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Sample records for family member tbid

  1. Bax oligomerization in mitochondrial membranes requires tBid (caspase-8-cleaved Bid) and a mitochondrial protein.

    PubMed Central

    Roucou, Xavier; Montessuit, Sylvie; Antonsson, Bruno; Martinou, Jean-Claude

    2002-01-01

    In response to various apoptotic stimuli, Bax, a pro-apoptotic member of the Bcl-2 family, is oligomerized and permeabilizes the mitochondrial outer membrane to apoptogenic factors, including cytochrome c. Bax oligomerization can also be induced by incubating isolated mitochondria containing endogenous Bax with recombinant tBid (caspase-8-cleaved Bid) in vitro. The mechanism by which Bax oligomerizes under these conditions is still unknown. To address this question, recombinant human full-length Bax was purified as a monomeric protein. Bax failed to oligomerize spontaneously in isolated mitochondria or in liposomes composed of either cardiolipin or lipids extracted from mitochondria. However, in the presence of tBid, the protein formed large complexes in mitochondrial membranes and induced the release of cytochrome c. tBid also induced Bax oligomerization in isolated mitochondrial outer membranes, but not in other membranes, such as plasma membranes or microsomes. Moreover, tBid-induced Bax oligomerization was inhibited when mitochondria were pretreated with protease K. The presence of the voltage-dependent anion channel was not required either for Bax oligomerization or for Bax-induced cytochrome c release. Finally, Bax oligomerization was reconstituted in proteoliposomes made from mitochondrial membrane proteins. These findings imply that tBid is necessary but not sufficient for Bax oligomerization; a mitochondrial protein is also required. PMID:12193163

  2. Mitochondrial Carrier Homolog 2 Is a Target of tBID in Cells Signaled To Die by Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha

    PubMed Central

    Grinberg, Michal; Schwarz, Michal; Zaltsman, Yehudit; Eini, Tzipi; Niv, Hagit; Pietrokovski, Shmuel; Gross, Atan

    2005-01-01

    BID, a proapoptotic BCL-2 family member, plays an essential role in the tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α)/Fas death receptor pathway in vivo. Activation of the TNF-R1 receptor results in the cleavage of BID into truncated BID (tBID), which translocates to the mitochondria and induces the activation of BAX or BAK. In TNF-α-activated FL5.12 cells, tBID becomes part of a 45-kDa cross-linkable mitochondrial complex. Here we describe the biochemical purification of this complex and the identification of mitochondrial carrier homolog 2 (Mtch2) as part of this complex. Mtch2 is a conserved protein that is similar to members of the mitochondrial carrier protein family. Our studies with mouse liver mitochondria indicate that Mtch2 is an integral membrane protein exposed on the surface of mitochondria. Using blue-native gel electrophoresis we revealed that in viable FL5.12 cells Mtch2 resides in a protein complex of ca. 185 kDa and that the addition of TNF-α to these cells leads to the recruitment of tBID and BAX to this complex. Importantly, this recruitment was partially inhibited in FL5.12 cells stably expressing BCL-XL. These results implicate Mtch2 as a mitochondrial target of tBID and raise the possibility that the Mtch2-resident complex participates in the mitochondrial apoptotic program. PMID:15899861

  3. tBid Undergoes Multiple Conformational Changes at the Membrane Required for Bax Activation*

    PubMed Central

    Shamas-Din, Aisha; Bindner, Scott; Zhu, Weijia; Zaltsman, Yehudit; Campbell, Clinton; Gross, Atan; Leber, Brian; Andrews, David W.; Fradin, Cécile

    2013-01-01

    Bid is a Bcl-2 family protein that promotes apoptosis by activating Bax and eliciting mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization (MOMP). Full-length Bid is cleaved in response to apoptotic stimuli into two fragments, p7 and tBid (p15), that are held together by strong hydrophobic interactions until the complex binds to membranes. The detailed mechanism(s) of fragment separation including tBid binding to membranes and release of the p7 fragment to the cytoplasm remain unclear. Using liposomes or isolated mitochondria with fluorescently labeled proteins at physiological concentrations as in vitro models, we report that the two components of the complex quickly separate upon interaction with a membrane. Once tBid binds to the membrane, it undergoes slow structural rearrangements that result in an equilibrium between two major tBid conformations on the membrane. The conformational change of tBid is a prerequisite for interaction with Bax and is, therefore, a novel step that can be modulated to promote or inhibit MOMP. Using automated high-throughput image analysis in cells, we show that down-regulation of Mtch2 causes a significant delay between tBid and Bax relocalization in cells. We propose that by promoting insertion of tBid via a conformational change at the mitochondrial outer membrane, Mtch2 accelerates tBid-mediated Bax activation and MOMP. Thus the interaction of Mtch2 and tBid is a potential target for therapeutic control of Bid initiated cell death. PMID:23744079

  4. Communication Among Melanoma Family Members.

    PubMed

    Bowen, Deborah J; Albrecht, Terrance; Hay, Jennifer; Eggly, Susan; Harris-Wei, Julie; Meischke, Hendrika; Burke, Wylie

    2017-03-01

    Interventions to improve communication among family members may facilitate information flow about familial risk and preventive health behaviors. This is a secondary analysis of the effects of an interactive website intervention aimed at increasing communication frequency and agreement about health risk among melanoma families. Participants were family units, consisting of one family member with melanoma identified from a previous research study (the Case) and an additional first degree relative and a parent of a child 0-17. Family triads were randomized to receive access to the website intervention or to serve as control families. Family communication frequency and agreement about melanoma prevention behaviors and beliefs were measured at baseline and again at 1 year post randomization. Intervention participants of all three types significantly increased the frequency of communication to their first degree relatives (Parents, siblings, children; range = 14-18 percentage points; all p < .05). At baseline, approximately two-thirds of all three family members talked with at least some member of the family about cancer risk. Agreement between Cases and First Degree Relatives and between Cases and Parents increased from pre to post intervention in the intervention participants compared to the control participants (p < .05). These findings provide support for interventions to improve family communication about cancer risk.

  5. 7 CFR 1400.208 - Family members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Family members. 1400.208 Section 1400.208 Agriculture... SUBSEQUENT CROP, PROGRAM, OR FISCAL YEARS Payment Eligibility § 1400.208 Family members. (a) Notwithstanding... persons, a majority of whom are family members, an adult family member who makes a...

  6. 7 CFR 1400.208 - Family members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Family members. 1400.208 Section 1400.208 Agriculture... SUBSEQUENT CROP, PROGRAM, OR FISCAL YEARS Payment Eligibility § 1400.208 Family members. (a) Notwithstanding... persons, a majority of whom are family members, an adult family member who makes a...

  7. Family Members Responding to a Visual Impairment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuttle, Dean W.

    1986-01-01

    A literature review regarding family adjustment to a visually impaired family member considered the stages of denial, withdrawal, acceptance, depression, reaffirmation, coping, mobilization, and self-acceptance. (CB)

  8. 7 CFR 795.4 - Family members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Family members. 795.4 Section 795.4 Agriculture... PROVISIONS COMMON TO MORE THAN ONE PROGRAM PAYMENT LIMITATION General § 795.4 Family members. Effective for... was a “person” solely on the basis that: (a) A family member cosigns for, or makes a loan to,...

  9. 7 CFR 795.4 - Family members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Family members. 795.4 Section 795.4 Agriculture... PROVISIONS COMMON TO MORE THAN ONE PROGRAM PAYMENT LIMITATION General § 795.4 Family members. Effective for... was a “person” solely on the basis that: (a) A family member cosigns for, or makes a loan to,...

  10. Conducting a multi family member interview study.

    PubMed

    Reczek, Corinne

    2014-06-01

    Family researchers have long recognized the utility of incorporating interview data from multiple family members. Yet, relatively few contemporary scholars utilize such an approach due to methodological underdevelopment. This article contributes to family scholarship by providing a roadmap for developing and executing in-depth interview studies that include more than one family member. Specifically, it outlines the epistemological frames that most commonly underlie this approach, illustrates thematic research questions that it best addresses, and critically reviews the best methodological practices of conducting research with this approach. The three most common approaches are addressed in depth: separate interviews with each family member, dyadic or group interviews with multiple family members, and a combined approach that uses separate and dyadic or group interviews. This article speaks to family scholars who are at the beginning stages of their research project but are unsure of the best qualitative approach to answer a given research question.

  11. Methods of Assessment for Affected Family Members

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orford, Jim; Templeton, Lorna; Velleman, Richard; Copello, Alex

    2010-01-01

    The article begins by making the point that a good assessment of the needs and circumstances of family members is important if previous neglect of affected family members is to be reversed. The methods we have used in research studies are then described. They include a lengthy semi-structured interview covering seven topic areas and standard…

  12. Understanding family member suicide narratives by investigating family history.

    PubMed

    Ratnarajah, Dorothy; Maple, Myfanwy; Minichiello, Victor

    2014-01-01

    The complex family environments in which a suicide death had previously occurred were explored in a qualitative study of narratives of suicide-bereaved participants. The participants searched for reasons why the suicide occurred in their family. Family patterning stories and the context of the environment in which the suicide death occurred provided an additional depth of meaning into the relational aspects of the family. Fractured families emerged as an important theme. Shared in the narratives were stories of conditions within the family that may have contributed to vulnerability towards persistent negative feelings about their lives, their family, and their future. The study also identifies the strengths of family culture that led to resilience in the suicide bereaved. These stories highlight the importance of support for those bereaved by the suicide of a close family member and the issues that places people in vulnerable situations that perhaps may explain the increased risk of suicide for those bereaved family members.

  13. Critical care family needs: nurse-family member confederate pairs.

    PubMed

    Forrester, D A; Murphy, P A; Price, D M; Monaghan, J F

    1990-11-01

    In this study we explored the relationship between critical care family members' perceived needs and the assessment of these needs by a confederate sample of intensive care unit (ICU) nurses. Family needs were measured by using Molter's revised Critical Care Family Needs Inventory. Data consisted of 92 confederate pairs of Critical Care Family Needs Inventory responses obtained from 92 family members of adult patients hospitalized in a variety of ICUs and 49 ICU nurses providing direct care for these patients. Paired t tests (two tailed) were calculated to detect significant differences between confederate pairs of family members' perceptions and ICU nurses' assessments of the importance of the needs studied. Family members' perceptions and ICU nurses' assessments of the most and least important critical care family needs were identified. Significant (p less than 0.001 to p less than 0.05) differences were detected between confederate pairs of family members' perceptions and ICU nurses' assessments of the importance of 15 (50%) of the critical care family needs studied. Therefore, it appears that these nurses were only moderately accurate in their assessments of critical care family needs. Implications for nursing practice, education, and research were identified and discussed.

  14. 42 CFR 435.119 - Qualified family members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Qualified family members. 435.119 Section 435.119... Family Members § 435.119 Qualified family members. (a) Definition. A qualified family member is any member of a family, including pregnant women and children eligible for Medicaid under § 435.116 of...

  15. 42 CFR 435.119 - Qualified family members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Qualified family members. 435.119 Section 435.119... Family Members § 435.119 Qualified family members. (a) Definition. A qualified family member is any member of a family, including pregnant women and children eligible for Medicaid under § 435.116 of...

  16. Family Members as Participants on Craniofacial Teams.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrews, James; Seaver, Earl; Stevens, George; Whiteley, Joseph

    1998-01-01

    Family members (N=83) who participated in professional team staffing concerning treatment plans for their child with a craniofacial difference (typically, cleft lip and/or palate) were surveyed. Ninety-seven percent of respondents said they would choose to meet with the team on their next visit to the clinic. The role of early interventionists on…

  17. Fort Lewis Exceptional Family Member Program (EFMP)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hebdon, Heather

    2007-01-01

    Located in the shadow of Mt. Rainier, Fort Lewis is the home of the highest per capita exceptional family member population in the Army. Ideally located on the Northwest coast of Washington State, Fort Lewis is home to the Strykers and First Brigade. Combined with its close proximity to McChord Air Force Base, the installation is ideally suited to…

  18. Grief elaboration in families with handicapped member.

    PubMed

    Calandra, C; Finocchiaro, G; Raciti, L; Alberti, A

    1992-01-01

    Families with handicapped member seem to follow the same five stages (rejection and isolation, anger, dealing with the problem, depression, acceptance) of Kubler-Ross grief elaboration theory while dealing with the narcissistic wound of a handicapped child. Some of these families show a block in one of the stages. The effort of psychotherapy is to remove the block and let them reach the last stage. In this paper families under systemic psychotherapeutic treatment are analyzed, who had in common the birth of a child with low or modest invalidating signs and psychotic or autistic features. The families structure did not show the characteristics of a psychotic family. Nevertheless either one or both parents ignored the evidence of their child disease and they built a "disease-incongrous" wait around the child, trying to push away the painful reality. The authors explain the importance of this approach for the improvement of the autistic traits.

  19. 42 CFR 436.121 - Qualified family members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Qualified family members. 436.121 Section 436.121... Coverage of the Categorically Needy § 436.121 Qualified family members. (a) Definition. A qualified family member is any member of a family, including pregnant women and children eligible for Medicaid under §...

  20. 42 CFR 436.121 - Qualified family members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Qualified family members. 436.121 Section 436.121... Coverage of the Categorically Needy § 436.121 Qualified family members. (a) Definition. A qualified family member is any member of a family, including pregnant women and children eligible for Medicaid under §...

  1. The dying child and surviving family members.

    PubMed

    Shrier, D K

    1980-12-01

    This overview of death and dying focuses on the dying child and surviving family members. Children's concepts of death at different developmental stages are reviewed. These range from an inability to distinguish death from other forms of separation prior to age 3, through partial concepts of death until, by age 10 to 15 years, children are able to conceptualize death as universal, inevitable and final. The importance of adults assisting in the child's growing comprehension of death is stressed. The stages of grief and mourning, as outlined by Kubler-Ross, are reviewed from the perspective of the child and family: denial, anger, bargaining, depression and acceptance. Recognition is given to the variations in coping styles among different family members. The special circumstances related to the death of an infant and the impact of the death of a child on the surviving siblings are discussed. Specific helpful interventions to assist families in coping with mourning are described. The death of a child remains one of the most painful and difficult events for a family and its physician to accept.

  2. 20 CFR 653.104 - Services to MSFW family members, farm labor contractors, and crew members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... contractors, and crew members. 653.104 Section 653.104 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING... Farmworkers (MSFWs) § 653.104 Services to MSFW family members, farm labor contractors, and crew members. (a... for services to MSFW family members, farm labor contractors and crew members. Except as provided...

  3. 5 CFR 890.302 - Coverage of family members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Coverage of family members. 890.302... REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES HEALTH BENEFITS PROGRAM Enrollment § 890.302 Coverage of family members. (a)(1) An enrollment for self and family includes all family members who are eligible to...

  4. 5 CFR 890.302 - Coverage of family members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Coverage of family members. 890.302... REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES HEALTH BENEFITS PROGRAM Enrollment § 890.302 Coverage of family members. (a)(1) An enrollment for self and family includes all family members who are eligible to...

  5. An Unusually Shaped Haumea Family Member

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lacerda, P.; McNeill, A.

    2013-09-01

    2013 EL61 Haumea is a 2000 km-scale, fast-spinning Kuiper belt object covered in water ice, but with a bulk density near 2.5 g cm-3 implying a rocky interior (Rabinowitz et al. 2006; Trujillo et al. 2007). Approximately a dozen Kuiper belt objects (KBOs) have been identified as possibly related to Haumea as they share similar orbital properties and unusually fresh, icy surfaces similar to the mantle covering Haumea (Carry et al. 2012). These KBOs are usually referred to as the Haumea family. The formation of the family is the subject of intense speculation (Brown et al. 2007, Schlichting & Sari 2009, Leinhardt et al. 2010). Sparse photometry of one of the family members, 2003 SQ317, revealed an interesting high photometric variability (Snodgrass et al. 2009). We followed up on those observation and used the NTT in La Silla to obtain dense, time-resolved photometry of SQ317 over two semesters. Analysis of the lightcurve (Fig. 1) indicates a spin period P = 7.2 hr and a photometric range m = 0.9 mag. We will present implications of this lightcurve to the object's shape and bulk density.

  6. 32 CFR 884.10 - Returning members, employees, and family members from overseas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Returning members, employees, and family members... THE AIR FORCE MILITARY PERSONNEL DELIVERY OF PERSONNEL TO UNITED STATES CIVILIAN AUTHORITIES FOR TRIAL § 884.10 Returning members, employees, and family members from overseas. The Air Force expects...

  7. 32 CFR 884.10 - Returning members, employees, and family members from overseas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Returning members, employees, and family members... THE AIR FORCE MILITARY PERSONNEL DELIVERY OF PERSONNEL TO UNITED STATES CIVILIAN AUTHORITIES FOR TRIAL § 884.10 Returning members, employees, and family members from overseas. The Air Force expects...

  8. 42 CFR 31.9 - Dependent members of families; treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Dependent members of families; treatment. 31.9... Public Health Service § 31.9 Dependent members of families; treatment. To the extent and under the... the dependent members of families of the following persons: (a) Coast Guard. Commissioned...

  9. 42 CFR 31.9 - Dependent members of families; treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Dependent members of families; treatment. 31.9... Public Health Service § 31.9 Dependent members of families; treatment. To the extent and under the... the dependent members of families of the following persons: (a) Coast Guard. Commissioned...

  10. Family Members' Reports of the Technology Use of Family Members with Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, S. B.; Wehmeyer, M. L.; Davies, D. K.; Stock, S. E.

    2012-01-01

    Background: A nationwide survey of family members of people with intellectual and developmental disabilities ranging in age from birth through adulthood was conducted to replicate a similar effort by Wehmeyer and update the knowledge base concerning technology use by people with intellectual and developmental disabilities. Method: Survey responses…

  11. Perceived Family Resources Based on Number of Members with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corwin, Melinda; Mulsow, Miriam; Feng, Du

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This study examines how the number of family members with ADHD affects other family members' perceived resources. Method: A total of 40 adolescents diagnosed with ADHD and their mothers, fathers, and adolescent siblings living in the household participated. Hierarchical linear modeling was used to analyze family-level data from a total…

  12. Pets: Your Plan Should Include All Family Members

    MedlinePlus

    ... Emergencies › Pets Pets Your Plan Should Include All Family Members The best way to protect your household ... Cabinet Red Cross Stories Governance Career Opportunities Military Families Disaster Relief What We Do Disaster Relief Health ...

  13. Family Members' Experience With Hospice in Nursing Homes.

    PubMed

    Gage, L Ashley; Washington, Karla; Oliver, Debra Parker; Kruse, Robin; Lewis, Alexandra; Demiris, George

    2016-05-01

    Research has documented numerous benefits and challenges associated with receipt of hospice care in nursing homes; however, study of this partnership from the perspective of residents' family members has been limited. The purpose of this qualitative investigation was to explore family members' experience with hospice services received in the nursing home setting. Researchers conducted a secondary data analysis of 175 family member interviews using a thematic analytic approach. Findings highlighted the critical role of communication in supporting residents and their family members. Care coordination, support and oversight, and role confusion also impacted family members' experience of hospice care in the nursing home. Efforts directed at enhancing communication and more clearly articulating the roles of members of the health care team are indicated.

  14. GATA family members as inducers for cellular reprogramming to pluripotency

    PubMed Central

    Shu, Jian; Zhang, Ke; Zhang, Minjie; Yao, Anzhi; Shao, Sida; Du, Fengxia; Yang, Caiyun; Chen, Wenhan; Wu, Chen; Yang, Weifeng; Sun, Yingli; Deng, Hongkui

    2015-01-01

    Members of the GATA protein family play important roles in lineage specification and transdifferentiation. Previous reports show that some members of the GATA protein family can also induce pluripotency in somatic cells by substituting for Oct4, a key pluripotency-associated factor. However, the mechanism linking lineage-specifying cues and the activation of pluripotency remains elusive. Here, we report that all GATA family members can substitute for Oct4 to induce pluripotency. We found that all members of the GATA family could inhibit the overrepresented ectodermal-lineage genes, which is consistent with previous reports indicating that a balance of different lineage-specifying forces is important for the restoration of pluripotency. A conserved zinc-finger DNA-binding domain in the C-terminus is critical for the GATA family to induce pluripotency. Using RNA-seq and ChIP-seq, we determined that the pluripotency-related gene Sall4 is a direct target of GATA family members during reprogramming and serves as a bridge linking the lineage-specifying GATA family to the pluripotency circuit. Thus, the GATA family is the first protein family of which all members can function as inducers of the reprogramming process and can substitute for Oct4. Our results suggest that the role of GATA family in reprogramming has been underestimated and that the GATA family may serve as an important mediator of cell fate conversion. PMID:25591928

  15. The After-Death Call to Family Members: Academic Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LoboPrabhu, Sheila; Molinari, Victor; Pate, Jennifer; Lomax, James

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The authors discuss clinical and teaching aspects of a telephone call by the treating clinician to family members after a patient dies. Methods: A MEDLINE search was conducted for references to an after-death call made by the treating clinician to family members. A review of this literature is summarized. Results: A clinical application…

  16. 77 FR 18143 - Members of a Family for Purpose of Filing a CBP Family Declaration

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-27

    ... Members of a Family for Purpose of Filing a CBP Family Declaration AGENCIES: U.S. Customs and Border... eligible to file a single customs declaration for members of a family traveling together upon arrival in... family residing in one household'' to allow more U.S. returning residents to file a family...

  17. Assessing needs of family members of inpatients with advanced cancer.

    PubMed

    Bužgová, R; Špatenková, N; Fukasová-Hajnová, E; Feltl, D

    2016-07-01

    To provide high-quality and effective cancer care, problems and unmet needs of family members during their relatives' hospitalisation have to be identified as well. The aims were to determine how needs of family members of patients with terminal cancer are met and to analyse factors that influence them. The needs were assessed with the Family Inventory of Needs. Each item (n = 20) represents one need of family members, for which the importance and satisfaction are rated. The study comprised 270 family members of hospitalised advanced cancer patients staying in the University Hospital Ostrava who were receiving palliative care. The family members preferred sufficient basic information and patient comfort. The unmet needs were support of hope (73%) and provision of information (65%). The unmet needs were more frequently identified by women, individuals with lower education, younger persons, unemployed, patients' children and family members of patients with generally unfavourable health status (P < 0.05). There was a correlation between lower quality of life and higher numbers of unmet needs. Targeted interventions aimed at meeting important needs of the family members may improve their quality of life.

  18. Distribution of Candida albicans genotypes among family members

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mehta, S. K.; Stevens, D. A.; Mishra, S. K.; Feroze, F.; Pierson, D. L.

    1999-01-01

    Thirty-three families (71 subjects) were screened for the presence of Candida albicans in mouthwash or stool specimens; 12 families (28 subjects) were culture-positive for this yeast. An enrichment procedure provided a twofold increase in the recovery of C. albicans from mouthwash specimens. Nine of the twelve culture-positive families had two positive members each, two families had three positive members each, and one family had four positive members. Genetic profiles were obtained by three methods: pulsed-field gel electrophoresis; restriction endonuclease analysis, and random amplification of polymorphic DNA analysis. DNA fingerprinting of C. albicans isolated from one body site three consecutive times revealed that each of the 12 families carried a distinct genotype. No two families shared the same strain, and two or more members of a family commonly shared the same strain. Intrafamily genotypic identity (i.e., each member within the family harbored the same strain) was demonstrated in six families. Genotypes of isolates from husband and wife differed from one another in five families. All three methods were satisfactory in determining genotypes; however, we concluded that restriction endonuclease analysis provided adequate resolving power.

  19. Lineage Affect Similarity and Health of Older Family Members.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Troll, Lillian E.

    Interviews with same-sex adult members of three-generation family lines can dramatize similarities and differences by age and generation in ways of thinking and feeling. An analysis of interviews with 157 families examined the health of the grandparent, the happiness of each of the three generational representatives, and family salience. Twelve…

  20. 78 FR 76529 - Members of a Family for Purpose of Filing CBP Family Declaration

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-18

    ... Members of a Family for Purpose of Filing CBP Family Declaration AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border... definitions of family members residing in one household. As a result of this expansion, more U.S. returning resident and non-resident visitor families will be eligible to file a single customs declaration,...

  1. Perceived needs of critical care family members: a phenomenological discourse.

    PubMed

    Fry, Shirley; Warren, Nancy A

    2007-01-01

    A phenomenological study with Heideggerian hermeneutic contextual analysis was used to illuminate the perceived needs of family members who were in the critical care waiting room. Family members freely expressed their perceptions of perceived needs, and thick descriptions supported 4 explicit needs expressed by all participants. These needs were seeking information, trusting the professionals, being a part of the care, and maintaining a positive outlook. The dialogues of the participants were presented to develop awareness and stimulate conversation regarding the needs of family members in the critical care waiting room who are an integral part of the healing process of patients in the critical care unit.

  2. Characterization of Argonaute family members in the silkworm, Bombyx mori.

    PubMed

    Wang, Gen-Hong; Jiang, Liang; Zhu, Li; Cheng, Ting-Cai; Niu, Wei-Huan; Yan, Ya-Fei; Xia, Qing-You

    2013-02-01

    The Argonaute protein family is a highly conserved group of proteins, which have been implicated in RNA silencing in both plants and animals. Here, four members of the Argonaute family were systemically identified based on the genome sequence of Bombyx mori. Based on their sequence similarity, BmAgo1 and BmAgo2 belong to the Ago subfamily, while BmAgo3 and BmPiwi are in the Piwi subfamily. Phylogenetic analysis reveals that silkworm Argonaute family members are conserved in insects. Conserved amino acid residues involved in recognition of the 5' end of the small RNA guide strand and of the conserved (aspartate, aspartate and histidine [DDH]) motif present in their PIWI domains suggest that these four Argonaute family members may have conserved slicer activities. The results of microarray expression analysis show that there is a low expression level for B. mori Argonaute family members in different tissues and different developmental stages, except for BmPiwi. All four B. mori Argonaute family members are upregulated upon infection with B. mori nucleopolyhedrovirus. The complete coding sequence of BmPiwi, the homolog of Drosophila piwi, was cloned and its expression occurred mainly in the area where spermatogonia and spermatocytes appear. Our results provide an overview of the B. mori Argonaute family members and suggest that they may have multiple roles. In addition, this is also the first report, to our knowledge, of the response of RNA silencing machinery to DNA virus infection in insects.

  3. Ten Warning Signs Your Older Family Member May Need Help

    MedlinePlus

    ... Email Page Resize Text Printer Friendly Online Chat 10 Warning Signs Your Older Family Member May Need ... the Eldercare Locator has compiled this list of 10 warning signs. Any one of the following behaviors ...

  4. Spouses/Family Members of Service Members at Risk for PTSD or Suicide

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-10-01

    INTRODUCTION This project focuses on marriages/ romantic relationships and family relationships of service members with significant risk for...2003), and relationship difficulties have been cited as the most common trigger of suicides in service members over the past several years (Keuhn...phases. Phase 1 employs focus groups to (a) better understand the needs of romantic partners and (b) begin to identify needs of other types of family

  5. Characterization of ricin toxin family members from Ricinus communis.

    PubMed

    Leshin, Jonathan; Danielsen, Mark; Credle, Joel J; Weeks, Andrea; O'Connell, Kevin P; Dretchen, Kenneth

    2010-01-01

    Ricin inhibits translation by removal of a specific adenine from 28S RNA. The Ricinus communis genome encodes seven full-length ricin family members. All encoded proteins have the ability of hydrolyzing adenine in 28S rRNA. As expected, these proteins also inhibited an in vitro transcription/translation system. These data show that the ricin gene family contains at least seven members that have the ability to inhibit translation and that may contribute to the toxicity of R. communis.

  6. Resilience in family members of persons with serious mental illness.

    PubMed

    Zauszniewski, Jaclene A; Bekhet, Abir K; Suresky, M Jane

    2010-12-01

    This integrative review summarizes current research on resilience in adult family members who have a relative with a diagnosed mental disorder that is considered serious. Within the context of resilience theory, studies identifying risk/vulnerability and positive/protective factors in family members are summarized, and studies examining seven indicators of resilience, including acceptance, hardiness, hope, mastery, self-efficacy, sense of coherence, and resourcefulness, are described. Implications for clinical practice and recommendations for future research are presented.

  7. Spouses/Family Members of Service Members at Risk for PTSD or Suicide

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-01

    Distribution Unlimited The views, opinions and/or findings contained in this report are those of the author(s) and should not be construed as...to gain new knowledge about the experiences of family members of service members who are experiencing symptoms of PTSD or severe depression. The...members with PTSD or depression experience significant distress, but there currently are almost no empirical data about relatives other than spouses

  8. Spectra of small Koronis family members

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, C.; Rivkin, A.; Trilling, D.; Moskovitz, N.

    2014-07-01

    The space-weathering process and its implications for the relationships between S- and Q-type asteroids and ordinary chondrite meteorites are long-standing problems in asteroid science. Although the visible and near-infrared spectra of S- and Q-type objects qualitatively show the same absorption features and quantitatively show evidence of the same minerals, the S types display increased spectral slopes and muted absorption features compared to the Q types. This spectral mismatch is consistent with the effects of the space weathering process. Binzel et al. provided the missing link between Q- and S-type bodies in near-Earth space by showing a reddening of spectral slope in objects from 0.1 to 5 km that corresponded to the transition from Q- to S-type spectra. This result implied that size, and therefore age, is related to the relationship between Q- and S-type. The existence of Q-type objects in the main belt was not confirmed until Mothe-Diniz and Nesvorny (2008) found them in young S-type clusters. To investigate the trend from Q to S in the main belt, we examined space weathering within the old main-belt Koronis family using a spectrophotometric survey (Rivkin et al. 2011, Thomas et al. 2011). Rivkin et al. (2011) identified several potential Q-type objects within the Koronis family. Our Q-type candidates were identified using broad-band spectrophotometry and could not be taxonomically classified on that basis alone. We obtained follow-up visible and near-infrared spectral observations of our potential Q-type objects, (26970) Elias, (45610) 2000 DJ_{48}, and (37411) 2001 XF_{152}, using Gemini and Magellan. We will present the results of these spectral follow-up observations. Observations of (26970) Elias demonstrate that the object is more consistent with the average Q-type spectrum than the average S-type spectrum.

  9. Family Members' Unique Perspectives of the Family: Examining their Scope, Size, and Relations to Individual Adjustment

    PubMed Central

    Jager, Justin; Bornstein, Marc H.; Diane, L. Putnick; Hendricks, Charlene

    2012-01-01

    Using the Family Assessment Device (FAD; Epstein, Baldwin, & Bishop, 1983) and incorporating the perspectives of adolescent, mother, and father, this study examined each family member's “unique perspective” or non-shared, idiosyncratic view of the family. To do so we used a modified multitrait-multimethod confirmatory factor analysis that (1) isolated for each family member's six reports of family dysfunction the non-shared variance (a combination of variance idiosyncratic to the individual and measurement error) from variance shared by one or more family members and (2) extracted common variance across each family member's set of non-shared variances. The sample included 128 families from a U.S. East Coast metropolitan area. Each family member's unique perspective generalized across his or her different reports of family dysfunction and accounted for a sizable proportion of his or her own variance in reports of family dysfunction. Additionally, after holding level of dysfunction constant across families and controlling for a family's shared variance (agreement regarding family dysfunction), each family member's unique perspective was associated with his or her own adjustment. Future applications and competing alternatives for what these “unique perspectives” reflect about the family are discussed. PMID:22545933

  10. Postanesthesia care unit visitation decreases family member anxiety.

    PubMed

    Carter, Amy J; Deselms, JoAnn; Ruyle, Shelley; Morrissey-Lucas, Marcella; Kollar, Suzie; Cannon, Shelly; Schick, Lois

    2012-02-01

    Despite advocacy by professional nursing organizations, no randomized controlled trials (RCTs) have evaluated the response of family members to a visit with an adult patient during a postanesthesia care unit (PACU) stay. Therefore, the purpose of this RCT was to evaluate the impact of a brief PACU visitation on the anxiety of family members. The study was conducted in a phase I PACU of a large community-based hospital. Subjects were designated adult family members or significant others of an adult PACU patient who had undergone general anesthesia. A pretest-posttest RCT design was used. The dependent variable was the change in anxiety scores of the visitor after seeing his or her family member in the PACU. Student t test (unpaired, two tailed) was used to determine if changes in anxiety scores (posttest score-pretest score) were different for the PACU visit and no visit groups. A total of 45 participants were studied over a 3-month period, with N=24 randomly assigned to a PACU visit and N=21 assigned to usual care (no PACU visit). Participants in the PACU visit group had a statistically significant (P=.0001) decrease in anxiety after the visitation period (-4.11±6.4); participants in the usual care group (no PACU visit) had an increase in anxiety (+4.47±6.6). The results from this study support the value and importance of PACU visitation for family members.

  11. New Insights in the Immunobiology of IL-1 Family Members

    PubMed Central

    van de Veerdonk, Frank L.; Netea, Mihai G.

    2013-01-01

    The interleukin-1 (IL 1) family of ligands is associated with acute and chronic inflammation, and plays an essential role in the non-specific innate response to infection. The biological properties of IL 1 family ligands are typically pro-inflammatory. The IL 1 family has 11 family members and can be categorized into subfamilies according to the length of their precursor and the length of the propiece for each precursor (Figure 1). The IL 1 subfamily consists of IL 1α, IL 1β, and IL 33, with the longest propieces of the IL 1 family. IL 18 and IL 37 belong to the IL 18 subfamily and contain smaller propieces than IL 1 and IL-33. Since IL 37 binds to the IL 18Rα chain it is part of the IL 18 subfamily, however it remains to be elucidated how the propiece of IL 37 is removed. IL 36α, β, and γ as well as IL 36 Ra belong to the IL 36 subfamily. In addition, IL 38 likely belongs to this family since it has the ability to bind to the IL 36R. The IL 36 subfamily has the shortest propiece. The one member of the IL 1 family that cannot be categorized in these subfamilies is IL 1 receptor antagonist (IL 1Ra), which has a signal peptide and is readily secreted. In the present review we will describe the biological functions of the IL-1F members and new insights in their biology. PMID:23847614

  12. A new member of the plasma protease inhibitor gene family.

    PubMed Central

    Ragg, H

    1986-01-01

    A 2.1-kb cDNA clone representing a new member of the protease inhibitor family was isolated from a human liver cDNA library. The inhibitor, named human Leuserpin 2 (hLS2), comprises 480 amino acids and contains a leucine residue at its putative reactive center. HLS2 is about 25-28% homologous to three human members of the plasma protease inhibitor family: antithrombin III, alpha 1-antitrypsin and alpha 1-antichymotrypsin. A comparison with published partial amino acid sequences shows that hLS2 is closely related to the thrombin inhibitor heparin cofactor II. Images PMID:3003690

  13. Service Members' Experiences in Staying Connected With Family While Deployed.

    PubMed

    Durham, Susan W

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the communication issues experienced by service members staying connected with families while deployed. Qualitative design guided data collection using interviews with 20 key informants who had been deployed in Iraq or Afghanistan. Inductive content analysis and NVivo software enabled data analysis. From the data, 5 main themes emerged: Creating Normalcy Through Connecting With Others; Understanding the Spoken and Unspoken; Connecting and Disconnecting; Changing Sense of Self; and Sustaining a Common Bond. A collective understanding of common communication challenges emerged that had an impact on service member/family relationships, mission focus, and safety.

  14. The challenges of reintegration for service members and their families.

    PubMed

    Danish, Steven J; Antonides, Bradley J

    2013-10-01

    The ongoing wars in Afghanistan and Iraq have posed a number of reintegration challenges to service members. Much of the research focuses on those service members experiencing psychological problems and being treated at the VA. In this article, we contend that much of the distress service members experience occurs following deployment and is a consequence of the difficulties encountered during their efforts to successfully reintegrate into their families and communities. We propose a new conceptual framework for intervening in this reintegration distress that is psycho-educational in nature as well as a new delivery model for providing such services. An example of this new intervention framework is presented.

  15. Family Members' Perceptions of Augmentative and Alternative Communication Device Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, Rita L.; Parette, Howard P., Jr.; Stoner, Julia B.; Angell, Maureen E.; Carroll, Kathleen

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: Although advancements in technology have expanded the use of augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) devices for children with disabilities, the use of AAC devices in school and home settings is often inconsistent. The purpose of this study was to examine family members' perceptions regarding the use of AAC devices. Factors that…

  16. Allergy to olive pollen: a study of four family members.

    PubMed

    Kalogeromitros, D; Armenaka, M; Toumbis-Ioannou, E; Koumandaki, E; Papasteriades, C; Lombardero, M; Katsarou, A

    2001-01-01

    We describe four family members with respiratory and dermatological manifestations of olive pollen allergy. The purpose of this study was 1) to investigate whether these patients' sera react to the same or different olive allergens, and 2) to identify common HLA class II antigens.

  17. 42 CFR 435.119 - Qualified family members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... member of a family, including pregnant women and children eligible for Medicaid under § 435.116 of this... otherwise eligible for and enrolled for mandatory coverage under a State's Medicaid State plan in accordance... Medicaid, the Children's Health Insurance Program under subchapter D of this chapter, or otherwise...

  18. Family Decision Making: Benefits to Persons with Developmental Disabilities and Their Family Members

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neely-Barnes, Susan; Graff, J. Carolyn; Marcenko, Maureen; Weber, Lisa

    2008-01-01

    Family involvement in planning and choosing services has become a key intervention concept in developmental disability services. This study (N = 547) modeled patterns of family decision making and assessed benefits to persons with developmental disabilities (DDs) and their family members. A latent profile analysis identified 4 classes that were…

  19. 76 FR 67363 - Extending Religious and Family Member FICA and FUTA Exceptions to Disregarded Entities

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-01

    ... Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Parts 31 and 301 RIN 1545-BJ07 Extending Religious and Family Member FICA...)(3) (concerning individuals who work for certain family members), 3127 (concerning members of...) to extend the FICA and FUTA exceptions for family members and religious sect members to...

  20. How illness affects family members: a qualitative interview survey

    PubMed Central

    Wittenberg, Eve; Saada, Adrianna; Prosser, Lisa A.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Spillover effects of illness on family members can be substantial. The purpose of this study was to identify the domains of family members’ health and well-being that are affected when a relative has a chronic health condition. Methods Semi-structured telephone interviews were conducted in February, 2012 with 49 individuals whose relatives had any of five chronic health conditions (arthritis, cancer, Alzheimer’s disease/dementia, cerebral palsy, and depression), purposively sampled to include different relationships with the ill relative (parent, child, spouse). Subjects were queried on whether and how having an ill relative affected their health and well-being; they were also asked about their caregiving responsibilities and the relative’s health. Interview data were analyzed using thematic analysis. Results Family members in our sample reported experiencing psychological and non-health effects from having an ill relative, and secondarily somatic effects. Effects on emotional health were most commonly reported as psychological spillover; non-health effects frequently included changes in daily activities and provision of caregiving. Spouses of patients reported the broadest range of spillover domains affected and adolescents of ill parents the fewest. Family members reported experiencing effects that were perceived as both positive and negative. Conclusions Spillover of illness onto family members encompasses a wide range of domains of health and well-being, extending beyond those included in many existing health-related quality of life measures. Outcomes measurement efforts should be expanded to adequately capture these health and well-being outcomes for analysis, to ensure that the benefits of interventions are accurately estimated and conclusions are valid. PMID:24142495

  1. Genochondromatosis type I: A clinicoradiological study of four family members.

    PubMed

    Sareen, Atul; D'souza, Maria M; Reddy, Kanakeya Bachha; Kanojia, Rajesh Kumar; Kumar, Ajay

    2015-11-01

    Genochondromatosis is an extremely rare autosomal dominant disorder, which manifests during childhood and tends to regress in adult life. The bony lesions are symmetrically distributed with characteristic localization at the metaphysis of proximal humerus and distal femur. Two types have been described based on the involvement of clavicle. Usually asymptomatic, sometimes patients may present with pathological fractures. In this communication, we describe four members of a family with Genochondromatosis type I, with some additional clinical and radiological findings not reported previously.

  2. 5 CFR 894.306 - Are foster children eligible as family members?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Are foster children eligible as family....306 Are foster children eligible as family members? Yes, foster children may be eligible for coverage as family members under FEDVIP....

  3. Stromal-dependent tumor promotion by MIF family members

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, Robert A.; Yaddanapudi, Kavitha

    2014-01-01

    Solid tumors are composed of a heterogeneous population of cells that interact with each other and with soluble and insoluble factors that, when combined, strongly influence the relative proliferation, differentiation, motility, matrix remodeling, metabolism and microvessel density of malignant lesions. One family of soluble factors that is becoming increasingly associated with pro-tumoral phenotypes within tumor microenvironments is that of the migration inhibitory factor family which includes its namesake, MIF, and its only known family member, D-dopachrome tautomerase (D-DT). This review seeks to highlight our current understanding of the relative contributions of a variety of immune and non-immune tumor stromal cell populations and, within those contexts, will summarize the literature associated with MIF and/or D-DT. PMID:25277536

  4. The Lost Boys of Sudan: Ambiguous Loss, Search for Family, and Reestablishing Relationships with Family Members

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luster, Tom; Qin, Desiree B.; Bates, Laura; Johnson, Deborah J.; Rana, Meenal

    2008-01-01

    The "Lost Boys of Sudan" were separated from their families by civil war and subsequently lived in 3 other countries--Ethiopia, Kenya, and the United States. In-depth interviews were conducted with 10 refugees who located surviving family members in Sudan after an average separation of 13.7 years. The interviews probed their experiences…

  5. Mechanistic Issues of the Interaction of the Hairpin-Forming Domain of tBid with Mitochondrial Cardiolipin

    PubMed Central

    Jalmar, Olivier; Dupaigne, Pauline; Sureau, Franck; Dellinger, Marc; Hendrickson, Eric A.; Bernard, Sophie; Petit, Patrice X.

    2010-01-01

    Background The pro-apoptotic effector Bid induces mitochondrial apoptosis in synergy with Bax and Bak. In response to death receptors activation, Bid is cleaved by caspase-8 into its active form, tBid (truncated Bid), which then translocates to the mitochondria to trigger cytochrome c release and subsequent apoptosis. Accumulating evidence now indicate that the binding of tBid initiates an ordered sequences of events that prime mitochondria from the action of Bax and Bak: (1) tBid interacts with mitochondria via a specific binding to cardiolipin (CL) and immediately disturbs mitochondrial structure and function idependently of its BH3 domain; (2) Then, tBid activates through its BH3 domain Bax and/or Bak and induces their subsequent oligomerization in mitochondrial membranes. To date, the underlying mechanism responsible for targeting tBid to mitochondria and disrupting mitochondrial bioenergetics has yet be elucidated. Principal Findings The present study investigates the mechanism by which tBid interacts with mitochondria issued from mouse hepatocytes and perturbs mitochondrial function. We show here that the helix αH6 is responsible for targeting tBid to mitochondrial CL and disrupting mitochondrial bioenergetics. In particular, αH6 interacts with mitochondria through electrostatic interactions involving the lysines 157 and 158 and induces an inhibition of state-3 respiration and an uncoupling of state-4 respiration. These changes may represent a key event that primes mitochondria for the action of Bax and Bak. In addition, we also demonstrate that tBid required its helix αH6 to efficiently induce cytochrome c release and apoptosis. Conclusions Our findings provide new insights into the mechanism of action of tBid, and particularly emphasize the importance of the interaction of the helix αH6 with CL for both mitochondrial targeting and pro-apoptotic activity of tBid. These support the notion that tBid acts as a bifunctional molecule: first, it binds to

  6. Galangin induces apoptosis in hepatocellular carcinoma cells through the caspase 8/t-Bid mitochondrial pathway.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hai-Tao; Wu, Jun; Wen, Min; Su, Li-Juan; Luo, Hui

    2012-01-01

    This study has investigated whether galangin, a flavonol derived from Alpinia officinarum Hance and used as food additives in southern China, induces apoptosis in hepatocellular carcinoma cells (HCCs) by activation of the caspase-8 and Bid pathway. The apoptosis of HCCs was evaluated by in situ uptake of propidium iodide and Hoechst 33258. Protein expressions were detected by Western blotting. Caspase-8 activity was measured using colorimetric method. To confirm the galangin-induced apoptotic pathway, inhibition of caspase-8 activity by Z-IETD-FMK, knockdown of Bid expression with siRNA, and overexpression of Bcl-2 in cells were carried out, respectively. The results show that galangin has significantly induced apoptosis in HCC lines. The caspase-8 is activated, and the cleavage of Bid results in the increase in tBid. The galangin-induced apoptosis is attenuated by Z-IETD-FMK, Bid siRNA, and Bcl-2 overexpression, respectively. However, Bcl-2 fails to suppress caspase-8 activation and the cleavage of Bid. This study has demonstrated that galangin induces apoptosis in HCCs by activating caspase 8/t-Bid mitochondrial pathway. Although Bcl-2 overexpression attenuates galangin-mediated apoptosis of HCCs, it is not mediated by the inhibition of tBid generation and caspase-8 activation.

  7. Asteroid (90) Antiope: Another icy member of the Themis family?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hargrove, Kelsey D.; Emery, Joshua P.; Campins, Humberto; Kelley, Michael S. P.

    2015-07-01

    Many members of the Themis family show evidence of hydration in the form of oxidized iron in phyllosilicates (Florczak, M. et al. [1999]. Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 134, 463-471), and OH-bearing minerals (Takir, D., Emery, J.P. [2012]. Icarus 219, 641-654). The largest member, (24) Themis, has H2O ice covering its surface (Campins, H. et al. [2010]. Nature 464, 1320-1321; Rivkin, A.S., Emery, J.P. [2010]. Nature 464, 1322-1323). We have investigated the second largest Themis-family asteroid, (90) Antiope, which Castillo-Rogez and Schmidt (Castillo-Rogez, J.C., Schmidt, B.E. [2010]. Geophys. Res. Lett. 37, L10202) predict to have a composition that includes water ice and organics. We obtained 2-4-μm spectroscopy of (90) Antiope in 2006 and 2008, and we find an absorption in the 3-μm region clearly present in our 2008 spectrum and likely in our 2006 spectrum. Both spectra have rounded, bowl-shaped absorptions consistent with those ascribed to water ice as in the spectrum of Asteroid (24) Themis. We also present and compare Spitzer 8-12-μm mid-infrared spectra of (24) Themis and (90) Antiope. We find that (90) Antiope is lacking a "fairy castle" dusty surface, which is in contrast to (24) Themis, other Themis family members (Licandro, J. et al. [2012]. Astron. Astrophys. 537, A73), and Jupiter Trojans (e.g. Emery, J.P., Cruikshank, D.P., Van Cleve, J. [2006]. Icarus 182, 496-512). We conclude that the surface structure of (90) Antiope is most similar to Cybele Asteroid (121) Hermione (Hargrove, K.D. et al. [2012]. Icarus 221, 453-455).

  8. Neuroglobin and cytoglobin: two new members of globin family

    PubMed Central

    Tosqui, Priscilla; Colombo, Marcio Francisco

    2011-01-01

    The globin family has long been defined by myoglobin and hemoglobin, proteins with the functions of oxygen storage and transportation, respectively. Recently, two new members of this family were discovered: neuroglobin present in neurons and retinal cells and cytoglobin found in various types of tissue. The increased expression of these proteins in hypoxic conditions first suggested a role in oxygen supply. However structural and functional differences, such as the hexacoordinated heme, a high autoxidation rate and different concentrations between different cellular types, have dismissed this hypothesis. The protective role of these globins has already been established. In vitro and in vivo studies have demonstrated increased survival of neurons under stress in the presence of neuroglobin and increased resistance to neurodegenerative diseases. However the mechanism remains unknown. Functions, including detoxification of nitric oxide, free radical scavenging and as an antioxidant and signaling of apoptosis, have also been suggested for neuroglobin and an antifibrotic function for cytoglobin. PMID:23049323

  9. Differential expression of Notch family members in astrocytomas and medulloblastomas.

    PubMed

    Xu, Peng; Yu, Shizhu; Jiang, Rongcai; Kang, Chunsheng; Wang, Guangxiu; Jiang, Hao; Pu, Peiyu

    2009-12-01

    Notch signaling pathway plays an integral role in determining cell fates in development. Growing evidence demonstrates that Notch signaling pathway has versatile effects in tumorigenesis depending on the tumor type, grade and stage. Notch signaling pathway is deregulated in some brain tumors. To examine the differential expression of Notch family members (Notch1, 2, 3, 4) in human astrocytomas and medulloblastomas, and to evaluate their roles in the development of both tumor types. Immunohistochemical staining and Western blot analysis were used to detect Notch1, 2, 3, 4 expression in tissue microarray and freshly resected tissue samples of normal brain, astrocytomas and medulloblastomas. Notch family members were not expressed or barely detectable in normal brain tissues. Notch1, 3, 4 were highly expressed but Notch2 was not expressed in astrocytomas. The percentage of immunopositive tumor cells and level of Notch1 expression was increased with tumor grade. In addition, overexpression of Notch2 was detected in medulloblastomas in contrast to low or no expression of Notch1, 3, 4. Differential expression of Notch1, 2, 3, 4 is detected in astrocytomas and medulloblastomas, that may be related to their different roles playing in the development of brain tumors.

  10. Characterization of lamprey IL-17 family members and their receptors

    PubMed Central

    Han, Qifeng; Das, Sabyasachi; Hirano, Masayuki; Holland, Stephen J.; McCurley, Nathanael; Guo, Peng; Rosenberg, Charles S.; Boehm, Thomas; Cooper, Max D.

    2015-01-01

    Interleukin-17 is an ancient cytokine implicated in a variety of immune defense reactions. We have indentified five members of the sea lamprey IL-17 family (IL-17D.1, IL-17D.2, IL-17E, IL-17B and IL-17C) and six IL-17 receptor genes (IL-17RA.1, IL-17RA.2, IL-17RA.3, IL-17RF, IL-17RE/RC and IL-17RD), determined their relationship with mammalian orthologues, and examined their expression patterns and potential interactions in order to explore their roles in innate and adaptive immunity. The most highly expressed IL-17 family member is IL-17D.1 (mammalian IL-17D like), which was found to be preferentially expressed by epithelial cells of skin, intestine and gills and by the two types of lamprey T-like cells. IL-17D.1 binding to recombinant IL-17RA.1 and to the surface of IL-17RA.1-expressing B-like cells and monocytes of lamprey larvae was demonstrated, and treatment of lamprey blood cells with recombinant IL-17D.1 protein enhanced transcription of genes expressed by the B-like cells. These findings suggest a potential role for IL-17 in coordinating the interactions between T-like cells and other cells of the adaptive and innate immune systems in jawless vertebrates. PMID:26491201

  11. Appraisal of the cancer experience by family members and survivors in long-term survivorship.

    PubMed

    Bowman, Karen F; Rose, Julia H; Deimling, Gary T

    2006-09-01

    This study assessed the appraisal of the stressfulness of the cancer experience and its correlates for family members and older survivors living in the long-term survivorship phase of the disease. On average, family members appraised the cancer experience as more stressful than their surviving relatives. Beliefs about the effect of the diagnosis and treatment on family members were important correlates for both family members and survivors in the appraisal process. Cancer characteristics were not related to appraisal for survivors, but stage at diagnosis was associated with a more stressful appraisal for family members. Demographic characteristics were unrelated to appraisal for family members, but being African-American was linked to a less stressful appraisal for survivors. These findings highlight the stressful impact of the cancer experience on family members and can help guide health care interventions which include family members from African-American and White ethnicities.

  12. 75 FR 5870 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request for the HCTC Medicare Family Member Registration Form

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-04

    ... Internal Revenue Service Proposed Collection; Comment Request for the HCTC Medicare Family Member... Medicare Family Member Registration Form. DATES: Written comments should be received on or before April 5...: HCTC Medicare Family Member Registration Form. OMB Number: 1545-2162. Form Number: 14117....

  13. 75 FR 5873 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request for the HCTC Family Member Eligibility Form

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-04

    ... Internal Revenue Service Proposed Collection; Comment Request for the HCTC Family Member Eligibility Form..., HCTC Family Member Eligibility Form. DATES: Written comments should be received on or before April 5...: HCTC Family Member Eligibility Form. OMB Number: 1545-2163. Form Number: 14116. Abstract: This...

  14. 29 CFR 825.124 - Needed to care for a family member or covered servicemember.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... transfer to a nursing home. The employee need not be the only individual or family member available to care... certification provision that an employee is “needed to care for” a family member or covered servicemember... serious health condition, the family member is unable to care for his or her own basic medical,...

  15. 29 CFR 825.124 - Needed to care for a family member or covered servicemember.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... transfer to a nursing home. The employee need not be the only individual or family member available to care... certification provision that an employee is “needed to care for” a family member or covered servicemember... serious health condition, the family member is unable to care for his or her own basic medical,...

  16. 29 CFR 825.124 - Needed to care for a family member or covered servicemember.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... transfer to a nursing home. The employee need not be the only individual or family member available to care... certification provision that an employee is needed to care for a family member or covered servicemember... serious health condition, the family member is unable to care for his or her own basic medical,...

  17. 29 CFR 825.124 - Needed to care for a family member or covered servicemember.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... transfer to a nursing home. The employee need not be the only individual or family member available to care... certification provision that an employee is needed to care for a family member or covered servicemember... serious health condition, the family member is unable to care for his or her own basic medical,...

  18. 78 FR 33699 - Visas: Classification of Immediate Family Members as G Nonimmigrants

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-05

    ...-AD21 Visas: Classification of Immediate Family Members as G Nonimmigrants AGENCY: State Department. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This rule permits qualified immediate family members of A-1 or A-2... immediate family members of G-1, G-2, G-3, and G-4 nonimmigrants who have employment authorization...

  19. 5 CFR 734.405 - Campaigning for a spouse or family member.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Campaigning for a spouse or family member... and Positions § 734.405 Campaigning for a spouse or family member. An employee covered under this subpart who is the spouse or family member of either a candidate for partisan political office, or...

  20. 77 FR 27542 - Agency Information Collection Activities (Bereaved Family Member Satisfaction Survey) Under OMB...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-10

    ... AFFAIRS Agency Information Collection Activities (Bereaved Family Member Satisfaction Survey) Under OMB... INFORMATION: Title: Bereaved Family Member Satisfaction Survey, VA Form 10- 21081(NR). OMB Control Number... VA Form 10-21081(NR) will be use to survey family members of deceased veterans on their...

  1. The experience of family members of ICU patients who require extensive monitoring: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Smith, Claudia DiSabatino; Custard, Kristi

    2014-09-01

    A mixed methods study using family research with a phenomenological approach (n = 5 families) was conducted to explore family members' perceptions about the extensive monitoring technology used on their critically ill family member after cardiac surgery, as experienced when family members initially visited the patient in the cardiovascular intensive care unit. Five relevant themes emerged: overwhelmed by all of the machines; feelings of uncertainty; methods of coping; meaning of the numbers on the machines; and need for education.

  2. "You Needed to Rehab...Families as Well": Family Members' Own Goals for Aphasia Rehabilitation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howe, Tami; Davidson, Bronwyn; Worrall, Linda; Hersh, Deborah; Ferguson, Alison; Sherratt, Sue; Gilbert, Jocelyn

    2012-01-01

    Background: Aphasia affects family members in addition to the individuals with the communication disorder. In order to develop appropriate services for the relatives of people with aphasia post-stroke, their rehabilitation goals need to be identified. Aim: The aim of the current investigation was to identify the rehabilitation goals that family…

  3. Muscarinic Toxicity Among Family Members After Consumption of Mushrooms

    PubMed Central

    George, Peter; Hegde, Narasimha

    2013-01-01

    Mushrooms are commercially cultivated over the world and safe for human consumption, except in those with known allergies. Among the thousands of mushroom species identified, few are considered to be edible. Mushroom hunting has emerged as an adventure and recreational activity in recent decades. Wild forms of mushrooms are often poisonous and visually mimic the edible ones, thus leading to mistaken harvesting, consumption, and toxicities. In literature, various systemic toxic syndromes associated with mushroom poisoning have been described. We report four members of a family with muscarinic manifestations after accidental consumption of poisonous mushrooms. The Clitocybe species of mushrooms they consumed resulted in their muscarinic toxicity. Patients with muscarinic mushroom toxicity have early onset of symptoms and they respond well to atropine and symptomatic supportive care. PMID:23833447

  4. Nursing interventions for family members waiting during cardiac procedures.

    PubMed

    Trecartin, Kelly; Carroll, Diane L

    2011-08-01

    Anxiety is shared by patients and family members (FMs) and can increase throughout the FMs waiting during invasive cardiac procedures (ICP). The purpose of this study was to measure the effects of an informational report (IR) and a postprocedure visit (PPV), on the anxiety of waiting FMs. There were 151 FMs assigned to 3 groups; Group 1 (50 FMs: standard of care [SOC]), Group 2 (50 FMs: SOC + IR), and Group 3 (51 FMs: SOC + IR + PPV). Pre/ postvariables measured were: blood pressure (BP), heart rate (HR), skin temperature (ST), and anxiety. When comparing the BP, HR, ST, and anxiety there were no differences between groups with either SOC or IR. There was a significant reduction in anxiety, from baseline to the PPV in Group 3 (F = 10.1; p < .000). A PPV had an impact on FMs and a PPV should be incorporated as a nursing intervention during ICP.

  5. Muscarinic toxicity among family members after consumption of mushrooms.

    PubMed

    George, Peter; Hegde, Narasimha

    2013-01-01

    Mushrooms are commercially cultivated over the world and safe for human consumption, except in those with known allergies. Among the thousands of mushroom species identified, few are considered to be edible. Mushroom hunting has emerged as an adventure and recreational activity in recent decades. Wild forms of mushrooms are often poisonous and visually mimic the edible ones, thus leading to mistaken harvesting, consumption, and toxicities. In literature, various systemic toxic syndromes associated with mushroom poisoning have been described. We report four members of a family with muscarinic manifestations after accidental consumption of poisonous mushrooms. The Clitocybe species of mushrooms they consumed resulted in their muscarinic toxicity. Patients with muscarinic mushroom toxicity have early onset of symptoms and they respond well to atropine and symptomatic supportive care.

  6. A New Member of the Graphene Family: Graphene Acid.

    PubMed

    Jankovský, Ondřej; Nováček, Michal; Luxa, Jan; Sedmidubský, David; Fila, Vlastimil; Pumera, Martin; Sofer, Zdeněk

    2016-11-21

    A new member of the family of graphene derivatives, namely, graphene acid with a composition close to C1 (COOH)1 , was prepared by oxidation of graphene oxide. The synthetic procedure is based on repeated oxidation of graphite with potassium permanganate in an acidic environment. The oxidation process was studied in detail after each step. The multiple oxidations led to oxidative removal of other oxygen functional groups formed in the first oxidation step. Detailed chemical analysis showed only a minor amount of other oxygen-containing functional groups such as hydroxyl and the dominant presence of carboxyl groups in a concentration of about 30 wt %. Further oxidation led to complete decomposition of graphene acid. The obtained material exhibits unique sorption capacity towards metal ions and carbon dioxide. The highly hydrophilic nature of graphene acid allowed the assembly of ultrathin free-standing membranes with high transparency.

  7. Follow-Up Study to Family Members' Reactions to the Initial Special Education Meeting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ingalls, Lawrence; Hammond, Helen; Paez, Carlos; Rodriguez, Ivan

    2016-01-01

    Family involvement is a central component of Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA). Family members are to be integrated in all aspects of the special education process. At the onset, of family involvement, it is imperative for educators to be aware of possible reactions family members may experience in this initial stage. This…

  8. 5 CFR 734.307 - Campaigning for a spouse or family member.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Campaigning for a spouse or family member... Campaigning for a spouse or family member. An employee covered under this subpart who is the spouse or family... candidate for partisan political office may appear in a family photograph which is printed in a...

  9. Faustoviruses: Comparative Genomics of New Megavirales Family Members

    PubMed Central

    Benamar, Samia; Reteno, Dorine G. I.; Bandaly, Victor; Labas, Noémie; Raoult, Didier; La Scola, Bernard

    2016-01-01

    An emerging interest for the giant virus discovery process, genome sequencing and analysis has allowed an expansion of the number of known Megavirales members. Using the protist Vermamoeba sp. as cell support, a new giant virus named Faustovirus has been isolated. In this study, we describe the genome sequences of nine Faustoviruses and build a genomic comparison in order to have a comprehensive overview of genomic composition and diversity among this new virus family. The average sequence length of these viruses is 467,592.44 bp (ranging from 455,803 to 491,024 bp), making them the fourth largest Megavirales genome after Mimiviruses, Pandoraviruses, and Pithovirus sibericum. Faustovirus genomes displayed an average G+C content of 37.14 % (ranging from 36.22 to 39.59%) which is close to the G+C content range of the Asfarviridae genomes (38%). The proportion of best matches and the phylogenetic analysis suggest a shared origin with Asfarviridae without belonging to the same family. The core-gene-based phylogeny of Faustoviruses study has identified four lineages. These results were confirmed by the analysis of amino acids and COGs category distribution. The diversity of the gene composition of these lineages is mainly explained by gene deletion or acquisition and some exceptions for gene duplications. The high proportion of best matches from Bacteria and Phycodnaviridae on the pan-genome and unique genes may be explained by an interaction occurring after the separation of the lineages. The Faustovirus core-genome appears to consolidate the surrounding of 207 genes whereas the pan-genome is described as an open pan-genome, its enrichment via the discovery of new Faustoviruses is required to better seize all the genomic diversity of this family. PMID:26903952

  10. Family health information sharing among older adults: reaching more family members.

    PubMed

    Ashida, Sato; Schafer, Ellen J

    2015-01-01

    Although family health history (FHH) information has tremendous potential in the prevention of common complex diseases such as heart disease and cancer, lack of knowledge about one's own FHH among the public hinders its utility. Older individuals often desire to contribute to the well-being of younger generations and also play critical roles in disseminating this information. This study evaluated psychosocial factors associated with the extent of FHH communication within families. Older adults (N = 110) were interviewed at three senior centers in an urban community. Multivariate Poisson regression analysis showed that respondents who received FHH from a parent reported 41 % more family members with whom they shared FHH (b = 0.34, p < 0.001) controlling for the family network size. Furthermore, one unit increase in the number of family members with whom respondents exchange reciprocal emotional support (b = 0.04, p < 0.01), perceived familiarity with own FHH (b = 0.14, p = 0.01), and self-efficacy to share FHH (b = 0.18, p = 0.02) were associated with 4, 15, and 20 % increases in the number of family members with whom respondents shared FHH, respectively. Future efforts may inform older adults about their important role in modeling FHH communication behavior to encourage information sharing in future generations while providing information about how to collect and disseminate FHH to increase their familiarity and ability to share FHH within the family.

