madea, Burkhard; Saukko, Pekka; Musshoff, Frank

    2007-01-17

    In the last years the research output of forensic medicine has sometimes been regarded as insufficient and as of poor quality, especially when parameters as impact factors and external funding were taken into account. However, forensic medicine has different tasks compared to clinical medicine. The main difference between basic subjects, clinical and forensic medicine is not a lack of scientific efficiency in forensic medicine but is a result of the questions asked, the available methods and specific aims. In contrast to natural-scientific research, forensic science has furthermore important intersections with arts and socio-scientific disciplines. Etiologic and pathogenetic research is of only limited relevance in forensic medicine. Thus, forensic medicine is excluded from these research fields, which are mainly supported by external funding. In forensic medicine research mainly means applied research regarding findings, the probative value and reconstruction as well as examination at different points of intersection between medicine and law. Clinical types of research such as controlled randomised, prospective cross-sectional, cohort or case-control studies can only rarely be applied in forensic medicine due to the area specific research fields (e.g. thantatology, violent death, vitality, traffic medicine, analytical toxicology, hemogenetics and stain analysis). The types of studies which are successfully established in forensic medicine are comparison of methods, sensitivity studies, validation of methods, kinetic examinations etc. Tasks of research in forensic medicine and study types, which may be applied will be addressed.

  11. Results of the 2004 national resident matching program: family medicine.

    PubMed

    Pugno, Perry A; McPherson, Deborah S; Schmittling, Gordon T; Fetter, Gerald T; Kahn, Norman B

    2004-09-01

    The results of the 2004 National Resident Matching Program (NRMP) reflect a leveling in the recent trend of declining student interest in family medicine residency training in the United States. Compared with the 2003 Match, 34 more positions (36 fewer US seniors) were filled in family medicine residency programs through the NRMP in 2004, at the same time as 14 fewer (four fewer US seniors) in primary care internal medicine, 10 more in pediatrics-primary care (one more US senior), and 35 more (38 more US seniors) in internal medicine-pediatric programs. In comparison, one less position (one more US senior) was filled in anesthesiology and seven fewer (five more US seniors) in diagnostic radiology, two "marker" disciplines that have shown increases over the past several years. Many different forces, including student perspectives of the demands, rewards, and prestige of the specialty; the turbulence and uncertainty of the health care environment; liability protection issues; and the impact of faculty and resident role models, continue to influence medical student career choices. A total of 165 more positions (12 more US seniors) were filled in categorical internal medicine while 164 more positions (15 more US seniors) were filled in categorical pediatrics programs, where trainees perceive options for either practicing as generalists or entering subspecialty fellowships, depending on the market. With the needs of the nation, especially for rural and underserved populations, continuing to offer opportunities for family physicians, family medicine experienced a slight increase through the 2004 NRMP. The 2004 NRMP suggests that the trend away from family medicine and primary care careers may be leveling off. PMID:15343417

  12. Results of the 2005 national resident matching program: family medicine.

    PubMed

    Pugno, Perry A; Schmittling, Gordon T; Fetter, Gerald T; Kahn, Norman B

    2005-09-01

    The results of the 2005 National Resident Matching Program (NRMP) reflect a currently stable level of student interest in family medicine residency training in the United States. Compared with the 2004 Match, 19 more positions (66 fewer US seniors) were filled in family medicine residency programs through the NRMP in 2005, at the same time as four fewer (18 fewer US seniors) in primary care internal medicine, seven more in pediatrics-primary care (three fewer US seniors), and 12 fewer (21 fewer US seniors) in internal medicine-pediatrics programs. In comparison, 25 more positions (four more US seniors) were filled in anesthesiology but two fewer (14 fewer US seniors) in diagnostic radiology, two "marker" disciplines that have shown increases over the past several years. Many different forces, including student perspectives of the demands, rewards, and prestige of the specialty, the turbulence and uncertainty of the health care environment, lifestyle issues, and the impact of faculty and resident role models, continue to influence medical student career choices. Seven more positions (57 more US seniors) were filled in categorical internal medicine while 48 more positions (68 more US seniors) were filled in categorical pediatrics programs, where trainees perceive options for either practicing as generalists or entering subspecialty fellowships, depending on the market. With the needs of the nation, especially for rural and underserved populations, continuing to offer opportunities for family physicians, family medicine experienced another slight increase through the 2005 NRMP. The 2005 NRMP results suggest that interest in family medicine and primary care careers continues to be stable. PMID:16145633

  13. Funding strategies for emergency medicine research.

    PubMed

    Carden, D L; Dronen, S C; Gehrig, G; Zalenski, R J

    1998-02-01

    The importance of adequate funding for sustaining research efforts cannot be overemphasized. This article addresses funding strategies for emergency physicians including the necessity of establishing a research track record, developing a well-written grant proposal, and anticipating the grant review process. Funding sources are reviewed with an emphasis on federal institute support and private foundations (including the Emergency Medicine Foundation) in the United States. Sources of current grant support information available from the Internet are provided. Recommendations for enhancing research funding in emergency medicine are made, including enhancement of formal research training, promotion of emergency medicine research and investigators, federal study section membership, and collaboration with established investigators. PMID:9472178

  14. Rehabilitation Medicine Summit: Building Research Capacity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frontera, Walter R.; Fuhrer, Marcus J.; Jette, Alan M.; Chan, Leighton; Cooper, Rory A.; Duncan, Pamela W.; Kemp, John D.; Ottenbacher, Kenneth J.; Peckham, P. Hunter; Roth, Elliot J.; Tate, Denise G.

    2006-01-01

    The general objective of the "Rehabilitation Medicine Summit: Building Research Capacity" was to advance and promote research in medical rehabilitation by making recommendations to expand research capacity. The 5 elements of research capacity that guided the discussions were (a) researchers; (b) research culture, environment, and infrastructure;…

  15. New Research in Family Violence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, John M., Ed.

    1981-01-01

    Reports recent research on family violence in eight articles. Deals with issues in wife abuse such as why women leave violent relationships and wife abuse programs. Discusses child abuse, its relationship to maternal employment and maturity, and child stealing. Analyzes the current state of knowledge and research. (JAC)

  16. Family medicine training in sub-Saharan Africa: South–South cooperation in the Primafamed project as strategy for development

    PubMed Central

    Flinkenflögel, Maaike; Essuman, Akye; Chege, Patrick; Ayankogbe, Olayinka; De Maeseneer, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Background. Health-care systems based on primary health care (PHC) are more equitable and cost effective. Family medicine trains medical doctors in comprehensive PHC with knowledge and skills that are needed to increase quality of care. Family medicine is a relatively new specialty in sub-Saharan Africa. Objective. To explore the extent to which the Primafamed South–South cooperative project contributed to the development of family medicine in sub-Saharan Africa. Methods. The Primafamed (Primary Health Care and Family Medicine Education) project worked together with 10 partner universities in sub-Saharan Africa to develop family medicine training programmes over a period of 2.5 years. A SWOT (strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats) analysis was done and the training development from 2008 to 2010 in the different partner universities was analysed. Results. During the 2.5 years of the Primafamed project, all partner universities made progress in the development of their family medicine training programmes. The SWOT analysis showed that at both national and international levels, the time is ripe to train medical doctors in family medicine and to integrate the specialty into health-care systems, although many barriers, including little awareness, lack of funding, low support from other specialists and reserved support from policymakers, are still present. Conclusions. Family medicine can play an important role in health-care systems in sub-Saharan Africa; however, developing a new discipline is challenging. Advocacy, local ownership, action research and support from governments are necessary to develop family medicine and increase its impact. The Primafamed project showed that development of sustainable family medicine training programmes is a feasible but slow process. The South–South cooperation between the ten partners and the South African departments of family medicine strengthened confidence at both national and international levels. PMID:24857843

  17. Progress in complementary and alternative medicine research: Yale Research Symposium on Complementary and Integrative Medicine.

    PubMed

    Millet, John D

    2010-09-01

    Integrative Medicine at Yale and the Yale Center for Continuing Medical Education (CME) sponsored the Yale Research Symposium on Complementary and Integrative Medicine in March 2010 at the university's School of Medicine. Delivering the keynote address, Dr. Josephine P. Briggs, Director of the National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (NCCAM) at the National Institutes of Health (NIH), highlighted recent progress made in the field of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM).

  18. Space medicine research publications: 1984-1986

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wallace, Janice S.

    1988-01-01

    A list is given of the publications of investigators supported by the Biomedical Research and Clinical Medicine Programs of the Space Medicine and Biology Branch, Life Sciences Division, Office of Space Science and Applications. It includes publications entered into the Life Sciences Bibliographic Database by the George Washington University as of December 31, 1986. Publications are organized into the following subject areas: Clinical Medicine, Space Human Factors, Musculoskeletal, Radiation and Environmental Health, Regulatory Physiology, Neuroscience, and Cardiopulmonary.

  19. Frequently asked questions about family medicine in India.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Raman

    2016-01-01

    Family medicine (FM) is an independent and distinct medical specialty in the developed countries such as USA, UK, Australia, and Canada since 1960s. FM teaching is imparted at undergraduate and postgraduate levels in countries such as Nepal, Pakistan, and Sri Lanka. Family practice is the practicing vocation of the majority doctors in India. The practitioners of FM include general practitioners, family physicians, FM specialists, and medical officers in the public sector. Medical students are largely unaware about FM career as this concept is not introduced at MBBS level. Faculty and senior doctors from other disciplines are also not able to answer the queries related to FM as they themselves also have gone through the same education system for last three decades, largely unexposed to the concept of academic family medicine. This article is a compilation of frequently asked questions, and their appropriate responses, presented here to dispel myths and misinformation about FM specialty. The answers are deliberated upon by Dr. Raman Kumar the founder president of the Academy of Family Physicians of India and the chief editor of the Journal of Family Medicine and Primary Care. This article was originally published as an interview in Docplexus, a popular online network and website for medical doctors in November 2015.

  20. Frequently asked questions about family medicine in India

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Raman

    2016-01-01

    Family medicine (FM) is an independent and distinct medical specialty in the developed countries such as USA, UK, Australia, and Canada since 1960s. FM teaching is imparted at undergraduate and postgraduate levels in countries such as Nepal, Pakistan, and Sri Lanka. Family practice is the practicing vocation of the majority doctors in India. The practitioners of FM include general practitioners, family physicians, FM specialists, and medical officers in the public sector. Medical students are largely unaware about FM career as this concept is not introduced at MBBS level. Faculty and senior doctors from other disciplines are also not able to answer the queries related to FM as they themselves also have gone through the same education system for last three decades, largely unexposed to the concept of academic family medicine. This article is a compilation of frequently asked questions, and their appropriate responses, presented here to dispel myths and misinformation about FM specialty. The answers are deliberated upon by Dr. Raman Kumar the founder president of the Academy of Family Physicians of India and the chief editor of the Journal of Family Medicine and Primary Care. This article was originally published as an interview in Docplexus, a popular online network and website for medical doctors in November 2015. PMID:27453835

  1. Frequently asked questions about family medicine in India.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Raman

    2016-01-01

    Family medicine (FM) is an independent and distinct medical specialty in the developed countries such as USA, UK, Australia, and Canada since 1960s. FM teaching is imparted at undergraduate and postgraduate levels in countries such as Nepal, Pakistan, and Sri Lanka. Family practice is the practicing vocation of the majority doctors in India. The practitioners of FM include general practitioners, family physicians, FM specialists, and medical officers in the public sector. Medical students are largely unaware about FM career as this concept is not introduced at MBBS level. Faculty and senior doctors from other disciplines are also not able to answer the queries related to FM as they themselves also have gone through the same education system for last three decades, largely unexposed to the concept of academic family medicine. This article is a compilation of frequently asked questions, and their appropriate responses, presented here to dispel myths and misinformation about FM specialty. The answers are deliberated upon by Dr. Raman Kumar the founder president of the Academy of Family Physicians of India and the chief editor of the Journal of Family Medicine and Primary Care. This article was originally published as an interview in Docplexus, a popular online network and website for medical doctors in November 2015. PMID:27453835

  2. Finding, keeping, and revitalizing the meaning in family medicine.

    PubMed

    Van Dyke, Anne; Seger, Amy M

    2013-01-01

    The culture of medicine is undergoing revolutionary change. Physicians are pulled in many directions involving the practice of medicine, the business of medicine, and the technology of medicine. Financial incentives and career promotions may be dependent upon such things as patient satisfaction scores, as well as adherence to guidelines for admissions and diagnostic testing. Of course, these metrics are monitored closely by hospitals, insurance companies, and the federal government. The resultant seemingly endless paperwork, deadlines, and multiple demands may result in a sense of time famine for physicians. Unfortunately, these expectations and demands can subsequently diminish the passion for medicine. Moreover, physicians are at high risk for significant physical and emotional exhaustion, often leading to a sense of demoralization. Physicians can ultimately lose sight of their reasons for choosing the field of medicine. Indeed, they can lose the inspiration and "meaning" derived from work in medicine all together. How, then, does one buffer oneself against such perils, and maintain the original passion and meaning in a chosen career of service to others? This article will describe one program's approach to promoting resilience and maintaining meaning during the residency training years through the establishment of a Meaning in Family Medicine Group. The conceptual background, approach to curriculum development, goals and objectives, resident feedback, and suggestions about how to carry this curriculum beyond the residency training years will be discussed. PMID:24261266

  3. The development of academic family medicine in central and eastern Europe since 1990

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Since the early 1990s former communist countries have been reforming their health care systems, emphasizing the key role of primary care and recognizing family medicine as a specialty and an academic discipline. This study assesses the level of academic development of the discipline characterised by education and research in central and eastern European (CEE) countries. Methods A key informants study, using a questionnaire developed on the basis of a systematic literature review and panel discussions, conducted in 11 central and eastern European countries and Russia. Results Family medicine in CEE countries is now formally recognized as a medical specialty and successfully introduced into medical training at undergraduate and postgraduate levels. Almost all universities have FM/GP departments, but only a few of them are led by general practitioners. The specialist training programmes in all countries except Russia fulfil the recommendations of the European Parliament. Structured support for research in FM/GP is not always available. However specific scientific organisations function in almost all countries except Russia. Scientific conferences are regularly organised in all the countries, but peer-reviewed journals are published in only half of them. Conclusions Family medicine has a relatively strong position in medical education in central and eastern Europe, but research in family practice is less developed. Although the position of the discipline at the universities is not very strong, most of the CEE countries can serve as an example of successful academic development for countries southern Europe, where family medicine is still not fully recognised. PMID:23510461

  4. Morning Report in Family Medicine Residency Programs: A Descriptive Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuncharapu, Indumathi; Cass, Alvah R.; Carlson, Carol A.; Scott, Jack R.

    Morning Report (MR) is a frequently held case conference in most Family Medicine (FM) residency programs among medical learners who discuss recent inpatient admissions before the day's care of patients. This study conducted a national survey of FM residency program directors to describe the roles of faculty and residents in facilitating MR.…

  5. ENT Experience in a Family Medicine Clerkship: Is There Enough?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Hara, Brenda S.; Saywell, Robert M., Jr.; Zollinger, Terrell W.; Smith, Christopher P.; Burba, Jennifer L.; Stopperich, David M.

    2000-01-01

    Used patient encounter records completed by 445 medical students to determine whether a family medicine clerkship offered enough experience in ear, nose, and throat (ENT) conditions. Results, which were used for curriculum development, suggest that these students were receiving sufficient opportunities for some areas of ENT practice, but not for…

  6. Family Medicine Educators' Perceptions of the Future of Faculty Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quirk, Mark; Lasser, Daniel; Domino, Frank; Chuman, Alan; Devaney-O'Neil, Sarah

    2002-01-01

    Family medicine faculty participated in focus groups to gather their perceptions about faculty development. They emphasized that faculty development methods must be proven effective, woven into the fabric of clinical practice, and deal with increasing time and financial pressures. Much discussion was related to the need for national and regional…

  7. Depression and burnout symptoms among Air Force family medicine providers.

    PubMed

    Varner, Derrick F; Foutch, Brian K

    2014-05-01

    This study investigated the prevalence of depression and burnout symptoms among family medicine providers on active duty in the US Air Force. Results demonstrated that 84% of those surveyed scored positive for degrees of depression symptoms; only sex differences were significant. PMID:24758978

  8. Graduate Training in Family Medicine: Two Years or Three?

    PubMed Central

    Vinger, Irving

    1979-01-01

    Graduate training in family medicine is a three year program in the United States and a two year program in Canada. For the majority of family practice residents the third year is required in order to consolidate the attitudes and skills related to continuing comprehensive health care and prevention. Without this consolidation, the application of these concepts to the practice of family health care is subject to the normal anxieties, frustrations and uncertanties which lead physicians to provide technologically oriented, episodic care. PMID:21297762

  9. Differences between family and emergency medicine training before sports medicine fellowship.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Mark; Christensen, Heidi K

    2015-01-01

    Residency training clearly impacts physicians' approach toward fellowship in Primary Care Sports Medicine. Although the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education sets strict standards for all programs, family medicine and emergency medicine training differ a great deal in general and provide physicians from both backgrounds varied perspectives and skill sets. The family physician acquires a substantial amount of experience in continuity of care and integration of health care into a patient's everyday life. On the other hand, the emergency physician receives exceptional training in the management of acutely ill and injured patients and leadership of a large health care team. Furthermore, while the emergency physician may be skilled in procedures such as fracture reduction and diagnostic ultrasound, the family physician is proficient in developing patient rapport and compliance with a treatment plan. Although physicians from different backgrounds may start with many differences, fellowship training is essential in bridging those gaps.

  10. Differences between family and emergency medicine training before sports medicine fellowship.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Mark; Christensen, Heidi K

    2015-01-01

    Residency training clearly impacts physicians' approach toward fellowship in Primary Care Sports Medicine. Although the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education sets strict standards for all programs, family medicine and emergency medicine training differ a great deal in general and provide physicians from both backgrounds varied perspectives and skill sets. The family physician acquires a substantial amount of experience in continuity of care and integration of health care into a patient's everyday life. On the other hand, the emergency physician receives exceptional training in the management of acutely ill and injured patients and leadership of a large health care team. Furthermore, while the emergency physician may be skilled in procedures such as fracture reduction and diagnostic ultrasound, the family physician is proficient in developing patient rapport and compliance with a treatment plan. Although physicians from different backgrounds may start with many differences, fellowship training is essential in bridging those gaps. PMID:25968851

  11. From basic research to personalized medicine

    PubMed Central

    Thibaut, Florence

    2016-01-01

    In the future, precision medicine will enable every clinician to tailor treatment and even prevention strategies to an individual's unique characteristics. In order to reach this goal, we need to collect and analyze many different types of data, from many different sources, including symptoms, genomics, and brain circuitry, as well as family dynamics, environmental exposures, and cultural background. PMID:27757058

  12. Acting as Standardized Patients Enhances Family Medicine Residents' Self-Reported Skills in Palliative Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sittikariyakul, Pat; Jaturapatporn, Darin; Kirshen, A. J.

    2015-01-01

    Recent publications have confirmed the use of standardized patients (SPs) in improving clinical skills and enhancing competency. Little research has studied the benefits residents may themselves gain in palliative care playing the role of SPs. Nineteen Family Medicine residents were recruited as standardized patients (FMR-SPs) for a mandatory…

  13. Mediation Analysis in Psychosomatic Medicine Research

    PubMed Central

    Lockhart, Ginger; MacKinnon, David P.; Ohlrich, Vanessa

    2012-01-01

    This article presents an overview of statistical mediation analysis and its application to psychosomatic medicine research. The article begins with a description of the major approaches to mediation analysis and an evaluation of the strengths and limits of each. Emphasis is placed on longitudinal mediation models, and an application using latent growth modeling is presented. The article concludes with a description of recent developments in mediation analysis and suggestions for the use of mediation for future work in psychosomatic medicine research. PMID:21148809

  14. Key informants' perspectives on development of family medicine training programs in Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Gossa, Weyinshet; Wondimagegn, Dawit; Mekonnen, Demeke; Eshetu, Wondwossen; Abebe, Zerihun; Fetters, Michael D

    2016-01-01

    As a very low-income country, Ethiopia faces significant development challenges, though there is great aspiration to dramatically improve health care in the country. Family medicine has recently been recognized through national policy as one potential contributor in addressing Ethiopia's health care challenges. Family medicine is a new specialty in Ethiopia emerging in the context of family medicine development in Sub-Saharan Africa. The Addis Ababa University family medicine residency program started in 2013 and is the first and the only family medicine program in the country as of March 2016. Stakeholders on the ground feel that family medicine is off to a good start and have great enthusiasm and optimism for its success. While the Ministry of Health has a vision for the development of family medicine and a plan for rapid upscaling of family medicine across the country, significant challenges remain. Continuing discussion about the potential roles of family medicine specialists in Ethiopia and policy-level strategic planning to place family medicine at the core of primary health care delivery in the country is needed. In addition, the health care-tier system needs to be restructured to include the family medicine specialists along with appropriately equipped health care facilities for training and practice. Key stakeholders are optimistic that family medicine expansion can be successful in Ethiopia through a coordinated effort by the Ministry of Health and collaboration between institutions within the country, other Sub-Saharan African countries, and international partners supportive of establishing family medicine in Ethiopia. PMID:27175100

  15. Folk medicinal uses of Verbenaceae family plants in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Rahmatullah, Mohammed; Jahan, Rownak; Azam, F M Safiul; Hossan, S; Mollik, M A H; Rahman, Taufiq

    2011-01-01

    Folk medicinal practitioners form the first tier of primary health-care providers to most of the rural population of Bangladesh. They are known locally as Kavirajes and rely almost solely on oral or topical administration of whole plants or plant parts for treatment of various ailments. Also about 2% of the total population of Bangladesh are scattered among more than twenty tribes residing within the country's borders. The various tribes have their own tribal practitioners, who use medicinal plants for treatment of diseases. The objective of the present survey was to conduct an ethnomedicinal survey among the Kavirajes and tribal practitioners to determine which species of plants belonging to the Verbenaceae family are used by the practitioners. The Verbenaceae family plants are well known for constituents having important bio-active properties. The present survey indicated that 13 species belonging to 8 genera are used by the folk and tribal medicinal practitioners of Bangladesh. A comparison of their folk medicinal uses along with published reports in the scientific literature suggests that the Verbenaceae family plants used in Bangladesh can potentially be important sources of lead compounds or novel drugs for treatment of difficult to cure debilitating diseases like malaria and rheumatoid arthritis.

  16. Folk medicinal uses of Verbenaceae family plants in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Rahmatullah, Mohammed; Jahan, Rownak; Azam, F M Safiul; Hossan, S; Mollik, M A H; Rahman, Taufiq

    2011-01-01

    Folk medicinal practitioners form the first tier of primary health-care providers to most of the rural population of Bangladesh. They are known locally as Kavirajes and rely almost solely on oral or topical administration of whole plants or plant parts for treatment of various ailments. Also about 2% of the total population of Bangladesh are scattered among more than twenty tribes residing within the country's borders. The various tribes have their own tribal practitioners, who use medicinal plants for treatment of diseases. The objective of the present survey was to conduct an ethnomedicinal survey among the Kavirajes and tribal practitioners to determine which species of plants belonging to the Verbenaceae family are used by the practitioners. The Verbenaceae family plants are well known for constituents having important bio-active properties. The present survey indicated that 13 species belonging to 8 genera are used by the folk and tribal medicinal practitioners of Bangladesh. A comparison of their folk medicinal uses along with published reports in the scientific literature suggests that the Verbenaceae family plants used in Bangladesh can potentially be important sources of lead compounds or novel drugs for treatment of difficult to cure debilitating diseases like malaria and rheumatoid arthritis. PMID:22754058

  17. Funding strategies for emergency medicine research.

    PubMed

    Carden, D L; Dronen, S C; Gehrig, G; Zalenski, R J

    1998-02-01

    The importance of adequate funding for sustaining research efforts cannot be overemphasized. This article addresses funding strategies for emergency physicians, including the necessity of establishing a research track record, developing a well-written grant proposal, and anticipating the grant review process. Funding sources are reviewed with an emphasis on federal institute support and private foundations (including the Emergency Medicine Foundation) in the United States. Sources of current grant support information available from the Internet are provided. Recommendations for enhancing research funding in emergency medicine (EM) are made, including enhancement of formal research training, promotion of EM research and investigators, federal study section membership, and collaboration with established investigators. PMID:9492141

  18. Participatory Action Research as a Model for Conducting Family Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turnbull, Ann P.; Friesen, Barbara J.; Ramirez, Carmen

    1998-01-01

    This article discusses a participatory action research (PAR) approach to conducting family research. It proposes a model of PAR implementation level including the options of family members as research leaders and researchers as ongoing advisors, researchers and family members as coresearchers, and researches as leaders, and family members as…

  19. Occupational Stress and Physical Symptoms among Family Medicine Residents

    PubMed Central

    Choi, So-Myung; Park, Yong Soon; Kim, Go-Young

    2013-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to examine the levels of occupational stress and physical symptoms among family medicine residents and investigate the effect of subscales of occupational stress on physical symptoms. Methods A self-administered questionnaire survey of 1,152 family medicine residents was carried out via e-mail from April 2010 to July 2010. The response rate was 13.1% and the R (ver. 2.9.1) was used for the analysis of completed data obtained from 150 subjects. The questionnaire included demographic factors, resident training related factors, 24-items of the Korean Occupational Stress Scales and Korean Versions of the Wahler Physical Symptom Inventory. Results The total score of occupational stress of family medicine residents was relatively low compared to that of average workers. The scores of 'high job demand', 'inadequate social support', 'organizational injustice', and 'discomfort in occupational climate' were within the top 50%. Parameters associated with higher occupational stress included level of training, on-duty time, daily patient load, critical patient assigned, total working days, night duty day, sleep duration, and sleep quality. The six subscales of occupational stress, except for 'Job insecurity', had a significant positive correlation with physical symptom scores after adjustment had been made for potential confounders (total score, r = 0.325 and P < 0.001; high job demand, r = 0.439 and P < 0.001). Conclusion After the adjustment had been made for potential confounders, the total score of occupational stress and six subscales in family medicine residents showed a significant positive correlation with physical symptom scores. PMID:23372906

  20. ETHICS IN GERIATRIC MEDICINE RESEARCH

    PubMed Central

    İlgili, Önder; Arda, Berna; Munir, Kerim

    2014-01-01

    This article aims to evaluate the research process in geriatrics from the ethical point of view. The elderly population is increasing rapidly, but there is no parallel in the amount of research concerning this demographic. On the other hand, in the light of research ethics, this group mainly represents vulnerable people and requires more sensitivity. Taking into account all these features, fundamental principles in research ethics are first considered: the soundness of the scientific project, qualifications of the investigators, ethics committee approval, informed consent, confidentiality and privacy, beneficence/nonmaleficence, and justice are evaluated. Special ethical issues in geriatric research such as ageism and research inclusion, paucity of research involving elderly people, vulnerability of elderly subjects, and cognitive impairments are discussed separately. PMID:25489272

  1. ETHICS IN GERIATRIC MEDICINE RESEARCH.

    PubMed

    Ilgili, Onder; Arda, Berna; Munir, Kerim

    2014-01-01

    This article aims to evaluate the research process in geriatrics from the ethical point of view. The elderly population is increasing rapidly, but there is no parallel in the amount of research concerning this demographic. On the other hand, in the light of research ethics, this group mainly represents vulnerable people and requires more sensitivity. Taking into account all these features, fundamental principles in research ethics are first considered: the soundness of the scientific project, qualifications of the investigators, ethics committee approval, informed consent, confidentiality and privacy, beneficence/nonmaleficence, and justice are evaluated. Special ethical issues in geriatric research such as ageism and research inclusion, paucity of research involving elderly people, vulnerability of elderly subjects, and cognitive impairments are discussed separately.

  2. Conducting Precision Medicine Research with African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Halbert, Chanita Hughes; McDonald, Jasmine; Vadaparampil, Susan; Rice, LaShanta; Jefferson, Melanie

    2016-01-01

    Importance Precision medicine is an approach to detecting, treating, and managing disease that is based on individual variation in genetic, environmental, and lifestyle factors. Precision medicine is expected to reduce health disparities, but this will be possible only if studies have adequate representation of racial minorities. Objective It is critical to anticipate the rates at which individuals from diverse populations are likely to participate in precision medicine studies as research initiatives are being developed. We evaluated the likelihood of participating in a clinical study for precision medicine. Design, Setting, Participants Observational study conducted between October 2010 and February 2011 in a national sample of African Americans. Main Outcome Measure Intentions to participate in a government sponsored study that involves providing a biospecimen and generates data that could be shared with other researchers to conduct future studies. Results One third of respondents would participate in a clinical study for precision medicine. Only gender had a significant independent association with participation intentions. Men had a 1.86 (95% CI = 1.11, 3.12, p = 0.02) increased likelihood of participating in a precision medicine study compared to women in the model that included overall barriers and facilitators. In the model with specific participation barriers, distrust was associated with a reduced likelihood of participating in the research described in the vignette (OR = 0.57, 95% CI = 0.34, 0.96, p = 0.04). Conclusion and Relevance African Americans may have low enrollment in PMI research. As PMI research is implemented, extensive efforts will be needed to ensure adequate representation. Additional research is needed to identify optimal ways of ethically describing precision medicine studies to ensure sufficient recruitment of racial minorities. PMID:27441706

  3. Clinical research in anthroposophic medicine.

    PubMed

    Hamre, Harald Johan; Kiene, Helmut; Kienle, Gunver Sophia

    2009-01-01

    Anthroposophic medicine includes special medications and special artistic and physical therapies. More than 200 clinical studies of varying design and quality have been conducted on anthroposophic treatment. Half of these studies concern anthroposophic mistletoe therapy for cancer. Clinical effects of mistletoe products include improvement of quality of life, reduction of side effects from chemotherapy and radiation, and possibly increased survival. Apart from cancer therapy, the largest studies of anthroposophic treatment have been 2 naturalistic system evaluations: In German outpatients with mental, musculoskeletal, respiratory, and other chronic conditions, anthroposophic treatment was followed by sustained improvements of symptoms and quality of life. In primary care patients from 4 European countries and the United States treated for acute respiratory and ear infections by anthroposophic or conventional physicians, anthroposophic treatment was associated with reduced use of antibiotics and antipyretics, quicker recovery, and fewer adverse reactions; these differences remained after adjustment for relevant baseline differences.

  4. [Trends in family medicine--how to sort the wheat from the chaff].

    PubMed

    Djalali, Sima; Senn, Oliver

    2015-11-11

    Considering the trends in medicine, time just seems to move at a slower pace in general practice/family medicine than in the medical specialties. Novel medical drugs and therapeutic modalities appear to take longer to become well-established, and sometimes it never happens. There are obvious gaps between the requirements of the guidelines issued by scientific medical societies and the practical implementation of these guidelines by primary care physicians. In health services research this is known as the «evidence-performance gap». The aim of this narrative review is to outline the nature and the dynamics of trends in general practice/family medicine on the one hand and in the medical specialties on the other hand, and to elucidate the potential causes leading to the evidence-performance gaps observed.

  5. Patients' Perceived Quality of Family Physicians' Primary Care with or without 'Family Medicine' in the Clinic Name

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ka Young; Lim, Kangjin; Choi, Eun Young; Cheong, Yoo Seock

    2016-01-01

    Background Patients' perspectives of family medicine according to the physician's identity and role as a primary-care specialist need to be investigated. This study was conducted to investigate the perceived quality of the primary care of family medicine clinics as assessed by patients in a community setting. Methods Patients (or their guardians) visiting nine community family medicine clinics were surveyed using the Korean Primary Care Assessment Tool from April 2014 to June 2014. The scores of the Korean Primary Care Assessment Tool domains were compared according to the clinics' designation (or not) as 'family medicine' and the patients' recognition (or not) of the physicians as board-certified family medicine specialists. Results A total of 196 subjects responded to the questionnaire. They assessed the community clinics' quality of primary care as moderate to high. Of the clinics, those that were not designated as family medicine scored higher than those that were designated as family medicine (P<0.05). The group of patients that recognized a clinic as that of a board-certified family medicine specialist awarded higher scores than the non-recognition group in the domains of coordination function and personalized care (P<0.05). Conclusion The moderate to high scores for the community family medicine clinics' quality of primary care are encouraging. It seems that patients' recognition of the family physician's role and of the physician-patient relationship has a significant influence on their assessment of the quality of primary care.

  6. Patients' Perceived Quality of Family Physicians' Primary Care with or without 'Family Medicine' in the Clinic Name

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ka Young; Lim, Kangjin; Choi, Eun Young; Cheong, Yoo Seock

    2016-01-01

    Background Patients' perspectives of family medicine according to the physician's identity and role as a primary-care specialist need to be investigated. This study was conducted to investigate the perceived quality of the primary care of family medicine clinics as assessed by patients in a community setting. Methods Patients (or their guardians) visiting nine community family medicine clinics were surveyed using the Korean Primary Care Assessment Tool from April 2014 to June 2014. The scores of the Korean Primary Care Assessment Tool domains were compared according to the clinics' designation (or not) as 'family medicine' and the patients' recognition (or not) of the physicians as board-certified family medicine specialists. Results A total of 196 subjects responded to the questionnaire. They assessed the community clinics' quality of primary care as moderate to high. Of the clinics, those that were not designated as family medicine scored higher than those that were designated as family medicine (P<0.05). The group of patients that recognized a clinic as that of a board-certified family medicine specialist awarded higher scores than the non-recognition group in the domains of coordination function and personalized care (P<0.05). Conclusion The moderate to high scores for the community family medicine clinics' quality of primary care are encouraging. It seems that patients' recognition of the family physician's role and of the physician-patient relationship has a significant influence on their assessment of the quality of primary care. PMID:27688865

  7. Behavioral science in family medicine residencies: Part II. Teacher roles, relationships, and rewards. The STFM Task Force on Behavioral Science.

    PubMed

    1985-01-01

    A survey of members of the Society of Teachers of Family Medicine provided information about roles, relationships, and rewards for teachers involved in family medicine residency behavioral science education. Family physicians and behavioral scientists perceive their own roles in behavioral teaching and patient care as greater than is perceived by the other group. All groups of respondents see a continued need for collaborative behavioral teaching, patient care, and research. Interpersonal rewards reported emphasize family physicians learning from behavioral scientists. Frustrations reflect personal style, use of jargon, and a sense that the other group does not understand important aspects of one's work. Income is markedly greater for family physicians than behavioral scientists. Most behavioral scientists responding plan to remain in family medicine teaching.

  8. The Present State of Family Relations Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKenry, Patrick C.; Price, Sharon

    1984-01-01

    Family relations research in the areas of family formation, premarital sexuality, mate selection, marital satisfaction, parenthood, and midlife transitions is examined and imperatives for future research are outlined. (SK)

  9. Space medicine research publications: 1987-1988

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    A list of publications of investigators supported by the Biomedical Research and Clinical Programs of the Life Sciences Division, Office of Space Science and Applications is given. Included are publications entered into the Life Sciences Bibliographic Database by the George Washington University as of 31 December 1988. Principal Investigators whose research tasks resulted in publication are identified by asterisk. Publications are organized into the following subject areas: space physiology and countermeasures (cardiopulmonary, musculoskeletal, neuroscience, and regulatory physiology), space human factors, environmental health, radiation health, clinical medicine, and general space medicine.

  10. Designing and implementing a resiliency program for family medicine residents.

    PubMed

    Brennan, Julie; McGrady, Angele

    2015-01-01

    Family medicine residents are at risk for burnout due to extended work hours, lack of control over their work schedule, and challenging work situations and environments. Building resiliency can prevent burnout and may improve a resident's quality of life and health behavior. This report describes a program designed to build resiliency, the ability to bounce back from stress, in family medicine residents in a medium sized U.S. residency training program. Interactive sessions emphasized building self-awareness, coping skills, strengths and meaning in work, time management, self-care, and connections in and outside of medicine to support resident well-being. System changes which fostered wellness were also implemented. These changes included increasing the availability of fresh fruits in the conference and call room, purchasing an elliptical exercise machine for the on call room, and offering a few minutes of mindfulness meditation daily to the inpatient residents. Results to date show excellent acceptance of the program by trainees, increased consumption of nutritious foods, more personal exercise, and self-reported decreased overreactions to stress. Resiliency programs can effectively serve to meet accreditation requirements while fostering residents' abilities to balance personal and professional demands. PMID:26130769

  11. Teaching Students How to Evaluate Family Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ganong, Lawrence H.; Coleman, Marilyn

    1993-01-01

    Sees important aspect of graduate education as learning how to evaluate quality and validity of research. Notes that study of families presents particular challenges. Examines three methods to teach students to critique family research. Sees all three as holding promise in teaching students how to evaluate family research and notes that all three…

  12. Mentorship perceptions and experiences among academic family medicine faculty

    PubMed Central

    Stubbs, Barbara; Krueger, Paul; White, David; Meaney, Christopher; Kwong, Jeffrey; Antao, Viola

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective To collect information about the types, frequency, importance, and quality of mentorship received among academic family medicine faculty, and to identify variables associated with receiving high-quality mentorship. Design Web-based survey of all faculty members of an academic department of family medicine. Setting The Department of Family and Community Medicine of the University of Toronto in Ontario. Participants All 1029 faculty members were invited to complete the survey. Main outcome measures Receiving mentorship rated as very good or excellent in 1 or more of 6 content areas relevant to respondents’ professional lives, and information about demographic and practice characteristics, faculty ratings of their local departments and main practice settings, teaching activities, professional development, leadership, job satisfaction, and health. Bivariate and multivariate analyses identified variables associated with receiving high-quality mentorship. Results The response rate was 66.8%. Almost all (95.0%) respondents had received mentorship in several areas, with informal mentorship being the most prevalent mode. Approximately 60% of respondents rated at least 1 area of mentoring as very good or excellent. Multivariate logistic regression identified 5 factors associated with an increased likelihood of rating mentorship quality as very good or excellent: positive perceptions of their local department (odds ratio [OR] = 4.02, 95% CI 2.47 to 6.54, P < .001); positive ratings of practice infrastructure (OR = 1.86, 95% CI 1.23 to 2.80, P = .003); increased frequency of receiving mentorship (OR = 2.78, 95% CI 1.59 to 4.89, P < .001); fewer years in practice (OR = 1.93, 95% CI 1.19 to 3.12, P = .007); and practising in a family practice teaching unit (OR = 1.51, 95% CI 1.01 to 2.27, P = .040). Conclusion With increasing emphasis on distributed education and community-based teachers, family medicine faculties will need to develop strategies to support

  13. Queensland Emergency Medicine Research Foundation: special report.

    PubMed

    FitzGerald, Gerry; Codd, Catrina; Aitken, Peter; Sinnott, Michael

    2012-02-01

    Development of any new profession is dependent on the development of a special body of knowledge that is the domain of the profession. Key to this is research. Following sustained lobbying, the Queensland Government agreed to establish an emergency medicine research fund as part of an Enterprise Bargaining Agreement in 2006. That fund is managed by the Queensland Emergency Medicine Research Foundation. The present article describes the strategic approaches of the Foundation in its first 3 years, the application of research funds, and foreshadows an evaluative framework for determining the strategic value of this investment. The Foundation has developed a range of personnel and project support funding programmes, and competition for funding has increased. Ongoing evaluation will seek to determine the effectiveness of the current funding strategy on improving the effectiveness of research performance. It will also evaluate the clinical and organizational outcomes.

  14. Context and trade-offs in family medicine.

    PubMed

    Seehusen, Dean A; Bowman, Marjorie A; Neale, Anne Victoria

    2014-01-01

    This issue contains several articles that highlight the effect of context and tradeoffs encountered in the practice of family medicine. Some articles demonstrate how context affects the implementation of the patient-centered medical home model, the community risk of a measles outbreak, the rate of complementary and alternative medicine among different generations, and the number of family physicians primarily providing urgent and emergent care in a region. Tradeoffs are explored in articles that look at how electronic medical record use has changed the composition of workload in primary care and how the burgeoning number of clinical guidelines affects the choices made by family physicians. A look at diabetic patients' perceptions of their risk of negative outcomes reveals an interesting pattern of underestimation of the risk of death. Patients with chronic mental disorders are at risk of having significant difficulties in the workplace, which may place a heavy cost on the individual and society. An interesting retrospective study found that it takes a surprising amount of replacement therapy to correct vitamin D deficiency.

  15. NIH Precision Medicine Initiative: Implications for Diabetes Research.

    PubMed

    Fradkin, Judith E; Hanlon, Mary C; Rodgers, Griffin P

    2016-07-01

    In his January 2015 State of the Union address, President Barack Obama announced a new Precision Medicine Initiative (PMI) to personalize approaches toward improving health and treating disease (www.whitehouse.gov/precision-medicine). He stated that the goal of such an initiative was "to bring us closer to curing diseases like cancer and diabetes, and to give all of us access to the personalized information we need to keep ourselves and our families healthier." Since that time, the National Institutes of Health (NIH) has taken a leadership role in implementing the President's vision related to biomedical research (www.nih.gov/precisionmedicine). Here, we discuss the NIH component of the PMI, related ongoing diabetes research, and near-term research that could position the diabetes field to take full advantage of the opportunities that stem from the PMI. PMID:27289128

  16. Why Family Medicine is a Good Career Choice for Indian Medical Graduates?

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Raman

    2014-01-01

    Internationally family medicine has evolved as an independent academic discipline of medical science and speciality vocational training for community based primary care physicians. India has a long tradition of family practice however due to various regulatory barriers family medicine did not optimally develop in mainstream medical education system for many decades. Recently, there is growing interest in this concept in India and family medicine is emerging as a viable career option for medical graduates in India. PMID:24791226

  17. Why Family Medicine is a Good Career Choice for Indian Medical Graduates?

    PubMed

    Kumar, Raman

    2014-01-01

    Internationally family medicine has evolved as an independent academic discipline of medical science and speciality vocational training for community based primary care physicians. India has a long tradition of family practice however due to various regulatory barriers family medicine did not optimally develop in mainstream medical education system for many decades. Recently, there is growing interest in this concept in India and family medicine is emerging as a viable career option for medical graduates in India.

  18. Obstetrics anyone? How family medicine residents' interests changed.

    PubMed Central

    Ruderman, J.; Holzapfel, S. G.; Carroll, J. C.; Cummings, S.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine family medicine residents' attitudes and plans about practising obstetrics when they enter and when they graduate from their residency programs. DESIGN: Residents in each of 4 consecutive years, starting July 1991, were surveyed by questionnaire when they entered the program and again when they graduated (ending in June 1996). Only paired questionnaires were used for analysis. SETTING: Family medicine residency programs at the University of Toronto in Ontario. PARTICIPANTS: Of 358 family medicine residents who completed the University of Toronto program, 215 (60%) completed questionnaires at entry and exit. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Changes in attitudes and plans during the residency program as ascertained from responses to entry and exit questionnaires. RESULTS: Analysis was based on 215 paired questionnaires. Women residents had more interest in obstetric practice at entry: 58% of women, but only 31% of men were interested. At graduation, fewer women (49%) and men (22%) were interested in practising obstetrics. The intent to undertake rural practice was strongly associated with the intent to practise obstetrics. By graduation, residents perceived lifestyle factors and compensation as very important negative factors in relation to obstetric practice. Initial interest and the eventual decision to practise obstetrics were strongly associated. CONCLUSIONS: Intent to practise obstetrics after graduation was most closely linked to being a woman, intending to practise in a rural area, and having an interest in obstetrics prior to residency. Building on the interest in obstetrics that residents already have could be a better strategy for producing more physicians willing to practise obstetrics than trying to change the minds of those uninterested in such practice. PMID:10099803

  19. The Evolution of Family Studies Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emery, Beth C.; Lloyd, Sally A.

    2001-01-01

    This review of methodological, theoretical, and topical trends in family studies research covers changes in definitions of family and in marriage, parent-child relationships, and family social ecology. Issues discussed include marital satisfaction, violence, social construction of gender, family-work relationship, parenting roles, socialization,…

  20. Family-Centered Practices. Research in Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McBride, Susan L.

    1999-01-01

    Reviews early education practices that respect families' effects on child development, acknowledges families as decision makers, and supports families' role in educating and caring for children. Discusses three principles for family-centered practice and describes continuing challenges and opportunities suggested in the research findings. Charts…

  1. Issues in conducting research with vulnerable families.

    PubMed

    Demi, A S; Warren, N A

    1995-04-01

    This article explores methodological and ethical issues in the conduct of research with vulnerable families. Some methodological and ethical issues are common to all family research, regardless of the families' vulnerability; however, many research issues are more problematic in vulnerable families, and a few issues are relatively unique to vulnerable families. Vulnerable families are defined as families that are susceptible to harm because of their socioeconomic status, their minority status, or other stigmatizing status. Methodological issues include definition of family; recruitment and retention of participants; reliability and validity of instruments; and racism, classism, and sexism. Ethical issues include confidentiality, reporting abuse and neglect, conflict of research ethics and personal ethics, identifying problems nobody can fix, balancing demands and benefits, and interpretation of data. Examples of methodological and ethical issues are drawn from several research studies in which the primary author was or is currently involved.

  2. The Transplant Patient and Transplant Medicine in Family Practice

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, Lloyd D.

    2014-01-01

    Over the last two decades in particular there has been a remarkable increase in the number of solid organ transplants being performed worldwide alongside improvements in long-term survival rates. However, the infrastructure at transplant centres has been unable to keep pace with the current volume of the transplant patient work load. These pressures on transplant specialist centres has led to calls for an increased role of the general practitioner (GP) managing particular aspects of transplant patients’ medical care. Indeed, many aspects of follow-up care such as screening for malignancies, preventing infection through immunisation programmes, and managing cardiovascular risk factors are already important aspects of family practice medicine. This paper aims to review some of the aspects of transplant patient care that is important for healthcare workers in family practice to manage. PMID:25657941

  3. A Comparison of Students' Clinical Experience in Family Medicine and Traditional Clerkships.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parkerson, George R., Jr.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Experience on the traditional internal medicine, surgery, pediatrics, obstetrics-gynecology, and psychiatry clerkships was compared with the experience on a family medicine clerkship. The family medicine clerkship offered the most experience with circulatory, respiratory, digestive, neurological, musculoskeletal, and skin problems and with…

  4. Key informants’ perspectives on development of family medicine training programs in Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Gossa, Weyinshet; Wondimagegn, Dawit; Mekonnen, Demeke; Eshetu, Wondwossen; Abebe, Zerihun; Fetters, Michael D

    2016-01-01

    As a very low-income country, Ethiopia faces significant development challenges, though there is great aspiration to dramatically improve health care in the country. Family medicine has recently been recognized through national policy as one potential contributor in addressing Ethiopia’s health care challenges. Family medicine is a new specialty in Ethiopia emerging in the context of family medicine development in Sub-Saharan Africa. The Addis Ababa University family medicine residency program started in 2013 and is the first and the only family medicine program in the country as of March 2016. Stakeholders on the ground feel that family medicine is off to a good start and have great enthusiasm and optimism for its success. While the Ministry of Health has a vision for the development of family medicine and a plan for rapid upscaling of family medicine across the country, significant challenges remain. Continuing discussion about the potential roles of family medicine specialists in Ethiopia and policy-level strategic planning to place family medicine at the core of primary health care delivery in the country is needed. In addition, the health care-tier system needs to be restructured to include the family medicine specialists along with appropriately equipped health care facilities for training and practice. Key stakeholders are optimistic that family medicine expansion can be successful in Ethiopia through a coordinated effort by the Ministry of Health and collaboration between institutions within the country, other Sub-Saharan African countries, and international partners supportive of establishing family medicine in Ethiopia. PMID:27175100

  5. Herbal Medicine Today: Clinical and Research Issues

    PubMed Central

    Gori, Luigi

    2007-01-01

    Herbal medicine is the use of medicinal plants for prevention and treatment of diseases: it ranges from traditional and popular medicines of every country to the use of standardized and tritated herbal extracts. Generally cultural rootedness enduring and widespread use in a Traditional Medical System may indicate safety, but not efficacy of treatments, especially in herbal medicine where tradition is almost completely based on remedies containing active principles at very low and ultra low concentrations, or relying on magical-energetic principles. In the age of globalization and of the so-called ‘plate world’, assessing the ‘transferability’ of treatments between different cultures is not a relevant goal for clinical research, while are the assessment of efficacy and safety that should be based on the regular patterns of mainstream clinical medicine. The other black box of herbal-based treatments is the lack of definite and complete information about the composition of extracts. Herbal derived remedies need a powerful and deep assessment of their pharmacological qualities and safety that actually can be realized by new biologic technologies like pharmacogenomic, metabolomic and microarray methology. Because of the large and growing use of natural derived substances in all over the world, it is not wise to rely also on the tradition or supposed millenarian beliefs; explanatory and pragmatic studies are useful and should be considered complementary in the acquisition of reliable data both for health caregiver and patients. PMID:18227931

  6. Traditional, complementary, and alternative medicine: Focusing on research into traditional Tibetan medicine in China.

