Science.gov

Sample records for fan case materials

  1. Material development for fan blade containment casing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McMillan, A.

    2008-03-01

    This paper describes the physics reasoning and the engineering development process for the structured material system adopted for the containment system of the Trent 900 engine. This is the Rolls-Royce engine that powers the Airbus A380 double-decker aeroplane, which is on the point of entering service. The fan blade containment casing is the near cylindrical casing that surrounds the fan blades at the front of the engine. The fan blades provide the main part of the thrust of the engine; the power to the fan is provided through a shaft from the turbine. The fan is approximately three meters in diameter, with the tips of the blade travelling at a little over Mach speed. The purpose of the containment system is to catch and contain a blade in the extremely unlikely event of a part or whole blade becoming detached. This is known as a ''Fan Blade Off (FBO)'' event. The requirement is that no high-energy fragments should escape the containment system; this is essential to prevent damage to other engines or to the fuselage of the aircraft. Traditionally the containment system philosophy has been to provide a sufficiently thick solid metallic skin that the blade cannot penetrate. Obviously, this is heavy. A good choice of metal in this case is a highly ductile steel, which arrests the kinetic energy of the blade through plastic deformation, and possibly, a controlled amount of cracking. This is known as ''hard wall'' containment. More recently, to reduce weight, containment systems have incorporated a Kevlar fibre wrap. In this case, the thinner metallic wall provides some containment, which is backed up by the stretching of the Kevlar fibres. This is known as ''soft wall'' containment; but it suffers the disadvantage of requiring a large empty volume in the nacelle in to which to expand. For the Trent 900 engine, there was a requirement to make a substantial weight saving while still adopting a hard wall style of containment system. To achieve this, a hollow structured

  2. Design and Testing of Braided Composite Fan Case Materials and Components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, Gary D.; Pereira, J. Michael; Braley, Michael S.; Arnold, William a.; Dorer, James D.; Watson, William R/.

    2009-01-01

    Triaxial braid composite materials are beginning to be used in fan cases for commercial gas turbine engines. The primary benefit for the use of composite materials is reduced weight and the associated reduction in fuel consumption. However, there are also cost benefits in some applications. This paper presents a description of the braided composite materials and discusses aspects of the braiding process that can be utilized for efficient fabrication of composite cases. The paper also presents an approach that was developed for evaluating the braided composite materials and composite fan cases in a ballistic impact laboratory. Impact of composite panels with a soft projectile is used for materials evaluation. Impact of composite fan cases with fan blades or blade-like projectiles is used to evaluate containment capability. A post-impact structural load test is used to evaluate the capability of the impacted fan case to survive dynamic loads during engine spool down. Validation of these new test methods is demonstrated by comparison with results of engine blade-out tests.

  3. Characterization of Composite Fan Case Resins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dvoracek, Charlene M.

    2004-01-01

    The majority of commercial turbine engines that power today s aircraft use a large fan driven by the engine core to generate thrust which dramatically increases the engine s efficiency. However, if one of these fan blades fails during flight, it becomes high energy shrapnel, potentially impacting the engine or puncturing the aircraft itself and thus risking the lives of passengers. To solve this problem, the fan case must be capable of containing a fan blade should it break off during flight. Currently, all commercial fan cases are made of either just a thick metal barrier or a thinner metal wall surrounded by Kevlar-an ultra strong fiber that elastically catches the blade. My summer 2004 project was to characterize the resins for a composite fan case that will be lighter and more efficient than the current metal. The composite fan case is created by braiding carbon fibers and injecting a polymer resin into the braid. The resin holds the fibers together, so at first using the strongest polymer appears to logically lead to the strongest fan case. Unfortunately, the stronger polymers are too viscous when melted. This makes the manufacturing process more difficult because the polymer does not flow as freely through the braid, and the final product is less dense. With all of this in mind, it is important to remember that the strength of the polymer is still imperative; the case must still contain blades with high impact energy. The research identified which polymer had the right balance of properties, including ease of fabrication, toughness, and ability to transfer the load to the carbon fibers. Resin deformation was studied to better understand the composite response during high speed impact. My role in this research was the testing of polymers using dynamic mechanical analysis and tensile, compression, and torsion testing. Dynamic mechanical analysis examines the response of materials under cyclic loading. Two techniques were used for dynamic mechanical analysis

  4. Active Vibration Reduction of Titanium Alloy Fan Blades (FAN1) Using Piezoelectric Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choi, Benjamin; Kauffman, Jeffrey; Duffy, Kirsten; Provenza, Andrew; Morrison, Carlos

    2010-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Research Center is developing smart adaptive structures to improve fan blade damping at resonances using piezoelectric (PE) transducers. In this paper, a digital resonant control technique emulating passive shunt circuits is used to demonstrate vibration reduction of FAN1 Ti real fan blade at the several target modes. Single-mode control and multi-mode control using one piezoelectric material are demonstrated. Also a conceptual study of how to implement this digital control system into the rotating fan blade is discussed.

  5. Effect of material uncertainties on dynamic analysis of piezoelectric fans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srivastava, Swapnil; Yadav, Shubham Kumar; Mukherjee, Sujoy

    2015-04-01

    A piezofan is a resonant device that uses a piezoceramic material to induce oscillations in a cantilever beam. In this study, lumped-mass modelling is used to analyze a piezoelectric fan. Uncertainties are associated with the piezoelectric structures due to several reasons such as variation during manufacturing process, temperature, presence of adhesive layer between the piezoelectric actuator/sensor and the shim stock etc. Presence of uncertainty in the piezoelectric materials can influence the dynamic behavior of the piezoelectric fan such as natural frequency, tip deflection etc. Moreover, these quantities will also affect the performance parameters of the piezoelectric fan. Uncertainty analysis is performed using classical Monte Carlo Simulation (MCS). It is found that the propagation of uncertainty causes significant deviations from the baseline deterministic predictions, which also affect the achievable performance of the piezofan. The numerical results in this paper provide useful bounds on several performance parameters of the cooling fan and will enhance confidence in the design process.

  6. A case study on exhaust fan - FEM analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Damian, I.; Paleu, V.

    2016-08-01

    This paper presents a case study for an exhaust fan rotor made from elements assembled through bolted joints. For this design of the rotor and normal operating conditions the fan achieve the field of resonance, conducting to the failure of rotor bearing assembly, and finally of the entire fan. The finite element method (FEM) is used to study the stress, strain and natural frequencies of the fan rotor. The FEM analysis proves that a rotor with welded construction eliminates the disadvantage of the resonance phenomenon occurrence in the range of the normal operating speed.

  7. National Transonic Facility Fan Blade prepreg material characterization tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klich, P. J.; Richards, W. H.; Ahl, E. L., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    The test program for the basic prepreg materials used in process development work and planned fabrication of the national transonic facility fan blade is presented. The basic prepreg materials and the design laminate are characterized at 89 K, room temperature, and 366 K. Characterization tests, test equipment, and test data are discussed. Material tests results in the warp direction are given for tensile, compressive, fatigue (tension-tension), interlaminar shear and thermal expansion.

  8. Damage-Tolerant Fan Casings for Jet Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    All turbofan engines work on the same principle. A large fan at the front of the engine draws air in. A portion of the air enters the compressor, but a greater portion passes on the outside of the engine this is called bypass air. The air that enters the compressor then passes through several stages of rotating fan blades that compress the air more, and then it passes into the combustor. In the combustor, fuel is injected into the airstream, and the fuel-air mixture is ignited. The hot gasses produced expand rapidly to the rear, and the engine reacts by moving forward. If there is a flaw in the system, such as an unexpected obstruction, the fan blade can break, spin off, and harm other engine components. Fan casings, therefore, need to be strong enough to contain errant blades and damage-tolerant to withstand the punishment of a loose blade-turned-projectile. NASA has spearheaded research into improving jet engine fan casings, ultimately discovering a cost-effective approach to manufacturing damage-tolerant fan cases that also boast significant weight reduction. In an aircraft, weight reduction translates directly into fuel burn savings, increased payload, and greater aircraft range. This technology increases safety and structural integrity; is an attractive, viable option for engine manufacturers, because of the low-cost manufacturing; and it is a practical alternative for customers, as it has the added cost saving benefits of the weight reduction.

  9. Experimental impact testing and analysis of composite fan cases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vander Klok, Andrew Joe

    For aircraft engine certification, one of the requirements is to demonstrate the ability of the engine to withstand a fan blade-out (FBO) event. A FBO event may be caused by fatigue failure of the fan blade itself or by impact damage of foreign objects such as bird strike. An un-contained blade can damage flight critical engine components or even the fuselage. The design of a containment structure is related to numerous parameters such as the blade tip speed; blade material, size and shape; hub/tip diameter; fan case material, configuration, rigidity, etc. To investigate all parameters by spin experiments with a full size rotor assembly can be prohibitively expensive. Gas gun experiments can generate useful data for the design of engine containment cases at much lower costs. To replicate the damage modes similar to that on a fan case in FBO testing, the gas gun experiment has to be carefully designed. To investigate the experimental procedure and data acquisition techniques for FBO test, a low cost, small spin rig was first constructed. FBO tests were carried out with the small rig. The observed blade-to-fan case interactions were similar to those reported using larger spin rigs. The small rig has the potential in a variety of applications from investigating FBO events, verifying concept designs of rotors, to developing spin testing techniques. This rig was used in the developments of the notched blade releasing mechanism, a wire trigger method for synchronized data acquisition, high speed video imaging and etc. A relationship between the notch depth and the release speed was developed and verified. Next, an original custom designed spin testing facility was constructed. Driven by a 40HP, 40,000rpm air turbine, the spin rig is housed in a vacuum chamber of phi72inx40in (1829mmx1016mm). The heavily armored chamber is furnished with 9 viewports. This facility enables unprecedented investigations of FBO events. In parallel, a 15.4ft (4.7m) long phi4.1inch (105mm

  10. Impact Testing of Composites for Aircraft Engine Fan Cases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, Gary D.; Revilock, Duane M.; Binienda, Wieslaw K.; Nie, Walter Z.; Mackenzie, S. Ben; Todd, Kevin B.

    2001-01-01

    Before composite materials can be considered for use in the fan case of a commercial jet engine, the performance of a composite structure under blade-out loads needs to be demonstrated. The objective of this program is to develop an efficient test and analysis method for evaluating potential composite case concepts. Ballistic impact tests were performed on laminated glass/epoxy composites in order to identify potential failure modes and to provide data for analysis. Flat 7x7 in. panels were impacted with cylindrical titanium projectiles, and 15 in. diameter half-rings were impacted with wedge-shaped titanium projectiles. Composite failure involved local fiber fracture as well as tearing and delamination on a larger scale. A 36 in. diameter full-ring subcomponent was proposed for larger scale testing. Explicit, transient, finite element analyses were used to evaluate impact dynamics and subsequent global deformation for the proposed full-ring subcomponent test. Analyses on half-ring and quarter ring configurations indicated that less expensive smaller scale tests could be used to screen potential composite concepts when evaluation of local impact damage is the primary concern.

  11. Ballistic and Cyclic Rig Testing of Braided Composite Fan Case Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, William R.; Roberts, Gary D.; Pereira, J. Michael; Braley, Michael S.

    2015-01-01

    FAA fan blade-out certification testing on turbofan engines occurs very late in an engine's development program and is very costly. It is of utmost importance to approach the FAA Certification engine test with a high degree of confidence that the containment structure will not only contain the high-energy debris, but that it will also withstand the cyclic loads that occur with engine spooldown and continued rotation as the non-running engine maintains a low rotor RPM due to forced airflow as the engine-out aircraft returns to an airport. Accurate rig testing is needed for predicting and understanding material behavior of the fan case structure during all phases of this fan blade-out event.

  12. Alluvial Fans on Titan Reveal Atmosphere and Surface Interactions and Material Transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radebaugh, J.; Ventra, D.; Lorenz, R. D.; Farr, T. G.; Kirk, R. L.; Hayes, A.; Malaska, M. J.; Birch, S.; Liu, Z. Y. C.; Lunine, J. I.; Barnes, J. W.; Le Gall, A. A.; Lopes, R. M. C.; Stofan, E. R.; Wall, S. D.; Paillou, P.

    2015-12-01

    Alluvial fans, important depositional systems that record how sediment is stored and moved on planetary surfaces, are found on the surface of Titan, a body of significantly different materials and process rates than Earth. As seen by Cassini's Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) images at 350 m resolution, fans on Titan are found globally and are variable in size, shape and relationship to adjacent landforms. Their morphologies and SAR characteristics, which reveal roughness, textural patterns and other material properties, show similarities with fans in Death Valley seen by SAR and indicate there are regions of high relative relief locally, in the Ganesa, Xanadu and equatorial mountain belt regions. The Leilah Fluctus fans near Ganesa are ~30 km x 15 km, similar to the largest Death Valley fans, and revealing mountainous topography adjacent to plains. Others have gentle slopes over hundreds of kilometers, as in the high southern latitude lakes regions or the Mezzoramia southern midlatitudes, where a fan system is 200 km x 150 km, similar to the Qarn Alam fan emerging into the Rub al Khali in Oman. Additionally, there is evidence for a range of particle sizes, from relatively coarse (~2 cm or more) to fine, revealing long-term duration and variability in erosion by methane rainfall and transport. Some features have morphologies consistent with proximality to high-relief source areas and highly ephemeral runoff, while others appear to draw larger catchment areas and are perhaps characterized by more prolonged episodes of flow. The presence of many fans indicates the longevity of rainfall and erosion in Titan's surface processes and reveals that sediment transport and the precipitation that drives it are strongly episodic. Alluvial fans join rivers, lakes, eroded mountains, sand dunes and dissolution features in the list of surface morphologies derived from atmospheric and fluvial processes similar to those on Earth, strengthening comparisons between the two planetary

  13. Impact Testing and Analysis of Composites for Aircraft Engine Fan Cases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, Gary D.; Revilock, Duane M.; Binienda, Wieslaw K.; Nie, Walter Z.; Mackenzie, S. Ben; Todd, Kevin B.

    2002-01-01

    The fan case in a jet engine is a heavy structure because of its size and because of the requirement that it contain a blade released during engine operation. Composite materials offer the potential for reducing the weight of the case. Efficient design, test, and analysis methods are needed to efficiently evaluate the large number of potential composite materials and design concepts. The type of damage expected in a composite case under blade-out conditions was evaluated using a subscale test in which a glass/epoxy composite half-ring target was impacted with a wedge-shaped titanium projectile. Fiber shearing occurred near points of contact between the projectile and target. Delamination and tearing occurred on a larger scale. These damage modes were reproduced in a simpler test in which flat glass/epoxy composites were impacted with a blunt cylindrical projectile. A surface layer of ceramic eliminated fiber shear fracture but did not reduce delamination. Tests on 3D woven carbon/epoxy composites indicated that transverse reinforcement is effective in reducing delamination. A 91 cm (36 in.) diameter full-ring sub-component was proposed for larger scale testing of these and other composite concepts. Explicit, transient, finite element analyses indicated that a full-ring test is needed to simulate complete impact dynamics, but simpler tests using smaller ring sections are adequate when evaluation of initial impact damage is the primary concern.

  14. 30 CFR 57.4504 - Fan installations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Control Installation/construction/maintenance § 57.4504 Fan installations. (a) Fan houses, fan bulkheads... of combustible materials, except installed wiring, ground and track support, headframes, and...

  15. 30 CFR 57.4504 - Fan installations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Control Installation/construction/maintenance § 57.4504 Fan installations. (a) Fan houses, fan bulkheads... of combustible materials, except installed wiring, ground and track support, headframes, and...

  16. 30 CFR 57.4504 - Fan installations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Control Installation/construction/maintenance § 57.4504 Fan installations. (a) Fan houses, fan bulkheads... of combustible materials, except installed wiring, ground and track support, headframes, and...

  17. 30 CFR 57.4504 - Fan installations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Control Installation/construction/maintenance § 57.4504 Fan installations. (a) Fan houses, fan bulkheads... of combustible materials, except installed wiring, ground and track support, headframes, and...

  18. 30 CFR 57.4504 - Fan installations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Control Installation/construction/maintenance § 57.4504 Fan installations. (a) Fan houses, fan bulkheads... of combustible materials, except installed wiring, ground and track support, headframes, and...

  19. Effect of casing treatment on performance of a two-stage high-pressure-ratio fan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Urasek, D. C.

    1979-01-01

    A two-stage fan, previously tested with a solid casing, was tested with a casing with circumferential grooves over the tips of both rotors (casing treatment). Tests were conducted at 80 and 100 percent of design speed with uniform flow. The casing treatment improved the flow range and stall margin significantly without changing the characteristics overall performance curves of total-pressure and efficiency as functions of weight flow, other than extending them to lower weight flows.

  20. Acoustic testing of a 1.5 pressure ratio low tip speed fan with casing tip bleed (QEP Fan B scale model)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kazin, S. B.; Minzner, W. R.; Paas, J. E.

    1971-01-01

    A scale model of the bypass flow region of a 1.5 pressure ratio, single stage, low tip speed fan was tested with a rotor tip casing bleed slot to determine its effects on noise generation. The bleed slot was located 1/2 inch (1.3 cm) upstream of the rotor leading edge and was configured to be a continuous opening around the circumference. The bleed manifold system was operated over a range of bleed rates corresponding to as much as 6% of the fan flow at approach thrust and 4.25% of the fan flow at takeoff thrust. Acoustic results indicate that a bleed rate of 4% of the fan flow reduces the fan maximum approach 200 foot (61.0 m) sideline PNL 0.5 PNdB and the corresponding takeoff thrust noise 1.1 PNdB below the level with zero bleed. However, comparison of the standard casing (no bleed slot) and the slotted bleed casing with zero bleed shows that the bleed slot itself caused a noise increase.

  1. Investigation of Hygro-Thermal Aging on Carbon/Epoxy Materials for Jet Engine Fan Sections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kohlman, Lee W.; Roberts, Gary D.; Miller, Sandi G.; Pereira, J. Michael

    2011-01-01

    This poster summarizes 2 years of aging on E862 epoxy and E862 epoxy with triaxial braided T700s carbon fiber composite. Several test methods were used to characterize chemical, physical, and mechanical properties of both the resin and composite materials. The aging cycle that was used included varying temperature and humidity exposure. The goal was to evaluate the environmental effects on a potential jet engine fan section material. Some changes were noted in the resin which resulted in increased brittleness, though this did not significantly affect the tensile and impact test results. A potential decrease in compression strength requires additional investigation.

  2. Alluvial fan sensitivity to glacial-interglacial climate change: case studies from Death Valley.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whittaker, Alexander; D'Arcy, Mitch; Roda-Boluda, Duna; Brooke, Sam

    2016-04-01

    The effects of climate change on eroding landscapes and the sedimentary record remain poorly understood. The measurement of regional grain size trends in stream-flow deposits provides one way to address this issue because, in principle, these trends embed important information on the dynamics of sediment routing systems and their sensitivity to external forcings. In many cases, downstream stratigraphic fining is primarily driven by selective deposition of sediment. The relative efficiency of this process is determined by the physical characteristics of the input sediment supply and the spatial distribution of subsidence rate, which generates the accommodation necessary for mass extraction. Here, we measure grain size fining rates from apex to toe for alluvial fan systems in Death Valley, California, which have well-exposed modern and late Pleistocene deposits, where the long-term tectonic boundary conditions are known and where climatic variation over this time period is well-constrained. Our field data demonstrate that input grain sizes and input fining rates do vary noticeably over the late Pleistocene-Holocene period in this study area, although there is little evidence for significant changes in rates of faulting in the last 200 ky. For two catchments in the Grapevine Mountains for which we have excellent stratigraphic constraints on modern and 70 ka fan deposits, we use a self-similarity based grain size fining model to understand changes in sediment flux to the fans over this time period. When calibrated with cosmogenically-derived catchment erosion rates, our results show that a 30 % decrease in average precipitation rate over this time-frame led to a 20 % decrease in sediment flux to the fans, and a clear increase in the down-fan rate of fining. This supports existing landscape evolution models that relate a decrease in precipitation rate to a decrease in sediment flux, but implies that the relationship between sediment flux and precipitation rate may be

  3. Experimental Analysis of 3D Flow in Scroll Casing of Multi-Blade Fan for Air-Conditioner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitadume, Michio; Kawahashi, Masaaki; Hirahara, Hiroyuki; Uchida, Tadashi; Yanagawa, Hideki

    The multi-blade fan, which has been widely used as a blower for air-conditioning systems of vehicles, is one of the well-established fluid machinery. However, many factors must be considered in its practical design because the flow generated in the fan is quite complicated with three-dimensionality and unsteadiness. The fundamental fan performance is primarily determined by the impeller of the fan, and is also affected by the scroll casing. However, the theoretical estimation of the effect of the casing on the performance has not been well established. In order to estimate the casing effect on fan performance, detailed three-dimensional (3D) flow analysis in the casing is necessary. Stereoscopic PIV (SPIV) is one of the useful techniques for experimental analysis of 3D flow fields. There are some difficulties in practical application of SPIV for flow analysis in fluid machinery with complicated geometry, but the results obtained provide useful information for understanding the 3D flow field. In this report, experimental investigation of the flow in the scroll casing has been carried out using PIV and SPIV under the premise of downsizing automobile air conditioner fans.

  4. Towards a Three-Component Model of Fan Loyalty: A Case Study of Chinese Youth

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiao-xiao; Liu, Li; Zhao, Xian; Zheng, Jian; Yang, Meng; Zhang, Ji-qi

    2015-01-01

    The term “fan loyalty” refers to the loyalty felt and expressed by a fan towards the object of his/her fanaticism in both everyday and academic discourses. However, much of the literature on fan loyalty has paid little attention to the topic from the perspective of youth pop culture. The present study explored the meaning of fan loyalty in the context of China. Data were collected by the method of in-depth interviews with 16 young Chinese people aged between 19 and 25 years who currently or once were pop fans. The results indicated that fan loyalty entails three components: involvement, satisfaction, and affiliation. These three components regulate the process of fan loyalty development, which can be divided into four stages: inception, upgrade, zenith, and decline. This model provides a conceptual explanation of why and how young Chinese fans are loyal to their favorite stars. The implications of the findings are discussed. PMID:25886557

  5. Towards a three-component model of fan loyalty: a case study of Chinese youth.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiao-xiao; Liu, Li; Zhao, Xian; Zheng, Jian; Yang, Meng; Zhang, Ji-qi

    2015-01-01

    The term "fan loyalty" refers to the loyalty felt and expressed by a fan towards the object of his/her fanaticism in both everyday and academic discourses. However, much of the literature on fan loyalty has paid little attention to the topic from the perspective of youth pop culture. The present study explored the meaning of fan loyalty in the context of China. Data were collected by the method of in-depth interviews with 16 young Chinese people aged between 19 and 25 years who currently or once were pop fans. The results indicated that fan loyalty entails three components: involvement, satisfaction, and affiliation. These three components regulate the process of fan loyalty development, which can be divided into four stages: inception, upgrade, zenith, and decline. This model provides a conceptual explanation of why and how young Chinese fans are loyal to their favorite stars. The implications of the findings are discussed.

  6. Application of composite materials to turbofan engine fan exit guide vanes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, G. T.

    1980-01-01

    A program was conducted by NASA with the JT9D engine manufacturer to develop a lightweight, cost effective, composite material fan exit guide vane design having satisfactory structural durability for commerical engine use. Based on the results of a previous company supported program, eight graphite/epoxy and graphite-glass/epoxy guide vane designs were evaluated and four were selected for fabrication and testing. Two commercial fabricators each fabricated 13 vanes. Fatigue tests were used to qualify the selected design configurations under nominally dry, 38 C (100 F) and fully wet and 60 C (140 F) environmental conditions. Cost estimates for a production rate of 1000 vanes per month ranged from 1.7 to 2.6 times the cost of an all aluminum vane. This cost is 50 to 80 percent less than the initial program target cost ratio which was 3 times the cost of an aluminum vane. Application to the JT9D commercial engine is projected to provide a weight savings of 236 N (53 lb) per engine.

  7. A novel personal cooling system (PCS) incorporated with phase change materials (PCMs) and ventilation fans: An investigation on its cooling efficiency.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yehu; Wei, Fanru; Lai, Dandan; Shi, Wen; Wang, Faming; Gao, Chuansi; Song, Guowen

    2015-08-01

    Personal cooling systems (PCS) have been developed to mitigate the impact of severe heat stress for humans working in hot environments. It is still a great challenge to develop PCSs that are portable, inexpensive, and effective. We studied the performance of a new hybrid PCS incorporating both ventilation fans and phase change materials (PCMs). The cooling efficiency of the newly developed PCS was investigated on a sweating manikin in two hot conditions: hot humid (HH, 34°C, 75% RH) and hot dry (HD, 34°C, 28% RH). Four test scenarios were selected: fans off with no PCMs (i.e., Fan-off, the CONTROL), fans on with no PCMs (i.e., Fan-on), fans off with fully solidified PCMs (i.e., PCM+Fan-off), and fans on with fully solidified PCMs (i.e., PCM+Fan-on). It was found that the addition of PCMs provided a 54∼78min cooling in HH condition. In contrast, the PCMs only offered a 19-39min cooling in HD condition. In both conditions, the ventilation fans greatly enhanced the evaporative heat loss compared with Fan-off. The hybrid PCS (i.e., PCM+Fan-on) provided a continuous cooling effect during the three-hour test and the average cooling rate for the whole body was around 111 and 315W in HH and HD conditions, respectively. Overall, the new hybrid PCS may be an effective means of ameliorating symptoms of heat stress in both hot-humid and hot-dry environments.

  8. Materials, Manufacturing, and Test Development of a Composite Fan Blade Leading Edge Subcomponent for Improved Impact Resistance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Sandi G.; Handschuh, Katherine; Sinnott, Matthew J.; Kohlman, Lee W.; Roberts, Gary D.; Martin, Richard E.; Ruggeri, Charles R.; Pereira, J. Michael

    2015-01-01

    Application of polymer matrix composite materials for jet engine fan blades is becoming attractive as an alternative to metallic blades; particularly for large engines where significant weight savings are recognized on moving to a composite structure. However, the weight benefit of the composite is offset by a reduction of aerodynamic efficiency resulting from a necessary increase in blade thickness; relative to the titanium blades. Blade dimensions are largely driven by resistance to damage on bird strike. Further development of the composite material is necessary to allow composite blade designs to approximate the dimensions of a metallic fan blade. The reduction in thickness over the state of the art composite blades is expected to translate into structural weight reduction, improved aerodynamic efficiency, and therefore reduced fuel consumption. This paper presents test article design, subcomponent blade leading edge fabrication, test method development, and initial results from ballistic impact of a gelatin projectile on the leading edge of composite fan blades. The simplified test article geometry was developed to realistically simulate a blade leading edge while decreasing fabrication complexity. Impact data is presented on baseline composite blades and toughened blades; where a considerable improvement to impact resistance was recorded.

  9. Materials, Manufacturing and Test Development of a Composite Fan Blade Leading Edge Subcomponent for Improved Impact Resistance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Handschuh, Katherine M.; Miller, Sandi G.; Sinnott, Matthew J.; Kohlman, Lee W.; Roberts, Gary D.; Pereira, J. Michael; Ruggeri, Charles R.

    2014-01-01

    Application of polymer matrix composite materials for jet engine fan blades is becoming attractive as an alternative to metallic blades; particularly for large engines where significant weight savings are recognized on moving to a composite structure. However, the weight benefit of the composite of is offset by a reduction of aerodynamic efficiency resulting from a necessary increase in blade thickness; relative to the titanium blades. Blade dimensions are largely driven by resistance to damage on bird strike. Further development of the composite material is necessary to allow composite blade designs to approximate the dimensions of a metallic fan blade. The reduction in thickness over the state of the art composite blades is expected to translate into structural weight reduction, improved aerodynamic efficiency, and therefore reduced fuel consumption. This paper presents test article design, subcomponent blade leading edge fabrication, test method development, and initial results from ballistic impact of a gelatin projectile on the leading edge of composite fan blades. The simplified test article geometry was developed to realistically simulate a blade leading edge while decreasing fabrication complexity. Impact data is presented on baseline composite blades and toughened blades; where a considerable improvement to impact resistance was recorded.

  10. Impact Properties of Metal Fan Containment Materials Being Evaluated for the High-Speed Civil Transport (HSCT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Under the Enabling Propulsion Materials (EPM) program - a partnership between NASA, Pratt & Whitney, and GE Aircraft Engines - the Materials and Structures Divisions of the NASA Lewis Research Center are involved in developing a fan-containment system for the High-Speed Civil Transport (HSCT). The program calls for a baseline system to be designed by the end of 1995, with subsequent testing of innovative concepts. Five metal candidate materials are currently being evaluated for the baseline system in the Structures Division's Ballistic Impact Facility. This facility was developed to provide the EPM program with cost-efficient and timely impact test data. At the facility, material specimens are impacted at speeds up to 350 m/sec by projectiles of various sizes and shapes to assess the specimens' ability to absorb energy and withstand impact. The tests can be conducted at either room or elevated temperatures. Posttest metallographic analysis is conducted to improve understanding of the failure modes. A dynamic finite element program is used to simulate the events and both guide the testing as well as aid in designing the fan-containment system.

  11. A Case Report on the Effect of Fan Beam Thickness in Helical Tomotherapy of Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, W.C. Vincent; Mui, Wing Lun A.

    2011-04-01

    The fan beam thickness (FBT) in helical tomotherapy is defined by a pair of collimators parallel to the rotational orbit of the radiation beam and is fixed for a specific patient treatment. The aim of this case study is to evaluate the dosimetric influence of changing the FBT in the treatment of a nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) patient. The subject was a T2N1M0 stage NPC patient. The planning target volumes (PTVs) of the primary nasopharyngeal tumor and the left and right cervical lymphatics were delineated along with the organs at risk (OARs) in the corresponding computed tomography slices. Three treatment plans with FBT of 1.0 cm, 2.5 cm, and 5.0 cm (FBT-10, FBT-25, and FBT-50) were generated separately based on similar dose constraints and planning parameters. The dosimetric results of the PTV and OARs were collected and compared among the 3 treatment plans. The differences in the dose parameters of the PTVs were small among the 3 plans. The FBT-10 plan demonstrated the most homogeneous PTV doses with the smallest homogeneity indices (HIs). The FBT-50 plan delivered the highest dose to the OARs and the FBT-10 plan delivered the lowest. The differences between the 2 plans were more significant in the spinal cord, optic chiasm, optic nerves, and lens. This case study demonstrated that the variation of FBT in tomotherapy affected the quality of the treatment plan mainly in the OAR doses, but not so much in the PTV. Increasing the FBT reduced the effectiveness in the sparing of OARs.

  12. Uranium-series comminution ages of continental sediments: Case study of a Pleistocene alluvial fan

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Victoria E.; DePaolo, Donald J.; Christensen, John N.

    2010-04-30

    Obtaining quantitative information about the timescales associated with sediment transport, storage, and deposition in continental settings is important but challenging. The uranium-series comminution age method potentially provides a universal approach for direct dating of Quaternary detrital sediments, and can also provide estimates of the sediment transport and storage timescales. (The word"comminution" means"to reduce to powder," reflecting the start of the comminution age clock as reduction of lithic parent material below a critical grain size threshold of ~;;50 mu m.) To test the comminution age method as a means to date continental sediments, we applied the method to drill-core samples of the glacially-derived Kings River Fan alluvial deposits in central California. Sediments from the 45 m core have independently-estimated depositional ages of up to ~;;800 ka, based on paleomagnetism and correlations to nearby dated sediments. We characterized sequentially-leached core samples (both bulk sediment and grain size separates) for U, Nd, and Sr isotopes, grain size, surface texture, and mineralogy. In accordance with the comminution age model, where 234U is partially lost from small sediment grains due to alpha recoil, we found that (234U/238U) activity ratios generally decrease with age, depth, and specific surface area, with depletions of up to 9percent relative to radioactive equilibrium. The resulting calculated comminution ages are reasonable, although they do not exactly match age estimates from previous studies and also depend on assumptions about 234U loss rates. The results indicate that the method may be a significant addition to the sparse set of available tools for dating detrital continental sediments, following further refinement. Improving the accuracy of the method requires more advanced models or measurements for both the recoil loss factor fa and weathering effects. We discuss several independent methods for obtaining fa on individual samples

  13. New Whole-House Solutions Case Study: Evaluating Through-Wall Air Transfer Fans, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania

    SciTech Connect

    2014-10-01

    In this project, Building America team IBACOS performed field testing in a new construction unoccupied test house in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, to evaluate heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) distribution systems during heating, cooling, and midseason conditions. The team evaluated a market-available through-wall air transfer fan system that provides air to the bedrooms.The relative ability of this system was considered with respect to relevant Air Conditioning Contractors of America and ASHRAE standards for house temperature uniformity and stability.

  14. Two-stage fan. 3: Data and performance with rotor tip casing treatment, uniform and distorted inlet flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burger, G. D.; Hodges, T. R.; Keenan, M. J.

    1975-01-01

    A two stage fan with a 1st-stage rotor design tip speed of 1450 ft/sec, a design pressure ratio of 2.8, and corrected flow of 184.2 lbm/sec was tested with axial skewed slots in the casings over the tips of both rotors. The variable stagger stators were set in the nominal positions. Casing treatment improved stall margin by nine percentage points at 70 percent speed but decreased stall margin, efficiency, and flow by small amounts at design speed. Treatment improved first stage performance at low speed only and decreased second stage performance at all operating conditions. Casing treatment did not affect the stall line with tip radially distorted flow but improved stall margin with circumferentially distorted flow. Casing treatment increased the attenuation for both types of inlet flow distortion.

  15. Groundwater hydrodynamics of ancient fan deltas: The case of Sant Llorenç del Munt Massif (NE Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anglés, Marc; Folch, Albet; Oms, Oriol; Maestro, Eudald; Mas-Pla, Josep

    2014-05-01

    Hydrogeological models based on well-exposed mountain massifs permitt to constrain the geological factors affecting water circulation and water-rock interaction. Our study adresses the question of how sudden lateral rock changes (sedimentologic facies evolution) affect hydrodinamics in the case of ancient fan deltas. A robust model for the Sant Llorenç del Munt massif (Eocene, Barcelona province) has been defined after the integration of geology (stratigraphy, sedimentology, mapping and integration of subsurface data) and groundwater hydrology (pumping tests, major ions hydrochemistry and environmental isotopes). Ten lito-hidrostratigraphic units have been recognized, which correspond to different sedimentary environments and have a distinctive response to water circulation and water-rock interaction. A remarkable point of this case study is that the size of the whole sedimentary system is considered, i.e. the lateral expansion of flow (lateral permeability barriers) is fully contrained. In terms of hydrogeology, hydraulic conductivity due to fracturing provide poor aquifers in 4 rock types. 5 hydrochemical groups have been established which allow explaining the evolution of the flow throughout the fan delta. Together with isotopic and stratigraphic data the main recharge areas have been determined. Flow dynamics throughout the system combines both surface runoff and subsurface flow. In proximal alluvial conglomerates, groundwater runs both vertically (fractures) and horizontally (fractured and karstified levels). Some features that are generally overlooked in hydrogeological studies (such as conglomerate petrology) are crucial for fracturation and karstic development. Laterally, conglomerates evolve to impermeable mudstones with sandstones (alluvial fan fringe). However, some conglomerates prograding locally reach distal (marine) sediments and recharge the fractured delta front sandstones aquifers that are also refilled by runoff waters. The end sediments

  16. Long-term interactions between man and the fluvial environment - case of the Diyala alluvial fan, Iraq

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heyvaert, Vanessa M. A.; Walstra, Jan; Mortier, Clément

    2014-05-01

    , during these periods (Parthian, Sasanian and again in modern times), significant human modification of the landscape took place. Periods of societal decline are associated with reduced human impact and the development of a single-threaded incising river system. Adams, R.M. (1965). Land behind Baghdad: A history of settlement on the Diyala plains. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, Illinois. Heyvaert, V.M.A. & Baeteman, C. (2008). A Middle to Late Holocene avulsion history of the Euphrates river: a case study from Tell ed-D-er, Iraq, Lower Mesopotamia. Quaternary Science Reviews, 27, 2401-2410. Heyvaert, V. M. A., Walstra, J., Verkinderen, P., Weerts, H. J. T. & Ooghe, B. (2012). The role of human interference on the channel shifting of the river Karkheh in the Lower Khuzestan plain (Mesopotamia, SW Iran). Quaternary International, 251, 52-63. Heyvaert, V.M.A., Walstra, J., Weerts, H.J.T. (2013). Human impact on avulsion and fan development in a semi-arid region: examples from SW Iran. Abstractbook of the 10th International Fluvial Sedimentology Conference, July 2013,Leeds, United Kingdom. Morozova, G.S. (2005). A review of Holocene avulsions of the Tigris and Euphrates rivers and possible effects on the evolution of civilizations in lower Mesopotamia. Geoarchaeology, 20, 401-423. Walstra, J., Heyvaert, V. M. A. & Verkinderen, P. (2010). Assessing human impact on alluvial fan development: a multidisciplinary case-study from Lower Khuzestan (SW Iran). Geodinamica Acta, 23, 267-285. Wilkinson, T.J. (2003). Archaeological Landscapes of the Near East. The University of Arizona Press, Tucson, Arizona.

  17. Building America Case Study: Evaluating Through-Wall Air Transfer Fans, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2014-10-01

    In this project, Building America team IBACOS performed field testing in a new construction unoccupied test house in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania to evaluate heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) distribution systems during heating, cooling, and midseason conditions. Four air-based HVAC distribution systems were assessed:-a typical airflow ducted system to the bedrooms, a low airflow ducted system to the bedrooms, a system with transfer fans to the bedrooms, and a system with no ductwork to the bedrooms. The relative ability of each system was considered with respect to relevant Air Conditioning Contractors of America and ASHRAE standards for house temperature uniformity and stability, respectively.

  18. Fan Noise Reduction: An Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Envia, Edmane

    2001-01-01

    Fan noise reduction technologies developed as part of the engine noise reduction element of the Advanced Subsonic Technology Program are reviewed. Developments in low-noise fan stage design, swept and leaned outlet guide vanes, active noise control, fan flow management, and scarfed inlet are discussed. In each case, a description of the method is presented and, where available, representative results and general conclusions are discussed. The review concludes with a summary of the accomplishments of the AST-sponsored fan noise reduction research and a few thoughts on future work.

  19. Vibration reduction in advanced composite turbo-fan blades using embedded damping materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kosmatka, John B.; Lapid, Alex J.; Mehmed, Oral

    1996-05-01

    A preliminary design and analysis procedure for locating an integral damping treatment in composite turbo-propeller blades has been developed. This finite element based approach, which is based upon the modal strain energy method, is used to size and locate the damping material patch so that the damping (loss factor) is maximized in a particular mode while minimizing the overall stiffness loss (minimal reductions in the structural natural frequencies). Numerical results are presented to illustrate the variation in the natural frequencies and damping levels as a result of stacking sequence, integral damping patch size and location, and border materials. Experimental studies were presented using flat and pretwisted (30 degrees) integrally damped composite blade-like structures to show how a small internal damping patch can significantly increase the damping levels without sacrificing structural integrity. Moreover, the use of a soft border material around the patch can greatly increase the structural damping levels.

  20. Fan Performance From Duct Rake Instrumentation on a 1.294 Pressure Ratio, 725 ft/sec Tip Speed Turbofan Simulator Using Vaned Passage Casing Treatment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fite, E. Brian

    2006-01-01

    A 1.294 pressure ratio, 725 ft/sec tip speed, variable pitch low noise fan was designed and tested in the NASA Glenn 9- by 15-foot Wind Tunnel. The design included a casing treatment that used recirculation to extend the fan stall line and provide an acceptable operating range. Overall aerodynamic experimental results are presented for this low tip speed, low noise fan without casing treatment as well as using several variants of the casing treatment that moved the air extraction and insertion axial locations. Measurements were made to assess effects on performance, operability, and noise. An unusual instability was discovered near the design operating line and is documented in the fan operating range. Measurements were made to compare stall margin improvements as well as measure the performance impact of the casing treatments. Experimental results in the presence of simulated inlet distortion, via screens, are presented for the baseline and recirculation casing treatment configurations. Estimates are made for the quantity of recirculation weight flow based on limited instrumentation in the recirculation system along with discussion of results and conclusions

  1. CF6 fan performance improvement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patt, R. F.; Reemsnyder, D. C.

    1980-01-01

    A significant portion of the NASA-sponsored Performance Improvement Program for the CF6 engine was the development of an improved fan concept. This involved aerodynamic redesign of the CF6 fan blade to increase fan efficiency while retaining the mechanical integrity, operability, and acoustic characteristics of the existing blade. A further improvement in performance was obtained by adding a fan case stiffener ring to decouple blade-case vibrational characteristics, permitting a significant reduction in running tip clearance. Engine testing was performed to establish the performance, mechanical and acoustic properties of the new design relative to the current fan, and to establish power management characteristics for the CF6-50C2/E2 engine. A significant improvement in cruise power SFC of 1.8 percent was demonstrated in Sea Level testing projected to altitude flight conditions.

  2. Flood susceptibility assessment in a highly urbanized alluvial fan: the case study of Sala Consilina (southern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santangelo, N.; Santo, A.; di Crescenzo, G.; Foscari, G.; Liuzza, V.; Sciarrotta, S.; Scorpio, V.

    2011-10-01

    This paper deals with the risk assessment to alluvial fan flooding at the piedmont zone of carbonate massifs of the southern Apennines chain (southern Italy). These areas are prime spots for urban development and are generally considered to be safer than the valley floors. As a result, villages and towns have been built on alluvial fans which, during intense storms, may be affected by flooding and/or debris flow processes. The study area is located at the foothills of the Maddalena mountains, an elongated NW-SE trending ridge which bounds to the east the wide intermontane basin of Vallo di Diano. The area comprises a wide detrital talus (bajada) made up by coalescent alluvial fans, ranging in age from the Middle Pleistocene to the Holocene. Historical analysis was carried out to ascertain the state of activity of the fans and to identify and map the zones most hit by past flooding. According to the information gathered, the Sala Consilina fans would appear prone to debris flows; in the past these processes have produced extensive damage and loss of life in the urban area. The watershed basins feeding the fans have very low response times and may produce debris flow events with high magnitudes. Taking into account the historical damage, the fan surface morphology, and the present urban development (street orientation and hydraulic network), the piedmont area was zoned and various susceptibility classes were detected. These results may represent a useful tool for studies aiming at territorial hazard mapping and civil protection interventions.

  3. CF6 jet engine performance improvement: New fan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fasching, W. A.

    1980-01-01

    As part of the NASA sponsored engine component improvement program, and fan package was developed to reduce fuel consumption in current CF6 turbofan aircraft engine. The new fan package consist of an improved fan blade, reduced fan tip clearance due to a fan case stiffener, and a smooth fan casing tip shroud. CF6 engine performance and acoustic tests demonstrated the predicted 1.8% improvement in cruise sfc without an increase in engine noise. Power management thrust/fan speed characteristics were defined. Mechanical and structural integrity was demonstrated in model fan rotor photoelastic stress tests, full-size fan blade bench fatigue tests, and CF6 engine bird ingestion, crosswind, and cyclic endurance tests. The fan was certified in the CF6-500c2/E2 engines and is in commerical service on the Boeing 747-200, Douglas DC-10-30, and Atrbus industrie A300B aircraft.

  4. Fan/Ram Duct Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1973-10-01

    turbofan engine shutoff scheme, the ram duct flow conditions, and the Ian duct shutoff vane area transi- tion schedule. This loss will be...airflow. The performance of the turbofan is neglected until the main engine burner is ignited. At that time it is assumed that the turbo - fan...B. Transient Operation . . .. TRANSIENT TRANSITION TEST CASES A. Turbofan to Ramjet B. Ramjet to Turbo fan CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS

  5. Noise generated by quiet engine fans. 3: Fan C

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Montegan, F. J.; Schaefer, J. W.; Schmiedlin, R. F.

    1976-01-01

    A family of fans designed with low noise features was acoustically evaluated, and noise results are documented for a 1.6-pressure-ratio, 472-m/sec (155-ft/sec) tip speed fan. The fan is described and some aerodynamic operating data are given. Far field noise around the fan was measured over a range of operating conditions for a variety of configurations having different arrangements of sound absorbing material in the flow ducts. Complete results of 1.3 octave band analysis of the data are presented in tabular form. Included also are acoustic power spectra and sideline perceived noise levels. Representative 1/3 octave band data are presented graphically, and sample graphs of continuous narrow band spectra are also provided.

  6. 7. EXTERIOR VIEW OF BALTIMORE FAN HOUSE, AIRWAY, AND HILLMAN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. EXTERIOR VIEW OF BALTIMORE FAN HOUSE, AIRWAY, AND HILLMAN FAN HOUSE LOOKING SOUTHEAST The roof of the 1908 Baltimore Fan House is to the left; the doorway opens onto the rear of the metal fan housing. In the immediate foreground is a section of the blast doors installed in the airway directly over the shaft to protect the fans in case of a mine explosion. The sloping airway, to the right, connects with the New Fan House, whose metal updraft chimney is evident in the right background. The engine house of the Hillman Fan House is in the left background with the fan housing and updraft chimney connected. The boiler house stack is in the background. All of the engines in the fan complex were powered by the boiler house. - Dorrance Colliery Fan Complex, South side of Susquehanna River at Route 115 & Riechard Street, Wilkes-Barre, Luzerne County, PA

  7. PFP supply fan motor starters

    SciTech Connect

    Keck, R.D.

    1995-05-31

    The Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) is currently stabilizing about 25 kg of Pu sludge; upon completion of this task, PFP will be maintained in a safe standby condition to await decision from the PFP NEPA review. It can take about 10 years to initiate and complete terminal cleanout after this; the facility will then be decommissioned and decontaminated. The 234-5Z ventilation system must continue to operate until terminal cleanout. Part of the ventilation system is the seismic fan shutdown system which shuts down the ventilation supply fans in case of strong earthquake. This document presents criteria for installing solid state, reduced voltage motor starters and isolation contactors for the 8 main ventilation supply fans. The isolation contactors will shutdown the supply fans in event of earthquake.

  8. Application of a Meso-scale Based Ballistic Fabric Model to the Development of Advanced Lightweight Engine Fan Blade-Out Containment Structure

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-01

    Cook elastoplastic material in ABAQUS, while the metallic structure of the fan case is made of aluminum alloy also modeled as an elastoplastic ...alloy modeled by a Johnson-Cook elastoplastic material in ABAQUS, while the metallic structure of the fan case is made of aluminum alloy also...modeled as an elastoplastic material. A multilayered Kevlar woven dry fabric structure is wrapped around the thin aluminum shell to form a soft hybrid

  9. Low Noise Research Fan Stage Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hobbs, David E.; Neubert, Robert J.; Malmborg, Eric W.; Philbrick, Daniel H.; Spear, David A.