  11. Syncope in genotype-negative long QT syndrome family members.

    PubMed

    Olde Nordkamp, Louise R A; Ruwald, Martin H; Goldenberg, Ilan; Wieling, Wouter; McNitt, Scott; Polonsky, Bronislava; Wilde, Arthur A M; van Dijk, Nynke; Moss, Arthur J

    2014-10-15

    Unaffected long-QT syndrome family members (FMs) frequently experience syncope. The aims of this study were to test the hypothesis that syncope events in FMs are benign events and to compare clinical characteristics, triggers eliciting the syncope events, and long-term outcomes between FMs and those with LQT1 or LQT2 mutations from the international Long QT Syndrome Registry. A total of 679 FMs, 864 LQT1 patients, and 782 LQT2 patients were included. Seventy-eight FMs (11%) experienced cardiovascular events. Almost all cardiovascular events were nonfatal syncope; only 1 FM, with an additional mitral valve prolapse, experienced aborted cardiac arrest during exercise. The mean age at first syncope in FMs was 17 years, and female FMs experienced syncope more frequently than male FMs (14% vs 9%, p = 0.027). Syncope was more frequently triggered by exercise in LQT1 patients (43% in LQT1 patients vs 5% in FMs, p <0.001), while syncope triggered by a variety of other triggers was more frequent in FMs (54% in FMs vs 22% in LQT1 patients and 30% in LQT2 patients, p <0.001 for both). None of the FMs experienced aborted cardiac arrest or sudden cardiac death after the first syncopal episode. In conclusion, syncope is frequently present in FMs, and these syncopal events occurred more frequently in female than in male FMs, with an increased incidence in midadolescence. Triggers eliciting the syncopal events were different between FMs and patients with long-QT syndrome mutations. Hence, the type of trigger is useful in distinguishing between high- and low-risk syncope. These data indicate that FMs from families with LQTS have a benign form of syncope, most likely related to vasovagal syncope and not ventricular tachyarrhythmic syncope.

  12. Discovery of a Satellite to Asteroid Family Member (702) Alauda

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Margot, Jean-Luc; Rojo, P.

    2007-10-01

    Rojo and Margot [1] reported the discovery of a satellite to (702) Alauda from adaptive-optics imaging with the European Southern Observatory (ESO) 8-m Very Large Telescope (VLT) on Cerro Paranal, Chile. (702) Alauda (a = 3.2 AU, e = 0.02, i = 21 deg) has been identified as the largest member of a dynamical family [2,3], suggesting a possible origin of the satellite in the family formation event. The diameter of (702) Alauda is given in the IRAS Minor Planet Survey (IMPS) as 194.73 +/- 3.2 km [4]. If the primary and secondary have similar albedoes, the diameter of the satellite is about 5.5 km. This is based on the measured flux ratio between primary and secondary of 1250, possibly the largest ever observed for solar system binaries with adaptive optics. This is the first satellite discovered to a large minor planet of type B in the SMASSII taxonomy, which is defined by a linear featureless spectrum with bluish to neutral slope [5]. B-types are carbonaceous asteroids that are not well characterized. The mass and density estimates of B-type (2) Pallas vary by 50% [6,7]. Our ongoing determination of the satellite orbit will provide mass and density estimates for (702) Alauda. [1] Rojo and Margot, CBET 1016, 2007. [2] Foglia and Masi 2004, Minor Planet Bull. 41, 100. [3] Gil-Hutton 2006, Icarus 183, 93. [4] Tedesco 2002, AJ 123, 1056. [5] Bus and Binzel 2002, Icarus 158, 146. [6] Hilton 2002, Asteroids III, 103. [7] Britt et al. 2002, Asteroids III, 485.

  13. 76 FR 71259 - Extending Religious and Family Member FICA and FUTA Exceptions to Disregarded Entities; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-17

    ... Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 301 RIN 1545-BJ07 Extending Religious and Family Member FICA and FUTA... for certain family members), 3127 (concerning members of religious faiths), and 3306(c)(5) (concerning persons employed by children and spouses and children under 21 employed by their parents) of the...

  14. 76 FR 76037 - Extending Religious and Family Member FICA and FUTA Exceptions to Disregarded Entities; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 301 RIN 1545-BJ07 Extending Religious and Family Member FICA and FUTA... for certain family members), 3127 (concerning members of religious faiths), and 3306(c)(5)...

  15. 76 FR 70057 - Extending Religious and Family Member FICA and FUTA Exceptions to Disregarded Entities; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 301 RIN 1545-BJ07 Extending Religious and Family Member FICA and FUTA...) (concerning individuals who work for certain family members), 3127 (concerning members of religious...

  16. Homicidal sharp force injuries inflicted by family members or relatives.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Hiromasa; Ikeda, Noriaki; Ito, Takako; Tsuji, Akiko; Kudo, Keiko

    2006-04-01

    We retrospectively reviewed 35 autopsy cases where death had resulted from homicidal sharp force injuries and compared cases where the injuries had been inflicted by family members or relatives (relative group) with cases where the injuries had been inflicted by an unrelated person (stranger group). We reviewed the age and sex of the victims, the number of stab wounds, the site of the stab wounds, the presence of defence wounds, the detection of alcohol and other drugs and the mental status of the victims and perpetrators. We found the following tendencies: (a) a female victim was more frequently killed by a relative than by a stranger; (b) the percentage of cases receiving a single stab wound and the percentage of cases receiving more than ten stab wounds were both unexpectedly higher in the relative group than in the stranger group, and (c) in the stranger group, when there were no defence wounds, the victim had usually consumed alcohol, whereas when there were neither defence wounds nor alcohol intake, the case usually fell into the relative group. These tendencies will contribute towards our forensic appraisement in autopsy cases resulting from sharp force injuries.

  17. Bi73-: the missing family member, finally isolated and characterized.

    PubMed

    Perla, Luis G; Oliver, Allen G; Sevov, Slavi C

    2015-02-02

    The synthesis and structure of Bi(7)(3-), the only missing member of the family of heptanuclear pnictogen cluster anions Pn(7)(3-) (Pn = pnictogen, a group 15 element excluding the unique nitrogen), is reported. The new species is synthesized by oxidation of a solution of K(5)Bi(4) by the solvent pyridine in the presence of (C(6)H(6))Cr(CO)(3). The existence of the species in solution is confirmed by electrospray mass spectrometry, while its structure is elucidated by single-crystal X-ray diffraction in the compound [K(2,2,2-crypt)](3)Bi(7)·2py (monoclinic, P2(1)/n, a = 13.8739(13) Å, b = 24.878(2) Å, c = 26.401(2) Å, β = 96.353(4)°, V = 9056.5(14) Å(3), Z = 4, and R1/wR2 = 0.0636/0.1390 for the observed data and 0.0901/0.1541 for all data).

  18. STS-106 crew gathers to greet family members

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    While meeting with family on the day before launch, the STS-106 crew poses for a photo. Waving, left to right, are Mission Specialist Richard A. Mastracchio, Commander Terrence W. Wilcutt, Pilot Scott D. Altman, and Mission Specialists Edward T. Lu, Yuri I. Malenchenko, Boris V. Morukov and Daniel C. Burbank. Malenchenko and Morukov are with the Russian Aviation and Space Agency. In the background (left) is Launch Pad 39B and Space Shuttle Atlantis, with the Rotating Service Structure still in place. STS-106 is scheduled to launch Sept. 8, 2000, at 8:45 a.m. EDT from Launch Pad 39B. On the 11-day mission, the seven-member crew will perform support tasks on orbit, transfer supplies and prepare the living quarters in the newly arrived Zvezda Service Module. The first long-duration crew, dubbed '''Expedition One,''' is due to arrive at the Station in late fall. Landing is targeted for Sept. 19 at 4:59 a.m. EDT at the KSC Shuttle Landing Facility.

  19. Studying the Effect Dialogic Reading Has on Family Members' Verbal Interactions during Shared Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brannon, Diana; Dauksas, Linda

    2012-01-01

    The effect dialogic reading training has on the verbal interactions of family members and their "at risk" preschool children was studied. There were significant differences at the time of the post-test between family members who received dialogic reading training and the group that participated in the preschool's traditional family time. Family…

  20. Family Adjustment Following Disclosure of Homosexuality by a Member: Themes Discerned in Narrative Accounts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beeler, Jeff; DiProva, Vicky

    1999-01-01

    Using a narrative approach, study explores how families respond to homosexual disclosure of a member over time and how families integrate the family member once their homosexuality has been accepted. Discusses the relationship between 12 themes found through these narratives and current models in the literature within the context of heterosexism.…

  1. Military service absences and family members' mental health: A timeline followback assessment.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Aubrey J; Margolin, Gayla

    2015-08-01

    Although military service, and particularly absence due to deployment, has been linked to risk for depression and anxiety among some spouses and children of active duty service members, there is limited research to explain the heterogeneity in family members' reactions to military service stressors. The current investigation introduces the Timeline Followback Military Family Interview (TFMFI) as a clinically useful strategy to collect detailed time-linked information about the service member's absences. Two dimensions of parent absence--the extent to which absences coincide with important family events and cumulative time absent--were tested as potential risks to family members' mental health. Data from 70 mother-adolescent pairs revealed that the number of important family events missed by the service member was linked to elevated youth symptoms of depression, even when accounting for the number of deployments and cumulative duration of the service member's absence. However, youth who reported more frequent contact with the service member during absences were buffered from the effects of extensive absence. Mothers' symptoms were associated with the cumulative duration of the service members' time away, but not with family events missed by the service member. These results identify circumstances that increase the risk for mental health symptoms associated with military family life. The TFMFI provides an interview-based strategy for clinicians wishing to understand military family members' lived experience during periods of service-member absence.

  2. Comparison of Families with and without a Suicide Prevention Plan Following a Suicidal Attempt by a Family Member.

    PubMed

    Cho, Heung-Don; Kim, Nam-Young; Gil, Hyo-wook; Jeong, Du-shin; Hong, Sae-yong

    2015-07-01

    The frequency and extent of the existence of a familial suicide prevention plan may differ across cultures. The aim of this work was, therefore, to determine how common it was for families to develop a suicide prevention plan and to compare the main measures used by families with and without such a plan, after an attempt to commit suicide was made by a member of a family living in a rural area of Korea. On the basis of the presence or absence of a familial suicide prevention plan, we compared 50 recruited families that were divided into 2 groups, with Group A (31 families) employing a familial suicide prevention plan after a suicide attempt by a family member, and Group B (19 families) not doing so. The strategy that was employed most frequently to prevent a reoccurrence among both populations was promoting communication among family members, followed by seeking psychological counseling and/or psychiatric treatment. Contrary to our expectation, the economic burden from medical treatment after a suicide attempt did not influence the establishment of a familial suicide prevention plan. It is a pressing social issue that 38% (19 of 50) of families in this study did not employ a familial suicide prevention plan, even after a family member had attempted suicide. Regional suicide prevention centers and/or health authorities should pay particular attention to these patients and their families.

  3. When the unreal becomes real: family members' experiences of cardiac arrest.

    PubMed

    Weslien, Marita; Nilstun, Tore; Lundqvist, Anita; Fridlund, Bengt

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to provide insight into family members' experiences related to cardiac arrest. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews with 17 family members approximately 5-34 months after the cardiac arrest of a relative. As the focus was on the family members' experiences seen from a holistic perspective, content analysis was chosen for the study. When the event occurred to the patient, family members realized the need for assistance and managed to initiate first actions. When the emergency medical service arrived, family members responded to stress and forgot their own needs. When the staff took over at the hospital, family members not only received sympathy but also encountered professional distancing. Because their experiences vary widely, the encounter has to be developed through a comforting, sympathetic and respectful dialogue in consideration for individuals' preferences.

  4. MIF family members cooperatively inhibit p53 expression and activity.

    PubMed

    Brock, Stephanie E; Rendon, Beatriz E; Xin, Dan; Yaddanapudi, Kavitha; Mitchell, Robert A

    2014-01-01

    The tumor suppressor p53 is induced by genotoxic stress in both normal and transformed cells and serves to transcriptionally coordinate cell cycle checkpoint control and programmed cell death responses. Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is an autocrine and paracrine acting cytokine/growth factor that promotes lung adenocarcinoma cell motility, anchorage-independence and neo-angiogenic potential. Several recent studies indicate that the only known homolog of MIF, D-dopachrome tautomerase (D-DT - also referred to as MIF-2), has functionally redundant activities with MIF and cooperatively promotes MIF-dependent pro-tumorigenic phenotypes. We now report that MIF and D-DT synergistically inhibit steady state p53 phosphorylation, stabilization and transcriptional activity in human lung adenocarcinoma cell lines. The combined loss of MIF and D-DT by siRNA leads to dramatically reduced cell cycle progression, anchorage independence, focus formation and increased programmed cell death when compared to individual loss of MIF or D-DT. Importantly, p53 mutant and p53 null lung adenocarcinoma cell lines were only nominally rescued from the cell growth effects of MIF/D-DT combined deficiency suggesting only a minor role for p53 in these transformed cell growth phenotypes. Finally, increased p53 activation was found to be independent of aberrantly activated AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) that occurs in response to MIF/D-DT-deficiency but is dependent on reactive oxygen species (ROS) that mediate aberrant AMPK activation in these cells. Combined, these findings suggest that both p53 wildtype and mutant human lung adenocarcinoma tumors rely on MIF family members for maximal cell growth and survival.

  5. IL-17 family member cytokines: regulation, and function in innate immunity

    PubMed Central

    Reynolds, Joseph M.; Angkasekwinai, Pornpimon; Dong, Chen

    2010-01-01

    Recently, the IL-17 family member cytokines have become prominent subjects of investigation. IL-17 (IL-17A) is the best-described member of this family where its production has been mainly attributed to a specialized T helper subset of the adaptive immune response termed Th17. However, recent research on this and other Th17 cytokines has revealed new sources and functions of IL-17 family members in the innate immune response. This review will highlight recent advances in the field of IL-17 family member cytokines and will predominately focus on the innate regulation and function of IL-17, IL-17F, and IL-25. PMID:21074482

  6. Racial disparity in capital punishment and its impact on family members of capital defendants.

    PubMed

    Schweizer, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    A review of the literature was conducted to explore the continuing racial disparity in capital punishment and its effects on family members of African American capital defendants. Statistical studies conducted on both the state and national level conclude that racial bias influences all stages of the death penalty process, with race of the victim being one of the most significant factors. This racial bias places an added burden on family members of African American capital defendants. While research has explored the impact of capital punishment on family members of capital defendants, the unique experiences of family members of African American defendants has not been addressed in the research literature.

  7. 41 CFR 302-3.511 - What must we consider when determining return travel for immediate family member(s) for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... when determining return travel for immediate family member(s) for compassionate reasons prior to... determining return travel for immediate family member(s) for compassionate reasons prior to completion of the service agreement? You must determine that the public interest requires the return of the immediate...

  8. Testicular Cancer and Genetics Knowledge Among Familial Testicular Cancer Family Members

    PubMed Central

    Beckjord, Ellen B.; Banda Ryan, Deliya R.; Carr, Ann G.; Vadaparampil, Susan T.; Loud, Jennifer T.; Korde, Larissa; Greene, Mark H.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose It was our aim to determine baseline levels of testicular cancer and genetics knowledge among members of families with Familial Testicular Cancer (FTC). Methods This is a sub-study of an ongoing National Cancer Institute (NCI) multidisciplinary, etiologically-focused, cross-sectional study of FTC. We evaluated 258 male and female participants including testicular cancer (TC) survivors, blood relatives and spouses to assess factors associated with a Genetic Knowledge Scale (GKS) and Testicular Cancer Knowledge Scale (TCKS). Results Knowledge levels were generally low, with genetic knowledge lower than TC knowledge (p<0.01). Men with a personal TC history scored highest on TC knowledge, while gender, age and education differentially influenced knowledge levels, particularly among unaffected relatives. Conclusions Prior to identifying FTC susceptibility genes, we recommend tailoring FTC genetic education to the different informational needs of TC survivors, their spouses and relatives, in preparation for the day when clinical susceptibility testing may be available. PMID:18481162

  9. A qualitative analysis of family member needs and concerns in the population of patients with burns.

    PubMed

    Thompson, R; Boyle, D; Teel, C; Wambach, K; Cramer, A

    1999-01-01

    The importance of family support to ameliorate the recovery of a patient with burns has been documented in the literature. However, there is a dearth of research that identifies family members' needs and concerns during the hospitalization of patients with burns. Study aims were as follows: (1) identify support needs and concerns of family members of adult and pediatric patients currently in a burn center and (2) explore the relationship between family needs and the patient's severity of injury. An observational design was used that incorporated semistructured interviews with family members 1 to 3 days after the burn. A convenience sample of family members of burn center patients (n = 97) was recruited over 9 months. Content analysis was used to establish themes from interview data. Interrater reliability on coding of thematic units from 15% of the interviews was 86%; discrepancies were corrected to 100%. The average family member was 42.3 years old, female, white, and at least a high school graduate. Family members' concerns included general patient concerns, physical concerns about the patient, satisfaction of personal needs, and psychologic concerns about the patient. Major sources of support were family and friends, burn center staff, and spirituality. Family members of pediatric patients identified pain and skin graft surgery as priority worries. Satisfaction of personal needs, financial support, and information needs were greater among family members of intensive care unit patients in comparison with step-down patients. These findings underscore the importance of communication and reassurance between the burn team and the family members. Alterations to the support provided to families can be made on the basis of study subjects' responses.

  10. Every Mark on the Page: Educating Family and Community Members about Young Children's Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cusumano, Kate Foley

    2008-01-01

    Family and community members often look at children's writing from a deficit point of view--seeing only what's "wrong" with it, what needs "fixing." Teachers can take a proactive role as family and community member educators, communicating to them how writing develops in young children and how they can play a positive role in this development.…

  11. Dementia Management Strategies and Adjustment of Family Members of Older Patients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinrichsen, Gregory A.; Niederehe, George

    1994-01-01

    Examined how strategies to manage dementia problems in 152 older people were associated with adjustment of family members while providing assistance to relative. Identified three dementia management strategies (criticism, encouragement, and active management) that were associated with three indices of family members' emotional adjustment (burden,…

  12. Effective doses to family members of patients treated with radioiodine-131

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zdraveska Kocovska, M.; Vaskova, O.; Majstorov, V.; Kuzmanovska, S.; Pop Gjorceva, D.; Spasic Jokic, V.

    2011-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effective dose to family members of thyroid cancer and hyperthyroid patients treated with radioiodine-131, and also to compare the results with dose constraints proposed by the International Commission of Radiological Protection (ICRP) and the Basic Safety Standards (BSS) of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). For the estimation of the effective doses, sixty family members of sixty patients, treated with radioiodine-131, and thermoluminiscent dosimeters (Model TLD 100) were used. Thyroid cancer patients were hospitalized for three days, while hyperthyroid patients were treated on out-patient basis. The family members wore TLD in front of the torso for seven days. The radiation doses to family members of thyroid cancer patients were well below the recommended dose constraint of 1 mSv. The mean value of effective dose was 0.21 mSv (min 0.02 - max 0.51 mSv). Effective doses, higher than 1 mSv, were detected for 11 family members of hyperthyroid patients. The mean value of effective dose of family members of hyperthyroid patients was 0.87 mSv (min 0.12 - max 6.79). The estimated effective doses to family members of hyperthyroid patients were higher than the effective doses to family members of thyroid carcinoma patients. These findings may be considered when establishing new national guidelines concerning radiation protection and release of patients after a treatment with radioiodine therapy.

  13. 32 CFR 884.14 - Compliance with court orders by civilian employees and family members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... employees and family members. 884.14 Section 884.14 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE MILITARY PERSONNEL DELIVERY OF PERSONNEL TO UNITED STATES CIVILIAN AUTHORITIES FOR TRIAL § 884.14 Compliance with court orders by civilian employees and family members. (a) The...

  14. 32 CFR 884.14 - Compliance with court orders by civilian employees and family members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... employees and family members. 884.14 Section 884.14 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE MILITARY PERSONNEL DELIVERY OF PERSONNEL TO UNITED STATES CIVILIAN AUTHORITIES FOR TRIAL § 884.14 Compliance with court orders by civilian employees and family members. (a) The...

  15. Experiences of Military Youth during a Family Member's Deployment: Changes, Challenges, and Opportunities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knobloch, Leanne K.; Pusateri, Kimberly B.; Ebata, Aaron T.; McGlaughlin, Patricia C.

    2015-01-01

    The deployment of a family member can be very distressing for military children, but it also can supply opportunities for growth. This study addresses calls for research on the changes, challenges, and opportunities facing youth during a family member's tour of duty. It uses the relational turbulence model to frame research questions about how…

  16. The Effect of Home Caregiving Program for Family Members Providing Care for Chronically Ill Relative Client

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohammed, Hussein Jassim; Kamel, Andaleeb Abu

    2015-01-01

    Health care systems in many countries are moving towards outpatient care in which family members are central in providing care for patients with life-threatening illness. Family members and friends haven't knowledge and skills to become caregivers as many studies found that, the need to involve in such program to enhance their ability to be…

  17. Catapulting Shifts in Images, Understandings, and Actions for Family Members through Research-Based Drama

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dupuis, Sherry L.; Gillies, Jennifer; Mitchell, Gail J.; Jonas-Simpson, Christine; Whyte, Colleen; Carson, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    This article examined how images, understandings, and actions change for family members of persons with dementia after the introduction of a research-based drama called I'm Still Here. Guided by interpretivist phenomenology, a set of seven pre- and post-performance focus groups were conducted with family members (n = 48) in four cities. Findings…

  18. Genealogy of an ancient protein family: the Sirtuins, a family of disordered members

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Sirtuins genes are widely distributed by evolution and have been found in eubacteria, archaea and eukaryotes. While prokaryotic and archeal species usually have one or two sirtuin homologs, in humans as well as in eukaryotes we found multiple versions and in mammals this family is comprised of seven different homologous proteins being all NAD-dependent de-acylases. 3D structures of human SIRT2, SIRT3, and SIRT5 revealed the overall conformation of the conserved core domain but they were unable to give a structural information about the presence of very flexible and dynamically disordered regions, the role of which is still structurally and functionally unclear. Recently, we modeled the 3D-structure of human SIRT1, the most studied member of this family, that unexpectedly emerged as a member of the intrinsically disordered proteins with its long disordered terminal arms. Despite clear similarities in catalytic cores between the human sirtuins little is known of the general structural characteristics of these proteins. The presence of disorder in human SIRT1 and the propensity of these proteins in promoting molecular interactions make it important to understand the underlying mechanisms of molecular recognition that reasonably should involve terminal segments. The mechanism of recognition, in turn, is a prerequisite for the understanding of any functional activity. Aim of this work is to understand what structural properties are shared among members of this family in humans as well as in other organisms. Results We have studied the distribution of the structural features of N- and C-terminal segments of sirtuins in all known organisms to draw their evolutionary histories by taking into account average length of terminal segments, amino acid composition, intrinsic disorder, presence of charged stretches, presence of putative phosphorylation sites, flexibility, and GC content of genes. Finally, we have carried out a comprehensive analysis of the putative

  19. Implement Family Member Assessment Component in the Millennium Cohort Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-10-01

    military service ● Family cohesion, expressiveness, and conflict ● Child behavioral, developmental, and general health ● Health service use ● Alcohol ...military service ● Family cohesion, expressiveness, and conflict ● Child behavioral, developmental and general health ● Health services ● Alcohol and... maltreatment  Parental physical and mental health problems, or loss  Rising rates of military child mental health utilization NCTSN Collaborative

  20. Accommodating family life: mentoring future female faculty members.

    PubMed

    Lodish, Harvey F

    2015-03-01

    The demands of family life are crucial factors in successfully retaining women in science. Retention efforts should focus on creating a family-friendly environment within the laboratory and the institute. Based on my own experiences, I suggest ways to attract top young scientists and support their development into leading researchers.

  1. Critical Analysis of the United States Air Force Exceptional Family Member Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-02-14

    required to have a dental exam, with the dentist completing the dental clearance paperwork. Furthermore, if the member is coded for medical...Surgeon (AFSPC/SG), has suggested that we could have the clinic give priority to these patients , and shorten the processing time for the medical...most Air Force dental clinics do not routinely see family members, the family members usually are seen by civilian dentists for their dental needs

  2. Improving Access to Behavioral Health Care for Remote Service Members and Their Families

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-01-01

    living in rural areas. The second vein of reform concerns behav- ioral health care capability-building for remote service members and dependents. This...C O R P O R A T I O N Improving Access to Behavioral Health Care for Remote Service Members and Their Families Ryan Andrew Brown, Grant N. Marshall...Lisa Miyashiro, Yashodhara Rana, David M. Adamson • Remoteness from behavioral health care services affects many service members and their families

  3. Coping with colorectal cancer: a qualitative exploration with patients and their family members

    PubMed Central

    Asiedu, Gladys B; Eustace, Rosemary W; Eton, David T

    2014-01-01

    Background. Extensive family coping research has been conducted among breast cancer, prostate cancer and melanoma with lesser emphasis on the coping experiences of colorectal cancer (CRC) patients and their family members. Objective. To examine ways in which patients and their family members cope with the diagnosis of CRC. Methods. A total of 73 participants (21 patients, 52 family members) from 23 families described their experiences during and after a CRC diagnosis, including their coping experiences with the diagnosis. Data from semi-structured interviews were audio recorded and transcribed. The data were analyzed utilizing content analysis with inductive coding methods. Results. Eight major themes were identified: positive reframing, holding on to a sense of normalcy, religion and spirituality, joining a group, creating awareness of CRC, lifestyle change, seeking information and alternative treatments. Maintaining an emotional sense of normalcy through positive thinking, engaging in activities to take one’s mind off the diagnosis and believing that there is a higher authority which has control over the diagnosis and life were vital for the patients and their family members. Patients and family members used similar coping strategies. Conclusion. Findings from this study have implications for understanding how families blend emotion-based and problem-focused coping strategies in the face of a CRC diagnosis. Further developing evidence-based interventions that target coping and well-being in cancer patients and extending them to family members is necessary and holds great promise for providers who care for patients with familial cancers. PMID:25080507

  4. Embracing technology: patients', family members' and nurse specialists' experience of communicating using e-mail.

    PubMed

    Cornwall, Amanda; Moore, Sally; Plant, Hilary

    2008-07-01

    This paper reports on a study exploring the usefulness of e-mail as a means of communication between nurse specialists and patients with lung cancer and their families. The study involved two lung cancer nurse specialists and 16 patients and family members who used e-mail with them during the 6-month study period. Data were collected from three sources: (1) e-mail contact between the nurse specialists and patients/family members, (2) patient/family member questionnaire and (3) a focus group/reflective session with the nurse specialists. Quantitative data collected from the e-mails and the questionnaires were analysed descriptively and are presented as summary statistics. Text data from the questionnaires and e-mails were analysed using content analysis. Findings suggest that e-mail can be an effective and convenient means of communication between nurse specialists, and patients and family members. Patients and family members reported high levels of satisfaction with this method of communication. It was found to be quick and easy, and patients and family members were satisfied with both the response and the speed of response from the nurse specialists. Nurse specialists were also positive about e-mail use and found that the benefits of using e-mail with patients/family members outweighed any disadvantages. Further investigation is recommended involving other health care professionals and different patient groups to ensure the safe and appropriate use of e-mail within health care.

  5. Recovering from Opioid Overdose: Resources for Overdose Survivors & Family Members

    MedlinePlus

    ... survivors and their families can be found at: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA)  National Helpline ... treatment/ physician- program- data/ treatment- physician- locator  State Substance Abuse Agencies: https: / / findtreatment. samhsa. gov/ TreatmentLocator/ faces/ about. ...

  6. The psychosocial status of the family members of rheumatoid arthritis patients in Korea.

    PubMed

    Chung, Sang Wan; Ha, You Jung; Kang, Eun Ha; Lee, Yun Jong; Song, Yeong Wook

    2016-05-01

    To investigate the psychosocial aspect of the family members of the patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), we conducted a population-based analysis to examine the psychosocial characteristics of family members of RA patients in comparison with the general population. From the Fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey dataset (KNHANES V) (2010-2012), we identified 363 RA patients and selected family members of these patients who were aged 20 years or older (n = 367). The control group was randomly sampled from members of families without RA patients and matched for sex and age (n = 1101). We compared the psychosocial characteristics of family members of RA patients with the control group. Additionally, serial conditional logistic regression models were performed to evaluate the factors that affect psychosocial status of the RA family members, after adjusting for covariates. No significant differences were found in socioeconomic status between the two groups. For psychological factors, stress (85.8 vs 74.7 %, p < 0.001) and depression (7.9 vs 3.3 %, p < 0.001) were more common in the family members of RA patients. The presence of a RA patient in the family showed a positive association with stress [odds ratio (OR) 2.07; 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.48-2.88, p < 0.001] and depression (OR 2.59, CI 1.55-4.32, p < 0.001), after adjusting for socioeconomic status. Our data show that the family members of RA patients have an increased prevalence of stress and depression. Physicians who treat RA patients should also consider the needs and the burden of family members.

  7. The Family As Role Model for Educating Its Members: Childhood through Adulthood.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zehner, Wilhelm

    The key element for survival in today's technological society is the family and the role it plays in the education of its members. Educational attainments are closely linked to family background; not only for children, but for adults as well. Children tend to gain levels of education similar to, if not higher than those of family heads, and…

  8. Family Members Affected by a Close Relative's Addiction: The Stress-Strain-Coping-Support Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orford, Jim; Copello, Alex; Velleman, Richard; Templeton, Lorna

    2010-01-01

    This article outlines the stress-strain-coping-support (SSCS) model which underpins the whole programme of work described in this supplement. The need for such a model is explained: previous models of substance misuse and the family have attributed dysfunction or deficiency to families or family members. In contrast, the SSCS model assumes that…

  9. Patients' and family members' experiences of a psychoeducational family intervention after a first episode psychosis: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Nilsen, Liv; Frich, Jan C; Friis, Svein; Røssberg, Jan Ivar

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study is to explore patients' and family members' experiences of the different elements of a psychoeducational family intervention. A qualitative, explorative study was performed based on digitally recorded in-depth interviews with 12 patients and 14 family members. The interview data were transcribed in a slightly modified verbatim mode and analysed using systematic text condensation. Six themes that both patients and family members experienced as important in the family intervention were identified: alliance, support, anxiety and tension, knowledge and learning, time, and structure. A good relationship between the group leaders and participants was essential in preventing dropout. Meeting with other people in the same situation reduced feelings of shame and increased hope for the future. Hearing real life stories was experienced as being more important for gaining new knowledge about psychosis than lectures and workshops. However, many patients experienced anxiety and tension during the meetings. The group format could be demanding for patients immediately after a psychotic episode and for those still struggling with distressing psychotic symptoms. Group leaders need to recognise patients' levels of anxiety before, and during, the intervention, and consider the different needs of patients and family members in regards to when the intervention starts, the group format, and the patients' level of psychotic symptoms. The findings in the present study may help to tailor family work to better meet the needs of both patients and family members.

  10. A unified nomenclature of NITRATE TRANSPORTER 1/PEPTIDE TRANSPORTER family members in plants.

    PubMed

    Léran, Sophie; Varala, Kranthi; Boyer, Jean-Christophe; Chiurazzi, Maurizio; Crawford, Nigel; Daniel-Vedele, Françoise; David, Laure; Dickstein, Rebecca; Fernandez, Emilio; Forde, Brian; Gassmann, Walter; Geiger, Dietmar; Gojon, Alain; Gong, Ji-Ming; Halkier, Barbara A; Harris, Jeanne M; Hedrich, Rainer; Limami, Anis M; Rentsch, Doris; Seo, Mitsunori; Tsay, Yi-Fang; Zhang, Mingyong; Coruzzi, Gloria; Lacombe, Benoît

    2014-01-01

    Members of the plant NITRATE TRANSPORTER 1/PEPTIDE TRANSPORTER (NRT1/PTR) family display protein sequence homology with the SLC15/PepT/PTR/POT family of peptide transporters in animals. In comparison to their animal and bacterial counterparts, these plant proteins transport a wide variety of substrates: nitrate, peptides, amino acids, dicarboxylates, glucosinolates, IAA, and ABA. The phylogenetic relationship of the members of the NRT1/PTR family in 31 fully sequenced plant genomes allowed the identification of unambiguous clades, defining eight subfamilies. The phylogenetic tree was used to determine a unified nomenclature of this family named NPF, for NRT1/PTR FAMILY. We propose that the members should be named accordingly: NPFX.Y, where X denotes the subfamily and Y the individual member within the species.

  11. Glycosidase profiles of members of the family Enterobacteriaceae.

    PubMed Central

    Kämpfer, P; Rauhoff, O; Dott, W

    1991-01-01

    A total of 712 strains representing 47 taxa of the family Enterobacteriaceae were tested for the ability to hydrolyze 14 4-methylumbelliferyl (4-MU)-linked substrates within 3 h of incubation. In addition to the well-known differentiation potential of the hydrolysis of 4-MU-beta-D-galactopyranoside, 4-MU-beta-D-glucuronide, and 4-MU-beta-D-xylopyranoside, the hydrolysis of some other fluorogenic substrates (e.g., 4-MU-beta-D-fucopyranoside, 4-MU-N-acetyl-beta-D-galactosaminide, and 4-MU-alpha-D-galactopyranoside) can also be used for species differentiation within the family Enterobacteriaceae. PMID:1757564

  12. Work/Family Attitudes of Dual Military Member Couples

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-04-01

    MilitarW familW statistics in its annual almanac. The Air Force began its own research after the 1980 appointment of the Assistant for Air Force...leveling off of the numbers of dual military member couples since 1983 ( after 12 years of rapid increase) may have something to do with the increasing...stability and internal consistency. However, after its first 2 years of use, Dansby (1M) examined the stability of factor construction through a series

  13. [A study on the factors influencing the anxiety of family members in the emergency department].

    PubMed

    Kawakami, Chifumi; Matsuoka, Midori; Taki, Kenji

    2004-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the factors which affect anxiety of family members in the emergency department (ED). 174 family members of patients participated in this study. The age of family members was a mean of 43.1 (range: 20 to 84) years and 59.8% of them were women. The informations were obtained from a questionnaire filled out by the family members when they were waiting during examination and treatment of the patients. In this study, we divided the factors that influence the anxiety of family members into 4 categories; demographic factors, the family's individual factors, factors associated illness, and environmental factors in the ED. Multiple regression analysis with SPSS was used to identify the variables contributing to the variance in anxiety. We used the State Anxiety Inventory (S-STAI) to measure anxiety. As a result, 8 variables involving in severity of illness, situation in the emergency room, disagreement between perceived severity of illness and actual severity of illness, having symptoms of trauma, neurological, heart, and respiratory problems, waiting time, family needs, naturally anxious personality and a first visit patient were identified as significant predictors of anxiety. These variables accounted for 46.9% of total variance. These results suggest that nurses need more interaction with family members to reduce their anxiety.

  14. Staff-family relationships in residential aged care facilities: the views of residents' family members and care staff.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Michael; Fetherstonhaugh, Deirdre; Tarzia, Laura; Chenco, Carol

    2014-08-01

    The aim of the study was to examine staff and family members' perceptions of each other's roles and responsibilities in the Australian residential aged care setting. Data was collected by interview and focus group from 27 staff and 14 family members at five residential aged care facilities in the state of Victoria, Australia. Findings highlight "communication" as the core category supporting the formation of constructive staff-family relationships, as described by three main themes; "building trust," "involvement," and "keeping the family happy." Staff attitudes, mutual cooperation, meaningful engagement, and shared expectations lay the foundation for relationships. Findings suggest that further efforts to establish and sustain good relationships with families are required by facilities. Characteristics, roles, and expectations of staff and family that can both promote and hinder the formation of constructive staff-family relationships are discussed.

  15. Suicidal ideation and distress in family members bereaved by suicide in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Santos, Sara; Campos, Rui C; Tavares, Sofia

    2015-01-01

    The present study assessed the impact of suicide and distress on suicidal ideation in a sample of 93 Portuguese family members bereaved by suicide. A control community sample of 102 adults also participated. After controlling for educational level, those bereaved by the suicide of a family member were found to have higher levels of suicidal ideation. Forty-two percent of family members had Suicide Ideation Questionnaire scores at or above the cutoff point. General distress, depression, anxiety, and hostility related to suicidal ideation, whereas time since suicide also interacted with general distress and depression in predicting suicidal ideation.

  16. [The phenomenon of families who are involved in decision making about life support withdrawal in family members].

    PubMed

    Oberholster, M; Gmeiner, A; Poggenpoel, M

    1998-12-01

    The overall objective of this study was to explore and describe the phenomenon of families who are involved in deciding about withdrawal of life-support treatment of a family member. A phenomenon analysis was undertaken in two phases. During the first phase, secondary analysis of primary data was done on the family used in Burger's study (1996: 1-175) and was followed up by phenomenological interviews with families used as member checking from the same circumstances and according to the same criteria that Burger (1996: 1-185) used in her study. Data were analysed in collaboration with an independent coder. The family used as member checking in this study is also used as data control. A literature control was conducted as part of data control. The themes that were identified included were: physical and bodily experiences of families; defence mechanisms used by families to cope with grief; emotional experiences of families; need of knowledge/perceptions/outlook on life/internal conflict/feelings of guilt/ability to make decisions/respect of patient wishes/the effect of time and prior experiences; support needed by an given to families; spiritual and supernatural experiences/hope/acceptance/ability to 'let go' of the patient. In phase two, guidelines were described for psychiatric nurse specialists to mobilise resources for families to promote, maintain and restore their mental health as an integral part of health.

  17. Psychiatric Worker and Family Members: Pathways Towards Co-Operation Networks within Psychiatric Assistance Services.

    PubMed

    Carbone, Silvia

    2014-03-04

    The family's role in patient care was greatly altered by Law 180. This law, introduced in Italy in 1978, led to a gradual phasing out of custodial treatment for psychiatric patients. This different mindset, which views the family as an alternative to institutionalization, leads to it being seen as an essential entity in the setting up of community service dynamics. We interviewed health professionals in order to understand obstacles of collaboration between family members and mental health care workers. The goal was to uncover actions that promote collaboration and help build alliances between families and psychiatric workers. Results showed that health professionals view the family as a therapeutic resource. Despite this view, family members were rarely included in patient treatment. The reasons is: the structures have a theoretical orientation of collaboration with the family but, for nurses not are organized a few meeting spaces with family members. Services should create moments, such as multi-family groups or groups of information, managed by nurses and not only by doctors. These occasions it might facilitate the knowledge between professionals and family members.

  18. Associative stigma in family members of psychotic patients in Flanders: An exploratory study

    PubMed Central

    Catthoor, Kirsten; Schrijvers, Didier; Hutsebaut, Joost; Feenstra, Dineke; Persoons, Philippe; De Hert, Marc; Peuskens, Jozef; Sabbe, Bernard

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To assess presence and severity of associative stigma in family members of psychotic patients and factors for higher associative stigma. METHODS: Standardized semi-structured interview of 150 family members of psychotic patients receiving full time treatment. This study on associative stigma in family members of psychotic patients was part of a larger research program on the burden of the family, using “Interview for the Burden of the Family” and the chapters stigma, treatment and attribution from the “Family interview Schedule”. The respondents were relatives, one per patient, either partner or parent. The patients had been diagnosed with schizophrenia or schizo-affective disorder. All contacts with patients and relatives were in Dutch. Relatives were deemed suitable to participate in this research if they saw the patient at least once a week. Recruitment took place in a standardized way: after obtaining the patient’s consent, the relatives were approached to participate. The results were analyzed using SPSS Version 18.0. RESULTS: The prevalence of associative stigma in this sample is 86%. Feelings of depression in the majority of family members are prominent. Twenty-one point three percent experienced guilt more or less frequent, while shame was less pronounced. Also, 18.6% of all respondents indicated that they tried to hide the illness of their family member for others regularly or more. Three six point seven percent really kept secret about it in certain circumstances and 29.3% made efforts to explain what the situation or psychiatric condition of their family member really is like. Factors with marked significance towards higher associative stigma are a worsened relationship between the patient and the family member, conduct problems to family members, the patients’ residence in a residential care setting, and hereditary attributional factors like genetic hereditability and character. The level of associative stigma has significantly been

  19. Family members' experiences of personal assistance given to a relative with disabilities.

    PubMed

    Ahlström, Gerd; Wadensten, Barbro

    2011-11-01

    Personal assistance is a type of home care common to many countries even though entitlement and legislative framework may vary from country to country. At present, there exists no knowledge about the family members' experiences of such assistance; therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate family members' experiences of personal assistance given to a relative of working age with a functional disability. Twenty-five family members who had a relative with a severe neurological disease in Sweden were interviewed about the significance of personal assistance, and the qualitative interviews were subjected to qualitative latent content analysis. The overall findings verify the close connection between the family members' experiences and their perception of the quality of the caring relationship between the personal assistant and the person with disability. The main finding was an appreciation of the personal assistance on the part of the family members. However, in situations where the encounter between the assistant and the relative with disability was perceived negatively, the family members experienced great anxiety. The shortcomings were the inability to maintain a private life with assistance and the limitation of choice because of the shortage of personal assistants. Beyond these general findings, this study found that personal assistance was experienced by the family members in terms of dignity and empowering care. This theme was generated from seven subthemes: Insight into private life, Security through the close relation, Social life through freedom of movement, Influence over the organisation of assistance, Self-determination and understanding, Friendship and mutual respect and Adaption to the dependency on assistance. The findings indicate that responsible officials, work leaders and assistants need constantly to improve the implementation of the law. In such efforts, the experiences of family members described in this study are a source of knowledge.

  20. Nurses' experiences of caring for their own family members.

    PubMed

    Mills, Jayne; Aubeeluck, Aimee

    There is a wealth of literature that addresses the needs of informal caregivers and the needs of health professionals caring for someone with a life-threatening illness. However, there is a paucity of research that deals with nurses who are caring for their own relative who has a life-threatening illness. This qualitative study explores the information needs, support systems available, and the impact that this experience has upon the nurse's quality of life. Individual semi-structured interviews were transcribed and analysed using interpretative phenomenological analysis (Smith and Osbourne, 2003). Four superordinate themes emerged from the data: quality of life, personal and professional boundaries, disempowerment and positive aspects to the role. These themes were then linked to validated models of caregiving (Caron and Bowers 2003; Sherwood et al, 2004) to further explore their impact upon the nurse in his/her role as family carer. This study has established that nurses providing care for their own relatives have specific needs with regard to their dual role as a health professional and family carer. In understanding these specific needs, it may be possible to provide a more effective and equal level of support for these individuals. Implications for practice and future research are discussed.

  1. Characterisation of candidate members of (136108) Haumea's family. II. Follow-up observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carry, B.; Snodgrass, C.; Lacerda, P.; Hainaut, O.; Dumas, C.

    2012-08-01

    Context. From a dynamical analysis of the orbital elements of trans-Neptunian objects (TNOs), Ragozzine & Brown (2007, AJ, 134, 2160) reported a list of candidate members of the first collisional family found among this population, associated with (136 108) Haumea (a.k.a. 2003 EL61). Aims: We aim to distinguish the true members of the Haumea collisional family from interlopers. We search for water ice on their surfaces, which is a common characteristic of the known family members. The properties of the confirmed family are used to constrain the formation mechanism of Haumea, its satellites, and its family. Methods: Optical and near-infrared photometry is used to identify water ice. We use in particular the CH4 filter of the Hawk-I instrument at the European Southern Observatory Very Large Telescope as a short H-band (HS), the (J - HS) colour being a sensitive measure of the water ice absorption band at 1.6 μm. Results: Continuing our previous study headed by Snodgrass, we report colours for 8 candidate family members, including near-infrared colours for 5. We confirm one object as a genuine member of the collisional family (2003 UZ117), and reject 5 others. The lack of infrared data for the two remaining objects prevent any conclusion from being drawn. The total number of rejected members is therefore 17. The 11 confirmed members represent only a third of the 36 candidates. Conclusions: The origin of Haumea's family is likely to be related to an impact event. However, a scenario explaining all the peculiarities of Haumea itself and its family remains elusive. Based on observations collected at the European Southern Observatory, La Silla & Paranal, Chile - 81.C-0544 & 82.C-0306 & 84.C-0594.

  2. The Many Faces of Military Families: Unique Features of the Lives of Female Service Members.

    PubMed

    Southwell, Kenona H; MacDermid Wadsworth, Shelley M

    2016-01-01

    Female service members' family structures differ from the traditional male service member-female spouse composition of military families. Consequently, this mixed-methods study reviewed demographic data, empirical evidence, and presented findings from secondary analyses of the 2010 wave of the Military Family Life Project regarding structural differences in male and female service members' families and perceptions and experiences of military spouses. In addition, to gain an understanding of the influence of women's service on their family functioning, we conducted in-depth telephone interviews with 20 civilian husbands residing in 11 states around the United States. Empirical evidence suggests service women had higher rates or remarriage and divorce than service men. Women were also more likely than men to be part of nontraditional family forms. Civilian husbands of female service members, however, reported lower marital satisfaction, less support from the community, and less satisfaction with the military lifestyle than military wives. Husbands' accounts indicated that their families experienced both benefits and challenges from wives' service. Integration in the military community and separation presented major challenges for women's families. Implications of benefits and challenges of women's service for their families are discussed.

  3. Grief among Surviving Family Members of Homicide Victims: A Causal Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sprang, M. Virginia; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Proposed causal model to delineate predictors of self-reported grief among surviving family members of homicide victims. Evaluated model using data from survey of members of "Victims of Violence" support groups. Results generally supported model and indicated that correlates of grief differed across gender-specific subgroups in terms of their…

  4. Pneumonia care and the nursing home: a qualitative descriptive study of resident and family member perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Chan Carusone, Soo; Loeb, Mark; Lohfeld, Lynne

    2006-01-01

    Background Nursing home residents are frequently sent to hospital for diagnostic tests or to receive acute health care services. These transfers are both costly and for some, associated with increased risks. Although improved technology allows long-term care facilities to deliver more complex health care on site, if this is to become a trend then residents and family members must see the value of such care. This qualitative study examined resident and family member perspectives on in situ care for pneumonia. Methods A qualitative descriptive study design was used. Participants were residents and family members of residents treated for pneumonia drawn from a larger randomized controlled trial of a clinical pathway to manage nursing home-acquired pneumonia on-site. A total of 14 in-depth interviews were conducted. Interview data were analyzed using the editing style, described by Miller and Crabtree, to identify key themes. Results Both residents and family members preferred that pneumonia be treated in the nursing home, where possible. They both felt that caring and attention are key aspects of care which are more easily accessible in the nursing home setting. However, residents felt that staff or doctors should make the decision whether to hospitalize them, whereas family members wanted to be consulted or involved in the decision-making process. Conclusion These findings suggest that interventions to reduce hospitalization of nursing home residents with pneumonia are consistent with resident and family member preferences. PMID:16430782

  5. IQGAP Family Members in Yeast, Dictyostelium, and Mammalian Cells

    PubMed Central

    Shannon, Katie B.

    2012-01-01

    IQGAPs are a family of scaffolding proteins with multiple domains, named for the IQ motifs and GTPase activating protein (GAP) related domains. Despite their GAP homology, IQGAP proteins act as effectors for GTP-bound GTPases of the Ras superfamily and do not stimulate GTP hydrolysis. IQGAPs are found in eukaryotic cells from yeast to human, and localize to actin-containing structures such as lamellipodia, membrane ruffles, cell-cell adhesions, phagocytic cups, and the actomyosin ring formed during cytokinesis. Mammalian IQGAPs also act as scaffolds for signaling pathways. IQGAPs perform their myriad functions through association with a large number of proteins including filamentous actin (F-actin), GTPases, calcium-binding proteins, microtubule binding proteins, kinases, and receptors. The focus of this paper is on recent studies describing new binding partners, mechanisms of regulation, and biochemical and physiological functions of IQGAPs in yeast, amoeba, and mammalian cells. PMID:22505937

  6. STS-101 crew members meet family and friends

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The STS-101 crew gather during a meeting with family and friends at Launch Pad 39A. From left, Mission Specialist Susan J. Helms, Commander James D. Halsell Jr., Mission Specialist Mary Ellen Weber, Pilot Scott J. Horowitz and Mission Specialists Yuri Vladimirovich Usachev, Jeffery N. Williams and James S. Voss. In the background is the Space Shuttle Atlantis on the pad. Mission STS-101 will take the crew to the International Space Station to deliver logistics and supplies, plus prepare the Station for the arrival of the Zvezda Service Module, expected to be launched by Russia in July 2000. The crew will conduct one space walk to perform maintenance on the Space Station as well. This will be the third assembly flight for the Space Station. Launch is targeted for April 24 at about 4:15 p.m. EDT from Launch Pad 39A.

  7. STS-101 crew members meet family and friends

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    A light-hearted moment during a meeting of the STS-101 crew with family and friends at Launch Pad 39A. From left, Commander James D. Halsell Jr., Mission Specialist Mary Ellen Weber and Pilot Scott J. Horowitz. Mission STS-101 will take the crew to the International Space Station to deliver logistics and supplies, plus prepare the Station for the arrival of the Zvezda Service Module, expected to be launched by Russia in July 2000. The crew will conduct one space walk to perform maintenance on the Space Station as well. This will be the third assembly flight for the Space Station. Launch is targeted for April 24 at about 4:15 p.m. EDT from Launch Pad 39A.

  8. STS-101 crew members meet family and friends

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    STS-101 Mission Specialist Yuri Vladimirovich Usachev, a Russian cosmonaut, and his wife Vera Sergeevna Usacheva during a meeting of the STS-101 crew with family and friends at Launch Pad 39A. Mission STS-101 will take the crew to the International Space Station to deliver logistics and supplies, plus prepare the Station for the arrival of the Zvezda Service Module, expected to be launched by Russia in July 2000. The crew will conduct one space walk to perform maintenance on the Space Station as well. This will be the third assembly flight for the Space Station. Launch is targeted for April 24 at about 4:15 p.m. EDT from Launch Pad 39A.

  9. STS-101 crew members meet family and friends

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    STS-101 Commander James D. Halsell Jr. waves as he stands with his wife Kathy during a meeting of the STS-101 crew with family and friends at Launch Pad 39A. Mission STS-101 will take the crew to the International Space Station to deliver logistics and supplies, plus prepare the Station for the arrival of the Zvezda Service Module, expected to be launched by Russia in July 2000. The crew will conduct one space walk to perform maintenance on the Space Station as well. This will be the third assembly flight for the Space Station. Launch is targeted for April 24 at about 4:15 p.m. EDT from Launch Pad 39A.

  10. STS-101 crew members meet family and friends

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    STS-101 Mission Specialist Mary Ellen Weber and her husband Jerome Elkind during a meeting of the STS-101 crew with family and friends at Launch Pad 39A. Mission STS-101 will take the crew to the International Space Station to deliver logistics and supplies, plus prepare the Station for the arrival of the Zvezda Service Module, expected to be launched by Russia in July 2000. The crew will conduct one space walk to perform maintenance on the Space Station as well. This will be the third assembly flight for the Space Station. Launch is targeted for April 24 at about 4:15 p.m. EDT from Launch Pad 39A.

  11. Marfan syndrome in a large family: response of family members to a screening programme.

    PubMed

    Bridges, A B; Faed, M; Boxer, M; Gray, J R; Bundy, C; Murray, A

    1992-02-01

    Reaction to medical, social, and genetic implications of Marfan syndrome was evaluated by means of two questionnaires, the first after various tests before discussion of the diagnosis, the second after full discussion of the patient's diagnosis. Thirty-seven members of a family known to be at risk for Marfan syndrome attended for both questionnaires. All patients claimed to be satisfied with the way they were informed of the results of screening; 41% of patients were more worried about their health and 48% were more worried about the future after diagnosis. Apart from 50% of the smokers reducing or stopping their intake of cigarettes there were only very minor changes in lifestyle over the first month despite the increased level of expressed anxiety. If a definitive screening test was available, 96% of patients claimed they would have chosen it, 45% felt it would have an influence on their future plans, and 78% would choose to use a method of prenatal diagnosis for Marfan syndrome if it were available.

  12. Characterization of Members of the Legionellaceae Family by Automated Ribotyping

    PubMed Central

    Cordevant, Christophe; Tang, Jane S.; Cleland, David; Lange, Marc

    2003-01-01

    In order to implement a new and reliable method for characterizing different species of Legionella, a genetic fingerprinting study with an automated ribotyping system (RiboPrinter) was completed with members of this genus which were deposited at the American Type Culture Collection. The RiboPrinter examined the different patterns of EcoRI digestion fragments from the rRNA operons of 110 strains, representing 48 of the 49 described Legionella species as well as 70 serogroups of those species. Distinctive and consistent patterns were obtained for the type strains of the 48 species investigated. Legionella pneumophila subsp. fraseri and L. pneumophila subsp. pascullei each generated a specific pattern, whereas L. pneumophila subsp. pneumophila produced six different fingerprint patterns. No correlation seemed to exist between the ribotypes obtained and the 15 serotypes of L. pneumophila. For the other species, those with two known serogroups presented two distinctive patterns with the RiboPrinter with the exception of L. hackeliae and L. quinlivanii, which yielded only one pattern. We also encountered ribotypes for strains which were not identified to the species level. The ribotypes generated for these strains with the RiboPrinter did not match those generated for known type strains, suggesting the putative description of new serogroups or species. Although the automated system did not have sufficient discriminatory ability to serve as an epidemiological tool in a clinical setting, it appeared to be a powerful tool for general genomic analysis of the Legionella isolates (e.g., determination of new species) and assessment of the interrelationship among Legionella strains through the RiboPrinter database connection. PMID:12517822

  13. 38 CFR 71.50 - Provision of certain counseling, training, and mental health services to certain family members...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... counseling, training, and mental health services to certain family members of veterans. 71.50 Section 71.50..., training, and mental health services to certain family members of veterans. (a) Benefits provided under..., training, and mental health services to a family member when necessary in connection with the treatment...

  14. 38 CFR 71.50 - Provision of certain counseling, training, and mental health services to certain family members...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... counseling, training, and mental health services to certain family members of veterans. 71.50 Section 71.50..., training, and mental health services to certain family members of veterans. (a) Benefits provided under..., training, and mental health services to a family member when necessary in connection with the treatment...

  15. 38 CFR 71.50 - Provision of certain counseling, training, and mental health services to certain family members...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... counseling, training, and mental health services to certain family members of veterans. 71.50 Section 71.50..., training, and mental health services to certain family members of veterans. (a) Benefits provided under..., training, and mental health services to a family member when necessary in connection with the treatment...

  16. 38 CFR 71.50 - Provision of certain counseling, training, and mental health services to certain family members...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... counseling, training, and mental health services to certain family members of veterans. 71.50 Section 71.50..., training, and mental health services to certain family members of veterans. (a) Benefits provided under..., training, and mental health services to a family member when necessary in connection with the treatment...

  17. STS-99 crew members meet with family and friends

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The day before the expected launch of STS-99, Mission Specialist Janet Lynn Kavandi poses for photographers near Launch Pad 39A where family and friends have gathered to greet the crew. STS-99, known as the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), is scheduled to lift off 12:47 p.m. EST from Launch Pad 39A. The SRTM will chart a new course to produce unrivaled 3-D images of the Earth's surface, using two antennae and a 200-foot-long section of space station-derived mast protruding from the payload bay. The result of the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission could be close to 1 trillion measurements of the Earth's topography. Besides contributing to the production of better maps, these measurements could lead to improved water drainage modeling, more realistic flight simulators, better locations for cell phone towers, and enhanced navigation safety. The mission is expected to last about 11days, with Endeavour landing at KSC Friday, Feb. 11, at 4:55 p.m.

  18. STS-99 crew members meet with family and friends

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The day before the expected launch of STS-99, Mission Specialist Gerhard Thiele enjoys a reunion with his wife near Launch Pad 39A where family and friends have gathered to greet the crew. STS-99, known as the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), is scheduled to lift off 12:47 p.m. EST from Launch Pad 39A. The SRTM will chart a new course to produce unrivaled 3-D images of the Earth's surface, using two antennae and a 200-foot-long section of space station-derived mast protruding from the payload bay. The result of the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission could be close to 1 trillion measurements of the Earth's topography. Besides contributing to the production of better maps, these measurements could lead to improved water drainage modeling, more realistic flight simulators, better locations for cell phone towers, and enhanced navigation safety. The mission is expected to last about 11days, with Endeavour landing at KSC Friday, Feb. 11, at 4:55 p.m.

  19. STS-99 crew members meet with family and friends

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The day before the expected launch of STS-99, Pilot Dominic Gorie enjoys a reunion with his wife, Wendy, near Launch Pad 39A where family and friends have gathered to greet the crew. STS-99, known as the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), is scheduled to lift off 12:47 p.m. EST from Launch Pad 39A. The SRTM will chart a new course to produce unrivaled 3-D images of the Earth's surface, using two antennae and a 200-foot-long section of space station-derived mast protruding from the payload bay. The result of the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission could be close to 1 trillion measurements of the Earth's topography. Besides contributing to the production of better maps, these measurements could lead to improved water drainage modeling, more realistic flight simulators, better locations for cell phone towers, and enhanced navigation safety. The mission is expected to last about 11days, with Endeavour landing at KSC Friday, Feb. 11, at 4:55 p.m.

  20. Leiomodins: larger members of the tropomodulin (Tmod) gene family

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conley, C. A.; Fritz-Six, K. L.; Almenar-Queralt, A.; Fowler, V. M.

    2001-01-01

    The 64-kDa autoantigen D1 or 1D, first identified as a potential autoantigen in Graves' disease, is similar to the tropomodulin (Tmod) family of actin filament pointed end-capping proteins. A novel gene with significant similarity to the 64-kDa human autoantigen D1 has been cloned from both humans and mice, and the genomic sequences of both genes have been identified. These genes form a subfamily closely related to the Tmods and are here named the Leiomodins (Lmods). Both Lmod genes display a conserved intron-exon structure, as do three Tmod genes, but the intron-exon structure of the Lmods and the Tmods is divergent. mRNA expression analysis indicates that the gene formerly known as the 64-kDa autoantigen D1 is most highly expressed in a variety of human tissues that contain smooth muscle, earning it the name smooth muscle Leiomodin (SM-Lmod; HGMW-approved symbol LMOD1). Transcripts encoding the novel Lmod gene are present exclusively in fetal and adult heart and adult skeletal muscle, and it is here named cardiac Leiomodin (C-Lmod; HGMW-approved symbol LMOD2). Human C-Lmod is located near the hypertrophic cardiomyopathy locus CMH6 on human chromosome 7q3, potentially implicating it in this disease. Our data demonstrate that the Lmods are evolutionarily related and display tissue-specific patterns of expression distinct from, but overlapping with, the expression of Tmod isoforms. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.

  1. STS-99 crew members meet with family and friends

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The day before the expected launch of STS-99, Commander Kevin Kregel enjoys a reunion with his wife, Jeanne, near Launch Pad 39A where family and friends have gathered to greet the crew. STS-99, known as the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), is scheduled to lift off 12:47 p.m. EST from Launch Pad 39A. The SRTM will chart a new course to produce unrivaled 3-D images of the Earth's surface, using two antennae and a 200-foot-long section of space station-derived mast protruding from the payload bay. The result of the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission could be close to 1 trillion measurements of the Earth's topography. Besides contributing to the production of better maps, these measurements could lead to improved water drainage modeling, more realistic flight simulators, better locations for cell phone towers, and enhanced navigation safety. The mission is expected to last about 11days, with Endeavour landing at KSC Friday, Feb. 11, at 4:55 p.m.

  2. Normative beliefs about sharing housing with an older family member.

    PubMed

    Coleman, Marilyn; Ganong, Lawrence

    2008-01-01

    The aims of this study were: (a) to examine general perceptions of filial obligations toward sharing housing with older parents and stepparents; and (b) to assess the effects of selected contextual factors on those normative beliefs. A national sample of 579 men and 582 women (mean age = 44.6, SD = 17.2) responded to a multiple segment factorial vignette in which an older parent or stepparent was portrayed as needing help with housing. Respondents thought that parents should be helped more than stepparents, younger adults with greater resources were more obligated to help older parents and stepparents than were those with meager resources, and older parents and stepparents with greater need acuity were expected to be helped more than older parents and stepparents with less serious housing needs. Attitudes about co-residence were based on family obligation norms, beliefs about repaying older adults for past help, perceived relationship quality, other demands on the younger adult's resources, the older person's resources, and moral responsibilities to assist.

  3. Cyclic beta-glucans of members of the family Rhizobiaceae.

    PubMed Central

    Breedveld, M W; Miller, K J

    1994-01-01

    Cyclic beta-glucans are low-molecular-weight cell surface carbohydrates that are found almost exclusively in bacteria of the Rhizobiaceae family. These glucans are major cellular constituents, and under certain culture conditions their levels may reach up to 20% of the total cellular dry weight. In Agrobacterium and Rhizobium species, these molecules contain between 17 and 40 glucose residues linked solely by beta-(1,2) glycosidic bonds. In Bradyrhizobium species, the cyclic beta-glucans are smaller (10 to 13 glucose residues) and contain glucose linked by both beta-(1,6) and beta-(1,3) glycosidic bonds. In some rhizobial strains, the cyclic beta-glucans are unsubstituted, whereas in other rhizobia these molecules may become highly substituted with moieties such as sn-1-phosphoglycerol. To date, two genetic loci specifically associated with cyclic beta-glucan biosynthesis have been identified in Rhizobium (ndvA and ndvB) and Agrobacterium (chvA and chvB) species. Mutants with mutations at these loci have been shown to be impaired in their ability to grow in hypoosmotic media, have numerous alterations in their cell surface properties, and are also impaired in their ability to infect plants. The present review will examine the structure and occurrence of the cyclic beta-glucans in a variety of species of the Rhizobiaceae. The possible functions of these unique molecules in the free-living bacteria as well as during plant infection will be discussed. PMID:8078434

  4. Family Members Providing Home-Based Palliative Care to Older Adults: The Enactment of Multiple Roles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clemmer, Sarah J.; Ward-Griffin, Catherine; Forbes, Dorothy

    2008-01-01

    Canadians are experiencing increased life expectancy and chronic illness requiring end-of-life care. There is limited research on the multiple roles for family members providing home-based palliative care. Based on a larger ethnographic study of client-family-provider relationships in home-based palliative care, this qualitative secondary analysis…

  5. 75 FR 33491 - Absence and Leave; Definitions of Family Member, Immediate Relative, and Related Terms

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-14

    ... of family member at Sec. Sec. 630.201(b) and 630.902 (a similar phrase exists in the definition of... the equivalent of a family relationship,'' if there exists a blood relationship (such as niece, nephew... the definition of domestic partner, saying that including both ``fostered equality.''...