    PubMed

    Song, Peipei; Xia, Jufeng; Rezeng, Caidan; Tong, Li; Tang, Wei

    2016-07-19

    As a form of traditional, complementary, and alternative medicine (TCAM), traditional Tibetan medicine has developed into a mainstay of medical care in Tibet and has spread from there to China and then to the rest of the world. Thus far, research on traditional Tibetan medicine has focused on the study of the plant and animal sources of traditional medicines, study of the histology of those plants and animals, chemical analysis of traditional medicines, pharmacological study of those medicines, and evaluation of the clinical efficacy of those medicines. A number of papers on traditional Tibetan medicines have been published, providing some evidence of the efficacy of traditional Tibetan medicine. However, many traditional Tibetan medicines have unknown active ingredients, hampering the establishment of drug quality standards, the development of new medicines, commercial production of medicines, and market availability of those medicines. Traditional Tibetan medicine must take several steps to modernize and spread to the rest of the world: the pharmacodynamics of traditional Tibetan medicines need to be determined, the clinical efficacy of those medicines needs to be verified, criteria to evaluate the efficacy of those medicines need to be established in order to guide their clinical use, and efficacious medicines need to be acknowledged by the pharmaceutical market. The components of traditional Tibetan medicine should be studied, traditional Tibetan medicines should be screened for their active ingredients, and techniques should be devised to prepare and manufacture those medicines.

  7. Curriculum to enhance pharmacotherapeutic knowledge in family medicine

    PubMed Central

    Bordman, Risa; Bajcar, Jana; Kennie, Natalie; Fernandes, Lisa; Iglar, Karl

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Problem addressed Prescribing is an essential skill for physicians. Despite the fact that prescribing habits are still developing in residency, formal pharmacotherapy curricula are not commonplace in postgraduate programs. Objective of program To teach first-year and second-year family medicine residents a systematic prescribing process using a medication prescribing framework, which could be replicated and distributed. Program description A hybrid model of Web-based (www.rationalprescribing.com) and in-class seminar learning was used. Web-based modules, consisting of foundational pharmacotherapeutic content, were each followed by an in-class session, which involved applying content to case studies. A physician and a pharmacist were coteachers and they used simulated cases to enhance application of pharmacotherapeutic content and modeled interprofessional collaboration. Conclusion This systematic approach to prescribing was well received by family medicine residents. It might be important to introduce the process in the undergraduate curriculum—when learners are building their therapeutic foundational knowledge. Incorporating formal pharmacotherapeutic curriculum into residency teaching is challenging and requires further study to identify potential effects on prescribing habits. PMID:24235207

  8. [Informed concent for emergency medicine research].

    PubMed

    Iserson, Kenneth V

    2015-01-01

    Discussions of consent for research in Emergency Medicine and for procedures during medical emergencies must take into account the nature of both the specialty and the patients that present to emergency departments. With this knowledge, it becomes clear that, popular misconceptions to the contrary, Emergency Medicine research plays a vital role in care, and informed consent (or waiver for minimal-risk research) remains the standard for most emergency care research. Indeed, to publish research in peer-reviewed journals requires evidence of a research ethics committee's approval, which usually means obtaining informed consent but can also include (in the United States) a waiver or intense review and ongoing oversight. Such review and oversight, termed Retrospective/Deferred Consent, is a way of permitting research without prospective informed consent in the very limited circumstances of life- or limb-threatening diseases or injuries. Research Ethics Committees only approve Retrospective/Deferred Consent when no other option exists, when clinical equipoise exists, and when they can carefully monitor the study. Research performed in such time-sensitive clinical situations, once banned as unethical, has led to vital lifesaving alterations in medical practice affecting millions of patients. PMID:26544057

  9. New Findings on Children, Families, and Economic Self-Sufficiency: Summary of a Research Briefing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Deborah, Ed.; Bridgman, Anne, Ed.

    This report is a summary of a December, 1994 research briefing presented by the Board on Children and Families of the National Research Council and the Institute of Medicine, and the Family and Child Well-Being Research Network of the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. This…

  10. Interprofessional primary care in academic family medicine clinics

    PubMed Central

    Drummond, Neil; Abbott, Karen; Williamson, Tyler; Somji, Behnaz

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Objective To explore the status and processes of interprofessional work environments and the implications for interprofessional education in a sample of family medicine teaching clinics. Design Focus group interviews using a purposive sampling procedure. Setting Four academic family medicine clinics in Alberta. Participants Seven family physicians, 9 registered nurses, 5 licensed practical nurses, 2 residents, 1 psychologist, 1 informatics specialist, 1 pharmacist, 1 dietitian, 1 nurse practitioner, 1 receptionist, and 1 respiratory therapist. Methods Assessment of clinic status and performance in relation to established principles of interprofessional work and education was explored using semistructured focus group interviews. Main findings Our data supported the D’Amour and Oandasan model of successful interprofessional collaborative practice in terms of the model’s main “factors” (ie, shared goals and vision, sense of belonging, governance, and the structuring of clinical care) and their constituent “elements.” It is reasonable to conclude that the extent to which these factors and elements are both present and positively oriented in academic clinic settings is an important contributory factor to the establishment of interprofessional collaborative practice in primary care. Using this model, 2 of the 4 clinics were rated as expressing substantial progress in relation to interprofessional work, while the other 2 clinics were rated as less successful on that dimension. None of the clinics was identified as having a clear and explicit focus on providing interprofessional education. Conclusion The key factor in relation to the implementation of interprofessional work in primary care appears to be the existence of clear and explicit leadership in that direction. Substantial scope exists for improvement in the organization, conduct, and promotion of interprofessional education for Canadian primary care. PMID:22893347

  11. Family medicine in post-communist Europe needs a boost. Exploring the position of family medicine in healthcare systems of Central and Eastern Europe and Russia

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The countries of Central and Eastern Europe have experienced a lot of changes at the end of the 20th century, including changes in the health care systems and especially in primary care. The aim of this paper is to systematically assess the position of family medicine in these countries, using the same methodology within all the countries. Methods A key informants survey in 11 Central and Eastern European countries and Russia using a questionnaire developed on the basis of systematic literature review. Results Formally, family medicine is accepted as a specialty in all the countries, although the levels of its implementation vary across the countries and the differences are important. In most countries, solo practice is the most predominant organisational form of family medicine. Family medicine is just one of many medical specialties (e.g. paediatrics and gynaecology) in primary health care. Full introduction of family medicine was successful only in Estonia. Conclusions Some of the unification of the systems may have been the result of the EU request for adequate training that has pushed the policies towards higher standards of training for family medicine. The initial enthusiasm of implementing family medicine has decreased because there was no initiative that would support this movement. Internal and external stimuli might be needed to continue transition process. PMID:22409775

  12. Are family medicine residents adequately trained to deliver palliative care?

    PubMed Central

    Mahtani, Ramona; Kurahashi, Allison M.; Buchman, Sandy; Webster, Fiona; Husain, Amna; Goldman, Russell

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore educational factors that influence family medicine residents’ (FMRs’) intentions to offer palliative care and palliative care home visits to patients. Design Qualitative descriptive study. Setting A Canadian, urban, specialized palliative care centre. Participants First-year (n = 9) and second-year (n = 6) FMRs. Methods Semistructured interviews were conducted with FMRs following a 4-week palliative care rotation. Questions focused on participant experiences during the rotation and perceptions about their roles as family physicians in the delivery of palliative care and home visits. Participant responses were analyzed to summarize and interpret patterns related to their educational experience during their rotation. Main findings Four interrelated themes were identified that described this experience: foundational skill development owing to training in a specialized setting; additional need for education and support; unaddressed gaps in pragmatic skills; and uncertainty about family physicians’ role in palliative care. Conclusion Residents described experiences that both supported and inadvertently discouraged them from considering future engagement in palliative care. Reassuringly, residents were also able to underscore opportunities for improvement in palliative care education. PMID:27035008

  13. Mixed Methods Approaches in Family Science Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plano Clark, Vicki L.; Huddleston-Casas, Catherine A.; Churchill, Susan L.; Green, Denise O'Neil; Garrett, Amanda L.

    2008-01-01

    The complex phenomena of interest to family scientists require the use of quantitative and qualitative approaches. Researchers across the social sciences are now turning to mixed methods designs that combine these two approaches. Mixed methods research has great promise for addressing family science topics, but only if researchers understand the…

  14. [PUBLIC MEDICINE AND RESEARCH-- IMPORTANT AND CHALLENGING].

    PubMed

    Pillar, Giora; Shapira, Chen

    2015-06-01

    Fellows who travel to the US are familiar with the American concept of combining clinical medicine and research. Research activity enforces reading, being updated, thinking creatively initiating, opening horizons, and being in contact with researchers all over the world. Thus, performing research is advantageous not only for research itself, the public, the patients and the knowledge, but also for the development of the researcher, the hospital, and the academic institute with which the hospital is affiliated. However, given the huge clinical workload and obligations, along with the shortage of physicians, the time consuming nature of research activity and the difficulties in obtaining research funds, it is certainly not obvious that clinicians can manage to conduct research and publish it. Decision makers, policy determinants and the individual drive to academic progress, encourage research activity by physicians, albeit the external support is commonly theoretical and moral, and is not commonly combined with time or appropriate resource allocation. In the current issue of "Harefuah", physicians from the Lady Davis Carmel Medical Center publish their own research and review articles. The hospital is the second largest in the Haifa region, providing services to a population of over a million people. The manuscripts reflect only a small sample of the research and clinical activities of the hospital. PMID:26281075

  15. Current Research of Family Literacy Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Sharon; Wuelser, Ann

    This paper investigates existing research about the strengths and weakness of current family literacy programs and presents a 98-item list of family literacy activities across the curricula for adult educators to promote intergenerational literacy. Educational experts feel that family literacy programs need more evaluation, and that the…

  16. Extending the boundaries of family medicine to perform manual procedures.

    PubMed

    Bitterman, Haim; Vinker, Shlomo

    2014-01-01

    A recent survey by Menahem and colleagues revealed that 65% of the surveyed primary care physicians reported that they performed any minor surgical procedures, and 46% reported performance of any musculoskeletal injections. Lack of allocated time and lack of training were the main reported barriers confronting higher performance rates. Healthcare systems are shifting large chunks of traditional hospital-centered activities to competent and comprehensive community-based structures. These changes are very well aligned with key trends in modern consumerism that prefer a close to home availability of medical services. Minor surgical procedures and musculoskeletal injections are good examples of medical activities that had been performed mainly by hospital and community based specialists. The syllabus of specialty training in Family Medicine in Israel includes these skills and trainees should acquire them during the residency program. We estimate that hundreds of family physicians obtain different levels of such training. Yet, only few family physicians have allocated protected time for performance of the procedures. For the skilled physician, performance of such relatively simple procedures extends his professional boundaries and the comprehensiveness of his service. For the healthcare system the "extra effort" and investment needed for performance of minor surgical procedures in primary care clinics is small. The results of the present study reflect on wider issues of care delivery. This study highlights the need for formalized and documented training of family physicians together with allocation of managerial and technical requirements needed to encourage these and similar medically and economically justified endeavors that seem to be perfectly aligned with the wishes of healthcare consumers. PMID:25383180

  17. Medical advertising: the Family Encyclopaedia of Medicine scandal of 1914.

    PubMed

    Jellinek, E H

    2008-12-01

    The past 100 years have seen a transition from a total ban in Britain on all advertising by doctors to the laity to almost total freedom of medical information, with probable benefit to public health but also a risk of loss of privacy. The Family Encyclopaedia of Medicine, written by Dr Hugh Howard Riddle and published by Lord Northcliffe's Daily Mail in 1914, started a flood of medical journalism in the press and the newer media. The lavishly advertised misattribution of its authorship to 'thirty eminent specialists', including Clifford Allbutt and William Osler, caused a major rumpus in the London Royal College of Physicians, but the fortnightly publication continued and became a four-volume book, popular with a public avid for more and more medical information.

  18. Reframing Balint: thoughts on family medicine departmental Balint groups.

    PubMed

    Stein, Howard F

    2003-04-01

    This paper explores recurrent processes and themes in the 1,300 family medicine faculty, resident, intern, and community Balint groups the author has facilitated/led. The frequent group "deviation" from the central Balint task of understanding difficult physician-patient relationships is reframed as less "resistance" or "obstacle" to work, as it is an expression of unmet developmental needs and organizational realities. When group members are carefully attended to (by facilitator and one another), the group often becomes emotionally capable of addressing a "case " in the conventional Balint understanding of the work the group has assembled to do. The group dynamics of such "hybrid" Balint groups thus become comprehensible as other than error.

  19. Medical advertising: the Family Encyclopaedia of Medicine scandal of 1914.

    PubMed

    Jellinek, E H

    2008-12-01

    The past 100 years have seen a transition from a total ban in Britain on all advertising by doctors to the laity to almost total freedom of medical information, with probable benefit to public health but also a risk of loss of privacy. The Family Encyclopaedia of Medicine, written by Dr Hugh Howard Riddle and published by Lord Northcliffe's Daily Mail in 1914, started a flood of medical journalism in the press and the newer media. The lavishly advertised misattribution of its authorship to 'thirty eminent specialists', including Clifford Allbutt and William Osler, caused a major rumpus in the London Royal College of Physicians, but the fortnightly publication continued and became a four-volume book, popular with a public avid for more and more medical information. PMID:19227968

  20. Teaching family medicine residents brief interventions for alcohol misuse.

    PubMed

    Rule, J Chris; Samuel, Pearl

    2015-01-01

    Across the lifespan, alcohol misuse affects a large percentage of patients seen in primary care clinics. It can lead to alcohol use disorders, ranging from risky use to alcohol dependence. Alcohol use disorders frequently complicate acute and chronic illnesses of patients seen in FM clinics. Screening patients for alcohol and substance use has become a standard of practice in most primary care settings. This report describes how a family medicine residency program solidified a residency curriculum in substance abuse screening, assessment, and brief intervention by merging three presentation-style didactics into a blended approach. The curriculum combines didactic teaching, motivational interviewing, and behavioral rehearsal of clinical practice skills. Qualitative feedback suggests that the curriculum has been successful in exposing residents to a variety of practical assessment methods and, through rehearsal, has improved resident confidence in addressing alcohol use and misuse in a primary care population. PMID:26130770

  1. Test ordering for preventive health care among family medicine residents

    PubMed Central

    Fung, Daisy; Schabort, Inge; MacLean, Catherine A.; Asrar, Farhan M.; Khory, Ayesha; Vandermeer, Ben; Allan, G. Michael

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective To determine which screening tests family medicine residents order as part of preventive health care. Design A cross-sectional survey. Setting Alberta and Ontario. Participants First- and second-year family medicine residents at the University of Alberta in Edmonton, the University of Calgary in Alberta, and McMaster University in Hamilton, Ont, during the 2011 to 2012 academic year. Main outcome measures Demographic information, Likert scale ratings assessing ordering attitudes, and selections from a list of 38 possible tests that could be ordered for preventive health care for sample 38-year-old and 55-year-old female and male patients. Descriptive and comparative statistics were calculated. Results A total of 318 of 482 residents (66%) completed the survey. Recommended or appropriate tests were ordered by 82% (for cervical cytology) to 95% (for fasting glucose measurement) of residents. Across the different sample patients, residents ordered an average of 3.3 to 5.7 inappropriate tests per patient, with 58% to 92% ordering at least 1 inappropriate test per patient. The estimated average excess costs varied from $38.39 for the 38-year-old man to $106.46 for the 55-year-old woman. More regular use of a periodic health examination screening template did not improve ordering (P = .88). Conclusion In general, residents ordered appropriate preventive health tests reasonably well but also ordered an average of 3.3 to 5.7 inappropriate tests for each patient. Training programs need to provide better education for trainees around inappropriate screening and work hard to establish good ordering behaviour in preparation for entering practice. PMID:25767171

  2. Effect of family medicine residents on use of diagnostic investigations

    PubMed Central

    Seong, Augene; Osmun, W.E.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Objective To determine the effect of the presence of family medicine residents on the use of laboratory and imaging investigations in a rural emergency department (ED). Design A retrospective cross-sectional electronic chart audit was completed. Background characteristics, as well as type and number of ordered investigations, were compared between study groups. Setting Strathroy Middlesex General Hospital in Strathroy, Ont, a rural community hospital that sees approximately 20 000 ED visits per year. Participants A total of 2000 sequential ED visits, including adult and pediatric patients. The test group consisted of patients seen while a resident was present in the ED. The control group consisted of patients seen while no residents were present in the ED. Main outcome measures Twenty-two distinct categories of common ED investigations were studied. Results There was no statistically significant difference between study groups for 19 of the 22 categories of investigations. There were significant differences in 3 categories: an increased number of D-dimer assays for patients seen while there were no residents in the ED (1.7% of patients vs 0.5% of patients, P = .03) and increased computed tomography and ultrasound imaging for patients seen while a resident was in the ED (4.8% vs 1.8%, P = .0012, and 5.3% and 1.7%, P < .001, respectively). These differences are likely not owing to resident involvement but are explained by a difference in test availability between groups. Conclusion The study was underpowered for most categories of studied investigations. However, the trends demonstrated in this study suggest that the presence of family medicine residents in a rural community ED does not substantially affect the overall use of diagnostic investigations. PMID:25217692

  3. Students letters to patients as a part of education in family medicine.

    PubMed

    Mrduljaš-Đjujic, Nataša; Pavličević, Ivančica; Marušic, Ana; Marušic, Matko

    2012-01-01

    Family medicine fosters holistic approach to patient-centered practice. Current medical curriculum in Croatia does not have well-structured courses or tools to prepare medicals students for successful communication with the patient and for building lasting and beneficial doctor- patient relationship. We explored the value of students practice in writing letters to patients about their illness as a way of building personal and compassionate relationship with patients. Sixth year students at the School of Medicine in Split wrote letters to the patients from consultations under the supervision of the supervisor in a family medicine practice. Structured teaching of communication with the patient brings family medicine back to what has actually always been its main part- communication and doctor-patient relationship. Our future aim is to develop students letters to patients as a new tool in the family medicine course examination. Moreover, we will investigate how they can be used in everyday practice of family medicine.

  4. Interprofessional education in academic family medicine teaching units

    PubMed Central

    Price, David; Howard, Michelle; Hilts, Linda; Dolovich, Lisa; McCarthy, Lisa; Walsh, Allyn E.; Dykeman, Lynn

    2009-01-01

    ABSTRACT PROBLEM ADDRESSED The new family health teams (FHTs) in Ontario were designed to enable interprofessional collaborative practice in primary care; however, many health professionals have not been trained in an interprofessional environment. OBJECTIVE OF PROGRAM To provide health professional learners with an interprofessional practice experience in primary care that models teamwork and collaborative practice skills. PROGRAM DESCRIPTION The 2 academic teaching units of the FHT at McMaster University in Hamilton, Ont, employ 6 types of health professionals and provide learning environments for family medicine residents and students in a variety of health care professions. Learners engage in formal interprofessional education activities and mixed professional and learner clinical consultations. They are immersed in an established interprofessional practice environment, where all team members are valued and contribute collaboratively to patient care and clinic administration. Other contributors to the success of the program include the physical layout of the clinics, the electronic medical record communications system, and support from leadership for the additional clinical time commitment of delivering interprofessional education. CONCLUSION This academic FHT has developed a program of interprofessional education based partly on planned activities and logistic enablers, and largely on immersing learners in a culture of long-standing interprofessional collaboration. PMID:19752260

  5. Development and validation of a questionnaire for evaluation of students' attitudes towards family medicine.

    PubMed

    Šter, Marija Petek; Švab, Igor; Klemenc-Ketiš, Zalika; Kersnik, Janko

    2015-03-01

    The development of the EURACT (European Academy of Teachers in General Practice) Educational Agenda helped many family medicine departments in development of clerkship and the aims and objectives of family medicine teaching. Our aims were to develop and validate a tool for assessment of students' attitudes towards family medicine and to evaluate the impact of the clerkship on students' attitudes regarding the competences of family doctor. In the pilot study, experienced family doctors were asked to describe their attitudes towards family medicine by using the Educational Agenda as a template for brainstorming. The statements were paraphrased and developed into a 164-items questionnaire, which was administered to 176 final-year students in academic year 2007/08. The third phase consisted of development of a final tool using statistical analysis, which resulted in the 60-items questionnaire in six domains which was used for the evaluation of students' attitudes. At the beginning of the clerkship, person-centred care and holistic approach scored lower than the other competences. Students' attitudes regarding the competences at the end of 7 weeks clerkship in family medicine were more positive, with exception of the competence regarding primary care management. The students who named family medicine as his or her future career choice, found holistic approach as more important than the students who did not name it as their future career. With the decision tree, which included students' attitudes to the competences of family medicine, we can successfully predict the future career choice in family medicine in 93.5% of the students. This study reports on the first attempt to develop a valid and reliable tool for measuring attitudes towards family medicine based on EURACT Educational Agenda. The questionnaire could be used for evaluating changes of students' attitudes in undergraduate curricula and for prediction of students' preferences regarding their future professional

  6. Development and validation of a questionnaire for evaluation of students' attitudes towards family medicine.

    PubMed

    Šter, Marija Petek; Švab, Igor; Klemenc-Ketiš, Zalika; Kersnik, Janko

    2015-03-01

    The development of the EURACT (European Academy of Teachers in General Practice) Educational Agenda helped many family medicine departments in development of clerkship and the aims and objectives of family medicine teaching. Our aims were to develop and validate a tool for assessment of students' attitudes towards family medicine and to evaluate the impact of the clerkship on students' attitudes regarding the competences of family doctor. In the pilot study, experienced family doctors were asked to describe their attitudes towards family medicine by using the Educational Agenda as a template for brainstorming. The statements were paraphrased and developed into a 164-items questionnaire, which was administered to 176 final-year students in academic year 2007/08. The third phase consisted of development of a final tool using statistical analysis, which resulted in the 60-items questionnaire in six domains which was used for the evaluation of students' attitudes. At the beginning of the clerkship, person-centred care and holistic approach scored lower than the other competences. Students' attitudes regarding the competences at the end of 7 weeks clerkship in family medicine were more positive, with exception of the competence regarding primary care management. The students who named family medicine as his or her future career choice, found holistic approach as more important than the students who did not name it as their future career. With the decision tree, which included students' attitudes to the competences of family medicine, we can successfully predict the future career choice in family medicine in 93.5% of the students. This study reports on the first attempt to develop a valid and reliable tool for measuring attitudes towards family medicine based on EURACT Educational Agenda. The questionnaire could be used for evaluating changes of students' attitudes in undergraduate curricula and for prediction of students' preferences regarding their future professional

  7. Exploring Gaps of Family History Documentation in EHR for Precision Medicine -A Case Study of Familial Hypercholesterolemia Ascertainment.

    PubMed

    Mehrabi, Saeed; Wang, Yanshan; Ihrke, Donna; Liu, Hongfang

    2016-01-01

    In the era of precision medicine, accurately identifying familial conditions is crucial for providing target treatment. However, it is challenging to identify familial conditions without detailed family history information. In this work, we studied the documentation of family history of premature cardiovascular disease and hypercholesterolemia. The information on patients' family history of stroke within the Patient-provided information (PPI) forms was compared with the information gathered by clinicians in clinical notes. The agreement between PPI and clinical notes on absence of family history information in PPI was substantially higher compared to presence of family history. PMID:27570664

  8. Exploring Gaps of Family History Documentation in EHR for Precision Medicine -A Case Study of Familial Hypercholesterolemia Ascertainment

    PubMed Central

    Mehrabi, Saeed; Wang, Yanshan; Ihrke, Donna; Liu, Hongfang

    2016-01-01

    In the era of precision medicine, accurately identifying familial conditions is crucial for providing target treatment. However, it is challenging to identify familial conditions without detailed family history information. In this work, we studied the documentation of family history of premature cardiovascular disease and hypercholesterolemia. The information on patients’ family history of stroke within the Patient-provided information (PPI) forms was compared with the information gathered by clinicians in clinical notes. The agreement between PPI and clinical notes on absence of family history information in PPI was substantially higher compared to presence of family history. PMID:27570664

  9. Going Through Medical School and Considering the Choice of Family Medicine: Prescription or Antidote?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mauksch, Hans O.; And Others

    A study of the choice of specialty by medical students suggests that Family Medicine depends on students whose choice predates medical school; the number of those interested diminishes significantly over the four years. Interviews suggest several characteristics of the medical school that mitigate against the choice of family medicine and steer…

  10. [Research and analysis to Shui nationality medicine treatment orthopedics & traumatology].

    PubMed

    Hu, Jian-Shan; Li, Pu; Yang, Yong; Chen, Xin-Chun; Lin, Li

    2013-05-01

    To investigated Shui nationality folk medicine's awareness to orthopedics & traumatology, the history of orthopedics & traumatology treatment, Shui nationality folk doctors' practicing medicine, heritage, diagnosis and treatment methods and tools, etc, through investigated drug resources category and distribution characteristics of Shui nationality medicine to orthopedics & traumatology treatment, explored and finished Shui nationality medicine orthopedics & traumatology treatment theoretical system. After more than 5 years' exploration and finishing, preliminarily formed the theoretical system framework and medicine application characteristics of Shui nationality medicine treating orthopedics & traumatology. Shui nationality medicine treatment orthopedics & traumatology has distinctive national style, and worthy to further exploration and research.

  11. Ethical issues in couple and family research.

    PubMed

    Margolin, Gayla; Chien, Deborah; Duman, Sarah E; Fauchier, Angèle; Gordis, Elana B; Oliver, Pamella H; Ramos, Michelle C; Vickerman, Katrina A

    2005-03-01

    Federal regulations, ethical standards, and state laws governing ethics do not adequately address important issues in couple and family research. Including multiple family members, particularly dependent minors, in research requires the special application of fundamental ethical issues, such as confidentiality, privacy, and informed consent. The sensitive, commingled nature of couple and family information necessitates clear policies about data ownership and disclosure. Researchers need to have respect for the family as a unit and to evaluate benefits versus harms for the family as well as for individuals. This article highlights areas of potential concern and ambiguity related to abuse reporting and Certificates of Confidentiality and also addresses ethical issues with observational data, intervention studies, longitudinal designs, and computer-assisted research. PMID:15796661

  12. Ethical issues in couple and family research.

    PubMed

    Margolin, Gayla; Chien, Deborah; Duman, Sarah E; Fauchier, Angèle; Gordis, Elana B; Oliver, Pamella H; Ramos, Michelle C; Vickerman, Katrina A

    2005-03-01

    Federal regulations, ethical standards, and state laws governing ethics do not adequately address important issues in couple and family research. Including multiple family members, particularly dependent minors, in research requires the special application of fundamental ethical issues, such as confidentiality, privacy, and informed consent. The sensitive, commingled nature of couple and family information necessitates clear policies about data ownership and disclosure. Researchers need to have respect for the family as a unit and to evaluate benefits versus harms for the family as well as for individuals. This article highlights areas of potential concern and ambiguity related to abuse reporting and Certificates of Confidentiality and also addresses ethical issues with observational data, intervention studies, longitudinal designs, and computer-assisted research.

  13. How can we help family carers manage pain medicines for patients with advanced cancer? A systematic review of intervention studies

    PubMed Central

    Latter, Sue; Hopkinson, Jane B; Richardson, Alison; Hughes, Jane A; Lowson, Elizabeth; Edwards, Deborah

    2016-01-01

    Background Family carers play a significant role in managing pain and associated medicines for people with advanced cancer. Research indicates that carers often feel inadequately prepared for the tasks involved, which may impact on carers’ and patients’ emotional state as well as the achievement of optimal pain control. However, little is known about effective methods of supporting family carers with cancer pain medicines. Aims To systematically identify and review studies of interventions to help carers manage medicines for pain in advanced cancer. To identify implications for practice and research. Method A systematic literature search of databases (MEDLINE, CINAHL, PsycINFO and AMED) was carried out to identify studies of pain medication management interventions that involved family carers of patients with advanced cancer, and reported specific outcomes for family carers. Patient pain outcomes were also sought. Studies were quality appraised; key aspects of study design, interventions and outcomes were compared and a narrative synthesis of findings developed. Results 8 studies were included; all had significant methodological limitations. The majority reported improvements in family carer knowledge and/or self-efficacy for managing pain medicines; no effect on patient pain outcomes; and no adverse effects. It was not possible to discern any association between particular intervention characteristics and family carer outcomes. Conclusions Current evidence is limited, but overall suggests face-to-face educational interventions supported by written and/or other resources have potential to improve carers’ knowledge and self-efficacy for pain management. Further research is needed to identify how best to help family carers manage pain medicines for patients with advanced cancer. PMID:27150294

  14. Master's and doctoral theses in family medicine and their publication output, Suez Canal University, Egypt

    PubMed Central

    Nour-Eldein, Hebatallah; Mansour, Nadia M.; Abdulmajeed, Abdulmajeed A.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The completion of a thesis is a significant requirement for both a Master's and a doctorate degree in general practice/family medicine (GP/FM). A postgraduate thesis is a well-planned, time-intensive activity carried out over several years. The quality of the theses can be judged by the proportion of published papers. Objective: This study aimed to describe Master's and doctoral theses in family medicine and their publications between 1982 and 2014. Materials and Methods: GP/FM degree theses were reviewed at the Faculty of Medicine and central Suez Canal libraries. Several characteristics were extracted from each thesis relating to the main researcher, supervisors, themes, and study methods according to predefined criteria. Publications from the theses were described. Results: Over 33 years, 208 theses were completed by 173 GP/FM researchers. The majority of the theses were for Master's degrees (84.1%). Regarding the study design, most of the degree theses were cross-sectional studies (76.9%). The adult population was targeted in 33.7% of research theses. Nonprobability sampling was used in 51%. Rural communities were the setting of research in 43.8%, and primary health center (PHC)-based studies in 59.1%. The “Patient” category exceeded the other categories (28.4%). Publication from theses started in the second decade of research production. Of the degree theses, 21.6% original articles were published. Only 13.3% of articles from theses were published in PubMed-indexed journals. The researcher was first author in 62.2% of published articles. Conclusion: The production of GP/FM theses and their publications are going to increase. Continuous assessment and planning for GP/FM studies are recommended. PMID:25949959

  15. Systems Medicine in Pharmaceutical Research and Development.

    PubMed

    Kuepfer, Lars; Schuppert, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    The development of new drug therapies requires substantial and ever increasing investments from the pharmaceutical company. Ten years ago, the average time from early target identification and optimization until initial market authorization of a new drug compound took more than 10 years and involved costs in the order of one billion US dollars. Recent studies indicate even a significant growth of costs in the meanwhile, mainly driven by the increasing complexity of diseases addressed by pharmaceutical research.Modeling and simulation are proven approaches to handle highly complex systems; hence, systems medicine is expected to control the spiral of complexity of diseases and increasing costs. Today, the main focus of systems medicine applications in industry is on mechanistic modeling. Biological mechanisms are represented by explicit equations enabling insight into the cooperation of all relevant mechanisms. Mechanistic modeling is widely accepted in pharmacokinetics, but prediction from cell behavior to patients is rarely possible due to lacks in our understanding of the controlling mechanisms. Data-driven modeling aims to compensate these lacks by the use of advanced statistical and machine learning methods. Future progress in pharmaceutical research and development will require integrated hybrid modeling technologies allowing realization of the benefits of both mechanistic and data-driven modeling. In this chapter, we sketch typical industrial application areas for both modeling techniques and derive the requirements for future technology development.

  16. Osteoporosis guideline implementation in family medicine using electronic medical records

    PubMed Central

    Pritchard, Janet; Karampatos, Sarah; Ioannidis, George; Adachi, Jonathan; Thabane, Lehana; Nash, Lynn; Mehan, Upe; Kozak, Joseph; Feldman, Sid; Hirsch, Steve; Jovaisas, Algis V.; Cheung, Angela; Lohfeld, Lynne; Papaioannou, Alexandra

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective To identify family physicians’ learning needs related to osteoporosis care; determine family physicians’ preferred modes of learning; and identify barriers to using electronic medical records (EMRs) to implement osteoporosis guidelines in practice. Design Web-based survey. Setting Ontario. Participants Family physicians. Main outcome measures Quantitative and qualitative data about learning needs related to osteoporosis diagnosis and management; preferred mode of learning about guidelines; and barriers to using EMRs to implement guidelines. Results Of the 12 332 family physicians invited to participate in the survey, 8.5% and 7.0% provided partial or fully completed surveys, respectively. More than 80% of respondents agreed that the priority areas for education were as follows: selecting laboratory tests for secondary osteoporosis and interpreting the test results; interpreting bone mineral density results; determining appropriate circumstances for ordering anterior-posterior lumbar spine x-ray scans; and understanding duration, types, and adverse effects of pharmacotherapy. Qualitative analysis revealed that managing moderate-risk patients was a learning need. Continuing medical education was the preferred mode of learning. Approximately 80% of respondents agreed that the scarcity of EMR tools to aid in guideline implementation was a barrier to using guidelines, and 50% of respondents agreed that if EMR-embedded tools were available, time would limit their ability to use them. Conclusion This survey identified key diagnostic- and treatment-related topics in osteoporosis care that should be the focus of future continuing professional development for family physicians. Developers of EMR tools, physicians, and researchers aiming to implement guidelines to improve osteoporosis care should consider the potential barriers indicated in this study.

  17. [Construction of Research-Oriented State Key Clinical Department by Highlighting the Characteris- tics and Advantages of Chinese Medicine].

    PubMed

    Ma, Shi-yu; Guo, Li-heng; Han, Yun; Li, Jian; Zhang, Min-zhou

    2016-04-01

    As the largest research-oriented specialty department in national traditional Chinese medicine hospitals, the Department of Critical Care Medicine in Guangdong Provincial Hospital of Chinese Medicine insists on the development mode combined with clinical medicine and scientific research. By taking clinical and basic researches for integrative medicine preventing and treating acute myocardial in-farction and sepsis as a breakthrough, authors explored key problems of Chinese medicine in improving the prognosis related diseases and patients' quality of life. In recent 3 years our department has successively become the principal unit of the national key specialties cooperative group of critical care medicine (awarded by State Administration of Traditional Chinese Medicine), the key clinical specialties (awarded by National Health and Family Planning Commission), and Guangzhou key laboratory construction unit, and achieved overall lap in clinical medical treatment, personnel training, scientific research, and social service.

  18. [Construction of Research-Oriented State Key Clinical Department by Highlighting the Characteris- tics and Advantages of Chinese Medicine].

    PubMed

    Ma, Shi-yu; Guo, Li-heng; Han, Yun; Li, Jian; Zhang, Min-zhou

    2016-04-01

    As the largest research-oriented specialty department in national traditional Chinese medicine hospitals, the Department of Critical Care Medicine in Guangdong Provincial Hospital of Chinese Medicine insists on the development mode combined with clinical medicine and scientific research. By taking clinical and basic researches for integrative medicine preventing and treating acute myocardial in-farction and sepsis as a breakthrough, authors explored key problems of Chinese medicine in improving the prognosis related diseases and patients' quality of life. In recent 3 years our department has successively become the principal unit of the national key specialties cooperative group of critical care medicine (awarded by State Administration of Traditional Chinese Medicine), the key clinical specialties (awarded by National Health and Family Planning Commission), and Guangzhou key laboratory construction unit, and achieved overall lap in clinical medical treatment, personnel training, scientific research, and social service. PMID:27323605

  19. [Research on Prevention and Treatment of Cardiovascular Disease by Translational Medicine Based Chinese Medicine].

    PubMed

    Lu, Shi-chao; Zhang, Jun-ping

    2015-05-01

    Translational medicine is inevitable in the development of modern medicine, and the uprising concept of translational medicine provides an opportunity for the development of Chinese medicine (CM). Their ideas are well communicated. There are two patterns of researching on CM based on translational medicine: 'literature to bench to bedside' and 'bench to bedside to bench'. CM has her advantages in preventing and treating cardiovascular disease. Effective methods for preventing and treating cardiovascular disease by CM should be further studied based on translational medicine concepts.

  20. The p-medicine portal-a collaboration platform for research in personalised medicine.

    PubMed

    Schera, Fatima; Weiler, Gabriele; Neri, Elias; Kiefer, Stephan; Graf, Norbert

    2014-01-01

    The European project p-medicine creates an information technology infrastructure that facilitates the development from current medical practice to personalised medicine. The main access point to this infrastructure is the p-medicine portal that provides clinicians, patients, and researchers a platform to collaborate, share data and expertise, and use tools and services to improve personalised treatments of patients. In this document, we describe the community-based structure of the p-medicine portal and provide information about the p-medicine security framework implemented in the portal. Finally, we show the user interface and describe the p-medicine tools and services integrated in the portal. PMID:24567755

  1. Filling the gaps between theory and daily clinical procedural skills training in family medicine.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Rodriguez, Juan Antonio

    2016-05-01

    Performance of procedures is an integral part of any family physician/general practitioner's practice. Unfortunately, discrepancy occurs between the existing theoretical methods of procedural teaching and the training imparted during real daily practice, which creates gaps that need to be overcome. This article identifies and reviews teaching gaps in family medicine training and presents suggestions to overcome them with a view to forming holistic psychomotor skills based on the learner's characteristics within the patient-centred philosophy of family medicine. PMID:27073067

  2. Teaching adaptive leadership to family medicine residents: what? why? how?

    PubMed

    Eubank, Daniel; Geffken, Dominic; Orzano, John; Ricci, Rocco

    2012-09-01

    Health care reform calls for patient-centered medical homes built around whole person care and healing relationships. Efforts to transform primary care practices and deliver these qualities have been challenging. This study describes one Family Medicine residency's efforts to develop an adaptive leadership curriculum and use coaching as a teaching method to address this challenge. We review literature that describes a parallel between the skills underlying such care and those required for adaptive leadership. We address two questions: What is leadership? Why focus on adaptive leadership? We then present a synthesis of leadership theories as a set of process skills that lead to organization learning through effective work relationships and adaptive leadership. Four models of the learning process needed to acquire such skills are explored. Coaching is proposed as a teaching method useful for going beyond information transfer to create the experiential learning necessary to acquire the process skills. Evaluations of our efforts to date are summarized. We discuss key challenges to implementing such a curriculum and propose that teaching adaptive leadership is feasible but difficult in the current medical education and practice contexts.

  3. The economic impacts of Oklahoma's Family Medicine residency programs.

    PubMed

    Lapolla, Michael; Brandt, Edward N; Barker, Andréa; Ryan, Lori

    2004-06-01

    The enactment of Medicare and Medicaid created a new demand for medical services in Oklahoma, particularly in rural areas. The state of Oklahoma responded by creating The Oklahoma Physician Manpower Training Commission in 1975. The overall purpose of the Commission was to increase the number of primary care physicians and influence distribution into non-metro areas. This analysis concerns the public policy value of this ongoing program. The PMTC has provided resident stipend funding to each of Oklahoma's publicly funded Family Medicine residency programs. Since 1975, the PMTC has provided over 139 million dollars in resident stipend funding and support; and there have been 749 program graduates with 431 practicing in Oklahoma. This model calculates that the Oklahoma-based physicians have created a cumulative 3.7 billion dollars of economic impact on the state; and conservatively estimates that only 10% of the practice decisions/locations were influenced by the PMTC. This creates an estimated return of 370 million dollars on an "investment" of 139 million dollars. Additionally the model demonstrates that the current cohort of physicians is annually responsible for 15,530 jobs and an associated payroll of 428 million dollars. PMID:15346805

  4. Researches on regenerative medicine-current state and prospect.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zheng-Guo; Xiao, Kai

    2012-01-01

    Since 1980s, the rapid development of tissue engineering and stem cell research has pushed regenerative medicine to a new fastigium, and regenerative medicine has become a noticeable research field in the international biology and medicine. In China, about 100 million patients need repair and regeneration treatment every year, while the number is much larger in the world. Regenerative medicine could provide effective salvation for these patients. Both Chinese Academy of Sciences and Chinese Academy of Engineering have made roadmaps of 2010-2050 and 2011-2030 for regenerative medicine. The final goal of the two roadmaps is to make China go up to leading position in most research aspects of regenerative medicine. In accord with this strategy, the government and some enterprises have invested 3-5 billion RMB (0.5-0.8 billion USD) for the research on regenerative medicine. In order to push the translation of regenerative medicine forward-from bench to bedside, a strategic alliance has been established, and it includes 27 top-level research institutes, medical institutes, colleges, universities and enterprises in the field of stem cell and regeneration medicine. Recently the journal, Science, has published a special issue-Regenerative Medicine in China, consisting of 35 papers dealing with stem cell and regeneration, tissue engineering and regeneration, trauma and regeneration and bases for tissue repair and regenerative medicine. It is predicated that a greater breakthrough in theory and practice of regenerative medicine will be achieved in the near future (20 to 30 years). PMID:23069095

  5. Practising family medicine for adults with intellectual disabilities

    PubMed Central

    Baumbusch, Jennifer; Phinney, Alison; Baumbusch, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Objective To explore the perspectives of adults with intellectual disabilities (IDs) on helpful interactions with their family physicians. Design Exploratory, qualitative study. Setting Vancouver, BC. Participants Purposive sample of 11 community-dwelling adults with IDs. Methods In-depth, semistructured interviews were conducted face to face with participants. Interviews were audiorecorded and transcribed verbatim. Research team members read the transcripts, which were then coded into categories and subcategories and discussed at collective analysis meetings. The main study themes were generated through this iterative, collective process. Main findings Two themes about helpful interactions were identified: helping patients understand and helping patients navigate the health care system. The first theme reflected helpful ways of communicating with patients with IDs. These approaches focused on plain-language communication and other strategies developed jointly by the patients and their physicians. The second theme reflected ways in which the family physicians helped adults with IDs manage their health needs despite the complex constraints of their socioeconomic situations. Conclusion Adults with IDs want to play an active role in managing their health as they age, and helpful interactions with family physicians make this possible. PMID:25022654

  6. Public Health Aspects of the Family Medicine Concepts in South Eastern Europe

    PubMed Central

    Masic, Izet; Hadziahmetovic, Miran; Donev, Doncho; Pollhozani, Azis; Ramadani, Naser; Skopljak, Amira; Pasagic, Almir; Roshi, Enver; Zunic, Lejla; Zildzic, Muharem

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Family medicine as a part of the primary health care is devoted to provide continuous and comprehensive health care to the individuals and families regardless of age, gender, types of diseases and affected system or part of the body. Special emphasis in such holistic approach is given to the prevention of diseases and health promotion. Family Medicine is the first step/link between doctors and patients within patients care as well as regular inspections/examinations and follow-up of the health status of healthy people. Most countries aspire to join the European Union and therefore adopting new regulations that are applied in the European Union. Aim: The aim of this study is to present the role and importance of family medicine, or where family medicine is today in 21 Century from the beginning of development in these countries. The study is designed as a descriptive epidemiological study with data from 10 countries of the former Communist bloc, Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Serbia, Montenegro, Macedonia, Kosovo, Albania, Bulgaria, Romania, Czech Republic, Slovakia and Hungary, just about half of them are members of the EU. We examined the following variables: socio-organizational indicators, health and educational indicators and health indicators. The data used refer to 2002 and as a source of data are used official data from reference WebPages of family medicine doctors associations, WONCA website (EURACT, EQuiP, EGPRN), WebPages of Bureau of Statistics of the countries where the research was conducted as well as the Ministries of Health. Results: Results indicates that the failures and shortcomings of health care organizations in Southeast Europe. Lack of money hinders the implementation of health care reform in all mentioned countries, the most of them that is more oriented to Bismarck financing system. Problems in the political, legal and economic levels are obstacles for efficient a problem reconstructing health care system toward

  7. Where to publish family violence research?

    PubMed

    Moore, Todd M; Rhatigan, Deborah L; Stuart, Gregory L; Street, Amy; Farrell, Lyette E

    2004-08-01

    Family violence researchers must weigh numerous factors in deciding where to submit their work for publication. The purpose of the present study is to provide a useful guide for family violence researchers to make informed decisions about publishing their manuscripts. Through an extensive computerized literature search, 22 English-language specialty and non-specialty journals that frequently publish articles on family violence were identified. Editors or editorial staff of these journals were contacted and completed a brief questionnaire about their respective journal. Journals varied widely in types of articles accepted for publication, target audience, circulation rates, number of issues per year, and acceptance rates. Journals generally evidenced high acceptance rates following resubmission. Overall, this study identified numerous journals to serve as outlets for the theoretical and empirical efforts of family violence researchers.