    1995-01-01

    This report describes the design of a Low Noise ADP Research Fan stage. The fan is a variable pitch design which is designed at the cruise pitch condition. Relative to the cruise setting, the blade is closed at takeoff and opened for reverse thrust operation. The fan stage is a split flow design with fan exit guide vanes and core stators. This fan stage design was combined with a nacelle and engine core duct to form a powered fan/nacelle, subscale model. This model is intended for use in aerodynamic performance, acoustic and structural testing in a wind tunnel. The model has a 22-inch outer fan diameter and a hub-to-top ratio of 0.426 which permits the use of existing NASA fan and cowl force balance designs and rig drive system. The design parameters were selected to permit valid acoustic and aerodynamic comparisons with the PW 17-inch rig previously tested under NASA contract. The fan stage design is described in detail. The results of the design axisymmetric analysis at aerodynamic design condition are included. The structural analysis of the fan rotor and attachment is described including the material selections and stress analysis. The blade and attachment are predicted to have adequate low cycle fatigue life, and an acceptable operating range without resonant stress or flutter. The stage was acoustically designed with airfoil counts in the fan exit guide vane and core stator to minimize noise. A fan-FEGV tone analysis developed separately under NASA contract was used to determine these airfoil counts. The fan stage design was matched to a nacelle design to form a fan/nacelle model for wind tunnel testing. The nacelle design was developed under a separate NASA contract. The nacelle was designed with an axisymmetric inlet, cowl and nozzle for convenience in testing and fabrication. Aerodynamic analysis of the nacelle confirmed the required performance at various aircraft operating conditions.

  10. High-loading low-speed fan study. 4: Data and performance with redesign stator and including a rotor tip casing treatment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harley, K. G.; Odegard, P. A.; Burdsall, E. A.

    1972-01-01

    A single stage fan with a rotor tip speed of 1000 ft/sec(304.8 m/sec) and a hub-to-tip ratio of 0.392 was retested with a redesigned stator. Tests were conducted with uniform inlet, tip-radial, hub-radial, and circumferential inlet distortions. With uniform inlet flow, stall margin was improved 12 percentage points above that with the original stator. The fan demonstrated an efficiency of 0.883 and a stall margin of 15 percent at a pressure ratio of 1.488 and a specific flow of 41.17 lb/sec/sq ft. Tests were also made with a redesigned casing treatment consisting of skewed slots over the rotor blade tips. This casing treatment gave a 7 percentage point improvement in stall margin when tested with tip radial distortion (when the rotor tip initiated stall). Noise measurements at the fan inlet and exit indicate no effect from closing the stator 10 degrees, nor were there measurable effects from adding skewed slots over the blade tips.

  11. Fan Acoustic Issues in the NASA Space Flight Experience

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, Christopher S.; Goodman, Jerry

    2008-01-01

    Emphasis needs to be placed on choosing quiet fans compatible with systems design and specifications that control spec levels: a) Sound power; b) Choose quiet fan or plan to quiet it, early in program; c) Plan early verification that fan source allocations are met. Airborne noise: a) System design should function/play together with fans used (flow passages, restrictions, bends, expansions & contractions, and acoustics) vs. fan speed understood (nominal, worst case, & unplanned variances); b) Fan inlets treated, as required; c) Fan Outlets treated, as required; d) Ducted system inlets are outlets designed for acoustic compliance compatibility & designed so some late required modifications can be made without significant impacts. Structure Borne Noise: a) Structure borne noise dealt with as part of fan package or installation; b) Duct attachments and lines isolated. Case Radiated Noise: - Treatment added as much as possible to fan package (see example).

  12. [Lymphocytic primary angiitis of the central nervous system with fan-shaped linear enhancement converging to the lateral ventricles: a case report].

    PubMed

    Okunomiya, Taro; Kageyama, Takashi; Tanaka, Kanta; Kambe, Daisuke; Shinde, Akiyo; Suenaga, Toshihiko

    2014-01-01

    We report a case of lymphocytic primary angiitis of the central nervous system (PACNS) with a characteristic gadolinium-enhancement pattern on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). A 48-year-old, right-handed man presented with a 3-month history of tremor and progressing dementia. Neurologic examination revealed cognitive decline with anterograde amnesia and postural tremor of the fingers. Except for the positive result of serum antinuclear antibody, intense investigations for infectious, rheumatic and neoplastic diseases were negative. Analysis of cerebrospinal fluid showed mild pleocytosis (14 cells/μl). Brain MRI revealed diffuse hyperintense areas in the deep cerebral white matter on T2-weighted images. Gadolinium-enhanced T1-weighted images demonstrated fan-shaped multiple linear enhancements converging to the body of the lateral ventricles. Brain biopsy showed intense infiltration of small lymphocytes without atypia or granuloma mainly within the vessel walls and perivascular spaces. The diagnosis of lymphocytic PACNS was made. Administration of corticosteroid markedly improved the tremor and cognitive dysfunction. MRI after the treatment showed resolution of the abnormal fan-shaped linear enhancement. He returned to his previous occupation. PACNS should be included in the differential diagnosis for fan-shaped linear enhancement converging to the lateral ventricles on MRI in patients with unexplained progressing dementia.

  13. Alluvial fans and fan deltas: a guide to exploration for oil and gas

    SciTech Connect

    Fraser, G.S.; Suttner, L.

    1986-01-01

    This volume is a result of a series of lectures presented to an oil company in 1985 and is intended for an audience of explorationists. Material is presented in the order in which an exploration program might proceed in a frontier area. The volume is divided into six chapters that cover definitions and tectonic setting, alluvial-fan morphology, processes and facies on alluvial fans, geomorphic controls, effects of extrinsic controls (chiefly tectonism and climate) on alluvial-fan sequences, and diagenesis. Previously published black-and-white line drawings from studies of modern and ancient fans and fan deltas provide almost all the illustrative material; only one photograph is included, an aerial view of fans in part of Death Valley. The authors emphasize the complexity and variability of fan deposits and their resultant architecture. Although the volume contains a useful review of previous literature, it contains little new material, and it is remarkably lacking subsurface examples and data for a volume intended for the exploration community. In addition, fan deltas receive only brief attention; the overwhelming part of the book is devoted to alluvial fans. The volume will be of interest to those involved in studies of modern and ancient alluvial-fan deposits. 165 references.

  14. The Astoria Fan: An elongate type fan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nelson, C.H.

    1984-01-01

    The Astoria Fan, a modern system, is located on a subducting oceanic crust and fills a north-south-trending trench along the Oregon continental margin. Well-developed channels cross the entire fan length; they display classic inner-fan leveed profiles but evolve into distributaries in the midfan area where the gradient decreases sharply. During periods of low sea level, inner- and middle-fan channels funnel sand to distal depositional sites in the outer-fan area where the sand/shale ratios are highest. This pattern of sand displacement and efficiency of transport appears to be characteristic of elongate fans fed by a major river and submarine canyon. ?? 1984 Springer-Verlag New York Inc.

  15. School Athletics and Fan Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryan, Clifford; Horton, Robert

    1976-01-01

    Several hypotheses are developed regarding fans and their behavior based upon a review of the literature. An exploratory study is then described, in which participant observers at a university sports arena observed cases of aggressive behavior among the spectators. Based upon the literature review and the findings of the study, four…

  16. Variable pitch fan system for NASA/Navy research and technology aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryan, W. P.; Black, D. M.; Yates, A. F.

    1977-01-01

    Preliminary design of a shaft driven, variable-pitch lift fan and lift-cruise fan was conducted for a V/STOL Research and Technology Aircraft. The lift fan and lift-cruise fan employed a common rotor of 157.5 cm diameter, 1.18 pressure ratio variable-pitch fan designed to operate at a rotor-tip speed of 284 mps. Fan performance maps were prepared and detailed aerodynamic characteristics were established. Cost/weight/risk trade studies were conducted for the blade and fan case. Structural sizing was conducted for major components and weights determined for both the lift and lift-cruise fans.

  17. Fan blade development. Final report Sep 81-Sep 82

    SciTech Connect

    Buday, J.M.

    1982-09-01

    The objective of this program was to develop an improved fan blade that could be utilized in place of the current steel fan blade on the Pedal Ventilator Kit (PVK). The goals of the program were to reduce both the unit cost and weight of the fan while maintaining its effectiveness and reliability. A value analysis study was conducted on the fan blade to determine material/design revisions that offered potential manufacturing economies. Based on the conclusions of the study, two designs were chosen for fabrication. The two fan designs were constructed and tested. As a result of the performance testing, one fan blade emerged as the optimum design. Fifteen fan blades of the optimum design were constructed for FEMA inspection and distribution. Preliminary specifications were generated for the fan blade assembly. in addition, production cost estimates based on a procurement of 100,000 units were formulated for FEMA budgetary purposes.

  18. The transfer of river load to deep-sea fans: A quantitative approach

    SciTech Connect

    Wetzel, A. )

    1993-10-01

    Submarine fans and turbidite systems are major petroleum reservoirs in many sedimentary basins worldwide. The size of a river-fed deep-sea fan is controlled mainly by the amount of sediment available from a terrestrial source, whereas sea level fluctuations only trigger mass transfer to the deep sea. The deposition rate and fan length correlate for most fans formed on abyssal plains. Fan size is independent of depositional environment (lake or sea), time span, or geological period, which may be characterized by different amplitudes and frequencies of sea level fluctuations. In climatically stable regions such as the tropics about 25 [+-] 10% of the suspended river load reaching the river mouth is transported to the deep sea over the long term. The type of river mouth affects the amount of material transported to the deep sea; estuaries with deeply incised canyons may transfer 6-8 times more material than fluvial-dominated and lobate deltas, provided the suspended river load is equal in both cases. For most river-fed deep-sea fans, a well-defined geometry develops on unconfined abyssal plains. The width/length ratio is about 0.2 at the base of the slope, and reaches a maximum of 0.5 farther downward. This is in good agreement with flume experiments. The volume of such fans resting on a planar base is roughly 0.35 [times] area [times] maximum thickness. The quantitative relationships of fans with respect to geometry, deposition rate, and river suspended discharge may provide some basic for basin modeling and calculation of the sediment budget of erosional-depositional systems.

  19. Engine component improvement: Performance improvement, JT9D-7 3.8 AR fan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaffin, W. O.

    1980-01-01

    A redesigned, fuel efficient fan for the JT9D-7 engine was tested. Tests were conducted to determine the effect of the 3.8 AR fan on performance, stability, operational characteristics, and noise of the JT9D-7 engine relative to the current 4.6 AR Bill-of-Material fan. The 3.8 AR fan provides increased fan efficiency due to a more advanced blade airfoil with increased chord, eliminating one part span shroud and reducing the number of fan blades and fan exit guide vanes. Engine testing at simulated cruise conditions demonstrated the predicted 1.3 percent improvement in specific fuel consumption with the redesigned 3.8 AR fan. Flight testing and sea level stand engine testing demonstrated exhaust gas temperature margins, fan and low pressure compressor stability, operational suitability, and noise levels comparable to the Bill-of-Material fan.

  20. Tracking Soil Organic Carbon Transport to Continental Margin Sediments Using Soil-Specific Hopanoid Biomarkers: a Case Study From the Congo Fan (ODP Site 1075)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooke, M. P.; Talbot, H. M.; Eniola, O.; Zabel, M.; Wagner, T.

    2007-12-01

    The transport and subsequent deposition of terrestrially derived organic matter into the ocean is an important but poorly constrained aspect of the modern global carbon cycle. In regions associated with large river systems it is likely that the terrestrial input of organic carbon is much more complex than commonly considered and very difficult to trace based on established geochemical proxies. It is therefore important to develop proxies that target the movement and fate of this terrestrial organic material. The identification of bacteriohopanepolyol (BHP) biomarkers unique to soil derived organic carbon (SOC) has enabled the transport of SOC into aquatic sediments to be traced. The extreme recalcitrance of BHPs enables these source specific compounds to be used on recent and ancient sediments to identify periods of high and low SOC input into sediments. BHPs are bacterial membrane compounds with a high degree of structural variability. They are analogous to steroids in eukaryotes and have been identified in over half of all bacteria studied for their presence. BHPs have a wide range of over 40 functional groups on the side chain, with up to 6 functional groups in each structure, and with methylation and unsaturation over 100 total structures have been identified1. During the BHP analysis of a wide range of soils from around the world we consistently measure high levels adenosylhopane, known to originate from purple non-sulphur, nitrogen fixing and ammonia oxidising bacteria and 2-methyl adenosyl hopane (m/z 802)2, from nitrogen fixing bacteria. Only 3 lacustrine sediments with large SOC supply from their catchments areas have been found to contain these markers in a survey of over 40 different non-marine settings. Recent studies on Late Quaternary sediments from the Congo deep sea fan (OPD site 1075, approximately 2 km water depth) provide a strong case to expect markers for SOC3. An initial analysis of the core samples confirms the presence of soil specific BHP

  1. Industrial Turbine Fans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Westinghouse Corp. & R &D Center's development of blades of an advanced controllable-pitch axial fan used in electrical power generation was aided by four computer programs supplied by COSMIC. Programs helped determine sensitivity of large industrial turbines and fans to particular matter such as dust and ash which can cause erosion. Programs also helped substantially reduce developmental costs.

  2. Reason and Reaction: The Dual Route of Decision Making Process on Social Media Usage: The Case of Hospitality Brand Fan Pages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manthiou, Aikaterini

    2012-01-01

    A new phenomenon on Facebook, resulting from social media revolution, is the emergence of numerous Facebook fan pages. This form of online brand community is an effective tool for building relationships with consumers. Many hospitality firms (i.e. restaurants) have captured the strength of a fan page because it can enhance brand attractiveness and…

  3. Constraining aggradation and degradation phases of alluvial fans in the sedimentary record: a case study from the Namib Desert, NW Namibia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Hagke, Christoph; Stollhofen, Harald; Malatesta, Luca C.; Stanistreet, Ian

    2014-05-01

    Controversy exists over when alluvial fans propagate, when they incise and how this is expressed in the sedimentary record. The Horingbaai Fan-delta at the Skeleton coast provides an end member due to its location in a hyper-arid area and a tectonically quiescent, although continuously uplifting setting. Accordingly, the influence of climate changes on alluvial fan sedimentation is directly assessable. There is pronounced interaction with the marine system during fan evolution, which provides the opportunity to constrain phases of fan progradation based on marine terrace stratigraphy. In this contribution, we will (1) present a detailed stratigraphic framework of the Horingbaai Fan-delta and associated marine terraces, and (2) analyze this framework in order to identify the imprint of past climatic changes on the sedimentary record. The of the Horingbaai Fan-delta sediments have been laid down between 2.6 and 2.4 Ma, based on age constraints from under- and overlying marine terraces. After 2.4 Ma, fan sedimentation was generally reduced and much more irregular due to intervening erosion phases. We propose a new model for late stage sedimentation and erosion phases, using offshore bathymetric and onshore sedimentological data, and conclude that generally decreasing sea-surface temperatures and glacial cycles largely govern the mode of sedimentation since the Early Pleistocene. We compare these findings to other fans at the Skeleton Coast, as well as other systems worldwide. Our study shows that climatic variations may leave distinct imprints in the sedimentological record. Recognizing these in depositional systems worldwide will improve understanding how fan sediments are preserved through time, and whether the reported worldwide increase in sedimentation rates since the Late Cenozoic is real or apparent.

  4. Controls on alluvial fan long-profiles

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stock, J.D.; Schmidt, K.M.; Miller, D.M.

    2008-01-01

    Water and debris flows exiting confined valleys have a tendency to deposit sediment on steep fans. On alluvial fans where water transport of gravel predominates, channel slopes tend to decrease downfan from ???0.10-0.04 to ???0.01 across wide ranges of climate and tectonism. Some have argued that this pattern reflects grain-size fining downfan such that higher threshold slopes are required just to entrain coarser particles in the waters of the upper fan, whereas lower slopes are required to entrain finer grains downfan (threshold hypothesis). An older hypothesis is that slope is adjusted to transport the supplied sediment load, which decreases downfan as deposition occurs (transport hypothesis). We have begun to test these hypotheses for alluvial fan long-profiles using detailed hydraulic and particle-size data in sediment transport models. On four alluvial fans in the western U.S., we find that channel hydraulic radiiare largely 0.5-0.9 m at fan heads, decreasing to 0.1-0.2 m at distal margins. We find that median gravel diameter does not change systematically along the upper 60%-80% of active fan channels as slope declines, so downstream gravel fining cannot explain most of the observed channel slope reduction. However, as slope declines, channel-bed sand cover increases systematically downfan from areal fractions of <20% above fan heads to distal fan values in excess of 70%. As a result, entrainment thresholds for bed material might decrease systematically downfan, leading to lower slopes. However, current models of this effect alone tend to underpredict downfan slope changes. This is likely due to off-channel gravel deposition. Calculations that match observed fan long-profiles require an exponential decline in gravel transport rate, so that on some fans approximately half of the load must be deposited off channel every -0.20-1.4 km downfan. This leads us to hypothesize that some alluvial fan long-proffies are statements about the rate of overbank deposition of

  5. OSCEE fan exhaust bulk absorber treatment evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bloomer, H. E.; Samanich, N. E.

    1980-01-01

    The acoustic suppression capability of bulk absorber material designed for use in the fan exhaust duct walls of the quiet clean short haul experiment engine (OCSEE UTW) was evaluated. The acoustic suppression to the original design for the engine fan duct which consisted of phased single degree-of-freedom wall treatment was tested with a splitter and also with the splitter removed. Peak suppression was about as predicted with the bulk absorber configuration, however, the broadband characteristics were not attained. Post test inspection revealed surface oil contamination on the bulk material which could have caused the loss in bandwidth suppression.

  6. Prototype Morphing Fan Nozzle Demonstrated

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Ho-Jun; Song, Gang-Bing

    2004-01-01

    Ongoing research in NASA Glenn Research Center's Structural Mechanics and Dynamics Branch to develop smart materials technologies for aeropropulsion structural components has resulted in the design of the prototype morphing fan nozzle shown in the photograph. This prototype exploits the potential of smart materials to significantly improve the performance of existing aircraft engines by introducing new inherent capabilities for shape control, vibration damping, noise reduction, health monitoring, and flow manipulation. The novel design employs two different smart materials, a shape-memory alloy and magnetorheological fluids, to reduce the nozzle area by up to 30 percent. The prototype of the variable-area fan nozzle implements an overlapping spring leaf assembly to simplify the initial design and to provide ease of structural control. A single bundle of shape memory alloy wire actuators is used to reduce the nozzle geometry. The nozzle is subsequently held in the reduced-area configuration by using magnetorheological fluid brakes. This prototype uses the inherent advantages of shape memory alloys in providing large induced strains and of magnetorheological fluids in generating large resistive forces. In addition, the spring leaf design also functions as a return spring, once the magnetorheological fluid brakes are released, to help force the shape memory alloy wires to return to their original position. A computerized real-time control system uses the derivative-gain and proportional-gain algorithms to operate the system. This design represents a novel approach to the active control of high-bypass-ratio turbofan engines. Researchers have estimated that such engines will reduce thrust specific fuel consumption by 9 percent over that of fixed-geometry fan nozzles. This research was conducted under a cooperative agreement (NCC3-839) at the University of Akron.

  7. Smart Fan Modules And System

    DOEpatents

    Cipolla, Thomas M.; Kaufman, Richard I.; Mok, Lawrence S.

    2003-07-15

    A fan module including: two or more individual fans, each fan having an air movement means and a motor engaged with the air movement means for accelerating air entering each of the two or more individual fans; a temperature sensor for sensing a temperature associated with the two or more fans and for outputting a first signal corresponding to the temperature; rotational speed sensor for outputting a second signal corresponding to a rotational speed of each of the two or more fans; and a processor for receiving the first and second signals and controlling the two or more individual fans based on the first and second signals. A fan module including: two or more individual fans, each fan having an air movement means and a motor engaged with the air movement means for accelerating air entering each of the two or more individual fans; a temperature sensor for sensing a temperature associated with the two or more fans and for outputting a first signal corresponding to the temperature; rotational speed sensor for outputting a second signal corresponding to a rotational speed of each of the two or more fans; and a processor for receiving the first and second signals and controlling the two or more individual fans based on the first and second signals.

  8. 9. DETAIL OF THE FAN HOUSE INTERIOR, SHOWING FAN OPENINGS. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. DETAIL OF THE FAN HOUSE INTERIOR, SHOWING FAN OPENINGS. - Tower Hill No. 2 Mine, Approximately 0.47 mile Southwest of intersection of Stone Church Road & Township Route 561, Hibbs, Fayette County, PA

  9. Isotopic insights into smoothening of abandoned fan surfaces, Southern California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Matmon, A.; Nichols, K.; Finkel, R.

    2006-01-01

    Cosmogenic nuclide concentrations measured on abandoned fan surfaces along the Mojave section of the San Andreas Fault suggest that sediment is generated, transported, and removed from the fans on the order of 30-40??kyr. We measured in situ produced cosmogenic 10Be, and in some cases 26Al, in boulders (n??=??15), surface sediment (n??=??15), and one depth profile (n??=??9). Nuclide concentrations in surface sediments and boulders underestimate fan ages, suggesting that 10Be accumulation is largely controlled by the geomorphic processes that operate on the surfaces of the fans and not by their ages. Field observations, grain-size distribution, and cosmogenic nuclide data suggest that over time, boulders weather into grus and the bar sediments diffuse into the adjacent swales. As fans grow older the relief between bars and swales decreases, the sediment transport rate from bars to swales decreases, and the surface processes that erode the fan become uniform over the entire fan surface. The nuclide data therefore suggest that, over time, the difference in 10Be concentration between bars and swales increases to a maximum until the topographic relief between bars and swales is minimized, resulting in a common surface lowering rate and common 10Be concentrations across the fan. During this phase, the entire fan is lowered homogeneously at a rate of 10-15??mm??kyr-1. ?? 2006 University of Washington.

  10. An Assessment of Current Fan Noise Prediction Capability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Envia, Edmane; Woodward, Richard P.; Elliott, David M.; Fite, E. Brian; Hughes, Christopher E.; Podboy, Gary G.; Sutliff, Daniel L.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, the results of an extensive assessment exercise carried out to establish the current state of the art for predicting fan noise at NASA are presented. Representative codes in the empirical, analytical, and computational categories were exercised and assessed against a set of benchmark acoustic data obtained from wind tunnel tests of three model scale fans. The chosen codes were ANOPP, representing an empirical capability, RSI, representing an analytical capability, and LINFLUX, representing a computational aeroacoustics capability. The selected benchmark fans cover a wide range of fan pressure ratios and fan tip speeds, and are representative of modern turbofan engine designs. The assessment results indicate that the ANOPP code can predict fan noise spectrum to within 4 dB of the measurement uncertainty band on a third-octave basis for the low and moderate tip speed fans except at extreme aft emission angles. The RSI code can predict fan broadband noise spectrum to within 1.5 dB of experimental uncertainty band provided the rotor-only contribution is taken into account. The LINFLUX code can predict interaction tone power levels to within experimental uncertainties at low and moderate fan tip speeds, but could deviate by as much as 6.5 dB outside the experimental uncertainty band at the highest tip speeds in some case.

  11. Prediction of ducted fan performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mendenhall, M. R.; Spangler, S. B.

    1972-01-01

    Computer program to predict performance of ducted fan combination at specified advance ratio and angle of attack is described. Parameters affecting performance of ducted fan are presented. Information obtained from computer program is explained for various conditions considered.

  12. A fan tale, modern and ancient fans - A comparison

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, P.J. ); Thor, D.R. ); Cherven, V.B.

    1991-02-01

    The Quaternary Conception fan of the Santa Barbara basin and the Upper Cretaceous Lathrop fan of the northern San Joaquin basin tell an interesting tale. Both fans show a well defined sequence stratigraphy of alternating low-stand, sand-rich units that alternate with thin high-stand silt units that drape and in-fill the surface topography of the previous sand-cycle. Isopachs made from detailed well log correlations (Lathrop) and seismic reflection data tied to borings (Conception) show that the fans are composed of a series of offset-stacked, elongate fan lobes. These lobes are similar in size. A major difference in the development of the two fans is the timing of tectonism. Concomitant tectonism uplifted the Conception fan lobes and resulted in localized erosion of high-stand silts beds and sand-on-sand lobe contacts. Tectonism and Lathrop occurred after fan deposition and provided the trapping structure-the Lathrop anticlinal fold. Following are some lessons to be learned from these and other fans the authors have studied: (1) Quaternary or modern' fans and ancient fans are similar. (2) Elongate sand-rich fan lobes separated by highstand silt units are typical of fans. (3) In addition to well-known techniques (seismic stratigraphy and detailed well log correlations), original reservoir pressures may be used to differentiate sequences and lobes (e.g., Lathrop). (4) Tectonism and erosion along the margin may limit traps to the uppermost lobe sequence (e.g., Conception). (5) An offset-stacked elongate fan lobe model is a valuable exploration and production tool.

  13. Large Alluvial Fans on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Jeffrey M.; Howard, Alan D.

    2004-01-01

    Several dozen distinct alluvial fans, 10 to greater than 40 km long downslope are observed exclusively in highlands craters. Within a search region between 0 deg. and 30 deg. S, alluvial fan-containing craters were only found between 18 and 29 S, and they all occur at around plus or minus 1 km of the MOLA-defined Martian datum. Within the study area they are not randomly distributed but instead form three distinct clusters. Fans typically descend greater than 1 km from where they disgorge from their alcoves. Longitudinal profiles show that their surfaces are very slightly concave with a mean slope of 2 degrees. Many fans exhibit very long, narrow low-relief ridges radially oriented down-slope, often branching at their distal ends, suggestive of distributaries. Morphometric data for 31 fans was derived from MOLA data and compared with terrestrial fans with high-relief source areas, terrestrial low gradient alluvial ramps in inactive tectonic settings, and older Martian alluvial ramps along crater floors. The Martian alluvial fans generally fall on the same trends as the terrestrial alluvial fans, whereas the gentler Martian crater floor ramps are similar in gradient to the low relief terrestrial alluvial surfaces. For a given fan gradient, Martian alluvial fans generally have greater source basin relief than terrestrial fans in active tectonic settings. This suggests that the terrestrial source basins either yield coarser debris or have higher sediment concentrations than their Martian counterpoints. Martian fans and Basin and Range fans have steeper gradients than the older Martian alluvial ramps and terrestrial low relief alluvial surfaces, which is consistent with a supply of coarse sediment. Martian fans are relatively large and of low gradient, similar to terrestrial fluvial fans rather than debris flow fans. However, gravity scaling uncertainties make the flow regime forming Martian fans uncertain. Martian fans, at least those in Holden crater, apparently

  14. Comparison of modern Mississippi fan with selected ancient fans

    SciTech Connect

    Shanmugam, G.; Moiola, R.J.; McPherson, J.G.; O'Connell, S.

    1988-09-01

    A comparison of the modern passive-margin Mississippi fan (DSDP Leg 96) with selected ancient active-margin fans reveals major differences in turbidite facies associations and seismic characteristics of the lower fan area. The lower Mississippi fan is composed of channel (facies B and F) and nonchannel sequences (facies C. and D), whereas lower fan areas of ancient active-margin fans are characterized by nonchannelized, thickening-upward depositional lobes (facies C and D) with sheetlike geometry. An absence of depositional lobes in the lower Mississippi fan is also suggested by a lack of mounded seismic reflections. Continuous and parallel seismic reflections of the lower Mississippi fan may represent sheet sands, but not those of true depositional lobes. In mature passive-margin fans, long, sinuous channels develop as a consequence of low gradients and the transport of sediment with a relatively low sand/mud ratio, and these channels develop lenticular sand bodies. In contrast, channels in active-margin fans are short and commonly braided as a result of high gradients and the transport of sediment with a relatively high sand/mud ratio. Braided channels characteristically develop sheetlike sand bodies.

  15. Jet Engine Fan Blade Containment Using an Alternate Geometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carney, K.S.; Pereira, J.M.; Revilock, D.M.; Matheny, P.

    2008-01-01

    With a goal of reducing jet engine weight, simulations of a fan blade containment system with an alternate geometry were tested and analyzed. A projectile simulating a fan blade was shot at two alternate geometry containment case configurations using a gas gun. The first configuration was a flat plate representing a standard case configuration. The second configuration was a flat plate with a radially convex curve section at the impact point. The curved surface was designed to force the blade to deform plastically, dissipating energy before the full impact of the blade is received by the plate. The curved case was able to tolerate a higher impact velocity before failure. The computational model was developed and correlated with the tests and a weight savings assessment was performed. For the particular test configuration used in this study the ballistic impact velocity of the curved plate was approximately 60 m/s (200 ft/s) greater than that of the flat plate. For the computational model to successfully duplicate the test, the very high strain rate behavior of the materials had to be incorporated.

  16. Improving Several Fan-Driven Systems in an Oriented-Strand Board Manufacturing Facility (Louisiana Pacific Corporation Dryer Combustion Fan)

    SciTech Connect

    1999-01-01

    Read this Technical Case Study to discover how Louisiana Pacific Corporation, a Motor Challenge Showcase Demonstration project partner, was able to realize substantial energy and cost savings by optimizing its fan system.

  17. Arc Jet Testing of Thermal Protection Materials: 3 Case Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Sylvia; Conley, Joe

    2015-01-01

    Arc jet testing is used to simulate entry to test thermal protection materials. This paper discusses the usefulness of arc jet testing for 3 cases. Case 1 is MSL and PICA, Case 2 is Advanced TUFROC, and Case 3 is conformable ablators.

  18. Comparison of depositional elements of an ancient and a modern submarine fan complex: Early Pennsylvanian Jackfork and late Pleistocene Mississippi fans

    SciTech Connect

    Coleman, J.L. Jr. )

    1990-05-01

    Normark urged that all future, meaningful deep-sea fan comparisons be confined to key depositional elements common to most turbidite systems. These elements should include basin size, tectonic and eustatic setting, and depositional process indicators. A test case for elemental comparisons between two widely studied fan complexes is presented and evaluated. The lower Pennsylvanian (Morrowan) Jackfork submarine fan complex extends from central Arkansas to northeast Texas. Sequence analysis suggests that the Jackfork is composed of four to seven depositional episodes and occupies the floor of a deep basin bordered to the north and east by a passive carbonate-siliciclastic shelf margin and to the south and east by a northward-advancing orogenic belt. The Jackfork apparently unrestricted to the west and southwest. The Mississippi submarine fan complex extends from the submerged continental shelf of southern Louisiana to the abyssal depths between Yucatan and Florida. The fan complex is primarily Pleistocene in age, with the present morphologic fan being late Wisconsinian. The Mississippi Fan is composed of 17 depositional episodes. It occupies the floor of a deep basin bordered on the north and west by quiescent( ) halokinetic-siliciclastic shelf margins and to the east and south by passive carbonate margins. Elemental comparisons between the Mississippi fan and a palynspastically restored Jackfork fan complex suggest that both are quite similar, even though the Mississippi fan is up to three times larger in some categories. Comparative study of key depositional elements facilities a more complete understanding of both modern and ancient submarine fans.

  19. Hydrologic processes and geomorphic constraints on urbanization of alluvial fan slopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schick, A. P.; Grodek, T.; Wolman, M. G.

    1999-12-01

    The natural array of processes conveying water and sediment from arid mountain catchments, through alluvial fans, into the base level below is affected by human intervention to an extent unknown until a few years ago. Previously permeable fan terrain has now been replaced by paved impermeable surfaces whose drainage becomes problematic. This problem is intensified with the growth of the town and its building density, particularly vis a vis the smaller catchments. The high sediment yields, with typically predominant bed material components that are supplied by steep catchments, create situations difficult to manage in terms of effective economical and environmentally sensitive criteria. Within the context of the general inadequacy of structural attempts to fully control the floods emanating onto an alluvial fan, a case can be made for exercising the option of local, low-key engineering intervention in protecting fan settlements. Several aspects of the considerations involved are illustrated by examples from the town of Eilat, Southern Negev Desert, Israel, a dynamically developing international tourist resort.

  20. Development of a Fan for Future Space Suit Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paul. Heather L.; Converse, David; Dionne, Steven; Moser, Jeff

    2010-01-01

    NASA's next generation space suit system will place new demands on the fan used to circulate breathing gas through the ventilation loop of the portable life support system. Long duration missions with frequent extravehicular activities (EVAs), the requirement for significant increases in reliability and durability, and a mission profile that imposes strict limits on weight, volume and power create the basis for a set of requirements that demand more performance than is available from existing fan designs. This paper describes the development of a new fan to meet these needs. A centrifugal fan was designed with a normal operating speed of approximately 39,400 rpm to meet the ventilation flow requirements while also meeting the aggressive minimal packaging, weight and power requirements. The prototype fan also operates at 56,000 rpm to satisfy a second operating condition associated with a single fan providing ventilation flow to two spacesuits connected in series. This fan incorporates a novel nonmetallic "can" to keep the oxygen flow separate from the motor electronics, thus eliminating ignition potential. The nonmetallic can enables a small package size and low power consumption. To keep cost and schedule within project bounds a commercial motor controller was used. The fan design has been detailed and implemented using materials and approaches selected to address anticipated mission needs. Test data is presented to show how this fan performs relative to anticipated ventilation requirements for the EVA portable life support system. Additionally, data is presented to show tolerance to anticipated environmental factors such as acoustics, shock, and vibration. Recommendations for forward work to progress the technology readiness level and prepare the fan for the next EVA space suit system are also discussed.

  1. EXHAUST STACK RISES. STEEL FRAMEWORK FOR FAN HOUSE IN PLACE. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    EXHAUST STACK RISES. STEEL FRAMEWORK FOR FAN HOUSE IN PLACE. TRENCH IN FOREGROUND IS FOR DUCT THAT WILL CARRY COOLANT AIR FROM MTR'S THERMAL SHIELD. DUCT LINES UP WITH NORTH SIDE OF FAN HOUSE. AT RIGHT OF VIEW, NOTE TRENCH LEADING TO SOUTH SIDE OF FAN HOUSE; IT WILL BRING CONTAMINATED AIR FROM LABORATORY HOODS AND VENTS. CAMERA FACING EAST. INL NEGATIVE NO. 2764. Unknown Photographer, 6/29/1951 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  2. Fan and pump noise control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Misoda, J.; Magliozzi, B.

    1973-01-01

    The development is described of improved, low noise level fan and pump concepts for the space shuttle. In addition, a set of noise design criteria for small fans and pumps was derived. The concepts and criteria were created by obtaining Apollo hardware test data to correlate and modify existing noise estimating procedures. A set of space shuttle selection criteria was used to determine preliminary fan and pump concepts. These concepts were tested and modified to obtain noise sources and characteristics which yield the design criteria and quiet, efficient space shuttle fan and pump concepts.

  3. Fan Cart: The Next Generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamore, Brian

    2016-10-01

    For years the fan cart has provided physics students with an excellent resource for exploring fundamental mechanics concepts such as acceleration, Newton's laws, impulse, momentum, work-energy, and energy conversions. The Physics Teacher has even seen some excellent do-it-yourself (DIY) fan carts and activities. If you are interested in developing the `E' portion of your and your students' STEM (science, technology, engineering, and math) skills, one way to accomplish this is to revisit the DIY fan cart. In this article I share a design of a new edition of the DIY fan cart and some ideas for incorporating the engineering design process into your high school curriculum.

  4. Bird impact analysis package for turbine engine fan blades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hirschbein, M. S.

    1982-01-01

    A computer program has been developed to analyze the gross structural response of turbine engine fan blades subjected to bird strikes. The program couples a NASTRAN finite element model and modal analysis of a fan blade with a multi-mode bird impact analysis computer program. The impact analysis uses the NASTRAN blade model and a fluid jet model of the bird to interactively calculate blade loading during a bird strike event. The analysis package is computationaly efficient, easy to use and provides a comprehensive history of the gross structual blade response. Example cases are presented for a representative fan blade.

  5. Comprehensive Report of Fan Performance From Duct Rake Instrumentation on 1.294 Pressure Ratio, 806 ft/sec Tip Speed Turbofan Simulator Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jeracki, Robert J.

    2006-01-01

    A large scale model representative of an advanced ducted propulsor-type, low-noise, very high bypass ratio turbofan engine was tested for acoustics, aerodynamic performance, and off-design operability in the NASA Glenn 9- by 15-Foot Low-Speed Wind Tunnel. The test was part of NASA s Advanced Subsonic Technology Noise Reduction Program. The low tip speed fan, nacelle, and un-powered core passage were simulated. As might be expected, the effect of stall management casing treatment was a performance penalty. Reducing the recirculating flow at the fan tip reduced the penalty while still providing sufficient stall margin. Two fans were tested with the same aerodynamic design; one with graphite composite material, and the other with solid titanium. There were surprising performance differences between the two fans, though both blades showed some indication of transitional flow near the tips. Though the pressure and temperature ratios were low for this fan design, the techniques used to improve thermocouple measurement accuracy gave repeatable data with adiabatic efficiencies agreeing within 1 percent. The measured fan adiabatic efficiency at simulated takeoff conditions was 93.7 percent and matched the design intent.

  6. Field of Fans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Subimage #1 Figure 1 Subimage #2 Figure 2 [figure removed for brevity, see original site] [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Anaglyph Figure 3 Subimage #3 Figure 4

    At the very beginning of spring in the southern hemisphere on Mars the ground is covered with a seasonal layer of carbon dioxide ice. In this image there are two lanes of undisturbed ice bordered by two lanes peppered with fans of dark dust.

    When we zoom in to the subimage (figure 1), the fans are seen to be pointed in the same direction, dust carried along by the prevailing wind. The fans seem to emanate from spider-like features.

    The second subimage (figure 2) zooms in to full HiRISE resolution to reveal the nature of the 'spiders.' The arms are channels carved in the surface, blanketed by the seasonal carbon dioxide ice. The seasonal ice, warmed from below, evaporates and the gas is carried along the channels. Wherever a weak spot is found the gas vents to the top of the seasonal ice, carrying along dust from below.

    The anaglyph (figure 3) of this spider shows that these channels are deep, deepening and widening as they converge. Spiders like this are often draped over the local topography and often channels get larger as they go uphill. This is consistent with a gas eroding the channels.

    A different channel morphology is apparent in the lanes not showing fans. In these regions the channels are dense, more like lace, and are not radially organized. The third subimage (figure 4) shows an example of 'lace.'

    Observation Geometry Image PSP_002532_0935 was taken by the High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) camera onboard the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter spacecraft on 09-Feb-2007. The complete image is centered at -86.4 degrees latitude, 99.1 degrees East longitude. The range to the target site was 276.1 km (172.6 miles). At this distance the image scale is

  7. Dark Spots and Fans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    As winter turns to spring at the south polar ice cap of Mars, the rising sun reveals dark spots and fans emerging from the cold polar night. Using visual images (left) and temperature data (right) from the Thermal Emission Imaging system on NASA's Mars Odyssey orbiter, scientists have built a new model for the origin of the dark markings. Scientists propose the markings come from dark sand and dust strewn by high-speed jets of carbon-dioxide gas. These erupt from under a layer of carbon-dioxide ice that forms each Martian winter.

  8. Folding fan mode counter-current chromatography offers fast blind screening for drug discovery. Case study: finding anti-enterovirus 71 agents from Anemarrhena asphodeloides.

    PubMed

    Liu, Mengshun; Tao, Ling; Chau, Siu Leung; Wu, Rong; Zhang, Hong; Yang, Yifu; Yang, Dajian; Bian, Zhaoxiang; Lu, Aiping; Han, Quanbin; Xu, Hongxi

    2014-11-14

    A new application of counter-current chromatography (CCC) in drug discovery, called folding fan mode (FFM), is designed to eliminate the extensive and time-consuming calculation of the partition coefficients of some preset compounds in conventional CCC separation. Careful reading of reports in the literature reveals that, when two-phase solvent systems are listed in a polarity-increasing sequence, the isolates also show a similar trend in polarity. The relationship between the two-phase solvent system and the isolates is like that between the folds and the picture of a folding fan. We can directly select a two-phase solvent system to separate fractions having similar polarity, just as opening a fan reveals a picture. The solvent ratio of two-phase solvent systems can be adjusted according to the polarity and weight ratio of active fractions rather than the partition coefficients. Without preset compounds, FFM-CCC not only requires no measurement of partition coefficients, but also achieves true blind screening. This paper reports the method's first success in drug discovery: six anti-EV71 saponins were found from the mixture (9.13 g) of ethanol extract and water extract of Anemarrhena asphodeloides after a total of four CCC separations, using hexan/ethyl acetate/methanol/butanol/water as the model solvent system. Among these saponins, timosaponin B-II displayed a comparable IC50 (4.3 ± 2.1 μM) and a 40-fold higher selective index (SI=92.9) than the positive control (IC50=361.7 ± 104.6 μM, SI=2.4), ribavirin. The structure-activity relationship (SAR) of these compounds was also studied.

  9. Regenerative Blower for EVA Suit Ventilation Fan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Izenson, Michael G.; Chen, Weibo; Paul, Heather L.

    2010-01-01

    Portable life support systems in future space suits will include a ventilation subsystem driven by a dedicated fan. This ventilation fan must meet challenging requirements for pressure rise, flow rate, efficiency, size, safety, and reliability. This paper describes research and development that showed the feasibility of a regenerative blower that is uniquely suited to meet these requirements. We proved feasibility through component tests, blower tests, and design analysis. Based on the requirements for the Constellation Space Suit Element (CSSE) Portable Life Support System (PLSS) ventilation fan, we designed the critical elements of the blower. We measured the effects of key design parameters on blower performance using separate effects tests, and used the results of these tests to design a regenerative blower that will meet the ventilation fan requirements. We assembled a proof-of-concept blower and measured its performance at sub-atmospheric pressures that simulate a PLSS ventilation loop environment. Head/flow performance and maximum efficiency point data were used to specify the design and operating conditions for the ventilation fan. We identified materials for the blower that will enhance safety for operation in a lunar environment, and produced a solid model that illustrates the final design. The proof-of-concept blower produced the flow rate and pressure rise needed for the CSSE ventilation subsystem while running at 5400 rpm, consuming only 9 W of electric power using a non-optimized, commercial motor and controller and inefficient bearings. Scaling the test results to a complete design shows that a lightweight, compact, reliable, and low power regenerative blower can meet the performance requirements for future space suit life support systems.

  10. Regenerative Blower for EVA Suit Ventilation Fan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paul, Heather; Izenson, Mike; Chen, Weibo

    2008-01-01

    Portable life support systems in future space suits will include a ventilation subsystem driven by a dedicated fan. This ventilation fan must meet challenging requirements for pressure rise, flow rate, efficiency, size, safety, and reliability. This paper describes research and development that showed the feasibility of a regenerative blower that is uniquely suited to meet these requirements. We proved feasibility through component tests, blower tests, and design analysis. Based on the requirements for the Constellation Space Suit ventilation fan, we designed the critical elements of the blower. We measured the effects of key design parameters on blower performance using separate effects tests, and used the results of these tests to design a regenerative blower that will meet the ventilation fan requirements. We assembled a proof-of-concept blower and measured its performance at low pressures that simulate a PLSS environment. We obtained head/flow performance curves over a range of operating speeds, identified the maximum efficiency point for the blower, and used these results to specify the design and operating conditions for the ventilation fan. We designed a compact motor that can drive the blower under all anticipated operating requirements and operate with high efficiency during normal operation. We identified materials for the blower that will enhance safety for operation in a lunar environment. We produced a solid model that illustrates the final design. The proof-of-concept blower produced the flow rate and pressure rise needed for the CSSS ventilation subsystem while running at 5400 rpm and consuming only 9 W of electric power and using a non-optimized, commercial motor and controller and inefficient bearings. Scaling the test results to a complete design shows that a lightweight, compact, reliable, and low power blower can meet the performance requirements for future PLSSs.

  11. CRIS Case Study Materials in Ethical Decision Making.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blanning, James R.

    Designed for secondary-level classroom discussion, these materials contain nine, short case studies of ethical dilemmas. The cast studies focus mainly on incidents and issues relevant to high school students. Discussion questions for each case study require students to examine the case, discuss the issue, and make an ethical decision about how…

  12. Computational Aerodynamic Simulations of a Spacecraft Cabin Ventilation Fan Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tweedt, Daniel L.

    2010-01-01

    Quieter working environments for astronauts are needed if future long-duration space exploration missions are to be safe and productive. Ventilation and payload cooling fans are known to be dominant sources of noise, with the International Space Station being a good case in point. To address this issue cost effectively, early attention to fan design, selection, and installation has been recommended, leading to an effort by NASA to examine the potential for small-fan noise reduction by improving fan aerodynamic design. As a preliminary part of that effort, the aerodynamics of a cabin ventilation fan designed by Hamilton Sundstrand has been simulated using computational fluid dynamics codes, and the computed solutions analyzed to quantify various aspects of the fan aerodynamics and performance. Four simulations were performed at the design rotational speed: two at the design flow rate and two at off-design flow rates. Following a brief discussion of the computational codes, various aerodynamic- and performance-related quantities derived from the computed flow fields are presented along with relevant flow field details. The results show that the computed fan performance is in generally good agreement with stated design goals.

  13. Fan Cart: The Next Generation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamore, Brian

    2016-01-01

    For years the fan cart has provided physics students with an excellent resource for exploring fundamental mechanics concepts such as acceleration, Newton's laws, impulse, momentum, work-energy, and energy conversions. "The Physics Teacher" has even seen some excellent do-it-yourself (DIY) fan carts and activities. If you are interested…

  14. Depositional conditions on an alluvial fan at the turn of the Weichselian to the Holocene - a case study in the Żmigród Basin, southwest Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zieliński, Paweł; Sokołowski, Robert J.; Fedorowicz, Stanisław; Woronko, Barbara; Hołub, Beata; Jankowski, Michał; Kuc, Michał; Tracz, Michał

    2016-06-01

    Presented are the results of research into the fluvio-aeolian sedimentary succession at the site of Postolin in the Żmigród Basin, southwest Poland. Based on lithofacies analysis, textural analysis, Thermoluminescence and Infrared-Optical Stimulated Luminescence dating and GIS analysis, three lithofacies units were recognised and their stratigraphic succession identified: 1) the lower unit was deposited during the Pleni-Weichselian within a sand-bed braided river functioning under permafrost conditions within the central part of the alluvial fan; 2) the middle unit is the result of aeolian deposition and fluvial redeposition on the surface of the fan during long-term permafrost and progressive decrease of humidity of the climate at the turn of the Pleni- to the Late Weichselian; 3) the upper unit accumulated following the development of longitudinal dunes at the turn of the Late Weichselian to the Holocene; the development of dunes was interrupted twice by the form being stabilised by vegetation and soil development.

  15. Fan noise prediction assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bent, Paul H.

    1995-01-01

    This report is an evaluation of two techniques for predicting the fan noise radiation from engine nacelles. The first is a relatively computational intensive finite element technique. The code is named ARC, an abbreviation of Acoustic Radiation Code, and was developed by Eversman. This is actually a suite of software that first generates a grid around the nacelle, then solves for the potential flowfield, and finally solves the acoustic radiation problem. The second approach is an analytical technique requiring minimal computational effort. This is termed the cutoff ratio technique and was developed by Rice. Details of the duct geometry, such as the hub-to-tip ratio and Mach number of the flow in the duct, and modal content of the duct noise are required for proper prediction.

  16. High loading, low speed fan study, 5

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keenan, M. J.; Burdsall, E. A.

