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Sample records for family syndrome kindreds

  1. Genealogy, natural history, and phenotype of Alström syndrome in a large Acadian kindred and three additional families.

    PubMed

    Marshall, J D; Ludman, M D; Shea, S E; Salisbury, S R; Willi, S M; LaRoche, R G; Nishina, P M

    1997-12-12

    We describe a large Acadian kindred including 8 Alstrom Syndrome (AS) patients, with an age range of 4 to 26 at the time of clinical assessment. The affected subjects come from 5 nuclear families within this kindred. The phenotype includes early childhood retinopathy, progressive sensorineural hearing loss, truncal obesity, and acanthosis nigricans. In addition, hyperinsulinemia and hypertriglyceridemia with normal cholesterol levels were observed in most affected individuals tested. Non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus and growth retardation appear to be age-related manifestations that occur post-adolescence. Younger affected children are not overtly hyperglycemic and are normal or above average height for age. Although the AS patients in kindred 1 presumably carry the same mutation, many manifestations of the disease are variable. For example, of the 8 children in the Acadian kindred, 4 have scoliosis, 2 have had infantile cardiomyopathy, 2 are hypothyroid, 1 has had hepatic dysfunction and is hypertensive, and 4 have developed asthma. Seven subjects described in this kindred exhibit developmental delay. One additional manifestation not described widely in the literature, advanced bone age, was observed in all subjects tested. The clinical data from this large Acadian kindred, together with information obtained from 4 additional AS patients in 3 unrelated kindreds, confirm and extend clinical observations previously described. In addition, the Acadian kindred with multiple affected individuals, probably arising from a common founder, should allow for identification of the chromosomal localization of a gene causing AS.

  2. Genetic heterogeneity among kindreds with Alport syndrome.

    PubMed Central

    Hasstedt, S J; Atkin, C L; San Juan, A C

    1986-01-01

    Twenty-three kindreds were ascertained through patients at renal clinics at University of Utah Associated Hospitals. Urinalysis indicated glomerulonephritis in 231 of 997 examined kindred members; medical records documented kidney disease consistent with glomerulonephritis in 88 unexamined kindred members. Renal biopsies of 35 persons in a subset of 14 kindreds showed ultrastructural changes and absence of immune phenomena consistent with the diagnosis of Alport syndrome. End-stage renal disease (ESRD) had occurred in 72 (49%) of 148 known affected males and in 13 (8%) of 171 known affected females. No father-son affected pairs occurred in any of the kindreds; 84% of daughters of affected fathers were affected, and 49% of sons and 48% of daughters of affected mothers were affected. One of three phenotypes (juvenile Alport syndrome with deafness, adult Alport syndrome with deafness, or adult Alport syndrome without deafness or other defects) occurred in each of the 23 kindreds. We applied likelihood analysis to test for genetic heterogeneity underlying the phenotypic heterogeneity. In the first application (the admixture test), we tested for the occurrence of two forms of the disease without specifying which kindred had which form; we found insufficient evidence of admixture. In the second application (the predivided-sample test), we tested for genetic heterogeneity expressed as phenotypic heterogeneity. Kindreds were successively divided into two subgroups, with admission to the first subgroup dependent upon: (1) having greater than or equal to 2 males with ESRD, (2) occurrence of deafness in most nephrologically affected male family members, and (3) intrakindred mean age of ESRD in males later than age 31. Weak evidence of heterogeneity was found for category (1); stronger evidence of heterogeneity was found for category (3). Penetrance of microscopic hematuria in female heterozygotes was estimated as 82% overall, 85% for adult Alport syndrome, and 28% for

  3. Carney complex, a familial multiple neoplasia and lentiginosis syndrome. Analysis of 11 kindreds and linkage to the short arm of chromosome 2.

    PubMed Central

    Stratakis, C A; Carney, J A; Lin, J P; Papanicolaou, D A; Karl, M; Kastner, D L; Pras, E; Chrousos, G P

    1996-01-01

    Carney complex is an autosomal dominant syndrome characterized by multiple neoplasias, including myxomas at various sites and endocrine tumors, and lentiginosis. The genetic defect(s) responsible for the complex remain(s) unknown. We studied 101 subjects, including 51 affected members, from 11 North American kindreds with Carney complex. Blood samples were collected from patients and their family members. Hospital records, photographs, and tissue specimens of deceased individuals were reviewed. DNA was extracted from blood samples, patient-derived cell lines, and/or paraffin-embedded tissues. Linkage analysis was performed with highly polymorphic microsatellite markers, distributed over areas of the human genome harboring the most likely candidate genes. The most prevalent clinical manifestation in patients with Carney complex was spotty skin pigmentation, similar to that observed in Peutz-Jeghers and other lentiginosis syndromes. Skin and cardiac myxomas, Cushing syndrome, and acromegaly were present in 62, 30, 31 and 8 percent of the patients, respectively. Linkage was obtained for three markers on the short arm of chromosome 2 (2p16), with a maximum two-point lod score of 5.97 at theta = 0.03 for the marker CA-2 (odds in favor of linkage 10(6):1. The flanking markers CA7 and D2S378 defined a region of approximately 6.4 cM that is likely to contain the gene(s) associated with Carney complex. Candidate genes in the proximity, including the propiomelanocortin and the DNA-mismatch repair hMSH2 genes, were excluded. We conclude that the genetic defect(s) responsible for Carney complex map(s) to the short arm of chromosome 2 (2p16). This region has exhibited cytogenetic aberrations in atrial myxomas associated with the complex, and has been characterized by microsatellite instability in human neoplasias. PMID:8609225

  4. Byler-like familial cholestasis in an extended kindred.

    PubMed

    Bourke, B; Goggin, N; Walsh, D; Kennedy, S; Setchell, K D; Drumm, B

    1996-09-01

    Progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis (PFIC) occurs in many communities and races. A form of PFIC in five children from two consanguineous marriages in an Irish kindred is described. In addition, a review of clinical information from the records of three deceased members of the kindred strongly implies that they also suffered from PFIC. The children had a history of neonatal diarrhoea, sepsis, and intermittent jaundice that ultimately became permanent. They suffered intractable pruritus and growth retardation. Despite evidence of severe cholestasis, serum gamma-glutamyl transferase and cholesterol were normal in these children. Sweat sodium concentration were raised in three children. Liver histology showed severe intrahepatic cholestasis and hepatocellular injury. Urinary bile acid analysis revealed a non-specific pattern consistent with chronic cholestasis. These children suffer from a form of PFIC remarkably similar to that occurring in members of the Byler kindred.

  5. Families of Orphans: Relation and Disrelation in Octavia Butler's "Kindred."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rushdy, Ashraf H. A.

    1993-01-01

    Discusses the acute representations of familial and historical relations as depicted in Octavia Butler's novel, "Kindred." Suggests that the novel is best understood as a novel of memory, functioning as a means of reconstructing a sense of place and home. (HB)

  6. Evidence for Environmental Familiality of Kallikrein Excretion in Utah Kindreds

    PubMed Central

    Dadone, Mary M.; Williams, Roger R.; Ash, K. Owen; Smith, Jean B.; Anderton, Douglas L.

    1986-01-01

    In investigating the role of urinary kallikrein in the pathophysiology of hypertension, we measured 12-hour kallikrein excretion in 1,100 persons in 68 Utah kindreds. The kallikrein excretion was statistically adjusted to account for variations in body size and urine output. Adjusted kallikrein excretion was greater in youths than in adults and correlated with potassium excretion and sodium excretion in persons with normal blood pressure. It was decreased in normotensive subjects with strong family histories of stroke and hypertension, but was not significantly different in adults with hypertension. Adjusted kallikrein excretion was correlated between pairs of siblings, parent-offspring pairs and spouses. Our results indicate that kallikrein excretion is a familial variable, with the familiality due more to shared environmental than genetic factors. PMID:3636040

  7. Clinical analysis of a large kindred with the pallister ulnar-mammary syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Bamshad, M.; Root, S.; Carey, J.C.

    1996-11-11

    The ulnar-mammary syndrome (UMS) is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by posterior limb deficiencies or duplications, apocrine/mammary gland hypoplasia and/or dysfunction, abnormal dentition, delayed puberty in males, and genital anomalies. We present the clinical descriptions of 33 members of a six generation kindred with UMS. The number of affected individuals in this family is more than the sum of all previously reported cases of UMS. The clinical expression of UMS is highly variable. While most patients have limb deficiencies, the range of abnormalities extends from hypoplasia of the terminal phalanx of the 5th digit to complete absence of the ulna and 3rd, 4th, and 5th digits. Moreover, affected individuals may have posterior digital duplications with or without contralateral limb deficiencies. Apocrine gland abnormalities range from diminished axillary perspiration with normal breast development and lactation, to complete absence of the breasts and no axillary perspiration. Dental abnormalities include misplaced or absent teeth. Affected males consistently undergo delayed puberty, and both sexes have diminished to absent axillary hair. Imperforate hymen were seen in some affected women. A gene for UMS was mapped to chromosome area 12q23-q24.1. A mutation in the gene causing UMS can interfere with limb patterning in the proximal/distal, anterior/posterior, and dorsal/ventral axes. This mutation disturbs development of the posterior elements of forearm, wrist, and hand while growth and development of the anterior elements remain normal. 24 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Waardenburg I syndrome: a clinical and genetic study of two large Brazilian kindreds, and literature review.

    PubMed

    da-Silva, E O

    1991-07-01

    Two large kindreds with Waardenburg I syndrome are described. The total number of affected individuals is 73. The major manifestations are telecanthus (the only constant anomaly in all cases), prominent nasal root, round or square tip of nose, hypoplastic alae, smooth philtrum, bushy eyebrows with synophrys, sensorineural deafness, heterochromia or hypoisochromia iridis, hypopigmented ocular fundus, white forelock, premature greying, and hypopigmented skin lesions. These and other aspects of the syndrome, associated findings, frequency, genetic heterogeneity, pathogenesis, animal models, and gene linkage and mapping are reviewed briefly.

  9. Linkage and mutational analysis of familial Alzheimer disease kindreds for the APP gene region

    SciTech Connect

    Kamino, K.; Anderson, L.; O'dahl, S.; Nemens, E.; Bird, T.D.; Schellenberg, G.D.; Wijsman, E.M.; Kukall, W.; Larson, E. ); Heston, L.L.

    1992-11-01

    A large number of familial Alzheimer disease (FAD) kindreds were examined to determine whether mutations in the amyloid precursor protein (APP) gene could be responsible for the disease. Previous studies have identified three mutations at APP codon 717 which are pathogenic for Alzheimer disease (AD). Samples from affected subjects were examined for mutations in exons 16 and 17 of the APP gene. A combination of direct sequencing and single-strand conformational polymorphism analysis was used. Sporadic AD and normal controls were also examined by the same methods. Five sequence variants were identified. One variant at APP codon 693 resulted in a Glu[yields]Gly change. This is the same codon as the hereditary cerebral hemorrhage with amyloidosis-Dutch type Glu[yields]Gln mutation. Another single-base change at APP codon 708 did not alter the amino acid encoded at this site. Two point mutations and a 6-bp deletion were identified in the intronic sequences surrounding exon 17. None of the variants could be unambigously determined to be responsible for FAD. The larger families were also analyzed by testing for linkage of FAD to a highly polymorphic short tandem repeat marker (D21S210) that is tightly linked to APP. Highly negative LOD scores were obtained for the family groups tested, and linkage was formally excluded beyond [theta] = .10 for the Volga German kindreds, [theta] = .20 for early-onset non-Volga Germans, and [theta] = .10 for late-onset families. LOD scores for linkage of FAD to markers centromeric to APP (D21S1/S11, D21S13, and D21S215) were also negative in the three family groups. These studies show that APP mutations account for AD in only a small fraction of FAD kindreds. 49 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs.

  10. Linkage and mutational analysis of familial Alzheimer disease kindreds for the APP gene region

    PubMed Central

    Kamino, Kouzin; Orr, Harry T.; Payami, Haydeh; Wijsman, Ellen M.; Alonso, Ma. Elisa; Pulst, Stefan M.; Anderson, Leojean; O'dahl, Sheldon; Nemens, Ellen; White, June A.; Sadovnick, Adele D.; Ball, Melvyn J.; Kaye, Jeffery; Warren, Andrew; McInnis, Melvin; Antonarakis, Stylianos E.; Korenberg, Julie R.; Sharma, Vikram; Kukull, Walter; Larson, Eric; Heston, Leonard L.; Martin, George M.; Bird, Thomas D.; Schellenberg, Gerard D.

    1992-01-01

    A large number of familial Alzheimer disease (FAD) kindreds were examined to determine whether mutations in the amyloid precursor protein (APP) gene could be responsible for the disease. Previous studies have identified three mutations at APP codon 717 which are pathogenic for Alzheimer disease (AD). Samples from affected subjects were examined for mutations in exons 16 and 17 of the APP gene. A combination of direct sequencing and single-strand conformational polymorphism analysis was used. Sporadic AD and normal controls were also examined by the same methods. Five sequence variants were identified. One variant at APP codon 693 resulted in a Glu→Gly change. This is the same codon as the hereditary cerebral hemorrhage with amyloidosis–Dutch type Glu→Gln mutation. Another single-base change at APP codon 708 did not alter the amino acid encoded at this site. Two point mutations and a 6-bp deletion were identified in the intronic sequences surrounding exon 17. None of the variants could be unambiguously determined to be responsible for FAD. The larger families were also analyzed by testing for linkage of FAD to a highly polymorphic short tandem repeat marker (D21S210) that is tightly linked to APP. Highly negative LOD scores were obtained for the family groups tested, and linkage was formally excluded beyond θ = .10 for the Volga German kindreds, θ = .20 for early-onset non-Volga Germans, and θ = .10 for late-onset families. LOD scores for linkage of FAD to markers centromeric to APP (D21S1/S11, D21S13, and D21S215) were also negative in the three family groups. These studies show that APP mutations account for AD in only a small fraction of FAD kindreds. ImagesFigure 4p1009-a PMID:1415269

  11. LINE-1 methylation is inherited in familial testicular cancer kindreds

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Testicular germ cell tumors (TGCT) are the most frequent cancers among young men. There is a clear familial component to TGCT etiology, but no high-penetrance susceptibility gene has been identified. Epigenetic aberrations of the genome represent an alternative mechanism for cancer susceptibility; and, studies suggest that epigenetic changes that influence cancer risk can be inherited through the germline. Global DNA hypomethylation has been associated with the risk of cancers of the bladder and head/neck. Methods We performed a pilot study of global methylation at long interspersed nuclear elements-1 (LINE-1) in peripheral blood DNA isolated from 466 family members of 101 multiple-case testicular cancer families. Results Investigating the correlation of LINE-1 methylation levels among parent-child pairs independent of affection status (n = 355) revealed a strong positive association only between mother-daughter (r = 0.48, P = <0.001) and father-daughter pairs (r = 0.31, P = 0.02), suggesting gender-specific inheritance of methylation. Incorporating cancer status, we observed a strong correlation in LINE-1 methylation levels only among affected father-affected son pairs (r = 0.49, P = 0.03). There was a marginally significant inverse association between lower LINE-1 methylation levels and increased TGCT risk, compared with healthy male relatives (P = 0.049). Conclusions Our data suggest that heritability of LINE-1 methylation may be gender-specific. Further, the strong correlation between LINE-1 methylation levels among affected father-affected son pairs suggests that transgenerational inheritance of an epigenetic event may be associated with disease risk. Larger studies are needed to clarify these preliminary observations. PMID:20478068

  12. Linkage Analysis in a Large Kindred With Autosomal Dominant Transmission of Polyglandular Autoimmune Disease Type II (Schmidt Syndrome)

    PubMed Central

    Butler, Merlin G.; Hodes, M.E.; Conneally, P.M.; Biegel, Angenieta A.; Wright, James C.

    2017-01-01

    Schmidt syndrome (PGA syndrome type II) is a rare condition characterized by polyglandular failure. It is an autosomal dominant trait with variable expressivity that was inherited over four generations in an Indiana kindred. Association of HLA-B8 has been reported with Schmidt syndrome. Our proband is a 12-year-old boy with Addison disease, insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM), and vitiligo. Two of his eight sibs had either IDDM (sister) or vitiligo and hyperthyroidism (brother). His mother had hypothyroidism. Seven members of earlier generations apparently were also affected. We obtained peripheral blood for HLA and genetic analysis from 21 relatives in a family with 8 Schmidt syndrome individuals in three generations. HLA studies on 15 affected and unaffected relatives showed only 2 of 7 persons with B8-containing haplotypes. Therefore, no association exists between the B8-containing haplotype and the syndrome. We identified informative marker loci. No evidence for linkage of the Schmidt locus to any of the 14 markers was found and close linkage to esterase D and adenylate kinase and possibly properdin factor B was excluded. PMID:6588752

  13. Combined Genetic and Genealogic Studies Uncover a Large BAP1 Cancer Syndrome Kindred Tracing Back Nine Generations to a Common Ancestor from the 1700s.

    PubMed

    Carbone, Michele; Flores, Erin G; Emi, Mitsuru; Johnson, Todd A; Tsunoda, Tatsuhiko; Behner, Dusty; Hoffman, Harriet; Hesdorffer, Mary; Nasu, Masaki; Napolitano, Andrea; Powers, Amy; Minaai, Michael; Baumann, Francine; Bryant-Greenwood, Peter; Lauk, Olivia; Kirschner, Michaela B; Weder, Walter; Opitz, Isabelle; Pass, Harvey I; Gaudino, Giovanni; Pastorino, Sandra; Yang, Haining

    2015-12-01

    We recently discovered an inherited cancer syndrome caused by BRCA1-Associated Protein 1 (BAP1) germline mutations, with high incidence of mesothelioma, uveal melanoma and other cancers and very high penetrance by age 55. To identify families with the BAP1 cancer syndrome, we screened patients with family histories of multiple mesotheliomas and melanomas and/or multiple cancers. We identified four families that shared an identical BAP1 mutation: they lived across the US and did not appear to be related. By combining family histories, molecular genetics, and genealogical approaches, we uncovered a BAP1 cancer syndrome kindred of ~80,000 descendants with a core of 106 individuals, whose members descend from a couple born in Germany in the early 1700s who immigrated to North America. Their descendants spread throughout the country with mutation carriers affected by multiple malignancies. Our data show that, once a proband is identified, extended analyses of these kindreds, using genomic and genealogical studies to identify the most recent common ancestor, allow investigators to uncover additional branches of the family that may carry BAP1 mutations. Using this knowledge, we have identified new branches of this family carrying BAP1 mutations. We have also implemented early-detection strategies that help identify cancers at early-stage, when they can be cured (melanomas) or are more susceptible to therapy (MM and other malignancies).

  14. A new autosomal recessive congenital contractural syndrome in an Israeli Bedouin kindred.

    PubMed

    Landau, Daniella; Mishori-Dery, Anat; Hershkovitz, Reli; Narkis, Ginat; Elbedour, Khalil; Carmi, Rivka

    2003-02-15

    We describe 23 cases with a syndrome of congenital contractures belonging to a large, inbred Israeli-Bedouin kindred. The phenotype described is similar to the Finnish type lethal congenital contracture syndrome yet differs in the following ways: by some additional craniofacial/ocular findings, by the lack of hydrops, multiple pterygia, and fractures, and by the normal duration of pregnancy. The major unique and previously undescribed clinical feature in our patients is a markedly distended urinary bladder as well as other urinary abnormalities. The vast majority of the cases died shortly after birth. Sonographic prenatal diagnosis was possible as early as 15 weeks gestation by demonstrating fetal akinesia, limb contractures, hydramnios, and distended urinary bladder. Linkage to 5q and 9q34 loci has been excluded.

  15. Clinical and Molecular Genetic Analysis of 19 Wolfram Syndrome Kindreds Demonstrating a Wide Spectrum of Mutations in WFS1

    PubMed Central

    Hardy, Carol; Khanim, Farhat; Torres, Rosarelis; Scott-Brown, Martin; Seller, Anneke; Poulton, Joanna; Collier, David; Kirk, Jeremy; Polymeropoulos, Mihael; Latif, Farida; Barrett, Timothy

    1999-01-01

    Summary Wolfram syndrome is an autosomal recessive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by juvenile-onset diabetes mellitus and progressive optic atrophy. mtDNA deletions have been described, and a gene (WFS1) recently has been identified, on chromosome 4p16, encoding a predicted 890 amino acid transmembrane protein. Direct DNA sequencing was done to screen the entire coding region of the WFS1 gene in 30 patients from 19 British kindreds with Wolfram syndrome. DNA was also screened for structural rearrangements (deletions and duplications) and point mutations in mtDNA. No pathogenic mtDNA mutations were found in our cohort. We identified 24 mutations in the WFS1 gene: 8 nonsense mutations, 8 missense mutations, 3 in-frame deletions, 1 in-frame insertion, and 4 frameshift mutations. Of these, 23 were novel mutations, and most occurred in exon 8. The majority of patients were compound heterozygotes for two mutations, and there was no common founder mutation. The data were also analyzed for genotype-phenotype relationships. Although some interesting cases were noted, consideration of the small sample size and frequency of each mutation indicated no clear-cut correlations between any of the observed mutations and disease severity. There were no obvious mutation hot spots or clusters. Hence, molecular screening for Wolfram syndrome in affected families and for Wolfram syndrome–carrier status in subjects with psychiatric disorders or diabetes mellitus will require complete analysis of exon 8 and upstream exons. PMID:10521293

  16. Familial idiopathic gonadotropin deficiency not linked to gene for gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) in Brazilian kindred

    SciTech Connect

    Faraco, J.; Francke, U.; Toledo, S.

    1994-09-01

    Familial idiopathic gonadotropin deficiency (FIGD) is an autosomal recessive disorder which results in failure to develop secondary sexual characteristics. The origin is a hypothalamic defect resulting in insufficient secretion of gonadotropin-releasing hormone GnRH (also called LHRH, luteinizing hormone releasing hormone) and follicle-stimuating hormone (FSH). FIGD has been determined to be a separate entity from Kallmann syndrome which presents with hypogonadism as well as anosmia. The FIGD phenotype appears to be analogous to the phenotype of the hpg (hypogonadal) mouse. Because the hpg phenotype is the result of a structurally abnormal GnRH gene, we have studied the GnRH gene in individuals from a previously reported Brazilian FIGD family. An informative dimorphic marker in the signal peptide sequence of the GnRH gene allowed assessment of linkage between the disease gene and the GnRH locus in this pedigree. We have concluded that the GnRH locus is not linked to the disease-causing mutation in these hypogonadal individuals. Recent evidence suggests that neuropeptide Y (NPY) may play a role in the initiation of puberty. We hypothesize that mutations in NPY may result in failure to secrete GnRH. We have characterized three diallelic frequent-cutter restriction fragment length polymorphisms within the human NPY locus, and are currently using these markers to determine if the NPY gene is linked to, and possibly the site of the disease mutation in this kindred.

  17. The clinical utility of genetic testing in breast cancer kindreds: a prospective study in families without a demonstrable BRCA mutation.

    PubMed

    Møller, Pål; Stormorken, Astrid; Holmen, Marit Muri; Hagen, Anne Irene; Vabø, Anita; Mæhle, Lovise

    2014-04-01

    We report prospectively observed risk for breast cancer in breast cancer kindreds without a demonstrable BRCA1/2 mutation. According to family history, the optimal available member(s) of each breast cancer kindred attending our clinic was tested for BRCA mutations. Women in families without a demonstrable BRCA mutation were subjected to annual mammography. BRCA mutations were demonstrated in 496/2,118 (23 %) breast cancer kindreds. In families without a demonstrable BRCA mutation, a total of 3,161 healthy women aged 25-59 years were prospectively followed for 24,808 observation years. Sixty-four cancers were observed, compared to 34.0 expected (p < 0.01), arriving at a 7.9 % cumulative risk at age 60 compared to 4.0 % in the population [relative risk (RR) = 2.0]. Women with one mother or sister affected ≤50 years and with no other close relatives with breast cancer did not have increased risk (0 cancers observed and 0.6 expected at age 40, 11 cancers observed and 7.9 expected at age 60, p > 0.05). Excluding these, cumulative risk at 60 years was 8.8 % (RR = 2.2). The highest cumulative risk at 60 years was 11.4 %, found in families with two cases ≤55 years (RR = 2.8). In breast cancer kindreds without a demonstrable BRCA mutation, the risk for breast cancer in female first degree relatives was about twice the risk in the general population. Women with one early affected relative only did not have increased risk for early onset breast cancer, while those with more than one young affected relative had close to three times population risk.

  18. Evidence for paternal imprinting in familial Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome.

    PubMed Central

    Viljoen, D; Ramesar, R

    1992-01-01

    A previously unreported family in which seven members in two generations have Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome (BWS) is documented. Paternal imprinting of the gene responsible for BWS is involved as the mechanism responsible for the aberrant inheritance pattern in this kindred. A review of published reports showed 27 previously published pedigrees with two or more affected subjects with BWS. Paternal imprinting would explain the non-mendelian inheritance of BWS in all but four kindreds. The latter families are examined in more detail and in only one example is the evidence against imprinting totally unexplained. Images PMID:1583639

  19. Manifestations of juvenile polyposis syndrome in SMAD4 mutation carriers of a kindred.

    PubMed

    Schwetz, Verena; Uhrig, Sabine; Spuller, Ekkehard; Deutschmann, Andrea; Högenauer, Christoph

    2012-08-01

    The autosomal dominantly inherited juvenile polyposis syndrome (JPS) leads to the development of multiple hamartomatous polyps in the gastrointestinal tract and is a precancerous condition. In a large family with a newly identified SMAD4 mutation (c.543delC), we describe the clinical manifestations of JPS. Nine affected SMAD4 mutation-positive family members were screened and treated for manifestations of JPS. Two family members were symptomatic at the time of diagnosis; seven were asymptomatic - independent of the severity of the manifestation. Each mutation carrier presented with colonic juvenile polyps, seven out of nine with additional gastric manifestations. One asymptomatic patient had early gastric cancer; another patient had a villous adenoma with high-grade intraepithelial neoplasia in the colon. Three patients had biliary lesions including a bile duct hamartoma in one and gallbladder polyps in two. Three patients had gastrointestinal vascular malformations. All mutation carriers were affected by JPS. Interestingly, the manifestations and their severity differed considerably between the patients, suggesting secondary factors influencing JPS manifestations such as Helicobacter pylori infection.

  20. A Multiplex Kindred with Hennekam Syndrome due to Homozygosity for a CCBE1 Mutation that does not Prevent Protein Expression.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Carolyn C; Best, Lucy; Lorenzo, Lazaro; Casanova, Jean-Laurent; Wacker, Jochen; Bertz, Simone; Agaimy, Abbas; Harrer, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Collagen and calcium-binding EGF domain-containing protein 1 (CCBE1) bi-allelic mutations have been associated with syndromes of widespread congenital lymphatic dysplasia, including Hennekam Syndrome (HS). HS is characterized by lymphedema, lymphangiectasia, and intellectual disability. CCBE1 encodes a putative extracellular matrix protein but the HS-causing mutations have not been studied biochemically. We report two HS siblings, born to consanguineous parents of Turkish ancestry, whose clinical phenotype also includes protein losing enteropathy, painful relapsing chylous ascites, and hypogammaglobulinemia. We identified by whole exome and Sanger sequencing the homozygous CCBE1 C174Y mutation in both siblings. This mutation had been previously reported in another HS kindred from the Netherlands. In over-expression studies, we found increased intracellular expression of all forms (monomers, dimers, trimers) of the CCBE1 C174Y mutant protein, by Western blot, despite mutant mRNA levels similar to wild-type (WT). In addition, we detected increased secretion of the mutant CCBE1 protein by ELISA. We further found the mutant and WT proteins to be evenly distributed in the cytoplasm, by immunofluorescence and confocal microscopy. Finally, we found a strong decrease of lymphatic vessels, with a corresponding diminished expression of CCBE1, by immunohistochemistry of the patients' intestinal biopsies. In contrast, mucosal blood vessels and muscularis mucosae showed normal CCBE1 staining. Our findings show that the mutant CCBE1 C174Y protein is not loss-of-function by loss-of-expression.

  1. POLE and POLD1 mutations in 529 kindred with familial colorectal cancer and/or polyposis: review of reported cases and recommendations for genetic testing and surveillance

    PubMed Central

    Bellido, Fernando; Pineda, Marta; Aiza, Gemma; Valdés-Mas, Rafael; Navarro, Matilde; Puente, Diana A.; Pons, Tirso; González, Sara; Iglesias, Silvia; Darder, Esther; Piñol, Virginia; Soto, José Luís; Valencia, Alfonso; Blanco, Ignacio; Urioste, Miguel; Brunet, Joan; Lázaro, Conxi; Capellá, Gabriel; Puente, Xose S.; Valle, Laura

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Germ-line mutations in the exonuclease domains of POLE and POLD1 have been recently associated with polyposis and colorectal cancer (CRC) predisposition. Here, we aimed to gain a better understanding of the phenotypic characteristics of this syndrome to establish specific criteria for POLE and POLD1 mutation screening and to help define the clinical management of mutation carriers. Genet Med 18 4, 325–332. Methods: The exonuclease domains of POLE and POLD1 were studied in 529 kindred, 441 with familial nonpolyposis CRC and 88 with polyposis, by using pooled DNA amplification and massively parallel sequencing. Genet Med 18 4, 325–332. Results: Seven novel or rare genetic variants were identified. In addition to the POLE p.L424V recurrent mutation in a patient with polyposis, CRC and oligodendroglioma, six novel or rare POLD1 variants (four of them, p.D316H, p.D316G, p.R409W, and p.L474P, with strong evidence for pathogenicity) were identified in nonpolyposis CRC families. Phenotypic data from these and previously reported POLE/POLD1 carriers point to an associated phenotype characterized by attenuated or oligo-adenomatous colorectal polyposis, CRC, and probably brain tumors. In addition, POLD1 mutations predispose to endometrial and breast tumors. Genet Med 18 4, 325–332. Conclusion: Our results widen the phenotypic spectrum of the POLE/POLD1-associated syndrome and identify novel pathogenic variants. We propose guidelines for genetic testing and surveillance recommendations. Genet Med 18 4, 325–332. PMID:26133394

  2. Two novel mutations in seven Czech and Slovak kindreds with familial neurohypophyseal diabetes insipidus-benefit of genetic testing.

    PubMed

    Hrčková, Gabriela; Jankó, Viktor; Kytnarová, Jitka; Čižmárová, Michaela; Tesařová, Markéta; Košťálová, Ľudmila; Virgová, Daniela; Dallos, Tomáš; Hána, Václav; Lebl, Jan; Zeman, Jiří; Kovács, László

    2016-09-01

    Familial neurohypophyseal diabetes insipidus (FNDI) is a rare hereditary disorder with unknown prevalence characterized by arginine-vasopressin hormone (AVP) deficiency resulting in polyuria and polydipsia from early childhood. We report the clinical manifestation and genetic test results in seven unrelated kindreds of Czech or Slovak origin with FNDI phenotype. The age of the sign outset ranged from 2 to 17 years with remarkable interfamilial and intrafamilial variability. Inconclusive result of the fluid deprivation test in three children aged 7 and 17 years old might cause misdiagnosis; however, the AVP gene analysis confirmed the FNDI. The seven families segregated together five different mutations, two of them were novel (c.164C > A, c.298G > C). In addition, DNA analysis proved mutation carrier status in one asymptomatic 1-year-old infant. The present study together with previously published data identified 38 individuals with FNDI in the studied population of 16 million which predicts a disease prevalence of 1:450,000 for the Central European region. The paper underscores that diagnostic water deprivation test may be inconclusive in polyuric children with partial diabetes insipidus and points to the clinical importance and feasibility of molecular genetic testing for AVP gene mutations in the proband and her/his first degree relatives. • At least 70 different mutations were reported to date in about 100 families with neurohypophyseal diabetes insipidus (FNDI), and new mutations appear sporadically. What is New: • Two novel mutations of the AVP gene are reported • The importance of molecular testing in children with polyuria and inconclusive water deprivation test is emphasized.

  3. Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1B (CDKN1B) gene variants in AIP mutation-negative familial isolated pituitary adenoma kindreds.

    PubMed

    Tichomirowa, Maria A; Lee, Misu; Barlier, Anne; Daly, Adrian F; Marinoni, Ilaria; Jaffrain-Rea, Marie-Lise; Naves, Luciana A; Rodien, Patrice; Rohmer, Vincent; Faucz, Fabio Rueda; Caron, Philippe; Estour, Bruno; Lecomte, Pierre; Borson-Chazot, Françoise; Penfornis, Alfred; Yaneva, Maria; Guitelman, Mirtha; Castermans, Emily; Verhaege, Catherine; Wémeau, Jean-Louis; Tabarin, Antoine; Fajardo Montañana, Carmen; Delemer, Brigitte; Kerlan, Veronique; Sadoul, Jean-Louis; Cortet Rudelli, Christine; Archambeaud, Françoise; Zacharieva, Sabine; Theodoropoulou, Marily; Brue, Thierry; Enjalbert, Alain; Bours, Vincent; Pellegata, Natalia S; Beckers, Albert

    2012-06-01

    Familial isolated pituitary adenoma (FIPA) occurs in families and is unrelated to multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 and Carney complex. Mutations in AIP account only for 15-25% of FIPA families. CDKN1B mutations cause MEN4 in which affected patients can suffer from pituitary adenomas. With this study, we wanted to assess whether mutations in CDKN1B occur among a large cohort of AIP mutation-negative FIPA kindreds. Eighty-eight AIP mutation-negative FIPA families were studied and 124 affected subjects underwent sequencing of CDKN1B. Functional analysis of putative CDKN1B mutations was performed using in silico and in vitro approaches. Germline CDKN1B analysis revealed two nucleotide changes: c.286A>C (p.K96Q) and c.356T>C (p.I119T). In vitro, the K96Q change decreased p27 affinity for Grb2 but did not segregate with pituitary adenoma in the FIPA kindred. The I119T substitution occurred in a female patient with acromegaly. p27(I119T) shows an abnormal migration pattern by SDS-PAGE. Three variants (p.S56T, p.T142T, and c.605+36C>T) are likely nonpathogenic because In vitro effects were not seen. In conclusion, two patients had germline sequence changes in CDKN1B, which led to functional alterations in the encoded p27 proteins in vitro. Such rare CDKN1B variants may contribute to the development of pituitary adenomas, but their low incidence and lack of clear segregation with affected patients make CDKN1B sequencing unlikely to be of use in routine genetic investigation of FIPA kindreds. However, further characterization of the role of CDKN1B in pituitary tumorigenesis in these and other cases could help clarify the clinicopathological profile of MEN4.

  4. X-linked inheritance of Alport syndrome: family P revisited.

    PubMed Central

    Hasstedt, S J; Atkin, C L

    1983-01-01

    Likelihood analysis using two autosomal/X-linked mixed models confirmed that Alport syndrome is an X-linked dominant disease in a large Utah kindred, family P. The penetrance was estimated as .85 in females and 1.0 in males. Previously reported abnormal segregation ratios were reexamined. No excess of affected offspring of affected parents was found. Nor was the penetrance in daughters of asymptomatic carrier mothers found to be lower than in the daughters of symptomatic mothers, although the sample size was small. However, there was an unexplained deficiency of sons of affected fathers. There was no deficiency of sons of affected mothers, nor was there a deficiency of males in the kindred. PMID:6650503

  5. Hyperphosphatemic familial tumoral calcinosis caused by a mutation in GALNT3 in a European kindred.

    PubMed

    Specktor, Polina; Cooper, John G; Indelman, Margarita; Sprecher, Eli

    2006-01-01

    Hyperphosphatemic familial tumoral calcinosis (HFTC) is an autosomal recessive metabolic disorder characterized by extensive phenotypic and genetic heterogeneity. HFTC was shown recently to result from mutations in two genes: GALNT3, coding for a glycosyltransferase responsible for initiating O-glycosylation, and FGF23, coding for a potent phosphaturic protein. All GALNT3 mutations reported so far have been identified in patients of either Middle Eastern or African-American extraction, corroborating numerous historical reports of the disorder in Africa and in the Middle East. In the present study, we describe a patient of Northern European origin displaying typical features of HFTC. Mutation analysis revealed that this patient carries a homozygous novel nonsense mutation in GALNT3 predicted to result in the synthesis of a significantly truncated protein. The present results expand the spectrum of known mutations in GALNT3 and demonstrate the existence of HFTC-causing mutations in this gene outside the Middle Eastern and African-American populations.

  6. Genetic mapping of the gene for Usher syndrome: Linkage analysis in a large Samaritan kindred

    SciTech Connect

    Bonne-Tamir, B.; Korostishevsky, M.; Kalinsky, H.; Seroussi, E.; Beker, R.; Weiss, S. ); Godel, V. )

    1994-03-01

    Usher syndrome is a group of autosomal recessive disorders associated with congenital sensorineural deafness and progressive visual loss due to retinitis pigmentosa. Sixteen members of the small inbred Samaritan isolate with autosomal recessive deafness from 59 individuals including parents and affected and nonaffected sibs were typed for markers on chromosomes 1q and 11q for which linkage has recently been established for Usher syndrome types II and I. Statistically significant linkage was observed with four markers on 11q (D11S533, D11S527, OMP, and INT2) with a maximum six-point location score of 11.61 at the D11S533 locus. Analysis of haplotypes supports the notion that the mutation arose only once in an ancestral chromosome carrying a specific haplotype. The availability of markers closely linked to the disease locus allows indirect genotype analysis and identifies all carriers of the gene within the community. Furthermore, the detection of complete linkage disequilibrium between the D11S533 marker and the Usher gene suggests that these loci are either identical or adjacent and narrows the critical region to which physical mapping efforts are currently directed. 35 refs., 2 figs., 6 tabs.

  7. A{sup -2} {yields} G transition at the 3{prime} acceptor splice site of IVS17 characterizes the COL2A1 gene mutation in the original Stickler syndrome kindred

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, C.J.; Ganguly, A.; Considine, E.

    1996-06-14

    Hereditary progressive arthro-ophthalmopathy, or {open_quotes}Stickler syndrome,{close_quotes} is an autosomal dominant osteochondrodysplasia characterized by a variety of ocular and skeletal anomalies which frequently lead to retinal detachment and precocious osteoarthritis. A variety of mutations in the COL2A1 gene have been identified in {open_quotes}Stickler{close_quotes} families; in most cases studied thus far, the consequence of mutation is the premature generation of a stop codon. We report here the characterization of a COL2A1 gene mutation in the original kindred described by Stickler et al. Conformational sensitive gel electrophoresis (CSGE) was used to screen for mutations in the entire COL2A1 gene in an affected member from the kindred. A prominent heteroduplex species was noted in the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) product from a region of the gene including exons 17 to 20. Direct sequencing of PCR-amplified genomic DNA resulted in the identification of a base substitution at the A{sup -2} position of the 3{prime} splice acceptor site of IVS17. Sequencing of DNA from affected and unaffected family members confirmed that the mutation segregated with the disease phenotype. Reverse transcriptase-PCR analysis of poly A+ RNA demonstrated that the mutant allele utilized a cryptic splice site in exon 18 of the gene, eliminating 16 bp at the start of exon 18. This frameshift eventually results in a premature termination codon. These findings are the first report of a splice site mutation in classical Stickler syndrome and they provide a satisfying historical context in which to view COL2A1 mutations in this dysplasia. 25 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Jackson-Weiss syndrome: Clinical and radiological findings in a large kindred and exclusion of the gene from 7p21 and 5qter

    SciTech Connect

    Ades, L.C.; Haan, E.A.; Mulley, J.C.; Senga, I.P.; Morris, L.L.; David, D.J.

    1994-06-01

    We describe the clinical and radiological manifestations of the Jackson-Weiss syndrome (JWS) in a large South Australian kindred. Radiological abnormalities not previously described in the hands include coned epiphyses, distal and middle phalangeal hypoplasia, and carpal bone malsegmentation. New radiological findings in the feet include coned epiphyses, hallux valgus, phalangeal, tarso-navicular and calcaneo-navicular fusions, and uniform absence of metatarsal fusions. Absence of linkage to eight markers along the short arm of chromosome 7 excluded allelian between JWS and Saethre-Chotzen syndrome at 7p21. No linkage was detected to D5S211, excluding allelism to another recently described cephalosyndactyly syndrome mapping to 5qter. 35 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

  9. Clinicopathological features of a kindred with SCG5-GREM1-associated hereditary mixed polyposis syndrome.

    PubMed

    Plesec, Thomas; Brown, Kathryn; Allen, Charles; A Burke, Carol; Church, James; Kalady, Matthew; LaGuardia, Lisa; O'Malley, Margaret; Heald, Brandie

    2017-02-01

    Since first characterized in 1997, patients with hereditary mixed polyposis syndrome (HMPS) have been difficult to identify because of lack of well-established diagnostic criteria. Recently, HMPS was found to be caused by a duplication on chromosome 15 spanning the 3' end of the SCG5 gene and a region upstream of the GREM1 locus. Clinical testing for the duplication is available; however, the clinical characteristics of hereditary mixed polyposis to support testing are ill defined. The clinicopathological findings of 10 HMPS patients with confirmed germline SCG5-GREM1 duplication were reviewed. Mean age at presentation was 33.3 years. Fifty-one colonoscopies yielded 207 polyp specimens, all of which were reexamined. Adenomas (n = 80) and a fairly unique polyp composed of a mixture of hyperplastic polyp and inflammatory polyp-type changes (n = 74) were the most common findings; however, other polyps, including hyperplastic (n = 28), mixed inflammatory polyp/adenoma (n = 8), inflammatory polyp (n = 7), prolapse-type polyp (n = 6), and lymphoid aggregates (n = 4), were encountered. None of the patients developed colorectal malignancy during surveillance, demonstrated extracolonic manifestations, or underwent colectomy on follow-up (mean, 26.2 years). SCG5-GREM1 duplication-associated polyposis is characterized by a few polyps per endoscopy with a mixture of phenotypes, most commonly adenoma and nondysplastic mixed hyperplastic/inflammatory polyps. Nine of 10 patients had at least 1 mixed hyperplastic-inflammatory polyp, which is the characteristic lesion of SCG5-GREM1 duplication-associated HMPS. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Familial Crouzon syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Samatha, Y.; Vardhan, T. Harsha; Kiran, A. Ravi; Sankar, A.J. Sai; Ramakrishna, B.

    2010-01-01

    Crouzon syndrome is an autosomal dominant condition of the craniosynostotic syndromes without syndactyly and with various dentofacial anomalies. Craniosynostosis, maxillary hypoplasia, shallow orbits, ocular proptosis and hypertelorism are the characteristic features of Crouzon syndrome. This report describes the variable clinical features in affected individuals over two generations of a family with dentofacial deformities and review of literature. PMID:22114439

  11. Familial Crouzon syndrome.

    PubMed

    Samatha, Y; Vardhan, T Harsha; Kiran, A Ravi; Sankar, A J Sai; Ramakrishna, B

    2010-10-01

    Crouzon syndrome is an autosomal dominant condition of the craniosynostotic syndromes without syndactyly and with various dentofacial anomalies. Craniosynostosis, maxillary hypoplasia, shallow orbits, ocular proptosis and hypertelorism are the characteristic features of Crouzon syndrome. This report describes the variable clinical features in affected individuals over two generations of a family with dentofacial deformities and review of literature.

  12. A severe autosomal-dominant periodic inflammatory disorder with renal AA amyloidosis and colchicine resistance associated to the MEFV H478Y variant in a Spanish kindred: an unusual familial Mediterranean fever phenotype or another MEFV-associated periodic inflammatory disorder?

    PubMed

    Aldea, Anna; Campistol, Josep M; Arostegui, Juan I; Rius, Josefa; Maso, Montserrat; Vives, Jordi; Yagüe, Jordi

    2004-01-01

    Familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) is an autosomal recessive disease characterized by recurring short attacks of fever and serositis. Secondary AA amyloidosis is the worst complication of the disease and often determines the prognosis. The MEFV gene, on chromosome 16p13.3, is responsible for the disease and around 30 mutations have been reported to date. Colchicine is the standard FMF treatment today, and prevents both attacks and amyloid deposition in 95% of patients. Here we describe a three-generation Spanish kindred with five family members affected by a severe periodic inflammatory disorder associated with renal AA amyloidosis and colchicine unresponsiveness. Clinical diagnosis of definite FMF disease was made based on the Tel-Hashomer criteria set. Genetic analyses revealed that all subjects were heterozygous for the new H478Y MEFV variant, segregating with the disease. In addition, mutations in the TNFRSF1A and CIAS1/PYPAF1/NALP3 genes, related to the dominantly inherited autoinflammatory periodic syndromes, were ruled out. However, the dominant inheritance of the disease, the long fever episodes with a predominant joint involvement, and the resistance to colchicine in these patients raise the question of whether the periodic syndrome seen in this kindred is a true FMF disease with unusual manifestations or rather another MEFV-associated periodic syndrome. We conclude that the new H478Y MEFV mutation is the dominant pathological variant causing the inflammatory periodic syndrome in this kindred and that full-length analyses of the MEFV gene are needed to obtain an adequate diagnosis of patients with clinical suspicion of a hereditary periodic fever syndrome, especially those from non-ancestral populations.

  13. The phenotypic and molecular genetic spectrum of Alström syndrome in 44 Turkish kindreds and a literature review of Alström syndrome in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Ozantürk, Ayşegül; Marshall, Jan D; Collin, Gayle B; Düzenli, Selma; Marshall, Robert P; Candan, Şükrü; Tos, Tülay; Esen, İhsan; Taşkesen, Mustafa; Çayır, Atilla; Öztürk, Şükrü; Üstün, İhsan; Ataman, Esra; Karaca, Emin; Özdemir, Taha Reşid; Erol, İlknur; Eroğlu, Fehime Kara; Torun, Deniz; Parıltay, Erhan; Yılmaz-Güleç, Elif; Karaca, Ender; Atabek, M Emre; Elçioğlu, Nursel; Satman, İlhan; Möller, Claes; Muller, Jean; Naggert, Jürgen K; Özgül, Rıza Köksal

    2015-01-01

    Alström syndrome (ALMS) is an autosomal recessive disease characterized by multiple organ involvement, including neurosensory vision and hearing loss, childhood obesity, diabetes mellitus, cardiomyopathy, hypogonadism, and pulmonary, hepatic, renal failure and systemic fibrosis. Alström Syndrome is caused by mutations in ALMS1, and ALMS1 protein is thought to have a role in microtubule organization, intraflagellar transport, endosome recycling and cell cycle regulation. Here, we report extensive phenotypic and genetic analysis of a large cohort of Turkish patients with ALMS. We evaluated 61 Turkish patients, including 11 previously reported, for both clinical spectrum and mutations in ALMS1. To reveal the molecular diagnosis of the patients, different approaches were used in combination, a cohort of patients were screened by the gene array to detect the common mutations in ALMS1 gene, then in patients having any of the common ALMS1 mutations were subjected to direct DNA sequencing or next-generation sequencing for the screening of mutations in all coding regions of the gene. In total, 20 distinct disease-causing nucleotide changes in ALMS1 have been identified, eight of which are novel, thereby increasing the reported ALMS1 mutations by 6% (8/120). Five disease-causing variants were identified in more than one kindred, but most of the alleles were unique to each single patient and identified only once (16/20). So far, 16 mutations identified were specific to the Turkish population, and four have also been reported in other ethnicities. In addition, 49 variants of uncertain pathogenicity were noted, and four of these were very rare and probably or likely deleterious according to in silico mutation prediction analyses. ALMS has a relatively high incidence in Turkey and the present study shows that the ALMS1 mutations are largely heterogeneous; thus, these data from a particular population may provide a unique source for the identification of additional mutations

  14. Muckle-Wells syndrome: clinical and histological skin findings compatible with cold air urticaria in a large kindred.

    PubMed

    Haas, N; Küster, W; Zuberbier, T; Henz, B M

    2004-07-01

    Muckle-Wells syndrome is a rare familial disease with autosomal dominant inheritance, characterized by cold sensitivity and polyarthralgias since childhood, with possible later development of nerve deafness and renal amyloidosis. The nature of the skin manifestations is, however, not well characterized. To clarify the nature of cutaneous cold sensitivity in patients with Muckle-Wells syndrome by studying clinical aspects and histological features. Eighteen members of a family with Muckle-Wells syndrome and the recently identified mutation of the CIAS1 gene at locus 260 of chromosome 1q44 were available for study. Examination included a thorough history, physical examination and a battery of laboratory tests. In two brothers, standard cold contact and cold air provocation tests were performed, as were biopsies from normal and lesional skin. All affected family members reported an increased sensitivity to cold, dampness or changes in temperature, and most had arthritis and conjunctivitis. Eight had developed hearing loss, four renal involvement, and amyloid deposits were found in three of five patients in whom rectal biopsies were performed. Laboratory tests showed leucocytosis and elevated C-reactive protein, but no serum cold agglutinins and cryoglobulins. Skin eruptions, with weals of 0.2-3 cm, lasted from 5 to 24 h and were associated with local itching or pain as well as fever, malaise and chills. On cold provocation of two patients, lesions could be reproduced by cold air, but not by contact with an ice cube or cold water. On histology, there was increased vasodilatation, marked infiltration with neutrophils and monocytes/macrophages, and increased expression of beta 2 integrins in lesional vs. normal skin. Numbers of mast cells as well as expression of interleukin-3 and tumour necrosis factor-alpha were unchanged. Cold-induced skin lesions in Muckle-Wells syndrome represent typical generalized cold air/wind inflammatory reactions, as also observed in familial

  15. The phenotypic and molecular genetic spectrum of Alström Syndrome in 44 Turkish kindreds and a literature review of Alström Syndrome in Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Ozantürk, Ayşegül; Marshall, Jan D; Collin, Gayle B; Düzenli, Selma; Marshall, Robert P; Candan, Şükrü; Tos, Tülay; Esen, İhsan; Taşkesen, Mustafa; Çayır, Atilla; Öztürk, Şükrü; Üstün, İhsan; Ataman, Esra; Karaca, Emin; Özdemir, Taha Reşid; Erol, İlknur; Eroğlu, Fehime Kara; Torun, Deniz; Parıltay, Erhan; Yılmaz-Güleç, Elif; Karaca, Ender; Atabek, M. Emre; Elçioğlu, Nursel; Satman, İlhan; Möller, Claes; Müller, Jean; Naggert, Jürgen K; Özgül, Rıza Köksal

    2017-01-01

    Alström Syndrome is an autosomal recessive disease characterized by multiple organ involvement, including neurosensory vision and hearing loss, childhood obesity, diabetes mellitus, cardiomyopathy, hypogonadism, and pulmonary, hepatic, renal failure, and systemic fibrosis. Alström Syndrome is caused by mutations in ALMS1, and ALMS1 protein is thought to play a role in microtubule organization, intraflagellar transport, endosome recycling and cell cycle regulation. Here, we report extensive phenotypic and genetic analysis of a large cohort of Turkish patients with Alström Syndrome. We evaluated 61 Turkish patients, including 11 previously reported, for both clinical spectrum and mutations in ALMS1. To reveal the molecular diagnosis of the patients, there different approaches were used in combination, a cohort of patients were screened by the gene array to detect the common mutations in ALMS1 gene, then in patients having any of common ALMS1 mutations were subjected to direct DNA sequencing or next generation sequencing for the screening of mutations in all coding regions of the gene. In total, 20 distinct disease-causing nucleotide changes in ALMS1 have been identified, 8 of which are novel, thereby increasing the reported ALMS1 mutations by 6% (8/120). Five disease-causing variants were identified in more than one kindred, but most alleles were unique to each single patient and identified only once (16/20). So far, 16 mutations identified were specific to the Turkish population, and four have also been reported in other ethnicities. Additionally, 49 variants of uncertain pathogenicity were noted, and four of these were very rare and probably or likely deleterious according to in silico mutation prediction analyses. Alström Syndrome has a relatively high incidence in Turkey and the present study shows that the ALMS1 mutations are largely heterogeneous; thus, these data from a particular population may provide a unique source for the identification of additional

  16. Prion protein gene analysis in three kindreds with fatal familial insomnia (FFI): Codon 178 mutation and codon 129 polymorphism

    SciTech Connect

    Medori, R.; Tritschler, H.J. )

    1993-10-01

    Fatal familial insomnia (FFI) is a disease linked to a GAC(Asp) [yields] AAC(Asn) mutation in codon 178 of the prion protein (PrP) gene. FFI is characterized clinically by untreatable progressive insomnia, dysautonomia, and motor dysfunctions and is characterized pathologically by selective thalamic atrophy. The authors confirmed the 178[sup Asn] mutation in the PrP gene of a third FFI family of French ancestry. Three family members who are under 40 years of age and who inherited the mutation showed only reduced perfusion in the basal ganglia on single photon emission computerized tomography. Some FFI features differ from the clinical and neuropathologic findings associated with 178[sup Asn] reported elsewhere. However, additional intragenic mutations accounting for the phenotypic differences were not observed in two affected individuals. In other sporadic and familial forms of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease and Gerstmann-Straeussler syndrome, Met or Val homozygosity at polymorphic codon 129 is associated with a more severe phenotype, younger age at onset, and faster progression. In FFI, young and old individuals at disease onset had 129[sup Met/Val]. Moreover, of five 178[sup Asn] individuals who are above age-at-onset range and who are well, two have 129[sup Met] and three have 129[sup Met/Val], suggesting that polymorphic site 129 does not modulate FFI phenotypic expression. Genetic heterogeneity and environment may play an important role in inter- and intrafamilial variability of the 178[sup Asn] mutation. 32 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Effect of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma 2 pro(12)ala variant on obesity, glucose homeostasis, and blood pressure in members of familial type 2 diabetic kindreds.

    PubMed

    Hasstedt, S J; Ren, Q F; Teng, K; Elbein, S C

    2001-02-01

    The Pro(12)Ala (P12A) variant of exon B of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma(2) (PPAR gamma) been variably associated with obesity, insulin sensitivity, diabetes, and dyslipidemia, but its role in insulin resistance-associated traits remains uncertain. We tested the hypothesis that this variant is associated with the insulin resistance syndrome by genotyping 619 members of 52 familial type 2 diabetes kindreds. A subset of 124 family members underwent iv glucose tolerance tests and minimal model determination of insulin sensitivity. We estimated the frequency of the A12 allele as 0.12, within the range observed in random Caucasian samples. We were unable to demonstrate any effect on direct measures of insulin sensitivity, and no trait was linked to markers near PPAR gamma on chromosome 3q. However, body mass index, serum total cholesterol levels, triglyceride levels, systolic and diastolic blood pressures, and glucose concentration showed at least a trend to association (P < 0.1) when tested separately for a family-based association. When these 6 traits were included in a multivariate analysis, body mass index, systolic and diastolic blood pressures, triglyceride levels, and glucose concentration remained significantly associated with the P12A variant (P < 0.05), whereas the effect of P12A on liability for diabetes was not significant. The predicted means for each trait and each genotype suggested that the P12A variant acted most like a recessive mutation, with the major effect among homozygous individuals who comprise only 1--2% of the population. We confirm an association of the P12A variant in traits commonly ascribed to the insulin resistance syndrome, but not with direct measures of insulin sensitivity. The tendency for this variant to act in a recessive manner with effects on multiple traits may explain the inconsistent associations noted in previous studies.

  18. A systematic search for linkage with nonsyndromic recessive deafness in two large Middle Eastern inbred kindreds excludes more than 30% of the genome

    SciTech Connect

    Weiss, S.; Korostishevsky, M.; Frydman, M.

    1994-09-01

    It has been estimated that as many as 35 loci may individually cause autosomal recessive non-syndromic deafness. The extreme genetic heterogeneity, limited clinical differentiation and phenotypic assortative mating in many western countries make many families unsuitable for genetic linkage studies. Recently the first of those loci was mapped (to 13q) in two consanguineous families from northern Tunisia. We are studying two large highly consanguineous Middle Eastern kindreds (a total of 26 deaf in 98 sampled individuals). Examination in each family showed no evidence of clinical heterogeneity and indicated an uncomplicated profound bilateral sensorineural deafness. We have been able to exclude the 13q locus as the cause of deafness in each kindred and have also excluded such `candidate` loci as regions as those causing Usher`s syndrome type 1 (11q13)(11p), Usher`s syndrome type II (1q32-q41), Waardenburg syndrome type I (2q37), branchio-oto-renal syndrome (8q12-q13), Monge`s deafness (5q31), and Treacher Collins syndrome (5q31.3-q33.3). To date, no lod scores greater than 1 have been obtained in either kindred using 150 RFLT`s, VNTR`s and highly polymorphic microsatellite markers (CA repeats and tetranucleotides). By Morton`s criterion a minimum of 30% of the autosomal genome can be excluded for each kindred separately.

  19. Small nerve fibres, small hands and small feet: a new syndrome of pain, dysautonomia and acromesomelia in a kindred with a novel NaV1.7 mutation.

    PubMed

    Hoeijmakers, Janneke G J; Han, Chongyang; Merkies, Ingemar S J; Macala, Lawrence J; Lauria, Giuseppe; Gerrits, Monique M; Dib-Hajj, Sulayman D; Faber, Catharina G; Waxman, Stephen G

    2012-02-01

    The Na(V)1.7 sodium channel is preferentially expressed within dorsal root ganglion and sympathetic ganglion neurons and their small-diameter peripheral axons. Gain-of-function variants of Na(V)1.7 have recently been described in patients with painful small fibre neuropathy and no other apparent cause. Here, we describe a novel syndrome of pain, dysautonomia, small hands and small feet in a kindred carrying a novel Na(V)1.7 mutation. A 35-year-old male presented with erythema and burning pain in the hands since early childhood, later disseminating to the feet, cheeks and ears. He also experienced progressive muscle cramps, profound sweating, bowel disturbances (diarrhoea or constipation), episodic dry eyes and mouth, hot flashes, and erectile dysfunction. Neurological examination was normal. Physical examination was remarkable in revealing small hands and feet (acromesomelia). Blood examination and nerve conduction studies were unremarkable. Intra-epidermal nerve fibre density was significantly reduced compared to age- and sex-matched normative values. The patient's brother and father reported similar complaints including distal extremity redness and pain, and demonstrated comparable distal limb under-development. Quantitative sensory testing revealed impaired warmth sensation in the proband, father and brother. Genetic analysis revealed a novel missense mutation in the SCN9A gene encoding sodium channel Na(V)1.7 (G856D; c.2567G > A) in all three affected subjects, but not in unaffected family members. Functional analysis demonstrated that the mutation hyperpolarizes (-9.3 mV) channel activation, depolarizes (+6.2 mV) steady-state fast-inactivation, slows deactivation and enhances persistent current and the response to slow ramp stimuli by 10- to 11-fold compared with wild-type Na(V)1.7 channels. Current-clamp analysis of dorsal root ganglion neurons transfected with G856D mutant channels demonstrated depolarized resting potential, reduced current threshold

  20. Clinical spectrum of Kufor-Rakeb syndrome in the Chilean kindred with ATP13A2 mutations.

    PubMed

    Behrens, Maria I; Brüggemann, Norbert; Chana, Pedro; Venegas, Pablo; Kägi, Marianne; Parrao, Teresa; Orellana, Patricia; Garrido, Cristian; Rojas, Cecilia V; Hauke, Jan; Hahnen, Eric; González, Rafael; Seleme, Nicolas; Fernández, Verónica; Schmidt, Alexander; Binkofski, Ferdinand; Kömpf, Detlef; Kubisch, Christian; Hagenah, Johann; Klein, Christine; Ramirez, Alfredo

    2010-09-15

    We report the clinical features of the original Chilean family with Kufor-Rakeb syndrome (KRS) that led to the discovery of the ATP13A2 gene at the PARK9 locus. KRS is a rare juvenile-onset autosomal recessive disease characterized by progressive Parkinsonism, pyramidal signs, and cognitive decline in addition to vertical gaze palsy and facial-faucial-finger minimyoclonus. Neurological and neuropsychological examination during a 10-year period, videotaping, neuroimaging, and measurement of DNA methylation of the ATP13A2 promoter region were performed. The youngest 5 of 17 children of nonconsanguineous parents, carrying compound-heterozygous ATP13A2 mutations, had normal development until ages ∼10 to 12 years, when school performance deteriorated and slowness, rigidity, and frequent falls developed. Examination revealed bradykinesia, subtle postural/action tremor, cogwheel rigidity, spasticity, upward gaze palsy, smooth pursuit with saccadic intrusions, and dementia. Additional signs included facial-faucial-finger minimyoclonus, absent postural reflexes, visual/auditory hallucinations, and insomnia. Levodopa response could not be fully judged in this family. T2* magnetic resonance imaging sequences revealed marked diffuse hypointensity of the caudate (head and body) and lenticular nucleus bilaterally. Disease progression was slow including epilepsy, cachexia, and anarthria. Four affected members died after 28.5 ± 5.5 (mean ± SD) years of disease. Two heterozygous carriers, the mother and eldest sibling, showed jerky perioral muscle contractions and clumsiness of hand movements. There was no significant correlation between DNA methylation of the ATP13A2 promoter region and disease progression. The marked caudate and lenticular nucleus T2*-hypointensity suggests that KRS might belong to the family of neurodegenerative diseases associated with brain iron accumulation.

  1. Genetic and genealogic study of 33 Finnish HNPCC kindreds

    SciTech Connect

    Nystroem-Lahti, M; Peltomaeki, P.; Aaltonen, L.A.

    1994-09-01

    Two susceptibility loci for hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) have been identified: MSH2 on chromosome 2p and MLH1 on chromosome 3p. This study focuses on the role of the latter locus in 33 Finnish HNPCC kindreds. Of 9 families in which linkage studies were possible, 8 revealed linkage to markers on 3p. A haplotype of alleles from 9 loci extending 10 cM around MLH1 was conserved in 5 kindreds. All families with the shared large haplotype as well as two other 3p-linked families with different disease haplotypes showed an identical germline mutation of MLH1. The mutation consists of a heterozygous deletion of 165 bp corresponding to an exon. An additional 24 kindreds that could not be studied for linkage were tested for the presence of the above described deletion, and the mutation was found in 6. The ancestries of all kindreds were traced 3 to 13 generations back using data from the church parish registers. Of the 13 families with the 165 bp deletion in MLH1, 10 originated in a limited area in south-central Finland. At least 8 of these kindreds had a common ancestry. The remaining kindreds with the MLH1 mutation originated from another small region some 200 km away. The kindreds that did not show the characteristic germline mutation originated more evenly in different parts of the country. Our results suggest that a single MLH1 mutation is a widespread cause of HNPCC in the Finnish population.

  2. Deletion of exon 3 of the insulin receptor gene in a kindred with a familial form of insulin resistance

    SciTech Connect

    Wertheimer, E.; Barbetti, F.; Accili, D.; Taylor, S.I.; Litvin, Y.; Ebstein, R.P.; Bennet, E.R.

    1994-05-01

    Molecular scanning techniques, such as denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), greatly facilitate screening candidate genes for mutations. The authors have used DGGE to screen for mutations in the insulin receptor gene in a family in which four of five daughters were affected by type A insulin resistance in association with acanthosis nigricans and hyperandrogenism. DGGE did not detect mutations in any of the 22 exons of the insulin receptor gene. Nevertheless, Southern blot analysis suggested that there was a deletion of exon 3 in the other paternal allele of the insulin receptor gene. Analysis of the father`s cDNA confirmed that exon 3 was deleted from mRNA molecules derived from one of his two alleles of the insulin receptor gene. Furthermore, the father was found to be hemizygous for a polymorphic sequence (GAC{sup Asp} at codon 234) in exon 3 that was not inherited by any of the five daughters. Instead, all five daughters inherited the paternal allele with the deletion mutation. They did not detect mutations in the mother`s insulin receptor gene. Furthermore, the clinical syndrome did not segregate with either of the mother`s two alleles of the insulin receptor gene. Although the youngest daughter inherited the mutant allele from her father, she was not clinically affected. The explanation for the incomplete penetrance is not known. These results emphasize the importance of specifically searching for deletion mutations when screening candidate genes for mutations. Furthermore, the existence of apparently asymptomatic carriers of mutations in the insulin receptor gene, such as the father in the present study, suggests that the prevalence of mutations in the insulin receptor gene may be higher than would be predicted on the basis of the observed prevalence of patients with extreme insulin resistance. 34 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  3. A family with Alport's syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Jain, P.

    1970-01-01

    Alport's syndrome has been diagnosed in members of four successive generations of one family. Renal biopsy was performed in two of these patients. The syndrome is briefly reviewed. ImagesFig. 2 PMID:5416510

  4. Familial Adrenocortical Carcinoma in Association With Lynch Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Challis, Benjamin G.; Kandasamy, Narayanan; Powlson, Andrew S.; Koulouri, Olympia; Annamalai, Anand Kumar; Happerfield, Lisa; Marker, Alison J.; Arends, Mark J.; Nik-Zainal, Serena

    2016-01-01

    Context: Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is a rare endocrine malignancy with a poor prognosis. Although the majority of childhood ACC arises in the context of inherited cancer susceptibility syndromes, it remains less clear whether a hereditary tumor predisposition exists for the development of ACC in adults. Here, we report the first occurrence of familial ACC in a kindred with Lynch syndrome resulting from a pathogenic germline MSH2 mutation. Case: A 54-year-old female with a history of ovarian and colorectal malignancy was found to have an ACC. A detailed family history revealed her mother had died of ACC and her sister had previously been diagnosed with endometrial and colorectal cancers. A unifying diagnosis of Lynch syndrome was considered, and immunohistochemical analyses demonstrated loss of MSH2 and MSH6 expression in both AACs (proband and her mother) and in the endometrial carcinoma of her sister. Subsequent genetic screening confirmed the presence of a germline MSH2 mutation (resulting in deletions of exons 1–3) in the proband and her sister. Conclusion: Our findings provide strong support for the recent proposal that ACC should be considered a Lynch syndrome-associated tumor and included in the Amsterdam II clinical diagnostic criteria. We also suggest that screening for ACC should be considered in cancer surveillance strategies directed at individuals with germline mutations in DNA mismatch repair genes. PMID:27144940

  5. A novel variation in the AVP gene resulting in familial neurohypophyseal diabetes insipidus in a large Italian kindred.

    PubMed

    Birkegaard, Camilla; Christensen, Jane H; Falorni, Alberto; Marzotti, Stefania; Minarelli, Viviana; Gregersen, Niels; Rittig, Søren

    2013-06-01

    Familial neurohypophyseal diabetes insipidus (FNDI) is mostly an autosomal dominant inherited disorder presenting with severe polydipsia and polyuria typically in early childhood. To date, 69 different variations in the AVP gene encoding the AVP prohormone have been identified in autosomal dominant FNDI (adFNDI). In this study we present a family of seven generations, in which a novel variation in the AVP gene seems to cause adFNDI. Clinical assessment by 24 h urine collection, water deprivation test, desmopressin (dDAVP) challenge, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the posterior pituitary are presented. The diagnosis of adFNDI was confirmed by direct DNA sequence analysis of the AVP gene. Inheritance pattern and clinical history clearly pointed towards adFNDI. Inability of concentrating urine upon dehydration was demonstrated by a water deprivation test, and neurohypophyseal diabetes insipidus was strongly suspected after dDAVP administration, during which renal concentration ability quadrupled. MRI revealed a very weak pituitary "bright spot" in each of six subjects and a further reduction in the size of the neurohypophysis in a 7-year follow-up MRI scan in one subject. DNA sequence analysis revealed heterozygousity for a novel g.1785T > C gene variation predicting a p.Leu63Pro substitution in four affected subjects. Genetic testing in the diagnostic evaluation of families in which diabetes insipidus segregates is highly recommended in that interpretation of clinical assessments can be difficult. Furthermore, presymptomatic diagnosis can ease the parental concern of the carrier status of their offspring, and also avoid unnecessary surveillance of those being unaffected.

  6. Genetics Home Reference: familial cold autoinflammatory syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home Health Conditions familial cold autoinflammatory syndrome familial cold autoinflammatory syndrome Printable PDF Open All Close All ... to view the expand/collapse boxes. Description Familial cold autoinflammatory syndrome is a condition that causes episodes ...

  7. A novel truncating AIP mutation, p.W279*, in a familial isolated pituitary adenoma (FIPA) kindred.

    PubMed

    Cansu, Güven Barış; Taşkıran, Bengür; Trivellin, Giampaolo; Faucz, Fabio R; Stratakis, Constantine A

    2016-07-01

    Familial isolated pituitary adenomas (FIPA) constitute 2-3% of pituitary tumours. AIP is the most commonly mutated gene in FIPA. We herein report a novel germline mutation of the AIP gene in a family with FIPA. We present two patients, a father and his 12-year-old daughter, diagnosed clinically and using laboratory measures with acromegaly-gigantism. Both underwent transsphenoidal hypophyseal surgery for macroadenomas. We initially detected a novel heterozygous germline AIP mutation, c.836G>A (p.W279*), in the father's DNA. We then found the same mutation in his affected daughter. Pituitary adenomas associated with AIP mutations mostly present as FIPA (68%) at an early age (78% occur at <30 years old). They are often growth hormone (GH) - or prolactin - secreting macroadenomas (88%) that have already extended beyond the sella at the time of diagnosis. Acromegalic cases are resistant to somatostatin analogues and multimodal management is frequently essential to control the disease. Our patients had normalized GH/IGF-1 values soon after surgery, although enough time may not have elapsed to reach final cure. While penetrance of the disease can be as low as 10% in FIPA, especially children and young patients with somatotropinoma and prolactinoma should be surveyed for inactivating mutations or deletions in AIP. Determining the causative mutations may be of assistance in early diagnosis, treatment success, and genetic counseling.

  8. Craniosynostosis suggestive of Saethre-Chotzen syndrome: Clinical description of a large kindred and exclusion of candidate regions on 7p

    SciTech Connect

    von Gernet, S.; Muehlbauer, W.; Fairley, J.

    1996-05-03

    We describe the clinical manifestations of an autosomal dominant form of craniosynostosis in a large family with eight affected relatives. Unilateral or bilateral coronal synostosis, low frontal hair line, strabismus, ptosis, and partial cutaneous syndactyly of fingers and toes are findings suggestive of the diagnosis of Saethre-Chotzen syndrome. The disease locus was excluded from the two adjacent Saethre-Chotzen candidate regions on 7p by linkage analysis with markers D7S664 and D7S507. This indicates heterogeneity of Saethre-Chotzen syndrome with a locus outside the candidate regions on 7p. 30 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  9. Current status of familial gastrointestinal polyposis syndromes

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Ioan; Gurzu, Simona; Turdean, Gligore Sabin

    2015-01-01

    Because of the rarity of familial gastrointestinal cancer-predisposing syndromes, their exploration in literature is not extensive. In this review, an update of the clinicopathological and molecular criteria of gastrointestinal familial polyposis syndromes with potential malignant transformation is performed. In addition, a guide for screening and surveillance was synthesized and a distribution of gene mutations according to the specific syndromes and geographic distribution was included. The following inherited polyposes syndromes were analyzed: familial adenomatous polyposis, the hamartomatous familial polyposes (Juvenile polyposis, Peutz-Jeghers syndrome, Cowden syndrome, Bannayan-Riley-Ruvalcaba syndrome, hereditary mixed polyposis syndrome, Gorlin syndrome, Birt-Hogg-Dube syndrome, neurofibromatosis type I and multiple endocrine neoplasia syndrome 2B), Li-Fraumeni syndrome, and MUTYH-associated adenomatous polyposis. For proper medical care, subspecialization of gastroenterologists, pathologists, and genticists in the field of familial diseases should be introduced in the medical curriculum. PMID:26600934

  10. Current status of familial gastrointestinal polyposis syndromes.

    PubMed

    Jung, Ioan; Gurzu, Simona; Turdean, Gligore Sabin

    2015-11-15

    Because of the rarity of familial gastrointestinal cancer-predisposing syndromes, their exploration in literature is not extensive. In this review, an update of the clinicopathological and molecular criteria of gastrointestinal familial polyposis syndromes with potential malignant transformation is performed. In addition, a guide for screening and surveillance was synthesized and a distribution of gene mutations according to the specific syndromes and geographic distribution was included. The following inherited polyposes syndromes were analyzed: familial adenomatous polyposis, the hamartomatous familial polyposes (Juvenile polyposis, Peutz-Jeghers syndrome, Cowden syndrome, Bannayan-Riley-Ruvalcaba syndrome, hereditary mixed polyposis syndrome, Gorlin syndrome, Birt-Hogg-Dube syndrome, neurofibromatosis type I and multiple endocrine neoplasia syndrome 2B), Li-Fraumeni syndrome, and MUTYH-associated adenomatous polyposis. For proper medical care, subspecialization of gastroenterologists, pathologists, and genticists in the field of familial diseases should be introduced in the medical curriculum.

  11. Manitoba Aboriginal Kindred with Original Cerebro-Oculo-Facio-Skeletal Syndrome Has a Mutation in the Cockayne Syndrome Group B (CSB) Gene

    PubMed Central

    Meira, Lisiane B.; Graham, Jr., John M.; Greenberg, Cheryl R.; Busch, David B.; Doughty, Ana T. B.; Ziffer, Deborah W.; Coleman, Donna M.; Savre-Train, Isabelle; Friedberg, Errol C.