  8. Violence against health workers in Family Medicine Centers

    PubMed Central

    Al-Turki, Nouf; Afify, Ayman AM; AlAteeq, Mohammed

    2016-01-01

    Background Health care violence is a significant worldwide problem with negative consequences on both the safety and well-being of health care workers as well as workplace activities. Reports examining health care violence in Saudi Arabia are limited and the results are conflicting. Objective To estimate the prevalence and determine the demographic and occupational characteristics associated with workplace violence in primary care centers in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Methods A cross-sectional study included 270 health care workers in 12 family medicine centers in Riyadh during November and December 2014. A structured self-administered questionnaire was used to estimate the frequency, timing, causes, reactions, and consequences of workplace violence plus participants’ demographic and occupational data. Results A total 123 health care workers (45.6%) experienced some kind of violence over 12 months prior to the study. These included physical (6.5%) and nonphysical violence (99.2%), including verbal violence (94.3%) and intimidation (22.0%). Offenders were patients (71.5%) in the majority of cases, companions (20.3%), or both (3.3%). Almost half (48.0%) of health care workers who experienced violence did nothing, 38.2% actively reported the event, and 13.8% consulted a colleague. A significant association of workplace violence was found with working multiple shifts, evening or night shift, and lack of an encouraging environment to report violence. Conclusion Workplace violence is still a significant problem in primary care centers. The high frequency of violence together with underreporting may indicate the inefficiency of the current safety program. More safety programs and training activities for health care workers, efficient reporting system, and zero tolerance policies need to be implemented to minimize workplace violence against health workers. PMID:27330300

  9. Task Force 1. Report of the Task Force on Patient Expectations, Core Values, Reintegration, and the New Model of Family Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Green, Larry A.; Graham, Robert; Bagley, Bruce; Kilo, Charles M.; Spann, Stephen J.; Bogdewic, Stephen P.; Swanson, John

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND To lay the groundwork for the development of a comprehensive strategy to transform and renew the specialty of family medicine, this Future of Family Medicine task force was charged with identifying the core values of family medicine, developing proposals to reform family medicine to meet consumer expectations, and determining systems of care to be delivered by family medicine in the future. METHODS A diverse, multidisciplinary task force representing a broad spectrum of perspectives and expertise analyzed and discussed published literature; findings from surveys, interviews, and focus groups compiled by research firms contracted to the Future of Family Medicine project; and analyses from The Robert Graham Center, professional societies in the United States and abroad, and others. Through meetings, conference calls, and writing, and revision of a series of subcommittee reports, the entire task force reached consensus on its conclusions and recommendations. These were reviewed by an external panel of experts and revisions were made accordingly. MAJOR FINDINGS After delivering on its promise to reverse the decline of general practice in the United States, family medicine and the nation face additional challenges to assure all people receive care that is safe, effective, patient-centered, timely, efficient, and equitable. Challenges the discipline needs to address to improve family physicians’ ability to make important further contributions include developing a broader, more accurate understanding of the specialty among the public and other health professionals, addressing the wide scope and variance in practice types within family medicine, winning respect for the specialty in academic circles, making family medicine a more attractive career option, and dealing with the perception that family medicine is not solidly grounded in science and technology. The task force set forth a proposed identity statement for family medicine, a basket of services that

  10. Personalised medicine in Canada: a survey of adoption and practice in oncology, cardiology and family medicine

    PubMed Central

    Bonter, Katherine; Currier, Nathan; Pun, Jason; Ashbury, Fredrick D

    2011-01-01

    Introduction In order to provide baseline data on genetic testing as a key element of personalised medicine (PM), Canadian physicians were surveyed to determine roles, perceptions and experiences in this area. The survey measured attitudes, practice, observed benefits and impacts, and barriers to adoption. Methods A self-administered survey was provided to Canadian oncologists, cardiologists and family physicians and responses were obtained online, by mail or by fax. The survey was designed to be exploratory. Data were compared across specialties and geography. Results The overall response rate was 8.3%. Of the respondents, 43%, 30% and 27% were family physicians, cardiologists and oncologists, respectively. A strong majority of respondents agreed that genetic testing and PM can have a positive impact on their practice; however, only 51% agreed that there is sufficient evidence to order such tests. A low percentage of respondents felt that they were sufficiently informed and confident practicing in this area, although many reported that genetic tests they have ordered have benefited their patients. Half of the respondents agreed that genetic tests that would be useful in their practice are not readily available. A lack of practice guidelines, limited provider knowledge and lack of evidence-based clinical information were cited as the main barriers to practice. Differences across provinces were observed for measures relating to access to testing and the state of practice. Differences across specialties were observed for the state of practice, reported benefits and access to testing. Conclusions Canadian physicians recognise the benefits of genetic testing and PM; however, they lack the education, information and support needed to practice effectively in this area. Variability in practice and access to testing across specialties and across Canada was observed. These results support a need for national strategies and resources to facilitate physician knowledge

  11. Exploring professional identification and reputation of family medicine among medical students: a Canadian case study.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Charo; Tellier, Pierre-Paul; Bélanger, Emmanuelle

    2012-05-01

    We aim to shed light on medical students' professional identification with family medicine by means of a qualitative case study examining the reputation of, and professional identification processes with, family medicine among students enrolled in a Canadian medical school, where a consistently low number of students choose family medicine as first choice for postgraduate training. Six focus groups, three for second year students and three for fourth year students, were conducted in 2007 and 2008. Transcripts from group discussions were submitted to a thematic analysis, while documentary sources supported contextualisation. All the students participating in the investigation had a clear idea about the traditional role of general practitioners (GPs). Those students who seemed to better identify with a family medicine career path were characterised by feeling comfortable with the broad scope of general medical knowledge, and with requesting a second opinion, by valuing the possibility of a diversified profile of practice, and holding strong humanistic values, as well as by being more concerned about lifestyle issues. This was observed despite an academic context that strongly encouraged medical specialisation, as students unanimously pointed out. In such circumstances, identification with family medicine by undecided medical students was hampered. In order to embed family medicine in the academic discourse of excellence, and therefore encourage students' identification with this profession, more attention should be paid to family physicians' identity formation in academic centres.

  12. Geriatric Core Competencies for Family Medicine Curriculum and Enhanced Skills: Care of Elderly

    PubMed Central

    Charles, Lesley; Triscott, Jean A.C.; Dobbs, Bonnie M.; McKay, Rhianne

    2014-01-01

    Background There is a growing mandate for Family Medicine residency programs to directly assess residents’ clinical competence in Care of the Elderly (COE). The objectives of this paper are to describe the development and implementation of incremental core competencies for Postgraduate Year (PGY)-I Integrated Geriatrics Family Medicine, PGY-II Geriatrics Rotation Family Medicine, and PGY-III Enhanced Skills COE for COE Diploma residents at a Canadian University. Methods Iterative expert panel process for the development of the core competencies, with a pre-defined process for implementation of the core competencies. Results Eighty-five core competencies were selected overall by the Working Group, with 57 core competencies selected for the PGY-I/II Family Medicine residents and an additional 28 selected for the PGY-III COE residents. The core competencies follow the CanMEDS Family Medicine roles. Both sets of core competencies are based on consensus. Conclusions Due to demographic changes, it is essential that Family Physicians have the required skills and knowledge to care for the frail elderly. The core competencies described were developed for PGY-I/II Family Medicine residents and PGY-III Enhanced Skills COE, with a focus on the development of geriatric expertise for those patients that would most benefit. PMID:24883163

  13. Evidence-based medicine in primary care: qualitative study of family physicians

    PubMed Central

    Tracy, C Shawn; Dantas, Guilherme Coelho; Upshur, Ross EG

    2003-01-01

    Background The objectives of this study were: a) to examine physician attitudes to and experience of the practice of evidence-based medicine (EBM) in primary care; b) to investigate the influence of patient preferences on clinical decision-making; and c) to explore the role of intuition in family practice. Method Qualitative analysis of semi-structured interviews of 15 family physicians purposively selected from respondents to a national survey on EBM mailed to a random sample of Canadian family physicians. Results Participants mainly welcomed the promotion of EBM in the primary care setting. A significant number of barriers and limitations to the implementation of EBM were identified. EBM is perceived by some physicians as a devaluation of the 'art of medicine' and a threat to their professional/clinical autonomy. Issues regarding the trustworthiness and credibility of evidence were of great concern, especially with respect to the influence of the pharmaceutical industry. Attempts to become more evidence-based often result in the experience of conflicts. Patient factors exert a powerful influence on clinical decision-making and can serve as trumps to research evidence. A widespread belief that intuition plays a vital role in primary care reinforced views that research evidence must be considered alongside other factors such as patient preferences and the clinical judgement and experience of the physician. Discussion Primary care physicians are increasingly keen to consider research evidence in clinical decision-making, but there are significant concerns about the current model of EBM. Our findings support the proposed revisions to EBM wherein greater emphasis is placed on clinical expertise and patient preferences, both of which remain powerful influences on physician behaviour. PMID:12740025

  14. [Intensive care medicine from the viewpoint of patients, their family and nursing personnel].

    PubMed

    Wahl, W; Küchle, R; Schrapers, S; Junginger, T

    1998-01-01

    We wanted to know how our intensive care unit would be graded by the patients, their family members and the staff, as well as the impression that intensive care medicine made on them. A total of 82% of the patients and 90% of the family members were of the opinion that they owed their lives to intensive care medicine, and 100% of the patients and 96% of family members deemed intensive care medicine significant. The patients and their family members judged the medical and nursing care, the medical technology, the care of basic needs and their accommodation altogether positive. The nursing staff held a contrary opinion and were more critical. Competent explanation and transmission of information represented the most important factor in forming a positive opinion of intensive care medicine. PMID:9931723

  15. Overview of Behavioral Genetics Research for Family Researchers

    PubMed Central

    Samek, Diana; Rueter, Martha; Koh, Bibiana

    2013-01-01

    This article provides an overview of the methods, assumptions, and key findings of behavioral genetics methodology for family researchers with a limited background. We discuss how family researchers can utilize and contribute to the behavioral genetics field, particularly in terms of conducting research that seeks to explain shared environmental effects. This can be done, in part, by theoretically controlling for genetic confounds in research that seeks to determine cause-and-effect relationships among family variables and individual outcomes. Gene–environment correlation and interaction are especially promising areas for the family researcher to address. Given the methodological advancements in the field, we also briefly comment on new methods in molecular genetics for studying psychological mental health disorders. PMID:24073018

  16. Overview of Behavioral Genetics Research for Family Researchers.

    PubMed

    Samek, Diana; Rueter, Martha; Koh, Bibiana

    2013-09-01

    This article provides an overview of the methods, assumptions, and key findings of behavioral genetics methodology for family researchers with a limited background. We discuss how family researchers can utilize and contribute to the behavioral genetics field, particularly in terms of conducting research that seeks to explain shared environmental effects. This can be done, in part, by theoretically controlling for genetic confounds in research that seeks to determine cause-and-effect relationships among family variables and individual outcomes. Gene-environment correlation and interaction are especially promising areas for the family researcher to address. Given the methodological advancements in the field, we also briefly comment on new methods in molecular genetics for studying psychological mental health disorders.

  17. Family Medicine: A Solution for Career Inequalities among Doctors in India.

    PubMed

    Beswal, Gaurav

    2013-07-01

    Career in medicine is challenging. Medical education system is a ever evolving entity. Due to certain bottle necks in the medical education system, young medical graduates in India are facing difficulties in career progression. Author draws from the experience of Britain and explores how family medicine could be answer to many question which the Indian health system is challenged with. PMID:24479085

  18. Learning to See Beneath the Surface: A Qualitative Analysis of Family Medicine Residents' Reflections About Communication.

    PubMed

    Duggan, Ashley P; Vicini, Andrea; Allen, Lucas; Shaughnessy, Allen F

    2015-01-01

    Patients share straightforward statements with physicians such as describing their fears about their diagnosis. Physicians need to also understanding implicit, indirect, subtle communication cues that give broader context to patients' illness experiences. This project examines physicians' written reflections that offer insight into their interpretation of both the stated and the tacit aspects of their observations about communication, their resulting responses, and their intended actions. Tufts University Family Medicine residents (N = 33) of the Tufts Family Medicine Cambridge Health Alliance completed three reflective exercises each week over the course of 1 year (756 reflective entries). An interdisciplinary research team identified communication-related concepts within the reflections. Identified themes include (a) physicians recognizing and discovering mutual interplay of their communication with and patient disclosure, (b) physicians paying attention to subtleties of patient behavior as indicative of a fuller picture of patients' lives and their coping with illness, and (c) physician images of growth and awareness about communication indicative of their potential for growth and improvement. The project extends the literature in communication and medical education by examining explicit and tacit points of reflection about communication. The project (a) allows for unpacking the multifaceted aspects of reflection and (b) bridges reflective theory and medical education with communication foundations.

  19. Learning to See Beneath the Surface: A Qualitative Analysis of Family Medicine Residents' Reflections About Communication.

    PubMed

    Duggan, Ashley P; Vicini, Andrea; Allen, Lucas; Shaughnessy, Allen F

    2015-01-01

    Patients share straightforward statements with physicians such as describing their fears about their diagnosis. Physicians need to also understanding implicit, indirect, subtle communication cues that give broader context to patients' illness experiences. This project examines physicians' written reflections that offer insight into their interpretation of both the stated and the tacit aspects of their observations about communication, their resulting responses, and their intended actions. Tufts University Family Medicine residents (N = 33) of the Tufts Family Medicine Cambridge Health Alliance completed three reflective exercises each week over the course of 1 year (756 reflective entries). An interdisciplinary research team identified communication-related concepts within the reflections. Identified themes include (a) physicians recognizing and discovering mutual interplay of their communication with and patient disclosure, (b) physicians paying attention to subtleties of patient behavior as indicative of a fuller picture of patients' lives and their coping with illness, and (c) physician images of growth and awareness about communication indicative of their potential for growth and improvement. The project extends the literature in communication and medical education by examining explicit and tacit points of reflection about communication. The project (a) allows for unpacking the multifaceted aspects of reflection and (b) bridges reflective theory and medical education with communication foundations. PMID:26147857

  20. What can technology do to, and for, family medicine?

    PubMed

    Ebell, M H; Frame, P

    2001-04-01

    Medical technology can be divided into information technology, diagnostic technology, and therapeutic technology. These technologies can enhance the care of patients in a family practice; they also have the potential to diminish or fragment family practice when the technologies can only be provided by specialists. While some family physicians have an aversion to technological advances, we believe it is imperative that family physicians participate in the development of technologies that enhance family practice and improve patient outcomes in primary care practice. These include electronic medical records, decision support systems, tools for managing medical information, and others. Criteria are presented to help determine when these new technologies should be adopted into practice.

  1. Behavioral science in family medicine residencies: Part I. Teachers and curricula. The STFM Task Force on Behavioral Science.

    PubMed

    1985-01-01

    A survey was conducted of all members of the Society of Teachers of Family Medicine to describe teachers, curricula, and teacher satisfaction in family medicine residency behavioral science education. The response rate was approximately 60% of eligible individuals. Family medicine teachers divide themselves into behavioral scientists, family physicians, both, program directors, and other faculty members. Behavioral scientists are most often psychologists or social workers, have been teaching family medicine a relatively short time, and are more likely to be female than the other groups. Behavioral science curricula emphasize counseling, interviewing, and family dynamics. Satisfaction with behavioral curricula is high.

  2. Research needs in family planning program promotion.

    PubMed

    Cernada, G P

    1984-09-01

    Areas of family planning promotion which need to be further researched are identified. The effectiveness of diverse information, education, and communication approaches needs to be evaluated, feasible ways to increase contraceptive continuation rates must be identified, the relative merits of providing fieldworkers with salaries or incentives should be assessed, different styles of interactions between providers and clients should be identified and evaluated and research directed toward improving training programs, field supervision, and supply logistics should be undertaken. A number of more detailed research suggestions with special reference to Taiwan and other Asian and Pacific countries are also provided. Little is known, for example, about provider and user interaction patterns in Asia, and the impact of these patterns on contraceptive acceptance and continuance. These patterns could be analyzed using diverse research techniques ranging from observation to experimental manipulation. Despite the fact that approximately 50% of all acceptors discontinue use within 2 years, researchers tend to focus on identifying acceptor characteristics while ignoring the discontinuation process. Researcher should 1) identify the best time for providing postacceptance followup services, 2) identify training strategies which provide fieldworkers with the highest level of confidence in specific contraceptive methods, 3) experiment with the use of newspaper columns and telephone advisory services to provide users with information about side effects, 4) assess the merits of involving both partners in the contraceptive counseling process, 5) develop and evaluate postacceptance educational materials, and 6) assess the impact of various supply systems on contraceptive continuance. Another neglected area of research is the public's attitude toward different contraceptive knowledge sources. For example, receptivity to family planning messages may vary depending on wether the message is

  3. [Methods and possibilities of research in medicine in ancient Egypt].

    PubMed

    Quack, Joachim Friedrich

    2003-01-01

    A recent monograph on Ancient Egyptian medicine provided the occasion for this article. Apart from highlighting the monograph's shortcomings, this article discusses some crucial problems of research and possible avenues for future investigations in this field. Much additional information can be expected from hitherto unpublished sources. Also the already known source materials permit further insights. Relevant aspects are, among others, the order of recipes and the structure of texts, the relationship of magic to medicine, and the secret names for ingredients. Intensified research on the late period data will further clarify the issue of contacts to Greek medicine and of influences on Coptic medicine. PMID:14509232

  4. Space medicine research publications: 1983-1984

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Solberg, J. L.; Pleasant, L. G.

    1984-01-01

    A list of publications supported by the Space Medicine Program, Office of Space Science and Applications is given. Included are publications entered into the Life Sciences Bibliographic Database by The George Washington University as of October 1, 1984.

  5. Advancements in medicine from aerospace research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wooten, F. T.

    1971-01-01

    A program designed to find ways of transferring space technology to non-space medicine is discussed. The methodology used to attack the problem and several illustrative examples of the results are given.

  6. Primary Care, Ambulatory Care, and Family Medicine: Overlapping But Not Synonymous

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, Robert E.

    1975-01-01

    Defines and depicts graphically the relationships between primary, secondary, and tertiary care functions (from least to most intensified phases of medical care); ambulatory care (care of sick or well people not confined to bed); and family medicine (an emerging medical discipline focusing on complete and longterm care of the family). (JT)

  7. Family Caregiver Research and the HIPAA Factor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albert, Steven M.; Levine, Carol

    2005-01-01

    Research in family caregiving recently has become more challenging because of the strict protection of privacy mandated in the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) of 1996. We ask when should Institutional Review Boards (IRBs) follow HIPAA rules to the letter and when might they use the waiver option? What is the appropriate…

  8. The Chicano Family: A Review of Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montiel, Miguel

    1973-01-01

    Numerous studies of Chicano families have focused primarily on pathology, rather than on the diversity and strengths developed throughout often turbulent historical events over which they had no control. The author carefully documents the fallacious premises on which the studies are based and offers suggestions for more realistic future research.…

  9. [Progress on space oral medicine research under microgravity environment].

    PubMed

    Jing, Chen; Xingqun, Cheng; Xin, Xu; Xuedong, Zhou; Yuqing, Li

    2016-02-01

    As an interdisciplinary of stomatology and space medicine, space oral medicine focuses mainly on oral diseases happened under space environment. With the manned space technology stepping into the new era, space oral medicine has been put under the spotlight. This article will review the historical events on this subject, summarize the newly progress especially on craniomaxillofacial bone, tooth-derived stem cell and oral microbiology researches and still put forward future prospect.

  10. [Progress on space oral medicine research under microgravity environment].

    PubMed

    Jing, Chen; Xingqun, Cheng; Xin, Xu; Xuedong, Zhou; Yuqing, Li

    2016-02-01

    As an interdisciplinary of stomatology and space medicine, space oral medicine focuses mainly on oral diseases happened under space environment. With the manned space technology stepping into the new era, space oral medicine has been put under the spotlight. This article will review the historical events on this subject, summarize the newly progress especially on craniomaxillofacial bone, tooth-derived stem cell and oral microbiology researches and still put forward future prospect. PMID:27266206

  11. Preparing the personal physician for practice: changing family medicine residency training to enable new model practice.

    PubMed

    Green, Larry A; Jones, Samuel M; Fetter, Gerald; Pugno, Perry A

    2007-12-01

    After two years of intensive study, in 2004 the Future of Family Medicine report concluded that the current U.S. health care system is inadequate and unsustainable, and called for changes within the specialty of family medicine to ensure the future health of the American public. With guidance and encouragement from many disciplines and health experts, a set of 10 recommendations was established to accomplish a transformative change in how family physicians serve their patients and how the essential function of primary care is achieved. From these recommendations came a period of innovation and experimentation in the training of family physicians, entitled Preparing the Personal Physician for Practice (P4). The P4 project is a carefully designed and evaluated initiative led by the American Board of Family Medicine and the Association of Family Medicine Residency Directors and administered by TransforMED, a practice redesign initiative of the American Academy of Family Physicians. Fourteen family medicine programs were chosen to participate and will put their innovations into practice from 2007 to 2012, during which time regular evaluation will be conducted. The purpose of P4 is to learn how to improve the graduate medical education of family physicians such that they are prepared to be outstanding personal physicians and to work in the new models of practice now emerging. The innovations tested by P4 residencies are expected to inspire substantial changes in the content, structure, and locations of training of family physicians and to guide future revisions in accreditation and certification requirements. PMID:18046133

  12. [Information supply for scientific research in occupational medicine].

    PubMed

    Rubtsova, N B; Lysukhin, V N

    2007-01-01

    Using materials of 2-year comparative study of information supply for scientific research in occupational medicine, conducted through social hygienic polls, the authors demonstrated peculiarities of informational supply and its significance for optimizing the scientific work. Informational supply of scientific research in occupational medicine requires complex approach including availability of information resources and technologies, increased material and technical basis of research organizations, developed intraregional and international cooperation with similar national and foreign organizations.

  13. Effect of debt on U.S. medical school graduates' preferences for family medicine, general internal medicine, and general pediatrics.

    PubMed

    Colquitt, W L; Zeh, M C; Killian, C D; Cultice, J M

    1996-04-01

    The authors assess the importance of educational debt in graduates' primary care specialty choices, and the variety of mechanisms through which debt may influence career decisions. Logistic regression models were used to identify significant predictors of the primary care specialty choices made by the 1991 and 1992 graduates of U.S. medical schools. These predictors were debt itself; other financial indicators; certain medical school characteristics; certain practice location plans; certain demographic factors; aspects of academic performance; and students' predisposition to a primary care specialty. Data for this study were gathered from a variety of sources at the Association of American Medical Colleges and from the Health Education Assistance Loans program. Both direct and indirect effects of debt were identified under specific conditions. The study revealed complex relationships between debt and the other predictors identified. For example, debt operated in relation to the levels of the graduates' expected incomes; debt from subsidized loan sources was significant for women who chose general internal medicine; debt was important in choices of family practice; and debt by itself was significant for those planning to practice in the West and who chose general internal medicine. Also, seemingly opposing effects of debt occurred. For example, in the family practice model used in this study, the threshold effect of debt was positive, while the linear effect of debt above the threshold was negative. Such vriations help explain the conflicting findings of some past research. These and other findings prompt the authors to state that when investigating the effects of debt, it is not fruitful to ask what the effect of the debt is on all three primary care fields as a group. It is more appropriate to ask several questions, such as: under what conditions does debt influence specialty plans? Among which groups of students does debt have an impact on specialty plans? Are

  14. Blended Families: A Critical Review of the Current Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Portrie, Torey; Hill, Nicole R.

    2005-01-01

    Current research on blended families is summarized to address blended family development, communication strategies, and relationships between stepparents and stepchildren. Considerations for family counselors and blended families are addressed. Implications for future research opportunities include multicultural issues within blended families and…

  15. [The research progress of diving medicine in China].

    PubMed

    Fang, Yi-Qun; Bao, Xiao-Chen; Li, Ci; Meng, Miao; Yuan, Heng-Rong; Ma, Jun; Wang, Yan

    2012-11-01

    Diving medicine is one of the branches of military medicine, and plays an important role in naval development. This review introduces the progress of researches on undersea and hyperbaric physiology and medicine in the past few years in China. The article describes our research achievement in conventional diving and its medical support, researches on saturation diving and its medical support, submarine escape and its medical support, effects of hyperbaric environments and fast buoyancy ascent on immunological and cardiological functions. Diving disorders (including decompression sickness and oxygen toxicity) are also introduced.

  16. [Experience and problems of implementation of family medicine in post-socialist countries].

    PubMed

    Chopey, I V

    2014-01-01

    The experience of medical-insurance organisations that provide medical services basing on family medicine principles (HMO-type organizations) shows huge potential opportunities for optimization of health care systems through family physicians operating as fundholders. The experience of training of health care specialists, in particular, family physicians at the Department of Post-Graduate Training calls for further improvement of the training in applied issues of legal, financial and economic nature that provide work of family medicine specialists under the conditions of market economy development and health insurance, in particular. In this article shows huge opportunities for optimization of financial and economic provisions of the system, as well as medical and report facility structure and network that are included in the plans of establishment of medical-insurance organizations working on the principles of family medicine and organized by family physicians. ln this regard, it is very important to provide personnel of such medical-insurance organizations with appropriate training in legal, financial and economic issues. Special attention should be paid to the training of facility administrators and managers of family medicine subunits in legal and economic issues. As this is one of the milestones of their work.

  17. Precision Medicine and the Changing Landscape of Research Ethics.

    PubMed

    Hammer, Marilyn J

    2016-03-01

    President Barack Obama announced the launch of the National Institutes of Health Precision Medicine Initiative® (PMI) in January 2015. Precision medicine includes the concept of individualized or personalized medicine at a more exact level through advances in science and technology, such as genetics and genomics sequencing. Although many disease processes will be investigated through the precision medicine lens for greater understanding and improved treatment responses, oncology research and translation to practice is leading the initiative's debut, referred to as the near-term focus. PMID:26906126

  18. Medicine and the market: a research agenda.

    PubMed

    Callahan, D

    1999-06-01

    One of the most important developments in international medicine over the past two decades has been a turn to the market as a way of coping with rising costs and responding to calls for more freedom from government control. A full moral evaluation of the relationship of medicine and the market requires asking a wide range of questions bearing on the meaning and impact of market strategies on the economics of health care and on the clinical and public health outcomes of those strategies. A number of the leading questions are presented and some provisional answers offered. PMID:10472813

  19. Comparing the Performance of Allopathically and Osteopathically Trained Physicians on the American Board of Family Medicine's Certification Examination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Neill, Thomas R.; Royal, Kenneth D.; Schulte, Bradley M.; Leigh, Terrence

    2009-01-01

    Background: Two medical specialty boards offer certification in family medicine: the American Board of Family Medicine (ABFM) and the American Osteopathic Board of Family Physicians (AOBFP). The AOBFP certification is offered only to graduates of osteopathic colleges; however, graduates of both osteopathic and allopathic medical schools who have…

  20. Advancements in medicine from aerospace research.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wooten, F. T.

    1971-01-01

    Discussion of a NASA-sponsored medical program under which work is done by multidiscipline teams to provide an interface between aerospace and medicine. A prosthetic urethral valve, an ear oximeter for measurement of oxygen content in the blood, a radiation dosimeter and an electromyographic muscle trainer are noted as the products of this program.

  1. Family-Focused Autism Spectrum Disorder Research: A Review of the Utility of Family Systems Approaches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cridland, Elizabeth K.; Jones, Sandra C.; Magee, Christopher A.; Caputi, Peter

    2014-01-01

    A family member with an autism spectrum disorder presents pervasive and bidirectional influences on the entire family system, suggesting a need for family-focused autism spectrum disorder research. While there has been increasing interest in this research area, family-focused autism spectrum disorder research can still be considered relatively…

  2. Family Medicine, the specialty of the future: the Portuguese situation within the European context

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    General Practice/Family Medicine is a specialty focused on the provision of comprehensive, continuing, and community oriented, person-centred care. The lack of prestige and the difficulty in attracting trainees to the specialty have been longstanding problems in most countries around the world. In Europe, General Practice/Family Medicine is also hampered for not being recognized as a specialty throughout Europe. As for Portugal, General Practice/Family Medicine is undergoing a massive organizational reform, as well as unprecedented levels of popularity among trainees. General Practice/Family holds tremendous latent potential, and is thus a specialty with a bright future ahead. It could well establish itself as the specialty of the future if it is able to overcome the barriers that currently make of General Practice/Family Medicine an unpopular career choice. It is important to train confident, competent and polyvalent family physicians, but it is also necessary to overhaul payment schemes, to invest in primary care infra-structure and organization, and to continue to attract more and more bright and motivated trainees. PMID:19906299

  3. Children's psychosocial problems presenting in a family medicine practice.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yelena P; Messner, Brynne M; Roberts, Michael C

    2010-09-01

    Primary care physicians have an important role in identifying, treating, and referring children with psychosocial problems. However, there is a limited literature describing whether and how family physicians address psychosocial problems and why parents may not discuss children's problems with physicians. The current study examined how family physicians address psychosocial problems and reasons that parents do not discuss children's psychosocial problems with physicians. Results indicated that there are a variety of reasons involving parents, their perceptions of physicians, and the number of psychosocial problems reported, that may lead to fewer discussions of psychosocial problems. PMID:20508977

  4. Weaving public health education into the fabric of a family medicine residency.

    PubMed

    Potts, Stacy E; Deligiannidis, Konstantinos E; Cashman, Suzanne B; Caggiano, Marie E; Carter, Lisa H; Haley, Heather-Lyn; Ferguson, Warren J

    2011-10-01

    Policymakers and accrediting bodies have recognized the importance of integrating public health, population health, and prevention into graduate medical education programs. The high prevalence of chronic illness, coupled with the impact of behavioral and societal determinants of health, necessitate an urgent call for family medicine residencies to prepare future leaders to meet these challenges. The University of Massachusetts Worcester Family Medicine Residency recently developed an integrated curriculum that strives to develop a culture of incorporating fundamental public health principles into everyday practice. This public health curriculum was designed to integrate new topics within the current residency structure through longitudinal and concentrated experiences. This strategy has substantially improved public health and prevention education without substantial impact on the already strained residency curricular structure. This paper describes the integration of public health and prevention education into a family medicine residency to help residents acquire the fundamental skills necessary to improve a population's health.

  5. [USE OF COMPLEMENTARY AND ALTERNATIVE MEDICINE AMONG FAMILY MEDICINE PATIENTS--EXAMPLE OF THE TOWN OF ČAKOVEC].

    PubMed

    Vitale, Ksenija; Munđar, Roko; Sović, Slavica; Bergman-Marković, Biserka; Janev Holcer, Nataša

    2014-12-01

    The use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is widespread around the world including Croatia. The number of studies that investigate both quantitative and qualitative use of CAM in Croatia is limited. The aim of this study was to investigate the use of CAM among family medicine patients in the town of Čakovec and the rate they report it to their family doctor. This was a cross-sectional study in a sample of 300 patients that visited primary health center for any reason. We used anonymous questionnaire already employed in a previous investigation (Čižmešija et al. 2008), which describes socioeconomic characteristics, modalities of CAM use, and reasons for use. We also added questions on the type of herbs used and use of over-the-counter vitamin and mineral supplements. On data analysis we used descriptive statistics, χ2-test and Fisher's exact test, while the level of statistical significance was set at p ≤ 0.05. The response rate was 76%. Out of the total number of patients, 82% used some modality of CAM. Women, patients with secondary school education, employed and retired persons used CAM more often. Students and pupils reported least use of CAM. The most commonly used were herbs (87%), bioenergy (29%), diet therapy (28%), chiropractics (22%), and homeopathy and acupuncture (11% each). Vitamin and mineral supplements were used by 77% of study subjects. CAM was most frequently used for respiratory, urinary and musculoskeletal problems, as well as to improve overall health condition. Of the respondents that reported CAM use, 55% believed it would help them, 43% used it because they wanted to try something new, while only 2% indicated dissatisfaction with their physician as the reason for using CAM. Statistically, there were more subjects that used CAM and did not notify their family doctor about it, which could indicate poor communication between family doctors and health care users. Our results are consistent with a previous quantitative study

  6. A Problem-Solving Oral Examination for Family Medicine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Wart, Arthur D.

    1974-01-01

    The College of Family Physicians of Canada has used in its certification examination a new type of structured problem-solving examination called the Formal Oral. A series of preselected problem areas such as the complaint, relevant data base, investigation, and treatment are scored by two examiners. (Editor/PG)

  7. Cancer Risk Assessment by Rural and Appalachian Family Medicine Physicians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Kimberly M.; Love, Margaret M.; Pearce, Kevin A.; Porter, Kyle; Barron, Mary A.; Andrykowski, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Context: Challenges to the identification of hereditary cancer in primary care may be more pronounced in rural Appalachia, a medically underserved region. Purpose: To examine primary care physicians' identification of hereditary cancers. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was mailed to family physicians in the midwestern and southeastern United…

  8. Argentine folk medicine: genotoxic effects of Chenopodiaceae family.

    PubMed

    Gadano, A B; Gurni, A A; Carballo, M A

    2006-01-16

    Chenopodium ambrosioides L. and Chenopodium multifidum L. (Chenopodiaceae), common name: Paico, are medicinal plants. They are aromatic shrubs growing in South America. For centuries, they have been used due to its medicinal properties. However, there are few reports in literature about the genotoxic effects of these plants. There for, the aim of these work is the evaluation of genetic damage induced by decoction and infusion of this plants which were assayed in different concentrations (1, 10, 100, 1,000 microL extract/mL culture), by addition of the extract to human lymphocyte cell cultures, negative controls were included. The endpoints evaluated were chromosomal aberrations (CA), sister chromatid exchanges (SCE), cell proliferation kinetics (CPK) and mitotic index (MI). The repeated measure analysis of variance was used for statistic evaluation of the results. The results showed: (a) statistical increase in the percentage of cells with CA and in the frequency of SCE when cultures were exposed to both aromatic plants, (b) a decrease in MI of both Paicos assayed, although no modification in the CPK values was observed, (c) no effect was noticed in the analysis of Chenopodium album L., which was used as negative control of the essential oil. These results suggest a cyto and genotoxic effect of Chenopodium ambrosioides and Chenopodium multifidum aqueous extracts related to the essential oil of the plant (as Chenopodium album did not perform).

  9. Argentine folk medicine: genotoxic effects of Chenopodiaceae family.

    PubMed

    Gadano, A B; Gurni, A A; Carballo, M A

    2006-01-16

    Chenopodium ambrosioides L. and Chenopodium multifidum L. (Chenopodiaceae), common name: Paico, are medicinal plants. They are aromatic shrubs growing in South America. For centuries, they have been used due to its medicinal properties. However, there are few reports in literature about the genotoxic effects of these plants. There for, the aim of these work is the evaluation of genetic damage induced by decoction and infusion of this plants which were assayed in different concentrations (1, 10, 100, 1,000 microL extract/mL culture), by addition of the extract to human lymphocyte cell cultures, negative controls were included. The endpoints evaluated were chromosomal aberrations (CA), sister chromatid exchanges (SCE), cell proliferation kinetics (CPK) and mitotic index (MI). The repeated measure analysis of variance was used for statistic evaluation of the results. The results showed: (a) statistical increase in the percentage of cells with CA and in the frequency of SCE when cultures were exposed to both aromatic plants, (b) a decrease in MI of both Paicos assayed, although no modification in the CPK values was observed, (c) no effect was noticed in the analysis of Chenopodium album L., which was used as negative control of the essential oil. These results suggest a cyto and genotoxic effect of Chenopodium ambrosioides and Chenopodium multifidum aqueous extracts related to the essential oil of the plant (as Chenopodium album did not perform). PMID:16219440

  10. Longitudinal Outcomes from the Family Development Research Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Honig, Alice Sterling

    2004-01-01

    The Family Development Research Program (FDRP) was begun as an omnibus effort to serve low-income, low-education families by providing education, nutrition, health, safety, and human service resources for the 108 families initially recruited. Very deprived families were recruited early in the last trimester of pregnancy. All the families had an…

  11. Advancements in medicine from aerospace research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wooten, F. T.

    1971-01-01

    NASA has taken the lead in implementing the concept of technology utilization, and the Technology Utilization Program is the first vital step in the goal of a technological society to insure maximum benefit from the costs of technology. Experience has shown that the active approach to technology transfer is unique and is well received in the medical profession when appropriate problems are tackled. The problem solving approach is a useful one at the precise time when medicine is recognizing the need for new technology.

  12. Medicinal herbs in the United States: research needs.

    PubMed Central

    Matthews, H B; Lucier, G W; Fisher, K D

    1999-01-01

    Virtually all cultures have, throughout history, used a variety of plants or materials derived from plants for the prevention and treatment of disease. Evidence of the beneficial therapeutic effects of these medicinal herbs is seen in their continued use. Additionally, the development of modern chemistry permitted the isolation of chemicals from medicinal herbs that have served as drugs or starting materials for the synthesis of many important drugs used today. Many more modern drugs have been synthesized as a result of knowledge gained from studies of mechanisms of actions of chemicals first isolated from medicinal herbs. Thus, medicinal herbs have played a major role in the development of modern medicine and continue to be widely used in their original form. Whereas it is generally agreed that most medicinal herbs are safe under the conditions used, some are toxic and should be avoided even though they are readily available, and others have significant adverse side effects when misused. Also, little has been done to investigate potential adverse effects that may be associated with extended or high-dose use of medicinal herbs. Thus, concern has been expressed that the lack of quality control used in the preparation of medicinal herbs, plus their unregulated sale and uninformed use, pose potential adverse health effects for consumers. There is also concern regarding potential herb/herb or herb/drug interactions and possible untoward health effects of medicinal herbs in sensitive subpopulations such as the young and the elderly and certain genetically predisposed individuals. In this paper, we discuss these concerns at some length and make recommendations for additional research and education discussed in the recent International Workshop to Evaluate Research Needs on the Use and Safety of Medicinal Herbs. PMID:10504141

  13. Postmodern Influence in Family Therapy Research: Reflections of Graduate Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hertlein, Katherine M.; Lambert-Shute, Jennifer; Benson, Kristen

    2004-01-01

    Postmodernism has influenced family therapy in significant ways, from clinical work to family therapy research. Little has been written, however, on how to conduct postmodern research in a manner reflecting marriage and family therapy inquiries. The present study seeks to investigate doctoral students understanding of postmodern family therapy…

  14. The Family in Changing Times. Families Today: A Research Sampler on Families and Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corfman, Eunice, Ed.

    Science Monographs, published by the National Institute of Mental Health, are book-length, integrative state-of-the-art reviews, critical evaluations of findings, or program assessments of current research on topics related to the NIMH mandate. This set of articles concentrate on the family in changing times. Articles focus on the impact of the…

  15. Mental Illness in the Family. Families Today: A Research Sampler on Families and Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corfman, Eunice, Ed.

    Science Monographs, published by the National Institute of Mental Health, are book-length, integrative state-of-the-art reviews, critical evaluations of findings, or program assessments of current research on topics related to the NIMH mandate. This set of articles concentrate on mental illness in the family. "Depression and Low-Income,…

  16. A Significant Number of Charter Diplomates Participate in American Board of Family Medicine (ABFM) Maintenance of Certification.

    PubMed

    Puffer, James C

    2015-01-01

    Considerable controversy about the value of participating in Maintenance of Certification has recently arisen within the medical community. Despite this controversy, large numbers of family physicians certified by the American Board of Family Medicine participate in Maintenance of Certification for Family Physicians. Surprisingly, a small but significant number of charter diplomats--those initially certified by the American Board of Family Medicine at its founding--are engaged in the process.

  17. [Research progression of translational medicine in gastric cancer].

    PubMed

    Li, Maoran; Zhao, Gang; Zhu, Chunchao

    2014-02-01

    Gastric cancer is one of the most common malignant tumors which is a great threat to human health. In recent years, the reform of surgical mordalities and the optimization of radiation and chemotherapy is still far from reducing morbidity and mortality of gastric cancer. As a new research pattern, translational medicine has emerged in various clinical subjects, which leads to remarkable effects. In this paper, the definition and development of translational medicine, molecular markers and drug treatment of gastric cancer will be discussed and the feasibility of translational medicine in the treatment of gastric cancer will be explained. In our opinion, the intervention of translational medicine could change the current situation that scientific researches is severely disconnected with clinical practice and increase the detection rate of gastric cancer and the effective rate of adjuvant therapy after surgery to improve the prognosis of patients with gastric cancer.

  18. Family medicine in Denmark: Are there lessons for Botswana and Africa?

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Family medicine is a new specialty in Botswana and many African countries and its definition and scope are still evolving. In this region, healthcare is constrained by resource limitation and inefficiencies in resource utilisation. Experiences in countries with good health indicators can help inform discussions on the future of family medicine in Africa. Observations made during a visit to family physicians (FPs) in Denmark showed that the training of FPs, the practice of family medicine and the role of support staff in a family practice were often different and sometimes unimaginable by African standards. Danish family practices were friendly and enmeshed in an egalitarian and efficient health system, which is supported by an effective information technology network. There was a lot of task shifting and nurses and clerical staff attended to simple or uncomplicated aspects of patient care whilst FPs attended to more complicated patient problems. Higher taxation and higher health expenditure seemed to undergird the effective health system. An egalitarian relationship amongst patients and healthcare workers (HCW) may help improve patient care in Botswana. Task shifting should be formalised, and all sectors of primary healthcare should have fast and effective information technology systems. HCW training and roles should be revised. Higher health expenditure is necessary to achieve good health indicators. PMID:27247159

  19. [An exploration of the issues involved in family related research].

    PubMed

    Huang, Hsiu-Li; Dai, Yu-Tzu; Yeh, Mei Chang; Weng, Li-Chueh

    2007-06-01

    Nowadays, health care delivery systems are changing from hospital-based services to more family-oriented or community-oriented care. The development of family nursing and family research is the focus of more attention than ever before. A family is composed of individuals. It combines the characteristics of individuals and collective groups, which makes family research more complex than studies of individuals. Consequently, research into family-oriented areas presents additional challenges concerning conceptual methodological issues. This article focuses on the issues of family research concepts, research designs, definitions of family, sampling, study tools, and data analysis. In order to promote high-quality family research outcomes, we propose below suggestions to serve as a guide to conducting family research: (1) identify the definition of family involved in a particular research question and choose a suitable methodology; (2) determine the number of family members and un its of analysis on theoretical bases; (3) select high-validity, high-reliability research tools in answering research questions; (4) analysis methods must match the concept of family and the characteristics of the units of analysis; (5) ethical issues must be respected in the recruitment of family members. PMID:17554671

  20. [The use of medicines storaged in the household in a population assisted by Family Health Program].

    PubMed

    Lima, Geandra Batista; Nunes, Lívio César Cunha; de Barros, José Augusto Cabral

    2010-11-01

    To approach the epidemiological use of medicines is necessary to recognize that such practice is not strictly limited to pharmacotherapy. The appropriate storage and the preservation of medicines are fundamental factors for effectiveness. This study was aimed at verifying the storage form/use of medicines in a community assisted by the Family Health Program in the district of Cristino Castro (PI, Brazil), as well as the level of the people's knowledge regarding drugs storage at home. The data were obtained visiting 52 families, starting with observations and applying a questionnaire. It was observed a low income and education levels, a fact that contributes in the effective therapeutic orientation. High percentage of the stored medicines is acquired without prescription. It is worth of mention the presence of a big amount of antimicrobial, reinforcing the danger of the self medication. 62% of those who take care of drugs have no information about their rational use, and 66% are not conscious of the toxicity. 54.10% of the medicines were at children's and domestic animals reach and 15.92% didn't possess label or any identification. Some families maintain in stock, basic medications, another accumulate a "therapeutic arsenal".

  1. Back to the future: reflections on the history of the future of family medicine.

    PubMed

    Doohan, Noemi C; Endres, Jill; Koehn, Nerissa; Miller, John; Scherger, Joseph E; Martin, James; Devoe, Jennifer E

    2014-01-01

    These are historic times for family medicine. The profession is moving beyond the visionary blueprint of the Future of Family Medicine (FFM) report while working to harness the momentum created by the FFM movement. Preparing for, and leading through, the next transformative wave of change (FFM version 2.0) will require the engagement of multigenerational and multidisciplinary visionaries who bring wisdom from diverse experiences. Active group reflection on the past will potentiate the collective work being done to best chart the future. Historical competency is critically important for family medicine's future. This article describes the historical context of the development and launch of the FFM report, emphasizing the professional activism that preceded and followed it. This article is intended to spark intergenerational dialog by providing a multigenerational reflection on the history of FFM and the evolution that has occurred in family medicine over the past decade. Such intergenerational conversations enable our elders to share wisdom with our youth, while allowing our discipline to visualize history through the eyes of future generations. PMID:25381082

  2. Multi-Source Evaluation of Interpersonal and Communication Skills of Family Medicine Residents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leung, Kai-Kuen; Wang, Wei-Dan; Chen, Yen-Yuan

    2012-01-01

    There is a lack of information on the use of multi-source evaluation to assess trainees' interpersonal and communication skills in Oriental settings. This study is conducted to assess the reliability and applicability of assessing the interpersonal and communication skills of family medicine residents by patients, peer residents, nurses, and…

  3. Clinical Poems and Clinical Conversations: Some Thoughts on Working with Family Medicine Residents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stein, Howard F.

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes an experiment in which Family Medicine residents composed, read, and discussed their poems as a way of bringing to life their often complex relationships with patients. It argues that this approach mobilizes the physicians' own creativity in the service of reflective practice and improved doctor-patient relationships. This…

  4. Health Literacy Teaching in U.S. Family Medicine Residency Programs: A National Survey.

    PubMed

    Coleman, Clifford A; Nguyen, Nancy T; Garvin, Roger; Sou, Channbunmorl; Carney, Patricia A

    2016-01-01

    Health care providers, including medical residents, often lack adequate knowledge and skills to work effectively with patients who have limited health literacy. Little is known about the degree to which medical residents are trained to communicate effectively with people who have limited health literacy. This study aimed to assess the status of health literacy training for physicians in U.S. family medicine residency programs. We conducted an online survey of residency directors at 444 U.S. family medicine residencies. Among 138 respondents (31% response rate), 58 programs (42%) reported teaching residents about health literacy as part of the required curriculum. Most instruction occurred during the 1st year of training. Hours of instruction ranged from 2 to 5 during Years 1 through 3. Skills-based training (e.g., plain language techniques) was taught by most programs. Not having access to a faculty authority on health literacy was strongly associated with lack of a required health literacy curriculum. Respondents overwhelmingly agreed that increasing health literacy training for medical students and residents would help improve residents' clinical skills. This study provides a baseline snapshot of health literacy curricula in U.S. family medicine residencies and likely overestimates the prevalence of such curricula. Additional studies are needed to determine the quality of health literacy instruction in U.S. family medicine residencies and the most effective methods for teaching residents about health literacy. PMID:27043758

  5. Monetary Value of a Prescription Assistance Program Service in a Rural Family Medicine Clinic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitley, Heather P.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To quantify the monetary value of medications provided to rural Alabamians through provision of pharmaceutical manufacturer-sponsored prescription assistance programs (PAPs) provided by a clinical pharmacist in a private Black Belt family medicine clinic during 2007 and 2008. Methods: Patients struggling to afford prescription medications…

  6. Development of a Competency Framework for Quality Improvement in Family Medicine: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Czabanowska, Katarzyna; Klemenc-Ketis, Zalika; Potter, Amanda; Rochfort, Andree; Tomasik, Tomasz; Csiszar, Judit; Van den Bussche, Piet

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to develop a comprehensive framework of quality improvement competencies for use in continuing professional development (CPD) and continuing medical education (CME) for European general practice/family medicine physicians (GPs/FDs). Methods: The study was carried out in three phases: literature review,…

  7. Chinese herbal medicine and acupuncture. How do patients who consult family physicians use these therapies?

    PubMed Central

    Wong, L. K.; Jue, P.; Lam, A.; Yeung, W.; Cham-Wah, Y.; Birtwhistle, R.

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine how a population of Chinese patients consulting family physicians in Vancouver use traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), specifically Chinese herbal medicine and acupuncture. DESIGN: Bilingual survey (English and Chinese). SETTING: Four family practices with predominantly Chinese patients in metropolitan Vancouver. PARTICIPANTS: The 932 patients or family members who visited one of the practices. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Demographic characteristics; frequency and reason for visiting a family physician, Chinese herbalist, or acupuncturist; choice of practitioner if affected by one of 16 common conditions. RESULTS: The study population was mostly Chinese and immigrant to Canada. Chinese herbal medicine was currently used by 28% (262/930) of respondents (more than one visit in the last year), and another 18% (172/930) were past users. Acupuncture was currently used by 7% (64/927) and had been used in the past by another 8% (71/927). Use of Chinese herbal medicine varied significantly (P < .01) according to age, sex, immigrant status, and ethnicity. Acupuncture use varied significantly only by age. The main reasons for consulting Chinese herbalists were infection (41%, 157/382), respiratory problems (11%, 42/382), and rheumatologic problems (10%, 38/382), whereas acupuncturists were consulted almost exclusively for rheumatologic problems (80%, 45/56). CONCLUSIONS: Using TCM in conjunction with visiting family physicians was very popular among this predominantly Chinese study population. Patients with acute conditions, such as influenza, consulted both their family physicians and Chinese herbalists in quick succession. On the other hand, those suffering from more chronic conditions, such as rheumatologic diseases, were more likely to start using TCM after repeated visits to their family physicians. Images p1011-a PMID:9612586

  8. Family medicine in Denmark: Are there lessons for Botswana and Africa?

    PubMed

    Setlhare, Vincent

    2016-01-01

    Family medicine is a new specialty in Botswana and many African countries and its definitionand scope are still evolving. In this region, healthcare is constrained by resource limitation andinefficiencies in resource utilisation. Experiences in countries with good health indicators canhelp inform discussions on the future of family medicine in Africa. Observations made duringa visit to family physicians (FPs) in Denmark showed that the training of FPs, the practice offamily medicine and the role of support staff in a family practice were often different andsometimes unimaginable by African standards. Danish family practices were friendly andenmeshed in an egalitarian and efficient health system, which is supported by an effectiveinformation technology network. There was a lot of task shifting and nurses and clerical staffattended to simple or uncomplicated aspects of patient care whilst FPs attended to morecomplicated patient problems. Higher taxation and higher health expenditure seemed toundergird the effective health system. An egalitarian relationship amongst patients andhealthcare workers (HCW) may help improve patient care in Botswana. Task shifting shouldbe formalised, and all sectors of primary healthcare should have fast and effective informationtechnology systems. HCW training and roles should be revised. Higher health expenditure isnecessary to achieve good health indicators. PMID:27247159

  9. Stem cells have the potential to rejuvenate regenerative medicine research.

    PubMed

    Eve, David J; Fillmore, Randolph; Borlongan, Cesar V; Sanberg, Paul R

    2010-10-01

    The increasing number of publications featuring the use of stem cells in regenerative processes supports the idea that they are revolutionizing regenerative medicine research. In an analysis of the articles published in the journal Cell Transplantation - The Regenerative Medicine Journal between 2008 and 2009, which reveals the topics and categories that are on the cutting edge of regenerative medicine research, stem cells are becoming increasingly relevant as the "runner-up" category to "neuroscience" related articles. The high volume of stem cell research casts a bright light on the hope for stem cells and their role in regenerative medicine as a number of reports deal with research using stem cells entering, or seeking approval for, clinical trials. The "methods and new technologies" and "tissue engineering" sections were almost equally as popular, and in part, reflect attempts to maximize the potential of stem cells and other treatments for the repair of damaged tissue. Transplantation studies were again more popular than non-transplantation, and the contribution of stem cell-related transplants was greater than other types of transplants. The non-transplantation articles were predominantly related to new methods for the preparation, isolation and manipulation of materials for transplant by specific culture media, gene therapy, medicines, dietary supplements, and co-culturing with other cells and further elucidation of disease mechanisms. A sizeable proportion of the transplantation articles reported on how previously new methods may have aided the ability of the cells or tissue to exert beneficial effects following transplantation.