  6. Counseling Family Members of Addicts/Alcoholics: The Stages of Change Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Wormer, Katherine

    2008-01-01

    This article adapts the stages of change model, a model in which specific interventions of harm reduction are directed toward the client's readiness for treatment, as a guiding framework for counseling family members of alcoholics/addicts. Interventions at each stage of the family's readiness for change, from precontemplation to action, are…

  7. Using Picture Books to Help Children Cope with a Family Member's Alzheimer's Disease

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holland, Marna

    2005-01-01

    A diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and the resulting behavioral changes in a loved one can cause intense emotional reactions from all family members, including children. Sharing and discussing relevant picture books can be an effective strategy to help the children in such families understand and deal with their emotions. Picture books can…

  8. Mexican American Fathers' Occupational Conditions: Links to Family Members' Psychological Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crouter, Ann C.; Davis, Kelly D.; Updegraff, Kimberly; Delgado, Melissa; Fortner, Melissa

    2006-01-01

    To examine the implications of fathers' occupational conditions (i.e., income, work hours, shift work, pressure, workplace racism, and underemployment) for family members' psychological adjustment, home interviews were conducted with fathers, mothers, and two adolescent offspring in each of 218 Mexican American families. Results underscored the…

  9. Strengthening Family Members of Incarcerated Youth: A Productive Role for Extension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brandon, Dorothy P.; Wilson, Constance; Carter, Jannie; Johnson, LaKeisha

    2014-01-01

    The challenge to provide incarcerated youth the skills needed to succeed and avoid recidivism has prompted the use of family-systems approaches in juvenile detention centers. A quasi-experimental study was conducted in northern Alabama to determine the impact of a conflict resolution workshop on the family members of incarcerated youth. Results…

  10. Family Members' Views on Seeking Placement in State-Supported Living Centers in Texas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colvin, Alex D.; Larke, Patricia J.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the factors that influence family members' decisions to seek placement for relatives with intellectual and/or developmental disabilities (ID/DD) into state-supported living centers in Texas. The sample included 51 family caregivers between the ages of 26 and 95. Using descriptive statistics, correlation, and inferential…

  11. The Relationship Between the Perceived Risk of Harm by a Family Member with Mental Illness and the Family Experience.

    PubMed

    Katz, Judith; Medoff, Deborah; Fang, Li Juan; Dixon, Lisa B

    2015-10-01

    Family members of people with serious mental illness (SMI) at times report that they act to stop their ill relative from self harm or harming others. This study examines the relationship between the perception of risk of harm and family distress, burden, empowerment, coping, physical and mental health, appraisal of the caregiving experience, family communication, and family functioning. The study is a secondary analysis of baseline data collected for a randomized study of the family-to-family peer driven education program (FTF). Four hundred thirty-four enrolled individuals who were seeking to participate in FTF completed survey items that asked if they had tried to stop or prevent their ill family member from harming themselves or others in the last 30 days. Participants who perceived a recent risk of harm by their ill relative reported more negative appraisals of caregiving, greater psychological distress, poorer mental health and greater objective burden compared with those who did not perceive a recent risk of harm. The results suggest that families of persons with SMI should be asked about perceived risk of harm to self and others, and the presence of perceived risk of harm should serve as a red flag indicating the need for further evaluation of the family experience and additional support for the family.

  12. Development and Examination of a Family Triadic Measure to Examine Quality of Life Family Congruence in Nursing Home Residents and Two Family Members.

    PubMed

    Aalgaard Kelly, Gina

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The overall purpose of this study was to propose and test a conceptual model and apply family analyses methods to understand quality of life family congruence in the nursing home setting. Method: Secondary data for this study were from a larger study, titled Measurement, Indicators and Improvement of the Quality of Life (QOL) in Nursing Homes. Research literature, family systems theory and human ecological assumptions, fostered the conceptual model empirically testing quality of life family congruence. Results: The study results supported a model examining nursing home residents and two family members on quality of life family congruence. Specifically, family intergenerational dynamic factors, resident personal and social-psychological factors, and nursing home family input factors were examined to identify differences in quality of life family congruence among triad families. Discussion: Formal family involvement and resident cognitive functioning were found as the two most influential factors to quality of life family congruence (QOLFC).

  13. Development and Examination of a Family Triadic Measure to Examine Quality of Life Family Congruence in Nursing Home Residents and Two Family Members

    PubMed Central

    Aalgaard Kelly, Gina

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The overall purpose of this study was to propose and test a conceptual model and apply family analyses methods to understand quality of life family congruence in the nursing home setting. Method: Secondary data for this study were from a larger study, titled Measurement, Indicators and Improvement of the Quality of Life (QOL) in Nursing Homes. Research literature, family systems theory and human ecological assumptions, fostered the conceptual model empirically testing quality of life family congruence. Results: The study results supported a model examining nursing home residents and two family members on quality of life family congruence. Specifically, family intergenerational dynamic factors, resident personal and social-psychological factors, and nursing home family input factors were examined to identify differences in quality of life family congruence among triad families. Discussion: Formal family involvement and resident cognitive functioning were found as the two most influential factors to quality of life family congruence (QOLFC). PMID:28138474

  14. Clinical and surgical data of affected members of a classic CFEOM 1 family

    PubMed Central

    Magli, Adriano; de Berardinis, Teresa; D'Esposito, Fabiana; Gagliardi, Vincenzo

    2003-01-01

    Background Congenital fibiosis of the extraocular muscles (CFEOM1) refers to a group of congenital eye movement disorders that are characterized by non-progressive restrictive ophthalmoplegia. We present clinical and surgical data on affected members of a classic CFEOM1 family. Methods Ten members of a fifteen-member, three-generation Italian family affected by classic CFEOM participated in this study. Each affected family member underwent ophthalmologic (corrected visual acuity, pupillary function, anterior segment and fundus examination), orthoptic (cover test, cover-uncover test, prism alternate cover test), and preoperative examinations. Eight of the ten affected members had surgery and underwent postoperative examinations. Surgical procedures are listed. Results All affected members were born with varying degrees of bilateral ptosis and ophthalmoplegia with both eyes fixed in a hypotropic position (classic CFEOM). The affected members clinical data prior to surgery, surgery procedures and postoperative outcomes are presented. On 14 operated eyes to correct ptosis there was an improvement in 12 eyes. In addition, the head position improved in all patients. Conclusions Surgery is effective at improving ptosis in the majority of patients with classic CFEOM. However, the surgical approach should be individualized to each patient, as inherited CFEOM exhibits variable expressivity and the clinical features may differ markedly between affected individuals, even within the same family. PMID:12702216

  15. Interleukin-1 family members are enhanced in psoriasis and suppressed by vitamin D and retinoic acid.

    PubMed

    Balato, Anna; Schiattarella, Maria; Lembo, Serena; Mattii, Martina; Prevete, Nella; Balato, Nicola; Ayala, Fabio

    2013-04-01

    Interleukin (IL)-1 family comprise 11 members that play an important role in immune regulation and inflammatory process. Retinoids exert complex effects on the immune system, having anti-inflammatory effects in chronic dermatological diseases. Vitamin D (vitD) and analogs have been shown to suppress TNF-α-induced IL-1α in human keratinocytes (KCs). In the present study, we investigated IL-1 family members in psoriasis and the effects of vitD and retinoic acid (RA) on these members. We analyzed IL-1 family members gene expression in psoriatic skin and in ex vivo skin organ culture exposed to TNF-α, IL-17 or broadband UVB; afterwards, treatment with vitD or RA was performed and IL-1 family members mRNA was evaluated. Similarly, KCs were stimulated with IL-17 and subsequently treated with vitD. IL-1 family members were enhanced in psoriatic skin and in ex vivo skin organ cultures after pro-inflammatory stimuli (TNF-α, IL-17 and UVB). RA and vitD were able to suppress this enhancement.

  16. Parents and Family Members in the Era of ART: Evidence from Cambodia and Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Knodel, John; Hak, Sochanny; Khuon, Chandore; So, Dane; McAndrew, John

    2011-01-01

    Ensuring treatment adherence is critical for the success of ART programs in developing countries. Enlisting NGOs or PLHA group members as treatment supporters is one common strategy. Less attention is given to family members and especially older-age parents. Yet ART patients often live with other family members who are highly motivated to ensure treatment success. This study examines the role of family members and especially parents in assisting adherence in Cambodia and Thailand among adult ART patients. Most have a living parent and many live with or near a parent. Family members including parents commonly remind patients to take medications, particularly if coresident in the same household. Parents also remind patients to get resupplies and accompany them to appointments. Some contrasts between Cambodia and Thailand emerged. Fewer Cambodian than Thai patients had a living parent. However, among those who did, equal shares lived with parents. Cambodian parents more commonly reminded patients to take medications and get resupplies and accompanied them when doing so. In both countries correct knowledge of ART among parents was associated with the amount of advice from program personnel. The results underscore both the need to more explicitly incorporate close family members, including parents, into efforts to promote adherence and need for PLHA peers and home based care teams to provide them with adequate information, training and resources to increase their effectiveness. PMID:21726159

  17. Genetic studies of the members of small, dynamical asteroid families

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelley, Michael Shawn

    1999-10-01

    Analyses of spectrophotometric data of asteroids 9 Metis and 113 Amalthea have revealed a probable genetic (compositional) link between these two objects. The nearly identical composition of the silicate components of these two asteroids is consistent with their derivation from a single parent body. Based on the present compositional and morphological interpretations of 9 Metis and 113 Amalthea, and using plausible (chondritic) starting compositions for the parent body, the original parent asteroid is estimated to have been between approximately 300 and 600 kilometers in diameter. Thus Metis and Amalthea are the largest survivors of a highly-evolved, genetic asteroid family from which 86-96% of the original mass has been lost. New data in the wavelength region of approximately 0.4-2.5 μm have been obtained for asteroid 434 Hungaria. This is the most complete visible to near- infrared spectrum to date for this object. The near- infrared portion of the spectrum is smooth, featureless, and agrees well with previous visible region data. Hungaria's relatively high albedo of 46 percent and lack of intense spectral absorption features strictly limits the suite of possible mineral analogs for this asteroid. Based on spectral, meteoritic and petrologic considerations the silicate composition of the surface of Hungaria is mostly likely made up of iron-free enstatite. However, new visible region data appear to exhibit weak, broad spectral absorption features near 0.5, 0.6, and 1 μm. While the features near 0.5 and 1 μm are unreliable and inconsistent, the weak feature near 0.6 μm appears to be real and may help to constrain the composition of Hungaria. Most minerals which exhibit a similar absorption feature, and are commonly found in meteorites, have a much lower albedo. The dark chondritic inclusions in the Cumberland Falls aubrite exhibit a similar feature near 0.6 μm, and this meteorite provides a possible spectral and compositional analog for Hungaria.

  18. Existential Absence: The Lived Experience of Family Members During Their Older Loved One's Delirium.

    PubMed

    Day, Jenny; Higgins, Isabel

    2015-12-01

    When older people develop delirium, their demeanor changes; they often behave in ways that are out of character and seem to inhabit another world. Despite this, little is known about the experiences of family members who are with their older loved one at this time. This article reports a phenomenological study that involved in-depth interviews with 14 women whose older loved one had delirium. Analysis and interpretation of the data depict the women's experiences as "Changing family portraits: Sudden existential absence during delirium," capturing the way family members lose the taken-for-granted presence of their familiar older loved one and confront a stranger during delirium.

  19. How family members manage risk around functional decline: The autonomy management process in households facing dementia

    PubMed Central

    Berry, Brandon; Apesoa-Varano, Ester Carolina; Gomez, Yarin

    2015-01-01

    Most dementia research investigates the social context of declining ability through studies of decision-making around medical treatment and end-of-life care. This study seeks to fill an important gap in research about how family members manage the risks of functional decline at home. Drawing on three waves of retrospective interviewing in 2012–2014, it investigates how family members in US households manage decline in an affected individual’s natural range of daily activities over time. The findings show that early on in the study period affected individuals were perceived to have awareness of their decline and routinely drew on family members for support. Support transformed when family members detected that the individual’s deficit awareness had diminished, creating a corresponding increase in risk of self-harm around everyday activities. With a loss of confidence in the individual’s ability to regulate his or her own activities to avoid these risks, family members employed unilateral practices to manage the individual’s autonomy around his or her activity involvements. These practices typically involved various deceits and ruses to discourage elders from engaging in activities perceived as potentially dangerous. The study concludes by discussing the implications that the social context of interpretive work around awareness and risk plays an important role in how families perceive an elder’s functional ability and manage his or her activity involvements. PMID:25697634

  20. Family members' expectation of the psychiatric healthcare professionals' approach towards them.

    PubMed

    Ewertzon, M; Andershed, B; Svensson, E; Lützén, K

    2011-03-01

    The importance of involving family members in the care of individuals with schizophrenia or other psychotic illnesses has received increasing attention within psychiatric healthcare services. However, several studies suggest that family members often experience a lack of involvement. Furthermore, research indicates that family members' experience of the professional's approach has bearing on whether they feel involved or not. Thus, the aims of this study were to investigate the level of importance that the family members of individuals with schizophrenia or other psychotic illnesses ascribe to the professionals' approach, the level of agreement between their experiences and what they consider as important, and aspects they consider to be important with regards to contact with professionals. Seventy family members from various parts of Sweden participated. Data were collected by the Family Involvement and Alienation Questionnaire and open-ended questions. The median level and quartiles were used to describe the distribution, and percentage agreement was analysed. Open-ended questions were analysed by qualitative content analysis. The results reveal that the majority of the participants consider Openness, Confirmation, and Cooperation as important aspects of a professional's approach. Continuity emerged as an additional aspect. The results show a low level of agreement between the participants' experience and what they consider as important.

  1. Personal attributions for melanoma risk in melanoma-affected patients and family members

    PubMed Central

    Hay, Jennifer; DiBonaventura, Marco; Baser, Raymond; Press, Nancy; Shoveller, Jeanne; Bowen, Deborah

    2010-01-01

    Personal attributions for cancer risk involve factors that individuals believe contribute to their risk for developing cancer. Understanding personal risk attributions for melanoma may dictate gene-environment melanoma risk communication strategies. We examined attributions for melanoma risk in a population-based sample of melanoma survivors, first degree family members, and family members who are also parents (N=939). We conducted qualitative examination of open-ended risk attributions and logistic regression examining predictors (demographics, family member type, perceived risk) of the attributions reported (ultraviolet radiation [UVR] exposure, heredity/genetics, phenotype, personal melanoma history, miscellaneous). We found a predominance of risk attributions to UVR and heredity/genetics (80% and 45% of the sample, respectively). Those reporting higher education levels were more likely to endorse attributions to heredity/genetics, as well as to phenotype, than those of lower education levels. First-degree relatives and parent family members were more likely to endorse heredity/genetic attributions than melanoma survivors; melanoma survivors were more likely to endorse personal history of melanoma attributions compared to first-degree relatives and parent family members. These findings inform the development of risk communication interventions for melanoma families. PMID:20809355

  2. A Brazilian Marseillevirus Is the Founding Member of a Lineage in Family Marseilleviridae

    PubMed Central

    Dornas, Fábio P.; Assis, Felipe L.; Aherfi, Sarah; Arantes, Thalita; Abrahão, Jônatas S.; Colson, Philippe; La Scola, Bernard

    2016-01-01

    In 2003, Acanthamoeba polyphaga mimivirus (APMV) was discovered as parasitizing Acanthamoeba. It was revealed to exhibit remarkable features, especially odd genomic characteristics, and founded viral family Mimiviridae. Subsequently, a second family of giant amoebal viruses was described, Marseilleviridae, whose prototype member is Marseillevirus, discovered in 2009. Currently, the genomes of seven different members of this family have been fully sequenced. Previous phylogenetic analysis suggested the existence of three Marseilleviridae lineages: A, B and C. Here, we describe a new member of this family, Brazilian Marseillevirus (BrMV), which was isolated from a Brazilian sample and whose genome was fully sequenced and analyzed. Surprisingly, data from phylogenetic analyses and comparative genomics, including mean amino acid identity between BrMV and other Marseilleviridae members and the analyses of the core genome and pan-genome of marseilleviruses, indicated that this virus can be assigned to a new Marseilleviridae lineage. Even if the BrMV genome is one of the smallest among Marseilleviridae members, it harbors the second largest gene content into this family. In addition, the BrMV genome encodes 29 ORFans. Here, we describe the isolation and genome analyses of the BrMV strain, and propose its classification as the prototype virus of a new lineage D within the family Marseilleviridae. PMID:26978387

  3. A Brazilian Marseillevirus Is the Founding Member of a Lineage in Family Marseilleviridae.

    PubMed

    Dornas, Fábio P; Assis, Felipe L; Aherfi, Sarah; Arantes, Thalita; Abrahão, Jônatas S; Colson, Philippe; La Scola, Bernard

    2016-03-10

    In 2003, Acanthamoeba polyphaga mimivirus (APMV) was discovered as parasitizing Acanthamoeba. It was revealed to exhibit remarkable features, especially odd genomic characteristics, and founded viral family Mimiviridae. Subsequently, a second family of giant amoebal viruses was described, Marseilleviridae, whose prototype member is Marseillevirus, discovered in 2009. Currently, the genomes of seven different members of this family have been fully sequenced. Previous phylogenetic analysis suggested the existence of three Marseilleviridae lineages: A, B and C. Here, we describe a new member of this family, Brazilian Marseillevirus (BrMV), which was isolated from a Brazilian sample and whose genome was fully sequenced and analyzed. Surprisingly, data from phylogenetic analyses and comparative genomics, including mean amino acid identity between BrMV and other Marseilleviridae members and the analyses of the core genome and pan-genome of marseilleviruses, indicated that this virus can be assigned to a new Marseilleviridae lineage. Even if the BrMV genome is one of the smallest among Marseilleviridae members, it harbors the second largest gene content into this family. In addition, the BrMV genome encodes 29 ORFans. Here, we describe the isolation and genome analyses of the BrMV strain, and propose its classification as the prototype virus of a new lineage D within the family Marseilleviridae.

  4. Migrant and minority family members in the intensive care unit. A review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Quindemil, KettyElena; Nagl-Cupal, Martin; Anderson, Kathryn Hoehn; Mayer, Hanna

    2013-11-01

    Statistics show that people with migrant and minority background as patients are significant in numbers in the intensive care unit. This also puts family members in the perspective of nursing because family members are an inherent part of the intensive care unit. Family-centered care is perhaps most applicable to vulnerable populations like migrant family in the intensive care unit to meet family member's needs. But very little is known about the situation of migrant and minority family members in the intensive care unit. The aim of the study was to explore the state of the science regarding family-centered care in the intensive care unit of patients with migration background in general and with a possible focus on major migrant populations in Austria-Former Yugoslavian und Turkish origin. A literature review investigated research articles that contained information on migrant and minority family members in the intensive care unit. Key points in the relevant articles were identified and categorized into themes with an explanation of findings at the end. Seventeen articles fulfilled the inclusion criteria. No article was found regarding groups of major migrant population groups in Austria. The included articles uncovered five predominant themes: importance of cultural norms, communication, family dynamics, universal caring, and nursing/provider deficit in culturally competent care. In order to provide adequate nursing care a more cohesive body of information on more specific geographic and cultural populations is recommended. Because of the complete lack of research regarding migrant families of Former Yugoslavian and Turkish origin into Austria, an exploration of this population is recommended.

  5. Rotational Properties of the Haumea Family Members and Candidates: Short-term Variability.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thirouin, Audrey; Sheppard, Scott S.; Noll, Keith S.; Moskovitz, Nicholas A.; Ortiz, Jose Luis; Doressoundiram, Alain

    2016-06-01

    Haumea is one of the most interesting and intriguing trans-Neptunian objects (TNOs). It is a large, bright, fast rotator, and its spectrum indicates nearly pure water ice on the surface. It has at least two satellites and a dynamically related family of more than 10 TNOs with very similar proper orbital parameters and similar surface properties. The Haumean family is the only one currently known in the trans-Neptunian belt. Various models have been proposed, but the formation of the family remains poorly understood. In this work, we have investigated the rotational properties of the family members and unconfirmed family candidates with short-term variability studies, and report the most complete review to date. We present results based on five years of observations and report the short-term variability of five family members and seven candidates. The mean rotational periods, from Maxwellian fits to the frequency distributions, are 6.27 ± 1.19 hr for the confirmed family members, 6.44 ± 1.16 hr for the candidates, and 7.65 ± 0.54 hr for other TNOs (without relation to the family). According to our study, there is a possibility that Haumea family members rotate faster than other TNOs; however, the sample of family members is still too limited for a secure conclusion. We also highlight the fast rotation of 2002 GH32. This object has a 0.36 ± 0.02 mag amplitude lightcurve and a rotational period of about 3.98 hr. Assuming 2002 GH32 is a triaxial object in hydrostatic equilibrium, we derive a lower limit to the density of 2.56 g cm-3. This density is similar to Haumea’s and much more dense than other small TNO densities.

  6. Psychological problems in the family members of gravely traumatised patients admitted into an intensive care unit.

    PubMed

    Pérez-San Gregorio, M A; Blanco-Picabia, A; Murillo-Cabezas, F; Domínguez-Roldán, J M; Sánchez, B; Núñez-Roldán, A

    1992-01-01

    The aim of these studies was the analysis of the psychological repercussions on the closest members of families of 76 gravely traumatised patients admitted into the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) of the Hospital Universitario de Rehabilitación y Traumatología "Virgen del Rocio", Sevilla (Spain). An investigation based on social information and the Clinical Analysis Questionnaire was used. The sample of family members was composed of 42 women and 34 men, with an average age of 41.3 years (SD +/- 12.8). Results showed that (a) more than 50% of the family members of gravely traumatised patients admitted into an ICU showed symptoms of depression, (b) the women scored more points in hypochondria, suicidal depression, anxious depression, low-energy depression, guilt-resentment, apathy-withdrawal, paranoia, schizophrenia, psychasthenia and psychological disadjustment, and (c) in general terms, the psychological characteristics of the families were far from the norm of the control group.

  7. Phylogenetic conservation and physical mapping of members of the H6 homeobox gene family.

    PubMed

    Stadler, H S; Murray, J C; Leysens, N J; Goodfellow, P J; Solursh, M

    1995-06-01

    Homeobox genes represent a class of transcription factors that play key roles in the regulation of embryogenesis and development. Here we report the identification of a homeobox-containing gene family that is highly conserved at both the nucleotide and amino acid levels in a diverse number of species. These species encompass both vertebrate and invertebrate phylogenies, ranging from Homo sapiens to Drosophila melanogaster. In humans, at least two homeobox sequences from this family were identified representing a previously reported member of this family as well as a novel homeobox sequence that we physically mapped to the 10q25.2-q26.3 region of human Chromosome (Chr) 10. Multiple members of this family were also detected in three additional vertebrate species including Equus caballus (horse), Gallus gallus (Chicken), and Mus musculus (mouse), whereas only single members were detected in Tripneustes gratilla (sea urchin), Petromyzon marinus (lamprey), Salmo salar (salmon), Ovis aries (sheep), and D. melanogaster (fruit fly).

  8. Conflict rationalisation: how family members cope with a diagnosis of brain stem death.

    PubMed

    Long, Tracy; Sque, Magi; Addington-Hall, Julia

    2008-07-01

    Brain death, whether it be brain stem death in the UK, or whole-brain death in the USA, is a prerequisite for heart-beating organ donation. Understanding how brain death is perceived by family members approached about organ donation, its significance to them, and if it is accepted by them, are, therefore, important issues to explore as biomedicine expands the range of end of life technologies that blur the demarcation between life and death. To explore the concept of brain stem death and its meaning to family members the following research questions were posed: (i) what does the diagnosis of death based on brain stem testing mean to bereaved family members who have been approached and asked to consider a donation from a deceased relative, and (ii) how do family members understand the concept of brain stem death? To address these research questions, a secondary analysis of 28 interviews sorted from two primary datasets was carried out. The primary datasets contained longitudinal and cross-sectional interviews carried out in the UK with family members who had been approached about organ donation and agreed to donate their relatives' organs. Data analysis was guided by constructionist grounded theory method and resulted in the theory of Paradoxical Death. In this process, family members and health professionals engage in a series of practical and psychological activities aimed at rationalising real or potential emotional and cognitive conflict resulting from a brain-based diagnosis of death, whilst faced with the physical image of a functioning body. Rationalising emotional and cognitive conflict is how family members and health professionals appeared to process this paradoxical death, a death that is contrary to conventional opinion.

  9. Fulfilment of knowledge expectations among family members of patients undergoing arthroplasty: a European perspective.

    PubMed

    Sigurdardottir, Arun K; Leino-Kilpi, Helena; Charalambous, Andreas; Katajisto, Jouko; Stark, Åsa Johansson; Sourtzi, Panayota; Zabalegui, Adelaida; Valkeapää, Kirsi

    2015-12-01

    In the recovery process of arthroplasty patients, their family members play an important role due to short hospital stay and increased age of patients. Family members need to have knowledge to be able to support the patient. The aim of this study was to explore expected and received knowledge in family members of arthroplasty patients and describe the relationships between the differences in received and expected knowledge and background factors, country, information and control preferences and access to knowledge. The study was conducted in six European countries (Cyprus, Greece, Finland, Iceland, Spain and Sweden). The study design was cross-cultural, prospective and comparative with two measurement points: pre-operative and at discharge from hospital. Knowledge Expectations of significant other-scale and Krantz Health Opinion Survey were used before surgery and Received Knowledge of significant other-scale and Access to Knowledge at discharge. Patients undergoing elective hip or knee arthroplasty in seventeen hospitals were asked to identify one family member. The sample size was decided by power calculation. A total of 615 participants answered the questionnaires at both measurements. Family members perceived to receive less knowledge than they expected to have, most unfulfilled knowledge expectations were in the financial, social and experiential dimensions of knowledge. Seventy-four per cent of participants had unfulfilled knowledge expectations. Increased access to information from healthcare providers decreased the difference between received and expected knowledge. Compared to family members in southern Europe, those in the Nordic countries had more unfulfilled knowledge expectations and less access to information from healthcare providers. The evidence from this study highlights the need to involve the family members in the educational approach.

  10. 41 CFR 302-3.225 - If my immediate family member(s) return to the U.S. before me, will I be reimbursed for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false If my immediate family member(s) return to the U.S. before me, will I be reimbursed for transporting part of my household goods with my family and the rest of my household goods when I return? 302-3.225 Section 302-3.225...

  11. Experiences, views, and support needs of family members of people with hypoglycemia unawareness: interview study.

    PubMed

    Lawton, Julia; Rankin, David; Elliott, Jackie; Heller, Simon R; Rogers, Helen A; De Zoysa, Nicole; Amiel, Stephanie

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Hypoglycemia unawareness (HU) affects ~25% of people with type 1 diabetes. People with HU are often reliant on family to detect hypoglycemia and treat severe episodes. We explored the impact of HU on family members' lives, their involvement in preventing and managing hypoglycemia, and their information and support needs. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS This study employed an exploratory, qualitative design comprising in-depth interviews with 24 adult family members of persons with type 1 diabetes and HU. RESULTS Family members described restricting their lives so that they could help the person with HU detect and treat hypoglycemia. Some described being very physically afraid of their partner/relative when they had a hypoglycemic episode due to their aggressive and argumentative behavior and personality changes; this could also make treatment administration difficult. Family members also reported feeling anxious and worried about the safety of the person with HU, particularly when they were left unsupervised. These concerns were often precipitated by traumatic events, such as discovering the person with HU in a coma. Family members could neglect their own health and well-being to care for the person with HU and resentment could build up over time. Family members highlighted extensive, unmet needs for information and emotional support; however, some struggled to recognize and accept their own need for help. CONCLUSIONS Our findings reveal a caregiver group currently "in the shadow of the patient" and in urgent need of information and emotional support. Raising awareness among health care professionals is essential, and developing proactive support for family should be considered.

  12. Holding blame at bay? ‘Gene talk' in family members' accounts of schizophrenia aetiology

    PubMed Central

    Callard, Felicity; Rose, Diana; Hanif, Emma-Louise; Quigley, Jody; Greenwood, Kathryn; Wykes, Til

    2012-01-01

    We provide the first detailed analysis of how, for what purposes and with what consequences people related to someone with a diagnosis of schizophrenia use ‘gene talk'. The article analyses findings from a qualitative interview study conducted in London and involving 19 participants (mostly women). We transcribed the interviews verbatim and analysed them using grounded theory methods. We analyse how and for what purposes participants mobilized ‘gene talk' in their affectively freighted encounter with an unknown interviewer. Gene talk served to (re)position blame and guilt, and was simultaneously used imaginatively to forge family history narratives. Family members used ‘gene talk' to recruit forebears with no psychiatric diagnosis into a family history of mental illness, and presented the origins of the diagnosed family member's schizophrenia as lying temporally before, and hence beyond the agency of the immediate family. Gene talk was also used in attempts to dislodge the distressing figure of the schizophrenia-inducing mother. ‘Gene talk', however, ultimately displaced, rather than resolved, the (self-)blame of many family members, particularly mothers. Our article challenges the commonly expressed view that genetic accounts will absolve family members' sense of (self-)blame in relation to their relative's/relatives' diagnosis. PMID:23227107

  13. The impact of disease on family members: a critical aspect of medical care.

    PubMed

    Golics, Catherine Jane; Basra, Mohammad Khurshid Azam; Finlay, Andrew Yule; Salek, Sam

    2013-10-01

    Most existing health-related quality of life research concerns the impact of disease on patients. However, in several medical specialties including dermatology, oncology, and physical and mental disability, studies have been carried out investigating the impact of disease on the lives of families of patients. The aim of this paper is to review the literature which relates to the impact of disease on family members of patients. The OVIDSP Medline was selected as the primary database, Searches were limited to sources published in English. 158 papers were identified for review. The definition of "family" varied across the literature, and a broad definition was accepted in this review. This review shows that a wide variety of aspects of family members' lives can be affected, including emotional, financial, family relationships, education and work, leisure time, and social activities. Many of these themes are linked to one another, with themes including financial impact and social impact being linked to emotional impact. Some positive aspects were also identified from the literature, including family relationships growing stronger. Several instruments exist to measure the impact of illness on the family, and most are disease or specialty- specific. The impact of disease on families of patients is often unrecognised and underestimated. Taking into account the quality of life of families as well as patients can offer the clinician a unique insight into issues such as family relationships and the effect of treatment decisions on the patient's close social group of partner and family.

  14. Strategies for coping with family members of patients with mental disorders

    PubMed Central

    Pompeo, Daniele Alcalá; de Carvalho, Arélica; Olive, Aline Morgado; Souza, Maria da Graça Girade; Galera, Sueli Aparecida Frari

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: to identify the coping strategies of family members of patients with mental disorders and relate them to family member sociodemographic variables and to the patient's clinical variables. Method: this was a descriptive study conducted at a psychiatric hospital in the interior of the state of São Paulo, with 40 family members of hospitalized patients over the age of 18, and who followed the patient before and during hospitalization. We used tools to characterize the subjects and the Folkman and Lazarus Inventory of Coping Strategies. Results: the coping strategies most often used by family members were social support and problem solving. Mothers and fathers used more functional strategies (self-control p=0.037, positive reappraisal p=0.037, and social support p=0,021). We found no significant differences between the strategies and other variables examined. Conclusion: despite the suffering resulting from the illness of a dear one, family members make more use of functional strategies, allowing them to cope with adversities in a more well-adjusted way. PMID:27627121

  15. Phylogenetic analysis and evolutionary origins of DNA polymerase X-family members

    PubMed Central

    Bienstock, Rachelle J.; Beard, William A.; Wilson, Samuel H.

    2014-01-01

    Mammalian DNA polymerase (pol) β is the founding member of a large group of DNA polymerases now termed the X-family. DNA polymerase β has been kinetically, structurally, and biologically well characterized and can serve as a phylogenetic reference. Accordingly, we have performed a phylogenetic analysis to understand the relationship between pol β and other members of the X-family of DNA polymerases. The bacterial X-family DNA polymerases, Saccharomyces cerevisiae pol IV, and four mammalian X-family polymerases appear to be directly related. These enzymes originated from an ancient common ancestor characterized in two Bacillus species. Understanding distinct functions for each of the X-family polymerases, evolving from a common bacterial ancestor is of significant interest in light of the specialized roles of these enzymes in DNA metabolism. PMID:25112931

  16. Receptivity and Preferences for Lifestyle Programs to Reduce Cancer Risk among Lung Cancer Family Members

    PubMed Central

    Howell, Lisa A; Brockman, Tabetha A; Sinicrope, Pamela S; Patten, Christi A; Decker, Paul A; Busta, Allan; Stoddard, Shawn; McNallan, Sheila R; Yang, Ping

    2016-01-01

    Background Lifestyle factors and genetic information has been found to contribute to the occurrence of lung cancer. This study assessed receptivity to participating in lifestyle programs to reduce cancer risk among unaffected lung cancer family members. We also explored demographic, medical, and psychosocial correlates of willingness to participate in lifestyle programs. Methods Family members who are part of a lung Cancer Family Registry were asked to fill out a survey assessing their receptivity to cancer risk reduction programs including preferences for an individual or family-based program. Results Of the 583 respondents, 85% were “Somewhat” or “Definitely” willing to participate in a lifestyle program. Among those receptive, about half (56%) preferred a family-based approach. Preferred programs included weight management (36%) and nutritional information (30%). Preferred delivery channels were Internet (45%) and mail-based (29%) programs. On multivariate analysis, those definitely/somewhat receptive reported greater exercise self-efficacy scores (p=0.025). Conclusion The majority of the sample was receptive to lifestyle programs that might decrease cancer risk. There was a large preference for family-based weight management and nutritional programs. Further research is indicated to determine how to best incorporate a family-based approach to lifestyle programs for cancer family members. PMID:27917414

  17. Migrant and minority family members in the intensive care unit. A review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Quindemil, KettyElena; Anderson, Kathryn Hoehn; Mayer, Hanna

    2013-01-01

    Statistics show that people with migrant and minority background as patients are significant in numbers in the intensive care unit. This also puts family members in the perspective of nursing because family members are an inherent part of the intensive care unit. Family-centered care is perhaps most applicable to vulnerable populations like migrant family in the intensive care unit to meet family member’s needs. But very little is known about the situation of migrant and minority family members in the intensive care unit. The aim of the study was to explore the state of the science regarding family-centered care in the intensive care unit of patients with migration background in general and with a possible focus on major migrant populations in Austria—Former Yugoslavian und Turkish origin. A literature review investigated research articles that contained information on migrant and minority family members in the intensive care unit. Key points in the relevant articles were identified and categorized into themes with an explanation of findings at the end. Seventeen articles fulfilled the inclusion criteria. No article was found regarding groups of major migrant population groups in Austria. The included articles uncovered five predominant themes: importance of cultural norms, communication, family dynamics, universal caring, and nursing/provider deficit in culturally competent care. In order to provide adequate nursing care a more cohesive body of information on more specific geographic and cultural populations is recommended. Because of the complete lack of research regarding migrant families of Former Yugoslavian and Turkish origin into Austria, an exploration of this population is recommended. PMID:24860716

  18. Parents and Children Only? Acculturation and the Influence of Extended Family Members among Vietnamese Refugees

    PubMed Central

    Tingvold, Laila; Middelthon, Anne-Lise; Allen, James; Hauff, Edvard

    2012-01-01

    The nuclear family is often the point of departure in much of the existing acculturation research on refugee youth and children of refugees. The influence of other extended family members appears to receive less attention in understanding acculturation processes and intergenerational perspectives. This qualitative study explores the influence of extended family members upon a small sample of Vietnamese refugee parents and their adolescents while they undergo acculturation through their long-term resettlement process in Norway. With repeated interviews over a time span of 3 years, we identified situations and processes in family life in which extended kin become particularly activated and influential. Vietnamese refugee families in Norway keep close contact with extended kin even in the face of geographical distance to kin remaining in Vietnam, or globally dispersed. Aunts, uncles, and cousins are experienced as significant persons in the lives of many adolescents. Additionally, birth order of parents can often influence relationship dynamics among siblings and siblings children. Extended kin surfaced as especially important and influential at critical stages and crisis situations in family life. Extended family, and in particular, parental siblings play important roles in the acculturation experience and family functioning of Vietnamese refugee families in Norway. This has important implications for the study of Vietnamese and other refugee and immigrant families in acculturation research. PMID:24510190

  19. Parents and Children Only? Acculturation and the Influence of Extended Family Members among Vietnamese Refugees.

    PubMed

    Tingvold, Laila; Middelthon, Anne-Lise; Allen, James; Hauff, Edvard

    2012-03-01

    The nuclear family is often the point of departure in much of the existing acculturation research on refugee youth and children of refugees. The influence of other extended family members appears to receive less attention in understanding acculturation processes and intergenerational perspectives. This qualitative study explores the influence of extended family members upon a small sample of Vietnamese refugee parents and their adolescents while they undergo acculturation through their long-term resettlement process in Norway. With repeated interviews over a time span of 3 years, we identified situations and processes in family life in which extended kin become particularly activated and influential. Vietnamese refugee families in Norway keep close contact with extended kin even in the face of geographical distance to kin remaining in Vietnam, or globally dispersed. Aunts, uncles, and cousins are experienced as significant persons in the lives of many adolescents. Additionally, birth order of parents can often influence relationship dynamics among siblings and siblings children. Extended kin surfaced as especially important and influential at critical stages and crisis situations in family life. Extended family, and in particular, parental siblings play important roles in the acculturation experience and family functioning of Vietnamese refugee families in Norway. This has important implications for the study of Vietnamese and other refugee and immigrant families in acculturation research.

  20. Eos and pegasus, two members of the Ikaros family of proteins with distinct DNA binding activities.

    PubMed

    Perdomo, J; Holmes, M; Chong, B; Crossley, M

    2000-12-08

    Members of the Ikaros family of transcription factors, Ikaros, Aiolos, and Helios, are expressed in lymphocytes and have been implicated in controlling lymphoid development. These proteins contain two characteristic clusters of zinc fingers, an N-terminal domain important for DNA recognition, and a C-terminal domain that mediates homo- and heterotypic associations between family members. The conservation of these domains is such that all three proteins recognize related DNA sequences, and all are capable of dimerizing with other family members. Here we describe two additional Ikaros family proteins, Eos and Pegasus. Eos is most highly related to Helios and shares its DNA binding and protein association properties. Pegasus is related to other Ikaros proteins in its C-terminal dimerization domain but contains a divergent N-terminal zinc finger domain. Pegasus self-associates and binds to other family members but recognizes distinct DNA-binding sites. Eos and Pegasus repress the expression of reporter genes containing their recognition elements. Our results suggest that these proteins may associate with previously described Ikaros family proteins in lymphoid cells and play additional roles in other tissues.

  1. Children exposed to the arrest of a family member: Associations with mental health

    PubMed Central

    Snyder, Frank J.; Kaufman, Joy S.; Finley, Meghan K.; Griffin, Amy; Anderson, Janet; Marshall, Tim; Radway, Susan; Stack, Virginia; Crusto, Cindy A.

    2013-01-01

    The arrest of a parent or other family member can be detrimental to children’s health. To study the impact of exposure to the arrest of a family member on children’s mental health and how said association may change across developmental periods, we examined baseline data for children (birth through 11 years) entering family-based systems of care (SOC). Children exposed to the arrest of a family member had experienced significantly more 5.38 (SD = 2.59) different types of potentially traumatic events (PTE) than children not exposed to arrest 2.84 (SD = 2.56). Multiple regression model results showed that arrest exposure was significantly associated with greater behavioral and emotional challenges after controlling for children’s age, gender, race/ethnicity, household income, caregiver’s education, parenting factors, and other PTE exposure. Further analyses revealed differences in internalizing and externalizing behaviors associated with arrest exposure across developmental levels. This study highlights some of the mental health challenges for children exposed to the arrest of a family member, while adding to our knowledge of how such an event affects children across different developmental periods. More trauma-informed, developmentally appropriate systems need to be in place at all levels to assist children and families experiencing arrest. PMID:24829537

  2. Disclosing Genetic Information to Family Members About Inherited Cardiac Arrhythmias: An Obligation or a Choice?

    PubMed

    Vavolizza, Rick D; Kalia, Isha; Erskine Aaron, Kathleen; Silverstein, Louise B; Barlevy, Dorit; Wasserman, David; Walsh, Christine; Marion, Robert W; Dolan, Siobhan M

    2015-08-01

    Inherited cardiac arrhythmias such as long QT syndrome and Brugada syndrome, present clinical as well as ethical, legal, and social challenges. Many individuals who carry a deleterious mutation are largely asymptomatic and therefore may not be diagnosed until after the occurrence of a personal or family member's cardiac event. The familial nature of inherited genetic information raises numerous ethical, legal, and social issues regarding the sharing of genetic information, particularly when an individual found to carry a deleterious mutation refuses to disclose his or her results to at-risk family members who could benefit from life-saving treatments. This qualitative study sought to understand the experiences with genetic testing for individuals (n = 50) with a personal or family history of cardiac events or sudden death. Unstructured in-person focus groups or interviews were conducted for each participant in the study. The recordings of these interviews were transcribed verbatim and subsequently analyzed and coded. Participants' comments regarding sharing of genetic information centered around four main themes: (1) motivation to disclose; (2) extent of disclosure; (3) effect of disclosure on family dynamics; and (4) reasons for not sharing genetic information. The majority of individuals believed that affected individuals are obligated to disclose genetic information to family members. In the era of personalized medicine, the disclosure of genetic information provides individuals the opportunities to learn about the genetics, disease characteristics, and treatment options in order to reduce morbidity and mortality in themselves and their family members. Further research is necessary to identify and explore the barriers to sharing genetic information with at-risk family members.

  3. Coping with grief responses among African American family members of homicide victims.

    PubMed

    Sharpe, Tanya L; Osteen, Philip; Frey, Jodi Jacobson; Michalopoulos, Lynn Murphy

    2014-01-01

    Research relevant to coping with grief for African American family members of homicide victims is limited. This retrospective study was conducted to determine the effects of gender, length of time since death, the traumatic impact of experiencing the homicide of a loved one, and the use of coping strategies to current grief reactions of African American family members of homicide victims (N = 44). Multiple regression analysis results suggest that gender and level of traumatic stress, related to posttraumatic stress symptomatology, predict current symptoms of grief. Women reported higher levels of current grief symptoms than men. Family members of homicide victims who reported higher levels of posttraumatic stress symptomology reported higher levels of current grief. Implications for research and recommendations for practitioners are discussed.

  4. Payment or reimbursement for certain medical expenses for Camp Lejeune family members. Interim final rule.

    PubMed

    2014-09-24

    The Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) is promulgating regulations to implement statutory authority to provide payment or reimbursement for hospital care and medical services provided to certain veterans' family members who resided at Camp Lejeune, North Carolina, for at least 30 days during the period beginning on January 1, 1957, and ending on December 31, 1987. Under this rule, VA will reimburse family members, or pay providers, for medical expenses incurred as a result of certain illnesses and conditions that may be attributed to exposure to contaminated drinking water at Camp Lejeune during this time period. Payment or reimbursement will be made within the limitations set forth in statute and Camp Lejeune family members will receive hospital care and medical services that are consistent with the manner in which we provide hospital care and medical services to Camp Lejeune veterans.

  5. Supporting a relative's move into long-term care: starting point shapes family members' experiences.

    PubMed

    Sussman, Tamara; Dupuis, Sherry

    2012-12-01

    This grounded-theory study explored family members' experiences supporting a relative's move into a long-term care (LTC) home. Each stage in the transition process, and the role of starting point in shaping the experience, were examined. Twenty family members who moved a relative into an LTC home were interviewed within six weeks of the move. The findings revealed that the starting point had a profound effect on family members' experiences accepting the need for, and timing of, their relative's move into LTC (pre-move), and on believing that the selected LTC home was a positive environment for their relative (post-move). LTC home policies and processes were also important. However, when pre-move acceptance was compromised by circumstances attributed to the starting point, these policies and processes were not as effective in fostering post-move acceptance. Conditions that support positive transitions before, during, and after the move from each starting point are discussed.

  6. The role and experiences of family members during the rehabilitation of mentally ill offenders.

    PubMed

    Rowaert, Sara; Vandevelde, Stijn; Lemmens, Gilbert; Vanderplasschen, Wouter; Vander Beken, Tom; Vander Laenen, Freya; Audenaert, Kurt

    2016-03-01

    Taking care of a family member with a mental illness imposes a burden on various aspects of family life. This burden may be enhanced if the mentally ill individual has a criminal history. This paper aims to summarize the scientific literature dealing with the experiences, needs and burdens of families of mentally ill offenders. We aim to explore the roles that family members play in the rehabilitation of their relative and review the families' needs and burdens. Finally, we aim to investigate whether or not the family strengths are considered in the literature. A literature search in line with the PRISMA statement for systematic reviews and with the recommendations for an integrative review was performed in the ISI Web of Science, PubMed, Elsevier Science Direct and ProQuest databases. Limited research has been carried out into the experiences, needs and burdens of families of mentally ill offenders, with only eight studies fulfilling the inclusion criteria. Families of mentally ill offenders experience more stress than those of mentally ill individuals with no judicial involvement. This is because of the fact that these family members have to deal with both mental health services and judicial systems. The eight retrieved studies focus on needs and burdens, with little reference to strengths or capabilities. The review has highlighted the need for further research into the needs and burdens of families with mentally ill offenders, with a focus on strengths rather than an exclusively problem-oriented perspective. It is important that families become more involved in the health and social care of their relatives to avoid being considered 'second patients'.

  7. Analysis of a cAMP regulated coactivator family reveals an alternative phosphorylation motif for AMPK family members

    PubMed Central

    Moresco, James J.; Vaughan, Joan M.; Matsumura, Shigenobu; Yates, John R.; Montminy, Marc

    2017-01-01

    The second messenger cAMP stimulates cellular gene expression via the PKA-mediated phosphorylation of the transcription factor CREB and through dephosphorylation of the cAMP-responsive transcriptional coactivators (CRTCs). Under basal conditions, CRTCs are phosphorylated by members of the AMPK family of Ser/Thr kinases and sequestered in the cytoplasm via a phosphorylation-dependent association with 14-3-3 proteins. Increases in cAMP promote the dephosphorylation and nuclear translocation of CRTCs, where they bind to CREB and stimulate relevant target genes. Although they share considerable sequence homology, members of the CRTC family exert non-overlapping effects on cellular gene expression through as yet unidentified mechanisms. Here we show that the three CRTCs exhibit distinct patterns of 14-3-3 binding at three conserved sites corresponding to S70, S171, and S275 (in CRTC2). S171 functions as the gatekeeper site for 14-3-3 binding; it acts cooperatively with S275 in stabilizing this interaction following its phosphorylation by the cAMP-responsive SIK and the cAMP-nonresponsive MARK kinases. Although S171 contains a consensus recognition site for phosphorylation by AMPK family members, S70 and S275 carry variant motifs (MNTGGS275LPDL), lacking basic residues that are otherwise critical for SIK/MARK recognition as well as 14-3-3 binding. Correspondingly, the activity of these motifs differs between CRTC family members. As the variant (SLPDL) motif is present and apparently phosphorylated in other mammalian proteins, our studies suggest that the regulation of cellular targets by AMPK family members is more extensive than previously appreciated. PMID:28235073

  8. Functional conservation between members of an ancient duplicated transcription factor family, LSF/Grainyhead.

    PubMed

    Venkatesan, Kavitha; McManus, Heather R; Mello, Craig C; Smith, Temple F; Hansen, Ulla

    2003-08-01

    The LSF/Grainyhead transcription factor family is involved in many important biological processes, including cell cycle, cell growth and development. In order to investigate the evolutionary conservation of these biological roles, we have characterized two new family members in Caenorhabditis elegans and Xenopus laevis. The C.elegans member, Ce-GRH-1, groups with the Grainyhead subfamily, while the X.laevis member, Xl-LSF, groups with the LSF subfamily. Ce-GRH-1 binds DNA in a sequence-specific manner identical to that of Drosophila melanogaster Grainyhead. In addition, Ce-GRH-1 binds to sequences upstream of the C.elegans gene encoding aromatic L-amino-acid decarboxylase and genes involved in post-embryonic development, mab-5 and dbl-1. All three C.elegans genes are homologs of D.melanogaster Grainyhead-regulated genes. RNA-mediated interference of Ce-grh-1 results in embryonic lethality in worms, accompanied by soft, defective cuticles. These phenotypes are strikingly similar to those observed previously in D.melanogaster grainyhead mutants, suggesting conservation of the developmental role of these family members over the course of evolution. Our phylogenetic analysis of the expanded LSF/GRH family (including other previously unrecognized proteins/ESTs) suggests that the structural and functional dichotomy of this family dates back more than 700 million years, i.e. to the time when the first multicellular organisms are thought to have arisen.

  9. An Uncharacterized Member of the Ribokinase Family in Thermococcus kodakarensis Exhibits myo-Inositol Kinase Activity*

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Takaaki; Fujihashi, Masahiro; Miyamoto, Yukika; Kuwata, Keiko; Kusaka, Eriko; Fujita, Haruo; Miki, Kunio; Atomi, Haruyuki

    2013-01-01

    Here we performed structural and biochemical analyses on the TK2285 gene product, an uncharacterized protein annotated as a member of the ribokinase family, from the hyperthermophilic archaeon Thermococcus kodakarensis. The three-dimensional structure of the TK2285 protein resembled those of previously characterized members of the ribokinase family including ribokinase, adenosine kinase, and phosphofructokinase. Conserved residues characteristic of this protein family were located in a cleft of the TK2285 protein as in other members whose structures have been determined. We thus examined the kinase activity of the TK2285 protein toward various sugars recognized by well characterized ribokinase family members. Although activity with sugar phosphates and nucleosides was not detected, kinase activity was observed toward d-allose, d-lyxose, d-tagatose, d-talose, d-xylose, and d-xylulose. Kinetic analyses with the six sugar substrates revealed high Km values, suggesting that they were not the true physiological substrates. By examining activity toward amino sugars, sugar alcohols, and disaccharides, we found that the TK2285 protein exhibited prominent kinase activity toward myo-inositol. Kinetic analyses with myo-inositol revealed a greater kcat and much lower Km value than those obtained with the monosaccharides, resulting in over a 2,000-fold increase in kcat/Km values. TK2285 homologs are distributed among members of Thermococcales, and in most species, the gene is positioned close to a myo-inositol monophosphate synthase gene. Our results suggest the presence of a novel subfamily of the ribokinase family whose members are present in Archaea and recognize myo-inositol as a substrate. PMID:23737529

  10. Low-income families' perceptions on the use of drugs by one of their members.

    PubMed

    Martins, Mayra; Santos, Manoel Antonio Dos; Pillon, Sandra Cristina

    2008-01-01

    Families who are socially excluded are vulnerable to problems related to the use of psychoactive substances. This study aimed to identify the perception regarding drugs use among families that lived in extreme poverty and participated in a social-educational group in the suburbs of a city in the interior of São Paulo State. A survey-like quantitative study was conducted involving 70 members of families who participated in the social-educational groups of the Program for Integral Assistance to the Family. Results indicated that 67 (95.7%) of the subjects were married, at an average age of 37, most of them had not completed grade school, and were unemployed. Fifty five (78.6%) had a family member who used alcohol, fifty two (74,3%) smoked, and twenty three (32.9%) used some kind of illicit drug. The results also showed that living with a relative who was a drug user was perceived as problem that elicited feelings resentment, but also conformism on the part of other family members.

  11. The meaning of family members' presence during intensive care stay: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Olsen, Kristin Dahle; Dysvik, Elin; Hansen, Britt Saetre

    2009-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate what the presence of family members meant to patients in intensive care units. The study employed a qualitative approach with semi-structured interviews and qualitative content analysis. Eleven intensive care patients were interviewed at a university hospital in Norway. The results of the study indicated that the patients desired some limitation of visitors' presence and preferred visits only from those who were closest in daily life. Visits had a variety of functions for intensive care patients, including promoting support for patients and families. However, visits also caused stress for patients and worries about creating stress for family members. The patients' requirements for information differed. The findings suggest that information to the families is important for the patients need for reality orientation. Visits in intensive care units and information to the families have mutual importance for the patients and their families. The study supports prior claims that flexible visiting routines are challenging for ICU nurses. A dialogue with the families is recommended in order to find a balance between the social support and the stress caused by visits. This puts the families in a better position to give support to the patients during recovery.

  12. Do Attitudinal and Behavioral Ratings of Family Members Vary across Familial Configurations?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parish, Thomas S.; Necessary, James R.

    1994-01-01

    Compared 212 high school students from different family structures regarding their descriptions of themselves and their parents. Found that fathers' ratings or evaluations, but not mothers' ratings or students' self-ratings, suffered in wake of divorce. Regarding perceived "loving" actions by parents, students from intact families had advantage…

  13. Working with Teams and Organizations to Help Them Involve Family Members

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orford, Jim; Templeton, Lorna; Copello, Alex; Velleman, Richard; Ibanga, Akanidomo

    2010-01-01

    In this article we describe our work in trying to influence whole service teams to move their practice towards greater involvement of affected family members. Work with five teams is described. The process varied but in all cases it included recruitment of the team, training, continued support and evaluation of results. Use of a standard…

  14. Characterization of poplar ZIP family members ZIP1 and ZNT1

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A plant must regulate heavy metals to maintain adequate resources for plant processes while protecting against excess metal damage. Regulation of heavy metals such as zinc (Zn) has been attributed to the Zn transporter ZNT1 gene and other members of its larger ZIP transporter family. However, these ...

  15. Complete sequence and genetic characterization of Raspberry latent virus, a novel member of the family Reoviridae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A new virus isolated from red raspberry plants and detected in the main production areas in northern Washington State, the United States and British Columbia, Canada was fully sequenced and found to be a novel member of the family Reoviridae. The virus was designated as Raspberry latent virus (RpLV)...

  16. 9 CFR 306.4 - Assignment of Program employees where members of family employed; soliciting employment...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Assignment of Program employees where members of family employed; soliciting employment; procuring product from official establishments. 306.4 Section 306.4 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF...

  17. 9 CFR 306.4 - Assignment of Program employees where members of family employed; soliciting employment...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Assignment of Program employees where members of family employed; soliciting employment; procuring product from official establishments. 306.4 Section 306.4 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF...

  18. 9 CFR 306.4 - Assignment of Program employees where members of family employed; soliciting employment...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Assignment of Program employees where members of family employed; soliciting employment; procuring product from official establishments. 306.4 Section 306.4 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF...

  19. 9 CFR 306.4 - Assignment of Program employees where members of family employed; soliciting employment...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Assignment of Program employees where members of family employed; soliciting employment; procuring product from official establishments. 306.4 Section 306.4 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF...

  20. 9 CFR 306.4 - Assignment of Program employees where members of family employed; soliciting employment...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Assignment of Program employees where members of family employed; soliciting employment; procuring product from official establishments. 306.4 Section 306.4 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF...

  1. The Experiences of Affected Family Members: A Summary of Two Decades of Qualitative Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orford, Jim; Velleman, Richard; Copello, Alex; Templeton, Lorna; Ibanga, Akanidomo

    2010-01-01

    This article is based upon the collective findings of a number of studies conducted in a number of countries during the past 20 years. Female partners and mothers are the family members who have been most represented in the study samples, but the latter also included sizeable numbers of male partners, fathers, sisters, brothers and adult sons and…

  2. Differential expression of sirtuin family members in the developing, adult, and aged rat brain.

    PubMed

    Sidorova-Darmos, Elena; Wither, Robert G; Shulyakova, Natalya; Fisher, Carl; Ratnam, Melanie; Aarts, Michelle; Lilge, Lothar; Monnier, Philippe P; Eubanks, James H

    2014-01-01

    The sirtuins are NAD(+)-dependent protein deacetylases and/or ADP-ribosyltransferases that play roles in metabolic homeostasis, stress response and potentially aging. This enzyme family resides in different subcellular compartments, and acts on a number of different targets in the nucleus, cytoplasm and in the mitochondria. Despite their recognized ability to regulate metabolic processes, the roles played by specific sirtuins in the brain-the most energy demanding tissue in the body-remains less well investigated and understood. In the present study, we examined the regional mRNA and protein expression patterns of individual sirtuin family members in the developing, adult, and aged rat brain. Our results show that while each sirtuin is expressed in the brain at each of these different stages, they display unique spatial and temporal expression patterns within the brain. Further, for specific members of the family, the protein expression profile did not coincide with their respective mRNA expression profile. Moreover, using primary cultures enriched for neurons and astrocytes respectively, we found that specific sirtuin members display preferential neural lineage expression. Collectively, these results provide the first composite illustration that sirtuin family members display differential expression patterns in the brain, and provide evidence that specific sirtuins could potentially be targeted to achieve cell-type selective effects within the brain.

  3. Personality Disorder Traits During Adolescence and Relationships with Family Members During the Transition to Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Jeffrey G.; Chen, Henian; Cohen, Patricia

    2004-01-01

    Data from the Children in the Community Transitions Study, a prospective longitudinal investigation, were used to examine the association between adolescent personality disorder (PD) traits and conflict with family members during the transition to adulthood. PD traits at mean age 16 years were associated with elevated contact and conflict with…

  4. Triticum Mosaic Virus: A Distinct Member of the Family Potyviridae with an Unusually Long Leader Sequence

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The complete genome sequence of Triticum mosaic virus (TriMV), a member in the family Potyviridae, has been determined to be 10,266 nucleotides (nt) excluding the polyadenylated tail at the 3’ end. The genome encodes a large polyprotein of 3,112 amino acids with the ‘hall-mark proteins’ of potyvirus...

  5. Triticum Mosaic Virus: A Distinct Member of the Family Potyviridae with an Unusually Long Leader Sequence

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The complete genome sequence of Triticum mosaic virus (TriMV), a member in the family Potyviridae, has been determined to be 10,266 nucleotides excluding the 3’-polyadenylated tail. The genome encodes a large polyprotein of 3,112 amino acids with the ‘hall-mark proteins’ of potyviruses including a s...

  6. LASS6, an additional member of the longevity assurance gene family.

    PubMed

    Weinmann, Arndt; Galle, Peter R; Teufel, Andreas

    2005-11-01

    Longevity assurance genes (LAGs) represent a subgroup of the homeobox gene family. Five mammalian homologs have been reported, and the corresponding proteins have previously been investigated with respect to their key role in ceramide synthesis. However, members of the LAG family have been shown to be involved in cell growth regulation and cancer differentiation. In an effort to characterize additional members of the LAG family, we have screened the latest releases of genomic databases and report on the bioinformatic characterization of yet another member, LAG1 longevity assurance homolog 6 (LASS6). Like other LAG family members, the LASS6 protein contained a homeodomain and LAG1 domain. In phylogenetic analyses, it displayed highest homology to LASS5. The corresponding gene was localized to human chromosome 2q24.3, spanning a rather large genomic region of 318 kb. Orthologous sequences in mouse and zebrafish suggested a conservation of LASS6 in vertebrates as the protein and corresponding genomic sequences were highly conserved. LASS6 expression was analyzed in silico, and the gene was shown to be broadly expressed in a wide range of tissues. Furthermore, available microarray data suggested a role in cancer differentiation and early embryonic development.

  7. Identification and characterization of thrombospondin-4, a new member of the thrombospondin gene family

    PubMed Central

    1993-01-01

    A new member of the thrombospondin gene family, designated thrombospondin-4, has been identified in the Xenopus laevis genome. The predicted amino acid sequence indicates that the protein is similar to the other members of this gene family in the structure of the type 3 repeats and the COOH-terminal domain. Thrombospondin-4 contains four type 2 repeats and lacks the type 1 repeats that are found in thrombospondin-1 and 2. The amino-terminal domain of thrombospondin-4 has no significant homology with the other members of the thrombospondin gene family or with other proteins in the database. RNAse protection analysis establishes that the initial expression of Xenopus thrombospondin-4 is observed during neurulation. Levels of mRNA expression increase twofold during tailbud stages but decrease by the feeding tadpole stage. The size of the thrombospondin-4 message is 3.3 Kb and 3.4 Kb in the frog and human, respectively. Northern blot analysis of human tissues reveals high levels of thrombospondin-4 expression in heart and skeletal muscle, low levels in brain, lung and pancreas and undetectable levels in the placenta, liver and kidney. These data establish the existence of a new member of the thrombospondin gene family that may participate in the genesis and function of cardiac and skeletal muscle. PMID:8432726

  8. Photo of family members of STS-5 commander, Vance D. Brand

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Erik Brand and his mother Beverly are seen in a photo of family members of STS-5 commander Vance D. Brand. Erik holds a small model of the space shuttle with its solid rocket boosters and external fuel tank still attached.

  9. College Adjustment and Subjective Well-Being when Coping with a Family Member's Illness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Christa K.; Welsh, Anne C.

    2010-01-01

    Individuals coping with the chronic or terminal illness of a family member are presented with a unique challenge that may influence their adjustment and overall well-being. This study investigated variables that relate to college adjustment and subjective well-being, including attachment, social support, coping, and illness-related constructs, in…

  10. Suicides among Family Members of Elderly Suicide Victims: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waern, Margda

    2005-01-01

    This exploratory study compares elderly suicides with (n = 13) and without (n = 72) family member suicide. Previous episodes of suicidal behavior were more common among suicides who lost first-degree relatives by suicide (100% vs. 65%, p = 0.009). Six persons had lost an offspring by suicide prior to their own deaths. Substance use disorder was…

  11. Helping Your Older Family Member Handle Finances. A Pacific Northwest Extension Publication. PNW 344.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmall, Vicki L.; Nay, Tim

    This booklet is designed to help individuals help older family members handle their finances. Presented first are 10 guidelines for keeping the tension involved in intervening in an older relative's finances to a minimum. The following financial/legal instruments are explained: joint bank accounts, powers of attorney (including durable powers of…

  12. 77 FR 54783 - Improving Access to Mental Health Services for Veterans, Service Members, and Military Families

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-05

    ... the underlying mechanisms of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), other mental health conditions..., Veterans Affairs, and Homeland Security to expand suicide prevention strategies and take steps to meet the... members, and their families. Sec. 2. Suicide Prevention. (a) By December 31, 2012, the Department...