    1973-01-01

    A low speed, low noise, single stage fan was designed and tested. Design pressure ratio was 1.5 at a rotor tip speed of 1000 ft/sec. No inlet guide vane was used, the rotor stator was spaced and the number of rotor and stator airfoils was selected for low noise. Tests were conducted with uniform and distorted inlet flows. Stall margin of the initial design was too low for practical application. Airfoil slots and boundary layer and endwall devices did not improve stall margin sufficiently. A redesigned stator with reduced loadings increased stall margin, giving a fan efficiency of 0.883, 15% stall margin, and a 1.474 pressure radio at a specific flow of 41.7 lb/sec sq ft. Casing treatment over rotor tips improved stall margin with distorted inlet flow; vortex generators did not. Blade passing frequency noise increased with rotor relative Mach number. No supersonic fan noise was measured below 105% of design speed. Slotting airfoils, casing treatments, and a reduction of the ratio (number-stators/number-rotors) from (2n + 16) to (2n + 2) had no significant effects on noise.

  17. Constraining aggradation and degradation phases of alluvial fans in the sedimentary record: a case study from the Namib Desert, NW Namibia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Hagke, Christoph; Malatesta, Luca C.; Ayoub, Francois; Stollhofen, Harald

    2015-04-01

    Along the Southern African margin it remains unclear whether the topography is the result of one or more Neogene uplift phases possibly related to mantle-driven dynamic topography, or a remnant of uplift due to pre-South Atlantic rifting and breakup during the Mesozoic. Whereas offshore seismic profiles and raised marine terraces onshore suggest phases of accelerated Neogene uplift, cosmogenic nuclide dating of river sediments and thermochronological data indicate constant uplift since post-Gondwana breakup. In this contribution we report present day erosion rate estimates from a fan-delta outboard the rift shoulder of the passive margin (i.e. the Great Escarpment), located in an area where erosion rate estimates on different timescales exist. Additionally, this fan-delta preserves elevated marine terraces on its surface, providing a unique time stratigraphic framework. It thus allows for direct comparison of erosion and uplift rate data as well as offshore-onshore correlation of sedimentary records. We constrain present day erosion rates of the system using quantitative sedimentology, and compare these results with published estimates of millennial and million year timescales. At present, erosion rates are 1.33E -06 mm/a, which is more than one order of magnitude lower than rates derived from cosmogenic nuclides, and several magnitudes lower than rates derived from thermochronological data. This shows that erosion rates constantly declined since the uplift pulse related to passive margin break-up. Subsequent erosional phases have not been effective enough to perturb this overall long-term trend. This is not in conflict with uplift rates inferred from raised beaches along the passive margin, if corrected for timescale dependent bias. With this study we are able to reconcile the confounding results from different data sets.

  18. Quantitative Morphologic Analysis of Boulder Shape and Surface Texture to Infer Environmental History: A Case Study of Rock Breakdown at the Ephrata Fan, Channeled Scabland, Washington

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ehlmann, Bethany L.; Viles, Heather A.; Bourke, Mary C.

    2008-01-01

    Boulder morphology reflects both lithology and climate and is dictated by the combined effects of erosion, transport, and weathering. At present, morphologic information at the boulder scale is underutilized as a recorder of environmental processes, partly because of the lack of a systematic quantitative parameter set for reporting and comparing data sets. We develop such a parameter set, incorporating a range of measures of boulder form and surface texture. We use standard shape metrics measured in the field and fractal and morphometric classification methods borrowed from landscape analysis and applied to laser-scanned molds. The parameter set was pilot tested on three populations of basalt boulders with distinct breakdown histories in the Channeled Scabland, Washington: (1) basalt outcrop talus; (2) flood-transported boulders recently excavated from a quarry; and (3) flood-transported boulders, extensively weathered in situ on the Ephrata Fan surface. Size and shape data were found to distinguish between flood-transported and untransported boulders. Size and edge angles (approximately 120 degrees) of flood-transported boulders suggest removal by preferential fracturing along preexisting columnar joints, and curvature data indicate rounding relative to outcrop boulders. Surface textural data show that boulders which have been exposed at the surface are significantly rougher than those buried by fan sediments. Past signatures diagnostic of flood transport still persist on surface boulders, despite ongoing overprinting by processes in the present breakdown environment through roughening and fracturing in situ. Further use of this quantitative boulder parameter set at other terrestrial and planetary sites will aid in cataloging and understanding morphologic signatures of environmental processes.

  19. Quiet High-Speed Fan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lieber, Lysbeth; Repp, Russ; Weir, Donald S.

    1996-01-01

    A calibration of the acoustic and aerodynamic prediction methods was performed and a baseline fan definition was established and evaluated to support the quiet high speed fan program. A computational fluid dynamic analysis of the NASA QF-12 Fan rotor, using the DAWES flow simulation program was performed to demonstrate and verify the causes of the relatively poor aerodynamic performance observed during the fan test. In addition, the rotor flowfield characteristics were qualitatively compared to the acoustic measurements to identify the key acoustic characteristics of the flow. The V072 turbofan source noise prediction code was used to generate noise predictions for the TFE731-60 fan at three operating conditions and compared to experimental data. V072 results were also used in the Acoustic Radiation Code to generate far field noise for the TFE731-60 nacelle at three speed points for the blade passage tone. A full 3-D viscous flow simulation of the current production TFE731-60 fan rotor was performed with the DAWES flow analysis program. The DAWES analysis was used to estimate the onset of multiple pure tone noise, based on predictions of inlet shock position as a function of the rotor tip speed. Finally, the TFE731-60 fan rotor wake structure predicted by the DAWES program was used to define a redesigned stator with the leading edge configured to minimize the acoustic effects of rotor wake / stator interaction, without appreciably degrading performance.

  20. Extended parametric representation of compressor fans and turbines. Volume 3: MODFAN user's manual (parametric modulating flow fan)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Converse, G. L.

    1984-01-01

    A modeling technique for single stage flow modulating fans or centrifugal compressors has been developed which will enable the user to obtain consistent and rapid off-design performnce from design point input. The fan flow modulation may be obtained by either a VIGV (variable inlet guide vane) or a VPF (variable pitch rotor) option. Only the VIGV option is available for the centrifugal compressor. The modeling technique has been incorporated into a time-sharing program to facilitate its use. Because this report contains a description of the input output data, values of typical inputs, and examples cases, it is suitable as a user's manual. This report is the last of a three volume set describing the parametric representation of compressor fans, and turbines. The titles of the three volumes are as follows: (1) Volume 1 CMGEN USER's Manual (Parametric Compressor Generator); (2) Volume 2 PART USER's Manual (Parametric Turbine); (3) Volume 3 MODFAN USER's Manual (Parametric Modulating Flow Fan).

  1. COOLING FAN AND SYSTEM PERFORMANCE AND EFFICIENCY IMPROVEMENTS

    SciTech Connect

    Ronald Dupree

    2005-07-31

    Upcoming emissions regulations (Tiers 3, 4a and 4b) are imposing significantly higher heat loads on the cooling system than lesser regulated machines. This work was a suite of tasks aimed at reducing the parasitic losses of the cooling system, or improving the design process through six distinct tasks: 1. Develop an axial fan that will provide more airflow, with less input power and less noise. The initial plan was to use Genetic Algorithms to do an automated fan design, incorporating forward sweep for low noise. First and second generation concepts could not meet either performance or sound goals. An experienced turbomachinery designer, using a specialized CFD analysis program has taken over the design and has been able to demonstrate a 5% flow improvement (vs 10% goal) and 10% efficiency improvement (vs 10% goal) using blade twist only. 2. Fan shroud developments, using an 'aeroshroud' concept developed at Michigan State University. Performance testing at Michigan State University showed the design is capable of meeting the goal of a 10% increase in flow, but over a very narrow operating range of fan performance. The goal of 10% increase in fan efficiency was not met. Fan noise was reduced from 0 to 2dB, vs. a goal of 5dB at constant airflow. The narrow range of fan operating conditions affected by the aeroshroud makes this concept unattractive for further development at this time 3. Improved axial fan system modeling is needed to accommodate the numbers of cooling systems to be redesigned to meet lower emissions requirements. A CFD fan system modeling guide has been completed and transferred to design engineers. Current, uncontrolled modeling practices produce flow estimates in some cases within 5% of measured values, and in some cases within 25% of measured values. The techniques in the modeling guide reduced variability to the goal of + 5% for the case under study. 4. Demonstrate the performance and design versatility of a high performance fan. A 'swept blade

  2. Developing, Implementing and Evaluating Case Studies in Materials Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Claire; Wilcock, Elizabeth

    2005-01-01

    The use of case studies to teach materials science undergraduates is an exciting and interesting educational approach. As well as helping learners to connect theory and practice, the case method is also useful for creating an active learning environment, developing key skills and catering for a range of different learning styles. This paper…

  3. 14 CFR 29.908 - Cooling fans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Cooling fans. 29.908 Section 29.908... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant General § 29.908 Cooling fans. For cooling fans that are a part of a powerplant installation the following apply: (a) Category A. For cooling fans...

  4. 14 CFR 29.908 - Cooling fans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Cooling fans. 29.908 Section 29.908... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant General § 29.908 Cooling fans. For cooling fans that are a part of a powerplant installation the following apply: (a) Category A. For cooling fans...

  5. 14 CFR 29.908 - Cooling fans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Cooling fans. 29.908 Section 29.908... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant General § 29.908 Cooling fans. For cooling fans that are a part of a powerplant installation the following apply: (a) Category A. For cooling fans...

  6. 14 CFR 29.908 - Cooling fans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cooling fans. 29.908 Section 29.908... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant General § 29.908 Cooling fans. For cooling fans that are a part of a powerplant installation the following apply: (a) Category A. For cooling fans...

  7. 14 CFR 29.908 - Cooling fans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Cooling fans. 29.908 Section 29.908... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant General § 29.908 Cooling fans. For cooling fans that are a part of a powerplant installation the following apply: (a) Category A. For cooling fans...

  8. Active source cancellation of the blade tone fundamental and harmonics in centrifugal fans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koopmann, G. H.; Fox, D. J.; Neise, W.

    1988-10-01

    An active source method is shown to effectively cancel the blade tone fundamental and harmonics in centrifugal fans for a variety of fan loading conditions and duct terminations. The special case is considered where the frequency of the blade tone harmonics lies just above the cut-on frequency of the first higher order mode of the fan ducting. The results suggest that the present active control mechanism involves a local alteration of the aerodynamic source pressures.

  9. Hydraulic processes on alluvial fans

    SciTech Connect

    French, R.H.

    1987-01-01

    Alluvial fans are among the most prominent landscape features in the American Southwest and throughout the semi-arid and arid regions of the world. The importance of developing a qualitative and quantitative understanding of the hydraulic processes which formed, and which continue to modify, these features derives from their rapid and significant development over the past four decades. As unplanned urban sprawl moved from valley floors onto alluvial fans, the serious damage incurred from infrequent flow events has dramatically increased. This book presents a discussion of our current and rapidly expanding knowledge of hydraulic processes on alluvial fans. It addresses the subject from a multidisciplinary viewpoint, acquainting the reader with geological principles pertinent to the analysis of hydraulic processes on alluvial fans.

  10. Integral fan/water separator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, R. L.

    1976-01-01

    Centrifugal force created by rotating fan wheel separates moisture from gas. Lightweight portable unit can be worn with pressurized suit, where it will remove moisture that accumulates from breathing and perspiration.

  11. Central Fan Integrated Ventilation Systems

    SciTech Connect

    2009-05-12

    This information sheet describes one example of a ventilation system design, a central fan integrated supply (CFIS) system, a mechanical ventilation and pollutant source control to ensure that there is reasonable indoor air quality inside the house.

  12. Fan Noise Research at NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Groeneweg, John F.

    1994-01-01

    Results of recent NASA research to reduce aircraft turbofan noise are described. As the bypass ratio of a turbofan engine increases from five to as much as 20, the dominant source of engine noise is the fan. A primary mechanism of tone noise generation is the rotor blade wakes interacting with downstream stator vanes. Methods of analyzing rotor stator tone noise generation are described and sample results are given. The role of an acoustic modal description is emphasized. Wind tunnel tests of model fans and nacelles are described including a novel rotating microphone technique for modal measurement. Sample far field results are given showing the effects of inlet length, and modal measurements are shown which point to a new generation mechanism. Concepts for active fan noise control at the source are addressed. Implications of the research which have general relevance to fan noise generation and control are discussed.

  13. Fan noise research at NASA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Groeneweg, John F.

    Results of recent NASA research to reduce aircraft turbofan noise are described. As the bypass ratio of a turbofan engine increases from 5 to as much as 20, the dominant source of engine noise is the fan. A primary mechanism of tone noise generation is the rotor blade wakes interacting with downstream stator vanes. Methods of analyzing rotor-stator tone noise generation are described and sample results are given. The role of an acoustic modal description is emphasized. Wind tunnel tests of model fans and nacelles are described including a novel rotating microphone technique for modal measurement. Sample far field results are given showing the effects of inlet length, and modal measurements are shown which point to a new generation mechanism. Concepts for active fan noise control at the source are addressed. Implications of the research which have general relevance to fan noise generation and control are discussed.

  14. Environmental effects on FOD resistance of composite fan blade

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murphy, G. C.; Selemme, C. T.

    1981-01-01

    The sensitivity of the impact characteristics of typical polymeric composite fan blade materials to potential limiting combinations of moisture, temperature level and temperature transients was established. The following four technical tasks are reported: (1) evaluation and characterization of constituent blade materials; (2) ballistic impact tests; (3) leading edge impact protection systems; and (4) simulated blade spin impact tests.

  15. A Method to Further Reduce the Perceived Noise of Low Tip Speed Fans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dittmar, James H.

    2000-01-01

    The use of low tip speed, high bypass ratio fans is a method for reducing the noise of turbofan jet engines. These fans typically have a low number of rotor blades and a number of stator vanes sufficient to achieve cut-off of the blade passing tone. Their perceived noise levels are typically dominated by broadband noise caused by the rotor wake turbulence - stator interaction mechanism. A 106 bladed, 1100 ft/sec takeoff tip speed fan, the Alternative Low Noise Fan, has been tested and shown to have reduced broadband noise. This reduced noise is believed to be the result of the high rotor blade number. Although this fan with 106 blades would not be practical with materials as they exist today, a fan with 50 or so blades could be practically realized. A noise estimate has indicated that such a 50 bladed, low tip speed fan could be 2 to 3 EPNdB quieter than an 18 bladed fan. If achieved, this level of noise reduction would be significant and points to the use of a high blade number, low tip speed fan as a possible configuration for reduced fan noise.

  16. A Variable Speed Fan Dynamometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, Karl D

    1920-01-01

    Fan brakes used as absorption dynamometers in testing internal combustion engines have the disadvantage that a given fan will run only at one speed when the engine is delivering full power. In order to be able to vary the speed at which a given power will be absorbed, English manufacturers have for some time been using a cylindrical housing around the fan with one or two variable openings in the periphery. Here, results are given of tests conducted to determine how great a range of speed can be obtained from such a device. The tests show that a power ratio of five to 1 can be obtained, the power ratio being defined as the ratio of the power absorbed by the fan at a given speed with the outlet open to the power absorbed at the same speed with the second outlet closed. Data show that improvements in the design of the fan brake can make the speed ratio approach but not exceed a value of two to one. Also given here are a brief outline of previous work on fan brakes, a description of the experimental apparatus and methods used in the tests, and a more detailed statement of test results.

  17. Large Well-Exposed Alluvial Fans in Deep Late-Noachian Craters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, J. M.; Howard, A. D.

    2004-01-01

    Large, fresh-appearing alluvial fans (typically greater than 10 km long) have been identified during a systematic search of 100 m/pixel low-sun daylight THEMIS IR imaging in deep late-Noachian or early-Hesperian craters. Our study of these fans was augmented with MOLA-derived topography and high-resolution MOC and THEMIS VIS images where available. The influence of alluvial fan deposition on the topography of crater floors has been recognized in previous topographic studies. Recent Mars Odyssey-era studies have also identified and described in detail a fluvial delta or fan of approximately the same age as the alluvial fans of this study. Our results, at the time of this writing, indicate that these fans are only found in less than 5% of all craters greater than or equal to 70 kilometers in diameter within a large study region. In every case the fan-containing craters were restricted to a latitude belt between 20 degrees S and 30 degrees S. All of which had significant topographic relief and appeared morphologically younger than typical mid-Noachian craters in the size range. However, large fans were not found in the most pristine (and presumably youngest) craters in this size range. Most Martian fans have morphologies consistent with terrestrial debris-flow-dominated fans.

  18. 30 CFR 57.4131 - Surface fan installations and mine openings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Surface fan installations and mine openings. 57... Fire Prevention and Control Prohibitions/precautions/housekeeping § 57.4131 Surface fan installations and mine openings. (a) On the surface, no more than one day's supply of combustible materials shall...

  19. MTR BLOWER AND FAN HOUSE, TRA610. ELEVATION OF STACK ON ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    MTR BLOWER AND FAN HOUSE, TRA-610. ELEVATION OF STACK ON WEST SIDE OF FAN HOUSE. BLAW-KNOX 3150-10-2, 6/1950. INL INDEX NO. 531-0610-00-098-100021, REV. 0. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  20. Levitated Duct Fan (LDF) Aircraft Auxiliary Generator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eichenberg, Dennis J.; Emerson, Dawn C.; Gallo, Christopher A.; Thompson, William K.

    2011-01-01

    This generator concept includes a novel stator and rotor architecture made from composite material with blades attached to the outer rotating shell of a ducted fan drum rotor, a non-contact support system between the stator and rotor using magnetic fields to provide levitation, and an integrated electromagnetic generation system. The magnetic suspension between the rotor and the stator suspends and supports the rotor within the stator housing using permanent magnets attached to the outer circumference of the drum rotor and passive levitation coils in the stator shell. The magnets are arranged in a Halbach array configuration.

  1. The electron beam welding of dissimilar materials - case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munteanu, A.

    2016-11-01

    The modalities to realize the welding workpieces are multiple. The electron beam welding is one of them. One can weld two different types of materials that give the possibility to reduce the cost of workpiece, if the active part is realised of rich materials welded on components with inferior phisico-mecanical characteristics. The procedure provides great flexibility to the product designs through efficient use of each type of material. So this aspects lead to the necessity to join dissimilar metals. Different tables are given in the specific literature regarding the possible combination. Conflicts may arise by the compromises required for to the optimum heat control of the two dissimilar materials used. But nowadays, more and more frequently are meet the welding of dissimilar metals, thus, the objective of this article is to provide information regarding the particular case of welding between stainless steel and copper without the filler material use.

  2. Two-Stage Centrifugal Fan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Converse, David

    2011-01-01

    Fan designs are often constrained by envelope, rotational speed, weight, and power. Aerodynamic performance and motor electrical performance are heavily influenced by rotational speed. The fan used in this work is at a practical limit for rotational speed due to motor performance characteristics, and there is no more space available in the packaging for a larger fan. The pressure rise requirements keep growing. The way to ordinarily accommodate a higher DP is to spin faster or grow the fan rotor diameter. The invention is to put two radially oriented stages on a single disk. Flow enters the first stage from the center; energy is imparted to the flow in the first stage blades, the flow is redirected some amount opposite to the direction of rotation in the fixed stators, and more energy is imparted to the flow in the second- stage blades. Without increasing either rotational speed or disk diameter, it is believed that as much as 50 percent more DP can be achieved with this design than with an ordinary, single-stage centrifugal design. This invention is useful primarily for fans having relatively low flow rates with relatively high pressure rise requirements.

  3. Sub-fragmentation of structural reactive material casings under explosion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Fan; Gauthier, Maxime; Cojocaru, Cristian

    2017-01-01

    A concept of reactive hot spots intruded in a thick, structural reactive material casing was investigated to generate fine fragments for efficient energy release from casing material under explosive loading. This was achieved through distributing micro MoO3 particles into a granular Al casing, made by hot isostatic pressing, in a fuel-rich ratio of 10Al+MoO3. Reaction of Al and MoO3 during casing primary or secondary fragmentation creates heat and gas products to form micro-scale hot spots, whose expansion initiates local fractures leading to fine fragments of the rest of Al. Explosion experiments, using a 4.4 cm diameter cased charge with a casing-to-explosive mass ratio of 1.78 in a 2.1 m3 cylindrical chamber, demonstrated the presence of fine fragments and more efficient fragment combustion to augment air blast, as compared to a baseline pure Al-cased charge, thus indicating the feasibility of the concept.

  4. Dynamic bowtie for fan-beam CT.

    PubMed

    Liu, Fenglin; Wang, Ge; Cong, Wenxiang; Hsieh, Scott S; Pelc, Norbert J

    2013-01-01

    A bowtie is a filter used to shape an x-ray beam and equalize its flux reaching different detector channels. For development of spectral CT with energy discriminating photon-counting (EDPC) detectors, here we propose and evaluate a dynamic bowtie for performance optimization based on a patient model or a scout scan. With a mechanical rotation of a dynamic bowtie and an adaptive adjustment of an x-ray source flux, an x-ray beam intensity profile can be modulated. First, a mathematical model for dynamic bowtie filtering is established for an elliptical section in fan-beam geometry, and the contour of the optimal bowtie is derived. Then, numerical simulation is performed to compare the performance of the dynamic bowtie in the cases of an ideal phantom and a realistic cross-section relative to the counterparts without any bowtie and with a fixed bowtie respectively. Our dynamic bowtie can equalize the expected numbers of photons in the case of an ideal phantom. In practical cases, our dynamic bowtie can effectively reduce the dynamic range of detected signals inside the field of view. Although our design is optimized for an elliptical phantom, the resultant dynamic bowtie can be applied to a real fan-beam scan if the underlying cross-section can be approximated as an ellipse. Furthermore, our design methodology can be applied to specify an optimized dynamic bowtie for any cross-section of a patient, preferably using rapid prototyping technology.

  5. New observations of sinuous channels on the Amazon Fan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flood, R. D.

    2014-12-01

    High-sinuosity submarine fan channels on the Amazon Fan were first observed using long-range (GLORIA) side-scan sonar in 1982 and mapped in greater detail using multibeam sonar in 1984. These data have provided important insights into the nature and evolution of submarine channel systems. Subsequent studies on the Amazon Fan have focused on avulsion patterns, sedimentation patterns, fan growth and the climate record contained in fan sediments, and there has been relatively little additional work on the details of sinuous channel morphology. Channels on the Amazon Fan have been imaged by multibeam sonar on several occasions since 1984 during focused studies, regional mapping and ship transit. These multibeam data are being compiled and studied to better characterize these iconic channels. One observation of particular interest is that, on the Amazon Fan, channel-wall slumps appear to be more common than previously thought. Drilling of a cut-off meander during ODP Leg 155 on the Amazon Fan showed the presence of slumped material deeper in the channel suggesting that failure of the channel wall was in part responsible for the abandonment and filling of that meander loop. The failure also apparently created a sandy debris flow with clasts of fine-grained levee material transported in a sandy matrix. This sandy debris flow may have been able to flow along the channel and deposit at the seaward end where similar sediments can be found. Disturbed zones now visible on the inner walls of channels at several other places along the channels suggest that these kinds of inner-wall slumps may play important roles in channel evolution and fan growth. Channel-blocking slumps can isolate channel loops which can then fill with sandy sediments, and avulsions are likely if this kind of slump fills the channel. The failure of channel walls can also lead to new channel segments that tend to straighten the channel. Dramatic changes to the shape of the channel can likely lead to large and

  6. Vacuum Cleaner Fan Being Improved

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tweedt, Daniel L.

    1997-01-01

    As part of the technology utilization program at the NASA Lewis Research Center, efforts are underway to transfer aerospace technologies to new areas of practical application. One such effort involves using advanced computational fluid dynamics (CFD) codes for turbomachinery to analyze the internal fluid dynamics of low-speed fans and blowers. This year, the Kirby Company in Cleveland, Ohio, approached NASA with a request for technologies that could help them improve their vacuum cleaners. Of particular interest to Kirby is the high-frequency blade-passing noise generation of their vacuum cleaner fan at low airflow rates.

  7. Measurement of airflow and pressure characteristics of a fan built in a car ventilation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pokorný, Jan; Poláček, Filip; Fojtlín, Miloš; Fišer, Jan; Jícha, Miroslav

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to identify a set of operating points of a fan built in ventilation system of our test car. These operating points are given by the fan pressure characteristics and are defined by a pressure drop of the HVAC system (air ducts and vents) and volumetric flow rate of ventilation air. To cover a wide range of pressure drops situations, four cases of vent flaps setup were examined: (1) all vents opened, (2) only central vents closed (3) only central vents opened and (4) all vents closed. To cover a different volumetric flows, the each case was measured at least for four different speeds of fan defined by the fan voltage. It was observed that the pressure difference of the fan is proportional to the fan voltage and strongly depends on the throttling of the air distribution system by the settings of the vents flaps. In case of our test car we identified correlations between volumetric flow rate of ventilation air, fan pressure difference and fan voltage. These correlations will facilitate and reduce time costs of the following experiments with this test car.

  8. Sound maintenance practices protect fan investments

    SciTech Connect

    Bauer, M.

    2009-11-15

    Since underground coal miners depend on axial fans, lack of maintenance could prove costly. A number of pre-emptive actions that can help keep fans running at optimal performance can also be taken. 2 photos.

  9. Advance Noise Control Fan II: Test Rig Fan Risk Management Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lucero, John

    2013-01-01

    Since 1995 the Advanced Noise Control Fan (ANCF) has significantly contributed to the advancement of the understanding of the physics of fan tonal noise generation. The 9'x15' WT has successfully tested multiple high speed fan designs over the last several decades. This advanced several tone noise reduction concepts to higher TRL and the validation of fan tone noise prediction codes.

  10. Review of Aircraft Engine Fan Noise Reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    VanZante, Dale

    2008-01-01

    Aircraft turbofan engines incorporate multiple technologies to enhance performance and durability while reducing noise emissions. Both careful aerodynamic design of the fan and proper installation of the fan into the system are requirements for achieving the performance and acoustic objectives. The design and installation characteristics of high performance aircraft engine fans will be discussed along with some lessons learned that may be applicable to spaceflight fan applications.

  11. Online Fan Fiction and Critical Media Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, Rebecca W.

    2010-01-01

    This article explores English-language-learning (ELL) youths' engagement with popular media through composing and publicly posting stories in an online fan fiction writing space. Fan fiction is a genre that lends itself to critical engagement with media texts as fans repurpose popular media to design their own narratives. Analyses describe how…

  12. College Sports Fan Aggression: Implications for Residence Hall Discipline.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coons, Christine Jansen; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Evaluated relationship between spectator aggression at football games and residence hall discipline. Results indicated that there is significant correlation, on five variables tested, between fan behavior and the increase of disciplinary cases during football weekends. Provides suggestions for interventions to reduce disciplinary actions. (JBJ)

  13. Acoustic results of supersonic tip speed fan blade modification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jutras, R. R.; Kazin, S. B.

    1974-01-01

    A supersonic tip speed single stage fan was modified with the intent of reducing multiple pure tone (MPT) or buzz saw noise. There were three modifications to the blades from the original design. The modifications to the blade resulted in an increase in cascade throat area causing the shock to start at a lower corrected fan speed. The acoustic results without acoustically absorbing liners showed substantial reduction in multiple pure tone levels. However, an increase in the blade passing frequency noise at takeoff fan speed accompanied the MPT reduction. The net result however, was a reduction in the maximum 1000-foot (304.8 m) altitude level flyover PNL. For the case with acoustic treatment in the inlet outer wall, the takeoff noise increased relative to an acoustically treated baseline. This was largely due to the increased blade passing frequency noise which was not effectively reduced by the liner.

  14. Transient performance of fan engine with water ingestion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murthy, S. N. B.

    1991-01-01

    In a continuing investigation on effects of rain-water ingestion into bypass fan engines, it is shown that the performance of axial-flow compressors and fans is fundamentally time-dependent during ingestion of water. A code named WINCOF-I has been developed for establishing the performance of axial-flow turbomachinery operating with air-water vapor-water droplet-water film mixture, Illustrative examples of predictions and effects are provided for the case of the air-compression system of a generic bypass fan engine. Utilizing performance maps so-generated, the effects of water ingestion into the generic engine have been determined under test cell conditions simulating ingestion, flight operation (altitude and flight Mach number), and power-demand setting.

  15. Azimuthal Directivity of Fan Tones Containing Multiple Modes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heidelberg, Laurence J.; Sutliff, Daniel L.; Nallasamy, M.

    1997-01-01

    The directivity of fan tone noise is generally measured and plotted in the sideline or flyover plane and it is assumed that this curve is the same for all azimuthal angles. When two or more circumferential (m-order) modes of the same tone are present in the fan duct, an interference pattern develops in the azimuthal direction both in the duct and in the farfield. In this investigation two m-order modes of similar power were generated in a large low speed fan. Farfield measurements and a finite element propagation code both show substantial variations in the azimuthal direction. Induct mode measurement were made and used as input to the code. Although these tests may represent a worst case scenario, the validity of the current practice of assuming axisymmetry should be questioned.

  16. Fan-in-Fuselage Advanced Antitorque System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1974-11-01

    EFFECTS IN AXIAL FLOW FANS, Air - craft Engineering, Vol. XXXIII No. 393, November 1961, pp. 314-319 29. Wahl, H. A., et al, DUCTED FAN DESIGN STUDY OF THE...sl/sec) V. = air flow velocity at fan, ft/sec V = outlet (jet) velocity, ft/sec A. = cross-sectiondl area at fan, sq ft A = cross-sectional...loading), of low flow - through velocities, and of a small tip clearance are all highly desirable. Fan power for a given rotor power thus varies

  17. Performance of two-stage fan having low-aspect-ratio first-stage rotor blading

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Urasek, D. C.; Gorrell, W. T.; Cunnan, W. S.

    1979-01-01

    The NASA two stage fan was tested with a low aspect ratio first stage rotor having no midspan dampers. At design speed the fan achieved an adiabatic design efficiency of 0.846, and peak efficiencies for the first stage and rotor of 0.870 and 0.906, respectively. Peak efficiency occurred very close to the stall line. In an attempt to improve stall margin, the fan was retested with circumferentially grooved casing treatment and with a series of stator blade resets. Results showed no improvement in stall margin with casing treatment but increased to 8 percent with stator blade reset.

  18. Fan Performance Testing and Oxygen Compatibility Assessment Results for Future Space Suit Life Support Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jennings, Mallory A.; Paul, Heather L.; Vogel, Matthew

    2008-01-01

    An advanced portable life support system (PLSS) for the space suit will require a small, robust, and energy-efficient system to transport the ventilation gas through the space suit for lunar Extravehicular Activity (EVA) operations. A trade study identified and compared ventilation transport technologies in commercial, military, and space applications to determine which technologies could be adapted for EVA use. Based on the trade study results, five commercially available, 24volt fans were selected for performance testing at various pressures and flow rates. Measured fan parameters included fan delta-pressures, input voltages, input electrical currents, and in some cases motor windings electrical voltages and currents. In addition, a follow-on trade study was performed to identify oxygen compatibility issues and assess their impact on fan design. This paper outlines the results of the fan performance characterization testing, as well as the results from the oxygen compatibility assessment.

  19. Fan Performance Testing and Oxygen Compatibility Assessment Results for Future Space Suit Life Support Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paul, Heather L.; Jennings, Mallory A.; Vogel, Matthew

    2009-01-01

    An advanced portable life support system (PLSS) for the space suit will require a small, robust, and energyefficient system to transport the ventilation gas through the space suit for lunar Extravehicular Activity (EVA) operations. A trade study identified and compared ventilation transport technologies in commercial, military, and space applications to determine which technologies could be adapted for EVA use. Based on the trade study results, five commercially available, 24-volt fans were selected for performance testing at various pressures and flow rates. Measured fan parameters included fan delta-pressures, input voltages, input electrical currents, and in some cases motor windings electrical voltages and currents. In addition, a follow-on trade study was performed to identify oxygen compatibility issues and assess their impact on fan design. This paper outlines the results of the fan performance characterization testing, as well as the results from the oxygen compatibility assessment.

  20. The supersonic fan engine - An advanced concept in supersonic cruise propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Franciscus, L. C.

    1981-01-01

    Engine performance and mission studies were conducted for a novel turbofan engine concept incorporating a supersonic through-flow fan, and comparisons were made with two supersonic transport (SST) engine concepts of equivalent thrust and technological sophistication. It was found that in the case of an SST with a cruise speed of Mach 2.32, the through-flow fan engine may yield ranges 10 to 20% greater than the two alternatives considered. The engine has a conventional core, with the supersonic fan being driven by a concentric low-pressure turbine that is uncoupled with the single, high pressure turbine/compressor core spool. Among the topics discussed are the methods of analysis employed and perturbation studies concerning supersonic fan adiabatic efficiency, fan discharge characteristics and propulsion system weight.

  1. Aerodynamic Design and Computational Analysis of a Spacecraft Cabin Ventilation Fan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tweedt, Daniel L.

    2010-01-01

    Quieter working environments for astronauts are needed if future long-duration space exploration missions are to be safe and productive. Ventilation and payload cooling fans are known to be dominant sources of noise, with the International Space Station being a good case in point. To address this issue in a cost-effective way, early attention to fan design, selection, and installation has been recommended. Toward that end, NASA has begun to investigate the potential for small-fan noise reduction through improvements in fan aerodynamic design. Using tools and methodologies similar to those employed by the aircraft engine industry, most notably computational fluid dynamics (CFD) codes, the aerodynamic design of a new cabin ventilation fan has been developed, and its aerodynamic performance has been predicted and analyzed. The design, intended to serve as a baseline for future work, is discussed along with selected CFD results

  2. Design and fabrication of integrally damped composite fan blades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kosmatka, John B.; Appuhn, Geoffrey

    1999-06-01

    The design, analysis, and fabrication methods of embedding small viscoelastic damping patches into scaled composite fan blades is presented, where the goal is to improve the blade fatigue characteristics by increasing the damping in the chord-wise modes. This discussion concentrates on improving the damping levels in a research composite shell/titanium spar fan blade, developed by NASA-Lewis and Pratt and Whitney. First, the geometry and material definition of the existing composite fan blade are presented. Second, methods for sizing and locating the damping patch are presented based upon the modal strain energy method. The layered damping patch is composed of outer layers of a TEDLAR (or KAPTON) barrier film, which encompasses a viscoelastic damping material and loose- weave scrim cloth (creep protection). Two different patch sizes and locations are discussed to provide maximum damping as well as optimal damping. Finally, procedures are outlined for fabricating the integrally damped composite fan blades. Fabricated blades will be tested at the NASA-Lewis vacuum facility.

  3. Fan System Optimization Improves Ventilation and Saves Energy at a Computer Chip Manufacturer

    SciTech Connect

    2002-01-01

    This case study describes an optimization project implemented on a fan system at Ash Grove Cement Company, which led to annual energy and maintenance savings of $16,000 and 175,000 kilowatt-hours (kWh).

  4. Fan System Optimization Improves Production and Saves Energy at Ash Grove Cement Plant

    SciTech Connect

    2002-05-01

    This case study describes an optimization project implemented on a fan system at Ash Grove Cement Company, which led to annual energy and maintenance savings of $16,000 and 175,000 kilowatt-hours (kWh).

  5. Performance and internal flow of sirocco fan using contra-rotating rotors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukutomi, J.; Shigemitsu, T.; Yasunobu, T.

    2008-03-01

    A sirocco fan using contra-rotating rotors in which an inner rotor is settled inside the sirocco fan rotor and each rotor rotates in an opposite direction was proposed for the purpose of getting the higher pressure and making the structure of a sirocco fan more compact. If the high discharge pressure is obtained with the adoption of the contra-rotating rotors, it could be used for various purposes. Pressure coefficient of a sirocco fan with contra-rotating rotors is 2.5 times as high as the conventional sirocco fan and the maximum efficiency point of contra-rotating rotors shifts to larger flow rate than a conventional sirocco fan. On the other hand, it was clarified from the flow measurement results that circumferential velocity component at the outlet of the outer rotor of contra-rotating rotors becomes larger than a conventional one. In the present paper, the performance of a conventional sirocco fan and a sirocco fan with contra-rotating rotors are shown and the internal flow field at the outlet of outer rotor of both cases is clarified. Then, the effect of different kind of contra-rotating rotors on the performance and internal flow field is investigated and the rotor design with higher performance would be discussed.

  6. Economic Recovery of Oil Trapped at Fan Margins Using Hig Angle Wells Multiple Hydraulic Fractures

    SciTech Connect

    Laue, M.L.

    1997-11-21

    The Yowlumne field is a giant field in the southern San Joaquin basin, Kern County, California. It is a deep (13,000 ft) waterflood operation that produces from the Miocene- aged Stevens Sand. The reservoir is interpreted as a layered, fan-shaped, prograding turbidite complex containing several lobe-shaped sand bodies that represent distinct flow units. A high ultimate recovery factor is expected, yet significant quantities of undrained oil remain at the fan margins. The fan margins are not economic to develop using vertical wells because of thinning pay, deteriorating rock quality, and depth. This project attempts to demonstrate the effectiveness of exploiting the northeast distal fan margin through the use of a high- angle well completed with multiple hydraulic- fracture treatments. A high-angle well offers greater pay exposure than can be achieved with a vertical well. Hydraulic-fracture treatments will establish vertical communication between thin interbedded layers and the wellbore. The equivalent production rate and reserves of three vertical wells are anticipated at a cost of approximately two vertical wells. The near-horizontal well penetrated the Yowlumne sand; a Stevens sand equivalent, in the distal fan margin in the northeast area of the field. The well was drilled in a predominately westerly direction towards the interior of the field, in the direction of improving rock quality. Drilling and completion operations proved to be very challenging, leading to a number of adjustments to original plans. Hole conditions resulted in obtaining less core material than desired and setting intermediate casing 1200 ft too high. The 7 in. production liner stuck 1000 ft off bottom, requiring a 5 in. liner to be run the rest of the way. The cement job on the 5 in. liner resulted in a very poor bond, which precluded one of three hydraulic fracture treatments originally planned for the well. Openhole logs confirmed most expectations going into the project about basic

  7. Lift/cruise fan V/STOL technology aircraft design definition study. Volume 2: Propulsion transmission system design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Obrien, W. J.

    1976-01-01

    Two types of lift/cruise fan technology aircraft were conceptually designed. One aircraft used turbotip fans pneumatically interconnected to three gas generators, and the other aircraft used variable pitch fans mechanically interconnected to three turboshaft engines. The components of each propulsion transmission system were analyzed and designed to the depth necessary to determine areas of risk, development methods, performance, weights and costs. The types of materials and manufacturing processes were identified to show that the designs followed a low cost approach. The lift/cruise fan thrust vectoring hoods, which are applicable to either aircraft configuration, were also evaluated to assure a low cost/low risk approach.

  8. Acoustic Power Transmission Through a Ducted Fan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Envia, Ed

    2016-01-01

    For high-speed ducted fans, when the rotor flowfield is shock-free, the main contribution to the inlet radiated acoustic power comes from the portion of the rotor stator interaction sound field that is transmitted upstream through the rotor. As such, inclusion of the acoustic transmission is an essential ingredient in the prediction of the fan inlet noise when the fan tip relative speed is subsonic. This paper describes a linearized Euler based approach to computing the acoustic transmission of fan tones through the rotor. The approach is embodied in a code called LINFLUX was applied to a candidate subsonic fan called the Advanced Ducted Propulsor (ADP). The results from this study suggest that it is possible to make such prediction with sufficient fidelity to provide an indication of the acoustic transmission trends with the fan tip speed.

  9. Laboratory alluvial fans in one dimension.

    PubMed

    Guerit, L; Métivier, F; Devauchelle, O; Lajeunesse, E; Barrier, L

    2014-08-01

    When they reach a flat plain, rivers often deposit their sediment load into a cone-shaped structure called alluvial fan. We present a simplified experimental setup that reproduces, in one dimension, basic features of alluvial fans. A mixture of water and glycerol transports and deposits glass beads between two transparent panels separated by a narrow gap. As the beads, which mimic natural sediments, get deposited in this gap, they form an almost one-dimensional fan. At a moderate sediment discharge, the fan grows quasistatically and maintains its slope just above the threshold for sediment transport. The water discharge determines this critical slope. At leading order, the sediment discharge only controls the velocity at which the fan grows. A more detailed analysis reveals a slight curvature of the fan profile, which relates directly to the rate at which sediments are transported.

  10. The Forming of AISI 409 sheets for fan blade manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foroni, F. D.; Menezes, M. A.; Moreira Filho, L. A.

    2007-04-01

    The necessity of adapting the standardized fan models to conditions of higher temperature has emerged due to the growth of concern referring to the consequences of the gas expelling after the Mont Blanc tunnel accident in Italy and France, where even though, with 100 fans in operation, 41 people died. The objective of this work is to present an alternative to the market standard fans considering a new technology in constructing blades. This new technology introduces the use of the stainless steel AISI 409 due to its good to temperatures of gas exhaust from tunnels in fire situation. The innovation is centered in the process of a deep drawing of metallic sheets in order to keep the ideal aerodynamic superficies for the fan ideal performance. Through the impression of circles on the sheet plane it is shown, experimentally, that, during the pressing process, the more deformed regions on the sheet plane of the blade can not reach the deformation limits of the utilized sheet material.

  11. The Forming of AISI 409 sheets for fan blade manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Foroni, F. D.; Menezes, M. A.; Moreira Filho, L. A.

    2007-04-07

    The necessity of adapting the standardized fan models to conditions of higher temperature has emerged due to the growth of concern referring to the consequences of the gas expelling after the Mont Blanc tunnel accident in Italy and France, where even though, with 100 fans in operation, 41 people died. The objective of this work is to present an alternative to the market standard fans considering a new technology in constructing blades. This new technology introduces the use of the stainless steel AISI 409 due to its good to temperatures of gas exhaust from tunnels in fire situation. The innovation is centered in the process of a deep drawing of metallic sheets in order to keep the ideal aerodynamic superficies for the fan ideal performance. Through the impression of circles on the sheet plane it is shown, experimentally, that, during the pressing process, the more deformed regions on the sheet plane of the blade can not reach the deformation limits of the utilized sheet material.

  12. Factors controlling ebro deep-sea fan growth, Mediterranean Sea

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, C.H.; Maldonado, A.; Alonso, B.; Palanques, A.; Ryan, W.B.F.; Kastens, K.; O'Connel, S.

    1985-01-01

    Tectonic, sediment-source and sea-level factors control depositional patterns of the Ebro deep-sea fan system. In unstable, steep continental slope terrain, mass movement of material results in wide gullied canyons and formation of non-channelized debris aprons. These fan channels develop low sinuosity and generally traverse the continental rise without feeding into depositional lobes because of steep gradients (1:50 to 1:100) and sediment draining into the subsiding Valencia Valley graben. An abundance of sediment input points from mass failure and many river-fed canyons contributes to a depositional pattern of side-by-side debris aprons and separate channel-levee complexes. When a large sediment supply feeds a channel for a relatively long period 1) fan valley sinuosity increases: 2) channel walls are modified through undercutting, slumping, and crevasse splays: 3) channel bifurcation occurs: 4) incipient depositional lobe formation begins. Lowering of sea levels in Late Pleistocene time permitted the access of coarse river sediment to slope valleys and promoted deposition of numerous turbidites and active growth of the fan. During the Holocene, when sea levels have been high, a regime of hemipelagic sedimentation, mass movement, and debris apron sedimentation has dominated.

  13. Fan Noise Source Diagnostic Test Computation of Rotor Wake Turbulence Noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nallasamy, M.; Envia, E.; Thorp, S. A.; Shabbir, A.

    2002-01-01

    An important source mechanism of fan broadband noise is the interaction of rotor wake turbulence with the fan outlet guide vanes. A broadband noise model that utilizes computed rotor flow turbulence from a RANS code is used to predict fan broadband noise spectra. The noise model is employed to examine the broadband noise characteristics of the 22-inch Source Diagnostic Test fan rig for which broadband noise data were obtained in wind tunnel tests at the NASA Glenn Research Center. A 9-case matrix of three outlet guide vane configurations at three representative fan tip speeds are considered. For all cases inlet and exhaust acoustic power spectra are computed and compared with the measured spectra where possible. In general, the acoustic power levels and shape of the predicted spectra are in good agreement with the measured data. The predicted spectra show the experimentally observed trends with fan tip speed, vane count, and vane sweep. The results also demonstrate the validity of using CFD-based turbulence information for fan broadband noise calculations.

  14. 30 CFR 75.311 - Main mine fan operation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... back-up fan system— (1) Only persons necessary to evaluate the effect of the fan stoppage or restart... back-up fan system is used that does not provide the ventilating quantity provided by the main mine fan... movement. (h) Any atmospheric monitoring system operated during fan stoppages shall be intrinsically safe....

  15. Active control of fan noise from a turbofan engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, Russell H.; Burdisso, Ricardo A.; Fuller, Christopher R.; O'Brien, Walter F.

    1994-01-01

    A three-channel active control system is applied to an operational turbofan engine to reduce tonal noise produced by both the fan and the high-pressure compressor. The control approach is the feedforward filtered-x least-mean-square algorithm implemented on a digital signal processing board. Reference transducers mounted on the engine case provide blade passing and harmonics frequency information to the controller. Error information is provided by large area microphones placed in the acoustic far field. To minimize the error signal, the controller actuates loudspeakers mounted on the inlet to produce destructive interference. The sound pressure level of the fundamental tone of the fan was reduced using the three-channel controller by up to 16 dB over a +/- 30-deg angle about the engine axis. A single-channel controller could produce reduction over a +/- 15-deg angle. The experimental results show the control to be robust. Outside of the areas contolled, the levels of the tone actually increased due to the generation of radial modes by the control sources. Simultaneous control of two tones is achieved with parallel controllers. The fundamental and the first harmonic tones of the fan were controlled simultaneously with reductions of 12 and 5 dBA, respectively, measured on the engine axis. Simultaneous control was also demonstrated for the fan fundamental and the high-pressure compressor fundamental tones.

  16. Active control of fan noise from a turbofan engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, Russell H.; Burdisso, Ricardo A.; Fuller, Christopher R.; O'Brien, Walter F.

    1993-01-01

    A three channel active control system is applied to an operational turbofan engine in order to reduce tonal noise produced by both the fan and high pressure compressor. The control approach is the feedforward filtered-x least-mean-square algorithm implemented on a digital signal processing board. Reference transducers mounted on the engine case provides blade passing and harmonics frequency information to the controller. Error information is provided by large area microphones placed in the acoustic far field. In order to minimize the error signal, the controller actuates loudspeakers mounted on the inlet to produce destructive interference. The sound pressure level of the fundamental tone of the fan was reduced using the three channel controller by up to 16 dB over a 60 deg angle about the engine axis. A single channel controller could produce reduction over a 30 deg angle. The experimental results show the control to be robust. Simultaneous control of two tones is done with parallel controllers. The fundamental and the first harmonic tones of the fan were controlled simultaneously with reductions of 12 dBA and 5 dBA, respectively, measured on the engine axis. Simultaneous control was also demonstrated for the fan fundamental and the high pressure compressor fundamental tones.

  17. Composite Fan Blade Design for Advanced Engine Concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abumeri, Galib H.; Kuguoglu, Latife H.; Chamis, Christos C.