  10. The practice of travel medicine by family practitioners.

    PubMed

    Ross, M; Pinto, I; Sparks, B

    1995-06-01

    This study sought to determine the prevalence of family practitioners (FPs) in Johannesburg, South Africa, who are consulted by travelers. The study quantified the extent of medical activity of FPs and determined sources of physicians' updating information. Data were obtained from a random sample of 180 of the 576 nonspecialists listed as private medical practitioners in 1992-93 in the Johannesburg telephone directory. Interviews were obtained from 109 practitioners, of whom 105 were consulted by travelers. The average rate of consultations was an estimated 30/FP. Over 90% of FPs were asked about malaria prevention and/or immunization. 98% provided advice on malaria, and over 80% administered immunizations. The most common vaccine was Hepatitis B (63%), followed by gamma globulin for Hepatitis A (58%), and tetanus toxoid (50%). It was common for FPs to recommend antidiarrheal medications. Clients did not generally ask about diarrhea prevention. 47% gave preventive advice alone on diarrhea or recommendations for medication. FPs kept up to date on medical affairs by reading professional journals and following local experts or colleagues. In 1992, an estimated 100,000 travelers visited FPs in Johannesburg. PMID:12178510

  11. Australian Family Research Conference Proceedings (Canberra, Australia, November 23-25, 1983). Volume II: Family Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Institute of Family Studies, Melbourne (Australia).

    Second in a series of seven volumes containing the proceedings of the 1983 Australian Family Research Conference, this publication deals with family law. Papers and authors included are: "Attitudes of Divorced Men and Women to the Family" (Margaret Harrison), "Dispute Resolution in Australian Family Law" (Henry Finlay), "Descriptive Analysis,…

  12. Knowledge mapping of Chinese medicine interdisciplinary research field.

    PubMed

    Xu, Hao; Pu, Wen-yuan; Qian, Ai-bing; Zhu, Xue-fang

    2015-02-01

    Based on 248 core biomedical journals indexed in the General Contents of Chinese Core Journals (2011 edition) released by Peking University,we established a Chinese Medicine Sciences Citation Index (CMSCI) database; in addition, based on the Chinese Library Classification (4(th) edition), we identified 13 259 articles concerning Chinese medicine interdisciplinary research. The knowledge mapping was performed for keywords co-occurence, total cites of articles, and total cites of authors using the CiteSpace3 software, with an attempt to reveal the research priorities,knowledge sources, and highly influential authors

  13. [Diet as a cardiovascular risk factor in family medicine].

    PubMed

    Bergman Marković, Biserka; Katić, Milica; Vrdoljak, Davorka; Kranjcević, Ksenija; Jasna, Vucak; Ivezić Lalić, Dragica

    2010-05-01

    Although Mediterranean country by its geographic position, according to cardiovascular mortality (CVM) rate, Croatia belongs to Central-East European countries with high CV mortality. Prevention by changing nutritional habits is population (public health programmes) or individually targeted. General practitioner (GP) provides care for whole person in its environment and GP's team plays a key role in achieving lifestyle changes. GPs intervention is individually/group/family targeted by counselling or using printed leaflets (individual manner, organized programmes). Adherence to lifestyle changes is not an easy task; it is higher when recommendations are simple and part of individually tailored programme with follow- ups included. Motivation is essential, but obstacles to implementation (by patient and GPs) are also important. Nutritional intervention influences most important CV risk factors: cholesterol level, blood pressure (BP), diabetes. Restriction in total energy intake with additional nutritional interventions is recommended. Lower animal fat intake causes CVM reduction by 12%, taking additional serving of fruit/day by 7% and vegetables by 4%. Restriction of dietary salt intake (3 g/day) lowers BP by 2-8 mm Hg, CVM by 16%. Nutritional intervention gains CHD and stroke redact in healthy adults (12%, 11% respectively). Respecting individual lifestyle and nutrition, GP should suggest both home cooking and careful food declaration reading and discourage salt adding. Recommended daily salt intake is < or =6 g. In BP lowering, salt intake restriction (10-12 to 5-6 g/day) is as efficient as taking one antihypertensive drug. Lifestyle intervention targeting nutritional habits and pharmacotherapy is the most efficient combination in CV risk factors control.

  14. Immigrant Families over the Life Course: Research Directions and Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Rebecca L.; Glick, Jennifer E.; Bures, Regina M.

    2009-01-01

    Family researchers and policy makers are giving increasing attention to the consequences of immigration for families. Immigration affects the lives of family members who migrate as well as those who remain behind and has important consequences for family formation, kinship ties, living arrangements, and children's outcomes. We present a selective…

  15. Ultrasound imaging in research and clinical medicine.

    PubMed

    Schellpfeffer, Michael A

    2013-06-01

    The use of ultrasound imaging in clinical obstetrics continues to grow at an almost exponential rate. Ultrasound imaging in developmental biology has only begun to be used to enhance the traditional methodologies to study the developing embryo/fetus. The various modalities of ultrasound imaging are reviewed as they apply to current uses in clinical obstetrics and developmental biologic research. New modalities are also discussed in both clinical obstetrics and developmental biologic research as well as the current limitations of ultrasound imaging faced in both of these fields. PMID:23897593

  16. The Future of Family Medicine version 2.0: reflections from Pisacano scholars.

    PubMed

    Doohan, Noemi C; Duane, Marguerite; Harrison, Bridget; Lesko, Sarah; DeVoe, Jennifer E

    2014-01-01

    The Future of Family Medicine (FFM) project has helped shape and direct the evolution of primary care medicine over the past decade. Pisacano Scholars, a group of leaders in family medicine supported by the American Board of Family Medicine, gathered for a 2-day symposium in April 2013 to explore the history of the FFM project and outline a vision for the next phase of this work-FFM version 2.0 (v2.0). After learning about the original FFM project (FFM v1.0), the group held interactive discussions using the World Café approach to conversational leadership. This commentary summarizes the discussions and highlights major themes relevant to FFM v2.0 identified by the group. The group endorsed the FFM v1.0 recommendations as still relevant and marvelled at the progress made toward achieving many of those goals. Most elements of FFM v1.0 have moved forward, and some have been incorporated into policy blueprints for reform. Now is the time to refocus attention on facets of FFM v1.0 not yet realized and to identify key aspects missing from FFM v1.0. The Pisacano Scholars are committed to moving the FFM goals forward and hope that this expression of the group's vision will help to do so. PMID:24390896

  17. The Future of Family Medicine version 2.0: reflections from Pisacano scholars.

    PubMed

    Doohan, Noemi C; Duane, Marguerite; Harrison, Bridget; Lesko, Sarah; DeVoe, Jennifer E

    2014-01-01

    The Future of Family Medicine (FFM) project has helped shape and direct the evolution of primary care medicine over the past decade. Pisacano Scholars, a group of leaders in family medicine supported by the American Board of Family Medicine, gathered for a 2-day symposium in April 2013 to explore the history of the FFM project and outline a vision for the next phase of this work-FFM version 2.0 (v2.0). After learning about the original FFM project (FFM v1.0), the group held interactive discussions using the World Café approach to conversational leadership. This commentary summarizes the discussions and highlights major themes relevant to FFM v2.0 identified by the group. The group endorsed the FFM v1.0 recommendations as still relevant and marvelled at the progress made toward achieving many of those goals. Most elements of FFM v1.0 have moved forward, and some have been incorporated into policy blueprints for reform. Now is the time to refocus attention on facets of FFM v1.0 not yet realized and to identify key aspects missing from FFM v1.0. The Pisacano Scholars are committed to moving the FFM goals forward and hope that this expression of the group's vision will help to do so.

  18. Family medicine's search for manpower: the American Osteopathic Association accreditation option.

    PubMed

    Cummings, Mark; Kunkle, Judith L; Doane, Cheryl

    2006-03-01

    In recent years, family medicine has encountered problems recruiting and filling its Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME)-accredited residencies. In addressing these reverses, one increasingly popular strategy has been to acquire American Osteopathic Association (AOA) accreditation as a way to tap into the growing number of osteopathic graduates. This stratagem is founded on assumptions that parallel-accredited postdoctoral programs are attractive to doctor of osteopathy (DO) graduates, that collaboration with sponsoring colleges of osteopathic medicine (COMs) provides direct access to osteopathic students, and that DOs can play an important role in replacing the increasing scarcity of United States medical graduates who are selecting specialty residencies. Within the past 5 years, nearly 10% of all ACGME family medicine residency programs have voluntarily obtained a second level of accreditation to also qualify as AOA-accredited family medicine residency programs. This strategy has produced mixed outcomes, as noted from the results of the osteopathic matching program. The flood of osteopathic graduates into these parallel-accredited programs has not occurred. In addition, recent AOA policy changes now require ACGME-accredited programs to make a deeper educational commitment to osteopathic postdoctoral education. The most successful ACGME/AOA-accredited programs have been those that are closely affiliated with and in near proximity of a COM and also train osteopathic students in required clerkship rotations. PMID:16518739

  19. Family Physicians with a Certificate of Added Qualifications (CAQs) in Sports Medicine Spend the Majority of Their Time Practicing Sports Medicine.

    PubMed

    Rankin, Wade M; Cochrane, Anneli; Puffer, James C

    2015-01-01

    While family physicians holding certificates of added qualifications in sports medicine practice in multiple settings, little is currently known about the proportion of their time devoted exclusively to the practice of sports medicine. We found that most spend a majority of their time doing so, and this number has been increasing over the past decade.

  20. African leaders’ views on critical human resource issues for the implementation of family medicine in Africa

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The World Health Organisation has advocated for comprehensive primary care teams, which include family physicians. However, despite (or because of) severe doctor shortages in Africa, there is insufficient clarity on the role of the family physician in the primary health care team. Instead there is a trend towards task shifting without thought for teamwork, which runs the risk of dangerous oversimplification. It is not clear how African leaders understand the challenges of implementing family medicine, especially in human resource terms. This study, therefore, sought to explore the views of academic and government leaders on critical human resource issues for implementation of family medicine in Africa. Method In this qualitative study, key academic and government leaders were purposively selected from sixteen African countries. In-depth interviews were conducted using an interview guide. All interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed and thematically analysed. Results There were 27 interviews conducted with 16 government and 11 academic leaders in nine Sub-Saharan African countries: Botswana, Democratic Republic of Congo, Ghana, Kenya, Malawi, Nigeria, Rwanda, South Africa and Uganda. Respondents spoke about: educating doctors in family medicine suited to Africa, including procedural skills and holistic care, to address the difficulty of recruiting and retaining doctors in rural and underserved areas; planning for primary health care teams, including family physicians; new supervisory models in primary health care; and general human resource management issues. Conclusions Important milestones in African health care fail to specifically address the human resource issues of integrated primary health care teamwork that includes family physicians. Leaders interviewed in this study, however, proposed organising the district health system with a strong embrace of family medicine in Africa, especially with regard to providing clinical leadership in team

  1. Profile of Diseases Prevalent in a Tribal Locality in Jharkhand, India: A Family Medicine Practitioner's Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Sumit

    2015-01-01

    Background: Majority of Indian population is dependent on general practitioners (GPs) for medical services at primary care level in India. They are most preferred and considered to be first contact person for medical services at primary care level. But advances in medical science has put more emphasis on specialist culture and average Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery (MBBS) graduates who are working as general physician are gradually feeling themselves less competent because they are less exposed to latest advances in treatment of diseases. Amidst such scenario, Christian Medical College (CMC) has come up with an idea: “The refer less and resolve more initiative”. It has started a decentralized 2-year family medicine distance diploma course (Postgraduate Diploma in Family Medicine (PGDFM)) now accredited by Dr. MGR Medical University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, that trains the GPs to become family medicine specialist. Materials and Methods: As component of PGDFM course, this study was conducted to provide better understanding of prevalent ailments and common treatment provided by the GPs in the community at present giving key insight of current practice in rural area by a registered family medicine practitioner. Results: As part of study, among 500 patients evaluated, three most common diagnosis were upper respiratory infections (URIs; 18%), acute gastroenteritis including water-borne diseases (15.8%), and anemia (10.4%). Treatment given to these patients comprised of mostly of antipyretic, analgesic, and antimicrobial agents. Most common drug prescribed was paracetamol for fever. Other common drugs prescribed were amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, chloroquine, artemisin derivative, doxycycline, co-trimoxazole, miltefosine, cephalexin, ceftriaxone sodium, cefixime, oral rehydration salts, ranitidine, omeprazole, pantoprazole, metronidazole, albendazole, ondansetron, diclofenac sodium, piroxicam, ibuprofen, diphenhydramine, codeine-sulfate, amlodipine, ramipril

  2. The Families of Lesbian and Gay Men: A New Frontier in Family Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Katherine R.; Demo, David H.

    1995-01-01

    A review of 8,000 articles in family research journals revealed that research on lesbian and gay families is limited and that studies that do exist have been problematized and their diversity has been overlooked. Challenges the neglect of this population in family studies, and discusses theoretical implications. (JPS)

  3. Amphibians as research models for regenerative medicine

    PubMed Central

    Song, Fengyu; Li, Bingbing

    2010-01-01

    The ability to regenerate bone across a critical size defect would be a marked clinical advance over current methods for dealing with such structural gaps. Here, we briefly review the development of limb bones and the mandible, the regeneration of urodele limbs after amputation, and present evidence that urodele and anuran amphibians represent a valuable research model for the study of segment defect regeneration in both limb bones and mandible. PMID:21197215

  4. Multicenter pediatric emergency medicine research and Rhode Island.

    PubMed

    Chun, Thomas H

    2014-01-01

    Multicenter clinical research studies are often needed to address issues of generalizability, conditions with low incidence, adequate statistical power, and potential study bias. While pediatric research networks began work in the 1950s, and Rhode Island physicians have contributed to many of these studies, pediatric emergency medicine (PEM) collaboratives are relative newcomers. Since the mid-1990s, Rhode Island pediatricians have contributed to multicenter studies of diabetic ketoacidosis, bronchiolitis, asthma, quality of PEM care, meningitis, brief interventions for substance use disorders, point-of-care ultrasound, and pre-hospital triage protocols. In 2011, Rhode Island Hospital joined the Pediatric Emergency Care Applied Research Network, the first federally funded pediatric emergency medicine network of its kind. Its mission is to perform high quality, high impact PEM research. Since joining the network, Rhode Island Hospital has quickly become a productive and valued member of the network, portending a bright future for multicenter PEM research in the Ocean State. PMID:24400311

  5. Research Methodology: Endocrinologic Measurements in Exercise Science and Sports Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Hackney, Anthony C; Viru, Atko

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To provide background information on methodologic factors that influence and add variance to endocrine outcome measurements. Our intent is to aid and improve the quality of exercise science and sports medicine research endeavors of investigators inexperienced in endocrinology. Background: Numerous methodologic factors influence human endocrine (hormonal) measurements and, consequently, can dramatically compromise the accuracy and validity of exercise and sports medicine research. These factors can be categorized into those that are biologic and those that are procedural-analytic in nature. Recommendations: Researchers should design their studies to monitor, control, and adjust for the biologic and procedural-analytic factors discussed within this paper. By doing so, they will find less variance in their hormonal outcomes and thereby will increase the validity of their physiologic data. These actions can assist the researcher in the interpretation and understanding of endocrine data and, in turn, make their research more scientifically sound. PMID:19030142

  6. Multicenter pediatric emergency medicine research and Rhode Island.

    PubMed

    Chun, Thomas H

    2014-01-01

    Multicenter clinical research studies are often needed to address issues of generalizability, conditions with low incidence, adequate statistical power, and potential study bias. While pediatric research networks began work in the 1950s, and Rhode Island physicians have contributed to many of these studies, pediatric emergency medicine (PEM) collaboratives are relative newcomers. Since the mid-1990s, Rhode Island pediatricians have contributed to multicenter studies of diabetic ketoacidosis, bronchiolitis, asthma, quality of PEM care, meningitis, brief interventions for substance use disorders, point-of-care ultrasound, and pre-hospital triage protocols. In 2011, Rhode Island Hospital joined the Pediatric Emergency Care Applied Research Network, the first federally funded pediatric emergency medicine network of its kind. Its mission is to perform high quality, high impact PEM research. Since joining the network, Rhode Island Hospital has quickly become a productive and valued member of the network, portending a bright future for multicenter PEM research in the Ocean State.

  7. Correlates of certification in family medicine in the billing patterns of Ontario general practitioners.

    PubMed Central

    Woodward, C A; Cohen, M; Ferrier, B M; Goldsmith, C H; Keane, D

    1989-01-01

    There is conflicting evidence as to whether physicians who are certified in family medicine practise differently from their noncertified colleagues and what those differences are. We examined the extent to which certification in family medicine is associated with differences in the practice patterns of primary care physicians as reflected in their billing patterns. Billing data for 1986 were obtained from the Ontario Health Insurance Plan for 269 certified physicians and 375 noncertified physicians who had graduated from Ontario medical schools between 1972 and 1983 and who practised as general practitioners or family physicians in Ontario. As a group, certificants provided fewer services per patient and billed less per patient seen per month. They were more likely than noncertificants to include counselling, psychotherapy, prenatal and obstetric care, nonemergency hospital visits, surgical services and visits to chronic care facilities in their service mix and to bill in more service categories. Certificants billed more for prenatal and obstetric care, intermediate assessments, chronic care and nonemergency hospital visits and less for psychotherapy and after-hours services than noncertificants. Many of the differences detected suggest a practice style consistent with the objectives for training and certification in family medicine. However, whether the differences observed in our study and in previous studies are related more to self-selection of physicians for certification or to the types of educational experiences cannot be directly assessed. PMID:2804847

  8. Research Needs of a Family Life Educator and Marriage Counselor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blood, Robert O.

    1976-01-01

    The author, a family life educator, reviews the research literature on marriage and family indicating the neglected areas and stressing the need for cause and effect studies. He proposes a number of research approaches to achieve the latter. Speech presented at the annual meeting of the National Council on Family Relations, Salt Lake City, Utah,…

  9. Impact of family medicine clerkships in undergraduate medical education: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Turkeshi, Eralda; Michels, Nele R; Hendrickx, Kristin; Remmen, Roy

    2015-01-01

    Objective Synthesise evidence about the impact of family medicine/general practice (FM) clerkships on undergraduate medical students, teaching general/family practitioners (FPs) and/or their patients. Data sources Medline, ERIC, PsycINFO, EMBASE and Web of Knowledge searched from 21 November to 17 December 2013. Primary, empirical, quantitative or qualitative studies, since 1990, with abstracts included. No country restrictions. Full text languages: English, French, Spanish, German, Dutch or Italian. Review methods Independent selection and data extraction by two authors using predefined data extraction fields, including Kirkpatrick’s levels for educational intervention outcomes, study quality indicators and Best Evidence Medical Education (BEME) strength of findings’ grades. Descriptive narrative synthesis applied. Results Sixty-four included articles: impact on students (48), teaching FPs (12) and patients (8). Sample sizes: 16-1095 students, 3-146 FPs and 94-2550 patients. Twenty-six studies evaluated at Kirkpatrick level 1, 26 at level 2 and 6 at level 3. Only one study achieved BEME’s grade 5. The majority was assessed as grade 4 (27) and 3 (33). Students reported satisfaction with content and process of teaching as well as learning in FM clerkships. They enhanced previous learning, and provided unique learning on dealing with common acute and chronic conditions, health maintenance, disease prevention, communication and problem-solving skills. Students’ attitudes towards FM were improved, but new or enhanced interest in FM careers did not persist without change after graduation. Teaching FPs reported increased job satisfaction and stimulation for professional development, but also increased workload and less productivity, depending on the setting. Overall, student’s presence and participation did not have a negative impact on patients. Conclusions Research quality on the impact of FM clerkships is still limited, yet across different settings and

  10. Integration of Complementary and Alternative Medicine into Family Practices in Germany: Results of a National Survey

    PubMed Central

    Joos, Stefanie; Musselmann, Berthold; Szecsenyi, Joachim

    2011-01-01

    More than two-thirds of patients in Germany use complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) provided either by physicians or non-medical practitioners (“Heilpraktiker”). There is little information about the number of family physicians (FPs) providing CAM. Given the widespread public interest in the use of CAM, this study aimed to ascertain the use of and attitude toward CAM among FPs in Germany. A postal questionnaire developed based on qualitatively derived data was sent to 3000 randomly selected FPs in Germany. A reminder letter including a postcard (containing a single question about CAM use in practice and reasons for non-particpation in the survey) was sent to all FPs who had not returned the questionnaire. Of the 3000 FPs, 1027 (34%) returned the questionnaire and 444 (15%) returned the postcard. Altogether, 886 of the 1471 responding FPs (60%) reported using CAM in their practice. A positive attitude toward CAM was indicated by 503 FPs (55%), a rather negative attitude by 127 FPs (14%). Chirotherapy, relaxation and neural therapy were rated as most beneficial CAM therapies by FPs, whereas neural therapy, phytotherapy and acupuncture were the most commonly used therapies in German family practices. This survey clearly demonstrates that CAM is highly valued by many FPs and is already making a substantial contribution to first-contact primary care in Germany. Therefore, education and research about CAM should be increased. Furthermore, with the provision of CAM by FPs, the role of non-medical CAM practitioners within the German healthcare system is to be questioned. PMID:19293252

  11. Research Issues concerning the Puerto Rican Child and Family.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogler, Lloyd H.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    This journal issue is a collection of papers describing research on Hispanic families conducted at the Hispanic Research Center, Fordham University, New York. The first article, "Research Issues concerning the Puerto Rican Child and Family," by Lloyd H. Rogler, reviews two research projects on health conditions and the plight of Puerto Rican…

  12. Applying Research on Family Violence to Clinical Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gelles, Richard J.

    1982-01-01

    Considers whether research on family violence can be applied to clinical practice. Suggests limitations of the knowledge base constrain the application of research on family violence to clinical work, and certain aspects of the research paradigm also limit the transfer of research knowledge to clinical practice. (Author)

  13. Angel of human health: current research updates in toad medicine

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Qian; Zhou, Xuanxuan; Zhang, Meng; Bi, Linlin; Miao, Shan; Cao, Wei; Xie, Yanhua; Sun, Jiyuan; Tang, Haifeng; Li, Ying; Miao, Qing; Wang, Siwang

    2015-01-01

    There are currently 34 genera and 410 species of toads in the world. The medicinal parts of toads mainly include their venom, skin, and clothing. The toad’s venom and skin possess the same chemical components, mainly the toad venom lactone class, and their pharmacological effects primarily include the maintenance of strong heart, antitumor, antivirus, anti-infection, and analgesic effects. So far, the produces from the medicinal raw materials of the toad are widely used clinically around the world, especially in China, Japan, and South Korea. About 50 varieties of medicines are used in the clinical treatment of various complicated diseases in China, such as “Liushen pills” which was popular in the whole world. Toads are mainly used in treating malignant tumors (e.g., liver cancer, gastric cancer, esophageal cancer, colon cancer, cervical cancer, among others), and some major diseases such as hepatitis B. Despite the therapeutic effects of toad-derived medicines on human health, there is insufficient research and development of toad-derived medicines by leading drug companies. In order to harness the beneficial effects of the resources of the toad species, it is the responsibility of global pharmaceutical researchers to develop and generate economically feasible toad-derived therapeutic products, while promoting maximum protection to the resources of the toad species. PMID:25755824

  14. Angel of human health: current research updates in toad medicine.

    PubMed

    Yang, Qian; Zhou, Xuanxuan; Zhang, Meng; Bi, Linlin; Miao, Shan; Cao, Wei; Xie, Yanhua; Sun, Jiyuan; Tang, Haifeng; Li, Ying; Miao, Qing; Wang, Siwang

    2015-01-01

    There are currently 34 genera and 410 species of toads in the world. The medicinal parts of toads mainly include their venom, skin, and clothing. The toad's venom and skin possess the same chemical components, mainly the toad venom lactone class, and their pharmacological effects primarily include the maintenance of strong heart, antitumor, antivirus, anti-infection, and analgesic effects. So far, the produces from the medicinal raw materials of the toad are widely used clinically around the world, especially in China, Japan, and South Korea. About 50 varieties of medicines are used in the clinical treatment of various complicated diseases in China, such as "Liushen pills" which was popular in the whole world. Toads are mainly used in treating malignant tumors (e.g., liver cancer, gastric cancer, esophageal cancer, colon cancer, cervical cancer, among others), and some major diseases such as hepatitis B. Despite the therapeutic effects of toad-derived medicines on human health, there is insufficient research and development of toad-derived medicines by leading drug companies. In order to harness the beneficial effects of the resources of the toad species, it is the responsibility of global pharmaceutical researchers to develop and generate economically feasible toad-derived therapeutic products, while promoting maximum protection to the resources of the toad species.

  15. Harnessing the crowd to accelerate molecular medicine research.

    PubMed

    Smith, Robert J; Merchant, Raina M

    2015-07-01

    Crowdsourcing presents a novel approach to solving complex problems within molecular medicine. By leveraging the expertise of fellow scientists across the globe, broadcasting to and engaging the public for idea generation, harnessing a scalable workforce for quick data management, and fundraising for research endeavors, crowdsourcing creates novel opportunities for accelerating scientific progress.

  16. Family medicine training in Saudi Arabia: Are there any variations among different regions?

    PubMed Central

    Abu Zuhairah, Ammar R.; Al-Dawood, Kasim M.; Khamis, Amar H.

    2015-01-01

    Aims: The aim was to compare Eastern, Makkah, and Asir regions in term of residents’ perception of the achievement of training objectives, and to assess various rotations based on residents’ perception. Settings and Design: This cross-sectional study was done among family medicine residents in the Eastern, Makkah, and Asir regions. Methodology: A questionnaire was developed by the investigator and validated by two experts. All residents, except R1 residents, were included. All data were collected by the investigator by direct contact with the residents. Statistical Analysis Used: Cronbach's alpha, analysis of variance, t-test, and univariate regression model as appropriate, were used. Results: Reliability of the questionnaire was found to be 75.4%. One hundred and seven (response rate: 83.6%) residents completed the questionnaire. There were 51 (47.7%), 27 (25.2%), and 29 (27.1%) residents in the program in the Eastern region, Makkah, and Asir, respectively. The mean age was 29.1 ± 2.5 years; half of the residents were male, most of (83.2%) were married, and more than half (54.2%) of had worked in primary health care before joining the program. Overall, 45% of the residents perceived that they had achieved the training objectives. The highest rotations as perceived by the residents were psychiatry and otolaryngology while the lowest were orthopedics and ophthalmology. There were significant differences among the study regions with regard to the rotations in family medicine, internal medicine, orthopedics, general surgery, and emergency medicine. Conclusions: Overall, a good percentage of the residents perceived that they had achieved the training objectives. The rotations differed in the studied regions. Psychiatry and otolaryngology had the highest percentage of family medicine residents who perceived that they had achieved the training objectives while lowest was in internal medicine and obstetrics and gynecology. The highest rotations as perceived by the

  17. Reform in the United States: its impact on medicine and education for family practice.

    PubMed

    Stephens, G G

    1976-10-01

    The historical concept of reform is useful as an aid to understand the modern rise of family practice education. Beginning about 1890, historians have identified several themes of reform in the United States which have been expressed culturally, politically, and socially. Each of these themes, agrarianism, bureaucratization of the professions, and utopianism, has influenced medicine and medical education--first at the turn of the century in the activities of the AMA in promoting public health and in establishing the natural sciences as a basis for medical education and practice. Since the end of World War II, additional reform themes have become visible which are also influencing medicine. Among these are humanism, consumerism, and the women's movement. It is the author's thesis that the present vitality and future development of family practice as a discipline is more dependent on its capacity and willingness to be identified with these expressions of reform than on its negotiations and compromises within the medical education establishment.

  18. Attachment and family therapy: clinical utility of adolescent-family attachment research.

    PubMed

    Liddle, Howard A; Schwartz, Seth J

    2002-01-01

    The divide separating research and clinical work is narrowing. New therapies have been informed by research from specialties such as developmental psychology and developmental psychopathology. In this article, we attempt to illustrate the usefulness of research on attachment relations for family-based therapy with adolescents. We examine the clinical utility of adolescent attachment research within the context of multidimensional family therapy, an empirically supported treatment model that has incorporated developmental research, including basic research on attachment, in its assessment and intervention framework.

  19. Social Justice as the Moral Core of Family Medicine: A Perspective from the Keystone IV Conference.

    PubMed

    Schroeder, Steven A

    2016-01-01

    A recurring conference theme was the essential place of social justice within family medicine, especially the need to focus on denominator populations, exalt the personal and caring qualities of doctoring, and address social determinants of health. Many expressed solidarity with "community," but it is not always easy to define community in our large and diverse nation. Exhortations for health advocacy were frequently voiced, but putting these into meaningful action agendas is a challenge. There was general agreement that medicine is in flux and that the many expressions of "commodity-centered consumerism" have altered organization and financing. The increasing demands by "consumers", who want low cost, instant availability, and shared decision-making, and yet change doctors when health plans alter coverage also differentially impact high-volume, low-margin specialties such as family medicine. Additional challenges were the electronic health record and calibrating an appropriate work/life balance. Five action steps are recommended: 1) speak out on the important social and moral issues; 2) be the experts on personal care; 3) make common cause with potential allies; 4) help institutions perceive the value of generalism; and 5) help find ways to enrich generalist disciplines to increase the joy of medicine and decrease the threat of burn out.

  20. Social Justice as the Moral Core of Family Medicine: A Perspective from the Keystone IV Conference.

    PubMed

    Schroeder, Steven A

    2016-01-01

    A recurring conference theme was the essential place of social justice within family medicine, especially the need to focus on denominator populations, exalt the personal and caring qualities of doctoring, and address social determinants of health. Many expressed solidarity with "community," but it is not always easy to define community in our large and diverse nation. Exhortations for health advocacy were frequently voiced, but putting these into meaningful action agendas is a challenge. There was general agreement that medicine is in flux and that the many expressions of "commodity-centered consumerism" have altered organization and financing. The increasing demands by "consumers", who want low cost, instant availability, and shared decision-making, and yet change doctors when health plans alter coverage also differentially impact high-volume, low-margin specialties such as family medicine. Additional challenges were the electronic health record and calibrating an appropriate work/life balance. Five action steps are recommended: 1) speak out on the important social and moral issues; 2) be the experts on personal care; 3) make common cause with potential allies; 4) help institutions perceive the value of generalism; and 5) help find ways to enrich generalist disciplines to increase the joy of medicine and decrease the threat of burn out. PMID:27387169

  1. Outer Space Medicine and Relevant Ongoing Biomedical Research

    PubMed Central

    Douglas, William R.

    1979-01-01

    An update of outer space medicine is given emphasizing main areas such as cardiopulmonary responses, vestibular functions, physiology, weightlessness, ecosystems, and radiation. A prospective view is also presented on the medical problems resulting from various hazards of outer space and planetary missions. Although an outgrowth of aviation and environmental medicine, this relatively new, special branch of medicine is currently undergoing an unprecedented rise as a vital modern specialty. The aims of the United States, Russia, and the nations of Europe in space research are shown to be in accord in learning how to live and work in space when confronted with the unique factors of zero gravity, cosmic radiation, and magnetic variations. PMID:439154

  2. New family medicine residency training programme: Residents’ perspectives from the University of Botswana

    PubMed Central

    Tshitenge, Stephane; Setlhare, Vincent; Tsima, Billy; Adewale, Ganiyu; Parsons, Luise

    2016-01-01

    Background Family Medicine (FM) training is new in Botswana. No previous evaluation of the experiences and opinions of residents of the University of Botswana (UB) Family Medicine training programme has been reported. Aims This study explored and assessed residents’ experiences and satisfaction with the FM training programme at the UB and solicited potential strategies for improvement from the residents. Methods A descriptive survey using a self-administered questionnaire based on a Likert-type scale and open-ended questions was used to collect data from FM residents at the UB. Results Eight out the 14 eligible residents participated to this study. Generally, residents were not satisfied with the FM training programme. Staff shortage, inadequate supervision and poor programme organisation by the faculty were the main reasons for this. However, the residents were satisfied with weekly training schedules and the diversity of patients in the current training sites. Residents’ potential solutions included an increase in staff, the acquisition of equipment at teaching sites and emphasis on FM core topics teachings. They had different views regarding how certain future career paths will be. Conclusions Despite the general dissatisfaction among residents because of challenges faced by the training programme, we have learnt that residents are capable of valuable inputs for improvement of their programme when engaged. There is need for the Department of Family Medicine to work with the Ministry of Health to set a clear career pathway for future graduates and to reflect on residents’ input for possible implementation. PMID:27796117

  3. New family medicine residency training programme: Residents’ perspectives from the University of Botswana

    PubMed Central

    Tshitenge, Stephane; Setlhare, Vincent; Tsima, Billy; Adewale, Ganiyu; Parsons, Luise

    2016-01-01

    Background Family Medicine (FM) training is new in Botswana. No previous evaluation of the experiences and opinions of residents of the University of Botswana (UB) Family Medicine training programme has been reported. Aims This study explored and assessed residents’ experiences and satisfaction with the FM training programme at the UB and solicited potential strategies for improvement from the residents. Methods A descriptive survey using a self-administered questionnaire based on a Likert-type scale and open-ended questions was used to collect data from FM residents at the UB. Results Eight out the 14 eligible residents participated to this study. Generally, residents were not satisfied with the FM training programme. Staff shortage, inadequate supervision and poor programme organisation by the faculty were the main reasons for this. However, the residents were satisfied with weekly training schedules and the diversity of patients in the current training sites. Residents’ potential solutions included an increase in staff, the acquisition of equipment at teaching sites and emphasis on FM core topics teachings. They had different views regarding how certain future career paths will be. Conclusions Despite the general dissatisfaction among residents because of challenges faced by the training programme, we have learnt that residents are capable of valuable inputs for improvement of their programme when engaged. There is need for the Department of Family Medicine to work with the Ministry of Health to set a clear career pathway for future graduates and to reflect on residents’ input for possible implementation.

  4. Effective Research Strategies for Trainees in Internal Medicine Residency Programs

    PubMed Central

    Wiederman, Michael W.; Sawyer, Robert J.

    2015-01-01

    For most training programs, the development of research endeavors among trainees is an ongoing challenge. In this article, we review various considerations when attempting to undertake research activities within an internal medicine residency training program, including availability of institutional resources (eg, dedicated research time for trainees and faculty, available faculty mentors, accessible adjunctive personnel), engagement of residents into research, classic project quagmires in training programs, the institutional review board, publication options (eg, letters to the editor, case reports, literature reviews, original research reports), and journal submission strategies. Given that research entails multiple components and distinct skills, the overall program goal should be to make research an educationally understandable process for trainees. Research can be a rewarding activity when nurtured in a facilitating educational environment. PMID:26137359

  5. Families Today: A Research Sampler on Families and Children. Volume 1. NIMH Science Monographs 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corfman, Eunice, Ed.

    The first of two volumes, this book consists of 17 studies of children and families. Selections are intended to provide a representative sample of current research, including case studies and less formal reports. Volume I is divided into four sections. Part One considers the family as an enduring social unit. Families in hard times, Chicano…

  6. Family Strengthening Research: FY2014. OPRE Report 2015-22

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Administration for Children & Families, 2015

    2015-01-01

    This report provides detailed summaries of major research investments by OPRE's Division of Family Strengthening (DFS) along with brief overviews of past projects. The featured projects cover topics that include strengthening relationships within families, supporting fatherhood, nurturing children through their families, reducing teen pregnancy,…

  7. Some Methodological Considerations in Researching the Family Career.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, James

    Methodological issues which confront researchers using the concept of the family career include the selection of appropriate dependent variables; the efficacy of historical versus immediate effects; and scaling the family career (a proposed replacement for the "family life cycle"). The issue of which dependent variables should be explained by the…

  8. Research Highlights. Strengths and Needs of Divided Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stringer-Seibold, Traci; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Describes a qualitative research study of children from divided families and analyzes findings in terms of family contexts, children's resiliency, and needs. Suggests strategies for professionals including recognition of developmental capacity within family circumstances, interactive systems, communication patterns and areas of stress. Includes…

  9. Strengthening Fragile Families through Research and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bembry, James X.

    2011-01-01

    Almost one third of all children in the United States are born to unmarried parents. This figure is even higher among poor and minority populations. Because of their heightened risk for economic and social problems and family dissolution, disadvantaged, unmarried parents have been called "fragile families." In 2002 the Bush administration…

  10. Critical Approach to Family Research: An Illustration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watters, Margaret E.

    1985-01-01

    Jurgen Habermas' theory relating to systems of action is used in an attempt to analyze the dynamic focus of home economics--the family--as a means of exploring the potential of the theory to promote understanding of family activities. (Author/CT)

  11. Family Factors in Child Care Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hungerford, Anne; Cox, Martha J.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to review evidence concerning the joint impact of family characteristics and child care experiences in understanding children's development. Although child care experiences are related to children's development across a variety of domains, family characteristics, particularly socioeconomic status and parenting…

  12. Chinese Family Problems: Research and Trends.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhangling, Wei

    1983-01-01

    Discusses family life in China, which has undergone several dramatic changes including raising of the legal marriage age, less restrictions on divorce, and official promotion of family planning. Because these policies and practices conflict with Chinese traditions, inevitable problems have arisen. (JAC)

  13. [Current situation and development trend of Chinese medicine information research].

    PubMed

    Dong, Yan; Cui, Meng

    2013-04-01

    Literature resource service was the main service that Chinese medicine (CM) information offered. But in recent years users have started to request the health information knowledge service. The CM information researches and application service mainly included: (1) the need of strength studies on theory, application of technology, information retrieval, and information standard development; (2) Information studies need to support clinical decision making, new drug research; (3) Quick response based on the network monitoring and support to emergency countermeasures. CM information researches have the following treads: (1) developing the theory system structure of CM information; (2) studying the methodology system of CM information; (3) knowledge discovery and knowledge innovation.

  14. [The dual role of the physician: medicine and research].

    PubMed

    Freud-Silverberg, Michal; Ben David, Liat; Rabin, Shula; Wainstein, Julio

    2014-02-01

    The physician-researcher is a key figure in the development of modern medicine. Many physicians are involved in bioresearch, be it basic research in the laboratory or in the field of clinical trials, as partners of new drug/device development. A clinical trial is a systematic and controlled study of a medical intervention in human beings. Its main purpose is to answer unique scientific questions as defined in the study's goals and methods. This article summarizes the differences between the traditional role of physician-patient care, and the challenging role as a researcher with its' many advantages.

  15. Refining the Enrolment Process in Emergency Medicine Research

    PubMed Central

    Sahan, Kate M; Channon, Keith M; Choudhury, Robin P; Kharbanda, Rajesh K; Lee, Regent; Sheehan, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Research in the emergency setting involving patients with acute clinical conditions is needed if there are to be advances in diagnosis and treatment. But research in these areas poses ethical and practical challenges. One of these is the general inability to obtain informed consent due to the patient’s lack of mental capacity and insufficient time to contact legal representatives. Regulatory frameworks which allow this research to proceed with a consent ‘waiver’, provided patients lack mental capacity, miss important ethical subtleties. One of these is the varying nature of mental capacity among emergency medicine patients. Not only is their capacity variable and often unclear, but some patients are also likely to be able to engage with the researcher and the context to varying degrees. In this paper we describe the key elements of a novel enrolment process for emergency medicine research that refines the consent waiver and fully engages with the ethical rationale for consent and, in this context, its waiver. The process is verbal but independently documented during the ‘emergent’ stages of the research. It provides appropriate engagement with the patient, is context-sensitive and better addresses ethical subtleties. In line with regulation, full written consent for on-going participation in the research is obtained once the emergency is passed. PMID:27499840

  16. Translational research: precision medicine, personalized medicine, targeted therapies: marketing or science?

    PubMed

    Marquet, Pierre; Longeray, Pierre-Henry; Barlesi, Fabrice; Ameye, Véronique; Augé, Pascale; Cazeneuve, Béatrice; Chatelut, Etienne; Diaz, Isabelle; Diviné, Marine; Froguel, Philippe; Goni, Sylvia; Gueyffier, François; Hoog-Labouret, Natalie; Mourah, Samia; Morin-Surroca, Michèle; Perche, Olivier; Perin-Dureau, Florent; Pigeon, Martine; Tisseau, Anne; Verstuyft, Céline

    2015-01-01

    Personalized medicine is based on: 1) improved clinical or non-clinical methods (including biomarkers) for a more discriminating and precise diagnosis of diseases; 2) targeted therapies of the choice or the best drug for each patient among those available; 3) dose adjustment methods to optimize the benefit-risk ratio of the drugs chosen; 4) biomarkers of efficacy, toxicity, treatment discontinuation, relapse, etc. Unfortunately, it is still too often a theoretical concept because of the lack of convenient diagnostic methods or treatments, particularly of drugs corresponding to each subtype of pathology, hence to each patient. Stratified medicine is a component of personalized medicine employing biomarkers and companion diagnostics to target the patients likely to present the best benefit-risk balance for a given active compound. The concept of targeted therapy, mostly used in cancer treatment, relies on the existence of a defined molecular target, involved or not in the pathological process, and/or on the existence of a biomarker able to identify the target population, which should logically be small as compared to the population presenting the disease considered. Targeted therapies and biomarkers represent important stakes for the pharmaceutical industry, in terms of market access, of return on investment and of image among the prescribers. At the same time, they probably represent only the first generation of products resulting from the combination of clinical, pathophysiological and molecular research, i.e. of translational research.

  17. Qualitative research methods in renal medicine: an introduction.

    PubMed

    Bristowe, Katherine; Selman, Lucy; Murtagh, Fliss E M

    2015-09-01

    Qualitative methodologies are becoming increasingly widely used in health research. However, within some specialties, including renal medicine, qualitative approaches remain under-represented in the high-impact factor journals. Qualitative research can be undertaken: (i) as a stand-alone research method, addressing specific research questions; (ii) as part of a mixed methods approach alongside quantitative approaches or (iii) embedded in clinical trials, or during the development of complex interventions. The aim of this paper is to introduce qualitative research, including the rationale for choosing qualitative approaches, and guidance for ensuring quality when undertaking and reporting qualitative research. In addition, we introduce types of qualitative data (observation, interviews and focus groups) as well as some of the most commonly encountered methodological approaches (case studies, ethnography, phenomenology, grounded theory, thematic analysis, framework analysis and content analysis).

  18. Delimiting family in syntheses of research on childhood chronic conditions and family life.

    PubMed

    Knafl, Kathleen; Leeman, Jennifer; Havill, Nancy; Crandell, Jamie; Sandelowski, Margarete

    2015-03-01

    Synthesis of family research presents unique challenges to investigators who must delimit what will be included as a family study in the proposed review. In this paper, the authors discuss the conceptual and pragmatic challenges of conducting systematic reviews of the literature on the intersection between family life and childhood chronic conditions. A proposed framework for delimiting the family domain of interest is presented. The framework addresses both topical salience and level of relevance and provides direction to future researchers, with the goal of supporting the overall quality of family research synthesis efforts. For users of synthesis studies, knowledge of how investigators conceptualize the boundaries of family research is important contextual information for understanding the limits and applicability of the results.

  19. Space Exploration: Challenges in Medicine, Research, and Ethics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Jeffrey R.

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation describes the challenges that space exploration faces in terms of medicine, research and ethics. The topics include: 1) Effects of Microgravity on Human Physiology; 2) Radiation; 3) Bone; 4) Behavior and Performance; 5) Muscle; 6) Cardiovascular; 7) Neurovestibular; 8) Food and Nutrition; 9) Immunology and Hematology; 10) Environment; 11) Exploration; 12) Building Block Approach; 13) Exploration Issues; 14) Life Sciences Contributions; 15) Health Care; and 17) Habitability.

  20. [Research in general medicine, role of the medical thesis].

    PubMed

    Levasseur, G; Schweyer, F X

    2003-06-01

    General practice doctors are naturally presented as being actors on the front lines of public health. The ability of general practitioners to be aware of and deal with public health questions largely depends upon their training. Perhaps one could consider the general practitioner's thesis as a preparatory analytical work within the area of their future field of practice. Do these theses serve to provide food for thought on general practice and its contribution to public health, and if not, could they? An analysis conducted within four medical schools in western France demonstrates that the work produced for general medicine identified as such only constitutes a fraction of the overall number of medical (non-university) theses (approximately 5%). Two possible explanations may be put forward. First, on the one hand, the theses highly depend on the context of the training and the work produced is a direct result of this. Second, on the other hand, the current methods of indexing notes in the university databases does not enable general medicine to be clearly seen and visibly recognised as an academic discipline. Two questions then remain: Can medical theses be considered as research? Should research in general medicine be carried out solely by general practitioners? It is vital that resources from outside the medical field be raised and mobilised for general practice research, whose themes are multi-disciplinary and not only clinical.

  1. [Ten challenging issues in the clinical research of Chinese medicine].

    PubMed

    Li, Yong-Ming

    2009-05-01

    While continuing its journey to the West, traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) encounters various barriers. The ten most challenging issues in TCM clinical research are: (1) the justification of the specificity of acupuncture points; (2) the evidence of the effectiveness of manual needle manipulation; (3) the role of placebo in TCM practice; (4) the advantage of TCM pattern differentiation in clinical management; (5) quality control of Chinese herbs and optional formulation for current practice; (6) the classification of herbal medicine based on safety and toxicity; (7) the efficacy of herbal medicine for specific diseases or symptoms proven by randomized double blinded controlled clinical trial; (8) interactions between Western drugs and herbal medicine; (9) the application of Western medical diagnosis, pathology, imaging data, and test results in TCM pattern differentiation; (10) the best clinical set-up and model for TCM practice in modern society. There is no doubt that the understanding and resolving of these issues will significantly accelarate the acceptance of TCM by the scientific community and the Western society.

  2. Teaching team membership to family medicine residents: what does it take?

    PubMed

    Eubank, Daniel; Orzano, John; Geffken, Dominic; Ricci, Rocco

    2011-03-01

    Primary care reform proponents advocate for patient-centered medical homes built on interdisciplinary teamwork. Recent efforts document the difficulty achieving reform, which requires personal transformation by doctors. Currently no widely accepted curriculum to teach team membership in Family Medicine residencies exists. Organizational Development (OD) has 40 years of experience assessing and teaching the skills underlying teamwork. We present a curriculum that adapts OD insights to articulate a framework describing effective teamwork; define and teach specific team membership skills; reframe residents' perception of medicine to make relationships relevant; and transform training experiences to provide practice in interdisciplinary teamwork. Curriculum details include a rotation to introduce the new framework, six workshops, experiential learning in the practice, and coaching as a teaching method. We review program evaluations. We discuss challenges, including institutional resources and support, incorporation of a new language and culture into residency training, recruitment "for fit," and faculty/staff development. We conclude that teaching the relationship skills of effective team membership is feasible, but hard. Succeeding has transformative implications for patient relationships, residency training and the practice of family medicine. PMID:21417522

  3. Learning from e-Family History: A Model of Online Family Historian Research Behaviour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friday, Kate

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: This paper reports on doctoral research which investigated the online research behaviour of family historians, from the overall perspective of local studies collections and developing online services for family historians. Method: A hybrid (primarily ethnographic) study was employed using qualitative diaries and shadowing, to examine…

  4. Marriage and Family Therapy Research: Ethical Issues and Guidelines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hohmann-Marriott, Bryndl E.