    2000-01-01

    Cerebro-oculo-facio-skeletal (COFS) syndrome is a rapidly progressive neurological disorder leading to brain atrophy with calcification, cataracts, microcornea, optic atrophy, progressive joint contractures, and growth failure. Cockayne syndrome (CS) is a recessively inherited neurodegenerative disorder characterized by low-to-normal birth weight; growth failure; brain dysmyelination with calcium deposits; cutaneous photosensitivity; pigmentary retinopathy, cataracts, or both; and sensorineural hearing loss. CS cells are hypersensitive to UV radiation because of impaired nucleotide excision repair of UV radiation–induced damage in actively transcribed DNA. The abnormalities in CS are associated with mutations in the CSA or CSB genes. In this report, we present evidence that two probands related to the Manitoba Aboriginal population group within which COFS syndrome was originally reported have cellular phenotypes indistinguishable from those in CS cells. The identical mutation was detected in the CSB gene from both children with COFS syndrome and in both parents of one of the patients. This mutation was also detected in three other patients with COFS syndrome from the Manitoba Aboriginal population group. These results suggest that CS and COFS syndrome share a common pathogenesis. PMID:10739753

  12. Autosomal dominant Kufs` disease: Clinical heterogeneity in nine families, and exclusion of linkage to CLN1 and CLN3 markers in a large American kindred

    SciTech Connect

    Andermann, F.; Andermann, E.; Carpenter, S.

    1994-09-01

    Most forms of neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis (NCL) are autosomal recessive, and three genes have already been mapped: the infantile form (CLN 1); the juvenile form (CLN 3); and the early juvenile variant (CLN 5) on chromosomes 1, 16 and 13, respectively. Kufs` disease or adolescent-adult onset NCL is usually inherited as an autosomal recessive trait, and presents as three distinct clinical syndromes: progressive myoclonus epilepsy (PME) with onset in the early teens or around age 30; and onset of dementia with motor disability in the 30s. We have studied three families originating from different parts of the USA manifesting dominantly inherited Kufs` disease. Granular osmophilic deposits (GROD) were found in brain, but storage in skin was not an obligatory feature. Six dominantly inherited PME families have been ascertained from three different regions of Spain. No storage was found in skin or muscle in any of these families. The mean age of onset in the American families is earlier, the clinical manifestations more severe, and the progression much more rapid that in the Spanish families. These findings would suggest the possibility of genetic heterogeneity involving two or more loci, or different mutations at the same gene locus. Genetic linkage studies have been carried out in a six-generation New Jersey family in an attempt to characterize the gene(s) responsible for this disorder. The infantile NCL locus on chromosome 1p (CLN1) and the juvenile NCL locus on chromosome 16p (CLN 3) have been excluded in this family. Further clinical, pathological and molecular genetic studies should lead to the clarification of the diagnostic approaches in this disorder.

  13. [Burnout syndrome among family physicians].

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Cruz, Juan; Mugártegui-Sánchez, Sharon

    2013-01-01

    burnout syndrome is a state of physical and emotional exhaustion that can occur among workers who interact directly with others. This could affect job performance. The objective was to determine the prevalence of this syndrome and its associated factors among family physicians. a cross-sectional survey applying the Maslach Burnout Inventory was conducted in a selected convenience non-probability sampling of family physicians. Central tendency and dispersion measures were used in determining the prevalence of burnout syndrome; the associated factors were analysed by χ(2) test. there were 59 cases of burnout syndrome, 36 had involvement in a single component, 15 in 2 and 8 were affected in 3 components; we observed that 35 % of positive cases reported doing an average of 10 extra shifts a month (p = 0.013). Having a second job was associated with positive cases of burnout syndrome. the results are consistent with similar studies. Working extra shifts or having a second job were the related factors most associated to this syndrome.

  14. Williams Syndrome: A Family's Journey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sorrell, Adrian L.

    This paper describes Williams syndrome, a rare genetic disorder that results in mental retardation. An overview of this condition is presented from the perspective of a family who traveled through the many stages of the disability from infancy to young adulthood. The etiology and characteristics of the disability are discussed, including…

  15. [Familial incidence of myelodysplastic syndromes].

    PubMed

    Wróbel, Tomasz; Mazur, Grzegorz; Pyszel, Angelika; Biedroń, Monika; Kuliczkowski, Kazimierz

    2006-01-01

    The myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) are heterogeneous group of clonal disorders of hematopoietic stem cells, which manifestation is cytopenia and hypercellular, dysplastic bone marrow, often with increased amount of blasts. The pathogenesis of majority of MDS remains unexplained. It is regarded that genetic predisposition and exposure to toxic environmental agents contribute to genetic mutations in MDS. Molecular abnormalities have attracted interest over past years because of their presence in most cases of MDS, even without noticeable disorders in kariotype. Familial incidence of myelodysplastic syndromes may be helpful in understanding genetic factors of the disease. We describe two families in which MDS occurred in siblings (3 brothers; sister and brother). Kariotype abnormalities have been noted only in one person of each family. The rest of patients had a normal kariotype. This suggests that molecular abnormalities are the cause of their disease. The occupational exposure to precise mutagens (aluminium, greases, diesels, petrol, metals) was noted in two persons in the first family and correspondingly in one person in the second. There was absence of one mutagen common for every member of two reported families.

  16. Legius Syndrome in Fourteen Families

    PubMed Central

    Denayer, Ellen; Chmara, Magdalena; Brems, Hilde; Kievit, Anneke Maat; van Bever, Yolande; Van den Ouweland, Ans MW; Van Minkelen, Rick; de Goede-Bolder, Arja; Oostenbrink, Rianne; Lakeman, Phillis; Beert, Eline; Ishizaki, Takuma; Mori, Tomoaki; Keymolen, Kathelijn; Van den Ende, Jenneke; Mangold, Elisabeth; Peltonen, Sirkku; Brice, Glen; Rankin, Julia; Van Spaendonck-Zwarts, Karin Y; Yoshimura, Akihiko; Legius, Eric

    2011-01-01

    Legius syndrome presents as an autosomal dominant condition characterized by café-au-lait macules with or without freckling and sometimes a Noonan-like appearance and/or learning difficulties. It is caused by germline loss-of-function SPRED1 mutations and is a member of the RAS-MAPK pathway syndromes. Most mutations result in a truncated protein and only a few inactivating missense mutations have been reported. Since only a limited number of patients has been reported up until now, the full clinical and mutational spectrum is still unknown. We report mutation data and clinical details in fourteen new families with Legius syndrome. Six novel germline mutations are described. The Trp31Cys mutation is a new pathogenic SPRED1 missense mutation. Clinical details in the 14 families confirmed the absence of neurofibromas, and Lisch nodules, and the absence of a high prevalence of central nervous system tumors. We report white matter T2 hyperintensities on brain MRI scans in 2 patients and a potential association between postaxial polydactyly and Legius syndrome. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. PMID:21089071

  17. Muckle-Wells cryopyrinopathy: complex phenotyping and response to therapy in a new multiplex kindred.

    PubMed

    Headley, Alexander P; Cordingley, Frank; Hawkins, Phillip N; Riminton, D Sean

    2014-04-01

    Muckle-Wells syndrome (MWS) is a member of the cryopyrin-associated periodic syndrome family of auto-inflammatory diseases, originally described as a triad of urticaria, sensorineural deafness and amyloidosis. IL-1 blockade is a proven therapy for MWS. The clinical, laboratory and genotypic characteristics of a novel kindred of five individuals with Muckle-Wells syndrome are described. Response to IL-1 blockade therapy in the proband was evaluated. All five affected family members experienced symptoms of multi-organ inflammation. Lead time between symptom onset and diagnosis was approximately 30 years in the proband. Fever was not a universal feature in all affected family members. Anti-IL-1 therapy in the proband resulted in improvements in patient-reported symptoms, inflammatory markers, auditory acuity and reversal of her infertility. Muckle-Wells syndrome is a rare, multisystem, auto-inflammatory syndrome. Delay in diagnosis prevents effective treatment. We propose reversal of infertility to be among the potential benefits of IL-1 inhibition in this disease.

  18. Target gene analyses of 39 amelogenesis imperfecta kindreds.

    PubMed

    Chan, Hui-Chen; Estrella, Ninna M R P; Milkovich, Rachel N; Kim, Jung-Wook; Simmer, James P; Hu, Jan C-C

    2011-12-01

    Previously, mutational analyses identified six disease-causing mutations in 24 amelogenesis imperfecta (AI) kindreds. We have since expanded the number of AI kindreds to 39, and performed mutation analyses covering the coding exons and adjoining intron sequences for the six proven AI candidate genes [amelogenin (AMELX), enamelin (ENAM), family with sequence similarity 83, member H (FAM83H), WD repeat containing domain 72 (WDR72), enamelysin (MMP20), and kallikrein-related peptidase 4 (KLK4)] and for ameloblastin (AMBN) (a suspected candidate gene). All four of the X-linked AI families (100%) had disease-causing mutations in AMELX, suggesting that AMELX is the only gene involved in the aetiology of X-linked AI. Eighteen families showed an autosomal-dominant pattern of inheritance. Disease-causing mutations were identified in 12 (67%): eight in FAM83H, and four in ENAM. No FAM83H coding-region or splice-junction mutations were identified in three probands with autosomal-dominant hypocalcification AI (ADHCAI), suggesting that a second gene may contribute to the aetiology of ADHCAI. Six families showed an autosomal-recessive pattern of inheritance, and disease-causing mutations were identified in three (50%): two in MMP20, and one in WDR72. No disease-causing mutations were found in 11 families with only one affected member. We conclude that mutation analyses of the current candidate genes for AI have about a 50% chance of identifying the disease-causing mutation in a given kindred.

  19. Target gene analyses of 39 amelogenesis imperfecta kindreds

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Hui-Chen; Estrella, Ninna M. R. P.; Milkovich, Rachel N.; Kim, Jung-Wook; Simmer, James P.; Hu, Jan C-C.

    2012-01-01

    Previously, mutational analyses identified six disease-causing mutations in 24 amelogenesis imperfecta (AI) kindreds. We have since expanded the number of AI kindreds to 39, and performed mutation analyses covering the coding exons and adjoining intron sequences for the six proven AI candidate genes [amelogenin (AMELX), enamelin (ENAM), family with sequence similarity 83, member H (FAM83H), WD repeat containing domain 72 (WDR72), enamelysin (MMP20), and kallikrein-related peptidase 4 (KLK4)] and for ameloblastin (AMBN) (a suspected candidate gene). All four of the X-linked AI families (100%) had disease-causing mutations in AMELX, suggesting that AMELX is the only gene involved in the aetiology of X-linked AI. Eighteen families showed an autosomal-dominant pattern of inheritance. Disease-causing mutations were identified in 12 (67%): eight in FAM83H, and four in ENAM. No FAM83H coding-region or splice-junction mutations were identified in three probands with autosomal-dominant hypocalcification AI (ADHCAI), suggesting that a second gene may contribute to the aetiology of ADHCAI. Six families showed an autosomal-recessive pattern of inheritance, and disease-causing mutations were identified in three (50%): two in MMP20, and one in WDR72. No disease-causing mutations were found in 11 families with only one affected member. We conclude that mutation analyses of the current candidate genes for AI have about a 50% chance of identifying the disease-causing mutation in a given kindred. PMID:22243262

  20. The differential diagnosis of familial lentiginosis syndromes.

    PubMed

    Lodish, Maya B; Stratakis, Constantine A

    2011-09-01

    Cutaneous markers of systemic disease are vital for clinicians to recognize. This chapter outlines familial lentiginosis syndromes that include Peutz-Jeghers syndrome, Carney Complex, the PTEN hamartomatous syndromes, and LEOPARD/Noonan syndrome. The inheritance of these syndromes is autosomal dominant; they also share characteristic skin findings that offer a clue to their recognition and treatment. We will discuss the clinical presentation of these disorders, with a focus on the dermatological manifestations, and will provide an update on the molecular mechanisms involved. Recognition of cutaneous markers associated with these rare familial cancer syndromes provides the opportunity to pursue early surveillance for malignancies, as well as genetic counseling.

  1. Stress in Families of Young Children with Down Syndrome, Williams Syndrome, and Smith-Magenis Syndrome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fidler, Deborah J.; Hodapp, Robert M.; Dykens, Elizabeth M.

    2000-01-01

    Compared stress levels in families of children with Down syndrome (DS), Williams syndrome (WS), or Smith-Magenis syndrome (SMS). Found that DS families experienced less Pessimism than others and less Parent and Family Problems than SMS families. Strongest predictors of Parent and Family Problems were maladaptive behavior in SMS, younger age in DS,…

  2. Familial gastrointestinal stromal tumor syndrome: report of 2 cases with KIT exon 11 mutation.

    PubMed

    Jones, Derek H; Caracciolo, Jamie T; Hodul, Pamela J; Strosberg, Jonathan R; Coppola, Domenico; Bui, Marilyn M

    2015-01-01

    As with cases of sporadic gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST), familial GIST syndrome arises from mutations in KIT or PDGFRA. Only a few dozen such families have been described in the literature. Cases of 2 individuals from 2 different newly described kindreds with familial GIST syndrome were retrospectively reviewed. Pertinent immunohistochemical stains, including CD117, CD34, DOG1, desmin, and S100, were performed. Samples from each case were sent to outside facilities for molecular analysis. A review of the relevant literature was performed and the number of familial GIST syndrome cases reported was updated through July 2014. In case 1, a woman 40 years of age with a family history of GIST presented with abdominal pain and gastrointestinal bleeding. Biopsy of a gastric mass revealed spindle-cell type GIST. Molecular analysis revealed a heterozygous mutation of p.Asp579del in exon 11 of KIT. The patient was placed on imatinib therapy and an initial positive response was demonstrated by imaging. Disease regression was seen on computed tomography, and several GIST tumors were surgically resected. The patient has had stable disease since surgery. In case 2, an asymptomatic woman 29 years of age presented for screening due to a family history of GIST. One small nodule was noted in her stomach and another was noted in the duodenum; both were surgically resected. The patient recovered well following surgery. The GIST in this patient was noted to have similar histological, immunohistochemical, and molecular findings as case 1. Imatinib has often been shown to be an effective therapy in both the familial and sporadic forms of GIST. There is no standard protocol for addressing the surveillance of patients with spindle-cell type GIST seen in the setting of familial GIST syndrome and with a p.Asp579del mutation of exon 11 on KIT.

  3. Waardenburg syndrome and myelomeningocele in a family.

    PubMed Central

    Chatkupt, S; Chatkupt, S; Johnson, W G

    1993-01-01

    We report the first family with Waardenburg syndrome type 1 and myelomeningocele in which more than one subject was affected with both disorders. The possible association is discussed. Prenatal screening for myelomeningocele is suggested for a family with Waardenburg syndrome type 1. Images PMID:8423616

  4. Concordance of phenotypic expression and gender identity in a large kindred with a mutation in the androgen receptor.

    PubMed

    Hooper, H T; Figueiredo, B C; Pavan-Senn, C C; De Lacerda, L; Sandrini, R; Mengarelli, J K; Japp, K; Karaviti, L P

    2004-03-01

    A 14-year-old female presented to the Pediatric Endocrine Clinic, Universidade Federal o Parana Curitiba, Brazil, for obesity. A few years later, despite normal breast development, the patient had failed to menstruate and lacked pubic and axillary hair. Laboratory analyses revealed high levels of testosterone. Karyotype analysis was XY. Direct sequencing of her genomic DNA showed a G to T transition at nucleotide 2089 at exon 2 in the androgen receptor gene, resulting in a substitution of Phe for Cys at position 576. This mutation disrupts the first Zn finger critical to DNA binding and transcriptional activity and results in complete androgen-insensitivity syndrome (CAIS). This individual was part of 700-member multigenerational kindred of German origin living in small villages in Southern Brazil. Family members who gave informed consent were screened using a polymerase chain reaction-based method. Nineteen CAIS-affected individuals and carriers were identified. All presented with infertility and lack of or sparse pubic hair. The prevalence of common AIS within the kindred greatly exceeds that of the general population and is due in part to their isolated familial and community structures. All individuals are genuinely feminine in their appearance, sex behavior, gender identity, and integration within their communities. We conclude that CAIS leads to complete feminization of XY individuals and results in individuals who are psychologically and socially established and integrated as women within the familial and cultural contexts of their communities.

  5. Analysis of the CDKN2A and CDK4 genes and HLA-DR and HLA-DQ alleles in two Spanish familial melanoma kindreds.

    PubMed

    Nagore, E; Climent, J; Planelles, M D; Ledesma, E; Rubio-Moscardó, F; Fortea, J M; Oliver, V

    2000-01-01

    Some confusion exists in the literature about which criteria should be used to define familial melanoma. This could explain the different reported frequencies of mutations in predisposing genes, mostly CDKN2A, in these patients. This study evaluated the human leucocyte antigen (HLA) class II genotype and the presence of mutations in CDKN2A and CDK4 genes in 2 families with very different clinical features. The family with a germinal mutation in exon 2 of CDKN2A (Gly101Try) presented the following clinical features: 3 first-degree affected members, 1 of whom had 2 melanomas, and all the melanomas appearing before 35 years of age. In contrast, the second family did not present any mutation in the studied genes and included 2 first-degree affected members diagnosed at over 45 years of age. Neither family showed an association with HLA genotype. Other genes are also involved in familial melanoma but, when the CDKN2A gene is affected, some clinical features seem to be uniform.

  6. Chromosome 17q linkage studies of 18 Utah breast cancer kindreds

    SciTech Connect

    Goldgar, D.E.; Cannon-Albright, L.A.; Oliphant, A.; Ward, J.H.; Linker, G.; Swensen, J.; Tran, T.D.; Fields, P.; Uharriet, P.; Skolnick, M.H. )

    1993-04-01

    In this paper the authors present linkage results from the analysis of 18 Utah breast cancer kindreds, for three 17q markers. Four kindreds had LOD scores greater than 1.0 for at least one of the marker loci. One of these kindreds has a LOD score of 6.07 with D17S579, and they believe it to be the most informative 17q family reported to date. Among the kindreds which appear unlinked to 17q were an early-onset breast cancer family, a large breast-ovarian family, and a kindred with mixed age at onset. Analysis of individual recombinants in the linked families localizes the BRCA1 gene between THRA1 and D17S579 (Mfd188). A comparison of the Cancer and Steroid Hormone Study (CASH) model and a model which assumes a rare dominant susceptibility locus with low penetrance and no phenocopies stresses the difficulties in assessing linkage if the assumptions of the CASH model in terms of age at onset of breast cancer are not appropriate for the BRCA1 locus. A hypothetical breast cancer pedigree is used to calculate gene carrier probabilities under the CASH model, thereby illustrating some of the concerns regarding the use of this model to detect and exclude 17q linkage in breast cancer families.

  7. IVIC syndrome: report of a second family.

    PubMed

    Sammito, V; Motta, D; Capodieci, G; Sanfilippo, S; Neri, G

    1988-04-01

    The IVIC syndrome derives its name from the Instituto Venezolano de Investigaciones Cientìficas, where it was described by Arias et al. [Am J Med Genet 6:25-59, 1980]. We report on several individuals in a family with the IVIC syndrome, the second described in the literature. In this family there are 3 affected individuals in 2 generations. This observation shows that the IVIC syndrome is not a private syndrome, and confirms that it is due to an autosomal dominant mutation.

  8. Modeling Family Adaptation to Fragile X Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raspa, Melissa; Bailey, Donald, Jr.; Bann, Carla; Bishop, Ellen

    2014-01-01

    Using data from a survey of 1,099 families who have a child with Fragile X syndrome, we examined adaptation across 7 dimensions of family life: parenting knowledge, social support, social life, financial impact, well-being, quality of life, and overall impact. Results illustrate that although families report a high quality of life, they struggle…

  9. Modeling Family Adaptation to Fragile X Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raspa, Melissa; Bailey, Donald, Jr.; Bann, Carla; Bishop, Ellen

    2014-01-01

    Using data from a survey of 1,099 families who have a child with Fragile X syndrome, we examined adaptation across 7 dimensions of family life: parenting knowledge, social support, social life, financial impact, well-being, quality of life, and overall impact. Results illustrate that although families report a high quality of life, they struggle…

  10. Endocrine neoplasms in familial syndromes of hyperparathyroidism.

    PubMed

    Li, Yulong; Simonds, William F

    2015-06-01

    Familial syndromes of hyperparathyroidism, including multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1), multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2A (MEN2A), and the hyperparathyroidism-jaw tumor (HPT-JT), comprise 2-5% of primary hyperparathyroidism cases. Familial syndromes of hyperparathyroidism are also associated with a range of endocrine and nonendocrine tumors, including potential malignancies. Complications of the associated neoplasms are the major causes of morbidities and mortalities in these familial syndromes, e.g., parathyroid carcinoma in HPT-JT syndrome; thymic, bronchial, and enteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors in MEN1; and medullary thyroid cancer and pheochromocytoma in MEN2A. Because of the different underlying mechanisms of neoplasia, these familial tumors may have different characteristics compared with their sporadic counterparts. Large-scale clinical trials are frequently lacking due to the rarity of these diseases. With technological advances and the development of new medications, the natural history, diagnosis, and management of these syndromes are also evolving. In this article, we summarize the recent knowledge on endocrine neoplasms in three familial hyperparathyroidism syndromes, with an emphasis on disease characteristics, molecular pathogenesis, recent developments in biochemical and radiological evaluation, and expert opinions on surgical and medical therapies. Because these familial hyperparathyroidism syndromes are associated with a wide variety of tumors in different organs, this review is focused on those endocrine neoplasms with malignant potential. © 2016 Society for Endocrinology.

  11. Genetic linkage analysis in 26 families with Bardet-Biedl syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, A.F.; Bruford, E.A.; Mansfield, D.C.

    1994-09-01

    Bardet-Biedl syndrome is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by polydactyly, obesity, hypogonadism, retinitis pigmentosa, renal anomalies and mental retardation. Clinical heterogeneity is quite marked both within and between families. Linkage has been reported between Bardet-Biedl syndrome and the D16408 marker in chromosomal region 16q21 in an extended Bedouin kindred and, more recently, in a subset of 17 out of 31 families using the PYGM/D11S913 markers in chromosomal region 11q13. We have analyzed linkage to the 16q21 and 11q13 regions and used markers covering chromosomes 2, 3, 17 and 18 in a set of 26 Bardet-Biedl families, each containing at least two affected individuals, with a total of 57 affected members. Evidence of linkage to the D11S527 locus has been identified assuming linkage homogeneity with a lod score of 2.72 at a recombination fraction of 0.11 (95% limits 0.03-0.25).

  12. A family with Wagner syndrome with uveitis and a new versican mutation

    PubMed Central

    Rothschild, Pierre-Raphaël; Brézin, Antoine P.; Nedelec, Brigitte; des Roziers, Cyril Burin; Ghiotti, Tiffany; Orhant, Lucie; Boimard, Mathieu

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To report the clinical and molecular findings of a kindred with Wagner syndrome (WS) revealed by intraocular inflammatory features. Methods Eight available family members underwent complete ophthalmologic examination, including laser flare cell meter measurements. Collagen, type II, alpha 1, versican (VCAN), frizzled family receptor 4, low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 5, tetraspanin 12, and Norrie disease (pseudoglioma) genes were screened with direct sequencing. Results The index case was initially referred for unexplained severe and chronic postoperative bilateral uveitis following a standard cataract surgery procedure. Clinical examination of the proband revealed an optically empty vitreous with avascular vitreous strands and veils, features highly suggestive of WS. The systematic familial ophthalmologic examination identified three additional unsuspected affected family members who also presented with the WS phenotype, including uveitis for one of them. We identified a novel c.4004–6T>A nucleotide substitution at the acceptor splice site of intron 7 of the VCAN gene that segregated with the disease phenotype. Conclusions We present a family with WS with typical WS features and intraocular inflammatory manifestations associated with a novel splice site VCAN mutation. Beyond the structural role in the retinal-vitreous architecture, versican is also emerging as a pivotal mediator of the inflammatory response, supporting uveitis predisposition as a clinical manifestation of WS. PMID:24174867

  13. A common DLX3 gene mutation is responsible for tricho-dento-osseous syndrome in Virginia and North Carolina families.

    PubMed Central

    Price, J A; Wright, J T; Kula, K; Bowden, D W; Hart, T C

    1998-01-01

    Tricho-dento-osseous syndrome (TDO) is characterised by a variable clinical phenotype primarily affecting the hair, teeth, and bone. Different clinical features are observed between and within TDO families. It is not known whether the variable clinical features are the result of genetic heterogeneity or clinical variability. A gene for TDO was localised recently to chromosome 17q21 in four North Carolina families, and a 4 bp deletion in the human distal-less 3 gene (DLX3) was identified in all affected members. A previous genetic linkage study in a large Virginia kindred with TDO indicated possible linkage to the ABO, Gc, and Kell blood group loci. To examine whether TDO exhibits genetic heterogeneity, we have performed molecular genetic analysis to determine whether affected members of this Virginia kindred have the DLX3 gene deletion identified in North Carolina families. Results show that affected subjects (n=3) from the Virginia family have the same four nucleotide deletion previously identified in the North Carolina families. A common haplotype for three genetic markers surrounding the DLX3 gene was identified in all affected subjects in the North Carolina and Virginia families. These findings suggest that all people with TDO who have been evaluated have inherited the same DLX3 gene deletion mutation from a common ancestor. The variable clinical phenotype observed in these North Carolina and Virginia families, which share a common gene mutation, suggests that clinical variability is not the result of genetic heterogeneity at the major locus, but may reflect genetic heterogeneity at other epigenetic loci or contributing environmental factors or both. Images PMID:9783705

  14. Delayed Stress Response Syndrome: Family Therapy Indications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Figley, Charles R.; Sprenkle, Douglas H.

    1978-01-01

    The delayed stress response syndrome is a form of chronic catastrophic stress disorder. The theoretical nature of the syndrome and its most characteristic symptoms are delineated within the context of treating Vietnam combat veterans. The paper outlines treatment implications within a family therapy program. (Author)

  15. Fraser syndrome: recurrence in a family.

    PubMed

    Singh, Renu; Tandon, Indu; Deo, Sujata

    2007-12-01

    Fraser syndrome is a rare, autosomal recessive condition with classical features of cryptophthalmos, syndactyly, ambiguous genitalia, genitourinary mal-formations and mental retardation. We report a family with affected child where the pregnant woman was referred at 24 weeks of gestation for termination of pregnancy. The aborted fetus showed typical findings suggestive of Fraser syndrome.

  16. A kindred with alopecia, keratosis, pilaris, cataracts, and psoriasis.

    PubMed

    Appell, M L; Sherertz, E F

    1987-01-01

    Three members of a family with numerous ectodermal abnormalities are described. These anomalies primarily include patchy alopecia beginning in childhood, premature cataracts, widespread keratosis pilaris, and psoriasis. The alopecia and premature cataracts appear to follow an autosomal dominant inheritance pattern with incomplete penetrance and appear to be linked. Psoriasis also occurs in several members of this family and probably represents a separate but possibly related genodermatosis. This kindred has features of both keratosis follicularis spinulosa decalvans and ichthyosis follicularis, and the disorder seems to fit into the group of follicular hyperkeratosis disorders.

  17. Markedly reduced activity of mutant calcium-sensing receptor with an inserted Alu element from a kindred with familial hypocalciuric hypercalcemia and neonatal severe hyperparathyroidism.

    PubMed Central

    Bai, M; Janicic, N; Trivedi, S; Quinn, S J; Cole, D E; Brown, E M; Hendy, G N

    1997-01-01

    Missense mutations have been identified in the coding region of the extracellular calcium-sensing receptor (CASR) gene and cause human autosomal dominant hypo- and hypercalcemic disorders. The functional effects of several of these mutations have been characterized in either Xenopus laevis oocytes or in human embryonic kidney (HEK293) cells. All of the mutations that have been examined to date, however, cause single putative amino acid substitutions. In this report, we studied a mutant CASR with an Alu-repetitive element inserted at codon 876, which was identified in affected members of families with the hypercalcemic disorders, familial hypocalciuric hypercalcemia (FHH) and neonatal severe hyperparathyroidism (NSHPT), to understand how this insertion affects CASR function. After cloning of the Alu-repetitive element into the wild-type CASR cDNA, we transiently expressed the mutant receptor in HEK293 cells. Expression of mutant and wild-type receptors was assessed by Western analysis, and the effects of the mutation on extracellular calcium (Ca2+(o)) and gadolinium (Gd3+(o)) elicited increases in the cytosolic calcium concentration (Ca2+(i)) were examined in fura-2-loaded cells using dual wavelength fluorimetry. The insertion resulted in truncated receptor species that had molecular masses some 30 kD less than that of the wild-type CASR and exhibited no Ca2+(i) responses to either Ca2+(o) or Gd3+(o). A similar result was observed with a mutated CASR truncated at residue 876. However, the Alu mutant receptor had no impact on the function of the coexpressed wild-type receptor. Interestingly, the Alu mutant receptor demonstrated decreased cell surface expression relative to the wild-type receptor, whereas the CASR (A877stop) mutant exhibited increased cell surface expression. Thus, like the missense mutations that have been characterized to date in families with FHH, the Alu insertion in this family is a loss-of-function mutation that produces hypercalcemia by

  18. Two distinct origins of a common BRCA1 mutation in breast-ovarian cancer families: a genetic study of 15 185delAG-mutation kindreds.

    PubMed Central

    Berman, D. B.; Wagner-Costalas, J.; Schultz, D. C.; Lynch, H. T.; Daly, M.; Godwin, A. K.

    1996-01-01

    We screened 163 women from breast-ovarian cancer-prone families, as well as 178 individuals affected with breast and/or ovarian cancer but unselected for family history, for germ-line mutations in exon 2 of BRCA1, by SSCP analysis and direct sequencing. A total of 25 mutations were detected. Thirteen of 64 Jewish Ashkenazi women and 2 non-Jewish individuals were found to possess the 185delAG mutation. Haplotype data for all 15 individuals, with markers intragenic to BRCA1, suggest that the Jewish Ashkenazi individuals share a common ancestry that is distinct from the lineage shared by the other two women. These data provide the first evidence of two distinct lines of transmission for the 185delAG mutation, only one of which has its origins in the Jewish Ashkenazi population. Our screening also uncovered 10 affected individuals with an 11-bp deletion at nucleotide 188 of BRCA1 (188del11), 4 of whom are Ashkenazi Jews. This is only the third reported mutation detected within the Jewish Ashkenazi population and may represent the second most common alteration in BRCA1 found in Ashkenazi Jews in the United States. The observed overrepresentation of specific mutations within a subgroup of the general population may eventually contribute to the development of inexpensive and routine tests for BRCA1 mutations, as well as to the elucidation of other contributory factors (e.g., diet, environment, and chemical exposures) that may play a key role in cancer initiation and development. The implications of the mutational data, as well as the role that founder effect, demographic history, and penetrance play in the resulting observed phenomena, are discussed. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:8651293

  19. Two distinct origins of a common BRCA1 mutation in breast-ovarian cancer families: A genetic study of 15 185delAG-mutation kindreds

    SciTech Connect

    Berman, D.B.; Schultz, D.C.; Godwin, A.K.

    1996-06-01

    We screened 163 women from breast-ovarian cancer-prone families, as well as 178 individuals affected with breast and/or ovarian cancer but unselected for family history, for germ-line mutations in exon 2 of BRCA1, by SSCP analysis and direct sequencing. A total of 25 mutations were detected. Thirteen of 64 Jewish Ashkenazi women and 2 non-Jewish individuals were found to possess the 185delAG mutation. Haplotype data for all 15 individuals, with markers intragenic to BRCA1, suggest that the Jewish Ashkenazi individuals share a common ancestry that is distinct from the lineage shared by the other two women. These data provide the first evidence of two distinct lines of transmission for the 185delAG mutation, only one of which has its origins in the Jewish Ashkenazi population. Our screening also uncovered 10 affected individuals with an 11-bp deletion at nucleotide 188 of BRCA1 (188del11), 4 of whom are Ashkenazi Jews. This is only the third reported mutation detected within the Jewish Ashkenazi population and may represent the second most common alteration in BRCA1 found in Ashkenazi Jews in the United States. The observed overrepresentation of specific mutations within a subgroup of the general population may eventually contribute to the development of inexpensive and routine tests for BRCA1 mutations, as well as to the elucidation of other contributory factors (e.g., diet, environment, and chemical exposures) that may play a key role in cancer initiation and development. The implications of the mutational data, as well as the role that founder effect, demographic history, and penetrance play in the resulting observed phenomena, are discussed. 32 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. A novel syndrome of lethal familial hyperekplexia associated with brain malformation

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Hyperekplexia (HPX) is a rare non-epileptic disorder manifesting immediately after birth with exaggerated persistent startle reaction to unexpected auditory, somatosensory and visual stimuli, and non-habituating generalized flexor spasm in response to tapping of the nasal bridge (glabellar tap) which forms its clinical hallmark. The course of the disease is usually benign with spontaneous amelioration with age. The disorder results from aberrant glycinergic neurotransmission, and several mutations were reported in the genes encoding glycine receptor (GlyR) α1 and β subunits, glycine transporter GlyT2 as well as two other proteins involved in glycinergic neurotransmission gephyrin and collybistin. Methods The phenotype of six newborns, belonging to Saudi Arabian kindred with close consanguineous marriages, who presented with hyperekplexia associated with severe brain malformation, is described. DNA samples were available from two patients, and homozygosity scan to determine overlap with known hyperkplexia genes was performed. Results The kindred consisted of two brothers married to their cousin sisters, each with three affected children who presented antenatally with excessive fetal movements. Postnatally, they were found to have microcephaly, severe hyperekplexia and gross brain malformation characterized by severe simplified gyral pattern and cerebellar underdevelopment. The EEG was normal and they responded to clonazepam. All of the six patients died within six weeks. Laboratory investigations, including metabolic screen, were unremarkable. None of the known hyperkplexia genes were present within the overlapping regions of homozygosity between the two patients for whom DNA samples were available. Conclusions We present these cases as a novel syndrome of lethal familial autosomal recessive hyperekplexia associated with microcephaly and severe brain malformation. PMID:23101555

  1. A novel keratin 12 mutation in a German kindred with Meesmann's corneal dystrophy

    PubMed Central

    Corden, L; Swensson, O; Swensson, B; Rochels, R; Wannke, B; Thiel, H; McLean, W

    2000-01-01

    AIM—To study a kindred with Meesmann's corneal dystrophy (MCD) to determine if a mutation within the cornea specific K3 or K12 genes is responsible for the disease phenotype.
METHODS—Slit lamp examination of the cornea in four members of the kindred was carried out to confirm the diagnosis of MCD. The region encoding the helix initiation motif (HIM) of the K12 polypeptide was polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplified from genomic DNA derived from affected individuals in the kindred. PCR products generated were subjected to direct automated sequencing. Restriction enzyme analysis employing Ban I was used to confirm the presence of the mutation in affected individuals of the family.
RESULTS—Sequencing of the K12 gene in an affected individual from the family revealed a novel heterozygous missense mutation (413A→C), predicting the substitution of a proline for a glutamine at codon 130 (Q130P) in the HIM of the K12 protein. The mutation was excluded from 50 normal, unaffected individuals by restriction enyzme analysis and was therefore unlikely to be a common polymorphism.
CONCLUSION—A novel missense mutation in the K12 gene leads to MCD in a German kindred. Missense mutations have now been identified within the region encoding the helix initiation motif of the K12 protein in eight of 11 MCD kindreds analysed at the molecular level.

 PMID:10781519

  2. Family Demands, Social Support and Family Functioning in Taiwanese Families Rearing Children with Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsiao, C-Y.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Down syndrome (DS) affects not only children but also their families. Much remains to be learned about factors that influence how families of children with DS function, especially families in non-Western populations. The purpose of this cross-sectional, correlational study was to examine how family demographics, family demands and…

  3. Family Demands, Social Support and Family Functioning in Taiwanese Families Rearing Children with Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsiao, C-Y.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Down syndrome (DS) affects not only children but also their families. Much remains to be learned about factors that influence how families of children with DS function, especially families in non-Western populations. The purpose of this cross-sectional, correlational study was to examine how family demographics, family demands and…

  4. Impact of Screening Kindreds for SDHD p.Cys11X as a Common Mutation Associated with Paraganglioma Syndrome Type 1

    PubMed Central

    Pęczkowska, Mariola; Erlic, Zoran; Hoffmann, Michael M.; Furmanek, Mariusz; Ćwikła, Jarosław; Kubaszek, Agata; Prejbisz, Aleksander; Szutkowski, Zbigniew; Kawecki, Andrzej; Chojnowski, Krzysztof; Lewczuk, Anna; Litwin, Mieczysław; Szyfter, Witold; Walter, Martin A.; Sullivan, Maren; Eng, Charis; Januszewicz, Andrzej; Neumann, Hartmut P. H.

    2008-01-01

    Context and Objective: Germline mutations of the genes SDHB, SDHC, and SDHD predispose to paraganglioma syndromes. Mutation-specific counseling, risk assessment, and management recommendations ideally should be performed. Here, we provide data for a single common mutation of the SDHD gene. Methods: The European-American Pheochromocytoma-Paraganglioma Registry served as the source for unrelated index cases affected by pheochromocytoma or paraganglioma. Patients with the SDHD c.33 C→A (p.Cys11X) germline mutations were reinvestigated by whole-body magnetic resonance imaging and 24-h urinary catecholamine assay. First-degree relatives underwent genetic testing and those testing positive had same clinical investigations. Microsatellite analyses were used to test the hypothesis that all index cases were related and the mutation is a founding one. Results: Sixteen index cases with the mutation SDHD p.Cys11X are registered. After testing their relatives, there were a total of 25 mutation carriers. We excluded seven subjects who inherited the mutation from the mother because of maternal imprinting. Thus, 18 mutation carriers were clinically affected. Among these 16 (89%) had head and neck paragangliomas, six (33%) thoracic tumors, six (33%) extraadrenal retroperitoneal, and five (28%) intraadrenal. Of note, 16 (89%) had multiple tumors at first diagnosis, and one (5%) had signs of malignancy during follow-up. Overall penetrance was 100% at age 54. Haplotype analyses revealed evidence for a founder effect. Conclusions: The SDHD p.Cys11X mutation is a founding mutation associated with a high penetrance for paraganglial tumors of the skull base, neck, thorax, and retroperitoneum in the first four decades of life and, rarely, with malignancy. PMID:18826997

  5. Impact of screening kindreds for SDHD p.Cys11X as a common mutation associated with paraganglioma syndrome type 1.

    PubMed

    Peczkowska, Mariola; Erlic, Zoran; Hoffmann, Michael M; Furmanek, Mariusz; Cwikla, Jaroslaw; Kubaszek, Agata; Prejbisz, Aleksander; Szutkowski, Zbigniew; Kawecki, Andrzej; Chojnowski, Krzysztof; Lewczuk, Anna; Litwin, Mieczyslaw; Szyfter, Witold; Walter, Martin A; Sullivan, Maren; Eng, Charis; Januszewicz, Andrzej; Neumann, Hartmut P H

    2008-12-01

    Germline mutations of the genes SDHB, SDHC, and SDHD predispose to paraganglioma syndromes. Mutation-specific counseling, risk assessment, and management recommendations ideally should be performed. Here, we provide data for a single common mutation of the SDHD gene. The European-American Pheochromocytoma-Paraganglioma Registry served as the source for unrelated index cases affected by pheochromocytoma or paraganglioma. Patients with the SDHD c.33 C-->A (p.Cys11X) germline mutations were reinvestigated by whole-body magnetic resonance imaging and 24-h urinary catecholamine assay. First-degree relatives underwent genetic testing and those testing positive had same clinical investigations. Microsatellite analyses were used to test the hypothesis that all index cases were related and the mutation is a founding one. Sixteen index cases with the mutation SDHD p.Cys11X are registered. After testing their relatives, there were a total of 25 mutation carriers. We excluded seven subjects who inherited the mutation from the mother because of maternal imprinting. Thus, 18 mutation carriers were clinically affected. Among these 16 (89%) had head and neck paragangliomas, six (33%) thoracic tumors, six (33%) extraadrenal retroperitoneal, and five (28%) intraadrenal. Of note, 16 (89%) had multiple tumors at first diagnosis, and one (5%) had signs of malignancy during follow-up. Overall penetrance was 100% at age 54. Haplotype analyses revealed evidence for a founder effect. The SDHD p.Cys11X mutation is a founding mutation associated with a high penetrance for paraganglial tumors of the skull base, neck, thorax, and retroperitoneum in the first four decades of life and, rarely, with malignancy.

  6. Munchausen Syndrome by Proxy: A Family Affair.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mehl, Albert L.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    The article reports on a case of Munchausen syndrome by proxy in which chronic illicit insulin was administered to a one-year-old child by her mother. Factitious illnesses continued despite psychiatric intervention. Retrospective review of medical records suggested 30 previous episodes of factitious illness within the family. (DB)

  7. A Family History Study of Asperger Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghaziuddin, Mohammad

    2005-01-01

    Asperger syndrome (AS) is a childhood-onset disorder often described as a mild variant of autism. Although classified as a distinct disorder in the DSM-IV, its overlap with autism continues to be a matter of ongoing debate. While the family genetic origins of autism are well established, few studies have investigated this topic in AS using current…

  8. Munchausen Syndrome by Proxy: A Family Affair.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mehl, Albert L.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    The article reports on a case of Munchausen syndrome by proxy in which chronic illicit insulin was administered to a one-year-old child by her mother. Factitious illnesses continued despite psychiatric intervention. Retrospective review of medical records suggested 30 previous episodes of factitious illness within the family. (DB)

  9. Down Syndrome May Not Be Big Financial Burden on Families

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_162595.html Down Syndrome May Not Be Big Financial Burden on Families ... HealthDay News) -- Although families with a child with Down syndrome do face extra medical expenses, they probably won' ...

  10. Gardner's Syndrome: Report of a Family

    PubMed Central

    Koren, E.; Lazarovitch, A.; Baratz, M.; Loewenthal, M.; Solowiejczyk, M.

    1974-01-01

    Two cases of Gardner's syndrome in one family are presented. The father presented all three stigmas of the syndrome, while in the daughter no osseous manifestations were found. In the first patient, the diagnosis was made only after the second abdominal operation, when a mesenteric fibrous mass was seen. In the second case, the intestinal polyposis was clinically suspected, considering the hereditary aspects of this syndrome, and the episode of bloody diarrhea presented by this patient. Both patients were treated by subtotal colectomy with ileo-rectal anastomosis. Both of them presented fibrous tumors after the abdominal operation (the father after six years and the daughter after one year). The authors stress the importance of postoperative followup for the detection of fibrous masses that may appear due to the surgical stimulus. The literature on Gardner's syndrome is reviewed and summarized. ImagesFig. 1.Fig. 2.Fig. 3.Fig. 4. PMID:4842981

  11. The gene for Crouzon craniofacial dysostosis maps to a 7 centiMorgan region on chromosome 10q in three unrelated kindreds

    SciTech Connect

    Ehrlich, G.D.; Preston, R.A.; Aston, C.A.

    1994-09-01

    Crouzon craniofacial dysostosis (CFD, M.I.M. number 123500) is an autosomal dominant disorder of craniofacial development with complete penetrance and variable expressivity that is characterized by premature craniosynostosis, maxilary hypoplasia, and shallow orbits. We recently mapped CFD to a 21 centiMorgan (cM) region of chromosome 10q25-q26 in two unrelated families from North America. We now report the confirmation of this locus using a third large CFD kindred from South America and describe a refinement of the CFD gene map position. A recombination was observed in two members of the Argentinean kindred at marker D10S209, thereby redefining the centromeric limit of the CFD locus. In addition, a newly available Genethon microsatellite marker, D10S587, which maps between D10S216 and D10S209, proved to be informative for the original family and a recombination was observed at this marker in an unaffected family member, redefining the telomeric limit of the Crouzon syndrome locus. The finding of these obligate recombinants reduces the candidate region for the CFD gene locus to 7 cM. Multipoint linkage analysis (LINKAGE (ver 5.1)) carried out on the three pedigrees produced a maximal LOD score of 12.33 at a locus approximately 2 cM telomeric to D10S209. These findings suggest that CFD is a genetically homogeneous disorder caused by mutations in a gene located on chromosome 10q.

  12. [Family medicine and functional somatic syndromes].

    PubMed

    Nago, Naoki

    2009-09-01

    Between psychosomatic medicine and psychiatry, FSS (functional somatic syndromes) patients are often visiting a family doctor. For FSS, the role of family physicians is large, but the family physicians are not required for the role of diagnosis and treatment of FSS. Rather, appropriate referral to a specialist to exclude organic disease is important and a role as the coordinator is large to the patient to refuse a psychiatric consultation. To serve as a role for such coordination, a family physician has to response the patient's emotional side and focus on the construction of the doctor-patient relationship and response. I also think of structuralism medicine approach to describe disease from the meta-level as a new procedure to the patient. This approach consists of 4 components, 'entity', 'phenomenon', 'words', and 'I'. This may be a useful approach to family physicians who coordinate the overall for FSS patients' management.

  13. A novel CHST3 allele associated with spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia and hearing loss in Pakistani kindred.

    PubMed

    Waryah, A M; Shahzad, M; Shaikh, H; Sheikh, S A; Channa, N A; Hufnagel, R B; Makhdoom, A; Riazuddin, S; Ahmed, Z M

    2016-07-01

    Skeletal dysplasias (SDs) are highly heterogeneous disorders composed of 40 clinical sub-types that are part of 456 well-delineated syndromes in humans. Here, we enrolled consanguineous kindred from a remote area of Sindh province of Pakistan, with 14 affected individuals suffering with short stature, kyphoscoliosis, joint dislocations, clubfoot, heart valve anomalies and progressive bilateral mixed hearing loss. To identify pathogenic variants in this family, whole exome sequencing (WES) was performed in one affected and one normal individual, which revealed a novel transversion mutation (c.802G>T; p.Glu268*) in CHST3 associated with the phenotype. CHST3 encodes a chondroitin 6-O-sulfotransferase-1 (C6ST-1) enzyme that is essential for the sulfation of proteoglycans found in cartilages. Previously, mutations in CHST3 have largely been reported in sporadic cases of SD, primarily with severe spinal abnormalities, joint dislocations, joint contractures, and clubfoot. Clinical and radiological examination of the affected individuals in this family provides new insights into phenotypic spectrum of CHST3 alleles and disease progression with age. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Family demands, social support and family functioning in Taiwanese families rearing children with Down syndrome.

    PubMed

    Hsiao, C-Y

    2014-06-01

    Down syndrome (DS) affects not only children but also their families. Much remains to be learned about factors that influence how families of children with DS function, especially families in non-Western populations. The purpose of this cross-sectional, correlational study was to examine how family demographics, family demands and social support relate to family functioning as well as the potential mediating effect of social support on the relationship between family demands and family functioning in Taiwanese families of children with DS. One hundred and fifty-five parents (80 mothers and 75 fathers) from 83 families independently completed mailed questionnaires. Data were analysed using a principal component analysis and mixed linear modelling. Families having older children with DS, greater parental education, higher family income, fewer family demands and greater social support contributed to healthier family functioning. Social support partially mediated the effects of family demands on family functioning. Family demographics, family demands and social support appear to be important factors that may play a critical role in how Taiwanese families respond to the birth of a child with DS. Care of children with DS and their families is likely to be more effective if professionals working with these families are aware of factors that contribute to healthy family functioning. © 2013 MENCAP and International Association of the Scientific Study of Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Familial aggregation of metabolic syndrome indicators in Portuguese families.

    PubMed

    Santos, D M; Katzmarzyk, P T; Trégouet, D-A; Gomes, T N; Santos, F K; Maia, J A

    2013-01-01

    Family studies are well suited to investigate the genetic architecture underlying the metabolic syndrome (MetS). The purposes of this paper were (i) to estimate heritabilities for each of the MetS indicators, and (ii) to test the significance of familial intratrait and cross-trait correlations in MetS markers. This study included 1,363 individuals from 515 Portuguese families in which five MetS components, including waist circumference (WC), blood pressure (BP), HDL-cholesterol, triglycerides (TG), and glucose (GLU), were measured. Intratrait and cross-trait familial correlations of these five components were estimated using Generalized Estimating Equations. Each MetS component was significantly heritable (h (2) ranged from 0.12 to 0.60) and exhibited strong familial resemblance with correlations between biological relatives of similar magnitude to those observed between spouses. With respect to cross-trait correlations, familial resemblance was very weak except for the HDL-TG pair. The present findings confirm the idea of familial aggregation in MetS traits. Spousal correlations were, in general, of the same magnitude as the biological relatives' correlations suggesting that most of the phenotypic variance in MetS traits could be explained by shared environment.

  16. Description of a large kindred with autosomal dominant inheritance of branchial arch anomalies, hearing loss, and ear pits, and exclusion of the branchio-oto-renal (BOR) syndrome gene locus (chromosome 8q13.3).

    PubMed

    Stratakis, C A; Lin, J P; Rennert, O M

    1998-09-23

    It has been suggested that branchio-oculo-facial (BOF) syndrome, deafness with ear pits, and associated conditions [MIM nos. 125100, 120502], and branchio-oto-renal (BOR) [MIM no. 113650] or Melnick-Fraser syndrome represent phenotypic variants of the BOR syndrome, which is inherited in an autosomal dominant (AD) manner and has variable clinical expression. Recently, the BOR gene was mapped to chromosome region 8q13.3 and its sequence was identified as the human homolog of the Drosophila eyes absent (EYA1) gene. We studied an extended family with AD inheritance of branchial arch anomalies (BAA), hearing loss, and ear pits, whose phenotype differed from that of patients with BOR in that none of the affected members had renal abnormalities or lacrimal duct stenosis. Fifteen affected members were studied; ear pits were present in all of them, whereas hearing loss and other BAA were present in 40 and 20%, respectively. Blood was collected from 31 patients; DNA was extracted by standard methods and amplified using primers from microsatellite sequences flanking the BOR locus on chromosome 8q13.3 (D8S1807, D8S530, and D8S543). Linkage analysis was performed under two models of AD inheritance with different penetrance: 100% and 80%. In both cases, the logarithm of odds (LOD) scores produced were significantly less than -2; exclusion of the 8q13.3 locus was also confirmed by multipoint LOD score analysis. We conclude that, in one large family with AD inheritance of BAA, hearing loss and ear pits, the BOR locus was excluded. This represents the first documentation of heterogeneity in branchio-oto anomalies, syndromes with phenotypes similar to BOR syndrome.

  17. Idiopathic cholestasis of pregnancy in a large kindred.

    PubMed Central

    Reyes, H; Ribalta, J; González-Cerón, M

    1976-01-01

    A past history of idiopathic cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP) was detected in 10 out of the 32 multiparous women in the last two generations of a large kindred. The affected women are distributed in five family units, sharing Chilean-born great-grandparents.The connection between the ICP-affected women and the common trunk is given both by male and female parents. Five cases are concentrated in one family unit, where the mother and all her daughters have been affected by the disease. The role of genetic factors in the pathogenesis of ICP is supported by this study. It is proposed that the disease may be transmitted as a predisposing trait by individuals of either sex and that non-genetic factors may influence its expressivity. A reliable test to identify all the genetic carriers seems indispensable to define the pattern of inheritance in this disease. PMID:976812

  18. Refinement of the hereditary xerocytosis locus on chromosome 16q in a large Canadian kindred.

    PubMed

    Houston, B L; Zelinski, T; Israels, S J; Coghlan, G; Chodirker, B N; Gallagher, P G; Houston, D S; Zarychanski, R

    2011-12-15

    The hereditary stomatocytoses are a group of heterogeneous conditions associated with chronic red cell hemolysis for which the causative genetic mutations are not known. We investigated 137 members of a large Canadian kindred with phenotypic findings consistent with hereditary xerocytosis, one of the most common stomatocytosis syndromes. The objectives of this study were to characterize the clinical hallmarks of the hemolytic process, and to define the chromosomal region carrying the disease locus. The mode of inheritance was autosomal dominant. Affected family members had a well-compensated hemolysis, associated with an elevated MCHC, decreased osmotic fragility, decreased haptoglobin, and indirect hyperbilirubinemia. Cholelithiasis and progressive iron loading were common, despite normal hemoglobin levels. Quantitative erythrocyte morphologic evaluation revealed increased schistocytes, target cells, reticulocytes, and eccentrocytes in affected individuals; stomatocytes were not increased. Genetic linkage analysis confirmed the localization of the disease phenotype to chromosome 16q, and refined the candidate region to 16q24.2-16qter, a 2.4 million base pair interval containing 51 known or predicted genes. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. A Korean Family with the Muenke Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Jae Eun; Park, Dong Ha

    2010-01-01

    The Muenke syndrome (MS) is characterized by unicoronal or bicoronal craniosynostosis, midfacial hypoplasia, ocular hypertelorism, and a variety of minor abnormalities associated with a mutation in the fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 (FGFR3) gene. The birth prevalence is approximately one in 10,000 live births, accounting for 8-10% of patients with coronal synostosis. Although MS is a relatively common diagnosis in patients with craniosynostosis syndromes, with autosomal dominant inheritance, there has been no report of MS, in an affected Korean family with typical cephalo-facial morphology that has been confirmed by molecular studies. Here, we report a familial case of MS in a female patient with a Pro250Arg mutation in exon 7 (IgII-IGIII linker domain) of the FGFR3 gene. This patient had mild midfacial hypoplasia, hypertelorism, downslanting palpebral fissures, a beak shaped nose, plagio-brachycephaly, and mild neurodevelopmental delay. The same mutation was confirmed in the patient's mother, two of the mother's sisters and the maternal grandfather. The severity of the cephalo-facial anomalies was variable among these family members. PMID:20592905

  20. A Korean family with the Muenke syndrome.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jae Eun; Park, Dong Ha; Yoon, Soo Han

    2010-07-01

    The Muenke syndrome (MS) is characterized by unicoronal or bicoronal craniosynostosis, midfacial hypoplasia, ocular hypertelorism, and a variety of minor abnormalities associated with a mutation in the fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 (FGFR3) gene. The birth prevalence is approximately one in 10,000 live births, accounting for 8-10% of patients with coronal synostosis. Although MS is a relatively common diagnosis in patients with craniosynostosis syndromes, with autosomal dominant inheritance, there has been no report of MS, in an affected Korean family with typical cephalo-facial morphology that has been confirmed by molecular studies. Here, we report a familial case of MS in a female patient with a Pro250Arg mutation in exon 7 (IgII-IGIII linker domain) of the FGFR3 gene. This patient had mild midfacial hypoplasia, hypertelorism, downslanting palpebral fissures, a beak shaped nose, plagio-brachycephaly, and mild neurodevelopmental delay. The same mutation was confirmed in the patient's mother, two of the mother's sisters and the maternal grandfather. The severity of the cephalo-facial anomalies was variable among these family members.

  1. Presence of Large Deletions in Kindreds with Autism

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Chang-En; Dawson, Geraldine; Munson, Jeffrey; D’Souza, Ian; Osterling, Julie; Estes, Annette; Leutenegger, Anne-Louise; Flodman, Pamela; Smith, Moyra; Raskind, Wendy H.; Spence, M. Anne; McMahon, William; Wijsman, Ellen M.; Schellenberg, Gerard D.

    2002-01-01

    Autism is caused, in part, by inheritance of multiple interacting susceptibility alleles. To identify these inherited factors, linkage analysis of multiplex families is being performed on a sample of 105 families with two or more affected sibs. Segregation patterns of short tandem repeat polymorphic markers from four chromosomes revealed null alleles at four marker sites in 12 families that were the result of deletions ranging in size from 5 to >260 kb. In one family, a deletion at marker D7S630 was complex, with two segments deleted (37 kb and 18 kb) and two retained (2,836 bp and 38 bp). Three families had deletions at D7S517, with each family having a different deletion (96 kb, 183 kb, and >69 kb). Another three families had deletions at D8S264, again with each family having a different deletion, ranging in size from <5.9 kb to >260 kb. At a fourth marker, D8S272, a 192-kb deletion was found in five families. Unrelated subjects and additional families without autism were screened for deletions at these four sites. Families screened included 40 families from Centre d'Etude du Polymorphisme Humaine and 28 families affected with learning disabilities. Unrelated samples were 299 elderly control subjects, 121 younger control subjects, and 248 subjects with Alzheimer disease. The deletion allele at D8S272 was found in all populations screened. For the other three sites, no additional deletions were identified in any of the groups without autism. Thus, these deletions appear to be specific to autism kindreds and are potential autism-susceptibility alleles. An alternative hypothesis is that autism-susceptibility alleles elsewhere cause the deletions detected here, possibly by inducing errors during meiosis. PMID:12058345

  2. Myoclonus in familial restless legs syndrome.

    PubMed

    Boghen, D; Peyronnard, J M

    1976-05-01

    Eighteen members of a family were affected over a span of five generations with the restless legs syndrome, transmitted as an autosomal dominant trait. Ten patients had myoclonus. The propositus, a 57-year-old man, suffered from repeated, intense, asymmetric flexion jerks of the lower extremities, alternating with fidgeting and friction movements of the legs; all occurred at night prior to sleep and severely interfering with it. The patient's movements ceased with the onset of stage 1 sleep, while in his brother, the motor activity persisted in stages 1 and 2 of sleep.

  3. Superior Canal Dehiscence Syndrome Affecting 3 Families.

    PubMed

    Heidenreich, Katherine D; Kileny, Paul R; Ahmed, Sameer; El-Kashlan, Hussam K; Melendez, Tori L; Basura, Gregory J; Lesperance, Marci M

    2017-07-01

    Superior canal dehiscence syndrome (SCDS) is an increasingly recognized cause of hearing loss and vestibular symptoms, but the etiology of this condition remains unknown. To describe 7 cases of SCDS across 3 families. This retrospective case series included 7 patients from 3 different families treated at a neurotology clinic at a tertiary academic medical center from 2010 to 2014. Patients were referred by other otolaryngologists or were self-referred. Each patient demonstrated unilateral or bilateral SCDS or near dehiscence. Clinical evaluation involved body mass index calculation, audiometry, cervical vestibular evoked myogenic potential testing, electrocochleography, and multiplanar computed tomographic (CT) scan of the temporal bones. Zygosity testing was performed on twin siblings. The diagnosis of SCDS was made if bone was absent over the superior semicircular canal on 2 consecutive CT images, in addition to 1 physiologic sign consistent with labyrinthine dehiscence. Near dehiscence was defined as absent bone on only 1 CT image but with symptoms and at least 1 physiologic sign of labyrinthine dehiscence. A total of 7 patients (5 female and 2 male; age range, 8-49 years) from 3 families underwent evaluation. Family A consisted of 3 adult first-degree relatives, of whom 2 were diagnosed with SCDS and 1 with near dehiscence. Family B included a mother and her child, both of whom were diagnosed with unilateral SCDS. Family C consisted of adult monozygotic twins, each of whom was diagnosed with unilateral SCDS. For all cases, dehiscence was located at the arcuate eminence. Obesity alone did not explain the occurrence of SCDS because 5 of the 7 cases had a body mass index (calculated as weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared) less than 30.0. Superior canal dehiscence syndrome is a rare, often unrecognized condition. This report of 3 multiplex families with SCDS provides evidence in support of a potential genetic contribution to the etiology

  4. Linkage analysis in familial Angelman syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Wagstaff, J. ); Shugart, Y.Y. ); Lalande, M. Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Boston, MA )

    1993-07-01

    Familial Angelman syndrome (AS) can result from mutations in chromosome 15q11q13 that, when transmitted from father to child, result in no phenotypic abnormality but, when transmitted from mother to child, cause AS. These mutations therefore behave neither as dominant nor as recessive mutations but, rather, show an imprinted mode of inheritance. The authors have analyzed two sibling pairs with AS and a larger family with four AS offspring of three sisters with several recently described microsatellite polymorphisms in the AS region. AS siblings inherited the same maternal alleles at the GABRB3 and GABRA5 loci, and the unaffected siblings of AS individuals inherited the other maternal alleles at these loci. In one of the AS sibling pairs, analysis of a recombination event indicates that the mutation responsible for AS is distal to locus D15S63. This result is consistent with a previously described imprinted submicroscopic deletion causing AS, a deletion that includes loci D15S10, D15S113, and GABRB3, all distal to D15S63. The analysis of the larger AS family provides the first clear demonstration of a new mutation in nondeletion AS. Analysis of linkage of AS to GABRB3 in these three families, on the assumption of imprinted inheritance (i.e., penetrance of an AS mutation is 1 if transmitted maternally and is 0 if transmitted paternally), indicates a maximum lod score of 3.52 at 6 = 0. 34 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Fragile X syndrome in incestuous families

    SciTech Connect

    Seemanova, E.

    1996-11-11

    Reed suggested the investigation of children 219 from incestuous unions as a method for calculation of the detrimental heterozygosity of man. Some studies of latent genetics load in man have been based on the comparison of health status of incestuous children with their half-sibs born to the same mothers in matings with nonconsanguineous partners. These studies were limited to the detection of autosomal-recessive genes leading to abnormal phenotypes or mental deficiency in homozygotes. The highest coefficient of inbreeding in human beings is 1/4 in offspring of incestuous matings: hence, the high proportion of affected homozygotes and low incidence of affected individuals among their maternal half-sibs. Mental deficiency in incestuous children represents not only cases of simple recessive inheritance. Recently, we observed three incestuous families in which fragile X syndrome was detected. The fra(X) children were born to carriers from incestuous unions as well as to unrelated partners. Therefore, we recommend use of incestuous children and their maternal half-sibs as a control group for studies estimating latent genetic load after investigation for fra(X). The incidence of fra(X) syndrome is high, and mental retardation in heterozygotes is uncommon. Both of these factors can play a role in the occurrence of incest, and in pregnancy at young age, as well as in multiple partnerships. Families of heterozygotes for fragile X should be excluded from the material for the calculation of human latent detrimental (autosomal-recessive) genetic load. 3 refs., 3 figs.

  6. Parkinsonian Syndrome in Familial Frontotemporal Dementia

    PubMed Central

    Siuda, Joanna; Fujioka, Shinsuke; Wszolek, Zbigniew K.

    2014-01-01

    Parkinsonism in frontotemporal dementia (FTD) was first described in families with mutations in the microtubule-associated protein tau (MAPT) and progranulin (PRGN) genes. Since then, mutations in several other genes have been identified for FTD with Parkinsonism, including chromosome 9 open reading frame 72 (C9ORF72), chromatin modifying protein 2B (CHMP2B), valosin-containing protein (VCP), fused in sarcoma (FUS) and transactive DNA-binding protein (TARDBP). The clinical presentation of patients with familial forms of FTD with Parkinsonism is highly variable. The Parkinsonism seen in FTD patients is usually characterized by akinetic-rigid syndrome and is mostly associated with the behavioral variant of FTD (bvFTD); however, some cases may present with classical Parkinson’s disease. In other cases, atypical Parkinsonism resembling progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) or corticobasal syndrome (CBS) has also been described. Although rare, Parkinsonism in FTD may coexist with motor neuron disease. Structural neuroimaging, which is crucial for the diagnosis of FTD, shows characteristic patterns of brain atrophy associated with specific mutations. Structural neuroimaging is not helpful in distinguishing among patients with parkinsonian features. Furthermore, dopaminergic imaging that shows nigrostriatal neurodegeneration in FTD with Parkinsonism cannot discriminate parkinsonian syndromes that arise from different mutations. Generally, Parkinsonism in FTD is levodopa unresponsive, but there have been cases where a temporary benefit has been reported, so dopaminergic treatment is worth trying, especially, when motor and non-motor manifestations can cause significant problems with daily functioning. In this review, we present an update on the clinical and genetic correlations of FTD with Parkinsonism. PMID:24998994

  7. Parkinsonian syndrome in familial frontotemporal dementia.

    PubMed

    Siuda, Joanna; Fujioka, Shinsuke; Wszolek, Zbigniew K

    2014-09-01

    Parkinsonism in frontotemporal dementia (FTD) was first described in families with mutations in the microtubule-associated protein tau (MAPT) and progranulin (PRGN) genes. Since then, mutations in several other genes have been identified for FTD with parkinsonism, including chromosome 9 open reading frame 72 (C9ORF72), chromatin modifying protein 2B (CHMP2B), valosin-containing protein (VCP), fused in sarcoma (FUS) and transactive DNA-binding protein (TARDBP). The clinical presentation of patients with familial forms of FTD with parkinsonism is highly variable. The parkinsonism seen in FTD patients is usually characterized by akinetic-rigid syndrome and is mostly associated with the behavioral variant of FTD (bvFTD); however, some cases may present with classical Parkinson's disease. In other cases, atypical parkinsonism resembling progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) or corticobasal syndrome (CBS) has also been described. Although rare, parkinsonism in FTD may coexist with motor neuron disease. Structural neuroimaging, which is crucial for the diagnosis of FTD, shows characteristic patterns of brain atrophy associated with specific mutations. Structural neuroimaging is not helpful in distinguishing among patients with parkinsonian features. Furthermore, dopaminergic imaging that shows nigrostriatal neurodegeneration in FTD with parkinsonism cannot discriminate parkinsonian syndromes that arise from different mutations. Generally, parkinsonism in FTD is levodopa unresponsive, but there have been cases where a temporary benefit has been reported, so dopaminergic treatment is worth trying, especially, when motor and non-motor manifestations can cause significant problems with daily functioning. In this review, we present an update on the clinical and genetic correlations of FTD with parkinsonism. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  8. Somatic loss of heterozygosity, but not haploinsufficiency alone, leads to full-blown autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome in 1 of 12 family members with FAS start codon mutation.

    PubMed

    Hauck, Fabian; Magerus-Chatinet, Aude; Vicca, Stephanie; Rensing-Ehl, Anne; Roesen-Wolff, Angela; Roesler, Joachim; Rieux-Laucat, Frédéric

    2013-04-01

    We describe a family with 12 members carrying a heterozygous germline FAS c.3G>T start codon mutation leading to FAS haploinsufficiency. One patient had autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome (ALPS), one had recovered from ALPS, and ten mutation-positive relatives (MPRs) were healthy. FAS-mediated apoptosis and surface expression of FAS in single-positive T cells were lower for MPRs but did not discriminate between them and the ALPS patient. However, double-negative (DN) T cells of the ALPS patient had no FAS expression due to somatic loss of heterozygosity. Our results in this kindred suggest that FAS haploinsufficiency does not cause ALPS-FAS, but that modifying genetic events are crucial for its pathogenesis. FAS surface expression on DN T cells should be assessed routinely and FAS haploinsufficient patients should be followed as its potential for lymphomagenesis is not well defined and a second hit might occur later on.

  9. Recognizing Family Dynamics in the Treatment of Chronic Fatigue Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sperry, Len

    2012-01-01

    Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) is an increasingly common chronic medical condition that affects not only patients but also their families. Because family dynamics, particularly the family life cycle, can and does influence the disease process, those providing counseling to CFS patients and their families would do well to recognize these dynamics.…

  10. Recognizing Family Dynamics in the Treatment of Chronic Fatigue Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sperry, Len

    2012-01-01

    Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) is an increasingly common chronic medical condition that affects not only patients but also their families. Because family dynamics, particularly the family life cycle, can and does influence the disease process, those providing counseling to CFS patients and their families would do well to recognize these dynamics.…

  11. Family Therapy of the Moderate Type of Parental Alienation Syndrome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, Richard A.

    1999-01-01

    Modification of traditional family therapy approaches are warranted if there is to be any chance of success in the treatment of Parental Alienation Syndrome families. Especially important is the full support of the court. Describes the special family therapeutic techniques warranted in the treatment of families in which the Parental Alienation…

  12. Carbonic anhydrase II deficiency in 12 families with the autosomal recessive syndrome of osteopetrosis with renal tubular acidosis and cerebral calcification.

    PubMed

    Sly, W S; Whyte, M P; Sundaram, V; Tashian, R E; Hewett-Emmett, D; Guibaud, P; Vainsel, M; Baluarte, H J; Gruskin, A; Al-Mosawi, M

    1985-07-18

    Osteopetrosis with renal tubular acidosis and cerebral calcification was identified as a recessively inherited syndrome in 1972. In 1983, we reported a deficiency of carbonic anhydrase II, one of the isozymes of carbonic anhydrase, in three sisters with this disorder. We now describe our study of 18 similarly affected patients with this syndrome in 11 unrelated families of different geographic and ethnic origins. Virtual absence of the carbonic anhydrase II peak on high-performance liquid chromatography, of the esterase and carbon dioxide hydratase activities of carbonic anhydrase II, and of immunoprecipitable isozyme II was demonstrated on extracts of erythrocyte hemolysates from all patients studied. Reduced levels of isozyme II were found in obligate heterozygotes. These observations demonstrate the generality of the findings that we reported earlier in one family and provide further evidence that a deficiency of carbonic anhydrase II is the enzymatic basis for the autosomal recessive syndrome of osteopetrosis with renal tubular acidosis and cerebral calcification. We also summarize the clinical findings in these families, propose mechanisms by which a deficiency of carbonic anhydrase II could produce this metabolic disorder of bone, kidney, and brain, and discuss the clinical evidence for genetic heterogeneity in patients from different kindreds with this inborn error of metabolism.

  13. SIDS Family Adjustment Scale: A Method of Assessing Family Adjustment to Sudden Infant Death Syndrome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    May, Harold J.; Breme, Frederick J.

    1982-01-01

    Discusses Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) and the family's resultant grief process. Explores SIDS as a family crisis, and by identifying the psychological factors or tasks pertinent to family adjustment, proposes a SIDS Family Adjustment Scale which assists in recognizing adaptive and maladaptive grief responses. (Author)

  14. Family Adjustment and Adaptation with Children with Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abery, Brian H.

    2006-01-01

    The birth of a child with Down syndrome has the "potential" to have many effects upon the family. Conversely, the way in which individual family members and the family as a whole respond to this situation has the capacity to have a profound impact on the child's development. This "bidirectional" process, in which the child's behavior affects the…

  15. Clinical expression of familial Williams-Beuren syndrome in a Turkish family.

    PubMed

    Parlak, Mesut; Nur, Banu Güzel; Mıhçı, Ercan; Durmaz, Erdem; Karaüzüm, Sibel Berker; Akcurin, Sema; Bircan, İffet

    2014-01-01

    Williams-Beuren syndrome (WBS) is a rare genetic disorder characterized by distinctive facial features, intellectual disability with a typical neurobehavioral profile, cardiovascular anomalies, and occasional infantile hypercalcemia. Majority of cases occur sporadically, and only a few cases of familial WBS have been reported. Although pre- and post-natal growth retardation is a common clinical feature of the syndrome, growth hormone deficiency is detected only in a few patients. To our knowledge, there has only been one report about familial Williams-Beuren syndrome in the Turkish population. Here, we report on the three molecular cytogenetically confirmed familial Williams-Beuren syndromes detected in a family with familial short stature. The father, daughter, and son analyzed with clinical and laboratory findings, and reasons of the short stature in Williams-Beuren syndrome are discussed through the literature.

  16. Diagnostic algorithm for familial chylomicronemia syndrome.

    PubMed

    Stroes, Erik; Moulin, Philippe; Parhofer, Klaus G; Rebours, Vinciane; Löhr, J-Matthias; Averna, Maurizio

    2017-01-01

    Familial chylomicronemia syndrome (FCS) is a rare genetic disease that leads to severe hypertriglyceridemia often associated with recurrent episodes of pancreatitis. The recognition and correct diagnosis of the disease is challenging due to its rarity, and to the lack of specificity of signs and symptoms. Lipid experts, endocrinologists, gastroenterologists, pancreatologists, and general practitioners may encounter patients who potentially have FCS. Therefore, cooperation between experts and improved knowledge of FCS is essential in improving the diagnosis. Currently, a consensus on best practice for the diagnosis of FCS is lacking. Aiming to define a diagnostic algorithm for FCS, a board of European experts was instituted. Such an algorithm for FCS is important to guide practitioners in the diagnosis of suspected FCS and to optimize therapeutic strategies. The multidisciplinary views were merged, leading to a diagnostic algorithm, proposed here. This diagnostic algorithm represents a potentially useful tool to support primary and secondary care practitioners in the recognition of signs and clinical manifestations in individuals potentially affected by FCS. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Coping with a child with Dravet syndrome: insights from families.

    PubMed

    Nolan, Kathleen; Camfield, Carol S; Camfield, Peter R

    2008-06-01

    Dravet syndrome is a truly catastrophic childhood-onset epilepsy. Families are faced with repeated episodes of status epilepticus, intractable seizures, mental handicap, behavior disorders, and a life of dependency; understandably, coping with Dravet syndrome is very difficult. Twenty-four families with a child with Dravet syndrome were interviewed and identified some practical suggestions to improve their daily life. These included inserting an indwelling venous access device, creating a portable microenvironment, writing an emergency department protocol, establishing emergency routines for the family, assigning a parent on call to lessen the effect on siblings, creating personal time to decrease parental stress, finding respite care, and contacting an Internet support group. Unresolved and common issues included transition to adult care, the utility of early diagnosis, and social isolation. These solutions and issues may be helpful to many families with a child with Dravet syndrome and possibly other severe childhood-onset epilepsies.