    2004-01-01

    The aerodynamic and structural viability of composite fan blades of the revolutionary Exo-Skeletal engine are assessed for an advanced subsonic mission using the NASA EST/BEST computational simulation system. The Exo-Skeletal Engine (ESE) calls for the elimination of the shafts and disks completely from the engine center and the attachment of the rotor blades in spanwise compression to a rotating casing. The fan rotor overall adiabatic efficiency obtained from aerodynamic analysis is estimated at 91.6 percent. The flow is supersonic near the blade leading edge but quickly transitions into a subsonic flow without any turbulent boundary layer separation on the blade. The structural evaluation of the composite fan blade indicates that the blade would buckle at a rotor speed that is 3.5 times the design speed of 2000 rpm. The progressive damage analysis of the composite fan blade shows that ply damage is initiated at a speed of 4870 rpm while blade fracture takes place at 7640 rpm. This paper describes and discusses the results for the composite blade that are obtained from aerodynamic, displacement, stress, buckling, modal, and progressive damage analyses. It will be demonstrated that a computational simulation capability is readily available to evaluate new and revolutionary technology such as the ESE.

  18. The lift-fan aircraft: Lessons learned

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deckert, Wallace H.

    1995-01-01

    This report summarizes the highlights and results of a workshop held at NASA Ames Research Center in October 1992. The objective of the workshop was a thorough review of the lessons learned from past research on lift fans, and lift-fan aircraft, models, designs, and components. The scope included conceptual design studies, wind tunnel investigations, propulsion systems components, piloted simulation, flight of aircraft such as the SV-5A and SV-5B and a recent lift-fan aircraft development project. The report includes a brief summary of five technical presentations that addressed the subject The Lift-Fan Aircraft: Lessons Learned.

  19. Enhanced Fan Noise Modeling for Turbofan Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krejsa, Eugene A.; Stone, James R.

    2014-01-01

    This report describes work by consultants to Diversitech Inc. for the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) to revise the fan noise prediction procedure based on fan noise data obtained in the 9- by 15 Foot Low-Speed Wind Tunnel at GRC. The purpose of this task is to begin development of an enhanced, analytical, more physics-based, fan noise prediction method applicable to commercial turbofan propulsion systems. The method is to be suitable for programming into a computational model for eventual incorporation into NASA's current aircraft system noise prediction computer codes. The scope of this task is in alignment with the mission of the Propulsion 21 research effort conducted by the coalition of NASA, state government, industry, and academia to develop aeropropulsion technologies. A model for fan noise prediction was developed based on measured noise levels for the R4 rotor with several outlet guide vane variations and three fan exhaust areas. The model predicts the complete fan noise spectrum, including broadband noise, tones, and for supersonic tip speeds, combination tones. Both spectra and directivity are predicted. Good agreement with data was achieved for all fan geometries. Comparisons with data from a second fan, the ADP fan, also showed good agreement.

  20. Metal spar/superhybrid shell composite fan blades. [for application to turbofan engins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salemme, C. T.; Murphy, G. C.

    1979-01-01

    The use of superhybrid materials in the manufacture and testing of large fan blades is analyzed. The FOD resistance of large metal spar/superhybrid fan blades is investigated. The technical effort reported was comprised of: (1) preliminary blade design; (2) detailed analysis of two selected superhybrid blade designs; (3) manufacture of two process evaluation blades and destructive evaluation; and (4) manufacture and whirligig testing of six prototype superhybrid blades.

  1. Filament-winding fabrication of QCSEE configuration fan blades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yao, S.

    1978-01-01

    The design and fabrication of twelve NASA-QCSEE type composite fan blades utilizing wet filament winding fabrication techniques is described. All composite fibers were continuous and attached to the root end. All components were formed, bonded, and co-cured in one molding process. Advanced fiber materials used in the blade fabrication were Thornel-300, Carbolon Z-2-1, and Carbolon Z-3 graphite in an epoxy resin matrix.

  2. Autogenic dynamics of debris-flow fans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van den Berg, Wilco; de Haas, Tjalling; Braat, Lisanne; Kleinhans, Maarten

    2015-04-01

    Alluvial fans develop their semi-conical shape by cyclic avulsion of their geomorphologically active sector from a fixed fan apex. These cyclic avulsions have been attributed to both allogenic and autogenic forcings and processes. Autogenic dynamics have been extensively studied on fluvial fans through physical scale experiments, and are governed by cyclic alternations of aggradation by unconfined sheet flow, fanhead incision leading to channelized flow, channel backfilling and avulsion. On debris-flow fans, however, autogenic dynamics have not yet been directly observed. We experimentally created debris-flow fans under constant extrinsic forcings, and show that autogenic dynamics are a fundamental intrinsic process on debris-flow fans. We found that autogenic cycles on debris-flow fans are driven by sequences of backfilling, avulsion and channelization, similar to the cycles on fluvial fans. However, the processes that govern these sequences are unique for debris-flow fans, and differ fundamentally from the processes that govern autogenic dynamics on fluvial fans. We experimentally observed that backfilling commenced after the debris flows reached their maximum possible extent. The next debris flows then progressively became shorter, driven by feedbacks on fan morphology and flow-dynamics. The progressively decreasing debris-flow length caused in-channel sedimentation, which led to increasing channel overflow and wider debris flows. This reduced the impulse of the liquefied flow body to the flow front, which then further reduced flow velocity and runout length, and induced further in-channel sedimentation. This commenced a positive feedback wherein debris flows became increasingly short and wide, until the channel was completely filled and the apex cross-profile was plano-convex. At this point, there was no preferential transport direction by channelization, and the debris flows progressively avulsed towards the steepest, preferential, flow path. Simultaneously

  3. Fan type end moraine related glaciofluvial deposits of Last Glaciation from Lithuania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Šinkūnė, Eglė; Šinkūnas, Petras

    2015-04-01

    Several alluvial-fan type end moraine related sites were chosen for detailed sedimentological analyses in ice marginal zone of the last glaciation in Lithuania. Such glaciofluvial ice-marginal fans are formed close to linear ice-sheet front and have semi-conical form or represent simple asymmetric hill forms or more complex ridges with steep proximal and gentler distal slopes. Sedimentary sequences of ice-marginal fans studied consist mainly of waterlain sandy and gravelly deposits with pebbles and boulders. In some sequences a debris-flow deposits are observed as well as beds of sorted material interbedded with dominating high energy sheetflow deposits. Sediment grain size, sorting, structure and bedding characteristics dependent on ice proximity and hydrodynamic conditions were analysed. Highly pulsatory water discharge can be interpreted from depositional architecture of the end moraine related fans. The inferred character of sedimentation suggests that landforms consisting of deposits studied are genetically similar to the alluvial fans. According to the sedimentation features the investigated landforms are an intermediate between the marginal glaciofluvial ridges and sandur fans. Are they a transition zone of sedimentation between the end moraines and proximal outwash plains, or can be the end moraine related fans distinguished as a separate type of glaciofluvial deposits? This question is still open.

  4. Experimental Evaluation of Installed Cooking Exhaust Fan Performance

    SciTech Connect

    Singer, Brett C.; Delp, William W.; Apte, Michael G.

    2010-11-01

    The installed performance of cooking exhaust fans was evaluated through residential field experiments conducted on a sample of 15 devices varying in design and other characteristics. The sample included two rear downdraft systems, two under-cabinet microwave over range (MOR) units, three different installations of an under-cabinet model with grease screens across the bottom and no capture hood, two devices with grease screens covering the bottom of a large capture hood (one under-cabinet, one wall-mount chimney), four under-cabinet open hoods, and two open hoods with chimney mounts over islands. Performance assessment included measurement of airflow and sound levels across fan settings and experiments to quantify the contemporaneous capture efficiency for the exhaust generated by natural gas cooking burners.Capture efficiency is defined as the fraction of generated pollutants that are removed through the exhaust and thus not available for inhalation of household occupants. Capture efficiency (CE) was assessed for various configurations of burner use (e.g., single front, single back, combination of one front and one back, oven) and fan speed setting. Measured airflow rates were substantially lower than the levels noted in product literature for many of the units. This shortfall was observed for several units costing in excess of $1000. Capture efficiency varied widely (from<5percent to roughly 100percent) across devices and across conditions for some devices. As expected, higher capture efficiencies were achieved with higher fan settings and the associated higher air flow rates. In most cases, capture efficiencies were substantially higher for rear burners than for front burners. The best and most consistent performance was observed for open hoods that covered all cooktop burners and operated at higher airflow rates. The lowest capture efficiencies were measured when a front burner was used with a rear backdraft system or with lowest fan setting for above the range

  5. Cost/benefit assessment of the application of composite materials to subsonic commercial transport engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Faddoul, J. R.; Signorelli, R. A.

    1976-01-01

    Results from a number of studies concerned with the cost and benefits of applying advanced composite materials to commercial turbofan engines are summarized. For each application area the optimistic and pessimistic benefit projections were averaged to arrive at a projected yearly percentage fuel savings for a commercial fleet of advanced technology transport aircraft. Engine components included in the summary are the fan section which includes fan blades, fan frame/case, and the blade containment ring; the nacelle; and the high pressure turbine blades and vanes. The projected fuel savings resulting from the application of composites are 1.85 percent for the fan section, 1.75 percent for the nacelle, and 2.35 percent for the high pressure turbine.

  6. Miocene Blanca Fan, Northern Channel Islands, California: Small fans reflecting tectonism and volcanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLean, Hugh; Howell, D. G.

    1984-06-01

    Blanca fan is a submarine fan composed of Miocene volcaniclastic strata. Parts of the fan system are exposed on Santa Cruz and Santa Rosa Islands, and possibly correlative strata crop out on San Miguel and Santa Catalina Islands. The Blanca fan and underlying breccia reflect regional transcurrent faulting in the California Continental Borderland and development of a system of rapidly subsiding basins and uplifted linear ridges during early and middle Miocene time. Erosion of uplifted crystalline basement rocks followed by the onset of silicic volcanism created linear sediment sources for the alluvial and submarine fans, respectively.

  7. Miocene Blanca Fan, Northern Channel Islands, California: Small fans reflecting tectonism and volcanism

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McLean, H.; Howell, D.G.

    1984-01-01

    Blanca fan is a submarine fan composed of Miocene volcaniclastic strata. Parts of the fan system are exposed on Santa Cruz and Santa Rosa Islands, and possibly correlative strata crop out on San Miguel and Santa Catalina Islands. The Blanca fan and underlying breccia reflect regional transcurrent faulting in the California Continental Borderland and development of a system of rapidly subsiding basins and uplifted linear ridges during early and middle Miocene time. Erosion of uplifted crystalline basement rocks followed by the onset of silicic volcanism created linear sediment sources for the alluvial and submarine fans, respectively. ?? 1984 Springer-Verlag New York Inc.

  8. Alluvial fan response to climatic change: Insights from numerical modeling (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pelletier, J. D.

    2009-12-01

    Alluvial fans in the western U.S. exhibit a regionally correlative sequence of Plio-Quaternary deposits. Cosmogenic and U-series dating has greatly improved the age control on these deposits and their associated terraces and generally strengthened the case for aggradation during humid-to-arid transitions. Still, the linkages between climate change, upland basin response, and alluvial fan response are not well constrained. Fans may fill and cut as a result of autogenetic processes/internal adjustments, changes in regional temperature (which controls snowmelt-induced flooding), changes in the frequency-size distribution of rainfall events, and/or changes in upslope vegetation. Here I describe the results of a numerical modeling study designed to better constrain the relationships between different end-member forcing mechanisms and the geologic record of alluvial fan deposits and terraces. The model solves the evolution of the fan topography using Exner's equation (conservation of mass) coupled with a nonlinear, threshold-controlled transport relation for sand and gravel. Bank retreat is modeled using an advection equation with a rate proportional to bank shear stress. I begin by considering the building of a fan under conditions of constant water and sediment supply. This simple system exhibits all of the complexity of fans developed under experimental conditions, and it provides insights into the mechanisms that control avulsions and it provides a baseline estimate for the within-fan relief that can result from autogenetic processes. Relationships between the magnitude and period of variations in the sediment-to-water ratio and the geomorphic response of fans are then discussed. I also consider the response of a coupled drainage basin-fan system to changes in climate, including the hydrologic and vegetation response of upland hillslopes. Fans can aggrade or incise in response to the same climatic event depending on the relief of the upstream drainage basin, which

  9. Flood hazard assessment on alluvial fans: an examination of the methodology

    SciTech Connect

    French, R.H.

    1984-08-01

    The report presents the results of a critical examination of assumptions and methodology recommended by the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) to assess flood hazard on alluvial fans. The conculsions reached are as follows. First, the assumption that a flow on an alluvial fan has an equal probability of crossing any point on a given contour seems to be a very conservative assumption. Second, given the data from the Nevada Test Site, it would appear that the assumption that fans have critical to supercritical slopes is acceptable. Third, the present methods of estimating channel width and depth on alluvial fans seem to be invalid. Fourth, the specific flood hazard evaluation procedures recommended by FEMA are not valid in some cases because they are based on the assumption that sufficient records exist to do a standard peak flow analysis. Fifth, the validity of the implied assumption that debris flows present no risk can only be assessed after a location on a fan relative to the intersection point has been established. It is concluded that the current methods of flood hazard assessment on alluvial fans are not adequate given the current and projected economic value of structures and development on alluvial fans in the southwestern United States. 55 references, 5 figures, 5 tables.

  10. Streaming Scholarship: Using Fan Vids to Teach "Harry Potter"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winters, Sarah Fiona

    2013-01-01

    This article argues that Harry Potter fan vids can be used in the classroom as works of secondary criticism about J. K. Rowling's primary text. It makes two claims: the first is that vids can be read as criticism of a particular text (in this case Harry Potter) alongside other critical essays on that text; the second is that the practice of…

  11. Geophysical Investigation of Subsurface Characteristics of Icy Debris Fans with Ground Penetrating Radar in the Wrangell Mountains, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, T. D.; Jacob, R. W.

    2013-12-01

    surveys provided the GPR signal velocity through the subsurface material and allowed transformation of two-way traveltimes (TWTT) in GPR profiles to be converted to depth. In addition, the eight WARR surveys spaced on the fans and on the glacier provide information on variability of subsurface velocities. The profiles of the Middle and West fan have more energy returning to the surface and therefore many more reflections than profiles done on the McCarthy Glacier. Based on the WARR surveys, we interpret the lower energy return in the glacier to be caused by two reasons. 1) The increased attenuation due to wet ice versus drier ice and on the fan with GPR velocities >0.15m/ns. 2) Lack of interfaces in the glacier compared to those in the fans which are produced by the events depositing material to an ablated icy debris fan surface. The GPR profiles on the West and Middle fans show multiple point scatters at TWTT of less than 200ns. The Middle fan is distinguished from the West fan by its multiple point scatters at TWTT greater than 200ns, clearly showing the Middle fan with a greater thickness. The observations from the GPR profiles correlate with the photographic evidence for types of processes and the composition of their deposits on each fan respectively.

  12. Geophysical Investigation of Subsurface Characteristics of Icy Debris Fans with Ground Penetrating Radar in the Wrangell Mountains, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, L. F.; Pun, W.; Milkereit, B.

    2011-12-01

    surveys provided the GPR signal velocity through the subsurface material and allowed transformation of two-way traveltimes (TWTT) in GPR profiles to be converted to depth. In addition, the eight WARR surveys spaced on the fans and on the glacier provide information on variability of subsurface velocities. The profiles of the Middle and West fan have more energy returning to the surface and therefore many more reflections than profiles done on the McCarthy Glacier. Based on the WARR surveys, we interpret the lower energy return in the glacier to be caused by two reasons. 1) The increased attenuation due to wet ice versus drier ice and on the fan with GPR velocities >0.15m/ns. 2) Lack of interfaces in the glacier compared to those in the fans which are produced by the events depositing material to an ablated icy debris fan surface. The GPR profiles on the West and Middle fans show multiple point scatters at TWTT of less than 200ns. The Middle fan is distinguished from the West fan by its multiple point scatters at TWTT greater than 200ns, clearly showing the Middle fan with a greater thickness. The observations from the GPR profiles correlate with the photographic evidence for types of processes and the composition of their deposits on each fan respectively.

  13. Fan-fold shielded electrical leads

    DOEpatents

    Rohatgi, Rajeev R.; Cowan, Thomas E.

    1996-01-01

    Fan-folded electrical leads made from copper cladded Kapton, for example, with the copper cladding on one side serving as a ground plane and the copper cladding on the other side being etched to form the leads. The Kapton is fan folded with the leads located at the bottom of the fan-folds. Electrical connections are made by partially opening the folds of the fan and soldering, for example, the connections directly to the ground plane and/or the lead. The fan folded arrangement produces a number of advantages, such as electrically shielding the leads from the environment, is totally non-magnetic, and has a very low thermal conductivity, while being easy to fabricate.

  14. Supersonic through-flow fan assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kepler, C. E.; Champagne, G. A.

    1988-01-01

    A study was conducted to assess the performance potential of a supersonic through-flow fan engine for supersonic cruise aircraft. It included a mean-line analysis of fans designed to operate with in-flow velocities ranging from subsonic to high supersonic speeds. The fan performance generated was used to estimate the performance of supersonic fan engines designed for four applications: a Mach 2.3 supersonic transport, a Mach 2.5 fighter, a Mach 3.5 cruise missile, and a Mach 5.0 cruise vehicle. For each application an engine was conceptualized, fan performance and engine performance calculated, weight estimates made, engine installed in a hypothetical vehicle, and mission analysis was conducted.

  15. Fan-fold shielded electrical leads

    DOEpatents

    Rohatgi, R.R.; Cowan, T.E.

    1996-06-11

    Disclosed are fan-folded electrical leads made from copper cladded Kapton, for example, with the copper cladding on one side serving as a ground plane and the copper cladding on the other side being etched to form the leads. The Kapton is fan folded with the leads located at the bottom of the fan-folds. Electrical connections are made by partially opening the folds of the fan and soldering, for example, the connections directly to the ground plane and/or the lead. The fan folded arrangement produces a number of advantages, such as electrically shielding the leads from the environment, is totally non-magnetic, and has a very low thermal conductivity, while being easy to fabricate. 3 figs.

  16. Blade Vibration Measurement System for Unducted Fans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marscher, William

    2014-01-01

    With propulsion research programs focused on new levels of efficiency and noise reduction, two avenues for advanced gas turbine technology are emerging: the geared turbofan and ultrahigh bypass ratio fan engines. Both of these candidates are being pursued as collaborative research projects between NASA and the engine manufacturers. The high bypass concept from GE Aviation is an unducted fan that features a bypass ratio of over 30 along with the accompanying benefits in fuel efficiency. This project improved the test and measurement capabilities of the unducted fan blade dynamic response. In the course of this project, Mechanical Solutions, Inc. (MSI) collaborated with GE Aviation to (1) define the requirements for fan blade measurements; (2) leverage MSI's radar-based system for compressor and turbine blade monitoring; and (3) develop, validate, and deliver a noncontacting blade vibration measurement system for unducted fans.

  17. Advanced Noise Control Fan Aerodynamic Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bozak, Richard F., Jr.

    2009-01-01

    The Advanced Noise Control Fan at the NASA Glenn Research Center is used to experimentally analyze fan generated acoustics. In order to determine how a proposed noise reduction concept affects fan performance, flow measurements can be used to compute mass flow. Since tedious flow mapping is required to obtain an accurate mass flow, an equation was developed to correlate the mass flow to inlet lip wall static pressure measurements. Once this correlation is obtained, the mass flow for future configurations can be obtained from the nonintrusive wall static pressures. Once the mass flow is known, the thrust and fan performance can be evaluated. This correlation enables fan acoustics and performance to be obtained simultaneously without disturbing the flow.

  18. Late Quaternary sedimentation on the Leidy Creek fan, Nevada-California: Geomorphic responses to climate change

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reheis, M.C.; Slate, J.L.; Throckmorton, C.K.; McGeehin, J.P.; Sarna-Wojcicki, A. M.; Dengler, L.

    1996-01-01

    Well-dated surface and subsurface deposits in semiarid Fish Lake Valley, Nevada and California, demonstrate that alluvial-fan deposition is strongly associated with the warm dry climate of the last two interglacial intervals, and that fans were stable and (or) incised during the last glaciation. Fan deposition was probably triggered by a change from relatively moist to arid conditions causing a decrease in vegetation cover and increases in flash floods and sediment yield. We think that this scenario applies to most of the other valleys in the southern Basin and Range. Radiocarbon, tephra, and a few thermoluminescence and cosmogenic ages from outcrops throughout Fish Lake Valley and from cores on the Leidy Creek fan yield ages of > 100-50 ka and 11-0 ka for the last two periods of alluvial-fan deposition. Mapping, coring and shallow seismic profiling indicate that these periods were synchronous throughout the valley and on the proximal and distal parts of the fans. From 50 to 11 ka, fan deposition ceased, a soil formed on the older alluvium and the axial drainage became active as runoff and stream competence increased. Slow deposition due to sheet flow or aeolian processes locally continued during this interval, producing cumulic soil profiles. The soil was buried by debris-flow sediment beginning at about 11 ka, coincident with the onset of relatively dry and warm conditions in the region. However, ground-water discharge maintained a large freshwater marsh on the valley floor throughout the Holocene. Pulses of deposition during the Holocene are recorded in the marsh and fan deposits; some pulses coincided with periods of or transitions to warm, dry climate indicated by proxy climate records, whereas others may reflect local disturbances associated with volcanism and fires. Within the marsh deposits, much of the clastic material is probably desert loess. In addition, the deposition of coppice dunes within the fan deposits coincides with two dry periods during the

  19. Large-scale Advanced Prop-fan (LAP) technology assessment report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Degeorge, C. L.

    1988-01-01

    The technologically significant findings and accomplishments of the Large Scale Advanced Prop-Fan (LAP) program in the areas of aerodynamics, aeroelasticity, acoustics and materials and fabrication are described. The extent to which the program goals related to these disciplines were achieved is discussed, and recommendations for additional research are presented. The LAP program consisted of the design, manufacture and testing of a near full-scale Prop-Fan or advanced turboprop capable of operating efficiently at speeds to Mach .8. An aeroelastically scaled model of the LAP was also designed and fabricated. The goal of the program was to acquire data on Prop-Fan performance that would indicate the technology readiness of Prop-Fans for practical applications in commercial and military aviation.

  20. Diffusion bonded boron/aluminum spar-shell fan blade

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carlson, C. E. K.; Cutler, J. L.; Fisher, W. J.; Memmott, J. V. W.

    1980-01-01

    Design and process development tasks intended to demonstrate composite blade application in large high by-pass ratio turbofan engines are described. Studies on a 3.0 aspect radio space and shell construction fan blade indicate a potential weight savings for a first stage fan rotor of 39% when a hollow titanium spar is employed. An alternate design which featured substantial blade internal volume filled with titanium honeycomb inserts achieved a 14% potential weight savings over the B/M rotor system. This second configuration requires a smaller development effort and entails less risk to translate a design into a successful product. The feasibility of metal joining large subsonic spar and shell fan blades was demonstrated. Initial aluminum alloy screening indicates a distinct preference for AA6061 aluminum alloy for use as a joint material. The simulated airfoil pressings established the necessity of rigid air surfaces when joining materials of different compressive rigidities. The two aluminum alloy matrix choices both were successfully formed into blade shells.

  1. TBCC Fan Stage Operability and Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suder, Kenneth L.

    2007-01-01

    NASA s Fundamental Aeronautics Program is investigating turbine-based propulsion systems for access to space because it provides the potential for aircraft-like, space-launch operations that may significantly reduce launch costs and improve safety. Studies performed under NASA s NGLT and the NASP High Speed Propulsion Assessment (HiSPA) program indicated a variable cycle turbofan/ramjet was the best configuration to satisfy access-to-space mission requirements because this configuration maximizes the engine thrust-to-weight ratio while minimizing frontal area. To this end, NASA and GE teamed to design a Mach 4 variable cycle turbofan/ramjet engine for access to space. To enable the wide operating range of a Mach 4+ variable cycle turbofan ramjet required the development of a unique fan stage design capable of multi-point operation to accommodate variations in bypass ratio (10X), fan speed (7X), inlet mass flow (3.5X), inlet pressure (8X), and inlet temperature (3X). The primary goal of the fan stage was to provide a high pressure ratio level with good efficiency at takeoff through the mid range of engine operation, while avoiding stall and losses at the higher flight Mach numbers, without the use of variable inlet guide vanes. Overall fan performance and operability therefore requires major consideration, as competing goals at different operating points and aeromechanical issues become major drivers in the design. To mitigate risk of meeting the unique design requirements for the fan stage, NASA and GE teamed to design and build a 57% engine scaled fan stage to be tested in NASA s transonic compressor facility. The objectives of this test are to assess the aerodynamic and aero mechanic performance and operability characteristics of the fan stage over the entire range of engine operation including: 1) sea level static take-off, 2) transition over large swings in fan bypass ratio, 3) transition from turbofan to ramjet, and 4) fan windmilling operation at high Mach

  2. An air bearing fan for EVA suit ventilation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murry, Roger P.

    1990-01-01

    The portable life-support system (PLSS) ventilation requirements are outlined, along with the application of a high-speed axial fan technology for extravehicular-activity (EVA) space-suit ventilation. Focus is placed on a mechanical design employing high-speed gas bearings, permanent magnet rotor, and current-fed chopper/inverter electronics. The operational characteristics of the fan unit and its applicability for use in a pure-oxygen environment are discussed. It delivers a nominal 0.17 cu m/min at 1.24 kPa pressure rise using 13.8 w of input power. It is shown that the overall selection of materials for all major component meets the NASA requirements.

  3. Detectability of minerals on desert alluvial fans using reflectance spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shipman, Hugh; Adams, John B.

    1987-01-01

    The visible and near-infrared reflectance spectra of soil samples collected from desert alluvial and colluvial surfaces in the Cuprite mining district, Nevada, were analyzed. These surfaces are downslope from hydrothermally altered volcanic rocks that contain spectrally characteristic minerals such as alunite and kaolinite. Coarse fractions of the soils on the alluvial fans are mineralogically variable and express the upslope lithologies; fine fractions are remarkably similar mineralogically and spectrally in all samples because of dilution of local mineral components by regionally derived windblown dust. Theoretical models for spectral mixing and for particle-size effects were used to model the observed spectral variations. Diagnostic mineral absorption bands in the spectra of fan materials were enhanced by computationally removing the spectrum of the homogeneous fine-soil component. Results show that spectral mixing models are useful for analyzing data with high spectral resolution obtained by field and aircraft spectrometers.

  4. Highly Loaded Fan by Using Tandem Cascade Rotor Blade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasegawa, Hiroaki; Suga, Shinya; Matsuoka, Akinori

    For axial flow compressors and fans in the aircraft engines higher pressure ratio is required in order to attain the high thrust engines. In this study, the fan with the tandem cascades was introduced to increase the fan pressure ratio. The use of tandem cascades in the fan allows savings in length and weight and therefore a compact fan could be built. The design of fan with tandem cascades and the fan testing were carried out to develop the high pressure ratio fan for the Air Turbo Ramjet (ATR) propulsion system. The ATR is a combined cycle engine which performs like a turbojet engine at subsonic speeds and a ramjet at supersonic speeds. In particular, high fan pressure ratio contributes to increase the engine thrust during subsonic flight at which the engine does not make use of ram effect. The results of the fan testing indicate that the pressure ratio of 2.2 is achieved in single stage fan.

  5. Turbofan gas turbine engine with variable fan outlet guide vanes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, Peter John (Inventor); Zenon, Ruby Lasandra (Inventor); LaChapelle, Donald George (Inventor); Mielke, Mark Joseph (Inventor); Grant, Carl (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A turbofan gas turbine engine includes a forward fan section with a row of fan rotor blades, a core engine, and a fan bypass duct downstream of the forward fan section and radially outwardly of the core engine. The forward fan section has only a single stage of variable fan guide vanes which are variable fan outlet guide vanes downstream of the forward fan rotor blades. An exemplary embodiment of the engine includes an afterburner downstream of the fan bypass duct between the core engine and an exhaust nozzle. The variable fan outlet guide vanes are operable to pivot from a nominal OGV position at take-off to an open OGV position at a high flight Mach Number which may be in a range of between about 2.5-4+. Struts extend radially across a radially inwardly curved portion of a flowpath of the engine between the forward fan section and the core engine.

  6. Radially leaned outlet guide vanes for fan source noise reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kazin, S. B.

    1973-01-01

    Two quiet engine program half scale fans one with a subsonic and the other with a supersonic fan tip speed at takeoff were run with 30 degree leaned and radial outlet guide vanes. Acoustic data at takeoff fan speed on the subsonic tip speed fan showed decreases in 200-foot sideline noise of from 1 to 2 PNdb. The supersonic tip speed fan a takeoff fan speed, however, showed noise increases of up 3 PNdb and a decrease in fan efficiency. At approach fan speed, the subsonic tip speed fan showed a noise decrease of 2.3 PNdb at the 200-foot sideline maximum angle and an increase in efficiency. The supersonic tip speed fan showed noise increase of 3.5 PNdb and no change in efficiency. The decrease in fan efficiency and the nature of the noise increase largely high frequency broadband noise lead to the speculation that an aerodynamic problem occurred.

  7. Bright Streaks and Dark Fans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    The south polar region of Mars is covered every year by a layer of carbon dioxide ice. In a region called the 'cryptic terrain,' the ice is translucent and sunlight can penetrate through the ice to warm the surface below.

    The ice layer sublimates (evaporates) from the bottom. The dark fans of dust seen in this image come from the surface below the layer of ice, carried to the top by gas venting from below. The translucent ice is 'visible' by virtue of the effect it has on the tone of the surface below, which would otherwise have the same color and reflectivity as the fans.

    Bright streaks in this image are fresh frost. The CRISM team has identified the composition of these streaks to be carbon dioxide.

    Observation Geometry Image PSP_003113_0940 was taken by the High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) camera onboard the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter spacecraft on 26-Mar-2007. The complete image is centered at -85.8 degrees latitude, 106.0 degrees East longitude. The range to the target site was 244.9 km (153.0 miles). At this distance the image scale is 49.0 cm/pixel (with 2 x 2 binning) so objects 147 cm across are resolved. The image shown here has been map-projected to 50 cm/pixel . The image was taken at a local Mars time of 06:20 PM and the scene is illuminated from the west with a solar incidence angle of 79 degrees, thus the sun was about 11 degrees above the horizon. At a solar longitude of 207.6 degrees, the season on Mars is Northern Autumn.

  8. The role of tip clearance in high-speed fan stall

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adamczyk, J. J.; Celestina, M. L.; Greitzer, E. M.

    1991-01-01

    A numerical experiment has been carried out to define the near-stall casing endwall flowfield of a high-speed fan rotor. The experiment used a simulation code incorporating a simple clearance model, whose calibration is presented. The results of the simulation show that the interaction of the tip leakage vortex and the in-pasage shock plays a major role in determining the fan flow range. More specifically, the computations imply that it is the area increase of this vortex as it passes through the in-passage shock, which is the source of the blockage associated with stall. In addition, for fans of this type, it is the clearance over the forward portion of the fan blade which controls the flow processes leading to stall.

  9. Counter-Rotatable Fan Gas Turbine Engine with Axial Flow Positive Displacement Worm Gas Generator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giffin, Rollin George (Inventor); Murrow, Kurt David (Inventor); Fakunle, Oladapo (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A counter-rotatable fan turbine engine includes a counter-rotatable fan section, a worm gas generator, and a low pressure turbine to power the counter-rotatable fan section. The low pressure turbine maybe counter-rotatable or have a single direction of rotation in which case it powers the counter-rotatable fan section through a gearbox. The gas generator has inner and outer bodies having offset inner and outer axes extending through first, second, and third sections of a core assembly. At least one of the bodies is rotatable about its axis. The inner and outer bodies have intermeshed inner and outer helical blades wound about the inner and outer axes and extending radially outwardly and inwardly respectively. The helical blades have first, second, and third twist slopes in the first, second, and third sections respectively. A combustor section extends through at least a portion of the second section.

  10. Extended parametric representation of compressor fans and turbines. Volume 1: CMGEN user's manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Converse, G. L.; Giffin, R. G.

    1984-01-01

    A modeling technique for fans, boosters, and compressors has been developed which will enable the user to obtain consistent and rapid off-design performance from design point input. The fans and compressors are assumed to be multi-stage machines incorporating front variable stators. The boosters are assumed to be fixed geometry machines. The modeling technique has been incorporated into time sharing program to facilitate its use. Because this report contains a description of the input output data, values of typical inputs, and examples cases, it is suitable as a user's manual. This report is the first of a three volume set describing the parametric representation of compressors, fans, and turbines. The titles of the three volumes are as follows: (1) Volume 1 CMGEN USER's Manual (Parametric Compressor Generator); (2) Volume 2 PART USER's Manual (parametric Turbine); (3) Volume 3 MODFAN USER's Manual (Parametric Modulating Flow Fan).

  11. The Florida High School Mock Trial Competition Case Materials, 1997. State of Florida v. Lee Appleman.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florida Law Related Education Association, Tallahassee.

    This material provides students with information to prepare for a mock trial. The defendant in this case has been accused of the crime of driving under the influence of alcoholic beverages causing severe bodily injury. Case materials include stipulated facts, jury instructions, depositions, and other related materials. (EH)

  12. Analysis of Stainless Steel Sandwich Panels with a Metal Foam Core for Lightweight Fan Blade Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Min, James B.; Ghosn, Louis J.; Lerch, Bradley A.; Raj, Sai V.; Holland, Frederic A., Jr.; Hebsur, Mohan G.

    2004-01-01

    The quest for cheap, low density and high performance materials in the design of aircraft and rotorcraft engine fan and propeller blades poses immense challenges to the materials and structural design engineers. The present study investigates the use of a sandwich foam fan blade mae up of solid face sheets and a metal foam core. The face sheets and the metal foam core material were an aerospace grade precipitation hardened 17-4 PH stainless steel with high strength and high toughness. The resulting structures possesses a high stiffness while being lighter than a similar solid construction. The material properties of 17-4 PH metal foam are reviewed briefly to describe the characteristics of sandwich structure for a fan blade application. A vibration analysis for natural frequencies and a detailed stress analysis on the 17-4 PH sandwich foam blade design for different combinations of kin thickness and core volume are presented with a comparison to a solid titanium blade.

  13. UHB Engine Fan Broadband Noise Reduction Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gliebe, Philip R.; Ho, Patrick Y.; Mani, Ramani

    1995-01-01

    A study has been completed to quantify the contribution of fan broadband noise to advanced high bypass turbofan engine system noise levels. The result suggests that reducing fan broadband noise can produce 3 to 4 EPNdB in engine system noise reduction, once the fan tones are eliminated. Further, in conjunction with the elimination of fan tones and an increase in bypass ratio, a potential reduction of 7 to 10 EPNdB in system noise can be achieved. In addition, an initial assessment of engine broadband noise source mechanisms has been made, concluding that the dominant source of fan broadband noise is the interaction of incident inlet boundary layer turbulence with the fan rotor. This source has two contributors, i.e., unsteady life dipole response and steady loading quadrupole response. The quadrupole contribution was found to be the most important component, suggesting that broadband noise reduction can be achieved by the reduction of steady loading field-turbulence field quadrupole interaction. Finally, for a controlled experimental quantification and verification, the study recommends that further broadband noise tests be done on a simulated engine rig, such as the GE Aircraft Engine Universal Propulsion Simulator, rather than testing on an engine statically in an outdoor arena The rig should be capable of generating forward and aft propagating fan noise, and it needs to be tested in a large freejet or a wind tunnel.

  14. Small fan-in is beautiful

    SciTech Connect

    Beiu, V.; Makaruk, H.E.

    1997-09-01

    The starting points of this paper are two size-optimal solutions: (1) one for implementing arbitrary Boolean functions; and (2) another one for implementing certain subclasses of Boolean functions. Because VLSI implementations do not cope well with highly interconnected nets -- the area of a chip grows with the cube of the fan-in -- this paper will analyze the influence of limited fan-in on the size optimality for the two solutions mentioned. First, the authors will extend a result from Horne and Hush valid for fan-in {Delta} = 2 to arbitrary fan-in. Second, they will prove that size-optimal solutions are obtained for small constant fan-ins for both constructions, while relative minimum size solutions can be obtained for fan-ins strictly lower that linear. These results are in agreement with similar ones proving that for small constant fan-ins ({Delta} = 6...9) there exist VLSI-optimal (i.e., minimizing AT{sup 2}) solutions, while there are similar small constants relating to the capacity of processing information.

  15. Large Fluvial Fans and Exploration for Hydrocarbons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilkinson, Murray Justin

    2005-01-01

    A report discusses the geological phenomena known, variously, as modern large (or large modern) fluvial fans or large continental fans, from a perspective of exploring for hydrocarbons. These fans are partial cones of river sediment that spread out to radii of 100 km or more. Heretofore, they have not been much recognized in the geological literature probably because they are difficult to see from the ground. They can, however, be seen in photographs taken by astronauts and on other remotely sensed imagery. Among the topics discussed in the report is the need for research to understand what seems to be an association among fluvial fans, alluvial fans, and hydrocarbon deposits. Included in the report is an abstract that summarizes the global distribution of large modern fluvial fans and a proposal to use that distribution as a guide to understanding paleo-fluvial reservoir systems where oil and gas have formed. Also included is an abstract that summarizes what a continuing mapping project has thus far revealed about the characteristics of large fans that have been found in a variety of geological environments.

  16. School spirits: alcohol and collegiate sports fans.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Toben F; Wechsler, Henry

    2003-01-01

    While studies have addressed alcohol use and related problems among college athletes, little is known about the drinking patterns of non-athletes who are sports fans. This study examines the relationship between alcohol use and interest in collegiate sports on two levels. First, do sports fans in college binge drink more and exhibit more negative alcohol-related outcomes than other students? Second, do colleges with large numbers of sports fans have higher rates of heavy drinking and accompanying secondhand effects affecting other students? The study analyzed the responses of a nationally representative sample of students who completed questionnaires in the spring of 1999 regarding their extracurricular activities and substance use. The responses of 3445 student sports fans were compared to those of 8405 students who were not sports fans. More sports fans drank alcohol, engaged in binge drinking, had a heavy drinking style and reported alcohol-related problems than nonfans. The percentage of sports fans at a school was associated with binge drinking rates and the secondhand effects. The implications for those working with college athletics and for alcohol prevention personnel are discussed.

  17. Sound source localization on an axial fan at different operating points

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zenger, Florian J.; Herold, Gert; Becker, Stefan; Sarradj, Ennes

    2016-08-01

    A generic fan with unskewed fan blades is investigated using a microphone array method. The relative motion of the fan with respect to the stationary microphone array is compensated by interpolating the microphone data to a virtual rotating array with the same rotational speed as the fan. Hence, beamforming algorithms with deconvolution, in this case CLEAN-SC, could be applied. Sound maps and integrated spectra of sub-components are evaluated for five operating points. At selected frequency bands, the presented method yields sound maps featuring a clear circular source pattern corresponding to the nine fan blades. Depending on the adjusted operating point, sound sources are located on the leading or trailing edges of the fan blades. Integrated spectra show that in most cases leading edge noise is dominant for the low-frequency part and trailing edge noise for the high-frequency part. The shift from leading to trailing edge noise is strongly dependent on the operating point and frequency range considered.

  18. Submarine fans in a sequence stratigraphic framework

    SciTech Connect

    Posamentier, H.W.; Erskine, R.D.; Mitchum, R.M.; Vail, P.R.

    1987-05-01

    Submarine fans are fan- or cone-shaped turbiditic deposits formed in upper bathyal or deeper water depths. Within a sequence stratigraphic framework, these basin-floor turbidites can occur during lowstand-fan or lowstand-wedge systems tract time. During lowstand fan time, streams are rejuvenated and depocenters shift from the coastal plain to the upper slope, causing retrogradational slope failure and canyon formation. The sediment delivered here bypasses the canyon and continues down the slope as a succession of gravity flows and is deposited as fan-shaped turbiditic deposits at the base of the slope. Seismic and outcrop evidence suggest that these sand-prone deposits are abruptly introduced into the basin and are generally characterized by subtle external mounding and internal bidirectionally down lapping seismic reflections where seismically resolvable. Deep-water sediment deposited during this interval has no coeval shelf equivalent. During lowstand wedge time, streams cease down cutting and valleys which have been freshly incised begin to fill. Because coarse sediment will preferentially be deposited within these incised valleys, the sand-to-mud ratio delivered to the upper slope will be decreased and, consequently, there is an inherent difference between submarine fans deposited at this time and those deposited during lowstand fan time. Deposition during lowstand wedge time is characterized seismically by slope front fill or wedge-shaped geometries down lapping the earlier submarine fan (i.e., deposited during lowstand fan time). These shale-prone deposits are largely comprised of thinner-bedded turbidites as well as the occasional leveed channel.

  19. Fan-structure waves in shear ruptures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarasov, Boris

    2016-04-01

    This presentation introduces a recently identified shear rupture mechanism providing a paradoxical feature of hard rocks - the possibility of shear rupture propagation through the highly confined intact rock mass at shear stress levels significantly less than frictional strength. According to the fan-mechanism the shear rupture propagation is associated with consecutive creation of small slabs in the fracture tip which, due to rotation caused by shear displacement of the fracture interfaces, form a fan-structure representing the fracture head. The fan-head combines such unique features as: extremely low shear resistance (below the frictional strength), self-sustaining stress intensification in the rupture tip (providing easy formation of new slabs), and self-unbalancing conditions in the fan-head (making the failure process inevitably spontaneous and violent). An important feature of the fan-mechanism is the fact that for the initial formation of the fan-structure an enhanced local shear stress is required, however, after completion of the fan-structure it can propagate as a dynamic wave through intact rock mass at shear stresses below the frictional strength. Paradoxically low shear strength of pristine rocks provided by the fan-mechanism determines the correspondingly low transient strength of the lithosphere, which favours generation of new earthquake faults in the intact rock mass adjoining pre-existing faults in preference to frictional stick-slip instability along these faults. The new approach reveals an alternative role of pre-existing faults in earthquake activity: they represent local stress concentrates in pristine rock adjoining the fault where special conditions for the fan-mechanism nucleation are created, while further dynamic propagation of the new fault (earthquake) occurs at low field stresses even below the frictional strength.

  20. Modern and ancient alluvial fan deposits

    SciTech Connect

    Nilsen, T.H.

    1985-01-01

    Understanding the structure and depositional processes of alluvial fans (river outwash deposits) has a special interest for those involved with the exploration of petroleum and many minerals. This collection of facsimile reprints of significant and classical research papers sheds new light on the subject. This reference covers the stratigraphy, sedimentology, and depositional processes of modern and ancient alluvial fans. Geographical areas considered include Arctic Canada, the American Southwest, Australia, Wyoming, Norway, and Spain. It includes a state-of-the-art introduction by the editor along with commentaries on all the papers included, a master author citation index and a subject index, and a chronological listing of early studies of alluvial fans.

  1. Fan Noise Prediction: Status and Needs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huff, Dennis L.

    1997-01-01

    The prediction of fan noise is an important part to the prediction of overall turbofan engine noise. Advances in computers and better understanding of the flow physics have allowed researchers to compute sound generation from first principles and rely less on empirical correlations. While progress has been made, there are still many aspects of the problem that need to be explored. This paper presents some recent advances in fan noise prediction and suggests areas that still need further development. Fan noise predictions that support the recommendations are taken from existing publications.

  2. Fan Database and Web-tool for Choosing Quieter Spaceflight Fans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, Christopher S.; Burnside, Nathan J.

    2007-01-01

    One critical aspect of designing spaceflight hardware is the selection of fans to provide the necessary cooling. And with efforts to minimize cost and the tendancy to be conservative with the amount of cooling provided, it is easy to choose an overpowered fan. One impact of this is that the fan uses more energy than is necessary. But, the more significant impact is that the hardware produces much more acoustic noise than if an optimal fan was chosen. Choosing the right fan for a specific hardware application is no simple task. It requires knowledge of cooling requirements and various fan performance characteristics as well as knowledge of the aerodynamic losses of the hardware in which the fan is to be installed. Knowledge of the acoustic emissions of each fan as a function of operating condition is also required in order to choose a quieter fan for a given design point. The purpose of this paper is to describe a database and design-tool that have been developed to aid spaceflight hardware developers in choosing a fan for their application that is based on aerodynamic performance and reduced acoustic emissions as well. This web-based-tool provides a limited amount of fan-data, provides a method for selecting a fan based on its projected operating point, and also provides a method for comparing and contrasting aerodynamic performance and acoustic data from different fans. Drill-down techniques are used to display details of the spectral noise characteristics of the fan at specific operation conditions. The fan aerodynamic and acoustic data were acquired at Ames Research Center in the Experimental Aero-Physics Branch's Anechoic Chamber. Acoustic data were acquired according to ANSI Standard S12.11-1987, "Method for the Measurement of Noise Emitted by Small Air-Moving Devices." One significant improvement made to this technique included automation that allows for a significant increase in flow-rate resolution. The web-tool was developed at Johnson Space Center and is

  3. 30 CFR 57.8519 - Underground main fan controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Underground main fan controls. 57.8519 Section... Ventilation Surface and Underground § 57.8519 Underground main fan controls. All underground main fans shall have controls placed at a suitable protected location remote from the fan and preferably on the...

  4. Identification with sports teams by fans of women's sports.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Kelly

    2004-10-01

    Previous studies on why sports fans identify with a particular team have focused on fans of men's sports teams. This study examined why fans favor a particular women's sports team. Based on survey responses from 273 self-identified fans of women's sports, athletes are most frequently cited as the reason for choosing a favorite women's sports team.

  5. 30 CFR 75.311 - Main mine fan operation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... back-up fan system— (1) Only persons necessary to evaluate the effect of the fan stoppage or restart... back-up fan system is used that does not provide the ventilating quantity provided by the main mine fan... fire or other products of combustion are approved in the ventilation plan. (g) If multiple mine...

  6. Three-Dimensional Numerical Analysis of Laminar Heat Exchanger with Respect to Fin Shape and Fan Performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, S. M.; Kim, J. Y.; Seol, S. S.; Lee, D. J.; Lee, M. C.

    2010-06-01

    The performances of the fin-and-tube heat exchangers with wavy or plain fins were numerically investigated using a commercial code based on the finite volume method implementing SIMPLE algorithm. The relations among the heat transfer performance, pressure and the fin shape were taken into consideration with the performance characteristic of the fan installed in the real heat exchanger. Generally, a heat exchanger with wavy fins shows better performance than that with plain fins under the same air flow rate. However, the performance of a heat exchanger was mainly affected by the performance characteristics of the installed fans. In case that a fan whose air flow rate remarkably changes by the minor pressure variation, the performance characteristic of the fan was much more important than the fin shape with respect to heat transfer rate. This is attributed to the fact that the air flow rates of fans were varied with the pressure loss of the heat exchanger.