    2001-01-01

    Research in the field of marriage and family therapy requires many ethical considerations due to the complexity of relationships among family members and the sensitive information involved. The AAMFT Code of Ethics and ethical standards for research attempt to address these concerns. The guidelines cover issues such as risk management, informed…

  5. Connecting Complex Processes: A Decade of Research on Immigrant Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glick, Jennifer E.

    2010-01-01

    This review examines research on immigrant families in the United States from the past decade from multiple disciplinary perspectives. This work has used variations on assimilation and acculturation perspectives. In the case of the assimilation perspectives, the focus has largely been on family formation, whereas research using acculturation…

  6. Marriage and the Black Family: What Research Says.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogletree, Earl J.; Jackson, Lillian

    This report reviews sociological research pertaining to marriage and family relations among blacks. Mate selection, economics in marriage, sexual relations, and the importance of children are among the topics examined. Observations and hypotheses about black social status are applied to research findings on family life in general, and contrasts…

  7. The views of key leaders in South Africa on implementation of family medicine: critical role in the district health system

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Integrated team-based primary care is an international imperative. This is required more so in Africa, where fragmented verticalised care dominates. South Africa is trying to address this with health reforms, including Primary Health Care Re-engineering. Family physicians are already contributing to primary care despite family medicine being only fully registered as a full specialty in South Africa in 2008. However the views of leaders on family medicine and the role of family physicians is not clear, especially with recent health reforms. The aim of this study was to understand the views of key government and academic leaders in South Africa on family medicine, roles of family physicians and human resource issues. Methods This was a qualitative study with academic and government leaders across South Africa. In-depth interviews were conducted with sixteen purposively selected leaders using an interview guide. Thematic content analysis was based on the framework method. Results Whilst family physicians were seen as critical to the district health system there was ambivalence on their leadership role and ‘specialist’ status. National health reforms were creating both threats and opportunities for family medicine. Three key roles for family physicians emerged: supporting referrals; clinical governance/quality improvement; and providing support to community-oriented care. Respondents’ urged family physicians to consolidate the development and training of family physicians, and shape human resource policy to include family physicians. Conclusions Family physicians were seen as critical to the district health system in South Africa despite difficulties around their precise role. Whilst their role was dominated by filling gaps at district hospitals to reduce referrals it extended to clinical governance and developing community-oriented primary care - a tall order, requiring strong teamwork. Innovative team-based service delivery is possible despite human

  8. The Application of Entrustable Professional Activities to Inform Competency Decisions in a Family Medicine Residency Program.

    PubMed

    Schultz, Karen; Griffiths, Jane; Lacasse, Miriam

    2015-07-01

    Assessing entrustable professional activities (EPAs), or carefully chosen units of work that define a profession and are entrusted to a resident to complete unsupervised once she or he has obtained adequate competence, is a novel and innovative approach to competency-based assessment (CBA). What is currently not well described in the literature is the application of EPAs within a CBA system. In this article, the authors describe the development of 35 EPAs for a Canadian family medicine residency program, including the work by an expert panel of family physician and medical education experts from four universities in three Canadian provinces to identify the relevant EPAs for family medicine in nine curriculum domains. The authors outline how they used these EPAs and the corresponding templates that describe competence at different levels of supervision to create electronic EPA field notes, which has allowed educators to use the EPAs as a formative tool to structure day-to-day assessment and feedback and a summative tool to ground competency declarations about residents. They then describe the system to compile, collate, and use the EPA field notes to make competency declarations and how this system aligns with van der Vleuten's utility index for assessment (valid, reliable, of educational value, acceptable, cost-effective). Early outcomes indicate that preceptors are using the EPA field notes more often than they used the generic field notes. EPAs enable educators to evaluate multiple objectives and important but unwieldy competencies by providing practical, manageable, measurable activities that can be used to assess competency development.

  9. [Research about re-evaluation of screening of traditonal Chinese medicine symptoms item of post-marketing medicine Xuezhikang].

    PubMed

    He, Wei; Xie, Yanming; Wang, Yongyan

    2011-10-01

    The purpose of post-marketing Chinese medicine re-evaluation is to identify Chinese medicine clinical indications, while designing scientific and rational of Chinese medicine symptoms items are important to the result of symptoms re-evaluation. This study give screening of traditional Chinese medicine(TCM) symptoms item of post-marketing medicine Xuezhikang re-evaluation as example that reference to principle dyslipidemia clinical research, academic dissertations, Xuezhikang directions, clinical expert practice experience etc. while standardization those symptom names and screening 41 dyslipidemia common symptoms. Furthermore, this paper discuss about the accoerdance and announcements when screening symptoms item, so as to providing a research thread to manufacture PRO chart for post-marketing medicine re-evaluation. PMID:22292395

  10. What can comparative effectiveness research, propensity score and registry study bring to Chinese medicine?

    PubMed

    Liao, Xing; Xie, Yan-ming

    2014-10-01

    The impact of evidence-based medicine and clinical epidemiology on clinical research has contributed to the development of Chinese medicine in modern times over the past two decades. Many concepts and methods of modern science and technology are emerging in Chinese medicine research, resulting in constant progress. Systematic reviews, randomized controlled trials and other advanced mathematic approaches and statistical analysis methods have brought reform to Chinese medicine. In this new era, Chinese medicine researchers have many opportunities and challenges. On the one hand, Chinese medicine researchers need to dedicate themselves to providing enough evidence to the world through rigorous studies, whilst on the other hand, they also need to keep up with the speed of modern medicine research. For example, recently, real world study, comparative effectiveness research, propensity score techniques and registry study have emerged. This article aims to inspire Chinese medicine researchers to explore new areas by introducing these new ideas and new techniques.

  11. Walking the Walk in Team-Based Education: The Crimson Care Collaborative Clinic in Family Medicine.

    PubMed

    Meisinger, Kirsten; Wohler, Diana

    2016-01-01

    Effective implementation of robust team-based care in the United States requires significant training for all team members. This education is integral to creating a culture of collaboration and respect among interprofessional members of the health care team. The lack of interprofessional clinical educational experiences contributes to a "hidden curriculum" that reinforces the problematic view that medicine is at the top of a hierarchy among health professions. However, learners themselves have started resisting this view by integrating cross-disciplinary team-based training into their own education. One example of learner-based leadership in interprofessional team care is the Crimson Care Collaborative at Cambridge Health Alliance, a student-faculty collaborative family medicine clinic. This successful clinic demonstrates that high-quality interprofessional clinical education can be accomplished through partnerships between educational institutions and existing patient-centered medical homes. PMID:27669136

  12. The Family Medicine Residency Training Initiative in Miscarriage Management: Impact on Practice in Washington State

    PubMed Central

    Darney, Blair G.; Weaver, Marcia R.; Stevens, Nancy; Kimball, Jeana; Prager, Sarah W.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES Non-complicated spontaneous abortion cases should be counseled about the full range of management approaches, including uterine evacuation using manual vacuum aspiration (MVA). The Residency Training Initiative in Miscarriage Management (RTI-MM) is an intensive, multidimensional intervention designed to facilitate implementation of office-based management of spontaneous abortion using MVA in family medicine residency settings. The purpose of this study was to test the impact of the RTI-MM on self-reported use of MVA for management of spontaneous abortion. METHODS We used a pretest/posttest one group study design and a web-based, anonymous survey to collect data on knowledge, attitudes, perceived barriers, and practice of office-based management of spontaneous abortion. We used multivariable models to estimate incident relative risks and accounted for data clustering at the residency site level. RESULTS Our sample included 441 residents and faculty from 10 family medicine residency sites. Our findings show a positive association between the RTI-MM and self-reported use of MVA for management of spontaneous abortion (adjusted RR=9.11 [CI=4.20-19.78]) and were robust to model specification. Male gender, doing any type of management of spontaneous abortion (eg, expectant, medication), other on-site reproductive health training interventions, and support staff knowledge scores were also significant correlates of physician practice of MVA. CONCLUSIONS Our findings suggest that the RTI-MM was successful in influencing the practice of management of spontaneous abortion using MVA in this population and that support staff knowledge may impact physician practice. Integrating MVA into family medicine settings would potentially improve access to evidence-based, comprehensive care for women. PMID:23378077

  13. Research implications of the Institute of Medicine Report, Epilepsy Across the Spectrum: Promoting Health and Understanding

    PubMed Central

    Hesdorffer, Dale C.; Beck, Vicki; Begley, Charles E.; Bishop, Malachy L.; Cushner-Weinstein, Sandra; Holmes, Gregory L.; Shafer, Patricia O.; Sirven, Joseph I.; Austin, Joan K.

    2012-01-01

    In March 2012 the Institute of Medicine (IOM) released the report, Epilepsy Across The Spectrum: Promoting Health And Understanding. This report examined the public health dimensions of the epilepsies with a focus on four areas: public health surveillance and data collection and integration; population and public health research; health policy, health care, and human services; and education for providers, people with epilepsy and their families, and the public. The report provided recommendations and research priorities for future work in the field of epilepsy that relate to: increasing the power of data on epilepsy; prevention of epilepsy; improving health care for people with epilepsy; improving health professional education about epilepsy; improving quality of life for people with epilepsy; improving education about epilepsy for people with epilepsy and families; and raising public awareness about epilepsy. For this article, the authors selected one research priority from each of the major chapter themes in the IOM report: expanding and improving the quality of epidemiological surveillance in epilepsy; developing improved interventions for people with epilepsy and depression; expanding early identification/screening for learning impairments in children with epilepsy; evaluating and promoting effective innovative teaching strategies; accelerating research on the identification of risk factors and interventions that increase employment and improve quality of life for people with epilepsy and their families; assessing the information needs of people with epilepsy and their families associated with epilepsy-related risks, specifically sudden unexpected death in epilepsy; and developing and conducting surveys to capture trends in knowledge, awareness, attitudes, and beliefs about epilepsy over time and in specific population subgroups. For each research priority selected, examples of research are provided that will advance the field of epilepsy and improve the lives

  14. Space medicine research: Needs for the 21st century

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pepper, L. J.

    1992-01-01

    Space medicine research in the 21st century will continue to focus on the four major areas including: (1) expansion of the current incomplete knowledge base of clinical and subclinical physiological changes due to microgravity; (2) development of countermeasures to extend the capabilities of the human performance envelope in extended duration flights; (3) development of novel methods for delivering all aspects of a comprehensive health care system in extreme remote conditions: and (4) further research and application of systems for biological materials processing. New space transportation vehicles will place unique physiologic and human factors demands on the human system, while providing better access to platforms for materials processing. Success in meeting the demands in each of the noted research areas will require an extensive, interactive team approach. Personnel from the medical research,operational, developmental, and basic science communities will be essential to success.

  15. Behavioral interventions for office-based care: interventions in the family medicine setting.

    PubMed

    Larzelere, Michele McCarthy

    2014-03-01

    The practice of family medicine includes the care of many patients with mental health or behavior change needs. Patients in mild to moderate distress may benefit from brief interventions performed in the family physician's office. Patients in more extreme distress may be helped by referral to behavioral health clinicians for short-term or open-ended therapies. Electronic therapy programs and bibliotherapy are also useful resources. The transition to the patient-centered medical home model may allow for more widespread integration of behavioral health care clinicians into primary care, in person and through telemental health care. Integrated care holds the promise of improved access, greater effectiveness of behavioral health service provision, and enhanced efficiency of primary care for patients with behavioral health care needs.

  16. AB017. Basic research progress in microenergy medicine

    PubMed Central

    Xin, Zhongcheng

    2016-01-01

    In the last decade, the convergence of life sciences, physical sciences, and engineering has brought a host of opportunities and innovations for biomedical informatics and health care in microenergy medicine, and it is called the third revolution in the field of life science research. Low-energy shock wave therapy (LESWT), a form of physical therapy in energy medicine, was shown to markedly improve erectile function in patients with organic ED, as well as in diabetic rats. In addition, LESWT has been demonstrated to facilitate elongation of myelinated axons, with consequent neurologic functional recovery in a rat model. Low-intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS) is a form of ultrasound that delivered at a much lower intensity than traditional ultrasound energy and output in the mode of pulse wave. LIPUS have been demonstrated to have a rage of biological effects on tissues, including promoting bone-fracture healing, accelerating soft-tissue regeneration, inhibiting inflammatory responses and so on. Recent studies showed that biological effects of LIPUS in healing morbid body tissues may be mainly associated with the upregulation of cell proliferation and promoting multilineage differentiation of mesenchyme stem/progenitor cell lines. Therapeutic magnetic field, a good paradigm of convergence medicine, has been demonstrated to have beneficial results in benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), human breast carcinoma, peripheral nerve regeneration, hand osteoarthritis, osteonecrosis, and nucleic acid delivery. Magnetic field has been proven to be a safe, non-invasive method for numerous cell and tissue modifications, especially in musculoskeletal system.

  17. Quanta, quarks, and families: implications of quantum physics for family research.

    PubMed

    Doherty, W J

    1986-06-01

    This paper offers recommendations for family research in light of the scientific paradigm ushered in by quantum physics in the early twentieth century. After summarizing the basic discoveries of quantum physics, the author discusses philosophical implications of these discoveries, and then presents implications for conducting scientific research about families within a post-Newtonian paradigm that emphasizes relations, process, and dynamic causation. The author argues for using complementary research models, including linear and systemic, because no one theory or methodology can illuminate fully the inscrutable nature of family processes.

  18. Incorporating Research Findings into Standards and Requirements for Space Medicine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duncan, J. Michael

    2006-01-01

    The Vision for Exploration has been the catalyst for NASA to refocus its life sciences research. In the future, life sciences research funded by NASA will be focused on answering questions that directly impact setting physiological standards and developing effective countermeasures to the undesirable physiological and psychological effects of spaceflight for maintaining the health of the human system. This, in turn, will contribute to the success of exploration class missions. We will show how research will impact setting physiologic standards, such as exposure limits, outcome limits, and accepted performance ranges. We will give examples of how a physiologic standard can eventually be translated into an operational requirement, then a functional requirement, and eventually spaceflight hardware or procedures. This knowledge will be important to the space medicine community as well as to vehicle contractors who, for the first time, must now consider the human system in developing and constructing a vehicle that can achieve the goal of success.

  19. Clinical research of traditional Chinese medicine in big data era.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Junhua; Zhang, Boli

    2014-09-01

    With the advent of big data era, our thinking, technology and methodology are being transformed. Data-intensive scientific discovery based on big data, named "The Fourth Paradigm," has become a new paradigm of scientific research. Along with the development and application of the Internet information technology in the field of healthcare, individual health records, clinical data of diagnosis and treatment, and genomic data have been accumulated dramatically, which generates big data in medical field for clinical research and assessment. With the support of big data, the defects and weakness may be overcome in the methodology of the conventional clinical evaluation based on sampling. Our research target shifts from the "causality inference" to "correlativity analysis." This not only facilitates the evaluation of individualized treatment, disease prediction, prevention and prognosis, but also is suitable for the practice of preventive healthcare and symptom pattern differentiation for treatment in terms of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), and for the post-marketing evaluation of Chinese patent medicines. To conduct clinical studies involved in big data in TCM domain, top level design is needed and should be performed orderly. The fundamental construction and innovation studies should be strengthened in the sections of data platform creation, data analysis technology and big-data professionals fostering and training.

  20. Clinical research of traditional Chinese medicine in big data era.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Junhua; Zhang, Boli

    2014-09-01

    With the advent of big data era, our thinking, technology and methodology are being transformed. Data-intensive scientific discovery based on big data, named "The Fourth Paradigm," has become a new paradigm of scientific research. Along with the development and application of the Internet information technology in the field of healthcare, individual health records, clinical data of diagnosis and treatment, and genomic data have been accumulated dramatically, which generates big data in medical field for clinical research and assessment. With the support of big data, the defects and weakness may be overcome in the methodology of the conventional clinical evaluation based on sampling. Our research target shifts from the "causality inference" to "correlativity analysis." This not only facilitates the evaluation of individualized treatment, disease prediction, prevention and prognosis, but also is suitable for the practice of preventive healthcare and symptom pattern differentiation for treatment in terms of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), and for the post-marketing evaluation of Chinese patent medicines. To conduct clinical studies involved in big data in TCM domain, top level design is needed and should be performed orderly. The fundamental construction and innovation studies should be strengthened in the sections of data platform creation, data analysis technology and big-data professionals fostering and training. PMID:25217972

  1. Occupational Medicine and Hygiene: applied research in Italy.

    PubMed

    Copello, F; Garbarino, S; Messineo, A; Campagna, M; Durando, P

    2015-01-01

    The goal of Occupational Medicine and Hygiene is that of ensuring safety, health and well-being at workplaces, mainly assessing and preventing existing occupational risks. Scientific research in this field can provide useful arguments and further evidence upon which effective, efficient and sustainable policies and preventive measures have to be chosen and applied by the occupational physician in work-life. This paper summarizes four original studies, conducted in different professional settings across Italy, focusing on critical items, such as stress and violence, biological risks and sleep hygiene. The knowledge obtained can be useful to orientate proper preventive programs aimed at improving workplace health. PMID:26789987

  2. United States Army Research Institute of Environmental Medicine: Warfighter Research Focusing on the Past 25 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pandolf, Kent B.; Francesconi, Ralph; Sawka, Michael N.; Cymerman, Allen; Hoyt, Reed W.; Young, Andrew J.; Zambraski, Edward J.

    2011-01-01

    The United States Army Research Institute of Environmental Medicine (USARIEM) celebrated its 50th anniversary on July 1, 2011. This article reviews its history, evolution, and transition of its research programs as well as its scientific and military accomplishments, emphasizing the past 25 yr. During the 1990s, USARIEM published a series of…

  3. Appraisal of the communication skills of residents in the Family Medicine Program in Central Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Alsaad, Saad M.; Alshammari, Sulaiman A.; Almogbel, Turki A.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To assess patients’ perceptions of the communication skills of family medicine residents. Methods: This is a cross-sectional study. Data were collected from patients, seeing 23 residents from 4 family medicine residency programs in Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia namely, King Khalid University Hospital, Riyadh Military Hospital, Security Forces Hospital, and King Abdul-Aziz Medical City. The translated version of the Communication Assessment Tool (CAT) was used. Data were collected during January and February 2013. Results: A total of 350 patients completed the CAT, with an 87.5% response rate. Patients rated each resident differently, but the mean percentage of items, which residents rated as excellent was 71%. In general, male residents were rated higher 72.8 ± 27.2 than female residents 67.8 ± 32.2 with a significant difference; (p<0.005). Also, significant differences were found based on the gender of the residents, when each item of the CAT was compared. Comparing training centers, there were no significant differences found in the overall percentage of items rated as excellent or among items of the CAT. Conclusion: The study identified areas of strength and weaknesses that need to be addressed to improve communication skills of physicians. PMID:27381544

  4. Impact of a family medicine resident wellness curriculum: a feasibility study

    PubMed Central

    Runyan, Christine; Savageau, Judith A.; Potts, Stacy; Weinreb, Linda

    2016-01-01

    Background Up to 60% of practicing physicians report symptoms of burnout, which often peak during residency. Residency is also a relevant time for habits of self-care and resiliency to be emphasized. A growing literature underscores the importance of this; however, evidence about effective burnout prevention curriculum during residency remains limited. Objectives The purpose of this project is to evaluate the impact of a new, 1-month wellness curriculum for 12 second-year family medicine residents on burnout, empathy, stress, and self-compassion. Methods The pilot program, introduced during a new rotation emphasizing competencies around leadership, focused on teaching skills to cultivate mindfulness and self-compassion in order to enhance empathy and reduce stress. Pre-assessments and 3-month follow-up assessments on measures of burnout, empathy, self-compassion, and perceived stress were collected to evaluate the impact of the curriculum. It was hypothesized that this curriculum would enhance empathy and self-compassion as well as reduce stress and burnout among family medicine residents. Results Descriptive statistics revealed positive trends on the mean scores of all the measures, particularly the Mindfulness Scale of the Self-Compassion Inventory and the Jefferson Empathy Scale. However, the small sample size and lack of sufficient power to detect meaningful differences limited the use of inferential statistics. Conclusions This feasibility study demonstrates how a residency wellness curriculum can be developed, implemented, and evaluated with promising results, including high participant satisfaction. PMID:27282276

  5. Families Today: A Research Sampler on Families and Children. Volume II. NIMH Science Monographs 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corfman, Eunice, Ed.

    The second of two volumes, this book contains 21 studies of children and families. Selections, grouped into three sections, are intended to provide a representative sample of current research, including case studies and less formal reports. The first section reports on families in distress. Articles focus on adults who were antisocial children,…

  6. Nuclear Medicine

    MedlinePlus

    ... Parents/Teachers Resource Links for Students Glossary Nuclear Medicine What is nuclear medicine? What are radioactive tracers? ... funded researchers advancing nuclear medicine? What is nuclear medicine? Nuclear medicine is a medical specialty that uses ...

  7. Evaluation of Four Commonly Used DNA Barcoding Loci for Chinese Medicinal Plants of the Family Schisandraceae

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Ruozhu; Fan, Jianhua; Chen, Zhiduan

    2015-01-01

    Many species of Schisandraceae are used in traditional Chinese medicine and are faced with contamination and substitution risks due to inaccurate identification. Here, we investigated the discriminatory power of four commonly used DNA barcoding loci (ITS, trnH-psbA, matK, and rbcL) and corresponding multi-locus combinations for 135 individuals from 33 species of Schisandraceae, using distance-, tree-, similarity-, and character-based methods, at both the family level and the genus level. Our results showed that the two spacer regions (ITS and trnH-psbA) possess higher species-resolving power than the two coding regions (matK and rbcL). The degree of species resolution increased with most of the multi-locus combinations. Furthermore, our results implied that the best DNA barcode for the species discrimination at the family level might not always be the most suitable one at the genus level. Here we propose the combination of ITS+trnH-psbA+matK+rbcL as the most ideal DNA barcode for discriminating the medicinal plants of Schisandra and Kadsura, and the combination of ITS+trnH-psbA as the most suitable barcode for Illicium species. In addition, the closely related species Schisandra rubriflora Rehder & E. H. Wilson and Schisandra grandiflora Hook.f. & Thomson, were paraphyletic with each other on phylogenetic trees, suggesting that they should not be distinct species. Furthermore, the samples of these two species from the southern Hengduan Mountains region formed a distinct cluster that was separated from the samples of other regions, implying the presence of cryptic diversity. The feasibility of DNA barcodes for identification of geographical authenticity was also verified here. The database and paradigm that we provide in this study could be used as reference for the authentication of traditional Chinese medicinal plants utilizing DNA barcoding. PMID:25938480

  8. Impacts of Family Support in Early Childhood Intervention Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friend, Anna C.; Summers, Jean Ann; Turnbull, Ann P.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to review intervention research to determine the types of family support that are reported and evaluated in early childhood. This review includes 26 articles evaluating (a) parent training programs; (b) general family-centered practice models which offer comprehensive supports; (c) peer support; (d) two-generation…

  9. Family Literacy Research: A Review of Five Journal Articles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rights, Mollie

    This paper reviews 5 articles published in 1995 on family literacy research. The articles reviewed are: (1) a study on literacy in Iceland by Ronald Taylor which examined how Icelandic families share language and reading related activities; (2) an article by Barbara Moss and Gay Fawcett which describes and comments on different home literacy…

  10. Measures for Studying Poverty in Family and Child Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roosa, Mark W.; Deng, Shiying; Nair, Rajni L.; Lockhart Burrell, Ginger

    2005-01-01

    Most family scholars take the concept of poverty for granted. The variety of ways people have chosen to define and measure this concept, however, often makes it difficult to interpret or compare research results. We review and critique the ways that poverty has been measured in the family and child literatures as well as the measures that have…

  11. Parental Employment and Family Life: Research in the 1980s.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menaghan, Elizabeth G.; Parcel, Toby L.

    1990-01-01

    Examines recent research regarding how parents' employment experiences affect their own well-being, their marital relationships, and the interaction patterns in their families, with consequences for children. Emphasizes contributions of these theoretical approaches: new home economics, work-family role conflict perspectives, and work socialization…

  12. Complementary and alternative medicine in women's health. Developing a research agenda.

    PubMed

    Murphy, P A; Kronenberg, F; Wade, C

    1999-01-01

    Complementary and alternative medicine is becoming an established intervention modality within the contemporary health care system. Various forms of complementary and alternative medicine are used by patients and practitioners alike, including chiropractic, massage, botanical medicine, homeopathy, and energy therapies. The National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine was established within the National Institutes of Health to facilitate evaluation of these alternative therapies, establish an information clearinghouse, and promote research in the field. This article discusses several aspects of complementary and alternative medicine, relates them to women's health, and describes the need for a research agenda to evaluate the impact of the complementary and alternative medicine modalities used for important conditions affecting women.

  13. Research Connections Canada: Supporting Children and Families, Number 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitehead, Judith, Ed.

    Serving as a vehicle for raising the profile of and thereby gaining recognition for the important research and development work being conducted in Canada in support of children and families, the "Research Connections Canada" series compiles research and/or development papers as well as background papers, analytical literature reviews, and essays.…

  14. Research Connections Canada: Supporting Children and Families, Number 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowe, Elaine, Ed.

    Serving as a vehicle for raising the profile of and thereby gaining recognition for the important research and development work being conducted in Canada in support of children and families, the "Research Connections Canada" series compiles research and/or development papers as well as background papers, analytical literature reviews, and essays.…

  15. Research Connections Canada: Supporting Children and Families, Number 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Susan, Ed.; Bose, Kathy, Ed.; Levesque, Lise, Ed.

    Serving as a vehicle for raising the profile of and thereby gaining recognition for the important research and development work being conducted in Canada in support of children and families, the "Research Connections Canada" series compiles research and/or development papers as well as background papers, analytical literature reviews, and essays.…

  16. Research Connections Canada: Supporting Children and Families, Number 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitehead, Judith, Ed.

    Serving as a vehicle for raising the profile of and thereby gaining recognition for the important research and development work being conducted in Canada in support of children and families, the "Research Connections Canada" series compiles research and/or development papers as well as background papers, analytical literature reviews, and essays.…

  17. Research Connections Canada: Supporting Children and Families, Number 9.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowe, Elaine, Ed.

    Serving as a vehicle for raising the profile of and thereby gaining recognition for the important research and development work being conducted in Canada in support of children and families, the "Research Connections Canada" series compiles research and/or development papers as well as background papers, analytical literature reviews, and essays.…

  18. Research Connections Canada: Supporting Children and Families, Number 7.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowe, Elaine, Ed.

    Serving as a vehicle for raising the profile of and thereby gaining recognition for the important research and development work being conducted in Canada in support of children and families, the "Research Connections Canada" series compiles research and/or development papers as well as background papers, analytical literature reviews, and essays.…

  19. Research Connections Canada: Supporting Children and Families, Number 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Susan, Ed.; Bose, Kathy, Ed.; Levesque, Lise, Ed.

    Serving as a vehicle for raising the profile of and thereby gaining recognition for the important research and development work being conducted in Canada in support of children and families, the "Research Connections Canada" series compiles research and/or development papers as well as background papers, analytical literature reviews, and essays.…

  20. Research, valorization and exploitation of biological resources for medicinal purposes in the Malagasy Republic (Madagascar).

    PubMed

    Randimbivololona, F

    1996-04-01

    Medicinal plants are widely used for treatment of diseases in Madagascar (the Malagasy Republic). Different types of users, including individuals, researchers, groups of researchers and State institutions use medicinal plants as crude materials either for trade, scientific investigations or export. To preserve these forest products for extended use, Malagasy legislation controls the collection of medicinal plants, especially those destined for export. However, according to the law, products coming from Malagasy medicinal plants are not patentable locally. PMID:9213616

  1. Clinical proteomics and OMICS clues useful in translational medicine research

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Since the advent of the new proteomics era more than a decade ago, large-scale studies of protein profiling have been used to identify distinctive molecular signatures in a wide array of biological systems, spanning areas of basic biological research, clinical diagnostics, and biomarker discovery directed toward therapeutic applications. Recent advances in protein separation and identification techniques have significantly improved proteomic approaches, leading to enhancement of the depth and breadth of proteome coverage. Proteomic signatures, specific for multiple diseases, including cancer and pre-invasive lesions, are emerging. This article combines, in a simple manner, relevant proteomic and OMICS clues used in the discovery and development of diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers that are applicable to all clinical fields, thus helping to improve applications of clinical proteomic strategies for translational medicine research. PMID:22642823

  2. Family Literacy: A Research Agenda to Build the Future. Report from Penn State's Goodling Institute for Research in Family Literacy Think Tank.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Askov, Eunice N.

    A think tank on researching family literacy was held to brainstorm a national research agenda for family literacy. The think tank brought together 12 researchers, policymakers, and practitioners involved in family literacy. Key themes emerging during the think tank were as follows: (1) family literacy is difficult to research because it is…

  3. [Research progress of genetic engineering on medicinal plants].

    PubMed

    Teng, Zhong-qiu; Shen, Ye

    2015-02-01

    The application of genetic engineering technology in modern agriculture shows its outstanding role in dealing with food shortage. Traditional medicinal plant cultivation and collection have also faced with challenges, such as lack of resources, deterioration of environment, germplasm of recession and a series of problems. Genetic engineering can be used to improve the disease resistance, insect resistance, herbicides resistant ability of medicinal plant, also can improve the medicinal plant yield and increase the content of active substances in medicinal plants. Thus, the potent biotechnology can play an important role in protection and large area planting of medicinal plants. In the development of medicinal plant genetic engineering, the safety of transgenic medicinal plants should also be paid attention to. A set of scientific safety evaluation and judgment standard which is suitable for transgenic medicinal plants should be established based on the recognition of the particularity of medicinal plants.

  4. [Research in metagenomics and its applications in translational medicine].

    PubMed

    Jiahuan, Chen; Zheng, Sun; Xiaojun, Wang; Xiaoquan, Su; Kang, Ning

    2015-07-01

    Humans are born with microbiota, which have accompanied us through our life-span. There is an important symbiotic relationship between us and the microbial communities, thus microbial communities are of great importance to our health. All genomic information within this microbiota is referered to as "metagenomics" (also referred to as "human's second genome"). The analysis of high throughput metagenomic data generated from biomedical experiments would provide new approaches for translational research, and it have several applications in clinics. With the help of next generation sequencing technology and the emerging metagenomic approach (analysis of all genomic information in microbiota as a whole), we can overcome the pitfalls of tedious traditional method of isolation and cultivation of single microbial species. The metagenomic approach can also help us to analyze the whole microbial community efficiently and offer deep insights in human-microbe relationships as well as new ideas on many biomedical problems. In this review, we summarize frontiers in metagenomic research, including new concepts and methods. Then, we focus on the applications of metagenomic research in medical researches and clinical applications in recent years, which would clearly show the importance of metagenomic research in the field of translational medicine. PMID:26351164

  5. [Research in metagenomics and its applications in translational medicine].

    PubMed

    Jiahuan, Chen; Zheng, Sun; Xiaojun, Wang; Xiaoquan, Su; Kang, Ning

    2015-07-01

    Humans are born with microbiota, which have accompanied us through our life-span. There is an important symbiotic relationship between us and the microbial communities, thus microbial communities are of great importance to our health. All genomic information within this microbiota is referered to as "metagenomics" (also referred to as "human's second genome"). The analysis of high throughput metagenomic data generated from biomedical experiments would provide new approaches for translational research, and it have several applications in clinics. With the help of next generation sequencing technology and the emerging metagenomic approach (analysis of all genomic information in microbiota as a whole), we can overcome the pitfalls of tedious traditional method of isolation and cultivation of single microbial species. The metagenomic approach can also help us to analyze the whole microbial community efficiently and offer deep insights in human-microbe relationships as well as new ideas on many biomedical problems. In this review, we summarize frontiers in metagenomic research, including new concepts and methods. Then, we focus on the applications of metagenomic research in medical researches and clinical applications in recent years, which would clearly show the importance of metagenomic research in the field of translational medicine.

  6. The application of biotechnology in medicinal plants breeding research in China.

    PubMed

    Huang, He-Ping; Li, Jin-Cai; Huang, Lu-Qi; Wang, Dian-Lei; Huang, Peng; Nie, Jiu-Sheng

    2015-07-01

    Breeding is not only an important area of medicinal plants research but also the foundation for the superior varieties acquirement of medicinal plants. The rise of modern biotechnology provides good opportunities and new means for medicinal plants breeding research in China. Biotechnology shows its technical advantages and new development prospects in breeding of new medicinal plants varieties with high and stable yield, good quality, as well as stress-resistance. In this paper, we describe recent advances, problems, and development prospects about the application of modern biotechnology in medicinal plants breeding research in China.

  7. The Translational Genomics Core at Partners Personalized Medicine: Facilitating the Transition of Research towards Personalized Medicine.

    PubMed

    Blau, Ashley; Brown, Alison; Mahanta, Lisa; Amr, Sami S

    2016-01-01

    The Translational Genomics Core (TGC) at Partners Personalized Medicine (PPM) serves as a fee-for-service core laboratory for Partners Healthcare researchers, providing access to technology platforms and analysis pipelines for genomic, transcriptomic, and epigenomic research projects. The interaction of the TGC with various components of PPM provides it with a unique infrastructure that allows for greater IT and bioinformatics opportunities, such as sample tracking and data analysis. The following article describes some of the unique opportunities available to an academic research core operating within PPM, such the ability to develop analysis pipelines with a dedicated bioinformatics team and maintain a flexible Laboratory Information Management System (LIMS) with the support of an internal IT team, as well as the operational challenges encountered to respond to emerging technologies, diverse investigator needs, and high staff turnover. In addition, the implementation and operational role of the TGC in the Partners Biobank genotyping project of over 25,000 samples is presented as an example of core activities working with other components of PPM. PMID:26927185

  8. The Translational Genomics Core at Partners Personalized Medicine: Facilitating the Transition of Research towards Personalized Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Blau, Ashley; Brown, Alison; Mahanta, Lisa; Amr, Sami S.

    2016-01-01

    The Translational Genomics Core (TGC) at Partners Personalized Medicine (PPM) serves as a fee-for-service core laboratory for Partners Healthcare researchers, providing access to technology platforms and analysis pipelines for genomic, transcriptomic, and epigenomic research projects. The interaction of the TGC with various components of PPM provides it with a unique infrastructure that allows for greater IT and bioinformatics opportunities, such as sample tracking and data analysis. The following article describes some of the unique opportunities available to an academic research core operating within PPM, such the ability to develop analysis pipelines with a dedicated bioinformatics team and maintain a flexible Laboratory Information Management System (LIMS) with the support of an internal IT team, as well as the operational challenges encountered to respond to emerging technologies, diverse investigator needs, and high staff turnover. In addition, the implementation and operational role of the TGC in the Partners Biobank genotyping project of over 25,000 samples is presented as an example of core activities working with other components of PPM. PMID:26927185

  9. Relevance of Hypersexual Disorder to Family Medicine and Primary Care as a Complex Multidimensional Chronic Disease Construct

    PubMed Central

    Vrijhoef, Bert; De Maeseneer, Jan; Vansintejan, Johan; Devroey, Dirk

    2013-01-01

    Hypersexual disorder (HD) is not defined in a uniform way in the psychiatric literature. In the absence of solid evidence on prevalence, causes, empirically validated diagnostic criteria, instruments for diagnosis, consistent guidelines on treatment options, medical and psychosocial consequences, and type of caregivers that need to be involved, HD remains a controversial and relatively poorly understood chronic disease construct. The role of family medicine in the detection, treatment, and followup of HD is not well studied. The purpose of this paper is to describe the complexity of HD as a multidimensional chronic disease construct and its relevance to family medicine and primary care. PMID:24066230

  10. Family medicine model in Turkey: a qualitative assessment from the perspectives of primary care workers

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background A person-list-based family medicine model was introduced in Turkey during health care reforms. This study aimed to explore from primary care workers’ perspectives whether this model could achieve the cardinal functions of primary care and have an integrative position in the health care system. Methods Four groups of primary care workers were included in this exploratory-descriptive study. The first two groups were family physicians (FP) (n = 51) and their ancillary personnel (n = 22). The other two groups were physicians (n = 44) and midwives/nurses (n = 11) working in community health centres. Participants were selected for maximum variation and 102 in-depth interviews and six focus groups were conducted using a semi-structured form. Results Data analysis yielded five themes: accessibility, first-contact care, longitudinality, comprehensiveness, and coordination. Most participants stated that many people are not registered with any FP and that the majority of these belong to the most disadvantaged groups in society. FPs reported that 40-60% of patients on their lists have never received a service from them and the majority of those who use their services do not use FPs as the first point of contact. According to most participants, the list-based system improved the longitudinality of the relationship between FPs and patients. However, based on other statements, this improvement only applies to one quarter of the population. Whereas there was an improvement limited to a quantitative increase in services (immunisation, monitoring of pregnant women and infants) included in the performance-based contracting system, participants stated that services not among the performance targets, such as family planning, postpartum follow-ups, and chronic disease management, could be neglected. FPs admitted not being able to keep informed of services their patients had received at other health institutions. Half of the participants stated that the list

  11. Teaching and addressing health disparities through the family medicine social and community context of care project.

    PubMed

    White, Jordan; Heney, Jessica; Esquibel, Angela Y; Dimock, Camia; Goldman, Roberta; Anthony, David

    2014-09-01

    By training future physicians to care for patients with backgrounds different from their own, medical schools can help reduce health disparities. To address the need for education in this area, the leaders of the Family Medicine Clerkship at the Warren Alpert Medical School of Brown University developed the Social and Community Context of Care project, required of all medical students rotating through this clerkship. Students develop a hypothetical intervention addressing a health issue seen at their preceptor site, and are assessed on their grasp of the social and contextual issues affecting that health issue in their particular community. Some interventions are actualized in later clerkships or independent study projects; one example, a health class for pregnant and parenting teens at Central Falls High School, is described here. If made a routine part of medical education, projects such as these may help medical students address the health disparities they will encounter in future practice.

  12. Personalized medicine for ARDS: the 2035 research agenda.

    PubMed

    Beitler, Jeremy R; Goligher, Ewan C; Schmidt, Matthieu; Spieth, Peter M; Zanella, Alberto; Martin-Loeches, Ignacio; Calfee, Carolyn S; Cavalcanti, Alexandre B

    2016-05-01

    In the last 20 years, survival among patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) has increased substantially with advances in lung-protective ventilation and resuscitation. Building on this success, personalizing mechanical ventilation to patient-specific physiology for enhanced lung protection will be a top research priority for the years ahead. However, the ARDS research agenda must be broader in scope. Further understanding of the heterogeneous biology, from molecular to mechanical, underlying early ARDS pathogenesis is essential to inform therapeutic discovery and tailor treatment and prevention strategies to the individual patient. The ARDSne(x)t research agenda for the next 20 years calls for bringing personalized medicine to ARDS, asking simultaneously both whether a treatment affords clinically meaningful benefit and for whom. This expanded scope necessitates standard acquisition of highly granular biological, physiological, and clinical data across studies to identify biologically distinct subgroups that may respond differently to a given intervention. Clinical trials will need to consider enrichment strategies and incorporate long-term functional outcomes. Tremendous investment in research infrastructure and global collaboration will be vital to fulfilling this agenda. PMID:27040103

  13. Building a resident research program in emergency medicine.

    PubMed

    Nocera, Romy; Ramoska, Edward Anthony; Hamilton, Richard Joseph

    2016-03-01

    Residency training programs requirements state, "Residents should participate in scholarly activity." However, there is little consensus regarding how best to achieve these requirements. The objective of this study is to implement a resident research program that emphasizes resident participation in quantitative or qualitative empirical work. A three-step program "Think, Do, Write" roughly follows the 3 years of the residency. During the first phase, the resident chooses a topic, formulates a hypothesis, and completes standard research certifications. Phase 2 involves obtaining Institutional Review Board approval, and conducting the study. The final phase entails analyzing and interpreting the data, and writing an abstract to present during an annual research day. Residents are encouraged to submit their projects for presentation at scientific conferences and for publication. Multiple departmental resources are available, including a Resident Research Fund, and full support of the faculty. Prior to the new program, most scholarly activity consisted of case reports, book chapters, review articles, or other miscellaneous projects; only 27 % represented empirical studies. Starting in 2012, the new program was fully implemented, resulting in notable growth in original empirical works among residents. Currently there is almost 100 % participation in studies, and numerous residents have presented at national conferences, and have peer-reviewed publications. With a comprehensive and supported program in place, emergency medicine residents proved capable of conducting high-quality empirical research within their relatively limited time. Overall, residents developed valuable skills in research design and statistical analysis, and greatly increased their productivity as academic and clinical researchers. PMID:26597875

  14. Establishing the need for family medicine training in intimate partner violence screening.

    PubMed

    Pagels, Patti; Kindratt, Tiffany B; Reyna, Guadalupe; Lam, Kenrick; Silver, Mandy; Gimpel, Nora E

    2015-06-01

    In 2012, the USPSTF updated its guidelines and now recommends that all women of childbearing age be screened for IPV and services provided for women who screen positive. Based on these recommendations, objectives of this study were to (1) evaluate IPV knowledge, attitudes, and practices of physicians from different specialties and (2) determine significant differences by medical specialty. We recruited (n = 183) Internal Medicine, Emergency Medicine, Family Medicine (FM) and Obstetrics/Gynecology (OB/GYN) residents and attending physicians to complete a 15-question online survey assessing knowledge, attitudes and current IPV screening practices. We evaluated associations between medical specialty and knowledge, attitudes and practice measures before and after controlling for covariates. Knowledge of how often IPV occurs in society, community resources, and screening tools were significantly different by specialty (all p's < 0.05). A majority of FM physicians (88%) reported that it is a physician's responsibility to find and treat IPV and 97% reported that IPV should be included in their training. Compared to OB/GYN physicians in multivariate analyses, FM physicians were less likely to report they were comfortable discussing IPV with their patients in crude (OR = 0.35; 95% CI = 0.13, 0.94) and adjusted models (OR = 0.20; 95% CI = 0.06, 0.60). FM physicians were also less likely to report screening female patients for IPV before (OR = 0.25; 95% CI = 0.08, 0.86) and after adjusting for confounders (OR = 0.11; 95% CI = 0.03, 0.47). Our results indicate that FM physicians have positive attitudes towards finding and treating IPV yet need enhanced training to improve their comfort level with screening for and discussing IPV with their patients.

  15. Assessing prescribing of NSAIDs, antiplatelets, and anticoagulants in Canadian family medicine using chart review.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, Kevin; Davis, Christine; Falk, Jamie; Singer, Alex; Bugden, Shawn

    2016-10-01

    Background Drug-related problems have been identified as a major contributor to emergency room visits, hospitalizations, and death. The most commonly implicated medications are nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), antiplatelets, and anticoagulants. Considering a significant proportion of these harms are preventable, indicators to identify risky prescribing before they lead to harm have been developed. Objective To examine the prevalence and patterns of potentially inappropriate prescriptions (PIPs) in a primary care population who are using high-risk medications. Setting This study was performed within two multi-disciplinary family medicine teaching clinics in Winnipeg, Canada. Method A cross-sectional electronic/paper chart audit was conducted within two multi-disciplinary family medicine teaching clinics to evaluate the prevalence of 13 evidence-based high-risk prescriptions. Patients were included if they were prescribed an oral NSAID, antiplatelet, or an anticoagulant within the 12 month period between June 2012 and June 2013. Main outcome measure The proportion of PIPs associated with an increased bleeding risk for NSAIDs, antiplatelets, and anticoagulants. Results Of the 567 patients included in the review, 198 (35 %) patients had received at least 1 PIP in the past year. The most common PIP was the use of an oral NSAID with one or more GI risk factors without adequate gastro-protection. Only 34 (6 %) of these patients received a full medication review performed by a pharmacist. Although not statistically significant, patients who received a medication review had fewer inappropriate prescriptions (27 % with review, 35 % without). Conclusion Over one-third of the patients who were using high-risk medications were using them potentially inappropriately. Although pharmacists have been shown to reduce the amount of inappropriate prescribing, very few patients using these medications were referred to the pharmacist for a full medication review

  16. The problem of informed consent in emergency medicine research

    PubMed Central

    Foex, B

    2001-01-01

    The CRASH Trial (Corticosteroid Randomisation After Significant Head injury), which started in April 1999 hopes to answer the question of whether or not there is any benefit to giving high dose corticosteroids after significant head injuries. To do this patients are randomised to receive either the standard care for head injuries, as defined by the receiving hospital, or standard care plus a 48 hour infusion of corticosteroids. This is to be started within eight hours of injury, preferably as soon as possible. As all eligible patients will have a reduced level of consciousness informed consent has been deemed unnecessary. In this review the issue of consent in human experimentation is presented with a special emphasis on the problems faced in emergency medicine research, and the way these have been tackled. PMID:11354212

  17. Research advances in traditional Chinese medicine syndromes in cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Ji, Qing; Luo, Yun-quan; Wang, Wen-hai; Liu, Xuan; Li, Qi; Su, Shi-bing

    2016-01-01

    Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) syndrome, also known as TCM ZHENG or TCM pattern, is an integral and essential part of TCM theory that helps to guide the design of individualized treatments. A TCM syndrome, in essence, is a characteristic profile of all clinical manifestations in one patient that can be readily identified by a TCM practitioner. In this article, the authors reviewed the presentations of TCM syndromes in seven common malignancies (liver, lung, gastric, breast, colorectal, pancreatic and esophageal cancers), the objectivity and the standardization of TCM syndrome differentiation, the evaluation of TCM syndrome modeling in cancer research, and syndrome differentiation-guided TCM treatment of cancers. A better understanding of TCM syndrome theory, as well as its potential biological basis, may contribute greatly to the clinical TCM diagnosis and the treatment of cancer.

  18. Overcoming Obstacles to Drug Abuse Research with Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glynn, Thomas J.

    Although there has been a significant amount of research on the families of drug abusers, this field has encountered a number of obstacles to its continued growth. Some of these problems include an emphasis of research on opiate use, methodological hindrances, and lack of a constituency. A review of two concurrent national processes, the White…

  19. An Ethical Frame for Research with Immigrant Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nguyen, Jacqueline; Hernández, María G.; Saetermoe, Carrie L.; Suárez-Orozco, Carola

    2013-01-01

    In this introduction, the editors give an overview of the ways the volume addresses the growing individual and institutional calls for increased clarity and rigor in methodological, ethical, and practical research policies and guidelines for conducting research with immigrant individuals, families, and communities. In addition to summarizing the…

  20. Academic promotion and tenure in U.S. family medicine units.

    PubMed

    Holloway, R L; Hale, K L; Rakel, R E

    1989-05-01

    The authors interviewed by telephone the heads (or their representatives) of 101 of the 120 family practice units in U.S. medical schools in 1987. Each respondent was asked for his or her personal perceptions of the relative importances of research, teaching, patient care, and administrative activities in the academic promotion process. Respondents were also asked for their views of their units' and institutions' perceptions of the importances of the same four activities in the promotion process, as well as other related questions about promotion and tenure. The findings indicate that there is still a significant incongruence between the value structure of most family practice units and that of their institutions but that many family practice units are beginning to achieve parity of promotion and tenure with other departments in their institutions. PMID:2713010

  1. Research on Couple/Family Counselor Training: A Search for Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kleist, David M.