  18. Larsen syndrome in two generations of an Italian family.

    PubMed Central

    Ventruto, V; Festa, F; Sebastio, L; Sebastio, G

    1976-01-01

    This paper describes a familial case of Larsen syndrome. Typical anomalies were present in the propositus and 2 of his 6 daughters. In addition, all patients had progressive deafness and the 2 daughters had cleft palate. The certain exclusion of any consanguinity between the couple, suggests, in this instance, the dominant mode of transmission of the syndrome. Images PMID:1018317

  19. Asperger Syndrome: Familial and Pre- and Perinatal Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillberg, Christopher; Cederlund, Mats

    2005-01-01

    Objective: Study familial and pre- and perinatal factors in Asperger Syndrome (AS). Methods: Hundred boys with AS had their records reviewed. "Pathogenetic subgroups" were defined according to presence of medical syndromes/chromosomal abnormalities, indices of familiarity, and pre- and perinatal risk factors predisposing to brain damage. Results:…

  20. Asperger Syndrome: Familial and Pre- and Perinatal Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillberg, Christopher; Cederlund, Mats

    2005-01-01

    Objective: Study familial and pre- and perinatal factors in Asperger Syndrome (AS). Methods: Hundred boys with AS had their records reviewed. "Pathogenetic subgroups" were defined according to presence of medical syndromes/chromosomal abnormalities, indices of familiarity, and pre- and perinatal risk factors predisposing to brain damage. Results:…

  1. Prenatal diagnosis and a donor splice site mutation in fibrillin in a family with Marfan syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Godfrey, M.; Vandemark, N.; Wang, M.; Han, J.; Rao, V.H. ); Velinov, M.; Tsipouras, P. ); Wargowski, D.; Becker, J.; Robertson, W.; Droste, S. )

    1993-08-01

    The Marfan syndrome, an autosomal dominant connective tissue disorder, is manifested by abnormalities in the cardiovascular, skeletal, and ocular systems. Recently, fibrillin, an elastic-associated microfibrillar glycoprotein, has been linked to the Marfan syndrome, and fibrillin mutations in affected individuals have been documented. In this study, genetic linkage analysis with fibrillin-specific markers was used to establish the prenatal diagnosis in an 11-wk-gestation fetus in a four-generation Marfan kindred. At birth, skeletal changes suggestive of the Marfan syndrome were observed. Reverse transcription-PCR amplification of the fibrillin gene mRNA detected a deletion of 123 bp in one allele in affected relatives. This deletion corresponds to an exon encoding an epidermal growth factor-like motif. Examination of genomic DNA showed a G[yields]C transversion at the +1 consensus donor splice site. 45 refs., 7 figs.

  2. Divorce in families of children with Down Syndrome or Rett Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Lederman, Vivian Renne Gerber; Alves, Bianca dos Santos; Negrão, Juliana; Maria, Juliana Negrão; Schwartzman, José Salomão; D'Antino, Maria Eloisa Famá; Brunoni, Decio

    2015-05-01

    This study evaluates the impact in the stability and management of the marriage of parents of a child with Down or Rett Syndrome. Morbidity of the syndromes and the marital status of the couples before and after the birth of the affected children were considered variables. The divorce rate in families with Down syndrome was 10%, similar to the Brazilian rate population. In Rett Syndrome, the divorce rate was significantly higher, 23.5%. The higher morbidity of Rett Syndrome, and the moment of diagnosis could be relevant factors for the increased divorce rate related to this syndrome.

  3. Family satisfaction following spinal fusion in Rett syndrome.

    PubMed

    Downs, Jenny; Torode, Ian; Ellaway, Carolyn; Jacoby, Peter; Bunting, Catherine; Wong, Kingsley; Christodoulou, John; Leonard, Helen

    2016-01-01

    We evaluated family satisfaction following spinal fusion in girls with Rett syndrome. Families participating in the population-based and longitudinal Australian Rett Syndrome Database whose daughter had undergone spinal fusion provided data on satisfaction overall, care processes and expected changes in health and function. Content analysis of responses to open-ended questions was conducted. Families reported high levels of overall satisfaction and consistently high ratings in relation to surgical and ICU care. Outstanding clinical care and the development of strong partnerships with clinical staff were much appreciated by families, whereas poor information exchange and inconsistent care caused concerns. Family satisfaction is an important outcome within a patient-centred quality of care framework. Our findings suggest strategies to inform the delivery of care in relation to spinal fusion for Rett syndrome and could also inform the hospital care of other children with disability and a high risk of hospitalization.

  4. Hypoplastic Left Heart Syndrome Links to Chromosomes 10q and 6q and Is Genetically Related to Bicuspid Aortic Valve

    PubMed Central

    Hinton, Robert B.; Martin, Lisa J.; Rame-Gowda, Smitha; Tabangin, Meredith E.; Cripe, Linda H.; Benson, D. Woodrow

    2009-01-01

    Objectives This study was designed to identify disease loci for hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS) and evaluate the genetic relationship between HLHS and bicuspid aortic valve (BAV). Background Previously, we identified that HLHS and BAV exhibit complex inheritance, and both HLHS and BAV kindreds are enriched for BAV. However, the genetic basis of HLHS and its relationship to BAV remains unclear. Methods Family-based nonparametric genome-wide linkage analysis was performed in kindreds ascertained by either an HLHS or BAV proband. Echocardiograms were performed on 1,013 participants using a sequential sampling strategy (33 HLHS kindreds, 102 BAV kindreds). Results The recurrence risk ratio of BAV in HLHS families (8.05) was nearly identical to that in BAV families (8.77). Linkage to chromosomal regions 10q22 and 6q23 with maximum logarithm of odds scores of 3.2 and 3.1, respectively, was identified in HLHS kindreds. In addition, 5 suggestive loci were identified (7q31, 11q22, 12q13, 14q23, and 20q11). We previously identified loci at chromosomes 18q22, 13q34, and 5q21 in BAV kindreds. The relationship between these loci was examined in the combined HLHS and BAV cohort and associations between loci were demonstrated (5q21, 13q34, and 14q23; 6q23 and 10q22; 7q31 and 20q11). Subsequent subsets linkage analysis showed a significant improvement in the logarithm of odds score at 14q23 only (4.1, p < 0.0001). Conclusions These studies demonstrate linkage to multiple loci identifying HLHS as genetically heterogeneous. Subsets linkage analyses and recurrence risk ratios in a combined cohort provide evidence that some HLHS and BAV are genetically related. PMID:19298921

  5. [Asperger's syndrome in family context--review of studies].

    PubMed

    Zmijewska, Anna

    2010-01-01

    In recent years in the face of still growing number of diagnosis of pervasive developmental disorders there has been an increase in number of research in the functioning of family of children with autism or Asperger's Syndrome. Studies concerning families of children with autism have been predominantly occupied with the stress-coping strategies and also with the therapeutic effect of interaction between disabled children and the rest of the family. New studies with families of children with Asperger's Syndrome, apart from the coping styles of parents and the received support, are also examining the properties of the system of these families, like: cohesion, adaptability, organisation, control, expressiveness or conflict. Such a perspective enables researchers to describe the circularity of influences in these families, on the other hand, however, some methodological deficiencies of this research, as well as the lack of longitudinal studies prevent researchers from creating a comprehensive picture of functioning of these families.

  6. Hereditary leiomyomatosis and renal cell cancer syndrome: a family affair.

    PubMed

    Teh, Jiasian; Kinnear, Ned; Douglass-Molloy, Hannah; Hennessey, Derek Barrry

    2017-01-25

    A 49-year-old woman with cutaneous and uterine leiomyomas, flank pain and a family history of hereditary leiomyomatosis and renal cell cancer (HLRCC) syndrome sought genetic testing. She was found to harbour a fumarate hydratase (FH) genetic mutation and a previously undetected renal tumour. The patient underwent radical nephrectomy, and remains well at follow-up. HLRCC syndrome is a rare autosomal dominant disease, with patients at increased risk for cutaneous leiomyomas, early-onset uterine leiomyomas and aggressive renal carcinoma. Although the syndrome may manifest life-threatening complications, outcomes may be improved by preventative family screening and surveillance, compelling early diagnosis.

  7. A large kindred of pulmonary fibrosis associated with a novel ABCA3 gene variant.

    PubMed

    Campo, Ilaria; Zorzetto, Michele; Mariani, Francesca; Kadija, Zamir; Morbini, Patrizia; Dore, Roberto; Kaltenborn, Eva; Frixel, Sabrina; Zarbock, Ralf; Liebisch, Gerhard; Hegermann, Jan; Wrede, Christoph; Griese, Matthias; Luisetti, Maurizio

    2014-04-15

    Interstitial lung disease occurring in children is a condition characterized by high frequency of cases due to genetic aberrations of pulmonary surfactant homeostasis, that are also believed to be responsible of a fraction of familial pulmonary fibrosis. To our knowledge, ABCA3 gene was not previously reported as causative agent of fibrosis affecting both children and adults in the same kindred. We investigated a large kindred in which two members, a girl whose interstitial lung disease was first recognized at age of 13, and an adult, showed a diffuse pulmonary fibrosis with marked differences in terms of morphology and imaging. An additional, asymptomatic family member was detected by genetic analysis. Surfactant abnormalities were investigated at biochemical, and genetic level, as well as by cell transfection experiments. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid analysis of the patients revealed absence of surfactant protein C, whereas the gene sequence was normal. By contrast, sequence of the ABCA3 gene showed a novel homozygous G > A transition at nucleotide 2891, localized within exon 21, resulting in a glycine to aspartic acid change at codon 964. Interestingly, the lung specimens from the girl displayed a morphologic usual interstitial pneumonitis-like pattern, whereas the specimens from one of the two adult patients showed rather a non specific interstitial pneumonitis-like pattern. We have detected a large kindred with a novel ABCA3 mutation likely causing interstitial lung fibrosis affecting either young and adult family members. We suggest that ABCA3 gene should be considered in genetic testing in the occurrence of familial pulmonary fibrosis.

  8. A large kindred of pulmonary fibrosis associated with a novel ABCA3 gene variant

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Interstitial lung disease occurring in children is a condition characterized by high frequency of cases due to genetic aberrations of pulmonary surfactant homeostasis, that are also believed to be responsible of a fraction of familial pulmonary fibrosis. To our knowledge, ABCA3 gene was not previously reported as causative agent of fibrosis affecting both children and adults in the same kindred. Methods We investigated a large kindred in which two members, a girl whose interstitial lung disease was first recognized at age of 13, and an adult, showed a diffuse pulmonary fibrosis with marked differences in terms of morphology and imaging. An additional, asymptomatic family member was detected by genetic analysis. Surfactant abnormalities were investigated at biochemical, and genetic level, as well as by cell transfection experiments. Results Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid analysis of the patients revealed absence of surfactant protein C, whereas the gene sequence was normal. By contrast, sequence of the ABCA3 gene showed a novel homozygous G > A transition at nucleotide 2891, localized within exon 21, resulting in a glycine to aspartic acid change at codon 964. Interestingly, the lung specimens from the girl displayed a morphologic usual interstitial pneumonitis-like pattern, whereas the specimens from one of the two adult patients showed rather a non specific interstitial pneumonitis-like pattern. Conclusions We have detected a large kindred with a novel ABCA3 mutation likely causing interstitial lung fibrosis affecting either young and adult family members. We suggest that ABCA3 gene should be considered in genetic testing in the occurrence of familial pulmonary fibrosis. PMID:24730976

  9. Familial IPEX syndrome: different glomerulopathy in two siblings.

    PubMed

    Park, Eujin; Chang, Hye Jin; Shin, Jae Il; Lim, Beom Jin; Jeong, Hyeon Joo; Lee, Kyoung Bun; Moon, Kyoung Chul; Kang, Hee Gyung; Ha, Il-Soo; Cheong, Hae Il

    2015-04-01

    Immune dysregulation, polyendocrinopathy, enteropathy, X-linked (IPEX) syndrome (OMIM 304790) is a rare hereditary disorder of the immune regulatory system caused by FOXP3 mutations. The clinical features of this syndrome include a wide spectrum of severe autoimmune diseases and renal involvement, mostly due to tubulointerstitial diseases, in some patients. Glomerulopathy of membranous nephropathy (MN) and minimal change nephrotic syndrome (MCNS), however, have also been reported. We encountered two children with IPEX syndrome from the same family. Interestingly, they had different glomerular lesions: one had MN and the other had MCNS. Herein we describe the cases of these siblings and review the possible mechanisms for the development of two different renal lesions.

  10. [Tarsal-carpal coalition syndrome: a familial case].

    PubMed

    Caino, S; Dello Ruso, B; Fano, V; Obregón, M G

    2012-06-01

    Tarsal-carpal coalition syndrome (TCC, OMIM #186570) is an autosomal dominant disorder characterised by fusion of the carpals, tarsals, and phalanges, with the short first metacarpals causing brachydactyly and humeroradial fusion. Mutations in the NOG gene have been reported in many families. We describe a family with carpal tarsal fusion seen at a Skeletal Dysplasia Clinic and look at the differential diagnoses.

  11. Family Therapy of Terroristic Trauma: Psychological Syndromes and Treatment Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Laurence

    2003-01-01

    Reviews pertinent literature on terroristic trauma and combines this information with the author's experience in treating adults, children, and family victims and survivors of recent terrorist attacks. Describes the psychological syndromes resulting from terrorism and discusses the relevant individual and family therapy modalities for treating…

  12. Family Therapy of Terroristic Trauma: Psychological Syndromes and Treatment Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Laurence

    2003-01-01

    Reviews pertinent literature on terroristic trauma and combines this information with the author's experience in treating adults, children, and family victims and survivors of recent terrorist attacks. Describes the psychological syndromes resulting from terrorism and discusses the relevant individual and family therapy modalities for treating…

  13. Families of 30-35-Year Olds with Down's Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carr, Janet

    2005-01-01

    Background: The families of a population sample of people with Down's syndrome (DS), and of their non-disabled controls, have been followed since early childhood, and the families have now been seen again as their sons and daughters reached age 30 and 35 years. Methods: A semi-structured interview schedule was used, including items from the…

  14. Families of 30-35-Year Olds with Down's Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carr, Janet

    2005-01-01

    Background: The families of a population sample of people with Down's syndrome (DS), and of their non-disabled controls, have been followed since early childhood, and the families have now been seen again as their sons and daughters reached age 30 and 35 years. Methods: A semi-structured interview schedule was used, including items from the…

  15. Modeling Family Dynamics in Children with Fragile X Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Scott S.; Burns, David D.; Reiss, Allan L.

    2007-01-01

    Few studies have examined the impact of children with genetic disorders and their unaffected siblings on family functioning. In this study, the reciprocal causal links between problem behaviors and maternal distress were investigated in 150 families containing a child with fragile X syndrome (FXS) and an unaffected sibling. Both children's…

  16. Rare nonconservative LRP6 mutations are associated with metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Singh, Rajvir; Smith, Emily; Fathzadeh, Mohsen; Liu, Wenzhong; Go, Gwang-Woong; Subrahmanyan, Lakshman; Faramarzi, Saeed; McKenna, William; Mani, Arya

    2013-09-01

    A rare mutation in LRP6 has been shown to underlie autosomal dominant coronary artery disease (CAD) and metabolic syndrome in an Iranian kindred. The prevalence and spectrum of LRP6 mutations in the disease population of the United States is not known. Two hundred white Americans with early onset familial CAD and metabolic syndrome and 2,000 healthy Northern European controls were screened for nonconservative mutations in LRP6. Three novel mutations were identified, which cosegregated with the metabolic traits in the kindreds of the affected subjects and none in the controls. All three mutations reside in the second propeller domain, which plays a critical role in ligand binding. Two of the mutations substituted highly conserved arginines in the second YWTD domain and the third substituted a conserved glycosylation site. The functional characterization of one of the variants showed that it impairs Wnt signaling and acts as a loss of function mutation.

  17. Family functioning in families with a child with Down syndrome: a mixed methods approach.

    PubMed

    Povee, K; Roberts, L; Bourke, J; Leonard, H

    2012-10-01

    This study aimed to explore the factors that predict functioning in families with a child with Down syndrome using a mixed methods design. The quantitative component examined the effect of maladaptive and autism-spectrum behaviours on the functioning of the family while the qualitative component explored the impact of having a child with Down syndrome on family holidays, family activities and general family functioning. Participants in this study were 224 primary caregivers of children with Down syndrome aged 4-25 years (57.1% male; 42.9% female) currently residing in Western Australia (74.0% in metropolitan Perth and 26.0% in rural Western Australia). Maladaptive and autism-spectrum behaviour were associated with poorer family functioning. Mean total scores on the measures of family functioning and marital adjustment were comparable to that of families of typically developing children. Consistent with the quantitative findings, normality was the most common theme to emerge in the qualitative data. Child problem behaviours were also identified by parents/carers as having a negative impact on the family. This study has implications for the development of programs to support families with a child with Down syndrome and may dispel some of the myths surrounding the impact of intellectual disability on the family. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  18. The Liebenberg syndrome: in depth analysis of the original family.

    PubMed

    Mennen, U; Mundlos, S; Spielmann, M

    2014-11-01

    The Liebenberg syndrome was first described in 1973 in a five- generation family. A sixth generation was added in 2001, and in 2009 a hitherto unknown branch of the same family with similar anomalies extended the family tree significantly. This article describes the clinical findings and illustrates the abnormalities with radiographs and three-dimensional computed tomography scans. We discuss the genetic abnormality that causes Liebenberg syndrome, the genomic rearrangement at the PITX1 locus on chromosome 5.The structural variations seem to result in an ectopic expression of paired-like homeodomain transcription factor 1 (PITX1) in the forelimb causing a partial arm-to-leg transformation in these patients.

  19. Familial or genetic primary aldosteronism and Gordon syndrome.

    PubMed

    Stowasser, Michael; Pimenta, Eduardo; Gordon, Richard D

    2011-06-01

    Salt-sensitive forms of hypertension have received considerable renewed attention in recent years. This article focuses on 2 main forms of salt-sensitive hypertension (familial or genetic primary aldosteronism [PA] and Gordon syndrome) and the current state of knowledge regarding their genetic bases. The glucocorticoid-remediable form of familial PA (familial hyperaldosteronism type I) is dealt with only briefly because it is covered in depth elsewhere.

  20. Locus heterogeneity for Waardenburg syndrome is predictive of clinical subtypes

    SciTech Connect

    Farrer, L.A.; Hoth, C.; Arnos, K.S.; Asher, J.H. Jr.; Friedman, T.B.; Grundfast, K.M.; Lalwani, A.K.; Greenberg, J.; Diehl, S.R.

    1994-10-01

    Waardenburg syndrome (WS) is a dominantly inherited and clinically variable syndrome of deafness, pigmentary changes, and distinctive facial features. Clinically, WS type I (WS1) is differentiated from WS type II (WS2) by the high frequency of dystopia canthorum in the family. In some families, WS is caused by mutations in the PAX3 gene on chromosome 2q. We have typed microsatellite markers within and flanking PAX3 in 41 WS1 kindreds and 26 WS2 kindreds in order to estimate the proportion of families with probable mutations in PAX3 and to study the relationship between phenotypic and genotypic heterogeneity. Evaluation of heterogeneity in location scores obtained by multilocus analysis indicated that WS is linked to PAX3 in 60% of all WS families and in 100% of WS1 families. None of the WS2 families were linked. In those families in which equivocal lod scores (between -2 and +1) were found, PAX3 mutations have been identified in 5 of the 15 WS1 families but in none of the 4 WS2 families. Although preliminary studies do not suggest any association between the phenotype and the molecular pathology in 20 families with known PAX3 mutations and in four patients with chromosomal abnormalities in the vicinity of PAX3, the presence of dystopia in multiple family members is a reliable indicator for identifying families likely to have a defect in PAX3. 59 refs., 3 figs., 5 tabs.

  1. Locus Heterogeneity for Waardenburg Syndrome is Predictive of Clinical Subtypes

    PubMed Central

    Farrer, Lindsay A.; Arnos, Kathleen S.; Asher, James H.; Baldwin, Clinton T.; Diehl, Scott R.; Friedman, Thomas B.; Greenberg, Jacquie; Grundfast, Kenneth M.; Hoth, Christopher; Lalwani, Anil K.; Landa, Barbara; Leverton, Kate; Milunsky, Aubrey; Morell, Robert; Nance, Walter E.; Newton, Valerie; Ramesar, Rajkumar; Rao, Valluri S.; Reynolds, Jennifer E.; Agustin, Theresa B. San; Wilcox, Edward R.; Winship, Ingrid; Read, Andrew P.

    1994-01-01

    Waardenburg syndrome (WS) is a dominantly inherited and clinically variable syndrome of deafness, pigmentary changes, and distinctive facial features. Clinically, WS type I (WS1) is differentiated from WS type II (WS2) by the high frequency of dystopia canthorum in the family. In some families, WS is caused by mutations in the PAX3 gene on chromosome 2q. We have typed microsatellite markers within and flanking PAX3 in 41 WS1 kindreds and 26 WS2 kindreds in order to estimate the proportion of families with probable mutations in PAX3 and to study the relationship between phenotypic and genotypic heterogeneity. Evaluation of heterogeneity in location scores obtained by multilocus analysis indicated that WS is linked to PAX3 in 60% of all WS families and in 100% of WS1 families. None of the WS2 families were linked. In those families in which equivocal lod scores (between −2 and +1) were found, PAX3 mutations have been identified in 5 of the 15 WS1 families but in none of the 4 WS2 families. Although preliminary studies do not suggest any association between the phenotype and the molecular pathology in 20 families with known PAX3 mutations and in four patients with chromosomal abnormalities in the vicinity of PAX3, the presence of dystopia in multiple family members is a reliable indicator for identifying families likely to have a defect in PAX3. ImagesFigure 1 PMID:7942851

  2. [Gardner syndrome--parent alienation syndrome (PAS). Diagnosis or family reality?].

    PubMed

    Namysłowska, Irena; Heitzman, Janusz; Siewierska, Anna

    2009-01-01

    The authors present characteristics of Parental Alienation Syndrome (PAS) proposed by Gardner as well as data, which may help to differentiate that syndrome with real psychological, physical and sexual abuse. The consequences of Gardner Syndrome for legal decisions in the court cases of child custody and the critique of this syndrome in forensic and psychiatric literature are also discussed, and several questions posed. Authors propose to treat Gardner Syndrome not as as a child disorder but as a specific, dynamic family situation, which occurs sometimes, during divorce and fight about child custody.

  3. Resilience in families of children with Down syndrome in Korea.

    PubMed

    Choi, Eun Kyoung; Yoo, Il Young

    2015-10-01

    This study aims to identify the factors related to resilience of the families of children with Down syndrome (DS). Data were collected from 126 parents of children with DS in Korea, using a self-administered questionnaire. The age of the child, developmental level of the child, parental depression, and stress and strain were negatively related with family adaptation, whereas health of parents, family cohesiveness, flexibility, communication skills, supportive family/relatives, and quality of community service were positively related. Parental depression, family cohesiveness and communication skills were the factors that were strongly related to family resilience and adaptation. It is suggested that nursing interventions to decrease parental depression and increase family cohesiveness and communication skills should be included to increase resilience of the families of children with DS. © 2014 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  4. A novel mutation in the SLC19A2 gene in a Tunisian family with thiamine-responsive megaloblastic anaemia, diabetes and deafness syndrome.

    PubMed

    Gritli, S; Omar, S; Tartaglini, E; Guannouni, S; Fleming, J C; Steinkamp, M P; Berul, C I; Hafsia, R; Jilani, S B; Belhani, A; Hamdi, M; Neufeld, E J

    2001-05-01

    Thiamine-responsive megaloblastic anaemia (TRMA) syndrome with diabetes and deafness was found in two patients from a Tunisian kindred. The proband was homozygous for a novel mutation, 287delG, in the high-affinity thiamine transporter gene, SLC19A2. We demonstrated that fibroblasts from this patient exhibited defective thiamine transport. These data confirm that the SLC19A2 gene is the high-affinity thiamine carrier and that this novel mutation is responsible for TRMA syndrome.

  5. Pfeiffer syndrome: clinical and genetic findings in five Brazilian families.

    PubMed

    Júnior, Hercílio-Martelli; de Aquino, Sibele-Nascimento; Machado, Renato-Assis; Leão, Letícia-Lima; Coletta, Ricardo-Della; Burle-Aguiar, Marcos-José

    2015-01-01

    Pfeiffer syndrome (PS) is mainly characterized by craniosysnostosis, midface hypoplasia, great toes with partial syndactyly of the digits, broad and medially deviated thumbs. It is caused by allelic mutations in the fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 and 2 (FGFR1 and 2) genes. This study describes the clinical and genetic features of five Brazilian families affected by PS. All patients exhibited the classical phenotypes related to PS. The genetic analysis was able to detect the mutations Cys278Phe, Cys342Arg, and Val359Leu in three of these families. Two mutations were de novo, with one familial. We identified pathogenic mutations in four PS cases in five Brazilian families by PCR sequencing of FGFR1 exon 5 and FGFR2 exons 5, 8, 10, 11, 15, and 16. The clinical and genetic aspects of these families confirm that this syndrome can be clinically variable, with different mutations in the FGFR2 responsible for PS.

  6. [The role of diagnostic neuropathology in familial tumour syndromes].

    PubMed

    Feiden, S; Sartorius, E; Feiden, W

    2010-10-01

    Inherited cancer syndromes often involve the central and peripheral nervous system. For the surgical neuropathologist the possibility in individual patients of a familial tumour syndrome needs to be considered in the case of special tumours such as malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumour (MPNST), medulloblastoma with extensive nodularity (MBEN) or even atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumour (AT/RT) of the brain. Furthermore, tumour location and patient age may point to a familial tumour syndrome as in the case of neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2) with typical bilateral vestibular schwannoma in young age. This short review discusses some of the diagnostic aspects in this field relating to neurofibromatosis type 1 and 2 (NF1, NF2), as well as the two rare tumors MBEN in Gorlin-Goltz syndrome and AT/RT in particular.

  7. Familial cryptic translocation in Angelman syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Weyerts, L.K.; Wiley, J.E.; Loud, K.M.

    1994-09-01

    The majority of patients with Angelman syndrome have been shown to have a cytogenetic or molecular deletion on the maternally derived chromosome 15. We report on a case of Angelman syndrome in which this deletion occurs as an unbalanced cryptic translocation involving chromosomes 14 and 15. The proband was diagnosed clinically as having Angelman syndrome. Multiple cytogenetic studies were done without detecting any deletion. When DNA probes (Oncor) specific for the Prader Willi/Angelman locus became available, the patient was restudied and found to be deleted for {open_quotes}region A{close_quotes} (D15S11) but not for {open_quotes}region B{close_quotes} (GABRB3). No other abnormality was detected. The proband`s mother was then studied. The chromosome 15 marker probe and D15S11 were detected on different chromosomes. Using alpha-satellite probes, a cryptic 14;15 translocation was uncovered. This balanced translocation was also found to be carried by the sister of the proband. This case, along with a case presented at the 1993 ASHG meeting, illustrates the need for using acrocentric probes when studying Angelman syndrome patients. The proband was studied using additional probes specific for this region and found to be deleted for SNRPN but not for D15S10. The breakpoint of the translocation in this patient delineates the smallest deletion of the Angelman syndrome region reported to date and therefore may represent the specific gene involved.

  8. Autosomal dominant congenital Horner's syndrome in a Dutch family.

    PubMed Central

    Hageman, G; Ippel, P F; te Nijenhuis, F C

    1992-01-01

    A Dutch family is reported with congenital Horner's syndrome in five cases spanning five generations, with symptoms of varying degree but mainly ptosis and meiosis. Heterochromia iridium, anhidrosis, and enophthalmos were not present. The site of the lesion may be in the region between Gasser's ganglion and the short vertical segment of the internal carotid artery near the siphon. There are only four previous reports showing autosomal dominant inheritance of congenital Horner's syndrome. Images PMID:1548493

  9. Autosomal dominant congenital Horner's syndrome in a Dutch family.

    PubMed

    Hageman, G; Ippel, P F; te Nijenhuis, F C

    1992-01-01

    A Dutch family is reported with congenital Horner's syndrome in five cases spanning five generations, with symptoms of varying degree but mainly ptosis and meiosis. Heterochromia iridium, anhidrosis, and enophthalmos were not present. The site of the lesion may be in the region between Gasser's ganglion and the short vertical segment of the internal carotid artery near the siphon. There are only four previous reports showing autosomal dominant inheritance of congenital Horner's syndrome.

  10. A large Turkish kindred with syndactyly type II (synpolydactyly). 1. Field investigation, clinical and pedigree data.

    PubMed Central

    Sayli, B S; Akarsu, A N; Sayli, U; Akhan, O; Ceylaner, S; Sarfarazi, M

    1995-01-01

    A very large Turkish family with syndactyly type II (synpolydactyly (SPD)) is described, which originated from and is mainly concentrated in the village of Derbent, Afyon. The kindred consists of 425 subjects over seven generations, of whom 182 are affected. It appears that a founder effect in this village has led to this extensive kindred. This condition is inherited as an autosomal dominant trait with variable expressivity and an estimated penetrance of 96%. Penetrance is different between the upper (96%) and lower (69.5%) extremities. No excess of affected males or females or other associated features were documented in this condition. Variations in the involvement of one or both hands, upper or lower extremities, bone and soft tissue, as well as variation in the affected subjects of two successive generations were documented. We also noted that metacarpal and metatarsal involvement and middle phalangeal hypoplasia of the feet are the consistent features of SPD and, therefore, should be considered as characteristic of this phenotype. We observed four different phenotypes in various branches of the Derbent kindred: (1) subjects presenting typical features of SPD; (2) subjects exhibiting both pre- and post-axial polydactyly simultaneously; (3) persons manifesting postaxial polydactyly type A; and (4) subjects born to two affected parents with severe hand and foot deformities that have not been previously described in any other SPD families (that is, homozygotes). A total of 27 affected offspring were born to two such affected parents, of whom seven are expected to be homozygous for the SPD gene. This group is presented in an accompanying paper in this issue of the Journal. A molecular study is currently under way to identify the chromosomal location of the defective gene. Images PMID:7666393

  11. Toxic Shock Syndrome: A Family Physician's Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Myhre, D. L.

    1982-01-01

    Although similar cases have been reported as far back as 1927, the term toxic shock syndrome was coined in 1978 to describe an acute fever involving Staph. aureus. The reported mortality rate in Canada is 3.8%, but may be much higher. Association with tampon use was made in 1980, but is still unclear. Treatment remains supportive and is aimed at reducing risk of recurrence, until the role of the exotoxin can be explained. This article reviews reported cases to date, listing diagnostic criteria, signs and symptoms. A high index of suspicion for this new syndrome is recommended. PMID:21286566

  12. Exome sequencing identified new mutations in a Marfan syndrome family.

    PubMed

    Li, Guangxin; Yu, Jian; Wang, Kun; Wang, Bin; Wang, Minghai; Zhang, Shuguang; Qin, Shiyong; Yu, Zhenhai

    2014-01-31

    Marfan syndrome is a common autosomal dominant hereditary connective tissue disorder. There is no cure for Marfan syndrome currently. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) technology is efficient to identify genetic lesions at the exome level. Here we carried out exome sequencing of two Marfan syndrome patients. Further Sanger sequencing validation in other five members from the same family was also implemented to confirm new variants which may contribute to the pathogenesis of the disease. Two new variants, including one nonsense SNP in the Marfan syndrome gene FBN1 and one missense mutation in exon 15 of LRP1, which may be related to the phenotype of the patients were identified. The exome sequencing analysis provides us a new insight into the molecular events governing pathogenesis of Marfan syndrome. http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/1229110069114125.

  13. Exome sequencing identified new mutations in a Marfan syndrome family

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Marfan syndrome is a common autosomal dominant hereditary connective tissue disorder. There is no cure for Marfan syndrome currently. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) technology is efficient to identify genetic lesions at the exome level. Here we carried out exome sequencing of two Marfan syndrome patients. Further Sanger sequencing validation in other five members from the same family was also implemented to confirm new variants which may contribute to the pathogenesis of the disease. Two new variants, including one nonsense SNP in the Marfan syndrome gene FBN1 and one missense mutation in exon 15 of LRP1, which may be related to the phenotype of the patients were identified. The exome sequencing analysis provides us a new insight into the molecular events governing pathogenesis of Marfan syndrome. Virtual slide http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/1229110069114125. PMID:24484584

  14. Family Functioning in Families with a Child with Down Syndrome: A Mixed Methods Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Povee, K.; Roberts, L.; Bourke, J.; Leonard, H.

    2012-01-01

    Background: This study aimed to explore the factors that predict functioning in families with a child with Down syndrome using a mixed methods design. The quantitative component examined the effect of maladaptive and autism-spectrum behaviours on the functioning of the family while the qualitative component explored the impact of having a child…

  15. Family Functioning in Families with a Child with Down Syndrome: A Mixed Methods Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Povee, K.; Roberts, L.; Bourke, J.; Leonard, H.

    2012-01-01

    Background: This study aimed to explore the factors that predict functioning in families with a child with Down syndrome using a mixed methods design. The quantitative component examined the effect of maladaptive and autism-spectrum behaviours on the functioning of the family while the qualitative component explored the impact of having a child…

  16. Weismann-Netter-Stuhl Syndrome:A family report

    PubMed Central

    Atabek, Mehmet Emre; Pirgon, Özgür

    2009-01-01

    Weismann-Netter-Stuhl (WNS) syndrome is a rare skeletal anomaly that affects the diaphyseal part of both the tibiae and fibulae with posterior cortical thickening and anteroposterior bowing. This anomaly is usually bilateral and symmetrical. The patients are generally of short stature. In some cases, a family history suggesting genetic transmission of a mutation with an unknown locus has been reported. In this paper we present an infant with WNS syndrome with bilateral involvement of the femur. Similar clinical findings were defined in three other family members. Conflict of interest:None declared. PMID:21274295

  17. Weismann-Netter-Stuhl syndrome: a family report.

    PubMed

    Alp, Hayrullah; Atabek, Mehmet Emre; Pirgon, Özgür

    2009-01-01

    Weismann-Netter-Stuhl (WNS) syndrome is a rare skeletal anomaly that affects the diaphyseal part of both the tibiae and fibulae with posterior cortical thickening and anteroposterior bowing. This anomaly is usually bilateral and symmetrical. The patients are generally of short stature. In some cases, a family history suggesting genetic transmission of a mutation with an unknown locus has been reported. In this paper we present an infant with WNS syndrome with bilateral involvement of the femur. Similar clinical findings were defined in three other family members.

  18. Autosomal recessive Klippel-Feil syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Elias Oliveira Da

    1982-01-01

    An inbred kindred with 12 cases of Klippel-Feil syndrome (seven females and five males) is reported. Inheritance is undoubtedly autosomal recessive. The main characteristic of the syndrome is fusion of cervical vertebrae. Images PMID:7077623

  19. [Familial partial lipodystrophy type 1. A rare or underdiagnosed syndrome?].

    PubMed

    Soutelo, Jimena; Grüneisen, Mariana; Fritz, Clara; Sordo, Laura; Powazniak, Yanina; Lutfi, Rubén

    2015-01-01

    Familial partial lipodystrophy (FPL) type 1 is a syndrome characterized by loss of subcutaneous fat in arms and legs and an excess of body fat in face, neck, and torso. This rare syndrome is usually diagnosed when patients present cardiovascular complications or pancreatitis due to the severe metabolic abnormalities. Here we present the case of a 45 year old diabetic female without any pathological family history, a poor glycemic control (HbA1c 11.7%), hypertriglideridemia (3000 mg/dl), a body mass index (BMI) of 38, thin limbs, subcutaneous fat loss in gluteal area and ledge of fat above them, prominent veins in lower extremities, moon face, and acanthosis nigricans; as well as hypertension (150/100 mmHg) and subcutaneous folds measuring less than average were observed. Hypercortisolism was discarded and leptin levels were measured (16.8 mg/ml, VR: BMI > 30: 50 mg/ml). Due to these clinical and biochemical manifestations, and low leptin levels (16.8 mg/ml), Kobberling syndrome was suspected; however, LMNA mutation analysis was negative. Changes in lifestyle and treatment with fenofibrate, biphasic insulin 50/50, and enalapril were initiated showing a a significant metabolic improvement: HbA1c (7.8%) and TG (243 mg/dl). FPL type 1 is a familial disease, although there are spontaneous cases. No specific mutation is responsible for this syndrome. Due to its clinical manifestations, Cushing syndrome must be discarded.

  20. Mutations in keratin K9 in kindreds with epidermolytic palmoplantar keratoderma and epidemiology in Northern Ireland.

    PubMed

    Covello, S P; Irvine, A D; McKenna, K E; Munro, C S; Nevin, N C; Smith, F J; Uitto, J; McLean, W H

    1998-12-01

    Epidermolytic palmoplantar keratoderma (EPPK, MIM #144200) is an autosomal dominant disorder in which hyperkeratosis confined to the palms and soles is characterized histologically by cytolysis of suprabasal keratinocytes. Mutations in the keratin 9 gene (KRT9), a type 1 keratin expressed exclusively in the suprabasal keratinocytes of palmoplantar epidermis, have previously been demonstrated in this disorder. Here, we have studied four Northern Irish kindreds presenting with EPPK. By direct sequencing of polymerase chain reaction products, heterozygous missense mutations in exon 1 of KRT9 were detected in all the families. These included a novel mutation M156T; as well as M156V in two kindreds; and R162Q in the remaining family. All mutations were confirmed by reverse strand sequencing and restriction enzyme analysis. The point prevalence of EPPK in Northern Ireland was found to be 4.4 per 100,000. To date, all reported EPPK mutations occur in the helix initiation motif at the start of the central coiled-coil rod domain of K9.

  1. [FGFR2 gene mutation in a family with Crouzon syndrome and a sporadic Crouzon syndrome patient].

    PubMed

    Guo, Lu; Lai, Yan-ni; Li, Lian-xi

    2008-04-01

    To detect the gene mutation of fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR2)in a Crouzon syndrome family and a sporadic patient. The genomic DNA from 10 members in the Crouzon syndrome family, as well as a sporadic patient, was extracted. Then exons 8 and 10 of FGFR2 gene and their flanking sequences were amplified by polymerase chain reaction. Some of the family members were studied by only amplifying exon 8. Finally, the PCR products were purified and sequenced. The G to T transversion mutation (heterozygote) at nucleotide 833 in exon 8 of FGFR2 (C278F), was found both in the patients of the family and the sporadic patient. FGFR2 gene mutation is responsible for the pathogenesis of Crouzon syndrome in these patients.

  2. Phenotype, hormonal profile and genotype of subjects with partial androgen insensitivity syndrome: report of a family with four adult males and one child with disorder of sexual differentiation.

    PubMed

    Kulshreshtha, B; Philibert, P; Eunice, M; Audran, F; Paris, F; Khurana, M L; Ammini, A C; Charles, S

    2009-08-01

    There is little information on the molecular basis of intrafamilial and inter-familial phenotypic heterogeneity with the same androgen receptor (AR) mutation in patients with partial androgen insensitivity syndrome. A genetic analysis was performed in a large kindred with ambiguous genitalia and the genotype-phenotype correlations were analysed. The index case was brought for sex assignment. Family history revealed four other affected members who had hypospadias and varying degrees of virilisation. All the affected males had hemizygous mutations in the third exon of the AR gene (A596T). One was also found to have a heterozygous mutation in the fourth exon of the 5 alpha reductase type 2 gene (G196S). This affected male with double mutations was better virilised compared with the other affected members with a single mutation. The degree of virilisation correlated with serum testosterone levels. Gynaecomastia was not present in any of these subjects. It is concluded that the subject with dual gene defects also had higher levels of testosterone and pubertal virilsation. Testosterone levels possibly govern the degree of pubertal virilisation in subjects with A596T gene defects. It is not clear whether the better pubertal virilsation and higher testosterone are in any way causally related to the SRD5A2 gene defect.

  3. Mutation spectrum in South American Lynch syndrome families

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Genetic counselling and testing for Lynch syndrome have recently been introduced in several South American countries, though yet not available in the public health care system. Methods We compiled data from publications and hereditary cancer registries to characterize the Lynch syndrome mutation spectrum in South America. In total, data from 267 families that fulfilled the Amsterdam criteria and/or the Bethesda guidelines from Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia and Uruguay were included. Results Disease-predisposing mutations were identified in 37% of the families and affected MLH1 in 60% and MSH2 in 40%. Half of the mutations have not previously been reported and potential founder effects were identified in Brazil and in Colombia. Conclusion The South American Lynch syndrome mutation spectrum includes multiple new mutations, identifies potential founder effects and is useful for future development of genetic testing in this continent. PMID:24344984

  4. A DIDMOAD syndrome family with juvenile glaucoma and myopia findings.

    PubMed

    Bekir, N A; Güngör, K; Güran, S

    2000-08-01

    We present here two DIDMOAD syndrome cases (Diabetes Mellitus, Diabetes Insipidus, Optic Atrophy, Deafness) in a Turkish family. In the examination of the propositus who had consanguineous parents, diabetes mellitus, diabetes insipidus, optic atrophy, and deafness were observed in addition to myopia, juvenile glaucoma, posterior polar cataract, and dilatation of the urinary tract. Diabetes mellitus, diabetes inspidus, optic atrophy, deafness, myopia, and ventricular septal defect were observed in his elder brother. Juvenile onset diabetes mellitus, congenital glaucoma, deafness, and heart disease were the other remarkable findings observed in relatives to this family. Juvenile glaucoma, posterior polar cataract observed in our propositus, and myopia in both our DIDMOAD syndrome cases are the first ophthalmic manifestations described in the DIDMOAD syndrome.

  5. Ellis-van Creveld Syndrome: Mutations Uncovered in Lebanese Families.

    PubMed

    Valencia, Maria; Tabet, Lara; Yazbeck, Nadine; Araj, Alia; Ruiz-Perez, Victor L; Charaffedine, Khalil; Fares, Farah; Badra, Rebecca; Farra, Chantal

    2015-01-01

    Background. Ellis-van Creveld (EvC) syndrome is a rare, autosomal recessive disorder characterized by short stature, short limbs, growth retardation, polydactyly, and ectodermal defects with cardiac anomalies occurring in around 60% of cases. EVC syndrome has been linked to mutations in EVC and EVC2 genes. Case Presentation. We report EvC syndrome in two unrelated Lebanese families both having homozygous mutations in the EVC2 gene, c.2653C>T (p.(Arg885(*))) and c.2012_2015del (p.(Leu671(*))) in exons 15 and 13, respectively, with the latter being reported for the first time. Conclusion. Although EvC has been largely described in the medical literature, clinical features of this syndrome vary. While more research is required to explore other genes involved in EvC, early diagnosis and therapeutic care are important to achieve a better quality of life.

  6. Diagnosis of cystic fibrosis in the kindred of an infant with CFTR-related metabolic syndrome: importance of follow-up that includes monitoring sweat chloride concentrations over time.

    PubMed

    Williams, Sophia N; Nussbaum, Eliezer; Chin, Terry W; Do, Paul C M; Singh, Kathryn E; Randhawa, Inderpal

    2014-03-01

    Newly implemented newborn screening (NBS) programs in California have resulted in a large subset of patients in whom at least two cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) mutations are identified, but subsequent sweat chloride analysis reveals normal or indeterminate values. These patients are diagnosed with CFTR-Related Metabolic Syndrome (CRMS). However, the natural progression and management of these patients are not clearly understood and frequently after the age of 1-year these patients are lost to follow-up with Cystic Fibrosis (CF) Centers. We present the first case of an infant who was referred to Miller Children's Hospital for a NBS positive for CF and subsequent discovery of identical mutations in six of his seven older brothers. Several siblings had positive sweat chloride results on repeat testing after the age of 3 years. We suggest the need for continued follow-up of CRMS in a CF center with diagnostic evaluation including repeat sweat chloride testing, beyond the currently recommended period. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Pfeiffer syndrome: Clinical and genetic findings in five Brazilian families

    PubMed Central

    Júnior, Hercílio-Martelli; Machado, Renato-Assis; Leão, Letícia-Lima; Coletta, Ricardo- Della; Burle-Aguiar, Marcos-José

    2015-01-01

    Pfeiffer syndrome (PS) is mainly characterized by craniosysnostosis, midface hypoplasia, great toes with partial syndactyly of the digits and broad and medially deviated thumbs. It is caused by allelic mutations in the fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 and 2 (FGFR1 and 2) genes. This study describes the clinical and genetic features of five Brazilian families affected by PS. All patients exhibited the classical phenotypes related to PS. The genetic analysis was able to detect the mutations Cys278Phe, Cys342Arg, and Val359Leu in three of these families. Two mutations were de novo, with one familial. We identified pathogenic mutations in four PS cases in five Brazilian families by PCR sequencing of FGFR1 exon 5 and FGFR2 exons 5, 8, 10, 11, 15, and 16. The clinical and genetic aspects of these families confirm that this syndrome can be clinically variable, with different mutations in the FGFR2 responsible for PS. Key words:Craniosynostosis, Pfeiffer syndrome, mutation, FGFR2. PMID:25129254

  8. Genotype versus phenotype in families with androgen insensitivity syndrome.

    PubMed

    Boehmer, A L; Brinkmann, O; Brüggenwirth, H; van Assendelft, C; Otten, B J; Verleun-Mooijman, M C; Niermeijer, M F; Brunner, H G; Rouwé, C W; Waelkens, J J; Oostdijk, W; Kleijer, W J; van der Kwast, T H; de Vroede, M A; Drop, S L

    2001-09-01

    Androgen insensitivity syndrome encompasses a wide range of phenotypes, which are caused by numerous different mutations in the AR gene. Detailed information on the genotype/phenotype relationship in androgen insensitivity syndrome is important for sex assignment, treatment of androgen insensitivity syndrome patients, genetic counseling of their families, and insight into the functional domains of the AR. The commonly accepted concept of dependence on fetal androgens of the development of Wolffian ducts was studied in complete androgen insensitivity syndrome (CAIS) patients. In a nationwide survey in The Netherlands, all cases (n = 49) with the presumptive diagnosis androgen insensitivity syndrome known to pediatric endocrinologists and clinical geneticists were studied. After studying the clinical phenotype, mutation analysis and functional analysis of mutant receptors were performed using genital skin fibroblasts and in vitro expression studies. Here we report the findings in families with multiple affected cases. Fifty-nine percent of androgen insensitivity syndrome patients had other affected relatives. A total of 17 families were studied, seven families with CAIS (18 patients), nine families with partial androgen insensitivity (24 patients), and one family with female prepubertal phenotypes (two patients). No phenotypic variation was observed in families with CAIS. However, phenotypic variation was observed in one-third of families with partial androgen insensitivity resulting in different sex of rearing and differences in requirement of reconstructive surgery. Intrafamilial phenotypic variation was observed for mutations R846H, M771I, and deletion of amino acid N682. Four newly identified mutations were found. Follow-up in families with different AR gene mutations provided information on residual androgen action in vivo and the development of the prepubertal and adult phenotype. Patients with a functional complete defective AR had some pubic hair, Tanner

  9. Familial Bird-headed Dwarfism (Seckel's Syndrome)

    PubMed Central

    Sauk, John J.; Litt, Richard; Espiritu, Ceres E.; Delaney, James R.

    1973-01-01

    Low birth weight dwarfism with mental retardation, large eyes, a beaklike nose, narrow face, receding mandible, and dental anomalies are the specific features of `bird-headed dwarf of Seckel'. The following case report presents details of a Seckel dwarf with familial occurrence of the trait and, thus supports an autosomal recessive mode of inheritance. In addition, the possible significance of dental alterations is noted. Images PMID:4714590

  10. Profuse congenital familial milia with absent dermatoglyphics (Basan's Syndrome): description of a new family.

    PubMed

    Luna, Paula Carolina; Larralde, Margarita

    2012-01-01

    Milia are common, small, keratin-containing cysts frequently seen in all age groups. They may arise spontaneously or develop after a variety of stimuli. They can be found alone or as part of syndromes. We present a female neonate born not only with profuse facial milia, but also with acral bullae and absent dermatoglyphics. Similar features were seen in several members of her family. These findings correspond to the syndrome known as Basan's syndrome, a rare autosomal-dominant inherited dermatosis characterized by profuse congenital milia, transient neonatal acral bullae, and absence of dermatoglyphics. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Familial Gordon syndrome associated with a PIEZO2 mutation.

    PubMed

    Alisch, Franz; Weichert, Alexander; Kalache, Karim; Paradiso, Viola; Longardt, Ann Carolin; Dame, Christof; Hoffmann, Katrin; Horn, Denise

    2017-01-01

    Gordon syndrome or distal arthrogryposis type 3 is a rare autosomal dominant disorder characterized by contractures of upper and lower limbs. It is distinguishable from other forms of distal arthrogryposis by cleft palate and short stature. Recently, Gordon syndrome has been associated to heterozygous mutations in the piezo-type mechanosensitive ion channel component 2 gene (PIEZO2). Different mutations of this gene also cause distal arthrogryposis type 5 and Marden-Walker syndrome. Dysfunction of this ion channel provides pleiotropic effects on joints, ocular muscles, and bone development. Here, we present a family with three affected individuals exhibiting multiple contractures (metacarpo-phalangeal and interphalangeal joints as well as elbow, shoulder, knee, and ankle joints), clubfeet, short stature, bifid uvula/cleft palate, and a distinct facial phenotype including ptosis. In addition, mild intellectual disability and delay in psychomotor development are obvious. The multigenerational phenotypic spectrum of Gordon syndrome is present in the 37-year-old father, his 4-year-old son and a male neonate showing typical signs of arthrogryposis in the prenatal ultrasound examination already seen at 13 week of gestation. In all affected family members, we identified the PIEZO2 mutation c.8057G>A (p.Arg2686His) by Sanger sequencing. Our analysis indicated that mild delay in psychomotor development and intellectual disability could be part of the phenotypic spectrum of Gordon syndrome. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Syndromic patent ductus arteriosus: evidence for haploinsufficient TFAP2B mutations and identification of a linked sleep disorder.

    PubMed

    Mani, Arya; Radhakrishnan, Jayaram; Farhi, Anita; Carew, Khary S; Warnes, Carole A; Nelson-Williams, Carol; Day, Ronald W; Pober, Barbara; State, Matthew W; Lifton, Richard P

    2005-02-22

    Patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) is a common congenital heart disease that results when the ductus arteriosus, a muscular artery, fails to remodel and close after birth. A syndromic form of this disorder, Char syndrome, is caused by mutation in TFAP2B, the gene encoding a neural crest-derived transcription factor. Established features of the syndrome are PDA, facial dysmorphology, and fifth-finger clinodactyly. Disease-causing mutations are missense and are proposed to be dominant negative. Because only a small number of families have been reported, there is limited information on the spectrum of mutations and resulting phenotypes. We report the characterization of two kindreds (K144 and K145) with Char syndrome containing 22 and 5 affected members, respectively. Genotyping revealed linkage to TFAP2B in both families. Sequencing of TFAP2B demonstrated mutations in both kindreds that were not found among control chromosomes. Both mutations altered highly conserved bases in introns required for normal splicing as demonstrated by biochemical studies in mammalian cells. The abnormal splicing results in mRNAs containing frameshift mutations that are expected to be degraded by nonsense-mediated mRNA decay, resulting in haploinsufficiency; even if produced, the protein in K144 would lack DNA binding and dimerization motifs and would likely result in haploinsufficiency. Examination of these two kindreds for phenotypes that segregate with TFAP2B mutations identified several phenotypes not previously linked to Char syndrome. These include parasomnia and dental and occipital-bone abnormalities. The striking sleep disorder in these kindreds implicates TFAP2B-dependent functions in the normal regulation of sleep.

  13. Loss-of-function KCNH2 mutation in a family with long QT syndrome, epilepsy, and sudden death.

    PubMed

    Partemi, Sara; Cestèle, Sandrine; Pezzella, Marianna; Campuzano, Oscar; Paravidino, Roberta; Pascali, Vincenzo L; Zara, Federico; Tassinari, Carlo Alberto; Striano, Salvatore; Oliva, Antonio; Brugada, Ramon; Mantegazza, Massimo; Striano, Pasquale

    2013-08-01

    There has been increased interest in a possible association between epilepsy channelopathies and cardiac arrhythmias, such as long QT syndrome (LQTS). We report a kindred that features LQTS, idiopathic epilepsy, and increased risk of sudden death. Genetic study showed a previously unreported heterozygous point mutation (c.246T>C) in the KCNH2 gene. Functional studies showed that the mutation induces severe loss of function. This observation provides further evidence for a possible link between idiopathic epilepsy and LQTS. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2013 International League Against Epilepsy.

  14. Exclusion of linkage between the serotonin2 receptor and schizophrenia in a large Swedish kindred.

    PubMed

    Hallmayer, J; Kennedy, J L; Wetterberg, L; Sjögren, B; Kidd, K K; Cavalli-Sforza, L L

    1992-03-01

    Family, twin, and adoption studies suggest that genetic factors play an important role in the etiology of schizophrenia. Detection of single gene(s) involved in a higher susceptibility to a hereditary disease is possible with linkage analysis. The effects of serotonin2-receptor antagonists on symptoms of schizophrenia suggest that a mutation in the gene coding for this receptor subtype might be involved in the pathophysiology of this disease. Recently a copy DNA encoding the serotonin 5-HT2 receptor has been isolated and with a human 5-HT2 receptor copy DNA probe the HTR2 locus has been mapped to chromosome 13. Using multipoint linkage analysis between schizophrenia and genetic markers spanning the region of the HTR2 locus, we were able to exclude linkage between this candidate gene and schizophrenia in a Swedish kindred. Given this result, we conclude that the serotonin 5-HT2 receptor gene itself is not a major susceptibility gene for schizophrenia in this family.

  15. Familial Kleine-Levin Syndrome: A Specific Entity?

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Quang Tuan Remy; Groos, Elisabeth; Leclair-Visonneau, Laurène; Monaca-Charley, Christelle; Rico, Tom; Farber, Neal; Mignot, Emmanuel; Arnulf, Isabelle

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: Kleine-Levin syndrome (KLS) is a rare, mostly sporadic disorder, characterized by intermittent episodes of hypersomnia plus cognitive and behavior disorders. Although its cause is unknown, multiplex families have been described. We contrasted the clinical and biological features of familial versus sporadic KLS. Methods: Two samples of patients with KLS from the United States and France (n = 260) were studied using clinical interviews and human leukocyte antigen (HLA) genotyping. A multiplex family contained two or more first- or second-degree affected relatives (familial cases). Results: Twenty-one patients from 10 multiplex families (siblings: n = 12, including two pairs of monozygotic twins; parent-child: n = 4; cousins: n = 2; uncle-nephews: n = 3) and 239 patients with sporadic KLS were identified, yielding to 4% multiplex families and 8% familial cases. The simplex and multiplex families did not differ for autoimmune, neurological, and psychiatric disorders. Age, sex ratio, ethnicity, HLA typing, karyotyping, disease course, frequency, and duration of KLS episodes did not differ between groups. Episodes were less frequent in familial versus sporadic KLS (2.3 ± 1.8/y versus 3.8 ± 3.7/y, P = 0.004). Menses triggered more frequently KLS onset in the nine girls with familial KLS (relative risk, RR = 4.12, P = 0.03), but not subsequent episodes. Familial cases had less disinhibited speech (RR = 3.44, P = 0.049), less combined hypophagia/hyperphagia (RR = 4.38, P = 0.006), more abrupt termination of episodes (RR = 1.45, P = 0.04) and less postepisode insomnia (RR = 2.16, P = 0.008). There was similar HLA DQB1 distribution in familial versus sporadic cases and no abnormal karyotypes. Conclusion: Familial KLS is mostly present in the same generation, and is clinically similar to but slightly less severe than sporadic KLS. Citation: Nguyen QT, Groos E, Leclair-Visonneau L, Monaca-Charley C, Rico T, Farber N, Mignot E, Arnulf I. Familial Kleine

  16. Genetic testing for Lynch syndrome: family communication and motivation.

    PubMed

    Leenen, Celine H M; Heijer, Mariska den; van der Meer, Conny; Kuipers, Ernst J; van Leerdam, Monique E; Wagner, Anja

    2016-01-01

    Current genetic counselling practice for Lynch syndrome (LS) relies on diagnosed index patients to inform their biological family about LS, referred to as the family-mediated approach. The objective of this study was to evaluate this approach and to identify factors influencing the uptake of genetic testing for LS. In 59 mutation carriers, 70 non carriers and 16 non-tested relatives socio-demographic characteristics, family communication regarding LS, experiences and attitudes towards the family-mediated approach and motivations for genetic testing, were assessed. The majority of all respondents (73 %) were satisfied with the family-mediated approach. Nevertheless, 59 % of the respondents experienced informing a family member and 57 % being informed by a family member as burdensome. Non-tested differed from tested respondents, in that they were younger, less closely related to the index patient and a lower proportion had children. The most important reasons for declining genetic testing were (1) anticipating problems with life insurance and mortgage, (2) being content with life as it is, and (3) not experiencing any physical complaints. In conclusion, the majority of respondents consider the current family-mediated information procedure acceptable, although the provision of information on LS by relatives may be burdensome. Special attention should be paid to communication of LS to more distant relatives.

  17. Genotype–phenotype correlation in long QT syndrome families

    PubMed Central

    Qureshi, Sameera Fatima; Ali, Altaf; Venkateshwari, Ananthapur; Rao, Hygriv; Jayakrishnan, M.P.; Narasimhan, Calambur; Shenthar, Jayaprakash; Thangaraj, Kumarasamy; Nallari, Pratibha

    2015-01-01

    Heterogeneity in clinical manifestations is a well-known feature in Long QT Syndrome (LQTS). The extent of this phenomenon became evident in families wherein both symptomatic and asymptomatic family members are reported. The study hence warrants genetic testing and/or screening of family members of LQTS probands for risk stratification and prediction. Of the 46 families screened, 18 probands revealed novel variations/compound heterozygosity in the gene/s screened. Families 1–4 revealed probands carrying novel variations in KCNQ1 gene along with compound heterozygosity of risk genotypes of the SCN5A, KCNE1 and NPPA gene/s polymorphisms screened. It was also observed that families- 5, 6 and 7 were typical cases of “anticipation” in which both mother and child were diagnosed with congenital LQTS (cLQTS). Families- 16 and 17 represented aLQTS probands with variations in IKs and INa encoding genes. First degree relatives (FDRs) carrying the same haplotype as the proband were also identified which may help in predictive testing and management of LQTS. Most of the probands exhibiting a family history were found to be genetic compounds which clearly points to the role of cardiac genes and their modifiers in a recessive fashion in LQTS manifestation. PMID:27479201

  18. Roberts syndrome or "X-linked amelia"?

    PubMed

    Gershoni-Baruch, R; Drugan, A; Bronshtein, M; Zimmer, E Z

    1990-12-01

    We report on a syndrome of tetra-amelia, facial clefts, absence of ears, nose, and atresia ani, affecting 7 male infants or fetuses in one Arab Moslem kindred. The combination of anomalies described in each affected member is consistent with Roberts syndrome and the prevalence of intermarriage in this kindred could suggest an autosomal recessive mode of inheritance. Alternatively, the existence of a new syndrome, namely, "X-linked amelia" is proposed.

  19. The familial hyperchylomicronemia syndrome: New insights into underlying genetic defects

    SciTech Connect

    Santamarina-Fojo, S.; Brewer, H.B. )

    1991-02-20

    This case history reports the diagnosis of familial hyperchylomicronemia, a rare genetic syndrome inherited as an autosomal recessive trait. It is characterized by severe fasting hypertriglyceridemia and massive accumulations of chylomicrons in plasma. The two major molecular defects in the disease are a deficiency of lipoprotein lipase or of apo C-II. The location of the mutations in the human apolipoprotein (apo) C-II gene are identified.

  20. Reversible kallmann syndrome, delayed puberty, and isolated anosmia occurring in a single family with a mutation in the fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 gene.

    PubMed

    Pitteloud, Nelly; Acierno, James S; Meysing, Astrid U; Dwyer, Andrew A; Hayes, Frances J; Crowley, William F

    2005-03-01

    Kallmann syndrome (KS) is a clinically and genetically heterogeneous disorder. Recently, loss-of-function mutations in the fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 (FGFR1) gene have been shown to cause autosomal dominant KS. To date, the detailed reproductive phenotype of KS associated with mutations in the FGFR1 has yet to be described. We report a kindred comprising a male proband with KS and spontaneous reversibility, whose mother had delayed puberty and whose maternal grandfather isolated anosmia. The proband presented at age 18 yr with KS and was subsequently treated with testosterone (T) therapy. Upon discontinuation of T therapy, he recovered from his hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, as evidenced by a normal LH secretion pattern, sustained normal serum T levels, and active spermatogenesis. The three members of this single family harbor the same FGFR1 mutation (Arg(622)X) in the tyrosine kinase domain. This report demonstrates 1) the first genetic cause of the rare variant of reversible KS, 2) the reversal of hypogonadotropic hypogonadism in a proband carrying an FGFR1 mutation suggests a role of FGFR1 beyond embryonic GnRH neuron migration, and 3) a loss of function mutation in the FGFR1 gene causing delayed puberty.

  1. Affected Kindred Analysis of Human X Chromosome Exomes to Identify Novel X-Linked Intellectual Disability Genes

    PubMed Central

    Niranjan, Tejasvi S.; Skinner, Cindy; May, Melanie; Turner, Tychele; Rose, Rebecca; Stevenson, Roger; Schwartz, Charles E.; Wang, Tao

    2015-01-01

    X-linked Intellectual Disability (XLID) is a group of genetically heterogeneous disorders caused by mutations in genes on the X chromosome. Deleterious mutations in ~10% of X chromosome genes are implicated in causing XLID disorders in ~50% of known and suspected XLID families. The remaining XLID genes are expected to be rare and even private to individual families. To systematically identify these XLID genes, we sequenced the X chromosome exome (X-exome) in 56 well-established XLID families (a single affected male from 30 families and two affected males from 26 families) using an Agilent SureSelect X-exome kit and the Illumina HiSeq 2000 platform. To enrich for disease-causing mutations, we first utilized variant filters based on dbSNP, the male-restricted portions of the 1000 Genomes Project, or the Exome Variant Server datasets. However, these databases present limitations as automatic filters for enrichment of XLID genes. We therefore developed and optimized a strategy that uses a cohort of affected male kindred pairs and an additional small cohort of affected unrelated males to enrich for potentially pathological variants and to remove neutral variants. This strategy, which we refer to as Affected Kindred/Cross-Cohort Analysis, achieves a substantial enrichment for potentially pathological variants in known XLID genes compared to variant filters from public reference databases, and it has identified novel XLID candidate genes. We conclude that Affected Kindred/Cross-Cohort Analysis can effectively enrich for disease-causing genes in rare, Mendelian disorders, and that public reference databases can be used effectively, but cautiously, as automatic filters for X-linked disorders. PMID:25679214

  2. Affected kindred analysis of human X chromosome exomes to identify novel X-linked intellectual disability genes.

    PubMed

    Niranjan, Tejasvi S; Skinner, Cindy; May, Melanie; Turner, Tychele; Rose, Rebecca; Stevenson, Roger; Schwartz, Charles E; Wang, Tao

    2015-01-01

    X-linked Intellectual Disability (XLID) is a group of genetically heterogeneous disorders caused by mutations in genes on the X chromosome. Deleterious mutations in ~10% of X chromosome genes are implicated in causing XLID disorders in ~50% of known and suspected XLID families. The remaining XLID genes are expected to be rare and even private to individual families. To systematically identify these XLID genes, we sequenced the X chromosome exome (X-exome) in 56 well-established XLID families (a single affected male from 30 families and two affected males from 26 families) using an Agilent SureSelect X-exome kit and the Illumina HiSeq 2000 platform. To enrich for disease-causing mutations, we first utilized variant filters based on dbSNP, the male-restricted portions of the 1000 Genomes Project, or the Exome Variant Server datasets. However, these databases present limitations as automatic filters for enrichment of XLID genes. We therefore developed and optimized a strategy that uses a cohort of affected male kindred pairs and an additional small cohort of affected unrelated males to enrich for potentially pathological variants and to remove neutral variants. This strategy, which we refer to as Affected Kindred/Cross-Cohort Analysis, achieves a substantial enrichment for potentially pathological variants in known XLID genes compared to variant filters from public reference databases, and it has identified novel XLID candidate genes. We conclude that Affected Kindred/Cross-Cohort Analysis can effectively enrich for disease-causing genes in rare, Mendelian disorders, and that public reference databases can be used effectively, but cautiously, as automatic filters for X-linked disorders.

  3. Hypoadrenocorticism in a kindred of Pomeranian dogs.

    PubMed

    Mooney, Erin T; Hammond, Tara N; Mahony, Orla M

    2015-01-01

    Three adult Pomeranian dogs, full siblings from 2 litters, were diagnosed with primary hypoadrenocorticism following onset of hypoadrenal crisis. Review of the family history revealed the dogs' maternal grandmother also had hypoadrenocorticism. All 4 dogs were pedigree-certified by the American Kennel Club. An inherited basis for hypoadrenocorticism is proposed in these Pomeranian dogs.

  4. GLI3 mutations in syndromic and non-syndromic polydactyly in two Indian families.

    PubMed

    Patel, Rashmi; Singh, Chandra Bhan; Bhattacharya, Visweswar; Singh, Subodh Kumar; Ali, Akhtar

    2016-03-01

    The GLI3 protein is a zinc finger transcription factor, expressed early in development. The GLI3 gene exhibits allelic heterogeneity as mutations in this gene are associated with several developmental syndromic and non-syndromic polydactyly. The present study reports two cases: first, a familial case of Greig Cephalopolysyndactyly Syndrome (GCPS); the second is a sporadic case with both postaxial polydactyly (PAP) type A and B. Resequencing of GLI3 gene reveals a previously reported nonsense truncation mutation g.42007251G > A (p.R792X; rs121917714) in the GCPS family and a novel single nucleotide insertion g.42004239_42004240insA (p.E1478X) in the sporadic case of postaxial polydactyly (PAP). Both nonsense truncation mutations; p.R792X (GCPS) and p.E1478X (PAP) introduce a premature stop codon leading to loss of C-terminal domains.

  5. Maternal parenting stress in families with a child with Angelman syndrome or Prader-Willi syndrome.

    PubMed

    Wulffaert, Josette; Scholte, Evert M; Van Berckelaer-Onnes, Ina A

    2010-09-01

    Parenting stress was investigated in mothers with a child with Angelman syndrome (AS) or Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS), which are genetically related. Mothers of 24 children with AS and 23 children with PWS (2-12 years) completed the Nijmegen Parenting Stress Index-Short, Developmental Behaviour Checklist, and Vineland Screener 0-12. Parenting stress was high for 58% of AS and 26% of PWS cases. For both syndromes, no relationship existed with the child's gender, age, or behavioural problems. In PWS there was no effect on level of functioning. Overall, more mothers with a child with AS perceived high parenting stress. When children showed low levels of behavioural problems this difference was contained. However, when children exhibited severe behavioural problems, parenting stress was the same for both syndromes. In AS professional family support is essential, since parenting is stressful for many mothers. In PWS, this is especially the case when behavioural problems are present.

  6. Divorce in Families of Children with Down Syndrome: A Population-Based Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Urbano, Richard C.; Hodapp, Robert M.

    2007-01-01

    In this study, we examined the nature, timing, and correlates of divorce in families of children with Down syndrome (647), other birth defects (10,283) and no identified disability (361,154). Divorce rates among families of children with Down syndrome were lower than in the other two groups. When divorce did occur in the Down syndrome group,…

  7. Divorce in Families of Children with Down Syndrome: A Population-Based Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Urbano, Richard C.; Hodapp, Robert M.

    2007-01-01

    In this study, we examined the nature, timing, and correlates of divorce in families of children with Down syndrome (647), other birth defects (10,283) and no identified disability (361,154). Divorce rates among families of children with Down syndrome were lower than in the other two groups. When divorce did occur in the Down syndrome group,…

  8. Effects of nephrotic syndrome on the family: a controlled study.

    PubMed

    Vance, J C; Fazan, L E; Satterwhite, B; Pless, I B

    1980-05-01

    The hypothesis that the parents and siblings of children with nephrotic syndrome are more likely to develop psychosocial problems than those of healthy children was tested. Seventy-nine siblings from 36 such families were compared with 79 healthy children from closely matched families using interviews, parent rating scales, teachers' reports, and psychological tests. Although few striking differences were found between the two groups, the findings suggest several areas of increased vulnerability among the parents and siblings of children with nephrosis. Parents often denied the existence of apparently stressful events, but the personality profiles of the siblings suggested decreased social confidence and a lesser degree of self-acceptance. Evidence of inhibition, such as less aggression and poorer academic performance, were also described in response to questions in the interview. These results should prove useful to clinicians in the management of families of children with this or other chronic illnesses.

  9. PDGFRA-mutant syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ricci, Riccardo; Martini, Maurizio; Cenci, Tonia; Carbone, Arnaldo; Lanza, Paola; Biondi, Alberto; Rindi, Guido; Cassano, Alessandra; Larghi, Alberto; Persiani, Roberto; Larocca, Luigi M

    2015-07-01

    Germline PDGFRA mutations cause multiple heterogeneous gastrointestinal mesenchymal tumors. In its familial form this disease, which was formerly termed intestinal neurofibromatosis/neurofibromatosis 3b (INF/NF3b), has been included among familial gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) because of its genotype, described when GIST was the only known PDGFRA-mutant gastrointestinal tumor. Shortly afterwards, however, inflammatory fibroid polyps also revealed PDGFRA mutations. Subsequently, gastrointestinal CD34+ 'fibrous tumors' of uncertain classification were described in a germline PDGFRA-mutant context. Our aim was to characterize the syndrome produced by germline PDGFRA mutations and establish diagnostic criteria and management strategies for this hitherto puzzling disease. We studied a kindred displaying multiple gastrointestinal mesenchymal tumors, comparing it with published families/individuals with possible analogous conditions. We identified a novel inherited PDGFRA mutation (P653L), constituting the third reported example of familial PDGFRA mutation. In adult mutants we detected inflammatory fibroid polyps, gastric GISTs and gastrointestinal fibrous tumors of uncertain nosology. We demonstrate that the syndrome formerly defined as INF/NF3b (exemplified by the family reported herein) is simplistically considered a form of familial GIST, because inflammatory fibroid polyps often prevail. Fibrous tumors appear variants of inflammatory fibroid polyps. 'INF/NF3b' and 'familial GIST' are misleading terms which we propose changing to 'PDGFRA-mutant syndrome'. In this condition, unlike KIT-dependent familial GIST syndromes, if present, GISTs are stomach-restricted and diffuse Cajal cell hyperplasia is not observed. This restriction of GISTs to the stomach in PDGFRA-mutant syndrome: (i) focuses oncological concern on gastric masses, as inflammatory fibroid polyps are benign; (ii) supports a selective role of gastric environment for PDGFRA mutations to elicit GISTs

  10. Towards identification of an epilepsy gene in a large family with idiopathic generalized epilepsy

    SciTech Connect

    Roussear, M.; Lopes-Cendes, I.; Berkovic, S.F.

    1994-09-01

    To identify the disease gene in a large, multiplex family segregating an autosomal dominant form of idiopathic generalized epilepsy (IGE). The IGEs have been recognized for several decades as being genetically determined. However, large pedigrees with a clear Mendelian inheritance are not commonly available. This, and the presence of locus heterogeneity have been obstacles to the identification of linkage in several IGE syndromes. We have identified a large IGE kindred with fifty-eight living individuals, including 26 affecteds, showing a clear autosomal dominant inheritance with incomplete penetrance. Forty-fur informative individuals, including 23 affecteds, were selected for the linkage studies. We have chosen 200 polymorphic microsatellite markers, about 20 cM apart, throughout the human autosomes as a genome-search linkage strategy. To date, 47 markers, representing 30% of the human genome, have been excluded for linkage in the Australian kindred. As our study progresses, we will report up-to-date results.

  11. Classification and risk assessment of individuals with familial polyposis, Gardner's syndrome, and familial non-polyposis colon cancer from (/sup 3/H)thymidine labeling patterns in colonic epithelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Lipkin, M.; Blattner, W.A.; Gardner, E.J.; Burt, R.W.; Lynch, H.; Deschner, E.; Winawer, S.; Fraumeni, J.F. Jr.

    1984-09-01

    A probabilistic analysis has been developed to assist the binary classification and risk assessment of members of familial colon cancer kindreds. The analysis is based on the microautoradiographic observation of (/sup 3/H)thymidine-labeled epithelial cells in colonic mucosa of the kindred members. From biopsies of colonic mucosa which are labeled with (/sup 3/H)thymidine in vitro, the degree of similarity of each subject's cell-labeling pattern measured over entire crypts was automatically compared to the labeling patterns of high-risk and low-risk reference populations. Each individual was then presumptively classified and assigned to one of the reference populations, and a degree of risk for the classification was provided. In carrying out the analysis, a linear score was calculated for each individual relative to each of the reference populations, and the classification was based on the polarity of the score difference; the degree of risk was then quantitated from the magnitude of the score difference. When the method was applied to kindreds having either familial polyposis or familial non-polyposis colon cancer, it effectively segregated individuals affected with disease from others at low risk, with sensitivity and specificity ranging from 71 to 92%. Further application of the method to asymptomatic family members believed to be at 50% risk on the basis of pedigree evaluation revealed a biomodal distribution to nearly zero or full risk. The accuracy and simplicity of this approach and its capability of revealing early stages of abnormal colonic epithelial cell development indicate potential for preclinical screening of subjects at risk in cancer-prone kindreds and for assisting the analysis of modes of inheritance.

  12. Study of a family with a new progeroid syndrome.

    PubMed

    Welsh, O

    1975-01-01

    From a family of 14 sibs, we described 2 males and 2 females with a new progeroid syndrome. The clinical characteristics of this syndrome are as follows: complete arrest of somatic growth by age 11; initiation of somatic changes at age 6 or 7 years; partial alopecia in the males, without greying of the hair; skeletal changes of skull and facies giving a bird-like appearance; micrognathia; total or partial absence of both clavicles; bell-shaped thorax with severe acroosteolysis; and coxa valga. In one case there was presence of soft tissue calcifications. Marked hypoplasia of the subcutaneous tissue and mottled hyperpigmentation of the skin, with sclerodermoid changes of hands and feet, and dystrophic nails were prominent features. Two of the patients (Cases 1 and 3) had a borderline glucose tolerance test. Case 2 showed a diabetic curve and Case 4 was not investigated. We believe that these cases have enough clinical and radiographic findings to be considered a new progeroid syndrome, autosomal recessive, and different from the classically described Werner and Hutchinson-Gilford syndromes.

  13. The hand-foot-genital (hand-foot-uterus) syndrome: family report and update.

    PubMed

    Halal, F

    1988-07-01

    Four individuals from three generations of a family had the Hand-Foot-Genital (Hand-Foot-Uterus) syndrome. Affected females had urologic abnormalities confirming that the latter are part of the syndrome.