  13. Posttraumatic Symptoms in Japanese Bereaved Family Members with Special Regard to Suicide and Homicide Cases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogata, Kohske; Ishikawa, Takaki; Michiue, Tomomi; Nishi, Yuko; Maeda, Hitoshi

    2011-01-01

    The authors investigated posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms in Japanese bereaved family members using a questionnaire. Participants were bereaved as a result of suicide and homicide (n = 51 and 49, respectively), with natural death (n = 56) as a control; and their relationships to the deceased were parent-child (n = 79), conjugal (n =…

  14. A Heavy Burden: The Cardiovascular Health Consequences of Having a Family Member Incarcerated

    PubMed Central

    Wildeman, Christopher; Wang, Emily A.; Matusko, Niki; Jackson, James S.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We examined the association of family member incarceration with cardiovascular risk factors and disease by gender. Methods. We used a sample of 5470 adults aged 18 years and older in the National Survey of American Life, a 2001–2003 nationally representative cross-sectional survey of Blacks and Whites living in the United States, to examine 5 self-reported health conditions (diabetes, hypertension, heart attack or stroke, obesity, and fair or poor health). Results. Family member incarceration was associated with increased likelihood of poor health across all 5 conditions for women but not for men. In adjusted models, women with family members who were currently incarcerated had 1.44 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.03, 2.00), 2.53 (95% CI = 1.80, 3.55), and 1.93 (95% CI = 1.45, 2.58) times the odds of being obese, having had a heart attack or stroke, and being in fair or poor health, respectively. Conclusions. Family member incarceration has profound implications for women’s cardiovascular health and should be considered a unique risk factor that contributes to racial disparities in health. PMID:24432879

  15. 42 CFR 435.116 - Qualified pregnant women and children who are not qualified family members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Qualified pregnant women and children who are not... Categorically Needy Mandatory Coverage of Pregnant Women, Children Under 8, and Newborn Children § 435.116 Qualified pregnant women and children who are not qualified family members. (a) The agency must...

  16. 42 CFR 436.120 - Qualified pregnant women and children who are not qualified family members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Qualified pregnant women and children who are not... women and children who are not qualified family members. (a) The Medicaid agency must provide Medicaid to a pregnant woman whose pregnancy has been medically verified and who— (1) Would be eligible for...

  17. Self-Concept and Depression among Children Who Experienced the Death of a Family Member

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nguyen, Hong T.; Scott, Amy N.

    2013-01-01

    The present study investigates the moderating effects of physical and academic self-concept on depression among children who experienced the death of a family member. Data from Phase III of the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Study of Early Child Care was used in the present study. Having a higher physical self-concept…

  18. 42 CFR 436.120 - Qualified pregnant women and children who are not qualified family members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Qualified pregnant women and children who are not... women and children who are not qualified family members. (a) The Medicaid agency must provide Medicaid to a pregnant woman whose pregnancy has been medically verified and who— (1) Would be eligible for...

  19. 42 CFR 435.116 - Qualified pregnant women and children who are not qualified family members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Qualified pregnant women and children who are not... Categorically Needy Mandatory Coverage of Pregnant Women, Children Under 8, and Newborn Children § 435.116 Qualified pregnant women and children who are not qualified family members. (a) The agency must...

  20. Resident and family member perceptions of cultural diversity in aged care homes.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Lily Dongxia; Willis, Eileen; Harrington, Ann; Gillham, David; De Bellis, Anita; Morey, Wendy; Jeffers, Lesley

    2017-03-01

    Similar to many developed nations, older people living in residential aged care homes in Australia and the staff who care for them have become increasingly multicultural. This cultural diversity adds challenges for residents in adapting to the care home. This study explores: (i) residents' and family members' perceptions about staff and cultural diversity, and (ii) culturally and linguistically diverse residents' and family members' experiences. An interpretive study design employing a thematic analysis was applied. Twenty-three residents and seven family members participated in interviews. Four themes were identified from interpreting residents and family members' perceptions of the impact of cultural diversity on their adaptation to aged care homes: (i) perceiving diversity as an attraction; (ii) adapting to cross-cultural communication; (iii) adjusting to diet in the residential care home; and (iv) anticipating individualized psychosocial interactions. The findings have implications for identifying strategies to support staff from all cultural backgrounds in order to create a caring environment that facilitates positive relationships with residents and supports residents to adjust to the care home.

  1. Communication Education as Social Support: Teaching Families with a Dying Member.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Steven D.

    Teaching communication skills to families with a dying member presents unique challenges. As M. R. Parks' critique of interpersonal communication literature suggests, it is important to keep in mind the larger social context surrounding the person dying and to maintain a balanced perspective of information exchange (e.g., self-disclosure) and…

  2. Differential expression of sirtuin family members in the developing, adult, and aged rat brain

    PubMed Central

    Sidorova-Darmos, Elena; Wither, Robert G.; Shulyakova, Natalya; Fisher, Carl; Ratnam, Melanie; Aarts, Michelle; Lilge, Lothar; Monnier, Philippe P.; Eubanks, James H.

    2014-01-01

    The sirtuins are NAD+-dependent protein deacetylases and/or ADP-ribosyltransferases that play roles in metabolic homeostasis, stress response and potentially aging. This enzyme family resides in different subcellular compartments, and acts on a number of different targets in the nucleus, cytoplasm and in the mitochondria. Despite their recognized ability to regulate metabolic processes, the roles played by specific sirtuins in the brain—the most energy demanding tissue in the body—remains less well investigated and understood. In the present study, we examined the regional mRNA and protein expression patterns of individual sirtuin family members in the developing, adult, and aged rat brain. Our results show that while each sirtuin is expressed in the brain at each of these different stages, they display unique spatial and temporal expression patterns within the brain. Further, for specific members of the family, the protein expression profile did not coincide with their respective mRNA expression profile. Moreover, using primary cultures enriched for neurons and astrocytes respectively, we found that specific sirtuin members display preferential neural lineage expression. Collectively, these results provide the first composite illustration that sirtuin family members display differential expression patterns in the brain, and provide evidence that specific sirtuins could potentially be targeted to achieve cell-type selective effects within the brain. PMID:25566066

  3. 5 CFR 894.307 - Are disabled children age 22 or over eligible as family members?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Are disabled children age 22 or over eligible as family members? 894.307 Section 894.307 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES DENTAL AND VISION INSURANCE...

  4. 5 CFR 894.306 - Are foster children eligible as family members?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Are foster children eligible as family members? 894.306 Section 894.306 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES DENTAL AND VISION INSURANCE PROGRAM Eligibility §...

  5. 5 CFR 894.307 - Are disabled children age 22 or over eligible as family members?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Are disabled children age 22 or over eligible as family members? 894.307 Section 894.307 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES DENTAL AND VISION INSURANCE...

  6. 5 CFR 894.307 - Are disabled children age 22 or over eligible as family members?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Are disabled children age 22 or over eligible as family members? 894.307 Section 894.307 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES DENTAL AND VISION INSURANCE...

  7. 5 CFR 894.307 - Are disabled children age 22 or over eligible as family members?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Are disabled children age 22 or over eligible as family members? 894.307 Section 894.307 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES DENTAL AND VISION INSURANCE...

  8. 5 CFR 894.307 - Are disabled children age 22 or over eligible as family members?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Are disabled children age 22 or over eligible as family members? 894.307 Section 894.307 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES DENTAL AND VISION INSURANCE...

  9. 5 CFR 894.306 - Are foster children eligible as family members?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Are foster children eligible as family members? 894.306 Section 894.306 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES DENTAL AND VISION INSURANCE PROGRAM Eligibility §...

  10. 5 CFR 894.306 - Are foster children eligible as family members?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Are foster children eligible as family members? 894.306 Section 894.306 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES DENTAL AND VISION INSURANCE PROGRAM Eligibility §...

  11. 5 CFR 894.306 - Are foster children eligible as family members?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Are foster children eligible as family members? 894.306 Section 894.306 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES DENTAL AND VISION INSURANCE PROGRAM Eligibility §...

  12. Motives for Residential Mobility in Later Life: Post-Move Perspectives of Elders and Family Members

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sergeant, Julie F.; Ekerdt, David J.

    2008-01-01

    This qualitative study delineates motives for residential mobility, describes dynamics between the elder and family members during the move decision process, and locates the move decision within ecological layers of the aging context. Interviews were conducted with 30 individuals and couples (ages 60-87) who experienced a community-based move…

  13. 42 CFR 436.120 - Qualified pregnant women and children who are not qualified family members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Qualified pregnant women and children who are not... women and children who are not qualified family members. (a) The Medicaid agency must provide Medicaid to a pregnant woman whose pregnancy has been medically verified and who— (1) Would be eligible for...

  14. 42 CFR 436.120 - Qualified pregnant women and children who are not qualified family members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Qualified pregnant women and children who are not... women and children who are not qualified family members. (a) The Medicaid agency must provide Medicaid to a pregnant woman whose pregnancy has been medically verified and who— (1) Would be eligible for...

  15. 42 CFR 436.120 - Qualified pregnant women and children who are not qualified family members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Qualified pregnant women and children who are not... women and children who are not qualified family members. (a) The Medicaid agency must provide Medicaid to a pregnant woman whose pregnancy has been medically verified and who— (1) Would be eligible for...

  16. Experiences of family members of patients with colostomies and expectations about professional intervention

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira-Umpiérrez, Augusto; Fort-Fort, Zoraida

    2014-01-01

    Objective the objective was to understand the experience of a group of family members of patients with colostomies, revealing their expectations regarding the intervention of health professionals. Method qualitative research, with the social phenomenological approach of Alfred Schütz, conducted in Montevideo in 2012; twelve family members of patients with colostomies participated, from an ostomy service of a health institution. Results the following categories were identified: family ties, trust in the health care team, the nurse as the articulator of the process, the desire to humanize care, and adaptation to new family life. Conclusions knowing the experience and expectations of the families of colostomy patients was achieved, emphasizing the previous family relationships to build upon them, and the trust in the health team, emphasizing the nurse as articulator of the process. Expectations focused on the desire for humanized care, enhancing adaptation of the nuclear family to the new way of life, restoring and enhancing its strengths, and collaborating in overcoming its weaknesses. PMID:26107831

  17. Changing patterns of familial sociability: family members as witnesses to (re)marriage in nineteenth-century Flanders.

    PubMed

    Matthijs, Koen

    2006-04-01

    Based on research in three Flemish communities, the author concluded that during the course of the second part of the nineteenth century, there was an increasing trend toward choosing family members as witnesses to the marriage ceremony (of first marriages). This was interpreted as an aspect of the "familiarization" of marriage. It might also, however refer to changing family contexts and social networks, to switching roles of parents and youth, to shifting intergenerational power, and to new family situations of solidarity and conflict. In this follow-up study, the author demonstrates that the former conclusions also hold true for other Flemish regions, for all social groups, and for remarriages. It also appears that marrying people increasingly selected brothers and brothers-in-law as witnesses, rather than descending or ascending kin. These observations support the thesis of the increasing familiarization of family relations during the course of the nineteenth century.

  18. Skin lead contamination of family members of boat-caulkers in southern Thailand.

    PubMed

    Untimanon, Orrapan; Geater, Alan; Chongsuvivatwong, Virasakdi; Saetia, Wiyada; Utapan, Sutida

    2011-01-01

    Powdered lead oxide (Pb(3)O(4)) is used in the wooden-boat repair industry as a constituent of the caulking material. This study compared skin lead of household members of caulkers' and control homes, and examined the relationship of household member's skin lead with household floor lead loading (FLL) and dust lead content (DLC). FLL and DLC were measured in 67 caulkers' houses and 46 nearby houses with no known lead exposure. In each household, wipe specimens of skin lead were obtained from one selected family member. Hand lead loading (HdLL) and foot lead loading (FtLL) were significantly higher in family members of caulkers than controls (geometric mean 64.4 vs. 36.2 μg m(-2); p = 0.002 and 77.8 vs 43.8 μg m(-2); p = 0.002, respectively). This pattern mirrored FLL and DLC, which were also higher in caulkers' than in control houses (geometric mean 109.9 vs. 40.1 μg m(-2); p<0.001 and 434.8 vs 80.8 μg g(-1); p<0.001, respectively). Multiple linear regression modelling revealed FLL to be a better predictor than DLC for HdLL in all age groups and for FtLL in adult family members. In conclusion, skin lead levels are elevated in family members living in a lead-exposed worker's house and are related to the levels of household lead contamination.

  19. Self-concept and depression among children who experienced the death of a family member.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Hong T; Scott, Amy N

    2013-03-01

    The present study investigates the moderating effects of physical and academic self-concept on depression among children who experienced the death of a family member. Data from Phase III of the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Study of Early Child Care was used in the present study. Having a higher physical self-concept moderated the relationship between death of a family member and depression. However, an unexpected relationship indicated that having higher math self-concept increased the probability of developing symptoms of depression. Interventions that target children's self-concept, especially physical self-concept, after a death in the family may result in fewer depression symptoms later in life.

  20. Familial primary antiphospholipid syndrome: A report of co-occurrence in three Malaysian family members.

    PubMed

    Islam, Md Asiful; Wong, Kah Keng; Sasongko, Teguh Haryo; Gan, Siew Hua; Wong, Jin Shyan

    2016-09-01

    Here we present a case report of three familial primary antiphospholipid syndrome (PAPS) patients from Malaysia. The three familial patients comprised two females and one male with a mean age of 26.3 years. The first diagnosis was made between 2005 and 2009, and all patients demonstrated deep vein thrombosis, high levels of IgM and IgG anticardiolipin antibodies, and received warfarin treatment international normalized ratio (INR) 2.0-3.0. The patients ceased to show clinical symptoms after treatment. Recently (August 2014), we investigated whether the levels of antiphospholipid antibodies remained elevated, and we found that seronegativity occurred in the patients. We suspect that prolonged anticoagulant treatment might be one of the causes of reduced levels of antiphospholipid antibodies in these familial PAPS patients.

  1. Cooperative interactions of LPPR family members in membrane localization and alteration of cellular morphology

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Panpan; Agbaegbu, Chinyere; Malide, Daniela A.; Wu, Xufeng; Katagiri, Yasuhiro; Hammer, John A.; Geller, Herbert M.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The lipid phosphate phosphatase-related proteins (LPPRs), also known as plasticity-related genes (PRGs), are classified as a new brain-enriched subclass of the lipid phosphate phosphatase (LPP) superfamily. They induce membrane protrusions, neurite outgrowth or dendritic spine formation in cell lines and primary neurons. However, the exact roles of LPPRs and the mechanisms underlying their effects are not certain. Here, we present the results of a large-scale proteome analysis to determine LPPR1-interacting proteins using co-immunoprecipitation coupled to mass spectrometry. We identified putative LPPR1-binding proteins involved in various biological processes. Most interestingly, we identified the interaction of LPPR1 with its family member LPPR3, LPPR4 and LPPR5. Their interactions were characterized by co-immunoprecipitation and colocalization analysis using confocal and super-resolution microscopy. Moreover, co-expressing two LPPR members mutually elevated their protein levels, facilitated their plasma membrane localization and resulted in an increased induction of membrane protrusions as well as the phosphorylation of S6 ribosomal protein. Taken together, we revealed a new functional cooperation between LPPR family members and discovered for the first time that LPPRs likely exert their function through forming complex with its family members. PMID:26183180

  2. Mutations and polymorphic BRCA variants transmission in breast cancer familial members.

    PubMed

    Pilato, Brunella; Martinucci, Marianna; Danza, Katia; Pinto, Rosamaria; Petriella, Daniela; Lacalamita, Rosanna; Bruno, Michele; Lambo, Rossana; D'Amico, Cosimo; Paradiso, Angelo; Tommasi, Stefania

    2011-02-01

    We previously showed that about 80% of breast cancer patients at high risk to carry mutation in BRCA genes presented at least one polymorphism in these genes which resulted potentially harmful by in silico analysis. In the present paper, the genealogic transmission of those polymorphic coding and noncoding variants of BRCA genes in family's members has been investigated. Thirty families, enrolled within the Genetic Counselling Program of our Institute, with probands and at least one-first degree relative (n = 67 family members) available, have been studied for both BRCA1 and BRCA2 pathological mutation and polymorphic variants' transmission. Ten and 6 probands carried Mendelian transmitted mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2, respectively. Polymorphic coding and noncoding variants were transmitted in each family's relatives with a frequency ranging from 42 to 100%, with similar rate for each SNP in mutated and nonmutated families with the only exception of BRCA1 K1183R significantly more frequent in mutated families (P = 0.004); conversely, this SNP and BRCA2 N372H, were more frequently present in breast cancer relatives belonging to families in which pathological BRCA mutations were not present. Furthermore, specific haplotypes were transmitted in all relatives as BRCA1 871Leu-1038Gly, present in both BRCA mutated and nonmutated families, while BRCA2 289His-991Asp-IVS14+53 C>T present only in BRCAX families suggesting the harmful role of these SNPs. In conclusion, analysis of SNPs maps and modality of their transmission could identify further susceptibility markers and provide a basis for a better DNA-based cancer classification.

  3. Proposed regulations could limit access to affordable health coverage for workers' children and family members.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, Ken; Graham-Squire, Dave; Roby, Dylan H; Kominski, Gerald F; Kinane, Christina M; Needleman, Jack; Watson, Greg; Gans, Daphna

    2011-12-01

    Key Findings. The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) is designed to offer premium subsidies to help eligible individuals and their families purchase insurance coverage when affordable job-based coverage is not available. However, the law is unclear on how this affordability protection is applied in those instances where self-only coverage offered by an employer is affordable but family coverage is not. Regulations recently proposed by the Department of the Treasury would make family members ineligible for subsidized coverage in the exchange if an employee is offered affordable self-only coverage by an employer, even if family coverage is unaffordable. This could have significant financial consequences for low- and moderate-income families that fall in this gap. Using an alternative interpretation of the law could allow the entire family to enter the exchange when family coverage is unaffordable, which would broaden access to coverage. However, this option has been cited as cost prohibitive. In this brief we consider a middle ground alternative that would base eligibility for the individual worker on the cost of self-only coverage, but would use the additional cost to the employee for family coverage as the basis for determining affordability and eligibility for subsidies for the remaining family members. We find that: Under the middle ground alternative scenario an additional 144,000 Californians would qualify for and use premium subsidies in the California Health Benefit Exchange, half of whom are children. Less than 1 percent of those with employer-based coverage would move to subsidized coverage in the California Health Benefit Exchange as a result of having unaffordable coverage on the job.

  4. Cancer in the Family: Review of the Psychosocial Perspectives of Patients and Family Members

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitschke, Diane B.

    2008-01-01

    As advances in cancer care have led to more treatment options and longer survival for cancer patients, a focus on quality of life for patients and their families has gained importance. This review provides a discussion of stress and coping theory, documents the relevance of this topic area for social work practice, and illuminates the results of a…

  5. Gene therapy using IL 12 family members in infection, auto immunity, and cancer.

    PubMed

    Waldner, Maximilian J; Neurath, Markus F

    2009-08-01

    Interleukin-12 (IL-12) is known for several years to have an essential role in inflammatory responses and innate resistance to infection and cancer. This has been largely attributed to its ability to initiate the differentiation of T-helper-1 (Th1) cells producing interferon-gamma. Recently, two new cytokines, IL-23 and IL-27, with homology to IL-12 were discovered and assigned to the IL-12 family of cytokines. Growing evidence supports a role for IL-23 as key mediator of autoimmune disease regulating the new Th17 subset of CD4+ T cells. IL-27 can have pro- and anti-inflammatory effects, which increase Th1 differentiation, suppress Th2 proliferation, or stimulate cytotoxic T cell activity. Several strategies have been pursued to apply the immunological effects of IL-12 family members to the treatment of human disease. Whereas the inhibition of IL-12 and IL-23 signal transduction has shown promising results for the treatment of autoimmune disease, the administration of IL-12 during infection and cancer can increase the host immune reaction. The increasing knowledge about the new IL-12 family members, IL-23 and IL-27, has revealed new therapeutic options for the use of these cytokines. In this review, we discuss therapeutic strategies using IL-12 family members in infection, autoimmunity, and cancer with special focus on gene administration.

  6. Four Members of Heat Shock Protein 70 Family in Korean Rose Bitterling (Rhodeus uyekii)

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jung Hyun; Dong, Chun Mae; Kim, Julan; An, Cheul Min; Baek, Hae Ja; Kong, Hee Jeong

    2015-01-01

    Heat shock protein (HSP) 70, the highly conserved stress protein families, plays important roles in protecting cells against heat and other stresses in most animal species. In the present study, we identified and characterized four Hsp70 (RuHSP4, RuHSC70, RuHSP12A, RuGRP78) family proteins based on the expressed sequence tag (EST) analysis of the Korean rose bitterling R. uyekii cDNA library. The deduced RuHSP70 family has high amino acid identities of 72-99% with those of other species. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that RuHsp70 family clustered with fish groups (HSP4, HSC70, HSP12A, GRP78) proteins. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis showed the specific expression patterns of RuHsp70 family members in the early developmental stages and several tissues in Korean rose bitterling. The expression of 4 groups of Hsp70 family was detected in all tested tissue. Particularly, Hsp70 family of Korean rose bitterling is highly expressed in hepatopancreas and sexual gonad (testis and ovary). The expression of Hsp70 family was differentially regulated in accordance with early development stage of Rhodeus uyekii. PMID:27004270

  7. BadR, a new MarR family member, regulates anaerobic benzoate degradation by Rhodopseudomonas palustris in concert with AadR, an Fnr family member.

    PubMed

    Egland, P G; Harwood, C S

    1999-04-01

    A cluster of genes for the anaerobic degradation of benzoate has been described for the phototrophic bacterium Rhodopseudomonas palustris. Here we provide an initial analysis of the regulation of anaerobic benzoate degradation by examining the contributions of two regulators: a new regulator, BadR, encoded by the benzoate degradation gene cluster, and a previously described regulator, AadR, whose gene lies outside the cluster. Strains with single mutations in either badR or aadR grew slowly on benzoate but were relatively unimpaired in growth on succinate and several intermediates of benzoate degradation. A badR aadR double mutant was completely defective in anaerobic growth on benzoate. Effects of the regulators on transcriptional activation were monitored with an R. palustris strain carrying a chromosomal fusion of 'lacZ to the badE gene of the badDEFG operon. This operon encodes benzoyl-coenzyme A (benzoyl-CoA) reductase, an unusual oxygen-sensitive enzyme that catalyzes the benzene ring reduction reaction that is the rate-limiting step in anaerobic benzoate degradation. Expression of badE::'lacZ was induced 100-fold when cells grown aerobically on succinate were shifted to anaerobic growth on succinate plus benzoate. The aadR gene was required for a 20-fold increase in expression that occurred in response to anaerobiosis, and badR was responsible for a further 5-fold increase in expression that occurred in response to benzoate. Further studies with the badE::'lacZ fusion strain grown with various kinds of aromatic acids indicated that BadR probably responds to benzoyl-CoA acting as an effector molecule. Sequence information indicates that BadR is a member of the MarR family of transcriptional regulators. These studies expand the range of functions regulated by MarR family members to include anaerobic aromatic acid degradation and provide an example of a MarR-type protein that acts as a positive regulator rather than as a negative regulator, as do most Mar

  8. Tangible Needs and External Stressors Faced by Chinese American Families with a Member Having Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Kung, Winnie

    2016-01-01

    This article examines the tangible needs and external stressors experienced by Chinese American families with a member living with schizophrenia, in the context of a six-month pilot study of family psychoeducation. Therapists’ notes from 117 family and group sessions were analyzed. The families expressed concerns regarding housing, finance, work, study, and the shortage of bilingual psychosocial services. Interacting with government offices and social services agencies caused anxiety and frustration, partly due to the high stakes involved given their low socioeconomic status, and partly due to the bureaucracy. As immigrants, study participants had needs for language translation, knowledge about resources, and advocacy by case managers. This study also highlights the importance of interventions beyond the micro individual level to the mezzo and macro levels, where changes in organizations and policies are necessary. PMID:27257357

  9. Identification of a new, unorthodox member of the MAGE gene family.

    PubMed

    Põld, M; Zhou, J; Chen, G L; Hall, J M; Vescio, R A; Berenson, J R

    1999-07-15

    Several tumor-associated antigen families, such as MAGE, GAGE/PAGE, PRAME, BAGE, and LAGE/NY-ESO-1, exist. These antigens are of particular interest in tumor immunology, because their expression, with exception of testis and fetal tissues, seems to be restricted to tumor cells only. We have identified a novel member of the MAGE gene family, MAGED1. Northern hybridization and RT-PCR demonstrated that the expression level of MAGED1 in different normal adult tissues is comparable to that in testis and fetal liver. Thus, MAGED1 does not possess an expression pattern characteristic of previously identified MAGE family genes, suggesting that the biology of the MAGE-family genes is more complex than previously thought. Chromosome mapping linked MAGED1 to marker AFM119xd6 (DXS1039) on chromosome Xp11.23.

  10. B7x: A widely expressed B7 family member that inhibits T cell activation

    PubMed Central

    Zang, Xingxing; Loke, P'ng; Kim, Jayon; Murphy, Kenneth; Waitz, Rebecca; Allison, James P.

    2003-01-01

    B7 family proteins provide costimulatory signals that regulate T cell responses. Here we report the third set of B7 family-related T cell inhibitory molecules with the identification of a homolog of the B7 family, B7x. It is expressed in immune cells, nonlymphoid tissues, and some tumor cell lines. B7x inhibits cell-cycle progression, proliferation, and cytokine production of both CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. B7x binds a receptor that is expressed on activated, but not resting T cells that is distinct from known CD28 family members. Its receptor may be a recently identified inhibitory molecule, B and T lymphocyte attenuator. These studies identify a costimulatory pathway that may have a unique function in downregulation of tissue-specific autoimmunity and antitumor responses. PMID:12920180

  11. [Children and adolescents with cancer under palliative care: experience of family members].

    PubMed

    Sanches, Mariana Vendrami Parra; Nascimento, Lucila Castanheira; de Lima, Regina Aparecida Garcia

    2014-01-01

    This study's objective was to investigate the experience of family members of children and adolescents with cancer in terms of palliative care, especially the care provided in the final stage of life. This is a descriptive and exploratory study with qualitative data analysis. A total of 14 family members participated in the study. They were the caregivers of children and adolescents with cancer who died, and were followed up by a teaching hospital in the state of São Paulo. Empirical data were organized around three themes: "The impact of the worsening of the disease on the family's dynamics", "Communicating bad news" and "The experience of the family concerning palliative care". This study is relevant to children and adolescents with cancer in the end-of life care because the complex, dynamics, and comprehensive experiences of families in the care of children and adolescents in this period can contribute to better understanding of the process of providing care in light of the fundamentals of palliative care.

  12. Strategies for encouraging patient/family member partnerships with the health care team.

    PubMed

    Ahmann, Elizabeth; Dokken, Deborah

    2012-01-01

    The 5th International Conference of the Institute for Patient- and Family-Centered Care (IPFCC), held in Washington, DC, from June 4-6, 2012, offered an opportunity for almost 1,000 conference participants to share and learn about exciting new patient- and family-centered initiatives occurring across the U.S. and in many other countries. One focus addressed by keynote and plenary speakers, as well as numerous conference sessions and poster presentations, was how nurses and other health care professionals can encourage patients and family members to become partners with their health care teams. Various presenters shared strategies ranging from initial approaches to acknowledging family members as part of the team and offering simple, non-threatening roles in care provision, to policies and approaches inviting increased participation in health care encounters, to higher level involvement in the care planning process, and to partnership roles extending beyond care of the individual child and family. A wealth of ideas can be implemented at various levels by individual nurses, units, and health care institutions.

  13. Reconstructing meaning through occupation after the death of a family member: accommodation, assimilation, and continuing bonds.

    PubMed

    Hoppes, Steve; Segal, Ruth

    2010-01-01

    Reactions to death have been studied extensively from psychological, behavioral, and physiological perspectives. Occupational adaptation to loss has received scant attention. Qualitative research was undertaken to identify and describe occupational responses in bereavement. The constant comparative approach was used to analyze and interpret the occupational responses. Adaptive strategies of occupational accommodation and assimilation were used after the death of a family member. Desire to sustain bonds with the deceased motivated specific occupational engagements. These occupational responses served to reconstruct meaning after the death of a family member. These findings contribute to understanding adaptation after death by adding an occupational perspective to previous theories. Occupational therapists' abilities to support clients after loss can be enhanced through appreciation of occupational accommodation and assimilation and the role of continuing occupational bonds after the death of a loved one.

  14. Marriage and family therapy faculty members' balance of work and personal life.

    PubMed

    Matheson, Jennifer L; Rosen, Karen H

    2012-04-01

    A sense of imbalance is common among both professors and therapists, though few studies have been published examining the work and personal life balance of those who work in both professions simultaneously. Using in-depth telephone interviews, this study examined the work and personal life balance of 16 marriage and family therapy (MFT) faculty members. Results showed that six were satisfied with their balance, six were dissatisfied, and four were "middle of the road." Men, older participants, and those who were in their career longer were more likely to report feeling satisfied with their balance. Internal indicators of their balance included family and workplace messages, health indicators, feelings of contentment, and congruence with personal values. Child and relationship status, tenure status, and gender issues also impacted their sense of balance. Specific balance enhancers and reducers were highlighted, and participants discussed coping strategies and recommendations for other MFT faculty members. Clinical, training, and career implications are discussed.

  15. GASA4, One of the 14-Member Arabidopsis GASA Family of Small Polypeptides, Regulates Flowering and Seed Development

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Members of the plant-specific gibberellic acid-stimulated Arabidopsis (GASA) gene family play roles in hormone response, defense and development. We have identified six new Arabidopsis GASA genes, bringing the total number of family members to 14. Here we show that these genes all encode small polyp...

  16. Those Who Are Left behind: An Estimate of the Number of Family Members of Suicide Victims in Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Joe; Choi, Yun Jeong; Mori, Kohta; Sawada, Yasuyuki; Sugano, Saki

    2009-01-01

    This paper contributes to the literature of suicide studies by presenting procedures and its estimates of the number of family members who lose their loved ones to suicide. Using Japanese aggregate level data, three main findings emerge: first, there are approximately five bereaved family members per suicide; second, in 2006, there were about…

  17. Draft Genome Sequence of Tokyovirus, a Member of the Family Marseilleviridae Isolated from the Arakawa River of Tokyo, Japan

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Members of the Marseilleviridae family are large DNA viruses with icosahedral particles that infect Acanthamoeba cells. This report presents a new Marseilleviridae family member discovered in a water/soil sample from a river in Tokyo, named Tokyovirus, with genome size of 370 to 380 kb. PMID:27284144

  18. Cloning and characterization of a second member of the mouse mdr gene family.

    PubMed Central

    Gros, P; Raymond, M; Bell, J; Housman, D

    1988-01-01

    The mammalian mdr gene family comprises a small number of closely related genes. Previously, we have shown that one member, mdr1, has the capacity to convey multidrug resistance to drug-sensitive recipient cells in a gene transfer protocol. However, the functional characteristics of other members of this gene family have not been examined. In this report, we characterize a second member of the mdr gene family which we designated mdr2. We determined the nucleotide sequence corresponding to the complete coding region of this mdr2 transcript. The predicted amino acid sequence of this protein (1,276 amino acids) showed that it is a membrane glycoprotein highly homologous to mdr1 (85%), strongly suggesting that both genes originate from a common ancestor. Regions of divergence between mdr1 and mdr2 proteins are concentrated in two discrete segments of the predicted polypeptides, each approximately 100 residues in length. The mdr2 protein appears to be formed by the duplication of a structural unit which encodes three putative transmembrane loops and a predicted nucleotide-binding fold and is highly homologous to bacterial transport proteins such as hlyB. This strong homology suggests that mdr2 also participates in an energy-dependent membrane transport process. However, the direct relationship, if any, of this new member of the mdr family to multidrug resistance remains to be established. Knowledge of the complete nucleotide sequence and predicted amino acid sequence of the mdr2 gene product will enable the preparation of gene-specific probes and antibodies necessary to study the functional role of this gene in multidrug resistance and normal physiological processes. PMID:3405218

  19. Rapid microbiochemical method for presumptive identification of gastroenteritis-associated members of the family Enterobacteriaceae.

    PubMed

    Yong, D C; Thompson, J S; Prytula, A

    1985-06-01

    A method for rapid screening of isolates of pathogenic members of the family Enterobacteriaceae is described. Flow charts are used in conjunction with triple sugar iron agar, o-nitrophenyl-beta-D-galactopyranoside-phenylalanine-motility sulfate screening media, oxidase test, and six rapid biochemical tests, namely, lysine decarboxylase, urease, indole, esculin hydrolysis, malonate, and xylose. This scheme is used to provide an inexpensive but rapid presumptive identification of Salmonella, Shigella, Edwardsiella, Aeromonas, Plesiomonas, Vibrio, and Yersinia isolates from stool cultures.

  20. Family Quality of Life from the Perspectives of Individual Family Members: A Korean-American Family and Deafness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hong, Joo Young; Turnbull, Ann

    2013-01-01

    Beginning in the mid-to-late 1980s, the focus on individual quality of life expanded to family quality of life (FQOL) in the field of intellectual disabilities. However, few studies examined FQOL for families who have children with hearing loss. Furthermore, most studies focused on mothers' perceptions of FQOL. The purpose of this study is to…

  1. Assessment of satisfaction with care among family members of survivors in a neuroscience intensive care unit.

    PubMed

    Hwang, David Y; Yagoda, Daniel; Perrey, Hilary M; Tehan, Tara M; Guanci, Mary; Ananian, Lillian; Currier, Paul F; Cobb, J Perren; Rosand, Jonathan

    2014-04-01

    Many prior nursing studies regarding family members specifically of neuroscience intensive care unit (neuro-ICU) patients have focused on identifying their primary needs. A concept related to identifying these needs and assessing whether they have been met is determining whether families explicitly report satisfaction with the care that both they and their loved ones have received. The objective of this study was to explore family satisfaction with care in an academic neuro-ICU and compare results with concurrent data from the same hospital's medical ICU (MICU). Over 38 days, we administered the Family Satisfaction-ICU instrument to neuro-ICU and MICU patients' families at the time of ICU discharge. Those whose loved ones passed away during ICU admission were excluded. When asked about the respect and compassion that they received from staff, 76.3% (95% CI [66.5, 86.1]) of neuro-ICU families were completely satisfied, as opposed to 92.7% in the MICU (95% CI [84.4, 101.0], p = .04). Respondents were less likely to be completely satisfied with the courtesy of staff if they reported participation in zero formal family meeting. Less than 60% of neuro-ICU families were completely satisfied by (1) frequency of physician communication, (2) inclusion and (3) support during decision making, and (4) control over the care of their loved ones. Parents of patients were more likely than other relatives to feel very included and supported in the decision-making process. Future studies may focus on evaluating strategies for neuro-ICU nurses and physicians to provide better decision-making support and to implement more frequent family meetings even for those patients who may not seem medically or socially complicated to the team. Determining satisfaction with care for those families whose loved ones passed away during their neuro-ICU admission is another potential avenue for future investigation.

  2. Exposure of Phosphatidylserine by Xk-related Protein Family Members during Apoptosis*

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Jun; Imanishi, Eiichi; Nagata, Shigekazu

    2014-01-01

    Apoptotic cells expose phosphatidylserine (PtdSer) on their surface as an “eat me” signal. Mammalian Xk-related (Xkr) protein 8, which is predicted to contain six transmembrane regions, and its Caenorhabditis elegans homolog CED-8 promote apoptotic PtdSer exposure. The mouse and human Xkr families consist of eight and nine members, respectively. Here, we found that mouse Xkr family members, with the exception of Xkr2, are localized to the plasma membrane. When Xkr8-deficient cells, which do not expose PtdSer during apoptosis, were transformed by Xkr family members, the transformants expressing Xkr4, Xkr8, or Xkr9 responded to apoptotic stimuli by exposing cell surface PtdSer and were efficiently engulfed by macrophages. Like Xkr8, Xkr4 and Xkr9 were found to possess a caspase recognition site in the C-terminal region and to require its direct cleavage by caspases for their function. Site-directed mutagenesis of the amino acid residues conserved among CED-8, Xkr4, Xkr8, and Xkr9 identified several essential residues in the second transmembrane and second cytoplasmic regions. Real time PCR analysis indicated that unlike Xkr8, which is ubiquitously expressed, Xkr4 and Xkr9 expression is tissue-specific. PMID:25231987

  3. Involvement of Family Members and Professionals in Older Women's Post-Fall Decision Making.

    PubMed

    Bergeron, Caroline D; Hilfinger Messias, DeAnne K; Friedman, Daniela B; Spencer, S Melinda; Miller, Susan C

    2016-12-29

    This exploratory, descriptive study examined involvement of family members and professionals in older women's post-fall decision making. We conducted semistructured interviews with 17 older women who had recently fallen and 11 individuals these women identified as being engaged in their post-fall decision-making processes. Qualitative data analysis involved open and axial coding and development of themes. After experiencing a fall, these older women's openness to others' opinions and advice; their assessments of types and credibility of potential information sources; and the communication practices they established with these sources influenced how they accessed, accepted, or rejected information from family members and professionals. Increased awareness of the involvement of others in post-fall decision making could enhance communication with older women who fall. Developing and implementing practical strategies to help family members and professionals initiate and engage in conversations about falls and their consequences could lead to more open decision making and improved post-fall quality of life among older women.

  4. Moral injury: a mechanism for war-related psychological trauma in military family members.

    PubMed

    Nash, William P; Litz, Brett T

    2013-12-01

    Recent research has provided compelling evidence of mental health problems in military spouses and children, including post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), related to the war-zone deployments, combat exposures, and post-deployment mental health symptoms experienced by military service members in the family. One obstacle to further research and federal programs targeting the psychological health of military family members has been the lack of a clear, compelling, and testable model to explain how war-zone events can result in psychological trauma in military spouses and children. In this article, we propose a possible mechanism for deployment-related psychological trauma in military spouses and children based on the concept of moral injury, a model that has been developed to better understand how service members and veterans may develop PTSD and other serious mental and behavioral problems in the wake of war-zone events that inflict damage to moral belief systems rather by threatening personal life and safety. After describing means of adapting the moral injury model to family systems, we discuss the clinical implications of moral injury, and describe a model for its psychological treatment.

  5. Death of family members as an overlooked source of racial disadvantage in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Olson, Julie Skalamera; Crosnoe, Robert; Liu, Hui; Pudrovska, Tetyana; Donnelly, Rachel

    2017-01-01

    Long-standing racial differences in US life expectancy suggest that black Americans would be exposed to significantly more family member deaths than white Americans from childhood through adulthood, which, given the health risks posed by grief and bereavement, would add to the disadvantages that they face. We analyze nationally representative US data from the National Longitudinal Study of Youth (n = 7,617) and the Health and Retirement Study (n = 34,757) to estimate racial differences in exposure to the death of family members at different ages, beginning in childhood. Results indicate that blacks are significantly more likely than whites to have experienced the death of a mother, a father, and a sibling from childhood through midlife. From young adulthood through later life, blacks are also more likely than whites to have experienced the death of a child and of a spouse. These results reveal an underappreciated layer of racial inequality in the United States, one that could contribute to the intergenerational transmission of health disadvantage. By calling attention to this heightened vulnerability of black Americans, our findings underscore the need to address the potential impact of more frequent and earlier exposure to family member deaths in the process of cumulative disadvantage. PMID:28115712

  6. Evolutionary Pattern and Regulation Analysis to Support Why Diversity Functions Existed within PPAR Gene Family Members

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Xiping; Wang, Guosong; Liu, Hehe; Gan, Xiang; Zhang, Tao; Wang, Jiwen; Li, Liang

    2015-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferators-activated receptor (PPAR) gene family members exhibit distinct patterns of distribution in tissues and differ in functions. The purpose of this study is to investigate the evolutionary impacts on diversity functions of PPAR members and the regulatory differences on gene expression patterns. 63 homology sequences of PPAR genes from 31 species were collected and analyzed. The results showed that three isolated types of PPAR gene family may emerge from twice times of gene duplication events. The conserved domains of HOLI (ligand binding domain of hormone receptors) domain and ZnF_C4 (C4 zinc finger in nuclear in hormone receptors) are essential for keeping basic roles of PPAR gene family, and the variant domains of LCRs may be responsible for their divergence in functions. The positive selection sites in HOLI domain are benefit for PPARs to evolve towards diversity functions. The evolutionary variants in the promoter regions and 3′ UTR regions of PPARs result into differential transcription factors and miRNAs involved in regulating PPAR members, which may eventually affect their expressions and tissues distributions. These results indicate that gene duplication event, selection pressure on HOLI domain, and the variants on promoter and 3′ UTR are essential for PPARs evolution and diversity functions acquired. PMID:25961030

  7. Conservation of the biochemical mechanisms of signal transduction among mammalian Notch family members

    PubMed Central

    Mizutani, Tomohiko; Taniguchi, Yoshihito; Aoki, Tomokazu; Hashimoto, Nobuo; Honjo, Tasuku

    2001-01-01

    Mouse Notch1, which plays an important role in cell fate determination in development, is proteolytically processed within its transmembrane domain by unidentified γ-secretase-like activity that depends on presenilin. To study this proteolytic event, we established a cell-free Notch cleavage assay system using the membrane fraction of fibroblast transfectants of various Notch constructs with deletion of the extracellular portion (Notch ΔE). The cytoplasmic portion of Notch1 ΔE was released from the membrane upon incubation at 37°C, which was inhibited by the specific γ-secretase inhibitor, MW167, or by overexpression of dominant negative presenilin1. Likewise, other members of mouse Notch family were proteolytically cleaved in a presenilin-dependent, MW167-sensitive manner in vivo as well as in the cell-free Notch ΔE cleavage assay system. All four members of the mouse Notch family migrated to the nucleus and activated the transcription from the promoter carrying the RBP-J consensus sequences after they were released from the membrane. These results demonstrate the conserved biochemical mechanism of signal transduction among mammalian Notch family members. PMID:11459941

  8. Health and diabetes self-efficacy: a study of diabetic and non-diabetic free clinic patients and family members.

    PubMed

    Kamimura, Akiko; Christensen, Nancy; Myers, Kyl; Nourian, Maziar M; Ashby, Jeanie; Greenwood, Jessica L J; Reel, Justine J

    2014-08-01

    Free clinics across the country provide free or reduced fee healthcare to individuals who lack access to primary care and are socio-economically disadvantaged. This study examined perceived health status among diabetic and non-diabetic free clinic patients and family members of the patients. Diabetes self-efficacy among diabetic free clinic patients was also investigated with the goal of developing appropriate diabetes health education programs to promote diabetes self-management. English or Spanish speaking patients and family members (N = 365) aged 18 years or older completed a self-administered survey. Physical and mental health and diabetes self-efficacy were measured using standardized instruments. Diabetic free clinic patients reported poorer physical and mental health and higher levels of dysfunction compared to non-diabetic free clinic patients and family members. Having a family history of diabetes and using emergency room or urgent care services were significant factors that affected health and dysfunction among diabetic and non-diabetes free clinic patients and family members. Diabetic free clinic patients need to receive services not only for diabetes, but also for overall health and dysfunction issues. Diabetes educational programs for free clinic patients should include a component to increase diabetes empowerment as well as the knowledge of treatment and management of diabetes. Non-diabetic patients and family members who have a family history of diabetes should also participate in diabetes education. Family members of free clinic patients need help to support a diabetic family member or with diabetes prevention.

  9. Sources of hope: Perception of Iranian family members of patients in the Intensive Care Unit

    PubMed Central

    Gaeeni, Mina; Farahani, Mansoureh A; Mohammadi, Nooredin; Seyedfatemi, Naima

    2014-01-01

    Background: Admission to an Intensive Care Unit (ICU) is recognized as a situation with emotional strain, uncertainty, and fear of losing the patient. In such stressful situations, it is hope that can promote psychological stability in the patient's family members. Related literature revealed that sources of hope in this situation have still not been discussed well in studies. The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore the sources of hope from the perspective of families of ICU patients in Iran. Materials and Methods: In this qualitative study that was carried out adopting the conventional qualitative content analysis approach, 19 family members of 13 patients hospitalized in the ICU from three teaching hospitals were selected, through purposive sampling. Semi-structured interviews were used for data collection. The interviews were transcribed verbatim and analyzed using conventional content analysis, through the process of data reduction and condensation, coding, and also generating categories and subcategories. Results: Analysis of the data revealed sources of hope in families of ICU patients. These sources appeared as two main categories- internal sources and external sources. The internal sources had two subcategories consisting of ’religious-spirituality beliefs’ and ’positive attitude’. The external sources had four subcategories consisting of healthcare professionals’ interactions, empathy of families and friends, patient's condition, and participation in care. Conclusions: The results of this study showed the sources of hope in the families of the patients in the ICU. These sources, as moderating factors, could reduce physical and psychological damages caused to the families. In the present study, the categorizations of the participants’ in-depth experience could develop a new horizon for healthcare professionals, especially nurses, on the sources of hope, based on culture. PMID:25558262

  10. The effect of family member migration on education and work among nonmigrant youth in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Halpern-Manners, Andrew

    2011-02-01

    While academic and policy circles have given much attention to the assimilatory experiences of Mexican immigrants in the United States, less is known about those who stay behind-an especially unfortunate oversight given the increasing number of Mexican youth with migrant family members. Of the studies on this topic, most have sought to identify the effect that migration has on youths' migratory and educational aspirations, often using qualitative methods in individual sending communities. The present article supplements this research in two ways: (1) in addition to assessing educational outcomes, the scope of the analysis is expanded to include nonmigrant' interaction with another homeland institution of upward mobility: the labor market; and (2) using a large demographic data set, statistical techniques are employed to adjust for unobserved selectivity into the migrant family-member population, thus accounting for a potentially serious source of bias. The results suggest that youth in migrant-sending families are less likely to complete the educational transitions leading up to postsecondary school and have a lower probability of participating in the local economy. The results also indicate that unobserved factors play a "nonignorable" role in sorting youth into migrant and nonmigrant families.

  11. The Effect of Family Member Migration on Education and Work among Nonmigrant Youth in Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Halpern-Manners, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    While academic and policy circles have given much attention to the assimilatory experiences of Mexican immigrants in the United States, less is known about those who stay behind—an especially unfortunate oversight given the increasing number of Mexican youth with migrant family members. Of the studies that do exist, most have sought to identify the effect migration has on youths’ migratory and educational aspirations, often using qualitative methods in single sending communities. The present article supplements this research in two ways: (1) in addition to assessing educational outcomes, the scope of the analysis is expanded to include nonmigrants’ interaction with another homeland institution of upward mobility—the labor market; and (2) using a large demographic data set, statistical techniques are employed to adjust for unobserved selectivity into the migrant family-member population, thus accounting for a potentially serious source of bias. The results suggest that youth in migrant-sending families are less likely to complete the educational transitions leading up to post-secondary school, and have a lower probability of participating in the local economy. The results also indicate that unobserved factors play a “nonignorable” role in sorting youth into migrant and nonmigrant families. PMID:21347807

  12. Adenovirus-mediated tBid overexpression results in therapeutic effects on p53-resistant hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Miao, Ji; Chen, George G; Chun, Suk-Ying; Yun, Jing-Ping; Chak, Ernest C W; Ho, Rocky L K; Lai, Paul B S

    2006-10-15

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common malignancies worldwide with a very high mortality. Because the success of the conventional therapies is limited, gene therapy may represent an alternative for HCC management. Our earlier study has shown that Bid plays a role in the development of HCC. The aim of our study is to evaluate the possibility of using truncated Bid (tBid) as a novel therapy for HCC treatment. Two HCC cell lines, Hep3B and PLC/PRF/5, were used in the experiment. Hep3B was a p53-resistant while PLC/PRF/5 a p53-sensitive. A recombinant adenovirus-Ad/AFPtBid, which contained a tBid gene driven by an alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) promoter, was constructed. Both Hep3B and PLC/PRF/5 cells infected with Ad/AFPtBid showed a significant decrease in cell viability. The decrease in cell viability by Ad/AFPtBid resulted from apoptosis of HCC cells, evident by enhanced activity of caspases and increased release of cytochrome c. In vivo experiment was performed by the intratumor injection of Ad/AFPtBid in nude mice inoculated with Hep3B. Ad/AFPtBid injection significantly inhibited tumor growth, and tumor tissues showed a marked increase in TUNEL-positive cells. Our experiment also demonstrated that Ad/AFPtBid only targeted AFP-producing cells but not those non-AFP producing cells. In conclusion, these results indicate that the introduction of Ad/AFPtBid can not only significantly but specifically kill HCC cells that produce AFP. The cell death induced by Ad/AFPtBid in HCC cells is via an apoptotic pathway that can be independent of p53 status.

  13. Complex Determinants in Specific Members of the Mannose Receptor Family Govern Collagen Endocytosis*

    PubMed Central

    Jürgensen, Henrik J.; Johansson, Kristina; Madsen, Daniel H.; Porse, Astrid; Melander, Maria C.; Sørensen, Kristine R.; Nielsen, Christoffer; Bugge, Thomas H.; Behrendt, Niels; Engelholm, Lars H.

    2014-01-01

    Members of the well-conserved mannose receptor (MR) protein family have been functionally implicated in diverse biological and pathological processes. Importantly, a proposed common function is the internalization of collagen for intracellular degradation occurring during bone development, cancer invasion, and fibrosis protection. This functional relationship is suggested by a common endocytic capability and a candidate collagen-binding domain. Here we conducted a comparative investigation of each member's ability to facilitate intracellular collagen degradation. As expected, the family members uPARAP/Endo180 and MR bound collagens in a purified system and internalized collagens for degradation in cellular settings. In contrast, the remaining family members, PLA2R and DEC-205, showed no collagen binding activity and were unable to mediate collagen internalization. To pinpoint the structural elements discriminating collagen from non-collagen receptors, we constructed a series of receptor chimeras and loss- and gain-of-function mutants. Using this approach we identified a critical collagen binding loop in the suggested collagen binding region (an FN-II domain) in uPARAP/Endo180 and MR, which was different in PLA2R or DEC-205. However, we also found that an active FN-II domain was not a sufficient determinant to allow collagen internalization through these receptors. Nevertheless, this ability could be acquired by the transfer of a larger segment of uPARAP/Endo180 (the Cys-rich domain, the FN-II domain and two CTLDs) to DEC-205. These data underscore the importance of the FN-II domain in uPARAP/Endo180 and MR-mediated collagen internalization but at the same time uncover a critical interplay with flanking domains. PMID:24500714

  14. Complex determinants in specific members of the mannose receptor family govern collagen endocytosis.

    PubMed

    Jürgensen, Henrik J; Johansson, Kristina; Madsen, Daniel H; Porse, Astrid; Melander, Maria C; Sørensen, Kristine R; Nielsen, Christoffer; Bugge, Thomas H; Behrendt, Niels; Engelholm, Lars H

    2014-03-14

    Members of the well-conserved mannose receptor (MR) protein family have been functionally implicated in diverse biological and pathological processes. Importantly, a proposed common function is the internalization of collagen for intracellular degradation occurring during bone development, cancer invasion, and fibrosis protection. This functional relationship is suggested by a common endocytic capability and a candidate collagen-binding domain. Here we conducted a comparative investigation of each member's ability to facilitate intracellular collagen degradation. As expected, the family members uPARAP/Endo180 and MR bound collagens in a purified system and internalized collagens for degradation in cellular settings. In contrast, the remaining family members, PLA2R and DEC-205, showed no collagen binding activity and were unable to mediate collagen internalization. To pinpoint the structural elements discriminating collagen from non-collagen receptors, we constructed a series of receptor chimeras and loss- and gain-of-function mutants. Using this approach we identified a critical collagen binding loop in the suggested collagen binding region (an FN-II domain) in uPARAP/Endo180 and MR, which was different in PLA2R or DEC-205. However, we also found that an active FN-II domain was not a sufficient determinant to allow collagen internalization through these receptors. Nevertheless, this ability could be acquired by the transfer of a larger segment of uPARAP/Endo180 (the Cys-rich domain, the FN-II domain and two CTLDs) to DEC-205. These data underscore the importance of the FN-II domain in uPARAP/Endo180 and MR-mediated collagen internalization but at the same time uncover a critical interplay with flanking domains.

  15. Snail family members and cell survival in physiological and pathological cleft palates.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Alvarez, Concepción; Blanco, María J; Pérez, Raquel; Rabadán, M Angeles; Aparicio, Marta; Resel, Eva; Martínez, Tamara; Nieto, M Angela

    2004-01-01

    Palate fusion is a complex process that involves the coordination of a series of cellular changes including cell death and epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT). Since members of the Snail family of zinc-finger regulators are involved in both triggering of the EMT and cell survival, we decided to study their putative role in palatal fusion. Furthermore, Snail genes are induced by transforming growth factor beta gene (TGF-beta) superfamily members, and TGF-beta(3) null mutant mice (TGF-beta(3)-/-) show a cleft palate phenotype. Here we show that in the wild-type mouse at the time of fusion, Snail is expressed in a few cells of the midline epithelial seam (MES), compatible with a role in triggering of the EMT in a small subpopulation of the MES. We also find an intriguing relationship between the expression of Snail family members and cell survival associated to the cleft palate condition. Indeed, Snail is expressed in the medial edge epithelial (MEE) cells in TGF-beta(3)-/-mouse embryo palates, where it is activated by the aberrant expression of its inducer, TGF-beta(1), in the underlying mesenchyme. In contrast to Snail-deficient wild-type pre-adhesion MEE cells, Snail-expressing TGF-beta(3) mutant MEE cells survive as they do their counterparts in the chick embryo. Interestingly, Slug is the Snail family member expressed in the chick MEE, providing another example of interchange of Snail and Slug expression between avian and mammalian embryos. We propose that in the absence of TGF-beta(3), TGF-beta(1) is upregulated in the mesenchyme, and that in both physiological (avian) and pathological (TGF-beta(3)-/-mammalian) cleft palates, it induces the expression of Snail genes promoting the survival of the MEE cells and permitting their subsequent differentiation into keratinized stratified epithelium.

  16. Members of the zinc finger protein gene family sharing a conserved N-terminal module.

    PubMed Central

    Rosati, M; Marino, M; Franzè, A; Tramontano, A; Grimaldi, G

    1991-01-01

    We report the isolation of human members of a sub-family of structurally related finger protein genes. These potentially encode polypeptides containing finger motifs of the Krüppel type at the C-terminus, and a conserved amino acid module at the N-terminus; because of its invariant location the latter is referred to as finger preceding box (FPB). The FPB, detected also in previously described finger proteins from human, mouse and Xenopus, extends over approximately 65 amino acids and appears to be composed of two contiguous modules: FPB-A (residues 1-42) and FPB-B (residues 43-65). The latter is absent in some of the members analyzed. Elements A and B and the zinc finger domain are encoded by separate exons in the ZNF2 gene, a human member of this sub-family. The positioning of introns within this gene is remarkable. One intron flanks and a second interrupts the first codon of the FPB-A and FPB-B modules, respectively. A third intron occurs a few nucleotides downstream of FPB-B marking its separation from the remainder of the coding sequences. This organization, together with the absence of FPB-B in some cDNAs, supports the hypothesis that mRNAs encoding polypeptides that include one, both or none of the FPB-A and FPB-B modules may be assembled through alternative splicing pathways. Northern analyses showed that members of this sub-family are expressed as multiple transcripts in several cell lines. The sequences of distinct cDNAs homologous to the ZNF2 gene indicate that alternative splicing events adjoin either coding or non coding exons to the FPB sequences. Images PMID:1945843

  17. Regulation of mitochondrial ceramide distribution by members of the BCL-2 family[S

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Tejia; Barclay, Lauren; Walensky, Loren D.; Saghatelian, Alan

    2015-01-01

    Apoptosis is an intricately regulated cellular process that proceeds through different cell type- and signal-dependent pathways. In the mitochondrial apoptotic program, mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization by BCL-2 proteins leads to the release of apoptogenic factors, caspase activation, and cell death. In addition to protein components of the mitochondrial apoptotic machinery, an interesting role for lipids and lipid metabolism in BCL-2 family-regulated apoptosis is also emerging. We used a comparative lipidomics approach to uncover alterations in lipid profile in the absence of the proapoptotic proteins BAX and BAK in mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs). We detected over 1,000 ions in these experiments and found changes in an ion with an m/z of 534.49. Structural elucidation of this ion through tandem mass spectrometry revealed that this molecule is a ceramide with a 16-carbon N-acyl chain and sphingadiene backbone (d18:2/16:0 ceramide). Targeted LC/MS analysis revealed elevated levels of additional sphingadiene-containing ceramides (d18:2-Cers) in BAX, BAK-double knockout MEFs. Elevated d18:2-Cers are also found in immortalized baby mouse kidney epithelial cells lacking BAX and BAK. These results support the existence of a distinct biochemical pathway for regulating ceramides with different backbone structures and suggest that sphingadiene-containing ceramides may have functions that are distinct from the more common sphingosine-containing species. PMID:26059977

  18. Complete nucleotide sequence of rose yellow leaf virus, a new member of the family Tombusviridae.

    PubMed

    Mollov, Dimitre; Lockhart, Ben; Zlesak, David C

    2014-10-01

    The genome of the rose yellow leaf virus (RYLV) has been determined to be 3918 nucleotides long and to contain seven open reading frames (ORFs). ORF1 encodes a 27-kDa peptide (p27). ORF2 shares a common start codon with ORF1 and continues through the amber stop codon of p27 to encode an 87-kDa (p87) protein that has amino acid similarity to the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) of members of the family Tombusviridae. ORFs 3 and 4 have no significant amino acid similarity to known functional viral ORFs. ORF5 encodes a 6-kDa (p6) protein that has similarity to movement proteins of members of the Tombusviridae. ORF5A has no conventional start codon and overlaps with p6. A putative +1 frameshift mechanism allows p6 translation to continue through the stop codon and results in a 12-kDa protein that has high homology to the carmovirus p13 movement protein. The 37-kDa protein encoded by ORF6 has amino acid sequence similarity to coat proteins (CP) of members of the Tombusviridae. ORF7 has no significant amino acid similarity to known viral ORFs. Phylogenetic analysis of the RdRp amino acid sequences grouped RYLV together with the unclassified Rosa rugosa leaf distortion virus (RrLDV), pelargonium line pattern virus (PLPV), and pelargonium chlorotic ring pattern virus (PCRPV) in a distinct subgroup of the family Tombusviridae.

  19. The Influence of Family Therapy on Flexibility and Cohesion among Family Members Seeking Male Residential Treatment for Adolescent and Young Adult Substance Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marlowe, Stephanie L.

    2011-01-01

    The present study investigated within a substance abuse treatment center the influence of family therapy on flexibility and cohesion among family members. Past studies have suggested adolescents who abuse substances exist in families who have a lack of balance of flexibility and cohesion. Unfortunately, few studies have examined the influence of…

  20. The Importance of Older Family Members in Providing Social Resources and Promoting Cancer Screening in Families with a Hereditary Cancer Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashida, Sato; Hadley, Donald W.; Goergen, Andrea F.; Skapinsky, Kaley F.; Devlin, Hillary C.; Koehly, Laura M.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This study evaluates the role of older family members as providers of social resources within familial network systems affected by an inherited cancer susceptibility syndrome. Design and Methods: Respondents who previously participated in a study that involved genetic counseling and testing for Lynch syndrome and their family network…

  1. Conserved Lysine Acetylation within the Microtubule-Binding Domain Regulates MAP2/Tau Family Members

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Andrew W.; Trzeciakiewicz, Hanna; Friedmann, Dave; Yuan, Chao-Xing; Marmorstein, Ronen; Lee, Virginia M. Y.; Cohen, Todd J.

    2016-01-01

    Lysine acetylation has emerged as a dominant post-translational modification (PTM) regulating tau proteins in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and related tauopathies. Mass spectrometry studies indicate that tau acetylation sites cluster within the microtubule-binding region (MTBR), a region that is highly conserved among tau, MAP2, and MAP4 family members, implying that acetylation could represent a conserved regulatory mechanism for MAPs beyond tau. Here, we combined mass spectrometry, biochemical assays, and cell-based approaches to demonstrate that the tau family members MAP2 and MAP4 are also subject to reversible acetylation. We identify a cluster of lysines in the MAP2 and MAP4 MTBR that undergo CBP-catalyzed acetylation, many of which are conserved in tau. Similar to tau, MAP2 acetylation can occur in a cysteine-dependent auto-regulatory manner in the presence of acetyl-CoA. Furthermore, tubulin reduced MAP2 acetylation, suggesting tubulin binding dictates MAP acetylation status. Taken together, these results uncover a striking conservation of MAP2/Tau family post-translational modifications that could expand our understanding of the dynamic mechanisms regulating microtubules. PMID:28002468

  2. Operator recognition by the ROK transcription factor family members, NagC and Mlc

    PubMed Central

    Bréchemier-Baey, Dominique; Domínguez-Ramírez, Lenin; Oberto, Jacques; Plumbridge, Jacqueline

    2015-01-01

    NagC and Mlc, paralogous members of the ROK family of proteins with almost identical helix-turn-helix DNA binding motifs, specifically regulate genes for transport and utilization of N-acetylglucosamine and glucose. We previously showed that two amino acids in a linker region outside the canonical helix-turn-helix motif are responsible for Mlc site specificity. In this work we identify four amino acids in the linker, which are required for recognition of NagC targets. These amino acids allow Mlc and NagC to distinguish between a C/G and an A/T bp at positions ±11 of the operators. One linker position, glycine in NagC and arginine in Mlc, corresponds to the major specificity determinant for the two proteins. In certain contexts it is possible to switch repression from Mlc-style to NagC-style, by interchanging this glycine and arginine. Secondary determinants are supplied by other linker positions or the helix-turn-helix motif. A wide genomic survey of unique ROK proteins shows that glycine- and arginine-rich sequences are present in the linkers of nearly all ROK family repressors. Conserved short sequence motifs, within the branches of the ROK evolutionary tree, suggest that these sequences could also be involved in operator recognition in other ROK family members. PMID:25452338

  3. Complete genome sequence of Tunisvirus, a new member of the proposed family Marseilleviridae.

    PubMed

    Aherfi, Sarah; Boughalmi, Mondher; Pagnier, Isabelle; Fournous, Ghislain; La Scola, Bernard; Raoult, Didier; Colson, Philippe

    2014-09-01

    Marseillevirus is the founding member of the proposed family Marseilleviridae, which is the second discovered family of giant viruses that infect amoebae. These viruses have been recovered from environmental water samples and, more recently, from humans. Tunisvirus was isolated from fountain water in Tunis, Tunisia, by culturing on Acanthamoeba spp. and is a new marseillevirus. We describe here its 380,011 base-pair genome. A total of 484 proteins were identified, among which 320 and 358 have an ortholog in Marseillevirus and Lausannevirus (e-value<1e-2), respectively, and 259 and 299 have best reciprocal hits with a Marseillevirus and a Lausannevirus protein, respectively. In addition, a significant hit was found in organisms other than marseilleviruses for 144 Tunisvirus proteins, indicating extensive lateral gene transfers, as has been demonstrated previously for Marseillevirus. Finally, a total of 21 ORFans were identified. Phylogeny reconstructions and analysis of the gene repertoires of marseilleviruses, including the proportion of orthologs and the mean amino acid identity between genes in pairs, suggest that the proposed family Marseilleviridae encompasses three lineages. Lineage A is composed of Marseillevirus, Cannes 8 virus and Senegalvirus; lineage B is represented by Lausannevirus alone; and lineage C has Tunisvirus as its first member. Taken together, these findings suggest that the marseilleviruses display a substantial level of diversity.