    2003-01-01

    The initial goals of IAMFC included conducting and fostering programs of education in the field of family counseling, and promoting and conducting programs of research in the field of marriage and family counseling (International Association of Marriage and Family Counselors, 1990). The goal of fostering program development shows signs of success,…

  2. Drug sample management in University of Montreal family medicine teaching units

    PubMed Central

    Lussier, Marie-Thérèse; Vanier, Marie-Claude; Authier, Marie; Diallo, Fatoumata Binta; Gagnon, Justin

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective To describe the management and distribution of drug samples in family medicine teaching units (FMUs). Design Cross-sectional descriptive study. Setting All 16 FMUs affiliated with the Department of Family Medicine and Emergency Medicine at the University of Montreal in Quebec. Participants Health care professionals (physicians, residents, pharmacists, and nurses) who manage (n = 22) and dispense (n = 294) drug samples in the FMUs. Methods Data were collected between February and March 2013 using 2 self-administered questionnaires completed by health care professionals who manage or dispense drug samples. The data were subjected to descriptive and bivariate analyses. Results The participation rate was 100.0% for staff who manage drug samples and 72.5% for those who dispense them. Of the 16 participating FMUs, 12 have drug sample cabinets. Eight of the FMUs have a written institutional policy governing the management of drug samples. Of the 76.2% of respondents who said they distributed samples, more than half did not know whether their institution had a policy. In 7 of 12 FMUs with drug sample cabinets, access to samples is not restricted to those authorized to prescribe medications. Cabinets are most often managed by nurses (9 of 12 FMUs). Only 4 of 12 FMUs take regular inventory of cabinet contents. The main reasons cited for dispensing samples were to help a patient financially and to test for tolerance and efficacy when initiating or modifying a treatment for a patient. Three-quarters (78.2%) of dispensers reported that sometimes they were unable to find the drug they wanted in the cabinet; half of those consequently gave patients drugs that were not their first choice. More than half the dispensers reported they never or only occasionally referred patients to their community pharmacists. Conclusion A portrait of drug sample management and dispensation in the academic FMUs emerged from this study. This study provides insight into current

  3. [Thought and method of reproductive toxicity research in traditional Chinese medicine].

    PubMed

    Han, Jia-Yin; Yan, Yi; Liang, Ai-hua; Zhang, Yu-shi; Li, Chun-ying; Zhao, Yong; Lu, Yu-ting; Cui, Hong-yu; Li, Gui-qin

    2014-11-01

    Reproductive toxicity research takes an important place in traditional Chinese medicine pre-clinical safety evaluation. Modern reproductive toxicity experiment includes drug-related miscarriage, fetal death, teratism, and adverse effects on fertility, genital system, embryonic development and fetus, which is different from contraindicated in pregnancy in traditional Chinese medicine theory. Now the three-phases reproductive toxicity study is the method mainly applied in traditional Chinese medicine reproductive toxicity evaluation. Besides that, alternative methods of whole embryos culture and embryonic stem cell test are also used in traditional Chinese medicine embryo toxicity evaluation. This article reviews research progress and pre-clinical evaluation on reproductive toxicity of traditional Chinese medicine.

  4. “Negotiorum Gestio” in Family Medicine, Informed Consent Obtainment, and Disciplinary Responsibility

    PubMed Central

    Birkeland, Søren

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Negotiorum gestio (NG) denotes an action where a person well intendedly acts on behalf of another without obtaining the latter's prior consent. In broad terms, NG-like actions have played a considerable role in health care provision. In some settings, health care delivery with only little or presumed patients' consent has been the rule rather than the exception. However, bioethical principles regarding patient autonomy and obtainment of the patient's informed consent (IC) before intervention are now increasingly materialized in the law of many countries. Aim. To study legal consequences of NG in family medicine and IC handling options. Methods. Case law examination. Results. A disciplinary board case is described concerning a family doctor conducting unlawful NG by not coming up to legal IC requirements. Discussion and Conclusion. The practical and legal implications of IC and possible role of novel Shared Decision-Making approaches in coming up to regulation and bioethical demands are discussed. It is concluded that a doctor may run an unnecessary legal risk when conducting NG in decision-competent patients and furthermore it is suggested that novel Shared Decision-Making approaches could help in obtaining a rightful and practicable IC. PMID:27110401

  5. Evaluation of the educational environment of the Saudi family medicine residency training program

    PubMed Central

    Khoja, Abdullah T.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The study was conducted to evaluate the educational environment (EE) in Family Medicine Training Programs. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional survey, The Postgraduate Hospital Educational Environment Measure (PHEEM), was distributed to all residents at the four training centers in the central region. Cronbach's alpha was used to test the reliability. The mean and standard deviation (SD) for each item, the overall score and the three domains were calculated. A multiple linear regression model was developed with PHEEM scores as an outcome. The Mann–Whitney–Wilcoxon test was used to compare each item based on the selected factors. Results: The overall score was 67.1/160 (SD: 20.1). The PHEEM's domains scores: 24.2/56 (SD: 7.13) for perception of role autonomy; 25.3/60 (SD: 8.88), for perception of teaching; and 17/44 (SD: 5.6), for perception of social support. Training center and Level of training were the significant outcome predictors. Centre 1 (Joint Program) significantly had better scores than Centre 2. The instrument showed great reliability with a Cronbach's alpha of 0.92. Conclusions: There are many problems in the training program. Urgent actions are needed to improve the residents' learning experience particularly during rotations. Also, the curriculum should be restructured, and effective training methods introduced using the Best Evidence in Medical Education to meet the expectations and learning needs of family physicians. PMID:25657612

  6. Organ retention and communication of research use following medico-legal autopsy: a pilot survey of university forensic medicine departments in Japan.

    PubMed

    Tsujimura-Ito, Takako; Inoue, Yusuke; Yoshida, Ken-ichi

    2014-09-01

    This study investigated the circumstances and problems that departments of forensic medicine encounter with bereaved families regarding samples obtained from medico-legal autopsies. A questionnaire was posted to all 76 departments of forensic medicine performing medico-legal autopsies in Japan, and responses were received from 48 (63.2%). Of the respondents, 12.8% had approached and communicated with bereaved families about collecting samples from the deceased person during an autopsy and the storage of the samples. In addition, 23.4% of these had informed families that samples might be used in research. Eighteen departments had received enquiries and requests from families about the samples, with most requests concerning their return. The response to such requests varied according to the department. Few departments interacted with the bereaved families regarding the procedure for obtaining autopsy samples, and their methods for handling family concerns differed depending on the person within the department authorised to contact the family. Moreover, the procedures for engaging in such communication have long been unclear, and no legal or ethical consensus or agreement with the general public has been established. It is important for researchers to further discuss the correct way for forensic medicine departments to communicate with bereaved families.

  7. STRUCTURAL BIOLOGY AND MOLECULAR MEDICINE RESEARCH PROGRAM (LSBMM)

    SciTech Connect

    Eisenberg, David S.

    2008-07-15

    The UCLA-DOE Institute of Genomics and Proteomics is an organized research unit of the University of California, sponsored by the Department of Energy through the mechanism of a Cooperative Agreement. Today the Institute consists of 10 Principal Investigators and 7 Associate Members, developing and applying technologies to promote the biological and environmental missions of the Department of Energy, and 5 Core Technology Centers to sustain this work. The focus is on understanding genomes, pathways and molecular machines in organisms of interest to DOE, with special emphasis on developing enabling technologies. Since it was founded in 1947, the UCLA-DOE Institute has adapted its mission to the research needs of DOE and its progenitor agencies as these research needs have changed. The Institute started as the AEC Laboratory of Nuclear Medicine, directed by Stafford Warren, who later became the founding Dean of the UCLA School of Medicine. In this sense, the entire UCLA medical center grew out of the precursor of our Institute. In 1963, the mission of the Institute was expanded into environmental studies by Director Ray Lunt. I became the third director in 1993, and in close consultation with David Galas and John Wooley of DOE, shifted the mission of the Institute towards genomics and proteomics. Since 1993, the Principal Investigators and Core Technology Centers are entirely new, and the Institute has separated from its former division concerned with PET imaging. The UCLA-DOE Institute shares the space of Boyer Hall with the Molecular Biology Institute, and assumes responsibility for the operation of the main core facilities. Fig. 1 gives the organizational chart of the Institute. Some of the benefits to the public of research carried out at the UCLA-DOE Institute include the following: The development of publicly accessible, web-based databases, including the Database of Protein Interactions, and the ProLinks database of genomicly inferred protein function linkages

  8. Zebrafish: an animal model for research in veterinary medicine.

    PubMed

    Nowik, N; Podlasz, P; Jakimiuk, A; Kasica, N; Sienkiewicz, W; Kaleczyc, J

    2015-01-01

    The zebrafish (Danio rerio) has become known as an excellent model organism for studies of vertebrate biology, vertebrate genetics, embryonal development, diseases and drug screening. Nevertheless, there is still lack of detailed reports about usage of the zebrafish as a model in veterinary medicine. Comparing to other vertebrates, they can lay hundreds of eggs at weekly intervals, externally fertilized zebrafish embryos are accessible to observation and manipulation at all stages of their development, which makes possible to simplify the research techniques such as fate mapping, fluorescent tracer time-lapse lineage analysis and single cell transplantation. Although zebrafish are only 2.5 cm long, they are easy to maintain. Intraperitoneal and intracerebroventricular injections, blood sampling and measurement of food intake are possible to be carry out in adult zebrafish. Danio rerio is a useful animal model for neurobiology, developmental biology, drug research, virology, microbiology and genetics. A lot of diseases, for which the zebrafish is a perfect model organism, affect aquatic animals. For a part of them, like those caused by Mycobacterium marinum or Pseudoloma neutrophila, Danio rerio is a natural host, but the zebrafish is also susceptible to the most of fish diseases including Itch, Spring viraemia of carp and Infectious spleen and kidney necrosis. The zebrafish is commonly used in research of bacterial virulence. The zebrafish embryo allows for rapid, non-invasive and real time analysis of bacterial infections in a vertebrate host. Plenty of common pathogens can be examined using zebrafish model: Streptococcus iniae, Vibrio anguillarum or Listeria monocytogenes. The steps are taken to use the zebrafish also in fungal research, especially that dealing with Candida albicans and Cryptococcus neoformans. Although, the zebrafish is used commonly as an animal model to study diseases caused by external agents, it is also useful in studies of metabolic

  9. Zebrafish: an animal model for research in veterinary medicine.

    PubMed

    Nowik, N; Podlasz, P; Jakimiuk, A; Kasica, N; Sienkiewicz, W; Kaleczyc, J

    2015-01-01

    The zebrafish (Danio rerio) has become known as an excellent model organism for studies of vertebrate biology, vertebrate genetics, embryonal development, diseases and drug screening. Nevertheless, there is still lack of detailed reports about usage of the zebrafish as a model in veterinary medicine. Comparing to other vertebrates, they can lay hundreds of eggs at weekly intervals, externally fertilized zebrafish embryos are accessible to observation and manipulation at all stages of their development, which makes possible to simplify the research techniques such as fate mapping, fluorescent tracer time-lapse lineage analysis and single cell transplantation. Although zebrafish are only 2.5 cm long, they are easy to maintain. Intraperitoneal and intracerebroventricular injections, blood sampling and measurement of food intake are possible to be carry out in adult zebrafish. Danio rerio is a useful animal model for neurobiology, developmental biology, drug research, virology, microbiology and genetics. A lot of diseases, for which the zebrafish is a perfect model organism, affect aquatic animals. For a part of them, like those caused by Mycobacterium marinum or Pseudoloma neutrophila, Danio rerio is a natural host, but the zebrafish is also susceptible to the most of fish diseases including Itch, Spring viraemia of carp and Infectious spleen and kidney necrosis. The zebrafish is commonly used in research of bacterial virulence. The zebrafish embryo allows for rapid, non-invasive and real time analysis of bacterial infections in a vertebrate host. Plenty of common pathogens can be examined using zebrafish model: Streptococcus iniae, Vibrio anguillarum or Listeria monocytogenes. The steps are taken to use the zebrafish also in fungal research, especially that dealing with Candida albicans and Cryptococcus neoformans. Although, the zebrafish is used commonly as an animal model to study diseases caused by external agents, it is also useful in studies of metabolic

  10. Assessing research impact in academic clinical medicine: a study using Research Excellence Framework pilot impact indicators

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Funders of medical research the world over are increasingly seeking, in research assessment, to complement traditional output measures of scientific publications with more outcome-based indicators of societal and economic impact. In the United Kingdom, the Higher Education Funding Council for England (HEFCE) developed proposals for the Research Excellence Framework (REF) to allocate public research funding to higher education institutions, inter alia, on the basis of the social and economic impact of their research. In 2010, it conducted a pilot exercise to test these proposals and refine impact indicators and criteria. Methods The impact indicators proposed in the 2010 REF impact pilot exercise are critically reviewed and appraised using insights from the relevant literature and empirical data collected for the University of Oxford’s REF pilot submission in clinical medicine. The empirical data were gathered from existing administrative sources and an online administrative survey carried out by the university’s Medical Sciences Division among 289 clinical medicine faculty members (48.1% response rate). Results The feasibility and scope of measuring research impact in clinical medicine in a given university are assessed. Twenty impact indicators from seven categories proposed by HEFCE are presented; their strengths and limitations are discussed using insights from the relevant biomedical and research policy literature. Conclusions While the 2010 pilot exercise has confirmed that the majority of the proposed indicators have some validity, there are significant challenges in operationalising and measuring these indicators reliably, as well as in comparing evidence of research impact across different cases in a standardised manner. It is suggested that the public funding agencies, medical research charities, universities, and the wider medical research community work together to develop more robust methodologies for capturing and describing impact

  11. Karma, reincarnation, and medicine: Hindu perspectives on biomedical research.

    PubMed

    Hutchinson, Janis Faye; Sharp, Richard

    2008-12-01

    Prior to the completion of the Human Genome Project, bioethicists and other academics debated the impact of this new genetic information on medicine, health care, group identification, and peoples' lives. A major issue is the potential for unintended and intended adverse consequences to groups and individuals. When conducting research in, for instance, American Indian and Alaskan native (AI/AN) populations, political, cultural, religious and historical issues must be considered. Among African Americans, the Tuskegee Syphilis Experiment is a reminder of racism and discrimination in this country. The goal of the current study is to understand reasons for participating, or not, in genetic research such as the HapMap project and other genetic/medical research from the perspective of the Indian American community in Houston, Texas. In this article, we report on a topic central to this discussion among Indian Americans: karma and reincarnation. Both concepts are important beliefs when considering the body and what should happen to it. Karma and reincarnation are also important considerations in participation in medical and genetic research because, according to karma, what is done to the body can affect future existences and the health of future descendants. Such views of genetic and medical research are culturally mediated. Spiritual beliefs about the body, tissue, and fluids and what happens to them when separated from the body can influence ideas about the utility and acceptability of genetic research and thereby affect the recruitment process. Within this community it is understood that genetic and environmental factors contribute to complex diseases such as diabetes, hypertension, and cancer; and acknowledgment of the significance of environmental stressors in the production of disease. A commitment to service, i.e. "betterment of humanity," karmic beliefs, and targeting environmental stressors could be prominent avenues for public health campaigns in this

  12. Outcome of the first Medicines Utilization Research in Africa group meeting to promote sustainable and rational medicine use in Africa.

    PubMed

    Massele, Amos; Burger, Johanita; Katende-Kyenda, Norah L; Kalemeera, Francis; Kenaope, Thatoyaone; Kibuule, Dan; Mbachu, Ogochukwu; Mubita, Mwangana; Oluka, Margaret; Olusanya, Adedunni; Paramadhas, Bene D Anand; van Zyl, Paulina; Godman, Brian

    2015-01-01

    The first Medicines Utilization Research in Africa group workshop and symposium brought researchers together from across Africa to improve their knowledge on drug utilization methodologies as well as exchange ideas. As a result, progress was made on drug utilization research and formulating future strategies to enhance the rational use of medicines in Africa. Anti-infectives were the principal theme for the 1-day symposium following the workshops. This included presentations on the inappropriate use of antibiotics as well as ways to address this. Concerns with adverse drug reactions and adherence to anti-retroviral medicines were also discussed, with poor adherence remaining a challenge. There were also concerns with the underutilization of generics. These discussions resulted in a number of agreed activities before the next conference in 2016.

  13. A systems medicine research approach for studying alcohol addiction.

    PubMed

    Spanagel, Rainer; Durstewitz, Daniel; Hansson, Anita; Heinz, Andreas; Kiefer, Falk; Köhr, Georg; Matthäus, Franziska; Nöthen, Markus M; Noori, Hamid R; Obermayer, Klaus; Rietschel, Marcella; Schloss, Patrick; Scholz, Henrike; Schumann, Gunter; Smolka, Michael; Sommer, Wolfgang; Vengeliene, Valentina; Walter, Henrik; Wurst, Wolfgang; Zimmermann, Uli S; Stringer, Sven; Smits, Yannick; Derks, Eske M

    2013-11-01

    According to the World Health Organization, about 2 billion people drink alcohol. Excessive alcohol consumption can result in alcohol addiction, which is one of the most prevalent neuropsychiatric diseases afflicting our society today. Prevention and intervention of alcohol binging in adolescents and treatment of alcoholism are major unmet challenges affecting our health-care system and society alike. Our newly formed German SysMedAlcoholism consortium is using a new systems medicine approach and intends (1) to define individual neurobehavioral risk profiles in adolescents that are predictive of alcohol use disorders later in life and (2) to identify new pharmacological targets and molecules for the treatment of alcoholism. To achieve these goals, we will use omics-information from epigenomics, genetics transcriptomics, neurodynamics, global neurochemical connectomes and neuroimaging (IMAGEN; Schumann et al. ) to feed mathematical prediction modules provided by two Bernstein Centers for Computational Neurosciences (Berlin and Heidelberg/Mannheim), the results of which will subsequently be functionally validated in independent clinical samples and appropriate animal models. This approach will lead to new early intervention strategies and identify innovative molecules for relapse prevention that will be tested in experimental human studies. This research program will ultimately help in consolidating addiction research clusters in Germany that can effectively conduct large clinical trials, implement early intervention strategies and impact political and healthcare decision makers.

  14. Medicines

    MedlinePlus

    ... better. In the United States, the Food and Drug Administration is in charge of assuring the safety ... prescription and over-the-counter medicines. Even safe drugs can cause unwanted side effects or interactions with ...

  15. Two Programs for Primary Care Practitioners: Family Medicine Training in an Affiliated University Hospital Program and Primary Care Graduate Training in an Urban Private Medical Center

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farley, Eugene S.; Piemme, Thomas E.

    1975-01-01

    Eugene Farley describes the University of Rochester and Highland Hospital Family Medicine Program for teaching of primary care internists, primary care pediatricians, and family doctors. Thomas Piemme presents the George Washington University School of Medicine alternative, a 2-year program in an ambulatory setting leading to broad eligibility in…

  16. Recruitment of Yoruba families from Nigeria for genetic research: experience from a multisite keloid study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background More involvement of sub-Saharan African countries in biomedical studies, specifically in genetic research, is needed to advance individualized medicine that will benefit non-European populations. Missing infrastructure, cultural and religious beliefs as well as lack of understanding of research benefits can pose a challenge to recruitment. Here we describe recruitment efforts for a large genetic study requiring three-generation pedigrees within the Yoruba homelands of Nigeria. The aim of the study was to identify genes responsible for keloids, a wound healing disorder. We also discuss ethical and logistical considerations that we encountered in preparation for this research endeavor. Methods Protocols for this bi-national intercultural study were approved by the Institutional Review Board (IRB) in the US and the ethics committees of the Nigerian institutions for consideration of cultural differences. Principles of community based participatory research were employed throughout the recruitment process. Keloid patients (patient advisors), community leaders, kings/chiefs and medical directors were engaged to assist the research teams with recruitment strategies. Community meetings, church forums, and media outlets (study flyers, radio and TV announcements) were utilized to promote the study in Nigeria. Recruitment of research participants was conducted by trained staff from the local communities. Pedigree structures were re-analyzed on a regular basis as new family members were recruited and recruitment challenges were documented. Results Total recruitment surpassed 4200 study participants over a 7-year period including 79 families with complete three-generation pedigrees. In 9 families more than 20 family members participated, however, in 5 of these families, we encountered issues with pedigree structure as members from different branches presented inconsistent family histories. These issues were due to the traditional open family structure amongst the

  17. Lessons from the Field: Participatory Action Research in a Family Research Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robison, Dorothy; Krauss, Marty Wyngaarden

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes development of a study that includes participatory action research, specifically the establishment of a family advisory committee. The study involved a survey of Massachusetts families of children with disabilities. Suggestions for establishing and integrating the committee into the research enterprise are offered, as are…

  18. [Application of molecular pharmacognosy in research of Mongolian medicine].

    PubMed

    Li, Qianquan; Zhou, Lishe; Guo, Lanping; Li, Minhui; Zhang, Na; Yuan, Qingjun; Yuan, Yuan

    2011-10-01

    Molecular pharmacognosy has developed as a new borderline discipline. Using the method and technology of molecular pharmacognosy, a wide range of challenging problems were resolved, such as the identification of Mongolian medicinal raw materials, etiology of endangerment and protection of endangered Mongolian medicinal plants and animals, biosynthesis and bioregulation of active components in Mongolian medicinal plants, and characteristics and the molecular bases of Dao-di Herbs. So molecular pharmacognosy will provide the new methods and insights for modernization of Mongolian medicine. PMID:22242416

  19. [Problems in quality standard research of new traditional Chinese medicine compound].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Gang; He, Yan-Ping

    2014-09-01

    The new traditional Chinese medicine compound is the main part of the research of new drug of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), and the new Chinese herbal compound reflects the characteristics of TCM theory. The new traditional Chinese medicine compound quality standard research is one of the main content of pharmaceutical research, and is also the focus of the new medicine pharmaceutical evaluation content. Although in recent years the research level of new traditional Chinese medicine compound has been greatly improved, but the author during the review found still some common problems existing in new traditional Chinese medicine compound quality standard research data, this paper analyzed the current quality standards for new traditional Chinese medicine compound and the problems existing in the research data, respectively from measurement of the content of index selection, determine the scope of the content, and the quality standard design concept, the paper expounds developers need to concern. The quality of new traditional Chinese medicine compound quality standard is not only itself can be solved, but quality standards is to ensure the key and important content of product quality, improving the quality of products cannot do without quality standards. With the development of science and technology, on the basis of quality by design under the guidance of the concept, new traditional Chinese medicine compound quality standard system will be more scientific, systematic and perfect.

  20. Crafting Qualitative Research Articles on Marriages and Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Sarah H.

    2005-01-01

    This paper aims to assist those who do qualitative research in the field of marriage and family to reduce the number of rejections received in response to article submissions. Recurring shortcomings identified by reviewers and suggestions made to authors about revising papers are organized using headings traditionally used in a research…

  1. Family Contexts, Norms and Young People's Orientations: Researching Diversity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Irwin, Sarah

    2009-01-01

    The paper presents an analysis of young people's orientations, and expectations for the future, as they relate to family context and socio-economic background. It draws on data from both the Longitudinal Study of Young People in England and from "Young Lives and Times", part of the ESRC National Centre for Research Methods. The latter study has…

  2. Family-Friendly Policies and the Research University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quinn, Kate; Lange, Sheila Edwards; Olswang, Steven G.

    2004-01-01

    Institutions of higher education nationwide have been adopting policies to help faculty members with primary caregiving roles to attain tenure, and much research has been devoted to their effectiveness. The range of policies and programs has expanded dramatically since the 1970s. Among the options now available are family leave, elder-care…

  3. Thai family demography: a review and research prospects.

    PubMed

    Richter, K; Podhisita, C

    1992-01-01

    A review of family demography in Thailand is presented, and future research needs are identified. Suggestions for future research include a determination of an acceptable set of standard roles and obligations among family members in the "loose structure" paradigm and an analysis of marital stability. Other researchable topics include support to the elderly, family allocations to children, changes among rural adolescents, and family responses to AIDS. Embree and other researchers defined the Thai family as a "loosely structured" paradigm where behavior within the family was highly variable. Anthropologists Sulamith and Potter have described the matrilineal system, and others have referred to the influences of Buddhism on family roles. Foster identified traditional Thai marriage as based on individual choice of spouse, which was often based on romantic love and the desired approval of parents. Arranged marriages declined in importance. Rural Thais married within their villages but outside their matrilineage. Bridewealth payments were not rigidly enforced. Marriage forms included formal Buddhist marriage, legal registration, or both; elopement; and cohabitation. By 1991 marriage age had stabilized at 22 years for women and 24 years for men. Muslim women married at a younger age than Buddhist women. Marriage was delayed in urban areas, after migration, with increased education, and with labor force participation and nonagricultural employment. Studies by Limanonda found that first birth status and smaller sibling size were associated with earlier marriage. Marriage was nearly universal, but singlehood was accepted. 15% of first marriages during the later 1970s were found to have ended in divorce. Remarriage was common. Average household size was 4.0 in 1988. 15.7% of households with children 0-15 years old in 1990 were female headed. Higher education was found to be related to nuclear family formation. Kinship was a bilateral system based on sex, relative age, and

  4. The role of chemical engineering in medicinal research including Alzheimer's.

    PubMed

    Kontogeorgis, Georgios M

    2015-01-01

    Various disciplines of chemical engineering, especially thermodynamics and kinetics, play an important role in medicinal research and this has been particularly recognized during the last 10-15 years (von Stockar and van der Wielen, J Biotechnol 59:25, 1997; Prausnitz, Fluid Phase Equilib 53:439, 1989; Prausnitz, Pure Appl Chem 79:1435, 2007; Dey and Prausnitz, Ind Eng Chem Res 50:3, 2011; Prausnitz, J Chem Thermodynamics 35:21, 2003; Tsivintzelis et al. AIChE J 55:756, 2009). It is expected that during the twenty-first century chemical engineering and especially thermodynamics can contribute as significantly to the life sciences development as it has been done with the oil and gas and chemical sectors in the twentieth century. Moreover, it has during the recent years recognized that thermodynamics can help in understanding diseases like human cataract, sickle-cell anemia, Creuzfeldt-Jacob ("mad cow" disease), and Alzheimer's which are connected to "protein aggregation." Several articles in the Perspectives section of prominent chemical engineering journals have addressed this issue (Hall, AIChE J 54:1956, 2008; Vekilov, AIChE J 54:2508, 2008). This work reviews recent applications of thermodynamics (and other areas of chemical engineering) first in drug development and then in the understanding of the mechanism of Alzheimer's and similar diseases.

  5. The Progress of Metabolomics Study in Traditional Chinese Medicine Research.

    PubMed

    Wang, Pengcheng; Wang, Qiuhong; Yang, Bingyou; Zhao, Shan; Kuang, Haixue

    2015-01-01

    Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has played important roles in health protection and disease treatment for thousands of years in China and has gained the gradual acceptance of the international community. However, many intricate issues, which cannot be explained by traditional methods, still remain, thus, new ideas and technologies are needed. As an emerging system biology technology, the holistic view adopted by metabolomics is similar to that of TCM, which allows us to investigate TCM with complicated conditions and multiple factors in depth. In this paper, we tried to give a timely and comprehensive update about the methodology progression of metabolomics, as well as its applications, in different fields of TCM studies including quality control, processing, safety and efficacy evaluation. The herbs investigated by metabolomics were selected for detailed examination, including Anemarrhena asphodeloides Bunge, Atractylodes macrocephala Kidd, Pinellia ternate, etc.; furthermore, some valuable results have been obtained and summarized. In conclusion, although the study of metabolomics is at the early phase and requires further scrutiny and validation, it still provides bright prospects to dissect the synergistic action of multiple components from TCM. Overall, with the further development of analytical techniques, especially multi-analysis techniques, we expect that metabolomics will greatly promote TCM research and the establishment of international standards, which is beneficial to TCM modernization. PMID:26477800

  6. The role of chemical engineering in medicinal research including Alzheimer's.

    PubMed

    Kontogeorgis, Georgios M

    2015-01-01

    Various disciplines of chemical engineering, especially thermodynamics and kinetics, play an important role in medicinal research and this has been particularly recognized during the last 10-15 years (von Stockar and van der Wielen, J Biotechnol 59:25, 1997; Prausnitz, Fluid Phase Equilib 53:439, 1989; Prausnitz, Pure Appl Chem 79:1435, 2007; Dey and Prausnitz, Ind Eng Chem Res 50:3, 2011; Prausnitz, J Chem Thermodynamics 35:21, 2003; Tsivintzelis et al. AIChE J 55:756, 2009). It is expected that during the twenty-first century chemical engineering and especially thermodynamics can contribute as significantly to the life sciences development as it has been done with the oil and gas and chemical sectors in the twentieth century. Moreover, it has during the recent years recognized that thermodynamics can help in understanding diseases like human cataract, sickle-cell anemia, Creuzfeldt-Jacob ("mad cow" disease), and Alzheimer's which are connected to "protein aggregation." Several articles in the Perspectives section of prominent chemical engineering journals have addressed this issue (Hall, AIChE J 54:1956, 2008; Vekilov, AIChE J 54:2508, 2008). This work reviews recent applications of thermodynamics (and other areas of chemical engineering) first in drug development and then in the understanding of the mechanism of Alzheimer's and similar diseases. PMID:25416110

  7. Contributions of charge-density research to medicinal chemistry

    PubMed Central

    Dittrich, Birger; Matta, Chérif F.

    2014-01-01

    This article reviews efforts in accurate experimental charge-density studies with relevance to medicinal chemistry. Initially, classical charge-density studies that measure electron density distribution via least-squares refinement of aspherical-atom population parameters are summarized. Next, interaction density is discussed as an idealized situation resembling drug–receptor interactions. Scattering-factor databases play an increasing role in charge-density research, and they can be applied both to small-molecule and macromolecular structures in refinement and analysis; software development facilitates their use. Therefore combining both of these complementary branches of X-ray crystallography is recommended, and examples are given where such a combination already proved useful. On the side of the experiment, new pixel detectors are allowing rapid measurements, thereby enabling both high-throughput small-molecule studies and macromolecular structure determination to higher resolutions. Currently, the most ambitious studies compute intermolecular interaction energies of drug–receptor complexes, and it is recommended that future studies benefit from recent method developments. Selected new developments in theoretical charge-density studies are discussed with emphasis on its symbiotic relation to crystallography. PMID:25485126

  8. Cancer Research Center Indiana University School of Medicine

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-08-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) proposes to authorize the Indiana School of Medicine to proceed with the detailed design, construction and equipping of the proposed Cancer Research Center (CRC). A grant was executed with the University on April 21, 1992. A four-story building with basement would be constructed on the proposed site over a 24-month period. The proposed project would bring together, in one building, three existing hematology/oncology basic research programs, with improved cost-effectiveness through the sharing of common resources. The proposed site is currently covered with asphaltic pavement and is used as a campus parking lot. The surrounding area is developed campus, characterized by buildings, walkways, with minimal lawns and plantings. The proposed site has no history of prior structures and no evidence of potential sources of prior contamination of the soil. Environmental impacts of construction would be limited to minor increases in traffic, and the typical noises associated with standard building construction. The proposed CRC project operation would involve the use radionuclides and various hazardous materials in conducting clinical studies. Storage, removal and disposal of hazardous wastes would be managed under existing University programs that comply with federal and state requirements. Radiological safety programs would be governed by Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) license and applicable Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) regulations. There are no other NEPA reviews currently active which are in relationship to this proposed site. The proposed project is part of a Medical Campus master plan and is consistent with applicable local zoning and land use requirements.

  9. Arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis and active ingredients of medicinal plants: current research status and prospectives.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Yan; Guo, Lan-Ping; Chen, Bao-Dong; Hao, Zhi-Peng; Wang, Ji-Yong; Huang, Lu-Qi; Yang, Guang; Cui, Xiu-Ming; Yang, Li; Wu, Zhao-Xiang; Chen, Mei-Lan; Zhang, Yan

    2013-05-01

    Medicinal plants have been used world-wide for thousands of years and are widely recognized as having high healing but minor toxic side effects. The scarcity and increasing demand for medicinal plants and their products have promoted the development of artificial cultivation of medicinal plants. Currently, one of the prominent issues in medicinal cultivation systems is the unstable quality of the products. Arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) affects secondary metabolism and the production of active ingredients of medicinal plants and thus influence the quality of herbal medicines. In this review, we have assembled, analyzed, and summarized the effects of AM symbioses on secondary metabolites of medicinal plants. We conclude that symbiosis of AM is conducive to favorable characteristics of medicinal plants, by improving the production and accumulation of important active ingredients of medicinal plants such as terpenes, phenols, and alkaloids, optimizing the composition of different active ingredients in medicinal plants and ultimately improving the quality of herbal materials. We are convinced that the AM symbiosis will benefit the cultivation of medicinal plants and improve the total yield and quality of herbal materials. Through this review, we hope to draw attention to the status and prospects of, and arouse more interest in, the research field of medicinal plants and mycorrhiza.

  10. Win/win: creating collaborative training opportunities for behavioral health providers within family medicine residency programs.

    PubMed

    Ruddy, Nancy Breen; Borresen, Dorothy; Myerholtz, Linda

    2013-01-01

    Integrating behavioral health into primary healthcare offers multiple advantages for patients and health professionals. This model requires a new skill set for all healthcare professionals that is not emphasized in current educational models. The new skills include interprofessional team-based care competencies and expanded patient care competencies. Health professionals must learn new ways to efficiently and effectively address health behavior change, and manage behavioral health issues such as depression and anxiety. Learning environments that co-train mental health and primary care professionals facilitate acquisition of both teamwork and patient care competencies for mental health and primary care professional trainees. Family Medicine Residency programs provide an excellent opportunity for co-training. This article serves as a "how to" guide for residency programs interested in developing a co-training program. Necessary steps to establish and maintain a program are reviewed, as well as goals and objectives for a co-training curriculum and strategies to overcome barriers and challenges in co-training models.

  11. Evaluation of Saudi family medicine training program: the application of CIPP evaluation format.

    PubMed

    Al-Khathami, Abdullah Dukhail

    2012-01-01

    The Saudi Diploma in Family Medicine (SDFM) was enacted in 2007 to fulfill the needs of qualified Primary Health Care providers in Saudi Arabia. Evaluation is not only an integral process for designing educational training programs, but an effective evaluation strategy that helps achieve program objectives and enhances the quality of learning objectives: (1) Construct a self-administered questionnaire based on Context, input, process and product (CIPP) format to seek trainees' perceptions about the SDFM program; (2) identify the strengths and weaknesses of the SDFM program in relation to the learning outcomes; and (3) define the main obstacles to achieve the outcomes. A self-administered questionnaire was designed based on the CIPP evaluation format after. its validity and reliability were tested through piloting. Then, all the SDFM program trainees were included. The study response rate was 91.2%. More than 77% of the trainees stated that they had achieved the program objectives; a significant difference was found among Saudis and non-Saudis (p = 0.002). The training period was reported by 84% as a main barrier to achieve the program objectives, particularly the hospital rotation period. Results indicate an overall satisfaction with the training objectives and the teaching methods used. These findings can be useful for the policy makers to implement the suggested recommendations and deal with obstacles to improve the SDFM program in order to provide effective and efficient primary care services.

  12. Patient perception and knowledge of acetaminophen in a large family medicine service.

    PubMed

    Herndon, Christopher M; Dankenbring, Dawn M

    2014-06-01

    The use of acetaminophen is currently under increased scrutiny by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) due to the risk of intentional and more concerning, unintentional overdose-related hepatotoxicity. Acetaminophen is responsible for an estimated 48% of all acute liver failure diagnoses. The purpose of this study is to evaluate patient perception and knowledge of the safe use and potential toxicity of acetaminophen-containing products. The authors conducted a descriptive, 2-week study using a convenience sample from a large family medicine clinic waiting room. Survey questions assessed ability to identify acetaminophen, knowledge of the current recommended maximum daily dose, respondent acetaminophen use patterns, common adverse effects associated with acetaminophen, and respondent self-reported alcohol consumption. Acetaminophen safety information was provided to all persons regardless of participation in the study. Of the 102 patients who chose to participate, 79% recognized acetaminophen as a synonym of Tylenol, whereas only 9% identified APAP as a frequently used abbreviation. One third of respondents thought acetaminophen was synonymous with ibuprofen and naproxen. Approximately one fourth of patients correctly identified the then maximum recommended daily acetaminophen dose of 4 g. Seventy-eight percent of patients correctly identified hepatotoxicity as the most common serious adverse effect. We conclude that patient deficiencies in knowledge of acetaminophen recognition, dosing, and toxicity warrant public education by health professionals at all levels of interaction. Current initiatives are promising; however, further efforts are required.

  13. A computerized faculty time-management system in an academic family medicine department.

    PubMed

    Daugird, Allen J; Arndt, Jane E; Olson, P Richard

    2003-02-01

    The authors describe the development, implementation, and evaluation of a computerized faculty time-management system (FTMS) in the Department of Family Medicine at the University of North Carolina-Chapel Hill. The FTMS is presented as an integrated set of computerized spreadsheets used annually to allocate faculty time across all mission activities of the department. It was first implemented in 1996 and has been continuously developed since then. An iterative approach has been used to gain consensus among faculty about time resources needed for various tasks of all missions of the department. These time-resource assumptions are used in the computerized system. Faculty time is allocated annually by the department vice chair in negotiation with individual faculty, making sure that the activities planned do not exceed the work time each faculty member has available for the year. During this process, faculty preferences are balanced against department aggregate needs to meet mission commitments and obligations. The authors describe how the computerized FTMS is used for faculty time management and career development, department planning, budget planning, clinical scheduling, and mission cost accounting. They also describe barriers and potential abuses and the challenge of building an organizational culture willing to discuss faculty time openly and committed to developing a system perceived as fair and accurate. The spreadsheet file is available free from the authors for use in other departments.

  14. Win/win: creating collaborative training opportunities for behavioral health providers within family medicine residency programs.

    PubMed

    Ruddy, Nancy Breen; Borresen, Dorothy; Myerholtz, Linda

    2013-01-01

    Integrating behavioral health into primary healthcare offers multiple advantages for patients and health professionals. This model requires a new skill set for all healthcare professionals that is not emphasized in current educational models. The new skills include interprofessional team-based care competencies and expanded patient care competencies. Health professionals must learn new ways to efficiently and effectively address health behavior change, and manage behavioral health issues such as depression and anxiety. Learning environments that co-train mental health and primary care professionals facilitate acquisition of both teamwork and patient care competencies for mental health and primary care professional trainees. Family Medicine Residency programs provide an excellent opportunity for co-training. This article serves as a "how to" guide for residency programs interested in developing a co-training program. Necessary steps to establish and maintain a program are reviewed, as well as goals and objectives for a co-training curriculum and strategies to overcome barriers and challenges in co-training models. PMID:24261270

  15. Family medicine residents' beliefs, attitudes and performance with problem drinkers: a survey and simulated patient study.

    PubMed

    Kahan, Meldon; Wilson, Lynn; Liu, Eleanor; Borsoi, Diane; Brewster, Joan M; Sobell, Linda C; Sobell, Mark B

    2004-03-01

    Fifty-six second-year family medicine residents completed a survey on their knowledge and beliefs about problem drinkers. Most residents felt responsible for screening and counseling, were confident in their clinical skills in these areas, and scored well on related knowledge questions. However, only 18% felt that problem drinkers would often respond to brief counseling sessions with physicians while 36% felt that moderate drinking was a reasonable goal for patients with severe alcohol dependence. Residents were then visited by unannounced simulated patients (SPs) presenting with alcohol-induced hypertension or insomnia. Residents detected the SP in 45 out of 104 visits. In the 59 undetected SP visits, residents asked about alcohol consumption in 47 visits (80%), discussed the relationship between alcohol use and the presenting complaint in 37 visits (63%), and recommended a specific weekly consumption in 35 visits (59%). Only 31% offered reduced drinking strategies, and most did not ask about features of alcohol dependence. These results suggest that residents have the fundamental clinical skills required to manage the problem drinker who gives a clear history and is receptive to advice. Educational efforts with residents should focus on the importance of systematic screening, taking an alcohol history under more challenging conditions, identifying the subtler presentations of alcohol problems, counselling the less receptive patient at an earlier stage of change, distinguishing the problem drinker from the alcohol-dependent patient, and offering specific behavioral strategies for the problem drinker.

  16. Original research in pathology: judgment, or evidence-based medicine?

    PubMed

    Crawford, James M

    2007-02-01

    literature is largely observational in nature, with reports of case series (with or without statistical analysis) constituting the majority of our 'evidence base'. Moreover, anatomic pathology is subject to 'interobserver variation', and potentially to 'error'. Taken further, individual interpretation of tissue samples is not an objective endeavor, and it is not easy to fulfill the role of a 'gold standard'. Both for rendering of an overall interpretation, and for providing the semi-quantitative and quantitative numerical 'scores' which support evidence-based clinical treatment algorithms, the Pathologist has to exercise a high level of interpretive judgment. Nevertheless, the contribution of anatomic pathology to 'EBM' is remarkably strong. To the extent that our judgmental interpretations become data, our tissue interpretations become the arbiters of patient care management decisions. In a more global sense, we support highly successful cancer screening programs, and play critical roles in the multidisciplinary management of complex patients. The true error is for the clinical practitioners of 'EBM' to forget the contribution to the supporting evidence base of the physicians that are Anatomic Pathologists. Finally, the academic productivity of pathology faculty who operate in the clinical realm must be considered. A survey of six North American academic pathology departments reveals that 26% of all papers published in 2005 came from 'unfunded' clinical faculty. While it is likely that their academic productivity is lower than that of 'funded' research faculty, the contribution of clinical faculty to the knowledge base for the practice of modern medicine, and to the academic reputation of the department, must not be overlooked. The ability of clinical faculty in academic departments of pathology to pursue original scholarship must be supported if our specialty is to retain its preeminence as an investigative scientific discipline in the age of EBM.

  17. A five-year plan for population research and family planning services. 3. Family planning services.

    PubMed

    Beckles, F N

    1971-10-01

    A tentative family planning program plan for 1971-1975 is presented. The estimated need for family planning services by 1975 is projected to be 6.6 million individuals, classified as poor and medically indigent. The author states that more research is needed to project a similar need for higher income groups who have trouble controlling the number and timing of their children. With better research family planning services could help meet their needs too. The plan projects greater expansion of services to non-metropolitan areas to overcome a maldistribution of present programs. It is estimated that 90% of those in need can now be served by existing services, while new delivery agencies would need to be created to serve the remaining need. Manpower development of this plan calls for an expansion in the use and role of paraprofessional personnel. The utilization of operational research, planning and evaluation is needed for objective data, to help programmers determine shape and scope of required program, and to improve its efficiency and effectiveness. To do this a 3 phase 5 year plan is presented. As program services expand the role information, education and communication plays is critical. Development of these functions will help in reaching program goals. Projected estimates by 1975 of direct costs of provision of family planning services will be between 360 and 395 million dollars.

  18. [Leibniz and veterinary medicine--a contribution to Leibniz research].

    PubMed

    Wens, H M

    1992-06-01

    This study examines LEIBNIZ' idea of Veterinary medicine in a biographical context. It is based on material from the Leibniz-Archives of the Niedersächsische Landesbibliothek Hannover, primary sources as well as the correspondence between LEIBNIZ and F. HOFFMANN and B. RAMAZZINI. Critical analysis of LEIBNIZ' proposal to establish a medical administrative authority and an analysis of further sources corroborate the view of LEIBNIZ as a progressive thinker who included the epidemiology of veterinary medicine (the preventive approach) in his conception. In this way he conceived of veterinary medicine in scientific terms which is going to be the relevant approach today.

  19. Barriers to Screening and Possibilities for Active Detection of Family Medicine Attendees Exposed to Intimate Partner Violence

    PubMed Central

    KOPČAVAR GUČEK, Nena; PETEK, Davorina; ŠVAB, Igor; SELIČ, Polona

    2016-01-01

    Introduction In 1996 the World Health Organization declared intimate partner violence (IPV) the most important public health problem. Meta-analyses in 2013 showed every third female globally had been a victim of violence. Experts find screening controversial; family medicine is the preferred environment for identifying victims of violence, but barriers on both sides prevent patients from discussing it with doctors. Methods In July 2014, a qualitative study was performed through semi-structured interviews with ten family doctors of different ages and gender, working in rural or urban environments. Sound recordings of the interviews were transcribed, and the record verified. The data were interpreted using content analysis. A coding scheme was developed and later verified and analysed by two independent researchers. The text of the interviews was analysed according to the coding scheme. Results Two coding schemes were developed: one for screening, and the other for the active detection of IPV. The main themes emerging as barriers to screening were lack of time, staff turnover, inadequate finance, ignorance of a clear definition, poor commitment to screening, obligatory follow-up, risk of deterioration of the doctor-patient relationship, and insincerity on the part of the patient. Additionally, cultural aspects of violence, uncertainty/ helplessness, fear, lack of competence and qualifications, autonomy/negative experience, and passive role/stigma/ fear on the part of the patients were barriers to active detection. Conclusion All the participating doctors had had previous experience with active detection of IPV and were aware of its importance. Due to several barriers to screening for violence they preferred active detection. PMID:27647084

  20. [Advances in high-throughput transcriptome research of traditional Chinese medicines].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhao-Bao; Hou, Lin; Pan, Qing; Wang, Xu-Min; Cui, Qing-Hua; Tian, Jing-Zhen; Ma, Lu-Yu

    2014-05-01

    Traditional Chinese medicine is a treasure of Chinese culture, absorbing the wisdom of the Chinese people. Continuous application of new technologies makes traditional Chinese medicine research advance with the times. After several years of development, high-throughput transcriptome study has become a mature research tool in biology. This paper reviewed the advances in medicine transcriptome study, and compared two sequencing platforms, Roche's GS FLX platform and Illumina's HiSeq 2000 platform. Moreover, this paper introduced medicine transcriptome analysis process, with Panax quinquefolius and Lonicera japonica for examples, showing the characteristics of traditional Chinese medicine transcriptome studies. High-throughput transcriptome studies facilitate traditional Chinese medicine research with overall understand of functional genes, give clear elucidation of metabolic pathways, lay molecular foundation for the traditional Chinese medicine research and offer modern interpretation for traditional Chinese medicine theory. However, the current study faces several difficulties, including weak molecular basis, high sequencing cost and staff shortages in data anaysis. In the future, with the development in sequencing technology, the combination of transcriptome and other genomics, such as proteome and metabolome, will lay a solid foundation for the new high-throughput screening and developing model for the traditional Chinese medicine industry.

  1. Research of primary hyperhidrosis in students of medicine of the State of Sergipe, Brazil*

    PubMed Central

    Lima, Sônia Oliveira; Aragão, João Fernandes Britto; Machado Neto, José; de Almeida, Kaio Bernardes Santos; Menezes, Layla Melize Santos; Santana, Vanessa Rocha

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Hyperhidrosis or excessive sweat production occurs at 2.9-9% of the population. OBJECTIVE To estimate the prevalence and disorders due to primary hyperhidrosis (HP) in medicine students in the state of Sergipe. METHODS Cross-sectional study using individual interviews. RESULTS Hyperhidrosis was found in 14.76% of subjects, the most affected regions were palmar, plantar and axillary, causing prejudice in daily activities. Family history occurred in 45% and 22.72% was diagnosed by a physician. CONCLUSION The prevalence of hyperhidrosis in medicine students of Sergipe was high, with strong family and a small portion of diagnoses made by medical professionals. PMID:26560211

  2. [Development of standards for education and training in family and community medicine - contributions by WONCA IberoAmerica (CIMF)].

    PubMed

    Demarzo, Marcelo Marcos Piva; Marin, Anibal; Padula Anderson, Maria Inez; De Castro Filho, Eno Dias; Kidd, Michael

    2011-02-01

    The WONCA Education Working Party (WEP) is developing a set of standards for medical student education, postgraduate training in family medicine / general practice and continuing professional development for family doctors. At this point the contributions by WONCA world regions are very important, and for this reason the main objective of this report is to present the standards developed by the Iberoamerican WONCA Region (CIMF). To be comprehensive and effective, standards should reflect regional realities and so the contributions from CIMF may reinforce and strengthen the key initiative of WEP and the implementation of the standards throughout the world. PMID:21145135

  3. Relevance of chronic lyme disease to family medicine as a complex multidimensional chronic disease construct: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Borgermans, Liesbeth; Goderis, Geert; Vandevoorde, Jan; Devroey, Dirk

    2014-01-01

    Lyme disease has become a global public health problem and a prototype of an emerging infection. Both treatment-refractory infection and symptoms that are related to Borrelia burgdorferi infection remain subject to controversy. Because of the absence of solid evidence on prevalence, causes, diagnostic criteria, tools and treatment options, the role of autoimmunity to residual or persisting antigens, and the role of a toxin or other bacterial-associated products that are responsible for the symptoms and signs, chronic Lyme disease (CLD) remains a relatively poorly understood chronic disease construct. The role and performance of family medicine in the detection, integrative treatment, and follow-up of CLD are not well studied either. The purpose of this paper is to describe insights into the complexity of CLD as a multidimensional chronic disease construct and its relevance to family medicine by means of a systematic literature review.