  7. Production of specific IgY antibody to the recombinant FanC protein produced in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Nasiri, Khadijeh; Zibaee, Saeed; Nassiri, Mohammadreza; Tahmoorespur, Mojtaba; Haghparast, Alireza

    2016-01-01

    Objective(s): Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) strains are one of the primary causes of diarrhea in newborn calves and in humans, pigs, and sheep. IgY technology has been identified as a promising alternative to generating a mass amount of specific antibody for use in immunotherapy and immunodiagnostics. The purpose of this study was to produce specific antibody by egg yolk antibody (IgY) to recombinant FanC protein from ETEC. Materials and Methods: FanC (K99) gene was amplified from ETEC by specific primers and polymerase chain reaction. The gene was cloned and subcloned into pTZ57R/T and pET32a (+) vectors, respectively. Recombinant vector was transferred into E. coli BL21 CodonPlus (DE3). Protein expression was investigated by 1 mM IPTG induction. Hens were immunized by the purified recombinant FanC protein. The activity and specificity of the IgY antibody were detected by dot-blotting, Western blotting, and indirect ELISA. Results: We obtained FanC specific IgYs by immunizing the hens with the recombinant FanC protein. The anti-FanC IgY showed binding specifically to the FanC protein of ETEC. Conclusion: The results emphasize that specific IgY against the recombinant FanC protein could be recommended as a candidate for passive immunization against ETEC infection in animals and humans. PMID:27746871

  8. 11. EXTERIOR VIEW OF NEW FAN HOUSE LOOKING EAST The ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. EXTERIOR VIEW OF NEW FAN HOUSE LOOKING EAST The airway (on the left) leads from the Baltimore shaft to the New Fan House. The metal housing (center foreground) encases a single entry Duplex Conoidal fan, made by the Buffalo Forge Company. The Duplex Conoidal fan had two parts: a disk fan which drew air up the airway and a centrifugal fan set at a right angle to it which exhausted the air. The engine house (on the right) contains a direct connected Corliss engine. - Dorrance Colliery Fan Complex, South side of Susquehanna River at Route 115 & Riechard Street, Wilkes-Barre, Luzerne County, PA

  9. Two-Stage Fan I: Aerodynamic and Mechanical Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Messenger, H. E.; Kennedy, E. E.

    1972-01-01

    A two-stage, highly-loaded fan was designed to deliver an overall pressure ratio of 2.8 with an adiabatic efficiency of 83.9 percent. At the first rotor inlet, design flow per unit annulus area is 42 lbm/sec/sq ft (205 kg/sec/sq m), hub/tip ratio is 0.4 with a tip diameter of 31 inches (0.787 m), and design tip speed is 1450 ft/sec (441.96 m/sec). Other features include use of multiple-circular-arc airfoils, resettable stators, and split casings over the rotor tip sections for casing treatment tests.

  10. Functional materials for sustainable energy technologies: four case studies.

    PubMed

    Kuznetsov, V L; Edwards, P P

    2010-01-01

    The critical topic of energy and the environment has rarely had such a high profile, nor have the associated materials challenges been more exciting. The subject of functional materials for sustainable energy technologies is demanding and recognized as a top priority in providing many of the key underpinning technological solutions for a sustainable energy future. Energy generation, consumption, storage, and supply security will continue to be major drivers for this subject. There exists, in particular, an urgent need for new functional materials for next-generation energy conversion and storage systems. Many limitations on the performances and costs of these systems are mainly due to the materials' intrinsic performance. We highlight four areas of activity where functional materials are already a significant element of world-wide research efforts. These four areas are transparent conducting oxides, solar energy materials for converting solar radiation into electricity and chemical fuels, materials for thermoelectric energy conversion, and hydrogen storage materials. We outline recent advances in the development of these classes of energy materials, major factors limiting their intrinsic functional performance, and potential ways to overcome these limitations.

  11. Energy efficient engine: fan test hardware detailed design report

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, T.J.

    1980-10-01

    A single stage fan and quarter stage booster were designed for the energy efficient engine. The fan has an inlet radius ratio of 0.342 and a specific flow rate of 208.9 Kg/S sq m (42.8 lbm/sec sq ft). The fan rotor has 32 medium aspect ratio (2.597) titanium blades with a partspan shroud at 55% blade height. The design corrected fan tip speed is 411.5 M/S (1350 ft/sec). The quarter stage island splits the total fan flow with approximately 22% of the flow being supercharged by the quarter stage rotor. The fan bypass ratio is 6.8. The core flow total pressure ratio is 1.67 and the fan bypass pressure ratio is 1.65. The design details of the fan and booster blading, and the fan frame and static structure for the fan configuration are presented.

  12. Energy efficient engine: Fan test hardware detailed design report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sullivan, T. J.

    1980-01-01

    A single stage fan and quarter stage booster were designed for the energy efficient engine. The fan has an inlet radius ratio of 0.342 and a specific flow rate of 208.9 Kg/S sq m (42.8 lbm/sec sq ft). The fan rotor has 32 medium aspect ratio (2.597) titanium blades with a partspan shroud at 55% blade height. The design corrected fan tip speed is 411.5 M/S (1350 ft/sec). The quarter stage island splits the total fan flow with approximately 22% of the flow being supercharged by the quarter stage rotor. The fan bypass ratio is 6.8. The core flow total pressure ratio is 1.67 and the fan bypass pressure ratio is 1.65. The design details of the fan and booster blading, and the fan frame and static structure for the fan configuration are presented.

  13. Experimental Alluvial Fan Modeling Related to Large Alluvial Fans on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kraal, E. R.; van Dijk, M.; Postma, G.

    2006-12-01

    A population of large alluvial fans has been discovered on Mars. They emanate from crater rims and deposit into crater basins. The build up of such alluvial fans requires a sustained source of flowing surface water. However, the amount of water may vary and that variation can be recorded in variations in fan surface morphology and slope. About half of the alluvial fans on Mars preserve a surface fluvial record (e.g.stream patterns, meanders, cut banks) and the majority have slopes measurable at Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) resolution. We are conducting experimental modeling of alluvial fan formation using the Eurotank at Utrecht University to understand the relative importance of sediment discharge and pre-existing basin slopes on alluvial fan morphology. The Eurotank Flume Facility contains a flume 5 by 8 meters. The water discharge, sediment discharge, basin structure, and particle size can all be varied. We conduct two experiments simultaneously; the resulting fans are deposited on two 2.5 by 5 meter prepared surfaces with constant slopes of ~0.035 and ~0.045, respectively. Sediment and water discharge are held constant. Results are recorded as a combination of surface images (from video recording of fluvial processes) and digital terrain models (DTM) at a resolution of ~80 microns from photogrammetry (stereo pairs) of the entire fan apron surface. The DTM and photographic results will be integrated with data from previous experiments of fan formation over lower sloping surfaces and the combined experiments will be compared to the Martian fan population. We will compare the experimental formation of surface fluvial features similar to those observed on Mars (e.g. stream patterns) with the goal of ascertaining the amount of fluid (i.e. debris flow vs. fluvial) required to form the Martian alluvial fans. Though we are currently focusing on Martian large alluvial fans, we anticipate that there will be broad applications to many of the fans discovered on Mars

  14. Design and Test of Fan/Nacelle Models Quiet High-Speed Fan Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Christopher J. (Technical Monitor); Repp, Russ; Gentile, David; Hanson, David; Chunduru, Srinivas

    2003-01-01

    The primary objective of the Quiet High-Speed Fan (QHSF) program was to develop an advanced high-speed fan design that will achieve a 6 dB reduction in overall fan noise over a baseline configuration while maintaining similar performance. The program applies and validates acoustic, aerodynamic, aeroelastic, and mechanical design tools developed by NASA, US industry, and academia. The successful fan design will be used in an AlliedSignal Engines (AE) advanced regional engine to be marketed in the year 2000 and beyond. This technology is needed to maintain US industry leadership in the regional turbofan engine market.

  15. Supersonic fan engines for military aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Franciscus, L. C.

    1983-01-01

    Engine performance and mission studies were performed for turbofan engines with supersonic through-flow fans. A Mach 2.4 CTOL aircraft was used in the study. Two missions were considered: a long range penetrator mission and a long range intercept mission. The supersonic fan engine is compared with an augmented mixed flow turbofan in terms of mission radius for a fixed takeoff gross weight of 75,000 lbm. The mission radius of aircraft powered by supersonic fan engines could be 15 percent longer than aircraft powered with conventional turbofan engines at moderate thrust to gross weight ratios. The climb and acceleration performance of the supersonic fan engines is better than that of the conventional turbofan engines.

  16. Synchronous and Cogged Fan Belt Performance Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Cutler, D.; Dean, J.; Acosta, J.

    2014-02-01

    The GSA Regional GPG Team commissioned the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to perform monitoring of cogged V-belts and synchronous belts on both a constant volume and a variable air volume fan at the Byron G. Rodgers Federal Building and U.S. Courthouse in Denver, Colorado. These motor/fan combinations were tested with their original, standard V-belts (appropriately tensioned by an operation and maintenance professional) to obtain a baseline for standard operation. They were then switched to the cogged V-belts, and finally to synchronous belts. The power consumption by the motor was normalized for both fan speed and air density changes. This was necessary to ensure that the power readings were not influenced by a change in rotational fan speed or by the power required to push denser air. Finally, energy savings and operation and maintenance savings were compiled into an economic life-cycle cost analysis of the different belt options.

  17. Tone Noise Predictions for a Spacecraft Cabin Ventilation Fan Ingesting Distorted Inflow and the Challenges of Validation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koch, L. Danielle; Shook, Tony D.; Astler, Douglas T.; Bittinger, Samantha A.

    2011-01-01

    A fan tone noise prediction code has been developed at NASA Glenn Research Center that is capable of estimating duct mode sound power levels for a fan ingesting distorted inflow. This code was used to predict the circumferential and radial mode sound power levels in the inlet and exhaust duct of an axial spacecraft cabin ventilation fan. Noise predictions at fan design rotational speed were generated. Three fan inflow conditions were studied: an undistorted inflow, a circumferentially symmetric inflow distortion pattern (cylindrical rods inserted radially into the flowpath at 15deg, 135deg, and 255deg), and a circumferentially asymmetric inflow distortion pattern (rods located at 15deg, 52deg and 173deg). Noise predictions indicate that tones are produced for the distorted inflow cases that are not present when the fan operates with an undistorted inflow. Experimental data are needed to validate these acoustic predictions, as well as the aerodynamic performance predictions. Given the aerodynamic design of the spacecraft cabin ventilation fan, a mechanical and electrical conceptual design study was conducted. Design features of a fan suitable for obtaining detailed acoustic and aerodynamic measurements needed to validate predictions are discussed.

  18. Tone Noise Predictions for a Spacecraft Cabin Ventilation Fan Ingesting Distorted Inflow and the Challenges of Validation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koch, L. Danielle; Shook, Tony D.; Astler, Douglas T.; Bittinger, Samantha A.

    2012-01-01

    A fan tone noise prediction code has been developed at NASA Glenn Research Center that is capable of estimating duct mode sound power levels for a fan ingesting distorted inflow. This code was used to predict the circumferential and radial mode sound power levels in the inlet and exhaust duct of an axial spacecraft cabin ventilation fan. Noise predictions at fan design rotational speed were generated. Three fan inflow conditions were studied: an undistorted inflow, a circumferentially symmetric inflow distortion pattern (cylindrical rods inserted radially into the flowpath at 15deg, 135deg, and 255deg), and a circumferentially asymmetric inflow distortion pattern (rods located at 15deg, 52deg and 173deg). Noise predictions indicate that tones are produced for the distorted inflow cases that are not present when the fan operates with an undistorted inflow. Experimental data are needed to validate these acoustic predictions, as well as the aerodynamic performance predictions. Given the aerodynamic design of the spacecraft cabin ventilation fan, a mechanical and electrical conceptual design study was conducted. Design features of a fan suitable for obtaining detailed acoustic and aerodynamic measurements needed to validate predictions are discussed.

  19. Sediments and stratigraphy of a glaciomarine fan in the lower Androscoggin Valley, Lewiston, Maine

    SciTech Connect

    Slayton, J.T. . Geology Dept.)

    1993-03-01

    Numerous exposures in ice contact deltas and glacial marine fans in the lower Androscoggin Valley of S. Central Maine detail a history of the Wisconsinan ice sheet retreat in contact with marine waters ca. 12,000 to 13,000 years B.P. The ice contact deltas and fans probably form by many similar processes and have common stratigraphic sequences that build seaward from a meltwater tunnel source. This study investigates the sediments and stratigraphic relationships in a glaciomarine fan complex in the Lewiston, Maine area. The study focuses on a composite landform that is triangular in map view and encompasses approximately 3 km[sup 2]. Exposures in 5 bottom pits were mapped, and stratigraphic lithofacies logged in numerous exposures. The bulk of the deposit is composed of lithofacies including: poorly sorted gravelly sand and boulders in ice proximal regions, coarse to fine bedded sands medial regions and terminating in the distal fan area in silty clay facies. Facies originate predominantly from traction currents, gravity flow, and suspension settling of material from the meltwater tunnel. Diamicton facies formed at various stratigraphic levels within the pit originate from debris flows down the topographic gradient of the fan surface. Two models are proposed for the formation of the fan complex. The first suggests that the sediments are the result of two different ice-marginal positions; with the first depositional sequence lasting longer than the subsequent position 0.5 km to the north. The second model uses one ice-marginal position, but sediments prograde distally and laterally over earlier fan deposits. Regardless of which model is most accurate, the fan builds a large sand and gravel complex that grades to within 5 meters of marine limit as recorded in an ice-contact delta, 10 km to the NW.

  20. A method to assess fluvial fan channel networks, with a preliminary application to fans in coastal British Columbia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Millard, Thomas Hugh; Hogan, Dan L.; Wilford, David J.; Roberts, Brian

    2010-03-01

    The channel network on a fluvial fan distributes sediment across the fan surface and determines fan development. We present a method to characterize fan channel networks (FCNs) so that the effect of controls (e.g., sediment supply) on the FCN can be evaluated. We then do a preliminary test of the method using three fans in coastal British Columbia. The method uses a set of three measures: 1) the spatial extent of hydrogeomorphic activity, measured as the percentage of the contemporary fan surface area occupied by active channels; 2) the topologic structure, using node counts to measure channel network complexity; and 3) a sediment budget to indicate the proportion of sediment that is stored on the fan, loosely characterized by comparing the second-largest clast size of sediment at the fan apex or intersection point with the second-largest clast at the toe of the fan. These measures were applied to two fan deltas and one partial fan delta in northern Vancouver Island, British Columbia, using channel surveys conducted in 2006 and 2007. All three fans are located within 30 km of each other, have similar climatic, physiographic, and vegetation settings, and have natural channel networks. Each fan has perennial channel flow at the fan apex. Watershed areas range from 19.5 to 35.6 km 2, and contemporary fan areas range from 0.2 to 0.7 km 2. The Melton Relative Relief ratio ranges from 0.24 to 0.30 and none of the fans show evidence of debris floods or debris flows. In addition to testing the efficacy of the FCN measures, we use these fans to explore the question of whether fans in similar geomorphic settings and with similar controls develop similar FCNs. Results show the fans have between 4.7-8.5 % of the contemporary fan surface occupied by the active channel network. Topologic node counts indicate that the two fan deltas have a similar level of channel complexity, with 42-54 nodes in total. The partial fan delta channel network is approximately half as complex, with

  1. The Advanced Noise Control Fan Baseline Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McAllister, Joseph; Loew, Raymond A.; Lauer, Joel T.; Stuliff, Daniel L.

    2009-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Research Center s (NASA Glenn) Advanced Noise Control Fan (ANCF) was developed in the early 1990s to provide a convenient test bed to measure and understand fan-generated acoustics, duct propagation, and radiation to the farfield. As part of a complete upgrade, current baseline and acoustic measurements were documented. Extensive in-duct, farfield acoustic, and flow field measurements are reported. This is a follow-on paper to documenting the operating description of the ANCF.

  2. The Influence of Uneven Blade Spacing on the Spl and Noise Spectra Radiated from Radial Fans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boltezar, M.; Mesaric, M.; Kuhelj, A.

    1998-10-01

    The influence of irregular blade spacing of car alternator radial fans on the total sound pressure level (SPL) and the noise spectrum has been investigated. For this purpose, theSPLand spectra were computed theoretically and the values were compared to measured results for several types of fans with various blade spacing. As theoretical background, the theory describing discrete frequency sound radiated by axial fans in open space was adopted. This was done in order to model theSPLand the spectra of alternator radial fans, placed inside a casing. Furthermore, due to the low blade tip Mach number, blades were modelled as dipole point sources. It was found, in accordance with previous results from known literature, that alterations in blade spacing do not significantly alter the totalSPLnor the cooling capacity of the alternator radial fan. However, significant dispersion of the sound power over several harmonics was found with irregular fan blade spacing, thus allowing for a reduction of the siren effect. This phenomenon was predicted theoretically and confirmed experimentally.

  3. A Comparison of Measured Tone Modes for Two Low Noise Propulsion Fans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heidelberg, Laurence J.; Elliott, David M.

    2000-01-01

    The acoustic modes for two low tip speed propulsion fans were measured to examine the effects of fan tip speed, at constant pressure ratio. A continuously rotating microphone method was used that provided the complete modal structure (circumferential and radial order) at the fundamental and second harmonic of the blade passing tone as well as most of the third harmonic modes. The fans are compared in terms of their rotor/stator interaction modal power, and total tone power. It was hoped that the lower tip speed might produce less noise. This was not the case. The higher tip speed fan, at both takeoff and cutback speeds, had lower tone and interaction levels. This could be an indication that the higher aerodynamic loading required to produce the same pressure ratio for the lower tip speed fan resulted in a greater velocity deficit in the blade wakes and thus more noise. Results consistent with expected rotor transmission effects were noted in the inlet modal structures of both fans.

  4. Fungi in healthy and diseased sea fans ( Gorgonia ventalina): is Aspergillus sydowii always the pathogen?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toledo-Hernández, C.; Zuluaga-Montero, A.; Bones-González, A.; Rodríguez, J. A.; Sabat, A. M.; Bayman, P.

    2008-09-01

    Caribbean corals, including sea fans ( Gorgonia spp.), are being affected by severe and apparently new diseases. In the case of sea fans, the pathogen is reported to be the fungus Aspergillus sydowii, and the disease is named aspergillosis. In order to understand coral diseases and pathogens, knowledge of the microbes associated with healthy corals is also necessary. In this study the fungal community of healthy Gorgonia ventalina colonies was contrasted with that of diseased colonies. In addition, the fungal community of healthy and diseased tissue within colonies with aspergillosis was contrasted. Fungi were isolated from healthy and diseased fans from 15 reefs around Puerto Rico, and identified by sequencing the nuclear ribosomal ITS region and by morphology. Thirty fungal species belonging to 15 genera were isolated from 203 G. ventalina colonies. Penicillum and Aspergillus were the most common genera isolated from both healthy and diseased fans. However, the fungal community of healthy fans was distinct and more diverse than that of diseased ones. Within diseased fans, fungal communities from diseased tissues were distinct and more diverse than from healthy tissue. The reduction of fungi in diseased colonies may occur prior to infection due to environmental changes affecting the host, or after infection due to increase in dominance of the pathogen, or because of host responses to infection. Data also indicate that the fungal community of an entire sea fan colony is affected even when only a small portion of the colony suffers from aspergillosis. An unexpected result was that A. sydowii was found in healthy sea fans but never in diseased ones. This result suggests that A. sydowii is not the pathogen causing aspergillosis in the studied colonies, and suggests several fungi common to healthy and diseased colonies as opportunistic pathogens. Given that it is not clear that Aspergillus is the sole pathogen, calling this disease aspergillosis is an

  5. Euler/Navier-Stokes Solvers Applied to Ducted Fan Configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keith, Theo G., Jr.; Srivastava, Rakesh

    1997-01-01

    Due to noise considerations, ultra high bypass ducted fans have become a more viable design. These ducted fans typically consist of a rotor stage containing a wide chord fan and a stator stage. One of the concerns for this design is the classical flutter that keeps occurring in various unducted fan blade designs. These flutter are catastrophic and are to be avoided in the flight envelope of the engine. Some numerical investigations by Williams, Cho and Dalton, have suggested that a duct around a propeller makes it more unstable. This needs to be further investigated. In order to design an engine to safely perform a set of desired tasks, accurate information of the stresses on the blade during the entire cycle of blade motion is required. This requirement in turn demands that accurate knowledge of steady and unsteady blade loading be available. Aerodynamic solvers based on unsteady three-dimensional analysis will provide accurate and fast solutions and are best suited for aeroelastic analysis. The Euler solvers capture significant physics of the flowfield and are reasonably fast. An aerodynamic solver Ref. based on Euler equations had been developed under a separate grant from NASA Lewis in the past. Under the current grant, this solver has been modified to calculate the aeroelastic characteristics of unducted and ducted rotors. Even though, the aeroelastic solver based on three-dimensional Euler equations is computationally efficient, it is still very expensive to investigate the effects of multiple stages on the aeroelastic characteristics. In order to investigate the effects of multiple stages, a two-dimensional multi stage aeroelastic solver was also developed under this task, in collaboration with Dr. T. S. R. Reddy of the University of Toledo. Both of these solvers were applied to several test cases and validated against experimental data, where available.

  6. Radiated noise of ducted fans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eversman, Walter

    The differences in the radiated acoustic fields of ducted and unducted propellers of the same thrust operating under similar conditions are investigated. An FEM model is created for the generation, propagation, and radiation of steady, rotor alone noise and exit guide vane interaction noise of a ducted fan. For a specified number of blades, angular mode harmonic, and rotor angular velocity, the acoustic field is described in a cylindrical coordinate system reduced to only the axial and radial directions. It is found that, contrary to the usual understanding of the Tyler and Sofrin (1962) result, supersonic tip speed rotor noise can be cut off if the tip Mach number is only slightly in excess of unity and if the number of blades is relatively small. If there are many blades, the fundamental angular mode number is large, and the Tyler and Sofrin result for thin annuli becomes more relevant. Shrouding of subsonic tip speed propellers is a very effective means of controlling rotor alone noise.

  7. Radiated noise of ducted fans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eversman, Walter

    1992-01-01

    The differences in the radiated acoustic fields of ducted and unducted propellers of the same thrust operating under similar conditions are investigated. An FEM model is created for the generation, propagation, and radiation of steady, rotor alone noise and exit guide vane interaction noise of a ducted fan. For a specified number of blades, angular mode harmonic, and rotor angular velocity, the acoustic field is described in a cylindrical coordinate system reduced to only the axial and radial directions. It is found that, contrary to the usual understanding of the Tyler and Sofrin (1962) result, supersonic tip speed rotor noise can be cut off if the tip Mach number is only slightly in excess of unity and if the number of blades is relatively small. If there are many blades, the fundamental angular mode number is large, and the Tyler and Sofrin result for thin annuli becomes more relevant. Shrouding of subsonic tip speed propellers is a very effective means of controlling rotor alone noise.

  8. Active Piezoelectric Vibration Control of Subscale Composite Fan Blades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duffy, Kirsten P.; Choi, Benjamin B.; Provenza, Andrew J.; Min, James B.; Kray, Nicholas

    2012-01-01

    As part of the Fundamental Aeronautics program, researchers at NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) are investigating new technologies supporting the development of lighter, quieter, and more efficient fans for turbomachinery applications. High performance fan blades designed to achieve such goals will be subjected to higher levels of aerodynamic excitations which could lead to more serious and complex vibration problems. Piezoelectric materials have been proposed as a means of decreasing engine blade vibration either through a passive damping scheme, or as part of an active vibration control system. For polymer matrix fiber composite blades, the piezoelectric elements could be embedded within the blade material, protecting the brittle piezoceramic material from the airflow and from debris. To investigate this idea, spin testing was performed on two General Electric Aviation (GE) subscale composite fan blades in the NASA GRC Dynamic Spin Rig Facility. The first bending mode (1B) was targeted for vibration control. Because these subscale blades are very thin, the piezoelectric material was surface-mounted on the blades. Three thin piezoelectric patches were applied to each blade two actuator patches and one small sensor patch. These flexible macro-fiber-composite patches were placed in a location of high resonant strain for the 1B mode. The blades were tested up to 5000 rpm, with patches used as sensors, as excitation for the blade, and as part of open- and closed-loop vibration control. Results show that with a single actuator patch, active vibration control causes the damping ratio to increase from a baseline of 0.3% critical damping to about 1.0% damping at 0 RPM. As the rotor speed approaches 5000 RPM, the actively controlled blade damping ratio decreases to about 0.5% damping. This occurs primarily because of centrifugal blade stiffening, and can be observed by the decrease in the generalized electromechanical coupling with rotor speed.

  9. Materials Data on CaSe (SG:216) by Materials Project

    SciTech Connect

    Kristin Persson

    2016-09-16

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  10. Writing about Clients: Developing Composite Case Material and Its Rationale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duffy, Maureen

    2010-01-01

    Ethical guidelines of the 4 major professional associations representing counselors and psychotherapists are reviewed. To help clarify thinking about writing up clinical cases, 3 kinds of cases are described. The author concludes that the current guidelines for clinician authors in writing about clients for publication or presentation are…

  11. Classic and New Materials Used for Structural Rehabilitation. Case Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lute, M.

    2016-06-01

    New materials development with different combination of properties were always a challenge in terms of their adequate use in civil engineering. Introduction of carbon fibres as strength material for structures was a beginning of a new approach in structural rehabilitation, and sometimes meant the end of classic rehabilitation solution use. The present paper gives an example of a building rehabilitation that use a melt of both new and old solutions in order to achieve the optimum result for building itself. The problem was even more challenging, because the structure considered is only 22 years old, but having some design faults in terms of seismic behaviour and, in addition, one floor was added to existing structure. The chosen solution was a compromise between the use of old and new materials in places where their qualities were best suitable and their minuses could be compensated by the other material.

  12. Acoustic testing of a supersonic tip speed fan with acoustic treatment and rotor casting slots. Quiet engine program scale model fan C

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kazin, S. B.

    1973-01-01

    Acoustic tests were conducted on a high tip speed (1550 ft/sec, 472.44 m/sec) single stage fan with varying amounts of wall acoustic treatment and with circumferential slots over the rotor blade tips. The slots were also tested with acoustic treatment placed behind the slots. The wall treatment results show that the inlet treatment is more effective at high fan speeds and aft duct treatment is more effective at low fan speeds. Maximum PNL's on a 200-foot (60.96 m) sideline show the untreated slots to have increased the rear radiated noise at approach. However, when the treatment was added to the slots inlet radiated noise was decreased, resulting in little change relative to the solid casing on an EPNL basis.

  13. Exploring the use of weathering indexes in an alluvial fan chronology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hardenbicker, Ulrike; Watanabe, Makiko; Kotowich, Roberta

    2015-04-01

    Alluvial fan sediments can act as an archive of local environmental history. Two borehole cores (FN 350 cm and AG 850cm) from Holocene alluvial fans located in the Qu'Appelle Valley in southern Saskatchewan were analyzed in order to identify how changes in land use of upland catchment plateaus modified the pattern and rate of sediment delivery to the fan. Due to the lack of material for radiometric dating a chronology of depositional events within the alluvial fans was established by using lithostratigraphy data of soils and sediments. In order to establish a more detailed relative chronology we evaluated if weathering indexes (the Parker Index, the CaO/ZrO2 molar ratio, the Product Index) originally developed for studies of in situ weathering of bedrock, are suitable to assess sediment weathering within alluvial fan sediments. To quantify the degree of weathering within the sediment samples the three indexes of weathering were calculated using the proportions of elements measure by Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy and there is an inverse relationship between weathering index and sample age. For further statistical analyses the fan sediments were classified into three groups: a sheet flow facies of well sorted silt loam and sandy loam textures, bed load facies characterized by high sand and gravel content and layers with high organic matter in combination with higher clay content indicative of in situ weathering and soil development. First results show that the Product Index may be the most suitable weathering index to indicate weathering or input of less weathered sediment within the sheet flow and bed load facies. In general, the weathering indexes do not take into account complexities of the weathering processes nor the overall environmental conditions in an alluvial fan. But chemical weathering indexes accompanied by geophysical and geo-chemical information have value, especially when the amount of sample material is limited.

  14. 75 FR 79952 - Airworthiness Directives; DASSAULT AVIATION Model Falcon 10 Airplanes; Model FAN JET FALCON, FAN...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-21

    ... Model Falcon 10 Airplanes; Model FAN JET FALCON, FAN JET FALCON SERIES C, D, E, F, and G Airplanes; Model MYSTERE-FALCON 200 Airplanes; Model MYSTERE-FALCON 20-C5, 20-D5, 20-E5, and 20-F5 Airplanes; Model FALCON 2000 and FALCON 2000EX Airplanes; and Model MYSTERE-FALCON 50 and MYSTERE-FALCON 900...

  15. Holocene sedimentation history of the major fan valleys of Monterey fan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hess, G.R.; Normark, W.R.

    1976-01-01

    There are three major fan valleys on upper Monterey fan. Deep-tow geophysical profiles and 40 sediment cores provide the basis for evaluation of the sedimentation histories of these valleys. Monterey fan valley leads from Monterey canyon to a major suprafan and is bounded by levees that crest more than 400 m above the valley floor. The valley passes through a large z-bend or meander. Monterey East fan valley joins Monterey fan valley at the meander at about 150 m above the valley floor, and marks an earlier position of the lower Monterey fan valley. Ascension valley, a hanging contributary to the Monterey fan valley, appears to have once been the shoreward head of the lower part of the present Monterey fan valley. The relief of Monterey fan valley appears from deep-tow profiles to be erosional. The valley is floored with sand. Holocene turbidity currents do not overtop the levees 400 m above the valley floor, but do at times overflow and transport sand into Monterey East valley, producing a sandy floor. An 1100 m by 300 m dune field was observed on side scan sonar in Monterey East valley. Ascension fan valley was floored with sand during glacial intervals of lowered sea level, then was cut off from its sand source as sea level rose. A narrow (500 m), erosional, meandering channel was incised into the flat valley floor; the relief features otherwise appear depositional, with a hummocky topography perhaps produced in the manner of a braided riverbed. The sand is mantled by about 6 m of probable Holocene mud. Hummocky relief on the back side of the northwestern levees of both Ascension and Monterey valleys is characteristic of many turbidite valleys in the northeast Pacific. The hummocky topography is produced by dune-like features that migrate toward levee crests during growth. ?? 1976.

  16. Regional material flow accounting and environmental pressures: the Spanish case.

    PubMed

    Sastre, Sergio; Carpintero, Óscar; Lomas, Pedro L

    2015-02-17

    This paper explores potential contributions of regional material flow accounting to the characterization of environmental pressures. With this aim, patterns of material extraction, trade, consumption, and productivity for the Spanish regions were studied within the 1996-2010 period. The main methodological variation as compared to whole-country based approaches is the inclusion of interregional trade, which can be separately assessed from the international exchanges. Each region was additionally profiled regarding its commercial exchanges with the rest of the regions and the rest of the world and the related environmental pressures. Given its magnitude, interregional trade is a significant source of environmental pressure. Most of the exchanges occur across regions and different extractive and trading patterns also arise at this scale. These differences are particularly great for construction minerals, which in Spain represent the largest share of extracted and consumed materials but do not cover long distances, so their impact is visible mainly at the regional level. During the housing bubble, economic growth did not improve material productivity.

  17. Problem Oriented Literacy Materials Preparation: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tripathi, Virendra

    1975-01-01

    One of the recent innovations of significance in developing nations is the concept of linking literacy education to problems related to socio-economic development. The article describes the Problem Oriented Materials Preparation Project of Literacy House, Lucknow, India. (Author/BP)

  18. Pitfalls in the Preparation of Bilingual Materials: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Azeyedo, Milton M.; Garcia-Moya, Rodolfo

    1977-01-01

    An error analysis was conducted with materials published in Spanish in connection with an election in the U.S. Southwest. Most improprieties in the Spanish texts were found to be the result of an inadequate command of Spanish and lack of proficiency in translation skills. (Author/RM)

  19. The role of volcanic activity and climate in alluvial fan growth at volcanic areas: an example from southern Campania (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zanchetta, G.; Sulpizio, R.; Di Vito, M. A.

    2004-06-01

    Volcaniclastic-rich alluvial fans developed in the southern Campanian Plain (Italy) during the late Pleistocene and Holocene in an area eastward of the Somma-Vesuvius and Campi Flegrei volcanoes. Meanwhile, bedrock-rich alluvial fans developed in areas unaffected by pyroclastic deposition. Late Pleistocene and Holocene volcaniclastic-rich alluvial fans show some important differences: (i) late Pleistocene alluvial fans were dominated by hyperconcentrated flow deposits, whereas the Holocene ones were dominated by debris flows deposits; and (ii) late Pleistocene fans consist of several superimposed sedimentary bodies, characterized by homogeneous volcaniclastic material, whereas Holecene fans show either volcaniclastic bodies with homogenous lithology or mixed lithology (i.e., juvenile fractions eroded from different tephra layers). These differences are not related to the amount of volcaniclastic supply in time, but seem to be linked to changes in climatic condition between late Pleistocene and Holocene. Rapid remobilization of the pyroclastic material was favored by climatic and vegetation conditions of the study area during the late Pleistocene, when a semiarid setting dominated by steppe-like vegetation prevailed. During Holocene, the general increase in temperature and humidity favored vegetation and soil development and stabilization of the loose volcaniclastic materials. Thus, part of volcaniclastic material was stored in the catchments and was available for erosion a long time after an eruption. Shallow soil slips, active also today, generated volcaniclastic debris flows characterized by mixed lithology of pumice and scoria.

  20. Effect of discharge duct geometry on centrifugal fan performance and noise emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, David A.; Butrymowicz, William; Thomas, Christopher

    2005-09-01

    Non-ideal inlet and discharge duct geometries can cause significant changes to both the aerodynamic performance (``fan curve'') and specific sound power emission of a fan. A proper understanding of actual installed performance, as well as a good estimate of the system backpressure curve, is critical to achieving flow and acoustic goals as well as other criteria such as power consumption, mass and volume. To this end a battery of ISO 10302 tests was performed on a blower assembly which supports the Advanced Animal Habitat, being developed by ORBITEC for deployment on the International Space Station. The blower assembly consists of (4) identical centrifugal fans that, amongst themselves and across two prototypes, incorporated several discharge geometries. The inlet geometries were identical in all cases. Thus by comparing the dimensionless pressure-flow and noise emission characteristics across the cases, significant insight into the nature and potential magnitude of these effects is gained.

  1. Characterisation and modelling of washover fans

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Donnelly, Chantal; Sallenger, Asbury H.

    2007-01-01

    Pre- and post-storm topography and aerial photography, collected in regions where new washover fans were formed, were studied to determine the extent of morphologic, vegetative and anthropogenic control on washover shape and extent. When overwash is funnelled through a gap in a dune ridge and then spreads laterally on the back barrier, decelerating and depositing sediment, it forms washover fans. Fans were shown to primarily occur at pre-existing gaps in the foredune. During overwash, these gaps, or overwash throats, widened and deepened. The shape and extent of the fan was shown to depend on not only the pre-storm topography, but also the existence of beach tracks, roads and other anthropogenic influences and vegetation. The cross-shore overwash profile change model by Larson et al. and Donnelly et al. was modified to include pre-storm throat widths and a lateral spreading angle estimated from the pre-storm topography as inputs and tested using cross-shore profiles through the fan centres. These new inputs make the model more generalised, such that the calibrated model is applicable to a wider range of cross-shore profiles.

  2. Meander in valley crossing a deep-ocean fan.

    PubMed

    Shepard, F P

    1966-10-21

    Seaward of most submarine canyons there are large sediment fans comparable to the fans at the base of mountain ranges. Many of the submarine fans are cut by valleys called fan-valleys which usually connect with the mouths of submarine canyons. Loop-like bends or meanders characterize the channels of rivers in their lower flood plains, but have never been found in the shallow channels that cross the alluvial fans at the base of mountain canyons. Therefore, it was surprising to find that the channel in a very deep submarine fan-valley off Monterey Bay, California, has a tight meander.

  3. Design Guidelines for Quiet Fans and Pumps for Space Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lovell, John S.; Magliozzi, Bernard

    2008-01-01

    This document presents guidelines for the design of quiet fans and pumps of the class used on space vehicles. A simple procedure is presented for the prediction of fan noise over the meaningful frequency spectrum. A section also presents general design criteria for axial flow fans, squirrel cage fans, centrifugal fans, and centrifugal pumps. The basis for this report is an experimental program conducted by Hamilton Standard under NASA Contract NAS 9-12457. The derivations of the noise predicting methods used in this document are explained in Hamilton Standard Report SVHSER 6183, "Fan and Pump Noise Control," dated May 1973 (6).

  4. 22. INTERIOR VIEW OF NEW FAN HOUSE UPSHAFT CHIMNEY LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. INTERIOR VIEW OF NEW FAN HOUSE UPSHAFT CHIMNEY LOOKING WEST The Duplex Conoidal Fan is a single entry disk fan (see PA 61-21 and PA 61-22) which drew air from the No. 4 (Baltimore) shaft up the air-way through the cone, seen on the right, into the centrifugal fan, pictured here. The curved metal blades forced the air from the center of the fan to the tips of the blades and out the sheet metal exhaust chimney. - Dorrance Colliery Fan Complex, South side of Susquehanna River at Route 115 & Riechard Street, Wilkes-Barre, Luzerne County, PA

  5. Heat transfer and performance characteristics of axial cooling fans with downstream guide vanes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terzis, Alexandros; Stylianou, Ioannis; Kalfas, Anestis I.; Ott, Peter

    2012-04-01

    This study examines experimentally the effect of stators on the performance and heat transfer characteristics of small axial cooling fans. A single fan impeller, followed by nine stator blades in the case of a complete stage, was used for all the experimental configurations. Performance measurements were carried out in a constant speed stage performance test rig while the transient liquid crystal technique was used for the heat transfer measurements. Full surface heat transfer coefficient distributions were obtained by recording the temperature history of liquid crystals on a target plate. The experimental data indicated that the results are highly affected by the flow conditions at the fan outlet. Stators can be beneficial in terms of pressure drop and efficiency, and thus more economical operation, as well as, in the local heat transfer distribution at the wake of the stator blades if the fan is installed very close to the cooling object. However, as the separation distance increases, enhanced heat transfer rate in the order of 25% is observed in the case of the fan impeller.

  6. Materialism, affective states, and life satisfaction: case of Croatia.

    PubMed

    Lipovčan, Ljiljana Kaliterna; Prizmić-Larsen, Zvjezdana; Brkljačić, Tihana

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, a number of studies have used Material Values Scale (MVS) to assess beliefs about importance to own material things. The aims of this study were to validate the MVS scale and to explore the relationships between materialistic values and well-being of Croatian citizens. The study was carried out on a representative sample of N = 1129 Croatian citizens. We used the short 9-item version of the MVS, life satisfaction rating, ratings of two positive (Positive affect) and four negative emotions (Negative affect) over the past month, and demographic variables (age, gender, income). The original dimensionality of the MVS was not confirmed; confirmatory factor analyses yielded two instead of three factors, Happiness and Centrality/Success. When controlled for income, gender and age, the Happiness dimension predicted Life satisfaction and both Positive and Negative affect, indicating that people who believed that the material goods in ones life leads to happiness reported to have lower life satisfaction, lower level of positive affect and higher level of negative affect over the past month. The Centrality/Success dimension was positively related to Positive affect, indicating that the belief that possessions play a central role in enjoyment leads to more frequent experiences of happiness and satisfaction over the past month.

  7. Method of sealing casings of subsurface materials management system

    DOEpatents

    Nickelson, Reva A.; Richardson, John G.; Kostelnik, Kevin M.; Sloan, Paul A.

    2007-02-06

    Systems, components, and methods relating to subterranean containment barriers. Laterally adjacent tubular casings having male interlock structures and multiple female interlock structures defining recesses for receiving a male interlock structure are used to create subterranean barriers for containing and treating buried waste and its effluents. The multiple female interlock structures enable the barriers to be varied around subsurface objects and to form barrier sidewalls. The barrier may be used for treating and monitoring a zone of interest.

  8. Noise Measurements of the VAIIPR Fan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mendoza, Jeff; Weir, Don

    2012-01-01

    This final report has been prepared by Honeywell Aerospace, Phoenix, Arizona, a unit of Honeywell International, Inc., documenting work performed during the period September 2004 through November 2005 for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Glenn Research Center, Cleveland, Ohio, under the Revolutionary Aero-Space Engine Research (RASER) Program, Contract No. NAS3- 01136, Task Order 6, Noise Measurements of the VAIIPR Fan. The NASA Task Manager was Dr. Joe Grady, NASA Glenn Research Center, Mail Code 60-6, Cleveland, Ohio 44135. The NASA Contract Officer was Mr. Albert Spence, NASA Glenn Research Center, Mail Code 60-6, Cleveland, Ohio 44135. This report focuses on the evaluation of internal fan noise as generated from various inflow disturbances based on measurements made from a circumferential array of sensors located near the fan and sensors upstream of a serpentine inlet.

  9. Transformation-optical Fan-beam Synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Rui; Kong, Xianghui; Wang, Hui; Su, He; Lei, Zhenya; Wang, Jing; Zhang, Aofang; Chen, Lei

    2016-01-01

    Gradient-index dielectric lenses are generated based on the coordinate transformation by compressing the homogeneous air spaces quasi-conformally towards and outwards the primary source. The three-dimensional modeling is then performed through revolving the prescribed transformational media 180 degrees around the focal point to reach the architecture of barrel-vaults. It is found that all these two- and three-dimensional transformation-optical designs are capable of producing fan-beams efficiently over a broad frequency range with their main lobes possessing the narrow beamwidth in one dimension and the wide beamwidth in the other, while having the great ability of the wide angular scanning. Finally, we propose to construct such four types of fan-beam lenses through multiple-layered dielectrics with non-uniformed perforations and experimentally demonstrate their excellent performances in the fan-beam synthesis. PMID:26847048

  10. The mediating role of facebook fan pages.

    PubMed

    Chih, Wen-Hai; Hsu, Li-Chun; Wang, Kai-Yu; Lin, Kuan-Yu

    2014-01-01

    Using the dual mediation hypothesis, this study investigates the role of interestingness (the power of attracting or holding one's attention) attitude towards the news, in the formation of Facebook Fan Page users' electronic word-of-mouth intentions. A total of 599 Facebook fan page users in Taiwan were recruited and structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to test the research hypotheses. The results show that both perceived news entertainment and informativeness positively influence interestingness attitude towards the news. Interestingness attitude towards the news subsequently influences hedonism and utilitarianism attitudes towards the Fan Page, which then influence eWOM intentions. Interestingness attitude towards the news plays a more important role than hedonism and utilitarianism attitudes in generating electronic word-of-mouth intentions. Based on the findings, the implications and future research suggestions are provided.

  11. Shrouded fan propulsors for light aircraft.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waters, M. H.; Galloway, T. L.; Rohrbach, C.; Mayo, M. G.

    1973-01-01

    Continued growth of general-aviation over the next 10-15 years is dependent upon continuing improvement in aircraft safety, utility, performance, and cost. An attractive, compact, low-noise propulsor concept, the Q-FAN, when matched to reciprocating or rotary combustion engines, opens up the exciting prospect of new, cleaner airframe designs for the next generation of general-aviation aircraft, which will provide these improvements and meet the expected noise and pollution restrictions of the 1980 time period. In this paper, Q-FAN propulsion system performance, weight, noise, and cost trends are discussed. The impact of this propulsion system on the complete aircraft is investigated for two representative aircraft size categories. Examples of conceptual designs for Q-FAN/engine integration and aircraft installations are presented.

  12. Optimism Bias in Fans and Sports Reporters.

    PubMed

    Love, Bradley C; Kopeć, Łukasz; Guest, Olivia

    2015-01-01

    People are optimistic about their prospects relative to others. However, existing studies can be difficult to interpret because outcomes are not zero-sum. For example, one person avoiding cancer does not necessitate that another person develops cancer. Ideally, optimism bias would be evaluated within a closed formal system to establish with certainty the extent of the bias and the associated environmental factors, such that optimism bias is demonstrated when a population is internally inconsistent. Accordingly, we asked NFL fans to predict how many games teams they liked and disliked would win in the 2015 season. Fans, like ESPN reporters assigned to cover a team, were overly optimistic about their team's prospects. The opposite pattern was found for teams that fans disliked. Optimism may flourish because year-to-year team results are marked by auto-correlation and regression to the group mean (i.e., good teams stay good, but bad teams improve).

  13. Optimism Bias in Fans and Sports Reporters

    PubMed Central

    Love, Bradley C.

    2015-01-01

    People are optimistic about their prospects relative to others. However, existing studies can be difficult to interpret because outcomes are not zero-sum. For example, one person avoiding cancer does not necessitate that another person develops cancer. Ideally, optimism bias would be evaluated within a closed formal system to establish with certainty the extent of the bias and the associated environmental factors, such that optimism bias is demonstrated when a population is internally inconsistent. Accordingly, we asked NFL fans to predict how many games teams they liked and disliked would win in the 2015 season. Fans, like ESPN reporters assigned to cover a team, were overly optimistic about their team’s prospects. The opposite pattern was found for teams that fans disliked. Optimism may flourish because year-to-year team results are marked by auto-correlation and regression to the group mean (i.e., good teams stay good, but bad teams improve). PMID:26352146

  14. Transformation-optical Fan-beam Synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Rui; Kong, Xianghui; Wang, Hui; Su, He; Lei, Zhenya; Wang, Jing; Zhang, Aofang; Chen, Lei

    2016-02-01

    Gradient-index dielectric lenses are generated based on the coordinate transformation by compressing the homogeneous air spaces quasi-conformally towards and outwards the primary source. The three-dimensional modeling is then performed through revolving the prescribed transformational media 180 degrees around the focal point to reach the architecture of barrel-vaults. It is found that all these two- and three-dimensional transformation-optical designs are capable of producing fan-beams efficiently over a broad frequency range with their main lobes possessing the narrow beamwidth in one dimension and the wide beamwidth in the other, while having the great ability of the wide angular scanning. Finally, we propose to construct such four types of fan-beam lenses through multiple-layered dielectrics with non-uniformed perforations and experimentally demonstrate their excellent performances in the fan-beam synthesis.

  15. Directional scales of heterogeneity in alluvial fan aquifers

    SciTech Connect

    Neton, M.J.; Dorsch, J.; Young, S.C.; Olson, C.D. . Dept. of Geological Sciences Tennessee Valley Authority Engineering Lab., Norris, TN )

    1992-01-01

    Abrupt lateral and vertical permeability changes of up to 12 orders of magnitude are common in alluvial fan aquifers due to depositional heterogeneity. This abrupt heterogeneity is problematic, particularly in construction of a continuous hydraulic conductivity field from point measurements. Site characterization is improved through use of a scale-and-directionally-related model of fan heterogeneities. A directional classification of alluvial fan aquifer heterogeneities is proposed. The three directional scales of heterogeneity in alluvial fan aquifers are: (1) within-fan, (2) between-fan (strike-parallel), and (3) cross-fan (strike-perpendicular). Within-fan heterogeneity ranges from very small-scale intergrain relationships which control the nature of pores, to larger scale permeability trends between fan apex and toe, and includes abrupt lateral and vertical facies relationships. Between-fan heterogeneities are of a larger-scale and include differences between adjacent (non)coalescent fans along a basin-margin fault due primarily to changes in lithology between adjacent upland source basins. These differences produce different (a) grain and pore fluid compositions, (b) lithologic facies and proportions, and (c) down-fan fining trends, between adjacent fans. Cross-fan heterogeneities extend from source to basin. Fan deposits are in abrupt contact upgradient with low permeability, basin-margin source rock. Downgradient, fan deposits are in gradational to abrupt contact with time-equivalent, generally lower permeability deposits of lake, desert, longitudinal braided and meandering river, volcanic, and shallow marine environments. Throughout basin history these environments may abruptly cover the fan with low permeability horizons.