  4. Identification and Functional Analysis of Light-Responsive Unique Genes and Gene Family Members in Rice

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Ki-Hong; Lee, Jinwon; Dardick, Chris; Seo, Young-Su; Cao, Peijian; Canlas, Patrick; Phetsom, Jirapa; Xu, Xia; Ouyang, Shu; An, Kyungsook; Cho, Yun-Ja; Lee, Geun-Cheol; Lee, Yoosook; An, Gynheung; Ronald, Pamela C.

    2008-01-01

    Functional redundancy limits detailed analysis of genes in many organisms. Here, we report a method to efficiently overcome this obstacle by combining gene expression data with analysis of gene-indexed mutants. Using a rice NSF45K oligo-microarray to compare 2-week-old light- and dark-grown rice leaf tissue, we identified 365 genes that showed significant 8-fold or greater induction in the light relative to dark conditions. We then screened collections of rice T-DNA insertional mutants to identify rice lines with mutations in the strongly light-induced genes. From this analysis, we identified 74 different lines comprising two independent mutant lines for each of 37 light-induced genes. This list was further refined by mining gene expression data to exclude genes that had potential functional redundancy due to co-expressed family members (12 genes) and genes that had inconsistent light responses across other publicly available microarray datasets (five genes). We next characterized the phenotypes of rice lines carrying mutations in ten of the remaining candidate genes and then carried out co-expression analysis associated with these genes. This analysis effectively provided candidate functions for two genes of previously unknown function and for one gene not directly linked to the tested biochemical pathways. These data demonstrate the efficiency of combining gene family-based expression profiles with analyses of insertional mutants to identify novel genes and their functions, even among members of multi-gene families. PMID:18725934

  5. Identification of novel members of the bacterial azoreductase family in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Crescente, Vincenzo; Holland, Sinead M; Kashyap, Sapna; Polycarpou, Elena; Sim, Edith; Ryan, Ali

    2016-03-01

    Azoreductases are a family of diverse enzymes found in many pathogenic bacteria as well as distant homologues being present in eukarya. In addition to having azoreductase activity, these enzymes are also suggested to have NAD(P)H quinone oxidoreductase (NQO) activity which leads to a proposed role in plant pathogenesis. Azoreductases have also been suggested to play a role in the mammalian pathogenesis of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. In view of the importance of P. aeruginosa as a pathogen, we therefore characterized recombinant enzymes following expression of a group of putative azoreductase genes from P. aeruginosa expressed in Escherichia coli. The enzymes include members of the arsenic-resistance protein H (ArsH), tryptophan repressor-binding protein A (WrbA), modulator of drug activity B (MdaB) and YieF families. The ArsH, MdaB and YieF family members all show azoreductase and NQO activities. In contrast, WrbA is the first enzyme to show NQO activity but does not reduce any of the 11 azo compounds tested under a wide range of conditions. These studies will allow further investigation of the possible role of these enzymes in the pathogenesis of P. aeruginosa.

  6. "The stress will kill you": prisoner reentry as experienced by family members and the urgent need for support services.

    PubMed

    Grieb, Suzanne M; Crawford, Amelia; Fields, Julie; Smith, Horace; Harris, Richard; Matson, Pamela

    2014-08-01

    The role of incarceration and community reentry after incarceration has been studied extensively for individual and community health; however, little attention has been given to the experiences of individuals who provide support to those in reentry. Through a community-academic partnership, seven focus groups were conducted with 39 individuals supporting a family member in reentry in the summer of 2012. The primary objectives of the focus groups were to explore community experiences and perspectives regarding providing support during a family member's reentry from a period of incarceration and any desired support for themselves during this time. Five themes emerged under a metatheme of stress, indicating that family members experience acute stress as a result of family reentry that adds to the chronic stress they already endure. Programs that acknowledge the difficult role of family members as supporters during an individual's reentry and provide support to them are desperately needed.

  7. Susceptibility of members of the family Legionellaceae to thermal stress: implications for heat eradication methods in water distribution systems.

    PubMed Central

    Stout, J E; Best, M G; Yu, V L

    1986-01-01

    To ascertain the feasibility of heat inactivation as an eradication method applicable to all members of the family Legionellaceae, we tested the heat resistance of 75 isolates which represented 19 members of this family of organisms. The ranges of thermal death times at 60, 70, and 80 degrees C were 1.3 to 10.6, 0.7 to 2.6, and 0.3 to 0.7 min, respectively. These data suggest that the method of heat eradication will be effective against all members of the family Legionellaceae. PMID:3752999

  8. Ponticaulis koreensis gen. nov., sp. nov., a new member of the family Hyphomonadaceae isolated from seawater.

    PubMed

    Kang, Hye Soon; Lee, Soon Dong

    2009-12-01

    An obligately halophilic, stalked bacterium, designated strain GSW-23(T), was isolated from seawater that had been collected on the coast of Jeju, Korea. Cells of the strain were characteristically Gram-negative, aerobic, chemo-organotrophic, non-budding, motile rods or vibrioids that possessed prosthecae and holdfasts. Multiplication occurred by means of binary fission. The major ubiquinone was Q-10. The dominant cellular fatty acids were summed feature 7 (one or more of C(18 : 1)omega9c, C(18 : 1)omega12t and C(18 : 1)omega7c; 37.1 %), C(16 : 0) (25.5 %) and C(18 : 0) (14.1 %). The DNA G+C content was 53.3 mol%. 16S rRNA gene sequence analyses showed that the organism was related to members of the family Hyphomonadaceae and formed a distinct clade between members of the genus Hyphomonas and Hirschia baltica DSM 5838(T). Strain GSW-23(T) was most closely related to the genus Hyphomonas (92.5-93.9 % sequence similarity), but differed from members of the genus by reproduction by binary fission, some physiological properties (gelatin liquefaction and tolerance of 6 % NaCl) and chemotaxonomic features (major fatty acids, major quinones and DNA G+C content). The other genera of the family can be readily differentiated from the isolate by a battery of cultural, physiological and chemotaxonomic characteristics. On the basis of the phenotypic and phylogenetic data presented here, strain GSW-23(T) represents a novel genus and species in the family Hyphomonadaceae, for which the name Ponticaulis koreensis gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of Ponticaulis koreensis is strain GSW-23(T) (=KCTC 22146(T) =DSM 19734(T) =JCM 14975(T)).

  9. Roles of nurse aides and family members in acute patient care in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Tzeng, Huey-Ming

    2004-01-01

    To improve the nursing care quality in acute care hospitals in Taiwan after the 2003 SARS epidemic, the Taipei City Government Department of Health has allocated about US dollars 6 million for nurse aides' salaries and costs for recruitment, training, and administration of this program. Yet, there have been no corresponding changes in payments for nursing services by the National Health Insurance system in Taiwan such as increasing nurse fees for inpatient services. This article examines the roles of nurse aides and family members in providing acute patient care in Taiwan and discusses issues of nursing care quality as related to nurse staffing in acute care hospitals.

  10. Evidence of abnormality of lymphocyte uroporphyrinogen synthase in family members of patients with lymphoproliferative diseases.

    PubMed

    Lahav, M; Epstein, O; Schoenfeld, N; Nemesh, L; Shaklai, M; Atsmon, A

    1985-01-01

    Patients with active lymphoproliferative diseases (LPD) were shown to have high activity of lymphocyte uroporphyrinogen synthase (L-UROS), the enzyme which converts porphobilinogen to uroporphyrinogen. The mean L-UROS activity of 64 first-degree relatives of patients with LPD was significantly higher than that of a control group and 45% of these relatives had pathological values of L-UROS. L-UROS activity was also determined in the spouses of 2 patients and was pathologically elevated in both. The pattern of pathological values among family members may indicate the presence of a communicable agent.

  11. Genomic sequence and organization of two members of a human lectin gene family

    SciTech Connect

    Gitt, M.A.; Barondes, S.H. )

    1991-01-01

    The authors have isolated and sequenced the genomic DNA encoding a human dimeric soluble lactose-binding lectin. The gene has four exons, and its upstream region contains sequences that suggest control by glucocorticoids, heat (environmental) shock, metals, and other factors. They have also isolated and sequenced three exons of the gene encoding another human putative lectin, the existence of which was first indicated by isolation of its cDNA. Comparisons suggest a general pattern of genomic organization of members of this lectin gene family.

  12. NWHSS Implement Family Member Assessment Component in the Millennium Cohort Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-10-01

    Comments and Plans:   o Pre‐incentives for Family Participants?    Starbucks  Gift Cards  o Outreach?   Opinion leaders  o Diversity Campaign?    P4...reminded to complete their survey today  o $5 Pre‐incentive  Starbucks  card will be mailed in the next few days    Panels 1‐3 baseline enrollment (2001, 2004...Initiatives  o $5 pre‐incentive  Starbucks  card mailed to service members with request to refer their spouses  o Paper version of the Family Survey for

  13. Isolation of an additional member of the fibroblast growth factor receptor family, FGFR-3

    SciTech Connect

    Keegan, K.; Hayman, M.J. ); Johnson, D.E.; Williams, L.T. )

    1991-02-15

    The fibroblast growth factors are a family of polypeptide growth factors involved in a variety of activities including mitogenesis, angiogenesis, and wound healing. Fibroblast growth factor receptors (FGFRs) have previously been identified in chicken, mouse, and human and have been shown to contain an extracellular domain with either two or three immunoglobulin-like domains, a transmembrane domain, and a cytoplasmic tyrosine kinase domain. The authors have isolated a human cDNA for another tyrosine kinase receptor that is highly homologous to the previously described FGFR. Expression of this receptor cDNA in COS cells directs the expression of a 125-kDa glycoprotein. They demonstrate that this cDNA encodes a biologically active receptor by showing that human acidic and basic fibroblast growth factors activate this receptor as measured by {sup 45}Ca{sup 2+} efflux assays. These data establish the existence of an additional member of the FGFR family that they have named FGFR-3.

  14. Posttraumatic symptoms in Japanese bereaved family members with special regard to suicide and homicide cases.

    PubMed

    Ogata, Kohske; Ishikawa, Takaki; Michiue, Tomomi; Nishi, Yuko; Maeda, Hitoshi

    2011-07-01

    The authors investigated posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms in Japanese bereaved family members using a questionnaire. Participants were bereaved as a result of suicide and homicide (n = 51 and 49, respectively), with natural death (n = 56) as a control; and their relationships to the deceased were parent-child (n = 79), conjugal (n = 42), and others (n = 35). With regard to the 3 main PTSD-related criteria, (a) re-experiencing symptoms were not dependent on the manner of death or the relationship to the deceased; (b) avoidance behaviors were more highly related to homicide than natural death for relatives other than parent-child and conjugal relationships; and (c) hyperarousal and maladaptation symptoms were more serious for conjugal loss. These findings suggest that avoidance behaviors in homicidal cases are more closely associated with a distant family relationship, whereas conjugal loss is traumatic, irrespective of the manner of death, often causing hyperarousal and maladaptation symptoms.

  15. The impact of childhood experiences and family members outside the household on residential environment choices.

    PubMed

    Blaauboer, Marjolein

    2011-01-01

    Choices of urban, suburban or rural residential environments have often been studied from a life-course perspective. In this paper, an examination is made of the influence of childhood experiences and of residential environment choices of family members outside the household. It is argued that socialisation, location-specific capital and the wish to maintain close family ties may result in living in a similar residential environment later in life and in similar environments to siblings and parents. Results of multinomial logistic regression analyses of data from the Netherlands Kinship Panel Study show that the residential environment during childhood is indeed strongly associated with the current residential environment. Moreover, individuals show a strong similarity to their parents and siblings in their residential environment, even after accounting for residential inertia and return migration.

  16. The regulative effect of galanin family members on link of energy metabolism and reproduction.

    PubMed

    Fang, Penghua; He, Biao; Shi, Mingyi; Kong, Guimei; Dong, Xiaoyun; Zhu, Yan; Bo, Ping; Zhang, Zhenwen

    2015-09-01

    It is essential for the species survival that an efficient coordination between energy storage and reproduction through endocrine regulation. The neuropeptide galanin, one of the endocrine hormones, can potently coordinate energy metabolism and the activities of hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal reproductive axis to adjust synthesis and release of metabolic and reproductive hormones in animals and humans. However, few papers have summarized the regulative effect of the galanin family members on the link of energy storage and reproduction as yet. To address this issue, this review attempts to summarize the current information available about the regulative effect of galanin, galanin-like peptide and alarin on the metabolic and reproductive events, with special emphasis on the interactions between galanin and hypothalamic gonadotropin-releasing hormone, pituitary luteinizing hormone and ovarian hormones. This research line will further deepen our understanding of the physiological roles of the galanin family in regulating the link of energy metabolism and reproduction.

  17. Characterization of New Members of the Group 3 Outer Membrane Protein Family of Brucella spp.

    PubMed Central

    Salhi, Imed; Boigegrain, Rose-Anne; Machold, Jan; Weise, Christoph; Cloeckaert, Axel; Rouot, Bruno

    2003-01-01

    Impairment of the omp25 gene in Brucella spp. leads to attenuated strains and confers protection to the host. Omp25 and Omp31, whose functions remain unknown, were the first characterized members of group 3 outer membrane proteins (Omps) (25 to 34 kDa). Recently, genomic and proteomic approaches identified five new putative members of this family, some of which are produced in B. melitensis or B. abortus. In the present study, using protein microsequencing, we identified new members of group 3 Omps proteins produced in B. suis. Since several monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against Omp25 cross-reacted with other members of group 3 Omps, we also performed Western immunoblotting to compare wild-type B. suis with mutants systematically having B. suis omp25-related genes knocked out. We demonstrate the production of three paralogs of Omp31 and/or Omp25 in B. suis, and the existence of a common site of signal peptide cleavage (AXAAD), which is very similar to that present in the five homologous Omps of Bartonella quintana. The seven group 3 Omps were classified in four-subgroups on the basis of percentage amino acid sequence identities: Omp25 alone, the Omp25b-Omp25c-Omp25d cluster, the Omp31/31b subgroup, and the less related Omp22 protein (also called Omp3b). Together with previous data, our results demonstrate that all new members of group 3 Omps are produced in B. suis or in other Brucella species and we propose a nomenclature that integrates all of these proteins to facilitate the understanding of future Brucella interspecies study results. PMID:12874309

  18. Members of a Novel Kinase Family (DUF1537) Can Recycle Toxic Intermediates into an Essential Metabolite.

    PubMed

    Thiaville, Jennifer J; Flood, Jake; Yurgel, Svetlana; Prunetti, Laurence; Elbadawi-Sidhu, Mona; Hutinet, Geoffrey; Forouhar, Farhad; Zhang, Xinshuai; Ganesan, Venkateswaran; Reddy, Patrick; Fiehn, Oliver; Gerlt, J A; Hunt, John F; Copley, Shelley D; de Crécy-Lagard, Valérie

    2016-08-19

    DUF1537 is a novel family of kinases identified by comparative genomic approaches. The family is widespread and found in all sequenced plant genomes and 16% of sequenced bacterial genomes. DUF1537 is not a monofunctional family and contains subgroups that can be separated by phylogenetic and genome neighborhood context analyses. A subset of the DUF1537 proteins is strongly associated by physical clustering and gene fusion with the PdxA2 family, demonstrated here to be a functional paralog of the 4-phosphohydroxy-l-threonine dehydrogenase enzyme (PdxA), a central enzyme in the synthesis of pyridoxal-5'-phosphate (PLP) in proteobacteria. Some members of this DUF1537 subgroup phosphorylate l-4-hydroxythreonine (4HT) into 4-phosphohydroxy-l-threonine (4PHT), the substrate of PdxA, in vitro and in vivo. This provides an alternative route to PLP from the toxic antimetabolite 4HT that can be directly generated from the toxic intermediate glycolaldehyde. Although the kinetic and physical clustering data indicate that these functions in PLP synthesis are not the main roles of the DUF1537-PdxA2 enzymes, genetic and physiological data suggest these side activities function has been maintained in diverse sets of organisms.

  19. Identification and Characterization of New Family Members in the Tautomerase Superfamily: Analysis and Implications

    PubMed Central

    Huddleston, Jamison P.; Burks, Elizabeth A.; Whitman, Christian P.

    2014-01-01

    Tautomerase superfamily members are characterized by a β–α–β building block and a catalytic amino terminal proline. 4-oxalocrotonate tautomerase (4-OT) and malonate semialdehyde decarboxylase (MSAD) are the title enzymes of two of the five known families in the superfamily. Two recent developments in these families indicate that there might be more metabolic diversity in the tautomerase superfamily than previously thought. 4-OT homologues have been identified in three biosynthetic pathways, whereas all previously characterized 4-OTs are found in catabolic pathways. In the MSAD family, homologues have been characterized that lack decarboxylase activity, but have a modest hydratase activity using 2-oxo-3-pentynoate. This observation stands in contrast to the first characterized MSAD, which is a proficient decarboxylase and a less efficient hydratase. The hydratase activity was thought to be a vestigial and promiscuous activity. However, this recent discovery suggests that the hydratase activity might reflect a new activity in the MSAD family for an unknown substrate. These discoveries open up new avenues of research in the tautomerase superfamily. PMID:25219626

  20. Japanese Bereaved Family Members' Perspectives of Palliative Care Units and Palliative Care: J-HOPE Study Results.

    PubMed

    Kinoshita, Satomi; Miyashita, Mitsunori; Morita, Tatsuya; Sato, Kazuki; Shoji, Ayaka; Chiba, Yurika; Miyazaki, Tamana; Tsuneto, Satoru; Shima, Yasuo

    2016-06-01

    The study purpose was to understand the perspectives of bereaved family members regarding palliative care unit (PCU) and palliative care and to compare perceptions of PCU before admission and after bereavement. A cross-sectional questionnaire survey was conducted, and the perceptions of 454 and 424 bereaved family members were obtained regarding PCU and palliative care, respectively. Family members were significantly more likely to have positive perceptions after bereavement (ranging from 73% to 80%) compared to before admission (ranging from 62% to 71%). Bereaved family members who were satisfied with medical care in the PCU had a positive perception of the PCU and palliative care after bereavement. Respondents younger than 65 years of age were significantly more likely to have negative perceptions of PCU and palliative care.

  1. Guidelines for disclosing genetic information to family members: from development to use.

    PubMed

    Godard, Béatrice; Hurlimann, Thierry; Letendre, Martin; Egalité, Nathalie

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents the existing legal frameworks, professional guidelines and other documents related to the conditions and extent of the disclosure of genetic information by physicians to at-risk family members. Although the duty of a physician regarding disclosure of genetic information to a patient's relatives has only been addressed by few legal cases, courts have found such a duty under some circumstances. Generally, disclosure should not be permitted without the patient's consent. Yet, due to the nature of genetic information, exceptions are foreseen, where treatment and prevention are available. This duty to warn a patient's relative is also supported by some professional and policy organizations that have addressed the issue. Practice guidelines with a communication and intervention plan are emerging, providing physicians with tools that allow them to assist patients in their communication with relatives without jeopardizing their professional liability. Since guidelines aim to improve the appropriateness of medical practice and consequently to better serve the interests of patients, it is important to determine to what degree they document the 'best practice' standards. Such an analysis is an essential step to evaluate the different approaches permitting the disclosure of genetic information to family members.

  2. Living with an adult family member using advanced medical technology at home.

    PubMed

    Fex, Angelika; Flensner, Gullvi; Ek, Anna-Christina; Söderhamn, Olle

    2011-12-01

    Living with an adult family member using advanced medical technology at home An increased number of chronically ill adults perform self-care while using different sorts of advanced medical technology at home. This hermeneutical study aimed to gain a deeper understanding of the meaning of living with an adult family member using advanced medical technology at home. Eleven next of kin to adults performing self-care at home, either using long-term oxygen from a cylinder or ventilator, or performing peritoneal or haemodialysis, were interviewed. The qualitative interviews were analysed using a Gadamerian methodology. The main interpretation explained the meaning as rhythmical patterns of connectedness versus separation, and of sorrow versus reconciliation. Dependence on others was shown in the need for support from healthcare professionals and significant others. In conclusion, next of kin took considerable responsibility for dependent-care. All next of kin were positive to the idea of bringing the technology home, even though their own needs receded into the background, while focusing on the best for the patient. The results were discussed in relation to dependent-care and transition, which may have an influence on the self-care of next of kin and patients. The study revealed a need for further nursing attention to next of kin in this context.

  3. PP2C family members play key roles in regulation of cell survival and apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Tamura, Shinri; Toriumi, Shinnosuke; Saito, Jun-Ichi; Awano, Kenjiro; Kudo, Tada-Aki; Kobayashi, Takayasu

    2006-07-01

    Although unlimited proliferation of cancer cells is supported by multiple signaling pathways involved in the regulation of proliferation, survival, and apoptosis, the molecular mechanisms coordinating these different pathways to promote the proliferation and survival of cancer cells have remained unclear. SAPK and integrin-ILK signaling pathways play key roles in the promotion of apoptosis and cell proliferation/survival, respectively. Studies of TNFalpha- and H2O2-induced apoptosis revealed that ASK1, a component of the SAPK system, mediates the TNFalpha and H2O2 signaling of apoptosis. ASK1 is activated by autophosphorylation of a specific threonine residue (T845) following TNFalpha stimulation. Our recent studies indicate that PP2Cepsilon, a member of the PP2C family, associates with and inactivates ASK1 by dephosphorylating T845. In contrast, PP2Cdelta/ILKAP, a second PP2C family member, activates ASK1 by enhancing cellular phosphorylation of T845. PP2Cdelta/ILKAP also forms a complex with ILK1 to inhibit the GSK3beta-mediated integrin-ILK1 signaling in vivo, inhibiting cell cycle progression. These observations raise the possibility that PP2Cdelta/ILKAP acts to control the cross-talk between integrin-induced and TNFalpha-induced signaling pathways, inhibiting the former and stimulating the latter, thereby inhibiting proliferation and survival and promoting the apoptosis of cancer cells.

  4. AP-1 family members act with Sox9 to promote chondrocyte hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    He, Xinjun; Ohba, Shinsuke; Hojo, Hironori; McMahon, Andrew P

    2016-08-15

    An analysis of Sox9 binding profiles in developing chondrocytes identified marked enrichment of an AP-1-like motif. Here, we have explored the functional interplay between Sox9 and AP-1 in mammalian chondrocyte development. Among AP-1 family members, Jun and Fosl2 were highly expressed within prehypertrophic and early hypertrophic chondrocytes. Chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by DNA sequencing (ChIP-seq) showed a striking overlap in Jun- and Sox9-bound regions throughout the chondrocyte genome, reflecting direct binding of each factor to the same enhancers and a potential for protein-protein interactions within AP-1- and Sox9-containing complexes. In vitro reporter analysis indicated that direct co-binding of Sox9 and AP-1 at target motifs promoted gene activity. By contrast, where only one factor can engage its DNA target, the presence of the other factor suppresses target activation consistent with protein-protein interactions attenuating transcription. Analysis of prehypertrophic chondrocyte removal of Sox9 confirmed the requirement of Sox9 for hypertrophic chondrocyte development, and in vitro and ex vivo analyses showed that AP-1 promotes chondrocyte hypertrophy. Sox9 and Jun co-bound and co-activated a Col10a1 enhancer in Sox9 and AP-1 motif-dependent manners consistent with their combined action promoting hypertrophic gene expression. Together, the data support a model in which AP-1 family members contribute to Sox9 action in the transition of chondrocytes to the hypertrophic program.

  5. Expression and prognostic significance of zinc fingers and homeoboxes family members in renal cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Dae Cheon; Han, Myoung-Eun; Kim, Ji-Young; Liu, Liangwen; Jung, Jin-Sup; Oh, Sae-Ock

    2017-01-01

    Zinc fingers and homeoboxes (ZHX) is a transcription repressor family that contains three members; ZHX1, ZHX2, and ZHX3. Although ZHX family members have been associated with the progression of cancer, their values as prognostic factors in cancer patients have been poorly examined. Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is a highly heterogeneous, aggressive cancer that responds variably to treatment. Thus, prognostic molecular markers are required to evaluate disease progression and to improve the survival. In clear cell RCC (ccRCC), ZHX1 and ZHX3 expression were found to be down-regulated but ZHX2 was up-regulated, and the expressions of ZHX1 and ZHX3 were significantly associated with pathological stage. Furthermore, Kaplan-Meier and multivariate regression analysis showed that reduction in the mRNA expression of ZHX1 was associated with poorer survival. Taken together, the present study shows loss of ZHX1 is correlated with ccRCC progression and suggests it is an independent prognostic marker in ccRCC. PMID:28152006

  6. [Therapeutic education for diabetics: foot care in the reality of patients and family members].

    PubMed

    Cisneros, Ligia de Loiola; Gonçalves, Luiz Alberto Oliveira

    2011-01-01

    Knowing the reality of foot care practice taught in educational programs for diabetics can enhance the therapeutic education success. This study presents the perceptions of diabetics and their family members about primary cares to prevent complications on foot. A qualitative exploratory study was conducted in an intentional sample of 30 diabetic with neuropathic risk of foot injuries as well as 11 of their family members, participants of a preventive program offered in a public health center in the city of Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. A semi-structured interview with open-ended questions about experiences of foot care was conducted. The material transcribed was submitted to qualitative content analyses. Patients need assistance to foot care practice. A cooperative and interactive network is formed behind patients, perceived as a support or a threat to freedom. The importance of preventive measures becomes evident from their personal experiences of a complication or those of others'. Therapeutic education to prevent diabetic foot complications must consider the relations of assistance formed around the patient. It is necessary to break the silence of the evolution of the disease in order to motivate the patient to the adoption of preventive measures.

  7. A novel fibroblast growth factor receptor family member promotes neuronal outgrowth and synaptic plasticity in aplysia.

    PubMed

    Pollak, Daniela D; Minh, Bui Quang; Cicvaric, Ana; Monje, Francisco J

    2014-11-01

    Fibroblast Growth Factor (FGF) Receptors (FGFRs) regulate essential biological processes, including embryogenesis, angiogenesis, cellular growth and memory-related long-term synaptic plasticity. Whereas canonical FGFRs depend exclusively on extracellular Immunoglobulin (Ig)-like domains for ligand binding, other receptor types, including members of the tropomyosin-receptor-kinase (Trk) family, use either Ig-like or Leucine-Rich Repeat (LRR) motifs, or both. Little is known, however, about the evolutionary events leading to the differential incorporation of LRR domains into Ig-containing tyrosine kinase receptors. Moreover, although FGFRs have been identified in many vertebrate species, few reports describe their existence in invertebrates. Information about the biological relevance of invertebrate FGFRs and evolutionary divergences between them and their vertebrate counterparts is therefore limited. Here, we characterized ApLRRTK, a neuronal cell-surface protein recently identified in Aplysia. We unveiled ApLRRTK as the first member of the FGFRs family deprived of Ig-like domains that instead contains extracellular LRR domains. We describe that ApLRRTK exhibits properties typical of canonical vertebrate FGFRs, including promotion of FGF activity, enhancement of neuritic outgrowth and signaling via MAPK and the transcription factor CREB. ApLRRTK also enhanced the synaptic efficiency of neurons known to mediate in vivo memory-related defensive behaviors. These data reveal a novel molecular regulator of neuronal function in invertebrates, provide the first evolutionary linkage between LRR proteins and FGFRs and unveil an unprecedented mechanism of FGFR gene diversification in primeval central nervous systems.

  8. A profile of Australian adults who have discussed their posthumous organ donation wishes with family members.

    PubMed

    Newton, Joshua D; Burney, Sue; Hay, Margaret; Ewing, Michael T

    2010-07-01

    Next of kin who are aware of the deceased's organ donation wishes usually will honor those wishes, while next of kin who are unaware of these wishes typically withhold consent for posthumous donation. Encouraging individuals to communicate or register their organ donation wishes is therefore important. Using a sample of 409 participants, the current study sought to develop a profile of Australian adults who had communicated their organ donation wishes to family members. Christian participants and those who had a higher income were more likely to have communicated their donation wishes. Conversely, participants were less likely to have communicated their donation wishes if they were unregistered and undecided/opposed to organ donation, unregistered but willing to donate, or fearful of death. Finally, whether participants had communicated, registered, or communicated and registered their donation wishes was associated with their age, religion, attitude toward organ donation, and recall of media content about organ donation. Messages encouraging the communication of organ donation wishes to family members should therefore be targeted toward those individuals who are most likely to be receptive toward enacting this behavior.

  9. Transcriptional analysis of histone deacetylase family members reveal similarities between differentiating and aging spermatogonial stem cells.

    PubMed

    Kofman, Amber E; Huszar, Jessica M; Payne, Christopher J

    2013-02-01

    The differentiation of adult stem cells involves extensive chromatin remodeling, mediated in part by the gene products of histone deacetylase (HDAC) family members. While the transcriptional downregulation of HDACs can impede stem cell self-renewal in certain contexts, it may also promote stem cell maintenance under other circumstances. In self-renewing, differentiating, and aging spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs), the gene expression dynamics of HDACs have not yet been characterized. To gain further insight with these studies, we analyzed the transcriptional profiles of six HDAC family members, previously identified to be the most highly expressed in self-renewing SSCs, during stem cell differentiation and aging. Here we discovered that in both differentiating and aging SSCs the expression of Sirt4 increases, while the expression of Hdac2, Hdac6, and Sirt1 decreases. When SSCs are exposed to the lifespan-enhancing drug rapamycin in vivo, the resultant HDAC gene expression patterns are opposite of those seen in the differentiating and aging SSCs, with increased Hdac2, Hdac6, and Sirt1 and decreased Hdac8, Hdac9, and Sirt4. Our findings suggest that HDACs important for stem cell maintenance and oxidative capacity are downregulated as adult stem cells differentiate or age. These results provide important insights into the epigenetic regulation of stem cell differentiation and aging in mammals.

  10. Social adjustment of family members and significant others (FSOs) of drug users.

    PubMed

    Hudson, Clifton R; Kirby, Kimberly C; Firely, Monica L; Festinger, David S; Marlowe, Douglas B

    2002-10-01

    This study investigated the social adjustment of female family members and significant others (FSOs) of illicit drug users in order to gain insight into the impact of drug use upon those close to the user. Using the Social Adjustment Scale-Self Report (SAS-SR), we examined the social adjustment self-ratings (overall and in seven specific role areas) of 41 female partners and 24 mothers of drug users. We compared these ratings to the ratings they reported for their drug-using partners or children, to each other, and to self-ratings drawn from community comparison samples. As expected, results showed that the female FSOs reported significantly better social adjustment than the drug users in most role areas. However, their social adjustment was compromised relative to the community samples. Partners of drug users reported poorer adjustment than parents of drug users overall and in the specific areas of marital and economic functioning. Further inquiry is needed to improve our understanding of the impact of drug use on the users' family members.

  11. Characterization of TcHMGB, a high mobility group B family member protein from Trypanosoma cruzi.

    PubMed

    Cribb, Pamela; Perozzi, Marina; Villanova, Gabriela Vanina; Trochine, Andrea; Serra, Esteban

    2011-09-01

    High mobility group B (HMGB) proteins are highly abundant non-histone chromatin proteins that play important roles in the execution and control of many nuclear functions. Based on homology searches, we identified the coding sequence for the TcHMGB protein, an HMGB family member from Trypanosoma cruzi. TcHMGB has two HMG box domains, similar to mammalian HMGBs, but lacks the typical C-terminal acidic tail. Instead, it contains a 110 amino acid long N-terminal domain. The TcHMGB N-terminal domain is conserved between the TriTryp sequences (70-80% similarity) and seems to be characteristic of kinetoplastid HMGBs. Despite these differences, TcHMGB maintains HMG box architectural functions: we demonstrated that the trypanosomatid HMGB binds distorted DNA structures such as cruciform DNA in gel shift assays. TcHMGB is also able to bend linear DNA as determined by T4 ligase circularization assays, similar to other HMGB family members. Immunofluorescence and western blot assays showed that TcHMGB is a nuclear protein expressed in all life cycle stages. Protein levels, however, seem to vary throughout the life cycle, which may be related to previously described changes in heterochromatin distribution and transcription rates.

  12. Characterization of Cestrum yellow leaf curling virus: a new member of the family Caulimoviridae.

    PubMed

    Stavolone, Livia; Ragozzino, Antonio; Hohn, Thomas

    2003-12-01

    Cestrum yellow leaf curling virus (CmYLCV) has been characterized as the aetiological agent of the Cestrum parqui mosaic disease. The virus genome was cloned and the clone was proven to be infectious to C. parqui. The presence of typical viroplasms in virus-infected plant tissue and the information obtained from the complete genomic sequence confirmed CmYLCV as a member of the Caulimoviridae family. All characteristic domains conserved in plant pararetroviruses were found in CmYLCV. Its genome is 8253 bp long and contains seven open reading frames (ORFs). Phylogenetic analysis of the relationships with other members of the Caulimoviridae revealed that CmYLCV is closely related to the Soybean chlorotic mottle virus (SbCMV)-like genus and particularly to SbCMV. However, in contrast to the other members of this genus, the primer-binding site is located in the intercistronic region following ORF Ib rather than within this ORF, and an ORF corresponding to ORF VII is missing.

  13. Activating chronic kidney disease patients and family members through the Internet to promote integration of care

    PubMed Central

    Trisolini, Michael; Roussel, Amy; Zerhusen, Eileen; Schatell, Dorian; Harris, Shelly; Bandel, Karen; Salib, Philip; Klicko, Kristi

    2004-01-01

    Abstract Purpose To describe the potential role of the Internet as a vehicle for improving integration of care through activating chronic kidney disease patients and their family members. Also, to describe how that potential is being developed through a website sponsored by the Medicare program in the United States. Background The Internet is expanding at a rapid rate, and health-related websites are one of its most popular features. Efforts to promote integration of care have focused mainly on providers up to now, and more emphasis is needed on the potential roles of patients. Chronically ill patients have particular needs for improved education about their conditions and enhanced involvement in care planning and treatment decisions. Medicare developed the Dialysis Facility Compare website to serve those goals for people with chronic kidney disease. Methods We conducted qualitative research with 140 chronic kidney disease patients and family members, and 130 renal care professionals to evaluate and improve the Dialysis Facility Compare website. A series of 19 focus groups, 13 triads (small focus groups), and 56 individual interviews were conducted in four regions of the United States and by telephone. Results We found that the Dialysis Facility Compare website has the potential to improve integration of care for people with chronic kidney disease in at least three ways. First: by expanding the roles of patients as members of the multi-disciplinary team of caregivers treating their disease. Second: through better integration of the informal care provided in the home and community with the formal care provided by health professionals. Third: by improving coordination of between care provided in the pre-dialysis and dialysis phases of the disease. Discussion We developed recommendations for revising and enhancing the Dialysis Facility Compare website in a number of ways to better promote patient activation and integration of care. The unique features of the Internet

  14. Characterization of myelin ligand complexes with neuronal Nogo-66 receptor family members.

    PubMed

    Laurén, Juha; Hu, Fenghua; Chin, Joanna; Liao, Ji; Airaksinen, Matti S; Strittmatter, Stephen M

    2007-02-23

    Nogo, MAG, and OMgp are myelin-associated proteins that bind to a neuronal Nogo-66 receptor (NgR/NgR1) to limit axonal regeneration after central nervous system injury. Within Nogo-A, two separate domains are known interact with NgR1. NgR1 is the founding member of the three-member NgR family, whereas Nogo-A (RTN4A) belongs to a four-member reticulon family. Here, we systematically mapped the interactions between these superfamilies, demonstrating novel nanomolar interactions of RTN2 and RTN3 with NgR1. Because RTN3 is expressed in spinal cord white matter, it may have a role in myelin inhibition of axonal growth. Further analysis of the Nogo-A and NgR1 interactions revealed a novel third interaction site between the proteins, suggesting a trivalent Nogo-A interaction with NgR1. We also confirmed here that MAG binds to NgR2, but not to NgR3. Unexpectedly, we found that OMgp interacts with MAG with a higher affinity compared with NgR1. To better define how these multiple structurally distinct ligands bind to NgR1, we examined a series of Ala-substituted NgR1 mutants for ligand binding activity. We found that the core of the binding domain is centered in the middle of the concave surface of the NgR1 leucine-rich repeat domain and surrounded by differentially utilized residues. This detailed knowledge of the molecular interactions between NgR1 and its ligands is imperative when assessing options for development of NgR1-based therapeutics for central nervous system injuries.

  15. ROLE OF ATP BINDING CASSETTE SUB-FAMILY MEMBER 2 (ABCG2) IN MOUSE EMBRYONIC STEM CELL DEVELOPMENT.

    EPA Science Inventory

    ATP binding cassette sub-family member 2 (ABCG2), is a member of the ABC transporter superfamily and a principal xenobiotic transporter. ABCG2 is also highly expressed in certain stem cell populations where it is thought to be related to stem cell plasticity, although the role o...

  16. Novel members of the adipokinetic hormone family in beetles of the superfamily Scarabaeoidea.

    PubMed

    Gäde, Gerd; Šimek, Petr; Marco, Heather G

    2016-12-01

    Eight beetle species of the superfamily Scarabaeoidea were investigated with respect to peptides belonging to the adipokinetic hormone (AKH) family in their neurohemal organs, the corpora cardiaca (CC). The following beetle families are represented: Scarabaeidae, Lucanidae, and Geotrupidae. AKH peptides were identified through a heterospecific trehalose-mobilizing bioassay and by sequence analyses, using liquid chromatography coupled to positive electrospray mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS) and analysis of the tandem MS(2) spectra obtained by collision-induced dissociation. All the beetle species have octapeptide AKHs; some have two AKHs, while others have only one. Novel AKH members were found in Euoniticellus intermedius and Circellium bacchus (family Scarabaeidae), as well as in Dorcus parallelipipedus (family Lucanidae). Two species of the family Geotrupidae and two species of the Scarabaeidae subfamily Cetoniinae contain one known AKH peptide, Melme-CC, while E. intermedius produces a novel peptide code named Euoin-AKH: pEINFTTGWamide. Two AKH peptides were each identified in CC of C. bacchus and D. parallelipipedus: the novel Cirba-AKH: pEFNFSAGWamide and the known peptide, Scade-CC-I in the former, and the novel Dorpa-AKH: pEVNYSPVW amide and the known peptide, Melme-CC in the latter. Kheper bonelli (subfamily Scarabaeinae) also has two AKHs, the known Scade-CC-I and Scade-CC-II. All the novel peptides were synthesized and the amino acid sequence assignments were unequivocally confirmed by co-elution of the synthetic peptides with their natural equivalent, and identical MS parameters of the two forms. The novel synthetic peptides are all active in inducing hypertrehalosemia in cockroaches.

  17. Characterization of three members of the ACC synthase gene family in Solanum tuberosum L.

    PubMed

    Destéfano-Beltrán, L J; van Caeneghem, W; Gielen, J; Richard, L; van Montagu, M; van der Straeten, D

    1995-02-20

    Two genomic clones corresponding to three members of the 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) synthase gene family in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) have been isolated and sequenced. Two highly homologous genes, ST-ACS1A and ST-ACS1B, transcribed in opposite directions were found in an 8.9 kb region. Their coding sequences are interrupted by two introns at identical positions. Their closest relative in tomato is the LE-ACS3 gene. The third gene in potato, ST-ACS2, was found in a 4 kb region and shows a gene structure similar to that of the tomato LE-ACS4 gene and to the mung bean VR-ACS4 and VR-ACS5 genes. Based on its lack of significant homology to the tomato gene family and its closeness to the VR-ACS4 and VR-ACS5 genes, we propose that LE-ACS7 represents an additional isoform in the tomato genome. Moreover, in a phylogenetic comparison of known ACC synthases, the ST-ACS2 isoform was grouped in a separate lineage together with the mung bean VR-ACS4 and VR-ACS5, and the moth orchid DS-ACS1A and DS-ACS1B gene products. Expression of the three potato genes was studied by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction on total RNA. The twin genes are positively regulated by indole-3-acetic acid in hypocotyls and expression is modulated by wounding in the leaves. The third gene is responsive to ethylene and wounding mainly in tubers. The roles of these three genes and of other members of the ACC synthase gene family in vegetative processes of potato such as tuberization, dormancy, and sprouting have yet to be determined.

  18. Biochemical properties of human dehydrogenase/reductase (SDR family) member 7.

    PubMed

    Stambergova, Hana; Skarydova, Lucie; Dunford, James E; Wsol, Vladimir

    2014-01-25

    Dehydrogenase/reductase (SDR family) member 7 (DHRS7, retSDR4, SDR34C1) is a previously uncharacterized member of the short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase (SDR) superfamily. While human SDR members are known to play an important role in various (patho)biochemical pathways including intermediary metabolism and biotransformation of xenobiotics, only 20% of them are considered to be well characterized. Based on phylogenetic tree and SDR sequence clusters analysis DHRS7 is a close relative to well-known SDR member 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 1 (11β-HSD1) that participates in metabolism of endogenous and xenobiotic substances with carbonyl group. The aim of present study is to determine the basic biochemical properties of DHRS7 and its possible involvement in metabolism of substrates with carbonyl group. For the first time the computational predictions of this membrane protein and membrane topology were experimentally confirmed. DHRS7 has been demonstrated to be an integral protein facing the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum with lack of posttranscriptional glycosylation modification. Subsequently, NADP(H) cofactor preference and enzymatic reducing activity of DHRS7 was determined towards endogenous substrates with a steroid structure (cortisone, 4-androstene-3,17-dion) and also toward relevant exogenous substances bearing a carbonyl group harmful to human health (1,2-naphtoquinone, 9,10-phenantrenequinone). In addition to 11β-HSD1, DHRS7 is another enzyme from SDR superfamily that have been proved, at least in vitro, to contribute to the metabolism of xenobiotics with carbonyl group.

  19. Impacts of parasites in early life: contrasting effects on juvenile growth for different family members.

    PubMed

    Reed, Thomas E; Daunt, Francis; Kiploks, Adam J; Burthe, Sarah J; Granroth-Wilding, Hanna M V; Takahashi, Emi A; Newell, Mark; Wanless, Sarah; Cunningham, Emma J A

    2012-01-01

    Parasitism experienced early in ontogeny can have a major impact on host growth, development and future fitness, but whether siblings are affected equally by parasitism is poorly understood. In birds, hatching asynchrony induced by hormonal or behavioural mechanisms largely under parental control might predispose young to respond to infection in different ways. Here we show that parasites can have different consequences for offspring depending on their position in the family hierarchy. We experimentally treated European Shag (Phalacrocorax aristoteli) nestlings with the broad-spectrum anti-parasite drug ivermectin and compared their growth rates with nestlings from control broods. Average growth rates measured over the period of linear growth (10 days to 30 days of age) and survival did not differ for nestlings from treated and control broods. However, when considering individuals within broods, parasite treatment reversed the patterns of growth for individual family members: last-hatched nestlings grew significantly slower than their siblings in control nests but grew faster in treated nests. This was at the expense of their earlier-hatched brood-mates, who showed an overall growth rate reduction relative to last-hatched nestlings in treated nests. These results highlight the importance of exploring individual variation in the costs of infection and suggest that parasites could be a key factor modulating within-family dynamics, sibling competition and developmental trajectories from an early age.

  20. KDM2 Family Members are Regulated by HIF-1 in Hypoxia

    PubMed Central

    Batie, Michael; Druker, Jimena; D’Ignazio, Laura; Rocha, Sonia

    2017-01-01

    Hypoxia is not only a developmental cue but also a stress and pathological stimulus in many human diseases. The response to hypoxia at the cellular level relies on the activity of the transcription factor family, hypoxia inducible factor (HIF). HIF-1 is responsible for the acute response and transactivates a variety of genes involved in cellular metabolism, cell death, and cell growth. Here, we show that hypoxia results in increased mRNA levels for human lysine (K)-specific demethylase 2 (KDM2) family members, KDM2A and KDM2B, and also for Drosophila melanogaster KDM2, a histone and protein demethylase. In human cells, KDM2 family member’s mRNA levels are regulated by HIF-1 but not HIF-2 in hypoxia. Interestingly, only KDM2A protein levels are significantly induced in a HIF-1-dependent manner, while KDM2B protein changes in a cell type-dependent manner. Importantly, we demonstrate that in human cells, KDM2A regulation by hypoxia and HIF-1 occurs at the level of promoter, with HIF-1 binding to the KDM2A promoter being required for RNA polymerase II recruitment. Taken together, these results demonstrate that KDM2 is a novel HIF target that can help coordinate the cellular response to hypoxia. In addition, these results might explain why KDM2 levels are often deregulated in human cancers. PMID:28304334

  1. Impacts of Parasites in Early Life: Contrasting Effects on Juvenile Growth for Different Family Members

    PubMed Central

    Reed, Thomas E.; Daunt, Francis; Kiploks, Adam J.; Burthe, Sarah J.; Granroth-Wilding, Hanna M. V.; Takahashi, Emi A.; Newell, Mark; Wanless, Sarah; Cunningham, Emma J. A.

    2012-01-01

    Parasitism experienced early in ontogeny can have a major impact on host growth, development and future fitness, but whether siblings are affected equally by parasitism is poorly understood. In birds, hatching asynchrony induced by hormonal or behavioural mechanisms largely under parental control might predispose young to respond to infection in different ways. Here we show that parasites can have different consequences for offspring depending on their position in the family hierarchy. We experimentally treated European Shag (Phalacrocorax aristoteli) nestlings with the broad-spectrum anti-parasite drug ivermectin and compared their growth rates with nestlings from control broods. Average growth rates measured over the period of linear growth (10 days to 30 days of age) and survival did not differ for nestlings from treated and control broods. However, when considering individuals within broods, parasite treatment reversed the patterns of growth for individual family members: last-hatched nestlings grew significantly slower than their siblings in control nests but grew faster in treated nests. This was at the expense of their earlier-hatched brood-mates, who showed an overall growth rate reduction relative to last-hatched nestlings in treated nests. These results highlight the importance of exploring individual variation in the costs of infection and suggest that parasites could be a key factor modulating within-family dynamics, sibling competition and developmental trajectories from an early age. PMID:22384190

  2. Consumption and sources of dietary salt in family members in Beijing.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Fang; Zhang, Puhong; Zhang, Lu; Niu, Wenyi; Gao, Jianmei; Lu, Lixin; Liu, Caixia; Gao, Xian

    2015-04-10

    In China, few people are aware of the amount and source of their salt intake. We conducted a survey to investigate the consumption and sources of dietary salt using the "one-week salt estimation method" by weighing cooking salt and major salt-containing food, and estimating salt intake during dining out based on established evidence. Nine hundred and three families (1981 adults and 971 children) with students in eight primary or junior high schools in urban and suburban Beijing were recruited. On average, the daily dietary salt intake of family members in Beijing was 11.0 (standard deviation: 6.2) g for children and adolescents (under 18 years old), 15.2 (9.1) g for adults (18 to 59 years old), and 10.2 (4.8) g for senior citizens (60 years old and over), respectively. Overall, 60.5% of dietary salt was consumed at home, and 39.5% consumed outside the home. Approximately 90% of the salt intake came from cooking (household cooking and cafeteria or restaurant cooking), while less than 10% came from processed food. In conclusion, the dietary salt intake in Beijing families far surpassed the recommended amounts by World Health Organization, with both household cooking and dining-out as main sources of salt consumption. More targeted interventions, especially education about major sources of salt and corresponding methods for salt reduction should be taken to reduce the risks associated with a high salt diet.

  3. Complete genome sequence of Cannes 8 virus, a new member of the proposed family "Marseilleviridae".

    PubMed

    Aherfi, Sarah; Pagnier, Isabelle; Fournous, Ghislain; Raoult, Didier; La Scola, Bernard; Colson, Philippe

    2013-12-01

    Marseillevirus is a giant virus that was isolated in 2007 by culturing water collected from a cooling tower in Paris, France, on Acanthamoeba polyphaga. Since then, five other marseilleviruses have been detected in environmental or human samples. The genomes of two of the six marseilleviruses have been described in detail. We describe herein the genome of Cannes 8 virus, a new member of the proposed family "Marseilleviridae." Cannes 8 virus was isolated from water collected from a cooling tower in Cannes in southeastern France. Its genome is a circular double-stranded DNA molecule with 374,041 base pairs, larger than the Marseillevirus and Lausannevirus genomes. This genome harbors 484 open reading frames predicted to encode proteins with sizes ranging from 50 to 1,537 amino acids, among which 380 (79%) and 272 (56%) are bona fide orthologs of Marseillevirus and Lausannevirus proteins, respectively. In addition, 407 and 336 predicted proteins have significant hits against Marseillevirus and Lausannevirus proteins, respectively, and 294 proteins are shared by all three marseilleviruses. The Cannes 8 virus genome has a high level of collinearity (for 96% of orthologs) with the Marseillevirus genome. About two-thirds of the Cannes 8 virus gene repertoire is composed of family ORFans. The description and annotation of the genomes of new marseilleviruses that will undoubtedly be recovered from environmental or clinical samples will be helpful to increase our knowledge of the pan-genome of the family "Marseilleviridae."

  4. Fetuin-B, a second member of the fetuin family in mammals.

    PubMed Central

    Olivier, E; Soury, E; Ruminy, P; Husson, A; Parmentier, F; Daveau, M; Salier, J P

    2000-01-01

    A set of orthologous plasma proteins found in human, sheep, pig, cow and rodents, now collectively designated fetuin-A, constitutes the fetuin family. Fetuin-A has been identified as a major protein during fetal life and is also involved in important functions such as inhibition of the insulin receptor tyrosine kinase activity, protease inhibitory activities and development-associated regulation of calcium metabolism and osteogenesis. Furthermore, fetuin-A is a key partner in the recovery phase of an acute inflammatory response. We now describe a second protein of the fetuin family, called fetuin-B, which is found at least in human and rodents. On grounds of domain homology, overall conservation of cysteine residues and chromosomal assignments of the corresponding genes in these species, fetuin-B is unambiguously a paralogue of fetuin-A. Yet, fetuin-A and fetuin-B exhibit significant differences at the amino acid sequence level, notably including variations with respect to the archetypal fetuin-specific signature. Differences and similarities in terms of gene regulation were also observed. Indeed, studies performed during development in rat and mouse showed for the first time high expression of a member of the fetuin family in adulthood, as shown with the fetuin-B mRNA in rat. However, like its fetuin-A counterpart, the fetuin-B mRNA level is down-regulated during the acute phase of experimentally induced inflammation in rat. PMID:10947975

  5. Mammalian agmatinases constitute unusual members in the family of Mn(2+)-dependent ureahydrolases.

    PubMed

    Romero, Nicol; Benítez, José; Garcia, David; González, Arlette; Bennun, Leonardo; García-Robles, María A; López, Vasthi; Wilson, Liam A; Schenk, Gerhard; Carvajal, Nelson; Uribe, Elena

    2017-01-01

    Agmatine (1-amino-4-guanidinobutane) plays an important role in a range of metabolic functions, in particular in the brain. Agmatinases (AGMs) are enzymes capable of converting agmatine to the polyamine putrescine and urea. AGMs belong to the family of Mn(2+)-dependent ureahydrolases. However, no AGM from a mammalian source has yet been extracted in catalytically active form. While in human AGM the six amino acid ligands that coordinate the two Mn(2+) ions in the active site are conserved, four mutations are observed in the murine enzyme. Here, we demonstrate that similar to its human counterpart murine AGM does not appear to have in vitro catalytic activity, independent of the presence of Mn(2+). However, in presence of agmatine both enzymes are very efficient in promoting cell growth of a yeast strain that is deficient in polyamine biosynthesis (Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain TRY104Δspe1). Furthermore, mutations among the putative Mn(2+) binding residues had no effect on the ability of murine AGM to promote growth of the yeast culture. It thus appears that mammalian AGMs form a distinct group within the family of ureahydrolases that (i) either fold in a manner distinct from other members in this family, or (ii) require accessory proteins to bind Mn(2+) in a mechanism related to that observed for the Ni(2+)-dependent urease.

  6. Perspectives of Family Members of People with an Intellectual Disability to a Major Reconfiguration of Living Arrangements for People with Intellectual Disability in Ireland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Doherty, Siobhain; Linehan, Christine; Tatlow-Golden, Mimi; Craig, Sarah; Kerr, Mike; Lynch, Christy; Staines, Anthony

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To document the views of family members of people with an intellectual disability regarding implementation of a personalized model of social support in Ireland. Method: Forty family members participated in six focus groups. Data were thematically analysed. Results: Family members' preference for particular types of living arrangements were…

  7. Accommodation and resistance to the dominant cultural discourse on psychiatric mental health: oral history accounts of family members.

    PubMed

    Boschma, Geertje

    2007-12-01

    Oral history makes a critical contribution in articulating the perspectives of people often overlooked in histories written from the standpoint of dominating class, gender, ethnic or professional groups. Using three interrelated approaches - life stories, oral history, and narrative analysis - this paper analyzes family responses to psychiatric care and mental illness in oral history interviews with family members who experienced mental illness themselves or within their family between 1930 and 1975. Interviews with three family members in Alberta, Canada are the primary focus. These stories provide an important avenue to understand the meaning and transformations of mental health-care from the point of view of families. Family members' stories reveal contradictory responses to the dominant cultural discourse. Using a performative framework of interpretation, the narratives reveal a complex interplay between medical, social and cultural conceptions of mental illness, deepening our understanding of its meaning. The history of mental health-care can be substantially enriched by the analysis of family members' stories, not only revealing the constructed nature of mental illness, but also illustrating the family as a mediating context in which the meaning of mental illness is negotiated.

  8. In silico identification and characterization of the MAPK family members of unicellular model eukaryote Tetrahymena thermophila.

    PubMed

    Yıldız, Mehmet Taha; Arslanyolu, Muhittin

    2014-10-01

    The biological function and evolutionary diversity of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) family have mostly been studied in fungi, animals and plants, with very limited information from lower eukaryotes. This study aimed to describe the MAPKs of unicellular Tetrahymena thermophila. Eight members of the T. thermophila MAPK (TtMPK) gene family, in addition to previously reported TtMPK1, TtMPK2 and TtMPK3, were identified bioinformatically using a T. thermophila genome database. Phylogenetic analysis assigned the TtMPKs into two major groups, ERK1/2-like (TtMPK1, 2, 3, 5, 6, 7, 8, and 9) as stress-responsive MAPKs for biotic and abiotic stresses, and ERK7/8-like (TtMPK4, 10, and 11) as cell-cycle-associated protein kinases for biotic factors. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR analysis of the TtMPKs showed high mRNA expression at 30°C; however, only TtMPK5 and TtMPK6 showed high expression at 37°C. Osmotic shock by 100mM NaCl only increased the expression of TtMPK2, whereas 20mM NaCl reduced the expression of all MPKs to almost zero. The results suggested that T. thermophila MAPKs are among the closest representatives of the ancestors of the eukaryotic MAPK family. Although no functional characterization of MPKs was performed, this study is the first report of the genome-wide MAPK family in T. thermophila.

  9. Conservation of all three p53 family members and Mdm2 and Mdm4 in the cartilaginous fish.

    PubMed

    Lane, David P; Madhumalar, Arumugam; Lee, Alison P; Tay, Boon-Hui; Verma, Chandra; Brenner, Sydney; Venkatesh, Byrappa

    2011-12-15

    Analysis of the genome of the elephant shark (Callorhinchus milii), a member of the cartilaginous fishes (Class Chondrichthyes), reveals that it encodes all three members of the p53 gene family, p53, p63 and p73, each with clear homology to the equivalent gene in bony vertebrates (Class Osteichthyes). Thus, the gene duplication events that lead to the presence of three family members in the vertebrates dates to before the Silurian era. It also encodes Mdm2 and Mdm4 genes but does not encode the p19(Arf) gene. Detailed comparison of the amino acid sequences of these proteins in the vertebrates reveals that they are evolving at highly distinctive rates, and this variation occurs not only between the three family members but extends to distinct domains in each protein.

  10. Patient and Family Member-Led Research in the Intensive Care Unit: A Novel Approach to Patient-Centered Research

    PubMed Central

    Gill, Marlyn; Bagshaw, Sean M.; McKenzie, Emily; Oxland, Peter; Oswell, Donna; Boulton, Debbie; Niven, Daniel J.; Potestio, Melissa L.; Shklarov, Svetlana; Marlett, Nancy; Stelfox, Henry T.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Engaging patients and family members as partners in research increases the relevance of study results and enhances patient-centered care; how to best engage patients and families in research is unknown. Methods We tested a novel research approach that engages and trains patients and family members as researchers to see if we could understand and describe the experiences of patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) and their families. Former patients and family members conducted focus groups and interviews with patients (n = 11) and families of surviving (n = 14) and deceased (n = 7) patients from 13 ICUs in Alberta Canada, and analyzed data using conventional content analysis. Separate blinded qualitative researchers conducted an independent analysis. Results Participants described three phases in the patient/family “ICU journey”; admission to ICU, daily care in ICU, and post-ICU experience. Admission to ICU was characterized by family shock and disorientation with families needing the presence and support of a provider. Participants described five important elements of daily care: honoring the patient’s voice, the need to know, decision-making, medical care, and culture in ICU. The post-ICU experience was characterized by the challenges of the transition from ICU to a hospital ward and long-term effects of critical illness. These “ICU journey” experiences were described as integral to appropriate interactions with the care team and comfort and trust in the ICU, which were perceived as essential for a community of caring. Participants provided suggestions for improvement: 1) provide a dedicated family navigator, 2) increase provider awareness of the fragility of family trust, 3) improve provider communication skills, 4) improve the transition from ICU to hospital ward, and 5) inform patients about the long-term effects of critical illness. Analyses by independent qualitative researchers identified similar themes. Conclusions Patient

  11. Lizards cooperatively tunnel to construct a long-term home for family members.

    PubMed

    McAlpin, Steve; Duckett, Paul; Stow, Adam

    2011-05-11

    Constructing a home to protect offspring while they mature is common in many vertebrate groups, but has not previously been reported in lizards. Here we provide the first example of a lizard that constructs a long-term home for family members, and a rare case of lizards behaving cooperatively. The great desert skink, Liopholis kintorei from Central Australia, constructs an elaborate multi-tunnelled burrow that can be continuously occupied for up to 7 years. Multiple generations participate in construction and maintenance of burrows. Parental assignments based on DNA analysis show that immature individuals within the same burrow were mostly full siblings, even when several age cohorts were present. Parents were always captured at burrows containing their offspring, and females were only detected breeding with the same male both within- and across seasons. Consequently, the individual investments made to construct or maintain a burrow system benefit their own offspring, or siblings, over several breeding seasons.

  12. A Novel Member of a Zinc Transporter Family Is Defective in Acrodermatitis Enteropathica

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Kun; Zhou, Bing; Kuo, Yien-Ming; Zemansky, Jason; Gitschier, Jane

    2002-01-01

    The rare inherited condition acrodermatitis enteropathica (AE) results from a defect in the absorption of dietary zinc. Recently, we used homozygosity mapping in consanguineous Middle Eastern kindreds to localize the AE gene to an ∼3.5-cM region on 8q24. In this article, we identify a gene, SLC39A4, located in the candidate region and, in patients with AE, document mutations that likely lead to the disease. The gene encodes a histidine-rich protein, which we refer to as “hZIP4,” which is a member of a large family of transmembrane proteins, some of which are known to serve as zinc-uptake proteins. We show that Slc39A4 is abundantly expressed in mouse enterocytes and that the protein resides in the apical membrane of these cells. These findings suggest that the hZIP4 transporter is responsible for intestinal absorption of zinc. PMID:12032886

  13. A novel member of a zinc transporter family is defective in acrodermatitis enteropathica.

    PubMed

    Wang, Kun; Zhou, Bing; Kuo, Yien-Ming; Zemansky, Jason; Gitschier, Jane

    2002-07-01

    The rare inherited condition acrodermatitis enteropathica (AE) results from a defect in the absorption of dietary zinc. Recently, we used homozygosity mapping in consanguineous Middle Eastern kindreds to localize the AE gene to an approximately 3.5-cM region on 8q24. In this article, we identify a gene, SLC39A4, located in the candidate region and, in patients with AE, document mutations that likely lead to the disease. The gene encodes a histidine-rich protein, which we refer to as "hZIP4," which is a member of a large family of transmembrane proteins, some of which are known to serve as zinc-uptake proteins. We show that Slc39A4 is abundantly expressed in mouse enterocytes and that the protein resides in the apical membrane of these cells. These findings suggest that the hZIP4 transporter is responsible for intestinal absorption of zinc.

  14. Violence and the costs of caring for a family member with severe mental illness.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Maxine Seaborn

    2007-09-01

    Drawing on the stress paradigm and using data from the Duke Mental Health Study, this paper investigates the links between violence by and against persons with severe mental illness and their caregivers' financial burden (e.g., number of financial contributions and perceived financial strain). In addition to violence, substance use and medication noncompliance are included in a series of multivariate regression models predicting caregiver financial burden that include measures for disruptive behaviors, personal needs, social supports, and caregiver characteristics. The findings show that violent perpetration and violent victimization increase the number of financial contributions and perceived financial strain. Nonviolent victimization, in contrast, decreases caregiver financial burden. Number of financial contributions and perceived financial strain are greatest when the family member is violent and extremely disruptive or needs assistance with personal care. Neither substance use nor medication noncompliance contributed to caregiver financial burden. Co-residence, female sex, parenthood, and instrumental social support were also associated with financial burden.

  15. Knockdown of ERM family member moesin in host cells increases HIV type 1 replication.

    PubMed

    Capalbo, Gianni; Mueller-Kuller, Thea; Markovic, Sandra; Klein, Stefan A; Dietrich, Ursula; Hoelzer, Dieter; Ottmann, Oliver G; Scheuring, Urban J

    2011-12-01

    Moesin is a member of the ERM (ezrin, radixin, moesin) family of cytoskeleton/membrane structure organizing and signal transduction proteins. Previously, we found an increased expression of moesin during HIV-1 infection. Moesin was also reported to be incorporated into HIV-1 virions. To analyze whether moesin is a host factor affecting the replication cycle of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), we used small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) to evaluate the effect of moesin knockdown on HIV-1 replication in P4-CCR5 cells. Moesin's knockdown did not affect the cell viability or cell phenotype. Interestingly, we observed a marked increase in viral replication, as demonstrated by enhanced HIV-1 RNA, p24 antigen, and ß-galactosidase reporter expression. Moesin-dependent enhancement of HIV-1 replication was confirmed in lymphocytic host cells (Jurkat). These results suggest an overall rather restrictive role of moesin for HIV-1 replication in host cells in vitro.