  14. Familial Aggregation and Segregation Analysis in Families Presenting Autoimmunity, Polyautoimmunity, and Multiple Autoimmune Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Castiblanco, John; Sarmiento-Monroy, Juan Camilo; Mantilla, Ruben Dario; Rojas-Villarraga, Adriana; Anaya, Juan-Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Studies documenting increased risk of developing autoimmune diseases (ADs) have shown that these conditions share several immunogenetic mechanisms (i.e., the autoimmune tautology). This report explored familial aggregation and segregation of AD, polyautoimmunity, and multiple autoimmune syndrome (MAS) in 210 families. Familial aggregation was examined for first-degree relatives. Segregation analysis was implemented as in S.A.G.E. release 6.3. Data showed differences between late- and early-onset families regarding their age, age of onset, and sex. Familial aggregation of AD in late- and early-onset families was observed. For polyautoimmunity as a trait, only aggregation was observed between sibling pairs in late-onset families. No aggregation was observed for MAS. Segregation analyses for AD suggested major gene(s) with no clear discernible classical known Mendelian transmission in late-onset families, while for polyautoimmunity and MAS no model was implied. Data suggest that polyautoimmunity and MAS are not independent traits and that gender, age, and age of onset are interrelated factors influencing autoimmunity. PMID:26697508

  15. [William's syndrome. Report of a case with family involvement].

    PubMed

    Onís Vilches, M C; Rubio Cuadrado, M V; Martínez de la Iglesia, J; López Granados, A

    1998-02-01

    Williams' syndrome (WS) is a rare genetic condition of autosomal dominant inheritance with varying penetrance, which consists of supravalvular aortic stenosis, a characteristic dysmorphic facies named "elf face", mental retardation and other clinical manifestations including transient infantile idiopathic hypercalcemia, growth retardation, and frequent dental problems. It usually presents sporadically, and there are only a few cases of family involvement reported in the literature. Recent studies show that mutations in the elastin gene at chromosome 7q11.23, which occur approximately in 90% of cases, could be the cause of the different clinical manifestations in this syndrome. In this paper we report a case of family involvement with five family members involved with WS (three siblings, the mother, and the siblings' maternal uncle) and all had cardiac structural disorders (supravalvular aortic stenosis being the most frequent), a characteristic face and a low intellectual coefficient. The complementary tests included blood chemistry, chest X-ray, and echocardiogram, which led to the diagnosis of the associated valve pathology. Three patients required therapeutic catheterism with Stent valve implant and valve prosthetic replacement to control cardiac manifestations.

  16. Changes in the characteristics of families with Down's syndrome children.

    PubMed Central

    Shepperdson, B

    1985-01-01

    A study of two cohorts of Down's syndrome children living at home in South Wales and born in 1964-66 and 1973-75 respectively shows that there are significant differences in the characteristics of their families. Parents of those born in the seventies were younger at the birth and of higher social class than parents with children born in the sixties. In the seventies the Down's syndrome child was more likely to be the couple's first child. Most changes result from the introduction of the amniocentesis test which is offered to older pregnant women. It is suggested that the social class differences are likely to be explained by changes in fertility in the various social classes. PMID:2935589

  17. Familial hypopituitarism associated with mosaic form of Turner syndrome.

    PubMed

    Lomna-Bogdanov, Elzbieta; Bolanowski, Marek; Slezak, Ryszard; Sokolska, Violetta; Pałczyiński, Bogusław; Spring, Adam; Demissie, Marek

    2005-01-01

    We present herein an unusual coincidence of familial hypopituitarism associated with a mosaic form of Turner syndrome in two adult sisters (51 and 43 years old). Both patients had hypopituitarism diagnosed in childhood. They have never been administered growth hormone, and remained short in stature. They were not given long-term estrogen-progestin treatment, despite lack of menstruation. Early in childhood both received thyroid hormone substitution. Pituitary imaging revealed pituitary hypoplasia with partial empty sella in one sister, and pituitary hypoplasia in the other. Very recently, during endocrinological evaluation, they were diagnosed with a mosaic form of Turner syndrome, additionally to their hypopituitarism. In this paper, we place special emphasis on the results of hormonal analyses and discuss the differential diagnosis.

  18. Clinical variability in KBG syndrome: report of three unrelated families.

    PubMed

    Maegawa, Gustavo Henrique Boff; Leite, Júlio Cesar Loguercio; Félix, Têmis Maria; da Silveira, Heraldo Luís Dias; da Silveira, Heloísa Emília

    2004-12-01

    The KBG syndrome is characterized by short stature, macrodontia, a specific combination of minor anomalies, developmental delay, and/or mental retardation. We reported on four patients from three unrelated families. The most frequent clinical findings were: atypical face, long/flat philtrum, thin upper lip, macrodontia, dental malposition, enamel hypoplasia, and cleft teeth. Skeletal anomalies such as cervical ribs and vertebral abnormalities were also noted. Hand anomalies were observed in three patients. Mental retardation and developmental delay were present in three of the four patients. There is wide clinical variability in the expression of this syndrome. The males are usually more severely affected then the females, suggesting possible X-linked inheritance in some cases.

  19. The haemolytic uraemic syndrome--a family study.

    PubMed

    Farr, M J; Roberts, S; Morley, A R; Dewar, D F; Uldall, P R

    1975-04-01

    This study included patients, all relatives with the haemolytic uraemic syndrome, and 18 family members. The diagnosis was uncertain in one other and definite in four patients. Three of these four comprised a father and two of his children. Data are presented to emphasize the widespread nature of the disease. Other than hypertension, predisposing factors, and red cell and HL-A genetic markers, although sought, have not been found. Management is discussed with special reference to the one surviving patient. Early bilateral nephrectomy may be life-saving.

  20. Factors influencing uptake of familial long QT syndrome genetic testing.

    PubMed

    Burns, Charlotte; McGaughran, Julie; Davis, Andrew; Semsarian, Christopher; Ingles, Jodie

    2016-02-01

    Ongoing challenges of clinical assessment of long QT syndrome (LQTS) highlight the importance of genetic testing in the diagnosis of asymptomatic at-risk family members. Effective access, uptake, and communication of genetic testing are critical for comprehensive cascade family screening and prevention of disease complications such as sudden cardiac death. The aim of this study was to describe factors influencing uptake of LQTS genetic testing, including those relating to access and family communication. We show those who access genetic testing are overrepresented by the socioeconomically advantaged, and that although overall family communication is good, there are some important barriers to be addressed. There were 75 participants (aged 18 years or more, with a clinical and/or genetic diagnosis of LQTS; response rate 71%) who completed a survey including a number of validated scales; demographics; and questions about access, uptake, and communication. Mean age of participants was 46 ± 16 years, 20 (27%) were males and 60 (80%) had genetic testing with a causative gene mutation in 42 (70%). Overall uptake of cascade testing within families was 60% after 4 years from proband genetic diagnosis. All participants reported at least one first-degree relative had been informed of their risk, whereas six (10%) reported at least one first-degree relative had not been informed. Those who were anxious or depressed were more likely to perceive barriers to communicating. Genetic testing is a key aspect of care in LQTS families and intervention strategies that aim to improve equity in access and facilitate effective family communication are needed.

  1. Mcleod syndrome: Report of an Indian family with phenotypic heterogeneity

    PubMed Central

    Chakravarty, Ambar; Bhattacharya, P.; Banerjee, D.; Mukherjee, S.

    2011-01-01

    The present report deals with the clinical phenomenology of three members (brothers) of one family with McLeod syndrome (MLS). In two, the clinical pictures were of choreiform disorders with amyotrophy, which were found to be neurogenic in origin by detailed electrophysiological study. The index case had peripheral acanthocytosis; immunohematological and molecular genetic studies confirmed diagnosis of MLS. However, one brother only had a slowly progressive motor neuron disease like picture but no abnormal movement disorder. He had peripheral acanthocytes as well. The inheritance seems to be X-linked recessive in nature. The affected family members exhibited much phenotypic heterogeneity. This appears to be the first report of MLS from India. PMID:21655208

  2. FOXL2 mutations in Chinese families with Blepharophimosis syndrome (BPES).

    PubMed

    Fan, Jia-Yan; Wang, Ye-Fei; Han, Bing; Ji, Yong-Rong; Song, Huai-Dong; Fan, Xian-Qun

    2011-01-01

    Blepharophimosis syndrome (BPES) is a rare, autosomal dominant disease. Two clinical types of BPES have been distinguished. In BPES type I, an eyelid malformation is associated with infertility in affected females as a result of premature ovarian failure. In BPES type II, eyelid anomalies alone are observed. Mutations of FOXL2, which is a gene encoding a forkhead transcription factor, have recently been shown to cause both types of BPES. Here, we report 1 novel duplication mutation of the FOXL2 gene identified in a large Chinese family affected by type II BPES and 1 less recurrent 17-bp duplication in a large Chinese family affected by BPES of an undetermined type. These new cases give additional support to the previously reported genotype-phenotype correlations and our findings have expanded the spectrum of known mutations of the FOXL2 gene.

  3. Genetic heterogeneity of usher syndrome type 1 in French families

    SciTech Connect

    Larget-Piet, D.; Gerber, S.; Rozet, J.M. ); Bonneau, D. ); Marc, S.; Weissenbach, J. ); Ghazi, I.; Dufier, J.L. ); David, A. ); Bitoun, P. )

    1994-05-01

    Usher syndrome type 1 (US1) is an autosomal recessive disease characterized by profound congenital hearing impairment with unintelligible speech, early retinitis pigmentosa, and constant vestibular dysfunction. Three localizations have been described in US1: USH1A, 14q32; USH1B, 11q13.5; and USH1C, 11p15. Studying a series of 33 affected individuals belonging to 20 US1 pedigrees of French ancestry, the authors found that none of the three localizations accounted for all US1 families in the series. However, when the sample was split into two groups according to the geographic origin of the probands' grandparents, they were able to confirm the presence of a gene for US1 on chromosome 14q32 (USH1A) in 9 families originating from the Poitou region in Western France. Moreover, they refined the genetic mapping of USH1A by showing that the disease gene maps to the D14S13 locus, within the genetic interval defined by loci D14S78 and D14S250 (location score in log base 10 = 4.90). Consistent with this, nonsignificant lod score values for linkage to either USH1B or USH1C were found in this group. With regard to US1 families of other geographic origin (Normandy and Northern France, 11 families), nonsignificant lod scores for linkage to chromosome 11q13.5 were observed. However, the HOMOG test suggested that USH1B might account for the disease in 9/11 families in the series (families 10-19), the latter two families possibly being accounted for by USH1C (maximum likelihood for heterogeneity = 7.91 in lnL; heterogeneity versus homogeneity, P = 0.01; heterogeneity versus nonlinkage, P < 0.01). The present study supports the view that Usher syndrome type 1 is a genetically heterogeneous condition that is caused by at least three genes and possibly many more. 16 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  4. Two distinctive classic genetic syndromes, 22q11.2 deletion syndrome and Angelman syndrome, occurring within the same family.

    PubMed

    Kosaki, Rika; Migita, Ohsuke; Takahashi, Takao; Kosaki, Kenjiro

    2009-02-15

    We document a sib pair born to a mother with a reciprocal translocation, t(15;22)(q13;q11.2): the daughter had the Angelman syndrome phenotype associated with a maternally derived 15q deletion, and the son had a phenotype associated with a 22q deletion. Adjacent two-type segregation during gametogenesis in the mother can account for the unbalanced karyotypes of the siblings. From a tetravalent chromatid formed by normal chromosome 15, derivative chromosome 15, normal chromosome 22, and derivative chromosome 22, the daughter inherited chromosome 22 and derivative chromosome 22 and the son inherited chromosome 15 and derivative chromosome 15. The family is unique in that two distinctive genetic syndromes, 22q11.2 deletion syndrome and Angelman syndrome, occurred within the same family. The family is also elucidative from an educational standpoint in that major concepts of non-Mendelian inheritance (microdeletion, genomic imprinting, and reciprocal translocation) need to be considered to appreciate the inheritance pattern. Furthermore, the family illustrates the importance of cryptic rearrangements at the most proximal end of acrocentric chromosomes in the evaluation of siblings with multiple congenital anomaly-mental retardation phenotypes that are dissimilar among affected siblings. The situation is analogous to parental balanced translocation between the most "distal" segments of a chromosome, that is, the subtelomere region, a recently appreciated cause of familial recurrence of multiple congenital anomaly-mental retardation phenotype with a normal G-banding karyotype. We suggest that cryptic rearrangements at the most proximal end, analogous to those at the most distal end, should be considered as an appreciable cause of recurrent multiple congenital anomaly-mental retardation phenotype.

  5. Blau syndrome (familial granulomatous arthritis, iritis, and rash) in an african-american family.

    PubMed

    Cuesta, I A; Moore, E C; Rabah, R; Bawle, E V

    2000-02-01

    Blau syndrome (familial granulomatous arthritis, iritis, and rash) was originally described in 1985, in 11 members of a family of Dutch ancestry. Inheritance is autosomal dominant. Several more Caucasian families have been described since. Skin and synovial biopsy specimens show noncaseating sarcoid like granulomas, but the lung is not involved as in classic sarcoidosis. This report describes 3 members of an African American family with Blau syndrome. It is important to differentiate this genetic disorder from other childhood arthritides, such as, juvenile rheumatoid arthritis, juvenile spondyloarthropathies, and early-onset sarcoidosis, because of the need for genetic counseling, treatment and differing potential for selective involvement of other organs (eye, skin, and tendons/joints). All children of an affected individual have a 50% chance of inheriting the disease. Unaffected children do not have to be concerned about subsequent generations being affected. The response to conventional treatments used in juvenile rheumatoid arthritis and to etanercept in our patients has not been satisfactory. Joint disease responds to corticosteroids, but these agents are not suitable for a disease that is lifelong. The eye involvement is aggressive and can lead to blindness. These patients need close follow-up by an ophthalmologist.

  6. Developmental expression of Drosophila Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome family proteins

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez-Mesa, Evelyn; Abreu-Blanco, Maria Teresa; Rosales-Nieves, Alicia E.; Parkhurst, Susan M.

    2012-01-01

    Background Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome (WASP) family proteins participate in many cellular processes involving rearrangements of the actin cytoskeleton. To the date, four WASP subfamily members have been described in Drosophila: Wash, WASp, SCAR, and Whamy. Wash, WASp, and SCAR are essential during early Drosophila development where they function in orchestrating cytoplasmic events including membrane-cytoskeleton interactions. A mutant for Whamy has not yet been reported. Results We generated monoclonal antibodies that are specific to Drosophila Wash, WASp, SCAR, and Whamy, and use these to describe their spatial and temporal localization patterns. Consistent with the importance of WASP family proteins in flies, we find that Wash, WASp, SCAR, and Whamy are dynamically expressed throughout oogenesis and embryogenesis. For example, we find that Wash accumulates at the oocyte cortex. WASp is highly expressed in the PNS, while SCAR is the most abundantly expressed in the CNS. Whamy exhibits an asymmetric subcellular localization that overlaps with mitochondria and is highly expressed in muscle. Conclusion All four WASP family members show specific expression patterns, some of which reflect their previously known roles and others revealing new potential functions. The monoclonal antibodies developed offer valuable new tools to investigate how WASP family proteins regulate actin cytoskeleton dynamics. PMID:22275148

  7. Recognizing, naming, and measuring a family intensive care unit syndrome.

    PubMed

    Netzer, Giora; Sullivan, Donald R

    2014-03-01

    Most major decisions in the intensive care unit (ICU) regarding goals of care are shared by clinicians and someone other than the patient. Multicenter clinical trials focusing on improved communication between clinicians and these surrogate decision makers have not reported consistently improved outcomes. We suggest that acquired maladaptive reasoning may contribute importantly to failure of the intervention strategies tested to date. Surrogate decision makers often suffer significant psychological morbidity in the form of stress, anxiety, depression, and post-traumatic stress disorder. Family members in the ICU also suffer cognitive blunting and sleep deprivation. Their decision-making abilities are eroded by anticipatory grief and cognitive biases, while personal and family conflicts further impact their decision making. We propose recognizing a family ICU syndrome to describe the morbidity and associated decision-making impairment experienced by many family members of patients with acute critical illness (in the ICU) and chronic critical illness (in the long-term, acute care hospital). Research rigorously using models of compromised decision making may help elucidate both mechanisms of impairment and targets for intervention. Better quantifying compromised decision making and its relationship to poor outcomes will allow us to formulate and advance useful techniques. The use of decision aids and improving ICU design may provide benefit now and in the near future. In measuring interventions targeting cognitive barriers, clinically significant outcomes, such as time to decision, should be considered. Statistical approaches, such as survival models and rank statistic testing, will increase our power to detect differences in our interventions.

  8. Discovering fragile X syndrome: family experiences and perceptions.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Donald B; Skinner, Debra; Sparkman, Karen L

    2003-02-01

    We used surveys from 274 families who had at least 1 child with fragile X syndrome (FXS) to determine their experiences in discovering FXS, factors associated with the timeliness of discovery, and the perceived consequences of obtaining this information. For families of male children who were born in the last decade, someone first became concerned about the child's development at an average age of 13 months. Professional confirmation of a developmental delay did not occur until an average age of 21 months, and a FXS diagnosis occurred at an average age of nearly 32 months. Families reported several barriers to discovering FXS and frustration with the process. Many families had additional children with FXS without knowing reproductive risk. A range of perceived benefits and challenges associated with the discovery were reported. We conclude that selected pediatric practices could promote earlier identification but in only a limited way and predict that disorders such as FXS will continue to challenge current criteria for determining viable candidate disorders for newborn screening.

  9. Clinical and Electrophysiologic Characteristics of a Large Kindred with X-Linked Retinitis Pigmentosa Associated with the RPGR Locus.

    PubMed

    Tzu, Jonathan H; Arguello, Tania; Berrocal, Audina M; Berrocal, Maria; Weisman, Alejandra D; Liu, Mu; Hess, Ditte; Caputo, Michelle; Goldberg, Jeffrey L; Feuer, William J; Stone, Edwin M; Lam, Byron L

    2015-01-01

    To phenotypically and genotypically characterize a large Puerto Rican kindred with X-linked retinitis pigmentosa associated with a novel RP GTPase regulator (RPGR) genotype. A total of 100 family members of a single kindred with X-linked RP were evaluated with ophthalmic examinations and blood DNA analysis. Visual fields, OCT, and full-field ERG were obtained on all affected males and carriers. Of the 100 family members examined, 13 were affected males and 18 were carriers. A deletion of 2 base pair of the RPGR gene in the ORF15 region at position c.2267-2268 (Lys756del2aaAG hemi) was identified with the affected and carriers. Best eye visual acuity was correlated with age (Spearman coefficient = 0.95) with hand-motion acuity by age 35 and light perception to no light perception by age 50-60. Visual fields were minimally plottable by age 40, and ERG responses reached non-detectable levels by late teens. Carriers had no or mild visual symptoms. All carriers had visual acuity of at least 20/50 or better in one eye, and the amount of retinal degeneration was variable with ERG responses ranging from severely impaired to normal. Profound visual loss occurred by the second decade of life with progression to near no light perception by age 60 in this kindred of X-linked RP associated with the RPGR genotype. Female carriers maintained visual acuity with age and were identifiable by clinical and ERG examination. The information from this study is important to determine the optimal age for intervention, as new RP treatments are being developed and tested.

  10. Familial primary antiphospholipid syndrome: A report of co-occurrence in three Malaysian family members.

    PubMed

    Islam, Md Asiful; Wong, Kah Keng; Sasongko, Teguh Haryo; Gan, Siew Hua; Wong, Jin Shyan

    2016-09-01

    Here we present a case report of three familial primary antiphospholipid syndrome (PAPS) patients from Malaysia. The three familial patients comprised two females and one male with a mean age of 26.3 years. The first diagnosis was made between 2005 and 2009, and all patients demonstrated deep vein thrombosis, high levels of IgM and IgG anticardiolipin antibodies, and received warfarin treatment international normalized ratio (INR) 2.0-3.0. The patients ceased to show clinical symptoms after treatment. Recently (August 2014), we investigated whether the levels of antiphospholipid antibodies remained elevated, and we found that seronegativity occurred in the patients. We suspect that prolonged anticoagulant treatment might be one of the causes of reduced levels of antiphospholipid antibodies in these familial PAPS patients.

  11. Syncope in genotype-negative long QT syndrome family members.

    PubMed

    Olde Nordkamp, Louise R A; Ruwald, Martin H; Goldenberg, Ilan; Wieling, Wouter; McNitt, Scott; Polonsky, Bronislava; Wilde, Arthur A M; van Dijk, Nynke; Moss, Arthur J

    2014-10-15

    Unaffected long-QT syndrome family members (FMs) frequently experience syncope. The aims of this study were to test the hypothesis that syncope events in FMs are benign events and to compare clinical characteristics, triggers eliciting the syncope events, and long-term outcomes between FMs and those with LQT1 or LQT2 mutations from the international Long QT Syndrome Registry. A total of 679 FMs, 864 LQT1 patients, and 782 LQT2 patients were included. Seventy-eight FMs (11%) experienced cardiovascular events. Almost all cardiovascular events were nonfatal syncope; only 1 FM, with an additional mitral valve prolapse, experienced aborted cardiac arrest during exercise. The mean age at first syncope in FMs was 17 years, and female FMs experienced syncope more frequently than male FMs (14% vs 9%, p = 0.027). Syncope was more frequently triggered by exercise in LQT1 patients (43% in LQT1 patients vs 5% in FMs, p <0.001), while syncope triggered by a variety of other triggers was more frequent in FMs (54% in FMs vs 22% in LQT1 patients and 30% in LQT2 patients, p <0.001 for both). None of the FMs experienced aborted cardiac arrest or sudden cardiac death after the first syncopal episode. In conclusion, syncope is frequently present in FMs, and these syncopal events occurred more frequently in female than in male FMs, with an increased incidence in midadolescence. Triggers eliciting the syncopal events were different between FMs and patients with long-QT syndrome mutations. Hence, the type of trigger is useful in distinguishing between high- and low-risk syncope. These data indicate that FMs from families with LQTS have a benign form of syncope, most likely related to vasovagal syncope and not ventricular tachyarrhythmic syncope.

  12. Familial Binswanger encephalopathy in the absence of hypertension; a new family with the CADASIL syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Schanen, N.C.; Glusker, P.; Chung, M.

    1994-09-01

    Binswanger encephalopathy is a clinicopathologic entity characterized by deep white matter ischaemic lesions associated with hypertension and arteriosclerosis; but a rare inherited form, termed CADASIL (Cerebral Autosomal Dominant Arteriopathy with Subcortical Infarcts and Leukoencephalopathy) has been recently described with earlier onset in the absence of hypertension. This syndrome has been linked to markers in chromosome band 19q12 in of two unrelated French families. We have identified a family of Central American heritage with a similar syndrome also demonstrating an autosomal dominant pattern of inheritance. Clinically, the onset of symptoms is between 19-53 years of age with variable progression in loss of neurologic function. Numerous lesions are visible on MRI involving the deep white matter including the corpus callosum as well as basal ganglia. None of the family members has had significant hypertension. Extensive evaluations of metabolic, infectious and inflammatory origin of disease have been noncontributory. In the two patients whose brains were examined pathologically, multiple cystic lesions, frequently centered around blood vessels, were present in the deep white matter and basal ganglia with diffuse loss of myelin and relative preservation of the neurons. The media of large and small parenchymal arteries shows hyaline and hydropic degeneration with replacement of the smooth muscle by a slate-grey amorphous substance on trichrome staining, corresponding to granular osmiophilic material on ultrastructural examination. There was no evidence of amyloid or atherosclerosis in the vessels. Phenotypically, this family appears to have the CADASIL syndrome. We are currently pursuing linkage analysis with chromosome 19 markers to investigate the genetic homogeneity of the disorder. Thirty-three individuals spanning three generations and including seven clinically affected patients are potentially available for study.

  13. Loeys-Dietz syndrome: a possible solution for Akhenaten's and his family's mystery syndrome.

    PubMed

    Eshraghian, Ahad; Loeys, Bart

    2012-06-14

    The presence of a familial disease among royal members of 18th dynasty of the new kingdom who ruled in Egypt from the mid-16th to the early 11th centuries BC has been established, largely prompted by the bizarre body shape of Akhenaten (the iconoclastic pharaoh of this dynasty) and his family, as demonstrated in statues and artwork. It had been thought previously that this was an expression of a revolutionised artistic style that followed radical reforms by Akhenaten of Egyptian society, but recent studies on mummies confirmed the presence of a constellation of corresponding pathologies. Several illnesses have been suggested to solve this enigma; we propose Loeys-Dietz syndrome as a probable diagnosis for this genetic affliction within the royal family.

  14. Relationship between family quality of life and day occupations of young people with Down syndrome.

    PubMed

    Foley, Kitty-Rose; Girdler, Sonya; Downs, Jenny; Jacoby, Peter; Bourke, Jenny; Lennox, Nick; Einfeld, Stewart; Llewellyn, Gwynnyth; Parmenter, Trevor R; Leonard, Helen

    2014-09-01

    To explore relationships between family quality of life, day occupations and activities of daily living (ADL) of young persons with Down syndrome. Data were collected from 150 families with a young person with Down syndrome aged 16-30 years participating in the Down syndrome "Needs Opinions Wishes" database. Data described the young person's characteristics (including functional abilities, behaviour and day occupations) and family characteristics (including income, family and community supports and quality of life). Compared to families of young people attending open employment, families of young people participating in sheltered employment tended to report poorer family quality of life, after adjusting for personal characteristics, behaviour and income (coeff -6.78, 95 % CI -14.38, 0.81). Family supports reduced this relationship (coeff -6.00, 95 % CI -12.76, 0.76). Families of young people with greater functioning in ADL reported better family quality of life regardless of personal and environmental factors (coeff 0.45, 95 % CI 0.05, 0.85) and inclusion of family factors such as family supports reduced this association (coeff 0.29, 95 % CI -0.10, 0.67). Participation of young people with Down syndrome in open employment may positively influence family quality of life. Services that facilitate functioning in ADL and assist the families in accessing suitable family supports have the potential to positively influence family quality of life.

  15. Families of children with Down syndrome: responding to "a change in plans" with resilience.

    PubMed

    Van Riper, Marcia

    2007-04-01

    The purpose of the present investigation, which was guided by the Resiliency Model of Family Stress, Adjustment, and Adaptation, was twofold: (a) to describe maternal perceptions of parental and family adaptation in families raising a child with Down syndrome, and (b) to examine linkages between family demands, family resources, family problem solving and coping, and family adaptation in families of children with Down syndrome. Seventy-six mothers completed mailed questionnaires. Seventy percent of the mothers rated their family's overall functioning as either a 4 or a 5 on a 5-point scale (1 = poor; 5 = excellent). In their written comments, most mothers reported that their family was doing well or very well. Three family variables (i.e., family demands, family resources, and family problem-solving communication) were significantly associated with family adaptation. These results provide support for the belief that many families of children with Down syndrome respond to "a change of plans" with resilience. That is, they are able to endure, survive, and even thrive in the face of ongoing challenges associated with raising a child with Down syndrome.

  16. Family Environment and Behavior Problems in Children, Adolescents, and Adults with Fragile X Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenberg, Jan S.; Seltzer, Marsha Mailick; Baker, Jason K.; Smith, Leann E.; Warren, Steven F.; Brady, Nancy; Hong, Jinkuk

    2012-01-01

    We examine how the family environment is associated with aspects of the Fragile X syndrome phenotype during childhood, adolescence, and adulthood. Mothers of children (n = 48), adolescents (n = 85), and adults (n = 34) with Fragile X syndrome participated in a multisite study. For children and adults with Fragile X syndrome, the presence of warmth…

  17. Family Environment and Behavior Problems in Children, Adolescents, and Adults with Fragile X Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenberg, Jan S.; Seltzer, Marsha Mailick; Baker, Jason K.; Smith, Leann E.; Warren, Steven F.; Brady, Nancy; Hong, Jinkuk

    2012-01-01

    We examine how the family environment is associated with aspects of the Fragile X syndrome phenotype during childhood, adolescence, and adulthood. Mothers of children (n = 48), adolescents (n = 85), and adults (n = 34) with Fragile X syndrome participated in a multisite study. For children and adults with Fragile X syndrome, the presence of warmth…

  18. [Familial pulmonary fibrosis in 2 Mexican sisters with Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome].

    PubMed

    Zamora, Ana C; Alonso-Martínez, Delfino; Barrera, Lourdes; Mendoza, Felipe; Gaxiola, Miguel; Carrillo, Guillermo

    2009-08-01

    Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome is an autosomal recessive disorder commonly found in individuals of Puerto Rican ancestry. We present 2 cases of familial pulmonary fibrosis in 2 Mexican sisters with Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome. Pulmonary fibrosis was biopsy-proven in 1 of the patients. This report shows that Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome may occur in individuals of Mexican ancestry.

  19. Familial gigantiform cementoma with Ehlers - Danlos syndrome: A report of 2 cases

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Ehlers-Danlos syndrome is an autosomal dominant hereditary disorder of connective tissue, while familial gigantiform cementoma is a condition that usually manifests as multiple radiopaque cementum-like masses throughout the jaws. This case report discusses the oral management and prosthetic rehabilitation of two patients presenting familial gigantiform cementoma with Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome. PMID:25932318

  20. Experiences of Supporting People with Down Syndrome and Alzheimer's Disease in Aged Care and Family Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carling-Jenkins, Rachel; Torr, Jennifer; Iacono, Teresa; Bigby, Christine

    2012-01-01

    Background: Research addressing the experiences of families of adults with Down syndrome and Alzheimer's disease in seeking diagnosis and gaining support is limited. The aim of this study was to gain a greater understanding of these processes by exploring the experiences of families and carers in supporting people with Down syndrome and…

  1. Experiences of Supporting People with Down Syndrome and Alzheimer's Disease in Aged Care and Family Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carling-Jenkins, Rachel; Torr, Jennifer; Iacono, Teresa; Bigby, Christine

    2012-01-01

    Background: Research addressing the experiences of families of adults with Down syndrome and Alzheimer's disease in seeking diagnosis and gaining support is limited. The aim of this study was to gain a greater understanding of these processes by exploring the experiences of families and carers in supporting people with Down syndrome and…

  2. Families of Children with Down Syndrome: What We Know and What We Need to Know

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cuskelly, Monica; Hauser-Cram, Penny; Van Riper, Marcia

    2009-01-01

    This paper provides a brief overview of what is currently known about families of children with Down syndrome. In addition, it highlights a number of issues that require further research if we are to have a thorough understanding of the impact of a child with Down syndrome on families as a system and on the individuals who make up that system.…

  3. Acceptance of Genetic Testing for Hereditary Breast Ovarian Cancer Among Study Enrollees from an African American Kindred

    PubMed Central

    Simonsen, Sara Ellis; Baty, Bonnie Jeanne; Mandal, Diptasri; Neuhausen, Susan L; Seggar, Kate; Holubkov, Rich; Smith, Ken

    2008-01-01

    Clinical availability of genetic testing for cancer predisposition genes is generating a major challenge for U.S. health care systems to provide relevant genetic services to underserved populations. Here we present rates of study enrollment and utilization of genetic testing in a research study on BRCA1 testing acceptance in one large kindred. We also present data on baseline access to genetic information as well as enabling and obstructing factors to study enrollment. The study population included female and male members of an African-American kindred based in the rural southern United States with an identified BRCA1 mutation. A combination of quantitative and qualitative data were collected and analyzed. Of the 160 living, eligible and locatable kindred members, 105 (66%) enrolled in the study. Family, personal, and educational motivations were the most commonly endorsed reasons for study participation. The most commonly cited reasons for refusal to participate in the study were: lack of interest, time constraints, and negative experiences with prior participation in genetic research. Eighty three percent of the participants underwent BRCA1 testing. In multiple logistic regression analysis, age 40-49 (odds ratio (OR) = 6.9; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.2-39.5), increased perceived cancer risk (OR = 4.1; 95% CI = 1.1-14.6), and high cancer genetics knowledge levels (OR = 1.5; 95% CI = 1.1-2.3) were associated with BRCA1 testing acceptance. The results of this study indicate that cognitive and demographic factors may influence genetic research participation and genetic testing decisions among African Americans who are at increased risk of carrying a deleterious BRCA1 mutation. PMID:16523520

  4. Report of a kindred with x-linked (or autosomal dominant sex-limited) 46, XY partial gonadal dysgenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Fechner, P.Y.; Marcantonio, S.M.; Ogata, T.; Rosales, T.O.; Smith, K.D.; Goodfellow, P.N.; Migeon, C.J.; Berkovitz, G.D. )

    1993-05-01

    The condition termed 46, XY complete gonadal dysgenesis is characterized by the lack of testicular determination with resulting streak gonads, normal Mullerian structures, and female external genitalia. In the partial form, there is incomplete testicular determination with a wide range in the degree of ambiguous genitalia and sexual duct development. The authors evaluated a kindred in which a partial form of 46, XY gonadal dysgenesis occurred in four subjects from two generations. Pedigree analysis indicated an X-linked or possibly an autosomal sex-limited mode of inheritance. All affected subjects were ascertained because of ambiguous genitalia with minimal virilization. At 10 days of age, the proband had a subnormal plasma level of testosterone, and at 4 months, there was no rise in plasma T after stimulation with hCG. At laparotomy, a dysgenetic gonad was found on the right side, but no gonad was found on the left side. A vas deferens was present on the right, indicating the presence of functional leydig cells early in fetal life. In the other affected subjects, gonadal tissue was also limited to one side of the abdomen and showed poorly developed seminiferous tubules. The sex-determining region Y gene, which encodes the testis-determining factor, was present and unaltered in the genomic DNA of all affected subjects. Duplication of the distal short arm of the X-chromosome has been associated with 46, XY complete gonadal dysgenesis in some patients. In the authors studies, Southern blot analysis revealed that sequences of the distal short arm of the X-chromosome were present in single copy, excluding a large duplication in this area of the X. Several kindreds with familial 46, XY complete gonadal dysgenesis have been reported; five of them had evidence of an X-linked mode of inheritance. The authors study of a kindred with 46, XY partial gonadal dysgenesis further supports the role of an X chromosome gene in testicular determination. 44 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  5. Genetic analysis of a family with complete androgen insensitivity syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Kota, Sunil Kumar; Gayatri, Kotni; Kota, Siva Krishna; Jammula, Sruti

    2013-01-01

    Androgen insensitivity causes impaired embryonic sex differentiation leading to developmental failure of normal male external genitalia in 46 XY genetic men. It results from diminished or absent biological actions of androgens, which is mediated by the androgen receptor (AR) in both the embryo and secondary sexual development. Mutations in the AR located on the X chromosome are responsible for the disease. Almost 70% of affected individuals inherit the mutation from their carrier mother. We hereby report a 10-year-old girl with all the characteristics of complete androgen insensitivity syndrome (CAIS). Similar scenario was observed in 3 maternal aunts, Sequencing of the AR gene in all the family members revealed C 2754 to T transition in exon 6. It was concluded that the C 2754 to T transition rendered the AR incapable of both ligand-binding and activating the transcription and was the cause of CAIS in the patient. PMID:24339553

  6. Genetic analysis of a family with complete androgen insensitivity syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kota, Sunil Kumar; Gayatri, Kotni; Kota, Siva Krishna; Jammula, Sruti

    2013-07-01

    Androgen insensitivity causes impaired embryonic sex differentiation leading to developmental failure of normal male external genitalia in 46 XY genetic men. It results from diminished or absent biological actions of androgens, which is mediated by the androgen receptor (AR) in both the embryo and secondary sexual development. Mutations in the AR located on the X chromosome are responsible for the disease. Almost 70% of affected individuals inherit the mutation from their carrier mother. We hereby report a 10-year-old girl with all the characteristics of complete androgen insensitivity syndrome (CAIS). Similar scenario was observed in 3 maternal aunts, Sequencing of the AR gene in all the family members revealed C 2754 to T transition in exon 6. It was concluded that the C 2754 to T transition rendered the AR incapable of both ligand-binding and activating the transcription and was the cause of CAIS in the patient.

  7. Familial juvenile nephronophthisis, Jeune's syndrome, and associated disorders.

    PubMed Central

    Donaldson, M D; Warner, A A; Trompeter, R S; Haycock, G B; Chantler, C

    1985-01-01

    Fourteen patients with familial juvenile nephronophthisis are described, eight of whom displayed one or more additional disorders. One boy with short limbed dwarfism and an abnormal chest was considered to have Jeune's syndrome; review of the published reports supports the view that nephronophthisis is the principal cause of renal failure in this disorder. Another patient with renal failure and retinitis pigmentosa at presentation developed progressive neurological and neuromuscular impairment leading to the discovery of ragged red fibre disease (mitochondrial cytopathy). Cardiomyopathy was present in this and one other patient. Tapeto-retinal degeneration, hepatic fibrosis, cerebellar ataxia, and oculomotor apraxia were among the other disorders encountered. Three patients presented in extremis with acute heart failure and irreversible oligo-anuria and this complication developed in another child who was already known to have nephronophthisis. Awareness of this disease and its associations is important for early diagnosis and appropriate management. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 PMID:4015147

  8. [Clinical symptoms of branchio-oto-renal syndrome in a family with a positive test for EYA1 gene].

    PubMed

    Markova, T G

    2006-01-01

    Three families with branchio-oto-renal syndrome (BOR syndrome) were examined. In one of the families all its members with BOR syndrome had deletion of cytosine in position 759 (759delC) in DNA sequence of EYA1 gene in exone 8. Clinical characteristics of BOR syndrome in the family are given. Molecular-genetic analysis confirmed the diagnosis clinically in case of all signs of the syndrome presence among the members of the family. Rare cases of hereditary syndromes with hearing problems provide more knowledge about structure of hereditary hypoacusis forms in the population. The syndromal forms reflect a complex genetic basis of the processes of sound perception.

  9. Familial pattern of large vestibular aqueduct syndrome in a Chinese family

    PubMed Central

    Hazmi, Mohd; Ab Aziz, A.; Asma, A.

    2013-01-01

    Large Vestibular Aqueduct Syndrome (LVAS) is the most common radiographic malformation in children with early onset of hearing loss. Usually its occurrence is non-familial, however intriguingly a portion of patients with LVAS is found to have evidence of genetic predisposition. We described cases of LVAS in two siblings of a Chinese family. The elder sister first presented with reduced hearing since childhood and her brother has a similar complaint upon further questioning. Their hearing test showed bilateral sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) and computed tomography (CT) of temporal bone showed enlarged vestibular aqueduct in both patients. We described an approach to diagnosis of LVAS and highlight the importance of hearing assessment in genetic link hearing loss. PMID:27034633

  10. Exclusion mapping of a third HNPCC locus in a large Lynch I kindred

    SciTech Connect

    Morasse, J.; Khandjian, E.W.; Rousseau, F.

    1994-09-01

    Hereditary Non-Polyposis Colorectal Cancer (HNPCC) accounts for 5-10% of all the cases of colorectal cancers. HNPCC can be classified in two clinical forms: (1) Hereditary Site-Specific Colorectal Cancer (HSSCC or Lynch I) and (2) colon cancer associated with extracolonic cancers (Lynch II). Segregation analyses show an autosomal dominant mode of inheritance. In order to identify the HNPCC gene involved in a large Canadian kindred, we performed linkage analysis using microsatellites spanning 9 candidate regions. For all loci tested, the lod score data obtained were negative. Our results demonstrate that the genes hMSH1 and hMLH1 recently reported in HNPCC are not linked in this family. Five loci frequently altered in colorectal tumor cells, APC, MCC, K-ras, p53 and DCC and the DRA gene whose expression is confined to the colon mucosa cells and deregulated in colonic adenomas, are also unlinked to HNPCC susceptibility in this family. We have also excluded chromosomes 4, 5, 8, 11 and 17 as containing the cancer predisposition gene in this family.

  11. The hereditary hyperferritinemia-cataract syndrome: a family study.

    PubMed

    Álvarez-Coca-González, Javier; Moreno-Carralero, María-Isabel; Martínez-Pérez, Jorge; Méndez, Manuel; García-Ros, Marta; Morán-Jiménez, María-Josefa

    2010-12-01

    Ferritin is an acute-phase reactant that is elevated in the course of infectious, inflammatory, autoimmune, and oncological diseases and the hemophagocytic syndrome. In asymptomatic patients, isolated hyperferritinemia may be due to different causes depending on whether or not it is accompanied by iron overload. Hyperferritinemia values above 300 ng/ml and an excess of body iron levels may be indicative of hemochromatosis. However, if such values develop in the absence of iron overload, they may be secondary to hemochromatosis type 4a (ferroportin disease) or more often to hereditary hyperferritinemia-cataract syndrome (HHCS; Aguilar-Martinez et al., Am J Gastroenterol 100:1185-1194, 2005; Ferrante et al., Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol 17:1247-1253, 2005). HHCS results from different mutations in the L-ferritin gene (FTL) on chromosome 19 (19q13.1), causing autosomal dominant transmission (Bertola et al., Curr Drug Targets Immune Endocr Metabol Disord 4:93-105, 2004). We present a child with HHCS due to the allelic variant c.-167C>T (C33T) in the iron-responsive element region of the FTL gene. When pediatricians encounter an asymptomatic patient with isolated hyperferritinemia in the absence of iron overload, they should consider the possibility of HHCS, especially if other members of the family have developed cataracts from a young age.

  12. Marfan syndrome in a large family: response of family members to a screening programme.

    PubMed

    Bridges, A B; Faed, M; Boxer, M; Gray, J R; Bundy, C; Murray, A

    1992-02-01

    Reaction to medical, social, and genetic implications of Marfan syndrome was evaluated by means of two questionnaires, the first after various tests before discussion of the diagnosis, the second after full discussion of the patient's diagnosis. Thirty-seven members of a family known to be at risk for Marfan syndrome attended for both questionnaires. All patients claimed to be satisfied with the way they were informed of the results of screening; 41% of patients were more worried about their health and 48% were more worried about the future after diagnosis. Apart from 50% of the smokers reducing or stopping their intake of cigarettes there were only very minor changes in lifestyle over the first month despite the increased level of expressed anxiety. If a definitive screening test was available, 96% of patients claimed they would have chosen it, 45% felt it would have an influence on their future plans, and 78% would choose to use a method of prenatal diagnosis for Marfan syndrome if it were available.

  13. Behaviour Problems, Maternal Internalising Symptoms and Family Relations in Families of Adolescents and Adults with Fragile X Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, J. K.; Seltzer, M. M.; Greenberg, J. S.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Studies have linked the behaviour problems of children with fragile X syndrome (FXS) to maternal well-being, but less is known about how behaviour problems relate to important family factors such as marital satisfaction and family cohesion. Methods: Married mothers of 115 adolescents and adults with FXS completed questionnaires and…

  14. Behaviour Problems, Maternal Internalising Symptoms and Family Relations in Families of Adolescents and Adults with Fragile X Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, J. K.; Seltzer, M. M.; Greenberg, J. S.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Studies have linked the behaviour problems of children with fragile X syndrome (FXS) to maternal well-being, but less is known about how behaviour problems relate to important family factors such as marital satisfaction and family cohesion. Methods: Married mothers of 115 adolescents and adults with FXS completed questionnaires and…

  15. Gestational, perinatal and family findings of patients with Patau syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Rosa, Rafael Fabiano M.; Sarmento, Melina Vaz; Polli, Janaina Borges; Groff, Daniela de Paoli; Petry, Patrícia; de Mattos, Vinícius Freitas; Rosa, Rosana Cardoso M.; Trevisan, Patrícia; Zen, Paulo Ricardo G.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe gestational, perinatal and family findings of patients with Patau syndrome (PS). METHODS: The study enrolled patients with PS consecutively evaluated during 38 years in a Clinical Genetics Service of a pediatric referral hospital in Southern Brazil. The clinical data and the results of cytogenetic analysis were collected from the medical records. For statistical analysis, the two-tailed Fisher's exact test and the chi-square test with Yates' correction were used, being significant p<0.05. RESULTS: The sample was composed of 27 patients, 63% were male, with a median age of nine days at the first evaluation. Full trisomy of chromosome 13 was the main cytogenetic finding (74%). Only six patients were submitted to obstetric ultrasound and none had prenatal diagnosis of PS. The patients' demographic characteristics, compared to born alive infants in the same Brazilian state showed a higher frequency of: mothers with 35 years old or more (37.5%); multiparous mothers (92.6%); vaginal delivery (77%); preterm birth (34.6%); birth weight <2500g (33.3%), and Apgar scores <7 in the 1st (75%) and in the 5th minute (42.9%). About half of them (53%) died during the first month of life. CONCLUSIONS: The understanding of the PS patients' gestational, perinatal and family findings has important implications, especially on the decision about the actions to be taken in relation to the management of these patients. PMID:24473950

  16. The burden of familial chylomicronemia syndrome from the patients' perspective.

    PubMed

    Gelrud, Andres; Williams, Karren R; Hsieh, Andrew; Gwosdow, Andrea R; Gilstrap, Alan; Brown, Alan

    2017-09-11

    Familial chylomicronemia syndrome (FCS) is a rare, inherited lipid disorder characterized by high levels of plasma triglycerides and chylomicrons, which may cause life-threatening acute pancreatitis. Currently no FDA-approved treatment exists. Management is low-fat diet (<20g fat/day), which is difficult to maintain. With the restricted diet, triglycerides may remain elevated. We conducted discussions with patients and caregivers to better understand the burden of FCS from their perspectives. A panel of FCS patients and caregivers was assembled to discuss and assess the clinical and psychosocial burden of FCS. Ten adults with FCS (median age 48 yr) and their spouses/caregivers were asked specific questions about their experiences living with FCS. Patients with FCS stated their symptoms were abdominal pain, nausea, diarrhea, constipation, bloating, and fatigue. Patients reported a median of 34 episodes of acute pancreatitis over their lifetimes; half of these led to hospitalizations, each with an average stay of 6.5 days. The psychosocial burden of FCS was primarily associated with the restricted diet, anxiety and stress of FCS. Living with FCS imposes a significant clinical and psychosocial burden on patients and caregivers, who reported reduced quality of life, limited employment opportunities, socialization and increased burden on family.

  17. Gestational, perinatal and family findings of patients with Patau syndrome.

    PubMed

    Rosa, Rafael Fabiano M; Sarmento, Melina Vaz; Polli, Janaina Borges; Groff, Daniela de Paoli; Petry, Patrícia; Mattos, Vinícius Freitas de; Rosa, Rosana Cardoso M; Trevisan, Patrícia; Zen, Paulo Ricardo G

    2013-12-01

    To describe gestational, perinatal and family findings of patients with Patau syndrome (PS). The study enrolled patients with PS consecutively evaluated during 38 years in a Clinical Genetics Service of a pediatric referral hospital in Southern Brazil. The clinical data and the results of cytogenetic analysis were collected from the medical records. For statistical analysis, the two-tailed Fisher's exact test and the chi-square test with Yates' correction were used, being significant p<0.05. The sample was composed of 27 patients, 63% were male, with a median age of nine days at the first evaluation. Full trisomy of chromosome 13 was the main cytogenetic finding (74%). Only six patients were submitted to obstetric ultrasound and none had prenatal diagnosis of PS. The patients' demographic characteristics, compared to born alive infants in the same Brazilian state showed a higher frequency of: mothers with 35 years old or more (37.5%); multiparous mothers (92.6%); vaginal delivery (77%); preterm birth (34.6%); birth weight <2500g (33.3%), and Apgar scores <7 in the 1st (75%) and in the 5th minute (42.9%). About half of them (53%) died during the first month of life. The understanding of the PS patients' gestational, perinatal and family findings has important implications, especially on the decision about the actions to be taken in relation to the management of these patients.

  18. Kindred spirits? The benefits of egocentrism in close relationships.

    PubMed

    Murray, Sandra L; Holmes, John G; Bellavia, Gina; Griffin, Dale W; Dolderman, Dan

    2002-04-01

    The authors argue that people are happiest in their relationships when they believe they have found a kindred spirit, someone who understands them and shares their experiences. As reality may not always be that accommodating, however, intimates may find this sense of confidence by egocentrically assuming that their partners are mirrors of themselves. Both members of dating and married couples completed measures of satisfaction and felt understanding. They also described their own and their partners' traits, values, and day-to-day feelings. The results revealed that people in satisfying and stable relationships assimilated their partners to themselves, perceiving similarities that were not evident in reality. Such egocentrism predicted greater feelings of being understood, and feeling understood mediated the link between egocentrism and satisfaction in marriage.

  19. Familial Recurrence of 3MC Syndrome in Consanguineous Families: A Clinical and Molecular Diagnostic Approach With Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Gardner, Olivia K; Haynes, Karla; Schweitzer, Daniela; Johns, Alexis; Magee, William P; Urata, Mark M; Sanchez-Lara, Pedro A

    2016-06-29

    We report four individuals from two unrelated consanguineous families with 3MC syndrome. In the first family, chromosome microarray data revealed that the two affected sisters, born to first-cousin parents, shared a unique homozygous C-terminal deletion in the COLEC11 gene. Two affected brothers from a second family, also born to first-cousin parents, shared a region of homozygosity that included the second gene known to cause the 3MC syndrome, MASP1. We discuss the diagnostic approach of craniofacial disorders born to consanguineous parents and highlight a literature search and reference a helpful dysmorphology solution powered by FDNA (Facial Dysmorphology Novel Analysis) technology.

  20. Familial Aggregation of Acute Myeloid Leukemia and Myelodysplastic Syndromes

    PubMed Central

    Goldin, Lynn R.; Kristinsson, Sigurdur Y.; Liang, Xueying Sharon; Derolf, Åsa R.; Landgren, Ola; Björkholm, Magnus

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Apart from rare pedigrees with multiple cases of acute myeloid leukemia (AML), there is limited data on familial aggregation of AML and myelodysplastic syndromes (MDSs) in the population. Patients and Methods Swedish population-based registry data were used to evaluate risk of AML, MDS, and other malignancies among 24,573 first-degree relatives of 6,962 patients with AML and 1,388 patients with MDS compared with 106,224 first-degree relatives of matched controls. We used a marginal survival model to calculate familial aggregation. Results AML and/or MDS did not aggregate significantly in relatives of patients with AML. There was a modest risk ratio (RR, 1.3; 95% CI, 0.9 to 1.8) in myeloproliferative/myeloid malignancies combined. The risks for any hematologic or any solid tumor were modestly but significantly increased. Relatives of patients with MDS did not show an increased risk for any hematologic tumors. In contrast, we found a significantly increased risk (RR, 6.5; 95% CI, 1.1 to 38.0) of AML/MDS and of all myeloid malignancies combined (RR, 3.1; 95% CI, 1.0 to 9.8) among relatives of patients diagnosed at younger than age 21 years. Conclusion We did not find evidence for familial aggregation of the severe end of the spectrum of myeloid malignancies (AML and MDS). The risks of myeloproliferative neoplasms were modestly increased with trends toward significance, suggesting a possible role of inheritance. In contrast, although limited in sample size, relatives of young patients with AML were at increased risk of AML/MDS, suggesting that germline genes may play a stronger role in these patients. The increased risk of all hematologic malignancies and of solid tumors among relatives of patients with AML suggests that genes for malignancy in general and/or other environmental factors may be shared. PMID:22162584

  1. Repeat instability in the 27-39 CAG range of the HD gene in the Venezuelan kindreds: Counseling implications.

    PubMed

    Brocklebank, D; Gayán, J; Andresen, J M; Roberts, S A; Young, A B; Snodgrass, S R; Penney, J B; Ramos-Arroyo, M A; Cha, J J; Rosas, H D; Hersch, S M; Feigin, A; Cherny, S S; Wexler, N S; Housman, D E; Cardon, L R

    2009-04-05

    The instability of the CAG repeat size of the HD gene when transmitted intergenerationally has critical implications for genetic counseling practices. In particular, CAG repeats between 27 and 35 have been the subject of debate based on small samples. To address this issue, we analyzed allelic instability in the Venezuelan HD kindreds, the largest and most informative families ascertained for HD. We identified 647 transmissions. Our results indicate that repeats in the 27-35 CAG range are highly stable. Out of 69 transmitted alleles in this range, none expand into any penetrant ranges. Contrastingly, 14% of alleles transmitted from the incompletely penetrant range (36-39 CAGs) expand into the completely penetrant range, characterized by alleles with 40 or more CAG repeats. At least 12 of the 534 transmissions from the completely penetrant range contract into the incompletely penetrant range of 36-39 CAG repeats. In these kindreds, none of the individuals with 27-39 CAGs were symptomatic, even though they ranged in age from 11 to 82 years. We expect these findings to be helpful in updating genetic counseling practices. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  2. Families of Children with Prader-Willi Syndrome: Stress-Support and Relations to Child Characteristics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodapp, Robert M.; And Others

    1997-01-01

    This study examined stress-support in 42 families of 3- to 18-year-old children with Prader-Willi Syndrome. While children's age, intelligence quotient, and degree of obesity were not related to familial stress, families experienced greater stress when children showed more behavior problems overall, more externalizing and internalizing problems,…

  3. Correlation of Family History with Specific Autistic Subgroups: Asperger's Syndrome and Bipolar Affective Disease.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeLong, G. Robert; Dwyer, Judith T.

    1988-01-01

    To assess the possible role of familial psychopathology in the etiology of infantile autism, family histories and neurological status of 51 autistic subjects subgrouped by level of language function were evaluated. Among findings was a high incidence of Asperger's Syndrome in family members of high functioning autistic subjects. (Author/DB)

  4. Genetic analysis of a kindred with X-linked mental handicap and retinitis pigmentosa

    SciTech Connect

    Aldred, M.A.; Dry, K.L.; Hardwick, L.J.; Teague, P.W.; Lester, D.H.; Brown, J.; Spowart, G.; Carothers, A.D.; Wright, A.F.; Knight-Jones, E.B.

    1994-11-01

    A kindred is described in which X-linked nonspecific mental handicap segregates together with retinitis pigmentosa. Carrier females are mentally normal but may show signs of the X-linked retinitis pigmentosa carrier state and become symptomatic in their later years. Analysis of polymorphic DNA markers at nine loci on the short arm of the X chromosome shows that no crossing-over occurs between the disease and Xp11 markers DXS255, TIMP, DXS426, MAOA, and DXS228. The 90% confidence limits show that the locus is in the Xp21-q21 region. Haplotype analysis is consistent with the causal gene being located proximal to the Xp21 loci DXS538 and 5{prime}-dystrophin on the short arm of the X chromosome. The posterior probability of linkage to the RP2 region of the X chromosome short arm (Xp11.4-p11.23) is .727, suggesting the possibility of a contiguous-gene-deletion syndrome. No cytogenetic abnormality has been identified. 33 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. IRF6 mutation screening in non-syndromic orofacial clefting: analysis of 1521 families.

    PubMed

    Leslie, E J; Koboldt, D C; Kang, C J; Ma, L; Hecht, J T; Wehby, G L; Christensen, K; Czeizel, A E; Deleyiannis, F W-B; Fulton, R S; Wilson, R K; Beaty, T H; Schutte, B C; Murray, J C; Marazita, M L

    2016-07-01

    Van der Woude syndrome (VWS) is an autosomal dominant malformation syndrome characterized by orofacial clefting (OFC) and lower lip pits. The clinical presentation of VWS is variable and can present as an isolated OFC, making it difficult to distinguish VWS cases from individuals with non-syndromic OFCs. About 70% of causal VWS mutations occur in IRF6, a gene that is also associated with non-syndromic OFCs. Screening for IRF6 mutations in apparently non-syndromic cases has been performed in several modestly sized cohorts with mixed results. In this study, we screened 1521 trios with presumed non-syndromic OFCs to determine the frequency of causal IRF6 mutations. We identified seven likely causal IRF6 mutations, although a posteriori review identified two misdiagnosed VWS families based on the presence of lip pits. We found no evidence for association between rare IRF6 polymorphisms and non-syndromic OFCs. We combined our results with other similar studies (totaling 2472 families) and conclude that causal IRF6 mutations are found in 0.24-0.44% of apparently non-syndromic OFC families. We suggest that clinical mutation screening for IRF6 be considered for certain family patterns such as families with mixed types of OFCs and/or autosomal dominant transmission. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. A 45-year followup study of breast and other cancers in kindred 107 and linkage analysis of candidate loci

    SciTech Connect

    Goldgar, D.E.; Neuhausen, S.L.; Ward, J.H.

    1994-09-01

    One of the earliest large kindreds with inherited susceptibility to breast cancer was reported by Gardner and Stephens in 1950. This family, denoted K107, was ascertained in 1947 by a genetics student with two great aunts who died of breast cancer in their 40`s. Subsequent clinical and genealogical follow-up identified 7 additional cases of early-onset breast cancer. The family was updated several times, most notably in 1980. For the present study K107 was recently reinvestigated and over 75 blood samples gathered for genotyping. The kindred now contains 38 cases of female breast cancer, 3 cases of male breast cancer, and 6 cases of ovarian cancer, 18 of which have been identified since the 1980 report. Examination of the obligate carriers demonstrates that that gene responsible for the breast and ovarian cancer in K107 is highly penetrant. Other cancers appear to be associated with expression of this gene, most notably prostate cancer, melanoma, and uterine cancer. Linkage to the BRCA1 region in K107 was excluded based upon the analysis of genotypings at four loci covering the BRCA1 gene on chromosome 17q has been excluded in this family, using four highly polymorphic markers in the BRCA1 region (multipoint LOD score -3.27). Eight other candidate breast cancer susceptibility genes and candidate regions, including p53 and ESR have also been tested for linkage and excluded. Studies to formally re-estimate penetrance and test for excesses of all cancer sites and a genomic search in this family are in progress.

  7. The Importance of Older Family Members in Providing Social Resources and Promoting Cancer Screening in Families with a Hereditary Cancer Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashida, Sato; Hadley, Donald W.; Goergen, Andrea F.; Skapinsky, Kaley F.; Devlin, Hillary C.; Koehly, Laura M.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This study evaluates the role of older family members as providers of social resources within familial network systems affected by an inherited cancer susceptibility syndrome. Design and Methods: Respondents who previously participated in a study that involved genetic counseling and testing for Lynch syndrome and their family network…

  8. The Importance of Older Family Members in Providing Social Resources and Promoting Cancer Screening in Families with a Hereditary Cancer Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashida, Sato; Hadley, Donald W.; Goergen, Andrea F.; Skapinsky, Kaley F.; Devlin, Hillary C.; Koehly, Laura M.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This study evaluates the role of older family members as providers of social resources within familial network systems affected by an inherited cancer susceptibility syndrome. Design and Methods: Respondents who previously participated in a study that involved genetic counseling and testing for Lynch syndrome and their family network…

  9. Premenstrual syndrome. Evidence-based treatment in family practice.

    PubMed Central

    Douglas, Sue

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the strength of evidence for treatments for premenstrual syndrome (PMS) and to derive a set of practical guidelines for managing PMS in family practice. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE: An advanced MEDLINE search was conducted from January 1990 to December 2001. The Cochrane Library and personal contacts were also used. Quality of evidence in studies ranged from level I to level III, depending on the intervention. MAIN MESSAGE: Good scientific evidence shows that calcium carbonate (1200 mg/d) and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors are effective treatments for PMS. The most commonly used therapies (including vitamin B6, evening primrose oil, and oral contraceptives) are based on inconclusive evidence. Other treatments for which there is inconclusive evidence include aerobic exercise, stress reduction, cognitive therapy, spironolactone, magnesium, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, various hormonal regimens, and a complex carbohydrate-rich diet. Although evidence for them is inconclusive, it is reasonable to recommend healthy lifestyle changes given their overall health benefits. Progesterone and bromocriptine, which are still widely used, are ineffective. CONCLUSION: Calcium carbonate should be recommended as first-line therapy for women with mild-to-moderate PMS. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors can be considered as first-line therapy for women with severe affective symptoms and for women with milder symptoms who have failed to respond to other therapies. Other therapies may be tried if these measures fail to provide adequate relief. PMID:12489244

  10. Xp22. 3 deletions in isolated familial Kallmann's syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Hardelin, J.P.; Levilliers, J.; Legouis, R.; Petit, C. ); Young, J.; Pholsena, M.; Schaison, G. ); Kirk, J.; Bouloux, P. )

    1993-04-01

    Several familial cases of Kallmann's syndrome (KS) have been reported, among which the X-chromosome-linked mode of inheritance is the most frequent. The gene responsible for the X-linked KS has been localized to the terminal part of the X-chromosome short arm (Xp22.3 region), immediately proximal to the steroid sulfatase gene responsible for X-linked ichthyosis. Large deletions of this region have been previously shown in patients affected with both X-linked ichthyosis and KS. The authors report here the search for Xp22.3 deletions in 20 unrelated males affected with isolated X-linked KS. Only 2 deletions were found using Southern blot analysis, indicating that large deletions are uncommon in patients affected with KS alone. Both deletions were shown to include the entire KAL gene responsible for X-linked KS. The patients carrying these deletions exhibit additional clinical anomalies, which are discussed: unilateral renal aplasia, unilateral absence of vas deferens, mirror movements, and sensory neural hearing loss. 47 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  11. A Family with Axenfeld-Rieger Syndrome: Report of the Clinical and Genetic Findings

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Hee Jung; Lee, You Kyung; Joo, Choun-Ki; Moon, Jung Il; Mok, Jee Won

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To describe clinical findings in a Korean family with Axenfeld-Rieger syndrome. Methods A retrospective review of clinical data about patients with diagnosed Axenfeld-Rieger syndrome. Five affected members of the family underwent a complete ophthalmologic examination. We screened the forkhead box C1 gene and the pituitary homeobox 2 gene in patients. Peripheral blood leukocytes and buccal mucosal epithelial cells were obtained from seven members of a family with Axenfeld-Rieger syndrome. DNA was extracted and amplified by polymerase chain reaction, followed by direct sequencing. Results The affected members showed iris hypoplasia, iridocorneal adhesions, posterior embryotoxon, and advanced glaucoma in three generation. None had systemic anomalies. Two mutations including c.1362_1364insCGG and c.1142_1144insGGC were identified in forkhead box C1 in four affected family members. Conclusions This study may help to understand clinical findings and prognosis for patients with Axenfeld-Rieger syndrome. PMID:26240509

  12. Syndrome Specificity and Behavioural Disorders in Young Adults with Intellectual Disability: Cultural Differences in Family Impact

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blacher, J.; McIntyre, L. L.

    2006-01-01

    Background: This study examined whether behaviour problems and adaptive behaviour of low functioning young adults, and well-being of their families, varied by diagnostic syndrome intellectual disability (ID) only, cerebral palsy, Down syndrome, autism, as well as by cultural group. Methods: Behaviour disorders in young adults with moderate to…

  13. Factors Predicting Mortality in Midlife Adults with and without Down Syndrome Living with Family

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esbensen, A. J.; Seltzer, M. M.; Greenberg, J. S.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Little is known about the mortality of individuals with Down syndrome who have lived at home with their families throughout their lives. The current study evaluates the predictors, causes and patterns of mortality among co-residing individuals in midlife with Down syndrome as compared with co-residing individuals with ID owing to other…

  14. Tel-Hashomer camptodactyly syndrome with hirsuitism in an Indian family.

    PubMed

    Patel, Zareen M; Adhia, Rashmi A

    2004-10-01

    Two new cases with the Tel-Hashomer camptodactyly syndrome have been ascertained in an Indian family. This report emphasizes the autosomal recessive nature of disease and documents an additional feature of hirsuitism not previously described. The gene for Tel-Hashomer camptodactyly syndrome is present in all populations around the world.

  15. Factors Predicting Mortality in Midlife Adults with and without Down Syndrome Living with Family

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esbensen, A. J.; Seltzer, M. M.; Greenberg, J. S.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Little is known about the mortality of individuals with Down syndrome who have lived at home with their families throughout their lives. The current study evaluates the predictors, causes and patterns of mortality among co-residing individuals in midlife with Down syndrome as compared with co-residing individuals with ID owing to other…

  16. The role of religious and existential well-being in families with Lynch syndrome: prevention, family communication, and psychosocial adjustment.

    PubMed

    Morris, Bronwyn A; Hadley, Donald W; Koehly, Laura M

    2013-08-01

    This study explored the role of religious (RWB) and existential well-being (EWB) on psychosocial factors, support network characteristics, and screening practices in families with Lynch syndrome, also referred to as hereditary nonpolyposis colon cancer (HNPCC). Participants were individuals with Lynch syndrome associated cancers and their first-degree relatives at risk of inheriting an identified deleterious mutation. Analyses considered both family RWB and EWB norms and individual deviations from that norm. Analyses controlled for age, gender, cancer diagnosis, number of respondents, and network size. Higher family RWB was associated with increased depressive symptoms (p < .05) and avoidant cognitions (p < .05). Higher family EWB was related to decreased depression symptoms (p < .001). Higher family EWB was associated with fecal occult blood testing (p < .01), and family communication about genetic counselling and testing (p < .01). Analyses pointed to individual effects of EWB above and beyond family-level effects. Individuals with lower EWB than their family had lower perceived risk for colorectal cancer (p < .05), communicated disease risk information to less family members (p < .05), and were less likely to undergo recent colonoscopies (p < .05). Participants with lower EWB than their family also had higher cancer worry (p < .01) and increased depressive symptoms (p < .001). Findings indicate the importance of assessing individuals within the context of their family network and being aware of family characteristics which may impact individual adjustment to disease risk. Interventions considering family-level factors may provide efficient pathways to improving psychosocial factors, screening practices, communication about disease risk and genetic testing, and cancer prevention.

  17. Adaptation in families of children with Down syndrome in East Asian countries: an integrative review.

    PubMed

    Choi, Hyunkyung; Van Riper, Marcia

    2017-08-01

    The purpose of this integrative literature review was to understand the experiences of East Asian families of children with Down syndrome and identify factors affecting their adaptation in the Resiliency Model of Family Stress, Adjustment and Adaptation. Socio-cultural factors influence how well families adapt following the birth of a child with Down syndrome. Existing literature in this area has focused primarily on families from Western cultures. This is problematic because nurses care for families from all over the world. Therefore, the focus of this review is on families of children with Down syndrome living in East Asia, where Confucianism is dominant. Integrative literature review. Online databases (i.e. PubMed, CINAHL and PsycINFO) and a public search engine (i.e. Google Scholar) were used along with manual searches of reference lists and major journals. Studies were limited to original publications written in English and published between 1990-2014. Two authors independently performed integrative review processes proposed by Whittemore and Knafl and a quality assessment using the Mixed Methods Appraisal Tool. Like families in Western cultures, some East Asian families of children with Down syndrome adapted well and even thrived while others struggled. Various socio-cultural factors, including some associated with Confucianism, played a role in how individuals, dyads and families adapted. An understanding of socio-cultural influences can help nurses implement culturally sensitive family-centred interventions with families of children with Down syndrome. It may also facilitate policy changes concerning resources for these families. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Exploring the genetic basis of 3MC syndrome: Findings in 12 further families.

    PubMed

    Urquhart, Jill; Roberts, Rebecca; de Silva, Deepthi; Shalev, Stavit; Chervinsky, Elena; Nampoothiri, Sheela; Sznajer, Yves; Revencu, Nicole; Gunasekera, Romesh; Suri, Mohnish; Ellingford, Jamie; Williams, Simon; Bhaskar, Sanjeev; Clayton-Smith, Jill

    2016-05-01

    The 3MC syndromes are a group of rare autosomal recessive disorders where the main clinical features are cleft lip and palate, hypertelorism, highly arched eyebrows, caudal appendage, postnatal growth deficiency, and genitourinary tract anomalies. Ophthalmological abnormalities, most notably anterior chamber defects may also be seen. We describe the clinical and molecular findings in 13 individuals with suspected 3MC syndrome from 12 previously unreported families. The exclusion of the MASP1 and COLEC11 Loci in two individuals from different consanguineous families and the absence of mutations in four further individuals sequenced for both genes raises the possibility that that there is further genetic heterogeneity of 3MC syndrome.

  19. Like Father, Like Daughter-inherited cutis aplasia occurring in a family with Marfan syndrome: a case report.

    PubMed

    Islam, Yasmin Florence Khodeja; Williams, Charles A; Schoch, Jennifer Jane; Andrews, Israel David

    2017-01-01

    We present the case of a newborn with co-occurrence of Marfan syndrome and aplasia cutis congenita (ACC) and a family history significant for Marfan syndrome and ACC in the father. This case details a previously unreported mutation in Marfan syndrome and describes a novel coinheritance of Marfan syndrome and ACC.

  20. Prenatal sonographic diagnosis of familial Holt-Oram syndrome associated with type B interrupted aortic arch.

    PubMed

    Law, K M; Tse, K T

    2008-08-01

    We present a rare case of familial Holt-Oram syndrome diagnosed sonographically at 18 weeks of gestation. The foetus had serious bilateral upper limb malformations, a ventricular septal defect and a type B interrupted aortic arch, while the mother had bilateral upper limb malformations only. The pregnancy was terminated. A pathological and radiological examination of the foetus confirmed the prenatal sonographic findings. Although genetic investigation of TBX5 mutations was not available in our locality at the time of diagnosis, the geneticists made a clinical diagnosis of familial Holt-Oram syndrome. The clinical features of our case completely fulfilled the strict diagnostic criteria for the syndrome. The cardiac malformations most commonly associated with Holt-Oram syndrome are atrial or ventricular septal defects. To the best of our knowledge, a prenatal diagnosis of Holt-Oram syndrome in association with a type B interrupted aortic arch has not been reported in the English literature before.

  1. Divorce in families of children with Down syndrome: a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Urbano, Richard C; Hodapp, Robert M

    2007-07-01

    In this study, we examined the nature, timing, and correlates of divorce in families of children with Down syndrome (647), other birth defects (10,283) and no identified disability (361,154). Divorce rates among families of children with Down syndrome were lower than in the other two groups. When divorce did occur in the Down syndrome group, however, a higher proportion occurred within the first 2 years after the child's birth. Mothers and fathers of children with Down syndrome were much more likely to divorce if they were younger, had not graduated from high school, and if fathers were less educated and lived in a rural area. Few effects on divorce were noted for a variety of family structure variables.

  2. Use of Equipment and Respite Services and Caregiver Health among Australian Families Living with Rett Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Urbanowicz, Anna; Downs, Jenny; Bebbington, Ami; Jacoby, Peter; Girdler, Sonya; Leonard, Helen

    2011-01-01

    This study assessed factors that could influence equipment and respite services use among Australian families caring for a girl/woman with Rett syndrome and examined relationships between use of these resources and the health of female caregivers. Data was sourced from questionnaires completed by families (n=170) contributing to the Australian…

  3. Tourniquet Syndrome: Interest of a Systematic Analysis of Families' Social Conditions to Detect Neglect Situations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Claudet, Isabelle; Pasian, Nicolas; Debuisson, Cecile; Salanne, Sophie; Rekhroukh, Hocine

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Describe the correlates of tourniquet syndromes, analyze family social situation to detect neglectful behaviors and analyze the tracking of subsequent Pediatric Emergency Department (PED) admissions to identify at risk families. Material and methods: From January 1, 2003 to December 31, 2007 all patients admitted to the PED for…

  4. Exploring psychological responses to genetic testing for Lynch Syndrome within the family context

    PubMed Central

    Eliezer, Dina; Hadley, Donald W.; Koehly, Laura M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Genetic testing for hereditary cancer susceptibility syndromes is a family centered process. Nonetheless, little research has explored how the family context affects psychological responses to genetic testing. We examine how personal test results and the test results of immediate and extended family members shape responses to genetic testing. Methods Individuals at risk of carrying a mutation associated with an inherited cancer susceptibility syndrome (Lynch syndrome) received genetic testing. Six months after receiving their results, participants reported on cancer distress, cancer worry and depressive symptoms. Results Among mutation carriers for Lynch syndrome, the higher the proportion of carriers in their immediate family, the less cancer worry and distress they reported. In contrast, mutation carriers and non-carriers with a high proportion of carriers in their immediate family and mutation carriers with a high proportion of carriers in their extended family were at elevated risk for clinically significant levels of depressive symptoms. Conclusion Personal test results alone are not highly predictive of psychological outcomes. Instead, the interaction between personal and family test results, or in some cases, family test results alone, predict key psychological outcomes. The current research has important implications for genetic counseling and intervention efforts. PMID:24872228

  5. Tourniquet Syndrome: Interest of a Systematic Analysis of Families' Social Conditions to Detect Neglect Situations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Claudet, Isabelle; Pasian, Nicolas; Debuisson, Cecile; Salanne, Sophie; Rekhroukh, Hocine

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Describe the correlates of tourniquet syndromes, analyze family social situation to detect neglectful behaviors and analyze the tracking of subsequent Pediatric Emergency Department (PED) admissions to identify at risk families. Material and methods: From January 1, 2003 to December 31, 2007 all patients admitted to the PED for…

  6. Parents of Children with Asperger Syndrome or with Learning Disabilities: Family Environment and Social Support

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heiman, Tali; Berger, Ornit

    2008-01-01

    The study examined the family environment and perceived social support of 33 parents with a child diagnosed with Asperger syndrome and 43 parents with a child with learning disability, which were compared to 45 parents of children without disabilities as a control group. Parents completed the Family Environment Scale and Social Support Scale…

  7. Williams Syndrome: Daily Challenges and Positive Impact on the Family

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scallan, Susan; Senior, Joyce; Reilly, Colin

    2011-01-01

    Background: Despite the distinctive physical, cognitive, personality and behavioural characteristics associated with Williams syndrome, few studies to date have examined parental experiences of raising a child with this genetic syndrome. Methods: This explorative pilot study employed predominantly qualitative methodologies via face-to-face…

  8. Williams Syndrome: Daily Challenges and Positive Impact on the Family

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scallan, Susan; Senior, Joyce; Reilly, Colin

    2011-01-01

    Background: Despite the distinctive physical, cognitive, personality and behavioural characteristics associated with Williams syndrome, few studies to date have examined parental experiences of raising a child with this genetic syndrome. Methods: This explorative pilot study employed predominantly qualitative methodologies via face-to-face…

  9. Subtle familial translocation t(11;22)(q24.2;q13.33) resulting in Jacobsen syndrome and distal trisomy 22q13.3: further details of genotype-phenotype maps.