  16. Fan Noise Source Diagnostic Test: Rotor Alone Aerodynamic Performance Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughes, Christopher E.; Jeracki, Robert J.; Woodward, Richard P.; Miller, Christopher J.

    2005-01-01

    The aerodynamic performance of an isolated fan or rotor alone model was measured in the NASA Glenn Research Center 9- by 15- Foot Low Speed Wind Tunnel as part of the Fan Broadband Source Diagnostic Test conducted at NASA Glenn. The Source Diagnostic Test was conducted to identify the noise sources within a wind tunnel scale model of a turbofan engine and quantify their contribution to the overall system noise level. The fan was part of a 1/5th scale model representation of the bypass stage of a current technology turbofan engine. For the rotor alone testing, the fan and nacelle, including the inlet, external cowl, and fixed area fan exit nozzle, were modeled in the test hardware; the internal outlet guide vanes located behind the fan were removed. Without the outlet guide vanes, the velocity at the nozzle exit changes significantly, thereby affecting the fan performance. As part of the investigation, variations in the fan nozzle area were tested in order to match as closely as possible the rotor alone performance with the fan performance obtained with the outlet guide vanes installed. The fan operating performance was determined using fixed pressure/temperature combination rakes and the corrected weight flow. The performance results indicate that a suitable nozzle exit was achieved to be able to closely match the rotor alone and fan/outlet guide vane configuration performance on the sea level operating line. A small shift in the slope of the sea level operating line was measured, which resulted in a slightly higher rotor alone fan pressure ratio at take-off conditions, matched fan performance at cutback conditions, and a slightly lower rotor alone fan pressure ratio at approach conditions. However, the small differences in fan performance at all fan conditions were considered too small to affect the fan acoustic performance.

  17. Delivery of Terrigenous Material to Submarine Fans: Biological Evidence of Local, Staged, and Possibly Full Canyon Sediment Transport Down the Ascension-Monterey Canyon System Off Central California, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGann, M.

    2014-12-01

    Submarine canyons are instrumental in transporting sediment from coastal regions to deep-sea fans. Mean grain size, distribution, and sorting have been used to characterize these deposits, but they provide little information on where sediment transport was initiated or the delivery processes involved. Fortunately, the entrained biological constituents have unique environmental signatures that are more precise proxies for source areas than are mineral grains alone. They may identify a single biofacies deposit (SBD) resulting from local sediment transport such as storm waves, peak river discharge, breaking of internal waves, canyon wall sloughing, or hemipelagic deposition, or a displaced, multiple biofacies deposit (MBD) containing several biofacies where sediment is transported from one biofacies to another, is caught behind a slump that acts as a dam, remains there long enough for the local fauna to become established, and then this combined assemblage is transported further downslope when the dam breaks. Multiple episodes of this "staged" storage-and-release process occur sequentially so as to move the sediment progressively down the canyon. Rarely, exceptionally large triggers such as earthquakes, intense storm disturbances, and catastrophic failure of canyon walls result in full canyon flushing events, entraining numerous biofacies during a single rapid descent. These events can be differentiated in recent deposits by the presence of living specimens representing distinct biofacies or in historic records by dating individual biofacies within a turbidite. A 19,000 year record from the Ascension-Monterey Canyon system (core S3-15G, 36°23.53'N, 123°20.52'W; 3491 m) captured hemipelagic mud interspersed with turbiditic sand and silt transported to lower bathyal depths. The relative abundance of displaced benthic foraminifera was found to correlate positively with grain size (75% in cross-bedded turbiditic sands, 39% in laminated turbiditic sands, and 15% in

  18. Eustatic and structural control of submarine-fan sedimentation, Conception fan, Santa Barbara basin, California

    SciTech Connect

    Thor, D.R.

    1984-04-01

    Eustatic sea level lows provide an opportunity for submarine-fan development; topography and structure, however, can control depositional-sequence geometry. Analysis of high-resolution seismic data provides a basis to evaluate to the evolution and geometry of the Pleistocene-Holocene Conception fan. The fan formed in the restricted, tectonically active Santo Barbara basin. It consists of 4 vertically stacked depositional sequences, each bounded by nondepositional unconformities. The unconformities are defined by seismic-sequence boundaries and were formed during sea-level falls that are related to Pleistocene glacioeustatic changes. Each depositional sequence consists of lowstand, sandrich facies (fan channel, levee, and lobe) topped by highstand, mud-rich facies. The geometry of the depositional sequences tends to be rectilinear, not arcuate, because lateral progradation is restricted by topographically high structures. The modern fan surface and the Holocene depositional sequence provide a good analog for the older, underlying depositional sequences. The fan surface is characterized by 4 main channels, 2 of which head into submarine canyons incised into the shelf. Submarine canyons that fed the other 2 channels are now filled and have no topographic expression. In addition, numerous partially buried channel segments occur in the interchannel areas. The Holocene depositional sequence consists of lenticular and sheet-drape deposits interpreted to be channel, levee, and lobe facies. The facies geometry suggests that Mutti's topographic compensation, channel migration, and avulsion were typical processes on Conception fan.

  19. Quaternary alluvial fans of Ciudad Juárez, Chihuahua, northern México: OSL ages and implications for climatic history of the region

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zúñiga de León, David; Kershaw, Stephen; Mahan, Shannon

    2016-01-01

    Alluvial fans formed from sediments derived from erosion of the Juárez Mountains in northernmost México have a significant flood impact on the Ciudad Juárez, which is built on the fan system. The northern part of Ciudad Juárez is the most active; further south, older parts of the fan, upon which the rest of the city is built, were largely eroded by natural processes prior to human habitation and subsequently modified only recently by human construction. Three aeolian sand samples, collected from the uppermost (youngest) parts of the fan system in the city area, in places where human intervention has not disturbed the sediment, and constrain the latest dates of fan building. Depositional ages of the Quaternary alluvial fans were measured using Optically Stimulated Luminescence (OSL) on aeolian sands that have inter-fingered with alluvial fan material. These dates are: a) sample P1, 31 ka; b) sample P2, 41 ka; c) sample P3, 74 ka, between Oxygen Isotope Stages (OIS) 3 to 5. They demonstrate that fan development, in the area now occupied by the city, terminated in the Late Pleistocene, immediately after what we interpret to have been an extended period of erosion without further deposition, lasting from the Late Pleistocene to Holocene. The three dates broadly correspond to global glacial periods, implying that the cool, dry periods may reflect periods of aeolian transport in northern México in between phases that were wetter to form the alluvial fans. Alluvial fan margins inter-finger with fluvial terrace sediments derived from the Río Bravo, indicating an additional component of fan dissection by Río Bravo lateral erosion, presumed to be active during earlier times than our OSL ages, but these are not yet dated. Further dating is required to ascertain the controls on the fan and fluvial system.

  20. Design, durability and low cost processing technology for composite fan exit guide vanes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blecherman, S. S.

    1979-01-01

    A lightweight composite fan exit guide vane for high bypass ratio gas turbine engine application was investigated. Eight candidate material/design combinations were evaluated by NASTRAN finite element analyses. A total of four combinations were selected for further analytical evaluation, part fabrication by two ventors, and fatigue test in dry and wet condition. A core and shell vane design was chosen in which the unidirectional graphite core fiber was the same for all candidates. The shell material, fiber orientation, and ply configuration were varied. Material tests were performed on raw material and composite specimens to establish specification requirements. Pre-test and post-test microstructural examination and nondestructive analyses were conducted to determine the effect of material variations on fatigue durability and failure mode. Relevant data were acquired with respect to design analysis, materials properties, inspection standards, improved durability, weight benefits, and part price of the composite fan exit guide vane.

  1. Silicone impression material foreign body in the middle ear: Two case reports and literature review.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Nobuyoshi; Okamura, Koji; Yano, Takuya; Moteki, Hideaki; Kitoh, Ryosuke; Takumi, Yutaka; Usami, Shin-ichi

    2015-10-01

    We report two cases of impression material foreign body in the middle ear. The first case had been affected with chronic otitis media. The silicone flowed into the middle ear through a tympanic membrane perforation during the process of making an ear mold. About 4 years and 8 months after, the patient had severe vertigo and deafness. We found bone erosion of the prominence of the lateral semicircular canal and diagnosed labyrinthitis caused by silicone impression material. In the second case silicone flowed into the canal wall down mastoid cavity. Both cases required surgery to remove the foreign body. The clinical courses in such cases are variable and timing of surgery is sometimes difficult. In addition to reporting these two cases, we present here a review of the literature regarding impression material foreign bodies.

  2. Active Control of Fan Noise-Feasibility Study. Volume 1; Flyover System Noise Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kraft, Robert E.; Janardan, B. A.; Kontos, G. C.; Gliebe, P. R.

    1994-01-01

    A study has been completed to examine the potential reduction of aircraft flyover noise by the method of active noise control (ANC). It is assumed that the ANC system will be designed such that it cancels discrete tones radiating from the engine fan inlet or fan exhaust duct. Thus, without considering the engineering details of the ANC system design, tone levels are arbitrarily removed from the engine component noise spectrum and the flyover noise EPNL levels are compared with and without the presence of tones. The study was conducted for a range of engine cycles, corresponding to fan pressure ratios from 1.3 to 1.75. The major conclusions that can be drawn are that, for a fan pressure ratio of 1.75, ANC of tones gives about the same suppression as acoustic treatment without ANC, and for a fan pressure ratio of 1.45, ANC appears to offer less effectiveness than passive treatment. Additionally, ANC appears to be more effective at sideline and cutback conditions than at approach. Overall EPNL suppressions due to tone removal range from about 1 to 3 dB at takeoff engine speeds and from 1 to 5 db at approach speeds. Studies of economic impact of the installation of an ANC system for the four engine cases indicate increases of DOC ranging from 1 to 2 percent, favoring the lower fan pressure ratio engines. Further study is needed to confirm the results by examining additional engine data, particularly at low fan pressure ratios, and studying the details of the current results to obtain a more complete understanding. Further studies should also include determining the effects of combining passive and active treatment.

  3. Experimental alluvial fans: Advances in understanding of fan dynamics and processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clarke, Lucy E.

    2015-09-01

    Alluvial fans are depositional systems that develop because of a disparity between the upstream and downstream sediment transport capacity of a system, usually at the base of mountain fronts as rivers emerge from the constrained mountain area onto the plain. They are dynamic landforms that are prone to abrupt changes on a geomorphological (decades to centuries) time scale, while also being long-term deposition features that preserve sedimentary strata and are sensitive indictors of environmental change. The complexity of interactions between catchment characteristics, climate, tectonics, internal system feedbacks, and environmental processes on field alluvial fans means that it is difficult to isolate individual variables in a field setting; therefore, the controlled conditions afforded by experimental models has provided a novel technique to overcome some of these complexities. The use of experimental models of alluvial fans has a long history and these have been implemented over a range of different research areas utilising various experimental designs. Using this technique, important advances have been made in determining the primary factors influencing fan slope, understanding of avulsion dynamics, identifying autogenic processes driving change on fan systems independent of any change in external conditions, and the mechanics of flow and flood risk on alluvial fans, to name a few. However, experiments cannot be carried out in isolation. Thus, combining the findings from experimental alluvial fans with field research and numerical modelling is important and, likewise, using these techniques to inform experimental design. If this can be achieved, there is potential for future experimental developments to explore key alluvial fan issues such as stratigraphic preservation potential and simulating extra terrestrial fan systems.

  4. Sediment sound velocities from sonobuoys: Arabian fan

    SciTech Connect

    Bachman, R.T.; Hamilton, E.L.

    1980-02-10

    Eight variable-angle seismic reflection stations in the Arabian Fan, Northwestern Indian Ocean, provided 40 determinations of sound velocity in sediment and sedimentary rock. Sound velocity in the homogeneous, largely terrigenous fan increases smoothly with depth. Regression analysis yielded the velocity-time relationship V (km/s)=1.510+1.863t, where V is instantaneous velocity and t is one-way travel time below the sea floor to 1 s. The velocity-depth function is V (km/s)=1.510+1.200h-0.253h/sup 2/+ 0.034h/sup 3/, where h is subbottom depth in km.

  5. Fan-less long range alpha detector

    DOEpatents

    MacArthur, D.W.; Bounds, J.A.

    1994-05-10

    A fan-less long range alpha detector is disclosed which operates by using an electrical field between a signal plane and the surface or substance to be monitored for air ions created by collisions with alpha radiation. Without a fan, the detector can operate without the possibility of spreading dust and potential contamination into the atmosphere. A guard plane between the signal plane and the electrically conductive enclosure and maintained at the same voltage as the signal plane, reduces leakage currents. The detector can easily monitor soil, or other solid or liquid surfaces. 2 figures.

  6. Numerical simulation for fan broadband noise prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hase, Takaaki; Yamasaki, Nobuhiko; Ooishi, Tsutomu

    2011-03-01

    In order to elucidate the broadband noise of fan, the numerical simulation of fan operating at two different rotational speeds is carried out using the three-dimensional unsteady Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (URANS) equations. The computed results are compared to experiment to estimate its accuracy and are found to show good agreement with experiment. A method is proposed to evaluate the turbulent kinetic energy in the framework of the Spalart-Allmaras one equation turbulence model. From the calculation results, the turbulent kinetic energy is visualized as the turbulence of the flow which leads to generate the broadband noise, and its noise sources are identified.

  7. Theoretical Determination of Axial Fan Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Struve, E.

    1943-01-01

    The report presents a method for the computation of axial fan characteristics. The method is based on the assumption that the law of constancy of the circulation along the blade holds, approximately, for all fan conditions for which the blade elements operate at normal angles of attack (up to the stalling angles). Pressure head coefficient K(sub a) and power coefficient K(sub u) for the force components in the axial and tangential directions, respectively, and analogous to the lift and drag coefficients C(sub y) and C(sub x) are conveniently introduced.

  8. Advanced material distribution measurement in multiphase flows: A case study

    SciTech Connect

    George, D.L.; Ceccio, S.L.; O`Hern, T.J.; Shollenberger, K.A.; Torczynski, J.R.

    1998-08-01

    A variety of tomographic techniques that have been applied to multiphase flows are described. The methods discussed include electrical impedance tomography (EIT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), positron emission tomography (PET), gamma-densitometry tomography (GDT), radiative particle tracking (RDT), X-ray imaging, and acoustic tomography. Also presented is a case study in which measurements were made with EIT and GDT in two-phase flows. Both solid-liquid and gas-liquid flows were examined. EIT and GDT were applied independently to predict mean and spatially resolved phase volume fractions. The results from the two systems compared well.

  9. Design and Test of Fan/Nacelle Models Quiet High-Speed Fan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Christopher J. (Technical Monitor); Weir, Donald

    2003-01-01

    The Quiet High-Speed Fan program is a cooperative effort between Honeywell Engines & Systems (formerly AlliedSignal Engines & Systems) and the NASA Glenn Research Center. Engines & Systems has designed an advanced high-speed fan that will be tested on the Ultra High Bypass Propulsion Simulator in the NASA Glenn 9 x 15 foot wind tunnel, currently scheduled for the second quarter of 2000. An Engines & Systems modern fan design will be used as a baseline. A nacelle model is provided that is characteristic of a typical, modern regional aircraft nacelle and meets all of the program test objectives.

  10. Structural integrity of wind tunnel wooden fan blades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, Clarence P., Jr.; Wingate, Robert T.; Rooker, James R.; Mort, Kenneth W.; Zager, Harold E.

    1991-01-01

    Information is presented which was compiled by the NASA Inter-Center Committee on Structural Integrity of Wooden Fan Blades and is intended for use as a guide in design, fabrication, evaluation, and assurance of fan systems using wooden blades. A risk assessment approach for existing NASA wind tunnels with wooden fan blades is provided. Also, state of the art information is provided for wooden fan blade design, drive system considerations, inspection and monitoring methods, and fan blade repair. Proposed research and development activities are discussed, and recommendations are provided which are aimed at future wooden fan blade design activities and safely maintaining existing NASA wind tunnel fan blades. Information is presented that will be of value to wooden fan blade designers, fabricators, inspectors, and wind tunnel operations personnel.

  11. The Shape of Trail Canyon Alluvial Fan, Death Valley

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farr, Tom G.; Dohrenwend, John C.

    1993-01-01

    A modified conic equation has been fit to high-resolution digital topographic data for Trail Canyon alluvial fan in Death Valley, California. Fits were accomplished for 3 individual fan units of different age.

  12. 1. A BRICK AND CONCRETE FAN HOUSING ADJACENT TO ONE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. A BRICK AND CONCRETE FAN HOUSING ADJACENT TO ONE OF THE ADIT OPENINGS (VIEW TO THE NORTH). - Foster Gulch Mine, Fan Housing, Bear Creek 1 mile Southwest of Town of Bear Creek, Red Lodge, Carbon County, MT

  13. Quiet High Speed Fan II (QHSF II): Final Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kontos, Karen; Weir, Don; Ross, Dave

    2012-01-01

    This report details the aerodynamic, mechanical, structural design and fabrication of a Honey Engines Quiet High Speed Fan II (lower hub/tip ratio and higher specific flow than the Baseline I fan). This fan/nacelle system incorporates features such as advanced forward sweep and an advanced integrated fan/fan exit guide vane design that provides for the following characteristics: (1) Reduced noise at supersonic tip speeds, in comparison to current state-of-the-art fan technology; (2) Improved aeroelastic stability within the anticipated operating envelope; and (3) Aerodynamic performance consistent with current state-of-the-art fan technology. This fan was fabricated by Honeywell and tested in the NASA Glenn 9- by 15-Ft Low Speed Wind Tunnel for aerodynamic, aeromechanical, and acoustic performance.

  14. 5. AEROVANE FAN HOOD FROM NORTHWEST. MANWAY SHAFT DOORS AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. AEROVANE FAN HOOD FROM NORTHWEST. MANWAY SHAFT DOORS AND METAL FRAGMENT AT RIGHT REAR. - Consolidation Coal Company Mine No. 11, Aerovane Fan, East side of State Route 936, Midlothian, Allegany County, MD

  15. Improving Fan System Performance: A Sourcebook for Industry

    SciTech Connect

    2003-04-01

    This is one of a series of sourcebooks on motor-driven equipment produced by the Industrial Technologies Program. It provides a reference for industrial fan systems users, outlining opportunities to improve fan system performance.

  16. MTR BLOWER AND FAN HOUSE, TRA610. AIR DUCT DETAILS AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    MTR BLOWER AND FAN HOUSE, TRA-610. AIR DUCT DETAILS AND EQUIPMENT FOUNDATIONS. SECTION THROUGH AIR DUCT CHANNELS FROM ENTRY TO BUILDING TO EXIT INTO STACK. BLAW-KNOX 3150-810-3, 1/1951. INL INDEX NO. 531-0610-00-098-100690, REV. 4. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  17. MTR BLOWER AND FAN HOUSE, TRA610. ELEVATIONS. SECTIONS. BLAWKNOX 31508102, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    MTR BLOWER AND FAN HOUSE, TRA-610. ELEVATIONS. SECTIONS. BLAW-KNOX 3150-810-2, 12/1950. INL INDEX NO. 531-0610-00-098-100689, REV. 2. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  18. MTR BLOWER AND FAN HOUSE, TRA610. FIRST FLOOR, ROOF AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    MTR BLOWER AND FAN HOUSE, TRA-610. FIRST FLOOR, ROOF AND FOUNDATION PLANS. DOOR SCHEDULE AND LOCATION OF STRUCTURAL STEEL AND HOLLOW METAL DOORS. BLAW-KNOX 3150-810-1, 1/1951. INL INDEX NO. 531-0610-00-098-100688, REV. 2. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  19. MTR BLOWER AND FAN HOUSE, TRA610. PLAN AND LAYOUT. SECTIONS. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    MTR BLOWER AND FAN HOUSE, TRA-610. PLAN AND LAYOUT. SECTIONS. BLAW-KNOX 3150-10-1, 6/1950. INL INDEX NO. 531-0610-00-098-100020, REV. 9. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  20. Cost analysis of composite fan blade manufacturing processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stelson, T. S.; Barth, C. F.

    1980-01-01

    The relative manufacturing costs were estimated for large high technology fan blades prepared by advanced composite fabrication methods using seven candidate materials/process systems. These systems were identified as laminated resin matrix composite, filament wound resin matrix composite, superhybrid solid laminate, superhybrid spar/shell, metal matrix composite, metal matrix composite with a spar and shell, and hollow titanium. The costs were calculated utilizing analytical process models and all cost data are presented as normalized relative values where 100 was the cost of a conventionally forged solid titanium fan blade whose geometry corresponded to a size typical of 42 blades per disc. Four costs were calculated for each of the seven candidate systems to relate the variation of cost on blade size. Geometries typical of blade designs at 24, 30, 36 and 42 blades per disc were used. The impact of individual process yield factors on costs was also assessed as well as effects of process parameters, raw materials, labor rates and consumable items.

  1. Potential links between onshore tectonics and terrestrial organic carbon delivery to distal submarine fan environments: IODP Site U1417, Surveyor Fan, Gulf of Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Childress, L. B.; Ridgway, K. D.; Blair, N. E.; Bahlburg, H.; Berbel, G.; Cowan, E. A.; Forwick, M.; Gulick, S. P.; Jaeger, J. M.; Maerz, C.; McClymont, E.; Moy, C. M.; Müller, J.; Nakamura, A.; Ribeiro, F.

    2013-12-01

    The sedimentary record at Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Site U1417 is particularly well preserved and permits delineation of Neogene tectonic, climatic, and terrestrial organic carbon signals. Lithofacies in the 708 m-long, cored interval can be divided into 3 sedimentary packages that we interpret as linked to the tectonic convergence of the Yakutat Terrane with, and onset of tidewater glaciation along, the continental margin of northwestern Canada and southern Alaska. Previous studies have shown that development of the Surveyor Fan system was closely linked to transport of the Yakutat Terrane and development of the Cordilleran Ice Sheet. Initial shipboard measurements of total organic carbon and observed plant and coal fragments imply good preservation of terrestrial organic matter. Furthermore, documented preservation of terrestrial organic matter in modern sediment along the southern Alaskan continental margin and sediment routing through the Surveyor Channel from the Pleistocene to modern time implies a long-term conduit for this organic material to reach the distal portion of the Surveyor Fan system. We interpret the lower units of U1417 (late Miocene) to have been deposited when the Yakutat Terrane was located offshore of northern British Columbia and/or southeastern Alaska. Northward transport of the Yakutat Terrane during the late Miocene is interpreted to have resulted in uplift and erosion of the Eocene coal-bearing Kulthieth Formation. We infer that eroded rock carbon from this formation was transported from the shelf to the earliest, or precursor to, the Surveyor Fan with depocenters infilling between seamounts. Detailed geochemical/biomarker analysis of Kulthieth Formation coals will provide a chemical fingerprint by which to identify this source of late Miocene sediment at U1417. Continued Pliocene - early Pleistocene northward convergence resulted in recycling of organic carbon from the onshore Neogene thrust belt of the Yakutat Terrane

  2. Active Control of Fan Noise in Ducts Using Magnetic Bearings

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    of magnetic bearings. An axial flow fan creates tonal noise related to its rotational rate. Additional noise exists due to harmonics of this frequency...magnetic bearings. An axial flow fan creates tonal noise related to its rotational rate. Additional noise exists due to harmonics of this frequency as well...systems typically have fans that will move air from the heating or cooling system to any desired space. Fan noise is characterized first by tonal

  3. System design and integration of the large-scale advanced prop-fan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huth, B. P.

    1986-01-01

    In recent years, considerable attention has been directed toward improving aircraft fuel consumption. Studies have shown that blades with thin airfoils and aerodynamic sweep extend the inherent efficiency advantage that turboprop propulsion systems have demonstrated to the higher speed to today's aircraft. Hamilton Standard has designed a 9-foot diameter single-rotation Prop-Fan. It will test the hardware on a static test stand, in low speed and high speed wind tunnels and on a research aircraft. The major objective of this testing is to establish the structural integrity of large scale Prop-Fans of advanced construction, in addition to the evaluation of aerodynamic performance and the aeroacoustic design. The coordination efforts performed to ensure smooth operation and assembly of the Prop-Fan are summarized. A summary of the loads used to size the system components, the methodology used to establish material allowables and a review of the key analytical results are given.

  4. PCS Nitrogen: Combustion Fan System Optimization Improves Performance and Saves Energy at a Chemical Plant

    SciTech Connect

    2005-01-01

    This U.S. Department of Energy Industrial Technologies Program case study describes how, in 2003, PCS Nitrogen, Inc., improved the efficiency of the combustion fan on a boiler at the company's chemical fertilizer plant in Augusta, Georgia. The project saved $420,000 and 76,400 million British thermal units (MBtu) per year. In addition, maintenance needs declined, because there is now less stress on the fan motor and bearings and less boiler feed water usage. This project was so successful that the company has implemented more efficiency improvements that should result in energy cost savings of nearly $1 million per year.

  5. Computer modeling of fan-exit-splitter spacing effects on F100 response to distortion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaw, M.; Murdoch, R. W.

    1982-01-01

    The distortion response of the F100(3) engine was effected by the fan exit splitter configuration. The sensitivity for a proximate splitter fan is calculated to be slightly greater than a remote splitter configuration with identical airfoils. Predicted response was based upon a multiple segment parallel compressor Model modified to include a bypass ratio representation that effects the performance characteristics of the last rotor and intermediate case struts. The predicted distortion response required an accurate definition of row pre- and post-stall undistorted operation.

  6. Broadband Fan Noise Prediction System for Turbofan Engines. Volume 2; BFaNS User's Manual and Developer's Guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morin, Bruce L.

    2010-01-01

    Pratt & Whitney has developed a Broadband Fan Noise Prediction System (BFaNS) for turbofan engines. This system computes the noise generated by turbulence impinging on the leading edges of the fan and fan exit guide vane, and noise generated by boundary-layer turbulence passing over the fan trailing edge. BFaNS has been validated on three fan rigs that were tested during the NASA Advanced Subsonic Technology Program (AST). The predicted noise spectra agreed well with measured data. The predicted effects of fan speed, vane count, and vane sweep also agreed well with measurements. The noise prediction system consists of two computer programs: Setup_BFaNS and BFaNS. Setup_BFaNS converts user-specified geometry and flow-field information into a BFaNS input file. From this input file, BFaNS computes the inlet and aft broadband sound power spectra generated by the fan and FEGV. The output file from BFaNS contains the inlet, aft and total sound power spectra from each noise source. This report is the second volume of a three-volume set documenting the Broadband Fan Noise Prediction System: Volume 1: Setup_BFaNS User s Manual and Developer s Guide; Volume 2: BFaNS User s Manual and Developer s Guide; and Volume 3: Validation and Test Cases. The present volume begins with an overview of the Broadband Fan Noise Prediction System, followed by step-by-step instructions for installing and running BFaNS. It concludes with technical documentation of the BFaNS computer program.

  7. Broadband Fan Noise Prediction System for Turbofan Engines. Volume 1; Setup_BFaNS User's Manual and Developer's Guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morin, Bruce L.

    2010-01-01

    Pratt & Whitney has developed a Broadband Fan Noise Prediction System (BFaNS) for turbofan engines. This system computes the noise generated by turbulence impinging on the leading edges of the fan and fan exit guide vane, and noise generated by boundary-layer turbulence passing over the fan trailing edge. BFaNS has been validated on three fan rigs that were tested during the NASA Advanced Subsonic Technology Program (AST). The predicted noise spectra agreed well with measured data. The predicted effects of fan speed, vane count, and vane sweep also agreed well with measurements. The noise prediction system consists of two computer programs: Setup_BFaNS and BFaNS. Setup_BFaNS converts user-specified geometry and flow-field information into a BFaNS input file. From this input file, BFaNS computes the inlet and aft broadband sound power spectra generated by the fan and FEGV. The output file from BFaNS contains the inlet, aft and total sound power spectra from each noise source. This report is the first volume of a three-volume set documenting the Broadband Fan Noise Prediction System: Volume 1: Setup_BFaNS User s Manual and Developer s Guide; Volume 2: BFaNS User's Manual and Developer s Guide; and Volume 3: Validation and Test Cases. The present volume begins with an overview of the Broadband Fan Noise Prediction System, followed by step-by-step instructions for installing and running Setup_BFaNS. It concludes with technical documentation of the Setup_BFaNS computer program.

  8. Discrete-frequency and broadband noise radiation from diesel engine cooling fans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Geon-Seok

    This effort focuses on measuring and predicting the discrete-frequency and broadband noise radiated by diesel engine cooling fans. Unsteady forces developed by the interaction of the fan blade with inlet flow are the dominant source for both discrete-frequency and broadband noise of the subject propeller fan. In many cases, a primary source of discrepancy between fan noise prediction and measurement is due to incomplete description of the fan inflow. Particularly, in such engine cooling systems where space is very limited, it would be very difficult, if not, impossible to measure the fan inflow velocity field using the conventional, stationary hot-wire method. Instead, the fan inflow was measured with two-component x-type hot-film probes attached very close to the leading edge of a rotating blade. One of the advantages of the blade-mounted-probe measurement technique is that it measures velocities relative to the rotating probe, which enables the acquired data to be applied directly in many aerodynamic theories that have been developed for the airfoil fixed-coordinate system. However, the velocity time data measured by this technique contains the spatially non-uniform mean velocity field along with the temporal fluctuations. A phase-locked averaging technique was successfully employed to decompose the velocity data into time-invariant flow distortions and fluctuations due to turbulence. The angles of attack of the fan blades, obtained from inlet flow measurements, indicate that the blades are stalled. The fan's radiated noise was measured without contamination from the engine noise by driving the fan with an electric motor. The motor operated at a constant speed while a pair of speed controllable pulleys controlled the fan speed. Narrowband and 1/3-octave band sound power of the cooling fan was measured by using the comparison method with a reference sound source in a reverberant room. The spatially non-uniform mean velocity field was used in axial-flow fan noise

  9. Star Trek Rerun, Reread, Rewritten: Fan Writing as Textual Poaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenkins III, Henry

    1988-01-01

    Discusses women who write fiction and fan literature based on the "Star Trek" universe, outlining how Star Trek fans force the primary text to accommodate alternate interests. Also considers the issue of literary property in light of the moral economy of the fan community that shapes the range of permissible retellings of the program…

  10. Nicolas and Eel submarine fans, California continental borderland

    SciTech Connect

    Reynolds, S.; Gorsline, D.S.

    1987-04-01

    Nicolas and Eel Submarine Fans occur in the San Nicolas basin - an outer basin of the California continental borderland that has a low sedimentation rate. Nicolas Fan lies southeast of San Nicolas Island and the broad San Nicolas Bank. The upper fan is characterized by numerous channels. The midfan region may be divided into three distinct areas: a central midfan and two subfans. The central midfan deposition system is typical of Normark's suprafan. The subfans are essentially flat, sandy lobes. Eel Fan lies west of San Clemente Island and is fed by an erosional valley. Its midfan region may also be characterized as a flat, sandy lobe. Box-core data show that holocene turbidity currents have occurred on the central Nicolas Fan, whereas the subfans and Eel Fan are nearly inactive. The local tectonic regime influences these fans by determining slope trends, creating bathymetric obstacles, controlling canyon location, and triggering mass movements. Sea level changes affect sedimentation patterns of the fans by increasing the mean grain size and the amount of sediment delivered to the fan during lowstands. These changes may, in turn, affect the morphology of the fan. The characteristics of these fans represent variations of the generalized fan models described in the literature. 12 figures, 1 table.

  11. 30 CFR 75.331 - Auxiliary fans and tubing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... recirculation of air. (b) If a deficiency exists in any auxiliary fan system, the deficiency shall be corrected... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Auxiliary fans and tubing. 75.331 Section 75... HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Ventilation § 75.331 Auxiliary fans and...

  12. 30 CFR 57.8529 - Auxiliary fan systems

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Auxiliary fan systems 57.8529 Section 57.8529 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE... Underground Only § 57.8529 Auxiliary fan systems When auxiliary fan systems are used, such systems...

  13. 30 CFR 57.8529 - Auxiliary fan systems

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Auxiliary fan systems 57.8529 Section 57.8529 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE... Underground Only § 57.8529 Auxiliary fan systems When auxiliary fan systems are used, such systems...

  14. 30 CFR 75.331 - Auxiliary fans and tubing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... recirculation of air. (b) If a deficiency exists in any auxiliary fan system, the deficiency shall be corrected... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Auxiliary fans and tubing. 75.331 Section 75... HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Ventilation § 75.331 Auxiliary fans and...

  15. Optical fan blade profile measurement in rotating turbomachinery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davinson, I.; Mutton, J. E.; Parker, R.; Parnell, A.; Roberts, J. P.

    1990-06-01

    An optical technique for measuring the profile of a fan blade at a range of radial heights in a rotating turbofan by laser triangulation has been developed and tested. The technique has been successfully used on fan rigs and on full size engines. The data thus obtained is now being used to verify the current models of fan blade behavior.

  16. 10 CFR 429.33 - Ceiling fan light kits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Ceiling fan light kits. 429.33 Section 429.33 Energy... COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Certification § 429.33 Ceiling fan light kits. (a) Sampling plan for selection of units for testing. (1) The requirements of § 429.11 are applicable to ceiling fan light...

  17. 10 CFR 429.33 - Ceiling fan light kits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Ceiling fan light kits. 429.33 Section 429.33 Energy... COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Certification § 429.33 Ceiling fan light kits. (a) Sampling plan for selection of units for testing. (1) The requirements of § 429.11 are applicable to ceiling fan light...

  18. 10 CFR 429.33 - Ceiling fan light kits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Ceiling fan light kits. 429.33 Section 429.33 Energy... COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Certification § 429.33 Ceiling fan light kits. (a) Sampling plan for selection of units for testing. (1) The requirements of § 429.11 are applicable to ceiling fan light...

  19. Alcohol-Related Fan Behavior on College Football Game Day

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glassman, Tavis; Werch, Chudley E.; Jobli, Edessa; Bian, Hui

    2007-01-01

    High-risk drinking on game day represents a unique public health challenge. Objective: The authors examined the drinking behavior of college football fans and assessed the support for related interventions. Participants: The authors randomly selected 762 football fans, including college students, alumni, and other college football fans, to…

  20. 16 CFR 305.13 - Labeling for ceiling fans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...: “Compare: 49″ to 60″ ceiling fans have airflow efficiencies ranging from approximately 51 to 176 cubic feet... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Labeling for ceiling fans. 305.13 Section... Disclosures § 305.13 Labeling for ceiling fans. (a) Ceiling fans—(1) Content. Any covered product that is...

  1. 16 CFR 305.13 - Labeling for ceiling fans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...: “Compare: 49″ to 60″ ceiling fans have airflow efficiencies ranging from approximately 51 to 176 cubic feet... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Labeling for ceiling fans. 305.13 Section... Disclosures § 305.13 Labeling for ceiling fans. (a) Ceiling fans—(1) Content. Any covered product that is...

  2. 16 CFR 305.13 - Labeling for ceiling fans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... fans have airflow efficiencies ranging from approximately 71 to 86 cubic feet per minute per watt at... diameter: “Compare: 49″ to 60″ ceiling fans have airflow efficiencies ranging from approximately 51 to 176... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Labeling for ceiling fans. 305.13...

  3. 16 CFR 305.13 - Labeling for ceiling fans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...: “Compare: 49″ to 60″ ceiling fans have airflow efficiencies ranging from approximately 51 to 176 cubic feet... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Labeling for ceiling fans. 305.13 Section... Disclosures § 305.13 Labeling for ceiling fans. (a) Ceiling fans—(1) Content. Any covered product that is...

  4. 16 CFR 305.13 - Labeling for ceiling fans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...: “Compare: 49″ to 60″ ceiling fans have airflow efficiencies ranging from approximately 51 to 176 cubic feet... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Labeling for ceiling fans. 305.13 Section... Disclosures § 305.13 Labeling for ceiling fans. (a) Ceiling fans—(1) Content. Any covered product that is...

  5. Experimental apparatus for investigation of fan aeroelastic instabilities in turbomachinery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, W. H.; Bishop, W. A.; Kirchgessner, T. A.; Dicus, J. H.

    1977-01-01

    The application, installation, and monitoring of dynamic strain gage instrumentation on the rotating fan blades for subsonic stalled flutter mode of the first fan rotor are described. The engine installation, the modifications to the engine controls to obtain off schedule operation of the fan, engine aerodynamic instrumentation, and general data acquisition systems are discussed.

  6. Design, durability and low cost processing technology for composite fan exit guide vanes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blecherman, S. S.

    1980-01-01

    A program was conducted to design, fabricate and test a durable, low cost, lightweight composite fan exit guide vane for high bypass ratio gas turbine engine application. Eight candidate material/design combinations were evaluated by NASTRAN finite element analysis. Four of these candidate systems were selected for composite vane fabrication by two vendors. A core and shell vane design was chosen in which the unidirectional graphite core fiber was the same for all candidates. The shell material, fiber orientation and ply configuration were varied. Material tests were performed on raw material and composite specimens to establish specification requirements. Composite vanes were nondestructively inspected and subsequently fatigue tested in both dry and 'wet' conditions. The program provided relevant data with respect to design analysis, materials properties, inspection standards, improved durability, weight benefits and part price of the composite fan exit guide vane.

  7. Experimental determination of the tonal noise sources in a centrifugal fan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velarde-Suárez, Sandra; Ballesteros-Tajadura, Rafael; Pablo Hurtado-Cruz, Juan; Santolaria-Morros, Carlos

    2006-08-01

    In this work, an experimental study about the aerodynamic tonal noise sources in a centrifugal fan with backward-curved blades has been carried out. Acoustic pressure measurements at the fan exit duct and pressure fluctuation measurements on the volute surface have been made for different flow rates. A correlation study of both pressure signals has been made in order to explain some of the features of the aerodynamic tonal noise generation. A strong source of noise caused by the interaction between the fluctuating flow leaving the impeller and the volute tongue is appreciated. The unsteady forces exerted on the fan blades constitute another noise generation mechanism, which affects the whole extension of the impeller, thus transmitting pressure fluctuations to the entire volute casing. The relative importance of this mechanism compared to the impeller-tongue interaction depends on the flow rate.

  8. Fan Stall Flutter Flow Mechanism Studied

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lepicovsky, Jan

    2002-01-01

    Modern turbofan engines employ a highly loaded fan stage with transonic or low-supersonic velocities in the blade-tip region. The fan blades are often prone to flutter at off-design conditions. Flutter is a highly undesirable and dangerous self-excited mode of blade oscillations that can result in high-cycle fatigue blade failure. The origins of blade flutter are not fully understood yet. Experimental data that can be used to clarify the origins of blade flutter in modern transonic fan designs are very limited. The Transonic Flutter Cascade Facility at the NASA Glenn Research Center was developed to experimentally study the details of flow mechanisms associated with fan flutter. The cascade airfoils are instrumented to measure high-frequency unsteady flow variations in addition to the steady flow data normally recorded in cascade tests. The test program measures the variation in surface pressure in response to the oscillation of one or more of the cascade airfoils. However, during the initial phases of the program when all airfoils were in fixed positions, conditions were found where significant time variations in the pressures near the airfoil leading edges could be observed.

  9. Fanning the Optimal Breeze with an Abanico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goon, Grace; Marthelot, Joel; Reis, Pedro

    2015-03-01

    Flexible hand-held fans, or abanicos, are universally employed as cooling devices that are both portable and sustainable. Their to and fro axial motion about one's hand generates an airflow that increases the evaporation rate near the skin and refreshes. We study this problem in the context of fluid-structure interaction, through precision model experiments. We first characterize the elastic properties of a number of commercially available fans and evaluate their aerodynamic performance in a custom built apparatus. The air velocity profile that results from the flapping motion of the fan is characterized for different driving conditions. We then fabricate our own analogue model fans that comprise a thin elastic plate, shaped as a circular section, with an underlying substructure of radial slats. A systematic variation of the geometric and elastic parameters, along with an exploration of the parameter space of the periodic driving motion (amplitude and frequency), allows us to establish optimal design and operational conditions for maximal output of the generated airflow, while minimizing the input power.

  10. Online Fan Fiction, Global Identities, and Imagination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, Rebecca W.

    2009-01-01

    Based on longitudinal data from a three year ethnographic study, this article uses discourse analytic methods to explore the literacy and social practices of three adolescent English language learners writing in an online fan fiction community. Theoretical constructs within globalization and literacy studies are used to describe the influences of…

  11. Fan Affinity Laws from a Collision Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhattacharjee, Shayak

    2012-01-01

    The performance of a fan is usually estimated using hydrodynamical considerations. The calculations are long and involved and the results are expressed in terms of three affinity laws. In this paper we use kinetic theory to attack this problem. A hard sphere collision model is used, and subsequently a correction to account for the flow behaviour…

  12. From Rivalry to Hostility Among Sports Fans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Martin J.

    1985-01-01

    This paper suggests that highly competitive sport encourages strong identification of fans with teams. Theories of conflict, categorization, and social competition are used to discuss some determinants of identification with teams, and implications for physical education are drawn. (Author/MT)

  13. Supersonic axial-flow fan flutter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramsey, John K.

    1988-01-01

    Lane's (1957) analytical formulation of the unsteady pressure distribution on an oscillating two-dimensional flat plate cascade in supersonic axial flow has been developed into a computer code. This unsteady aerodynamic code has shown good agreement with other published data. This code has also been incorporated into an existing aeroelastic code to analyze the NASA Lewis supersonic through-flow fan design.

  14. Generalized sorting profile of alluvial fans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Kimberly Litwin; Reitz, Meredith D.; Jerolmack, Douglas J.

    2014-10-01

    Alluvial rivers often exhibit self-similar gravel size distributions and abrupt gravel-sand transitions. Experiments suggest that these sorting patterns are established rapidly, but how—and how fast—this convergence occurs in the field is unknown. We examine the establishment of downstream sorting patterns in a kilometer-scale alluvial fan. The sharp transition from canyon to unconfined, channelized fan provides a well-defined boundary condition. The channel changes from deep and entrenched at the fan apex to shallow and depositional over a short distance, exhibiting nonequilibrium behavior. The resulting gravel-fining profile is not self-similar; the particle size distribution narrows until approximate equal mobility is achieved. Downfan, the gravel-sand transition appears to exhibit a self-similar form; field and laboratory data collapse when downstream distance is normalized by the location of the transition. Results suggest a generalized sorting profile for alluvial fans as a consequence of the threshold of motion and nonequilibrium channels.

  15. Effect of Different Substrates and Casing Materials on the Growth and Yield of Calocybe indica

    PubMed Central

    Amin, Ruhul; Khair, Abul; Alam, Nuhu

    2010-01-01

    Calocybe indica, a tropical edible mushroom, is popular because it has good nutritive value and it can be cultivated commercially. The current investigation was undertaken to determine a suitable substrate and the appropriate thickness of casing materials for the cultivation of C. indica. Optimum mycelial growth was observed in coconut coir substrate. Primordia initiation with the different substrates and casing materials was observed between the 13th and 19th day. The maximum length of stalk was recorded from sugarcane leaf, while diameter of stalk and pileus, and thickness of pileus were found in rice straw substrate. The highest biological and economic yield, and biological efficiency were also obtained in the rice straw substrate. Cow dung and loamy soil, farm-yard manure, loamy soil and sand, and spent oyster mushroom substrates were used as casing materials to evaluate the yield and yield-contributing characteristics of C. indica. The results indicate that the number of effective fruiting bodies, the biological and economic yield, and the biological efficiency were statistically similar all of the casing materials used. The maximum biological efficiency was found in the cow dung and loamy soil casing material. The cow dung and loamy soil (3 cm thick) was the best casing material and the rice straw was the best substrate for the commercial cultivation of C. indica. PMID:23956634

  16. Effect of Different Substrates and Casing Materials on the Growth and Yield of Calocybe indica.

    PubMed

    Amin, Ruhul; Khair, Abul; Alam, Nuhu; Lee, Tae Soo

    2010-06-01

    Calocybe indica, a tropical edible mushroom, is popular because it has good nutritive value and it can be cultivated commercially. The current investigation was undertaken to determine a suitable substrate and the appropriate thickness of casing materials for the cultivation of C. indica. Optimum mycelial growth was observed in coconut coir substrate. Primordia initiation with the different substrates and casing materials was observed between the 13th and 19th day. The maximum length of stalk was recorded from sugarcane leaf, while diameter of stalk and pileus, and thickness of pileus were found in rice straw substrate. The highest biological and economic yield, and biological efficiency were also obtained in the rice straw substrate. Cow dung and loamy soil, farm-yard manure, loamy soil and sand, and spent oyster mushroom substrates were used as casing materials to evaluate the yield and yield-contributing characteristics of C. indica. The results indicate that the number of effective fruiting bodies, the biological and economic yield, and the biological efficiency were statistically similar all of the casing materials used. The maximum biological efficiency was found in the cow dung and loamy soil casing material. The cow dung and loamy soil (3 cm thick) was the best casing material and the rice straw was the best substrate for the commercial cultivation of C. indica.

  17. Mineralogy of Deposit Material from Debris Flows, a Case Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bardou, E.; Petrova, S.; Favre-Boivin, F.; Boivin, P.

    2003-04-01

    Extended survey on debris flow deposits show a wide variety of morphology, from well defined boundaries with smooth surface (muddy debris flow) to vague boundaries with rough surface (granular debris flow). To explain these differences we investigated the morphological and mineralogical properties of some fresh debris flow deposits. Due to the wide influence of fine components on rheological properties, particular attention was given to characterization of these components. Debris flow deposits from 4 different watersheds where sampled and analysed. Mechanical analysis was performed using laser grain size analysis. Clay fraction was extracted and analysed using X-ray diffraction (XRD). Critical Coagulation Curves (CCC) of extracted clays where established for a large range of Sodium Adsorption Ratio (SAR) and Total Electrolyte Concentration (TEC) and where compared. The grains size distribution shows significant differences between the different kind of deposit, mainly on the fine fraction (clays and silts). This figures the importance of the fine content of the whole mass on the mechanical behaviour. XRD analysis show sharp differences between the extracted clays. Two of the deposits contain a high proportion of smectites, which are well known to be far much dispersive than the other clays identified (mainly illite, chlorite and vermiculite). CCC determinations are in good agreement with XRD results. The clays with appreciable amount of smectite have much higher CCC values than others. This means that these clays will disperse more easily, and will induce lower shear strength of materials as previously demonstrated in literature. Moreover, it is suspected that a major proportion of the more dispersive clay was leached during deposition. The results of the mineralogical analysis and the deposit shape can be correlated. This could be a valuable tool for risk assessment in watershed prone to debris flows. Therefore, it is suggested that more attention should be given

  18. Synoptic snowfall as a possible source of water for late alluvial fan activity in southern Margaritifer Terra, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grant, J. A.; Wilson, S. A.

    2012-12-01

    formation, supporting the contention that crater formation was followed by an even later period of fan emplacement. A latest Hesperian or Amazonian emplacement age for the surface materials in such widely distributed fans likely requires late-occurring synoptic precipitation. Precipitation, possibly occurring as snow, may have been locally influenced by topography and (or) orbital variations. It is not known how much of the total sediment inventory in the fans relates to this late activity versus possible earlier events that may have had alternate (e.g., local) sources of water. Winds may have concentrated late precipitation in the form of snow into existing relief and (or) preexisting alcoves that facilitated physical weathering to produce fine sediments later incorporated into fans. Two of the craters containing fan deposits, Holden and Eberswalde, were finalists for the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) landing site. Results suggest that exposed and accessible fan sediments at both crater sites may record late occurring, relatively colder, drier, and less sustained conditions relative to earlier periods on Mars.