  16. Developing an interactive website for adolescents with a mentally ill family member.

    PubMed

    Drost, Louisa M; Cuijpers, Pim; Schippers, Gerard M

    2011-07-01

    Adolescents with a mentally ill parent are at high risk for developing a disorder themselves. It is widely recommended that these adolescents be provided with preventive interventions designed especially for them, but their avoidance of professional help is a common problem. Because most teenagers in Western societies use the World Wide Web as a means of social interaction, use of the Internet for reaching these young people would appear to be a promising option. In this article, the authors describe the development of Survivalkid.nl, an interactive, Internet-delivered, preventive intervention for supporting adolescents with a mentally ill family member. Usage statistics with regard to frequency and duration of visits and amount of activity during visits suggest that: (a) the target group has been better served than before the site was launched; and (b) we have accomplished our goal of expanding the range of support.

  17. Characterization of PrpC from Bacillus subtilis, a member of the PPM phosphatase family.

    PubMed

    Obuchowski, M; Madec, E; Delattre, D; Boël, G; Iwanicki, A; Foulger, D; Séror, S J

    2000-10-01

    We cloned the yloO gene and purified a His-tagged form of its product, the putative protein phosphatase YloO, which we now designate PrpC. This closely resembles the human protein phosphatase PP2C, a member of the PPM family, in sequence and predicted secondary structure. PrpC has phosphatase activity in vitro against a synthetic substrate, p-nitrophenol phosphate, and endogenous Bacillus subtilis proteins. The prkC and prpC genes are adjacent on the chromosome, and the phosphorylated form of PrkC is a substrate for PrpC. These findings suggest that PrkC and PrpC may function as a couple in vivo.

  18. STS-95 crew members greet families at Launch Pad 39B

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    STS-95 crew members greet their families from Launch Pad 39B. From left, they are Mission Specialist Scott E. Parazynski, Payload Specialist Chiaki Mukai, with the National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA), Payload Specialist John H. Glenn Jr., senator from Ohio, Mission Specialist Stephen K. Robinson, Pilot Steven W. Lindsey, Mission Commander Curtis L. Brown Jr., and Mission Specialist Pedro Duque of Spain, with the European Space Agency (ESA). The crew were making final preparations for launch, targeted for liftoff at 2 p.m. on Oct. 29. The mission is expected to last 8 days, 21 hours and 49 minutes, returning to KSC at 11:49 a.m. EST on Nov. 7.

  19. H-NS, Its Family Members and Their Regulation of Virulence Genes in Shigella Species

    PubMed Central

    Picker, Michael A.; Wing, Helen J.

    2016-01-01

    The histone-like nucleoid structuring protein (H-NS) has played a key role in shaping the evolution of Shigella spp., and provides the backdrop to the regulatory cascade that controls virulence by silencing many genes found on the large virulence plasmid. H-NS and its paralogue StpA are present in all four Shigella spp., but a second H-NS paralogue, Sfh, is found in the Shigella flexneri type strain 2457T, which is routinely used in studies of Shigella pathogenesis. While StpA and Sfh have been proposed to serve as “molecular backups” for H-NS, the apparent redundancy of these proteins is questioned by in vitro studies and work done in Escherichia coli. In this review, we describe the current understanding of the regulatory activities of the H-NS family members, the challenges associated with studying these proteins and their role in the regulation of virulence genes in Shigella. PMID:27916940

  20. Facilitators and barriers to hypertension self-management in urban African Americans: perspectives of patients and family members

    PubMed Central

    Flynn, Sarah J; Ameling, Jessica M; Hill-Briggs, Felicia; Wolff, Jennifer L; Bone, Lee R; Levine, David M; Roter, Debra l; Lewis-Boyer, LaPricia; Fisher, Annette R; Purnell, Leon; Ephraim, Patti L; Barbers, Jeffrey; Fitzpatrick, Stephanie L; Albert, Michael C; Cooper, Lisa A; Fagan, Peter J; Martin, Destiny; Ramamurthi, Hema C; Boulware, L Ebony

    2013-01-01

    Introduction We aimed to inform the design of behavioral interventions by identifying patients’ and their family members’ perceived facilitators and barriers to hypertension self-management. Materials and methods We conducted focus groups of African American patients with hypertension and their family members to elicit their views about factors influencing patients’ hypertension self-management. We recruited African American patients with hypertension (n = 18) and their family members (n = 12) from an urban, community-based clinical practice in Baltimore, Maryland. We conducted four separate 90-minute focus groups among patients with controlled (one group) and uncontrolled (one group) hypertension, as well as their family members (two groups). Trained moderators used open-ended questions to assess participants’ perceptions regarding patient, family, clinic, and community-level factors influencing patients’ effective hypertension self-management. Results Patient participants identified several facilitators (including family members’ support and positive relationships with doctors) and barriers (including competing health priorities, lack of knowledge about hypertension, and poor access to community resources) that influence their hypertension self-management. Family members also identified several facilitators (including their participation in patients’ doctor’s visits and discussions with patients’ doctors outside of visits) and barriers (including their own limited health knowledge and patients’ lack of motivation to sustain hypertension self-management behaviors) that affect their efforts to support patients’ hypertension self-management. Conclusion African American patients with hypertension and their family members reported numerous patient, family, clinic, and community-level facilitators and barriers to patients’ hypertension self-management. Patients’ and their family members’ views may help guide efforts to tailor behavioral

  1. Human kidney anion exchanger 1 interacts with kinesin family member 3B (KIF3B)

    SciTech Connect

    Duangtum, Natapol; Junking, Mutita; Sawasdee, Nunghathai; Cheunsuchon, Boonyarit; Limjindaporn, Thawornchai; Yenchitsomanus, Pa-thai

    2011-09-16

    Highlights: {yields} Impaired trafficking of kAE1 causes distal renal tubular acidosis (dRTA). {yields} The interaction between kAE1 and kinesin family member 3B (KIF3B) is reported. {yields} The co-localization between kAE and KIF3B was detected in human kidney tissues. {yields} A marked reduction of kAE1 on the cell membrane was observed when KIF3B was knockdown. {yields} KFI3B plays an important role in trafficking of kAE1 to the plasma membrane. -- Abstract: Impaired trafficking of human kidney anion exchanger 1 (kAE1) to the basolateral membrane of {alpha}-intercalated cells of the kidney collecting duct leads to the defect of the Cl{sup -}/HCO{sub 3}{sup -} exchange and the failure of proton (H{sup +}) secretion at the apical membrane of these cells, causing distal renal tubular acidosis (dRTA). In the sorting process, kAE1 interacts with AP-1 mu1A, a subunit of AP-1A adaptor complex. However, it is not known whether kAE1 interacts with motor proteins in its trafficking process to the plasma membrane or not. We report here that kAE1 interacts with kinesin family member 3B (KIF3B) in kidney cells and a dileucine motif at the carboxyl terminus of kAE1 contributes to this interaction. We have also demonstrated that kAE1 co-localizes with KIF3B in human kidney tissues and the suppression of endogenous KIF3B in HEK293T cells by small interfering RNA (siRNA) decreases membrane localization of kAE1 but increases its intracellular accumulation. All results suggest that KIF3B is involved in the trafficking of kAE1 to the plasma membrane of human kidney {alpha}-intercalated cells.

  2. Oncogenic Intra-p53 Family Member Interactions in Human Cancers

    PubMed Central

    Ferraiuolo, Maria; Di Agostino, Silvia; Blandino, Giovanni; Strano, Sabrina

    2016-01-01

    The p53 gene family members p53, p73, and p63 display several isoforms derived from the presence of internal promoters and alternative splicing events. They are structural homologs but hold peculiar functional properties. p53, p73, and p63 are tumor suppressor genes that promote differentiation, senescence, and apoptosis. p53, unlike p73 and p63, is frequently mutated in cancer often displaying oncogenic “gain of function” activities correlated with the induction of proliferation, invasion, chemoresistance, and genomic instability in cancer cells. These oncogenic functions are promoted either by the aberrant transcriptional cooperation of mutant p53 (mutp53) with transcription cofactors (e.g., NF-Y, E2F1, Vitamin D Receptor, Ets-1, NF-kB and YAP) or by the interaction with the p53 family members, p73 and p63, determining their functional inactivation. The instauration of these aberrant transcriptional networks leads to increased cell growth, low activation of DNA damage response pathways (DNA damage response and DNA double-strand breaks response), enhanced invasion, and high chemoresistance to different conventional chemotherapeutic treatments. Several studies have clearly shown that different cancers harboring mutant p53 proteins exhibit a poor prognosis when compared to those carrying wild-type p53 (wt-p53) protein. The interference of mutantp53/p73 and/or mutantp53/p63 interactions, thereby restoring p53, p73, and p63 tumor suppression functions, could be among the potential therapeutic strategies for the treatment of mutant p53 human cancers. PMID:27066457

  3. Agreement Between Stroke Patients and Family Members For Ascertaining Pre-Stroke Risk of Sleep Apnea

    PubMed Central

    Reeves, Sarah L; Brown, Devin L; Chervin, Ronald D; Morgenstern, Lewis B; Smith, Melinda A; Lisabeth, Lynda D

    2014-01-01

    Background Ascertaining self-reported information about pre-stroke obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) risk in the acute stroke period is challenging as many stroke patients have deficits that hinder communication. We examined agreement between stroke patients without communication limitations and family members (proxy) with respect to pre-stroke risk of OSA. Methods Patient-proxy pairs (n = 42) were interviewed independently as part of the Brain Attack Surveillance in Corpus Christi Project from May 2010 - April 2011. The Berlin questionnaire was used to measure a high risk of OSA defined as the presence of at least two of the following conditions: 1) snoring behaviors/witnessed apneas, 2) daytime sleepiness, and 3) hypertension or obesity. Patient-proxy agreement was assessed using a kappa coefficient. Results Forty-three percent of patients self-identified as high risk for sleep apnea, and 45% of proxies identified patients as high risk. Patient-proxy agreement for high risk of pre-stroke OSA was fair (kappa = 0.28) with better agreement for spouses and children proxies (kappa = 0.38) than for other family members. Agreement was also fair for most individual questions. Conclusions Spouse and child proxy use of the Berlin questionnaire may be an option to assess a patient's pre-stroke likelihood of sleep apnea. Whereas prospective studies of incident stroke in patients with and without objectively confirmed sleep apnea would require formidable resources, the present results suggest that an alternative strategy may involve proxy use of the Berlin in a retrospective study design. PMID:24238964

  4. Differential Inhibition of Signal Peptide Peptidase Family Members by Established γ-Secretase Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Ran, Yong; Ladd, Gabriela Z.; Ceballos-Diaz, Carolina; Jung, Joo In; Greenbaum, Doron; Felsenstein, Kevin M.; Golde, Todd E.

    2015-01-01

    The signal peptide peptidases (SPPs) are biomedically important proteases implicated as therapeutic targets for hepatitis C (human SPP, (hSPP)), plasmodium (Plasmodium SPP (pSPP)), and B-cell immunomodulation and neoplasia (signal peptide peptidase like 2a, (SPPL2a)). To date, no drug-like, selective inhibitors have been reported. We use a recombinant substrate based on the amino-terminus of BRI2 fused to amyloid β 1-25 (Aβ1-25) (FBA) to develop facile, cost-effective SPP/SPPL protease assays. Co-transfection of expression plasmids expressing the FBA substrate with SPP/SPPLs were conducted to evaluate cleavage, which was monitored by ELISA, Western Blot and immunoprecipitation/MALDI-TOF Mass spectrometry (IP/MS). No cleavage is detected in the absence of SPP/SPPL overexpression. Multiple γ-secretase inhibitors (GSIs) and (Z-LL)2 ketone differentially inhibited SPP/SPPL activity; for example, IC50 of LY-411,575 varied from 51±79 nM (on SPPL2a) to 5499±122 nM (on SPPL2b), while Compound E showed inhibition only on hSPP with IC50 of 1465±93 nM. Data generated were predictive of effects observed for endogenous SPPL2a cleavage of CD74 in a murine B-Cell line. Thus, it is possible to differentially inhibit SPP family members. These SPP/SPPL cleavage assays will expedite the search for selective inhibitors. The data also reinforce similarities between SPP family member cleavage and cleavage catalyzed by γ-secretase. PMID:26046535

  5. Pegasus, the 'atypical' Ikaros family member, influences left-right asymmetry and regulates pitx2 expression.

    PubMed

    John, Liza B; Trengove, Monique C; Fraser, Fiona W; Yoong, Simon H; Ward, Alister C

    2013-05-01

    Members of the Ikaros family of zinc-finger transcription factors have been shown to be critical for immune and blood cell development. However, the role of the most divergent family member, Pegasus, has remained elusive, although it shows conservation to invertebrate Hunchback proteins that influence embryonic patterning through regulation of homeodomain genes. Zebrafish was employed as a relevant model to investigate the function of Pegasus since it possesses a single pegasus orthologue with high homology to its mammalian counterparts. During zebrafish embryogenesis pegasus transcripts were initially maternally-derived and later replaced by zygotic expression in the diencephalon, tectum, hindbrain, thymus, eye, and ultimately the exocrine pancreas and intestine. Morpholino-mediated knockdown of the zebrafish pegasus gene resulted in disrupted left-right asymmetry of the gut and pancreas. Molecular analysis indicated that zebrafish Pegasus localised to the nucleus in discrete non-nucleolar structures and bound the 'atypical' DNA sequence GN3GN2G, confirming its presumed role as a transcriptional regulator. In vivo transcriptome analysis identified candidate target genes, several of which encoded homeodomain transcription factors. One of these, pitx2, implicated in left-right asymmetry, possessed appropriate 'atypical' Pegasus binding sites in its promoter. Knockdown of Pegasus affected both the level and asymmetry of pitx2 expression, as well as disrupting the asymmetry of the lefty2 and spaw genes, explaining the perturbed left-right patterning in pegasus morphants. Collectively these results provide the first definitive insights into the in vivo role of Pegasus, supporting the notion that it acts as a broader regulator of development, with potential parallels to the related invertebrate Hunchback proteins.

  6. An Arabidopsis family of six acyl-CoA-binding proteins has three cytosolic members.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Shi; Chye, Mee-Len

    2009-06-01

    In Arabidopsis thaliana, a gene family of six members encodes acyl-CoA-binding proteins (ACBPs). These Arabidopsis ACBPs (designated ACBP1 to ACBP6) range in size from 10.4kDa to 73.1kDa and display varying affinities for acyl-CoA esters, suggesting that they have different roles in plant lipid metabolism. In contrast, only the 10-kDa ACBPs have been well-characterized from other eukaryote species. Our previous studies have revealed that ACBP1 and ACBP2 are membrane-associated proteins, while ACBP3 is extracellularly-targeted. More recently, we have reported that the remaining three members in this protein family (namely ACBP4, ACBP5 and ACBP6) are subcellularly localized to the cytosol in Arabidopsis. The subcellular localizations of ACBP4, ACBP5 and ACBP6 in the cytosol were demonstrated using a number of different approaches incorporating biochemical fractionation, confocal microscopy of transgenic Arabidopsis expressing autofluorescence-tagged fusions and immunoelectron microscopy using ACBP-specific antibodies. Our results indicate that all three ACBPs in the cytosol are potential candidates for acyl-CoA binding and trafficking in plant cells. In this review, the functional redundancy and differences among the three cytosolic ACBPs are discussed by comparison of their light-regulated expression and substrate affinities to acyl-CoA esters, and from biochemical analyses on their knockout mutants and/or overexpression in transgenic Arabidopsis. The transcriptionally light-induced ACBP4 and ACBP5, which encode the two largest forms of Arabidopsis ACBPs, bind oleoyl-CoA esters and likely transfer oleoyl-CoAs from the plastids (the site of de novo fatty acid biosynthesis) to the endoplasmic reticulum for the biosynthesis of non-plastidial membrane lipids in Arabidopsis.

  7. Usability of a CKD Educational Website Targeted to Patients and Their Family Members

    PubMed Central

    Zuckerman, Marni; Fink, Wanda; Hu, Peter; Yang, Shiming; Fink, Jeffrey C.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Background and objectives Web-based technology is critical to the future of healthcare. As part of the Safe Kidney Care cohort study evaluating patient safety in CKD, this study determined how effectively a representative sample of patients with CKD or family members could interpret and use the Safe Kidney Care website (www.safekidneycare.org), an informational website on safety in CKD. Design, setting, participants, & measurements Between November of 2011 and January of 2012, persons with CKD or their family members underwent formal usability testing administered by a single interviewer with a second recording observer. Each participant was independently provided a list of 21 tasks to complete, with each task rated as either easily completed/noncritical error or critical error (user cannot complete the task without significant interviewer intervention). Results Twelve participants completed formal usability testing. Median completion time for all tasks was 17.5 minutes (range=10–44 minutes). In total, 10 participants had greater than or equal to one critical error. There were 55 critical errors in 252 tasks (22%), with the highest proportion of critical errors occurring when participants were asked to find information on treatments that may damage kidneys, find the website on the internet, increase font size, and scroll to the bottom of the webpage. Participants were generally satisfied with the content and usability of the website. Conclusions Web-based educational materials for patients with CKD should target a wide range of computer literacy levels and anticipate variability in competency in use of the computer and internet. PMID:22798537

  8. Transactivation of lung lysozyme expression by Ets family member ESE-1.

    PubMed

    Lei, Wanli; Jaramillo, Richard J; Harrod, Kevin S

    2007-11-01

    Epithelial-specific Ets (ESE) transcription factors, consisting of ESE-1, ESE-2, and ESE-3, are constitutively expressed in distinct epithelia of mucosal tissues, including the lung. Each ESE member exhibits alternative splicing and yields at least two isoforms (a and b) with transcriptional targets largely unidentified. The studies described herein define a novel role for ESE transcription factors in transactivation of the human lysozyme gene (LYZ), an essential component of innate defense in lung epithelia. Of the six ESE isoforms, ESE-1a and ESE-1b transactivated LYZ promoter in reporter gene assays, whereas only ESE-1b dramatically upregulated transcription of endogenous LYZ in both nonpulmonary and pulmonary epithelial cells. Importantly, ESE-1a and ESE-1b could transactivate the LYZ promoter in cultured primary airway epithelial cells. ESE-2 and ESE-3 isoforms were unable to substantially transactivate the lysozyme promoter or upregulate transcription of endogenous LYZ. Two functional consensus Ets sites located in the proximal 130-bp LYZ promoter were responsive to ESE-1b as identified by site-directed mutagenesis and DNA binding assays. Short hairpin RNA attenuation of endogenous ESE-1b mRNA levels in lung epithelia resulted in decreased LYZ transcription. Furthermore, ESE-1 antibody specifically enriched the 130-bp proximal LYZ promoter in chromatin immunoprecipitation analyses. These findings define a novel role for ESE transcription factors in regulating lung innate defense and suggest distinct regulatory functions for ESE family members.

  9. Identification and Expression Analysis of Polygalacturonase Family Members during Peach Fruit Softening

    PubMed Central

    Qian, Ming; Zhang, Yike; Yan, Xiangyan; Han, Mingyu; Li, Jinjin; Li, Fang; Li, Furui; Zhang, Dong; Zhao, Caiping

    2016-01-01

    Polygalacturonase (PG) is an important hydrolytic enzyme involved in pectin degradation during fruit softening. However, the roles of PG family members in fruit softening remain unclear. We identified 45 PpPG genes in the peach genome which are clustered into six subclasses. PpPGs consist of four to nine exons and three to eight introns, and the exon/intron structure is basically conserved in all but subclass E. Only 16 PpPG genes were expressed in ripening fruit, and their expression profiles were analyzed during storage in two peach cultivars with different softening characteristics. Eight PGs (PpPG1, -10, -12, -13, -15, -23, -21, and -22) in fast-softening “Qian Jian Bai” (QJB) fruit and three PGs (PpPG15, -21, and -22) in slow-softening “Qin Wang” (QW) fruit exhibited softening-associated patterns; which also were affected by ethylene treatment. Our results suggest that the different softening characters in QW and QJB fruit is related to the amount of PG members. While keeping relatively lower levels during QW fruit softening, the expression of six PGs (PpPG1, -10, -12, -11, -14, and -35) rapidly induced by ethylene. PpPG24, -25 and -38 may not be involved in softening of peach fruit. PMID:27869753

  10. A nonpyrrolysine member of the widely distributed trimethylamine methyltransferase family is a glycine betaine methyltransferase

    SciTech Connect

    Ticak, Tomislav; Kountz, D. J.; Girosky, K. E.; Krzycki, J. A.; Ferguson, D. J.

    2014-10-13

    COG5598 comprises a large number of proteins related to MttB, the trimethylamine:corrinoid methyltransferase. MttB has a genetically encoded pyrrolysine residue proposed essential for catalysis. MttB is the only known trimethylamine methyltransferase, yet the great majority of members of COG5598 lack pyrrolysine, leaving the activity of these proteins an open question. Here, we describe the function of one of the nonpyrrolysine members of this large protein family. Three nonpyrrolysine MttB homologs are encoded in Desulfitobacterium hafniense, a Gram-positive strict anaerobe present in both the environment and human intestine. D. hafniense was found capable of growth on glycine betaine with electron acceptors such as nitrate or fumarate, producing dimethylglycine and CO2 as products. Examination of the genome revealed genes for tetrahydrofolate-linked oxidation of a methyl group originating from a methylated corrinoid protein, but no obvious means to carry out corrinoid methylation with glycine betaine. DSY3156, encoding one of the nonpyrrolysine MttB homologs, was up-regulated during growth on glycine betaine. The recombinant DSY3156 protein converts glycine betaine and cob(I)alamin to dimethylglycine and methylcobalamin. To our knowledge, DSY3156 is the first glycine betaine:corrinoid methyltransferase described, and a designation of MtgB is proposed. Additionally, DSY3157, an adjacently encoded protein, was shown to be a methylcobalamin:tetrahydrofolate methyltransferase and is designated MtgA. Homologs of MtgB are widely distributed, especially in marine bacterioplankton and nitrogen-fixing plant symbionts. Lastly, they are also found in multiple members of the human microbiome, and may play a beneficial role in trimethylamine homeostasis, which in recent years has been directly tied to human cardiovascular health.

  11. A nonpyrrolysine member of the widely distributed trimethylamine methyltransferase family is a glycine betaine methyltransferase

    DOE PAGES

    Ticak, Tomislav; Kountz, D. J.; Girosky, K. E.; ...

    2014-10-13

    COG5598 comprises a large number of proteins related to MttB, the trimethylamine:corrinoid methyltransferase. MttB has a genetically encoded pyrrolysine residue proposed essential for catalysis. MttB is the only known trimethylamine methyltransferase, yet the great majority of members of COG5598 lack pyrrolysine, leaving the activity of these proteins an open question. Here, we describe the function of one of the nonpyrrolysine members of this large protein family. Three nonpyrrolysine MttB homologs are encoded in Desulfitobacterium hafniense, a Gram-positive strict anaerobe present in both the environment and human intestine. D. hafniense was found capable of growth on glycine betaine with electron acceptorsmore » such as nitrate or fumarate, producing dimethylglycine and CO2 as products. Examination of the genome revealed genes for tetrahydrofolate-linked oxidation of a methyl group originating from a methylated corrinoid protein, but no obvious means to carry out corrinoid methylation with glycine betaine. DSY3156, encoding one of the nonpyrrolysine MttB homologs, was up-regulated during growth on glycine betaine. The recombinant DSY3156 protein converts glycine betaine and cob(I)alamin to dimethylglycine and methylcobalamin. To our knowledge, DSY3156 is the first glycine betaine:corrinoid methyltransferase described, and a designation of MtgB is proposed. Additionally, DSY3157, an adjacently encoded protein, was shown to be a methylcobalamin:tetrahydrofolate methyltransferase and is designated MtgA. Homologs of MtgB are widely distributed, especially in marine bacterioplankton and nitrogen-fixing plant symbionts. Lastly, they are also found in multiple members of the human microbiome, and may play a beneficial role in trimethylamine homeostasis, which in recent years has been directly tied to human cardiovascular health.« less

  12. A nonpyrrolysine member of the widely distributed trimethylamine methyltransferase family is a glycine betaine methyltransferase.

    PubMed

    Ticak, Tomislav; Kountz, Duncan J; Girosky, Kimberly E; Krzycki, Joseph A; Ferguson, Donald J

    2014-10-28

    COG5598 comprises a large number of proteins related to MttB, the trimethylamine:corrinoid methyltransferase. MttB has a genetically encoded pyrrolysine residue proposed essential for catalysis. MttB is the only known trimethylamine methyltransferase, yet the great majority of members of COG5598 lack pyrrolysine, leaving the activity of these proteins an open question. Here, we describe the function of one of the nonpyrrolysine members of this large protein family. Three nonpyrrolysine MttB homologs are encoded in Desulfitobacterium hafniense, a Gram-positive strict anaerobe present in both the environment and human intestine. D. hafniense was found capable of growth on glycine betaine with electron acceptors such as nitrate or fumarate, producing dimethylglycine and CO2 as products. Examination of the genome revealed genes for tetrahydrofolate-linked oxidation of a methyl group originating from a methylated corrinoid protein, but no obvious means to carry out corrinoid methylation with glycine betaine. DSY3156, encoding one of the nonpyrrolysine MttB homologs, was up-regulated during growth on glycine betaine. The recombinant DSY3156 protein converts glycine betaine and cob(I)alamin to dimethylglycine and methylcobalamin. To our knowledge, DSY3156 is the first glycine betaine:corrinoid methyltransferase described, and a designation of MtgB is proposed. In addition, DSY3157, an adjacently encoded protein, was shown to be a methylcobalamin:tetrahydrofolate methyltransferase and is designated MtgA. Homologs of MtgB are widely distributed, especially in marine bacterioplankton and nitrogen-fixing plant symbionts. They are also found in multiple members of the human microbiome, and may play a beneficial role in trimethylamine homeostasis, which in recent years has been directly tied to human cardiovascular health.

  13. Narratives of grieving African-Americans about racism in the lives of deceased family members.

    PubMed

    Rosenblatt, Paul C; Wallace, Beverly R

    2005-04-01

    As part of a comprehensive interview study on African-American grief, the authors explored how racism is incorporated into narratives about a deceased family member. To the extent that experiences of racism are pervasive in African-American life and to the extent that narratives about a person who has died generally account for the life experiences, achievements, character, and challenges faced by the deceased, the authors expected narratives about a deceased African-American to deal with the person's encounters with racism. In fact, most of the 26 African-Americans who were interviewed spoke about racism in the life of the deceased. Many talked about racism blocking the deceased from getting ahead occupationally and in other ways and about how the deceased resisted or stood up to racism. Some people spoke about the ways the deceased taught them to deal with racism. The narratives that indicated that the deceased had rarely or ever talked about racism still made clear that the deceased lived in a racist world but chose not to bring racism into family conversation. The findings suggest that a view of African-American grieving that is insensitive to racism in African-American experience may lead to unhelpful grief support or counseling.

  14. Cloning and analysis of DnaJ family members in the silkworm, Bombyx mori.

    PubMed

    Li, Yinü; Bu, Cuiyu; Li, Tiantian; Wang, Shibao; Jiang, Feng; Yi, Yongzhu; Yang, Huipeng; Zhang, Zhifang

    2016-01-15

    Heat shock proteins (Hsps) are involved in a variety of critical biological functions, including protein folding, degradation, and translocation and macromolecule assembly, act as molecular chaperones during periods of stress by binding to other proteins. Using expressed sequence tag (EST) and silkworm (Bombyx mori) transcriptome databases, we identified 27 cDNA sequences encoding the conserved J domain, which is found in DnaJ-type Hsps. Of the 27 J domain-containing sequences, 25 were complete cDNA sequences. We divided them into three types according to the number and presence of conserved domains. By analyzing the gene structures, intron numbers, and conserved domains and constructing a phylogenetic tree, we found that the DnaJ family had undergone convergent evolution, obtaining new domains to expand the diversity of its family members. The acquisition of the new DnaJ domains most likely occurred prior to the evolutionary divergence of prokaryotes and eukaryotes. The expression of DnaJ genes in the silkworm was generally higher in the fat body. The tissue distribution of DnaJ1 proteins was detected by western blotting, demonstrating that in the fifth-instar larvae, the DnaJ1 proteins were expressed at their highest levels in hemocytes, followed by the fat body and head. We also found that the DnaJ1 transcripts were likely differentially translated in different tissues. Using immunofluorescence cytochemistry, we revealed that in the blood cells, DnaJ1 was mainly localized in the cytoplasm.

  15. Cloning and characterization of SOX5, a new member of the human SOX gene family

    SciTech Connect

    Wunderle, V.M.; Critcher, R.; Goodfellow, P.N.; Ashworth, A.

    1996-09-01

    The mammalian Y-linked testis determining gene, SRY, encodes a protein with a DNA binding motif known as the HMG box. A large family of genes sharing a high similarity with the SRY HMG box and named Sox (Sry-related HMG box) in mouse and SOX in human has been identified from various organisms. We have cloned SOX5, a new member of the human SOX gene family. SOX5 cDNAs isolated from a human adult testis cDNA library show a high similarity with the mouse Sox5 transcript over a large region identical in all the human cDNAs. However, comparison of the 5{prime} unique sequences of the cDNAs suggests that the SOX5 gene is subject to alternative splicing. Genomic analysis identified a SOX5 pseudogene located on 8q21.1, whereas the SOX5 gene itself, which contains a minimum of five introns, maps to 12p12.1. In contrast to the mouse gene, the human SOX5 gene is expressed in a variety of human tissues, and different size transcripts are observed in adult testis and fetal brain. 19 refs., 5 figs.

  16. A Grounded Theory of Students' Long-Distance Coping With a Family Member's Cancer.

    PubMed

    Basinger, Erin D; Wehrman, Erin C; Delaney, Amy L; McAninch, Kelly G

    2015-08-01

    In this study, we explore how family members cope with one source of stress-cancer diagnosis and treatment. We suggest that coping away from one's family is characterized by constraints that are not common to proximal coping. We conducted six focus groups with college students (N = 21) at a university in the United States to investigate their long-distance coping experiences and used grounded theory methods to develop a model of college students' long-distance coping. Negotiating the tension between being here (at school) and being there (at home) was central to their experiences. Participants described four manifestations of their negotiation between here and there (i.e., expressing/hiding emotion, longing to care for the patient there/avoiding responsibility here, feeling shock at degeneration there/escaping degeneration by being here, and lacking information from there) and three strategies they used to cope (i.e., being here and withdrawing, being here and doing school, and seeking/not seeking support).

  17. Cloning and characterization of two members of the vertebrate Dlx gene family.

    PubMed Central

    Simeone, A; Acampora, D; Pannese, M; D'Esposito, M; Stornaiuolo, A; Gulisano, M; Mallamaci, A; Kastury, K; Druck, T; Huebner, K

    1994-01-01

    A number of vertebrate genes of the Dlx gene family have been cloned in mouse, frog, and zebrafish. These genes contain a homeobox related to that of Distalless, a gene expressed in the developing head and limbs of Drosophila embryos. We cloned and studied the expression of two members of this family, which we named Dlx5 and Dlx6, in human and mouse. The two human genes, DLX5 and DLX6, are closely linked in an inverted convergent configuration in a region of chromosome 7, at 7q22. Similarly, the two human genes DLX1 and DLX2 are closely linked in a convergent configuration at 2q32, near the HOXD (previously HOX4) locus. In situ hybridization experiments in mouse embryos revealed expression of Dlx5 and Dlx6 mRNA in restricted regions of ventral diencephalon and basal telencephalon, with a distribution very similar to that reported for Dlx1 and Dlx2 mRNA. A surprising feature of Dlx5 and Dlx6 is that they are also expressed in all skeletal structures of midgestation embryos after the first cartilage formation. The expression pattern of these genes, together with their chromosome localization, may provide useful cues for the study of congenital disorders in which there is a combination of craniofacial and limb defects. Images PMID:7907794

  18. Impaired autologous mixed lymphocyte reaction (AMLR) in patients with ataxia-telangiectasia and their family members.

    PubMed Central

    Lahat, N; Zelnik, N; Froom, P; Kinarty, A; Etzioni, A

    1988-01-01

    We used the autologous mixed lymphocyte reaction (AMLR) to test T cell function in four patients with Ataxia-telangiectasia (AT), in 11 first-degree relatives and in 20 controls. There was a marked reduction of AMLR in the patients and in three relatives compared to the age-matched controls. In the AT patients the defect in AMLR was intrinsic to the CD4 subpopulation, since exogenous IL-2 did not improve the response of isolated CD4 cells. In contrast to normal controls, pre-incubation of autologous B cells with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) did not enhance the reduced AMLR in the AT patients and the three first-degree relatives. We conclude that in both patients with AT and in some of their family members there is an intrinsic defect in CD4 T cells. This defect leads to diminished reactivity to EBV infected autologous B cells, and may explain in part the high incidence of malignancies observed in such families. PMID:2851398

  19. NADPH-Cytochrome P450 Oxidoreductase: Prototypic Member of the Diflavin Reductase Family

    PubMed Central

    Iyanagi, Takashi; Xia, Chuanwu; Kim, Jung-Ja P.

    2012-01-01

    NADPH-cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (CYPOR) and nitric oxide synthase (NOS), two members of the diflavin oxidoreductase family, are multi-domain enzymes containing distinct FAD and FMN domains connected by a flexible hinge. FAD accepts a hydride ion from NADPH, and reduced FAD donates electrons to FMN, which in turn transfers electrons to the heme center of cytochrome P450 or NOS oxygenase domain. Structural analysis of CYPOR, the prototype of this enzyme family, has revealed the exact nature of the domain arrangement and the role of residues involved in cofactor binding. Recent structural and biophysical studies of CYPOR have shown that the two flavin domains undergo large domain movements during catalysis. NOS isoforms contain additional regulatory elements within the reductase domain that control electron transfer through Ca2+-dependent calmodulin (CaM) binding. The recent crystal structure of an iNOS Ca2+/CaM-FMN construct, containing the FMN domain in complex with Ca2+/CaM, provided structural information on the linkage between the reductase and oxgenase domains of NOS, making it possible to model the holo iNOS structure. This review summarizes recent advances in our understanding of the dynamics of domain movements during CYPOR catalysis and the role of the NOS diflavin reductase domain in the regulation of NOS isozyme activities. PMID:22982532

  20. Integration analysis of MKK and MAPK family members highlights potential MAPK signaling modules in cotton

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xueying; Xu, Xiaoyang; Yu, Yujia; Chen, Chuan; Wang, Jing; Cai, Caiping; Guo, Wangzhen

    2016-01-01

    Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades play a crucial role in plant growth and development, as well as their biotic and abiotic stress responses. As a nodal point of the MAPK cascade, the MKK gene family has not been systematically studied in cotton. Here, we identified 11 putative MKK genes in the Gossypium raimondii genome. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the MKKs were supported by architectures of conserved protein motifs. Expression patterns of MKKs under hormone treatments or abiotic stresses revealed their diverse functions in stress responses. Based on a yeast two hybrid, a total of 63 interactive pairs of MKKs and MAPKs were identified in cotton. Among these, 40 interactive pairs were newly identified compared to that reported previously in Arabidopsis. Integration analysis of the interaction network and expression patterns of MKK and MAPK family members revealed 13 potential MAPK signaling modules that are involved in the complicated cross-talk between hormones and abiotic stresses. Taken together, our data enhance the understanding of the evolution and function of MAPK cascades in cotton, and lay the foundation for the improvement of various defense responses that use MAPK signaling modules in the future. PMID:27417377

  1. The prion protein family member Shadoo induces spontaneous ionic currents in cultured cells

    PubMed Central

    Nyeste, Antal; Stincardini, Claudia; Bencsura, Petra; Cerovic, Milica; Biasini, Emiliano; Welker, Ervin

    2016-01-01

    Some mutant forms of the cellular prion protein (PrPC) carrying artificial deletions or point mutations associated with familial human prion diseases are capable of inducing spontaneous ionic currents across the cell membrane, conferring hypersensitivity to certain antibiotics to a wide range of cultured cells and primary cerebellar granular neurons (CGNs). These effects are abrogated when the wild type (WT) form is co-expressed, suggesting that they might be related to a physiological activity of PrPC. Interestingly, the prion protein family member Shadoo (Sho) makes cells hypersensitive to the same antibiotics as mutant PrP-s, an effect that is diminished by the co-expression of WT-PrP. Here, we report that Sho engages in another mutant PrP-like activity: it spontaneously induces large ionic currents in cultured SH-SY5Y cells, as detected by whole-cell patch clamping. These currents are also decreased by the co-expression of WT-PrP. Furthermore, deletion of the N-terminal (RXXX)8 motif of Sho, mutation of the eight arginine residues of this motif to glutamines, or replacement of the hydrophobic domain by that of PrP, also diminish Sho-induced ionic currents. Our results suggest that the channel activity that is also characteristic to some pathogenic PrP mutants may be linked to a physiological function of Sho. PMID:27819308

  2. Organic anion transporter (Slc22a) family members as mediators of toxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Sweet, Douglas H. . E-mail: sweetd@musc.edu

    2005-05-01

    Exposure of the body to toxic organic anions is unavoidable and occurs from both intentional and unintentional sources. Many hormones, neurotransmitters, and waste products of cellular metabolism, or their metabolites, are organic anions. The same is true for a wide variety of medications, herbicides, pesticides, plant and animal toxins, and industrial chemicals and solvents. Rapid and efficient elimination of these substances is often the body's best defense for limiting both systemic exposure and the duration of their pharmacological or toxicological effects. For organic anions, active transepithelial transport across the renal proximal tubule followed by elimination via the urine is a major pathway in this detoxification process. Accordingly, a large number of organic anion transport proteins belonging to several different gene families have been identified and found to be expressed in the proximal nephron. The function of these transporters, in combination with the high volume of renal blood flow, predisposes the kidney to increased toxic susceptibility. Understanding how the kidney mediates the transport of organic anions is integral to achieving desired therapeutic outcomes in response to drug interactions and chemical exposures, to understanding the progression of some disease states, and to predicting the influence of genetic variation upon these processes. This review will focus on the organic anion transporter (OAT) family and discuss the known members, their mechanisms of action, subcellular localization, and current evidence implicating their function as a determinant of the toxicity of certain endogenous and xenobiotic agents.

  3. BCL2DB: database of BCL-2 family members and BH3-only proteins

    PubMed Central

    Rech de Laval, Valentine; Deléage, Gilbert; Aouacheria, Abdel; Combet, Christophe

    2014-01-01

    BCL2DB (http://bcl2db.ibcp.fr) is a database designed to integrate data on BCL-2 family members and BH3-only proteins. These proteins control the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway and probably many other cellular processes as well. This large protein group is formed by a family of pro-apoptotic and anti-apoptotic homologs that have phylogenetic relationships with BCL-2, and by a collection of evolutionarily and structurally unrelated proteins characterized by the presence of a region of local sequence similarity with BCL-2, termed the BH3 motif. BCL2DB is monthly built, thanks to an automated procedure relying on a set of homemade profile HMMs computed from seed reference sequences representative of the various BCL-2 homologs and BH3-only proteins. The BCL2DB entries integrate data from the Ensembl, Ensembl Genomes, European Nucleotide Archive and Protein Data Bank databases and are enriched with specific information like protein classification into orthology groups and distribution of BH motifs along the sequences. The Web interface allows for easy browsing of the site and fast access to data, as well as sequence analysis with generic and specific tools. BCL2DB provides a helpful and powerful tool to both ‘BCL-2-ologists’ and researchers working in the various fields of physiopathology. Database URL: http://bcl2db.ibcp.fr PMID:24608034

  4. Structure and T-cell inhibition properties of B7 family member, B7-H3

    PubMed Central

    Vigdorovich, Vladimir; Ramagopal, Udupi A.; Lázár-Molnár, Eszter; Sylvestre, Eliezer; Lee, Jun Sik; Hofmeyer, Kimberly A.; Zang, Xingxing; Nathenson, Stanley G.; Almo, Steven C.

    2013-01-01

    Summary T-cell activity is controlled by a combination of antigen-dependent signaling through the T-cell receptor and a set of auxiliary signals delivered through antigen-independent interactions, including the recognition of the B7 family of ligands. B7-H3 is a recently identified B7 family member that is strongly overexpressed in a range of cancers and correlates with poor prognosis. We report the crystal structure of murine B7-H3 at a 3-Å resolution, which provides a model for the organization of the IgV and IgC domains within the ectodomain. We demonstrate that B7-H3 inhibits T-cell proliferation and show that the FG loop of the IgV domain plays a critical role in this function. B7-H3 crystallized as an unusual dimer arising from the exchange of the G strands in the IgV domains of partner molecules. This arrangement, in combination with previous reports, highlights the dynamic nature and plasticity of the immunoglobulin fold. PMID:23583036

  5. Complete sequence of Fig fleck-associated virus, a novel member of the family Tymoviridae.

    PubMed

    Elbeaino, Toufic; Digiaro, Michele; Martelli, Giovanni P

    2011-11-01

    The complete nucleotide sequence and the genome organization were determined of a novel virus, tentatively named Fig fleck-associated virus (FFkaV). The viral genome is a positive-sense, single-stranded RNA 7046 nucleotides in size excluding the 3'-terminal poly(A) tract, and comprising two open reading frames. ORF1 encodes a polypeptide of 2161 amino acids (p240), which contains the signatures of replication-associated proteins and the coat protein cistron (p24) at its 3' end. ORF2 codes for a 461 amino acid protein (p50) identified as a putative movement proteins (MP). In phylogenetic trees constructed with sequences of the putative polymerase and CP proteins FFkaV consistently groups with members of the genus Maculavirus, family Tymoviridae. However, the genome organization diverges from that of the two completely sequenced maculaviruses, Grapevine fleck virus (GFkV) and Bombix mori Macula-like virus (BmMLV), as it exhibits a structure resembling that of Maize rayado fino virus (MRFV), the type species of the genus Marafivirus and of Olive latent virus 3 (OLV-3), an unclassified virus in the family Tymoviridae. FFkaV was found in field-grown figs from six Mediterranean countries with an incidence ranging from 15% to 25%.

  6. Members of the chloride intracellular ion channel protein family demonstrate glutaredoxin-like enzymatic activity.

    PubMed

    Al Khamici, Heba; Brown, Louise J; Hossain, Khondker R; Hudson, Amanda L; Sinclair-Burton, Alxcia A; Ng, Jane Phui Mun; Daniel, Elizabeth L; Hare, Joanna E; Cornell, Bruce A; Curmi, Paul M G; Davey, Mary W; Valenzuela, Stella M

    2015-01-01

    The Chloride Intracellular Ion Channel (CLIC) family consists of six evolutionarily conserved proteins in humans. Members of this family are unusual, existing as both monomeric soluble proteins and as integral membrane proteins where they function as chloride selective ion channels, however no function has previously been assigned to their soluble form. Structural studies have shown that in the soluble form, CLIC proteins adopt a glutathione S-transferase (GST) fold, however, they have an active site with a conserved glutaredoxin monothiol motif, similar to the omega class GSTs. We demonstrate that CLIC proteins have glutaredoxin-like glutathione-dependent oxidoreductase enzymatic activity. CLICs 1, 2 and 4 demonstrate typical glutaredoxin-like activity using 2-hydroxyethyl disulfide as a substrate. Mutagenesis experiments identify cysteine 24 as the catalytic cysteine residue in CLIC1, which is consistent with its structure. CLIC1 was shown to reduce sodium selenite and dehydroascorbate in a glutathione-dependent manner. Previous electrophysiological studies have shown that the drugs IAA-94 and A9C specifically block CLIC channel activity. These same compounds inhibit CLIC1 oxidoreductase activity. This work for the first time assigns a functional activity to the soluble form of the CLIC proteins. Our results demonstrate that the soluble form of the CLIC proteins has an enzymatic activity that is distinct from the channel activity of their integral membrane form. This CLIC enzymatic activity may be important for protecting the intracellular environment against oxidation. It is also likely that this enzymatic activity regulates the CLIC ion channel function.

  7. Characterization of a novel member of the FGF family, XFGF-20, in Xenopus laevis.

    PubMed

    Koga, C; Adati, N; Nakata, K; Mikoshiba, K; Furuhata, Y; Sato, S; Tei, H; Sakaki, Y; Kurokawa, T; Shiokawa, K; Yokoyama, K K

    1999-08-11

    The cDNA for a novel member of the FGF family (XFGF-20) was isolated from a Xenopus cDNA library prepared at the tailbud stage using as a probe the product of degenerate PCR performed with primers based on mammalian FGF-9s. This cDNA was 1860 bp long, and contained a single open reading frame that encoded 208 amino acid residues. The deduced amino acid sequence contained a motif characteristic of the FGF family and it was similar (73.1% overall homology) to XFGF-9 but differed from XFGF-9 in its amino-terminal region (33.3% homology). XFGF-20 mRNA was expressed only zygotically in embryos at and after the blastula stage, but it was also specifically expressed in the stomach and testis of adults. By contrast, XFGF-9 mRNA was expressed maternally in eggs and in many adult tissues. When XFGF-20 mRNA was overexpressed in early embryos, gastrulation was abnormal and development of anterior structures was suppressed. In such embryos, the expression of the Xbra transcript was suppressed during gastrulation while the expression of the transcripts of cerberus, Siamois, dkk-1, chordin, and Xotx-2 genes was normal. These results suggest that correct expression of XFGF-20 during gastrulation is required for the formation of normal head structures in Xenopus laevis during embryogenesis and that expression of the Xbra gene mediates this phenomenon.

  8. Expressed emotion and interdependence in White and Latino/Hispanic family members of patients with schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Weisman d Mamani, Amy G.; Kymalainen, Jennifer A.; Rosales, Grace A.; Armesto, Jorge C.

    2007-01-01

    This study examined associations among ethnicity, expressed emotion (EE) and interdependence in a sample of 41 Latino/Hispanic and White family members of patients with schizophrenia. EE was assessed using both the Camberwell Family Interview (CFI) and the Five Minute Speech sample (FMSS). These measures were found to be highly concordant for rating EE. However, the CFI appears to identify high EE more often than does the FMSS. Whites were designated as high EE significantly more often than were Latinos/Hispanics, regardless of assessment method. Using the interdependence subscale of the Self Construal Scale, we found a strong trend for Latino/Hispanics to report a more interdependent self-construal than did Whites. However, contrary to expectations, interdependence was not found to mediate the relationship between ethnicity and EE. EE and interdependence may both play a role in the better course of illness observed for patients from traditional cultures. However, these two constructs may relate to patient functioning through different mechanisms. PMID:17391775

  9. Two zebrafish eIF4E family members are differentially expressed and functionally divergent.

    PubMed

    Robalino, Javier; Joshi, Bhavesh; Fahrenkrug, Scott C; Jagus, Rosemary

    2004-03-12

    Eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E (eIF4E) is an essential component of the translational machinery that binds m(7)GTP and mediates the recruitment of capped mRNAs by the small ribosomal subunit. Recently, a number of proteins with homology to eIF4E have been reported in plants, invertebrates, and mammals. Together with the prototypical translation factor, these constitute a new family of structurally related proteins. To distinguish the prototypical translation factor eIF4E from other family members, it has been termed eIF4E-1 (Keiper, B. D., Lamphear, B. J., Deshpande, A. M., Jankowska-Anyszka, M., Aamodt, E. J., Blumenthal, T., and Rhoads, R. E. (2000) J. Biol. Chem. 275, 10590-10596). We describe the characterization of two eIF4E family members in the zebrafish Danio rerio. Based on their relative identities with human eIF4E-1, these zebrafish proteins are termed eIF4E-1A (82%) and eIF4E-1B (66%). eIF4E-1B, originally termed eIF4E(L), has been reported previously as the zebrafish eIF4E-1 counterpart (Fahrenkrug, S. C., Dahlquist, M. O., Clark, K., and Hackett, P. B. (1999) Differentiation 65, 191-201; Fahrenkrug, S. C., Joshi, B., Hackett, P. B., and Jagus, R. (2000) Differentiation 66, 15-22). Sequence comparisons suggest that the two genes probably evolved from a duplication event that occurred during vertebrate evolution. eIF4E-1A is expressed ubiquitously in zebrafish, whereas expression of eIF4E-1B is restricted to early embryonic development and to gonads and muscle of the tissues investigated. The ability of these two zebrafish proteins to bind m(7)GTP, eIF4G, and 4E-BP, as well as to complement yeast conditionally deficient in functional eIF4E, show that eIF4E-1A is a functional equivalent of human eIF4E-1. Surprisingly, although eIF4E-1B possesses all known residues thought to be required for interaction with the cap structure, eIF4G, and 4E-BPs, it fails to interact with any of these components, suggesting that this protein serves a role

  10. Zebrafish tenascin-W, a new member of the tenascin family.

    PubMed

    Weber, P; Montag, D; Schachner, M; Bernhardt, R R

    1998-04-01

    A cDNA clone encoding tenascin-W, a novel member of the tenascin family, was isolated from a 20- to 28-h postfertilization (hpf) zebrafish cDNA library on the basis of the conserved epidermal growth factor-like domains represented in all tenascin molecules. An open reading frame of 2796 base pairs encodes a mature protein consisting of heptad repeats, a cysteine-rich amino terminal region, 3.5 epidermal growth factor-like repeats, five fibronectin type III homologous repeats, and a domain homologous to fibrinogen. These domains are the typical modular elements of molecules of the tenascin family. Sequence comparison demonstrated that TN-W shares homologies with the members of the tenascin family but is not a species homolog of any identified tenascin. The expression pattern of tn-w was analyzed by in situ hybridization in 1-day-old embryos, in 3-day-old larvae, and in juvenile zebrafish. At 24-25 hpf, tn-w mRNA was expressed in the lateral plate mesoderm, most conspicuously in the presumptive sclerotome. Migrating cells of sclerotomal and neural crest origins also showed high levels of expression. At 3 days, expression by sclerotomal and neural crest cells continued to be observed while expression in the somitic mesoderm was decreased. In juvenile fish, tn-w was expressed weakly by cells in the myosepta and, more strongly, by presumably nonneuronal cells in the dorsal root ganglia. In these tissues and at the same developmental stages, the expression of tn-w partially overlapped with the distribution of tn-c mRNA. In addition, tn-c was expressed in the central nervous system (CNS) and in the axial mesoderm, neither of which expressed tn-w at any of the age stages examined. The expression pattern of tn-w suggests an involvement in neural crest and sclerotome cell migration and in the formation of the skeleton. Similar and possibly overlapping functions could also be performed by tn-c, which appears to have additional functions during the development of the CNS.

  11. Targeted disruption of the CP2 gene, a member of the NTF family of transcription factors.

    PubMed

    Ramamurthy, L; Barbour, V; Tuckfield, A; Clouston, D R; Topham, D; Cunningham, J M; Jane, S M

    2001-03-16

    The NTF-like family of transcription factors have been implicated in developmental regulation in organisms as diverse as Drosophila and man. The two mammalian members of this family, CP2 (LBP-1c/LSF) and LBP-1a (NF2d9), are highly related proteins sharing an overall amino acid identity of 72%. CP2, the best characterized of these factors, is a ubiquitously expressed 66-kDa protein that binds the regulatory regions of many diverse genes. Consequently, a role for CP2 has been proposed in globin gene expression, T-cell responses to mitogenic stimulation, and several other cellular processes. To elucidate the in vivo role of CP2, we have generated mice nullizygous for the CP2 allele. These animals were born in a normal Mendelian distribution and displayed no defects in growth, behavior, fertility, or development. Specifically, no perturbation of hematopoietic differentiation, globin gene expression, or immunological responses to T- and B-cell mitogenic stimulation was observed. RNA and protein analysis confirmed that the nullizygous mice expressed no full-length or truncated version of CP2. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays with nuclear extracts from multiple tissues demonstrated loss of CP2 DNA binding activity in the -/- lines. However, a slower migrating complex that was ablated with antiserum to NF2d9, the murine homologue of LBP-1a, was observed with these extracts. Furthermore, we demonstrate that recombinant LBP-1a can bind to known CP2 consensus sites and form protein complexes with previously defined heteromeric partners of CP2. These results suggest that LBP-1a/NF2d9 may compensate for loss of CP2 expression in vivo and that further analysis of the role of the NTF family of proteins requires the targeting of the NF2d9 gene.

  12. A Randomized Clinical Trial of a Postdeployment Parenting Intervention for Service Members and Their Families With Very Young Children.

    PubMed

    DeVoe, Ellen R; Paris, Ruth; Emmert-Aronson, Ben; Ross, Abigail; Acker, Michelle

    2016-10-06

    Objective: Parenting through the deployment cycle presents unique stressors for military families. To date, few evidence-based and military-specific parenting programs are available to support parenting through cycles of deployment separation and reintegration, especially for National Guard/Reserve members. The purpose of this research was to test the efficacy of a parenting program developed specifically to support military families during reintegration. Method: Within 1 year of returning from deployment to Afghanistan or Iraq, 115 service members with very young children were randomly assigned to receive either the Strong Families Strong Forces Parenting Program at baseline or after a 12-week waiting period. Using a home-based modality, service members, at-home parents, and their young child were assessed at baseline, 3 months posttreatment/wait period, and 6 months from baseline. Results: Service member parents in Strong Families evidenced greater reductions in parenting stress and mental health distress relative to those in the waitlist comparison group. Service members with more posttraumatic stress symptoms reported higher levels of perceived parental efficacy in the intervention group than service members in the comparison group. Intervention also resulted in enhanced parental reflective capacity, including increased curiosity and interest in the young child among those in the intervention group relative to comparison. Conclusion: Service member parents and their spouses demonstrated high interest in participating in a postdeployment parenting program targeting families with very young children. Findings point to the feasibility, appeal, and efficacy of Strong Families in this initial trial and suggest promise for implementation in broader military and community service systems. (PsycINFO Database Record

  13. Interprofessional collaboration and family member involvement in intensive care units: emerging themes from a multi-sited ethnography.

    PubMed

    Reeves, Scott; McMillan, Sarah E; Kachan, Natasha; Paradis, Elise; Leslie, Myles; Kitto, Simon

    2015-05-01

    This article presents emerging findings from the first year of a two-year study, which employed ethnographic methods to explore the culture of interprofessional collaboration (IPC) and family member involvement in eight North American intensive care units (ICUs). The study utilized a comparative ethnographic approach - gathering observation, interview and documentary data relating to the behaviors and attitudes of healthcare providers and family members across several sites. In total, 504 hours of ICU-based observational data were gathered over a 12-month period in four ICUs based in two US cities. In addition, 56 semi-structured interviews were undertaken with a range of ICU staff (e.g. nurses, doctors and pharmacists) and family members. Documentary data (e.g. clinical guidelines and unit policies) were also collected to help develop an insight into how the different sites engaged organizationally with IPC and family member involvement. Directed content analysis enabled the identification and categorization of major themes within the data. An interprofessional conceptual framework was utilized to help frame the coding for the analysis. The preliminary findings presented in this paper illuminate a number of issues related to the nature of IPC and family member involvement within an ICU context. These findings are discussed in relation to the wider interprofessional and health services literature.

  14. A novel homozygous mutation in the solute carrier family 12 member 3 gene in a Chinese family with Gitelman syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Y.; Zhang, F.; Chen, D.; Lü, Q.; Tang, L.; Yang, C.; Lei, M.; Tong, N.

    2016-01-01

    Loss of function of mutated solute carrier family 12 member 3 (SLC12A3) gene is the most frequent etiology for Gitelman syndrome (GS), which is mainly manifested by hypokalemia, hypomagnesemia and hypocalciuria. We report the genetic characteristics of one suspicious Chinese GS pedigree by gene sequencing. Complete sequencing analysis of the SLC12A3 gene revealed that both the proband and his elder sister had a novel homozygous SLC12A3 mutation: c.2099T>C and p.Leu700Pro. Moreover, the SLC12A3 genes of his mother and daughter encoded the same mutated heterozygote. It was noted that in this pedigree, only the proband complained about recurrent episodes of bilateral lower limb weakness over 8 years, while his elder sister, mother and daughter did not present symptoms. The inconsistent clinical features of this pedigree implied that besides diverse phenotypes possibly originated from the same genotype, gender difference may also dominate the variant GS phenotypes. Further genetic and proteomic research are needed to investigate the precise mechanisms of GS, including the study of specific ethnicities. PMID:27783806

  15. Long-term outcomes of war-related death of family members in Kosovar civilian war survivors.

    PubMed

    Morina, Nexhmedin; Reschke, Konrad; Hofmann, Stefan G

    2011-04-01

    Exposure to war-related experiences can comprise a broad variety of experiences and the very nature of certain war-related events has generally been neglected. To examine the long-term outcomes of war-related death of family members, the authors investigated the prevalence rates of major depressive episode (MDE), anxiety disorders, and quality of life among civilian war survivors with or without war-related death of first-degree family members 9 years after the war in Kosovo. Compared to participants without war-related death of family members, those who had experienced such loss had signficantly higher prevalence rates of MDE, posttraumatic stress disorder, and generalized anxiety disorder, and reported a lower quality of life 9 years after the war. These results indicate that bereaved civilian survivors of war experience significant mental health problems many years after the war.

  16. Comparative expression analysis of cysteine-rich intestinal protein family members crip1, 2 and 3 during Xenopus laevis embryogenesis.

    PubMed

    Hempel, Annemarie; Kühl, Susanne J

    2014-01-01

    Members of the cysteine-rich intestinal protein (Crip) family belong to the group 2 LIM proteins. Crip proteins are widely expressed in adult mammals but their expression profile and function during embryonic development are still mostly unknown. In this study, we have described for the first time the spatio-temporal expression pattern of the three family members crip1, crip2 and crip3 during Xenopus laevis embryogenesis by RT-PCR and whole mount in situ hybridization approaches. We observed that all three genes are expressed in the pronephros, branchial arches and the eye. Furthermore, crip1 transcripts could be visualized in the developing cranial ganglia and neural tube. In contrast, crip2 could be detected in the cardiovascular system, the brain and the neural tube while crip3 was expressed in the cranial ganglions and the heart. Based on these findings, we suggest that each crip family member may play an important role during embryonic development.

  17. Members of the evolutionarily conserved PMT family of protein O-mannosyltransferases form distinct protein complexes among themselves.

    PubMed

    Girrbach, Verena; Strahl, Sabine

    2003-04-04

    Protein O-mannosyltransferases (PMTs) initiate the assembly of O-mannosyl glycans, an essential protein modification. Since PMTs are evolutionarily conserved in fungi but are absent in green plants, the PMT family is a putative target for new antifungal drugs, particularly in fighting the threat of phytopathogenic fungi. The PMT family is phylogenetically classified into PMT1, PMT2, and PMT4 subfamilies, which differ in protein substrate specificity. In the model organism Saccharomyces cerevisiae as well as in many other fungi the PMT family is highly redundant, and only the simultaneous deletion of PMT1/PMT2 and PMT4 subfamily members is lethal. In this study we analyzed the molecular organization of PMT family members in S. cerevisiae. We show that members of the PMT1 subfamily (Pmt1p and Pmt5p) interact in pairs with members of the PMT2 subfamily (Pmt2p and Pmt3p) and that Pmt1p-Pmt2p and Pmt5p-Pmt3p complexes represent the predominant forms. Under certain physiological conditions, however, Pmt1p interacts also with Pmt3p, and Pmt5p with Pmt2p, suggesting a compensatory cooperation that guarantees the maintenance of O-mannosylation. Unlike the PMT1/PMT2 subfamily members, the single member of the PMT4 subfamily (Pmt4p) acts as a homomeric complex. Using mutational analyses we demonstrate that the same conserved protein domains underlie both heteromeric and homomeric interactions, and we identify an invariant arginine residue of transmembrane domain two as essential for the formation and/or stability of PMT complexes in general. Our data suggest that protein-protein interactions between the PMT family members offer a point of attack to shut down overall protein O-mannosylation in fungi.

  18. Extensimonas vulgaris gen. nov., sp. nov., a member of the family Comamonadaceae.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei-Yan; Fang, Ming-Xu; Zhang, Wen-Wu; Xiao, Chuan; Zhang, Xin-Qi; Yu, Zhi-Ping; Zhu, Xu-Fen; Wu, Min

    2013-06-01

    A novel strain, named S4(T), was obtained from industrial wastewater in Xiaoshan, Zhejiang Province, China. Cells were Gram-negative, neutrophilic and non-spore-forming and moved by means of a polar flagellum. Normal cells were 0.8-0.9 × 1.3-1.9 µm and the cells elongated to 10-25 µm when cultivated at high temperatures. Strain S4(T) grew at 15-50 °C (optimum at 48 °C), pH 5.5-8.5 (optimum 7.0-7.5) and 0-2% (optimum 0.5%) (w/v) NaCl. Ubiquinone-8 was the predominant respiratory quinone. C16:0, summed feature 3 (C16:1ω7c and/or iso-C15:0 2-OH) and C17:0 cyclo were the major cellular fatty acids. The major 3-OH fatty acid was C10:0 3-OH. The major polar lipids were phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol, diphosphatidylglycerol and an unknown aminoglycolipid. The genomic DNA G+C content was 68.8 mol%. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequences alignment, the most closely related strains were members of the genera Comamonas (94.6-95.6% similarities), Giesbergeria (94.9-95.6%), Acidovorax (94.8-95.4%), Brachymonas (94.1-95.2%) and Macromonas (95.1%). Phylogenetic analysis showed the closest relatives of strain S4(T) were members of the genus Macromonas. Based on phenotypic and phylogenetic characteristics, we suggest that strain S4(T) represents a novel species of a new genus of the family Comamonadaceae, for which the name Extensimonas vulgaris gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of Extensimonas vulgaris is S4(T) (=CGMCC 1.10977(T)=JCM 17803(T)).