    PubMed

    Jamsheer, Aleksander; Smyk, Marta; Wierzba, Jolanta; Kołowska, Jolanta; Woźniak, Anna; Skołozdrzy, Joanna; Fischer, Maria; Latos-Bieleńska, Anna

    2008-01-01

    We report on 3 kindred patients with terminal 11q monosomy and distal 22q trisomy involving the SHANK3 gene, resulting from a subtle familial translocation t(11;22)(q24.2;q13.33). The patients presented with the characteristic symptoms of Jacobsen syndrome (JBS), including: mental retardation, short stature, and craniofacial dysmorphism in all 3 cases; cardiac defects in 2 cases; and thrombocytopenia, brain abnormality, eye coloboma, recurrent infections, cryptorchidism and toe anomalies in single cases. The oldest patient also had Hashimoto disease and diabetes mellitus type 2. So far, these 2 conditions have not been reported in adult patients with JBS. Features typical for distal 22q trisomy in our patients include muscular hypotonia and prenatal failure to thrive, seen in 2 and 1 cases, respectively. We also present a family member with 11q24.2-qter trisomy and 22q13.33-qter monosomy, whose clinical phenotype is partially overlapping with several dysmorphic features of JBS. In addition, multiple pregnancy losses and infantile deaths occurred in this family, suggesting that these chromosomal imbalances may produce a lethal phenotype. FISH with a panel of BAC probes determined the accurate sizes of the deletion 11q (9.9 Mb) and trisomy 22q (0.8 Mb). To date, only 5 cases of submicroscopic 22q13.3-qter trisomy have been reported. A detailed clinical description of our patients, along with a precise cytogenetic designation of chromosomal breakpoints, allow further refinement of genotype-phenotype correlation for distal imbalances in 11q and 22q.

  10. Genetic and functional analysis of a Li Fraumeni syndrome family in China.

    PubMed

    Hu, Huaying; Liu, Jingping; Liao, Xinbin; Zhang, Shuju; Li, Haibo; Lu, Renbin; Li, Xianfeng; Lin, Wei; Liu, Minji; Xia, Zanxian; Qing, Guoliang; Li, Jia-Da

    2016-01-28

    Li Fraumeni syndrome (LFS) is a rare familial cancer predisposition syndrome with autosomal-dominant inheritance, occurring as frequently as one in 5,000-20,000 individuals. However, no LFS case has been reported from mainland China although it constitutes one quarter of population on earth. In this study, we identified, to our best knowledge, the first Li Fraumeni syndrome family in China. Six family members were affected with various tumors. A TP53 mutation (c.730G > A; p.G244S) co-segregated with the tumor phenotype within this family. Functional analysis indicated that G244S mutation disrupted the transactivity, DNA-binding and cell growth inhibition activity of p53 protein. Two available tumor samples (medulloblastoma and choroid plexus papilloma) underwent large rearrangement in the chromosomes and loss of wild-type TP53. Our data warranted further studies on the prevalence of germline TP53 mutation in various tumor patients in China.

  11. Latino families with a child with Prader-Willi syndrome: exploring needs for support.

    PubMed

    Chaij, Carina; Han, Meekyung; Graziano, Lisa

    2014-01-01

    Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is a complex, genetically based disorder; caring for a family member with a disability such as PWS brings significant challenges to the whole family. However, no research has been conducted focusing on the impact of PWS in the dynamics of Latino families. This qualitative study explored the challenges and need for support services among Latino families of children with PWS. Findings of the study suggest the need for support services geared toward the whole family unit to help members cope with daily challenges at home.

  12. Familial multiple pilomatrixomas as a presentation of attenuated adenomatosis polyposis coli.

    PubMed

    Trufant, Joshua; Kurz, Wayne; Frankel, Amylynne; Muthusamy, Viswanathan; McKinnon, Wendy; Greenblatt, Marc; Lazar, Alex; Cook, Deborah; Bosenberg, Marcus

    2012-04-01

    Pilomatrixomas are benign follicular tumors that occur most commonly in children. Rare multiple or familial pilomatrixomas have been associated with myotonic dystrophy and other disorders. Although sporadic pilomatrixomas and hybrid cutaneous cysts with pilomatrixoma-like features have been observed in some kindreds with Gardner syndrome, an autosomal dominant form of familial adenomatous polyposis, no definitive association has been made with multiple or familial pilomatrixomas. Here we describe two siblings with multiple pilomatrixomas who were also found to have a family history of colonic adenocarcinoma. Genetic testing revealed a mutation in the 5' portion of the adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) gene, in a region associated with an attenuated APC phenotype. These findings show that multiple pilomatrixomas may be the presenting symptom of patients with APC gene mutations. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  13. Familial pancreatic cancer: Concept, management and issues

    PubMed Central

    Matsubayashi, Hiroyuki; Takaori, Kyoichi; Morizane, Chigusa; Maguchi, Hiroyuki; Mizuma, Masamichi; Takahashi, Hideaki; Wada, Keita; Hosoi, Hiroko; Yachida, Shinichi; Suzuki, Masami; Usui, Risa; Furukawa, Toru; Furuse, Junji; Sato, Takamitsu; Ueno, Makoto; Kiyozumi, Yoshimi; Hijioka, Susumu; Mizuno, Nobumasa; Terashima, Takeshi; Mizumoto, Masaki; Kodama, Yuzo; Torishima, Masako; Kawaguchi, Takahisa; Ashida, Reiko; Kitano, Masayuki; Hanada, Keiji; Furukawa, Masayuki; Kawabe, Ken; Majima, Yoshiyuki; Shimosegawa, Toru

    2017-01-01

    Familial pancreatic cancer (FPC) is broadly defined as two first-degree-relatives with pancreatic cancer (PC) and accounts for 4%-10% of PC. Several genetic syndromes, including Peutz-Jeghers syndrome, hereditary pancreatitis, hereditary breast-ovarian cancer syndrome (HBOC), Lynch syndrome, and familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP), also have increased risks of PC, but the narrowest definition of FPC excludes these known syndromes. When compared with other familial tumors, proven genetic alterations are limited to a small proportion (< 20%) and the familial aggregation is usually modest. However, an ethnic deviation (Ashkenazi Jewish > Caucasian) and a younger onset are common also in FPC. In European countries, “anticipation” is reported in FPC families, as with other hereditary syndromes; a trend toward younger age and worse prognosis is recognized in the late years. The resected pancreases of FPC kindred often show multiple pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PanIN) foci, with various K-ras mutations, similar to colorectal polyposis seen in the FAP patients. As with HBOC patients, a patient who is a BRCA mutation carrier with unresectable pancreatic cancer (accounting for 0%-19% of FPC patients) demonstrated better outcome following platinum and Poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibitor treatment. Western countries have established FPC registries since the 1990s and several surveillance projects for high-risk individuals are now ongoing to detect early PCs. Improvement in lifestyle habits, including non-smoking, is recommended for individuals at risk. In Japan, the FPC study group was initiated in 2013 and the Japanese FPC registry was established in 2014 by the Japan Pancreas Society. PMID:28246467

  14. [Analysis of FGFR2 gene mutations in two Chinese families with Crouzon syndrome].

    PubMed

    Huang, Yanru; Mei, Libin; Su, Wei; Yang, Pu; Liang, Desheng; Wu, Lingqian; Pan, Qian

    2014-06-01

    To detect potential mutations of fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 gene (FGFR2) in two Chinese families with Crouzon syndrome. Genomic DNA was extracted from peripheral blood leukocytes of 20 members from two affected families. All of the 18 exons of the FGFR2 gene were amplified with polymerase chain reaction and sequenced after purification. A missense mutation c.868T>C (p.W290R) in exon 8 of the FGFR2 gene was found solely in 2 affected members from family 1. Another missense mutation c.833G>T (p.C278F) in exon 8 was found solely in 5 affected members of family 2. The missense mutations of the FGFR2 gene are responsible for the Crouzon syndrome in the two families. The c.868T>C missense mutation is reported for the first time in Chinese population.

  15. Unusual association of turner syndrome and hypopituitarism in a Tunisian family.

    PubMed

    Bougacha-Elleuch, N; Elleuch, M; Charfi, N; Mnif, F; Belghith, N; Abdelhedi, F; Kammoun, H; Hachicha, M; Mnif, M; Abid, M

    2016-01-01

    Familial occurrence of either Turner syndrome or hypopituitarism is very rare. Particularly, their association is an uncommon finding. In this context, we describe for the first time 4 sisters with Turner syndrome, hypopituitarism was reported in three among them. Our cohort consists of four Tunisian adult sisters belonging to a consanguineous family. Biochemical analysis, resonance magnetic imaging and cytogenetic analyses were performed. Turner syndrome was diagnosed at the ages of 14, 17, 31 and 43 years in cases 1, 2, 3 and 4 respectively. They suffered from short stature, dysmorphic syndrome and/or delayed puberty. Interestingly, 3 among them showed also hypopituitarism, hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism and central hypothyroidism. Somatotropic insufficiency was proven in one case. Pituitary MRI has shown an empty sella turcica with hypoplastic pituitary gland in three cases. Their karyotypes were compatible with 45X in one case, 45X/46XX in the second and 45X/46XX/47XXY with x label in two cases. Hence, the presence of these familial cases of TS must evoke new etiopathogenetic arguments. Coincidence of hypopituitarism in this family, might suggest common genetic background for the two diseases. This particular family would be a precious tool for an extensive molecular analysis. More attention should be given to other family's members mainly in the presence of delayed puberty and sterility in other members. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Familial Mediterranean fever gene as a possible modifier of Sweet syndrome with chronic myelogenous leukemia.

    PubMed

    Miyoshi, Takashi; Yamashita, Kouhei; Ohno, Tatsuharu; Izumi, Taisuke; Takaori-Kondo, Akifumi; Sasada, Masataka; Uchiyama, Takashi

    2008-01-01

    Sweet syndrome is a multisystem inflammatory disorder characterized by acute fever, as well as painful erythematous plaques infiltrated with mature neutrophils in the absence of vasculitis. The pathogenesis of the disease has not yet been clarified, although several proinflammatory cytokines have been reported to be involved in the disease process. We describe here a patient clinically diagnosed with Sweet syndrome with chronic myelogenous leukemia. The mutational analysis of the patient revealed a compound heterozygous E148Q/R202Q mutation in exon 2 of MEFV gene, which is a causative gene for familial Mediterranean fever. This is the first report to describe MEFV gene mutations in Sweet syndrome. Our results suggest that Sweet syndrome may be mediated though similar inflammatory mechanisms to those of familial Mediterranean fever. Copyright 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. Novel splice site mutation in CNNM4 gene in a family with Jalili syndrome.

    PubMed

    Cherkaoui Jaouad, Imane; Lyahyai, Jaber; Guaoua, Soukaina; El Alloussi, Mustapha; Zrhidri, Abdelali; Doubaj, Yassamine; Boulanouar, Abdelkrim; Sefiani, Abdelaziz

    2017-05-01

    Jalili syndrome is a rare autosomal recessive genetic disease characterized by the association of amelogenesis imperfecta and cone-rod retinal dystrophy. This syndrome is caused by mutations in the CNNM4 gene. Different types of CNNM4 mutations have been reported; missense, nonsense, large deletions, single base insertion, and duplication. We used Sanger sequencing to analyze a large consanguineous family with three siblings affected with Jalili syndrome, suspected clinically after dental and ophthalmological examination. These patients are carrying a novel homozygous mutation in the splice site acceptor of intron 3 (c.1682-1G > C) in the CNNM4 gene. We compare the findings of the present family to those from literature, in order to further delineate Jalili syndrome. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Cancer anorexia-cachexia syndrome: psychological effect on the patient and family.

    PubMed

    McClement, Susan

    2005-01-01

    The majority of patients with advanced cancer experience weight loss, reduced appetite, fatigue, and weakness. Chronic nausea and early satiety may also occur. This constellation of symptoms is known as the cancer anorexia-cachexia syndrome. Together with cancer pain, cancer anorexia-cachexia syndrome has been identified as 1 of the 2 most frequent and devastating problems affecting individuals with advanced malignancies. Research examining the issue of cancer anorexia-cachexia syndrome has been conducted; however, such work is largely biomedical in orientation. In contrast, the psychologic dimensions of the cancer anorexia-cachexia syndrome experience from the perspective of terminally ill patients and their family members is less well explored or described. The ability to provide psychosocial support to patients and families requires that caregivers appreciate the psychologic effect of cancer anorexia and cachexia on these individuals. This article examines that effect in light of existing knowledge and discusses the clinical implications arising from this work.

  19. The Perlman syndrome: familial renal dysplasia with Wilms tumor, fetal gigantism and multiple congenital anomalies. 1984.

    PubMed

    Neri, Giovanni; Martini-Neri, Maria Enrica; Katz, Ben E; Opitz, John M

    2013-11-01

    The ensuing paper by Professor Giovanni Neri and colleagues was originally published in 1984, American Journal of Medical Genetics 19:195–207. The original article described a new family with a condition that the authors designated as the Perlman syndrome. This disorder, while uncommon, is an important multiple congenital anomaly and dysplasia syndrome; the causative gene was recently identified. This paper is a seminal work and is graciously republished by Wiley-Blackwell in the Special Festschrift issue honoring Professor Neri. We describe a familial syndrome of renal dysplasia, Wilms tumor, hyperplasia of the endocrine pancreas, fetal gigantism, multiple congenital anomalies and mental retardation. This condition was previously described by Perlman et al. [1973, 1975] and we propose to call it the "Perlman syndrome." It appears to be transmitted as an autosomal recessive trait. The possible relationships between dysplasia, neoplasia and malformation are discussed. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. TAT gene mutation analysis in three Palestinian kindreds with oculocutaneous tyrosinaemia type II; characterization of a silent exonic transversion that causes complete missplicing by exon 11 skipping.

    PubMed

    Maydan, G; Andresen, B S; Madsen, P P; Zeigler, M; Raas-Rothschild, A; Zlotogorski, A; Gutman, A; Korman, S H

    2006-10-01

    Deficiency of the hepatic cytosolic enzyme tyrosine aminotransferase (TAT) causes marked hypertyrosinaemia leading to painful palmoplantar hyperkeratoses, pseudodendritic keratitis and variable mental retardation (oculocutaneous tyrosinaemia type II or Richner-Hanhart syndrome). Parents may therefore seek prenatal diagnosis, but this is not possible by biochemical assays as tyrosine does not accumulate in amniotic fluid and TAT is not expressed in chorionic villi or amniocytes. Molecular analysis is therefore the only possible approach for prenatal diagnosis and carrier detection. To this end, we sought TAT gene mutations in 9 tyrosinaemia II patients from three consanguineous Palestinian kindreds. In two kindreds (7 patients), the only potential abnormality identified after sequencing all 12 exons and exon-intron boundaries was homozygosity for a silent, single-nucleotide transversion c.1224G > T (p.T408T) at the last base of exon 11. This was predicted to disrupt the 5' donor splice site of exon 11 and result in missplicing. However, as TAT is expressed exclusively in liver, patient mRNA could not be obtained for splicing analysis. A minigene approach was therefore used to assess the effect of c.1224G > T on exon 11 splicing. Transfection experiments with wild-type and c.1224G > T mutant minigene constructs demonstrated that c.1224G > T results in complete exon 11 skipping, illustrating the utility of this approach for confirming a putative splicing defect when cDNA is unavailable. Homozygosity for a c.1249C > T (R417X) exon 12 nonsense mutation (previously reported in a French patient) was identified in both patients from the third kindred, enabling successful prenatal diagnosis of an unaffected fetus using chorionic villous tissue.

  1. Molecular analysis of FGFR 2 and associated clinical observations in two Chinese families with Crouzon syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Ying; Gao, Hongbin; Ai, Siming; Eswarakumar, Jacob V.P.; Li, Tao; Liu, Bingqian; Jiang, Hongye; Liu, Yuhua; Liu, Xialin; Li, Yonghao; Ni, Yao; Chen, Jiangna; Lin, Zhuoling; Liang, Xiaoling; Jin, Chenjin; Huang, Xinhua; Lu, Lin; Liu, Yizhi

    2016-01-01

    Crouzon syndrome, a dominantly inherited disorder and the most common type of craniosynostosis syndrome, is caused by mutations in the fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 (FGFR 2) gene, and characterized by craniosynostosis, shallow orbits, ocular proptosis, midface hypoplasia and a curved, beak-like nose. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 (FGFR 2) gene in two Chinese families with Crouzon syndrome and to characterize the associated clinical features. Two families underwent complete ophthalmic examination, and three patients in two families were diagnosed with Crouzon syndrome. Genomic DNA was extracted from leukocytes of peripheral blood samples, which were collected from the family members and 200 unrelated control subjects from the same population. Exons 8 and 10 of the FGFR 2 gene were amplified using polymerase chain reaction analysis and were directly sequenced. Ophthalmic examinations, including best-corrected visual acuity, slit-lamp examination, fundus examination and Computerized Tomography scans, and physical examinations were performed to exclude systemic diseases. These patients were affected with shallow orbits and ocular proptosis, accompanied by midface hypoplasia, craniosynostosis, strabismus or papilloedema, with clinically normal hands and feet. A heterozygous FGFR 2 missense mutation, c.811-812insGAG (p.273insGlu) in exon 8 was identified in the affected individual, but not in the unaffected family members or the normal control individuals in family 1. In family 2, another heterozygous FGFR 2 missense mutation, c.842A>G (P.Tyr281Cys or Y281C), in exon 8 was identified in the affected boy and his mother, but not in the unaffected family members or the normal control individuals. Although FGFR 2 gene mutations and polymorphisms have been reported in various ethnic groups, particularly in the area of osteology, the present study reported for the first time, to the best of our knowledge, the

  2. Familial craniosynostosis, anal anomalies, and porokeratosis: CAP syndrome.

    PubMed Central

    Flanagan, N; Boyadjiev, S A; Harper, J; Kyne, L; Earley, M; Watson, R; Jabs, E W; Geraghty, M T

    1998-01-01

    We report on the occurrence of coronal craniosynostosis, anal anomalies, and porokeratosis in two male sibs. A third male sib was phenotypically normal as were the parents. The occurrence of these three clinical features has, to our knowledge, not been reported before. Cutaneous or anal anomalies or both have been reported in a number of syndromes associated with craniosynostosis, including Crouzon, Pfeiffer, Apert, and Beare-Stevenson syndromes. These syndromes are associated with mutations in the fibroblast growth factor receptor genes FGFR1, FGFR2, and FGFR3. They are inherited in an autosomal dominant fashion. In contrast, the cases we report do not carry any of the common FGFR mutations and the pedigree suggests autosomal or X linked recessive inheritance. Images PMID:9733036

  3. Differentiating Familial Neuropathies from Guillain-Barré Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Bordini, Brett J; Monrad, Priya

    2017-02-01

    Differentiating Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) from inherited neuropathies and other acquired peripheral neuropathies requires understanding the atypical presentations of GBS and its variant forms, as well as historical and physical features suggestive of inherited neuropathies. GBS is typically characterized by the acute onset of ascending flaccid paralysis, areflexia, and dysesthesia secondary to peripheral nerve fiber demyelination. The disorder usually arises following a benign gastrointestinal or respiratory illness, is monophasic, reaches a nadir with several weeks, and responds to immunomodulatory therapy. Inherited neuropathies with onset before adulthood, whose presentation may mimic Guillain-Barré syndrome, are reviewed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Response to IL-1-receptor antagonist in a child with familial cold autoinflammatory syndrome.

    PubMed

    O'Connell, Susan M; O'Regan, Grainne M; Bolger, Turlough; Hoffman, Hal M; Cant, Andrew; Irvine, Alan D; Watson, Rosemarie M

    2007-01-01

    Familial cold auto-inflammatory syndrome, Muckle-Wells syndrome and chronic infantile neurologic, cutaneous, articular syndrome are related disorders associated with mutations in the CIAS1 gene. They appear to represent a continuum of one disease characterized by IL-1-mediated inflammation. Until recently, these conditions have been difficult to treat; however, with the advent of IL-1-receptor antagonist therapy, many reports of successful treatment of patients with these autoinflammatory diseases have emerged in the past 2 years. We describe an 8-year-old girl, diagnosed with Familial cold auto-inflammatory syndrome, confirmed by presence of a novel CIAS1 mutation, who was refractory to symptomatic treatment. As frequent attacks of urticaria and associated arthralgia had a debilitating effect on the child's lifestyle, a trial of IL-1-receptor antagonist (anakinra) was instituted. Dramatic sustained clinical improvement was evident within days and serum amyloid and C-reactive protein levels normalized within a month. Although several authors have reported successful use of this agent in children with chronic infantile neurologic, cutaneous, articular syndrome, we believe ours is the first report of successful treatment with anakinra in a young child with familial cold auto-inflammatory syndrome.

  5. Dual Familial Roles: An Asperger's Syndrome Case Story

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ivey, Julie K.; Ward, A. Kris

    2010-01-01

    Sibling interactions are challenges that all families face on a daily basis. These interactions are significantly more difficult when one child has autism. With the apparent increase in diagnoses of autism, there are more families each year who are dealing with issues of relationships. Children learn, as part of the growing up experience, how to…

  6. [Gardner syndrome. A report of 3 cases in members of the same family].

    PubMed

    Bertoni, F; Bacchini, P; Marchetti, C; Fagioli, S; Campobassi, A

    1990-03-01

    The aim of the present report is to describe the overall mandibular and extramandibular lesions correlated to Gardner's syndrome which were found in the same family (mother and two daughters). In two cases (mother and one daughter) mandibular lesions consisted of osteoma. In the latter, these were associated with composite odontoma. In the other daughter the lesions consisted of desmoid fibroma. The two daughters revealed single colonic polyposis whereas the mother was affected by multiple colonic polyposis and subcutaneous lipoma. Such a constellation of lesions may be attributed to Gardner's syndrome, a Mendelian hereditary syndrome which is often incomplete. In fact, intestinal polyposis can only be associated with one of the various extraintestinal manifestations of the syndrome. The recognition of the syndrome is important given the high percentage of intestinal polyp-adenocarcinoma associations.

  7. Associated malformations in the family of a patient with Meckel syndrome: heterozygous expression?

    PubMed Central

    Gulati, R; Phadke, S R; Agarwal, S S

    1997-01-01

    Meckel syndrome is an inherited autosomal recessive disease. A family is described in which four persons had minor malformations related to the syndrome, suggesting the possibility of manifesting heterozygotes. It is uncertain whether these malformations represent partial expression of the disease or are coincidental. However, partial expression has been described in heterozygotes for other autosomal recessive diseases. Until the gene responsible for this lethal syndrome is cloned and sequenced, such relatives of the proband may be offered genetic counselling and prenatal diagnosis. PMID:9391891

  8. Parents of children with Asperger syndrome or with learning disabilities: family environment and social support.

    PubMed

    Heiman, Tali; Berger, Ornit

    2008-01-01

    The study examined the family environment and perceived social support of 33 parents with a child diagnosed with Asperger syndrome and 43 parents with a child with learning disability, which were compared to 45 parents of children without disabilities as a control group. Parents completed the Family Environment Scale and Social Support Scale questionnaires. The comparison revealed significant differences for expressiveness and family system organization and for social support. Parents with an Asperger child perceived their family's expressive feelings as lower and the family organization as higher, and perceived their friendships and other support as lower than the other groups of parent. Parents of the control group reported the highest family support. The study highlighted the need for additional social support for parents with a child with special needs, and accentuated the importance of developing awareness and intervention programs to facilitate parents' coping abilities and their family interactions.

  9. Identification of a founder mutation for Pendred syndrome in families from northwest Iran.

    PubMed

    Mohseni, Marzieh; Honarpour, Asal; Mozafari, Reza; Davarnia, Behzad; Najmabadi, Hossein; Kahrizi, Kimia

    2014-11-01

    Mutations in the SLC26A4 gene cause both Pendred syndrome and autosomal recessive nonsyndromic hearing loss (ARNSHL) at the DFNB4 locus. The SLC26A4 mutations vary among different communities. Previous studies have shown that mutations in the SLC26A4 gene are responsible for the more common syndromic hereditary hearing loss in Iran. This study assesses the possibility of a founder mutation for Pendred syndrome in northwest Iran. In this study, we performed comprehensive clinical and genetic evaluations in two unrelated families from northwest Iran with nine members affected by hearing loss (HL). After testing short tandem repeat (STR) markers to confirm linkage to the SLC26A4 locus, we screened the SLC26A4 gene by Sanger sequencing of all 21 exons, exon-intron boundaries and the promoter region for any causative mutation. We identified the same causative mutation in these two families as we had detected earlier in two other Azeri families from northwest Iran. To investigate the possibility of a founder effect in these four families, we conducted haplotype analysis, and 14 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) throughout the SLC26A4 gene were genotyped. Patients in the two families showed the phenotype of Pendred syndrome. A known frameshift mutation (c.965insA, p.N322Fs7X) in exon 8 was identified in the two families, which was the same mutation that we detected previously in two other Azeri families. The results of haplotype analysis showed that all 15 patients from four families shared the founder mutation. Common haplotypes were not observed in noncarrier members. Based on the results of our two studies, the c.965insA mutation has only been described in Iranian families from northwest Iran, so there is evidence for a founder mutation originating in this part of Iran. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Intrafamilial and interfamilial variability of phenotype in familial velo-cardio-facial syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Hajianpour, M.J.; Covle, M.

    1994-09-01

    Two half-sisters and their mother from one family, and two full-brothers and their mother from another family presented with features of velo-cardio-facial syndrome (VCSF)/DiGeorge syndrome (DS) with intrafamilial and interfamilial variability of phenotypic expression. None of these patients had an apparent cleft palate. Cardiac anomaly, jejunal atresia and hypocalcemia were present only in the newborn patient. Fluorescence in situ hybridization for VCFS/DS with probe D22S75 showed a deletion in the 22q11.2 region in patients available for the study.

  11. DICER1 mutation and tumors associated with a familial tumor predisposition syndrome: practical considerations.

    PubMed

    Bardón-Cancho, Eduardo J; Haro-Díaz, Ana; Alonso-García-de la Rosa, Francisco J; Huerta-Aragonés, Jorge; García-Morín, Marina; González-Martínez, Felipe; Garrido-Colino, Carmen

    2017-04-01

    The familial tumor predisposition syndrome known as DICER1-pleuropulmonary blastoma (PPB) or DICER1 tumor predisposition syndrome was first described in 2009, and it involves an increased risk in the occurrence of various tumors, like cystic nephroma and PPB. Here is presented a girl with a cystic nephroma and two cystic lung lesions who was diagnosed years later with the DICER1 gene mutation. This mutation was also found in one of her parents. Thus, the screening for the DICER1 gene mutation may be important in children with certain/multiple tumors and their families.

  12. Down Syndrome, Birth to Adulthood: Giving Families an EDGE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rynders, John E.; Horrobin, J. Margaret

    This updated book provides a collection of longitudinal perspectives on experiences of individuals with Down Syndrome, from birth to adulthood. The book is an outgrowth of a federally funded early intervention study called Project EDGE (Expanding Developmental Growth through Education). Contents cover the following topics: historical review of…

  13. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome: A Guide for Families and Communities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Streissguth, Ann

    The 14 chapters of this book review the research and offer guidelines for intervention with infants and children having fetal alcohol syndrome or fetal alcohol effects (FAS/FAE). Chapters are grouped into five sections on the diseases of fetal alcohol, the science of FAS, a life-span approach to FAS, preparing people with FAS for life in the…

  14. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome: A Guide for Families and Communities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Streissguth, Ann

    The 14 chapters of this book review the research and offer guidelines for intervention with infants and children having fetal alcohol syndrome or fetal alcohol effects (FAS/FAE). Chapters are grouped into five sections on the diseases of fetal alcohol, the science of FAS, a life-span approach to FAS, preparing people with FAS for life in the…

  15. Heterogeneity analysis in 40 X-linked retinitis pigmentosa families

    SciTech Connect

    Teague, P.W.; Aldred, M.A.; Dempster, M.; Harrison, C.; Carothers, A.D.; Hardwick, L.J.; Evans, H.J.; Wright, A.F.; Strain, L.; Brock, D.J.H. )

    1994-07-01

    Analysis of genetic heterogeneity in 40 kindreds with X-linked retinitis pigmentosa (XLRP), with 20 polymorphic markers, showed that significant heterogeneity is present (P=.001) and that 56% of kindreds are of RP3 type and that 26% are of RP2 type. The location of the RP3 locus was found to be 0.4 cM distal to OTC in the Xp21.1 region, and that of the RP2 locus was 6.5 cM proximal to DXS7 in Xp11.2-p11.3. Bayesian probabilities of linkage to RP2, RP3, or to neither locus were calculated. This showed that 20 of 40 kindreds could be assigned to one or the other locus, with a probability >.70 (14 kindreds with RP3 and 6 kindreds with RP2 disease). A further three kindreds were found to be unlinked to either locus, with a probability >.8. The remaining 17 kindreds could not be classified unambiguously. This highlights the difficulty of classifying families in the presence of genetic heterogeneity, where two loci are separated by an estimated 16 cM. 34 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  16. Family influences on adaptive development in young children with Down syndrome.

    PubMed

    Hauser-Cram, P; Warfield, M E; Shonkoff, J P; Krauss, M W; Upshur, C C; Sayer, A

    1999-01-01

    In this study we investigated the extent to which the family environment predicted differences in trajectories of adaptive development in young children with Down syndrome. The sample was comprised of 54 children with Down syndrome and their families who were studied from infancy through the age of 5 years as part of a longitudinal study of children with disabilities. Hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) was used to estimate the parameters of hierarchical growth models in domains of adaptive development. Results indicated that growth in communication, daily living skills, and socialization domains were predicted by measures of the family environment (i.e., family cohesion and mother-child interaction) above and beyond that predicted by maternal education. Further, Bayley MDI measures during infancy did not predict changes in adaptive development in any of the domains. The results are discussed in terms of implications for service provision and for expanding theoretical frameworks to include the development of children with disabilities.

  17. A novel locus for Meckel-Gruber syndrome, MKS3, maps to chromosome 8q24.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Neil V; Gissen, Paul; Sharif, Saghira Malik; Baumber, Laura; Sutherland, Joan; Kelly, Deirdre A; Aminu, Kingi; Bennett, Christopher P; Woods, C Geoffrey; Mueller, Robert F; Trembath, Richard C; Maher, Eamonn R; Johnson, Colin A

    2002-10-01

    Meckel-Gruber syndrome (MKS), the most common monogenic cause of neural tube defects, is an autosomal recessive disorder characterised by a combination of renal cysts and variably associated features, including developmental anomalies of the central nervous system (typically encephalcoele), hepatic ductal dysplasia and cysts, and polydactyly. Locus heterogeneity has been demonstrated by the mapping of the MKS1locus to 17q21-24 in Finnish kindreds, and of MKS2 to 11q13 in North African-Middle Eastern cohorts. In the present study, we have investigated the genetic basis of MKS in eight consanguineous kindreds, originating from the Indian sub-continent, that do not show linkage to either MKS1 or MKS2. We report the localisation of a third MKS locus ( MKS3) to chromosome 8q24 in this cohort by a genome-wide linkage search using autozygosity mapping. We identified a 26-cM region of autozygosity between D8S586 and D8S1108 with a maximum cumulative two-point LOD score at D8S1179 ( Z(max)=3.04 at theta=0.06). A heterogeneity test provided evidence of one unlinked family. Exclusion of this family from multipoint analysis maximised the cumulative multipoint LOD score at locus D8S1128 ( Z(max)=5.65). Furthermore, a heterozygous SNP in DDEF1, a putative candidate gene, suggested that MKS3 mapped within a 15-cM interval. Comparison of the clinical features of MKS3-linked cases with reports of MKS1- and MKS2-linked kindreds suggests that polydactyly (and possibly encephalocele) appear less common in MKS3-linked families.

  18. A severe case of Pfeiffer syndrome associated with stub thumb on the maternal side of the family.

    PubMed

    Kreiborg, S; Cohen, M M

    1993-01-01

    We report a severe case of Pfeiffer syndrome with an early demise. The mother and her own father had unilateral stub thumb, which was inherited as a coincidental autosomal dominant trait. Although the affected thumb was short, it was not broad and neither family member had any features of Pfeiffer syndrome. We conclude that our patient represents a new Pfeiffer syndrome mutation.

  19. Molecular genetic analysis of two large kindreds with intracranial aneurysms demonstrates linkage to 11q24-25 and 14q23-31.

    PubMed

    Ozturk, Ali K; Nahed, Brian V; Bydon, Mohamad; Bilguvar, Kaya; Goksu, Ethem; Bademci, Gulsah; Guclu, Bulent; Johnson, Michele H; Amar, Arun; Lifton, Richard P; Gunel, Murat

    2006-04-01

    Both environmental and genetic factors contribute to the formation, growth, and rupture of intracranial aneurysms (IAs). To search for IA susceptibility genes, we took an outlier approach, using parametric genome-wide linkage analysis in extended IA kindreds in which IA is inherited as a simple Mendelian trait. We hereby present the molecular genetic analysis of 2 such families. For genome-wide linkage analysis, we used a 2-stage approach. First, using gene chips in affected-only analysis, we identified genomic regions that provide maximum theoretical logarithm of odds (lod) scores. Next, to confirm or exclude these candidate loci, we genotyped all available family members, both affected and unaffected, using polymorphic microsatellite markers located within these regions. We obtained significant lod scores of 4.3 and 3.00 for linkage to chromosomes 11q24-25 and 14q23-31, respectively. Molecular genetic analysis of 2 large IA kindreds confirms linkage to chromosome 11q and 14q, which were suggested to contain IA susceptibility genes in a previous study of Japanese sib pairs. Independent identification of these 2 loci strongly suggests that IA susceptibility genes lie within these regions. While demonstrating the genetic heterogeneity of IA, these results are also an important step toward cloning IA genes and ultimately understanding its pathophysiology.

  20. A FBN1 mutation association with different phenotypes of Marfan syndrome in a Chinese family.

    PubMed

    Li, Yapeng; Xu, Jianhua; Chen, Mingjie; Du, Binbin; Li, Qiaoli; Xing, Qinghe; Zhang, Yanzhou

    2016-09-01

    Previous studies demonstrated that patients with different FBN1 mutations often present more considerable phenotypic variation compared to different members of the related family carrying a same mutation. The purpose of our study was to identify pathogenic mutation and provide more information about genotype-phenotypic correlations in a large Chinese family with Marfan syndrome. 15 related family members from a Chinese 4-generation pedigree with Marfan syndrome underwent physical, ophthalmologic, radiological and cardiovascular examinations. The propositus has De Bakey III aortic dissection and didn't fulfill the revised Ghent criteria for Marfan syndrome. Nine family members have ectopia lentis and their echocardiogram was normal. Five other family members have no evidence of Marfan syndrome. Genomic DNA was isolated from blood leukocytes. The exome sequencing was employed on the propositus, then the Sanger sequencing was conducted for mutation verification in other 14 participants of this family. The causative mutation in FBN1 discovered in the propositus was a known heterozygous missense mutation, c.1633T>G (p.R545C), in exon 14 (NM 000138). This same mutation was also identified in all 9 ectopia lentis patients and one unaffected 8-year-old girl. However, the same mutation was not discovered in other 4 unaffected family members. Our data enhance the information of genotype-phenotype correlation owing to FBN1 mutations. To our current knowledge, we firstly reported that the same FBN1 mutation, c. 1633C>T (Arg545Cys), was detected simultaneously in three different cardinal phenotypes (ectopia lentis, aortic dissection and unaffected) within one family. The unaffected girl with FBN1 mutation may presumably represent a rare case of nonpenetrance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Maternal Parenting Stress in Families with a Child with Angelman Syndrome or Prader-Willi Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wulffaert, Josette; Scholte, Evert M.; Van Berckelaer-Onnes, Ina A.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Parenting stress was investigated in mothers with a child with Angelman syndrome (AS) or Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS), which are genetically related. Method: Mothers of 24 children with AS and 23 children with PWS (2-12 years) completed the Nijmegen Parenting Stress Index-Short, Developmental Behaviour Checklist, and Vineland Screener…

  2. Maternal Parenting Stress in Families with a Child with Angelman Syndrome or Prader-Willi Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wulffaert, Josette; Scholte, Evert M.; Van Berckelaer-Onnes, Ina A.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Parenting stress was investigated in mothers with a child with Angelman syndrome (AS) or Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS), which are genetically related. Method: Mothers of 24 children with AS and 23 children with PWS (2-12 years) completed the Nijmegen Parenting Stress Index-Short, Developmental Behaviour Checklist, and Vineland Screener…

  3. Reduced Uptake of Family Screening in Genotype-Negative Versus Genotype-Positive Long QT Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Hanninen, Mikael; Klein, George J; Laksman, Zachary; Conacher, Susan S; Skanes, Allan C; Yee, Raymond; Gula, Lorne J; Leong-Sit, Peter; Manlucu, Jaimie; Krahn, Andrew D

    2015-08-01

    The acceptance and yield of family screening in genotype-negative long QT syndrome (LQTS) remains incompletely characterized. In this study of family screening for phenotype-definite Long QT Syndrome (LQTS, Schwartz score ≥3.5), probands at a regional Inherited Cardiac Arrhythmia clinic were reviewed. All LQTS patients were offered education by a qualified genetic counselor, along with materials for family screening including electronic and paper correspondence to provide to family members. Thirty-eight qualifying probands were identified and 20 of these had family members who participated in cascade screening. The acceptance of screening was found to be lower among families without a known pathogenic mutation (33 vs. 77 %, p = 0.02). A total of 52 relatives were screened; fewer relatives were screened per index case when the proband was genotype-negative (1.7 vs. 3.1, p = 0.02). The clinical yield of screening appeared to be similar irrespective of gene testing results (38 vs. 33 %, p = 0.69). Additional efforts to promote family screening among gene-negative long QT families may be warranted.

  4. Familial testicular germ cell tumor: no associated syndromic pattern identified

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Testicular germ cell tumor (TGCT) is the most common malignancy in young men. Familial clustering, epidemiologic evidence of increased risk with family or personal history, and the association of TGCT with genitourinary (GU) tract anomalies have suggested an underlying genetic predisposition. Linkage data have not identified a rare, highly-penetrant, single gene in familial TGCT (FTGCT) cases. Based on its association with congenital GU tract anomalies and suggestions that there is an intrauterine origin to TGCT, we hypothesized the existence of unrecognized dysmorphic features in FTGCT. Methods We evaluated 38 FTGCT individuals and 41 first-degree relatives from 22 multiple-case families with detailed dysmorphology examinations, physician-based medical history and physical examination, laboratory testing, and genitourinary imaging studies. Results The prevalence of major abnormalities and minor variants did not significantly differ between either FTGCT individuals or their first-degree relatives when compared with normal population controls, except for tall stature, macrocephaly, flat midface, and retro-/micrognathia. However, these four traits were not manifest as a constellation of features in any one individual or family. We did detect an excess prevalence of the genitourinary anomalies cryptorchidism and congenital inguinal hernia in our population, as previously described in sporadic TGCT, but no congenital renal, retroperitoneal or mediastinal anomalies were detected. Conclusions Overall, our study did not identify a constellation of dysmorphic features in FTGCT individuals, which is consistent with results of genetic studies suggesting that multiple low-penetrance genes are likely responsible for FTGCT susceptibility. PMID:24559313

  5. Genotype by energy expenditure interaction with metabolic syndrome traits: the Portuguese healthy family study.

    PubMed

    Santos, Daniel M V; Katzmarzyk, Peter T; Diego, Vincent P; Souza, Michele C; Chaves, Raquel N; Blangero, John; Maia, José A R

    2013-01-01

    Moderate-to-high levels of physical activity are established as preventive factors in metabolic syndrome development. However, there is variability in the phenotypic expression of metabolic syndrome under distinct physical activity conditions. In the present study we applied a Genotype X Environment interaction method to examine the presence of GxEE interaction in the phenotypic expression of metabolic syndrome. A total of 958 subjects, from 294 families of The Portuguese Healthy Family study, were included in the analysis. Total daily energy expenditure was assessed using a 3 day physical activity diary. Six metabolic syndrome related traits, including waist circumference, systolic blood pressure, glucose, HDL cholesterol, total cholesterol and triglycerides, were measured and adjusted for age and sex. GxEE examination was performed on SOLAR 4.3.1. All metabolic syndrome indicators were significantly heritable. The GxEE interaction model fitted the data better than the polygenic model (p<0.001) for waist circumference, systolic blood pressure, glucose, total cholesterol and triglycerides. For waist circumference, glucose, total cholesterol and triglycerides, the significant GxEE interaction was due to rejection of the variance homogeneity hypothesis. For waist circumference and glucose, GxEE was also significant by the rejection of the genetic correlation hypothesis. The results showed that metabolic syndrome traits expression is significantly influenced by the interaction established between total daily energy expenditure and genotypes. Physical activity may be considered an environmental variable that promotes metabolic differences between individuals that are distinctively active.

  6. Genotype by Energy Expenditure Interaction with Metabolic Syndrome Traits: The Portuguese Healthy Family Study

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Daniel M. V.; Katzmarzyk, Peter T.; Diego, Vincent P.; Souza, Michele C.; Chaves, Raquel N.; Blangero, John; Maia, José A. R.

    2013-01-01

    Moderate-to-high levels of physical activity are established as preventive factors in metabolic syndrome development. However, there is variability in the phenotypic expression of metabolic syndrome under distinct physical activity conditions. In the present study we applied a Genotype X Environment interaction method to examine the presence of GxEE interaction in the phenotypic expression of metabolic syndrome. A total of 958 subjects, from 294 families of The Portuguese Healthy Family study, were included in the analysis. Total daily energy expenditure was assessed using a 3 day physical activity diary. Six metabolic syndrome related traits, including waist circumference, systolic blood pressure, glucose, HDL cholesterol, total cholesterol and triglycerides, were measured and adjusted for age and sex. GxEE examination was performed on SOLAR 4.3.1. All metabolic syndrome indicators were significantly heritable. The GxEE interaction model fitted the data better than the polygenic model (p<0.001) for waist circumference, systolic blood pressure, glucose, total cholesterol and triglycerides. For waist circumference, glucose, total cholesterol and triglycerides, the significant GxEE interaction was due to rejection of the variance homogeneity hypothesis. For waist circumference and glucose, GxEE was also significant by the rejection of the genetic correlation hypothesis. The results showed that metabolic syndrome traits expression is significantly influenced by the interaction established between total daily energy expenditure and genotypes. Physical activity may be considered an environmental variable that promotes metabolic differences between individuals that are distinctively active. PMID:24260389

  7. Phenotypic variability and diffuse arterial lesions in a family with Loeys-Dietz syndrome type 4.

    PubMed

    Mazzella, J-M; Frank, M; Collignon, P; Langeois, M; Legrand, A; Jeunemaitre, X; Albuisson, J

    2017-03-01

    Syndromic thoracic aortic aneurysm and dissection (TAAD) can suggest Marfan, vascular Ehlers-Danlos or Loeys-Dietz (LDS) syndromes. Several of the TGFβ-pathway-related genes predispose to different types of LDS. Heterozygous loss-of-function variations in TGFβ2 have been shown to be responsible for a novel form of syndromic TAAD associated with an impairment of the mitral valve and cerebrovascular disease called Loeys-Dietz syndrome type 4 (LDS4). We report the clinical characterization of a LDS4 French family with sudden deaths and diffuse vascular lesions, caused by a frameshift mutation in TGFβ2 gene: c.[995del]; p.(Leu332TrpfsTer27). Clinical characteristics include aneurysm of aortic sinus, skeletal and cutaneous features compatible with a syndromic form of TAAD (joint hypermobility, scoliosis, and easy bruises), intracranial aneurysms and rare mitral valve involvement. Iliac aneurysms, systemic medium caliber arteries dissections, and mild developmental delay were present in the family, and have not been described in LDS4. Phenotypic variability was also an important finding, including absence of clinical vascular events at advanced age in one case. Our data expand the phenotype of LDS4: we confirm that TGFβ2 mutations are responsible for true LDS syndrome with non-specific features of connective tissue disorders and diffuse vascular lesions. Adapted vascular follow up and prevention has to be proposed for these patients.

  8. Family and Professional Congruence in Communication Assessments of Preschool Boys with Fragile X Syndrome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Sandra C.; Roberts, Joanne E.

    1999-01-01

    A study compared family and professional assessment of the communication skills of 34 preschool males with Fragile X syndrome. Moderate agreement was found for expressive communication ratings, whereas agreement for receptive communication ratings was low to moderate. Parents rated their children significantly higher than did professionals for…

  9. Family Health and Characteristics in Chronic Fatigue Syndrome, Juvenile Rheumatoid Arthritis, and Emotional Disorders of Childhood.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rangel, Luiza; Garralda, M. Elena; Jeffs, Jim; Rose, Gillian

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To compare family health and characteristics in children with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS), in juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (JRA), and emotional disorders. Method: Parents of 28 children and adolescents aged 11 to 18 years with CFS, 30 with JRA, and 27 with emotional disorders (i.e., anxiety and/or depressive disorders) were…

  10. Stress and Family Functioning in Parents of Girls with Rett Syndrome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry, Adrienne; And Others

    1992-01-01

    This survey of parents of 29 girls with Rett syndrome found that subjects reported more stress, lower marital satisfaction, and certain adaptations in family functioning compared to norms. However, most parents scored in the normal range. Scores were not related to socioeconomic status or characteristics of the affected child. (DB)

  11. Family Factors in the Early Development of Children with Down Syndrome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hooste, Ann Van; Maes, Bea

    2003-01-01

    This article provides an overview of important family and environmental factors that affect early development of infants and children with Down syndrome. It concludes that a moderately directive parenting style combined with sensitive, responsive, and reciprocal interactions, embedded in a general stimulating environment, are favorable to the…

  12. Using an Epidemiological Approach to Examine Outcomes Affecting Young Children with Down Syndrome and Their Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodapp, Robert M.; Urbano, Richard C.; So, Stephanie A.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we utilise an approach drawn from the field of epidemiology to explore what is known and unknown about young children with Down syndrome and their families. After describing what we mean by an epidemiological approach, we review basic findings for children with intellectual disabilities, as well as challenges to performing such…

  13. The Adolescent with Down's Syndrome: Life for the Teenager and for the Family.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buckley, Sue; Sacks, Ben

    The book presents the results of a survey of the daily life and attitudes of 90 English families with an adolescent with Down Syndrome (DS). The first chapter reviews the typical development of DS children. Chapter 2 provides demographic data including schooling (94% attended schools for children with severe learning difficulties), residence (83%…

  14. The Impact of Tourette's Syndrome in the School and the Family: Perspectives from Three Stakeholder Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rivera-Navarro, Jesús; Cubo, Esther; Almazán, Javier

    2014-01-01

    This article analyzes the perceptions of Spanish health professionals, children with Tourette's Syndrome (TS) and their parents about social, school and family problems related to the disorder. A qualitative research methodology was used involving Focus Groups (FGs) made up of children with TS (× 2 FGs), parents/caregivers of persons with TS (× 2…

  15. Family Health and Characteristics in Chronic Fatigue Syndrome, Juvenile Rheumatoid Arthritis, and Emotional Disorders of Childhood.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rangel, Luiza; Garralda, M. Elena; Jeffs, Jim; Rose, Gillian

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To compare family health and characteristics in children with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS), in juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (JRA), and emotional disorders. Method: Parents of 28 children and adolescents aged 11 to 18 years with CFS, 30 with JRA, and 27 with emotional disorders (i.e., anxiety and/or depressive disorders) were…

  16. The Adolescent with Down's Syndrome: Life for the Teenager and for the Family.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buckley, Sue; Sacks, Ben

    The book presents the results of a survey of the daily life and attitudes of 90 English families with an adolescent with Down Syndrome (DS). The first chapter reviews the typical development of DS children. Chapter 2 provides demographic data including schooling (94% attended schools for children with severe learning difficulties), residence (83%…

  17. Using an Epidemiological Approach to Examine Outcomes Affecting Young Children with Down Syndrome and Their Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodapp, Robert M.; Urbano, Richard C.; So, Stephanie A.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we utilise an approach drawn from the field of epidemiology to explore what is known and unknown about young children with Down syndrome and their families. After describing what we mean by an epidemiological approach, we review basic findings for children with intellectual disabilities, as well as challenges to performing such…

  18. The Impact of Tourette's Syndrome in the School and the Family: Perspectives from Three Stakeholder Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rivera-Navarro, Jesús; Cubo, Esther; Almazán, Javier

    2014-01-01

    This article analyzes the perceptions of Spanish health professionals, children with Tourette's Syndrome (TS) and their parents about social, school and family problems related to the disorder. A qualitative research methodology was used involving Focus Groups (FGs) made up of children with TS (× 2 FGs), parents/caregivers of persons with TS (× 2…

  19. [Ocular symptoms in a family with pseudo-Ullrich-Turner syndrome].

    PubMed

    Förster, W; Lenz, W; Busse, H

    1991-11-01

    We report on a family with some features of the Pseudo-Ullrich-Turner-Syndrome, so-called Noonan-Syndrome. Besides low-set ears, microgenia, short neck, pterygium colli, low-anterior hair line and small stature as well as partial scoliosis, partial cubitus valgus and camptodactylia, retinal detachment, disturbances of the eye motility, keratoconus, unilateral ptosis and antimongoloid slant of the palpebral fissures in different expression are described. The caryotype was normal. Some of the features can be seen within at least 2 generations of the family. It seems to be an autosomal genetic mode of transmission. Differences and common characteristics in comparison to the literature are shown. Differential diagnostic aspects are described. A definite relation to a syndrome already described is not possible.

  20. A family with Townes-Brocks syndrome with congenital hypothyroidism and a novel mutation of the SALL1 gene.

    PubMed

    Choi, Won Ik; Kim, Ji Hye; Yoo, Han Wook; Oh, Sung Hee

    2010-12-01

    Townes-Brocks syndrome (TBS) is a rare autosomal dominant congenital disorder caused by mutations in the SALL1 gene. Its signs and symptoms overlap with other genetic syndromes, including VACTERL association, Pendred syndrome, Baller-Gerold syndrome, and cat eye syndrome. Structural vertebral abnormalities, hypoplasia of the thumb, and radial bone abnormalities, which are not usually associated with TBS, help in the differential diagnosis of these syndromes. We report the case of a family whose members were diagnosed with TBS with congenital hypothyroidism and had a novel SALL1 gene mutation.

  1. Comparison Groups in Autism Family Research: Down Syndrome, Fragile X Syndrome, and Schizophrenia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seltzer, Marsha Mailick; Abbeduto, Leonard; Krauss, Marty Wyngaarden; Greenberg, Jan; Swe, April

    2004-01-01

    This paper examines methodological challenges inherent in conducting research on families of children with autism and in comparing these families with others who are coping with different types of disabilities or who have nondisabled children. Although most comparative research has contrasted families whose child has autism with those whose child…

  2. Comparison Groups in Autism Family Research: Down Syndrome, Fragile X Syndrome, and Schizophrenia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seltzer, Marsha Mailick; Abbeduto, Leonard; Krauss, Marty Wyngaarden; Greenberg, Jan; Swe, April

    2004-01-01

    This paper examines methodological challenges inherent in conducting research on families of children with autism and in comparing these families with others who are coping with different types of disabilities or who have nondisabled children. Although most comparative research has contrasted families whose child has autism with those whose child…

  3. Irritable bowel syndrome. Strategy for the family physician.

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, W. G.

    1994-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome is one of the most common reasons for disability and health care seeking. A sensible strategy for management incorporates a confident diagnosis based upon history, physical examination, and pertinent tests. The physician can then reassure the patient, offer dietary and stress management advice, and recommend bran to relieve constipation and to evoke the placebo response. Patients who do not respond could require supportive psychotherapy or a drug for the dominant symptom. A few require careful referral, but overall responsibility should remain with the primary physician. Images Figures 1-2 PMID:8130678

  4. Osteochondritis dissecans and Osgood Schlatter disease in a family with Stickler syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Al Kaissi, Ali; Klaushofer, Klaus; Grill, Franz

    2009-01-01

    Purpose Stickler syndrome is among the most common autosomal dominant connective tissue disorders but is often unrecognised and therefore not diagnosed by clinicians. Despite much speculation, the cause of osteochondrosis in general and osteochondritis dissecans (OCD) and Osgood Schlatter syndrome (OSS) in particular remain unclear. Etiological understanding is essential. We describe a pair of family subjects presented with OCD and OSS as a symptom complex rather than a diagnosis. Methods Detailed clinical and radiographic examinations were undertaken with emphasis on the role of MRI imaging. Magnetic resonance imaging may allow early prediction of articular lesion healing potential in patients with Stickler syndrome. Results The phenotype of Stickler syndrome can be diverse and therefore misleading. The expectation that the full clinical criteria of any given genetic disorder such as Stickler syndrome will always be present can easily lead to an underestimation of these serious inheritable disorders. We report here two family subjects, a male proband and his aunt (paternal sister), both presented with the major features of Stickler syndrome. Tall stature with marfanoid habitus, astigmatism/congenital vitreous abnormality and submucus cleft palate/cleft uvula, and enlarged painful joints with early onset osteoarthritis. Osteochondritis dissecans (OCD) and Osgood Schlatter syndrome (OSS) were the predominating joint abnormalities. Conclusion We observed that the nature of the articular and physeal abnormalities was consistent with a localised manifestation of a more generalised epiphyseal dysplasia affecting the weight-bearing joints. In these two patients, OCD and OSS appeared to be the predominant pathologic musculoskeletal consequences of an underlying Stickler's syndrome. It is empirical to consider generalised epiphyseal dysplasia as a major underlying causation that might drastically affect the weight-bearing joints. PMID:19193224

  5. Role of the family physician in the care of children with Down syndrome.

    PubMed

    Bunt, Christopher W; Bunt, Stephanie K

    2014-12-15

    Down syndrome is the most common chromosomal abnormality, occurring in one in 691 live births in the United States each year. Prenatally, the sequential contingent test for aneuploidy screening is highly sensitive for Down syndrome and has a low false-positive rate. The diagnosis should be confirmed with fluorescent in situ hybridization followed by chromosomal karyotyping at birth. Children with Down syndrome have varied degrees of intellectual disability and more health complications than other children. However, advancements in recent decades have led to improved life expectancy, satisfaction, and quality of life. Newborns with Down syndrome require echocardiography and cardiology evaluation. Children should have annual screenings for vision and hearing, and laboratory studies for subclinical thyroid disease and blood disorders. Clinicians should provide unbiased and comprehensive culturally sensitive information regarding available services for children with Down syndrome. There is good evidence that comprehensive early intervention programs (e.g., speech, visual, physical, and occupational therapy; child psychology) enhance development. It is important to enroll children with Down syndrome in state-specific resources as early as possible. Given the advances in medical care and early intervention programs, regular health supervision by family physicians can allow children with Down syndrome to lead healthy and productive lives.

  6. Clinical characterization and mutation spectrum in Hispanic families with adenomatous polyposis syndromes

    PubMed Central

    Cruz-Correa, Marcia; Diaz-Algorri, Yaritza; Mendez, Vanessa; Vazquez, Pedro Juan; Lozada, Maria Eugenia; Freyre, Katerina; Lathroum, Liselle; Gonzalez-Pons, Maria; Hernandez-Marrero, Jessica; Giardiello, Francis; Rodriguez-Quilichini, Segundo

    2013-01-01

    Background Several genetically defined hereditary CRC syndromes are associated with colonic polyposis including familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) and MUTYH adenomatous polyposis (MAP). Limited data exists on the clinical characterization and genotypic spectrum of polyposis syndromes among Hispanics. Purpose To describe the phenotype and genotype of Puerto Rican Hispanic patients with FAP and MUTYH and compare with other ethnic and racial groups. Methods Probands were identified from the Puerto Rico Familial Colorectal Cancer Registry (PURIFICAR). Recruited individuals completed risk factors, medical, and family history questionnaires and underwent genetic testing for genotype analysis. Frequency analysis, chi-square, Fisher’s exact test and Wilcoxon rank-sum test were used for statistical analysis methods. Results A total of 31 FAP (from 19 families) and 13 MAP (from 13 families) Hispanic patients recruited from the Puerto Rico Familiar Colorectal Cancer Registry were evaluated. Among the FAP cases, mean age at diagnosis was 27.6 (range 9–71 years); 67.7% cases had more than 100 polyps and 41.9% had upper gastrointestinal polyps. Among the 19 FAP families, there were 77 affected FAP individuals and 26 colorectal cancer cases. Genetic mutations were available for 42.2% of FAP families; all mutations identified were unique. Surgeries were reported in 31 cases; 14 (45.2%) prophylactic surgeries and 6 (19.4%) therapeutic surgeries for management of CRC. Among MAP cases, mean age at diagnosis was 53 (range 34–76 years) and genetic analysis revealed homozygous biallelic mutations (G382D) in 53.8%, compound heterozygous mutations (G382/Y165C) in 23%, and non-G382/Y165C monoallelic mutations in 23%. Conclusions Familial cancer registries should be promoted as vehicles for detection, education and follow up of families at-risk of acquiring familial cancers. PURIFICAR is the first and only familial cancer registry in Puerto Rico providing these services to families

  7. Familial Uncombable Hair Syndrome: Ultrastructural Hair Study and Response to Biotin.

    PubMed

    Boccaletti, V; Zendri, E; Giordano, G; Gnetti, L; De Panfilis, G

    2007-01-01

    We report a family affected to the fourth generation by uncombable hair syndrome. This syndrome is characterized by unruly, dry, blond hair with a tangled appearance. The family pedigree strongly supports the hypothesis of autosomal dominant inheritance; some members of the family had, apart from uncombable hair, minor signs of atopy and ectodermal dysplasia, such as abnormalities of the nails. The diagnosis was confirmed by means of extensive scanning electron microscopy. A trial with oral biotin 5 mg/day was started on two young patients with excellent results as regards the hair appearance, although scanning electron microscopy did not show structural changes in the hair. After a 2-year-period of follow-up, hair normality was maintained without biotin, while nail fragility still required biotin supplementation for control.

  8. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome in the family members of women with polycystic ovary syndrome from North India

    PubMed Central

    Shabir, Iram; Ganie, Mohd Ashraf; Zargar, Mohd Afzal; Bhat, Dilafroz; Mir, Mohd Muzzafar; Jan, Aleem; Shah, Zaffar Amin; Jan, Vicar; Rasool, Riyaz; Naqati, Andleeb

    2014-01-01

    Background: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most complex and common endocrine disorder of women in reproductive years. In addition to irregular menstrual cycles, chronic anovulation and hyperandrogenism, it has many metabolic manifestations such as obesity, hyperlipidemia, hyperinsulinemia, insulin resistance, dysglycemia, increased risk of cardiovascular disease or possibly endometrial cancer. Familial clustering of PCOS in consistence with the genetic susceptibility has been described. Materials and Methods: The present study assessed the clinical, biochemical and hormonal parameters including prevalence of metabolic syndrome by two different criteria in the first- degree relatives of patients with PCOS. Results: The average age of 37 index patients was 23 ± 3.6 years, with the mean age of menarche as 13.3 ± 1.2 years. The mean age and age of menarche in mothers (n = 22) was 48.8 ± 5.1 and 13 ± 1.3 years, respectively, whereas as it was 23.5 ± 4.7 and 13.3 ± 1.2 years in sisters (n = 22), respectively. Metabolic syndrome (MS) defined by International Diabetes Federation (IDF) criteria was present in 10 index patients, 1 brother, 4 sisters, 17 mothers and 15 fathers while as by Adult Treatment Panel III (ATP III) it was in 8 index patients, 5 sisters, 16 mothers and 11 fathers. Conclusion: The presence of MS or related metabolic derangements is high in the family members of women with PCOS. PMID:24944933

  9. Primary familial hypomagnesemia syndrome: a new approach in treatment.

    PubMed

    Nesibe, Andiran; Sinasi, Ozsoylu

    2012-01-01

    Primary familial hypomagnesemia is a rare genetically determined disorder characterized by a selective defect in magnesium (Mg) absorption. Mutations of the transient receptor potential melastatin 6 (TRPM6) gene, which codes for TRPM6, the basic channel for intestinal Mg absorption and a new member of the transient receptor potential (TRP) family of cation channels, result in primary hypomagnesemia. Here we present a 14-year-old Turkish girl whose first symptoms manifested as neonatal tetany at 17 days old. During her follow-up, she was mainly taking high-dose oral Mg therapy. However, intravenous Mg and calcium (Ca) therapies were given during symptomatic attacks. When her requirements for Ca and Mg were increased during the pubertal growth period, which overlapped with increased loss of Mg during the summer, oral Ca and active vitamin D (calcitriol, Rocaltrol) were added. Calcitriol is needed because hypomagnesemia results in decreased production and resistance to the actions of active vitamin D, which leads to the disturbance of intracellular signal transmission. Although high-dose oral Mg is reported as a sufficient therapy in most of the patients with primary familial hypomagnesemia, addition of active vitamin D to the usual oral Mg and Ca therapy seems very useful, as in this patient.

  10. Infantile Pain Episodes Associated with Novel Nav1.9 Mutations in Familial Episodic Pain Syndrome in Japanese Families

    PubMed Central

    Kondo, Daiki; Harada, Kouji H.; Youssefian, Shohab; Shioi, Hirotomo; Kabata, Risako; Domon, Yuki; Kubota, Kazufumi; Kitano, Yutaka; Takayama, Yasunori; Hitomi, Toshiaki; Ohno, Kousaku; Saito, Yoshiaki; Asano, Takeshi; Tominaga, Makoto

    2016-01-01

    Painful peripheral neuropathy has been correlated with various voltage-gated sodium channel mutations in sensory neurons. Recently Nav1.9, a voltage-gated sodium channel subtype, has been established as a genetic influence for certain peripheral pain syndromes. In this study, we performed a genetic study in six unrelated multigenerational Japanese families with episodic pain syndrome. Affected participants (n = 23) were characterized by infantile recurrent pain episodes with spontaneous mitigation around adolescence. This unique phenotype was inherited in an autosomal-dominant mode. Linkage analysis was performed for two families with 12 affected and nine unaffected members, and a single locus was identified on 3p22 (LOD score 4.32). Exome analysis (n = 14) was performed for affected and unaffected members in these two families and an additional family. Two missense variants were identified: R222H and R222S in SCN11A. Next, we generated a knock-in mouse model harboring one of the mutations (R222S). Behavioral tests (Hargreaves test and cold plate test) using R222S and wild-type C57BL/6 (WT) mice, young (8–9 weeks old; n = 10–12 for each group) and mature (36–38 weeks old; n = 5–6 for each group), showed that R222S mice were significantly (p < 0.05) more hypersensitive to hot and cold stimuli than WT mice. Electrophysiological studies using dorsal root ganglion neurons from 8–9-week-old mice showed no significant difference in resting membrane potential, but input impedance and firing frequency of evoked action potentials were significantly increased in R222S mice compared with WT mice. However, there was no significant difference among Nav1.9 (WT, R222S, and R222H)-overexpressing ND7/23 cell lines. These results suggest that our novel mutation is a gain-of-function mutation that causes infantile familial episodic pain. The mouse model developed here will be useful for drug screening for familial episodic pain syndrome associated with SCN11A mutations

  11. Patient and family resources for living with myelodysplastic syndromes.

    PubMed

    Kurtin, Sandra E; Paterson, Phyllis; Wintrich, Sophie; Iraca, Tracey; Hassan, Audrey Ann; Murray, Deborah; Hogan, Sue

    2012-06-01

    Primarily a disease affecting older adults, myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) are a class of incurable myeloid malignancies with variable clinical presentation, treatment recommendations, and prognoses. Although effective communication between healthcare professionals and patients and their caregivers is a significant part of optimizing clinical outcomes, studies have shown that all three frequently have an incomplete understanding of MDS, its therapeutic options, and the fact that MDS is a malignancy. In addition, the advanced age of the patient population, high frequency of comorbidities, and variability of disease outcomes based on risk status require consistent communication across a wide number and type of healthcare providers as well as an individualized approach to patient and caregiver education. This article discusses these challenges and provides a number of resources designed to help educate healthcare professionals, patients, and caregivers.

  12. Autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome (ALPS). Case report and family history.

    PubMed

    Ries, F; Ferster, A; Rieux-Laucat, F; Biwer, A; Dicato, M

    2010-01-01

    Autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome (ALPS) is a rare disease caused by defective lymphocyte apoptosis and is characterized by non-malignant lymphoproliferation, hepatosplenomegaly, autoimmune manifestations and increased risk of both Hodgkin's and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Most forms of the disease are due to germ line mutations of the FAS gene and manifest during the first years of life with fluctuating lymphadenopathies, hemolysis, immune thrombocytopenia. During the second decade of life disease manifestations improve spontaneously but autoimmune problems still occur and there is an increased risk of lymphoproliferative malignancy. We describe a typical case of ALPS in a now 44 year old man, followed since the age of 2 for disease manifestations that were unclear at the beginning.

  13. All in the family? Analyzing the impact of family history in addition to genotype on medullary thyroid carcinoma aggressiveness in MEN2A patients.

    PubMed

    Long, Kristin L; Etzel, Carol; Rich, Thereasa; Hyde, Samuel; Perrier, Nancy D; Graham, Paul H; Lee, Jeffrey E; Hu, Mimi I; Cote, Gilbert J; Gagel, Robert; Grubbs, Elizabeth G

    2017-04-01

    Several guidelines for patients with multiple endocrine neoplasia 2A (MEN2A) take into account genotype and family history of medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) disease aggressiveness. We sought to determine if an association exists independent of genotype, which could provide important information for counseling MEN2A patients in management of their MTC. Pedigrees of patients with ≥5 family members with MEN2A were retrospectively reviewed. Analysis was performed among kindreds with the most frequently observed codon mutation (RET 634). Familial MTC disease aggressiveness was evaluated using: (1) mean age at diagnosis of MTC, (2) current mean age of carriers without MTC, (3) proportion of kindred with MTC with metastatic disease at diagnosis, (4) proportion of kindred with MTC with metastasis/death from MTC as worst outcome, and (5) proportion of kindred with disease progression. 170 affected patients from 12 different MEN2A kindreds met inclusion criteria. The number of affected family members available for study per kindred ranged from 8 to 43 individuals. A difference in mean age of MTC diagnosis was found in screened patients (p = 0.01); mean age of MTC-free patients did not differ (p = 0.93). No differences were noted among kindreds in disease stage at presentation, worst outcome, or progression; marked variation in these measures was noted within families. In conclusion, a difference in age of MTC diagnosis among different RET 634 kindreds was identified. In contrast, notable intra-familial variability in disease aggressiveness was observed. Based on these findings, we recommend counseling patients with codon 634 mutations that their MTC disease course cannot be predicted by that of their relatives.

  14. Severe Gardner Syndrome in Families with Mutations Restricted to a Specific Region of the APC Gene

    PubMed Central

    Davies, D. Rhodri; Armstrong, John G.; Thakker, Nalin; Horner, Keith; Guy, Simon P.; Clancy, Tara; Sloan, Phil; Blair, Val; Dodd, Chris; Warnes, Tom W.; Harris, Rodney; Evans, D. Gareth R.

    1995-01-01

    Familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) is associated with a number of extraintestinal manifestations, which include osteomas, epidermoid cysts, and desmoid tumors, often referred to as “Gardner syndrome.” Recent studies have suggested that some of the phenotypic features of FAP are dependent on the position of the mutation within the APC gene. In particular, the correlation between congenital hypertrophy of the retinal pigment epithelium (CHRPE) and APC genotype indicates that affected families may be divided into distinct groups. We have investigated the association between the dento-osseous features of GS on dental panoramic radiographs (DPRs) and APC genotype in a regional cohort of FAP families. DPRs were performed on 84 affected individuals from 36 families, and the dento-osseous features of FAP were quantified by a weighted scoring system. Significant DPR abnormalities were present in 69% of affected individuals. The APC gene mutation was identified in 27 of these families, and for statistical analysis these were subdivided into three groups. Group 1 comprised 18 affected individuals from seven families with mutations 5' of exon 9; these families (except one) did not express CHRPE. Groups 2 comprised 38 individuals from 16 families with mutations between exon 9 and codon 1444, all of whom expressed CHRPE. Group 3 comprised 11 individuals from four families with mutations 3' of codon 1444, none of whom expressed CHRPE. Families with mutations 3' of codon 1444 had significantly more lesions on DPRs (P < .001) and appeared to have a higher incidence of desmoid tumors. These results suggest that the severity of some of the features of Gardner syndrome may correlate with genotype in FAP. ImagesFigure 2 PMID:7485167

  15. Quantitative and qualitative insights into the experiences of children with Rett syndrome and their families.

    PubMed

    Downs, Jenny; Leonard, Helen

    2016-09-01

    Rett syndrome is a rare neurodevelopmental disorder caused by a mutation in the MECP2 gene. It is associated with severe functional impairments and medical comorbidities such as scoliosis and poor growth. The population-based and longitudinal Australian Rett Syndrome Database was established in 1993 and has supported investigations of the natural history of Rett syndrome and effectiveness of treatments, as well as a suite of qualitative studies to identify deeper meanings. This paper describes the early presentation of Rett syndrome, including regression and challenges for families seeking a diagnosis. We discuss the importance of implementing strategies to enhance daily communication and movement, describe difficulties interpreting the presence of pain and discomfort, and argue for a stronger evidence base in relation to management. Finally, we outline a framework for understanding quality of life in Rett syndrome and suggest areas of life to which we can direct efforts in order to improve quality of life. Each of these descriptions is illustrated with vignettes of child and family experiences. Clinicians and researchers must continue to build this framework of knowledge and understanding with efforts committed to providing more effective treatments and supporting the best quality of life for those affected.

  16. Imprinting mutations suggested by abnormal DNA methylation patterns in familial angelman and Prader-Willi syndromes

    SciTech Connect

    Reis, A. ); Dittrich, B.; Buiting, K.; Gillessen-Kaesbach, G.; Horsthemke, B. ); Greger, V.; Lalande, M. ); Anvret, M. )

    1994-05-01

    The D15S9 and D15S63 loci in the Prader-Willi/Angelman syndrome region on chromosome 15 are subject to parent-of-origin-specific DNA methylation. The authors have found two Prader-Willi syndrome families in which the patients carry a maternal methylation imprint on the paternal chromosome. In one of these families, the patients have a small deletion encompassing the gene for the small nuclear ribonucleoprotein polypeptide N, which maps 130 kb telomeric to D15S63. Furthermore, they have identified a pair of nondeletion Angelman syndrome sibs and two isolated Angelman syndrome patients who carry a paternal methylation imprint on the maternal chromosome. These Angelman and Prader-Willi syndrome patients may have a defect in the imprinting process in 15q11-13. The authors propose a model in which a cis-acting mutation prevents the resetting of the imprinting signal in the germ line and thus disturbs the expression of imprinted genes in this region. 39 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Imprinting mutations suggested by abnormal DNA methylation patterns in familial Angelman and Prader-Willi syndromes.

    PubMed Central

    Reis, A.; Dittrich, B.; Greger, V.; Buiting, K.; Lalande, M.; Gillessen-Kaesbach, G.; Anvret, M.; Horsthemke, B.

    1994-01-01

    The D15S9 and D15S63 loci in the Prader-Willi/Angelman syndrome region on chromosome 15 are subject to parent-of-origin-specific DNA methylation. We have found two Prader-Willi syndrome families in which the patients carry a maternal methylation imprint on the paternal chromosome. In one of these families, the patients have a small deletion encompassing the gene for the small nuclear ribonucleoprotein polypeptide N, which maps 130 kb telomeric to D15S63. Furthermore, we have identified a pair of nondeletion Angelman syndrome sibs and two isolated Angelman syndrome patients who carry a paternal methylation imprint on the maternal chromosome. These Angelman and Prader-Willi syndrome patients may have a defect in the imprinting process in 15q11-13. We propose a model in which a cis-acting mutation prevents the resetting of the imprinting signal in the germ line and thus disturbs the expression of imprinted genes in this region. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:8178815

  18. Atypical Angelman syndrome with macrocephaly due to a familial imprinting center deletion.

    PubMed

    Ronan, Anne; Buiting, Karin; Dudding, Tracy

    2008-01-01

    Two elderly brothers with severe intellectual disability were diagnosed with Angelman syndrome after a once-removed, 15-year-old cousin was found to have the syndrome due to a deletion of the imprinting center. For many years it was believed the brothers, who both have macrocephaly, were affected by nonsyndromic X-linked mental retardation. This was because, apart from absent speech and intellectual disability, the phenotype of the two men was not characteristic of Angelman syndrome. Conversely, the cousin, in addition to severe intellectual disability, language impairment, and ataxic gait, has microcephaly. None of the three have seizures, and so in the presence of the brothers' macrocephaly, Angelman syndrome was not considered until a diagnosis was made in the younger distant cousin. We report on a familial imprinting center deletion and the importance of considering the mild and atypical Angelman syndrome phenotypes within the differential diagnosis of intellectual handicap, particularly in clarifying the genetic risk to other family members. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  19. Coincidence of neurofibromatosis and myotonic dystrophy in a kindred.