  4. Relevance of Chronic Lyme Disease to Family Medicine as a Complex Multidimensional Chronic Disease Construct: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Goderis, Geert

    2014-01-01

    Lyme disease has become a global public health problem and a prototype of an emerging infection. Both treatment-refractory infection and symptoms that are related to Borrelia burgdorferi infection remain subject to controversy. Because of the absence of solid evidence on prevalence, causes, diagnostic criteria, tools and treatment options, the role of autoimmunity to residual or persisting antigens, and the role of a toxin or other bacterial-associated products that are responsible for the symptoms and signs, chronic Lyme disease (CLD) remains a relatively poorly understood chronic disease construct. The role and performance of family medicine in the detection, integrative treatment, and follow-up of CLD are not well studied either. The purpose of this paper is to describe insights into the complexity of CLD as a multidimensional chronic disease construct and its relevance to family medicine by means of a systematic literature review. PMID:25506429

  5. Relevance of chronic lyme disease to family medicine as a complex multidimensional chronic disease construct: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Borgermans, Liesbeth; Goderis, Geert; Vandevoorde, Jan; Devroey, Dirk

    2014-01-01

    Lyme disease has become a global public health problem and a prototype of an emerging infection. Both treatment-refractory infection and symptoms that are related to Borrelia burgdorferi infection remain subject to controversy. Because of the absence of solid evidence on prevalence, causes, diagnostic criteria, tools and treatment options, the role of autoimmunity to residual or persisting antigens, and the role of a toxin or other bacterial-associated products that are responsible for the symptoms and signs, chronic Lyme disease (CLD) remains a relatively poorly understood chronic disease construct. The role and performance of family medicine in the detection, integrative treatment, and follow-up of CLD are not well studied either. The purpose of this paper is to describe insights into the complexity of CLD as a multidimensional chronic disease construct and its relevance to family medicine by means of a systematic literature review. PMID:25506429

  6. Experience of complementary and alternative medicine in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and their families: A qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sungha; Chung, Seung Eun; Lee, Sanghun; Park, Jeonghwan; Choi, Sunmi; Kim, Sungchul

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the life experience related to complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) use among patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Data were collected though semi-structured interviews of nine patients with ALS and seven family members, who have used CAM. Audio recordings of the interviews were transcribed verbatim and checked for accuracy. The Giorgi's method of phenomenology was used for data analysis. Five constituents forming the units of meaning were: facing the limits of conventional medicine; getting to know CAM; recognizing the ineffectiveness of CAM; using CAM for symptomatic treatment; and seeking new CAM endlessly for complete cure. The study results provide an in-depth understanding of experience with CAM among patients with ALS and their family members. Healthcare providers must give accurate information about the efficacy of CAM as well as its safety and possible adverse effects and should offer patient-centred treatment through active communication throughout the process of diagnosis and treatment.

  7. Placing Families in Context: Challenges for Cross-National Family Research

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Wei-hsin

    2015-01-01

    Cross-national comparisons constitute a valuable strategy to assess how broader cultural, political, and institutional contexts shape family outcomes. One typical approach of cross-national family research is to use comparable data from a limited number of countries, fit similar regression models for each country, and compare results across country-specific models. Increasingly, researchers are adopting a second approach, which requires merging data from many more societies and testing multilevel models using the pooled sample. Although the second approach has the advantage of allowing direct estimates of the effects of nation-level characteristics, it is more likely to suffer from the problems of omitted-variable bias, influential cases, and measurement and construct nonequivalence. I discuss ways to improve the first approach's ability to infer macrolevel influences, as well as how to deal with challenges associated with the second one. I also suggest choosing analytical strategies according to whether the data meet multilevel models’ assumptions. PMID:25999603

  8. Perspectives in molecular imaging through translational research, human medicine, and veterinary medicine.

    PubMed

    Berry, Clifford R; Garg, Predeep

    2014-01-01

    The concept of molecular imaging has taken off over the past 15 years to the point of the renaming of the Society of Nuclear Medicine (Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging) and Journals (European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging) and offering of medical fellowships specific to this area of study. Molecular imaging has always been at the core of functional imaging related to nuclear medicine. Even before the phrase molecular imaging came into vogue, radionuclides and radiopharmaceuticals were developed that targeted select physiological processes, proteins, receptor analogs, antibody-antigen interactions, metabolites and specific metabolic pathways. In addition, with the advent of genomic imaging, targeted genomic therapy, and theranostics, a number of novel radiopharmaceuticals for the detection and therapy of specific tumor types based on unique biological and cellular properties of the tumor itself have been realized. However, molecular imaging and therapeutics as well as the concept of theranostics are yet to be fully realized. The purpose of this review article is to present an overview of the translational approaches to targeted molecular imaging with application to some naturally occurring animal models of human disease.

  9. Split-Session Focus Group Interviews in the Naturalistic Setting of Family Medicine Offices

    PubMed Central

    Fetters, Michael D.; Guetterman, Timothy C.; Power, Debra; Nease, Donald E.

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE When recruiting health care professionals to focus group interviews, investigators encounter challenges such as busy clinic schedules, recruitment, and a desire to get candid responses from diverse participants. We sought to overcome these challenges using an innovative, office-based, split-session focus group procedure in a project that elicited feedback from family medicine practices regarding a new preventive services model. This procedure entails allocating a portion of time to the entire group and the remaining time to individual subgroups. We discuss the methodologic procedure and the implications of using this approach for data collection. METHODS We conducted split-session focus groups with physicians and staff in 4 primary care practices. The procedure entailed 3 sessions, each lasting 30 minutes: the moderator interviewed physicians and staff together, physicians alone, and staff alone. As part of the focus group interview, we elicited and analyzed participant comments about the split-session format and collected observational field notes. RESULTS The split-session focus group interviews leveraged the naturalistic setting of the office for context-relevant discussion. We tested alternate formats that began in the morning and at lunchtime, to parallel each practice’s workflow. The split-session approach facilitated discussion of topics primarily relevant to staff among staff, topics primarily relevant to physicians among physicians, and topics common to all among all. Qualitative feedback on this approach was uniformly positive. CONCLUSION A split-session focus group interview provides an efficient, effective way to elicit candid qualitative information from all members of a primary care practice in the naturalistic setting where they work. PMID:26755786

  10. Multi-source evaluation of interpersonal and communication skills of family medicine residents.

    PubMed

    Leung, Kai-Kuen; Wang, Wei-Dan; Chen, Yen-Yuan

    2012-12-01

    There is a lack of information on the use of multi-source evaluation to assess trainees' interpersonal and communication skills in Oriental settings. This study is conducted to assess the reliability and applicability of assessing the interpersonal and communication skills of family medicine residents by patients, peer residents, nurses, and teaching staffs and to compare the ratings with the objective structured clinical examination (OSCE). Our results revealed instruments used by staffs, peers, nurses, and self-evaluation have good internal consistency reliability (α > 0.90), except for the behavioral checklist (α = 0.57). Staffs', peers', and nurses' evaluations were highly correlated with one another (r = 0.722 for staff- and peer-rating, r = 0.734 for staff- and nurse-rating, r = 0.634 for peer- and nurse-rating). However, residents' self-rating and patients-rating were not correlated to ratings by any other raters. OSCE evaluation was correlated to peer-rating (r = 0.533) and staff-rating (r = 0.642), but not correlated to self- or patient-rating. The generalizability study revealed the major sources of variance came from the types of rater and the interaction of residents and types of rater. This study found self-rating and patient-rating were not consistent with other sources of rating on residents' interpersonal and communication skills. Whether variations among different types of rater in a multi-source evaluation should be regarded as measurement errors or complementary information is worth further study.

  11. Medical student attitudes towards family medicine in Spain: a statewide analysis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Family and community medicine (FM) became a recognized specialty in Spain in 1978; however, most medical schools in Spain still lack mandatory core courses in FM. In order to explore the perceptions, expectations and level of information amongst medical students in Spain in relation to FM and PC, and the training in these areas in the curriculum of the Medical Schools, a survey was developed to be administered in medical schools every two years. This article presents data from the first questionnaire administration. Methods The study population was all first-, third-, and fifth-year students (2009–2010) in 22 participating medical schools in Spain (of 27 total). The 83-item survey had three sections: personal data, FM training, professional practice expectations, and preferences). Chi-squared test or analyses of variance were used, as appropriate. Results We had a 41.8% response rate (n = 5299/12924); 89.8% considered the social role of FM to be essential, while only 20% believed the specialty was well respected within the medical profession. The appeal of FM increased with years of study, independent of student characteristics or medical school attended. Among third and fifth-year students, 54.6% said their specialty preferences had changed during medical school; 73.6% felt that FM specialists should teach FM courses, and 83.3% thought that FM rotations in primary care centres were useful. Conclusions Students valued the social role of FM more highly than its scientific standing. The vast majority believe that FM training should be mandatory. Only 25% of first-year students have clear preferences for a specialization. Interest in FM increases moderately over their years of study. Working conditions in FM have decisive influence in choosing a specialty. PMID:22642617

  12. Training Standards Statements of Family Medicine Postgraduate Training – A Review of Existing Documents Worldwide

    PubMed Central

    Berger, Sarah; Szecsenyi, Joachim; Marquard, Sabine

    2016-01-01

    Introduction For the effective and safe management of complex care needs for patients in community settings, high quality family medicine (FM) training programmes are needed. In less primary care oriented countries, training standards statements for FM postgraduate training are less commonly found. The aim of this study was to review international training standards statements in FM postgraduate training and to catalogue these statements to be used as a best practice standard guide for FM training programs in Germany. Materials and Methods A structured three-tiered search was performed: a systematic literature search in MEDLINE®; a search of international indicator databases; and a search in grey literature, consisting of a survey of international experts and a search in “Google (Scholar)”. From all identified documents, training standards statements were extracted, translated and summarized into categories referring to the same quality aspect. Results The search strategy revealed 25 relevant documents (MEDLINE® n = 15, databases n = 2, experts n = 7, “Google” n = 1), containing 337 training standards statements. These were summarized into 80 statements. They covered structure quality (n = 35); process quality (n = 43); and two training standards statements referred to outcome quality (n = 2). Conclusion A broad range of internationally sourced training standards statements for FM postgraduate training could be identified from countries with well-established primary care systems. Only few statements internationally referred to outcome quality, expressing the difficulty in assessing outcome. The resulting inventory of training standards statements for FM postgraduate training can serve as a resource for institutions seeking to formalise and systematise FM training at regional or national levels. PMID:27459714

  13. Parents Studying Medicine – the dichotomy of studying with a family

    PubMed Central

    Iden, Kirstin; Nürnberger, Frank; Sader, Robert; Dittrich, Winand

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: In this article the personal study and life situation of parents who are also medical students at the Medical School of the Goethe University Frankfurt am Main is discussed. There is a special focus on the topics “studying with children” and “family-friendly university”, which have been present in discussions about university development and in the daily life of academics, especially during the last decade. The workgroup “Individual Student Services” at the medical faculty at the Goethe University tries to meet the necessities of the individual study courses and to support the study success with a new counselling and student service concept. Methods: The experience of parents studying medicine was recorded in semi-structured interviews (Date: April 2010), which were held as part of the sponsored pilot project on part-time medical studies (“Pilot Project Part-time Medical Studies”). Additionally, study results from the Medical School of the Goethe University Frankfurt am Main were integrated as well as a literature analysis. Results: It was found that the teaching demands and support services, which have been suggested and needed for years now, have been partially implemented and are without sufficient support at the faculty level to date. Thus the current situation of medical students with children is still difficult and seems a big challenge for everyone involved. Solution: As part of the “Individual Student Services” a new pilot project on part-time medical studies was established in November 2009. Only the use of new, unconventional and innovative ideas allows universities to adequately support the changing and heterogeneous student population and support them to successfully completing their medical studies. PMID:22558026

  14. Undergraduate medical education in general practice/family medicine throughout Europe – a descriptive study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background It is increasingly becoming evident that a strong primary health care system is more likely to provide better population health, more equity in health throughout the population, and better use of economic resources, compared to systems that are oriented towards specialty care. Developing and maintaining a strong and sustainable primary health care requires that a substantial part of graduating doctors go into primary care. This in turn requires that general practice/family medicine (GP/FM) strongly influences the curricula in medical schools. In the present paper we aim at describing the extent of GP/FM teaching in medical schools throughout Europe, checking for the presence of GP/FM curricula and clinical teaching in GP offices. Methods A brief questionnaire was e-mailed to GP/FM or other professors at European medical universities. Results 259 out of 400 existing universities in 39 European countries responded to our questionnaire. Out of these, 35 (13.5%) reported to have no GP/FM curriculum. These 35 medical faculties were located in 12 different European countries. In addition, 15 of the medical schools where a GP/FM curriculum did exist, reported that this curriculum did not include any clinical component (n = 5), or that the clinical part of the course was very brief - less than one week, mostly only a few hours (n = 10). In total, 50 universities (19%) thus had no or a very brief GP/FM curriculum. These were mainly located in the Eastern or Southern European regions. Conclusion It is still possible to graduate from European medical universities without having been exposed to a GP/FM curriculum. The European Academy of Teachers in General Practice (EURACT) will launch efforts to change this situation. PMID:24289459

  15. Comparative Review of Education Programs of Family Medicine (FM) in Bosnia and Herzegovina and Several Transition Countries.

    PubMed

    Masic, Izet; Skopljak, Amira; Jatic, Zaim

    2014-12-01

    Family Medicine as an independent medical discipline is relatively young in the countries of Southeast Europe. Still are used the old models of all forms of education in this module, although most countries accepted Bologna undergraduate teaching concept and already implement it with greater or lesser success. Measuring the effects of the qualities of these concepts and models is not done systematically nor in uniform manner, so it could not be compared by the unique variables measuring the quality of education curricula, and especially the quality of education level of the graduates at the first, second and third degree courses and other forms of education. This paper provides a comparative overview of the state of education in the area of family medicine in the region. It creates comparison according to the study duration for undergraduate and postgraduate studies, doctoral studies and specialized studies in specified areas. What stand out are the proposals to improve education in the field of family medicine in the region.

  16. Guiding the development of family medicine training in Africa through collaboration with the Medical Education Partnership Initiative.

    PubMed

    Mash, Robert J; de Villiers, Marietjie R; Moodley, Kalay; Nachega, Jean B

    2014-08-01

    Africa's health care challenges include a high burden of disease, low life expectancy, health workforce shortages, and varying degrees of commitment to primary health care on the part of policy makers and government officials. One overarching goal of the Medical Education Partnership Initiative (MEPI) is to develop models of medical education in Sub-Saharan Africa. To do this, MEPI has created a network of universities and other institutions that, among other things, recognizes the importance of supporting training programs in family medicine. This article provides a framework for assessing the stage of the development of family medicine training in Africa, including the challenges that were encountered and how educational organizations can help to address them. A modified "stages of change" model (precontemplation, contemplation, action, maintenance, and relapse) was used as a conceptual framework to understand the various phases that countries go through in developing family medicine in the public sector and to determine the type of assistance that is useful at each phase.

  17. Guiding the development of family medicine training in Africa through collaboration with the Medical Education Partnership Initiative.

    PubMed

    Mash, Robert J; de Villiers, Marietjie R; Moodley, Kalay; Nachega, Jean B

    2014-08-01

    Africa's health care challenges include a high burden of disease, low life expectancy, health workforce shortages, and varying degrees of commitment to primary health care on the part of policy makers and government officials. One overarching goal of the Medical Education Partnership Initiative (MEPI) is to develop models of medical education in Sub-Saharan Africa. To do this, MEPI has created a network of universities and other institutions that, among other things, recognizes the importance of supporting training programs in family medicine. This article provides a framework for assessing the stage of the development of family medicine training in Africa, including the challenges that were encountered and how educational organizations can help to address them. A modified "stages of change" model (precontemplation, contemplation, action, maintenance, and relapse) was used as a conceptual framework to understand the various phases that countries go through in developing family medicine in the public sector and to determine the type of assistance that is useful at each phase. PMID:25072584

  18. Telemedicine and E-Learning in a Primary Care Setting in Sudan: The Experience of the Gezira Family Medicine Project.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, K G; Hunskaar, S; Abdelrahman, S H; Malik, E M

    2015-01-01

    Information and communication technology (ICT) is progressively used in the health sector (e-health), to provide health care in a distance (telemedicine), facilitate medical education (e-learning), and manage patients' information (electronic medical records, EMRs). Gezira Family Medicine Project (GFMP) in Sudan provides a 2-year master's degree in family medicine, with ICT fully integrated in the project. This cross-sectional study describes ICT implementation and utilization at the GFMP for the years 2011-2012. Administrative data was used to describe ICT implementation, while questionnaire-based data was used to assess candidates' perceptions and satisfaction. In the period from April 2011 to December 2012, 3808 telemedicine online consultations were recorded and over 165000 new patients' EMRs were established by the study subjects (125 candidates enrolled in the program). Almost all respondents confirmed the importance of telemedicine. The majority appreciated also the importance of using EMRs. Online lectures were highly rated by candidates in spite of the few challenges encountered by combining service provision with learning activity. Physicians highlighted some patients' concerns about the use of telemedicine and EMRs during clinical consultations. Results from this study confirmed the suitability of ICT use in postgraduate training in family medicine and in service provision. PMID:26839704

  19. Australian Family Research Conference Proceedings (Canberra, Australia, November 23-25, 1983). Volume IV: Policies and Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Institute of Family Studies, Melbourne (Australia).

    Fourth in a series of volumes containing the proceedings of the 1983 Australian Family Research Conference, this publication deals with policies and families in Australia. Papers and authors included are: "Improving Social Security Programs: Some Options and Barriers" (Andrew Burbidge), "Single Parent Families and Social Policies: Australia and…

  20. [Application of digital earth technology in research of traditional Chinese medicine resources].

    PubMed

    Liu, Jinxin; Liu, Xinxin; Gao, Lu; Wei, Yingqin; Meng, Fanyun; Wang, Yongyan

    2011-02-01

    This paper describes the digital earth technology and its core technology-"3S" integration technology. The advance and promotion of the "3S" technology provide more favorable means and technical support for Chinese medicine resources survey, evaluation and appropriate zoning. Grid is a mature and popular technology that can connect all kinds of information resources. The author sums up the application of digital earth technology in the research of traditional Chinese medicine resources in recent years, and proposes the new method and technical route of investigation in traditional Chinese medicine resources, traditional Chinese medicine zoning and suitability assessment by combining the digital earth technology and grid.

  1. [Research progress of Chinese herbal medicine raw materials in cosmetics].

    PubMed

    Xie, Yan-jun; Kong, Wei-jun; Yang, Mei-hua; Yang, Shi-hai

    2015-10-01

    Advocating green, nature, environmental protection, safety and the pursuit of efficacy are the trends of cosmetics in the world. In recent years, more and more Chinese herbal extracts with mild, high safety and small irritation are applied to cosmetics as the natural additives. This has become a new hot spot. The recent application advances of Chinese medicine raw materials in cosmetics are overviewed according to their main functions. This review will provide useful references for the future development and application of Chinese medicinal herbs cosmetics. PMID:27062803

  2. [Research progress of Chinese herbal medicine raw materials in cosmetics].

    PubMed

    Xie, Yan-jun; Kong, Wei-jun; Yang, Mei-hua; Yang, Shi-hai

    2015-10-01

    Advocating green, nature, environmental protection, safety and the pursuit of efficacy are the trends of cosmetics in the world. In recent years, more and more Chinese herbal extracts with mild, high safety and small irritation are applied to cosmetics as the natural additives. This has become a new hot spot. The recent application advances of Chinese medicine raw materials in cosmetics are overviewed according to their main functions. This review will provide useful references for the future development and application of Chinese medicinal herbs cosmetics.

  3. Institutional Profile: Golden Helix Institute of Biomedical Research: interdisciplinary research and educational activities in pharmacogenomics and personalized medicine.

    PubMed

    Mitropoulos, Konstantinos; Innocenti, Federico; van Schaik, Ron H; Lezhava, Alexander; Tzimas, Giannis; Kollia, Panagoula; Macek, Milan; Fortina, Paolo; Patrinos, George P

    2012-03-01

    The Golden Helix Institute of Biomedical Research is an international nonprofit scientific organization with interdisciplinary research and educational activities in the field of genome medicine in Europe, Asia and Latin America. These activities are supervised by an international scientific advisory council, consisting of world leaders in the field of genomics and translational medicine. Research activities include the regional coordination of the Pharmacogenomics for Every Nation Initiative in Europe, in an effort to integrate pharmacogenomics in developing countries, the development of several national/ethnic genetic databases and related web services and the critical assessment of the impact of genetics and genomic medicine on society in various countries. Educational activities also include the organization of the Golden Helix Symposia(®), which are high-profile scientific research symposia in the field of personalized medicine and the Golden Helix Pharmacogenomics Days, an international educational activity focused on pharmacogenomics, as part of its international pharmacogenomics education and outreach efforts.

  4. Training in childhood obesity management in the United States: a survey of pediatric, internal medicine-pediatrics and family medicine residency program directors

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Information about the availability and effectiveness of childhood obesity training during residency is limited. Methods We surveyed residency program directors from pediatric, internal medicine-pediatrics (IM-Peds), and family medicine residency programs between September 2007 and January 2008 about childhood obesity training offered in their programs. Results The response rate was 42.2% (299/709) and ranged by specialty from 40.1% to 45.4%. Overall, 52.5% of respondents felt that childhood obesity training in residency was extremely important, and the majority of programs offered training in aspects of childhood obesity management including prevention (N = 240, 80.3%), diagnosis (N = 282, 94.3%), diagnosis of complications (N = 249, 83.3%), and treatment (N = 242, 80.9%). However, only 18.1% (N = 54) of programs had a formal childhood obesity curriculum with variability across specialties. Specifically, 35.5% of IM-Peds programs had a formal curriculum compared to only 22.6% of pediatric and 13.9% of family medicine programs (p < 0.01). Didactic instruction was the most commonly used training method but was rated as only somewhat effective by 67.9% of respondents using this method. The most frequently cited significant barrier to implementing childhood obesity training was competing curricular demands (58.5%). Conclusions While most residents receive training in aspects of childhood obesity management, deficits may exist in training quality with a minority of programs offering a formal childhood obesity curriculum. Given the high prevalence of childhood obesity, a greater emphasis should be placed on development and use of effective training strategies suitable for all specialties training physicians to care for children. PMID:20163732

  5. National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine perspectives for complementary and alternative medicine research in cardiovascular diseases.

    PubMed

    Wong, Shan S; Nahin, Richard L

    2003-01-01

    The National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (NCCAM) was established in 1998 by the US Congress to conduct and support basic and applied research and research training and disseminate information with respect to identifying, investigating, and validating complementary and alternative therapies. Because of limited appropriations, NCCAM prioritizes its research programs according to the relative use of a modality, the evidence supporting its value and safety, and opportunities to advance the relevant fields of science. While NCCAM's top priority is supporting clinical trials of alternative therapeutics, increasingly it is supporting basic and preclinical research. To accomplish its mission, NCCAM encourages the research community to undertake high-quality and rigorous research in complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). In the area of cardiovascular diseases, NCCAM is supporting clinical trials, specialized centers, research training, and investigator-initiated projects. Virtually all aspects of CAM modalities are open for investigation. Current NCCAM projects are investigating Tai Chi (Taiji) exercise, hawthorn, phytoestrogens, biofeedback, Ayurvedic herbals, acupuncture, qigong, Reiki, meditation, spirituality, Ginkgo biloba, ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid chelation therapy, and special diets.

  6. A nationwide survey on the expectation of public healthcare providers on family medicine specialists in Malaysia—a qualitative analysis of 623 written comments

    PubMed Central

    Chew, Boon-How; Cheong, Ai-Theng; Ismail, Mastura; Hamzah, Zuhra; A-Rashid, Mohd-Radzniwan; Md-Yasin, Mazapuspavina; Ali, Norsiah

    2014-01-01

    Objective To examine the expectation of public healthcare providers/professionals (PHCPs) who are working closely with family medicine specialists (FMSs) at public health clinics. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting This study is part of a larger national study on the perception of the Malaysian public healthcare professionals on FMSs. Participants PHCPs from three categories of health facilities, namely hospitals, health clinics and health offices. Main outcome measures Qualitative analysis of written comments of respondents’ expectation of FMSs. Results The participants’ response rate was 58% (780/1345) with an almost equal proportion from each public healthcare facility. We identified 21 subthemes for the 623 expectation comments. The six emerging themes are (1) need for more FMSs, (2) clinical roles and functions of FMSs, (3) administrative roles of FMSs, (4) contribution to community and public health, (5) attributes improvement and (6) research and audits. FMSs were expected to give attention to clinical duty. Delivering this responsibility with competence included having the latest medical knowledge in their own and others’ medical disciplines, practising evidence-based medicine in prehospital and posthospital care, better supervision of staff and doctors under their care, fostering effective teamwork, communicating more often with hospital specialists and making appropriate referral. Expectations ranged from definite and strong for more FMSs at the health clinics to low expectation for FMSs’ involvement in research; to mal-expectation on FMSs’ involvement in community and public health programmes. Conclusions There were some remarkable differences in expectations on FMSs from the three different PHCPs. These ranged from being clinically competent and administratively available for patients and staff at the health clinics, to mal-expectations on FMSs to engage in public health affairs. Relevant parties, including FMSs themselves, could take

  7. Residents’ and preceptors’ perceptions of the use of the iPad for clinical teaching in a family medicine residency program

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background As Family Medicine programs across Canada are transitioning into a competency-based curriculum, medical students and clinical teachers are increasingly incorporating tablet computers in their work and educational activities. The purpose of this pilot study was to identify how preceptors and residents use tablet computers to implement and adopt a new family medicine curriculum and to evaluate how they access applications (apps) through their tablet in an effort to support and enhance effective teaching and learning. Methods Residents and preceptors (n = 25) from the Family Medicine program working at the Pembroke Regional Hospital in Ontario, Canada, were given iPads and training on how to use the device in clinical teaching and learning activities and how to access the online curriculum. Data regarding the use and perceived contribution of the iPads were collected through surveys and focus groups. This mixed methods research used analysis of survey responses to support the selection of questions for focus groups. Results Reported results were categorized into: curriculum and assessment; ease of use; portability; apps and resources; and perceptions about the use of the iPad in teaching/learning setting. Most participants agreed on the importance of accessing curriculum resources through the iPad but recognized that these required enhancements to facilitate use. The iPad was considered to be more useful for activities involving output of information than for input. Participants’ responses regarding the ease of use of mobile technology were heterogeneous due to the diversity of computer proficiency across users. Residents had a slightly more favorable opinion regarding the iPad’s contribution to teaching/learning compared to preceptors. Conclusions iPad’s interface should be fully enhanced to allow easy access to online curriculum and its built-in resources. The differences in computer proficiency level among users should be reduced by sharing

  8. Changing the Face of Veterinary Medicine: Research and Clinical Developments at AAVMC Institutions.

    PubMed

    Smith, Donald F; Hagstrom, Melena R

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides a 50-year overview of research and clinical advances in AAVMC member colleges in four representative fields of veterinary medicine: oncology, vaccine development, production medicine, and public health. Though emphasis is on the progress since the mid-1960s, the salient background and associated personnel in each field are also identified to the extent that their description informs more recent events. Advances in board certification and post-graduate clinical and research educational opportunities are also described.

  9. Curriculum Development of a Research Laboratory Methodology Course for Complementary and Integrative Medicine Students

    PubMed Central

    Vasilevsky, Nicole; Schafer, Morgan; Tibbitts, Deanne; Wright, Kirsten; Zwickey, Heather

    2015-01-01

    Training in fundamental laboratory methodologies is valuable to medical students because it enables them to understand the published literature, critically evaluate clinical studies, and make informed decisions regarding patient care. It also prepares them for research opportunities that may complement their medical practice. The National College of Natural Medicine's (NCNM) Master of Science in Integrative Medicine Research (MSiMR) program has developed an Introduction to Laboratory Methods course. The objective of the course it to train clinical students how to perform basic laboratory skills, analyze and manage data, and judiciously assess biomedical studies. Here we describe the course development and implementation as it applies to complementary and integrative medicine students. PMID:26500806

  10. Arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis for sustainable cultivation of Chinese medicinal plants: a promising research direction.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Yan; Guo, Lan-Ping; Chen, Bao-Dong; Hao, Zhi-Peng; Wang, Ji-Yong; Huang, Lu-Qi; Yang, Guang; Cui, Xiu-Ming; Yang, Li; Wu, Zhao-Xiang; Chen, Mei-Lan; Zhang, Yan

    2013-01-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) are symbiotic systems in nature and have great significance in promoting the growth and stress resistance of medicinal plants. During our literature search from the Chinese Scientific Information Database (Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure, CNKI) we obtained 65 articles with "AM fungi" and "medicinal plant" as the key words, which indicates that in China, research efforts on these topics have been increasing. The main purposes of this review are to discuss the effects of mycorrhiza on the active ingredients of Chinese medicinal plants in comparison with results obtained in other plants in studies conducted by the international research community, and to introduce works published in Chinese journals to international colleagues.

  11. Experience with using second life for medical education in a family and community medicine education unit

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The application of new technologies to the education of health professionals is both a challenge and a necessity. Virtual worlds are increasingly being explored as a support for education. Aim: The aim of this work is to study the suitability of Second Life (SL) as an educational tool for primary healthcare professionals. Methods Design: Qualitative study of accredited clinical sessions in SL included in a continuing professional development (CPD) programme for primary healthcare professionals. Location: Zaragoza I Zone Family and Community Medicine Education Unit (EU) and 9 health centres operated by the Aragonese Health Service, Aragon, Spain. Method: The EU held two training workshops in SL for 16 healthcare professionals from 9 health centres by means of two workshops, and requested them to facilitate clinical sessions in SL. Attendance was open to all personnel from the EU and the 9 health centres. After a trail period of clinical sessions held at 5 health centres between May and November 2010, the CPD-accredited clinical sessions were held at 9 health centres between February and April 2011. Participants: 76 healthcare professionals attended the CPD-accredited clinical sessions in SL. Main measurements: Questionnaire on completion of the clinical sessions. Results Response rate: 42-100%. Questionnaire completed by each health centre on completion of the CPD-accredited clinical sessions: Access to SL: 2 centres were unable to gain access. Sound problems: 0% (0/9). Image problems: 0% (0/9). Voice/text chat: used in 100% (10/9); 0 incidents. Questionnaire completed by participants in the CPD-accredited clinical sessions: Preference for SL as a tool: 100% (76/76). Strengths of this method: 74% (56/76) considered it eliminated the need to travel; 68% (52/76) believed it made more effective use of educational resources; and 47% (36/76) considered it improved accessibility. Weaknesses: 91% (69/76) experienced technical problems, while; 9% (7/76) thought

  12. Review of research on Dendrobium, a prized folk medicine.

    PubMed

    Ng, Tzi Bun; Liu, Jingyi; Wong, Jack Ho; Ye, Xiujuan; Wing Sze, Stephen Cho; Tong, Yao; Zhang, Kalin Yanbo

    2012-03-01

    Medicinal plants of the Dendrobium genus are highly prized, and hence, methodologies have been developed to authenticate Dendrobium drugs from its adulterants. Many bioactive constituents of Dendrobium species have been identified. The macromolecules included lectins; the enzymes chalcone synthase, sucrose synthase, and cytokinin oxidase; and polysaccharides. The polysaccharides display immunomodulatory and hepatoprotective activities. Alkaloids exhibit antioxidant, anticancer, and neuroprotective activities. Other compounds manifest antioxidant, anticancer, and immunomodulatory.

  13. Developing and successfully implementing a competency-based portfolio assessment system in a postgraduate family medicine residency program.

    PubMed

    McEwen, Laura A; Griffiths, Jane; Schultz, Karen

    2015-11-01

    The use of portfolios in postgraduate medical residency education to support competency development is increasing; however, the processes by which these assessment systems are designed, implemented, and maintained are emergent. The authors describe the needs assessment, development, implementation, and continuing quality improvement processes that have shaped the Portfolio Assessment Support System (PASS) used by the postgraduate family medicine program at Queen's University since 2009. Their description includes the impetus for change and contextual realities that guided the effort, plus the processes used for selecting assessment components and developing strategic supports. The authors discuss the identification of impact measures at the individual, programmatic, and institutional levels and the ways the department uses these to monitor how PASS supports competency development, scaffolds residents' self-regulated learning skills, and promotes professional identity formation. They describe the "academic advisor" role and provide an appendix covering the portfolio elements. Reflection elements include learning plans, clinical question logs, confidence surveys, and reflections about continuity of care and significant incidents. Learning module elements cover the required, online bioethics, global health, and consult-request modules. Assessment elements cover each resident's research project, clinical audits, presentations, objective structured clinical exam and simulated office oral exam results, field notes, entrustable professional activities, multisource feedback, and in-training evaluation reports. Document elements are the resident's continuing medical education activities including procedures log, attendance log, and patient demographic summaries.The authors wish to support others who are engaged in the systematic portfolio-design process or who may adapt aspects of PASS for their local programs.

  14. United States Army Research Institute of Environmental Medicine: Warfighter research focusing on the past 25 years.

    PubMed

    Pandolf, Kent B; Francesconi, Ralph; Sawka, Michael N; Cymerman, Allen; Hoyt, Reed W; Young, Andrew J; Zambraski, Edward J

    2011-12-01

    The United States Army Research Institute of Environmental Medicine (USARIEM) celebrated its 50th anniversary on July 1, 2011. This article reviews its history, evolution, and transition of its research programs as well as its scientific and military accomplishments, emphasizing the past 25 yr. During the 1990s, USARIEM published a series of pocket guides providing guidance for sustaining Warfighter health and performance in Southwest Asia, Somalia, the former Republic of Yugoslavia, Rwanda, and Haiti. Issues identified during Operation Desert Storm elicited research that improved nutritional guidelines for protracted desert operations; safer use of nuclear, chemical, and biological protective clothing; equipment, development, and fielding of efficient microclimate cooling systems; and effective evaluation of pharmaceuticals to protect soldiers from chemical and biological threats. During the first decade of the 21st century, USARIEM and the Department of the Army published official medical/performance doctrines for operations in the heat and cold and at high altitude. The current Global War on Terrorism focused research to improve doctrines for hot, cold, and high-altitude operations, reduce musculoskeletal training injuries, provide improved field nutrition, more efficient planning for operational water requirements, and improve both military clothing and materiel. This article also describes the critically important interactions and communications between USARIEM and deployed units and the benefits to Warfighters from this association. This report presents USARIEM's unique and world-class facilities, organizational changes, scientific and support personnel, and major research accomplishments, including the publication of 2,200 scientific papers over the past 25 yr. PMID:22139770

  15. United States Army Research Institute of Environmental Medicine: Warfighter research focusing on the past 25 years.

    PubMed

    Pandolf, Kent B; Francesconi, Ralph; Sawka, Michael N; Cymerman, Allen; Hoyt, Reed W; Young, Andrew J; Zambraski, Edward J

    2011-12-01

    The United States Army Research Institute of Environmental Medicine (USARIEM) celebrated its 50th anniversary on July 1, 2011. This article reviews its history, evolution, and transition of its research programs as well as its scientific and military accomplishments, emphasizing the past 25 yr. During the 1990s, USARIEM published a series of pocket guides providing guidance for sustaining Warfighter health and performance in Southwest Asia, Somalia, the former Republic of Yugoslavia, Rwanda, and Haiti. Issues identified during Operation Desert Storm elicited research that improved nutritional guidelines for protracted desert operations; safer use of nuclear, chemical, and biological protective clothing; equipment, development, and fielding of efficient microclimate cooling systems; and effective evaluation of pharmaceuticals to protect soldiers from chemical and biological threats. During the first decade of the 21st century, USARIEM and the Department of the Army published official medical/performance doctrines for operations in the heat and cold and at high altitude. The current Global War on Terrorism focused research to improve doctrines for hot, cold, and high-altitude operations, reduce musculoskeletal training injuries, provide improved field nutrition, more efficient planning for operational water requirements, and improve both military clothing and materiel. This article also describes the critically important interactions and communications between USARIEM and deployed units and the benefits to Warfighters from this association. This report presents USARIEM's unique and world-class facilities, organizational changes, scientific and support personnel, and major research accomplishments, including the publication of 2,200 scientific papers over the past 25 yr.

  16. Current Use of Qualitative Research Methodology in Couples and Family Counseling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kleist, David M.; Gompertz, Kelli

    1997-01-01

    Explores recent use of qualitative methodology in research relating to marriage and family counseling. The seven research articles described highlight the potential benefits and challenges qualitative methodology can have for the field of marriage and family counseling. (Author/MKA)

  17. Evidence-based Research in Complementary and Alternative Medicine I: History

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    Contemporary Western medicine has witnessed a fragmentation of our conceptualization of the medical endeavor into ‘traditional medicine’ and ‘non-traditional medicine’. The former is meant to refer to the Western medical tradition, the latter encompasses both ‘complementary’ and ‘alternative’ medical practices. Complementary medicine complements conventional medical treatments, and alternative modes of medical interventions are meant to replace traditional Western medicine. Evidence-based research must be directed at establishing the best available evidence in complementary and alternative medicine. This paper is the first of a set of four ‘lectures’ that reviews the process of evidence-based research, and discusses its implications and applications for the early decades of the 21st century. The purpose of this paper is to introduce the series by examining some of the historical and philosophical foundations of this research endeavor. PMID:16322801

  18. Research Training Fellowship Program (Formerly Military Medicine and Allied Sciences Course).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walter Reed Army Hospital, Washington, DC.

    This document provides an outline of the Research Training Fellowship Program at the Walter Reed Army Institute of Research. Emphasizing the scientific foundations of military medicine, the course aims at preparing medical corps officers for careers in laboratory research or clinical investigation and teaching. The intent is to give officers who…

  19. [Network formulaology: a new strategy for modern research of traditional Chinese medicine formulae].

    PubMed

    Fan, Xiao-Hui; Cheng, Yi-Yu; Zhang, Bo-Li

    2015-01-01

    This paper briefly analyzed and discussed the current status and major scientific challenges of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) formulaology research. To promote formulaology research, a new strategy and corresponding technology, network formulaology, were proposed to reveal the complex interaction between functional chemome and biological responses network. The research framework and directions of network formulaology were also summarized and prospected.

  20. Return of the "intimate outsider": current trends and issues in family nursing research revisited.

    PubMed

    Ganong, Lawrence

    2011-11-01

    This article reviews family nursing research published from 1996 to 2011. This is a follow-up to a review published in the Journal of Family Nursing in 1995. Findings from the first review are compared with this one, trends in family nursing scholarship are identified, and predictions and suggestions for future directions are offered. The latest generation of family nursing scholarship is conceptually and methodologically sound, and there is evidence of more multidisciplinary and interdisciplinary research conducted by family nursing researchers. Scholars are paying more attention to issues of diversity and family context at present than in the past, although there are still aspects of diversity that need more attention. Strong research programs in family nursing exist worldwide; an international synergism has helped promote rapid expansion of family nursing research and theory development. A vigorous movement to promote research to practice initiatives and greater attention to family interventions are exciting developments.

  1. Family-friendly research and workplace initiative announced

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2011-10-01

    A new U.S. National Science Foundation (NSF) initiative aims to increase the participation of women and girls in the fields of science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) over the next 10 years by providing more flexible research policies, promoting flexible workplace options, and supporting STEM careers for women, Obama administration officials announced on 26 September. Currently, women earn about 41% of STEM doctoral degrees awarded by U.S. educational institutions but make up only about 28% of tenure-track faculty in U.S. colleges and universities, the officials said. "Unfortunately, too many young women drop out of promising careers in science, engineering, and math because of conflicts between their desire to start families and the need to rapidly ramp up their careers," said John Holdren, director of the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy (OSTP). "The way to help women stay in the STEM jobs pipeline is to create and support more flexible workplace policies that allow a women's career—or a man's, for that matter, but as we know, it's more common for women to give up STEM careers for family reasons—to thrive even as time is allowed for important family responsibilities."

  2. Access to Essential Medicines in Pakistan: Policy and Health Systems Research Concerns

    PubMed Central

    Zaidi, Shehla; Bigdeli, Maryam; Aleem, Noureen; Rashidian, Arash

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Inadequate access to essential medicines is a common issue within developing countries. Policy response is constrained, amongst other factors, by a dearth of in-depth country level evidence. We share here i) gaps related to access to essential medicine in Pakistan; and ii) prioritization of emerging policy and research concerns. Methods An exploratory research was carried out using a health systems perspective and applying the WHO Framework for Equitable Access to Essential Medicine. Methods involved key informant interviews with policy makers, providers, industry, NGOs, experts and development partners, review of published and grey literature, and consultative prioritization in stakeholder’s Roundtable. Findings A synthesis of evidence found major gaps in essential medicine access in Pakistan driven by weaknesses in the health care system as well as weak pharmaceutical regulation. 7 major policy concerns and 11 emerging research concerns were identified through consultative Roundtable. These related to weaknesses in medicine registration and quality assurance systems, unclear and counterproductive pricing policies, irrational prescribing and sub-optimal drug availability. Available research, both locally and globally, fails to target most of the identified policy concerns, tending to concentrate on irrational prescriptions. It overlooks trans-disciplinary areas of policy effectiveness surveillance, consumer behavior, operational pilots and pricing interventions review. Conclusion Experience from Pakistan shows that policy concerns related to essential medicine access need integrated responses across various components of the health systems, are poorly addressed by existing evidence, and require an expanded health systems research agenda. PMID:23717442

  3. Research studies on patients' illness experience using the Narrative Medicine approach: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Fioretti, Chiara; Mazzocco, Ketti; Oliveri, Serena; Masiero, Marianna; Pravettoni, Gabriella

    2016-01-01

    Objective Since its birth about 30 years ago, Narrative Medicine approach has increased in popularity in the medical context as well as in other disciplines. This paper aims to review Narrative Medicine research studies on patients' and their caregivers' illness experience. Setting and participants MEDLINE, Psycinfo, EBSCO Psychological and Behavioural Science, The Cochrane Library and CINAHL databases were searched to identify all the research studies which focused on the Narrative Medicine approach reported in the title, in the abstract and in the keywords the words ‘Narrative Medicine’ or ‘Narrative-based Medicine’. Primary and secondary outcome measures: number of participants, type of disease, race and age of participants, type of study, dependent variables, intervention methods, assessment. Results Of the 325 titles screened, we identified 10 research articles fitting the inclusion criteria. Our systematic review showed that research on Narrative Medicine has no common specific methodology: narrative in Medicine is used as an intervention protocol as well as an assessment tool. Patients' characteristics, types of disease and data analysis procedures differ among the screened studies. Conclusions Narrative Medicine research in medical practice needs to find clear and specific protocols to deepen the impact of narrative on medical practice and on patients' lives. PMID:27417197

  4. [German medicine of the age of romanticism (1797-1848) as research problem].

    PubMed

    Płonka-Syroka, B

    1997-01-01

    In the period between 1797 and 1848, German medicine was considerably influenced by philosophy. It absorbed ideas deriving from neo-Platonism and vitalism, as well as the modern philosophy of nature (Naturphilosophie), especially the ideas of Schelling. The article presents the main tendencies in the German medicine of that period: the distinct character of German medical thought as compared to the rest of Europe, the deductive character of medical theories, the grounding of medical thought in non-materialist philosophy and its close ties with the Protestant religion. The author's aim is investigate how German medicine of the period evolved away from European standards set by the model of medicine as an empirical science, based on the inductive method of research. The article presents the state of German medicine of the first half of the nineteenth century against the background of socio-cultural factors and relates German medical theory of the period to the social awareness of that time. PMID:11625090

  5. Basque Museum of the History of Medicine: conservation of heritage, teaching and research.

    PubMed

    Erkoreka, Anton

    2009-01-01

    The Basque Museum of the History of Medicine was founded in 1982 to preserve the historic memory of medicine in the Basque Country and conserve its scientific heritage. Its permanent exposition comprises approx. 6,000 medical objects of the 19th and 20th centuries arranged, thematically in 24 rooms devoted to different medical specialities: folk medicine, unconventional medicine, pharmacy, weights and measures, asepsis and antisepsis, microscopes, laboratory material, X-rays, obstetrics and gynaecology, surgery, anesthesia, endoscope, odontology, cardiology, ophthalmology, electrotherapy, pathological anatomy and natural sciences. Temporary exhibitions are also held. The Museum is located on the university campus (UPV/EHU) and is important in the training of students in the Faculty of Medicine and the students coming from other faculties. Teaching and research constitute two of the pillars of the Museum that are complemented with publications and the organization of conferences, lectures and other activities. PMID:20481360

  6. [Research progress on mechanisms of modern medicine in cancer metastasis].

    PubMed

    Chen, Hui; Qu, Jing-Lian; Gong, Jie-Ning

    2014-08-01

    Cancer metastasis is the most dangerous stage of tumorigenesis and evolution, the primary cause of death in cancer patients. Clinically, more than 60% of cancer patients have found metastasis at the time of examination. Modern medicine has made significant progress on the mechanisms of cancer metastasis in recent years, from the simple "anatomy and machinery" theory forward to the "seed and soil" theory, then to the "microenvironmental" theory and the "cancer stem cell" theory. The emerging "cancer stem cell" theory successfully explains phenomenon such as tumor genetic heterogeneity, anoikis resistance, tumor dormancy, providing more new targets and ideas for the diagnosis and treatment of cancer metastasis.

  7. Cancer complementary and alternative medicine research at the US National Cancer Institute.

    PubMed

    Jia, Libin

    2012-05-01

    The United States National Cancer Institute (NCI) supports complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) research which includes different methods and practices (such as nutrition therapies) and other medical systems (such as Chinese medicine). In recent years, NCI has spent around $120 million each year on various CAM-related research projects on cancer prevention, treatment, symptom/side effect management and epidemiology. The categories of CAM research involved include nutritional therapeutics, pharmacological and biological treatments, mind-body interventions, manipulative and body based methods, alternative medical systems, exercise therapies, spiritual therapies and energy therapies on a range of types of cancer. The NCI Office of Cancer Complementary and Alternative Medicine (OCCAM) supports various intramural and extramural cancer CAM research projects. Examples of these cancer CAM projects are presented and discussed. In addition, OCCAM also supports international research projects.

  8. The Satisfaction with Information about Medicines Scale (SIMS): a new measurement tool for audit and research

    PubMed Central

    Horne, R; Hankins, M; Jenkins, R

    2001-01-01

    Objective—To develop and examine the psychometric properties of the Satisfaction with Information about Medicines Scale (SIMS), a new 17-item tool designed to assess the extent to which patients feel they have received enough information about prescribed medicines. Methods—Patients from eight diagnostic categories were recruited at hospitals in London and Brighton and completed the SIMS questionnaire during hospital admission or attendance at outpatient clinic appointments. The SIMS was evaluated in terms of its ease of use, internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and criterion related validity using existing self-report measures of adherence and patient beliefs about medicines. Results—The SIMS was well accepted by patients in a variety of clinical settings and showed satisfactory internal consistency and test-retest reliability. As predicted, higher levels of satisfaction with medicines information were associated with higher levels of reported adherence, and lower levels of satisfaction were associated with stronger concerns about the potential adverse effects of medicines, providing evidence of criterion related validity. Conclusion—The SIMS performed well on a number of psychometric indicators and shows promise as a tool for audit (measuring patients' satisfaction with information about their prescribed medicines), research (evaluating current or new forms of information provision), and clinical practice (identifying the information needs of individual patients and as an aid to planning medicine related consultations). Key Words: patients' views; medicines information; questionnaires; reliability; validity PMID:11533420

  9. Admission Factors Predicting Family Medicine Specialty Choice: A Literature Review and Exploratory Study among Students in the Rural Medical Scholars Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Avery, Daniel M., Jr.; Wheat, John R.; Leeper, James D.; McKnight, Jerry T.; Ballard, Brent G.; Chen, Jia

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The Rural Medical Scholars Program (RMSP) was created to increase production of rural family physicians in Alabama. Literature review reveals reasons medical students choose careers in family medicine, and these reasons can be categorized into domains that medical schools can address through admission, curriculum, and structural…

  10. Medicine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ingelfinger, Franz J.

    1980-01-01

    Selected for discussion are certain advances in basic research and technologic innovation which shape the past, present, and future of medical care. Included are infectious diseases, especially hepatitis, immunology, clinical disorders of the immune system and the histocompatability system. (Author/SA)

  11. Research for the soldier: bringing science fiction medicine to life.

    PubMed

    Lam, David M; Curley, Kenneth C

    2006-08-01

    Through means of a science fiction vignette, this paper presents and discusses many of the current research projects ongoing to enable the U.S. military medical services to provide an outstanding level of care in future conflicts. The research capabilities and programs of the U.S. Army Telemedicine and Advanced Technology Research Center (TATRC) are discussed, as are the partnerships between the TATRC and its collaborating researchers.