  19. Entamoeba histolytica: a unicellular organism containing two active genes encoding for members of the TBP family.

    PubMed

    Castañon-Sanchez, Carlos Alberto; Luna-Arias, Juan Pedro; de Dios-Bravo, Ma Guadalupe; Herrera-Aguirre, Maria Esther; Olivares-Trejo, Jose J; Orozco, Esther; Hernandez, Jose Manuel

    2010-03-01

    Entamoeba histolytica is the protozoan parasite which causes human amoebiasis. In this parasite, few encoding genes for transcription factors have been cloned and characterized. The E. histolytica TATA-box binding protein (EhTBP) is the first basal transcription factor that has been studied. To continue with the identification of other members of the basal transcription machinery, we performed an in silico analysis of the E. histolytica genome and found three loci encoding for polypeptides with similarity to EhTBP. One locus has a 100% identity to the previously Ehtbp gene reported by our group. The second locus encodes for a 212 aa polypeptide that is 100% identical to residues 23-234 from EhTBP. The third one encodes for a 216 aa polypeptide of 24kDa that showed 42.6% identity and 73.7% similarity to EhTBP. This protein was named E. histolytica TBP-related factor 1 (EhTRF1). Ehtrf1 gene was expressed in bacteria and the purified 28kDa recombinant polypeptide showed the capacity to bind to TATTTAAA-box by electrophoretic mobility shift assays. K(D) values for rEhTBP and rEhTRF1 were (1.71+/-2.90)x10(-12)M and (1.12+/-0.160)x10(-11)M, respectively. Homology modeling of EhTRF1 and EhTBP revealed that, although they were very similar, they showed some differences on their surfaces. Thus, E. histolytica is a unicellular organism having two members of the TBP family.

  20. Pediatric Positive Airway Pressure Adherence in Obstructive Sleep Apnea Enhanced by Family Member Positive Airway Pressure Usage

    PubMed Central

    Puri, Pooja; Ross, Kristie R.; Mehra, Reena; Spilsbury, James C.; Li, Hong; Levers-Landis, Carolyn E.; Rosen, Carol L.

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: Adherence to positive airway pressure (PAP) therapy for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) remains a challenge in children. We hypothesized that the presence of another family member on PAP therapy (parent, sibling, other family member) would be associated with better adherence in the child. Methods: We conducted a retrospective chart review to identify children < 18 years of age who had a new diagnosis of OSA between Jan 2011 and May 2013. Outcomes were objective PAP adherence at 1 week, 1 month, and 3 months. Potential predictors included family member on PAP therapy, patient demographics, and clinical characteristics. Group differences between children with and without a family member on PAP therapy were determined using χ2 test and Wilcoxon two-sample test. PAP adherence measures at each time point and patterns of change across time between the two groups were examined using mixed-effects models. Results: The final analytic sample included 56 children: age 13.2 ± 3.7 years, 60% male, 67% African American, 65% obese, and 32% with developmental disabilities. The mean obstructive apnea-hypopnea index was 25.2 ± 28.7, and 19 (33%) had a family member on PAP therapy. Overall PAP adherence was 2.8 ± 2.4 h/night at 3 months. At month 3, the group with a family member on PAP therapy had significantly greater average nightly PAP use on all nights (3.6 ± 0.6 vs. 2.3 ± 0.39) and on nights used (4.8 ± 0.6 vs. 3.8 ± 0.40); (p value = 0.04). Conclusions: Overall PAP adherence was low, but having a family member on PAP therapy as a “role model” was associated with better adherence. Commentary: A commentary on this article appears in this issue on page 941. Citation: Puri P, Ross KR, Mehra R, Spilsbury JC, Li H, Levers-Landis CE, Rosen CL. Pediatric positive airway pressure adherence in obstructive sleep apnea enhanced by family member positive airway pressure usage. J Clin Sleep Med 2016;12(7):959–963. PMID:27092699

  1. Financial abuse of older people by a family member: a difficult terrain for service providers in Australia.

    PubMed

    Adams, Valerie Margaret; Bagshaw, Dale; Wendt, Sarah; Zannettino, Lana

    2014-01-01

    Financial abuse by a family member is the most common form of abuse experienced by older Australians, and early intervention is required. National online surveys of 228 chief executive officers and 214 aged care service providers found that, while they were well placed to recognize financial abuse, it was often difficult to intervene successfully. Problems providers encountered included difficulties in detecting abuse, the need for consent before they could take action, the risk that the abusive family member would withdraw the client from the service, and a lack of resources to deal with the complexities inherent in situations of financial abuse.

  2. Modulation of myosin filament organization by C-protein family members.

    PubMed

    Seiler, S H; Fischman, D A; Leinwand, L A

    1996-01-01

    We have analyzed the interactions between two types of sarcomeric proteins: myosin heavy chain (MyHC) and members of an abundant thick filament-associated protein family (myosin-binding protein; MyBP). Previous work has demonstrated that when MyHC is transiently transfected into mammalian nonmuscle COS cells, the expressed protein forms spindle-shaped structures consisting of bundles of myosin thick filaments. Co-expression of MyHC and MyBP-C or -H modulates the MyHC structures, resulting in dramatically longer cables consisting of myosin and MyBP encircling the nucleus. Immunoelectron microscopy indicates that these cable structures are more uniform in diameter than the spindle structures consisting solely of MyHC, and that the myosin filaments are compacted in the presence of MyBP. Deletion analysis of MyBP-H indicates that cable formation is dependent on the carboxy terminal 24 amino acids. Neither the MyHC spindles nor the MyHC/MyBP cables associate with the endogenous actin cytoskeleton of the COS cell. While there is no apparent co-localization between these structures and the microtubule network, colchicine treatment of the cells promotes the formation of longer assemblages, suggesting that cytoskeletal architecture may physically impede or regulate polymer formation/extension. The data presented here contribute to a greater understanding of the interactions between the MyBP family and MyHC, and provide additional evidence for functional homology between MyBP-C and MyBP-H.

  3. Comparative analysis of three hyperthermophilic GH1 and GH3 family members with industrial potential.

    PubMed

    Cota, Junio; Corrêa, Thamy L R; Damásio, André R L; Diogo, José A; Hoffmam, Zaira B; Garcia, Wanius; Oliveira, Leandro C; Prade, Rolf A; Squina, Fabio M

    2015-01-25

    Beta-glucosidases (BGLs) are enzymes of great potential for several industrial processes, since they catalyze the cleavage of glucosidic bonds in cellobiose and other short cellooligosaccharides. However, features such as good stability to temperature, pH, ions and chemicals are required characteristics for industrial applications. This work aimed to provide a comparative biochemical analysis of three thermostable BGLs from Pyrococcus furiosus and Thermotoga petrophila. The genes PfBgl1 (GH1 from P. furiosus), TpBgl1 (GH1 from T. petrophila) and TpBgl3 (GH3 from T. petrophila) were cloned and proteins were expressed in Escherichia coli. The purified enzymes are hyperthermophilic, showing highest activity at temperatures above 80°C at acidic (TpBgl3 and PfBgl1) and neutral (TpBgl1) pHs. The BGLs showed greatest stability to temperature mainly at pH 6.0. Activities using a set of different substrates suggested that TpBgl3 (GH3) is more specific than GH1 family members. In addition, the influence of six monosaccharides on BGL catalysis was assayed. While PfBgl1 and TpBgl3 seemed to be weakly inhibited by monosaccharides, TpBgl1 was activated, with xylose showing the strongest activation. Under the conditions tested, TpBgl1 showed the highest inhibition constant (Ki=1100.00mM) when compared with several BGLs previously characterized. The BGLs studied have potential for industrial use, specifically the enzymes belonging to the GH1 family, due to its broad substrate specificity and weak inhibition by glucose and other saccharides.

  4. Prevalence and Frequency of Problems of Concerned Family Members with a Substance Using Loved One

    PubMed Central

    Benishek, Lois A.; Kirby, Kimberly C.; Dugosh, Karen Leggett

    2011-01-01

    Background Limited research has examined the prevalence and frequency of specific problems of concerned family members and significant others (CSOs) of alcohol or substance using individuals (SUIs). Objectives We surveyed CSOs of SUIs to determine the prevalence and frequency of their problems and explored whether relationship to the SUI, gender of the CSO, or living arrangements altered problem prevalence and frequency. Method Non-substance using CSOs (N = 110) completed the Significant Other Survey, which asks about problems in seven domains (emotional; family; relationship; financial; health; violence; legal). Problem outcomes were compared based on the CSO’s relationship to the SUI (partner or spouse vs. parent), gender of the CSO (male vs. female), and living arrangements of the CSO and SUI (residing together vs. residing apart). Results Problems were prevalent with at least two-thirds of the participants endorsing one or more problems in all but the legal domain. They also occurred frequently, with CSOs reporting problems on one-third to one-half of the past 30 days, in all but the violence and legal domains. Problems tended to be greater for CSOs who were partners, females, or living with the SUI. Conclusion CSOs experience frequent problems in a wide range of life domains and the types of difficulties they experience appear to differ based on type of relationship, gender, and their living arrangement relative to the SUI. Scientific Significance This investigation expands our understanding of the specific problems that CSOs face. The findings have important implications for treatment and health policy regarding these individuals. PMID:21219255

  5. Rubrivirga marina gen. nov., sp. nov., a member of the family Rhodothermaceae isolated from deep seawater.

    PubMed

    Park, Sanghwa; Song, Jaeho; Yoshizawa, Susumu; Choi, Ahyoung; Cho, Jang-Cheon; Kogure, Kazuhiro

    2013-06-01

    Two aerobic, Gram-stain-negative, pale-red-pigmented and rod-shaped bacterial strains, designated SAORIC-26 and SAORIC-28(T), were isolated from seawater (3000 m depth) from the Pacific Ocean. Phylogenetic analysis based on their 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that the novel isolates could be affiliated with the family Rhodothermaceae of the class Cytophagia. Strains SAORIC-26 and SAORIC-28(T) shared 99.7% pairwise sequence similarity with each other and showed less than 92.6% similarity with other cultivated members of the class Cytophagia. The strains were found to be non-motile, oxidase-positive, catalase-negative and able to hydrolyse gelatin and aesculin. The DNA G+C contents were determined to be 64.8-65.8 mol% and MK-7 was the predominant menaquinone. Summed feature 9 (iso-C17:1ω9c and/or C16:0 10-methyl), summed feature 3 (C16:1ω6c and/or C16:1ω7c) and iso-C15:0 were found to be the major cellular fatty acids. On the basis of this taxonomic study using a polyphasic approach, it was concluded that strains SAORIC-26 and SAORIC-28(T) represent a novel species of a new genus in the family Rhodothermaceae, for which the name Rubrivirga marina gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of the type species of is SAORIC-28(T) (=KCTC 23867(T)=NBRC 108816(T)). An additional strain of the species is SAORIC-26.

  6. Identification and Characterization of Genetically Divergent Members of the Newly Established Family Mesoniviridae

    PubMed Central

    Zirkel, Florian; Roth, Hanna; Kurth, Andreas; Drosten, Christian; Ziebuhr, John

    2013-01-01

    The recently established family Mesoniviridae (order Nidovirales) contains a single species represented by two closely related viruses, Cavally virus (CavV) and Nam Dinh virus (NDiV), which were isolated from mosquitoes collected in Côte d'Ivoire and Vietnam, respectively. They represent the first nidoviruses to be discovered in insects. Here, we report the molecular characterization of four novel mesoniviruses, Hana virus, Méno virus, Nsé virus, and Moumo virus, all of which were identified in a geographical region in Côte d'Ivoire with high CavV prevalence. The viruses were found with prevalences between 0.5 and 2.8%, and genome sequence analyses and phylogenetic studies suggest that they represent at least three novel species. Electron microscopy revealed prominent club-shaped surface projections protruding from spherical, enveloped virions of about 120 nm. Northern blot data show that the four mesoniviruses analyzed in this study produce two major 3′-coterminal subgenomic mRNAs containing two types of 5′ leader sequences resulting from the use of different pairs of leader and body transcription-regulating sequences that are conserved among mesoniviruses. Protein sequencing, mass spectroscopy, and Western blot data show that mesonivirus particles contain eight major structural protein species, including the putative nucleocapsid protein (25 kDa), differentially glycosylated forms of the putative membrane protein (20, 19, 18, and 17 kDa), and the putative spike (S) protein (77 kDa), which is proteolytically cleaved at a conserved site to produce S protein subunits of 23 and 57 kDa. The data provide fundamental new insight into common and distinguishing biological properties of members of this newly identified virus family. PMID:23536661

  7. 41 CFR 303-70.403 - When a family member, residing with the employee, dies while in transit to or from the employee's...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false When a family member, residing with the employee, dies while in transit to or from the employee's duty station outside CONUS... Members § 303-70.403 When a family member, residing with the employee, dies while in transit to or...

  8. 41 CFR 303-70.403 - When a family member, residing with the employee, dies while in transit to or from the employee's...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false When a family member, residing with the employee, dies while in transit to or from the employee's duty station outside CONUS... Members § 303-70.403 When a family member, residing with the employee, dies while in transit to or...

  9. 41 CFR 303-70.403 - When a family member, residing with the employee, dies while in transit to or from the employee's...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true When a family member, residing with the employee, dies while in transit to or from the employee's duty station outside CONUS... Members § 303-70.403 When a family member, residing with the employee, dies while in transit to or...

  10. Development of a Simple and Rapid Fluorogenic Procedure for Identification of Vibrionaceae Family Members

    PubMed Central

    Richards, Gary P.; Watson, Michael A.; Parveen, Salina

    2005-01-01

    We describe a simple colony overlay procedure for peptidases (COPP) for the rapid fluorogenic detection and quantification of Vibrionaceae from seawater, shellfish, sewage, and clinical samples. The assay detects phosphoglucose isomerase with a lysyl aminopeptidase activity that is produced by Vibrionaceae family members. Overnight cultures are overlaid for 10 min with membranes containing a synthetic substrate, and the membranes are examined for fluorescent foci under UV illumination. Fluorescent foci were produced by all the Vibrionaceae tested, including Vibrio spp., Aeromonas spp., and Plesiomonas spp. Fluorescence was not produced by non-Vibrionaceae pathogens. Vibrio cholerae strains O1, O139, O22, and O155 were strongly positive. Seawater and oysters were assayed, and 87 of 93 (93.5%) of the positive isolates were identified biochemically as Vibrionaceae, principally Vibrio vulnificus, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Aeromonas hydrophila, Photobacterium damselae, and Shewanella putrefaciens. None of 50 nonfluorescent isolates were Vibrionaceae. No Vibrionaceae were detected in soil, and only A. hydrophila was detected in sewage. The COPP technique may be particularly valuable in environmental and food-testing laboratories and for monitoring water quality in the aquaculture industry. PMID:16000757

  11. Differential Expression of Two Novel Members of the Tomato Ethylene-Receptor Family

    PubMed Central

    Tieman, Denise M.; Klee, Harry J.

    1999-01-01

    The phytohormone ethylene regulates many aspects of plant growth, development, and environmental responses. Much of the developmental regulation of ethylene responses in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) occurs at the level of hormone sensitivity. In an effort to understand the regulation of ethylene responses, we isolated and characterized tomato genes with sequence similarity to the Arabidopsis ETR1 (ethylene response 1) ethylene receptor. Previously, we isolated three genes that exhibit high similarity to ETR1 and to each other. Here we report the isolation of two additional genes, LeETR4 and LeETR5, that are only 42% and 40% identical to ETR1, respectively. Although the amino acids known to be involved in ethylene binding are conserved, LeETR5 lacks the histidine within the kinase domain that is predicted to be phosphorylated. This suggests that histidine kinase activity is not necessary for an ethylene response, because mutated forms of both LeETR4 and LeETR5 confer dominant ethylene insensitivity in transgenic Arabidopsis plants. Expression analysis indicates that LeETR4 accounts for most of the putative ethylene-receptor mRNA present in reproductive tissues, but, like LeETR5, it is less abundant in vegetative tissues. Taken together, ethylene perception in tomato is potentially quite complex, with at least five structurally divergent, putative receptor family members exhibiting significant variation in expression levels throughout development. PMID:10318694

  12. Evaluation of modified R-B system for identification of members of the family Enterobacteriaceae.

    PubMed

    McIlroy, G T; Yu, P K; Martin, W J; Washington, J A

    1972-09-01

    In a paired, double-blind study, the modified ("Beckford tube") R-B system was compared with conventional bacteriological procedures for the identification of members of the family Enterobacteriaceae from clinical isolates and stock cultures. The tests in the R-B system yielding positive reactions comparable to those predicted by Ewing's taxonomic classification of Enterobacteriaceae were production of hydrogen sulfide and presence of lysine and ornithine decarboxylasè activities. The test reactions in the R-B system found to be comparable to those in the conventional method were fermentation of glucose, hydrogen sulfide production, and lysine and ornithine decarboxylase activities. The production of gas from glucose was positive in the R-B system more often than in the conventional method; however, the motility test and the production of indole were positive less often in the R-B system. Adequate preliminary identification of the Enterobacteriaceae with the R-B system is enhanced if Simmons' citrate and Christensen's urea tests are used concomitantly. These findings emphasize the manufacturer's instructions that, in interpretation of results, colonial morphology and biochemical reactions must be used concurrently to make an accurate identification.

  13. Parasutterella excrementihominis gen. nov., sp. nov., a member of the family Alcaligenaceae isolated from human faeces.

    PubMed

    Nagai, Fumiko; Morotomi, Masami; Sakon, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Ryuichiro

    2009-07-01

    A novel, strictly anaerobic, non-spore-forming, Gram-negative coccobacillus (strain YIT 11859(T)) was isolated from human faeces. Biochemically, this strain was largely unreactive and was asaccharolytic. Growth of strain YIT 11859(T) in peptone-yeast extract broth produced no visible turbidity, and a trace amount of propionate was detected as an end product of metabolism. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis showed that strain YIT 11859(T) was related most closely to the type strains of Sutterella species, with 90.8-88.0 % sequence similarity. Phylogenetic analysis of these and other related sequences confirmed that strain YIT 11859(T) was phylogenetically most closely associated with Sutterella species, but formed a separate cluster, indicating that strain YIT 11859(T) represents a novel member of the family Alcaligenaceae. Fatty acid analysis demonstrated the presence of a high concentration of C(18 : 1)omega9c (75 % of the total). The main respiratory quinones were menaquinone (MK-6) and methylated menaquinone (MMK-6). The G+C content of the DNA was 49.8 mol%. These results suggest that strain YIT 11859(T) represents a novel species of a new genus, for which the name Parasutterella excrementihominis gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of Parasutterella excrementihominis is YIT 11859(T) (=DSM 21040(T) =JCM 15078(T)).

  14. Concern about family members' drinking and cultural consistency: A Multi-Country GENACIS Study

    PubMed Central

    Ólafsdóttir, Hildigunnur; Raitasalo, Kirsimarja; Greenfield, Tom K.; Allamani, Allaman

    2009-01-01

    The data analysed come from the GENACIS project (Gender, Alcohol and Culture: an International Study) and involve population surveys for 18 countries (total N = 34,916) from five WHO Regions: African (Nigeria and Uganda); Americas (Argentina, Costa Rica, Uruguay and United States); European (Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, Germany, Hungary, Iceland, Spain, Sweden, and UK); South-East Asian (India, Sri Lanka); and Western Pacific (Japan). The paper studies gender and country differences in the relationship between social pressure to drink less experienced by individuals, considering seeking help for alcohol problems, and alcohol consumption and problem levels (AUDIT). In most countries for both men and women, informal control was applied most often by the spouse or partner, while reporting such controls from any source seemed more common in low- and middle-income countries. In all countries studied, men reported substantially more social control efforts than women. The hypothesis was not maintained that drinking control and help seeking was more common for heavier drinkers and those with more drinking-related harms. However, there appeared to be a relationship between a country's aggregate level of drinking and the extent to which social control efforts were reported. Higher correlations between drinking and problem levels on the one hand, and spouses' and other family members' concerns on the other, may be suggestive of a cultural consistency in societal responses to drinking and alcohol-related problems. PMID:20072722

  15. (Handicapped) caregiver: the social representations of family members about the caregiving process.

    PubMed

    de Azevedo, Gisele Regina; Santos, Vera Lúcia Conceição de Gouveia

    2006-01-01

    This study aimed to analyze what looking after physically disabled persons with spinal cord injury by trauma means to their caregivers and family members. The analysis of the testimony of eight caregivers, obtained in open interviews, which was methodologically based on the Social Representations Theory (SR), pointed out two main routes: coping with the suffering process in care practice and the troubled waters that permeate this suffering process. These two routes, characterized as SR Central Core and Peripheral System, respectively, consisted of themes like the way of looking at impairment, affectivity, religiosity, social-economical changes and (lack of) technical and institutional support. The results show a handicapped caregiver dedicated to look after someone who is physically disabled, considered incapacitated, and who leads his or her chores with distress and privations, based on guilt and religiosity, supported by ambiguous affection and affected by deteriorating social-economical changes and (lack of) technical and institutional support to practice an activity that implies so many peculiarities. The transformation alternatives of these caregivers' daily life principally lead to a symbiosis of disability with the patient - to live for the physically disabled - or yet, for a few, a sketch to restart personal life projects - to live with the physically disabled.

  16. Functional characterisation of the peroxiredoxin gene family members of Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942.

    PubMed

    Stork, Tina; Laxa, Miriam; Dietz, Marina S; Dietz, Karl-Josef

    2009-02-01

    The genome of Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942 encodes six peroxiredoxins (Prx). Single genes are present each for a 1-Cys Prx and a 2-Cys Prx, while four genes code for PrxQ-like proteins (prxQ-A1, -A2, -A3 and B). Their transcript accumulation varies with growth conditions in a gene-specific manner (Stork et al. in J Exp Bot 56:3193-3206, 2005). To address their functional properties, members of the prx gene family were produced as recombinant proteins and analysed for their peroxide detoxification capacity and quaternary structure by size exclusion chromatography. Independent of the reduction state, the 2-Cys Prx separated as oligomer, the 1-Cys Prx as dimer and the PrxQ-A1 as monomer. PrxQ-A2 was inactive in our assays, 1-Cys Prx activity was unaffected by addition of TrxA, while all others were stimulated to a variable extent by addition of E. coli thioredoxin. Sensitivity towards cumene hydroperoxide treatment of E. coli BL21 cells expressing the cyanobacterial PrxQ-A1 to A3 proteins was greatly reduced, while expression of the other Prx had no effect. The study shows differentiation of Prx functions in S. elongatus PCC 7942 which is discussed in relation to potential roles in site- and stress-specific defence.

  17. Nurses versus physicians' knowledge, attitude, and performance on care for the family members of dying patients

    PubMed Central

    Abdollahimohammad, Abdolghani; Firouzkouhi, Mohammadreza; Amrollahimishvan, Fatemeh; Alimohammadi, Nasrollah

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Nurses and physicians must be competent enough to provide care for the clients. As a lack of knowledge and a poor attitude result in a low performance of delivering care, this study aimed to explore the nurses versus physicians’ knowledge, attitude, and performance on care for the family members of dying patients (FMDPs). Methods: This descriptive study was conducted at the educational hospitals in Isfahan, Iran. The samples were 110 nurses and 110 physicians. The data were collected through a convenience sampling method and using a valid and reliable questionnaire. Results: The average knowledge, attitude, and performance on care for the FMDPs were not significantly different between nurses and physicians (p>0.05). The majority of nurses (55.4%) and physician (63.6%) were at a moderate and a fair level of knowledge of care for the FMDPs. Most of the nurses (81%) and physicians (87.3%) had a positive attitude towards caring the FMDPs. Most of the nurses (70%) and physicians (86.3%) had a moderate and fair performance. Conclusion: Having enough knowledge and skills, and a positive attitude are necessary for caring the FMDPs. Nurses’ and physicians' competencies must be improved through continuing educational programs and holding international and national conferences with a focus on the palliative care. PMID:26838571

  18. A Novel Member of GH16 Family Derived from Sugarcane Soil Metagenome.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, Thabata Maria; Liberato, Marcelo Vizoná; Cairo, João Paulo L Franco; Paixão, Douglas A A; Campos, Bruna M; Ferreira, Marcel R; Almeida, Rodrigo F; Pereira, Isabela O; Bernardes, Amanda; Ematsu, Gabriela C G; Chinaglia, Mariana; Polikarpov, Igor; de Oliveira Neto, Mario; Squina, Fabio Marcio

    2015-09-01

    Glycoside hydrolases (GHs) are enzymes found in all living kingdoms that are involved in multiple physiological functions. Due to their multiple enzymatic activities, GHs are broadly applied in bioethanol, food, and paper industry. In order to increase the productivity of these industrial processes, a constant search for novel and efficient enzymes has been proved to be necessary. In this context, metagenomics is a powerful approach to achieve this demand. In the current study, we describe the discovery and characterization of a novel member of GH16 family derived from the sugarcane soil metagenome. The enzyme, named SCLam, has 286 amino acid residues and displays sequence homology and activity properties that resemble known laminarases. SCLam is active against barley beta-glucan, laminarin, and lichenan (72, 33, and 10 U mg(-1), respectively). The optimal reaction conditions were identified as 40 °C and pH 6.5. The low-resolution structure was determined using the small-angle X-ray scattering technique, revealing that SCLam is a monomer in solution with a radius of gyration equal to 19.6 Å. To the best of our knowledge, SCLam is the first nonspecific (1,3/1,3:1,4)-β-D-glucan endohydrolase (EC 3.2.1.6) recovered by metagenomic approach to be characterized.

  19. Analysis of the regions flanking the human insulin gene and sequence of an Alu family member.

    PubMed Central

    Bell, G I; Pictet, R; Rutter, W J

    1980-01-01

    The regions around the human insulin gene have been studied by heteroduplex, hybridization and sequence analysis. These studies indicated that there is a region of heterogeneous length located approximately 700 bp before the 5' end of the gene; and that the 19 kb of cloned DNA which includes the 1430 bp insulin gene as well as 5650 bp before and 11,500 bp after the gene is single copy sequence except for 500 bp located 6000 bp from the 3' end of the gene. This 500 bp segment contains a member of the Alu family of dispersed middle repetitive sequences as well as another less highly repeated homopolymeric segment. The sequence of this region was determined. This Alu repeat is bordered by 19 bp direct repeats and also contains an 83 bp sequence which is present twice. The regions flanking the human and rat I insulin genes were compared by heteroduplex analysis to localize homologous sequences in the flanking regions which could be involved in the regulation of insulin biosynthesis. The homology between the two genes is restricted to the region encoding preproinsulin and a short region of approximately 60 bp flanking the 5' side of the genes. Images PMID:6253909

  20. Molecular cloning of mtp70, a mitochondrial member of the hsp70 family.

    PubMed Central

    Engman, D M; Kirchhoff, L V; Donelson, J E

    1989-01-01

    We have isolated a gene from the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi that encodes a previously unidentified member of the 70-kilodalton heat shock protein (hsp70) family. Among all the eucaryotic hsp70 proteins described to date, this trypanosome protein, mtp70, is uniquely related in sequence and structure to the hsp70 of Escherichia coli, DnaK, which functions in the initiation of DNA replication. This relationship to DnaK is especially relevant in view of the intracellular location of the protein. Within the trypanosome, mtp70 is located in the mitochondrion, where it associates with kinetoplast DNA (kDNA), the unusual mitochondrial DNA that distinguishes this order of protozoa. Moreover, mtp70 is located in the specific region of the kinetoplast in which kDNA replication occurs. In view of the known functions of DnaK, the localization of mtp70 to the site of kDNA replication suggests that mtp70 may participate in eucaryotic mitochondrial DNA replication in a manner analogous to that of DnaK in E. coli. Images PMID:2689873

  1. Synthesis of Some Members of the Hydroxylated Phenanthridone Sub-class of the Amaryllidaceae Alkaloid Family

    PubMed Central

    Padwa, Albert; Zhang, Hongjun

    2008-01-01

    The total synthesis of several members of the hydroxylated phenanthridone sub-class of the Amaryllidaceae alkaloid family has been carried out. (±)-Lycoricidine and (±)-7-deoxypancratistatin were assembled through a one-pot Stille/intramolecular Diels-Alder cycloaddition cascade to construct the core skeleton. The initially formed [4+2]-cycloadduct undergoes nitrogen-assisted ring opening followed by a deprotonation/reprotonation of the resulting zwitterion to give a rearranged hexahydroindolinone on further heating at 160 °C. The stereochemical outcome of the IMDAF cycloaddition has the side arm of the tethered vinyl group oriented exo with respect to the oxygen bridge. The resulting cycloadduct was used for the stereocontrolled installation of the remaining functionality present in the C-ring of the target molecules. Key features of the synthetic strategy include (1) a lithium-hydroxide induced tandem hydrolysis/decarboxylation/elimination sequence to introduce the required π-bond in the C-ring of (±)-lycoricidine; and (2) conversion of the initially formed Diels-Alder adduct into an aldehyde intermediate which then undergoes a stereospecific decarbonylation reaction mediated by Wilkinson’s catalyst to set the trans B-C ring junction of (±)-7-deoxypancratistatin. PMID:17338575

  2. Associations between violent video gaming, empathic concern, and prosocial behavior toward strangers, friends, and family members.

    PubMed

    Fraser, Ashley M; Padilla-Walker, Laura M; Coyne, Sarah M; Nelson, Larry J; Stockdale, Laura A

    2012-05-01

    Exposure to media violence, including violent video gaming, can have a cognitive desensitization effect, lowering empathic concern for others in need. Since emerging adulthood offers increased opportunities to volunteer, strengthen relationships, and initiate new relationships, decreases in empathic concern and prosocial behavior may prove inhibitive to optimal development during this time. For these reasons, the current study investigated associations between violent video gaming, empathic responding, and prosocial behavior enacted toward strangers, friends, and family members. Participants consisted of 780 emerging adults (M age = 19.60, SD = 1.86, range = 18–29, 69% female, 69% Caucasian) from four universities in the United States. Results showed small to moderate effects between playing violent video gaming and lowered empathic concern for both males and females. In addition, lowered empathic concern partially mediated the pathways between violent video gaming and prosocial behavior toward all three targets (at the level of a trend for females), but was most strongly associated with lower prosocial behavior toward strangers. Discussion highlights how violent video gaming is associated with lower levels of prosocial behavior through the mechanism of decreased empathic concern, how this association can affect prosocial behavior differently across target, and finally what implications this might have for development during emerging adulthood.

  3. Three Members of the LC8/DYNLL Family Are Required for Outer Arm Dynein Motor Function

    PubMed Central

    Tanner, Christopher A.; Rompolas, Panteleimon; Patel-King, Ramila S.; Gorbatyuk, Oksana; Wakabayashi, Ken-ichi; Pazour, Gregory J.

    2008-01-01

    The highly conserved LC8/DYNLL family proteins were originally identified in axonemal dyneins and subsequently found to function in multiple enzyme systems. Genomic analysis uncovered a third member (LC10) of this protein class in Chlamydomonas. The LC10 protein is extracted from flagellar axonemes with 0.6 M NaCl and cofractionates with the outer dynein arm in sucrose density gradients. Furthermore, LC10 is specifically missing only from axonemes of those strains that fail to assemble outer dynein arms. Previously, the oda12-1 insertional allele was shown to lack the Tctex2-related dynein light chain LC2. The LC10 gene is located ∼2 kb from that of LC2 and is also completely missing from this mutant but not from oda12-2, which lacks only the 3′ end of the LC2 gene. Although oda12-1 cells assemble outer arms that lack only LC2 and LC10, this strain exhibits a flagellar beat frequency that is consistently less than that observed for strains that fail to assemble the entire outer arm and docking complex (e.g., oda1). These results support a key regulatory role for the intermediate chain/light chain complex that is an integral and highly conserved feature of all oligomeric dynein motors. PMID:18579685

  4. Unique features of TRIM5alpha among closely related human TRIM family members.

    PubMed

    Li, Xing; Gold, Bert; O'hUigin, Colm; Diaz-Griffero, Felipe; Song, Byeongwoon; Si, Zhihai; Li, Yuan; Yuan, Wen; Stremlau, Matthew; Mische, Claudia; Javanbakht, Hassan; Scally, Mark; Winkler, Cheryl; Dean, Michael; Sodroski, Joseph

    2007-04-10

    The tripartite motif (TRIM) protein, TRIM5alpha, restricts some retroviruses, including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1), from infecting the cells of particular species. TRIM proteins contain RING, B-box, coiled-coil and, in some cases, B30.2(SPRY) domains. We investigated the properties of human TRIM family members closely related to TRIM5. These TRIM proteins, like TRIM5alpha, assembled into homotrimers and co-localized in the cytoplasm with TRIM5alpha. TRIM5alpha turned over more rapidly than related TRIM proteins. TRIM5alpha, TRIM34 and TRIM6 associated with HIV-1 capsid-nucleocapsid complexes assembled in vitro; the TRIM5alpha and TRIM34 interactions with these complexes were dependent on their B30.2(SPRY) domains. Only TRIM5alpha potently restricted infection by the retroviruses studied; overexpression of TRIM34 resulted in modest inhibition of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV(mac)) infection. In contrast to the other TRIM genes examined, TRIM5 exhibited evidence of positive selection. The unique features of TRIM5alpha among its TRIM relatives underscore its special status as an antiviral factor.

  5. Signal Transducers and Activators of Transcription (STAT) Family Members in Helminth Infections

    PubMed Central

    Becerra-Díaz, Mireya; Valderrama-Carvajal, Héctor; Terrazas, Luis I.

    2011-01-01

    Helminth parasites are a diverse group of multicellular organisms. Despite their heterogeneity, helminths share many common characteristics, such as the modulation of the immune system of their hosts towards a permissive state that favors their development. They induce strong Th2-like responses with high levels of IL-4, IL-5 and IL-13 cytokines, and decreased production of proinflammatory cytokines such as IFN-γ. IL-4, IFN-γ and other cytokines bind with their specific cytokine receptors to trigger an immediate signaling pathway in which different tyrosine kinases (e.g. Janus kinases) are involved. Furthermore, a seven-member family of transcription factors named Signal Transducers and Activators of Transcription (STAT) that initiate the transcriptional activation of different genes are also involved and regulate downstream the JAK/STAT signaling pathway. However, how helminths avoid and modulate immune responses remains unclear; moreover, information concerning STAT-mediated immune regulation during helminth infections is scarce. Here, we review the research on mice deficient in STAT molecules, highlighting the importance of the JAK/STAT signaling pathway in regulating susceptibility and/or resistance in these infections. PMID:22110388

  6. BTG1, a member of a new family of antiproliferative genes.

    PubMed Central

    Rouault, J P; Rimokh, R; Tessa, C; Paranhos, G; Ffrench, M; Duret, L; Garoccio, M; Germain, D; Samarut, J; Magaud, J P

    1992-01-01

    The BTG1 gene locus has been shown to be involved in a t(8;12)(q24;q22) chromosomal translocation in a case of B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia. We report here the cloning and sequencing of the human BTG1 cDNA and establish the genomic organization of this gene. The full-length cDNA isolated from a lymphoblastoid cell line contains an open reading frame of 171 amino acids. BTG1 expression is maximal in the G0/G1 phases of the cell cycle and is down-regulated when cells progress throughout G1. Furthermore, transfection experiments of NIH3T3 cells indicate that BTG1 negatively regulates cell proliferation. The BTG1 open reading frame is 60% homologous to PC3, an immediate early gene induced by nerve growth factor in rat PC12 cells. Sequence and Northern blot analyses indicate that BTG1 and PC3 are not cognate genes. We then postulate that these two genes are the first members of a new family of antiproliferative genes. Images PMID:1373383

  7. Evolutionary study of vertebrate and invertebrate members of the dystrophin and utrophin gene family

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, R.G.; Nicholson, L.; Bobrow, M.

    1994-09-01

    Vertebrates express two members of the dystrophin gene family. The prototype, dystrophin, is expressed in muscle and neural tissue, and is defective in the human disorders Duchenne and Becker muscular dystrophy (DMD, BMD). The dystrophin homologue utrophin is more generally expressed but has not yet been associated with a genetic disorder. The function of neither protein is clear. A comparison of human utrophin with the known dystrophins (human, mouse, chicken, Torpedo) suggests that dystrophin and utrophin diverged before the vertebrate radiation. We have used reverse-transcript PCR (RT-PCR) directed by degenerate primers to characterize dystrophin and utrophin transcripts from a range of vertebrate and invertebrate animals. Our results suggest that the duplication leading to distinct dystrophin and utrophin genes occurred close to the point of divergence of urochordates from the cephalochordate-vertebrate lineage. This divergence may have occurred to fulfill a novel role which arose at this point, or may reflect a need for separate regulation of the neuromuscular and other functions of the ancient dystrophin. Our data include sequences of the first non-human utrophins to be characterized, and show these to be substantially more divergent than their cognate dystrophins. In addition, our results provide a large body of information regarding the tolerance of amino acid positions in the cysteine-rich and C-terminal domains to substitution. This will aid the interpretations of DMD and BMD missense mutations in these regions.

  8. Impact of conditional deletion of the pro-apoptotic BCL-2 family member BIM in mice.

    PubMed

    Herold, M J; Stuchbery, R; Mérino, D; Willson, T; Strasser, A; Hildeman, D; Bouillet, P

    2014-10-09

    The pro-apoptotic BH3-only BCL-2 family member BIM is a critical determinant of hematopoietic cell development and homeostasis. It has been argued that the striking hematopoietic abnormalities of BIM-deficient mice (accumulation of lymphocytes and granulocytes) may be the result of the loss of the protein throughout the whole animal rather than a consequence intrinsic to the loss of BIM in hematopoietic cells. To address this issue and allow the deletion of BIM in specific cell types in future studies, we have developed a mouse strain with a conditional Bim allele as well as a new Cre transgenic strain, Vav-CreER, in which the tamoxifen-inducible CreER recombinase (fusion protein) is predominantly expressed in the hematopoietic system. We show that acute loss of BIM in the adult mouse rapidly results in the hematopoietic phenotypes previously observed in mice lacking BIM in all tissues. This includes changes in thymocyte subpopulations, increased white blood cell counts and resistance of lymphocytes to BIM-dependent apoptotic stimuli, such as cytokine deprivation. We have validated this novel conditional Bim knockout mouse model using established and newly developed CreER strains (Rosa26-CreER and Vav-CreER) and will make these exciting new tools for studies on cell death and cancer available.

  9. Structure and Cancer Immunotherapy of the B7 Family Member B7x

    PubMed Central

    Jeon, Hyungjun; Vigdorovich, Vladimir; Garrett-Thomson, Sarah C.; Janakiram, Murali; Ramagopal, Udupi A.; Abadi, Yael M.; Lee, Jun Sik; Scandiuzzi, Lisa; Ohaegbulam, Kim C; Chinai, Jordan M; Zhao, Ruihua; Yao, Yu; Mao, Ying; Sparano, Joseph A.; Almo, Steven C.; Zang, Xingxing

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY B7x (B7-H4 or B7S1) is a member of the B7 family that can inhibit T cell function. B7x protein is absent in most normal human tissues and immune cells, but is overexpressed in human cancers and often correlates with negative clinical outcome. The expression pattern and function of B7x suggest that it may be a potent immunosuppressive pathway in human cancers. Here we determined the crystal structure of human B7x IgV domain at 1.59Å resolution and mapped the epitopes recognized by monoclonal antibodies. We developed a new in vivo system to screen therapeutic monoclonal antibodies against B7x, and found that the clone 1H3 significantly inhibited growth of B7x-expressing tumor in vivo via multiple mechanisms. Furthermore, the surviving mice given 1H3 treatment were resistant to tumor re-challenge. Our data suggest that targeting B7x on tumors is a promising cancer immunotherapy and humanized 1H3 may be efficacious for immunotherapy of human cancers. PMID:25437562

  10. Identification and functional characterization of a solute carrier family 15, member 4 gene in Litopenaeus vannamei.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yong-Gui; Yuan, Kai; Zhang, Ze-Zhi; Yuan, Feng-Hua; Weng, Shao-Ping; Yue, Hai-Tao; He, Jian-Guo; Chen, Yi-Hong

    2016-04-01

    Innate immunity in shrimp is important in resisting bacterial infection. The NF-κB pathway is pivotal in such an immune response. This study cloned and functionally characterized the solute carrier family (SLC) 15 member A 4 (LvSLC15A4) gene in Litopenaeus vannamei. The open reading frame of LvSLC15A4 is 1, 902 bp long and encodes a putative 633-amino acid protein, which is localized in the plasma membrane and intracellular vesicular compartments. Results of the reporter gene assay showed that LvSLC15A4 upregulated NF-κB target genes, including the immediate-early gene 1 of white spot syndrome virus, as well as several antimicrobial peptide genes, such as pen4, CecA, AttA, and Mtk in S2 cells. Moreover, knocked-down expression of LvSLC15A4 reduced pen4 expression in L. vannamei. LvSLC15A4 down-regulation also increased the cumulative mortality of Vibrio parahemolyticus-infected L. vannamei. Furthermore, LvSLC15A4 expression was induced by unfolded protein response (UPR) in L. vannamei hematocytes. These results suggest that LvSLC15A4 participates in L. vannamei innate immunity via the NF-κB pathway and thus may be related to UPR.

  11. STS-103 crew members and their families pose for a portrait before DEPARTing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    The STS-103 crew pose for a group portrait with their families and loved ones on the runway at Patrick Air Force Base in Cocoa Beach, Fla. They are preparing to board an airplane that will return them to their home base at the Johnson Space Center in Houston following the successful completion of their mission. From left to right, the crew members are Mission Specialists John M. Grunsfeld (Ph.D.), C. Michael Foale (Ph.D.), Claude Nicollier of Switzerland, Jean-Frangois Clervoy of France, and Steven L. Smith; Pilot Scott J. Kelly; and Commander Curtis L. Brown Jr. Discovery landed in darkness the previous evening, Dec. 27, on runway 33 at KSC's Shuttle Landing Facility at 7:00:47 p.m. EST. This was the first time that a Shuttle crew spent the Christmas holiday in space. The STS-103 mission accomplished outfitting the Hubble Space Telescope with six new gyroscopes, six new voltage/temperature improvement kits, a new onboard computer, a new solid state recorder and new data transmitter, a new fine guidance sensor along with new insulation on parts of the orbiting telescope. This was the 96th flight in the Space Shuttle program and the 27th for the orbiter Discovery.

  12. [Expression profiles analysis of two member of squaleneepoxidase gene family from Eleutherococcus senticosus].

    PubMed

    Long, Yue-Hong; Li, Fei-Fei; Yang, Guo; Xing, Zhao-Bin

    2015-01-01

    In order to find the characteristics of two members of gene family of squaleneexpoxidase (SE) , a quantitative real time PCR method was developed to analyze the expression of Eleutherococcus senticosus SE1 and SE2 gene from different growth periods and in different organs. The result indicated that all the expression of SE2 more than SE1 in the whole growth period and organs of E. senticosus. And in the whole growth period, expression of SE1 showed a low-high-low characteristic. Both expression of SE2 and growth period showed the same trend. The lowest content of the expression was in the roots. SE1 expression have been improved more than SE2 when treated with MeJA. The expression of E. senticosus SE1 and saponins content had significantly positive correlation (P < 0.05) and the correlation coefficients was 0. 858, while the correlation was not significant for SE2. That indicated that SE1 played a key enzyme gene in the biosynthesis of triterpenoidsaponins

  13. Expression of Pax gene family members in the anthozoan cnidarian, Nematostella vectensis.

    PubMed

    Matus, David Q; Pang, Kevin; Daly, Meg; Martindale, Mark Q

    2007-01-01

    Pax genes are a family of homeodomain transcription factors that have been isolated from protostomes (e.g., eight in Drosophilia) and deuterostomes (e.g., nine in vertebrates) as well as outside the Bilateria, from sponges, a placozoan, and several classes of cnidarians. The genome of an anthozoan cnidarian, the starlet sea anemone, Nematostella vectensis, has been surveyed by both degenerate polymerase chain reaction and in silico for the presence of Pax genes. N. vectensis possesses seven Pax genes, which are orthologous to cnidarian Pax genes (A,B,C, and D) previously identified in another anthozoan, a coral, Acropora millepora. Phylogenetic analyses including data from nonchordate deuterostomes indicates that there were five Pax gene classes in the protostome-deuterostome ancestor, but only three in the cnidarian-bilaterian ancestor, with PaxD class genes lost in medusozoan cnidarians. Pax genes play diverse roles in bilaterians, including eye formation (e.g., Pax6), segmentation (e.g., Pax3/7 class genes), and neural patterning (e.g., Pox-neuro, Pax2/5/8). We show the first expression data for members of all four Pax classes in a single species of cnidarian. N. vectensis Pax genes are expressed in both a cell-type and region-specific manner during embryogenesis, and likely play a role in patterning specific components of the cnidarian ectodermal nerve net. The results of these patterns are discussed with respect to Pax gene evolution in the Bilateria.

  14. Multiple Members of the UDP-GalNAc: Polypeptide N-Acetylgalactosaminyltransferase Family Are Essential for Viability in Drosophila*

    PubMed Central

    Tran, Duy T.; Zhang, Liping; Zhang, Ying; Tian, E; Earl, Lesley A.; Ten Hagen, Kelly G.

    2012-01-01

    Mucin-type O-glycosylation represents a major form of post-translational modification that is conserved across most eukaryotic species. This type of glycosylation is initiated by a family of enzymes (GalNAc-Ts in mammals and PGANTs in Drosophila) whose members are expressed in distinct spatial and temporal patterns during development. Previous work from our group demonstrated that one member of this family is essential for viability and another member modulates extracellular matrix composition and integrin-mediated cell adhesion during development. To investigate whether other members of this family are essential, we employed RNA interference (RNAi) to each gene in vivo. Using this approach, we identified 4 additional pgant genes that are required for viability. Ubiquitous RNAi to pgant4, pgant5, pgant7, or the putative glycosyltransferase CG30463 resulted in lethality. Tissue-specific RNAi was also used to define the specific organ systems and tissues in which each essential family member is required. Interestingly, each essential pgant had a unique complement of tissues in which it was required. Additionally, certain tissues (mesoderm, digestive system, and tracheal system) required more than one pgant, suggesting unique functions for specific enzymes in these tissues. Expanding upon our RNAi results, we found that conventional mutations in pgant5 resulted in lethality and specific defects in specialized cells of the digestive tract, resulting in loss of proper digestive system acidification. In summary, our results highlight essential roles for O-glycosylation and specific members of the pgant family in many aspects of development and organogenesis. PMID:22157008

  15. Should aip gene screening be recommended in family members of FIPA patients with R16H variant?

    PubMed

    Zatelli, Maria Chiara; Torre, Maria Luisa; Rossi, Rachele; Ragonese, Marta; Trimarchi, Francesco; degli Uberti, Ettore; Cannavò, Salvatore

    2013-06-01

    Germline mutations of aryl-hydrocarbon-receptor interacting protein (AIP) are associated with pituitary adenoma predisposition. They occur in 20 % of familial isolated pituitary adenoma (FIPA) and in about 3-5 % of sporadic pituitary adenomas, especially in early onset somatotropinomas and prolactinomas. Our aim was to evaluate the clinical and genetic features of a large Italian FIPA family, where an AIP variant was identified. AIP direct sequencing from genomic DNA was carried out in 16 available family members. AIP R16H carriers also underwent magnetic resonance imaging and hormonal assessments. AIP mutations were also searched in 16 patients with sporadic growth hormone-secreting pituitary adenoma and in 6 unrelated patients in whom pituitary adenoma was excluded. We found an AIP R16H variation in two family members harbouring a pituitary adenoma and in 6 unaffected family members. No AIP mutation was found neither in growth hormone-secreting pituitary adenoma patients, nor in the unrelated patients without pituitary adenoma. We report a FIPA family harbouring an AIP R16H change, supporting the hypothesis that the latter represents a variant of unknown significance.

  16. 5 CFR 9001.106 - Restrictions resulting from employment of family and household members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., parent, or sibling, or member of his or her household unless the DAEO has authorized the employee to... relationships. Within 30 calendar days of the spouse, child, parent, sibling, or member of the...

  17. Variations in mRNA and protein levels of Ikaros family members in pediatric T cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, Julie L.

    2016-01-01

    Background Pediatric T cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) is a highly heterogeneous disease in which the cells share phenotypic characteristics with normal human thymocytes. The Ikaros family of transcription factors includes five members that are required for normal T cell development and are implicated in leukemogenesis. The goal of this work was to correlate the pattern of expression of Ikaros family members with the phenotype of the T-ALL cells. Methods We obtained twenty-four samples from pediatric T-ALL patients and used multi-parameter flow cytometry to characterize each sample, comparing the phenotype of the leukemic cells with normal human thymocytes. Then, we defined the expression levels of each Ikaros family member to determine whether the mRNA levels or splicing or protein levels were similar to the normal patterns seen during human T cell development. Results Multi-parameter analysis of the phenotype of T-ALL cells revealed that each patient’s cells were unique and could not be readily correlated with stages of T cell development. Similarly, the pattern of Ikaros expression varied among patients. In most patients, Ikaros mRNA was the dominant family member expressed, but some patients’ cells contained mostly Helios, Aiolos, or Eos mRNA. Despite that most patients had elevated mRNA levels of Ikaros family members and unique patterns of mRNA splicing, most patients had significantly reduced protein levels of Ikaros and Aiolos. Conclusions Our analysis of the cell phenotype and Ikaros expression levels in T-ALL cells revealed the extent of heterogeneity among patients. While it is rarely possible to trace leukemic cells to their developmental origin, we found distinct patterns of Ikaros family mRNA levels in groups of patients. Further, mRNA and protein levels of Ikaros and Aiolos did not correlate, indicating that mRNA and protein levels are regulated via distinct mechanisms. PMID:27826566

  18. An Investigation of Violent and Nonviolent Adolescents' Family Functioning, Problems Concerning Family Members, Anger and Anger Expression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Avci, Rasit; Gucray, Songul Sonay

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to (a) investigate the families of violent and nonviolent adolescents in terms of family functioning, trait anger and anger expression, and (b) compare incidence of psychological problems, alcohol usage and delinquent behaviors. The sample consisted of families of both violent (n = 54) and nonviolent adolescents (n =…

  19. Long-Term Outcomes of War-Related Death of Family Members in Kosovar Civilian War Survivors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morina, Nexhmedin; Reschke, Konrad; Hofmann, Stefan G.

    2011-01-01

    Exposure to war-related experiences can comprise a broad variety of experiences and the very nature of certain war-related events has generally been neglected. To examine the long-term outcomes of war-related death of family members, the authors investigated the prevalence rates of major depressive episode (MDE), anxiety disorders, and quality of…

  20. Differential expression of three members of the multidomain adhesion CCp family in babesia bigemina, babesia bovis and theileria equi

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Members of the CCp protein family have been previously described to be expressed on gametocytes of apicomplexan Plasmodium parasites. Knocking out Plasmodium CCp genes blocks the development of the parasite in the mosquito vector, making the CCp proteins potential targets for the development of a tr...

  1. Fathers' Forgiveness as a Moderator between Perceived Unfair Treatment by a Family of Origin Member and Anger with Own Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Yu-Rim; Enright, Robert D.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined how forgiveness mediates and moderates between fathers' perceived unfair treatment (PUT) from a family of origin member and anger with the child (AWC). Eighty married fathers who have at least one child between the ages of 2 and 7 years individually completed the Opening Questionnaire, the Enright Forgiveness Inventory, the…

  2. Very low arylsulfatase A and cerebroside sulfatase activities in leukocytes of healthy members of metachromatic leukodystrophy family.

    PubMed Central

    Dubois, G; Harzer, K; Baumann, N

    1977-01-01

    Very low levels of arylsulfatase A (ASA) have been found in the leukocytes of healthy members of a metachromatic leukodystrophy (MLD) family. The cerebroside sulfate sulfatase (CSS) activities in the same individuals are about 10% of the control level. Arguments favoring a dominant mutation different from that of classical MLD are presented. This report reinforces the relationship between the two enzymatic activities. PMID:15452

  3. Nucleotide sequence and genome organization of Dweet mottle virus and its relationship to members of the family Betaflexiviridae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The nucleotide sequence of Dweet mottle virus (DMV) was determined and compared to sequences of members of the family Alpha- and Beta-flexiviridae. The DMV genome has 8747 nucleotides (nt) excluding the poly-(A) tail at the 3’ end of the genome. The overall G+C content of DMV genomic RNA is 40%. D...

  4. 5 CFR 894.202 - If I enroll for self plus one, may I decide which family member to cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false If I enroll for self plus one, may I decide which family member to cover? 894.202 Section 894.202 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES DENTAL AND VISION...

  5. 5 CFR 894.202 - If I enroll for self plus one, may I decide which family member to cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false If I enroll for self plus one, may I decide which family member to cover? 894.202 Section 894.202 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES DENTAL AND VISION...

  6. 5 CFR 894.202 - If I enroll for self plus one, may I decide which family member to cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false If I enroll for self plus one, may I decide which family member to cover? 894.202 Section 894.202 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES DENTAL AND VISION...

  7. 5 CFR 894.202 - If I enroll for self plus one, may I decide which family member to cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false If I enroll for self plus one, may I decide which family member to cover? 894.202 Section 894.202 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES DENTAL AND VISION...

  8. 5 CFR 894.202 - If I enroll for self plus one, may I decide which family member to cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false If I enroll for self plus one, may I decide which family member to cover? 894.202 Section 894.202 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES DENTAL AND VISION...

  9. Myocyte enhancer factor (MEF) 2C: a tissue-restricted member of the MEF-2 family of transcription factors.

    PubMed Central

    Martin, J F; Schwarz, J J; Olson, E N

    1993-01-01

    MEF-2 is a muscle-specific DNA binding activity that recognizes an A+T-rich sequence found in the control regions of numerous muscle-specific genes. The recent cloning of MEF-2 showed that it belongs to the MADS (MCM1, Agamous, Deficiens, and serum-response factor) box family of transcription factors and that MEF-2 mRNA is expressed ubiquitously. Here we describe the cloning of a member of the MEF-2 gene family, referred to as MEF-2C, that is nearly identical to other MEF-2 gene products in the MADS box but diverges from other members of the family outside of this domain. MEF-2C binds the MEF-2 site with high affinity and can activate transcription of a reporter gene linked to tandem copies of that site. In contrast to previously described members of the MEF-2 family, MEF-2C transcripts are highly enriched in skeletal muscle, spleen, and brain of adult mice and are upregulated during myoblast differentiation. These results suggest that the MEF-2 site is a target for a diverse family of proteins that regulates transcription in a variety of cell types. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:8506376

  10. Perceptional gaps among women, husbands and family members about intentions for birthplace: a cross-sectional study 1

    PubMed Central

    Shimpuku, Yoko; Madeni, Frida Elikana; Horiuchi, Shigeko; Leshabari, Sebalda Charles

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: women are more likely to give birth at a health facility when their families agree with the birthplace. However, in rural areas of Tanzania, women are often marginalized from decision-making. This study predicted birthplace intention and identified factors to reduce perceptional gaps among pregnant women, husbands and family members. Method: explanatory cross-sectional survey was conducted in three villages in North Eastern Tanzania. Participants were 138 pregnant women and their families who answered the Birth Intention Questionnaire (BIQ), measuring knowledge, attitude, perceived behavioral control, subjective norms and intention for birthplace. Descriptive analysis, ANOVA, Chi-square, and multiple linear regression was used to analyze the data. Results: the regression model showed that knowledge, perceived behavioral control, and subjective norms predicted intention for birthplace (R2 = .28). While 81% of pregnant women thought their husbands were decision-makers for their birth, only 38% of husbands and 37% of family members agreed. Pregnant women had significantly lower scores on the item “I will prepare for childbirth with my family” compared with husbands (p < .01) and other family members (p < .001). Conclusion: providing evidence-based birth preparation and reducing the identified perceptual gaps may enhance women’s intention to deliver at health facilities. PMID:28146180

  11. Salience of self-identity roles in persons with dementia: differences in perceptions among elderly persons, family members and caregivers.

    PubMed

    Cohen-Mansfield, Jiska; Parpura-Gill, Aleksandra; Golander, Hava

    2006-02-01

    In this study, we explored perceptions of the salience of self-identity in persons suffering from dementia as perceived by the participants themselves, by family, and by staff caregivers. Four types of role-identity were explored: professional, family role, hobbies/leisure activities, and personal attributes. Participants were 104 persons with dementia, 48 of whom attended six adult day care centers while 56 resided in two nursing homes in the Washington, DC metropolitan area. Participants, relatives, and staff members were interviewed to obtain information about past and present self-identity roles of participants and attitudes toward these roles. Findings demonstrate that the importance of role identities decreases over time and with the progression of dementia. The family role was found to be the most important and salient role identity according to all the informant groups. The professional role was the one that showed the steepest decline in importance from past to present. Gender differences were detected for the importance of professional role identity. Participants rated their roles in the past as less important and those in the present as more important compared to family members. Family members reported greater decline in the importance of role identities for those participants with greater cognitive impairment. Participants with moderate cognitive impairment reported greater decline in the importance of role identities than did the participants with severe cognitive impairment. Understanding the past and present self-identities of persons with diminished cognitive abilities is crucial in the effort to provide individualized care and enhance participant experiences.

  12. The Millennium Cohort Family Study: a prospective evaluation of the health and well-being of military service members and their families.

    PubMed

    Crum-Cianflone, Nancy F; Fairbank, John A; Marmar, Charlie R; Schlenger, William

    2014-09-01

    The need to understand the impact of war on military families has never been greater than during the past decade, with more than three million military spouses and children affected by deployments to Operations Iraqi Freedom and Enduring Freedom. Understanding the impact of the recent conflicts on families is a national priority, however, most studies have examined spouses and children individually, rather than concurrently as families. The Department of Defense (DoD) has recently initiated the largest study of military families in US military history (the Millennium Cohort Family Study), which includes dyads of military service members and their spouses (n > 10,000). This study includes US military families across the globe with planned follow-up for 21+ years to evaluate the impact of military experiences on families, including both during and after military service time. This review provides a comprehensive description of this landmark study including details on the research objectives, methodology, survey instrument, ancillary data sets, and analytic plans. The Millennium Cohort Family Study offers a unique opportunity to define the challenges that military families experience, and to advance the understanding of protective and vulnerability factors for designing training and treatment programs that will benefit military families today and into the future.

  13. [Enteric parasites and AIDS in Haiti: utility of detection and treatment of intestinal parasites in family members].

    PubMed

    Raccurt, C P; Pannier Stockman, C; Eyma, E; Verdier, R I; Totet, A; Pape, J W

    2006-10-01

    Intestinal parasites and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are major health problems in Haiti. Both entities are known to interact strongly with cell-mediated immunity. The purpose of this study undertaken in Port-au-Prince, Haiti was to evaluate the risk of enteric parasite transmission between HIV-infected patients and family members. Routine examination of stool specimens for parasites was conducted in 90 HIV-infected undergoing treatment for intestinal disorders due mainly to Cryptosporidium sp. (62%) and 123 healthy family member volunteers. A stool sample preserved in 10% formalin solution was examined to detect protozoa (MIF, modified Ziehl-Neelsen stain, Uvibio fluorescence technique, Weber stain) and helminth ova (Bailenger technique). In addition to Cryptosporidium sp., 14 parasitic species were identified: 6 Rhizopoda, 3 Flagellata (including Giardia duodenalis), 1 Coccidia (Cyclospora cayetanensis), 3 Nematoda (mainly Ascaris lumbricoides) and 1 Cestoda (Hymenolepis nana). This is the first time that 5 protozoa, i.e., Blastocystis hominis, Entamoeba hartmanni, E. polecki, Chilomastix mesnili, and Enteromonas hominis, have been reported in Haiti. As expected, enteric parasites were less common in HIV-infected subjects undergoing medical treatment (11.1%) than in uninfected family members (41.5%) (p = 0.0000). Multiple intestinal parasitism (infection by 2 to 4 parasites) was observed in 19.5% of family members. The findings of this study indicate that detecting and treating intestinal parasites in subjects living in close contact with HIV-infected patients as well as informing family members of the importance of personal hygiene in Haiti are highly recommended measures to preserve the health of AIDS patients.

  14. Finally "deliberate by design": milestones in the delivery of health care for U.S. military family members.

    PubMed

    Callahan, Charles W; Zimring, Craig

    2011-08-01

    The development of medical care for U.S. military families and retirees was serendipitous, a fortunate accident. The formal development of military family medical care required the evolution of three factors: the emergence of a standing army, frontiers to guard, and a peace to defend. These factors were first realized in the late 19th Century, and beginning at that point in U.S. history, seven key years highlight major milestones in the history of military family member medical care. At the same time, these years exemplify changing ideas of disease and of health care and how the physical design of clinics and hospitals reflects and impacts these ideas. The Fort Belvoir Community Hospital, which opens in 2011, exemplifies the Nation's best example of green hospital construction, patient and family centered care, and evidence-based design in a Culture of Excellence that demonstrates that military family medical care is finally "deliberate by design."

  15. The IκB family member Bcl-3 coordinates the pulmonary defense against Klebsiella pneumoniae infection.

    PubMed

    Pène, Frédéric; Paun, Andrea; Sønder, Søren Ulrik; Rikhi, Nimisha; Wang, Hongshan; Claudio, Estefania; Siebenlist, Ulrich

    2011-02-15

    Bcl-3 is an atypical member of the IκB family that has the potential to positively or negatively modulate nuclear NF-κB activity in a context-dependent manner. Bcl-3's biologic impact is complex and includes roles in tumorigenesis and diverse immune responses, including innate immunity. Bcl-3 may mediate LPS tolerance, suppressing cytokine production, but it also seems to contribute to defense against select systemic bacterial challenges. However, the potential role of Bcl-3 in organ-specific host defense against bacteria has not been addressed. In this study, we investigated the relevance of Bcl-3 in a lung challenge with the Gram-negative pathogen Klebsiella pneumoniae. In contrast to wild-type mice, Bcl-3-deficient mice exhibited significantly increased susceptibility toward K. pneumoniae pneumonia. The mutant mice showed increased lung damage marked by neutrophilic alveolar consolidation, and they failed to clear bacteria in lungs, which correlated with increased bacteremic dissemination. Loss of Bcl-3 incurred a dramatic cytokine imbalance in the lungs, which was characterized by higher levels of IL-10 and a near total absence of IFN-γ. Moreover, Bcl-3-deficient mice displayed increased lung production of the neutrophil-attracting chemokines CXCL-1 and CXCL-2. Alveolar macrophages and neutrophils are important to antibacterial lung defense. In vitro stimulation of Bcl-3-deficient alveolar macrophages with LPS or heat-killed K. pneumoniae recapitulated the increase in IL-10 production, and Bcl-3-deficient neutrophils were impaired in intracellular bacterial killing. These findings suggest that Bcl-3 is critically involved in lung defense against Gram-negative bacteria, modulating functions of several cells to facilitate efficient clearance of bacteria.

  16. Evolution of the Bovine TLR Gene Family and Member Associations with Mycobacterium avium Subspecies paratuberculosis Infection

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, Colleen A.; Bhattarai, Eric K.; Osterstock, Jason B.; Dowd, Scot E.; Seabury, Paul M.; Vikram, Meenu; Whitlock, Robert H.; Schukken, Ynte H.; Schnabel, Robert D.; Taylor, Jeremy F.; Womack, James E.; Seabury, Christopher M.