    PubMed Central

    Ichikawa, K; Crosley, C J; Culebras, A; Weitkamp, L

    1981-01-01

    Neurofibromatosis and myotonic dystrophy have occurred in ten members of a nonconsanguineous family with a high degree of concordance. The expression of neurofibromatosis is peripheral, and the expression of myotonic dystrophy has produced at least moderately severe disability. Neither disease has appeared to alter the phenotypic expression of the other when both have occurred simultaneously. Secretor typing supports the assumption that the myotonic dystrophy in this family is the commonly recognised secretor-linked entity. The segregation pattern of the two disorders in this family suggest the possibility of close linkage between the loci for neurofibromatosis and myotonic dystrophy. PMID:6787200

  20. Family History of Diabetes, Acculturation, and the Metabolic Syndrome among Mexican Americans: Proyecto SALSA.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Tamara; Perez, Angelica; Alcaraz, John; Talavera, Gregory; McCarthy, Jeanette J

    2007-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine effect modifiers of the relationship between family history of diabetes, a proxy for genetic predisposition, and the metabolic syndrome. Subjects were a cross-sectional sample of 205 Mexican-Americans patients of the San Ysidro Health Center in San Diego County. Self-reported parental history of diabetes was examined as a risk factor for individual metabolic syndrome traits (hyperglycemia, hypertension, abdominal obesity, hypertriglyceridemia and low HDL-cholesterol) and a composite phenotype, defined both by standard modified National Cholesterol Education Program- Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP-ATPIII) criteria and using principal components analysis, in age and sex-adjusted multiple logistic and linear regression models. Family history of diabetes was most strongly associated with individual traits of hyperglycemia (P = .0002) and low HDL-C (P = .001) and conferred a significant increased odds of metabolic syndrome defined by both NCEP-ATPIII criteria (odds ratio 3.57, 95% confidence interval 1.82, 7.01; P = .0002) and by principal components analysis (P = 0.003). Moreover, the family history association with metabolic syndrome was modified by number of years living in the United States (interaction P = .04). This same effect was not seen for diabetes (P = .19). The results of our study support a common etiology for at least some components of the metabolic syndrome, especially hyperglycemia and low HDL-cholesterol, the basis of which may be genetic. Moreover, the effect of genes on these traits may be modified by longer duration in the United States, supporting the concept of gene-environment interaction in the development of the metabolic syndrome.

  1. Molecular analysis of FGFR 2 and associated clinical observations in two Chinese families with Crouzon syndrome.

    PubMed

    Lin, Ying; Gao, Hongbin; Ai, Siming; Eswarakumar, Jacob V P; Li, Tao; Liu, Bingqian; Jiang, Hongye; Liu, Yuhua; Liu, Xialin; Li, Yonghao; Ni, Yao; Chen, Jiangna; Lin, Zhuoling; Liang, Xiaoling; Jin, Chenjin; Huang, Xinhua; Lu, Lin; Liu, Yizhi

    2016-09-01

    Crouzon syndrome, a dominantly inherited disorder and the most common type of craniosynostosis syndrome, is caused by mutations in the fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 (FGFR 2) gene, and characterized by craniosynostosis, shallow orbits, ocular proptosis, midface hypoplasia and a curved, beak‑like nose. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 (FGFR 2) gene in two Chinese families with Crouzon syndrome and to characterize the associated clinical features. Two families underwent complete ophthalmic examination, and three patients in two families were diagnosed with Crouzon syndrome. Genomic DNA was extracted from leukocytes of peripheral blood samples, which were collected from the family members and 200 unrelated control subjects from the same population. Exons 8 and 10 of the FGFR 2 gene were amplified using polymerase chain reaction analysis and were directly sequenced. Ophthalmic examinations, including best‑corrected visual acuity, slit‑lamp examination, fundus examination and Computerized Tomography scans, and physical examinations were performed to exclude systemic diseases. These patients were affected with shallow orbits and ocular proptosis, accompanied by midface hypoplasia, craniosynostosis, strabismus or papilloedema, with clinically normal hands and feet. A heterozygous FGFR 2 missense mutation, c.811‑812insGAG (p.273insGlu) in exon 8 was identified in the affected individual, but not in the unaffected family members or the normal control individuals in family 1. In family 2, another heterozygous FGFR 2 missense mutation, c.842A>G (P.Tyr281Cys or Y281C), in exon 8 was identified in the affected boy and his mother, but not in the unaffected family members or the normal control individuals. Although FGFR 2 gene mutations and polymorphisms have been reported in various ethnic groups, particularly in the area of osteology, the present study reported for the first time, to the best of

  2. Familial dysautonomia (Riley-Day syndrome): when baroreceptor feedback fails.

    PubMed

    Norcliffe-Kaufmann, Lucy; Kaufmann, Horacio

    2012-12-24

    Familial dysautonomia (FD) is a rare hereditary disorder caused by mutations within the gene that encodes for I-κ-B kinase complex associated protein (IKAP). A deficiency of IKAP affects the development of primary sensory neurons including those carrying baroreflex afferent volleys, a feature that explains their characteristic sensory loss and labile blood pressure. This review describes the history, the genotype of FD and the unusual cardiovascular autonomic phenotype of these patients. We outline the main consequences of a failure to receive information from arterial baroreceptors, including the characteristic "autonomic storms" and severe end-organ target damage. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Anakinra induces complete remission of nephrotic syndrome in a patient with familial mediterranean fever and amyloidosis.

    PubMed

    Sevillano, Ángel M; Hernandez, Eduardo; Gonzalez, Esther; Mateo, Isabel; Gutierrez, Eduardo; Morales, Enrique; Praga, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    Renal amyloidosis is one of the most severe complications of familial Mediterranean fever (FMF). Colchicine has reduced the incidence of this complication, which now only appears in untreated, under-treated and resistant patients, but it is usually ineffective in patients with advanced amyloidosis. Here we report a patient with FMF and biopsy-proven amyloidosis who presented with nephrotic syndrome despite colchicine treatment. Anakinra (an interleukin-1β inhibitor) was started and a dramatic complete remission of nephrotic syndrome was observed in the following months. Anakinra can be an effective treatment for FMF patients with severe secondary amyloidosis.

  4. [Unusual complications of the Peutz-Jeghers-syndrome in two consecutive generations of the same family].

    PubMed

    Lazaridis, Ch; Papaziogas, B; Atmatzidis, K; Kalaitzis, E; Pavlidis, T; Papaziogas, T

    2002-02-01

    The Peutz-Jeghers syndrome is an autosomal dominant inherited disease, characterized by the presence of hamartomatous polyposis of the gastrointestinal tract and perioral mucocutaneous pigmentation. The incidence of surgical complications in these patients is relatively rare, and correlates with the size and location of the polyps. We report on two complications of the Peutz-Jeghers syndrome which occurred in two generations of the same family. There was a perforation and an invagination of the small intestine. Both cases were treated by resection of the small intestine.

  5. Waardenburg syndrome type I: Dental phenotypes and genetic analysis of an extended family

    PubMed Central

    de Aquino, Sibele-Nascimento; Paranaíba, Lívia-Maris-R.; Gomes, Andreia; dos-Santos-Neto, Pedro; Coletta, Ricardo-D.; Cardoso, Aline-Francoise; Frota, Ana-Cláudia; Martelli-Júnior, Hercílio

    2016-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to describe the pattern of inheritance and the clinical features in a large family with Waardenburg syndrome type I (WS1), detailing the dental abnormalities and screening for PAX3 mutations. Material and Methods To characterize the pattern of inheritance and clinical features, 29 family members were evaluated by dermatologic, ophthalmologic, otorhinolaryngologic and orofacial examination. Molecular analysis of the PAX3 gene was performed. Results The pedigree of the family,including the last four generations, was constructed and revealed non-consanguineous marriages. Out of 29 descendants, 16 family members showed features of WS1, with 9 members showing two major criteria indicative of WS1. Five patients showed white forelock and iris hypopigmentation, and four showed dystopia canthorum and iris hypopigmentation. Two patients had hearing loss. Dental abnormalities were identified in three family members, including dental agenesis, conical teeth and taurodontism. Sequencing analysis failed to identify mutations in the PAX3 gene. Conclusions These results confirm that WS1 was transmitted in this family in an autosomal dominant pattern with variable expressivity and high penetrance. The presence of dental manifestations, especially tooth agenesis and conical teeth which resulted in considerable aesthetic impact on affected individuals was a major clinical feature. Clinical relevance: This article reveals the presence of well-defined dental changes associated with WS1 and tries to establish a possible association between these two entities showing a new spectrum of WS1. Key words:Waardenburg syndrome, hearing loss, oral manifestations, mutation. PMID:27031059

  6. Employment Impact and Financial Burden for Families of Children with Fragile X Syndrome: Findings from the National Fragile X Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ouyang, L.; Grosse, S.; Raspa, M.; Bailey, D.

    2010-01-01

    Background: The employment impact and financial burden experienced by families of children with fragile X syndrome (FXS) has not been quantified in the USA. Method: Using a national fragile X family survey, we analysed data on 1019 families with at least one child who had a full FXS mutation. Out-of-pocket expenditures related to fragile X were…

  7. Employment Impact and Financial Burden for Families of Children with Fragile X Syndrome: Findings from the National Fragile X Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ouyang, L.; Grosse, S.; Raspa, M.; Bailey, D.

    2010-01-01

    Background: The employment impact and financial burden experienced by families of children with fragile X syndrome (FXS) has not been quantified in the USA. Method: Using a national fragile X family survey, we analysed data on 1019 families with at least one child who had a full FXS mutation. Out-of-pocket expenditures related to fragile X were…

  8. Climbing the Branches of a Family Tree: Diagnosis of Fragile X Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Visootsak, Jeannie; Hipp, Heather; Clark, Heather; Berry-Kravis, Elizabeth; Anderson, Tovi; Laney, Dawn

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine the average number of family members who are diagnosed with a Fragile X Mental Retardation-1 (FMR1) mutation after a proband receives the initial diagnosis of Fragile X syndrome (FXS). Study design We reviewed pedigrees of families who have been evaluated at the Fragile X Center at Emory University, Atlanta, GA. Through these pedigrees, we determined the number of additional family members diagnosed as FMR1 premutation carriers or with full mutation FXS, following the initial diagnosis in each proband. Results The Fragile X pedigree review identified 176 probands, including 108 males (61%) and 68 females (39%). A total of 785 family members were diagnosed with expanded fragile X alleles, 278 males (35%) and 507 females (65%). These family members included 227 individuals with full mutation FXS (219 males, 8 females) and 558 premutation carriers (59 males, 499 females). After the initial diagnosis of a proband with FXS, there were, on average, at least 5 additional family members who were diagnosed with an FMR1 mutation. Conclusions Our study confirms that taking a detailed family history after diagnosis of a proband with FXS is likely to identify multiple family members with FMR1 mutations. It is important that the pediatrician or other health care provider making a diagnosis of FXS recognize the value of a detailed family history for timely diagnosis and treatment of additional individuals who may be FMR1 premutation carriers or have full mutation FXS. PMID:24612903

  9. Mutations in FGFR1 and FGFR2 cause familial and sporadic Pfeiffer syndrome.

    PubMed

    Schell, U; Hehr, A; Feldman, G J; Robin, N H; Zackai, E H; de Die-Smulders, C; Viskochil, D H; Stewart, J M; Wolff, G; Ohashi, H

    1995-03-01

    Pfeiffer syndrome (PS) is an autosomal dominant skeletal disorder which affects the bones of the skull, hands and feet. Previously, we have mapped PS in a subset of families to chromosome 8cen by linkage analysis and demonstrated a common mutation in the fibroblast growth factor receptor-1 (FGFR1) gene in the linked families. Here we report a second locus for PS on chromosome 10q25, and present evidence that mutations in the fibroblast growth factor receptor-2 (FGFR2) gene on 10q25 cause PS in an additional subset of familial and sporadic cases. Three different point mutations in FGFR2, which alter the same acceptor splice site of exon B, were observed in both sporadic and familial PS. In addition, a T to C transition in exon B predicting a cysteine to arginine substitution was identified in three sporadic PS individuals. Interestingly, this T to C change is identical to a mutation in FGFR2 previously reported in Crouzon syndrome, a phenotypically similar disorder but one lacking the hand and foot anomalies seen in PS. Our results highlight the genetic heterogeneity in PS and suggest that the molecular data will be an important complement to the clinical phenotype in defining craniosynostosis syndromes.

  10. FGFR2 mutation in a Chinese family with unusual Crouzon syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zi-Li; Chen, Xue; Zhuang, Wen-Juan; Zhao, Wei; Liu, Ya-Ni; Zhang, Fang-Xia; Ha, Ruo-Shui; Wu, Jin-Hua; Zhao, Chen; Sheng, Xun-Lun

    2016-01-01

    AIM To describe the clinical characteristics with genetic lesions in a Chinese family with Crouzon syndrome. METHODS All five patients from this family were included and received comprehensive ophthalmic and systemic examinations. Direct sequencing of the FGFR2 gene was employed for mutation identification. Crystal structure analysis was applied to analyze the structural changes associated with the substitution. RESULTS All patients presented typical Crouzon features, including short stature, craniosynostosis, mandibular prognathism, shallow orbits with proptosis, and exotropia. Intrafamilial phenotypic diversities were observed. Atrophic optic nerves were exclusively detected in the proband and her son. Cranial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) implied a cystic lesion in her sellar and third ventricular regions. A missense mutation, FGFR2 p.Cys342Trp, was found as disease causative. This substitution would generate conformational changes in the extracellular Ig-III domain of the FGFR-2 protein, thus altering its physical and biological properties. CONCLUSION We describe the clinical presentations and genotypic lesions in a Chinese family with Crouzon syndrome. The intrafamilial phenotypic varieties in this family suggest that other genetic modifiers may also play a role in the pathogenesis of Crouzon syndrome. PMID:27803855

  11. FGFR2 molecular analysis and related clinical findings in one Chinese family with Crouzon syndrome.

    PubMed

    Lin, Ying; Liang, Xuanwei; Ai, Siming; Chen, Chuan; Liu, Xialin; Luo, Lixia; Ye, Shaobi; Li, Baoxin; Liu, Yizhi; Yang, Huasheng

    2012-01-01

    The purposed of this study was to investigate the fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 (FGFR2) gene in one Chinese family with Crouzon syndrome and to characterize the related clinical features. One family underwent complete ophthalmic examinations, and two patients were diagnosed with Crouzon syndrome. Genomic DNA was extracted from leukocytes of peripheral blood collected from the family and 100 unrelated control subjects from the same population. Exons 8 and 10 of FGFR2 were amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and directly sequenced. We performed ophthalmic examinations, including best-corrected visual acuity, slit-lamp examination, fundus examination, Pentacam, Goldmann perimetry, and computed tomography (CT) of the skull. The two patients were affected with shallow orbits and ocular proptosis, accompanied by midface hypoplasia, craniosynostosis, and clinically normal hands and feet. A heterozygous FGFR2 missense mutation c.866A>C (Gln289Pro) in exon 8 was identified in the affected individuals, but not in any of the unaffected family members and the normal controls. Although FGFR2 mutations and polymorphisms have been reported in various ethnic groups, especially in the area of osteology, we report, for the first time, the identification of one new FGFR2 mutation in Chinese patients with Crouzon syndrome.

  12. FGFR2 mutation in a Chinese family with unusual Crouzon syndrome.

    PubMed

    Li, Zi-Li; Chen, Xue; Zhuang, Wen-Juan; Zhao, Wei; Liu, Ya-Ni; Zhang, Fang-Xia; Ha, Ruo-Shui; Wu, Jin-Hua; Zhao, Chen; Sheng, Xun-Lun

    2016-01-01

    To describe the clinical characteristics with genetic lesions in a Chinese family with Crouzon syndrome. All five patients from this family were included and received comprehensive ophthalmic and systemic examinations. Direct sequencing of the FGFR2 gene was employed for mutation identification. Crystal structure analysis was applied to analyze the structural changes associated with the substitution. All patients presented typical Crouzon features, including short stature, craniosynostosis, mandibular prognathism, shallow orbits with proptosis, and exotropia. Intrafamilial phenotypic diversities were observed. Atrophic optic nerves were exclusively detected in the proband and her son. Cranial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) implied a cystic lesion in her sellar and third ventricular regions. A missense mutation, FGFR2 p.Cys342Trp, was found as disease causative. This substitution would generate conformational changes in the extracellular Ig-III domain of the FGFR-2 protein, thus altering its physical and biological properties. We describe the clinical presentations and genotypic lesions in a Chinese family with Crouzon syndrome. The intrafamilial phenotypic varieties in this family suggest that other genetic modifiers may also play a role in the pathogenesis of Crouzon syndrome.

  13. FGFR2 molecular analysis and related clinical findings in one Chinese family with Crouzon Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Ying; Liang, Xuanwei; Ai, Siming; Chen, Chuan; Liu, Xialin; Luo, Lixia; Ye, Shaobi; Li, Baoxin; Yang, Huasheng

    2012-01-01

    Purpose The purposed of this study was to investigate the fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 (FGFR2) gene in one Chinese family with Crouzon syndrome and to characterize the related clinical features. Methods One family underwent complete ophthalmic examinations, and two patients were diagnosed with Crouzon syndrome. Genomic DNA was extracted from leukocytes of peripheral blood collected from the family and 100 unrelated control subjects from the same population. Exons 8 and 10 of FGFR2 were amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and directly sequenced. We performed ophthalmic examinations, including best-corrected visual acuity, slit-lamp examination, fundus examination, Pentacam, Goldmann perimetry, and computed tomography (CT) of the skull. Results The two patients were affected with shallow orbits and ocular proptosis, accompanied by midface hypoplasia, craniosynostosis, and clinically normal hands and feet. A heterozygous FGFR2 missense mutation c.866A>C (Gln289Pro) in exon 8 was identified in the affected individuals, but not in any of the unaffected family members and the normal controls. Conclusions Although FGFR2 mutations and polymorphisms have been reported in various ethnic groups, especially in the area of osteology, we report, for the first time, the identification of one new FGFR2 mutation in Chinese patients with Crouzon syndrome. PMID:22355256

  14. Non-Syndromic Familial Keratocystic Odontogenic Tumour: A Rare Case Report in Japanese Identical Twins

    PubMed Central

    Maruoka, Yutaka; Yamaji, Iena; Kawai, Shigeo

    2016-01-01

    Keratocystic Odontogenic Tumour (KCOT) is unicystic or multicystic intraosseous benign tumour of odontogenic origin that recurs due to locally destructive behaviour. KCOTs are usually the first manifestation of Nevoid Basal Cell Carcinoma Syndrome (NBCCS), an autosomal dominant disorder also known as Gorlin’s syndrome and they are most frequently observed familial symptom regardless of patients’ nationality. In addition, the recurrence rate and multiplicity of KCOTs is relatively high as compared to that of other sporadic carcinomas. KCOT has been considered as a non-hereditary lesion and its familial onset is an extremely rare event in non-NBCCS cases. Here, we describe previously unreported non-syndromic multiple KCOT cases in identical twins in a Japanese family. The subjects were female Japanese identical twins who were 26 and 27 years old, respectively, at the time of diagnosis for KCOT. They had no major or minor features of NBCCS other than KCOT. Although there were lesions that were likely to be dentigerous cysts based on radiographic findings, one of them was KCOT. This case report highlights the importance of precise diagnosis, choice of surgical method and careful observation for multiplicity or familial onset in sporadic KCOT cases without NBCCS. PMID:27656582

  15. Congenital heart defects in two siblings in an Axenfeld-Rieger syndrome family.

    PubMed

    Akkus, Mehmet Necdet; Argin, Atilla

    2010-04-01

    Axenfeld-Rieger syndrome is a genetically heterogeneous, autosomal dominant disorder characterized by anomalies of the anterior segment of the eye, face, teeth, and umbilicus. Many other extraocular findings, including congenital heart defects, have been reported in association with this syndrome. It has been suggested by some investigators that the coexistence of Axenfeld-Rieger syndrome and congenital heart defects is not a chance event but it represents a distinct entity. We report a family in which four members in three generations have typical ocular features of Axenfeld-Rieger syndrome. Two of them, who are siblings, also have congenital heart defects. The congenital heart defect was bicuspid aortic valve anomaly with severe stenosis and mild regurgitation in one sibling and ostium secundum atrial septal defect in the other. To our knowledge, the combination of congenital heart defects with Axenfeld-Rieger syndrome in siblings has not been reported previously. Our observation further strengthens the notion that Axenfeld-Rieger syndrome associated with congenital heart defects is not a chance event.

  16. Familial 16q24.3 microdeletion involving ANKRD11 causes a KBG-like syndrome.

    PubMed

    Sacharow, Stephanie; Li, Deling; Fan, Yao Shan; Tekin, Mustafa

    2012-03-01

    Haploinsufficiency of ANKRD11 encoding ankyrin repeat domain-containing protein 11 was recently reported as the cause of a syndrome due to microdeletion, characterized by intellectual disability with minor facial anomalies and short stature. Most recently, intragenic mutations of ANKRD11 were found in a cohort of patients with KBG syndrome. KBG is an autosomal dominant intellectual disability syndrome characterized by short stature, characteristic facial appearance, macrodontia, and skeletal anomalies. It remains unknown if deletion of the entire ANKRD11 causes KBG syndrome. We present a mother and child with a heterozygous 365 Kb deletion at 16q24.3 containing ANKRD11, ZNF778, and SPG7 genes. The child presented with developmental delay, facial anomalies, hand anomalies, and a congenital heart defect. The mother has short stature, facial anomalies, macrodontia, hand anomalies, and learning disability. Both individuals had many findings reported in KBG syndrome and the family met the suggested diagnostic criteria. However, typical macrodontia with fused incisors, costovertebral anomalies, and delayed bone age were not present. We conclude that microdeletions involving ANKRD11 result in a phenotype similar to that of KBG syndrome. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. CYLD GeneticTesting for Brooke-Spiegler Syndrome, Familial Cylindromatosis and Multiple Familial Trichoepitheliomas

    PubMed Central

    Dubois, Anna; Wilson, Valerie; Bourn, David; Rajan, Neil

    2015-01-01

    The clinical presentation of multiple, rare, skin appendage tumours called cylindromas has been attributed to germline mutations in the tumour suppressor gene CYLD (OMIM 605018). Brooke-Spiegler Syndrome (BSS), familial cylindromatosis (FC) and multiple familial trichoepitheliomas (MFT) (OMIM #605041, #132700, #601606 respectively) differ due to the types of other skin appendage tumour seen together with cylindroma, such as spiradenoma and trichoepithelioma. Previously thought to be separate entities, they are now viewed as allelic variants with overlapping phenotypes, supported by mutation analysis of CYLD . The conditions display autosomal dominant inheritance and affected individuals develop multiple benign skin tumours most commonly on the head and neck. CYLD testing can be performed using PCR and Sanger sequencing for patients with: 1. Multiple cylindromas, spiradenomas or trichoepitheliomas. 2. A single cylindroma, spiradenoma or trichoepithelioma and an affected first-degree relative with any of these tumours. 3. An asymptomatic family member at 50% risk with a known mutation in the family. PMID:25737804

  18. Pyogenic arthritis, pyoderma gangrenosum, and acne syndrome maps to chromosome 15q.

    PubMed

    Yeon, H B; Lindor, N M; Seidman, J G; Seidman, C E

    2000-04-01

    Pyoderma gangrenosum, cystic acne, and aseptic arthritis are clinically distinct disorders within the broad class of inflammatory diseases. Although this triad of symptoms is rarely observed in a single patient, a three-generation kindred with autosomal-dominant transmission of these three disorders has been reported as "PAPA syndrome" (MIM 604416). We report mapping of a disease locus for familial pyoderma gangrenosum-acne-arthritis to the long arm of chromosome 15 (maximum two-point LOD score, 5.83; recombination fraction [straight theta] 0 at locus D15S206). Under the assumption of complete penetrance, haplotype analysis of recombination events defined a disease interval of 10 cM, between D15S1023 and D15S979. Successful identification of a single disease locus for this syndrome suggests that these clinically distinct disorders may share a genetic etiology. These data further indicate the role of genes outside the major histocompatibility locus in inflammatory disease.

  19. Bolivian Kindred with Combined Spinocerebellar Ataxia Type 2 and 10

    PubMed Central

    Baizabal-Carvallo, José Fidel; Xia, Guangbin; Botros, Peter; Laguna, Janeth; Ashizawa, Tetsuo; Jankovic, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    Spinocerebellar ataxias (SCA) are a group of rare hereditary neurodegenerative disorders. Rare cases of two SCA mutations in the same individual have been reported in the literature, however, family descriptions are lacking. Here we present the clinical features and genetic findings of a Bolivian family expressing both SCA2 and SCA10 mutations. The index case and his mother had both SCA2 and SCA10 mutations with a combined clinical phenotype of both disorders, including slow saccades (SCA2) and seizures (SCA10). The uncle of the index case had only a SCA10 mutation. Although the presence of two SCA mutations in the same individuals may be coincidental, the low probability of having both mutations suggests that these mutations might be particularly prevalent in Bolivian population. This is the first description of a family with two SCA mutations with affected subjects having a combined SCA2 and SCA10 phenotype. PMID:25630585

  20. Genetic counseling in a Navajo hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer kindred.

    PubMed

    Lynch, H T; Drouhard, T; Vasen, H F; Cavalieri, J; Lynch, J; Nord, S; Smyrk, T; Lanspa, S; Murphy, P; Whelan, K L; Peters, J; de la Chapelle, A

    1996-01-01

    Cross-cultural genetic counseling was provided to an extended Navajo Indian family in which the MLH1 gene mutation for hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) had been identified. The family had been observed by the authors since 1983 and over the years had been provided with intensive education regarding the natural history of HNPCC as well as recommendations for cancer surveillance and management that was responsive to this natural history. Following identification of the MLH1 mutation, DNA from family members was evaluated by a reference laboratory (OncorMed, Gaithersburg, MD), where sequences were checked in both the forward and reverse directions against the published sequence for MLH1. The 4bp deletion beginning at the first nucleotide of codon 727 was easily visualized in the heterozygous condition in both affected and predispositional individuals. The family was reeducated as a group and then provided further education individually during genetic counseling sessions, at which time they were appraised of potential penalties, such as insurance and employer discrimination, and psychological sequelae that could result from knowledge of the MLH1 mutation. Strict confidentiality of this information was assured. DNA testing was performed on 51 family members. Twenty-three individuals were counseled, seven of whom were positive for MHL1. Reactions ranged from full acceptance of the genetic implications to traditional Navajo reasoning such as the family had been cursed. DNA-based genetic counseling requires comparison and empathy, coupled with intensive preeducation regarding potential penalties and advantages that might emanate from this knowledge. Special care must be given to patients' culture, beliefs, and traditions.

  1. A novel mutation of the adrenocorticotropin receptor (ACTH-R) gene in a family with the syndrome of isolated glucocorticoid deficiency, but no ACTH-R abnormalities in two families with the triple A syndrome.

    PubMed

    Tsigos, C; Arai, K; Latronico, A C; DiGeorge, A M; Rapaport, R; Chrousos, G P

    1995-07-01

    Isolated glucocorticoid deficiency (IGD) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by primary adrenocortical insufficiency, usually without mineralocorticoid deficiency. Occasionally, the disorder is associated with alacrima and achalasia of the esophagus (triple A syndrome), suggesting potential heterogeneity in its etiology. Mutations in the ACTH receptor gene have been reported in several families with IGD. We have amplified and directly sequenced the entire intronless ACTH receptor gene in 1 other family with IGD and 2 families with triple A syndrome. The proband with IGD was a homozygote for an A-->G substitution, changing tyrosine 254 to cysteine in the third extracellular loop of the receptor protein, probably interfering with ligand binding. Both of her parents were heterozygotes for this mutation, which was not detected in 100 normal alleles. No mutations were identified in the entire coding area of the ACTH receptor in the 2 families with triple A syndrome, supporting the idea of a developmental or postreceptor defect in this syndrome.

  2. Protracted febrile myalgia syndrome in a kidney transplant recipient with familial Mediterranean fever.

    PubMed

    Abdel Halim, Medhat M; Al-Otaibi, Torki; Donia, Farouk; Gheith, Osama; Asif, Ponnambath; Nawas, Moideen; Rashad, Rashad H; Said, Tarek; Nair, Prasad; Nampoory, Narayanan

    2015-04-01

    Drug-induced toxic myopathy is a complication of familial Mediterranean fever in patients who receive colchicine, especially when combined with cyclosporine. Protracted febrile myalgia syndrome is a severe form of familial Mediterranean fever. A 34-year-old man who had familial Mediterranean fever for > 15 years developed kidney failure because of secondary amyloidosis. He received living-unrelated-donor kidney transplant that functioned normally. He was on colchicine prophylaxis that was continued after transplant, and he received immuno-suppression induction with antithymocyte globulin and maintenance with prednisolone, mycophenolate mofetil, and cyclosporine. After 2 months, he presented with severe myopathy and elevated creatine kinase. Muscle biopsy showed evidence of drug-induced toxic myopathy, most likely caused by cyclosporine in combination with colchicine. Cyclosporine was replaced with sirolimus and colchicine was stopped. Symptoms partially improved and creatine kinase decreased to normal. The prednisolone dosage was reduced gradually to 5 mg daily. At 8 months after transplant, he was readmitted because of severe arthralgia, prolonged fever, pleuritic chest pain, diffuse abdominal pain, purpuric rash, macroscopic hematuria, proteinuria, and diarrhea. The C-reactive protein and erythrocyte sedimentation rate were elevated. The clinical diagnosis was recurrent familial Mediterranean fever presenting as protracted febrile myalgia syndrome. Despite the history of toxic myopathy, he was restarted on colchicine (0.5 mg, twice daily), and colchicine was well tolerated. There was marked improvement of most symptoms within several days. Follow-up 5 years later showed normal kidney graft function and no familial Mediterranean fever activity on colchicine prophylaxis. In summary, familial Mediterranean fever reactivation and protracted febrile myalgia syndrome after kidney transplant may be treated with colchicine and modulation of immunosuppressive therapy.

  3. [Considerations on family dynamics and the malnutrition syndrome in Mexican children].

    PubMed

    Vásquez-Garibay, Edgar Manuel; González-Rico, José Luis; Romero-Velarde, Enrique; Sánchez-Talamantes, Eva; Navarro-Lozano, María Eugenia; Nápoles-Rodríguez, Francisco

    2015-01-01

    Since the early 1990s we noted that family dysfunction was more common in children with severe primary malnutrition than in children admitted to the hospital without malnutrition. Defects on feeding habits during the first year of life, especially early weaning and inadequate complementary feeding were more common in dysfunctional families. We also observed that chronic malnutrition in preschool children, and overweight and obesity in schoolchildren were more common in children from dysfunctional families. Once the association between dysfunctional family dynamics and obesity in schoolchildren was demonstrated, it was observed that low education of fathers and mothers increased twofold the possibility of family dysfunction: OR: 2.06; 95% CI: 1.37-3.10 and OR: 2.47; 95% CI: 1.57-3.89, respectively. In addition, the low-income and the lower purchasing power of foods were associated to family dysfunction (p<0.05). A remaining task is to explore how to assess family dysfunction in composite, extended, single-parent families where there exist other persons vulnerable to the different entities of malnutrition syndrome and indeed depend on adults for their care, food and nutrition.

  4. Family functioning mediates adaptation in caregivers of individuals with Rett syndrome.

    PubMed

    Lamb, Amanda E; Biesecker, Barbara B; Umstead, Kendall L; Muratori, Michelle; Biesecker, Leslie G; Erby, Lori H

    2016-11-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate factors related to family functioning and adaptation in caregivers of individuals with Rett syndrome (RS). A cross-sectional quantitative survey explored the relationships between demographics, parental self-efficacy, coping methods, family functioning and adaptation. A forward-backward, step-wise model selection procedure was used to evaluate variables associated with both family functioning and adaptation. Analyses also explored family functioning as a mediator of the relationship between other variables and adaptation. Bivariate analyses (N=400) revealed that greater parental self-efficacy, a greater proportion of problem-focused coping, and a lesser proportion of emotion-focused coping were associated with more effective family functioning. In addition, these key variables were significantly associated with greater adaptation, as was family functioning, while controlling for confounders. Finally, regression analyses suggest family functioning as a mediator of the relationships between three variables (parental self-efficacy, problem-focused coping, and emotion-focused coping) with adaptation. This study demonstrates the potentially predictive roles of expectations and coping methods and the mediator role of family functioning in adaptation among caregivers of individuals with RS, a chronic developmental disorder. A potential target for intervention is strengthening of caregiver competence in the parenting role to enhance caregiver adaptation. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  5. [Molecular genetics of familial tumour syndromes of the central nervous system].

    PubMed

    Murnyák, Balázs; Szepesi, Rita; Hortobágyi, Tibor

    2015-02-01

    Although most of the central nervous system tumours are sporadic, rarely they are associated with familial tumour syndromes. These disorders usually present with an autosomal dominant inheritance and neoplasia develops at younger age than in sporadic cases. Most of these tumours are bilateral, multiplex or multifocal. The causative mutations occur in genes involved in cell cycle regulation, cell growth, differentiation and DNA repair. Studying these hereditary cancer predisposition syndromes associated with nervous system tumours can facilitate the deeper understanding of the molecular background of sporadic tumours and the development of novel therapeutic agents. This review is an update on hereditary tumour syndromes with nervous system involvement with emphasis on molecular genetic characteristics and their clinical implications.

  6. Mutations in TFAP2B cause Char syndrome, a familial form of patent ductus arteriosus.

    PubMed

    Satoda, M; Zhao, F; Diaz, G A; Burn, J; Goodship, J; Davidson, H R; Pierpont, M E; Gelb, B D

    2000-05-01

    Char syndrome is an autosomal dominant trait characterized by patent ductus arteriosus, facial dysmorphism and hand anomalies. Using a positional candidacy strategy, we mapped TFAP2B, encoding a transcription factor expressed in neural crest cells, to the Char syndrome critical region and identified missense mutations altering conserved residues in two affected families. Mutant TFAP2B proteins dimerized properly in vitro, but showed abnormal binding to TFAP2 target sequence. Dimerization of both mutants with normal TFAP2B adversely affected transactivation, demonstrating a dominant-negative mechanism. Our work shows that TFAP2B has a role in ductal, facial and limb development and suggests that Char syndrome results from derangement of neural-crest-cell derivatives.

  7. Familial case of Blau syndrome associated with a CARD15/NOD2 mutation.

    PubMed

    Villanueva-Mendoza, Cristina; Arellanes-García, Lourdes; Cubas-Lorenzo, Victoria; Jimenez-Martinez, Maria C; Flores-Suárez, Luis Felipe; Zenteno, Juan Carlos

    2010-09-01

    Blau syndrome is a rare autosomal dominant disorder characterized by early onset granulomatous arthritis, uveitis, skin rash and camptodactyly. We report a familial case of Blau syndrome associated with a CARD15/NOD2 mutation. PCR amplification and automated DNA sequencing of the complete CARD15/NOD2 coding sequence was performed. Molecular analysis in affected subjects disclosed a heterozygous c.1147G>C point mutation in CARD15/NOD2 exon 4, that predicts a p.E383K change at the protein level. Blau syndrome should be considered in the differential diagnosis of childhood uveitis and the genetic analysis of the CARD15/NOD2 gene is helpful in the diagnosis.

  8. Genetic heterogeneity in benign familial neonatal convulsions: Identification of a new locus on chromosome 8q

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, T.B.; Leach, R.J.; O'Connell, P.; Ryan, S.G. ); Ward, K. )

    1993-09-01

    The syndrome of benign familial neonatal convulsions (BFNC) is a rare autosomal dominant disorder characterized by unprovoked seizures in the first weeks of life. One locus for BFNC has been mapped to chromosome 20 in several pedigrees, but the authors have excluded linkage to chromosome 20 in one large kindred. In order to identify this novel BFNC locus, dinucleotide repeat markers distributed throughout the genome were used to screen this family. Maximum pairwise LOD scores of 4.43 were obtained with markers D8S284 and D8S256 on chromosome 8q. Multipoint analysis placed the BFNC locus in the interval spanned by D8S198-D8S274. This study establishes the presence of a new BFNC locus and confirms genetic heterogeneity of this disorder. 26 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  9. PFAPA syndrome mimicking familial Mediterranean fever: report of a Turkish child.

    PubMed

    Ataş, Bülent; Caksen, Hüseyin; Arslan, Sükrü; Tuncer, Oğuz; Kirimi, Ercan; Odabaş, Dursun

    2003-11-01

    The PFAPA (Periodic Fever, Aphthous stomatitis, Pharyngitis, Adenitidis) syndrome is characterized by periodic fever, adenitis, pharyngitis, and aphthous stomatitis. Herein, we present a Turkish child with PFAPA syndrome mimicking familial Mediterranean fever because of a rare presentation. A 9-year-old boy was admitted with recurrent fever, aphthous stomatitis, sore throat, headache, and general body pains, lasting 2 to 3 days since 3.5 years of age. He was completely symptom-free between the attacks. He was diagnosed as having familial Mediterranean fever according to the clinical findings when he was 6 years of age and Colchicum tablet was administrated. Despite colchicines therapy for 8 months, his attacks did not subside; therefore, the drug was discontinued. He had high fever, a painful cervical lymphadenopathy, aphthous stomatitis, and tonsillo-pharyngitis. The patient was then diagnosed as having PFAPA syndrome. He was given a single dose of prednisolone (0.35 mg/kg/dose). His complaints dramatically and completely disappeared 3 h after administration of the drug. During the 8th month of follow-up, a similar febrile attack lasting only 1 day was noted and it was controlled with a single dose of prednisolone (0.5 mg/kg/day). At this writing the patient is in the 12th month of follow-up, and there have been no symptoms after the second attack. In conclusion, our patient shows that PFAPA syndrome can be confused with familial Mediterranean fever. We also would like to emphasize that the typical PFAPA syndrome can be easily diagnosed by detailed history-taking and physical findings.

  10. GDNF Gene Is Associated With Tourette Syndrome in a Family Study

    PubMed Central

    Huertas-Fernández, Ismael; Gómez-Garre, Pilar; Madruga-Garrido, Marcos; Bernal-Bernal, Inmaculada; Bonilla-Toribio, Marta; Martín-Rodríguez, Juan Francisco; Cáceres-Redondo, María Teresa; Vargas-González, Laura; Carrillo, Fátima; Pascual, Alberto; Tischfield, Jay A.; King, Robert A.; Heiman, Gary A.; Mir, Pablo

    2016-01-01

    Background Tourette syndrome is a disorder characterized by persistent motor and vocal tics, and frequently accompanied by the comorbidities attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and obsessive-compulsive disorder. Impaired synaptic neurotransmission has been implicated in its pathogenesis. Our aim was to investigate the association of 28 candidate genes, including genes related to synaptic neurotransmission and neurotrophic factors, with Tourette syndrome. Methods We genotyped 506 polymorphisms in a discovery cohort from the United States composed of 112 families and 47 unrelated singletons with Tourette syndrome (201 cases and 253 controls). Genes containing significant polymorphisms were imputed to fine-map the signal(s) to potential causal variants. Allelic analyses in Tourette syndrome cases were performed to check the role in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and obsessive-compulsive disorder comorbidities. Target polymorphisms were further studied in a replication cohort from southern Spain composed of 37 families and three unrelated singletons (44 cases and 73 controls). Results The polymorphism rs3096140 in glial cell line–derived neurotrophic factor gene (GDNF) was significant in the discovery cohort after correction (P = 1.5 × 10−4). No linkage disequilibrium was found between rs3096140 and other functional variants in the gene. We selected rs3096140 as target polymorphism, and the association was confirmed in the replication cohort (P = 0.01). No association with any comorbidity was found. Conclusions As a conclusion, a common genetic variant in GDNF is associated with Tourette syndrome. A defect in the production of GDNF could compromise the survival of parvalbumin interneurons, thus altering the excitatory/inhibitory balance in the corticostriatal circuitry. Validation of this variant in other family cohorts is necessary. PMID:26096985

  11. Spinal fusion in girls with Rett syndrome: postoperative recovery and family experiences

    PubMed Central

    Marr, Caitlin; Leonard, Helen; Torode, Ian; Downs, Jenny

    2015-01-01

    Background Rett syndrome is a severe neurodevelopmental disorder mainly affecting females and scoliosis is a common comorbidity. Spinal fusion may be recommended if the scoliosis is progressive. This qualitative study investigated recovery of girls with Rett syndrome during the first 12 postoperative months and explored family perspectives and coping around the time of surgery. Method Parents registered with the population-based Australian Rett Syndrome Database were recruited to this study if their daughter had a confirmed pathogenic MECP2 mutation and spinal fusion between 2006 and 2012. Twenty-five interviews were conducted to determine their daughter’s recovery and parental stresses and coping. Themes in the interview data were identified with content analysis and the regaining of gross motor skills over the first 12 postoperative months were described with time-to-event (survival) analysis. Results Pain and energy levels, appetite, mood and coinciding health issues influenced their daughter’s postoperative recovery. The majority of girls recovered preoperative sitting (88%), standing (81%) and walking (80%) by 12 months. The decision to proceed with surgery was associated with feelings of fear, obligation, relief and guilt for families. Development of complications, poor support and feelings of isolation increased their emotional burden whilst adequate information and discharge preparation, confidence in self and staff, and balancing personal needs with their daughter’s care relieved this burden. Interpretation Our study identified clinical practice issues in relation to families whose daughter with Rett syndrome undergoes spinal fusion, issues that are also relevant to other severe disabilities. Return of wellness and gross motor skills following spinal fusion in girls with Rett syndrome occurred within the first 12 postoperative months in most cases. Parents require information and practical support to alleviate their emotional burden. PMID:25752500

  12. Spinal fusion in girls with Rett syndrome: post-operative recovery and family experiences.

    PubMed

    Marr, C; Leonard, H; Torode, I; Downs, J

    2015-11-01

    Rett syndrome is a severe neurodevelopmental disorder mainly affecting females and scoliosis is a common co-morbidity. Spinal fusion may be recommended if the scoliosis is progressive. This qualitative study investigated recovery of girls with Rett syndrome during the first 12 post-operative months and explored family perspectives and coping around the time of surgery. Parents registered with the population-based Australian Rett Syndrome Database were recruited to this study if their daughter had a confirmed pathogenic MECP2 mutation and spinal fusion between 2006 and 2012. Twenty-five interviews were conducted to determine their daughter's recovery and parental stresses and coping. Themes in the interview data were identified with content analysis, and the regaining of gross motor skills over the first 12 post-operative months was described with time-to-event (survival) analysis. Pain and energy levels, appetite, mood and coinciding health issues influenced their daughter's post-operative recovery. The majority of girls recovered preoperative sitting (88%), standing (81%) and walking (80%) by 12 months. The decision to proceed with surgery was associated with feelings of fear, obligation, relief and guilt for families. Development of complications, poor support and feelings of isolation increased their emotional burden whereas adequate information and discharge preparation, confidence in self and staff, and balancing personal needs with their daughter's care relieved this burden. Our study identified clinical practice issues in relation to families whose daughter with Rett syndrome undergoes spinal fusion, issues that are also relevant to other severe disabilities. Return of wellness and gross motor skills following spinal fusion in girls with Rett syndrome occurred within the first 12 post-operative months in most cases. Parents require information and practical support to alleviate their emotional burden. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. GDNF gene is associated with tourette syndrome in a family study.

    PubMed

    Huertas-Fernández, Ismael; Gómez-Garre, Pilar; Madruga-Garrido, Marcos; Bernal-Bernal, Inmaculada; Bonilla-Toribio, Marta; Martín-Rodríguez, Juan Francisco; Cáceres-Redondo, María Teresa; Vargas-González, Laura; Carrillo, Fátima; Pascual, Alberto; Tischfield, Jay A; King, Robert A; Heiman, Gary A; Mir, Pablo

    2015-07-01

    Tourette syndrome is a disorder characterized by persistent motor and vocal tics, and frequently accompanied by the comorbidities attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and obsessive-compulsive disorder. Impaired synaptic neurotransmission has been implicated in its pathogenesis. Our aim was to investigate the association of 28 candidate genes, including genes related to synaptic neurotransmission and neurotrophic factors, with Tourette syndrome. We genotyped 506 polymorphisms in a discovery cohort from the United States composed of 112 families and 47 unrelated singletons with Tourette syndrome (201 cases and 253 controls). Genes containing significant polymorphisms were imputed to fine-map the signal(s) to potential causal variants. Allelic analyses in Tourette syndrome cases were performed to check the role in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and obsessive-compulsive disorder comorbidities. Target polymorphisms were further studied in a replication cohort from southern Spain composed of 37 families and three unrelated singletons (44 cases and 73 controls). The polymorphism rs3096140 in glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor gene (GDNF) was significant in the discovery cohort after correction (P = 1.5 × 10(-4) ). No linkage disequilibrium was found between rs3096140 and other functional variants in the gene. We selected rs3096140 as target polymorphism, and the association was confirmed in the replication cohort (P = 0.01). No association with any comorbidity was found. As a conclusion, a common genetic variant in GDNF is associated with Tourette syndrome. A defect in the production of GDNF could compromise the survival of parvalbumin interneurons, thus altering the excitatory/inhibitory balance in the corticostriatal circuitry. Validation of this variant in other family cohorts is necessary. © 2015 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.

  14. Aarskog syndrome: report of a family with review and discussion of nosology.

    PubMed

    Teebi, A S; Rucquoi, J K; Meyn, M S

    1993-06-15

    Five individuals in one family, including dizygotic male twins, a half brother and their mother, had Aarskog syndrome (AS). Phenotypic variability is wide not only between mother and sons but also between sibs. Collectively, the affected relatives have the full spectrum of findings seen in AS. Based on analysis of this family and others from the literature, we derive primary and secondary diagnostic criteria for AS. Primary criteria include: short stature, hypertelorism, short nose with anteverted nares, maxillary hypoplasia, a crease below the lower lip, mild interdigital webbing with short and broad hands, short fifth finger with clinodactyly, and shawl scrotum. Secondary criteria include: abnormal auricles with fleshy lobules, posteriorly angulated ears, widow's peak, ptosis, downward slant of palpebral fissures, joint hyperextensibility, broad feet with bulbous toes, cryptorchidism, inguinal hernia, and prominent umbilicus. Literature pertaining to the clinical manifestations and genetics of AS is reviewed and nosology of similar syndromes is discussed.

  15. [Application of recombinant erythropoietin during preparation for hepatic transplantation operation from the living kindred donor].

    PubMed

    Kotenko, O G; Mazur, A P; Dykhovichnaia, N Iu; Popov, A O; Gusev, A V

    2007-07-01

    First experience of application of the blood autodonorship programme, using recombinant erythropoietin (Eprex) plus preparations containing iron during their preparation for partial hepatic resection, was analyzed. Realization of this programme had permitted to escape the performance of allogenic hemotransfusion in 71.4% of donors, in whom the right or left hepatic lobe was taken out and in 100%--the left lateral section. The erythropoietin dosage regimes in different types of hepatic resections in living kindred donors were proposed.

  16. Loeys-Dietz syndrome: life threatening aortic dissection diagnosed on routine family screening

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Claire A; Clowes, Virginia E; Cooper, John P

    2014-01-01

    A 52-year-old man was found to have a severely dilated aortic root and a Stanford type A dissection on familial screening echocardiography, following diagnosis of a dilated aorta in his son. The dissection required urgent surgical repair. Clinical examination suggested features of Loeys-Dietz syndrome type II, and subsequent demonstration of a mutation in the TGFBR1 gene in the patient and his son confirmed the diagnosis. This article highlights the high prevalence of inherited conditions in dilated aortic root presentations and the importance of family screening and surveillance to allow early surgical intervention. PMID:24495977

  17. [Screening of FBN1 gene mutations in a family with Marfan syndrome].

    PubMed

    Hao, Peng; Tang, Xin; Song, Hui; Wang, Li-ming; Wang, Yu-chuan; Ying, Ming; Han, Rui-fang; Li, Ning-dong

    2010-11-01

    To identify FBN1 gene mutations in a Chinese family with Marfan syndrome. Four affected and two unaffected individuals in the family were recruited after informed consent. Five ml blood samples were drawn from each family member and genomic DNA was extracted. Mutations were detected by directly sequencing to the whole coding region and exon-intron boundaries of FBN1 gene. Polyphen program was used to predict the functional and structural changes of the mutant protein. We found all four affected individuals carried FBN1gene mutations, c.2261A > G (p.Y754C), in exon18 by sequence analysis, while two unaffected family members and 100 normal controls did not have this mutation. A PSIC score of 2.6 was acquired by Polyphen program analysis. Our study supports that FBN1 gene mutation, c.2261A > G (p.Y754C), is the underlying molecular pathogenesis of this family with Marfan syndrome. This mutation is identified for the first time in Chinese population.

  18. C596G mutation in FBN1 causes Marfan syndrome with exotropia in a Chinese family

    PubMed Central

    Li, Bo; Lan, Lan; Li, Lin

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To screen mutations in the fibrillin-1 (FBN1) gene in a Chinese family with autosomal dominant Marfan syndrome (MFS). Methods Patients and unaffected family members were given ophthalmic, cardiovascular, and physical examinations with a 5-year follow-up. Genomic DNA was extracted from the leukocytes of venous blood from all patients and their relatives. The entire coding region of the FBN1gene was screened with an ABI 9700 GeneAmp PCR System. The mutation identified was screened in 100 healthy and ethnically unrelated Chinese individuals. Results Mutation screening in FBN1 identified a T>G transition at position c.1786 in exon 14, leading to substitution of cysteine for glycine at codon 596 (C596G) in this four-generation Chinese family. The C596G mutation was associated with the disease phenotypes in all six patients but not found in 14 unaffected family members or the 100 ethnically unrelated and healthy controls. Conclusions A C596G mutation in FBN1 was identified in a Chinese family with MFS. Our results expand the spectrum of FBN1 mutations and contribute to the understanding of the role of FBN1 in the pathogenesis of Marfan syndrome. PMID:25729264

  19. The "military family syndrome" revisited: "by the numbers".

    PubMed

    Jensen, P S; Xenakis, S N; Wolf, P; Bain, M W

    1991-02-01

    Because concerns have been raised about high levels of psychopathology in military children, the authors used standardized psychopathology rating scales to survey 213 six-to twelve-year-old children of military parents and their parents. Results from children's symptom self-reports, as well as from teachers' ratings of children, indicated that children's symptom levels were at levels consistent with national norms. In contrast, parents' (especially mothers') ratings of children were significantly higher than national norms, as were parents' ratings of their own symptoms. Also, parents' own symptom reports showed somewhat stronger relationships with life stressors presumably affecting the child than did the children's and teachers' reports. Results suggest that parents' reports of children's symptoms may be mediated by the effects of military life stressors on the parents, but these stressors do not necessarily result in higher symptoms in the children. Overall results do not support the notion that levels of psychopathology are greatly increased in children of military parents. Further studies of military families should address the effects of rank and socioeconomic status, housing, and the current impact of life stressors on the parents as well as the children in order to avoid drawing erroneous conclusions about parts or all of the military community.

  20. Growth hormone deficiency and pituitary malformation in a recurrent Cat-Eye syndrome: a family report.

    PubMed

    Jedraszak, Guillaume; Braun, Karine; Receveur, Aline; Decamp, Matthieu; Andrieux, Joris; Rabbind Singh, Amrathlal; Copin, Henri; Bremond-Gignac, Dominique; Mathieu, Michèle; Rochette, Jacques; Morin, Gilles

    2015-10-01

    Growth hormone deficiency affects roughly between one in 3000 and one in 4000 children with most instances of growth hormone deficiency being idiopathic. Growth hormone deficiency can also be associated with genetic diseases or chromosome abnormalities. Association of growth hormone deficiency together with hypothalamic-pituitary axis malformation and Cat-Eye syndrome is a very rare condition. We report a family with two brothers presenting with growth delay due to a growth hormone deficiency associated with a polymalformation syndrome. They both displayed pre-auricular pits and tags, imperforate anus and Duane retraction syndrome. Both parents and a third unaffected son displayed normal growth pattern. Cerebral MRI showed a hypothalamic-pituitary axis malformation in the two affected brothers. Cytogenetic studies revealed a type I small supernumerary marker chromosome derived from chromosome 22 resulting in a tetrasomy 22pter-22q11.21 characteristic of the Cat-Eye syndrome. The small supernumerary marker chromosome was present in the two affected sons and the mother in a mosaic state. Patients with short stature due to growth hormone deficiency should be evaluated for chromosomal abnormality. Family study should not be underestimated.

  1. [Familial posterior cortical atrophy with visual agnosia and Bálint's syndrome].

    PubMed

    Otsuki, M; Soma, Y; Tanaka, M; Tanaka, K; Tanno, Y; Uesugi, Y; Tsuji, S

    1995-12-01

    We report a patient of posterior cortical atrophy with progressive visual agnosia, Bálint's syndrome and dementia in which posterior cortical atrophy with similar characteristics on CT and progressive dementia were found in a sister. The patient was a 75-year-old woman who noted the onset of a progressive visual disorder at the age of 70, and whose family first noticed disoriented behavior at around the same period. Ophthalmologic examinations revealed mild cataract but no evidence of peripheral optic nerve or retinal lesions. Neuropsychological examination showed right homonymous hemianopia, visual agnosia, Bálint's syndrome, mild transcortical sensory aphasia, Gerstmann's syndrome, constructional apraxia, mild ideomotor apraxia and memory disorder. MRI showed marked dilatation of both lateral ventricles, especially the posterior horns, and severe atrophy of the occipital lobes, hippocampus, and the parahippocampal gyrus. Assessment of regional cerebral blood flow by IMP-SPECT revealed a generalized decrease in the temporo-parieto-occipital region bilaterally. The patient's sister began to show evidence of progressive dementia at 80 years of age and CT of the brain revealed marked atrophy, predominantly in the occipital lobes, similar to that of the patient. We believe this to be the first report of posterior cortical atrophy with a positive family history, suggesting the possibility of a hereditary syndrome.

  2. FG syndrome: report of three new families with linkage to Xq12-q22.1.

    PubMed

    Graham, J M; Tackels, D; Dibbern, K; Superneau, D; Rogers, C; Corning, K; Schwartz, C E

    1998-11-02

    FG syndrome is a rare X-linked recessive form of mental retardation, first described by Opitz and Kaveggia in 1974 in five related males with mental retardation, disproportionately large heads, imperforate anus, and congenital hypotonia. Partial agenesis of the corpus callosum was noted in at least one of the initial cases and has been seen in a number of subsequently-reported cases. The associated congenital hypotonia with joint hyperlaxity tends to progress to contractures with spasticity and unsteady gait in later life. The presence of subtle facial abnormalities and the characteristic behavior in midchildhood facilitate diagnosis at this age, particularly when there are other affected male relatives in the maternal family. Recently, Briault et al. [1997] mapped a gene for FG syndrome to the Xq12-q21.31 region. We describe three additional families (six additional patients) with FG syndrome on whom we have conducted linkage analysis. Our findings support the localization of a gene for the FG syndrome in Xq12-q21. In addition, we have noted skewed X-inactivation in carrier females, as well as new associated findings in affected males of sagittal craniosynostosis and split hand malformation.

  3. A novel FOXL2 mutation in a Chinese family with blepharophimosis, ptosis, epicanthus inversus syndrome.

    PubMed

    Tan, Hu; Yang, Pu; Li, Haoxian; Pan, Qian; Liang, Desheng; Wu, Lingqian

    2015-01-01

    Blepharophimosis, ptosis, epicanthus inversus syndrome (BPES) is a rare autosomal dominant genetic disease characterized by a narrowed horizontal palpehral aperture, ptosis, epicanthus inversus and telecanthus with or without premature ovarian failure. Mutations in the forkhead transcription factor 2 (FOXL2) have been shown to be responsible for BPES. We performed direct sequencing of the FOXL2 gene for molecular investigation of a Chinese family with BPES. A novel duplication mutation (c.858_868dup), resulting in a truncated protein, was detected.

  4. Familial Myelodysplastic/Acute Leukemia Syndromes-Myeloid Neoplasms with Germline Predisposition.

    PubMed

    Baptista, Renata Lyrio Rafael; Dos Santos, Anna Cláudia Evangelista; Gutiyama, Luciana Mayumi; Solza, Cristiana; Zalcberg, Ilana Renault

    2017-01-01

    Although most cases of myeloid neoplasms are sporadic, a small subset has been associated with germline mutations. The 2016 revision of the World Health Organization classification included these cases in a myeloid neoplasm group with a predisposing germline mutational background. These patients must have a different management and their families should get genetic counseling. Cases identification and outline of the major known syndromes characteristics will be discussed in this text.

  5. Anakinra prevents symptoms of familial cold autoinflammatory syndrome and Raynaud's disease.

    PubMed

    Metyas, Samy K; Hoffman, Hal M

    2006-10-01

    Familial cold autoinflammatory syndrome (FCAS) is a rare, hereditary disorder characterized by cold-induced inflammation. We describe the successful longterm treatment of a patient with FCAS with anakinra, an interleukin 1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra). The remarkable response of FCAS and associated Raynaud's disease in this patient suggests that IL-1 is an important mediator of these inflammatory diseases. Our report supports increasing evidence that anakinra plays an important role in the treatment of select chronic inflammatory diseases.

  6. Familial translocation resulting in Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome in two related unbalanced individuals: Clinical evaluation of a 39-year-old man with Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Wheeler, P.G.; Weaver, D.D.; Palmer, C.G.

    1995-02-13

    A chromosomal translocation between chromosomes 4 and 8 resulting in Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome in 2 individuals has been traced through 4 generations of a family. Ascertainment of the family was through a newborn infant with evident Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome who had an unbalanced chromosomal translocation (46,XY,-4,+der(4),t(4;8) (p15.32;p22)). Discussion with the family documented a paternal great-uncle who also had a similar phenotype and profound mental retardation. Subsequently this individual was found to have the same unbalanced chromosome constitution as the propositus. The 39-year-old great-uncle is the oldest reported individual with the Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome. The importance of chromosome evaluation of older individuals with mental retardation syndromes is emphasized. 4 refs., 6 figs.

  7. X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy: phenotype distribution and expression of ALDP in Spanish kindreds.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, M; Coll, M J; Pàmpols, T; Girós, M

    1998-04-13

    X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD) is a neurodegenerative disorder caused by an impairment in peroxisomal beta-oxidation of very long straight-chain fatty acids (VLCFAs). Six clinical phenotypes have been delineated: childhood cerebral (CCALD), adolescent cerebral (AdolCALD), adult cerebral (ACALD), adrenomyeloneuropathy (AMN), Addison-only (AO), and presymptomatic (PALD). The distribution of phenotypes varies in different countries. We have diagnosed biochemically 60 X-ALD Spanish patients belonging to 48 kindreds. Their phenotypic distribution was: CCALD plus AdolCALD, 33%; ACALD, 16%; AMN, 27%; AO, 12%; and PALD, 12%. These results contrast with the distribution described in other countries, due to a higher prevalence of the ACALD form. Regarding the expression of the protein product (ALDP), we studied 17 kindreds using immunochemical techniques and found absence of ALDP in 84% of cases. We also studied 13 females from 7 negative ALDP kindreds in order to correlate ALDP expression and the carrier status established by VLCFA measurement. In one case with normal VLCFA levels in serum and fibroblasts, we observed mosaicism in ALDP expression. This fact supports the use of this technique for identifying carriers.

  8. A third kindred with lattice corneal dystrophy type 1 maps to chromosome 5q

    SciTech Connect

    Marles, S.L.; Ekins, M.; Philipps, S.

    1994-09-01

    Lattice corneal dystrophy type 1 (SCD1) is an autosomal dominant blinding eye disease characterized by localized deposition of an, as yet, unidentified amyloid in the corneal stroma. Stone et al. recently reported that the gene for SCD1 maps to 5q31 (a maximum lod score of 10.7 in two kindreds) in the same region as the genes for granular and Avellino combined granular/lattice corneal dystrophies. We present the results of linkage analysis in a 100-member LCD1 kindred of Belgian descent. Previous 2-point lod score analysis in our kindred between LCD1 and HP and the loci for a series of 10 chromosome 16 RFLP and microsatellite markers failed to provide confirmatory evidence for a locus on chromosome 16. Two-point lod scores were calculated between LCD1 and D5S393, the closest STR polymorphic markers reported by Stone et al. Thirty-three informative meioses were scored for linkage. Only confirmed affected individuals or those unaffected greater than 25 years of age were included in the linkage analysis. The maximum lod score was 7.22 at {theta} = 0.00 with a 1-lod unit support interval 0.00 - 0.08. Additional markers are being studied to define the minimum interval containing the gene of interest to which a positional cloning approach will be directed. Of the 14 known human amyloid-associated genes, to date none are known to map to chromosome 5q.

  9. Use of health care guidelines in patients with Down syndrome by family physicians across Canada

    PubMed Central

    Virji-Babul, Naznin; Eichmann, Anne; Kisly, David; Down, Jonathan; Haslam, Robert HA

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To describe the occurrence of common medical and psychological conditions in individuals with Down syndrome during their life span, and to measure the use of the Down Syndrome Medical Interest Group’s health care guidelines by family physicians across Canada, as reported by parents or caregivers. METHODS The Down Syndrome Research Foundation sent a questionnaire to 314 families across Canada who were part of the Canadian Voluntary Registry on Down Syndrome. This questionnaire was designed to collect information from parents about physical examinations, laboratory tests, referrals and discussions with family physicians that are listed in the health care guidelines. RESULTS Two hundred twenty-three families responded to the survey. The highest response rates were in families with children in the five- to 12-year-old age range (41.7%) and the 13- to 18-year-old age range (19.7%). The most common medical conditions reported were visual, hearing and cardiac related. A high percentage of sleep-, gastrointestinal- and thyroid-related conditions were also reported. In the adult group (ie, 30 years of age and older), there was a high proportion of depression and/or anxiety disorders reported. The percentage of those reporting physical examinations and medical referrals by family physicians were highest in the five- to 12-year-old age range and dropped below 50% in those aged 19 years and older. In the one- to four-year-old and five- to 12-year-old age groups, the percentages of those with Down syndrome referred for hearing tests and celiac screens were reported to be below 30%. The percentages of those reporting discussions on behavioural issues were below 50% in all age groups. CONCLUSIONS Physical examinations, as per the recommended guidelines, were followed only in the five- to 12-year-old age group. Many of the recommendations regarding discussion of behavioural problems, transition planning, diet, exercise and issues around puberty or sexual health were

  10. PRKAR1A-negative familial Cushing's syndrome: two case reports.

    PubMed

    Lim, Lee Ling; Kitan, Normayah; Paramasivam, Sharmila Sunita; Ratnasingam, Jeyakantha; Ibrahim, Luqman; Chan, Siew Pheng; Tan, Alexander Tong Boon; Vethakkan, Shireene Ratna

    2015-12-01

    Determining the etiology of Cushing's syndrome is very challenging to endocrinologists, with most of the difficulty arising from subtype differentiation of adrenocorticotropic hormone-dependent Cushing's syndrome. We present the pitfalls of evaluating a rare cause of adrenocorticotropic hormone-independent Cushing's syndrome in the transition period between adolescence and adulthood. A sibling pair with familial isolated primary pigmented nodular adrenocortical disease is described. The index case, a 20-year-old Chinese woman, presented with premenopausal osteoporosis with T12 compression fracture and young hypertension. Biochemical analysis confirmed adrenocorticotropic hormone-independent Cushing's syndrome (elevated 0800 h plasma cortisol 808 nmol/L with suppressed adrenocorticotropic hormone level <5 pg/ml). Computed tomography of her adrenal glands revealed a 0.7-cm left adrenal hypodense nodule. After a left adrenalectomy, she had residual hypercortisolism (progressive weight gain, new T10 compression fracture, and not glucocorticoid-dependent postoperatively). Completion of contralateral adrenalectomy was performed upon recognition of typical histologic characteristics of primary pigmented nodular adrenocortical disease found in an initial left adrenalectomy specimen. Similarly, her younger brother developed adrenocorticotropic hormone-independent Cushing's syndrome at age 18 years, with typical cushingoid habitus, but no osteoporosis or hypertension. His adrenal computed tomographic scans showed micronodularities over bilateral adrenal glands. He was successfully treated with bilateral adrenalectomy. Screening for Carney's complex and PRKAR1A gene mutation was negative. Signs and symptoms of Cushing's syndrome resolved after bilateral adrenalectomy for both patients. They were placed on lifelong glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid replacement therapy and long-term surveillance for Carney's complex. The cases of these two patients illustrate the

  11. The phenotypic spectrum of Schaaf-Yang syndrome – 18 new affected individuals from 14 families

    PubMed Central

    Fountain, Michael D.; Aten, Emmelien; Cho, Megan T.; Juusola, Jane; Walkiewicz, Magdalena A.; Ray, Joseph W.; Xia, Fan; Yang, Yaping; Graham, Brett H.; Bacino, Carlos A.; Potocki, Lorraine; van Haeringen, Arie; Ruivenkamp, Claudia A.L.; Mancias, Pedro; Northrup, Hope; Kukolich, Mary K.; Weiss, Marjan M.; van Ravenswaaij-Arts, Conny M.A.; Mathijssen, Inge B.; Levesque, Sebastien; Meeks, Naomi; Rosenfeld, Jill A.; Lemke, Danielle; Hamosh, Ada; Lewis, Suzanne K.; Race, Simone; Stewart, Laura L.; Hay, Beverly; Lewis, Andrea M.; Guerreiro, Rita L.; Bras, Jose T.; Martins, Marcia P.; Derksen-Lubsen, Gerarda; Peeters, Els; Stumpel, Connie; Stegmann, Sander; Bok, Levinus A.; Santen, Gijs W.E.; Schaaf, Christian P.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Truncating mutations in the maternally imprinted, paternally expressed gene MAGEL2, which is located in the Prader-Willi critical region 15q11-13, have recently been reported to cause Schaaf-Yang syndrome, a Prader-Willi-like disease, manifesting developmental delay/intellectual disability, hypotonia, feeding difficulties, and autism spectrum disorder. The causality of the reported variants in the context of the patients’ phenotypes was questioned, as MAGEL2 whole gene deletions appear to cause little to no clinical phenotype. Methods Here we report a total of 18 new individuals with Schaaf-Yang syndrome from 14 families, including one family with three individuals found to be affected with a truncating variant of MAGEL2, 11 individuals clinically affected, but not tested molecularly, and a presymptomatic fetal sibling with carrying the pathogenic MAGEL2 variant. Results All cases harbor truncating mutations of MAGEL2, and nucleotides c.1990-1996 arise as a mutational hotspot, with 10 individuals and one fetus harboring a c.1996dupC (p.Q666fs) mutation and two fetuses harboring a c.1996delC (p.Q666fs). The phenotypic spectrum of Schaaf-Yang syndrome ranges from fetal akinesia to individuals with neurobehavioral disease and contractures of the small finger joints. Conclusion This study provides strong evidence for the pathogenicity of truncating mutations of the paternal allele of MAGEL2, refines the associated clinical phenotypes, and highlights implications for genetic counseling of affected families. PMID:27195816

  12. GATA2 null mutation associated with incomplete penetrance in a family with Emberger syndrome.

    PubMed

    Brambila-Tapia, Aniel Jessica Leticia; García-Ortiz, José Elías; Brouillard, Pascal; Nguyen, Ha-Long; Vikkula, Miikka; Ríos-González, Blanca Estela; Sandoval-Muñiz, Roberto de Jesús; Sandoval-Talamantes, Ana Karen; Bobadilla-Morales, Lucina; Corona-Rivera, Jorge Román; Arnaud-Lopez, Lisette

    2017-09-01

    GATA2 mutations are associated with several conditions, including Emberger syndrome which is the association of primary lymphedema with hematological anomalies and an increased risk for myelodysplasia and leukemia. To describe a family with Emberger syndrome with incomplete penetrance. A DNA sequencing of GATA2 gene was performed in the parents and offspring (five individuals in total). The family consisted of 5 individuals with a GATA2 null mutation (c.130G>T, p.Glu44*); three of them were affected (two of which were deceased) while two remained unaffected at the age of 40 and 13 years old. The three affected siblings (two boys and one girl) presented with lymphedema of the lower limbs, recurrent warts, epistaxis and recurrent infections. Two died due to hematological abnormalities (AML and pancytopenia). In contrast, the two other family members who carry the same mutation (the mother and one brother) have not presented any symptoms and their blood tests remain normal. Incomplete penetrance may indicate that GATA2 haploinsufficiency is not enough to produce the phenotype of Emberger syndrome. It could be useful to perform whole exome or genome sequencing, in cases where incomplete penetrance or high variable expressivity is described, in order to probably identify specific gene interactions that drastically modify the phenotype. In addition, skewed gene expression by an epigenetic mechanism of gene regulation should also be considered.

  13. Clinical Auditory Phenotypes Associated with GATA3 Gene Mutations in Familial Hypoparathyroidism-deafness-renal Dysplasia Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Li; Lin, Qiong-Fen; Wang, Hong-Yang; Guan, Jing; Lan, Lan; Xie, Lin-Yi; Yu, Lan; Yang, Ju; Zhao, Cui; Liang, Jin-Long; Zhou, Han-Lin; Yang, Huan-Ming; Xiong, Wen-Ping; Zhang, Qiu-Jing; Wang, Da-Yong; Wang, Qiu-Ju

    2017-01-01

    Background: Hypoparathyroidism-deafness-renal dysplasia (HDR) syndrome is an autosomal dominant disorder primarily caused by haploinsufficiency of GATA binding protein 3 (GATA3) gene mutations, and hearing loss is the most frequent phenotypic feature. This study aimed at identifying the causative gene mutation for a three-generation Chinese family with HDR syndrome and analyzing auditory phenotypes in all familial HDR syndrome cases. Methods: Three affected family members underwent otologic examinations, biochemistry tests, and other clinical evaluations. Targeted genes capture combining next-generation sequencing was performed within the family. Sanger sequencing was used to confirm the causative mutation. The auditory phenotypes of all reported familial HDR syndrome cases analyzed were provided. Results: In Chinese family 7121, a heterozygous nonsense mutation c.826C>T (p.R276*) was identified in GATA3. All the three affected members suffered from sensorineural deafness and hypocalcemia; however, renal dysplasia only appeared in the youngest patient. Furthermore, an overview of thirty HDR syndrome families with corresponding GATA3 mutations revealed that hearing impairment occurred earlier in the younger generation in at least nine familial cases (30%) and two thirds of them were found to carry premature stop mutations. Conclusions: This study highlights the phenotypic heterogeneity of HDR and points to a possible genetic anticipation in patients with HDR, which needs to be further investigated. PMID:28303854

  14. PCR direct genomic sequencing of COL10A1 in a kindred with metaphyseal chondrodysplasia-Schmid type (MCDS)

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, T.C.; Descartes, M.; Longshore, J.W.

    1994-09-01

    Type X collagen is a short chain nonfibrillar extracellular-matrix component that is specifically and transiently sythesized by hypertrophic chondrocytes at sites of endochondral ossification. Metaphyseal chondrodysplasia-Schmid type (MCDS) is an autosomal dominant disorder of the osseous skeleton. To date, seven mutations within the encoding type X collagen (COL10A1) gene have been described in MC. All the mutations described have been identified in the carboxyl-terminal noncollagenous domain, suggesting that the effect of these mutations is to impair the mutant polypeptide`s ability to participate in chain association and trimer formation. A 3 generation kindred with MCDS has been studied by amplifying an 831 base pair (bp) region of the COL10A1 gene which included the carboxyl-terminal domain. The PCR product was directly sequenced on eleven family members, 4 affected and 7 unaffected. No mutation was identified in the region studied. Analysis of other coding regions of type X collagen are currently under investigation. Mutations in the upstream coding regions, mutations that affect mRNA stability, or genetic heterogeneity are likely explanations for those MCDS cases without identified mutations.

  15. Linkage of morbid obesity with polymorphic microsatellite markers on chromosome 1q31 in a three-generation Canadian kindred

    SciTech Connect

    Murray, J.D.; Bulman, D.E.; Ebers, G.C. |

    1994-09-01

    Obesity is the most common nutritional disorder affecting Western societies. An estimated 3.7 million Canadians are considered to be overweight, a condition associated with hypertension, accelerated atherosclerosis, diabetes and a host of other medical problems. We have identified a 3 generation kindred in which morbid obesity appears to segregate in an autosomal dominant manner. All individuals were examined. Mass (kg) and heights (m) were measured in order to determine a body mass index (BMI) for each individual. Those individuals with BMI of greater than or equal to 30.0 were designated as affected. In the pedigree studied 25 individuals met this criteria and 12 of these were morbidly obese (BMI greater or equal to 40.0). A search of candidate genes proved unfruitful. A linkage study was initiated. All individuals in the pedigree were genotyped for microsatellite markers which were spaced every 20 centimorgans (cM). Positive evidence of linkage was detected with markers which map to 1q31-32 (lod score of 3.6 at {theta} = 0.05). Notably, strong effects for fatness in pigs have been found on pig chromosome 4 which has synteny with human chromosome 1q21-32. We are currently attempting to refine the position of this gene using linkage analysis with other microsatellite markers from this region of the genome. In addition we are screening other families in which obesity segregates for linkage to 1q31.

  16. Detection of mutations in KLHL3 and CUL3 in families with FHHt (familial hyperkalaemic hypertension or Gordon's syndrome).