  12. [A review of research on sustainable use of medicinal plants cropland in China].

    PubMed

    Gao, Wei-Wei; Zhao, Yang-Jing; Wang, Yu-Ping; Chen, Shi-Lin

    2006-10-01

    In China, about 40% of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) comes from cultivation in agrarian systems. The cropland is fundamental to the productions of medicinal plants, and the sustainable soil management is essential for sustainable using of the TCM resources, furthermore it affects the local economies of the medicinal plant production regions and the sustainable development of TCM agriculture. In this paper, the concept of the sustainable use of TCM cropland was discussed and the problems on sustainable soil management in China were analyzed from the aspects of resources and quality. The research advances in sustainable use of the medicinal plants cropland were reviewed from the aspects of continuous cropping obstacles, faming systems and degraded soil remediation. The strengthening research fields in the further were suggested.

  13. Forensic medicine: a forgotten world of opportunities and challenges for research.

    PubMed

    Magalhães, Teresa; Santos, Agostinho; Dinis-Oliveira, Ricardo Jorge

    2013-08-01

    Forensic medicine deals with a wide variety of cases. To accomplish the main objectives, this professional field needs to adopt and apply findings from other sciences, namely, different medical specialties and other forensic sciences. The opposite is not yet entirely true due to the fact that forensic medicine deals with cases that are very far away from other medical and scientific interests. It is obvious that this forgotten world of forensic medicine … is also a new world of opportunities and challenges to research in all scientific areas.

  14. A global research agenda for family planning: results of an exercise for setting research priorities

    PubMed Central

    Seuc, Armando; Rahimi, Asma; Festin, Mario; Temmerman, Marleen

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Objective To develop a global research agenda that will guide investment in effective interventions to satisfy the large unmet need for modern methods of family planning. Methods In a global survey, experts on contraception were invited to identify and rank the types of research that would be needed – and the knowledge gaps that would have to be filled – to reduce the unmet need for family planning in the next decade. The experts were then asked to score the research on a given topic in terms of the likelihood of its leading to an intervention that would: (i) be deliverable, affordable and sustainable; (ii) substantially reduce the unmet need for contraceptives; (iii) be effective and efficient in improving health systems; (iv) be ethically implemented; and (v) improve equity in the target population. The overall scores were then ranked. Findings Most of the topics that received the 15 highest scores fell into three categories: implementation of policies in family planning; the integration of services to address barriers to contraceptive use; and interventions targeted at underserved groups, such as adolescents. Conclusion Experts on contraception gave top priority ranking to research on improving the implementation and integration of health services and on strengthening the health systems supporting family planning services. The results of the exercise may help decision-makers, researchers and funding agencies to develop a clear and focused approach to satisfying the global need for family planning and reach the target set by the Family Planning 2020 initiative. PMID:24623902

  15. Geriatric medicine training for family practice residents in the 21st century: a report from the Residency Assistance Program/Harfford Geriatrics Initiative.

    PubMed

    Warshaw, Gregg; Murphy, John; Buehler, James; Singleton, Stacy

    2003-01-01

    Increasing the quality and quantity of geriatric medicine training for family practice residents is a particular challenge for community-based programs. With support from the John A. Hartford Foundation of New York City, the American Academy of Family Physicians (AAFP) implemented in 1995 a multi-part project to improve the amount and quality of geriatric medicine education received by family practice residents. This report summarizes the initial results of the regional geriatric medicine curriculum retreats for residency directors. The goals of the retreats were to build recognition among the residency directors of the skills that future family physicians will require to be successful providers of primary care to older adults and to allow the residency directors to identify and develop solutions to barriers to improving geriatric medicine training for residents. Forty-six program directors participated in the three retreats between February 2000 and February 2001. The participants represented 52 programs and rural tracks in all geographic regions, small and large programs, and urban and rural settings. The program directors developed a consensus on the geriatric medicine knowledge, skills, and attitudes that should be expected of all family practice residency graduates; developed a list of basic, required educational resources for each family practice residency program; and proposed solutions to common obstacles to successful curriculum development.

  16. [Etiological research in medicine in Vienna circa 1900, at the time of Karl Landsteiner].

    PubMed

    Gröger, H

    2001-10-30

    By the end of the 19th century theoretical etiological research became more and more important in medical science. Anton Weichselbaum focused on bacteriology in the field of pathological anatomy and Rudolf Paltauf founded an Institute of Serotherapy, thus taking account of this new development. Progress made in laboratory medicine due to the work of a number of scientists in Vienna was of both fundamental and practical significance for the advancement of medicine.

  17. Herbal Medicines for Asthmatic Inflammation: From Basic Researches to Clinical Applications.

    PubMed

    Liu, Fang; Xuan, Nan-Xia; Ying, Song-Min; Li, Wen; Chen, Zhi-Hua; Shen, Hua-Hao

    2016-01-01

    Asthma is one of the most common chronic inflammatory disorders, associated with reversible airflow obstruction, airway hyperresponsiveness, and airway remodeling. This disease has a significant impact on individuals, their families, and society. Standardized therapeutics such as inhaled corticosteroid in combination with long acting β2 agonist have been applied for asthma control; however, complementary and alternative medicines, especially herbal medicines, are still widely used all over the world. A growing body of literature suggests that various herbals or related products might be effective in inhibiting asthmatic inflammation. In this review, we summarize recent advances about the mechanistic studies of herbal medicines on allergic airway inflammation in animal models and their potential application into clinic for asthma control. PMID:27478309

  18. Herbal Medicines for Asthmatic Inflammation: From Basic Researches to Clinical Applications

    PubMed Central

    Xuan, Nan-Xia; Ying, Song-Min; Li, Wen

    2016-01-01

    Asthma is one of the most common chronic inflammatory disorders, associated with reversible airflow obstruction, airway hyperresponsiveness, and airway remodeling. This disease has a significant impact on individuals, their families, and society. Standardized therapeutics such as inhaled corticosteroid in combination with long acting β2 agonist have been applied for asthma control; however, complementary and alternative medicines, especially herbal medicines, are still widely used all over the world. A growing body of literature suggests that various herbals or related products might be effective in inhibiting asthmatic inflammation. In this review, we summarize recent advances about the mechanistic studies of herbal medicines on allergic airway inflammation in animal models and their potential application into clinic for asthma control. PMID:27478309

  19. The Relationship of Family Support to Family Outcomes: A Synthesis of Key Findings from Research on Severe Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kyzar, Kathleen B.; Turnbull, Ann P.; Summers, Jean Ann; Gomez, Viviana Aya

    2012-01-01

    There has been a gradual shift from a deficit to a support model for understanding disability over the last two decades. Although more attention is focused on supports at the individual level, policy has provided for the provision of family support. Despite this policy, families' needs for support are on the rise; and research suggests that…

  20. Critical Issues Underlying Research and Intervention with Families of Young Handicapped Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, Donald B., Jr.; Simeonsson, Rune J.

    1984-01-01

    The article discusses six needs fundamental to research and intervention with families: (1) defensible rationale for family involvement, (2) caution in defining desired family outcomes, (3) developmental perspective, (4) ecological contexts, (5) allowance in variability in family composition or structure, and (6) adequate systems for assessing…

  1. Medicine. Consent from donors for embryo and stem cell research.

    PubMed

    Lo, Bernard; Chou, Vicki; Cedars, Marcelle I; Gates, Elena; Taylor, Robert N; Wagner, Richard M; Wolf, Leslie; Yamamoto, Keith R

    2003-08-15

    As research with human embryos and embryonic stem cells proceeds, the authors of this Policy Forum argue that all donors of biological materials should give informed consent, including oocyte and sperm donors. Informed consent is particularly important because of the diverse opinions and strong emotions that surround such research. Some gamete donors who are willing to help women and couples bear children may object to the use of their genetic materials for certain types of research.

  2. Flight simulator research at the Royal Air Force Institute of Aviation Medicine.

    PubMed

    Rolfe, J M

    1973-06-01

    After tracing the development of flight simulators, the author refers to the simulators used for research at the RAF Institute of Aviation Medicine, describing seven examples of the Institute's research carried out with their aid. These cover a comparison of attitude indicators, pilot response, motion cues and landing performance, student pilots assessments, familiarisation behaviour, evaluating an airborne navigation display, and attitude and opinion surveys.

  3. THE SCHOOL OF DENTAL MEDICINE NEW RESEARCH AND TEACHING BUILDING FOR THE UNIVERSITY OF PENNSYLVANIA.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennsylvania Univ., Philadelphia.

    IN PLANNING A NEW RESEARCH AND TEACHING BUILDING FOR THE SCHOOL OF DENTAL MEDICINE, A PROGRAM WAS DEVELOPED OUTLINING THE DESIGN NEEDS AND THE SPACE AND FACILITY REQUIREMENTS. MAJOR AREAS OF THE PROGRAM WERE--(1) GENERAL DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION COMPONENTS, (2) THE RESEARCH COMPONENT, AND (3) THE BASIC SCIENCE TEACHING COMPONENTS. SPACE…

  4. Comparing Research Activities of Women and Men Faculty in Departments of Internal Medicine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levey, Barbara A.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    The study compared research activities of men and women from data obtained in a 1982-83 survey of 7,947 medical school faculty in departments of internal medicine. Among findings were that women researchers had significantly fewer National Institutes of Health grants as well as reduced laboratory space. (Author/DB)

  5. Training Family Medicine Residents in Effective Communication Skills While Utilizing Promotoras as Standardized Patients in OSCEs: A Health Literacy Curriculum.

    PubMed

    Pagels, Patti; Kindratt, Tiffany; Arnold, Danielle; Brandt, Jeffrey; Woodfin, Grant; Gimpel, Nora

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Future health care providers need to be trained in the knowledge and skills to effectively communicate with their patients with limited health literacy. The purpose of this study is to develop and evaluate a curriculum designed to increase residents' health literacy knowledge, improve communication skills, and work with an interpreter. Materials and Methods. Family Medicine residents (N = 25) participated in a health literacy training which included didactic lectures and an objective structured clinical examination (OSCE). Community promotoras acted as standardized patients and evaluated the residents' ability to measure their patients' health literacy, communicate effectively using the teach-back and Ask Me 3 methods, and appropriately use an interpreter. Pre- and postknowledge, attitudes, and postdidactic feedback were obtained. We compared OSCE scores from the group that received training (didactic group) and previous graduates. Residents reported the skills they used in practice three months later. Results. Family Medicine residents showed an increase in health literacy knowledge (p = 0.001) and scored in the adequately to expertly performed range in the OSCE. Residents reported using the teach-back method (77.8%) and a translator more effectively (77.8%) three months later. Conclusions. Our innovative health literacy OSCE can be replicated for medical learners at all levels of training. PMID:26491565

  6. Training Family Medicine Residents in Effective Communication Skills While Utilizing Promotoras as Standardized Patients in OSCEs: A Health Literacy Curriculum

    PubMed Central

    Pagels, Patti; Kindratt, Tiffany; Arnold, Danielle; Brandt, Jeffrey; Woodfin, Grant; Gimpel, Nora

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Future health care providers need to be trained in the knowledge and skills to effectively communicate with their patients with limited health literacy. The purpose of this study is to develop and evaluate a curriculum designed to increase residents' health literacy knowledge, improve communication skills, and work with an interpreter. Materials and Methods. Family Medicine residents (N = 25) participated in a health literacy training which included didactic lectures and an objective structured clinical examination (OSCE). Community promotoras acted as standardized patients and evaluated the residents' ability to measure their patients' health literacy, communicate effectively using the teach-back and Ask Me 3 methods, and appropriately use an interpreter. Pre- and postknowledge, attitudes, and postdidactic feedback were obtained. We compared OSCE scores from the group that received training (didactic group) and previous graduates. Residents reported the skills they used in practice three months later. Results. Family Medicine residents showed an increase in health literacy knowledge (p = 0.001) and scored in the adequately to expertly performed range in the OSCE. Residents reported using the teach-back method (77.8%) and a translator more effectively (77.8%) three months later. Conclusions. Our innovative health literacy OSCE can be replicated for medical learners at all levels of training. PMID:26491565

  7. Starting a family during medical studies? Results of a pilot study on family friendliness in the study of medicine at the University of Ulm

    PubMed Central

    Liebhardt, Hubert; Stolz, Katrin; Mörtl, Kathrin; Prospero, Katrin; Niehues, Johanna; Fegert, Jörg

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The Ulm pilot study aimed to explore factors for a successful combination of medical education and starting a family. The empirical data derived from this study constitutes the foundation for an evidence-based reform of the medical curriculum in Ulm. Methods: In 2009, qualitative interviews with 37 of the 79 medical students with children at University of Ulm were conducted and analyzed using content analysis. The detected problem areas were used to develop a quantitative questionnaire for studying parents and academic teaching members in medical education in Ulm. Results: The parents were older, more often married and more likely to already have obtained a first training. One third of the students thought there was no ideal time to start a family during the years of medical education or specialist training. However, the majority of the students (61%) were convinced that parenthood is more compatible with medical studies than with specialist training. The interview data suggests that the end of medical school (4th to 6th year of studies), preferably during semester break, is especially suitable for child birth since it allows students to continue their studies without ‘losing time’. Conclusion: The biography and career of studying parents in medicine have specific characteristics. Universities and teaching hospitals are required to no longer leave the compatibility of family and study responsibilities to the students themselves. Rather, flexible structures need to be implemented that enable students to start a family while continuing their education. This means providing more childcare and greater support regarding academic counselling and career development. PMID:21818229

  8. Quality of Life from the Point of View of Latin American Families: A Participative Research Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aznar, A. S.; Castanon, D. G.

    2005-01-01

    Background: To date, little research has focused on what factors constitute a quality of life (QOL) among Latin American families with a member who is intellectually disabled. Method: Total 180 Latin American families cooperated in a participative research project. During 18 months, the families and a team exchanged information about their QOL by…

  9. One Size Will Never Fit All: Clinical and Translational Research Gaps in Pediatric Transfusion Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Josephson, Cassandra D.; Mondoro, Traci Heath; Ambruso, Daniel R.; Sanchez, Rosa; Sloan, Steven R.; Luban, Naomi L.C.; Widness, John A.

    2015-01-01

    There is concern at the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) and among transfusion medicine specialists regarding the small number of investigators and studies in the field of pediatric transfusion medicine (PTM). Accordingly, the objective of this article is to provide a snapshot of the clinical and translational PTM research considered to be of high priority by pediatricians, neonatologists, and transfusion medicine specialists. Included is a targeted review of three research areas of importance: 1) transfusion strategies, 2) short- and long-term clinical consequences, and 3) transfusion-transmitted infectious diseases. The recommendations by PTM and transfusion medicine specialists represent opportunities and innovative strategies to execute translational research, observational studies, and clinical trials of high relevance to PTM. With the explosion of new biomedical knowledge and increasingly sophisticated methodologies over the past decade, this is an exciting time to consider transfusion medicine as a paradigm for addressing questions related to fields such as cell biology, immunology, neurodevelopment, outcomes research and many others. Increased awareness of PTM as an, important, fertile field and the promotion of accompanying opportunities will help establish PTM as a viable career option and advance basic and clinical investigation to improve the health and wellbeing of children. PMID:25119336

  10. Implementation strategies of Systems Medicine in clinical research and home care for cardiovascular disease patients.

    PubMed

    Montecucco, Fabrizio; Carbone, Federico; Dini, Frank Lloyd; Fiuza, Manuela; Pinto, Fausto J; Martelli, Antonietta; Palombo, Domenico; Sambuceti, Gianmario; Mach, François; De Caterina, Raffaele

    2014-11-01

    Insights from the "-omics" science have recently emphasized the need to implement an overall strategy in medical research. Here, the development of Systems Medicine has been indicated as a potential tool for clinical translation of basic research discoveries. Systems Medicine also gives the opportunity of improving different steps in medical practice, from diagnosis to healthcare management, including clinical research. The development of Systems Medicine is still hampered however by several challenges, the main one being the development of computational tools adequate to record, analyze and share a large amount of disparate data. In addition, available informatics tools appear not yet fully suitable for the challenge because they are not standardized, not universally available, or with ethical/legal concerns. Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are a very promising area for translating Systems Medicine into clinical practice. By developing clinically applied technologies, the collection and analysis of data may improve CV risk stratification and prediction. Standardized models for data recording and analysis can also greatly broaden data exchange, thus promoting a uniform management of CVD patients also useful for clinical research. This advance however requires a great organizational effort by both physicians and health institutions, as well as the overcoming of ethical problems. This narrative review aims at providing an update on the state-of-art knowledge in the area of Systems Medicine as applied to CVD, focusing on current critical issues, providing a road map for its practical implementation.

  11. One size will never fit all: the future of research in pediatric transfusion medicine.

    PubMed

    Josephson, Cassandra D; Mondoro, Traci Heath; Ambruso, Daniel R; Sanchez, Rosa; Sloan, Steven R; Luban, Naomi L C; Widness, John A

    2014-11-01

    There is concern at the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) and among transfusion medicine specialists regarding the small number of investigators and studies in the field of pediatric transfusion medicine (PTM). Accordingly, the objective of this article is to provide a snapshot of the clinical and translational PTM research considered to be of high priority by pediatricians, neonatologists, and transfusion medicine specialists. Included is a targeted review of three research areas of importance: (i) transfusion strategies, (ii) short- and long-term clinical consequences, and (iii) transfusion-transmitted infectious diseases. The recommendations by PTM and transfusion medicine specialists represent opportunities and innovative strategies to execute translational research, observational studies, and clinical trials of high relevance to PTM. With the explosion of new biomedical knowledge and increasingly sophisticated methodologies over the past decade, this is an exciting time to consider transfusion medicine as a paradigm for addressing questions related to fields such as cell biology, immunology, neurodevelopment, outcomes research, and many others. Increased awareness of PTM as an important, fertile field and the promotion of accompanying opportunities will help establish PTM as a viable career option and advance basic and clinical investigation to improve the health and wellbeing of children.

  12. [Establish research model of post-marketing clinical safety evaluation for Chinese patent medicine].

    PubMed

    Zheng, Wen-ke; Liu, Zhi; Lei, Xiang; Tian, Ran; Zheng, Rui; Li, Nan; Ren, Jing-tian; Du, Xiao-xi; Shang, Hong-cai

    2015-09-01

    The safety of Chinese patent medicine has become a focus of social. It is necessary to carry out work on post-marketing clinical safety evaluation for Chinese patent medicine. However, there have no criterions to guide the related research, it is urgent to set up a model and method to guide the practice for related research. According to a series of clinical research, we put forward some views, which contained clear and definite the objective and content of clinical safety evaluation, the work flow should be determined, make a list of items for safety evaluation project, and put forward the three level classification of risk control. We set up a model of post-marketing clinical safety evaluation for Chinese patent medicine. Based this model, the list of items can be used for ranking medicine risks, and then take steps for different risks, aims to lower the app:ds:risksrisk level. At last, the medicine can be managed by five steps in sequence. The five steps are, collect risk signal, risk recognition, risk assessment, risk management, and aftereffect assessment. We hope to provide new ideas for the future research. PMID:26983223

  13. Ethics and Policy Issues for Stem Cell Research and Pulmonary Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Lowenthal, Justin

    2015-01-01

    Stem cell research and related initiatives in regenerative medicine, cell-based therapy, and tissue engineering have generated considerable scientific and public interest. Researchers are applying stem cell technologies to chest medicine in a variety of ways: using stem cells as models for drug discovery, testing stem cell-based therapies for conditions as diverse as COPD and cystic fibrosis, and producing functional lung and tracheal tissue for physiologic modeling and potential transplantation. Although significant scientific obstacles remain, it is likely that stem cell-based regenerative medicine will have a significant clinical impact in chest medicine. However, stem cell research has also generated substantial controversy, posing a variety of ethical and regulatory challenges for research and clinical practice. Some of the most prominent ethical questions related to the use of stem cell technologies in chest medicine include (1) implications for donors, (2) scientific prerequisites for clinical testing and use, (3) stem cell tourism, (4) innovation and clinical use of emerging stem cell-based interventions, (5) responsible translation of stem cell-based therapies to clinical use, and (6) appropriate and equitable access to emerging therapies. Having a sense of these issues should help to put emerging scientific advances into appropriate context and to ensure the responsible clinical translation of promising therapeutics. PMID:25732448

  14. Ethics and policy issues for stem cell research and pulmonary medicine.

    PubMed

    Lowenthal, Justin; Sugarman, Jeremy

    2015-03-01

    Stem cell research and related initiatives in regenerative medicine, cell-based therapy, and tissue engineering have generated considerable scientific and public interest. Researchers are applying stem cell technologies to chest medicine in a variety of ways: using stem cells as models for drug discovery, testing stem cell-based therapies for conditions as diverse as COPD and cystic fibrosis, and producing functional lung and tracheal tissue for physiologic modeling and potential transplantation. Although significant scientific obstacles remain, it is likely that stem cell-based regenerative medicine will have a significant clinical impact in chest medicine. However, stem cell research has also generated substantial controversy, posing a variety of ethical and regulatory challenges for research and clinical practice. Some of the most prominent ethical questions related to the use of stem cell technologies in chest medicine include (1) implications for donors, (2) scientific prerequisites for clinical testing and use, (3) stem cell tourism, (4) innovation and clinical use of emerging stem cell-based interventions, (5) responsible translation of stem cell-based therapies to clinical use, and (6) appropriate and equitable access to emerging therapies. Having a sense of these issues should help to put emerging scientific advances into appropriate context and to ensure the responsible clinical translation of promising therapeutics. PMID:25732448

  15. Ethics and policy issues for stem cell research and pulmonary medicine.

    PubMed

    Lowenthal, Justin; Sugarman, Jeremy

    2015-03-01

    Stem cell research and related initiatives in regenerative medicine, cell-based therapy, and tissue engineering have generated considerable scientific and public interest. Researchers are applying stem cell technologies to chest medicine in a variety of ways: using stem cells as models for drug discovery, testing stem cell-based therapies for conditions as diverse as COPD and cystic fibrosis, and producing functional lung and tracheal tissue for physiologic modeling and potential transplantation. Although significant scientific obstacles remain, it is likely that stem cell-based regenerative medicine will have a significant clinical impact in chest medicine. However, stem cell research has also generated substantial controversy, posing a variety of ethical and regulatory challenges for research and clinical practice. Some of the most prominent ethical questions related to the use of stem cell technologies in chest medicine include (1) implications for donors, (2) scientific prerequisites for clinical testing and use, (3) stem cell tourism, (4) innovation and clinical use of emerging stem cell-based interventions, (5) responsible translation of stem cell-based therapies to clinical use, and (6) appropriate and equitable access to emerging therapies. Having a sense of these issues should help to put emerging scientific advances into appropriate context and to ensure the responsible clinical translation of promising therapeutics.

  16. A Countercultural Heritage: Rediscovering the Relationship-Centered and Social Justice Roots of Family Medicine-A Perspective from the Keystone IV Conference.

    PubMed

    Waters, Richard C; Stoltenberg, Mark; Hughes, Lauren S

    2016-01-01

    The 2015 G. Gayle Stephens Keystone conference convened a cohort of primary care professionals to discuss what promises personal physicians will make to their patients going forward. New physicians were prompted to rediscover the foundational values of and historic context for family medicine. At the heart of this rediscovery was learning of the writings and teachings of Dr. G. Gayle Stephens, a founder of family medicine who emphasized the essentiality of relationship-centered care and social justice to the new specialty. Dr. Stephens viewed family medicine as being in a countercultural relationship to mainstream medicine, as family medicine fought for justice and equity in an inequitable and fragmented health care system. Here we argue that by reaffirming and renewing this countercultural heritage the new generation of family physicians will have better clarity in approaching the many challenges in health care today. Particularly for trainees and new physicians, the historic lens offered by Dr. Stephens's writing and other foundational documents allows us to better see ourselves in a trajectory of ongoing health care reform. PMID:27387164

  17. A Countercultural Heritage: Rediscovering the Relationship-Centered and Social Justice Roots of Family Medicine-A Perspective from the Keystone IV Conference.

    PubMed

    Waters, Richard C; Stoltenberg, Mark; Hughes, Lauren S

    2016-01-01

    The 2015 G. Gayle Stephens Keystone conference convened a cohort of primary care professionals to discuss what promises personal physicians will make to their patients going forward. New physicians were prompted to rediscover the foundational values of and historic context for family medicine. At the heart of this rediscovery was learning of the writings and teachings of Dr. G. Gayle Stephens, a founder of family medicine who emphasized the essentiality of relationship-centered care and social justice to the new specialty. Dr. Stephens viewed family medicine as being in a countercultural relationship to mainstream medicine, as family medicine fought for justice and equity in an inequitable and fragmented health care system. Here we argue that by reaffirming and renewing this countercultural heritage the new generation of family physicians will have better clarity in approaching the many challenges in health care today. Particularly for trainees and new physicians, the historic lens offered by Dr. Stephens's writing and other foundational documents allows us to better see ourselves in a trajectory of ongoing health care reform.

  18. Is evidence-based medicine so evident in veterinary research and practice? History, obstacles and perspectives.

    PubMed

    Vandeweerd, Jean-Michel; Kirschvink, Nathalie; Clegg, Peter; Vandenput, Sandrine; Gustin, Pascal; Saegerman, Claude

    2012-01-01

    Evidence-based medicine (EBM) refers to the conscientious, explicit and judicious use of current best evidence from research for the care of an individual patient. The concept of EBM was first described in human medicine in the early 1990s and was introduced to veterinary medicine 10 years later. However, it is not clear that the EBM approach promulgated in human medicine can be applied to the same extent to veterinary medicine. EBM has the potential to help veterinarians to make more informed decisions, but obstacles to the implementation of EBM include a lack of high quality patient-centred research, the need for basic understanding of clinical epidemiology by veterinarians, the absence of adequate searching techniques and accessibility to scientific data bases and the inadequacy of EBM tools that can be applied to the busy daily practise of veterinarians. This review describes the development of EBM in the veterinary profession, identifies its advantages and disadvantages and discusses whether and how veterinary surgeons should further adopt the EBM approach of human medicine.

  19. [Advances in researches on mechanism of anti-Toxoplasma Chinese herbal medicine].

    PubMed

    Yu, Zhao-Yun; Zhang, Bao-de; Ning, Jun-ya; Wang, Yuan-yuan; Yuan, Wen-ying

    2015-10-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is an opportunity cellular parasite, related to the infection of various animals and human beings and severely impairing agriculture and human health. Because of the complexity of T. gondii life cycle, its different biological characteristics, and multifarious pathogenesis, there are no specific treatment and preventive medicines at present. Chinese herbal medicine can balance "yin-yang" and regulate the immunity and its side-effect is slight. Now, it has been a hot topic of the research on effective and secure medicines in anti-toxoplasmosis. This paper summarizes and analyzes the curative effect and mechanism of anti-Toxoplasma Chinese herbal medicine, such as Scutellaria baicalensis, Inontus obliquus polysaccharide, Radix glycyrrhizae, pumpkin seeds, and Semen arecae. PMID:26930953

  20. Proceedings of the Conference on Family Research (Washington, D.C., March 4-5, 1974).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hertz, Thomas W., Ed.; Hertz, Susan, H., Ed.

    This document is the product of the Conference of Family Research, a group convened by the Interagency Panel on Early Childhood Research and Development to provide an opportunity for researchers to meet with representatives of funding agencies in order to develop new commitments, interests and directions for family research. The document contains…

  1. The early career researcher's toolkit: translating tissue engineering, regenerative medicine and cell therapy products.

    PubMed

    Rafiq, Qasim A; Ortega, Ilida; Jenkins, Stuart I; Wilson, Samantha L; Patel, Asha K; Barnes, Amanda L; Adams, Christopher F; Delcassian, Derfogail; Smith, David

    2015-11-01

    Although the importance of translation for the development of tissue engineering, regenerative medicine and cell-based therapies is widely recognized, the process of translation is less well understood. This is particularly the case among some early career researchers who may not appreciate the intricacies of translational research or make decisions early in development which later hinders effective translation. Based on our own research and experiences as early career researchers involved in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine translation, we discuss common pitfalls associated with translational research, providing practical solutions and important considerations which will aid process and product development. Suggestions range from effective project management, consideration of key manufacturing, clinical and regulatory matters and means of exploiting research for successful commercialization. PMID:26628407

  2. New Zealand Emergency Medicine Network: a collaboration for acute care research in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    2015-04-01

    The specialty of emergency medicine in Australasia is coming of age. As part of this maturation there is a need for high-quality evidence to inform practice. This article describes the development of the New Zealand Emergency Medicine Network, a collaboration of committed emergency care researchers who share the vision that New Zealand/Aotearoa will have a world-leading, patient-centred emergency care research network, which will improve emergency care for all, so that people coming to any ED in the country will have access to the same world-class emergency care.

  3. Health impact of research in emergency medicine--moving forward in the field.

    PubMed

    Williams-Johnson, J; Williams, E W; Dasgupta, S; French, S; Hutson, R; Hart, N; Sammy, I; McDonald, A H

    2012-07-01

    This article provides a brief description of the conceptual framework of some specific areas of research carried out either collaboratively or independently in the Emergency Department in an effort to positively impact on health issues in an era of evidence-based medicine. The paper focusses on epidemiological studies of infectious diseases, chronic non-communicable diseases, and a recent update on trauma patterns. Conduction of clinical trials is also highlighted. The role of collaboration in Emergency medicine is also discussed. Research must be developed deliberately to facilitate the primary goal of improved patient care and outcomes. Further recommendations are suggested. PMID:23240484

  4. Sampling Bias in Family Caregiving Studies: A Research Note.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Alexis J.; Pratt, Clara C.

    This study examined the characteristics of elderly persons receiving help from family members as reported in published studies on family caregiving. The data were drawn from 10 volumes of the "Journal of Gerontology" and "The Gerontologist" (1978-1988). Thirty-one family caregiving studies were identified. Although few of the elderly require…

  5. Family Day Care: Current Research for Informed Public Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, Donald L., Ed.; Pence, Alan R., Ed.

    This book presents reviews and analyses from a variety of disciplinary perspectives that place American and Canadian family day care in a historical, demographic, social, and economic context. The 15 chapters are: (1) "Family Day Care: Issues and Information Needs" (Donald Peters and Alan Pence); (2) "Historical Perspectives on Familial and…

  6. Researching Reflexively With Patients and Families: Two Studies Using Video-Reflexive Ethnography to Collaborate With Patients and Families in Patient Safety Research.

    PubMed

    Collier, Aileen; Wyer, Mary

    2016-06-01

    Patient safety research has to date offered few opportunities for patients and families to be actively involved in the research process. This article describes our collaboration with patients and families in two separate studies, involving end-of-life care and infection control in acute care. We used the collaborative methodology of video-reflexive ethnography, which has been primarily used with clinicians, to involve patients and families as active participants and collaborators in our research. The purpose of this article is to share our experiences and findings that iterative researcher reflexivity in the field was critical to the progress and success of each study. We present and analyze the complexities of reflexivity-in-the-field through a framework of multilayered reflexivity. We share our lessons here for other researchers seeking to actively involve patients and families in patient safety research using collaborative visual methods.

  7. An Evaluation on Medical Education, Research and Development of AYUSH Systems of Medicine through Five Year Plans of India

    PubMed Central

    Dehury, Ranjit Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Indian system of medicine has its origin in India. The system is currently renamed as AYUSH, an acronym for Ayurveda, Yoga & Naturopathy, Unani, Sidha and Homeopathy. These are the six Indian systems of medicine prevalent and practiced in India and in few neighboring Asian countries. Objective The primary objective of this review was to gain insight in to the prior and existing initiatives which would enable reflection and assist in the identification of future change. Materials and Methods A review was carried out based on the five year plan documents, obtained from the planning commission web portal of Govt. of India, on medical education, research and development of AYUSH systems of medicine. Results Post independence, the process of five year planning took its birth with the initiation of long term planning in India. The planning process embraced all the social and technology sectors in it. Since the beginning of five year planning, health and family welfare planning became imperative as a social sector planning. Planning regarding Indian Systems of Medicine became a part of health and family welfare planning since then. During the entire planning process a progressive path of development could be observed as per this evaluation. A relatively sluggish process of development was observed up to seventh plan however post eighth plan the growth took its pace. Eighth plan onwards several innovative development processes could be noticed. Despite the relative developments and growth of Indian systems of medicine these systems have to face lot of criticism and appraisal owing to their various characteristic features. In the beginning the system thrived with great degree of uncertainty, as described in 1st five year plan, however progressed ahead with a vision to be a globally accepted system, as envisaged in 11th five year plan. Conclusion A very strong optimistic approach in spreading India’s own medical heritage is the need of the hour. The efforts

  8. Going MAD: development of a "matrix academic division" to facilitate translating research to personalized medicine.

    PubMed

    Whitcomb, David C

    2011-11-01

    Personalized medicine integrates an individual's genetic and other information for the prevention or treatment of complex disorders, and translational research seeks to identify those data most important to disease processes based on observations at the bench and the bedside. To understand complex disorders such as chronic pancreatitis, inflammatory bowel disease, liver cirrhosis, and other idiopathic chronic inflammatory diseases, physician-scientists must systematically collect data on relevant risks, clinical status, biomarkers, and outcomes. The author describes a "matrix academic division" (MAD), a highly effective academic program created at the University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine and the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center using translational research to rapidly develop personalized medicine for digestive diseases. MAD is designed to capture patient-specific data and biologic samples for analysis of steps in a complex process (reverse engineering), reconstructing the system conceptually and mathematically (disease modeling), and deciphering disease mechanism in individual patients to predict the effects of interventions (personalized medicine). MAD draws on the expertise of the medical school's and medical center's physician-scientists to translate essential disease information between the bed and the bench and to communicate with researchers from multiple domains, including epidemiology, genetics, cell biology, immunology, regenerative medicine, neuroscience, and oncology. The author illustrates this approach by describing its successful application to the reverse engineering of chronic pancreatitis.

  9. Systems Biology - A Pivotal Research Methodology for Understanding the Mechanisms of Traditional Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Soojin

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Systems biology is a novel subject in the field of life science that aims at a systems’ level understanding of biological systems. Because of the significant progress in high-throughput technologies and molecular biology, systems biology occupies an important place in research during the post-genome era. Methods: The characteristics of systems biology and its applicability to traditional medicine research have been discussed from three points of view: data and databases, network analysis and inference, and modeling and systems prediction. Results: The existing databases are mostly associated with medicinal herbs and their activities, but new databases reflecting clinical situations and platforms to extract, visualize and analyze data easily need to be constructed. Network pharmacology is a key element of systems biology, so addressing the multi-component, multi-target aspect of pharmacology is important. Studies of network pharmacology highlight the drug target network and network target. Mathematical modeling and simulation are just in their infancy, but mathematical modeling of dynamic biological processes is a central aspect of systems biology. Computational simulations allow structured systems and their functional properties to be understood and the effects of herbal medicines in clinical situations to be predicted. Conclusion: Systems biology based on a holistic approach is a pivotal research methodology for understanding the mechanisms of traditional medicine. If systems biology is to be incorporated into traditional medicine, computational technologies and holistic insights need to be integrated. PMID:26388998

  10. Research on heat sensing effect along meridian of Chinese medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Yun-xiang; Li, Li-jun; Chen, Gui-zhen

    2012-03-01

    Photonics is a science which research light quantum as the carrier for energy and information. Photonic technology in the meridian and acupoints research has shown the unique advantages, by which the microcosmic material basis and macroscopic phenomena research can be integrated to interpret the occurrence of propagated sensation along meridian and its underling mechanism. This paper focuses on the investigation on heat sensing action along the meridian by photonic technology. The four items of heat sensing action were discussed, i.e. thermo-effects, heat sensing capability, laser induced heat effect, underling mechanism on heat sensing effect along the meridian. The authors point out that photonic technology, e.g. photonic imaging, and infrared spectrum analysis, biological photons detection and laser Doppler application, can achieve purpose of in vivo, dynamic, and multiple comparable studies. Thereby the effect of heat sensing along meridian can be detected and illustrated by the use of natural science. Heat information can be investigated to analyze the relationship between zang-fu organs, meridians, and the functional characteristics of the meridian. Hence, the effect of heat sensing along the meridian is the break point of the research of photonics in the meridian which is beneficial to further study the meridian optics.

  11. Research on heat sensing effect along meridian of Chinese medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Yun-xiang; Li, Li-jun; Chen, Gui-zhen

    2011-11-01

    Photonics is a science which research light quantum as the carrier for energy and information. Photonic technology in the meridian and acupoints research has shown the unique advantages, by which the microcosmic material basis and macroscopic phenomena research can be integrated to interpret the occurrence of propagated sensation along meridian and its underling mechanism. This paper focuses on the investigation on heat sensing action along the meridian by photonic technology. The four items of heat sensing action were discussed, i.e. thermo-effects, heat sensing capability, laser induced heat effect, underling mechanism on heat sensing effect along the meridian. The authors point out that photonic technology, e.g. photonic imaging, and infrared spectrum analysis, biological photons detection and laser Doppler application, can achieve purpose of in vivo, dynamic, and multiple comparable studies. Thereby the effect of heat sensing along meridian can be detected and illustrated by the use of natural science. Heat information can be investigated to analyze the relationship between zang-fu organs, meridians, and the functional characteristics of the meridian. Hence, the effect of heat sensing along the meridian is the break point of the research of photonics in the meridian which is beneficial to further study the meridian optics.

  12. Development of a Student Mentored Research Program between a Complementary and Alternative Medicine University and a Traditional, Research Intensive University

    PubMed Central

    Sullivan, Barbara M.; Furner, Sylvia E.; Cramer, Gregory D.

    2014-01-01

    The global need to develop clinician-scientists capable of using research in clinical practice, translating research knowledge into practice, and carrying out research that affects the quality, efficacy, and efficiency of health care is well-documented. The complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) professions embrace the call to develop physician-researchers to carry out translational and applied research for CAM modalities. CAM universities face unique challenges when implementing research training compared to traditional, research intensive (TRI) universities and medical centers where the majority of medical research is carried out. The authors present the development and outcomes of a mentored research program (MRP) between a CAM and a TRI institution, the National University of Health Sciences and the University of Illinois at Chicago School of Public Health, between 2006 and 2012. CAM pre-doctoral students engaged in a full-immersion semester at the TRI, including didactic courses and active research with a TRI faculty research mentor. Half of the participating doctor of chiropractic (DC) students continued on to PhD programs and half established integrative medicine, primary care clinical careers. Establishing rigorous criteria for mentors and mentees, communicating expectations, developing solid relationships between the mentor, mentee, and home school advisor, responding quickly to impediments, and providing adequate support from CAM and TRI investigators were key to the MRP success. To sustain research opportunities, coordinated degree programs for the DC and master of public health (DC/MPH) and master of clinical and translational research (DC/MS CTS) were established. PMID:24988423

  13. [Research on Chinese medicine pairs (I)--Their formation and development].

    PubMed

    Tang, Yu-Ping; Shu, Xiao-Yun; Li, Wei-Xia; Zhu, Min; Su, Shu-Lan; Qian, Da-Wei; Fan, Xin-Sheng; Duan, Jin-Ao

    2013-12-01

    Chinese medicine pair (CMP) was frequently applied in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) clinic, and its significance was shown in long-term clinical practices and many accumulated experiences. It is the unique combination of two relatively fixed Chinese medicines in TCM clinic with the basic feature and principle of TCM compatibility, is the most fundamental and the simplest form of TCM formulae with certain theory basis and combinatory reason, which is proven effective. And the unique combination is frequently used for achieving mutual reinforcement or detoxication. CMP is an intermediate point between single herb and many TCM formulae, reflecting the regularity of TCM formulae compatibility and connotation of differential treatment. This paper analyzed and summarized the basic characteristics, development process and research significance of CMP, which aims to lead the modern basic and applied research on compatibility theory of CMP.

  14. Human iPSC-derived neurons and lymphoblastoid cells for personalized medicine research in neuropsychiatric disorders

    PubMed Central

    Gurwitz, David

    2016-01-01

    The development and clinical implementation of personalized medicine crucially depends on the availability of high-quality human biosamples; animal models, although capable of modeling complex human diseases, cannot reflect the large variation in the human genome, epigenome, transcriptome, proteome, and metabolome. Although the biosamples available from public biobanks that store human tissues and cells may represent the large human diversity for most diseases, these samples are not always sufficient for developing biomarkers for patient-tailored therapies for neuropsychiatric disorders. Postmortem human tissues are available from many biobanks; nevertheless, collections of neuronal human cells from large patient cohorts representing the human diversity remain scarce. Two tools are gaining popularity for personalized medicine research on neuropsychiatric disorders: human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived neurons and human lymphoblastoid cell lines. This review examines and contrasts the advantages and limitations of each tool for personalized medicine research. PMID:27757061

  15. Commercial Sample Identification and Characterization Challenges in Medicinal Mushroom Research.

    PubMed

    Chilton, Jeff

    2016-01-01

    A recent study published in this journal demonstrates the pitfalls faced by researchers who utilize commercial products as their test samples without proper characterization. Labeling of commercial mushroom products is often incorrect, which can lead to erroneous interpretations and conclusions. Nine of the 10 samples of commercially branded products used in the study and identified as ground mushrooms were actually grain spawn: mycelium propagated on grain. PMID:27481153

  16. Processes and Outcomes from a Medical Student Research Training Program in Integrative, Complementary, and Alternative Medicine.

    PubMed

    Dicianno, Brad E; Glick, Ronald M; Sowa, Gwendolyn A; Boninger, Michael L

    2016-10-01

    In response to the growing need to train a new generation of clinician scientists, a research program was developed to train medical students in integrative, complementary, and alternative medicine (ICAM) research early in their careers. A total of 25 students (100%) successfully completed a 10-week program. Students reported significantly increased levels of knowledge in all 7 integrative, complementary, and alternative medicine topics at the conclusion of the program. All students presented their work at one or more local research symposia. In addition, the average number of quality research outputs, which included manuscripts, awards, and abstracts presented at national and international meetings, was 1.5 per student, which exceeded benchmarks based on prior program outcomes. Results from this program may be useful when planning larger or longer-term projects aimed at attracting physicians who will become our next generation of academicians, researchers, and healers.

  17. Research on Traditional Medicine: What Has Been Done, the Difficulties, and Possible Solutions

    PubMed Central

    Telles, Shirley; Pathak, Shivangi; Singh, Nilkamal; Balkrishna, Acharya

    2014-01-01

    Traditional medicine (TM) is being used more frequently all over the world. However most often these are choices made by the patient. Integrating TM into mainstream health care would require research to understand the efficacy, safety, and mechanism of action of TM systems. This paper describes research done on TM and difficulties encountered in researching TM, especially when an attempt is made to conform to the model for conventional medicine. The research articles were PubMed searched and categorized as experimental, quasiexperimental, reviews, descriptive, historical, interviews, case histories, and abstract not available. The last part of the report provides suggestions to make research on TM more acceptable and useful, with the ultimate goal of integrating TM into mainstream healthcare with sufficient knowledge about the efficacy, safety, and mechanism of action of TM systems. PMID:25013445

  18. A National Survey on the Current Status of Family Practice Residency Education in Geriatric Medicine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Ina; Arenson, Christine; Warshaw, Gregg; Bragg, Elizabeth; Shaull, Ruth; Counsell, Steven R.

    2003-01-01

    A survey of family practice residency directors found that 92 percent have a required geriatrics curriculum; nursing homes, assisted living facilities, and home care are the predominant training sites; the mean number of geriatrics faculty is 2.6 per program; and conflicting time demands with other curricula was ranked as the most significant…

  19. Postgraduate and research programmes in Medicine and Public Health in Rwanda: an exciting experience about training of human resources for health in a limited resources country.

    PubMed

    Kakoma, Jean Baptiste

    2016-01-01

    The area of Human Resources for Health (HRH) is the most critical challenge for the achievement of health related development goals in countries with limited resources. This is even exacerbated in a post conflict environment like Rwanda. The aim of this commentary is to report and share the genesis and outcomes of an exciting experience about training of qualified health workers in medicine and public health as well as setting - up of a research culture for the last nine years (2006 - 2014) in Rwanda. Many initiatives have been taken and concerned among others training of qualified health workers in medicine and public health. From 2006 to 2014, achievements were as follows: launching and organization of 8 Master of Medicine programmes (anesthesiology, family and community medicine, internal medicine, obstetrics & gynecology, otorhinolaryngology, pediatrics, psychiatry and surgery) and 4 Master programmes in public health (MPH, MSc Epidemiology, MSc Field Epidemiology & Laboratory Management, and Master in Hospital and Healthcare Administration); training to completion of more than 120 specialists in medicine, and 200 MPH, MSc Epidemiology, and MSc Field Epidemiology holders; revival of the Rwanda Medical Journal; organization of graduate research training (MPhil and PhD); 3 Master programmes in the pipeline (Global Health, Health Financing, and Supply Chain Management); partnerships with research institutions of great renown, which contributed to the reinforcement of the institutional research capacity and visibility towards excellence in leadership, accountability, and self sustainability. Even though there is still more to be achieved, the Rwanda experience about postgraduate and research programmes is inspiring through close interactions between main stakeholders. This is a must and could allow Rwanda to become one of the rare examples to other more well-to-do Sub - Saharan countries, should Rwanda carry on doing that. PMID:27303587

  20. Postgraduate and research programmes in Medicine and Public Health in Rwanda: an exciting experience about training of human resources for health in a limited resources country

    PubMed Central

    Kakoma, Jean Baptiste

    2016-01-01

    The area of Human Resources for Health (HRH) is the most critical challenge for the achievement of health related development goals in countries with limited resources. This is even exacerbated in a post conflict environment like Rwanda. The aim of this commentary is to report and share the genesis and outcomes of an exciting experience about training of qualified health workers in medicine and public health as well as setting - up of a research culture for the last nine years (2006 - 2014) in Rwanda. Many initiatives have been taken and concerned among others training of qualified health workers in medicine and public health. From 2006 to 2014, achievements were as follows: launching and organization of 8 Master of Medicine programmes (anesthesiology, family and community medicine, internal medicine, obstetrics & gynecology, otorhinolaryngology, pediatrics, psychiatry and surgery) and 4 Master programmes in public health (MPH, MSc Epidemiology, MSc Field Epidemiology & Laboratory Management, and Master in Hospital and Healthcare Administration); training to completion of more than 120 specialists in medicine, and 200 MPH, MSc Epidemiology, and MSc Field Epidemiology holders; revival of the Rwanda Medical Journal; organization of graduate research training (MPhil and PhD); 3 Master programmes in the pipeline (Global Health, Health Financing, and Supply Chain Management); partnerships with research institutions of great renown, which contributed to the reinforcement of the institutional research capacity and visibility towards excellence in leadership, accountability, and self sustainability. Even though there is still more to be achieved, the Rwanda experience about postgraduate and research programmes is inspiring through close interactions between main stakeholders. This is a must and could allow Rwanda to become one of the rare examples to other more well-to-do Sub - Saharan countries, should Rwanda carry on doing that. PMID:27303587