  19. Lift-fan aircraft: Lessons learned-the pilot's perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gerdes, Ronald M.

    1993-01-01

    This paper is written from an engineering test pilot's point of view. Its purpose is to present lift-fan 'lessons learned' from the perspective of first-hand experience accumulated during the period 1962 through 1988 while flight testing vertical/short take-off and landing (V/STOL) experimental aircraft and evaluating piloted engineering simulations of promising V/STOL concepts. Specifically, the scope of the discussions to follow is primarily based upon a critical review of the writer's personal accounts of 30 hours of XV-5A/B and 2 hours of X-14A flight testing as well as a limited simulator evaluation of the Grumman Design 755 lift-fan aircraft. Opinions of other test pilots who flew these aircraft and the aircraft simulator are also included and supplement the writer's comments. Furthermore, the lessons learned are presented from the perspective of the writer's flying experience: 10,000 hours in 100 fixed- and rotary-wing aircraft including 330 hours in 5 experimental V/STOL research aircraft. The paper is organized to present to the reader a clear picture of lift-fan lessons learned from three distinct points of view in order to facilitate application of the lesson principles to future designs. Lessons learned are first discussed with respect to case histories of specific flight and simulator investigations. These principles are then organized and restated with respect to four selected design criteria categories in Appendix I. Lastly, Appendix Il is a discussion of the design of a hypothetical supersonic short take-off vertical landing (STOVL) fighter/attack aircraft.

  20. Enactment of a Geoscience Curriculum by Using Innovative Curriculum Materials: An Exploratory Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Henning; Hlawatsch, Sylke; Lucken, Markus

    2007-01-01

    Trying to implement interdisciplinary geoscience curriculum materials in geography and science education we asked how they fit into teachers' existing practices, their needs for support and strategies to plan instruction. The focus of our case study has been the identification of the goals teachers pursue with the materials, of strategies for…

  1. Morphometry of Alluvial Fans in a Polar Desert (Svalbard, Norway): Implications for Interpreting Martian Fans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hauber, E.; Preusker, F.; Trauthan, F.; Reiss, D.; Zanetti, M.; Jaumann, R.; Hiesinger, H.

    2009-04-01

    Alluvial fan-like landforms have been identified on Mars [e.g., 1-3]. Alluvial fans contain information on several controlling factors (tectonism, climate, lithology/geology), and therefore the investigation of possible Martian fans can reveal information about the planet`s climate. In lieu of direct observations of active depositional processes on Martian fans, comparisons with terrestrial analogues can constrain models of Martian fan formation derived from remote sensing data. Since present-day Mars is cold and dry, alluvial fans formed in cold deserts should be considered as useful analogues. The probably closest climatic analogue to Mars on Earth are the Antarctic Dry Valleys [5], but polar deserts can also be found in the Arctic. We report on our field work in summer 2008 and a simultaneous flight campaign with an airborne version (HRSC-AX) of the High Resolution Stereo Camera (HRSC) onboard Mars Express [6]. The results are compared with measurements of Martian fans, based on HRSC DEM. Our study area is in Svalbard near Longyearbyen (78°13'0"N, 15°38'0"E), around mountains of Mesozoic layered sandstones and shales) on the northern side of Adventfjorden. Climate data are available from the nearby Longyearbyen airport (just a few km from the study area). The present climate is arctic [7], with low mean annual air temperatures and very low precipitation, mostly as snow. Stereo images acquired in July 2008 (at the end of the snow melting season) were processed to orthoimages with a spatial resolution of 20 cm/pixel, and corresponding Digital Elevation Models (DEM) with a grid spacing of 50 cm/pixel. Simultaneous field measurements focused on channels and levees (widths, depths, heights), which were determined at vertical increments of 10 m, together with the local slope. Alluvial fans in the study area are present on slopes of all orientations. They typically coalesce into bajadas. Basically all alluvial fans in the study area are characterized by sinuous

  2. Microstructure and Dynamic Failure Properties of Freeze-Cast Materials for Thermobaric Warhead Cases

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-12-01

    failure of ice-templated freeze cast alumina materials that are currently being studied for novel warhead cases. The freeze-cast matrix is a porous...be filled with polymers or combustible reactive materials . Three porosities of alumina freeze-cast structures were studied , and a systematic...we are able to predict the characteristic fragment size using only standard material properties of bulk alumina . 14. SUBJECT TERMS reactive

  3. Jet Engine Bird Ingestion Simulations: Comparison of Rotating to Non-Rotating Fan Blades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, Samuel A.; Hammer, Jeremiah T.; Carney, Kelly S.; Pereira, J. Michael

    2013-01-01

    Bird strike events in commercial airliners are a fairly common occurrence. According to data collected by the US Department of Agriculture, over 80,000 bird strikes were reported in the period 1990 to 2007 in the US alone (Ref. 1). As a result, bird ingestion is an important factor in aero engine design and FAA certification. When it comes to bird impacts on engine fan blades, the FAA requires full-scale bird ingestion tests on an engine running at full speed to pass certification requirements. These rotating tests are complex and very expensive. To reduce development costs associated with new materials for fan blades, it is desirable to develop more cost effective testing procedures than full-scale rotating engine tests for material evaluation. An impact test on a nonrotating single blade that captures most of the salient physics of the rotating test would go a long way towards enabling large numbers of evaluative material screening tests. NASA Glenn Research Center has been working to identify a static blade test procedure that would be effective at reproducing similar results as seen in rotating tests. The current effort compares analytical simulations of a bird strike on various non-rotating blades to a bird strike simulation on a rotating blade as a baseline case. Several different concepts for simulating the rotating loads on a non-rotating blade were analyzed with little success in duplicating the deformation results seen in the rotating case. The rotating blade behaves as if it were stiffer than the non-rotating blade resulting in less plastic deformation from a given bird impact. The key factor limiting the success of the non-rotating blade simulations is thought to be the effect of gyroscopics. Prior to this effort, it was anticipated the difficulty would be in matching the prestress in the blade due to centrifugal forces Additional work is needed to verify this assertion, and to determine if a static test procedure can simulate the gyroscopic effects in

  4. Jet Engine Bird Ingestion Simulations: Comparison of Rotating to Non-Rotating Fan Blades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, Samuel A.; Hammer, Jeremiah; Carney, Kelly S.; Pereira, J. Michael

    2013-01-01

    Bird strike events in commercial airliners are a fairly common occurrence. According to data collected by the US Department of Agriculture, over 80,000 bird strikes were reported in the period 1990-2007 in the US alone [1]. As a result, bird ingestion is an important factor in aero engine design and FAA certification. When it comes to bird impacts on engine fan blades, the FAA requires full-scale bird ingestion tests on an engine running at full speed to pass certification requirements. These rotating tests are complex and very expensive. To reduce development costs associated with new materials for fan blades, it is desirable to develop more cost effective testing procedures than full-scale rotating engine tests for material evaluation. An impact test on a non-rotating single blade that captures most of the salient physics of the rotating test would go a long way towards enabling large numbers of evaluative material screening tests. NASA Glenn Research Center has been working to identify a static blade test procedure that would be effective at reproducing similar results as seen in rotating tests. The current effort compares analytical simulations of a bird strike on various nonrotating blades to a bird strike simulation on a rotating blade as a baseline case. Several different concepts for simulating the rotating loads on a non-rotating blade were analyzed with little success in duplicating the deformation results seen in the rotating case. The rotating blade behaves as if it were stiffer than the non-rotating blade resulting in less plastic deformation from a given bird impact. The key factor limiting the success of the non-rotating blade simulations is thought to be the effect of gyroscopics. Prior to this effort, it was anticipated the difficulty would be in matching the pre-stress in the blade due to centrifugal forces Additional work is needed to verify this assertion, and to determine if a static test procedure can simulate the gyroscopic effects in a

  5. Cases and Materials on Women and the Law for GS 200: Introduction to Women's Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knowles, Marjorie Fine, Ed.

    Cases and materials used in an undergraduate course, "Women and the Law," are divided to cover women and the Constitution of the U.S. (including the Equal Rights Amendment), the Supreme Court Abortion Decision, and the contemporary legal status of women including employment, education, and criminal law. Fifteen cases highlight the issues…

  6. FOREWORD: 6th International Conference on Pumps and Fans with Compressors and Wind Turbines (ICPF2013)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Yulin; Wang, Zhengwei; Yuan, Shouqi; Shi, Weidong; Liu, Shuhong; Luo, Xingqi; Wang, Fujun

    2013-12-01

    ; other fluid machinery and devices, such as, wind turbines, turbochargers and reversible pump-turbines, clearance and sealing, jets, filters and mixers; and their engineering application and their system behavior, especially, the application of the renewable energy of pumps, compressors, fans and blowers. The objective of the conference was to provide an opportunity for researchers, engineers and students to report on the latest developments in the fields of pumps, compressors, fans and turbochargers, as well as systems. The participants were encouraged to present their work in progress with a short lead time, and the conference promoted discussion of the problems encountered. The ICPF2013 brought together 191 scientists and researchers from 14 countries, affiliated with universities, technology centers and industrial firms to debate topics related to advanced technologies for pumps and fans, which would enhance the sustainable development of fluid machinery and fluid engineering. The Scientific Committee selected 166 technical papers on the following topics: (i) Principles of Fluid Machinery, (ii) Pumps, (iii) Compressors, Fans and Turbochargers, (iv) Turbines, (v) Cavitation and Multiphase Flow, (vi) Systems and Other Fluid Machinery, and 10 invited plenary and invited session lectures, which were presented at the conference, to be included in the proceedings. All the papers of ICPF2013, which were published in this volume of IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering, have been peer reviewed through processes administered by the editors of the ICPF2013, those are Yulin Wu, Zhengwei Wang, Shouqi Yuan, Weidong Shi, Shuhong Liu, Xingqi Luo and Fujun Wang. We sincerely hope that the 6th International Conference on Pumps and Fans with Compressors and Wind Turbines is a significant step forward in the worldwide efforts to address the present challenges facing modern fluid machines. Professor Yulin Wu Chairman of the Local Organizing Committee 6th International

  7. Controls on morphometry and morphology of alluvial and colluvial fans in the high-Arctic setting, Petuniabukta, Svalbard.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomczyk, Aleksandra; Ewertowski, Marek

    2016-04-01

    The Petuniabukta (78o42' N, 16o32') is a bay in the northern part of Billefjorden in the central part of Spitsbergen Island, Svalbard. The bay is surrounded by six major, partly glaciated valleys. A numerous alluvial and colluvial fans have developed within valleys as well as along the fiord margins. Distribution and characterization of morphometric parameters of fans were investigated using time-series of orthophotos and digital elevation models (generated based on 1961, 1990, 2009 aerial photographs) and high resolution satellite imagery from 2013. In addition, a very detailed DEM and orthophoto (5 cm resolution) have been produced from unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) imagery from 2014 and 2015, covering three fans characterised by different types of surface morphology. A 1:40,000 map showing the distribution of almost 300 alluvial and colluvial fans (ranging in area from 325 km2 to 451 275 km2), together with time-series of 1:5,000 geomorphological maps of sample fans enabled an assessment of the spatial and temporal evolution of processes responsible for delivery and erosion of sediments from the fans. The relationship between terrain parameters (e.g. slope, exposition) as well as geology was also investigated. Many of the studied alluvial fans were at least partly coupled and sediments were transferred from the upstream zone to the downstream zone, either due to debris-flow or channelized stream flow. In other cases, coarse sediments were stored within fans, and fines were transported downstream by sheet flows or sub-surface flows. In most of smaller colluvial fans and debris cones, sediments were delivered by mass movement processes (mainly rockfalls and snowfalls) and did not reach lower margin of landforms. Analysis of historical aerial photographs indicated recent increase in the activity of debris-flow modification of surface morphology of fans. Fans located outside limits of the Little Ice Age (LIA) glaciation are dominated by the secondary processes

  8. NASA/Navy life/cruise fan preliminary design report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Preliminary design studies were performed to define a turbotip lift/cruise fan propulsion system for a Navy multimission aircraft. The fan is driven by the exhausts of the YJ97-GE-100 turbojet or a 20 percent Growth J97 configuration as defined during the studies. The LCF459 fan configuration defined has a tip diameter of 1.50 meters (59.0 inches) and develops a design point thrust of 75,130 N (16,890 lbs) at a fan pressure ratio of 1.319. The fan has an estimated weight of 386 kg (850 lbs). Trade studies performed to define the selected configuration are described.

  9. Effect of Two Advanced Noise Reduction Technologies on the Aerodynamic Performance of an Ultra High Bypass Ratio Fan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughes, Christoper E.; Gazzaniga, John A.

    2013-01-01

    A wind tunnel experiment was conducted in the NASA Glenn Research Center anechoic 9- by 15-Foot Low-Speed Wind Tunnel to investigate two new advanced noise reduction technologies in support of the NASA Fundamental Aeronautics Program Subsonic Fixed Wing Project. The goal of the experiment was to demonstrate the noise reduction potential and effect on fan model performance of the two noise reduction technologies in a scale model Ultra-High Bypass turbofan at simulated takeoff and approach aircraft flight speeds. The two novel noise reduction technologies are called Over-the-Rotor acoustic treatment and Soft Vanes. Both technologies were aimed at modifying the local noise source mechanisms of the fan tip vortex/fan case interaction and the rotor wake-stator interaction. For the Over-the-Rotor acoustic treatment, two noise reduction configurations were investigated. The results showed that the two noise reduction technologies, Over-the-Rotor and Soft Vanes, were able to reduce the noise level of the fan model, but the Over-the-Rotor configurations had a significant negative impact on the fan aerodynamic performance; the loss in fan aerodynamic efficiency was between 2.75 to 8.75 percent, depending on configuration, compared to the conventional solid baseline fan case rubstrip also tested. Performance results with the Soft Vanes showed that there was no measurable change in the corrected fan thrust and a 1.8 percent loss in corrected stator vane thrust, which resulted in a total net thrust loss of approximately 0.5 percent compared with the baseline reference stator vane set.

  10. Fan-beam intensity modulated proton therapy

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Patrick; Westerly, David; Mackie, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: This paper presents a concept for a proton therapy system capable of delivering intensity modulated proton therapy using a fan beam of protons. This system would allow present and future gantry-based facilities to deliver state-of-the-art proton therapy with the greater normal tissue sparing made possible by intensity modulation techniques. Methods: A method for producing a divergent fan beam of protons using a pair of electromagnetic quadrupoles is described and particle transport through the quadrupole doublet is simulated using a commercially available software package. To manipulate the fan beam of protons, a modulation device is developed. This modulator inserts or retracts acrylic leaves of varying thickness from subsections of the fan beam. Each subsection, or beam channel, creates what effectively becomes a beam spot within the fan area. Each channel is able to provide 0–255 mm of range shift for its associated beam spot, or stop the beam and act as an intensity modulator. Results of particle transport simulations through the quadrupole system are incorporated into the MCNPX Monte Carlo transport code along with a model of the range and intensity modulation device. Several design parameters were investigated and optimized, culminating in the ability to create topotherapy treatment plans using distal-edge tracking on both phantom and patient datasets. Results: Beam transport calculations show that a pair of electromagnetic quadrupoles can be used to create a divergent fan beam of 200 MeV protons over a distance of 2.1 m. The quadrupole lengths were 30 and 48 cm, respectively, with transverse field gradients less than 20 T/m, which is within the range of water-cooled magnets for the quadrupole radii used. MCNPX simulations of topotherapy treatment plans suggest that, when using the distal edge tracking delivery method, many delivery angles are more important than insisting on narrow beam channel widths in order to obtain conformal target coverage

  11. Fan-beam intensity modulated proton therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, Patrick; Westerly, David; Mackie, Thomas

    2013-11-15

    Purpose: This paper presents a concept for a proton therapy system capable of delivering intensity modulated proton therapy using a fan beam of protons. This system would allow present and future gantry-based facilities to deliver state-of-the-art proton therapy with the greater normal tissue sparing made possible by intensity modulation techniques.Methods: A method for producing a divergent fan beam of protons using a pair of electromagnetic quadrupoles is described and particle transport through the quadrupole doublet is simulated using a commercially available software package. To manipulate the fan beam of protons, a modulation device is developed. This modulator inserts or retracts acrylic leaves of varying thickness from subsections of the fan beam. Each subsection, or beam channel, creates what effectively becomes a beam spot within the fan area. Each channel is able to provide 0–255 mm of range shift for its associated beam spot, or stop the beam and act as an intensity modulator. Results of particle transport simulations through the quadrupole system are incorporated into the MCNPX Monte Carlo transport code along with a model of the range and intensity modulation device. Several design parameters were investigated and optimized, culminating in the ability to create topotherapy treatment plans using distal-edge tracking on both phantom and patient datasets.Results: Beam transport calculations show that a pair of electromagnetic quadrupoles can be used to create a divergent fan beam of 200 MeV protons over a distance of 2.1 m. The quadrupole lengths were 30 and 48 cm, respectively, with transverse field gradients less than 20 T/m, which is within the range of water-cooled magnets for the quadrupole radii used. MCNPX simulations of topotherapy treatment plans suggest that, when using the distal edge tracking delivery method, many delivery angles are more important than insisting on narrow beam channel widths in order to obtain conformal target coverage

  12. Numerical Study of Aeroacoustic Sound on Performance of Bladeless Fan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jafari, Mohammad; Sojoudi, Atta; Hafezisefat, Parinaz

    2017-03-01

    Aeroacoustic performance of fans is essential due to their widespread application. Therefore, the original aim of this paper is to evaluate the generated noise owing to different geometric parameters. In current study, effect of five geometric parameters was investigated on well performance of a Bladeless fan. Airflow through this fan was analyzed simulating a Bladeless fan within a 2 m×2 m×4 m room. Analysis of the flow field inside the fan and evaluating its performance were obtained by solving conservations of mass and momentum equations for aerodynamic investigations and FW-H noise equations for aeroacoustic analysis. In order to design Bladeless fan Eppler 473 airfoil profile was used as the cross section of this fan. Five distinct parameters, namely height of cross section of the fan, outlet angle of the flow relative to the fan axis, thickness of airflow outlet slit, hydraulic diameter and aspect ratio for circular and quadratic cross sections were considered. Validating acoustic code results, we compared numerical solution of FW-H noise equations for NACA0012 with experimental results. FW-H model was selected to predict the noise generated by the Bladeless fan as the numerical results indicated a good agreement with experimental ones for NACA0012. To validate 3-D numerical results, the experimental results of a round jet showed good agreement with those simulation data. In order to indicate the effect of each mentioned parameter on the fan performance, SPL and OASPL diagrams were illustrated.

  13. Recent results about fan noise: Its generation, radiation and suppression

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feiler, C. E.

    1982-01-01

    Fan noise including its generation, radiation characteristics, and suppression by acoustic treatment is studied. In fan noise generation, results from engine and fan experiments, using inflow control measures to suppress noise sources related to inflow distortion and turbulence, are described. The suppression of sources related to inflow allows the experiments to focus on the fan or engine internal sources. Some of the experiments incorporated pressure sensors on the fan blades to sample the flow disturbances encountered by the blades. From these data some inferences can be drawn about the origins of the disturbances. Also, hot wire measurements of a fan rotor wake field are presented and related to the fan's noise signature. The radiation and the suppression of fan noise are dependent on the acoustic modes generated by the fan. Fan noise suppression and radiation is described by relating these phenomena to the mode cutoff ratio parameter. In addition to its utility in acoustic treatment design and performance prediction, cutoff ratio was useful in developing a simple description of the radiation pattern for broadband fan noise. Some of the findings using the cutoff ratio parameter are presented.

  14. Transient performance of fan engine with water ingestion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murthy, S. N. B.; Mullican, A.

    1993-01-01

    In a continuing investigation on developing and applying codes for prediction of performance of a turbine jet engine and its components with water ingestion during flight operation, including power settings, and flight altitudes and speed changes, an attempt was made to establish the effects of water ingestion through simulation of a generic high bypass ratio engine with a generic control. In view of the large effects arising in the air compression system and the prediffuser-combustor unit during water ingestion, attention was focused on those effects and the resulting changes in engine performance. Under all conditions of operation, whether ingestion is steady or not, it became evident that water ingestion causes a fan-compressor unit to operate in a time-dependent fashion with periodic features, particularly with respect to the state of water in the span and the film in the casing clearance space, at the exit of the machine. On the other hand, the aerodynamic performance of the unit may be considered as quasi-steady once the distribution of water has attained an equilibrium state with respect to its distribution and motion. For purposes of engine simulation, the performance maps for the generic fan-compressor unit were generated based on the attainment of a quasi-steady state (meaning steady except for long-period variations in performance) during ingestion and operation over a wide enough range of rotational speeds.

  15. Advanced Computational Aeroacoustics Methods for Fan Noise Prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Envia, Edmane (Technical Monitor); Tam, Christopher

    2003-01-01

    Direct computation of fan noise is presently not possible. One of the major difficulties is the geometrical complexity of the problem. In the case of fan noise, the blade geometry is critical to the loading on the blade and hence the intensity of the radiated noise. The precise geometry must be incorporated into the computation. In computational fluid dynamics (CFD), there are two general ways to handle problems with complex geometry. One way is to use unstructured grids. The other is to use body fitted overset grids. In the overset grid method, accurate data transfer is of utmost importance. For acoustic computation, it is not clear that the currently used data transfer methods are sufficiently accurate as not to contaminate the very small amplitude acoustic disturbances. In CFD, low order schemes are, invariably, used in conjunction with unstructured grids. However, low order schemes are known to be numerically dispersive and dissipative. dissipative errors are extremely undesirable for acoustic wave problems. The objective of this project is to develop a high order unstructured grid Dispersion-Relation-Preserving (DRP) scheme. would minimize numerical dispersion and dissipation errors. contains the results of the funded portion of the project. scheme on an unstructured grid has been developed. constructed in the wave number space. The characteristics of the scheme can be improved by the inclusion of additional constraints. Stability of the scheme has been investigated. Stability can be improved by adopting the upwinding strategy.

  16. Viscous three-dimensional calculations of transonic fan performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chima, Rodrick V.

    1991-01-01

    A 3-D flow analysis code was used to compute the design speed operating line of a transonic fan rotor, and the results were compared with experimental data. The code is an explicit finite difference code with an algebraic turbulence model. The transonic fan, called rotor 67, was tested experimentally at NASA-Lewis with conventional aerodynamic probes and with user anemometry and was included as one of the AGARD test cases for the computation of internal flows. The experimental data are described. Maps of total pressure ratio and adiabatic efficiency versus mass flow were computed and are compared with the experimental maps, with good agreement. Detailed comparisons between calculations and experiment are made at two operating points, one near peak efficiency and the other near stall. Blade-to-blade contour plots are used to show the shock structure. Comparisons of circumferentially integrated flow quantities downstream of the rotor show spanwise distributions of several aerodynamic parameters. Calculated Mach number distributions are compared with laser anemometer data within the blade row and the wake to quantify the accuracy of the calculations. Particle traces are used to show the nature of secondary flow.

  17. Viscous three-dimensional calculations of transonic fan performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chima, Rodrick V.

    1992-01-01

    A 3-D flow analysis code was used to compute the design speed operating line of a transonic fan rotor, and the results were compared with experimental data. The code is an explicit finite difference code with an algebraic turbulence model. The transonic fan, called Rotor 67, was tested experimentally at NASA Lewis conventional aerodynamic probes and with user anemometry and was included as one of the AGARD test cases for the computation of internal flows. The experimental data are described. Maps of total pressure ratio and adiabatic efficiency vs mass flow were computed and are compared with the experimental maps, with good agreement. Detailed comparisons between calculations and experiment are made at two operating points, one near peak efficiency and the other near stall. Blade-to-blade contour plots are used to show the shock structure. Comparisons of circumferentially integrated flow quantities downstream of the rotor show spanwise distributions of several aerodynamic parameters. Calculated Mach number distributions are compared with laser anemometer data within the blade row and the wake to quantify the accuracy of the calculations. Particle traces are used to show the nature of secondary flow.

  18. Fifty-five million years of Tibetan evolution recorded in the Indus Fan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clift, Peter; Shimizu, Nobu; Layne, Graham; Gaedicke, Christoph; Schlter, H.-U.; Clark, Marin; Amjad, Shahid

    Although the Indus Fan is only about one-third of the volume of its giant neighbor in the Bay of Bengal, it is one of the largest sediment bodies in the ocean basins, totaling ˜5×106 km3. Its detrital sedimentary record is an important repository of information on the uplift and erosion of the western Himalaya. New seismic and provenance data from the Pakistan margin now suggest that the Indus River and fan system was initiated shortly after the India-Asia collision at ˜5 Ma. The modern Indus drainage basin is dominated by the high peaks of the Karakoram, Kohistan, and other tectonic units of the Indus Suture Zone rather than the High Himalaya. The Indus River, which rises in western Tibet near Mount Kailas, follows the Indus Suture Zone along strike before cutting orthogonally through the Himalaya to the Arabian Sea. The other tributaries to the Indus, such as the Chenab and Sutlej, do drain the crystalline High Himalayan range, but do so in an area where its topography is much reduced (Figure 1). In contrast, the Bengal Fans main feeder rivers, the Ganges and Brahmaputra, follow the High Himalaya along strike for much of the length of the orogen. In practice, this means that the Bengal Fan is swamped by the large volume of material derived from the rapidly unroofing High Himalaya [France-Lanord et al, 1993], while the Indus Fan is dominated by tectonic units adjacent to the suture zone, including western Tibet. This allows their erosional signal to be more readily isolated in the Indus Fan compared to in the Bengal.

  19. Single stage, low noise, advanced technology fan. Volume 5: Fan acoustics. Section 1: Results and analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jutras, R. R.

    1976-01-01

    The acoustic tests and data analysis for a 0.508-scale fan vehicle of a 111,300 newton (25,000 pound) thrust, full-size engine, which would have application on an advanced transport aircraft, is described. The single-stage advanced technology fan was designed to a pressure ratio of 1.8 at a tip speed of 503 m/sec (1,650 ft/sec) to achieve the desired pressure ratio in a single-stage fan with low radius ratio (0.38), and to maintain adequate stall margin. The fan has 44 tip-shrouded rotor blades and 90 outlet guide vanes. The two basic approaches taken in the acoustic design were: (1) minimization of noise at the source, and (2) suppression of the generated noise in the inlet and bypass exhaust duct. Suppression of the generated noise was accomplished in the inlet through use of the hybrid concept (wall acoustic treatment plus airflow acceleration suppression) and in the exhaust duct with extensive acoustic treatment including a splitter. The goal of the design was attainment of twenty effective perceived noise decibels (20 EPNdB) below current Federal Air Regulation noise standards for a full-scale fan at the takeoff, cutback, and approach conditions. The suppression goal of FAR 36-20 was not reached, but improvements in the technology of both front and aft fan-noise suppression were realized. The suppressed fan noise was shown to be consistent with the proposed federal regulation on aircraft noise.

  20. Study of Near-Stall Flow Behavior in a Modern Transonic Fan with Composite Sweep

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hah, Chunill; Shin, Hyoun-Woo

    2011-01-01

    Detailed flow behavior in a modern transonic fan with a composite sweep is investigated in this paper. Both unsteady Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (URANS) and Large Eddy Simulation (LES) methods are applied to investigate the flow field over a wide operating range. The calculated flow fields are compared with the data from an array of high-frequency response pressure transducers embedded in the fan casing. The current study shows that a relatively fine computational grid is required to resolve the flow field adequately and to calculate the pressure rise across the fan correctly. The calculated flow field shows detailed flow structure near the fan rotor tip region. Due to the introduction of composite sweep toward the rotor tip, the flow structure at the rotor tip is much more stable compared to that of the conventional blade design. The passage shock stays very close to the leading edge at the rotor tip even at the throttle limit. On the other hand, the passage shock becomes stronger and detaches earlier from the blade passage at the radius where the blade sweep is in the opposite direction. The interaction between the tip clearance vortex and the passage shock becomes intense as the fan operates toward the stall limit, and tip clearance vortex breakdown occurs at near-stall operation. URANS calculates the time-averaged flow field fairly well. Details of measured RMS static pressure are not calculated with sufficient accuracy with URANS. On the other hand, LES calculates details of the measured unsteady flow features in the current transonic fan with composite sweep fairly well and reveals the flow mechanism behind the measured unsteady flow field.

  1. Analysis of Stainless Steel Sandwich Panels with a Metal Foam Care for Lightweight Fan Blade Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Min, James B.; Ghosn, Louis J.; Lerch, Bradley A.; Raj, Sai V.; Holland, Frederic A., Jr.; Hebsur, Mohan G.

    2004-01-01

    The quest for cheap, low density and high performance materials in the design of aircraft and rotorcraft engine fan and propeller blades poses immense challenges to the materials and structural design engineers. Traditionally, these components have been fabricated using expensive materials such as light weight titanium alloys, polymeric composite materials and carbon-carbon composites. The present study investigates the use of P sandwich foam fan blade made up of solid face sheets and a metal foam core. The face sheets and the metal foam core material were an aerospace grade precipitation hardened 17-4 PH stainless steel with high strength and high toughness. The stiffness of the sandwich structure is increased by separating the two face sheets by a foam core. The resulting structure possesses a high stiffness while being lighter than a similar solid construction. Since the face sheets carry the applied bending loads, the sandwich architecture is a viable engineering concept. The material properties of 17-4 PH metal foam are reviewed briefly to describe the characteristics of the sandwich structure for a fan blade application. A vibration analysis for natural frequencies and P detailed stress analysis on the 17-4 PH sandwich foam blade design for different combinations of skin thickness and core volume %re presented with a comparison to a solid titanium blade.

  2. 'Bataille's boys': postmodernity, Fascists and football fans.

    PubMed

    Smith, T

    2000-09-01

    In his analysis of football hooliganism, Anthony King claims to reveal the historical, conceptual scheme young, male supporters draw upon. This 'masculine vision', he states, is similar to that held by the Freikorps. Both groups are said to adhere to modernist notions of masculinity, sexuality and nationhood, reinforced by rituals which maintain boundaries between these 'proper' males and deviant 'others'. Occasionally, football hooligans breach these boundaries in acts of postmodern transgression. King also claims that fans link sex and violence in their imaginations. In this response I examine King's critique of his fellow theorists; challenge his 'Freikorps-Fans' analogy; demonstrate the problem he has in establishing the sex-violence link and question the relevance of his concept of postmodernity.

  3. Optical measurement of unducted fan blade deflections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kurkov, Anatole P.

    1988-01-01

    A nonintrusive optical method for measuring unducted fan (or propeller) blade deflections is described and evaluated. The measurement does not depend on blade surface reflectivity. Deflection of a point at the leading edge and a point at the trailing edge in a plane nearly perpendicular to the pitch axis is obtained with a single light beam generated by a low-power, helium-neon laser. Quantitiative analyses are performed from taped signals on a digital computer. Averaging techniques are employed to reduce random errors. Measured static deflections from a series of high-speed wind tunnel tests of a counterrotating unducted fan model are compared with available, predicted deflections, which are also used to evaluate systematic errors.

  4. Optical measurement of unducted fan blade deflections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurkov, A. P.

    1990-10-01

    A nonintrusive optical method for measuring unducted fan (or propeller) blade deflections is described and evaluated. The measurement does not depend on blade surface reflectivity. Deflection of a point at the leading edge and a point at the trailing edge in a plane nearly perpendicular to the pitch axis is obtained with a single light beam generated by a low-power, helium-neon laser. Quantitative analyses are performed from taped signals on a digital computer. Averaging techniques are employed to reduce random errors. Measured static deflections from a series of high-speed wind tunnel tests of a counterrotating unducted fan model are compared with available, predicted deflections, which are also used to evaluate systematic errors.

  5. Optical measurement of unducted fan flutter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kurkov, Anatole P.; Mehmed, Oral

    1990-01-01

    A nonintrusive optical method is described for flutter vibrations in unducted fan or propeller rotors and provides detailed spectral results for two flutter modes of a scaled unducted fan. The measurements were obtained in a high-speed wind tunnel. A single-rotor and a dual-rotor counterrotating configuration of the model were tested; however, only the forward rotor of the counterrotating configuration fluttered. Conventional strain gages were used to obtain flutter frequency; optical data provided complete phase results and an indication of the flutter mode shape through the ratio of the leading- to trailing-edge flutter amplitudes near the blade tip. In the transonic regime exhibited some features that are usually associated with nonlinear vibrations. Experimental mode shape and frequencies were compared with calculated values that included centrifugal effects.

  6. Fanning the Optimal Breeze with an Abanico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goon, Grace; Marthelot, Joel; Reis, Pedro

    2015-11-01

    Flexible hand-held fans, or abanicos, are universally employed as cooling devices that are both portable and sustainable. Their to and fro axial motion about one's hand generates an airflow that increases the evaporation rate near the skin and refreshes. We study this problem in the context of fluid-structure interaction, through precision model experiments. We first characterize the elastic properties of a semi-circular thin plates with various thickness and evaluate their aerodynamic performance in a custom built apparatus. The air velocity profile that results from the flapping motion of the fan is characterized for different driving conditions. A systematic variation of the geometric and elastic parameters, along with an exploration of the parameter space of the periodic driving motion (amplitude and frequency), allows us to establish optimal design and operational conditions for maximal output of the generated airflow, while minimizing the input power.

  7. Fanning the Optimal Breeze with an Abanico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goon, Grace; Marthelot, Joel; Reis, Pedro; MIT EGS Lab Team

    Flexible hand-held fans, or abanicos, are universally employed as cooling devices that are both portable and sustainable. Their to and fro axial motion about one's hand generates an airflow that increases the evaporation rate near the skin and refreshes. We study this problem in the context of fluid-structure interaction, through precision model experiments. We first characterize the elastic properties of a semi-circular thin plates with various thickness and evaluate their aerodynamic performance in a custom built apparatus. The air velocity profile that results from the flapping motion of the fan is characterized for different driving conditions. A systematic variation of the geometric and elastic parameters, along with an exploration of the parameter space of the periodic driving motion (amplitude and frequency), allows us to establish optimal design and operational conditions for maximal output of the generated airflow, while minimizing the input power.

  8. Investigation of Single Stage Axial Fans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruden, P.

    1944-01-01

    The following investigations are connected with experiments on fans carried out by the author in the Gouttingen Aerodynamic Laboratory within the framework of the preliminary experiments for the new Gouttingen wind-tunnel project. A fan rotor was developed which had very high efficiency at the design point corresponding to moderate pressure and which, in addition, could operate at a proportionally high pressure, rise. To establish the determining operating factors the author carried out extensive theoretical investigation in Hannover. In this it was necessary, to depart from the usual assumption of vanishing radial velocities. The calculations were substantially lightened by the introduction of diagrams. The, first part of the.report describes the theoretical investigations; the second, the experiments carried out at Gouttingen.

  9. Fan rotor blades of turbofan engines

    SciTech Connect

    Zipps, R.H.; Rynaski, C.H.; Fulton, G.B.

    1986-11-11

    This patent describes a fan blade of the type extending outwardly from a rotor disk across the annular flowpath for working medium gases in the fan section of a turbofan engine, including: an airfoil section having an arcuate cross section contour at the inner wall of the working medium flowpath; and a root section having an upstream end and a downstream end wherein the root section is formed to an arcuate contour which approximates the arcuate contour of the airfoil cross section at the inner wall of the working medium flowpath projected onto the root section, and wherein the root section is convergently tapered from the downstream end toward the upstream end of the blade.

  10. Low-noise fan exit guide vanes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Michael G. (Inventor); Parrott, Tony L. (Inventor); Heidelberg, Laurence J. (Inventor); Envia, Edmane (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    Low-noise fan exit guide vanes are disclosed. According to the present invention a fan exit guide vane has an outer shell substantially shaped as an airfoil and defining an interior cavity. A porous portion of the outer shell allows communication between the fluctuations in the air passing over the guide vane and the interior cavity. At least one acoustically resonant chamber is located within the interior cavity. The resonant chamber is in communication with the porous portion of the outer perimeter. The resonant chamber is configured to reduce the noise generated at a predetermined frequency. In various preferred embodiments, there is a plurality of acoustically resonant chambers located within the interior cavity. The resonant chambers can be separated by one or more partitions within the interior cavity. In these embodiments, the resonant chambers can be configured to reduce the noise generated over a range of predetermined frequencies.

  11. Performance Study of a Ducted Fan System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abrego, Anita I.; Bulaga, Robert W.; Rutkowski, Michael (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    An experimental investigation was completed in the NASA Ames 7- by 10-Foot Wind Tunnel with the objective of determining the performance characteristics of a ducted fan. The model was an annular duct with a 38-in diameter, 10-in chord, and a 5-bladed fixed-pitch fan. Model variations included duct angle of attack, exit vane flap length, flap deflection angle, and duct chord length. Duct performance data were obtained for axial and forward flight test conditions. Axial flow test data showed figure of merit decreases with increasing advance ratio. Forward flight data showed an increasing propulsive force with decreasing duct angle of attack. Exit vane flap deflection angle and flap chord length were shown to be an effective way of providing side force. Extending the duct chord did not effect the duct performance.

  12. Gigapixel Images Connect Sports Teams with Fans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2013-01-01

    Technology developed at Ames Research Center to take high-resolution imagery on Mars is now being used in baseball stadiums across the country. New York City-based Major League Baseball Advanced Media LP customized the platform to accommodate in-game shots that capture nearly the whole stadium. Fans navigate the photos online and tag themselves and their friends using social media tools.

  13. Polarization-fan high-order harmonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fleischer, Avner; Bordo, Eliyahu; Kfir, Ofer; Sidorenko, Pavel; Cohen, Oren

    2017-02-01

    We predict high-order harmonics in which the polarization within the spectral bandwidth of each harmonic varies with frequency continuously and significantly. For example, the interaction of counter-rotating circularly-polarized bichromatic drivers having close central frequencies with isotropic gas leads to the emission of polarization-fan harmonics where each harmonic in the spectrum has the following property: it is nearly circularly-polarized in one tail of the harmonic peak, linear in the center of the peak and nearly circular with the opposite helicity in the opposite tail. Also, we show that polarization-fan high harmonics with modulated ellipticity are obtained when elliptical drivers are used. Polarization-fan harmonics are obtained as a result of multiple (at least two) head-on recollisions of electrons with their parent ions occurring from different angles in a two-dimensional plane. The use of bichromatic drivers with close central frequencies largely preserves the single-cycle, single-atom and macroscopic physics of ‘ordinary’ high harmonic generation, where both the driver and high harmonics are linearly polarized. Thus, it should offer several attracting features, including (i) a direct route for extending the maximal photon energy of observed helical high harmonics to keV by using bichromatic drivers only in the mid-IR region and (ii) utilizing phase matching methods that were developed for ‘ordinary’ high harmonic generation driven by quasi-monochromatic pulses (e.g. pressure tuning phase matching). These polarization-fan harmonics may be utilized for exploring non-repetitive ultrafast chiral phenomena, e.g. dynamics of magnetic domains, in a single shot.

  14. End-wall boundary layer measurements in a two-stage fan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ball, C. L.; Reid, L.; Schmidt, J. F.

    1983-01-01

    Detailed flow measurements made in the casing boundary layer of a two-stage transonic fan are summarized. These measurements were taken at a station upstream of the fan, between all blade rows, and downstream of the last row. Conventional boundary layer parameters were calculated from the measured data. A classical two dimensional casing boundary layer was measured at the fan inlet and extended inward to approximately 15 percent of span. A highly three dimensional boundary layer was measured at the exit of each blade row and extended inward to approximately 10 percent of span. The steep radial gradient of axial velocity noted at the exit of the rotors was reduced substantially as the flow passed through the stators. This reduced gradient is attributed to flow mixing. The amount of flow mixing was reflected in the radial redistribution of total temperature as the flow passed through the stators. The blockage factors calculated from the measured data show an increase in blockage across the rotors and a decrease across the stators. For this fan the calculated blockages for the second stage were essentially the same as those for the first stage.

  15. Material morphological characteristics in laser ablation of alpha case from titanium alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yue, Liyang; Wang, Zengbo; Li, Lin

    2012-08-01

    Alpha case (an oxygen enriched alloy layer) is commonly formed in forged titanium alloys during the manufacturing process and it reduces the service life of the materials. This layer is normally removed mechanically or chemically. This paper reports the feasibility and characteristics of using a short pulsed laser to remove oxygen-enriched alpha case layer from a titanium alloy (Ti6Al4V) substrate. The material removal rate, i.e., ablation rate, and ablation threshold of the alpha case titanium were experimentally determined, and compared with those for the removal of bulk Ti6Al4V. Surface morphologies of laser processed alpha case titanium layer, especially that of cracks at different ablated depths, were carefully examined, and also compared with those for Ti6Al4V. It has been shown that in the alpha case layer, laser ablation has always resulted in crack formation while for laser ablation of alpha case free Ti6Al4V layers, cracking was not present. In addition, the surface is rougher within the alpha case layer and becomes smoother (Ra - 110 nm) once the substrate Ti-alloy is reached. The work has demonstrated that laser is a feasible processing tool for removing alpha case titanium, and could also be used for the rapid detection of the presence of alpha case titanium on Ti6Al4V surfaces in aerospace applications.

  16. Harmonic Balance Computations of Fan Aeroelastic Stability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bakhle, Milind A.; Reddy, T. S. R.

    2010-01-01

    A harmonic balance (HB) aeroelastic analysis, which has been recently developed, was used to determine the aeroelastic stability (flutter) characteristics of an experimental fan. To assess the numerical accuracy of this HB aeroelastic analysis, a time-domain aeroelastic analysis was also used to determine the aeroelastic stability characteristics of the same fan. Both of these three-dimensional analysis codes model the unsteady flowfield due to blade vibrations using the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations. In the HB analysis, the unsteady flow equations are converted to a HB form and solved using a pseudo-time marching method. In the time-domain analysis, the unsteady flow equations are solved using an implicit time-marching approach. Steady and unsteady computations for two vibration modes were carried out at two rotational speeds: 100 percent (design) and 70 percent (part-speed). The steady and unsteady results obtained from the two analysis methods compare well, thus verifying the recently developed HB aeroelastic analysis. Based on the results, the experimental fan was found to have no aeroelastic instability (flutter) at the conditions examined in this study.

  17. Geometry and evolution of a syntectonic alluvial fan, Southern Pyrenees

    SciTech Connect

    Arminio, J.F. ); Nichols, G.J. )

    1993-02-01

    Syntectonic alluvial fans formed on the northern margin of the Ebro Foreland Basin along the South Pyrenean thrust front during late orogenic thrust movements in the late Oligocene/early Miocene. The present-day geometry, structural relations and sedimentology of one of these fans, the Aguero fan in the province of Huesca, Spain, were studied. Field observations of the architecture of depositional facies and the geometries of syn-tectonic folds and unconformities indicate that the Aguero fan formed as the result of several phases of sedimentation which were primarily controlled by periods of tectonic activity and quiescence. The syntectonic unconformities and growth folds in the fan deposits provide a detailed record of the evolution of a fan adjacent to an active thrust front. Using a computer program to simulate sedimentation and deformation of an alluvial fan it is possible to constrain rates of both sedimentary and tectonic processes by modeling the evolution of the fan body. A facies model for the fan phases indicates that the facies change from proximal (coarse-grained, amalgamated) to distal (finger grained, stacked fining up cycles) in less than 1 km across a fan of radius estimated to be about 2 km.

  18. The aerodynamics of a wind-tunnel fan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corson, Blake W

    1941-01-01

    The vortex blade-element theory modified to apply to an axial fan working in a duct is reviewed. Thrust and power coefficients for a fan are identified with the corresponding coefficients for airplane propellers. The relation of pressure produced by the fan to the blade-element coefficients is developed. The distribution of axial velocity of fluid through a fan is assumed to be controlled by the fan itself. The radial distribution of tangential velocity imported by the fan to fluid moving through the fan is shown to be independent of the axial-velocity distribution. A nondimensional coefficient, designated the rotation constant, is introduced. This constant is based solely upon design information. The use of the rotation constant in simplifying the design of a fan for a specific operating condition is demonstrated. Based on the use of the rotation constant, a graphical method is outlined by which the performance of a given fan in a given wind tunnel may be predicted and by which the distributions of axial velocity of the fluid through the fan under various operating conditions may be established.

  19. Advanced Low-Noise Research Fan Stage Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neubert, Robert; Bock, Larry; Malmborg, Eric; Owen-Peer, William

    1997-01-01

    This report describes the design of the Advanced Low-Noise Research Fan stage. The fan is a variable pitch design, which is designed at the cruise pitch condition. Relative to the cruise setting, the blade is closed at takeoff and opened for reverse thrust operation. The fan stage is a split flow design with fan exit guide vanes (FEGVs) and core stators. The fan stage design is combined with a nacelle and engine core duct to form a powered fan/nacelle subscale model. This model is intended for use in combined aerodynamic, acoustic, and structural testing in a wind tunnel. The fan has an outer diameter of 22 in. and a hub-to-tip of 0.426 in., which allows the use of existing NASA fan and cowl force balance and rig drive systems. The design parameters were selected to permit valid acoustic and aerodynamic comparisons with the Pratt & Whitney (P&W) 17- and 22-in. rigs previously tested under NASA contract. The fan stage design is described in detail. The results of the design axisymmetric and Navier-Stokes aerodynamic analysis are presented at the critical design conditions. The structural analysis of the fan rotor and attachment is included. The blade and attachment are predicted to have adequate low-cycle fatigue life and an acceptable operating range without resonant stress or flutter. The stage was acoustically designed with airfoil counts in the FEGV and core stator to minimize noise. A fan/FEGV tone analysis developed separately under NASA contract was used to determine the optimum airfoil counts. The fan stage was matched to the existing nacelle, designed under the previous P&W low-noise contract, to form a fan/nacelle model for wind tunnel testing. It is an axisymmetric nacelle for convenience in testing and analysis. Previous testing confirmed that the nacelle performed as required at various aircraft operating conditions.

  20. Vibration reduction of a woven composite fan blade by piezoelectric shunted devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thierry, Olivier; De Smet, Olivier; Deü, Jean-François

    2016-09-01

    This study concerns the vibration reduction in the low frequency range of a composite fan blade of a turbojet engine with piezoelectric devices. The interest is to increase lifespan and avoid flutter phenomena by reducing the vibration amplitude. The solution considered in the work consists in using piezoelectric elements connected to a passive electric circuit usually called shunt. The use of woven composite materials for fan blades enables to plan on embedding piezoelectric materials, for instance in the form of patches inserted between the composite and the coating material. The work presented during this conference will illustrate the feasibility of a piezoelectric shunted device integrated in an industrial application that doesn't require electrical supply. For such a structure, it is shown that a purely passive resonant shunt can significantly reduce the level of vibration of the second bending mode and that a good correlation between experiments and simulations validates the best fitting finite element model.