    PubMed

    Glover, Mark; Ware, James S; Henry, Amanda; Wolley, Martin; Walsh, Roddy; Wain, Louise V; Xu, Shengxin; Van't Hoff, William G; Tobin, Martin D; Hall, Ian P; Cook, Stuart; Gordon, Richard D; Stowasser, Michael; O'Shaughnessy, Kevin M

    2014-05-01

    The study of families with rare inherited forms of hypo- and hyper-tension has been one of the most successful strategies to probe the molecular pathophysiology of blood pressure control and has revealed dysregulation of distal nephron Na+ reabsorption to be a common mechanism. FHHt (familial hyperkalaemic hypertension; also known as Gordon's syndrome) is a salt-dependent form of hypertension caused by mutations in the regulators of the thiazide-sensitive Na+-Cl- co-transporter NCC [also known as SLC12A3 (solute carrier family 12 member 3)] and is effectively treated by thiazide diuretics and/or dietary salt restriction. Variation in at least four genes can cause FHHt, including WNK1 [With No lysine (=K) 1] and WNK4, KLHL3 (kelch-like family member 3), and CUL3 (cullin 3). In the present study we have identified novel disease-causing variants in CUL3 and KLHL3 segregating in 63% of the pedigrees with previously unexplained FHHt, confirming the importance of these recently described FHHt genes. We have demonstrated conclusively, in two unrelated affected individuals, that rare intronic variants in CUL3 cause the skipping of exon 9 as has been proposed previously. KLHL3 variants all occur in kelch-repeat domains and so probably disrupt WNK complex binding. We have found no evidence of any plausible disease-causing variants within SLC4A8 (an alternative thiazide-sensitive sodium transporter) in this population. The results of the present study support the existing evidence that the CUL3 and KLHL3 gene products are physiologically important regulators of thiazide-sensitive distal nephron NaCl reabsorption, and hence potentially interesting novel anti-hypertensive drug targets. As a third of our non-WNK FHHt families do not have plausible CUL3 or KLHL3 variants, there are probably additional, as yet undiscovered, regulators of the thiazide-sensitive pathways.

  17. Heritability of determinants of the metabolic syndrome among healthy Arabs of the Oman family study.

    PubMed

    Bayoumi, Riad A; Al-Yahyaee, Saeed A S; Albarwani, Sulayma A; Rizvi, Syed G; Al-Hadabi, Saleh; Al-Ubaidi, Firial F; Al-Hinai, Ali T; Al-Kindi, Mohammed N; Adnan, Haleema T; Al-Barwany, Hameeda S; Comuzzie, Antony G; Cai, Guowen; Lopez-Alvarenga, Juan C; Hassan, Mohammed O

    2007-03-01

    The metabolic syndrome, as defined by the International Diabetes Federation, was investigated in five large, extended, highly consanguineous, healthy Omani Arab families of a total of 1277 individuals. Heritability (h2) of the phenotypic abnormalities that make up the syndrome and other related traits was estimated by variance decomposition method using SOLAR software. The overall prevalence of the syndrome was 23%. The prevalence of abnormalities making the syndrome in a descending order were: obligatory waist circumference, hypertension, raised fasting blood glucose, low serum high-density lipoprotein (HDL), and raised serum triglycerides (TGs). Highly significant, but widely spread, h2 values were obtained for: height (0.68), weight (0.68), BMI (0.68), serum HDL (0.63), serum leptin (0.55), percentage body fat (0.53), total serum cholesterol (0.53), fasting serum insulin (0.51), homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance index (0.48), serum TG (0.43), waist circumference (0.40), diastolic blood pressure (0.38), and 2-hour glucose level (0.17), whereas for the metabolic syndrome itself, h2 was 0.38. The wide spread of h2 results (0.07 to 0.68) indicates that some determinants, such as weight, BMI, and HDL level, are under significant genetic influence among the Omani Arabs. Other determinants such as insulin resistance, abdominal obesity, diastolic blood pressure, and TG levels seem to be more environmentally driven.

  18. Population screening for hereditary and familial cancer syndromes in Valka district of Latvia

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The growing possibilities of cancer prevention and treatment as well as the increasing knowledge about hereditary cancers require proper identification of the persons at risk. The aim of this study was to test the outcome of population screening in the scientific and practical evaluation of hereditary cancer. Methods Population screening for hereditary cancer was carried out retrospectively in a geographic area of Latvia. Family cancer histories were collected from 18642 adults representing 76.6% of the population of this area. Hereditary cancer syndromes were diagnosed clinically. Molecular testing for BRCA1 founder mutations 300 T/G, 4153delA and 5382insC was conducted in 588 persons who reported at least one case of breast or ovary cancer among blood relatives. Results Clinically, 74 (0.40%; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.32 - 0.50%) high-risk and 548 (2.94%, 95% CI: 2.71 - 3.19) moderate-risk hereditary cancer syndromes were detected covering wide cancer spectrum. All syndromes were characterised by high cancer frequency among blood relatives ranging 8.6 - 46.2% in contrast to spouse correlation of 2.5 - 3.6%. The mean age of cancer onset ranged 38.0 - 72.0 years in different syndromes. The BRCA1 gene mutations were identified in 10 (1.7%; 95% CI: 0.9 - 3.1%) probands. Families with established BRCA1 gene founder mutations were identified with the frequency 1:2663 clinically screened persons. Conclusions Population screening is a useful practical tool for the identification of persons belonging to families with high frequency of malignant tumours. The whole hereditary and familial cancer spectrum along with the age structure was identified adjusting follow-up guidelines. Another benefit of the population screening is the possibility to identify oncologically healthy persons belonging to hereditary and familial cancer families so that appropriate surveillance can be offered. Clinical diagnostics is appropriate for population screening purposes

  19. TNNI3K mutation in familial syndrome of conduction system disease, atrial tachyarrhythmia and dilated cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Theis, Jeanne L; Zimmermann, Michael T; Larsen, Brandon T; Rybakova, Inna N; Long, Pamela A; Evans, Jared M; Middha, Sumit; de Andrade, Mariza; Moss, Richard L; Wieben, Eric D; Michels, Virginia V; Olson, Timothy M

    2014-11-01

    Locus mapping has uncovered diverse etiologies for familial atrial fibrillation (AF), dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM), and mixed cardiac phenotype syndromes, yet the molecular basis for these disorders remains idiopathic in most cases. Whole-exome sequencing (WES) provides a powerful new tool for familial disease gene discovery. Here, synergistic application of these genomic strategies identified the pathogenic mutation in a familial syndrome of atrial tachyarrhythmia, conduction system disease (CSD), and DCM vulnerability. Seven members of a three-generation family exhibited the variably expressed phenotype, three of whom manifested CSD and clinically significant arrhythmia in childhood. Genome-wide linkage analysis mapped two equally plausible loci to chromosomes 1p3 and 13q12. Variants from WES of two affected cousins were filtered for rare, predicted-deleterious, positional variants, revealing an unreported heterozygous missense mutation disrupting the highly conserved kinase domain in TNNI3K. The G526D substitution in troponin I interacting kinase, with the most deleterious SIFT and Polyphen2 scores possible, resulted in abnormal peptide aggregation in vitro and in silico docking models predicted altered yet energetically favorable wild-type mutant dimerization. Ventricular tissue from a mutation carrier displayed histopathological hallmarks of DCM and reduced TNNI3K protein staining with unique amorphous nuclear and sarcoplasmic inclusions. In conclusion, mutation of TNNI3K, encoding a heart-specific kinase previously shown to modulate cardiac conduction and myocardial function in mice, underlies a familial syndrome of electrical and myopathic heart disease. The identified substitution causes a TNNI3K aggregation defect and protein deficiency, implicating a dominant-negative loss of function disease mechanism. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Estimating successive cancer risks in Lynch Syndrome families using a progressive three-state model.

    PubMed

    Choi, Yun-Hee; Briollais, Laurent; Green, Jane; Parfrey, Patrick; Kopciuk, Karen

    2014-02-20

    Lynch Syndrome (LS) families harbor mutated mismatch repair genes,which predispose them to specific types of cancer. Because individuals within LS families can experience multiple cancers over their lifetime, we developed a progressive three-state model to estimate the disease risk from a healthy (state 0) to a first cancer (state 1) and then to a second cancer (state 2). Ascertainment correction of the likelihood was made to adjust for complex sampling designs with carrier probabilities for family members with missing genotype information estimated using their family's observed genotype and phenotype information in a one-step expectation-maximization algorithm. A sandwich variance estimator was employed to overcome possible model misspecification. The main objective of this paper is to estimate the disease risk (penetrance) for age at a second cancer after someone has experienced a first cancer that is also associated with a mutated gene. Simulation study results indicate that our approach generally provides unbiased risk estimates and low root mean squared errors across different family study designs, proportions of missing genotypes, and risk heterogeneities. An application to 12 large LS families from Newfoundland demonstrates that the risk for a second cancer was substantial and that the age at a first colorectal cancer significantly impacted the age at any LS subsequent cancer. This study provides new insights for developing more effective management of mutation carriers in LS families by providing more accurate multiple cancer risk estimates.

  1. De novo myotonic dystrophy mutation in a Nigerian kindred.

    PubMed Central

    Krahe, R; Eckhart, M; Ogunniyi, A O; Osuntokun, B O; Siciliano, M J; Ashizawa, T

    1995-01-01

    An expansion of an unstable (CTG)n trinucleotide repeat in the 3' UTR of a gene encoding a putative serine/threonine protein kinase (DMPK) on human chromosome 19q13.3 has been shown to be specific for the myotonic dystrophy (DM) disease phenotype. In addition, a single haplotype composed of nine alleles within and flanking DMPK over a physical distance of 30 kb has been shown to be in complete linkage disequilibrium with DM. This has led to two hypotheses: (1) predisposition for (CTG)n instability results from a founder effect that occurred only once or a few times in human evolution; and (2) elements within the disease haplotype may predispose the (CTG)n repeat to instability. A detailed haplotype analysis of the DM region was conducted on a Nigerian (Yoruba) DM family, the only indigenous sub-Saharan DM case reported to date. Each affected member of this family had an expanded (CTG)n repeat in one of his or her DMPK alleles. However, unlike all other DM populations studied thus far, disassociation of the (CTG)n repeat expansion from other alleles of the putative predisposing haplotype was found. We conclude that the expanded (CTG)n repeat in this family is the result of an independent mutational event. Consequently, the origin of DM is unlikely to be a single mutational event, and the hypothesis that a single ancestral haplotype predisposes to repeat expansion is not compelling. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:7726160

  2. Family history of cancer predicts endometrial cancer risk independently of Lynch Syndrome: Implications for genetic counselling.

    PubMed

    Johnatty, Sharon E; Tan, Yen Y; Buchanan, Daniel D; Bowman, Michael; Walters, Rhiannon J; Obermair, Andreas; Quinn, Michael A; Blomfield, Penelope B; Brand, Alison; Leung, Yee; Oehler, Martin K; Kirk, Judy A; O'Mara, Tracy A; Webb, Penelope M; Spurdle, Amanda B

    2017-08-16

    To determine endometrial cancer (EC) risk according to family cancer history, including assessment by degree of relatedness, type of and age at cancer diagnosis of relatives. Self-reported family cancer history was available for 1353 EC patients and 628 controls. Logistic regression was used to quantify the association between EC and cancer diagnosis in ≥1 first or second degree relative, and to assess whether level of risk differed by degree of relationship and/or relative's age at diagnosis. Risk was also evaluated for family history of up to three cancers from known familial syndromes (Lynch, Cowden, hereditary breast and ovarian cancer) overall, by histological subtype and, for a subset of 678 patients, by EC tumor mismatch repair (MMR) gene expression. Report of EC in ≥1 first- or second-degree relative was associated with significantly increased risk of EC (P=3.8×10(-7)), independent of lifestyle risk factors. There was a trend in increasing EC risk with closer relatedness and younger age at EC diagnosis in relatives (PTrend=4.43×10(-6)), and with increasing numbers of Lynch cancers in relatives (PTrend≤0.0001). EC risk associated with family history did not differ by proband tumor MMR status, or histological subtype. Reported EC in first- or second-degree relatives remained associated with EC risk after conservative correction for potential misreported family history (OR 2.0; 95% CI, 1.24-3.37, P=0.004). The strongest predictor of EC risk was closer relatedness and younger EC diagnosis age in ≥1 relative. Associations remained significant irrespective of proband MMR status, and after excluding MMR pathogenic variant carriers, indicating that Lynch syndrome genes do not fully explain familial EC risk. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Genetic counselling in hereditary osteo-onychodysplasia (HOOD, nail-patella syndrome) with nephropathy.

    PubMed Central

    Looij, B J; te Slaa, R L; Hogewind, B L; van de Kamp, J J

    1988-01-01

    Hereditary osteo-onychodysplasia (HOOD, nail-patella syndrome) is an autosomal dominant condition characterised by nail dysplasia, patellar hypoplasia or aplasia, and nephropathy. The risk for HOOD patients to have a child with HOOD who will develop renal failure cannot easily be deduced from published pedigrees. We have studied a large family with 30 patients with HOOD and have analysed 34 kindreds with HOOD nephropathy from published reports, comprising 213 patients. For a patient with HOOD from a family in which HOOD nephropathy occurs, the risk of having a child with HOOD nephropathy is about 1:4; the risk of having a child in whom renal failure will develop is about 1:10. PMID:3225824

  4. Familial mesial temporal lobe epilepsy: a benign epilepsy syndrome showing complex inheritance.

    PubMed

    Crompton, Douglas E; Scheffer, Ingrid E; Taylor, Isabella; Cook, Mark J; McKelvie, Penelope A; Vears, Danya F; Lawrence, Kate M; McMahon, Jacinta M; Grinton, Bronwyn E; McIntosh, Anne M; Berkovic, Samuel F

    2010-11-01

    Temporal lobe epilepsy is the commonest partial epilepsy of adulthood. Although generally perceived as an acquired disorder, several forms of familial temporal lobe epilepsy, with mesial or lateral seizure semiology, have been described. Descriptions of familial mesial temporal lobe epilepsy have varied widely from a benign epilepsy syndrome with prominent déjà vu and without antecedent febrile seizures or magnetic resonance imaging abnormalities, to heterogeneous, but generally more refractory epilepsies, often with a history of febrile seizures and with frequent hippocampal atrophy and high T₂ signal on magnetic resonance imaging. Compelling evidence of a genetic aetiology (rather than chance aggregation) in familial mesial temporal lobe epilepsy has come from twin studies. Dominant inheritance has been reported in two large families, though the usual mode of inheritance is not known. Here, we describe clinical and neurophysiological features of 20 new mesial temporal lobe epilepsy families including 51 affected individuals. The epilepsies in these families were generally benign, and febrile seizure history was infrequent (9.8%). No evidence of hippocampal sclerosis or dysplasia was present on brain imaging. A single individual underwent anterior temporal lobectomy, with subsequent seizure freedom and histopathological evidence of hippocampal sclerosis was not found. Inheritance patterns in probands' relatives were analysed in these families, together with 19 other temporal lobe epilepsy families previously reported by us. Observed frequencies of epilepsies in relatives were lower than predicted by dominant Mendelian models, while only a minority (8/39) of families could be compatible with recessive inheritance. These findings strongly suggest that complex inheritance, similar to that widely accepted in the idiopathic generalized epilepsies, is the usual mode of inheritance in familial mesial temporal lobe epilepsy. This disorder, which appears to be

  5. Family history of type 2 diabetes and prevalence of metabolic syndrome in adult Asian Indians.

    PubMed

    Das, Mithun; Pal, Susil; Ghosh, Arnab

    2012-04-01

    Our objective was to test the association between familial risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MS) in adult Asian Indians. A total of 448 adult (>30 years) individuals (257 males and 191 females) participated in the study. Familial risk of T2DM was classified into three groups viz., 1=both parents affected; 2=parent and/or siblings affected and 3=none or no family history for T2DM. Anthropometric measures, blood pressures, fasting blood glucose and metabolic profiles were studied using standard techniques. MS was defined accordingly. The prevalence of MS phenotypes was estimated and compared among the three familial risk strata. Individuals with a history of both parents affected from diabetes had significantly higher (P<0.001) body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), waist-hip ratio (WHR), systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and fasting blood glucose (FBG; P=0.035) than individuals having no family history of T2DM. Significant difference was also noticed between individuals with and without MS according to the family history of diabetes (P<0.001). Differences were evident between individuals who fulfilled all the MS criteria (P=0.001) and individuals with only one or two criteria (phenotypes) according to family history of T2DM. Family history of T2DM had significant effect on individuals with MS as compared to their counterparts (individuals having no family history of T2DM). It therefore seems reasonable to argue that family history of T2DM could be useful as a predictive tool for early diagnosis and prevention of MS in Asian Indian population.

  6. Familial occurrence of Mayer-Rokitansky-Küster-Hauser syndrome: a case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Herlin, Morten; Højland, Allan T; Petersen, Michael B

    2014-09-01

    Mayer-Rokitansky-Küster-Hauser (MRKH) syndrome is a congenital disorder of still unknown etiology, characterized by uterovaginal agenesis and can be associated with renal, skeletal and cardiac malformations. Most cases are sporadic. We report on a familial case of two female cousins with MRKH syndrome and unilateral renal agenesis. Family history revealed two cases of renal agenesis in male relatives and ultrasonographic (US) examination of healthy relatives diagnosed an uncle with multiple renal cysts. We have reviewed the literature on familial occurrence of MRKH syndrome and its associated anomalies and collected a total of 67 familial cases. We found familial cases to share the same associated anomalies as sporadic cases and we discuss the necessity of US examination of healthy relatives. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Clinical and genetic investigation of families with type II Waardenburg syndrome

    PubMed Central

    CHEN, YONG; YANG, FUWEI; ZHENG, HEXIN; ZHOU, JIANDA; ZHU, GANGHUA; HU, PENG; WU, WEIJING

    2016-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the molecular pathology of Waardenburg syndrome type II in three families, in order to provide genetic diagnosis and hereditary counseling for family members. Relevant clinical examinations were conducted on the probands of the three pedigrees. Peripheral blood samples of the probands and related family members were collected and genomic DNA was extracted. The coding sequences of paired box 3 (PAX3), microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF), sex-determining region Y-box 10 (SOX10) and snail family zinc finger 2 (SNAI2) were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction and DNA sequencing. The heterozygous mutation, c.649_651delAGA in exon 7 of the MITF gene was detected in the proband and all patients of pedigree 1; however, no pathological mutation of the relevant genes (MITF, SNAI2, SOX10 or PAX3) was detected in pedigrees 2 and 3. The heterozygous mutation c.649_651delAGA in exon 7 of the MITF gene is therefore considered the disease-causing mutation in pedigree 1. However, there are novel disease-causing genes in Waardenburg syndrome type II, which require further research. PMID:26781036

  8. Mutational analysis of the androgen receptor gene in two Chinese families with complete androgen insensitivity syndrome.

    PubMed

    Wang, Song; Xu, Haikun; An, Wei; Zhu, Dechun; Li, Dejun

    2016-06-01

    Androgens are essential for normal male sex differentiation and are responsible for the normal development of male secondary sexual characteristics at puberty. The physiological effects of androgens are mediated by the androgen receptor (AR). Mutations in the AR gene are the most common cause of androgen insensitivity syndrome. The present study undertook a genetic analysis of the AR gene in two unrelated families affected by complete androgen insensitivity syndrome (CAIS) in China. In family 1, a previously reported nonsense mutation (G-to-A; p.W751X) was identified in exon 5 of the AR gene. In addition, a novel missense mutation was detected in exon 6 of the AR gene from family 2; this mutation resulted in a predicted amino acid change from phenylalanine to serine at codon 804 (T-to-C; p.F804S) in the ligand-binding domain (LBD) of AR. Computer simulation of the structural changes generated by the p.F804S substitution revealed marked conformational alterations in the hydrophobic core responsible for the stability and function of the AR-LBD. In conclusion, the present study identified two mutations from two unrelated Chinese families affected by CAIS. The novel mutation (p.F804S) may provide insights into the molecular mechanism underlying CAIS. Furthermore, it expands on the number of mutational hot spots in the international AR mutation database, which may be useful in the future for prenatal diagnosis and genetic counseling.

  9. Analysis of Families with Lynch Syndrome Complicated by Advanced Serrated Neoplasia: The Importance of Pathology Review and Pedigree Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Walsh, Michael D; Buchanan, Daniel D; Walters, Rhiannon; Roberts, Aedan; Arnold, Sven; McKeone, Diane; Clendenning, Mark; Ruszkiewicz, Andrew R; Jenkins, Mark A; Hopper, John L; Goldblatt, Jack; George, Jillian; Suthers, Graeme K; Phillips, Kerry; Young, Graeme P; Macrae, Finlay; Drini, Musa; Woods, Michael O; Parry, Susan; Jass, Jeremy R; Young, Joanne P

    2009-01-01

    The identification of Lynch syndrome has been greatly assisted by the advent of tumour immunohistochemistry (IHC) for mismatch repair (MMR) proteins, and by the recognition of the role of acquired somatic BRAF mutation in sporadic MMR-deficient colorectal cancer (CRC). However, somatic BRAF mutation may also be present in the tumours in families with a predisposition to develop serrated polyps in the colorectum. In a subgroup of affected members in these families, CRCs emerge which demonstrate clear evidence of MMR deficiency with absent MLH1 staining and high-level microsatellite instability (MSI). This may result in these families being erroneously classified as Lynch syndrome or, conversely, an individual is considered “sporadic” due to the presence of a somatic BRAF mutation in a tumour. In this report, we describe two Lynch syndrome families who demonstrated several such inconsistencies. In one family, IHC deficiency of both MSH2 and MLH1 was demonstrated in tumours from different affected family members, presenting a confusing diagnostic picture. In the second family, MLH1 loss was observed in the lesions of both MLH1 mutation carriers and those who showed normal MLH1 germline sequence. Both families had Lynch syndrome complicated by an independently segregating serrated neoplasia phenotype, suggesting that in families such as these, tumour and germline studies of several key members, rather than of a single proband, are indicated to clarify the spectrum of risk. PMID:19241144

  10. [Characterization of the linguistic profile of a family with Perisylvian Syndrome].

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Ecila Paula dos Mesquita; Guerreiro, Marilisa Mantovani; Guimarães, Catarina Abraão; Brandão-Almeida, Iara Lêda; Montenegro, Maria Augusta; Cendes, Fernando; Hage, Simone Rocha de Vasconcellos

    2005-01-01

    Perisylvian syndrome refers to a variety of clinical manifestations associated to lesions in the perisylvian or opercular regions. Polymicrogyria is the most common structural malformation found. The syndrome may be inherited and the clinical spectrum includes subtle language disturbances on one end and more severe characteristics such as prominent pseudobulbar signs and refractory epilepsy on the other end. Other studies have already associated perisylvian polymicrogyria with developmental language disorders or specific language impairment. to describe the language deficits of four members of a family with Perisylvian Syndrome, and to correlate these deficits to neuroimaging data. The patients underwent neuroimaging investigation, psychological assessment using the Weschler Intelligence Scales, and specific speech-language evaluation. The following tests were used for the assessment of vocabulary, phonology, syntax, pragmatics, reading and writing: Thematical Pictures of Yavas, ABFW-Child Language Test, Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT), and other specific protocols. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed perisylvian polymicrogyria in all of the subjects, with varied locations and extensions. Speech-language assessment indicated significant oral and written language deficits in all of the subjects. The obtained data indicate that language impairment can co-exist with reading deficits in members of the same family. Neuroimaging findings reveal cortical alterations that are associated to specific language impairments within the spectrum of the Perisylvian Syndrome. Another important aspect evidenced by this study is the similarities in the language profiles of siblings and mother, suggesting that a variety of linguistic manifestations exist within the spectrum of the syndrome. Perisylvian polymicrogyria can be one of the neurobiological malformations involved in the manifestation of these deficits.

  11. Hodgkin lymphoma as a novel presentation of familial DICER1 syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kuhlen, Michaela; Hönscheid, Andrea; Schemme, Janina; Merz, Hartmut; Mauz-Körholz, Christine; Borkhardt, Arndt; Troeger, Anja

    2016-04-01

    DICER1 germline mutations are associated with an inherited cancer syndrome, most commonly presenting with pleuropulmonary blastoma (PPB), ovarian sex cord tumors, thyroid cysts/goitre, and cystic nephroma. We describe the occurrence of a Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) of the T cell phenotype in a family with DICER1 syndrome. The patient presented with PPB Type I and HL. Immunohistochemical staining of the Hodgkin and Reed-Sternberg cells revealed CD30, TGP, CD2, CD3, CD15, and IRF4 positivity and weekly positivity of PAX5. T cell receptor repertoire analysis suggested HL of T cell origin, which is in contrast to common B cell-derived HL. The mother had been diagnosed with thyroid cysts, one sister had died from a primitive neuroectodermal tumor, and a brother had died from PPB Type III. Two mutational events were revealed in all affected family members; a single bp deletion, c.5299delC, leading to a frameshift and premature stop in exon 24 and a heterozygous variant (c.4616C>T; p.Thr1539Met) located in exon 23 of the DICER1 gene. This variant is predicted to be benign by in silico analysis. Future studies looking for DICER1 mutations in HL cases of the T cell phenotype will be important to confirm its association with constitutional DICER1 syndrome. • DICER1 germline mutations are associated with an inherited cancer syndrome, most commonly pleuropulmonary blastoma, ovarian sex cord tumors, thyroid cysts/goitre, and cystic nephroma. • Hodgkin lymphoma is one of the most frequent types of malignant lymphomas and typically arises sporadically. T cell-derived Hodgkin lymphomas are exceptionally rare. What is New: • DICER1 syndrome may have an even broader phenotypic spectrum and seems to be associated with rare forms of T cell Hodgkin lymphoma.

  12. Familial Turner syndrome with an X;Y translocation mosaicism: implications for genetic counseling.

    PubMed

    Portnoï, Marie-France; Chantot-Bastaraud, Sandra; Christin-Maitre, Sophie; Carbonne, Bruno; Beaujard, Marie-Paule; Keren, Boris; Lévy, Jonathan; Dommergues, Marc; Cabrol, Sylvie; Hyon, Capucine; Siffroi, Jean-Pierre

    2012-11-01

    Spontaneous fertility is rare among patients with Turner syndrome and is most likely in women with mosaicism for a normal 46,XX cell line. We report an unusual case of familial Turner syndrome with mosaicism for a novel X;Y translocation involving Xp and Yp. The chromosomal analysis was carried out through cytogenetics and molecular karyotyping using a SNP array platform. The mother, a Turner syndrome woman, diagnosed in midchildhood because of short stature, was found to have a 45,X/46,X,der(X)t(X;Y)(p11.4;p11.2) karyotype, with a predominant 45,X cell line. Her parents decided against prophylactic gonadectomy, generally recommended at an early age when Y chromosome has been identified, because at age 13, she had spontaneous puberty and menarche. She reached a final height of 154 cm after treatment with growth hormone. At age 24, she became spontaneously pregnant. She had a mild aortic coarctation and close follow-up cardiac evaluation, including cardiac magnetic resonance imaging, had been performed during her pregnancy, which progressed uneventfully, except for intra-uterine growth retardation. Prenatal diagnosis revealed a female karyotype, with transmission of the maternal translocation with an unexpected different mosaic:47,X,der(X)t(X;Y)x2/46,X,der(X)t(X;Y) karyotype. This complex and unusual karyotype, including a mosaic partial trisomy X and a non-mosaic Xpter-Xp11.4 monosomy, results in transmission of Turner syndrome from mother to daughter. At birth, the girl had normal physical examination except for growth retardation. This family illustrates the complexity and difficulties, in term of patient counseling and management in Turner syndrome, in determining ovarian status, fertility planning, risks associated with pregnancies, particularly when mosaicism for Y material chromosome is identified.

  13. Heritable GATA2 Mutations Associated with Familial Myelodysplastic Syndrome and Acute Myeloid Leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Hahn, Christopher N.; Chong, Chan-Eng; Carmichael, Catherine L.; Wilkins, Ella J.; Brautigan, Peter J.; Li, Xiao-Chun; Babic, Milena; Lin, Ming; Carmagnac, Amandine; Lee, Young K.; Kok, Chung H.; Gagliardi, Lucia; Friend, Kathryn L.; Ekert, Paul G.; Butcher, Carolyn M.; Brown, Anna L.; Lewis, Ian D.; To, L. Bik; Timms, Andrew E.; Storek, Jan; Moore, Sarah; Altree, Meryl; Escher, Robert; Bardy, Peter G.; Suthers, Graeme K.; D’Andrea, Richard J.; Horwitz, Marshall S.; Scott, Hamish S.

    2011-01-01

    We report the discovery of the GATA2 gene as a new myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS)/acute myeloid leukemia (AML) predisposition gene. We found the same, novel heterozygous c.1061C>T (p.Thr354Met) missense mutation in the GATA2 transcription factor gene segregating with the multigenerational transmission of MDS/AML in three families, and a GATA2 c.1063_1065delACA (p.Thr355del) mutation at an adjacent codon in a fourth MDS/AML family. The mutations reside within the second zinc finger of GATA2 which mediates DNA-binding and protein-protein interactions. We show differential effects of the mutants on transactivation of target genes, cellular differentiation, apoptosis and global gene expression. Identification of such predisposing genes to familial forms of MDS and AML is critical for more effective diagnosis and prognosis, counselling, selection of related bone marrow transplant donors, and development of therapies. PMID:21892162

  14. Reduced Penetrance of PRRT2 Mutation in a Chinese Family With Infantile Convulsion and Choreoathetosis Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Zhang, L M; An, Y; Pan, G; Ding, Y F; Zhou, Y F; Yao, Y H; Wu, B L; Zhou, S Z

    2015-09-01

    Paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia is a rare episodic movement disorder that can be isolated or associated with benign infantile seizures as part of choreoathetosis syndrome. Mutations in the PRRT2 gene have been recently identified as a cause of paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia and infantile convulsion and choreoathetosis (ICCA). We reported a PRRT2 heterozygous mutation (c.604-607delTCAC, p.S202Hfs*25) in a 3-generation Chinese family with infantile convulsion and choreoathetosis and paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia. The mutation was present in 5 family members, of which 4 were clinically affected and 1 was an obligate carrier with reduced penetrance of PRRT2. The affected carriers of this mutation presented with a similar type of infantile convulsion during early childhood and developed additional paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia symptoms later in life. In addition, they all had a dramatic clinical response to oxcarbazepine/phenytoin therapy. Reduced penetrance of the PRRT2 mutation in this family could warrant genetic counseling.

  15. “The Cancer Bond”: Exploring the Formation of Cancer Risk Perception in Families with Lynch Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Koehly, Laura M.; Peterson, Susan K.; Shegog, Margarette; Vernon, Sally W.; Gritz, Ellen R.

    2010-01-01

    This study explores the social context of hereditary cancer risk perception in three families, an African-American family, a Mexican-American family, and a Caucasian family, each with Lynch Syndrome documented by a mismatch repair gene mutation. Communication network assessments measured family communication about cancer experiences and genetic testing information among a total of 26 participants. Participant narratives were evaluated to gain insight into how family cancer experiences and genetic testing information have shaped perceptions of cancer risk. Analysis of communication networks indicated that some families discussed cancer experiences to a greater extent than genetic testing information, and vice-versa. Interviews elucidated that sharing both types of health information led participants to conceptualize linkages among a strong family history of cancer, genetic testing information, and cancer prevention strategies. Understanding how different types of family communication influence the formation of perceived hereditary disease risk may enhance efforts to tailor genetic counseling services for families. PMID:20401527

  16. Dominant inheritance and intra–familial variations in the association of Sturge–Weber and Klippel–Trenaunay–Weber syndromes

    PubMed Central

    Pereira de Godoy, José Maria; Fett-Conte, Agnes Cristina

    2010-01-01

    This case report shows a genealogical study where a woman has limb hypertrophy and her son has an association of Sturge–Weber syndrome with Klippel–Trenaunay–Weber syndrome. The Sturge–Weber and Klippel–Trenaunay–Weber syndromes appear to be different manifestations of the same affliction. Familial aggregation exists and transmission may be almost imperceptible between generations. Identification of minor manifestations may prove to be a valuable contribution to genetic counseling of families and the prevention of new cases. PMID:20838488

  17. Autoimmune disease aggregation in families with primary Sjögren's syndrome.

    PubMed

    Anaya, Juan-Manuel; Tobon, Gabriel J; Vega, Patricia; Castiblanco, John

    2006-11-01

    Diverse autoimmune diseases may coexist in the same individual and in families, implying a common etiology. We examined the aggregation of autoimmune diseases among first-degree relatives (FDR) of patients with primary Sjögren's syndrome (pSS). This was a population-based case-control family study in which 101 families of women classified as having pSS according to the revised American-European criteria and 124 families of matched controls without autoimmune disease were enrolled to investigate the presence of autoimmune diseases. We performed a genetic analysis that included familial correlation and recurrent risk ratios. In family cases, 38% had at least one FDR with an autoimmune disease, versus 22% in control families [odds ratio (OR) 2.2, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.2-3.9, p = 0.01]. An autoimmune disease was registered for 7.3% of 876 patients' FDR as compared with 3.85% of 857 controls' FDR (OR 1.97, 95% CI 1.28-3.03, p = 0.002). The most frequent autoimmune diseases registered among the pSS patients' FDR were autoimmune thyroid disease (AITD), systemic lupus erythematosus, and rheumatoid arthritis, which disclosed aggregation. The proband phenotype (i.e., pSS) was correlated with AITD, systemic sclerosis, and all autoimmune diseases when considered together as a trait. Maternal transmission of the autoimmunity trait was observed in cases but not in controls. Our results indicate that autoimmune diseases cluster within families of patients with pSS. This familial aggregation of autoimmune diseases adds further evidence that clinically different autoimmune phenotypes might share common susceptibility gene variants, which acting in epistatic pleitropy may represent risk factors for autoimmunity.

  18. Clinical characterization and mutation spectrum in Caribbean Hispanic families with Lynch Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Cruz-Correa, Marcia; Diaz-Algorri, Yaritza; Pérez-Mayoral, Julyann; Suleiman-Suleiman, Wasilah; Gonzalez-Pons, Maria del Mar; Bertrán, Carlos; Casellas, Nicolás; Rodríguez, Natalia; Pardo, Sherly; Rivera, Keyla; Mosquera, Rafael; Rodriguez-Quilichini, Segundo

    2015-01-01

    Lynch Syndrome (LS) is an inherited form of colorectal cancer caused by germline mutations in the Mismatch Repair (MMR) genes. It accounts for approximately 5% of all colorectal cancers. The prevalence of Lynch Syndrome among US Hispanics is unknown. The objective of this study was to describe the germline mutations of Lynch Syndrome in Caribbean Hispanics from Puerto Rico and Dominican Republic. A total of 89 subjects were recruited through the Puerto Rico Familial Colorectal Cancer Registry and were classified according to Amsterdam and Bethesda clinical guidelines. For those tumors with lack of expression of MMR protein, gene sequencing was ordered. A total of 35 individuals with deficient MMR system were identified: 22 had MMR mutations and 13 had tumors with absent MMR protein expression. Our results show that the mutation spectrum of Caribbean Hispanic LS patients was composed mostly of MSH2 (66.7 %) mutations, followed by MLH1 (25.0 %). One mutation was identified in MSH6 (8.3 %). A previously unidentified mutation in MLH1 gene c.2044_2045del was found in one Caribbean Hispanic family. MMR mutation-positive individuals were found to be more likely to have a prominent family history of CRC and tumors located at the proximal colon. Compared to MSH2 mutation carriers, MLH1 mutation-positive individuals were more likely to have a strong family history of CRC and LS associated cancers. Furthermore, insurance coverage for genetic testing was found to be limited in the study population with 65.1% of the individuals recruited were denied coverage. This report presents the first description of the mutation spectrum and clinicopathologic characteristics of LS Caribbean Hispanics patients. PMID:25782445

  19. Hereditary melanoma: Update on syndromes and management: Genetics of familial atypical multiple mole melanoma syndrome.

    PubMed

    Soura, Efthymia; Eliades, Philip J; Shannon, Kristen; Stratigos, Alexander J; Tsao, Hensin

    2016-03-01

    Malignant melanoma is considered the most lethal skin cancer if it is not detected and treated during its early stages. About 10% of melanoma patients report a family history of melanoma; however, individuals with features of true hereditary melanoma (ie, unilateral lineage, multigenerational, multiple primary lesions, and early onset of disease) are in fact quite rare. Although many new loci have been implicated in hereditary melanoma, CDKN2A mutations remain the most common. Familial melanoma in the presence of multiple atypical nevi should raise suspicion for a germline CDKN2A mutation. These patients have a high risk of developing multiple primary melanomas and internal organ malignancies, especially pancreatic cancer; therefore, a multidisciplinary approach is necessary in many cases. The value of dermoscopic examination and total body photography performed at regular intervals has been suggested by a number of studies, and should therefore be considered for these patients and their first-degree relatives. In addition, genetic counseling with the possibility of testing can be a valuable adjunct for familial melanoma patients. This must be performed with care, however, and only by qualified individuals trained in cancer risk analysis.

  20. Hereditary Melanoma: Update on Syndromes and Management - Genetics of familial atypical multiple mole melanoma syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Soura, E.; Eliades, P.; Shannon, K.; Stratigos, A.; Tsao, H.

    2015-01-01

    Malignant melanoma is considered the most lethal skin cancer if not detected and treated at its early stages. About 10% of melanoma patients report a family history of melanoma; however, individuals with features of true hereditary melanoma (i.e. unilateral lineage, multi-generational, multiple primary lesions, and early onset of disease) are in fact quite rare. Although many new loci have been implicated in hereditary melanoma, CDKN2A mutations remain the most common. Familial melanoma in the presence of multiple atypical nevi should raise suspicion for a germline CDKN2A mutation. Such patients have a high risk of developing multiple primary melanomas and internal organ malignancies especially pancreatic cancer; thus, a multidisciplinary approach is necessary in many cases. The value of dermoscopy examination and total body photography performed at regular intervals has been suggested by a number of studies, and should therefore be considered for these patients and their first degree relatives. In addition, genetic counseling with the possibility of testing can be a valuable adjunct for familial melanoma patients. But, this must be performed with care and only by qualified individuals trained in cancer risk analysis. PMID:26892650

  1. Could familial Mediterranean fever gene mutations be related to PFAPA syndrome?

    PubMed

    Celiksoy, Mehmet H; Ogur, Gonul; Yaman, Elif; Abur, Ummet; Fazla, Semanur; Sancak, Recep; Yildiran, Alisan

    2016-02-01

    The cause and pathophysiology of PFAPA syndrome is unknown. The aim of this study was to determine all MEFV gene variants relevant to familial Mediterranean fever in children with PFAPA syndrome. All MEFV gene variants were analyzed in patients with PFAPA syndrome. All patients were evaluated using the Gaslini scoring system. Serum immunoglobulin levels were also determined upon admission. We evaluated 64 patients with PFAPA syndrome. The median age at diagnosis was 37.5 (min-max: 6-96) months, and the percentage of male patients was 55.0%. The Gaslini diagnostic score for periodic fever was high in 81.0% of the patients. An MEFV gene mutation was found in 42 (66.0%) children. Mostly, heterozygous or compound heterozygous variants of the MEFV gene were found. Two patients were homozygous for R202Q. MEFV gene mutations were not detected in 22 (34.0%) patients. No significant differences in clinical or laboratory findings were observed between the two groups (p > 0.05), and there were no significant differences in period and duration of the fever episodes (p > 0.05). The fever of all 47 patients (100.0%) who received prednisolone during the episodes decreased within hours and did not recur. Eighteen of the patients using prednisolone underwent prophylaxis with colchicine, and the fever episodes of 9/18 (50.0%) patients using colchicine decreased within months. Most patients presenting with PFAPA syndrome have heterozygous MEFV gene mutations. Whether carrying a heterozygous MEFV gene is the primary cause of this syndrome requires further investigation. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. RPL10 mutation segregating in a family with X-linked syndromic Intellectual Disability.

    PubMed

    Thevenon, Julien; Michot, Caroline; Bole, Christine; Nitschke, Patrick; Nizon, Mathilde; Faivre, Laurence; Munnich, Arnold; Lyonnet, Stanislas; Bonnefont, Jean-Paul; Portes, Vincent Des; Amiel, Jeanne

    2015-08-01

    Intellectual disability is a neurodevelopmental disorder of impaired adaptive skills and low intelligence quotient. The overall prevalence is estimated at 2-3% in the general population with extreme clinical and genetic heterogeneity, and it has been associated with possibly causative mutations in more than 700 identified genes. In a recent review, among over 100 X-linked intellectual disability causative genes, eight were reported as "awaiting replication." Exome sequencing in a large family identified a missense mutation in RPL10 highly suggestive of X-linked intellectual disability. Herein, we report on the clinical description of four affected males. All patients presented apparent intellectual disability (4/4), psychomotor delay (4/4) with syndromic features including amniotic fluid excess (3/4), microcephaly (2/4), urogenital anomalies (3/4), cerebellar syndrome (2/4), and facial dysmorphism. In the literature, two mutations were reported in three families with affected males presenting with autism. This report confirms the implication of RPL10 mutations in neurodevelopmental disorders and extends the associated clinical spectrum from autism to syndromic intellectual disability. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Genomic diagnosis by whole genome sequencing in a Korean family with atypical progeroid syndrome.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seungbok; Park, Sae Mi; Kim, Hyun Ji; Kim, Jin-Wou; Yu, Dong Soo; Lee, Young Bok

    2015-12-01

    Clinical genomic diagnosis is unfamiliar to many dermatologists. Limited knowledge of bioinformatics has limited the use of the next generation sequencing method in dermatological clinics. We evaluated the usefulness of whole genome sequencing as a diagnostic approach to inherited dermatological disease. Here, we present our experience with two female siblings with atypical familial generalized lipodystrophy with diabetes mellitus and dyslipidemia. Whole genome sequencing was performed to diagnose the inherited disease. We compared control genomic databases using the Exome Aggregation Consortium, and filtered false-positive calls with the segmental duplication, non-flagged single nucleotide variants and COSMIC mutation databases, and applied the prediction tools of SIFT and PolyPhen2. The two siblings who presented with generalized lipodystrophy were diagnosed with an atypical progeroid syndrome with a p.D136H mutation in the LMNA gene (NM_005572). We diagnosed a familial atypical progeroid syndrome using whole genome sequencing. In this paper, we present our experience with whole genome sequencing and demonstrate that it can provide useful information for clinical genomic diagnosis of inherited diseases with atypical clinical features, such as atypical progeroid syndrome.

  4. Exome Analysis of a Family with Wolff–Parkinson–White Syndrome Identifies a Novel Disease Locus

    PubMed Central

    Bowles, Neil E.; Jou, Chuanchau J.; Arrington, Cammon B.; Kennedy, Brett J.; Earl, Aubree; Matsunami, Norisada; Meyers, Lindsay L.; Etheridge, Susan P.; Saarel, Elizabeth V.; Bleyl, Steven B.; Yost, H. Joseph; Yandell, Mark; Leppert, Mark F.; Tristani-Firouzi, Martin; Gruber, Peter J.

    2016-01-01

    Wolff–Parkinson–White (WPW) syndrome is a common cause of supraventricular tachycardia that carries a risk of sudden cardiac death. To date, mutations in only one gene, PRKAG2, which encodes the 5’ -AMP-activated protein kinase subunit γ-2, have been identified as causative for WPW. DNA samples from five members of a family with WPW were analyzed by exome sequencing. We applied recently designed prioritization strategies (VAAST/pedigree VAAST) coupled with an ontology-based algorithm (Phevor) that reduced the number of potentially damaging variants to 10: a variant in KCNE2 previously associated with Long QT syndrome was also identified. Of these 11 variants, only MYH6 p.E1885K segregated with the WPW phenotype in all affected individuals and was absent in 10 unaffected family members. This variant was predicted to be damaging by in silico methods and is not present in the 1,000 genome and NHLBI exome sequencing project databases. Screening of a replication cohort of 47 unrelated WPW patients did not identify other likely causative variants in PRKAG2 or MYH6. MYH6 variants have been identified in patients with atrial septal defects, cardiomyopathies, and sick sinus syndrome. Our data highlight the pleiotropic nature of phenotypes associated with defects in this gene. PMID:26284702

  5. A family with fragile X syndrome, Duchenne muscular dystrophy and ichthyosis transmitted by an asymptomatic carrier.

    PubMed

    Todorova, A; Litvinenko, I; Todorov, T; Tincheva, R; Avdjieva, D; Tincheva, S; Mitev, V

    2014-03-01

    The human X chromosome carries regions prone to genomic instability: deletions in the Xp22.31 region, involving the steroid sulfatase gene (STS) cause X-linked ichthyosis; rearrangements in the Xp21.2 region are associated with Duchenne or Becker muscular dystrophies (DMD or BMD); and the Xq27.3 unstable region, containing the (CGG)n repeat expansion in the FMR1 gene is associated with fragile X syndrome. We report on a family with two affected boys, the elder diagnosed with fragile X syndrome, the younger with DMD, and both suffering from severe ichthyosis. The family was analyzed by polymerase chain reaction, multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification and haplotype analysis. The mother proved to be an asymptomatic carrier of all three non-contiguous mutation events, involving the STS gene, the DMD gene and a FMR1 expansion. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first description of an asymptomatic carrier of three different X-linked disorders, involving severe genetic rearrangements on both long and short arms of the X chromosomes. The boy with fragile X syndrome has inherited a triple recombinant maternal X chromosome, this way inheriting the FMR1 expansion and ichthyosis, originating most probably from different maternal Xes and excluding the DMD gene deletion. The transmission of these extremely defective maternal chromosomes to the next generation involved several recombinations.

  6. Audiometric characteristics of a dutch family with a new mutation in GATA3 causing HDR syndrome.

    PubMed

    van Beelen, E; Leijendeckers, J M; Admiraal, R J C; Huygen, P L M; Hoefsloot, L H; Pennings, R J E; Snik, A F M; Kunst, H P M

    2014-01-01

    We present the case of a Dutch family with a new mutation (c523_528dup) in GATA3 causing HDR syndrome. HDR syndrome is characterised by hypoparathyroidism, deafness and renal defects. In this study, we describe the audiometric characteristics of 5 patients from this family. Their hearing impairment was congenital, bilateral and symmetric. Audiograms showed mild-to-moderate hearing impairment with a flat audiogram configuration. Higher frequencies tended to be affected more strongly. Cross-sectional analyses showed no progression, and a mean audiogram was established. Psychophysical measurements in 3 HDR patients - including speech reception in noise, loudness scaling, gap detection and difference limen for frequency - were obtained to assess hearing function in greater detail. Overall, the results of the psychophysical measurements indicated characteristics of outer hair cell loss. CT scanning showed no anomalies in 3 of the HDR patients. Although 2 patients displayed vestibular symptoms, no anomalies in the vestibular system were found by vestibulo-ocular examination. Our results are in agreement with the theory that outer hair cell malfunctioning can play a major role in HDR syndrome.

  7. Barriers to diagnosis of a rare neurological disorder in China--lived experiences of Rett syndrome families.

    PubMed

    Lim, Faye; Downs, Jenny; Li, Jianghong; Bao, Xin-Hua; Leonard, Helen

    2012-01-01

    Rett syndrome is a rare neurological disorder affecting girls and usually caused by a mutation on the MECP2 gene. It is estimated that approximately 1,000 girls are born every year in China with Rett syndrome but far fewer have received a diagnosis. Fourteen of 74 Chinese families known to the International Rett Syndrome Phenotype Database participated in this qualitative study. Telephone interviews were conducted in Mandarin to explore pathways to a diagnosis of Rett syndrome in China and associated barriers. Families consulted multiple clinical centers and eventually received a diagnosis at a centrally located hospital. Over the course of this pathway, families encountered lack of knowledge and diagnostic expertise for Rett syndrome at local levels and a heavily over-burdened hospital system. There was a paucity of information available to guide management of this rare disorder after the diagnosis had been received. Our study suggests that the frustrations experienced by families could in part be addressed by the provision of information, education, and training related to Rett syndrome for clinicians, additional resources to allow clinicians to request genetic testing for confirmation of the clinical diagnosis and for information and support services for families.

  8. Familial DiGeorge/velocardiofacial syndrome with deletions of chromosome area 22q11.2: Report of five families with a review of the literature

    SciTech Connect

    Leana-Cox, J.; Pangkanon, Suthipong; Eanet, K.R.

    1996-11-11

    The DiGeorge (DG), velocardiofacial (VCF), and conotruncal anomaly-face (CTAF) syndromes were originally described as distinct disorders, although overlapping phenotypes have been recognized. It is now clear that all three syndromes result from apparently similar or identical 22q11.2 deletions, suggesting that they represent phenotypic variability of a single genetic syndrome. We report on 12 individuals in five families with del(22)(q11.2) by fluorescent in situ hybridization, and define the frequency of phenotypic abnormalities in those cases and in 70 individuals from 27 del(22)(q11.2) families from the literature. Common manifestations include mental impairment (97%), abnormal face (93%), cardiac malformations (681%), thymic (64%) and parathyroid (63%) abnormalities, and cleft palate or velopharyngeal insufficiency (48%). Familial DG, VCF, and CTAF syndromes due to del(22)(q11.2) show significant inter- and intrafamilial clinical variability consistent with the hypothesis that a single gene or group of tightly linked genes is the common cause of these syndromes. Up to 25% of 22q deletions are inherited, indicating that parents of affected children warrant molecular cytogenetic evaluation. We propose use of the compound term {open_quotes}DiGeorge/velocardiofacial (DGNCF) syndrome{close_quotes} in referring to this condition, as it calls attention to the phenotypic spectrum using historically familiar names. 41 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  9. Familial DiGeorge/velocardiofacial syndrome with deletions of chromosome area 22q11.2: report of five families with a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Leana-Cox, J; Pangkanon, S; Eanet, K R; Curtin, M S; Wulfsberg, E A

    1996-11-11

    The DiGeorge (DG), velocardiofacial (VCF), and conotruncal anomaly-face (CTAF) syndromes were originally described as distinct disorders, although overlapping phenotypes have been recognized. It is now clear that all three syndromes result from apparently similar or identical 22q11.2 deletions, suggesting that they represent phenotypic variability of a single genetic syndrome. We report on 12 individuals in five families with del(22)(q11.2) by fluorescent in situ hybridization, and define the frequency of phenotypic abnormalities in those cases and in 70 individuals from 27 del(22)(q11.2) families from the literature. Common manifestations include mental impairment (97%), abnormal face (93%), cardiac malformations (68%), thymic (64%) and parathyroid (63%) abnormalities, and cleft palate or velopharyngeal insufficiency (48%). Familial DG, VCF, and CTAF syndromes due to del(22) (q11.2) show significant inter- and intrafamilial clinical variability consistent with the hypothesis that a single gene or group of tightly linked genes is the common cause of these syndromes. Up to 25% of 22q deletions are inherited, indicating that parents of affected children warrant molecular cytogenetic evaluation. We propose use of the compound term "DiGeorge/velocardiofacial (DG/VCF) syndrome" in referring to this condition, as it calls attention to the phenotypic spectrum using historically familiar names.

  10. Partial KCNQ1OT1 hypomethylation: A disguised familial Beckwith–Wiedemann syndrome as a sporadic adrenocortical tumor

    PubMed Central

    H'mida Ben-Brahim, Dorra; Hammami, Sabeur; Haddaji Mastouri, Marwa; Trabelsi, Saoussen; Chourabi, Maroua; Sassi, Sihem; Mougou, Soumaya; Gribaa, Moez; Zakhama, Abdelfattah; Guédiche, Mohamed Neji; Saad, Ali

    2014-01-01

    Beckwith–Wiedemann syndrome has a wide spectrum of complications such as embryonal tumors, namely adrenocortical tumor. Tumor predisposition is one of the most challenging manifestations of this syndrome. A 45-day old female with a family history of adrenocortical tumor presented with adrenocortical tumor. The case raised suspicion of a hereditary Beckwith–Wiedemann syndrome, therefore molecular analysis was undertaken. The results revealed partial KCNQ1OT1 hypomethylation in the infant's blood DNA which was associated with a complete loss of methylation in the infant's adrenocortical tumor tissue. It is unique for familial Beckwith–Wiedemann syndrome caused by KCNQ1OT1 partial hypomethylation to manifest solely through adrenocortical tumor. Incomplete penetrance and specific tissue mosaicism could provide explanations to this novel hereditary Beckwith–Wiedemann syndrome presentation. PMID:26937341

  11. Variable expressivity of pfeiffer syndrome in a family with FGFR1 p.Pro252Arg mutation.

    PubMed

    Bessenyei, Beáta; Tihanyi, Mariann; Hartwig, Marianna; Szakszon, Katalin; Oláh, Éva

    2014-12-01

    Pfeiffer syndrome is an autosomal dominant disorder classically characterized by craniosynostosis, facial dysmorphism and limb anomalies. The majority of cases are caused by mutations in the fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 (FGFR2) gene. A specific, rare mutation p.Pro252Arg, located between the second and third extracellular immunoglobulin-like domain of FGFR1, is associated with mild clinical signs. We report on a three-generation family with five members having a heterozygous FGFR1 p.Pro252Arg mutation. Phenotypic features within the family showed high variability from the apparently normal skull and limbs to the characteristic brachycephaly and digital anomalies. The typical features of Pfeiffer syndrome appeared only in the third generation allowing us to unveil the syndrome in several further family members in two previous generations. Variable expressivity can complicate the recognition of Pfeiffer syndrome, principally the mild type 1, requiring careful phenotyping and genetic counseling.

  12. Study of the origin of nondisjunction in a family with two cases of Down syndrome using cytogenetic and molecular polymorphisms.

    PubMed

    Stinissen, P; Van Roy, B; Van Camp, G; Backhovens, H; Partoens, P; Wehnert, A; Verniers, H; Dumon, J; Vandenberghe, A; Van Broeckhoven, C

    1990-01-01

    We analyzed the possibility of inherited predisposition to nondisjunction in a family with two cases of Down syndrome using restriction fragment length polymorphisms and cytogenetic heteromorphisms. In both patients the extra chromosome 21 was the result of a nondisjunction event at first meiotic division in the mother. Since both patients are maternally related, genetic predisposition cannot be excluded in this family.

  13. Blau syndrome of granulomatous arthritis, iritis, and skin rash: a new family and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Manouvrier-Hanu, S; Puech, B; Piette, F; Boute-Benejean, O; Desbonnet, A; Duquesnoy, B; Farriaux, J P

    1998-03-19

    Blau syndrome (MK186580) comprises granulomatous arthritis, iritis, and skin rash, and is an autosomal-dominant trait with variable expressivity. So far it was described in 5 families. We report on a sixth family with severe progression of eye involvement and discuss the nosology with similar diseases, such as early-infantile sarcoidosis.

  14. [Triplet expansion cytosine-guanine-guanine: Three cases of OMIM syndrome in the same family].

    PubMed

    González-Pérez, Jesús; Izquierdo-Álvarez, Silvia; Fuertes-Rodrigo, Cristina; Monge-Galindo, Lorena; Peña-Segura, José Luis; López-Pisón, Francisco Javier

    2016-04-01

    The dynamic increase in the number of triplet repeats of cytosine-guanine-guanine (CGG) in the FMR1 gene mutation is responsible for three OMIM syndromes with a distinct clinical phenotype: Fragile X syndrome (FXS) and two pathologies in adult carriers of the premutation (55-200 CGG repeats): Primary ovarian insufficiency (FXPOI) and tremor-ataxia syndrome (FXTAS) associated with FXS. CGG mutation dynamics of the FMR1 gene were studied in DNA samples from peripheral blood from the index case and other relatives of first, second and third degree by TP-PCR, and the percentage methylation. Diagnosis of FXS was confirmed in three patients (21.4%), eight patients (57.1%) were confirmed in the premutation range transmitters, one male patient with full mutation/permutation mosaicism (7.1%) and two patients (14.3%) with normal study. Of the eight permutated patients, three had FXPOI and one male patient had FXTAS. Our study suggests the importance of making an early diagnosis of SXF in order to carry out a family study and genetic counselling, which allow the identification of new cases or premutated patients with FMR1 gene- associated syndromes (FXTAS, FXPOI). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  15. A novel WNT10A mutation causes non-syndromic hypodontia in an Egyptian family.

    PubMed

    Abdalla, Ebtesam M; Mostowska, Adrianna; Jagodziński, Paweł P; Dwidar, Karin; Ismail, Suzan R

    2014-07-01

    Tooth agenesis is the most common dental anomaly, whose aetiology still remains to be fully elucidated. The aim of this study was to investigate the genetic cause of non-syndromic hypodontia with clinical variability in an Egyptian family. The entire coding regions including exon-intron boundaries of the MSX1, PAX9 and WNT10A genes were investigated by direct sequencing in all affected family members. Novel heterozygous mutation inherited in an autosomal dominant manner was identified in the WNT10A gene. This 21-bp deletion combined with 1-bp insertion, c.-14_7delinsC, eliminates the translation initiation codon leading to either no protein production or translation of alternative open reading frames. None of the control subjects (400 chromosomes) were carriers of this novel WNT10A mutation. No pathogenic mutations were found in the MSX1 and PAX9 genes. The novel c.-14_7delinsC mutation might be the etiological variant of the WNT10A gene responsible for the permanent tooth agenesis in the Egyptian family. WNT10A is a major candidate gene for non-syndromic hypodontia. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. [Familial case of oral-facial-digital syndrome type 1 (OFD 1)].

    PubMed

    Miklaszewska, Monika; Zachwieja, Katarzyna; Herman-Sucharska, Izabela; Drozdz, Dorota; Fijak-Moskal, Jolanta; Gergont, Aleksandra; Kowalska-Duplaga, Kinga; Cieszkowska, Marta; Pacia-Medrek, Bernadetta; Pietrzyk, Jacek A

    2014-01-01

    Ciliopathies are phenotypically and genetically heterogeneous disorders that share ciliary dysfunction as a common pathological mechanism. Ciliary dysfunction results in a broad range of malformations including renal, hepatic and pancreatic cysts, visceral abnormalities, retinal degeneration, anosmia, cerebellar or other brain anomalies, polydactyly, bronchiectasis and infertility. The paper presents a familial case of oral-facial-digital syndrome type 1 in 14 year old girl suspected to polycystic kidney disease. Molecular testing in daughters of known OFD1 mutation carriers and mothers of affected daughters seems to be reasonable. Not each case of policystic kidney disease which looks like autosomal dominant policystic kiedney disease is actually the above disease. The insight into the pathogenesis of ciliopathies is mandatory for understanding these combined congenital anomaly syndromes of seemingly unrelated symptoms of hepatorenal and pancreatic fibrocystic disease. Close interdisciplinary approach is mandatory in terms of efficient and reliable diagnostic and therapeutic interventions in patients presenting with ciliopathies.

  17. Value of molecular diagnosis in a family with Marfan syndrome and an atypical vascular phenotype.

    PubMed

    Lebreiro, Ana; Martins, Elisabete; Almeida, Jorge; Pimenta, Sofia; Bernardes, José Miguel; Machado, José Carlos; Abreu-Lima, Cassiano

    2011-02-01

    Marfan syndrome is mainly caused by mutations in the FBN1 gene. Diagnosis is usually based on clinical criteria, but the phenotypic presentation varies widely among affected individuals. Aortic dissection or rupture is the cause of death in over 90% of untreated patients. Early identification of individuals at risk is important given the availability of medical and surgical treatment that can significantly improve life-expectancy. Molecular testing could provide an etiologic diagnosis in patients who present with milder or atypical clinical forms of the disease. Moreover, it could contribute to preventive treatment in carriers, inform genetic counseling and offer reassurance to unaffected individuals. By describing a family with Marfan syndrome in whom the disease presented in an atypical aggressive form, this article highlights the value of tests for detecting FBN1 mutations in selected cases. Copyright © 2010 Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  18. Witkop tooth and nail syndrome: a report of three cases in a family.

    PubMed

    Memarpour, Mahtab; Shafiei, Fereshteh

    2011-01-01

    Witkop tooth and nail syndrome is a rare autosomal dominant ectodermal dysplasia manifested by hypodontia and nail dysplasia. Tooth shape may vary, and conical and narrow crowns are common. Mandibular incisors, second molars, and maxillary canines are the most frequently missing teeth. Nail dysplasia affects the fingernails and especially the toenails and is often more severe in childhood. Nails may be spoon-shaped, ridged, slow-growing, and easily broken. We examined an Eastern Mediterranean family in which three siblings (two girls, one boy) had this syndrome. The severity of finger and toenail anomalies varied. The children's mother had no Witkop-related abnormalities, but their father was reported to have dental and nail anomalies. Early intervention is recommended to manage orofacial disfigurement and avoid negative social consequences for these children.

  19. Acro-dermato-ungual-lacrimal-tooth-like syndrome: report of a family with variable expression.

    PubMed

    Bedeschi, Maria Francesca; Escande, Fabienne; Bellini, Melissa; Natacci, Federica; Cavallari, Ugo; Lalatta, Faustina

    2006-10-01

    We report the case of a young boy with fine hair, mild nail dysplasia, blocked nasolacrimal ducts, absence of central incisors, bilateral oligodactyly of feet and anal stenosis. His father showed the same spectrum of anomalies with mild expression. He had mild nail dysplasia, blocked nasolacrimal ducts, inferior dental cysts with consequent premature tooth loss, frequent dental decays consequent to enamel abnormality and cutaneous syndactyly of the second and third right toe. The acro-dermato-ungual-lacrimal-tooth syndrome was suspected and molecular analysis of the P63 gene was performed, but no mutation was found. Although P63 gene analysis was negative, we think that both cases show clinical overlap with the acro-dermato-ungual-lacrimal-tooth syndrome and confirm the wide expression of this condition, even in the same family.

  20. Coexistence of epilepsy and Brugada syndrome in a family with SCN5A mutation.

    PubMed

    Parisi, Pasquale; Oliva, Antonio; Coll Vidal, Monica; Partemi, Sara; Campuzano, Oscar; Iglesias, Anna; Pisani, Daniela; Pascali, Vincenzo L; Paolino, Maria Chiara; Villa, Maria Pia; Zara, Federico; Tassinari, Carlo Alberto; Striano, Pasquale; Brugada, Ramon

    2013-08-01

    Cardiac arrhythmias are associated with abnormal channel function due to mutations in ion channel genes. Epilepsy is a disorder of neuronal function also involving abnormal channel function. It is increasingly demonstrated that the etiologies of long QT syndrome and epilepsy may partly overlap. However, only a few genetic studies have addressed a possible link between cardiac and neural channelopathies. We describe a family showing the association between Brugada syndrome and epilepsy in which a known mutation in the SCN5A gene (p.W1095X, c.3284G>A) was identified. We suggest that this mutation can be responsible for cardiac and brain involvement, probably at different developmental age in the same individual. This observation confirms the possibility that SCN5A mutations may confer susceptibility for recurrent seizure activity, supporting the emerging concept of a genetically determined cardiocerebral channelopathy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. A kindred with MYH-associated polyposis and pilomatricomas.

    PubMed

    Baglioni, Silvana; Melean, German; Gensini, Francesca; Santucci, Marco; Scatizzi, Marco; Papi, Laura; Genuardi, Maurizio

    2005-04-15

    MYH-associated polyposis (MAP) is a recently described autosomal recessive form of familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) associated with susceptibility to colorectal carcinoma (CRC). MAP is caused by biallelic inactivating mutations of the MYH gene, a component of the base excision repair (BER) machinery, whose dysfunction leads to an increase in the rate of G > T transversions following DNA oxidative damage. MAP patients can present with either classic or attenuated polyposis. However, the MAP colonic and extracolonic phenotype has yet to be defined. We report on two siblings, born from consanguineous parents, who were found to be homozygotes for an MYH frameshift mutation. The propositus presented with a low number of colonic lesions and an early-onset CRC. Both siblings had a history of pilomatricomas, benign tumors derived from hair follicles, in childhood. The findings presented provide further evidence of phenotypic variability in MAP, and suggest that multiple pilomatricomas may be a useful cutaneous marker of MAP. (c) 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  2. Myoclonic occipital photosensitive epilepsy with dystonia (MOPED): A familial epilepsy syndrome.

    PubMed

    Sadleir, Lynette G; Paterson, Sarah; Smith, Katherine R; Redshaw, Natalie; Ranta, Annemarei; Kalnins, Renate; Berkovic, Samuel F; Bahlo, Melanie; Hildebrand, Michael S; Scheffer, Ingrid E

    2015-08-01

    To describe clinical and EEG phenotypes of a family with an unusual familial epilepsy syndrome characterized by myoclonus and dystonia. Family members underwent electroclinical phenotyping including review of EEGs and MRI. DNA from family members was genotyped using Illumina OmniExpress genotyping arrays. Parametric and nonparametric linkage analyses were performed using MERLIN. The disorder followed autosomal dominant (AD) inheritance and affected seven individuals over two generations. Seizures began at a mean of 14.5 years. Six individuals had spontaneous myoclonic seizures, of which five also had photic-induced myoclonus and four had photic-induced occipital seizures. Six individuals had convulsive seizures; generalized in two and focal in four. Photosensitivity was prominent with generalized spike wave and polyspike wave in four individuals of which two also had occipital spikes. MRI scans were normal in the four individuals tested. Extensive metabolic investigation was normal. Juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME) occurred in two; and JME overlapping with idiopathic photosensitive epilepsy (IPOE) in four individuals. All three affected males had a more severe disorder than the four affected females. Two males had a progressive neurological disorder with progressive myoclonus epilepsy and deterioration in their early 30s. They developed episodes of paroxysmal cervical dystonia with cognitive decline during periods of poor seizure control. One plateaued after years of poor seizure control but remained intractable with periods of deterioration. The other deteriorated with episodes of status dystonicus and status epilepticus, ataxia and a progressive ophthalmoplegia before succumbing at 38 years. Parametric linkage analysis identified three peaks achieving a maximum LOD score of 1.21. Nonparametric analysis identified eight peaks achieving LOD scores above 0.80. These were not statistically significant. This is a novel autosomal dominant familial epilepsy syndrome

  3. Mitochondrial serine protease HTRA2 p.G399S in a kindred with essential tremor and Parkinson disease.

    PubMed

    Unal Gulsuner, Hilal; Gulsuner, Suleyman; Mercan, Fatma Nazli; Onat, Onur Emre; Walsh, Tom; Shahin, Hashem; Lee, Ming K; Dogu, Okan; Kansu, Tulay; Topaloglu, Haluk; Elibol, Bulent; Akbostanci, Cenk; King, Mary-Claire; Ozcelik, Tayfun; Tekinay, Ayse B

    2014-12-23

    Essential tremor is one of the most frequent movement disorders of humans and can be associated with substantial disability. Some but not all persons with essential tremor develop signs of Parkinson disease, and the relationship between the conditions has not been clear. In a six-generation consanguineous Turkish kindred with both essential tremor and Parkinson disease, we carried out whole exome sequencing and pedigree analysis, identifying HTRA2 p.G399S as the allele likely responsible for both conditions. Essential tremor was present in persons either heterozygous or homozygous for this allele. Homozygosity was associated with earlier age at onset of tremor (P < 0.0001), more severe postural tremor (P < 0.0001), and more severe kinetic tremor (P = 0.0019). Homozygotes, but not heterozygotes, developed Parkinson signs in the middle age. Among population controls from the same Anatolian region as the family, frequency of HTRA2 p.G399S was 0.0027, slightly lower than other populations. HTRA2 encodes a mitochondrial serine protease. Loss of function of HtrA2 was previously shown to lead to parkinsonian features in motor neuron degeneration (mnd2) mice. HTRA2 p.G399S was previously shown to lead to mitochondrial dysfunction, altered mitochondrial morphology, and decreased protease activity, but epidemiologic studies of an association between HTRA2 and Parkinson disease yielded conflicting results. Our results suggest that in some families, HTRA2 p.G399S is responsible for hereditary essential tremor and that homozygotes for this allele develop Parkinson disease. This hypothesis has implications for understanding the pathogenesis of essential tremor and its relationship to Parkinson disease.

  4. Molecular approach in the study of Alström syndrome: Analysis of ten Spanish families

    PubMed Central

    Piñeiro-Gallego, Teresa; Cortón, Marta; Ayuso, Carmen; Baiget, Montserrat

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To describe the clinical and genetic findings in 11 Spanish patients with confirmed (n=5) or suspected (n=6) Alström syndrome (AS). Methods Patients underwent clinical evaluation, and were screened for variations in Alström syndrome 1 gene (ALMS1) using a genotyping microarray from Asper Ophthalmics and by direct sequencing of coding exons 8, 10, and 16 of ALMS1. Furthermore, we analyzed the presence of the A229T variant of retinitis pigmentosa GTPase regulator-interacting protein 1-like gene (RPGRIP1L) with direct sequencing of coding exon 6. Results A great phenotypic variability was observed in our patients. Four mutations in ALMS1—two novel nonsense mutations in one family (p.Y1715X and p.S616X), one previously described mutation in homozygous state in another family (p.V3597Efs*4), and a likely pathogenic missense variation p.P1822L in a third family—were identified with direct sequencing. All patients were homozygous for 229A allele of RPGRIP1L, with the exception of a p.A229T heterozygous patient. Conclusions Our findings expand the spectrum of ALMS1 mutations causing Alström syndrome. The phenotypic differences between patients could be attributed to interactions with other genes inherited independently from the ALMS1 gene or with environmental factors. A clear understanding of the phenotypic spectrum in AS will be important to unravel the molecular mechanisms underlying this syndrome. PMID:22876109

  5. Family Cluster Analysis of Severe Fever with Thrombocytopenia Syndrome Virus Infection in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Jeong Rae; Heo, Sang Taek; Park, Dahee; Kim, Hyemin; Fukuma, Aiko; Fukushi, Shuetsu; Shimojima, Masayuki; Lee, Keun Hwa

    2016-01-01

    Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) is tick-borne viral disease that was first suspected in China in 2009. The causative virus (SFTSV) was isolated in 2009 and reported in 2011, and SFTSV expanded its geographic distribution in 2012–2013, from China to South Korea and Japan. Most SFTSV infections occur through Haemaphysalis longicornis. However, SFTSV infection can also occur between family members, and nosocomial transmission of SFTSV is also possible through close contact with a patient. In this study, we first analyzed clinical, epidemiological, and laboratory data for SFTS patients and family members of an index patient in Korea. The S segment of SFTSV was amplified from the sera of three patients, and the S segment of SFTSV and IgG specific to SFTSV were detected in the serum from one family member; although this individual had no history of exposure to H. longicornis, she frequently had close contact with the index patient. In Korea, SFTSV infection among family members does not have to be reported, and we suggest that person-to-person transmission of SFTSV among family members is possible in Korea. PMID:27928083

  6. Characterizing familial corticobasal syndrome due to Alzheimer's disease pathology and PSEN1 mutations.

    PubMed

    Lam, Benjamin; Khan, Aun; Keith, Julia; Rogaeva, Ekaterina; Bilbao, Juan; St George-Hyslop, Peter; Ghani, Mahdi; Freedman, Morris; Stuss, Donald T; Chow, Tiffany; Black, Sandra E; Masellis, Mario

    2017-05-01

    Corticobasal syndrome (CBS) resulting from genetic Alzheimer's disease (AD) has been described only once. Whether familial CBS-AD is a distinct clinical entity with its own imaging signature remains unknown. Four individuals with CBS from two families underwent detailed assessment. For two individuals, regional atrophy and hypoperfusion were compared to autopsy-confirmed typical late-onset AD and corticobasal degeneration, as well as genetically proven PSEN1 cases with an amnestic presentation. One family harbored a novel mutation in PSEN1:p.Phe283Leu. MRI demonstrated severe parietal, perirolandic, and temporal atrophy, with relative sparing of frontal and ipsilateral hippocampal regions. Autopsy confirmed pure AD pathology. The other family harbored a known PSEN1 mutation:p.Gly378Val. This report confirms familial CBS-AD as a distinct clinical entity, with a parietal-perirolandic-temporal atrophy signature. It illustrates the clinical heterogeneity that can occur despite a shared genetic cause and underscores the need for biomarkers such as amyloid imaging during life. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. Diagnosis of fragile X syndrome: a qualitative study of African American families.

    PubMed

    Visootsak, Jeannie; Charen, Krista; Rohr, Julia; Allen, Emily; Sherman, Stephanie

    2012-12-01

    Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is an inherited genetic condition with critical consequences to the proband and family members at all levels in the generations. Although evidence demonstrates that the rates of diagnosis for FXS are the same in all racial groups, age of diagnosis in African American children has been reported to occur later than in Caucasian children. Additionally, African American families are seriously under-represented in existing FXS research studies. As such, it is important to understand the possible disparities in the underlying factors to receiving a diagnosis in African American families with FXS. Herein, a qualitative approach was adopted to describe the overall FXS diagnosis experiences (pre-diagnosis, diagnosis, and post-diagnosis stages) of a convenience sample of 10 African American mothers. We identified three major findings among our participants: (1) FXS testing is not ordered immediately once a parent expresses concerns of developmental delays to the pediatricians, (2) the diagnosis is sometimes delivered in an insensitive manner with information often being outdated and unbalanced towards negative aspects, (3) communication issues among family members exists once the diagnosis is discovered. Although these qualitative data may not be representative of the whole group, these findings have significant implications for genetic counseling and our understanding in providing support and advocacy for African American families with FXS.

  8. [Informing members of families affected by fragile X syndrome of this diagnosis].

    PubMed

    Carrasco, M

    2001-10-01

    Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is a genetic disorder that may seriously affect the development of patients. One of the hardest tasks for the professionals of medicine is to tell the parents that their child is suffering a serious illness that may cause some permanent handicap. This normally implies drastic changes in live projects and expectations for the parents. The knowledge of diagnosis and the supply of information to the parents give rise to an important emotional impact on both parents and the rest of the family. In general terms, the patient implies more than a single ill person--a genetic illness such as FXS, which causes serious cognitive and behavioural disturbances, implies three situations that the family has to face: on one hand, the family has to accept a new world that had never been known; a son or daughter with a genetic disorder unknown not only for them, but also for most of the professionals they have visited before having a diagnosis, and in many cases with special needs and serious behavioural disturbances. On the other hand, the family must accept that the diagnosis may not be restricted to the patient, because some other members of the family could be suffering from the same illness. Finally, they have to face the fact that one of the parents has transmitted the illness, that is, 'the genetic guilt' in the illness of their son or daughter.