    2011-01-01

    Members of the Toll-like receptor (TLR) gene family occupy key roles in the mammalian innate immune system by functioning as sentries for the detection of invading pathogens, thereafter provoking host innate immune responses. We utilized a custom next-generation sequencing approach and allele-specific genotyping assays to detect and validate 280 biallelic variants across all 10 bovine TLR genes, including 71 nonsynonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and one putative nonsense SNP. Bayesian haplotype reconstructions and median joining networks revealed haplotype sharing between Bos taurus taurus and Bos taurus indicus breeds at every locus, and specialized beef and dairy breeds could not be differentiated despite an average polymorphism density of 1 marker/158 bp. Collectively, 160 tagSNPs and two tag insertion-deletion mutations (indels) were sufficient to predict 100% of the variation at 280 variable sites for both Bos subspecies and their hybrids, whereas 118 tagSNPs and 1 tagIndel predictively captured 100% of the variation at 235 variable sites for B. t. taurus. Polyphen and SIFT analyses of amino acid (AA) replacements encoded by bovine TLR SNPs indicated that up to 32% of the AA substitutions were expected to impact protein function. Classical and newly developed tests of diversity provide strong support for balancing selection operating on TLR3 and TLR8, and purifying selection acting on TLR10. An investigation of the persistence and continuity of linkage disequilibrium (r2≥0.50) between adjacent variable sites also supported the presence of selection acting on TLR3 and TLR8. A case-control study employing validated variants from bovine TLR genes recognizing bacterial ligands revealed six SNPs potentially eliciting small effects on susceptibility to Mycobacterium avium spp paratuberculosis infection in dairy cattle. The results of this study will broadly impact domestic cattle research by providing the necessary foundation to explore several

  17. LRAD3, a Novel LDL Receptor Family Member that Modulates Amyloid Precursor Protein Trafficking

    PubMed Central

    Ranganathan, Sripriya; Noyes, Nathaniel C.; Migliorini, Mary; Winkles, Jeffrey A.; Battey, Frances D.; Hyman, Bradley T.; Smith, Elizabeth; Yepes, Manuel; Mikhailenko, Irina; Strickland, Dudley K.

    2011-01-01

    We have identified a novel LDL receptor family member, termed LDL receptor class A domain containing 3 (LRAD3), which is expressed in neurons. The LRAD3 gene encodes an approximately 50 kDa type I transmembrane receptor with an ectodomain containing three LDLa repeats, a transmembrane domain and a cytoplasmic domain containing a conserved dileucine internalization motif and two polyproline motifs with potential to interact with WW domain containing proteins. Immunohistochemical analysis of mouse brain reveals LRAD3 expression in the cortex and hippocampus. In the mouse hippocampal derived cell line, HT22, LRAD3 partially co-localizes with amyloid precursor protein (APP), and interacts with APP as revealed by co-immunoprecipitation experiments. To identify the portion of APP that interacts with LRAD3, we employed solid phase binding assays which demonstrated that LRAD3 failed to bind to a soluble APP fragment (sAPPα) released following α-secretase cleavage. In contrast, C99, the β-secretase product that remains cell associated, co-precipitated with LRAD3, confirming that regions within this portion of APP are important for associating with LRAD3. The association of LRAD3 with APP increases the amyloidogenic pathway of APP processing, resulting in a decrease in sAPPα production and increased Aβ peptide production. Pulse-chase experiments confirm that LRAD3 expression significantly decreases the cellular half-live of mature APP. These results reveal that LRAD3 influences APP processing and raises the possibility that LRAD3 alters APP function in neurons including its downstream signaling. PMID:21795536

  18. NG2, a member of chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans family mediates the inflammatory response of activated microglia.

    PubMed

    Gao, Q; Lu, J; Huo, Y; Baby, N; Ling, E A; Dheen, S T

    2010-01-20

    Activation of microglial cells, the resident immune cells of the CNS causes neurotoxicity through the release of a wide array of inflammatory mediators including proinflammatory cytokines, chemokines and reactive oxygen species. In this study, we have investigated the expression of NG2 (also known as CSPG4), one of the members of transmembrane chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans family, in microglial cells and its role on inflammatory reaction of microglia by analyzing the expression of the proinflammation cytokines (interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha)), chemokines (stromal cell-derived factor-1alpha and monocyte chemotactic protein-1) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). NG2 expression was not detectable in microglial cells expressing OX-42 in the brains of 1-day old postnatal rat pups and adult rats; it was, however, induced in activated microglial cells in pups and adult rats injected with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). In vitro analysis further confirmed that LPS induced the expression of NG2 in primary microglial cells and this was inhibited by dexamethasone. It has been well demonstrated that LPS induces the expression of iNOS and proinflammatory cytokines in microglia. However in this study, LPS did not induce the mRNA expression of iNOS and cytokines including IL-1beta, and TNF-alpha in microglial cells transfected with CSPG4 siRNA. On the contrary, mRNA expression of chemokines such as monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and stromal cell-derived factor-1alpha (SDF-1alpha) was significantly increased in LPS-activated microglial cells after CSPG4 siRNA transfection in comparison with the control. The above results indicate that NG2 mediates the induction of iNOS and inflammatory cytokine expression, but not the chemokine expression in activated microglia.

  19. The Association of Current Violence from Adult Family Members with Adolescent Bullying Involvement and Suicidal Feelings.

    PubMed

    Fujikawa, Shinya; Ando, Shuntaro; Shimodera, Shinji; Koike, Shinsuke; Usami, Satoshi; Toriyama, Rie; Kanata, Sho; Sasaki, Tsukasa; Kasai, Kiyoto; Okazaki, Yuji; Nishida, Atsushi

    2016-01-01

    Although several studies have reported that child physical abuse increased the risk for bullying involvement, the effect of current violence from adult family members (CVA) on bullying involvement and suicidal feelings among adolescents has not been sufficiently examined. This study investigated the association of CVA with adolescent bullying involvement and the interaction effect of CVA and bullying involvement on suicidal feelings. This cross-sectional study used data from a school-based survey with a general population of adolescents (grades 7 to 12). Data were collected using a self-report questionnaire completed by 17,530 students. Logistic regression analyses were performed to explore the association of CVA with adolescent bullying involvement and suicidal feelings. The overall response rate was 90.2%. The odds of students being characterized as bullies, victims, and bully-victims were higher among adolescents with CVA than without CVA (odds ratios (OR) = 2.9, 95% confidence interval (CI), [2.3-3.7], 4.6 [3.6-5.8], and 5.8 [4.4-7.6], respectively). Both CVA (OR = 3.4 [95% CI 2.7-4.3]) and bullying (bullies, victims, and bully-victims; OR = 2.0 [95% CI 1.6-2.6], 4.0 [3.1-5.1], 4.1 [3.0-5.6], respectively), were associated with increased odds of current suicidal feelings after adjusting for confounding factors. Furthermore, positive additive effects of CVA and all three types of bullying involvement on suicidal feelings were found. For example, bully-victims with CVA had about 19-fold higher odds of suicidal feelings compared with uninvolved adolescents without CVA. This study, although correlational, suggested that CVA avoidance might prevent bullying involvement and suicidal feelings in adolescents.

  20. IRES-mediated translation of the pro-apoptotic Bcl2 family member PUMA.

    PubMed

    Shaltouki, Atossa; Harford, Terri J; Komar, Anton A; Weyman, Crystal M

    2013-01-01

    The proapoptotic Bcl-2 family member PUMA is a critical regulator of apoptosis. We have previously shown that PUMA plays a pivotal role in the apoptosis associated with skeletal myoblast differentiation and that a MyoD-dependent mechanism is responsible for the increased expression of PUMA in these cells. Herein, we report that the increased expression of PUMA under these conditions involves regulation at the level of translation. Specifically, we have found that the increase in PUMA protein levels occurs under conditions of decreased total protein synthesis, eIF2-alpha phosphorylation and hypophosphorylation of eIF4E-BP, suggesting that PUMA translation is proceeding via an alternative initiation mechanism. Polyribosome analysis of PUMA mRNA further corroborated this suggestion. A combination of in vitro and ex vivo (cellular) approaches has provided evidence suggesting that PUMA mRNA 5'UTR harbors an Internal Ribosome Entry Site (IRES) element. Using mono- and bi-cistronic reporter constructs, we have delineated an mRNA fragment that allows for cap-independent translation in vitro and ex vivo (in skeletal myoblasts) in response to culture in differentiation media (DM), or in response to treatment with the DNA-damaging agent, etoposide. This mRNA fragment also supports translation in HeLa and 293T cells. Thus, our data has revealed a novel IRES-mediated regulation of PUMA expression in several cell types and in response to several stimuli. These findings contribute to our understanding and potential manipulation of any developmental or therapeutic scenario involving PUMA.

  1. Expression, clinical significance, and receptor identification of the newest B7 family member HHLA2 protein

    PubMed Central

    Janakiram, Murali; Chinai, Jordan M; Fineberg, Susan; Fiser, Andras; Montagna, Cristina; Medaverepu, Ramadevi; Castano, Ekaterina; Jeon, Hyungjun; Ohaegbulam, Kim C; Zhao, Ruihua; Zhao, Aimin; Almo, Steven C.; Sparano, Joseph A; Zang, Xingxing

    2014-01-01

    Purpose HHLA2 (B7H7/B7-H5/B7y) is a newly identified B7 family member that regulates human T cell functions. However, its protein expression in human organs and significance in human diseases are unknown. The objective of this study was to analyze HHLA2 protein expression in normal human tissues and cancers, its prognostic significance, to explore mechanisms regulating HHLA2 expression, and to identify candidate HHLA2 receptors. Experimental Design An immunohistochemistry protocol and a flow cytometry assay with newly generated monoclonal antibodies were developed to examine HHLA2 protein. HHLA2 gene copy number variation was analyzed from cancer genomic data. The combination of bioinformatics analysis and immunological approaches was established to explore HHLA2 receptors. Results HHLA2 protein was detected in trophoblastic cells of the placenta and the epithelium of gut, kidney, gallbladder and breast, but not in most other organs. In contrast, HHLA2 protein was widely expressed in human cancers from the breast, lung, thyroid, melanoma, pancreas, ovary, liver, bladder, colon, prostate, kidney, and esophagus. In a cohort of 50 patients with stage I–III triple negative breast cancer, 56% of patients had aberrant expression of HHLA2 on their tumors, and high HHLA2 expression was significantly associated with regional lymph node metastasis and stage. The Cancer Genome Atlas revealed that HHLA2 copy number gains were present in 29% of basal breast cancers, providing a potential mechanism for increased HHLA2 protein expression in breast cancer. Finally, Transmembrane and Immunoglobulin Domain Containing 2 (TMIGD2) was identified as one of the receptors for HHLA2. Conclusion Wide expression of HHLA2 in human malignancies, association with poor prognostic factors and its T cell coinhibitory capability, suggests that the HHLA2 pathway represents a novel immunosuppressive mechanism within the tumor microenvironment and an attractive target for human cancer therapy. PMID

  2. The Association of Current Violence from Adult Family Members with Adolescent Bullying Involvement and Suicidal Feelings

    PubMed Central

    Shimodera, Shinji; Koike, Shinsuke; Usami, Satoshi; Toriyama, Rie; Kanata, Sho; Sasaki, Tsukasa; Kasai, Kiyoto; Okazaki, Yuji; Nishida, Atsushi

    2016-01-01

    Although several studies have reported that child physical abuse increased the risk for bullying involvement, the effect of current violence from adult family members (CVA) on bullying involvement and suicidal feelings among adolescents has not been sufficiently examined. This study investigated the association of CVA with adolescent bullying involvement and the interaction effect of CVA and bullying involvement on suicidal feelings. This cross-sectional study used data from a school-based survey with a general population of adolescents (grades 7 to 12). Data were collected using a self-report questionnaire completed by 17,530 students. Logistic regression analyses were performed to explore the association of CVA with adolescent bullying involvement and suicidal feelings. The overall response rate was 90.2%. The odds of students being characterized as bullies, victims, and bully-victims were higher among adolescents with CVA than without CVA (odds ratios (OR) = 2.9, 95% confidence interval (CI), [2.3–3.7], 4.6 [3.6–5.8], and 5.8 [4.4–7.6], respectively). Both CVA (OR = 3.4 [95% CI 2.7–4.3]) and bullying (bullies, victims, and bully-victims; OR = 2.0 [95% CI 1.6–2.6], 4.0 [3.1–5.1], 4.1 [3.0–5.6], respectively), were associated with increased odds of current suicidal feelings after adjusting for confounding factors. Furthermore, positive additive effects of CVA and all three types of bullying involvement on suicidal feelings were found. For example, bully-victims with CVA had about 19-fold higher odds of suicidal feelings compared with uninvolved adolescents without CVA. This study, although correlational, suggested that CVA avoidance might prevent bullying involvement and suicidal feelings in adolescents. PMID:27711150

  3. Functional alterations to the nigrostriatal system in mice lacking all three members of the synuclein family

    PubMed Central

    Anwar, Sabina; Peters, Owen; Millership, Steven; Ninkina, Natalia; Doig, Natalie; Connor-Robson, Natalie; Threlfell, Sarah; Kooner, Gurdeep; Deacon, Robert M.; Bannerman, David M.; Bolam, J. Paul; Chandra, Sreeganga S.; Cragg, Stephanie J.; Wade-Martins, Richard; Buchman, Vladimir L.

    2011-01-01

    The synucleins (α, β and γ) are highly homologous proteins thought to play a role in regulating neurotransmission and are found abundantly in presynaptic terminals. To overcome functional overlap between synuclein proteins and to understand their role in presynaptic signalling from mesostriatal dopaminergic neurons, we produced mice lacking all three members of the synuclein family. The effect on the mesostriatal system was assessed in adult (4-14 month old) animals using a combination of behavioural, biochemical, histological and electrochemical techniques. Adult triple synuclein null (TKO) mice displayed no overt phenotype, and no change in the number of midbrain dopaminergic neurons. TKO mice were hyperactive in novel environments and exhibited elevated evoked release of dopamine in the striatum detected with fast-scan cyclic voltammetry. Elevated dopamine release was specific to the dorsal not ventral striatum and was accompanied by a decrease of dopamine tissue content. We confirmed a normal synaptic ultrastructure and a normal abundance of SNARE protein complexes in the dorsal striatum. Treatment of TKO animals with drugs affecting dopamine metabolism revealed normal rate of synthesis, enhanced turnover and reduced presynaptic striatal dopamine stores. Our data uniquely reveal the importance of the synuclein proteins in regulating neurotransmitter release from specific populations of midbrain dopamine neurons through mechanisms which differ from those reported in other neurons. The finding that the complete loss of synucleins leads to changes in dopamine handling by presynaptic terminals specifically in those regions preferentially vulnerable in Parkinson’s disease (PD) may ultimately inform on the selectivity of the disease process. PMID:21593311

  4. Consequences of Family Member Incarceration: Impacts on Civic Participation and Perceptions of the Legitimacy and Fairness of Government

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hedwig; Porter, Lauren C.; Comfort, Megan

    2015-01-01

    Political participation and citizens' perceptions of the legitimacy and fairness of government are central components of democracy. In this article, we examine one possible threat to these markers of a just political system: family member incarceration. We offer a unique glimpse into the broader social consequences of punishment that are brought on by a partner's or parent's incarceration. We argue that the criminal justice system serves as an important institution for political socialization for the families of those imprisoned, affecting their attitudes and orientations toward the government and their will and capacity to become involved in political life. We draw from ethnographic data collected by one of the authors, quantitative data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, and interviews with recently released male prisoners and their female partners. Our findings suggest that experiences of a family member's incarceration complicate perceptions of government legitimacy and fairness and serve as a barrier to civic participation. PMID:26185334

  5. Consequences of Family Member Incarceration: Impacts on Civic Participation and Perceptions of the Legitimacy and Fairness of Government.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hedwig; Porter, Lauren C; Comfort, Megan

    2014-01-01

    Political participation and citizens' perceptions of the legitimacy and fairness of government are central components of democracy. In this article, we examine one possible threat to these markers of a just political system: family member incarceration. We offer a unique glimpse into the broader social consequences of punishment that are brought on by a partner's or parent's incarceration. We argue that the criminal justice system serves as an important institution for political socialization for the families of those imprisoned, affecting their attitudes and orientations toward the government and their will and capacity to become involved in political life. We draw from ethnographic data collected by one of the authors, quantitative data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, and interviews with recently released male prisoners and their female partners. Our findings suggest that experiences of a family member's incarceration complicate perceptions of government legitimacy and fairness and serve as a barrier to civic participation.

  6. A model of genetic guidance for hemoglobinopathy patients and laboratory diagnosis of family members as educational and preventive measures

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira, Tatiana Dela-Sávia; Freire, Adriana Sousa; Silveira-Lacerda, Elisângela de Paula; García-Zapata, Marco Túlio Antônio

    2012-01-01

    Background: The high frequency of hemoglobinopathies in Brazil constitutes a public health problem and thus educational and preventive measures are necessary to reduce the incidence. Genetic guidance, a modality of genetic counseling, and family screening are measures that can assist in reproductive decisions and mitigate clinical, psychological and social problems of families with these disorders. Objetive: The objective of the current study was to evaluate the effectiveness of educational and preventive measures for hemoglobinopathies using genetic guidance and laboratory screening of families. Methods: The diagnoses of patients with hemoglobinopathies were confirmed and then the level of knowledge about their disease was evaluated and genetic guidance was provided. Three months later, the level of assimilated information of these patients was evaluated. In addition, laboratory diagnosis of family members was carried out. Results: Diagnosis of sickle cell anemia was confirmed for most patients. Moreover, the majority of the patients who had a low level of knowledge before genetic guidance (68.8%) demonstrated a higher level of assimilated information after the process (81.8%). Almost 70% of the family members had hemoglobin changes and some had hemoglobinopathies(2.6%). They were duly informed about the results of the examinations, which made it possible to investigate further. Conclusion: Genetic guidance and family screening were effective preventive and educational measures that improved the quality of life of patients, preventing complications and sequels and allowed the referral of those who may transmit altered genes for clinical diagnosis and to genetic counseling services. PMID:23125541

  7. JAK family members: Molecular cloning, expression profiles and their roles in leptin influencing lipid metabolism in Synechogobius hasta.

    PubMed

    Wu, Kun; Tan, Xiao-Ying; Xu, Yi-Huan; Shi, Xi; Fan, Yao-Fang; Li, Dan-Dan; Liu, Xu

    2017-01-01

    Janus kinase (JAK) is a family of non-receptor tyrosine kinases that participate in transducing cytokine signals from the external environment to the nucleus in various biological processes. Currently, information about their genes structure and evolutionary history has been extensively studied in mammals as well as in several fish species. By contrast, limited reports have addressed potential role of diverse JAK in signaling responses to leptin in fish. In this study, we identified and characterized five JAK members of Synechogobius hasta. Compared to mammals, more members of the JAK family were found in S. hasta, which provided evidence that the JAK family members had arisen by the whole genome duplications during vertebrate evolution. For protein structure, all of these members possessed similar domains compared with those of mammals. Their mRNAs were expressed in a wide range of tissues, but at the different levels. Incubation in vitro of freshly isolated hepatocytes of S. hasta with different concentrations of recombinant human leptin decreased the intracellular triglyceride content and lipogenic genes expression, and increased mRNA expression of several JAK and lipolytic genes. AG490, a specific inhibitor of JAK, reversed leptin-induced effects on TG content and JAK2a, JAK2b, hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL2) and acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACCa), indicating that the JAK2a/b may have mediated the actions of leptin on lipid metabolism at transcriptional level.

  8. Hispanic/Latino Adolescents' Alcohol Use: Influence of Family Structure, Perceived Peer Norms, and Family Members' Alcohol Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, Wura; Barry, Adam E.; Xu, Lei; Valente, Thomas W.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Family structure and value system among Hispanic/Latino population are changing. However, very few studies have examined the combination of the influence of family structure, parental and sibling alcohol use, perceived peer norms about drinking, and alcohol use among Hispanic/Latino adolescents. Purpose: This study examined the…

  9. Building on the Hopes and Dreams of Latino Families with Young Children: Findings from Family Member Focus Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gregg, Katy; Rugg, Mary; Stoneman, Zolinda

    2012-01-01

    In the past, Latino families were often regarded as being uninvolved in their child's education, particularly within the parent involvement literature. More recently, authors are encouraging educational professionals to look at a family's "funds of knowledge" to encourage their involvement. This expression takes into account the knowledge a…

  10. Expression profile of SIX family members correlates with clinic-pathological features and prognosis of breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Han-Xiao; Wu, Kong-Ju; Tian, Yi-Jun; Liu, Qian; Han, Na; He, Xue-Lian; Yuan, Xun; Wu, Gen Sheng; Wu, Kong-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Sineoculis homeobox homolog (SIX) family proteins, including SIX1, SIX2, SIX3, SIX4, SIX5, and SIX6, have been implicated in the initiation and progression of breast cancer, but the role of each member in breast tumor is not fully understood. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the association between the mRNA levels of all 6 members and clinic-pathological characteristics and clinical outcome of breast cancer patients based on the PRISMA statement criteria. ArrayExpress and Oncomine were searched for eligible databases published up to December 10, 2015. The association between the mRNA expression of SIX family members and clinic-pathological features and prognosis was measured by the odds ratio (OR), hazard ratio (HR), and the corresponding 95% confidence interval (CI), respectively. All statistical analyses were performed using STATA software. In total, 20 published Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) databases with 3555 patients were analyzed. Our analysis revealed that patients with SIX1 overexpression had worse overall survival (OS) (HR: 1.28, 95% CI: 1.03–1.58) and shorter relapse-free survival (RFS) (HR: 1.28, 95% CI: 1.05–1.56), and much worse prognosis for luminal breast cancer patients with SIX1 overexpression (OS: HR: 1.64, 95% CI: 1.13–2.39; RFS: HR: 1.43, 95% CI: 1.06–1.93). We found that patients with higher SIX2 level had shorter time to both relapse and metastasis. However, high SIX3 mRNA level was a protective factor for OS and RFS of basal-like breast cancer patients. Our study suggested that members of SIX family played distinct roles in breast cancer. Detailed analysis of the expression of the SIX family members might provide useful information to predict breast cancer progression and prognosis. PMID:27399099

  11. A New Approach for Assessing the Needs of Service Members and Their Families

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    About Army Families: 2007 Update, Fairfax, Va.: ICF International, 2007. Booth, Bradford, Mady W. Segal, and Nick Place, National Leadership Summit on...Hillenbrand, Elizabeth D., “Father Absence in Military Families,” The Family Coordinator, Vol. 25, No. 4, 1976, pp. 451–458. Hodge , Isabel

  12. Heteromeric complexes of heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) family members, including Hsp70B′, in differentiated human neuronal cells

    PubMed Central

    Chow, Ari M.; Mok, Philip; Xiao, Dawn; Khalouei, Sam

    2010-01-01

    Human neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis have been termed “protein misfolding disorders.” Upregulation of heat shock proteins that target misfolded aggregation-prone proteins has been proposed as a potential therapeutic strategy to counter neurodegenerative disorders. The heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) family is well characterized for its cytoprotective effects against cell death and has been implicated in neuroprotection by overexpression studies. HSP70 family members exhibit sequence and structural conservation. The significance of the multiplicity of HSP70 proteins is unknown. In this study, coimmunoprecipitation was employed to determine if association of HSP70 family members occurs, including Hsp70B′ which is present in the human genome but not in mouse and rat. Heteromeric complexes of Hsp70B′, Hsp70, and Hsc70 were detected in differentiated human SH-SY5Y neuronal cells. Hsp70B′ also formed complexes with Hsp40 suggesting a common co-chaperone for HSP70 family members. PMID:20084477

  13. Vstm3 is a Member of the CD28 Family and an Important Modulator of T Cell Function

    PubMed Central

    Taft, David W.; Brandt, Cameron S.; Bucher, Christoph; Howard, Edward D.; Chadwick, Eric M.; Johnston, Janet; Hammond, Angela; Bontadelli, Kristen; Ardourel, Daniel; Hebb, LuAnn; Wolf, Anitra; Bukowski, Thomas R.; Rixon, Mark W.; Kuijper, Joseph L.; Ostrander, Craig D.; West, James W.; Bilsborough, Janine; Fox, Brian; Gao, Zeren; Xu, Wenfeng; Ramsdell, Fred; Blazar, Bruce R.; Lewis, Katherine E.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Members of the CD28 family play important roles in regulating T cell functions and share a common gene structure profile. We have identified VSTM3 as a protein whose gene structure matches that of the other CD28 family members. This protein (also known as TIGIT and WUCAM) has been previously shown to affect immune responses and is expressed on NK cells, activated and memory T cells, and regulatory T cells. The nectin-family proteins CD155 and CD112 serve as counter-structures for VSTM3 and CD155 and CD112 also bind to the activating receptor CD226 on T cells and NK cells. Hence, this group of interacting proteins forms a network of molecules similar to the well-characterized CD28-CTLA4-CD80-CD86 network. In the same way that soluble CTLA4 can be used to block T cell responses, we show that soluble Vstm3 attenuates T cell responses in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, animals deficient in Vstm3 are more sensitive to autoimmune challenges indicating that this new member of the CD28 family is an important regulator of T cell responses. PMID:21416464

  14. Functional characterisation of three members of the Vitis vinifera L. carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase gene family

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In plants, carotenoids serve as the precursors to C13-norisoprenoids, a group of apocarotenoid compounds with diverse biological functions. Enzymatic cleavage of carotenoids catalysed by members of the carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase (CCD) family has been shown to produce a number of industrially important volatile flavour and aroma apocarotenoids including β-ionone, geranylacetone, pseudoionone, α-ionone and 3-hydroxy-β-ionone in a range of plant species. Apocarotenoids contribute to the floral and fruity attributes of many wine cultivars and are thereby, at least partly, responsible for the “varietal character”. Despite their importance in grapes and wine; carotenoid cleavage activity has only been described for VvCCD1 and the mechanism(s) and regulation of carotenoid catabolism remains largely unknown. Results Three grapevine-derived CCD-encoding genes have been isolated and shown to be functional with unique substrate cleavage capacities. Our results demonstrate that the VvCCD4a and VvCCD4b catalyse the cleavage of both linear and cyclic carotenoid substrates. The expression of VvCCD1, VvCCD4a and VvCCD4b was detected in leaf, flower and throughout berry development. VvCCD1 expression was constitutive, whereas VvCCD4a expression was predominant in leaves and VvCCD4b in berries. A transgenic population with a 12-fold range of VvCCD1 expression exhibited a lack of correlation between VvCCD1 expression and carotenoid substrates and/or apocarotenoid products in leaves, providing proof that the in planta function(s) of VvCCD1 in photosynthetically active tissue is distinct from the in vitro activities demonstrated. The isolation and functional characterisation of VvCCD4a and VvCCD4b identify two additional CCDs that are functional in grapevine. Conclusions Taken together, our results indicate that the three CCDs are under various levels of control that include gene expression (spatial and temporal), substrate specificity and compartmentalisation

  15. A novel member of the family Hepeviridae from cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarkii).

    PubMed

    Batts, William; Yun, Susan; Hedrick, Ronald; Winton, James

    2011-06-01

    Beginning in 1988, the Chinook salmon embryo (CHSE-214) cell line was used to isolate a novel virus from spawning adult trout in the state of California, USA. Termed the cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarkii) virus (CTV), the small, round virus was not associated with disease, but was subsequently found to be present in an increasing number of trout populations in the western USA, likely by a combination of improved surveillance activities and the shipment of infected eggs to new locations. Here, we report that the full length genome of the 1988 Heenan Lake isolate of CTV consisted of 7269 nucleotides of positive-sense, single-stranded RNA beginning with a 5' untranslated region (UTR), followed by three open reading frames (ORFs), a 3' UTR and ending in a polyA tail. The genome of CTV was similar in size and organization to that of Hepatitis E virus (HEV) with which it shared the highest nucleotide and amino acid sequence identities. Similar to the genomes of human, rodent or avian hepeviruses, ORF 1 encoded a large, non-structural polyprotein that included conserved methyltransferase, protease, helicase and polymerase domains, while ORF 2 encoded the structural capsid protein and ORF 3 the phosphoprotein. Together, our data indicated that CTV was clearly a member of the family Hepeviridae, although the level of amino acid sequence identity with the ORFs of mammalian or avian hepeviruses (13-27%) may be sufficiently low to warrant the creation of a novel genus. We also performed a phylogenetic analysis using a 262nt region within ORF 1 for 63 isolates of CTV obtained from seven species of trout reared in various geographic locations in the western USA. While the sequences fell into two genetic clades, the overall nucleotide diversity was low (less than 8.4%) and many isolates differed by only 1-2 nucleotides, suggesting an epidemiological link. Finally, we showed that CTV was able to form persistently infected cultures of the CHSE-214 cell line that may have use in

  16. Aberrant Hypomethylation of Solute Carrier Family 6 Member 12 Promoter Induces Metastasis of Ovarian Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Sung, Hye Youn; Yang, San-Duk; Park, Ae Kyung

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Ovarian cancer (OC) is the most fatal of gynecological malignancies with a high rate of recurrence. We aimed to evaluate the expression of solute carrier family 6, member 12 (SLC6A12) and methylation of its promoter CpG sites in a xenograft mouse model of metastatic OC, and to investigate the regulatory mechanisms that promote aggressive properties during OC progression. Materials and Methods Expression of SLC6A12 mRNA was determined by reverse-transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR), and DNA methylation status of its promoter CpGs was detected by quantitative methylation-specific PCR. The metastatic potential of SLC6A12 was evaluated by in vitro migration/invasion transwell assays. Gene expression and DNA methylation of SLC6A12 and clinical outcomes were further investigated from publicly available databases from curatedOvarianData and The Cancer Genome Atlas. Results SLC6A12 expression was 8.1–14.0-fold upregulated and its DNA methylation of promoter CpG sites was 41–62% decreased in tumor metastases. After treatment with DNA methyltransferase inhibitor and/or histone deacetylase inhibitor, the expression of SLC6A12 was profoundly enhanced (~8.0-fold), strongly supporting DNA methylation-dependent epigenetic regulation of SLC6A12. Overexpression of SLC6A12 led to increased migration and invasion of ovarian carcinoma cells in vitro, approximately 2.0-fold and 3.3-fold, respectively. The meta-analysis showed that high expression of SLC6A12 was significantly associated with poor overall survival [hazard ratio (HR)=1.07, p value=0.016] and that low DNA methylation levels of SLC6A12 at specific promoter CpG site negatively affected patient survival. Conclusion Our findings provide novel evidence for the biological and clinical significance of SLC6A12 as a metastasis-promoting gene. PMID:27873492

  17. A novel member of the family Hepeviridae from cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarkii)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Batts, William; Yun, Susan; Hedrick, Ronald; Winton, James

    2011-01-01

    Beginning in 1988, the Chinook salmon embryo (CHSE-214) cell line was used to isolate a novel virus from spawning adult trout in the state of California, USA. Termed the cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarkii) virus (CTV), the small, round virus was not associated with disease, but was subsequently found to be present in an increasing number of trout populations in the western USA, likely by a combination of improved surveillance activities and the shipment of infected eggs to new locations. Here, we report that the full length genome of the 1988 Heenan Lake isolate of CTV consisted of 7269 nucleotides of positive-sense, single-stranded RNA beginning with a 5' untranslated region (UTR), followed by three open reading frames (ORFs), a 3' UTR and ending in a polyA tail. The genome of CTV was similar in size and organization to that of Hepatitis E virus (HEV) with which it shared the highest nucleotide and amino acid sequence identities. Similar to the genomes of human, rodent or avian hepeviruses, ORF 1 encoded a large, non-structural polyprotein that included conserved methyltransferase, protease, helicase and polymerase domains, while ORF 2 encoded the structural capsid protein and ORF 3 the phosphoprotein. Together, our data indicated that CTV was clearly a member of the family Hepeviridae, although the level of amino acid sequence identity with the ORFs of mammalian or avian hepeviruses (13-27%) may be sufficiently low to warrant the creation of a novel genus. We also performed a phylogenetic analysis using a 262. nt region within ORF 1 for 63 isolates of CTV obtained from seven species of trout reared in various geographic locations in the western USA. While the sequences fell into two genetic clades, the overall nucleotide diversity was low (less than 8.4%) and many isolates differed by only 1-2 nucleotides, suggesting an epidemiological link. Finally, we showed that CTV was able to form persistently infected cultures of the CHSE-214 cell line that may have use

  18. The relationship between religion, illness and death in life histories of family members of children with life-threatening diseases.

    PubMed

    Bousso, Regina Szylit; Serafim, Taís de Souza; Misko, Maira Deguer

    2010-01-01

    This qualitative study aimed to get to know the relationship between the experiences of families of children with a life-threatening disease and their religion, illness and life histories. The methodological framework was based on Oral History. The data were collected through interviews and the participants were nine families from six different religions who had lived the experience of having a child with a life-threatening disease. The interviews, held with one or two family members, were transcribed, textualized and, through their analysis, the Vital Tone was elaborated, representing the moral synthesis of each narrative. Three dimensions of spirituality were related to illness and death in their life histories: a Higher Being with a healing power; Development and Maintenance of a Connection with God and Faith Encouraging Optimism. The narratives demonstrated the family's search to attribute meanings to their experiences, based on their religious beliefs.

  19. Beta-glucuronidase of family-2 glycosyl hydrolase: a missing member in plants.

    PubMed

    Arul, Loganathan; Benita, George; Sudhakar, Duraialagaraja; Thayumanavan, Balsamy; Balasubramanian, Ponnusamy

    2008-01-01

    Glycosyl hydrolases hydrolyze the glycosidic bond in carbohydrates or between a carbohydrate and a non-carbohydrate moiety. beta-glucuronidase (GUS) is classified under two glycosyl hydrolase families (2 and 79) and the family-2 beta-glucuronidase is reported in a wide range of organisms, but not in plants. The family-79 endo-beta-glucuronidase (heparanase) is reported in microorganisms, vertebrates and plants. The E. coli family-2 beta-glucuronidase (uidA) had been successfully devised as a reporter gene in plant transformation on the basis that plants do not have homologous GUS activity. On the contrary, histochemical staining with X-Gluc was reported in wild type (non-transgenic) plants. Data shows that, family-2 beta-glucuronidase homologous sequence is not found in plants. Further, beta-glucuronidases of family-2 and 79 lack appreciable sequence similarity. However, the catalytic site residues, glutamic acid and tyrosine of the family-2 beta-glucuronidase are found to be conserved in family-79 beta-glucuronidase of plants. This led to propose that the GUS staining reported in wild type plants is largely because of the broad substrate specificity of family-79 beta-glucuronidase on X-Gluc and not due to the family-2 beta-glucuronidase, as the latter has been found to be missing in plants.

  20. The maize (Zea mays ssp. mays var. B73) genome encodes 33 members of the purple acid phosphatase family

    PubMed Central

    González-Muñoz, Eliécer; Avendaño-Vázquez, Aida-Odette; Montes, Ricardo A. Chávez; de Folter, Stefan; Andrés-Hernández, Liliana; Abreu-Goodger, Cei; Sawers, Ruairidh J. H.

    2015-01-01

    Purple acid phosphatases (PAPs) play an important role in plant phosphorus nutrition, both by liberating phosphorus from organic sources in the soil and by modulating distribution within the plant throughout growth and development. Furthermore, members of the PAP protein family have been implicated in a broader role in plant mineral homeostasis, stress responses and development. We have identified 33 candidate PAP encoding gene models in the maize (Zea mays ssp. mays var. B73) reference genome. The maize Pap family includes a clear single-copy ortholog of the Arabidopsis gene AtPAP26, shown previously to encode both major intracellular and secreted acid phosphatase activities. Certain groups of PAPs present in Arabidopsis, however, are absent in maize, while the maize family contains a number of expansions, including a distinct radiation not present in Arabidopsis. Analysis of RNA-sequencing based transcriptome data revealed accumulation of maize Pap transcripts in multiple plant tissues at multiple stages of development, and increased accumulation of specific transcripts under low phosphorus availability. These data suggest the maize PAP family as a whole to have broad significance throughout the plant life cycle, while highlighting potential functional specialization of individual family members. PMID:26042133

  1. The maize (Zea mays ssp. mays var. B73) genome encodes 33 members of the purple acid phosphatase family.

    PubMed

    González-Muñoz, Eliécer; Avendaño-Vázquez, Aida-Odette; Montes, Ricardo A Chávez; de Folter, Stefan; Andrés-Hernández, Liliana; Abreu-Goodger, Cei; Sawers, Ruairidh J H

    2015-01-01

    Purple acid phosphatases (PAPs) play an important role in plant phosphorus nutrition, both by liberating phosphorus from organic sources in the soil and by modulating distribution within the plant throughout growth and development. Furthermore, members of the PAP protein family have been implicated in a broader role in plant mineral homeostasis, stress responses and development. We have identified 33 candidate PAP encoding gene models in the maize (Zea mays ssp. mays var. B73) reference genome. The maize Pap family includes a clear single-copy ortholog of the Arabidopsis gene AtPAP26, shown previously to encode both major intracellular and secreted acid phosphatase activities. Certain groups of PAPs present in Arabidopsis, however, are absent in maize, while the maize family contains a number of expansions, including a distinct radiation not present in Arabidopsis. Analysis of RNA-sequencing based transcriptome data revealed accumulation of maize Pap transcripts in multiple plant tissues at multiple stages of development, and increased accumulation of specific transcripts under low phosphorus availability. These data suggest the maize PAP family as a whole to have broad significance throughout the plant life cycle, while highlighting potential functional specialization of individual family members.

  2. Constructing and enacting kinship in sister-to-sister egg donation families: a multi-family member interview study.

    PubMed

    Van Parys, Hanna; Provoost, Veerle; Zeiler, Kristin; De Sutter, Petra; Pennings, Guido; Buysse, Ann

    2016-12-05

    Although intra-familial egg donation has been practiced for more than 15 years in several countries, little is known about family relationships in this family type. Framed within the new kinship studies, this article focuses on the experiential dimension of kinship in sister-to-sister egg donation families: how is kinship 'unpacked' and 'reconstructed' in this specific family constellation? Qualitative data analysis of interviews with receiving parents, their donating sisters and the donor children revealed six themes: (1) being connected as an extended family; (2) disambiguating motherhood; (3) giving and receiving as structuring processes; (4) acknowledging and managing the 'special' link between donor and child; (5) making sense of the union between father and donor; and (6) kinship constructions being challenged. This study showed the complex and continuous balancing of meanings related to the mother-child dyad, the donor-child dyad and the donor-father dyad. What stood out was the complexity of, on the one hand cherishing the genetic link with the child allowed by the sisters' egg donation, while, on the other, managing the meanings related to this link, by, for instance, acknowledging, downsizing, symbolising, and differentiating it from the mother-child bond. (A Virtual Abstract of this paper can be accessed at: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UC_979cmCmR9rLrKuD7z0ycA).

  3. Honoring their service: behavioral health services in North Carolina for military service members, veterans, and their families.

    PubMed

    Alexander-Bratcher, Kimberly M; Martin, Grier; Purcell, William R; Watson, Michael; Silberman, Pam

    2011-01-01

    The North Carolina Institute of Medicine Task Force on Behavioral Health Services for the Military and Their Families examined the adequacy of Medicaid- and state-funded services for mental health conditions, developmental disabilities (including traumatic brain injury), and substance abuse that are currently available in North Carolina to military service members, veterans, and their families. The task force determined that there are several gaps in services and made 13 recommendations related to federal, state, and local community resources. This article reviews the work of the task force and current efforts to improve services in North Carolina.

  4. The squash aspartic proteinase inhibitor SQAPI is widely present in the cucurbitales, comprises a small multigene family, and is a member of the phytocystatin family.

    PubMed

    Christeller, John T; Farley, Peter C; Marshall, Richelle K; Anandan, Ananda; Wright, Michele M; Newcomb, Richard D; Laing, William A

    2006-12-01

    The squash (Cucurbita maxima) phloem exudate-expressed aspartic proteinase inhibitor (SQAPI) is a novel aspartic acid proteinase inhibitor, constituting a fifth family of aspartic proteinase inhibitors. However, a comparison of the SQAPI sequence to the phytocystatin (a cysteine proteinase inhibitor) family sequences showed approximately 30% identity. Modeling SQAPI onto the structure of oryzacystatin gave an excellent fit; regions identified as proteinase binding loops in cystatin coincided with regions of SQAPI identified as hypervariable, and tryptophan fluorescence changes were also consistent with a cystatin structure. We show that SQAPI exists as a small gene family. Characterization of mRNA and clone walking of genomic DNA (gDNA) produced 10 different but highly homologous SQAPI genes from Cucurbita maxima and the small family size was confirmed by Southern blotting, where evidence for at least five loci was obtained. Using primers designed from squash sequences, PCR of gDNA showed the presence of SQAPI genes in other members of the Cucurbitaceae and in representative members of Coriariaceae, Corynocarpaceae, and Begoniaceae. Thus, at least four of seven families of the order Cucurbitales possess member species with SQAPI genes, covering approximately 99% of the species in this order. A phylogenetic analysis of these Cucurbitales SQAPI genes indicated not only that SQAPI was present in the Cucurbitales ancestor but also that gene duplication has occurred during evolution of the order. Phytocystatins are widespread throughout the plant kingdom, suggesting that SQAPI has evolved recently from a phytocystatin ancestor. This appears to be the first instance of a cystatin being recruited as a proteinase inhibitor of another proteinase family.

  5. Cloning, characterization and chromosomal assignment of NBC4, a new member of the sodium bicarbonate cotransporter family.

    PubMed

    Pushkin, A; Abuladze, N; Newman, D; Lee, I; Xu, G; Kurtz, I

    2000-09-07

    We report the cloning, characterization and chromosomal assignment of a new member of the sodium bicarbonate cotransporter (NBC) family, NBC4, from human heart. NBC4 maps to chromosome 2p13 and is a new candidate gene for Alstrom syndrome. NBC4 encodes a 1074-residue polypeptide with 12 putative membrane-spanning domains. Unlike other members of the NBC family, NBC4 has a unique glycine-rich region (amino acids 438-485). In addition, NBC4 lacks the lysine-rich C-terminus of NBC1 with which it is most homologous. The first of two putative stilbene binding motifs (K(M/L)(X)K) is lacking in NBC4 (amino acids 655-658). The approximately 6 kb NBC4 transcript is moderately expressed in heart, with the highest expression in liver, testes and spleen.

  6. Perceived Stress, Heart Rate, and Blood Pressure among Adolescents with Family Members Deployed in Operation Iraqi Freedom

    PubMed Central

    Barnes, Vernon A.; Davis, Harry; Treiber, Frank A.

    2012-01-01

    This study compared the impact of the 2003 Operation Iraqi Freedom on heart rate (HR) and blood pressure (BP) and self-reported stress levels among three groups of self-categorized adolescents: 1) military dependents with family members deployed; 2) military dependents with no family members deployed; 3) civilian dependents. At the onset and end of the “major hostilities” of Operation Iraqi Freedom, 121 adolescents (mean age = 15.8 ± 1.1 years) completed questionnaires evaluating the psychological impact of the war and were evaluated for HR and BP. The military deployed dependents exhibited significantly higher HR than other groups at both evaluations (both p < 0.04). Ethnicity by group interactions indicated that European American-deployed dependents had higher stress scores at both time points (p < 0.02). Military dependent European Americans exhibited higher systolic BP compared to the other groups on the second evaluation (p < 0.03). PMID:17274264

  7. 5 CFR 894.203 - If I have a self plus one enrollment, when may I change which family member I want to cover or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false If I have a self plus one enrollment... plus one enrollment, when may I change which family member I want to cover or change to self only? You may change your covered family member under a self plus one enrollment or change to self only...

  8. A Radiation Badge Survey for Family Members Living With Patients Treated With a {sup 103}Pd Permanent Breast Seed Implant

    SciTech Connect

    Keller, Brian M. Pignol, Jean-Philippe; Rakovitch, Eileen; Sankreacha, Raxa; O'Brien, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: Sixty-seven patients with early-stage breast cancer were treated in a Phase I/II clinical trial using a {sup 103}Pd permanent breast seed implant as adjuvant radiotherapy after breast-conserving surgery. We report the dose received by family members living with these patients and compare measured doses with theoretical worst-case scenario estimates. Methods and Materials: Exposure-rate measurements were taken at 1 m from the patient by using a calibrated low-energy survey meter. Landauer (Landauer Inc., Glenwood, IL) Luxel badges, with sensitivity of 0.01 mSv, were given to family members to wear after the implantation. Badge readings for 33 spouses and 28 other family members were used to estimate effective doses, and these were compared with theory. Results: Average preimplantation planning target volume from computed tomography was 50.3 ml (range, 18.0-96.7 ml), and average preimplantation distance between the skin and the most anterior planning target volume margin was 0.57 cm. The average maximum exposure rate was measured to be 2.4 {+-} 1.1 mR/h, and average measured dose to a spouse was 0.99 {+-} 1.0 mSv. The calculated exposure rates and spousal doses using preimplantation computed tomography scan data overestimated those measured. Average measured family member dose (excluding spouses) was 0.20 {+-} 0.58 mSv. Conclusions: Based on measured and calculated spousal doses, a permanent breast seed implant using {sup 103}Pd is safe for the public. However, it is recommended that extra precautions in the way of a breast patch be used when patients with an implant will be in the vicinity of toddlers or pregnant women.

  9. A specific member of the Cab multigene family can be efficiently targeted and disrupted in the moss Physcomitrella patens.

    PubMed

    Hofmann, A H; Codón, A C; Ivascu, C; Russo, V E; Knight, C; Cove, D; Schaefer, D G; Chakhparonian, M; Zrÿd, J P

    1999-02-01

    The analysis of phenotypic change resulting from gene disruption following homologous recombination provides a powerful technique for the study of gene function. This technique has so far been difficult to apply to plants because the frequency of gene disruption following transformation with constructs containing DNA homologous to genomic sequences is low (0.01 to 0.1%). It has recently been shown that high rates of gene disruption (up to 90%) can be achieved in the moss Physcomitrella patens using genomic sequences of unknown function. We have used this system to examine the specificity of gene disruption in Physcomitrella using a member of the Cab multigene family. We have employed the previously characterised Cab gene ZLAB1 and have isolated segments of 13 other closely related members of the Cab gene family. In the 199-bp stretch sequenced, the 13 new members of the Cab family show an average of 8.5% divergence from the DNA sequence of ZLAB1. We observed 304 silent substitutions and 16 substitutions that lead to a change in the amino acid sequence of the protein. We cloned 1029 bp of the coding region of ZLAB1 (including 177 of the 199 bp with high homology to the 13 new Cab genes) into a vector containing a selectable hygromycin resistance marker, and used this construct to transform P. patens. In three of nine stable transformants tested, the construct had inserted in, and disrupted, the ZLAB1 gene. There was no discernible phenotype associated with the disruption. We have therefore shown that gene disruption is reproducible in P. patens and that the requirement for sequence homology appears to be stringent, therefore allowing the role of individual members of a gene family to be analysed in land plants for the first time.

  10. Suppression of interferon β gene transcription by inhibitors of bromodomain and extra-terminal (BET) family members.

    PubMed

    Malik, Nazma; Vollmer, Stefan; Nanda, Sambit Kumar; Lopez-Pelaez, Marta; Prescott, Alan; Gray, Nathanael; Cohen, Philip

    2015-06-15

    PLK (Polo-like kinase) inhibitors, such as BI-2536, have been reported to suppress IFNB (encoding IFNβ, interferon β) gene transcription induced by ligands that activate TLR3 (Toll-like receptor 3) and TLR4. In the present study, we found that BI-2536 is likely to exert this effect by preventing the interaction of the transcription factors IRF3 (interferon-regulatory factor 3) and c-Jun with the IFNB promoter, but without affecting the TBK1 {TANK [TRAF (tumour-necrosis-factor-receptor-associated factor)-associated nuclear factor κB activator]-binding kinase 1}-catalysed phosphorylation of IRF3 at Ser³⁹⁶, the dimerization and nuclear translocation of IRF3 or the phosphorylation of c-Jun and ATF2 (activating transcription factor 2). Although BI-2536 inhibits few other kinases tested, it interacts with BET (bromodomain and extra-terminal) family members and displaces them from acetylated lysine residues on histones. We found that BET inhibitors that do not inhibit PLKs phenocopied the effect of BI-2536 on IFNB gene transcription. Similarly, BET inhibitors blocked the interaction of IRF5 with the IFNB promoter and the secretion of IFNβ induced by TLR7 or TLR9 ligands in the human plasmacytoid dendritic cell line GEN2.2, but without affecting the nuclear translocation of IRF5. We found that the BET family member BRD4 (bromodomain-containing protein 4) was associated with the IFNB promoter and that this interaction was enhanced by TLR3- or TLR4-ligation and prevented by BI-2536 and other BET inhibitors. Our results establish that BET family members are essential for TLR-stimulated IFNB gene transcription by permitting transcription factors to interact with the IFNB promoter. They also show that the interaction of the IFNB promoter with BRD4 is regulated by TLR ligation and that BI-2536 is likely to suppress IFNB gene transcription by targeting BET family members.

  11. Evolutionary origin of the Scombridae (tunas and mackerels): members of a paleogene adaptive radiation with 14 other pelagic fish families.

    PubMed

    Miya, Masaki; Friedman, Matt; Satoh, Takashi P; Takeshima, Hirohiko; Sado, Tetsuya; Iwasaki, Wataru; Yamanoue, Yusuke; Nakatani, Masanori; Mabuchi, Kohji; Inoue, Jun G; Poulsen, Jan Yde; Fukunaga, Tsukasa; Sato, Yukuto; Nishida, Mutsumi

    2013-01-01

    Uncertainties surrounding the evolutionary origin of the epipelagic fish family Scombridae (tunas and mackerels) are symptomatic of the difficulties in resolving suprafamilial relationships within Percomorpha, a hyperdiverse teleost radiation that contains approximately 17,000 species placed in 13 ill-defined orders and 269 families. Here we find that scombrids share a common ancestry with 14 families based on (i) bioinformatic analyses using partial mitochondrial and nuclear gene sequences from all percomorphs deposited in GenBank (10,733 sequences) and (ii) subsequent mitogenomic analysis based on 57 species from those targeted 15 families and 67 outgroup taxa. Morphological heterogeneity among these 15 families is so extraordinary that they have been placed in six different perciform suborders. However, members of the 15 families are either coastal or oceanic pelagic in their ecology with diverse modes of life, suggesting that they represent a previously undetected adaptive radiation in the pelagic realm. Time-calibrated phylogenies imply that scombrids originated from a deep-ocean ancestor and began to radiate after the end-Cretaceous when large predatory epipelagic fishes were selective victims of the Cretaceous-Paleogene mass extinction. We name this clade of open-ocean fishes containing Scombridae "Pelagia" in reference to the common habitat preference that links the 15 families.

  12. Evolutionary Origin of the Scombridae (Tunas and Mackerels): Members of a Paleogene Adaptive Radiation with 14 Other Pelagic Fish Families

    PubMed Central

    Miya, Masaki; Friedman, Matt; Satoh, Takashi P.; Takeshima, Hirohiko; Sado, Tetsuya; Iwasaki, Wataru; Yamanoue, Yusuke; Nakatani, Masanori; Mabuchi, Kohji; Inoue, Jun G.; Poulsen, Jan Yde; Fukunaga, Tsukasa; Sato, Yukuto; Nishida, Mutsumi

    2013-01-01

    Uncertainties surrounding the evolutionary origin of the epipelagic fish family Scombridae (tunas and mackerels) are symptomatic of the difficulties in resolving suprafamilial relationships within Percomorpha, a hyperdiverse teleost radiation that contains approximately 17,000 species placed in 13 ill-defined orders and 269 families. Here we find that scombrids share a common ancestry with 14 families based on (i) bioinformatic analyses using partial mitochondrial and nuclear gene sequences from all percomorphs deposited in GenBank (10,733 sequences) and (ii) subsequent mitogenomic analysis based on 57 species from those targeted 15 families and 67 outgroup taxa. Morphological heterogeneity among these 15 families is so extraordinary that they have been placed in six different perciform suborders. However, members of the 15 families are either coastal or oceanic pelagic in their ecology with diverse modes of life, suggesting that they represent a previously undetected adaptive radiation in the pelagic realm. Time-calibrated phylogenies imply that scombrids originated from a deep-ocean ancestor and began to radiate after the end-Cretaceous when large predatory epipelagic fishes were selective victims of the Cretaceous-Paleogene mass extinction. We name this clade of open-ocean fishes containing Scombridae “Pelagia” in reference to the common habitat preference that links the 15 families. PMID:24023883

  13. Knowledge and Attitude toward Epilepsy of Close Family Members of People with Epilepsy in North of Iran

    PubMed Central

    Akbarian, Seyyed Ali

    2016-01-01

    Background. Knowledge and attitudes are required for relatives of people with epilepsy to allow them to better understand and cope with this condition. This study evaluated the knowledge and attitudes of family members of people with epilepsy about the disease. Methods. This cross-sectional survey was conducted using a self-administered questionnaire completed by close family members of people with epilepsy at the outpatient clinic of a medical university. The questionnaire included 25 items that determined the demographics and information on the level of knowledge and attitudes about epilepsy. Results. The 124 participants had an average age of 36.88 ± 10.68 years. The mean knowledge score was 10.32 ± 2.25 (range: 4 to 15). 87.1% of respondents answered that epilepsy is a brain disorder, 39 (31.5%) said epilepsy is inherited. As a whole, 62 (50%) had good knowledge about the disease. The mean score of attitude was 7.25 ± 1.54 (range: 2 to 10). 83.9% of respondents believed that a person with epilepsy can get married and get pregnant (76.6%). Overall, 15 (12.1%) had negative attitudes and 109 (87.9%) had positive attitudes. Conclusion. The main findings of this study indicated good knowledge and a positive attitude about epilepsy among family members of people with epilepsy. PMID:28116347

  14. Delivering a very brief psychoeducational program to cancer patients and family members in a large group format.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, A J; Edmonds, C V; Williams, D

    1999-01-01

    It is well established that brief psychoeducational programs for cancer patients will significantly improve mean quality of life. As this kind of adjunctive treatment becomes integrated into general cancer management, it will be necessary to devise cost-effective and efficacious programs that can be offered to relatively large numbers of patients. We have developed a very brief 4-session program that provides this service to 40-80 patients and family members per month (and seems capable of serving much larger numbers, depending on the capacity of the facility in which they assemble). Patients meet in a hospital auditorium for a large group, lecture-style program that offers training in basic coping skills: stress management, relaxation training, thought monitoring and changing, mental imagery and goal setting. Over the first year we have treated 363 patients and 150 family members. Improvements were assessed by changes in the POMS-Short Form, and both patients and family members were found to improve significantly over the course of the program. While this is not a randomized comparison, it suggests that the benefits gained from a large group in a classroom are not substantially less than the improvements that have been documented in the usual small group format, where more interactive discussions are possible.

  15. Evolutionary studies of the nerve growth factor family reveal a novel member abundantly expressed in Xenopus ovary.

    PubMed

    Hallböök, F; Ibáñez, C F; Persson, H

    1991-05-01

    Evolutionary conservation of members of the NGF family in vertebrates was studied by DNA sequence analysis of PCR fragments for NGF, BDNF, and NT-3 from human, rat, chicken, viper, Xenopus, salmon, and ray. The results showed that the three factors are highly conserved from fishes to mammals. Phylogenetic trees reflecting the evolution and speciation of the members of the NGF family were constructed. In addition, the gene for a fourth member of the family, neurotrophin-4 (NT-4), was isolated from Xenopus and viper. The NT-4 gene encodes a precursor protein of 236 amino acids, which is processed into a 123 amino acid mature NT-4 protein with 50%-60% amino acid identity to NGF, BDNF, and NT-3. The NT-4 protein was shown to interact with the low affinity NGF receptor and elicited neurite outgrowth from explanted dorsal root ganglia with no and lower activity in sympathetic and nodose ganglia, respectively. Northern blot analysis of different tissues from Xenopus showed NT-4 mRNA only in ovary, where it was present at levels over 100-fold higher than those of NGF mRNA in heart.

  16. Arabidopsis thaliana BTB/ POZ-MATH proteins interact with members of the ERF/AP2 transcription factor family.

    PubMed

    Weber, Henriette; Hellmann, Hanjo

    2009-11-01

    In Arabidopsis thaliana, the BTB/POZ-MATH (BPM) proteins comprise a small family of six members. They have been described previously to use their broad complex, tram track, bric-a-brac/POX virus and zinc finger (BTB/POZ) domain to assemble with CUL3a and CUL3b and potentially to serve as substrate adaptors to cullin-based E3-ligases in plants. In this article, we show that BPMs can also assemble with members of the ethylene response factor/Apetala2 transcription factor family, and that this is mediated by their meprin and TRAF (tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor) homology (MATH) domain. In addition, we provide a detailed description of BPM gene expression patterns in different tissues and on abiotic stress treatments, as well as their subcellular localization. This work connects, for the first time, BPM proteins with ethylene response factor/Apetala2 family members, which is likely to represent a novel regulatory mechanism of transcriptional control.

  17. Knowledge and Attitude toward Epilepsy of Close Family Members of People with Epilepsy in North of Iran.

    PubMed

    Karimi, Narges; Akbarian, Seyyed Ali

    2016-01-01

    Background. Knowledge and attitudes are required for relatives of people with epilepsy to allow them to better understand and cope with this condition. This study evaluated the knowledge and attitudes of family members of people with epilepsy about the disease. Methods. This cross-sectional survey was conducted using a self-administered questionnaire completed by close family members of people with epilepsy at the outpatient clinic of a medical university. The questionnaire included 25 items that determined the demographics and information on the level of knowledge and attitudes about epilepsy. Results. The 124 participants had an average age of 36.88 ± 10.68 years. The mean knowledge score was 10.32 ± 2.25 (range: 4 to 15). 87.1% of respondents answered that epilepsy is a brain disorder, 39 (31.5%) said epilepsy is inherited. As a whole, 62 (50%) had good knowledge about the disease. The mean score of attitude was 7.25 ± 1.54 (range: 2 to 10). 83.9% of respondents believed that a person with epilepsy can get married and get pregnant (76.6%). Overall, 15 (12.1%) had negative attitudes and 109 (87.9%) had positive attitudes. Conclusion. The main findings of this study indicated good knowledge and a positive attitude about epilepsy among family members of people with epilepsy.

  18. Localization of members of MCT monocarboxylate transporter family Slc16 in the kidney and regulation during metabolic acidosis.

    PubMed

    Becker, Helen M; Mohebbi, Nilufar; Perna, Angelica; Ganapathy, Vadivel; Capasso, Giovambattista; Wagner, Carsten A

    2010-07-01

    The monocarboxylate transporter family (MCT) comprises 14 members with distinct transport properties and tissue distribution. The kidney expresses several members of the MCT family, but only little is known about their exact distribution and function. Here, we investigated selected members of the MCT family in the mouse kidney. MCT1, MCT2, MCT7, and MCT8 localized to basolateral membranes of the epithelial cells lining the nephron. MCT1 and MCT8 were detected in proximal tubule cells whereas MCT7 and MCT2 were located in the thick ascending limb and the distal tubule. CD147, a beta-subunit of MCT1 and MCT4, showed partially overlapping expression with MCT1 and MCT2. However, CD147 was also found in intercalated cells. We also detected SMCT1 and SMCT2, two Na(+)-dependent monocarboxylate cotransporters, on the luminal membrane of type A intercalated cells. Moreover, mice were given an acid load for 2 and 7 days. Acidotic animals showed a marked but transient increase in urinary lactate excretion. During acidosis, a downregulation of MCT1, MCT8, and SMCT2 was observed at the mRNA level, whereas MCT7 and SMCT1 showed increased mRNA abundance. Only MCT7 showed lower protein abundance whereas all other transporters remained unchanged. In summary, we describe for the first time the localization of various MCT transporters in mammalian kidney and demonstrate that metabolic acidosis induces a transient increase in urinary lactate excretion paralleled by lower MCT7 protein expression.

  19. Positive selection, molecular recombination structure and phylogenetic reconstruction of members of the family Tombusviridae: Implication in virus taxonomy.

    PubMed

    Boulila, Moncef

    2011-10-01

    A detailed study of putative recombination events and their evolution frequency in the whole genome of the currently known members of the family Tombusviridae, comprising 79 accessions retrieved from the international databases, was carried out by using the RECCO and RDP version 3.31β algorithms. The first program allowed the detection of potential recombination sites in seven out of eight virus genera (Aureusvirus, Avenavirus, Carmovirus, Dianthovirus, Necrovirus, Panicovirus, and Tombusvirus), the second program provided the same results except for genus Dianthovirus. On the other hand, both methods failed to detect recombination breakpoints in the genome of members of genus Machlomovirus. Furthermore, based on Fisher's Exact Test of Neutrality, positive selection exerted on protein-coding genes was detected in 17 accession pairs involving 15 different lineages. Except genera Machlomovirus, and Panicovirus along with unclassified Tombusviridae, all the other taxonomical genera and the unassigned Tombusviridae encompassed representatives under positive selection. The evolutionary history of all members of the Tombusviridae family showed that they segregated into eight distinct groups corresponding to the eight genera which constitute this family. The inferred phylogeny reshuffled the classification currently adopted by the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses. A reclassification was proposed.

  20. Plasmodium falciparum immunodetection in bone remains of members of the Renaissance Medici family (Florence, Italy, sixteenth century).

    PubMed

    Fornaciari, Gino; Giuffra, Valentina; Ferroglio, Ezio; Gino, Sarah; Bianucci, Raffaella

    2010-09-01

    Medical accounts and ancient autopsy reports imply that tertian malarial fevers caused the death of four members of the Medici family of Florence: Eleonora of Toledo (1522-1562), Cardinal Giovanni (1543-1562), don Garzia (1547-1562) and Grand Duke Francesco I (1531-1587). All members of the Medici family hunted in the endemic malarial areas of Tuscany, such as the marshy areas surrounding their villas and along the swampy Maremma and were, therefore, highly exposed to the risk of being infected by Falciparum malaria. To determine if the original death certificates issued by the court physicians were correct, we carried out immunological investigations and then compared the biological results to the historical sources. Bone samples were examined for the presence of Plasmodium falciparum histidine-rich- protein-2 (PfHRP2) and P. falciparum lactate dehydrogenase (PfLDH) using two different qualitative double-antibody immunoassays. Our findings provide the first modern laboratory evidence of the presence of P. falciparum ancient proteins in the skeletal remains of four members of the Medici family. We confirm the clinical diagnosis of the court physicians, using modern methods. Finally, this study demonstrates that immunodetection can be successfully applied not only to mummified tissues but also to skeletal remains, thus opening new paths of investigation for large archaeological series.