  9. Sequence variants in four genes underlying Bardet-Biedl syndrome in consanguineous families

    PubMed Central

    Ullah, Asmat; Umair, Muhammad; Yousaf, Maryam; Khan, Sher Alam; Nazim-ud-din, Muhammad; Shah, Khadim; Ahmad, Farooq; Azeem, Zahid; Ali, Ghazanfar; Alhaddad, Bader; Rafique, Afzal; Jan, Abid; Haack, Tobias B.; Strom, Tim M.; Meitinger, Thomas; Ghous, Tahseen

    2017-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the molecular basis of Bardet-Biedl syndrome (BBS) in five consanguineous families of Pakistani origin. Methods Linkage in two families (A and B) was established to BBS7 on chromosome 4q27, in family C to BBS8 on chromosome 14q32.1, and in family D to BBS10 on chromosome 12q21.2. Family E was investigated directly with exome sequence analysis. Results Sanger sequencing revealed two novel mutations and three previously reported mutations in the BBS genes. These mutations include two deletions (c.580_582delGCA, c.1592_1597delTTCCAG) in the BBS7 gene, a missense mutation (p.Gln449His) in the BBS8 gene, a frameshift mutation (c.271_272insT) in the BBS10 gene, and a nonsense mutation (p.Ser40*) in the MKKS (BBS6) gene. Conclusions Two novel mutations and three previously reported variants, identified in the present study, further extend the body of evidence implicating BBS6, BBS7, BBS8, and BBS10 in causing BBS. PMID:28761321

  10. Cancer Risk in Families Fulfilling the Amsterdam Criteria for Lynch Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Samadder, N Jewel; Smith, Ken Robert; Wong, Jathine; Thomas, Alun; Hanson, Heidi; Boucher, Kenneth; Kopituch, Cathryn; Cannon-Albright, Lisa A; Burt, Randall W; Curtin, Karen

    2017-08-03

    The data describing cancer risks associated with Lynch syndrome are variable. To quantify the prevalence of families that fulfill the Amsterdam I or II criteria for Lynch syndrome in the Utah population and investigate the risk of colonic and extracolonic cancers in family members and their relatives. In a population-based study, 202 families with Amsterdam I and II criteria-positive pedigrees in the Utah Population Database were identified. Of these, all cancer diagnoses in members of families with Amsterdam criteria and their first-degree, second-degree, and first-cousin relatives were located through linkage to the Utah Cancer Registry. The study was conducted from May 1 to June 30, 2016. Standardized morbidity ratios (SMRs) were estimated by comparing the observed rates of cancer in relatives with population-expected rates estimated internally from the Utah Population Database. A total of 202 families meeting Amsterdam criteria for Lynch syndrome accounted for 2.6% of all colorectal cancers in the state; of these, 59 met both the Amsterdam I and Amsterdam II criteria. Cancers observed in significant excess in the first-degree relatives of Amsterdam criteria pedigrees included colorectal (SMR, 10.10; 95% CI, 9.43-10.81), endometrial (SMR, 5.89; 95% CI, 5.09-6.78), stomach (SMR, 2.90; 95% CI, 2.02-4.03), small intestine (SMR, 7.72; 95% CI, 5.17-11.08), prostate (SMR, 1.94; 95% CI, 1.73-2.17), kidney (SMR, 3.22; 95% CI, 2.45-4.16), urinary bladder (SMR, 1.62; 95% CI, 1.22-2.12), thyroid (SMR, 2.26; 95% CI, 1.55-3.17), and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (SMR, 2.10; 95% CI, 1.64-2.65). Risks of colorectal and endometrial cancers were also found to be elevated in second-degree (SMR, 4.31; 95% CI, 3.98-4.65 and SMR, 2.70; 95% CI, 2.30-3.14, respectively) and first-cousin (SMR, 1.85; 95% CI, 1.70-2.00 and SMR, 1.50; 95% CI, 1.29-1.73, respectively) relatives of families with Amsterdam criteria. In this population-based study of cancer risk in families fulfilling the Amsterdam

  11. Rett syndrome from a family perspective: The Swedish Rett Center survey.

    PubMed

    Larsson, Gunilla; Lindström, Britta; Engerström, Ingegerd Witt

    2005-11-01

    The aim of this study was to make a description of the early development in individuals with the diagnosis Rett syndrome using parents' information. Information received from 125 cases of Rett syndrome in Sweden in 1997 provided us with families' description of early development in gross motor function, fine motor function and communication/social interplay. Best abilities before regression were presented, 62% lost their best abilities, 22% kept them and 5% kept them with deterioration. Seventy-three percent learnt to walk, 20% stopped walking and 2% retrained walking. Concerning feeding, 69% learnt to feed themselves, 57% lost this ability, 7% retrained the ability and 5% learnt to feed after regression. Sixty-four percent were one year or younger when there was a deviation in development. Sixty answers reported the girl was late in developing functions while 35 reported sudden loss of reached abilities. Seventy-four percent developed a scoliosis and 83% reported other deformities; of these, deformities in feet were the most common. Postural control was poor since all but 15 girls/women learnt in different directions when sitting. Transitional movements were difficult to perform. In 80% of cases, the families were those who suspected early that something was wrong in the child's development. Because of this it is essential that medical staff is aware of the different ways RS develops in order to give families early appropriate support and a plan for intervention. Since there is not only loss of function in this group but also kept abilities, retrained abilities and abilities achieved after regression, more research has to be focused on management and treatment to help persons with Rett syndrome keep and develop abilities according to their individual resources.

  12. Genetic risk communication: experiences of adolescent girls and young women from families with fragile X syndrome

    PubMed Central

    McConkie-Rosell, Allyn; Melvin, Elizabeth C.; Spiridigliozzi, Gail A.

    2009-01-01

    Little is known about how and what genetic risk information parents communicate to their children and even less is known about what children hear and remember. To address this void, we explored how genetic risk information was learned, what information was given and who was primarily provided information to adolescent girls and young adult women in families with fragile X syndrome. We explored three levels of risk knowledge, learning that fragile X syndrome was an inherited disorder, that they could be a carrier, and for those who had been tested, actual carrier status. These data were collected as part of a study that also explored adolescent self concept and age preferences about when to inform about genetic risk. Those findings have been presented separately. The purpose of this paper is to present the communication data. Using a multi-group cross-sectional design this study focused on girls ages 14–25 years from families previously diagnosed with fragile X syndrome, who knew they were carriers (n = 20), noncarriers (n = 18), or 3) at-risk to be carriers (n = 15). For all three stages of information the majority of the study participants were informed by a family member. We identified three different communication styles, open, sought information, and indirect. The content of the remembered conversations varied based on the stage of genetic risk information being disclosed as well as the girls’ knowledge of her own carrier status. Girls who had been tested and knew their actual carrier status were more likely to report an open communication pattern than girls who knew only that they were at-risk. PMID:19277853

  13. Ectopic Cushing syndrome associated with thymic carcinoid tumor as the first presentation of MEN1 syndrome-report of a family with MEN1 gene mutation.

    PubMed

    Hasani-Ranjbar, Shirin; Rahmanian, Masoud; Ebrahim-Habibi, Azadeh; Soltani, Akbar; Soltanzade, Akbar; Mahrampour, Elnaz; Amoli, Mahsa M

    2014-06-01

    Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1(MEN1) is an autosomal dominant syndrome. Although thymic carcinoid tumor is recognized as a part of MEN1 syndrome but functioning thymic carcinoid tumor as the first presentation of the MEN1 seems to be very rare. In this report, we present a 29-year-old male who developed ectopic Cushing syndrome secondary to thymic carcinoid tumor and was diagnosed as MEN1 syndrome 2 years later. Further evaluation revealed the presence of carcinoid tumor and other MEN 1 manifestations in several other member of family. Genetic evaluation showed presence of a previously reported mutation in exon 10(R527X) of MEN1 gene in these patients. This presentation showed that thymic neuroendocrine tumor could be the first manifestation of the MEN1 syndrome and it might be diagnosed as a dominant manifestation of this syndrome in a family. We suggest biochemical or genetic screening for MEN-1 syndrome for patients with thymic carcinoid.

  14. A family of chromatin remodeling factors related to Williams syndrome transcription factor

    PubMed Central

    Bochar, Daniel A.; Savard, Julie; Wang, Weidong; Lafleur, David W.; Moore, Paul; Côté, Jacques; Shiekhattar, Ramin

    2000-01-01

    Chromatin remodeling complexes have been implicated in the disruption or reformation of nucleosomal arrays resulting in modulation of transcription, DNA replication, and DNA repair. Here we report the isolation of WCRF, a new chromatin-remodeling complex from HeLa cells. WCRF is composed of two subunits, WCRF135, the human homolog of Drosophila ISWI, and WCRF180, a protein related to the Williams syndrome transcription factor. WCRF180 is a member of a family of proteins sharing a putative heterochromatin localization domain, a PHD finger, and a bromodomain, prevalent in factors involved in regulation of chromatin structure. PMID:10655480

  15. A family of chromatin remodeling factors related to Williams syndrome transcription factor.

    PubMed

    Bochar, D A; Savard, J; Wang, W; Lafleur, D W; Moore, P; Côté, J; Shiekhattar, R

    2000-02-01

    Chromatin remodeling complexes have been implicated in the disruption or reformation of nucleosomal arrays resulting in modulation of transcription, DNA replication, and DNA repair. Here we report the isolation of WCRF, a new chromatin-remodeling complex from HeLa cells. WCRF is composed of two subunits, WCRF135, the human homolog of Drosophila ISWI, and WCRF180, a protein related to the Williams syndrome transcription factor. WCRF180 is a member of a family of proteins sharing a putative heterochromatin localization domain, a PHD finger, and a bromodomain, prevalent in factors involved in regulation of chromatin structure.

  16. A novel FOXL2 mutation in a Chinese family with blepharophimosis, ptosis, epicanthus inversus syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Hu; Yang, Pu; Li, Haoxian; Pan, Qian; Liang, Desheng; Wu, Lingqian

    2015-01-01

    Blepharophimosis, ptosis, epicanthus inversus syndrome (BPES) is a rare autosomal dominant genetic disease characterized by a narrowed horizontal palpehral aperture, ptosis, epicanthus inversus and telecanthus with or without premature ovarian failure. Mutations in the forkhead transcription factor 2 (FOXL2) have been shown to be responsible for BPES. We performed direct sequencing of the FOXL2 gene for molecular investigation of a Chinese family with BPES. A novel duplication mutation (c.858_868dup), resulting in a truncated protein, was detected. PMID:27081523

  17. Dying at 23 with 1p36 deletion syndrome: Laura's family story.

    PubMed

    Tandy, P A

    2012-09-01

    Laura was unusual. She had always been different and at times difficult. She was born with a genetic disorder, diagnosed as 1p36 deletion syndrome when she was 21 years old. At 23 she suffered her first cardiac arrest at home and entered the hospital system for the first time apart from infancy. After initially appearing to do well, she suffered a second cardiac arrest 10 weeks after admission. This was followed by an irreversible deterioration and she died 14 weeks after admission. We her family had been with her throughout her traumatic experience. This is our story.

  18. Lennox–Gastaut syndrome: impact on the caregivers and families of patients

    PubMed Central

    Gibson, Patricia A

    2014-01-01

    Lennox–Gastaut syndrome (LGS) has a major impact on the health-related quality of life (HRQL) of the affected children as well as their caregivers. The primary caregiver in the family is generally the mother, with support from the father and siblings. The burden of care and the effects of the disease on the child necessitate adjustments in virtually all aspects of the lives of their family. These adjustments inevitably affect the physical, emotional, social, and financial health of the whole family. Numerous sources of support for families can help to ease the burden of care. Improvements in the treatment of LGS, in addition to helping the child with LGS, would likely help improve the HRQL of the family members. This pilot parent survey was designed to explore the impact of epilepsy on caregiver HRQL. Parents of children with epilepsy who had contacted the Epilepsy Information Service at the Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC, USA, were sent questionnaires comprising open- and closed-ended questions. A total of 200 surveys were distributed, with a return rate of 48%. The results revealed that 74% of the parents believed that having a child with epilepsy brought them and their partner closer together. However, when the parents were asked to explain the manner in which epilepsy affected their families, answers included continuous stress, major financial distress, and lack of time to spend with other children. Information and resources for the families of children with LGS could help improve the HRQL of both the patients and their relatives. PMID:25336963

  19. A Qualitative Study of Family Experience With Hospitalization for Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Atwood, Emily C; Sollender, Grace; Hsu, Erica; Arsnow, Christine; Flanagan, Victoria; Celenza, Joanna; Whalen, Bonny; Holmes, Alison V

    2016-10-01

    Although the incidence of neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS) in the United States quintupled between 2000 and 2012, little is known about the family perspective of the hospital stay. We interviewed families to understand their experiences during the newborn hospitalization for NAS and to improve family-centered care. A multidisciplinary team from 3 hospital units composed open-ended interview questions based on a literature review, clinical experience, and an internal iterative process. Trained investigators conducted semi-structured interviews with 20 families of newborns with NAS at hospital discharge. Interviews were recorded and transcribed verbatim. Two investigators independently analyzed each transcript, identified themes via an inductive qualitative approach, and reached a consensus on each code. The research team sorted the themes into broader domains through an iterative process that required consensus of 4 team members. Five domains of family experience were identified: parents' desire for education about the course and treatment of NAS; parents valuing their role in the care team; quality of interactions with staff (supportive versus judgmental) and communication regarding clinical course; transfers between units and inconsistencies among providers; and external factors such as addiction recovery and economic limitations. Families face many challenges during newborn hospitalization for NAS. Addressing parental needs through improved perinatal education, increased involvement in the care team, consistent care and communication, and minimized transitions in care could improve the NAS hospital experience. The results of this qualitative study may allow for improvements in family-centered care of infants with NAS. Copyright © 2016 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  20. Genetic analysis of an Indian family with members affected with Waardenburg syndrome and Duchenne muscular dystrophy

    PubMed Central

    Kapoor, Saketh; Bindu, Parayil Sankaran; Taly, Arun B.; Sinha, Sanjib; Gayathri, Narayanappa; Rani, S. Vasantha; Chandak, Giriraj Ratan

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Waardenburg syndrome (WS) is characterized by sensorineural hearing loss and pigmentation defects of the eye, skin, and hair. It is caused by mutations in one of the following genes: PAX3 (paired box 3), MITF (microphthalmia-associated transcription factor), EDNRB (endothelin receptor type B), EDN3 (endothelin 3), SNAI2 (snail homolog 2, Drosophila) and SOX10 (SRY-box containing gene 10). Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is an X-linked recessive disorder caused by mutations in the DMD gene. The purpose of this study was to identify the genetic causes of WS and DMD in an Indian family with two patients: one affected with WS and DMD, and another one affected with only WS. Methods Blood samples were collected from individuals for genomic DNA isolation. To determine the linkage of this family to the eight known WS loci, microsatellite markers were selected from the candidate regions and used to genotype the family. Exon-specific intronic primers for EDN3 were used to amplify and sequence DNA samples from affected individuals to detect mutations. A mutation in DMD was identified by multiplex PCR and multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification method using exon-specific probes. Results Pedigree analysis suggested segregation of WS as an autosomal recessive trait in the family. Haplotype analysis suggested linkage of the family to the WS4B (EDN3) locus. DNA sequencing identified a novel missense mutation p.T98M in EDN3. A deletion mutation was identified in DMD. Conclusions This study reports a novel missense mutation in EDN3 and a deletion mutation in DMD in the same Indian family. The present study will be helpful in genetic diagnosis of this family and increases the mutation spectrum of EDN3. PMID:22876130

  1. Clinical and genetic features of Australian families with long QT syndrome: A registry-based study.

    PubMed

    Burns, Charlotte; Ingles, Jodie; Davis, Andrew M; Connell, Vanessa; Gray, Belinda; Hunt, Lauren; McGaughran, Julie; Semsarian, Christopher

    2016-12-01

    Familial long QT syndrome (LQTS) is a primary arrhythmogenic disorder caused by mutations in ion channel genes. The phenotype ranges from asymptomatic individuals to sudden cardiac arrest and death. LQTS is a rare but significant health problem for which global data should exist. This study sought to provide the first clinical and genetic description of Australian families with LQTS. We performed a cross-sectional study to evaluate clinical and genetic features of families with LQTS. We recruited individuals from the Australian Genetic Heart Disease Registry and Genetic Heart Disease Clinic, in Sydney, Australia, and included those with a diagnosis of LQTS according to the most recent consensus statement. Among 108 families with LQTS, 173 individuals were affected. Twenty-five (32%) probands had a sudden cardiac death (SCD) event (including appropriate implantable cardioverter defibrillator [ICD] therapy, or resuscitated cardiac arrest). There were 64 (82%) probands who underwent genetic testing, and 34 (53%) had a pathogenic or likely pathogenic mutation in. Having a family history of LQTS was significantly associated with identification of a pathogenic result (79% versus 14%, p<0.0001). There were 16 (9%) participants who experienced delay to diagnosis of at least 12 months. This is the first clinical and genetic study in a large cohort of Australian families with LQTS. Findings from this study suggest that the clinical and genetic features in this population are not dissimilar to those described in North American, European, and Asian cohorts. Global-scale information about families with LQTS is an important initiative to ensure diagnostic and management approaches are applicable to different populations and ethnicities.

  2. Linkage disequilibrium at the Machado-Joseph disease spinal cerebellar ataxia 3 locus: Evidence for a common founder effect in French and Portuguese-Brazilian families as well as a second ancestral Portuguese-Azorean mutation

    SciTech Connect

    Stevanin, G.; Cancel, G.; Didierjean, O.

    1995-11-01

    Spinal cerebellar ataxia 3 (SCA3) is a genetic subtype of the type I autosomal dominant cerebellar ataxias (ADCA type I), a clinically and genetically heterogeneous group of neurological disorders. SCA3 was mapped in French families to chromosome 14q24.3-qter in the same region as the gene for Machado-Joseph disease (MJD), which was classified as a form of ADCA type I on the basis of similarities in the clinical presentation of individual patients. The MJD gene was recently identified in Japanese kindreds, and the mutation was characterized as an unstable CAG repeat that is expanded in affected individuals. The same mutation is observed in families of Portuguese-Azorean ancestry, as well as in French SCA3 kindreds. In other disorders caused by unstable and expanded triplet repeats, such as fragile X syndrome (FRA-X), myotonic dystrophy (MD), Huntington disease (HD), and SCA1, linkage disequilibrium (LD) between the mutation and closely linked polymorphic markers was detected, suggesting that there were only one or a few founders or predisposing haplotypes. In the present study, 29 families of different geographical origins were tested for LD between the MJD/SCA3 mutation and four flanking microsatellite markers. 27 refs., 2 tabs.

  3. Morphological manifestations of the Dandy-Walker syndrom in female members of a family.

    PubMed

    Titlić, Marina; Alfirević, Stanko; Kolić, Krešimir; Soldo, Anamarija; Tripalol, Ana Batoš

    2015-03-01

    The Dandy-Walker syndrome (DWS) is a hereditary disorder, appearing somewhat more frequently in women. The most important characteristics of the DWS are the lack of the cerebellar vermis, varying from a partial lack to a complete agenesis, and enlargement of the cerebrospinal spaces, especially in the fourth ventricle. The above mentioned morphological changes clinically manifest in ataxia, increased intracranial pressure and hydrocephalus. Here is presented a family with DWS, where the disease is contracted only by female members, in two generations, whereas no signs of DWS have been noticed in male family members. DWS is clinically manifested from early childhood to middle age, with the morphological changes varying from hypoplastic cerebellar vermis to widening of the brain ventricles and hydrocephalus and arachnoid cyst in the occipital part.

  4. HLa-class II (DRB & DQB1) in Thai sudden unexplained death syndrome (Thai SUDS) families (Lai-Tai families).

    PubMed

    Himmunngan, Pensiri; Sangwatanaroj, Somkiat; Petmitr, Songsak; Viroonudomphol, Duangkamol; Siriyong, Pakorn; Patmasiriwat, Pimpicha

    2006-03-01

    Thai Sudden Unexplained Death Syndrome (Thai SUDS), or Lai-Tai, is a major health problem among rural residents of northeastern Thailand. The cause has been identified as a genetic disease. SUDS, a disorder found in Southeast Asia, is characterized by an abnormal electrocardiogram with ST-segment elevation in leads V1-V3, identical to that seen in Brugada Syndrome (Brugada Sign, BS) and sudden death due to ventricular fibrillation and cardiac arrest (represents an arrhythmogenic marker that identifies high-risk for SUDS). SUDS victims have a sleeping disorder (narcolepsy). The HLA-DR locus is tightly associated with narcoleptic Japanese patients and HLA-DR2, DQ haplotypes were also found in Oriental narcoleptic patients. These circumstances prompted us to study the association between the disease and HLA Class II by HLA DNA typing using a PCR-SSO method, with five Thai SUDS families (18 BS-positive subjects as the cases, and 27 BS-negatives as the controls). We found that the HLA-DRB1 *12021 allele was significantly increased in BS-positive subjects (p = 0.02; OR = 4.5), the same as the HLA-DRB1*12021-DQB1 *0301/09 haplotype (p = 0.01; OR = 7.95). Our data suggests that the HLA-DRB1* 12021 allele associated with BS and the HLA-DRB1*12021-DQB1 *0301/09 is a haplotype susceptible to arrhythmogenic markers that can identify a high risk for SUDS.

  5. Novel association of neurofibromatosis type 1-causing mutations in families with neurofibromatosis-Noonan syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ekvall, Sara; Sjörs, Kerstin; Jonzon, Anders; Vihinen, Mauno; Annerén, Göran; Bondeson, Marie-Louise

    2014-03-01

    Neurofibromatosis-Noonan syndrome (NFNS) is a rare condition with clinical features of both neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) and Noonan syndrome (NS). All three syndromes belong to the RASopathies, which are caused by dysregulation of the RAS-MAPK pathway. The major gene involved in NFNS is NF1, but co-occurring NF1 and PTPN11 mutations in NFNS have been reported. Knowledge about possible involvement of additional RASopathy-associated genes in NFNS is, however, very limited. We present a comprehensive clinical and molecular analysis of eight affected individuals from three unrelated families displaying features of NF1 and NFNS. The genetic etiology of the clinical phenotypes was investigated by mutation analysis, including NF1, PTPN11, SOS1, KRAS, NRAS, BRAF, RAF1, SHOC2, SPRED1, MAP2K1, MAP2K2, and CBL. All three families harbored a heterozygous NF1 variant, where the first family had a missense variant, c.5425C>T;p.R1809C, the second family a recurrent 4bp-deletion, c.6789_6792delTTAC;p.Y2264Tfs*6, and the third family a splice-site variant, c.2991-1G>A, resulting in skipping of exon 18 and an in-frame deletion of 41 amino acids. These NF1 variants have all previously been reported in NF1 patients. Surprisingly, both c.6789_6792delTTAC and c.2991-1G>A are frequently associated with NF1, but association to NFNS has, to our knowledge, not previously been reported. Our results support the notion that NFNS represents a variant of NF1, genetically distinct from NS, and is caused by mutations in NF1, some of which also cause classical NF1. Due to phenotypic overlap between NFNS and NS, we propose screening for NF1 mutations in NS patients, preferentially when café-au-lait spots are present. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Site-specific hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) which develops almost exclusively in males in a large SA kindred is linked to the hMLH1 gene on chromosome 3

    SciTech Connect

    Ramesar, R.S.; Madden, M.; Bardien, S.

    1994-09-01

    The diagnosis of HNPCC was made in 16 individuals over three generations in a large kindred from the northwestern region of South Africa, on the basis of clinical, surgical and pathological data and hospital or family records; all affecteds were males. We have excluded potential candidate genes and regions on chromosomes 1, 5, 6, 8, 9, 17 and 22 by linkage analysis. Following reports of two genes underlying HNPCC, namely hMSH2 and hMLH1, on chromsomes 2 and 3 respectively, we have shown that the disorder in the SA HNPCC family cosegregates with a specific hMLH1 gene-associated haplotype on chromosome 3. Interestingly, at least one female asymptomatic carrier of the disease-associated haplotype, who is more than 70 years of age, has been identified. Four asymptomatic males who are carriers of the disease-associated haplotype have been identified, but they are all below 40 years of age. Two notable features of the disorder in this family include the extreme sex bias and lack of non-colonic malignancies which might be expected in HNPCC. We are currently investigating the hMLH1 gene for mutations which might explain the unusual phenotype of the disease in this kindred, and looking for an explanation for the apparent sex based difference in the segregation of the disorder.

  7. Correlation between genotype and phenotype in three families with Peutz-Jeghers Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yanli; Ke, Yao; Zheng, Xueni; Liu, Qing; Duan, Xiaohong

    2017-01-01

    Peutz-Jeghers syndrome (PJS) is a hereditary disorder characterized by mucocutaneous pigmentations, gastrointestinal (GI) polyposis and an increased risk of certain malignancies. Little is known about the causative genes of PJS, or their association with the clinical phenotypes of PJS. The present study reports the results of clinical and genetic analysis of three Chinese families with PJS. In addition, the medical histories and clinical manifestations of these families were compared. DNA was collected from the blood samples of patients with PJS and controls. Serine/threonine kinase 11 (STK11), olfactory receptor family 4 subfamily C member 45 (OR4C45) and zonadhesin (ZAN) were amplified by polymerase chain reaction, and analyzed by sequencing and cloning. Two PJS-affected members of one family had a de novo single base deletion (NM_000455.4:c.842delC) in the STK11 gene, and their clinical presentations reflected the quantity of mutant STK11 copies in a dose-dependent manner. No pathogenic variants of OR4C45 or ZAN were found in the patients with PJS, although a new single nucleotide polymorphism (NM_003386.2:c.5768delG) of ZAN was identified. The results of the current study identified that a STK11 mutation dose-dependent genotype-phenotype relationship exists in patients with PJS. In addition, an early onset and high severity of oral pigmentations in PJS was indicative of serious GI phenotypes. These findings may aid the diagnosis and treatment of PJS.

  8. Cost-effectiveness analysis of genetic testing for familial long QT syndrome in symptomatic index cases.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Kathryn A; Ackerman, Michael J; Sakowski, Julie; Berul, Charles I

    2005-12-01

    Genetic testing for long QT syndrome (LQTS) has been available in a research setting for the past decade, and a commercial test has recently become available. However, the costs and effectiveness of genetic testing have not been estimated. The purpose of this study was to conduct a cost-effectiveness analysis of genetic testing in the management of patients who have or are suspected to have familial LQTS. We examined the incremental cost-effectiveness of genetic testing compared with no genetic testing for symptomatic index cases and how this varied according to changes in assumptions and data inputs. Data were obtained from the published literature and a clinical cohort. We found that genetic testing is more cost-effective than not testing for symptomatic index cases at an estimated cost of 2,500 US dollar per year of life saved. These results were generally robust, although they were sensitive to some data inputs such as the cost of testing and the mortality rate among untreated individuals with LQTS. A genetic test for familial LQTS is cost-effective relative to no testing, given our assumptions about the population to be tested and the relevant probabilities and costs. The primary benefit of testing is to more accurately diagnose and treat individuals based on a combination of clinical scores and test results. Future economic analyses of testing for familial LQTS should consider the potential benefits of genetic testing of broader populations, including family members.

  9. [PAX3 gene mutation analysis for two Waardenburg syndrome type Ⅰ families and their prenatal diagnosis].

    PubMed

    Bai, Y; Liu, N; Kong, X D; Yan, J; Qin, Z B; Wang, B

    2016-12-07

    Objective: To analyze the mutations of PAX3 gene in two Waardenburg syndrome type Ⅰ (WS1) pedigrees and make prenatal diagnosis for the high-risk 18-week-old fetus. Methods:PAX3 gene was first analyzed by Sanger sequencing and multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification(MLPA) for detecting pathogenic mutation of the probands of the two pedigrees. The mutations were confirmed by MLPA and Sanger in parents and unrelated healthy individuals.Prenatal genetic diagnosis for the high-risk fetus was performed by amniotic fluid cell after genotyping. Results: A heterozygous PAX3 gene gross deletion (E7 deletion) was identified in all patients from WS1-01 family, and not found in 20 healthy individuals.Prenatal diagnosis in WS1-01 family indicated that the fetus was normal. Molecular studies identified a novel deletion mutation c. 1385_1386delCT within the PAX3 gene in all affected WS1-02 family members, but in none of the unaffected relatives and 200 healthy individuals. Conclusions:PAX3 gene mutation is etiological for two WS1 families. Sanger sequencing plus MLPA is effective and accurate for making gene diagnosis and prenatal diagnosis.

  10. [Gene mutation analysis and prenatal diagnosis of a family with Bartter syndrome].

    PubMed

    Li, Long; Ma, Na; Li, Xiu-Rong; Gong, Fei; DU, Juan

    2016-08-01

    To investigate the mutation of related genes and prenatal diagnosis of a family with Bartter syndrome (BS). The high-throughput capture sequencing technique and PCR-Sanger sequencing were used to detect pathogenic genes in the proband of this family and analyze the whole family at the genomic level. After the genetic cause was clarified, the amniotic fluid was collected from the proband's mother who was pregnant for 5 months for prenatal diagnosis. The proband carried compound heterozygous mutations of c.88C>T(p.Arg30*) and c.968+2T>A in the CLCNKB gene; c.88C>T(p.Arg30*) had been reported as a pathogenic mutation, and c.968+2T>A was a new mutation. Pedigree analysis showed that the two mutations were inherited from the mother and father, respectively. Prenatal diagnosis showed that the fetus did not inherit the mutations from parents and had no mutations at the two loci. The follow-up visit confirmed that the infant was in a healthy state, which proved the accuracy of genetic diagnosis and prenatal diagnosis. The compound heterozygous mutations c.88C>T(p.Arg30*) and c.968+2T>A in the CLCNKB gene are the cause of BS in the proband, and prenatal diagnosis can prevent the risk of recurrence of BS in this family.

  11. Mapping of Alport syndrome to the long arm of the X chromosome.

    PubMed Central

    Atkin, C L; Hasstedt, S J; Menlove, L; Cannon, L; Kirschner, N; Schwartz, C; Nguyen, K; Skolnick, M

    1988-01-01

    Five X-chromosome DNA markers were typed on 261 members of three large kindreds with Alport syndrome (hereditary glomerulonephritis). Lod scores greater than 3.0 for linkage between the disease locus and two of the markers confirmed X-linked inheritance of the disease. A decreasing gradient in the estimated recombination fractions observed when the markers were ordered on the basis of their map locations suggested that the disease locus is on the long arm distal to all the markers typed in this study. Using three-locus analysis we rejected all but three map orders for the six loci (the disease locus and five markers). In all three the Alport syndrome locus was on the long arm of the X chromosome distal to all the markers. Two types of Alport syndrome were represented in the three kindreds. Affected males in one kindred developed deafness in addition to nephritis; deafness did not occur in members of the other two kindreds. Although larger recombination-fraction estimates were obtained for all five markers in the kindreds without deafness, the difference was significant for only one marker. Evidence of heterogeneity was not found in tests using two markers. Markers distal to the disease locus are needed to determine whether two loci are responsible for the two types of Alport syndrome. PMID:3422540

  12. Wiskott–Aldrich syndrome: review and report of a large family

    PubMed Central

    Stiehm, E. R.; McIntosh, R. M.

    1967-01-01

    Wiskott–Aldrich syndrome is a sex-linked recessive antibody-deficiency syndrome characterized by thrombocytopenia, eczema and increased susceptibility to infection. All forms of therapy are notably unsuccessful and these patients succumb in the first decade. Three cases of this syndrome are presented from a large family in which nine male infants have succumbed with manifestations of this disease. Two of the infants died at ages 10 months and 4 years respectively. A third child is alive at age 2. Serial quantitative immune globulin studies performed in two cases demonstrated markedly elevated γA, decreased γM and normal γG; levels of γM were initially normal but fell progressively as γA levels increased. The low levels of γM are probably a factor in their low or absent isoagglutinins, poor response to injected antigens, and increased susceptibility to infection; elevated γA levels may indicate immunologic unresponsiveness and/or a compensatory mechanism for the defect in γM synthesis. In two of these patients prolonged trials (17 and 23 months) of periodic plasma infusions (15 ml/kg at 6-week intervals), accompanied by γ-globulin injections (0·1 ml/kg) were undertaken. Although no remarkable effects on the platelets or their resistance to infection was noted, we feel that some benefit might have accrued and that further trails are indicated. PMID:4166240

  13. A familial case of Blau syndrome caused by a novel NOD2 genetic mutation

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Woojoong; Park, Eujin; Ahn, Yo Han; Lee, Jiwon M.; Kang, Hee Gyung; Kim, Byung Joo; Ha, Il-Soo

    2016-01-01

    Blau syndrome (BS) is a rare autosomal dominant, inflammatory syndrome that is characterized by the clinical triad of granulomatous dermatitis, symmetric arthritis, and recurrent uveitis. Mutations in the nucleotide oligomerization domain 2 (NOD2) gene are responsible for causing BS. To date, up to 30 Blau-associated genetic mutations have been identified within this gene. We report a novel NOD2 genetic mutation that causes BS. A girl, aged 8 years, and her brother, aged 10 years, developed erythematous skin rashes and uveitis. The computed tomography angiogram of the younger sister showed features of midaortic dysplastic syndrome. The brother had more prominent joint involvement than the sister. Their father (38 years) was also affected by uveitis; however, only minimal skin involvement was observed in his case. The paternal aunt (39 years) and her daughter (13 years) were previously diagnosed with sarcoidosis. Mutational analysis revealed a novel c.1439 A>G mutation in the NOD2 gene in both siblings. The novel c.1439 A>G mutation in the NOD2 gene was found in a familial case of BS. Although BS is rare, it should always be considered in patients presenting with sarcoidosis-like features at a young age. Early diagnosis of BS and prompt multisystem workup including the eyes and joints can improve the patient's outcome. PMID:28018435

  14. Molecular characterization of Blau syndrome: Genetic linkage to chromosome 16

    SciTech Connect

    Tromp, G.; Duivaniemi, H.; Christiano, A.

    1994-09-01

    The Blau syndrome is an autosomal, dominantly-inherited disease characterized by multi-organ, tissue-specific inflammation. Its clinical phenotype includes granulomatous uveitis, arthritis and skin rash. The syndrome is unique in that it is the sole human model for a variety of multi-system inflammatory diseases that afflict a significant percentage of the population. Karyotypic analysis of the large, three generation kindred whose disease originally characterized the syndrome was unremarkable. Following exclusion of a number of extracellular matrix candidates genes, a genome-wide search was undertaken of the Blau susceptibility locus. Fifty-seven members of the family were genotyped for about 200 highly polymorphic dinucleotide repeat markers. Linkage analysis was performed using the LINKAGE package of programs under a model of dominant inheritance with reduced penetrance. Five liability classes were used to specify penetrances and phenocopy rates for those affected the arthritis, uveitis, skin rash and combinations thererof. In addition, five age-dependent penetrance classes were used for unaffected individuals. The marker D16S298 gave a maximum lod score of 3.6 at {theta} = 0.05 with two-point analysis. Lod scores for flanking markers were consistent. These data provide convincing evidence that the Blau susceptibility locus is situated within the 16p12-q21 interval. Fine mapping of the candidate interval with additional families exhibiting the Blau phenotype, as well as with more polymorphic markers, is underway.

  15. Aortic Disease in the Young: Genetic Aneurysm Syndromes, Connective Tissue Disorders, and Familial Aortic Aneurysms and Dissections

    PubMed Central

    Cury, Marcelo; Zeidan, Fernanda; Lobato, Armando C.

    2013-01-01

    There are many genetic syndromes associated with the aortic aneurysmal disease which include Marfan syndrome (MFS), Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS), Loeys-Dietz syndrome (LDS), familial thoracic aortic aneurysms and dissections (TAAD), bicuspid aortic valve disease (BAV), and autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD). In the absence of familial history and other clinical findings, the proportion of thoracic and abdominal aortic aneurysms and dissections resulting from a genetic predisposition is still unknown. In this study, we propose the review of the current genetic knowledge in the aortic disease, observing, in the results that the causative genes and molecular pathways involved in the pathophysiology of aortic aneurysm disease remain undiscovered and continue to be an area of intensive research. PMID:23401778

  16. Novel FOXL2 mutations in two Chinese families with blepharophimosis-ptosis-epicanthus inversus syndrome.

    PubMed

    Xue, Min; Zheng, Jie; Zhou, Qing; Hejtmancik, J Fielding; Wang, Yuan; Li, Shouling

    2015-09-01

    Blepharophimosis-ptosis-epicanthus inversus syndrome (BPES) is a rare autosomal dominant disease. Mutations in the forkhead box L2 (FOXL2) gene cause two types of BPES distinguished by the presence (type I) and absence (type II) of premature ovarian failure (POF). The purpose of this study was to identify possible mutations in FOXL2 in two Chinese families with BPES. Two large autosomal dominant Chinese BPES families were enrolled in this study. Genomic DNA was obtained from the leukocytes in peripheral venous blood. Four overlapping sets of primers were used to amplify the entire coding region and nearby intron sequences of the FOXL2 gene for mutations detection using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequencing analyses. The sequencing results were analyzed using DNAstar software. All patients of the two families demonstrated typical features of BPES type II, including small palpebral fissures, ptosis, telecanthus, and epicanthus inversus without female infertility (POF). A novel FOXL2 heterozygous indel mutation c.675_690delinsT, including a 16-bp deletion and a 1-bp(T) insertion (p.Ala226_Ala230del), which would result in deletion of 5 alanine residues of a poly-alanine (poly-Ala) tract in the protein, was identified in all affected members of family A. A novel heterozygous missense mutation (c.223C > T, p.Leu75Phe) was identified in family B. Two novel FOXL2 mutations were identified in Chinese families with BPES. Our results expand the spectrum of FOXL2 mutations and provide additional structure-function insights into the FOXL2 protein.

  17. Genetic diagnosis of polycystic kidney disease, Alport syndrome, and thalassemia minor in a large Chinese family.

    PubMed

    Miao, Yun; Xiong, Jun; Zhang, Xuelian; Huang, Huajie; Yu, Lixin; Chen, Jianfan; Deng, Wenfeng; Xu, Huiling; Liu, Rumin; Xiang, Chenglin; Xu, Xiangmin; Xiong, Fu

    2017-10-01

    Polycystic kidney disease (PKD) and Alport syndrome (AS) are serious inherited disorders associated with renal disease, and thalassemia is a hereditary blood disease with a high prevalence in south China. Here, we report an exceptional PKD coincidence of thalassemia minor and AS (diagnosed genetically) in a large Chinese family. Whole genome next-generation sequencing (NGS) was performed on the proband, and all family members underwent clinical evaluation. Sanger sequencing was used to validate the mutations distinguished by NGS. The pathogenic potential of the variants were evaluated by Polymorphism Phenotyping v2 (PolyPhen-2), Sorting Intolerant From Tolerant (SIFT) algorithm, and MutationTaster. Immunohistochemical, Western blot, immunofluorescent, and TdT-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL) analyses were performed to investigate polycystin 1 (PC1) expression, and cell proliferation and apoptosis in kidney tissues from the proband and normal control. A novel frameshift polycystic kidney disease 1 (PKD1) mutation (c.3903delC, p.A1302Pfs) was identified to be responsible for renal disease in this family. PC1 expression, and cell proliferation and apoptosis were significantly increased in the kidney tissues of the proband. Moreover, a deletion of approximately 19.3 kb of DNA with α-globin genes ((_ _SEA)) was associated with thalassemia minor in the family. In addition, a collagen type IV α 5 chain (COL4A5) variant (c.2858G>T, rs78972735), annotated as a pathogenic mutation in dbSNP and human gene mutation database (HGMD), was found in four family members with no clinical traits of AS. A novel pathogenic PKD1 mutation (c.3903delC) and ((_ _SEA)) thalassemia deletion were found to be responsible for the clinical symptoms in this family. The reported pathogenic COL4a5 variant (c.2858G>T, rs78972735) was not pathogenic alone. © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society.

  18. Novel LINS1 missense mutation in a family with non-syndromic intellectual disability.

    PubMed

    Sheth, Jayesh; Ranjan, Gyan; Shah, Krati; Bhavsar, Riddhi; Sheth, Frenny

    2017-04-01

    Newer sequencing technologies decipher molecular variations and increase the knowledge of pathogenesis of complex diseases like intellectual disability (ID), affecting 2-3% of the population. We report a novel family with a missense mutation in LINS1 as a cause for non-syndromic ID. Clinical exome sequencing for ID related genes carried out for a male with dysmorphism, mutism, and cognitive delay was uninformative. Subsequently, "pathogenic" and "likely pathogenic" variants associated with other inherited disorders were searched for as secondary findings. Further, PCR-RFLP carried out in other family members confirmed the result. A novel missense variant (c.937G>A) in exon 5 of LINS1 was detected in the proband. His affected elder brother was homozygous and the parents were heterozygous respectively, for the mutation. No mutation was observed in his unaffected sister. Mutations in LINS1 were suspected in this non-syndromic ID case with mutism. LINS1 alterations affect ELAV1 expression and result in reduction in the commissural axonal growth, thus affecting peripheral and central neuronal function. LINS1 acts in association with β-catenin to influence WNT1 signaling. It is hypothesized that mutations in LINS1 may alter HuR expression during neural differentiation, leading to ID in humans. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Recovery and outcomes after the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) in patients and their family caregivers.

    PubMed

    Herridge, Margaret S; Moss, Marc; Hough, Catherine L; Hopkins, Ramona O; Rice, Todd W; Bienvenu, O Joseph; Azoulay, Elie

    2016-05-01

    Outcomes after acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) are similar to those of other survivors of critical illness and largely affect the nerve, muscle, and central nervous system but also include a constellation of varied physical devastations ranging from contractures and frozen joints to tooth loss and cosmesis. Compromised quality of life is related to a spectrum of impairment of physical, social, emotional, and neurocognitive function and to a much lesser extent discrete pulmonary disability. Intensive care unit-acquired weakness (ICUAW) is ubiquitous and includes contributions from both critical illness polyneuropathy and myopathy, and recovery from these lesions may be incomplete at 5 years after ICU discharge. Cognitive impairment in ARDS survivors ranges from 70 to 100 % at hospital discharge, 46 to 80 % at 1 year, and 20 % at 5 years, and mood disorders including depression and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are also sustained and prevalent. Robust multidisciplinary and longitudinal interventions that improve these outcomes are still uncertain and data in our literature are conflicting. Studies are needed in family members of ARDS survivors to better understand long-term outcomes of the post-ICU family syndrome and to evaluate how it affects patient recovery.

  20. Clinical and pathological features of hereditary mixed polyposis syndrome: report on a South African family.

    PubMed

    Ibirogba, S B; Algar, U; Goldberg, P A; Duffield, M; Vorster, A; Ramesar, R

    2008-08-01

    Hereditary mixed polyposis syndrome is characterised by multiple large-bowel polyps of differing histological types including a mixture of atypical juvenile polyps, hyperplastic polyps and adenomas. Affected individuals are thought to have an increased risk of malignancy, possibly via the juvenile polyposis pathway. A 51-year-old woman (with a history of a colectomy for polyps during childhood) presented with rectal bleeding. Endoscopy demonstrated small rectal polyps which were hyperplastic on histology. A family tree was drawn up and the three children of the proband underwent flexible sigmoidoscopy. Endoscopic surveillance of the three children revealed one who had a similar phenotype to the mother. This child underwent colectomy and ileorectal anastomosis. The pathological specimen revealed more than 70 polyps, with a combination of juvenile retention, hyperplastic, adenomatous and inflammatory polyps. A second child had multiple small hyperplastic polyps, and the third had a normal colon. Although the gene locus for the disorder has been mapped, neither the gene nor the disease-causing mutation has been defined. A rare inherited polyposis syndrome has been identified in a South African family. Where clinical suspicion of a possible inherited condition exists, investigating at-risk first-degree relatives confirms the inherited nature of the disease. It is possible to use genetic haplotyping (i.e. with a range of markers in the area of the gene) to provide statistical risk to immediate relatives and therefore those at highest risk.

  1. Mutational analysis of the androgen receptor gene in two Indian families with partial androgen insensitivity syndrome.

    PubMed

    Nagaraja, M R; Rastogi, Amit; Raman, Rajiva; Gupta, Dinesh K; Singh, S K

    2009-12-01

    Mutation in the androgen receptor gene (AR) is known to cause androgen insensitivity syndrome (AIS). In an X-linked recessive manner, an AR mutation gets transmitted to the offspring through carrier mothers in 70% of cases, the other 30% arising de novo. However, reports on AR mutations amongst Indian patients with AIS are scarce in the literature. This study reports mutations in AR from two Indian families, each having a proband with partial androgen insensitivity syndrome (PAIS) phenotype. Clinical, endocrine and cytogenetic evaluation of these affected children was performed. Mutational analysis was carried out by polymerase chain reaction-single strand conformational polymorphism (PCR-SSCP) analysis followed by sequencing. The two point mutations were in exon 5: p.M742I, familial in patient 1 and p.V746M de novo in patient 2. These are hitherto unrecognized mutations in our population. Similar mutational studies are suggested in patients with AIS, in order to identify their frequency and clinical severity in our population.

  2. Benign familial and non-familial infantile seizures (Fukuyama-Watanabe-Vigevano syndrome): a study of 14 cases from Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Saadeldin, Imad Yassin; Housawi, Yousef; Al Nemri, Abdulrahman; Al Hifzi, Ibrahim

    2010-05-01

    Benign infantile seizures [BIS], familial and non-familial, represent a benign, age-related idiopathic syndrome of infancy. The aim of the current paper is to document the presence of the syndrome in Saudi Arabia and in Arab populations and to discuss the characteristic electroclinical features and the benign nature of this syndrome. A case series of 275 patients with epileptic seizures (age range: 2 months-13 years) were followed over a period of 3 years and 7 months. The inclusion criteria for BIS were as follows (1) age of seizure onset between 2 and 24 months, (2) normal development before, during and after the onset of seizures, (3) normal interictal EEG, (4) normal brain imaging, and (5) good response to treatment. We analyzed these infants with respect to age at seizure onset, sex, physical and neurological examination, consanguinity, frequency and type of convulsions, associated conditions and laboratory and radiological investigations. A waking and sleeping interictal EEG was performed on all patients, and for one patient (No. 1), ictal EEG and video clips were recorded. Fourteen infants (12.0%) showed electroclinical features consistent with BIS. Eleven patients fulfilled the criteria of benign non-familial infantile seizures (BNFIS), and for three patients, their family pedigrees showed the possibility of benign familial infantile seizures (BFIS). All of the patients responded to anti-epileptic treatment, and 50% of them responded within 3 months. To our knowledge, this is the first study to document the presence of BIS (Fukuyama-Watanabe-Vigevano syndrome) in Saudi Arabian and Arab populations. We highlighted the characteristic features of BIS and demonstrated the benign nature of the syndrome. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Familial Wolfram syndrome due to compound heterozygosity for two novel WFS1 mutations

    PubMed Central

    Ruiz, Gabriela; Pérez-Cano, Hector J.; Camargo, Mayra

    2008-01-01

    Purpose To describe the first instance of genotyping in a Latin American family with Wolfram syndrome (WS). Methods Four affected siblings and their healthy parents were studied. Ophthalmologic examination included best corrected visual acuity determination, funduscopy, fluorescein retinal angiography, and Goldmann kinetic perimetry. Molecular methods included linkage analysis using microsatellites markers located on the markers located on the Wofram syndrome 1 (WFS1) region at 4p16.1, PCR amplification and direct nucleotide sequencing analysis of the complete coding region and exon/intron junctions of WFS1. In addition, allele-specific cloning and sequencing techniques were used to characterize a heterozygous frameshift mutation. Results The four affected siblings presented with a homogeneous clinical picture characterized by early onset diabetes mellitus, severe optic atrophy, and progressive hearing loss. Linkage analysis indicated that all four sibs were heterozygous for markers linked to the WFS1 region and that each inherited the same allele from the mother and the same from the father, suggesting compound heterozygosity. Direct WFS1 analysis disclosed a paternally inherited novel missense R177P mutation whereas allele-specific cloning and sequencing revealed a novel WFS1 16 bp deletion that was inherited from the mother. Conclusions Our report of two novel WFS1 mutations expands the molecular spectrum of Wolfram syndrome. This is the first documented case of the molecular basis of the disease in a Latin American family. Analysis of more patients from this population will establish if compound heterozygosity is commonly found in affected individuals from this ethnic group. PMID:18660851

  4. Genetic analysis of Tunisian families with Usher syndrome type 1: toward improving early molecular diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Ben-Rebeh, Imen; Bonnet, Crystel; Bouassida, Walid; Hadjamor, Imen; Ayadi, Hammadi; Ghorbel, Abdelmonem; Petit, Christine; Masmoudi, Saber

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Usher syndrome accounts for about 50% of all hereditary deaf-blindness cases. The most severe form of this syndrome, Usher syndrome type I (USH1), is characterized by profound congenital sensorineural deafness, vestibular dysfunction, and retinitis pigmentosa. Six USH1 genes have been identified, MYO7A, CDH23, PCDH15, USH1C, SANS, and CIB2, encoding myosin VIIA, cadherin-23, protocadherin-15, harmonin, scaffold protein containing ankyrin repeats and a sterile alpha motif (SAM) domain, and calcium- and integrin-binding member 2, respectively. Methods In the present study, we recruited four Tunisian families with a diagnosis of USH1, together with healthy unrelated controls. Affected members underwent detailed audiologic and ocular examinations. We used the North African Deafness (NADf) chip to search for known North African mutations associated with USH. Then, we selected microsatellite markers covering USH1 known loci to genotype the DNA samples. Finally, we performed DNA sequencing of three known USH1 genes: MYO7A, PCDH15, and USH1C. Results Four biallelic mutations, all single base changes, were found in the MYO7A, USH1C, and PCDH15 genes. These mutations consist of a previously reported splicing defect c.470+1G>A in MYO7A, three novel variants, including two nonsense (p.Arg3X and p.Arg134X) in USH1C and PCDH15, respectively, and one frameshift (p.Lys615Asnfs*6) in MYO7A. Conclusions We found a remarkable genetic heterogeneity in the studied families with USH1 with a variety of mutations, among which three were novel. These novel mutations will be included in the NADf mutation screening chip that will allow a higher diagnosis efficiency of this extremely genetically heterogeneous disease. Ultimately, efficient molecular diagnosis of USH in a patient’s early childhood is of utmost importance, allowing better educational and therapeutic management. PMID:27440999

  5. One germline mutation of PTCH gene in a Chinese family with non-syndromic keratocystic odontogenic tumours.

    PubMed

    Wang, X; Lu, Y; Shen, G; Chen, W

    2011-08-01

    Keratocystic odontogenic tumours (KOCTs) are common benign cystic tumours that arise sporadically or associated with nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (NBCCS). PTCH mutation can be found in sporadically or NBCCS associated KOCTs. Few PTCH mutations in families with non-syndromic KOCTs have been reported. Through PCR and gene sequence analysis, the authors discovered one missense mutation c.3277G>C in exon 19 of PTCH gene in a Chinese family with non-syndromic KOCTs. This mutation causes one highly conserved glycine residue transit to arginine on the 10th transmembrane region of PTCH protein. This work revealed that the missense mutation of PTCH is the causative and dominant gene of KOCTs in this family.

  6. Autosomal dominant congenital fibre type disproportion: a clinicopathological and imaging study of a large family.

    PubMed

    Sobrido, M J; Fernández, J M; Fontoira, E; Pérez-Sousa, C; Cabello, A; Castro, M; Teijeira, S; Alvarez, S; Mederer, S; Rivas, E; Seijo-Martínez, M; Navarro, C

    2005-07-01

    Congenital fibre type disproportion (CFTD) is considered a non-progressive or slowly progressive muscle disease with relative smallness of type 1 fibres on pathological examination. Although generally benign, CFTD has a variable natural course and severe progression has been observed in some patients. The pathogenesis of the disorder is unknown and many authors consider CFTD a syndrome with multiple aetiologies rather than a separate clinical entity. A positive family history has been reported in about 40% of cases, but the inheritance pattern is not clear. Both autosomal recessive and dominant modes of inheritance have been suggested. The present paper describes a large, multigenerational kindred that has an inherited myopathy fulfilling the histological criteria of CFTD, with autosomal dominant transmission and high penetrance. The clinical picture, remarkably similar in all affected family members, started in early infancy with mild limb muscle weakness. There was slow progression of symptoms into adulthood, with moderate to severe, mainly proximal, muscle weakness without loss of ambulation. Muscle biopsy from two affected individuals demonstrated predominance of small type 1 muscle fibres without other significant findings. Nerve conduction studies were normal and needle electromyography showed a myopathic pattern. MRI examination performed on three patients from successive generations showed involvement of proximal limb and paraspinal muscles. The clinical and pathological homogeneity in the present family, together with the lack of additional histological abnormalities after decades of disease progression in two affected individuals, supports this being a distinct myopathy with fibre type disproportion. Whether the disease in this family can be regarded as a form of the congenital myopathy known as CFTD or rather a unique condition sharing histological features with CFTD needs further investigation. This is, to our knowledge, the largest kindred with muscle

  7. Creatine kinase adenosine triphosphate and phosphocreatine energy supply in a single kindred of patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Abraham, M Roselle; Bottomley, Paul A; Dimaano, Veronica Lea; Pinheiro, Aurelio; Steinberg, Angela; Traill, Thomas A; Abraham, Theodore P; Weiss, Robert G

    2013-09-15

    A lethal and extensively characterized familial form of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HC) is due to a point mutation (Arg403Gln) in the cardiac β-myosin heavy chain gene. Although this is associated with abnormal energy metabolism and progression to heart failure in an animal model, in vivo cardiac energetics have not been characterized in patients with this mutation. Noninvasive phosphorus saturation transfer magnetic resonance spectroscopy was used to measure the adenosine triphosphate supplied by the creatine kinase (CK) reaction and phosphocreatine, the heart's primary energy reserve, in 9 of 10 patients from a single kindred with HC caused by the Arg403GIn mutation and 17 age-matched healthy controls. Systolic and diastolic function was assessed by echocardiography in all 10 patients with HC. The patients with HC had impairment of diastolic function and mild systolic dysfunction, when assessed using global systolic longitudinal strain. Myocardial phosphocreatine was significantly decreased by 24% in patients (7.1 ± 2.3 μmol/g) compared with the controls (9.4 ± 1.2 μmol/g; p = 0.003). The pseudo-first-order CK rate-constant was 26% lower (0.28 ± 0.15 vs 0.38 ± 0.07 s⁻¹, p = 0.035) and the forward CK flux was 44% lower (2.0 ± 1.4 vs 3.6 ± 0.9 μmol/g/s, p = 0.001) than in the controls. The contractile abnormalities did not correlate with the metabolic indexes. In conclusion, myocardial phosphocreatine and CK-ATP delivery are significantly reduced in patients with HC caused by the Arg403Gln mutation, akin to previous results from mice with the same mutation. A lack of a relation between energetic and contractile abnormalities suggests the former result from the sarcomeric mutation and not a late consequence of mechanical dysfunction. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Mutation spectrum and risk of colorectal cancer in African American families with Lynch syndrome.

    PubMed

    Guindalini, Rodrigo Santa Cruz; Win, Aung Ko; Gulden, Cassandra; Lindor, Noralane M; Newcomb, Polly A; Haile, Robert W; Raymond, Victoria; Stoffel, Elena; Hall, Michael; Llor, Xavier; Ukaegbu, Chinedu I; Solomon, Ilana; Weitzel, Jeffrey; Kalady, Matthew; Blanco, Amie; Terdiman, Jonathan; Shuttlesworth, Gladis A; Lynch, Patrick M; Hampel, Heather; Lynch, Henry T; Jenkins, Mark A; Olopade, Olufunmilayo I; Kupfer, Sonia S

    2015-11-01

    African Americans (AAs) have the highest incidence of and mortality resulting from colorectal cancer (CRC) in the United States. Few data are available on genetic and nongenetic risk factors for CRC among AAs. Little is known about cancer risks and mutations in mismatch repair (MMR) genes in AAs with the most common inherited CRC condition, Lynch syndrome. We aimed to characterize phenotype, mutation spectrum, and risk of CRC in AAs with Lynch syndrome. We performed a retrospective study of AAs with mutations in MMR genes (MLH1, MSH2, MSH6, and PMS2) using databases from 13 US referral centers. We analyzed data on personal and family histories of cancer. Modified segregation analysis conditioned on ascertainment criteria was used to estimate age- and sex-specific CRC cumulative risk, studying members of the mutation-carrying families. We identified 51 AA families with deleterious mutations that disrupt function of the MMR gene product: 31 in MLH1 (61%), 11 in MSH2 (21%), 3 in MSH6 (6%), and 6 in PMS2 (12%); 8 mutations were detected in more than 1 individual, and 11 have not been previously reported. In the 920 members of the 51 families with deleterious mutations, the cumulative risks of CRC at 80 years of age were estimated to be 36.2% (95% confidence interval [CI], 10.5%-83.9%) for men and 29.7% (95% CI, 8.31%-76.1%) for women. CRC risk was significantly higher among individuals with mutations in MLH1 or MSH2 (hazard ratio, 13.9; 95% CI, 3.44-56.5). We estimate the cumulative risk for CRC in AAs with MMR gene mutations to be similar to that of individuals of European descent with Lynch syndrome. Two-thirds of mutations were found in MLH1, some of which were found in multiple individuals and some that have not been previously reported. Differences in mutation spectrum are likely to reflect the genetic diversity of this population. Copyright © 2015 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. A large deletion/insertion-induced frameshift mutation of the androgen receptor gene in a family with a familial complete androgen insensitivity syndrome.

    PubMed

    Cong, Peikuan; Ye, Yinghui; Wang, Yue; Lu, Lingping; Yong, Jing; Yu, Ping; Joseph, Kimani Kagunda; Jin, Fan; Qi, Ming

    2012-06-01

    Androgen insensitivity syndrome (AIS) is an X-linked recessive genetic disorder with a normal 46, XY karyotype caused by abnormality of the androgen receptor (AR) gene. One Chinese family consisting of the proband and 5 other members with complete androgen insensitivity syndrome (CAIS) was investigated. Mutation analysis by DNA sequencing on all 8 exons and flanking intron regions of the AR gene revealed a unique large deletion/insertion mutation in the family. A 287 bp deletion and 77 bp insertion (c.933_1219delins77) mutation at codon 312 resulted in a frameshift which caused a premature stop (p.Phe312Aspfs*7) of polypeptide formation. The proband's mother and grandmother were heterozygous for the mutant allele. The proband's father, uncle and grandfather have the normal allele. From the pedigree constructed from mutational analysis of the family, it is revealed that the probably pathogenic mutation comes from the maternal side.

  10. A novel homozygous mutation in the solute carrier family 12 member 3 gene in a Chinese family with Gitelman syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Y.; Zhang, F.; Chen, D.; Lü, Q.; Tang, L.; Yang, C.; Lei, M.; Tong, N.

    2016-01-01

    Loss of function of mutated solute carrier family 12 member 3 (SLC12A3) gene is the most frequent etiology for Gitelman syndrome (GS), which is mainly manifested by hypokalemia, hypomagnesemia and hypocalciuria. We report the genetic characteristics of one suspicious Chinese GS pedigree by gene sequencing. Complete sequencing analysis of the SLC12A3 gene revealed that both the proband and his elder sister had a novel homozygous SLC12A3 mutation: c.2099T>C and p.Leu700Pro. Moreover, the SLC12A3 genes of his mother and daughter encoded the same mutated heterozygote. It was noted that in this pedigree, only the proband complained about recurrent episodes of bilateral lower limb weakness over 8 years, while his elder sister, mother and daughter did not present symptoms. The inconsistent clinical features of this pedigree implied that besides diverse phenotypes possibly originated from the same genotype, gender difference may also dominate the variant GS phenotypes. Further genetic and proteomic research are needed to investigate the precise mechanisms of GS, including the study of specific ethnicities. PMID:27783806

  11. A novel frameshift mutation in the EYA1 gene in a Korean family with branchio-oto-renal syndrome.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jong Dae; Kim, Shi-Chan; Koh, Yoon Woo; Lee, Hye-Jin; Choi, Soo-Young; Kim, Un-Kyung

    2009-01-01

    Branchio-oto-renal (BOR) syndrome is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by branchial cleft fistulae or cysts, preauricular pits, ear malformations, hearing loss, and renal anomalies. Mutations in the human homologue of the Drosophilia eyes absent gene (EYA1) are the most common cause of BOR syndrome. In this study, we found a Korean family showing clinical features of the disease. Mutation analysis of the EYA1 gene revealed a novel one-base-pair deletion resulting in truncated protein (c.321delT; p.Ala107fs). This is the first report of BOR syndrome caused by deletion mutation of the EYA1 gene in Korea.

  12. Germline variants in familial pituitary tumour syndrome genes are common in young patients and families with additional endocrine tumours.

    PubMed

    De Sousa, Sunita M C; McCabe, Mark J; Wu, Kathy; Roscioli, Tony; Gayevskiy, Velimir; Brook, Katelyn; Rawlings, Lesley; Scott, Hamish S; Thompson, Tanya J; Earls, Peter; Gill, Anthony J; Cowley, Mark J; Dinger, Marcel E; McCormack, Ann I

    2017-05-01

    Familial pituitary tumour syndromes (FPTS) account for 5% of pituitary adenomas. Multi-gene analysis via next-generation sequencing (NGS) may unveil greater prevalence and inform clinical care. We aimed to identify germline variants in selected patients with pituitary adenomas using a targeted NGS panel. We undertook a nationwide cross-sectional study of patients with pituitary adenomas with onset ≤40 years of age and/or other personal/family history of endocrine neoplasia. A custom NGS panel was performed on germline DNA to interrogate eight FPTS genes. Genome data were analysed via a custom bioinformatic pipeline, and validation was performed by Sanger sequencing. Multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) was performed in cases with heightened suspicion for MEN1, CDKN1B and AIP mutations. The main outcomes were frequency and pathogenicity of rare variants in AIP, CDKN1B, MEN1, PRKAR1A, SDHA, SDHB, SDHC and SDHD. Forty-four patients with pituitary tumours, 14 of whom had a personal history of other endocrine tumours and/or a family history of pituitary or other endocrine tumours, were referred from endocrine tertiary-referral centres across Australia. Eleven patients (25%) had a rare variant across the eight FPTS genes tested: AIP (p.A299V, p.R106C, p.F269F, p.R304X, p.K156K, p.R271W), MEN1 (p.R176Q), SDHB (p.A2V, p.S8S), SDHC (p.E110Q) and SDHD (p.G12S), with two patients harbouring dual variants. Variants were classified as pathogenic or of uncertain significance in 9/44 patients (20%). No deletions/duplications were identified in MEN1, CDKN1B or AIP. A high yield of rare variants in genes implicated in FPTS can be found in selected patients using an NGS panel. It may also identify individuals harbouring more than one rare variant. © 2017 European Society of Endocrinology.

  13. Homozygosity mapping of the Werner syndrome locus (WRN)

    SciTech Connect

    Nakura, J.; Miki, T.; Kamino, K.

    1994-10-01

    Werner syndrome (WS) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by the early onset of several age-related diseases. The locus for this disease was recently mapped to 8p12. We studied 27 WS kindreds of mixed ethnic origins, 26 of which were consanguineous. In 24 of these families, the affected subject was given the diagnosis of {open_quotes}definite{close_quotes} WS and affected subjects in the remaining 3 pedigrees were given the diagnosis of {open_quotes}probable{close_quotes} WS. Affected subjects from each kindred were genotyped for 13 short tandem repeat polymorphic sites. Two-point linkage analysis yielded significant evidence for linkage to D8S137, D8S339, D8S87, PLAT, D8S165, and D8S166. The locus yielding a maximum lod score at the smallest recombination fraction was D8S339, suggesting that this marker is the closest to the WS gene (WRN locus) of those tested. D8S339 gave significant lod scores (Z{sub max}{>=}3.0) for both Japanese and non-Japanese (mostly Caucasian) families, demonstrating that a single locus is responsible for WS in both groups. Multipoint analysis of these markers yielded a maximum lod score of 17.05 at a distance of approximately 0.6 cM from D8S339. The combined evidence from 2-point analysis, multipoint analysis, and analysis of regions of homozygosity in subjects from inbred pedigrees indicates that the WRN locus is between D8S131 and D8S87, in an 8.3-cM interval containing D8S339. 32 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs.

  14. A variant of Freeman-Sheldon syndrome maps to 11p15.5-pter

    SciTech Connect

    Krakowiak, P.A.; O`Quinn, J.R.; Watkins, W.S.

    1997-02-01

    Distal arthrogryposis type 1 (DA1) and Freeman-Sheldon syndrome (FSS) are the two most common known causes of inherited multiple congenital contractures. We recently have characterized a new disorder (DA213) with a phenotype intermediate between DA1 and FSS. We report the mapping of a gene that causes DA213 to chromosome 11p15.5-pter. Linkage analysis in a single kindred generated a positive LOD score of 5.31 at {theta} = 0 with the marker D11S922, and recombinants localize the gene to an {approximately}3.5-6.5-cM region between the marker TH and the telomere. Analysis of additional families improves the LOD score to 6.45 at {theta} = 0 and suggests linkage homogeneity for DA213. 24 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  15. Pyogenic Arthritis, Pyoderma Gangrenosum, and Acne Syndrome Maps to Chromosome 15q

    PubMed Central

    Yeon, Howard B.; Lindor, Noralane M.; Seidman, J. G.; Seidman, Christine E.

    2000-01-01

    Pyoderma gangrenosum, cystic acne, and aseptic arthritis are clinically distinct disorders within the broad class of inflammatory diseases. Although this triad of symptoms is rarely observed in a single patient, a three-generation kindred with autosomal-dominant transmission of these three disorders has been reported as “PAPA syndrome” (MIM 604416). We report mapping of a disease locus for familial pyoderma gangrenosum–acne–arthritis to the long arm of chromosome 15 (maximum two-point LOD score, 5.83; recombination fraction [θ] 0 at locus D15S206). Under the assumption of complete penetrance, haplotype analysis of recombination events defined a disease interval of 10 cM, between D15S1023 and D15S979. Successful identification of a single disease locus for this syndrome suggests that these clinically distinct disorders may share a genetic etiology. These data further indicate the role of genes outside the major histocompatibility locus in inflammatory disease. PMID:10729114

  16. Serum vitamin D and the metabolic syndrome among osteoporotic postmenopausal female patients of a family practice clinic in Jordan.

    PubMed

    Yasein, Nada; Shroukh, Wejdan; Hijjawi, Razan

    2015-01-01

    Vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency and the metabolic syndrome are two common health issues worldwide. The association between these two health problems is subject to debate. This study aims to investigate the association between vitamin D deficiency or insufficiency and the metabolic syndrome in a sample of osteoporotic postmenopausal women attending a family practice clinic in Amman-Jordan. This was an observational cross sectional study. It was carried out in the family practice clinic in Jordan University Hospital. The study included all postmenopausal osteoporotic women attending the clinic between June 2011 and May 2012, yielding a total of 326 subjects. The association between metabolic syndrome and serum vitamin D levels was investigated. Waist circumference, body mass index, triglycerides and fasting blood sugar were significantly higher among postmenopausal women with metabolic syndrome, but HDL cholesterol was significantly lower (p<0.05). The prevalence of metabolic syndrome among all study participants was 42.9%. Triglycerides and LDL cholesterol were significantly higher among women deficiency or insufficiency (p<0.05). The prevalence of vitamin D deficiency or insufficiency was 45.7%. Among patients with metabolic syndrome, the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency or insufficiency was 50.7%. Findings of the current study suggest a lack of relationship between serum vitamin D and metabolic syndrome. However, a significant inverse relationship was found between serum vitamin D levels and both serum triglycerides and LDL levels.

  17. Linkage analysis in Rett syndrome families suggests that there may be a critical region at Xq28.

    PubMed Central

    Webb, T; Clarke, A; Hanefeld, F; Pereira, J L; Rosenbloom, L; Woods, C G

    1998-01-01

    A whole X chromosome study of families in which Rett syndrome had been diagnosed in more than one member indicated that the region between Xq27 and Xqter was the most likely region to harbour a gene which may be involved in the aetiology of the disease. Further, more detailed studies of Xq28 detected weak linkage and a higher than expected sharing of maternally inherited alleles. It is suggested that there may be more than one gene involved in the aetiology of this syndrome, particularly as the very rare families in which more than one girl is affected often show variable clinical symptoms. Images PMID:9863596

  18. Family History in Periodic Fever, Aphthous Stomatitis, Pharyngitis, Adenitis (PFAPA) Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Manthiram, Kalpana; Nesbitt, Emily; Morgan, Thomas; Edwards, Kathryn M

    2016-09-01

    The goal of this study was to describe family history and inheritance patterns in patients with periodic fever, aphthous stomatitis, pharyngitis, cervical adenitis (PFAPA) syndrome. We performed a case-control study to compare the family histories of patients with PFAPA recruited from Vanderbilt University Medical Center and matched healthy control subjects from a pediatric primary care practice in Nashville, Tennessee, by using a structured questionnaire. Characteristics of paired case subjects, control subjects, and their family members were compared by using McNemar's test and Wilcoxon signed-rank tests. Eighty PFAPA index case subjects and 80 control subjects were recruited. Eighteen PFAPA case subjects (23%) had ≥1 family member with PFAPA. Parents of PFAPA index case subjects were more likely to have recurrent pharyngitis (36% vs 16%; P < .001) and recurrent aphthous stomatitis (46% vs 28%; P = .002) compared with parents of control subjects. Siblings of case subjects had a higher prevalence of PFAPA (10% vs 2%; P = .04), recurrent pharyngitis (24% vs 10%; P = .03), and recurrent aphthous stomatitis (27% vs 7%; P = .003) compared with siblings of control subjects. A portion of PFAPA case subjects seems to be familial, implying an inherited genetic predisposition to the disorder and/or shared environmental exposures. First-degree relatives (parents and siblings) of patients with PFAPA have a higher prevalence of recurrent pharyngitis and aphthous stomatitis than relatives of control subjects, which suggests that these disorders represent reduced penetrance phenotypes of PFAPA. Further characterization of the genetics and inflammatory profiles of these patients and their relatives is warranted. Copyright © 2016 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  19. The utility of exome sequencing for genetic diagnosis in a familial microcephaly epilepsy syndrome.

    PubMed

    McDonell, Laura M; Warman Chardon, Jodi; Schwartzentruber, Jeremy; Foster, Denise; Beaulieu, Chandree L; Majewski, Jacek; Bulman, Dennis E; Boycott, Kym M

    2014-01-31

    Despite remarkable advances in genetic testing, many adults with syndromic epilepsy remain without a molecular diagnosis. The challenge in providing genetic testing for this patient population lies in the extensive genetic heterogeneity associated with epilepsy. Even for the subset of epilepsy patients that present with a defining feature, such as microcephaly, the number of possible genes that would require interrogation by Sanger sequencing is extensive and often prohibitively expensive. We report a family of French Canadian descent with four adult children affected with severe intellectual disability, epilepsy and microcephaly born to consanguineous parents and evaluated by the Genetics Service to provide informed genetic counseling to unaffected family members regarding possible recurrence risks. We used whole-exome sequencing (WES) of DNA from one affected sibling as a first-line diagnostic tool and compared the prioritization of variants using two strategies: 1) focusing on genes with homozygous variants; and, 2) focusing on genes associated with microcephaly. Both approaches prioritized the same homozygous novel frameshift mutation (p.Arg608Serfs*26) in WDR62, a gene known to cause autosomal recessive primary microcephaly. Sanger sequencing confirmed the presence of the homozygous mutation in the other three affected siblings. WES and subsequent filtering of the rare variants in a single affected family member led to the rapid and cost-effective identification of a novel homozygous frameshift mutation in WDR62, thereby explaining the severe neurodevelopmental disorder in this family and facilitating genetic counseling. Our findings support WES as an effective first-line diagnostic tool in families presenting with rare genetically heterogeneous neurological disorders.

  20. GLUT1-deficiency syndrome: Report of a four-generation Norwegian family with a mild phenotype.

    PubMed

    Ramm-Pettersen, Anette; Nakken, Karl O; Haavardsholm, Kathrine C; Selmer, Kaja Kristine

    2017-05-01

    Glucose transporter type 1 deficiency syndrome (GLUT1-DS) is a rare metabolic encephalopathy with a wide variation of clinical phenotypes. Familial variants are often milder than de novo cases, and may therefore remain undiagnosed. The aim of this study was to characterize the clinical course of GLUT1-DS in a four-generation Norwegian family where the oldest generations had never received any treatment. Through interviews and clinical investigations, we characterized a family of 26 members, where 11 members had symptoms strongly suggesting GLUT1-DS. All members were offered genetic testing of the SLC2A1 gene. Affected members were offered treatment with ketogenic diet, and the effect of the treatment was registered. We sequenced the SLC2A1 gene in 13 members, and found that 10, all with symptoms, had the c.823G>A (p.Ala275Thr) variant. All affected members had experienced early-onset epilepsy, paroxysmal exercise-induced dyskinesias, and most had mild learning disability. Moreover, some had symptoms and signs of a distal neuropathy in addition to reduced sense of orientation and excessive daytime sleep. Their load of symptoms had decreased over the years, although that they never had received any treatment. Nevertheless, those who started dietary treatment all experienced an improved quality of life. We report a four-generation family with GLUT1-DS where the disease has a mild course, even when untreated. In addition to classical GLUT1-DS features, we also describe symptoms which have never been reported in GLUT1-DS previously. As such, this family extends the phenotypic spectrum of GLUT1-DS and underlines the importance of diagnosing also relatively mildly affected patients, even in adult life, as they also seem to benefit from dietary treatment. Published by Elsevier Inc.