  1. Active Processes: Bright Streaks and Dark Fans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1Figure 2

    In a region of the south pole known informally as 'Ithaca' numerous fans of dark frost form every spring. HiRISE collected a time lapse series of these images, starting at Ls = 185 and culminating at Ls = 294. 'Ls' is the way we measure time on Mars: at Ls = 180 the sun passes the equator on its way south; at Ls = 270 it reaches its maximum subsolar latitude and summer begins.

    In the earliest image (figure 1) fans are dark, but small narrow bright streaks can be detected. In the next image (figure 2), acquired at Ls = 187, just 106 hours later, dramatic differences are apparent. The dark fans are larger and the bright fans are more pronounced and easily detectable. The third image in the sequence shows no bright fans at all.

    We believe that the bright streaks are fine frost condensed from the gas exiting the vent. The conditions must be just right for the bright frost to condense.

    Observation Geometry Image PSP_002622_0945 was taken by the High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) camera onboard the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter spacecraft on 16-Feb-2007. The complete image is centered at -85.2 degrees latitude, 181.5 degrees East longitude. The range to the target site was 246.9 km (154.3 miles). At this distance the image scale is 49.4 cm/pixel (with 2 x 2 binning) so objects 148 cm across are resolved. The image shown here has been map-projected to 50 cm/pixel . The image was taken at a local Mars time of 05:46 PM and the scene is illuminated from the west with a solar incidence angle of 88 degrees, thus the sun was about 2 degrees above the horizon. At a solar longitude of 185.1 degrees, the season on Mars is Northern Autumn.

  2. A Fan-tastic Alternative to Bulbs: Learning Circuits with Fans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ekey, Robert; Edwards, Andrea; McCullough, Roy; Reitz, William; Mitchell, Brandon

    2017-01-01

    The incandescent bulb has been a useful tool for teaching basic electrical circuits, as brightness is related to the current or power flowing through a bulb. This has led to the development of qualitative pedagogical treatments for examining resistive combinations in simple circuits using bulbs and batteries, which were first introduced by James Evans and thoroughly expanded upon by McDermott and others. This paper argues that replacing bulbs with small computer fans leads to similar, if not greater, insight of experimental results that can be qualitatively observed using a variety of senses. The magnitude of current through a fan is related to the frequency of the rotating fan blades, which can be seen, heard, and felt by the students. Experiments using incandescent bulbs only utilize vision, which is not ideal as the human eyes' perception of brightness is skewed because the response to light intensity is logarithmic rather than linear.

  3. Regional-scale assessment of a sequence-bounding paleosol on fluvial fans using ground-penetrating radar, eastern San Joaquin Valley, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bennett, V.G.L.; Weissmann, G.S.; Baker, G.S.; Hyndman, D.W.

    2006-01-01

    Recently developed sequence stratigraphic models for fluvial fans suggest that sequence boundaries in these deposits are marked by laterally extensive paleosols; however, these models were based on paleosol correlations inferred between wells. To test this, we collected ???190 km of ground-penetrating radar (GPR) profiles on three fluvial fans from the eastern San Joaquin Valley, California, to determine the lateral extent and character of a buried near-surface sequence-bounding-paleosol. This paleosol, recognized on GPR by rapid shallow signal attenuation, extends across large areas on all three fluvial fans. Limited areas of significantly increased signal penetration were also identified, and these zones are interpreted to indicate the absence of the paleosol. The zones where the paleosol is missing likely correspond to paleooutwash channel activity on the fan surfaces that, when active, was able to partially or fully scour through the paleosol and deposit coarse-grained channel sediments in place of the sequence boundary. Erosional breaks are most common on the Kings River fan, while few breaks on the Tuolumne and Merced River fans may indicate less paleochannel activity on these fan surfaces during the last outwash event. Differences in channel activity between fans indicate that the Kings River migrated across its fan during the last outwash event, as evidenced by the large number of areas with increased GPR signal penetration and the presence of numerous channel deposits recorded on the soil surveys, while the Tuolumne and Merced Rivers only deposited floodplain fines, with the channels remaining inside a shallow incised valley, as evidenced by the relatively low number of areas with increased GPR signal penetration and the presence of primarily fine-grained material recorded on the soil surveys. Factors controlling these differences may include variable valley subsidence rates and differences in the San Joaquin Basin overall width at each fan location

  4. A concept for a counterrotating fan with reduced tone noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dittmar, James H.

    1992-01-01

    As subsonic jet engine designs incorporate higher bypass ratios to reduce jet noise and increase engine cycle efficiency, the fan noise becomes a significant part of the perceived total noise. The conventional method of reducing fan tone noise is to design a low tip-speed device. An alternative approach of using a counterrotating fan with a high number of rotor blades is investigated in this report. The source of noise at the blade passing frequency of this device is the rotor-only mechanism, which is cut off for a subsonic tip speed rotor. The interaction noise occurs at twice the blade passing frequency, which, for this fan, was shifted high enough in frequency to be above the perceived noise rating range. The result was a counterrotating fan which had more potential for tone noise reduction than does the conventional fan. A potential broadband noise reduction was also indicated.

  5. A Fan Design that Meets the NASA Aeronautics Noise Goals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dittmar, James; Tweedt, Daniel; Jeracki, Robert; Envia, Edmaine; Bartos, Karen; Slater, John

    2003-01-01

    A fan concept was previously identified that would meet the NASA aeronautics goal of a 20 EPNdB reduction in aircraft noise. This was a 2-stage fan with a pressure ratio of 1.15 and a 460 ft/sec tip speed. The 2 stages were identical so that, with the proper synchrophasing, noise from one stage could be used to cancel noise from the other stage. This paper documents the aerodynamic design of the 2-stage fan concept in a 22-in. diameter size for testing in the NASA Glenn 9- by 15-ft wind tunnel. A set of rotor and stator coordinates are listed in the report. Stress and flutter analyses were done on these blades and showed that the design was structurally viable. A noise prediction code, using the blade coordinates and fan flows, indicated that the 2-stage fan would meet the goal of a 20 dB reduction in fan noise.

  6. Computational Aerodynamic Simulations of a 1484 ft/sec Tip Speed Quiet High-Speed Fan System Model for Acoustic Methods Assessment and Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tweedt, Daniel L.

    2014-01-01

    Computational Aerodynamic simulations of a 1484 ft/sec tip speed quiet high-speed fan system were performed at five different operating points on the fan operating line, in order to provide detailed internal flow field information for use with fan acoustic prediction methods presently being developed, assessed and validated. The fan system is a sub-scale, low-noise research fan/nacelle model that has undergone experimental testing in the 9- by 15-foot Low Speed Wind Tunnel at the NASA Glenn Research Center. Details of the fan geometry, the computational fluid dynamics methods, the computational grids, and various computational parameters relevant to the numerical simulations are discussed. Flow field results for three of the five operating points simulated are presented in order to provide a representative look at the computed solutions. Each of the five fan aerodynamic simulations involved the entire fan system, which includes a core duct and a bypass duct that merge upstream of the fan system nozzle. As a result, only fan rotational speed and the system bypass ratio, set by means of a translating nozzle plug, were adjusted in order to set the fan operating point, leading to operating points that lie on a fan operating line and making mass flow rate a fully dependent parameter. The resulting mass flow rates are in good agreement with measurement values. Computed blade row flow fields at all fan operating points are, in general, aerodynamically healthy. Rotor blade and fan exit guide vane flow characteristics are good, including incidence and deviation angles, chordwise static pressure distributions, blade surface boundary layers, secondary flow structures, and blade wakes. Examination of the computed flow fields reveals no excessive or critical boundary layer separations or related secondary-flow problems, with the exception of the hub boundary layer at the core duct entrance. At that location a significant flow separation is present. The region of local flow

  7. Sediment mass-flow processes on a depositional lobe, outer Mississippi Fan

    SciTech Connect

    Schwab, W.C.; Twichell, D.C.; Lee, H.J.; Nelson, C.H.; McArthur, W.G.; Locat, J.; Kenyon, N.H.

    1996-09-01

    As exploration for hydrocarbons moves toward subtler traps, channel-end sand deposits of deep-sea fans and related turbidite systems are among the key targets. SeaMARC 1A sidescan-sonar imagery and cores from the distal reaches of a depositional lobe on the Mississippi Fan show that channelized mass flow as the dominant mechanism for transport of silt and sand during the formation of this part of the fan. Sediments in these flows were rapidly deposited once outside of their confining channels. The depositional lobe is formed of a series of long, narrow sublobes composed of thin-bedded turbidites (normally graded siliciclastic sand and silt, 20 cm thick on average), debris-flow deposits (soft clay clasts up to 5 cm in diameter in a siliciclastic silt matrix, 48 cm thick on average), and background-sedimentation hemipelagic muds. The mass flows most likely originated from slope failure at the head of the Mississippi Canyon or on the outer continental shelf and flowed approximately 500 km to the distal reaches of the fan, with debris flow being the dominant flow type. An analysis that uses the geometry of the confining channels and strength properties of the debris-flow material shows that these thin debris flows could have traveled hundreds of kilometers on extremely small sea-floor slopes at low velocities if the flowing medium behaved as Bingham fluids and were steady-state phenomena.

  8. Timing and frequency of glacigenic debris flows on the Bear Island Fan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pope, Ed; Talling, Peter; Hunt, James

    2015-04-01

    Trough Mouth Fans represent one of the most significant deposition systems for sediment on the planet. Trough mouth fans are found in front of bathymetric troughs that extend across continental shelves to the shelf break. It is along these troughs that large volumes of subglacial sediment are transported by fast flowing ice streams. Following initial deposition, glacially derived sediment is then often re-mobilised and re-deposited down the continental slope via gravity flow processes. Glacigenic debris flows are among the most significant of these processes, often occurring on slopes with gradients of <10. These flows commonly occur in lobes with characteristic lengths (30 - 200 km), widths (2 - 10 km) and thicknesses (10 - 50 m). The stacking of these lobes provides a significant proportion of the material making up trough mouth fans. Despite processes of sedimentation and sediment reworking being long established for these systems they are incompletely understood and there has been little work specifically dating individual events. We therefore have little information regarding the frequency of these events. This is especially true on more distal parts of trough mouth fans. Instead work has focussed primarily on upper areas of trough mouth fans in an attempt to precisely date ice retreat from these features. The Bear Island Trough Mouth Fan is situated in front of the Bear Island Trough in the Barents Sea. The cross shelf trough is about 150 km wide and 500 m deep at its mouth and served as a major drainage pathway for the Barents Sea Ice Sheet. The fan covers an area of 125,000 km2 and extends from the continental shelf edge at water depths of about 500 m to over 3000 m water depth in the Lofoten Basin. Previous studies using GLORIA have shown debris flows radiating out from near the top of the fan, extending to near its base, whilst 3.5 kHz sub-bottom profiler records show these lobes to be staked. Some dates have been produced from hemipelagic material above

  9. 18. INTERIOR VIEW OF BALTIMORE FAN HOUSE ENGINE ROOM LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. INTERIOR VIEW OF BALTIMORE FAN HOUSE ENGINE ROOM LOOKING EAST The flywheel of the 1908 Allis-Chalmers Corliss steam engine and flywheel are in the foreground. The engine is a horizontal slide valve type with a 24 inch bore and 48 inch stroke. It was direct connected to the Dickson Guibal fan which rotated at 69 revolutions per minute. - Dorrance Colliery Fan Complex, South side of Susquehanna River at Route 115 & Riechard Street, Wilkes-Barre, Luzerne County, PA

  10. Summary of forward velocity effects on fan noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feiler, C. E.; Groeneweg, J. F.

    1977-01-01

    Available experimental data comparing the in-flight and static behavior of fan noise are reviewed. These results are then compared with recent data obtained for a fan stage tested with forward velocity in a low speed wind tunnel. Tentative conclusions are presented about the significance and nature of the changes in noise observed when a forward velocity is imposed. Finally, the implications of the emerging picture of in-flight fan source noise for suppressor design are discussed.

  11. Sub-fragmentation of structural-reactive-material casings under explosion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Fan

    2015-06-01

    The sub-fragmentation of structural reactive material (SRM) thick-casings is to generate fine fragments during casing fragmentation under explosive loading for their efficient energy release to enhance air blast. This has been investigated using a cylindrical casing made from either rich Al-MoO3 or Al-W-based granular composites. The former composite was to study the concept of reactive hot spots where the reaction of reactive particles, which were distributed into base SRM in a fuel-rich equivalence ratio, created heat and gas products during SRM fragmentation. The expansion of these distributed hot spots initiated local fractures of the casing, leading to fine fragments. The Al-W-based composite investigated the concept of impedance mismatch, where shock dynamics at the interfaces of different impedance ingredients resulted in non-uniform, high local temperatures and stresses and late in times the dissimilar inertia resulted in different accelerations, leading to material separation and fine fragments. The casings were manufactured through both hot iso-static pressing and cold gas dynamic spray deposition. Explosion experiments were conducted in a 3 m diameter, 23 m3 cylindrical chamber for these cased charges in a casing-to-explosive mass ratio of 1.75. The results demonstrated the presence of fine fragments and more efficient fragment combustion, compared with previous results, and indicated the effectiveness of both concepts. This work was jointly funded by Defence R&D Canada and the Advanced Energetics Program of DTRA (Dr. William H. Wilson).

  12. Architecture of a modern transient slope fan (Villafranca fan, Gioia basin-Southeastern Tyrrhenian Sea)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gamberi, Fabiano; Rovere, Marzia

    2011-05-01

    The high resolution of geophysical data applied to the study of the modern seafloor provides excellent details on the architecture of deep-water fans. Numerous researches have addressed the study of modern ponded and terminal deep-water fans. In contrast, thorough studies of present-day examples of transient slope fans, i.e. those fans that are connected to a deeper depositional area, are not available. Multibeam bathymetry and CHIRP profiles have been used in the study of the Villafranca transient slope fan located in the northeastern Sicilian margin. Hanging above the 300-m high erosional flank of the Stromboli axial valley, perpendicular to the fan elongation, it represents a particular kind of transient fan. The fan is composed of a leveed channel followed downslope by a depositional lobe. The relief of the eastern levee above the channel axis changes due to longitudinal variations in the rate of sediment overbanking; despite the low sinuosity of the channel, an increased rate of overbank flow is observed in the outside of the channel bends. Downslope from a knickpoint, an increase in levee relief is the result of the entrenchment of the central tract of the channel. The erosional deepening of the channel followed the failure of a mass-transport deposit (MTD) that lowered the distal slope portion, also causing a step along the channel course. The MTD is characterized by an extensional headwall domain and by a slightly deformed main body that has suffered very restricted downslope movement. It was caused by the gliding of the levee wedge as a consequence of its undermining, due to the excavation of the Stromboli valley in the distal slope. Retrogressive sediment failures are widespread in the eastern levee; they form high mobility MTDs such as a debris flow that spread in the eastern portion of the depositional lobe. The Villafranca depositional lobe has an internal architecture that largely differs from that of classic fan models. Straight, approximately 500-m

  13. Energy dissipation in the blade tip region of an axial fan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bizjan, B.; Milavec, M.; Širok, B.; Trenc, F.; Hočevar, M.

    2016-11-01

    A study of velocity and pressure fluctuations in the tip clearance flow of an axial fan is presented in this paper. Two different rotor blade tip designs were investigated: the standard one with straight blade tips and the modified one with swept-back tip winglets. Comparison of integral sound parameters indicates a significant noise level reduction for the modified blade tip design. To study the underlying mechanisms of the energy conversion and noise generation, a novel experimental method based on simultaneous measurements of local flow velocity and pressure has also been developed and is presented here. The method is based on the phase space analysis by the use of attractors, which enable more accurate identification and determination of the local flow structures and turbulent flow properties. Specific gap flow energy derived from the pressure and velocity time series was introduced as an additional attractor parameter to assess the flow energy distribution and dissipation within the phase space, and thus determines characteristic sources of the fan acoustic emission. The attractors reveal a more efficient conversion of the pressure to kinetic flow energy in the case of the modified (tip winglet) fan blade design, and also a reduction in emitted noise levels. The findings of the attractor analysis are in a good agreement with integral fan characteristics (efficiency and noise level), while offering a much more accurate and detailed representation of gap flow phenomena.

  14. Rhone deep-sea fan: morphostructure and growth pattern

    SciTech Connect

    Droz, L.; Bellaiche, G.

    1985-03-01

    A detailed bathymetric survey of the Rhone deep-sea fan and its feeder canyon using Sea-Beam, reveals morphologic features such as very tight meanders of the canyon and channel courses, cutoff meanders, and downslope narrowing of the inner channel floor. Striking similarities exist between these deep-sea features and some continental landforms, especially in alluvial plain areas or desert environments. Sea-Beam also reveals evidence of huge slump scars affecting the slope and fan. The superficial structure of the Rhone Fan results from the stacking of numerous lenticular acoustic units displaying specific seismic characters in which the authors recognized channel and levee facies. Except in the upper fan area, these units have not been constant; they have generally migrated, owing to shifting of the channel throughout fan evolution. Construction of the fan probably began as early as the early Pliocene and continued to the close of the Wurmian (late Wisconsinian). The fan's growth pattern could be associated with climatic fluctuations. The principal sedimentary mechanism responsible for the growth of the fan appears to be turbidity currents, but mass gravity flows have also been an important factor in building the fan by occasionally blocking the main channel and forcing it to migrate.

  15. Prop-Fan technical progress leading to technology readiness

    SciTech Connect

    Gatzen, B.S.; Adamson, W.M.

    1981-01-01

    Technical activity on Prop-Fan propulsion has reached an impotant milestone. The analytical and scale model efforts now provide verification of design techniques necessary to initiate the large scale rotor technology demonstration required to achieve Prop-Fan technology readiness. Small scale model rotor programs have demonstrated high uninstalled Prop-Fan efficiency, reduced source noise with swept blades, and satisfactory structural dynamics. This paper presents the technical progress to date and the need to conduct a large scale program. The key element of the large scale program is a high speed flight test of the Prop-Fan rotor mounted on a swept wing. 74 refs.

  16. On limited fan-in optimal neural networks

    SciTech Connect

    Beiu, V.; Makaruk, H.E.; Draghici, S.

    1998-03-01

    Because VLSI implementations do not cope well with highly interconnected nets the area of a chip growing as the cube of the fan-in--this paper analyses the influence of limited fan in on the size and VLSI optimality of such nets. Two different approaches will show that VLSI- and size-optimal discrete neural networks can be obtained for small (i.e. lower than linear) fan-in values. They have applications to hardware implementations of neural networks. The first approach is based on implementing a certain sub class of Boolean functions, IF{sub n,m} functions. The authors will show that this class of functions can be implemented in VLSI optimal (i.e., minimizing AT{sup 2}) neural networks of small constant fan ins. The second approach is based on implementing Boolean functions for which the classical Shannon`s decomposition can be used. Such a solution has already been used to prove bounds on neural networks with fan-ins limited to 2. They generalize the result presented there to arbitrary fan-in, and prove that the size is minimized by small fan in values, while relative minimum size solutions can be obtained for fan-ins strictly lower than linear. Finally, a size-optimal neural network having small constant fan-ins will be suggested for IF{sub n,m} functions.

  17. A measuring stand for a ducted fan aircraft propulsion unit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hlaváček, David

    2014-03-01

    The UL-39 ultra-light aircraft which is being developed by the Department of Aerospace Engineering, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Czech Technical University in Prague, is equipped with an unconventional ducted fan propulsion unit. The unit consists of an axial fan driven by a piston engine and placed inside a duct ended with a nozzle. This article describes the arrangement of a modernised measuring stand for this highly specific propulsion unit which will be able to measure the fan pressure ratio and velocity field in front of and behind the fan and its characteristic curve.

  18. CFD Models of a Serpentine Inlet, Fan, and Nozzle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chima, R. V.; Arend, D. J.; Castner, R. S.; Slater, J. W.; Truax, P. P.

    2010-01-01

    Several computational fluid dynamics (CFD) codes were used to analyze the Versatile Integrated Inlet Propulsion Aerodynamics Rig (VIIPAR) located at NASA Glenn Research Center. The rig consists of a serpentine inlet, a rake assembly, inlet guide vanes, a 12-in. diameter tip-turbine driven fan stage, exit rakes or probes, and an exhaust nozzle with a translating centerbody. The analyses were done to develop computational capabilities for modeling inlet/fan interaction and to help interpret experimental data. Three-dimensional Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) calculations of the fan stage were used to predict the operating line of the stage, the effects of leakage from the turbine stream, and the effects of inlet guide vane (IGV) setting angle. Coupled axisymmetric calculations of a bellmouth, fan, and nozzle were used to develop techniques for coupling codes together and to investigate possible effects of the nozzle on the fan. RANS calculations of the serpentine inlet were coupled to Euler calculations of the fan to investigate the complete inlet/fan system. Computed wall static pressures along the inlet centerline agreed reasonably well with experimental data but computed total pressures at the aerodynamic interface plane (AIP) showed significant differences from the data. Inlet distortion was shown to reduce the fan corrected flow and pressure ratio, and was not completely eliminated by passage through the fan

  19. Discal cyst associated with myxoid change and apoptosis of herniated disc materials: a case report.

    PubMed

    Okada, Kyoji; Saito, Hajime; Nishida, Jun; Miyakoshi, Naohisa; Takahashi, Shu; Nagasawa, Hiroyuki; Suzuki, Norio; Chida, Shuichi

    2007-01-01

    Discal cyst is a lumbar intraspinal cyst communicating with intervertebral disc, and previously reported series described the wall of these cysts as consisting of dense fibrous connective tissue. We report a 29-year-old Japanese male with discal cyst showing unusual histological features. Clinical symptoms in the current case as well as imaging features including discography were similar to those previously reported.However, the wall of the cyst consisted of disc material with myxoid degeneration. In addition, apoptosis of chondrocytes was diffusely observed in the herniated disc material. The current case was considered a histological variant of discal cyst. Myxoid degeneration of herniated disc material with diffuse apoptotic change of chondrocytes was probably associated with the formation of discal cyst.

  20. Active Control of Fan Noise: Feasibility Study. Volume 4; Flyover System Noise Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kraft, R. E.; Janardan, B. A.; Gliebe, P. R.; Kontos, G. C.

    1996-01-01

    ratios of 1.75 and 1.60. At the two lower fan pressure ratios, the effectivness of treatment is much greater than that of ANC, and (5) No significant difference in ANC suppression behavior was found from the QCSEE engine database analysis compared to that of the E3 engine database, for the FPR = 1.3 engine cycle. The effects of ANC on EPNL noise reduction are difficult to generalize. It was found that the reduction obtained in any particular case depended upon the frequency of the tones and their shift with rpm, the amount of ANC suppression received by each tone (which depended on its protrusion from the background), and the NOY-value of the tone relative to the NOY-value of other tones and the peak broadband levels, because PNL is determined from the sum of the NOY-values.

  1. FUTURE STUDIES AT PENA BLANCA: RADIONUCLIDE MIGRATION IN THE VADOSE ZONE OF AN ALLUVIAL FAN

    SciTech Connect

    P. Goodell; J. Walton; P.J. Rodriguez

    2005-07-11

    The pathway to the accessible environment at Yucca Mountain contains volcanic rocks and alluvial fill. Transport properties in alluvial fill, specifically retardation and dispersivity, may be significant in determining the overall performance of the repository. Prior relevant studies, with the exception of the Nye County Tracer Test, are almost entirely in bedrock material. The proposed study will provide field data on radionuclide migration in alluvial material. High grade uranium ore was mined at the Nopal I deposit. This mined ore (60,000 tons) was moved in 1994 to its present site as open piles on an alluvial fan in the Boquilla Colorada Microbasin. Precipitation is approximately 20 cm/year, and has caused migration of radionuclides into the subsurface. We propose partial removal of an ore pile, excavation into the alluvial fan, sampling, and determination of radionuclide mobilities from the uranium decay chain. The proposed research would be taking advantage of a unique opportunity with a known time frame for migration.

  2. Technical Assessment of the National Full Scale Aerodynamic Complex Fan Blades Repair

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, Clarence P., Jr.; Dixon, Peter G.; St.Clair, Terry L.; Johns, William E.

    1998-01-01

    This report describes the principal activities of a technical review team formed to address National Full Scale Aerodynamic Complex (NFAC) blade repair problems. In particular, the problem of lack of good adhesive bonding of the composite overwrap to the Hyduliginum wood blade material was studied extensively. Description of action plans and technical elements of the plans are provided. Results of experiments designed to optimize the bonding process and bonding strengths obtained on a full scale blade using a two-step cure process with adhesive primers are presented. Consensus recommendations developed by the review team in conjunction with the NASA Ames Fan Blade Repair Project Team are provided along with lessons learned on this program. Implementation of recommendations resulted in achieving good adhesive bonds between the composite materials and wooden blades, thereby providing assurance that the repaired fan blades will meet or exceed operational life requirements.

  3. Condensate Accretion in Shock Tube's Expansion Fan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mezonlin, Ephrem-Denis; DeSilva, Upul P.; Hunte, F.; Johnson, Joseph A., III

    1997-01-01

    It has been shown that turbulence and temperature influence the droplet sizes in expansion fan induced condensation by studying the Rayleigh scattering from one port in our shock tube's test section. We have modified our set-up so as to allow, using two ports, the real time measurement of the influence of turbulence and temperature on the rate at which these droplets grow. To do this, we looked at the Rayleigh scattering from two different ports for ten Reynolds numbers at five different temperatures. We modeled the time of flight of droplets, using the equations of one-dimensional gas dynamics and the measured shock wave speed in shock tube's driven section.

  4. Labyrinth seal testing for lift fan engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dobek, L. J.

    1973-01-01

    An abradable buffered labyrinth seal for the control of turbine gas path leakage in a tip-turbine driven lift fan was designed, tested, and analyzed. The seal configuration was not designed to operate in any specific location but was sized to be evaluated in an existing test rig. The final sealing diameter selected was 28 inches. Results of testing indicate that the flow equations predicted seal air flows consistent with measured values. Excellent sealing characteristics of the abradable coating on the stator land were demonstrated when a substantial seal penetration of .030 inch into the land surface was encountered without appreciable wear on the labyrinth knife edges.

  5. Noise suppressor for turbo fan jet engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheng, D. Y. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    A noise suppressor is disclosed for installation on the discharge or aft end of a turbo fan engine. Within the suppressor are fixed annular airfoils which are positioned to reduce the relative velocity between the high temperature fast moving jet exhaust and the low temperature slow moving air surrounding it. Within the suppressor nacelle is an exhaust jet nozzle which constrains the shape of the jet exhaust to a substantially uniform elongate shape irrespective of the power setting of the engine. Fixed ring airfoils within the suppressor nacelle therefore have the same salutary effects irrespective of the power setting at which the engine is operated.

  6. Through flow analysis of pumps and fans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neal, A. N.

    1980-08-01

    Incompressible through flow calculations in axial, mixed and centrifugal flow pumps and fans are described. An iterative scheme is used. A simple blade to blade model is applied on the surfaces of revolution defined by the meridional streamlines. This defines the fluid properties and the mean stream surface (S2 surface) for the next meridional solution. A computer program is available allowing the method to be applied for design purposes. APL is used for input and output and FORTRAN IV for computation. A typical calculation requires 30 sec of Univac 1100 time.

  7. Variations in rock types on alluvial fan surfaces as an indicator of source reach and geomorphic process, Fish Lake Valley, Nevada-California

    SciTech Connect

    Slate, J.L. )

    1993-04-01

    Lithologic composition of fan-surface clasts can reflect the source of alluvial fan deposits within those drainages where rock types vary with location in the basin, provided that clasts at the surface resemble the makeup of rocks within the deposit. Interpreting the reach from which deposits were derived may, in turn, be used to infer the relation of fan deposition to causal events and source-area conditions. A multiparameter study of alluvial fans in four drainage basins of Fish Lake Valley, Nevada-California, included assessing modal lithology and the lithologic ratio among three main rock types. The author tallied rock types of 100 surface pebbles described on geomorphic surfaces along 50-m-long transects oriented perpendicular to streamflow direction near the mountain fronts. Source areas for the fan deposits shifted from the Pleistocene to the late Holocene, and may be a result of changes in weathering and transport conditions. The middle and lower reach sources of the two youngest (late Holocene) units (based on 7 transects) suggest that they were deposited in response to events that were only sufficient to transport material from these areas and not the headwaters, or that insufficient material was available for transport from the headwaters. The presence of these units of apparently similar age in the four mapped areas rules out localized storms or isolated faulting events as causes of deposition. The headwater and drainage-basin wide sources of two Pleistocene fan units (based on 13 transects) indicate deposition of these units may have occurred in response to significant climatic events that weathered material in the headwaters areas and transported that material to the fans. Thus, climatic conditions or elapsed time or a combination of the two may control sources of fan deposits.

  8. The morphology, processes, and evolution of Monterey Fan: a revisit

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gardner, James V.; Bohannon, Robert G.; Field, Michael E.; Masson, Douglas G.

    2010-01-01

    Long-range (GLORIA) and mid-range (TOBI) sidescan imagery and seismic-reflection profiles have revealed the surface morphology and architecture of the complete Monterey Fan. The fan has not developed a classic wedge shape because it has been blocked for much of its history by Morro Fracture Zone. The barrier has caused the fan to develop an upper-fan and lower-fan sequence that are distinctly different from one another. The upper-fan sequence is characterized by Monterey and Ascension Channels and associated Monterey Channel-levee system. The lower-fan sequence is characterized by depositional lobes of the Ascension, Monterey, and Sur-Parkington-Lucia systems, with the Monterey depositional lobe being the youngest. Presently, the Monterey depositional lobe is being downcut because the system has reached a new, lower base level in the Murray Fracture Zone. A five-step evolution of Monterey Fan is presented, starting with initial fan deposition in the Late Miocene, about 5.5 Ma. This first stage was one of filling bathymetric lows in the oceanic basement in what was to become the upper-fan segment. The second stage involved filling the bathymetric low on the north side of Morro Fracture Zone, and probably not much sediment was transported beyond the fracture zone. The third stage witnessed sediment being transported around both ends of Morro Fracture Zone and initial sedimentation on the lower-fan segment. During the fourth stage Ascension Channel was diverted into Monterey Channel, thereby cutting off sedimentation to the Ascension depositional lobe.

  9. Experimental study of a single channel alluvial fan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delorme, Pauline; Devauchelle, Olivier; Barrier, Laurie; Métivier, François

    2016-04-01

    At the outlet of mountain ranges, rivers reach a flat plain and start to depose their sediment load into a conical sedimentary structure called alluvial fan. To decipher these sedimentary records, we need to understand the dynamics of their growth. Most natural fans are built by braided streams. However, to avoid the complexity of braided rivers, we develop a small-scale experiment in which an alluvial fan is formed by a single channel. We use a mixture of water and glycerol to produce a laminar river. The fluid is mixed with corindon sand (~ 300 μm) in a tilted channel and left free to form a fan around its outlet. The sediment and water discharges are constant during an experimental run. We record the fan progradation and the channel morphology with top-view pictures. We also generate an elevation map with an optical method based on the deformation of a moiré pattern. We observe that, to leading order, the fan remains self-affine as it grows, with a constant slope. We compare two recent studies about the formation of one-dimensionnal fan [Guerit et al. 2014] and threshold rivers [Seizilles et al. 2013] to our experimental findings. In particular, we propose a theory witch relates the fan morphology to the control parameters (fluid and sediment discharges, grain size). Our observations accord with the predictions, suggesting that the fan is built near the threshold of sediment motion. At the first order, the fan profile is linear and control by the water discharge. The downstream decrease in sediment discharge add a curvature to this profile. Finally, we intend to expand our interpretation to alluvial fans build by single-thread channels ( Okavango, Bostwana; Taquari and Paraguay, Brasil).

  10. Case studies of sealing methods and materials used in the salt and potash mining industries

    SciTech Connect

    Eyermann, T.J.; Sambeek, L.L. Van

    1995-11-01

    Sealing methods and materials currently used in salt and potash industries were surveyed to determine if systems analogous to the shaft seal design proposed for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) exist. Emphasis was first given to concrete and then expanded to include other materials. Representative case studies could provide useful design, construction, and performance information for development of the WIPP shaft seal system design. This report contains a summary of engineering and construction details of various sealing methods used by mining industries for bulkheads and shaft liners. Industrial experience, as determined from site visits and literature reviews, provides few examples of bulkheads built in salt and potash mines for control of water. Sealing experiences representing site-specific conditions often have little engineering design to back up the methods employed and even less quantitative evaluation of seal performance. Cases examined include successes and failures, and both contribute to a database of experiences. Mass salt-saturated concrete placement under ground was accomplished under several varied conditions. Information derived from this database has been used to assess the performance of concrete as a seal material. Concrete appears to be a robust material with successes in several case studies. 42 refs.

  11. Flux rope proxies and fan-spine structures in active region NOAA 11897

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, Y. J.; Li, T.; Zhang, J.

    2016-08-01

    Context. Flux ropes are composed of twisted magnetic fields and are closely connected with coronal mass ejections. The fan-spine magnetic topology is another type of complex magnetic fields. It has been reported by several authors, and is believed to be associated with null-point-type magnetic reconnection. Aims: We try to determine the number of flux rope proxies and reveal fan-spine structures in the complex active region (AR) NOAA 11897. Methods: Employing the high-resolution observations from the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) and the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS), we statistically investigated flux rope proxies in NOAA AR 11897 from 14 November 2013 to 19 November 2013 and display two fan-spine structures in this AR. Results: For the first time, we detect flux rope proxies of NOAA 11897 for a total of 30 times in four different locations during this AR's transference from solar east to west on the disk. Moreover, we notice that these flux rope proxies were tracked by active or eruptive material of filaments 12 times, while for the remaining 18 times they appeared as brightenings in the corona. These flux rope proxies were either tracked in both lower and higher temperature wavelengths or only detected in hot channels. None of these flux rope proxies was observed to erupt; they faded away gradually. In addition to these flux rope proxies, we detect for the first time a secondary fan-spine structure. It was covered by dome-shaped magnetic fields that belong to a larger fan-spine topology. Conclusions: These new observations imply that many flux ropes can exist in an AR and that the complexity of AR magnetic configurations is far beyond our imagination. Movies 1-8 are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  12. Two stage low noise advanced technology fan. 1: Aerodynamic, structural, and acoustic design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Messenger, H. E.; Ruschak, J. T.; Sofrin, T. G.

    1974-01-01

    A two-stage fan was designed to reduce noise 20 db below current requirements. The first-stage rotor has a design tip speed of 365.8 m/sec and a hub/tip ratio of 0.4. The fan was designed to deliver a pressure ratio of 1.9 with an adiabatic efficiency of 85.3 percent at a specific inlet corrected flow of 209.2kg/sec/sq m. Noise reduction devices include acoustically treated casing walls, a flowpath exit acoustic splitter, a translating centerbody sonic inlet device, widely spaced blade rows, and the proper ratio of blades and vanes. Multiple-circular-arc rotor airfoils, resettable stators, split outer casings, and capability to go to close blade-row spacing are also included.

  13. Acoustic emission during changes in the aerodynamic load on the surface of a fan blade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chukhlantsev, S. G.

    1991-10-01

    The directional characteristics and acoustic parameters of a source resulting from the aerodynamic interaction between a fan blade and a bluff body located at the exit of the air flow are investigated analytically and experimentally. The results of the study suggest that the theoretical relations obtained for other cases of fan rotation in the field of inhomogeneous flow remain valid for the case considered here. It is shown, in particular, that by changing the number of blades and obstacle location, it is possible to reduce the radiation in the axial direction since most of the radiation in this direction is generated by a force harmonic with a number equal to the number of blades.

  14. Non-linear duct acoustics and its application to fan noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaidya, P. G.

    1977-01-01

    Quite often the scalar Helmholtz equation is assumed to be the fundamental equation of duct acoustics and various relations are derived from it. An investigation is, therefore, conducted regarding the underlying assumptions leading to the Helmholtz equation. It is found that serious errors, even well below 186 dB, are possible if the assumption of linearity were to be made. In duct acoustics these errors are highest near the cutoff points and in the case of ducts with transonic flow. It is pointed out that serious errors could arise if a nonlinear problem is analyzed by linear methods. At times, an entire phenomenon remains unpredictable by linear methods. Attention is given to the characteristics of nonlinear systems, the phenomenon of multiple pure tones in the case of noise from the aircraft engine fans, the limitations of the conventional acoustics equation, duct shape and nonlinearity, and the numerical simulation of a fan with 8 blades.

  15. River path selection in response to uplift and interaction with alluvial fans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grimaud, J. L.; Paola, C.; Voller, V. R.

    2015-12-01

    terranes collapse material in the river and slow down the lateral migration of channels. As a result, the extension of the lateral fan as sedimentation rate increases is not able to completely erase pre-existing reliefs.

  16. Tectonically controlled fan delta and submarine fan sedimentation of late Miocene age, southern Temblor Range, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ryder, Robert T; Thomson, Alan

    1989-01-01

    The Santa Margarita Formation in the southern Temblor Range, composed of conglomerate and subordinate sandstone, evolved as a large complex of fan deltas and submarine fans in late Miocene time. An 80 to 90-m.y.-old granitic basement of the Salinian block and an accompanying 23.5-m.y.-old volcanic field now located in the northern Gabilan Range and the Pinnacles area, respectively, were the primary source terranes. In general, the fan deltas crop out along the west side of the southern Temblor Range, whereas the proximal parts of the submarine fans crop out along the east side of the range. The fan deltas consist of subaerial topset beds and low-angle basinward-dipping subaqueous foreset beds. Strata interpreted to be topset beds are composed largely of conglomerate with thick to very thick horizontal beds and matrix-supported clasts. Most of the thick to very thick conglomerate beds are internally massive and disorganized. Strata interpreted as foreset beds are composed of thick-bedded, large-scale, low-angle, cross-stratified conglomerate and sandstone units which commonly are internally massive. Abundant molluskan macrofossils such as Ostrea and Pecten are present in the subaqueous foreset beds; many have been displaced downslope from their original site of deposition. Conglomerate- and sandstone-filled submarine canyons, through which coarse-grained detritus was transported to the adjacent submarine fans, locally have cut into the foreset beds of the fan deltas. These submarine canyon deposits are generally better stratified than adjacent foreset-bed deposits, and they consist of thick horizontal beds, internally massive or normally graded, arranged in fining- and thinning-upward sequences. Isolated and composite conglomerate- and sandstone-filled channels, which crop out on the east flank of the southern Temblor Range, are interpreted as proximal submarine-fan channel deposits. These channel-form conglomerate and sandstone deposits are characterized by thick

  17. From waste to sustainable materials management: Three case studies of the transition journey.

    PubMed

    Silva, Angie; Rosano, Michele; Stocker, Laura; Gorissen, Leen

    2017-03-01

    Waste policy is increasingly moving on from the 'prevention of waste' to a 'sustainable materials policy' focused agenda recognising individual wastes as a resource. In order to comparatively analyse policy developments in enhanced waste management, three case studies were selected; San Francisco's Zero Waste Program, Flanders's Sustainable Materials Management Initiative and Japan's Sound Material-Cycle Society Plan. These case studies were chosen as an opportunity to investigate the variety of leading approaches, governance structures, and enhanced waste policy outcomes, emerging globally. This paper concludes that the current transitional state of waste management across the world, is only in the first leg of the journey towards Circular Economy closed loop production models of waste as a resource material. It is suggested that further development in government policy, planning and behaviour change is required. A focus on material policy and incorporating multiple front runners across industry and knowledge institutions are offered as potential directions in the movement away from end-pipe land-fill solutions.

  18. Transient states of air parameters after a stoppage and re-start of the main fan / Stany przejściowe parametrów powietrza po postoju i załączeniu wentylatora głównego

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wasilewski, Stanisław

    2012-12-01

    A stoppage of the main ventilation fan constitutes a disturbance of ventilation conditions of a deepmine and its effects can cause serious hazards by generating transient states of air and gas flow. Main ventilation fans are the basic deep-mine facilities; therefore, under mining regulations it is only allowed to stop them with the consent and under the conditions specified by the mine maintenance manager. The stoppage of the main ventilation fan may be accompanied by transient air parameters, including the air pressure and flow patterns. There is even the likelihood of reversing the direction of air flow, which, in case of methane mines, can pose a major hazard, particularly in sections of the mine with fire fields or large goaf areas. At the same time, stoppages of deep-mine main ventilation fans create interesting research conditions, which if conducted under the supervision of the monitoring systems, can provide much information about the transient processes of pressure, air and gas flow in underground workings. This article is a discussion of air parameter observations in mine workings made as part of such experiments. It also presents the procedure of the experiments, conducted in three mines. They involved the observation of transient processes of mine air parameters, and most interestingly, the recording of pressure and air and gas flow in the workings of the mine ventilation networks by mine monitoring systems and using specialist recording instruments. In mining practice, both in Poland and elsewhere, software tools and computer modelling methods are used to try and reproduce the conditions prior to and during disasters based on the existing network model and monitoring system data. The use of these tools to simulate the alternatives of combating and liquidation of the gas-fire hazard after its occurrence is an important issue. Measurement data collected during the experiments provides interesting research material for the verification and validation of

  19. Boulder, Pavement, Pit; Sample Selection for Cosmogenic Nuclide Dating on Alluvial Fans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perg, L. A.; Oskin, M. E.; Blumentritt, D.; Strane, M.; Mukhopadhyay, S.

    2005-12-01

    Selecting sample targets and methods that minimize the effects of erosion, inheritance, and material movement is one of the largest issues facing cosmogenic isotope dating. Since sample material availability often sharply limits methods, establishing error estimates in less-than-ideal sampling situations is also important. Our study of alluvial fan offsets in the Eastern California Shear Zone (Mojave Desert) takes advantage of multiple sample targets to develop method inter-comparisons. Alluvial fans along the Calico fault had abundant large basalt and quartz monzonite boulders, targets for 3He and 10Be respectively. In addition to the boulders, the incipient desert pavement on the youngest alluvial fan surface was sampled. The basalt boulders had higher relative cosmogenic nuclide concentrations, and a much higher scatter, due to very high inheritance and also likely boulder recycling into younger terraces. The quartz monzonite had lower, consistent concentrations on the youngest terrace, but presented erosional concerns due to the spalling and grussification common to granitic material. The incipient desert pavement had a comparable 10Be concentration to the quartz monzonite boulders; the highest concentration in each was the same, and the average pavement concentration lagged the boulders only slightly. The Lenwood fault alluvial fans had two targets. Small clasts formed weakly developed to mature pavement on the surfaces. The fan deposits were also thick enough to dig pits (1.5m). On the younger fan surface, both sediment and clasts (gravel to cobble) were collected in the pit; concentrations were comparable between the two. The profiles indicated high inheritance (comparable to modern wash samples), and some mixing at the near surface. Due to high inheritance, the surface sample alone would far overestimate the age. Using wash samples to estimate inheritance slightly overcorrects, due to mixing in the near-surface. Two types of clasts were sampled in the older

  20. Fiber composite fan blade impact improvement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graff, J.; Stoltze, L.; Varholak, E. M.

    1976-01-01

    The improved foreign object damage resistance of a metal matrix advanced composite fan blade was demonstrated. The fabrication, whirl impact test and subsequent evaluation of nine advanced composite fan blades of the "QCSEE" type design were performed. The blades were designed to operate at a tip speed of 282 m/sec. The blade design was the spar/shell type, consisting of a titanium spar and boron/aluminum composite airfoils. The blade retention was designed to rock on impact with large birds, thereby reducing the blade bending stresses. The program demonstrated the ability of the blades to sustain impacts with up to 681 g slices of birds at 0.38 rad with little damage (only 1.4 percent max weight loss) and 788 g slices of birds at 0.56 rad with only 3.2 percent max weight loss. Unbonding did not exceed 1.1 percent of the post-test blade area during any of the tests. All blades in the post-test condition were judged capable of operation in accordance with the FAA guidelines for medium and large bird impacts.

  1. On Static Pressure Fluctuation between Sirocco Fan Blades in a Car Air-Conditioning System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakai, Yasuhiko; Kato, Takaaki; Moriguchi, Yuu; Sakai, Masaharu; Ito, Kouji; Mitsuishi, Yasushi; Nagata, Kouji; Kubo, Takashi

    In this study, special attention is directed to static pressure fluctuation in a sirocco fan for a car air-conditioning system, because it is expected that there is a close connection between the fluid noise and the pressure fluctuation. The final purpose of this study is to clarify the relationship between the static pressure fluctuation between fan blades and the sound noise emitted to the outside of the fan, and to develop an air-conditioning system with highly low noise level. For this purpose, first of all, a new micro probe for the measurement of static pressure fluctuation has been developed. This new micro probe is composed of an L-type static pressure tube (the outer diameter is 0.5 mm and the inner diameter is 0.34 mm) and a very small pressure transducer. This probe exhibits a flat frequency response until approximately 2,000 Hz, and it is set between the blades of the fan rotating at 1,500 rpm. The measurements of the static pressure fluctuation between the blades have been performed, and the intensity of sound source was quantified from the second derivative of the phase-averaged static pressure fluctuation signals on the basis of Ribner's formula (Ribner 1962). The experiments have been made in two different modes, i.e., the cooling mode (FACE MODE) and the heating mode (FOOT MODE). It is shown that the static pressure increases rapidly as the blade approaches to the nose of the casing. It is also found that the sound source for FACE MODE shows the larger value than that for FOOT MODE as a whole. In particular, the largest intensity of sound source is observed when the blade approaches to the nose. From these results, it is confirmed that the present new static pressure probe is useful to specify the distributions of sound source in a sirocco fan.

  2. Impact resistance of hybrid composite fan blade materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friedrich, L. A.

    1974-01-01

    Improved resistance to foreign object damage was demonstrated for hybrid composite simulated blade specimens. Transply metallic reinforcement offered additional improvement in resistance to gelatin projectile impacts. Metallic leading edge protection permitted equivalent-to-titanium performance of the hybrid composite simulated blade specimen for impacts with 1.27 cm and 2.54 cm (0.50 and 1.00 inch) diameter gelatin spheres.

  3. Highly loaded multi-stage fan drive turbine: Performance of final three configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cherry, D. G.; Thomas, M. W.

    1974-01-01

    Results for a three-stage highly loaded fan drive turbine follow-on test program are presented. The effects of combinations of tandem and leaned bladerows on three-stage turbine performance were tested. The three-stage turbine with a tandem stator in stage two exhibited a total-to-total efficiency of approximately 0.887 as compared to 0.886 for the plain blade turbine base case.

  4. Fine fragmentation distribution from structural reactive material casings under explosive loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, William H.; Zhang, Fan; Kim, Kibong

    2017-01-01

    For a full understanding of the contribution to the primary blast wave, the collection and analysis of fragment distribution down to 37 µm from a 3.3 cm I.D., thick structural reactive material (SRM) casing under explosive loading are investigated in a 2.1 m3 closed cylindrical chamber packed with artificially-made pure snow. The fragmentation distributions obtained from three types of SRM casings show that a 75-80% mass fraction is achievable for fragments in a range below 125 µm from specified SRM, consistent with its significantly more enhanced primary blast behaviour.

  5. Using Fan Fiction to Teach Critical Reading and Writing Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kell, Tracey

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the author talks about fan fiction, which is defined by Jenkins (2008) as "original stories and novels which are set in the fictional universe of favorite television series, films, comics, games or other media properties." Fan fiction generally involves writing stories with a combination of established characters and established…

  6. Global classification of spectrum of submarine fan types

    SciTech Connect

    Gorsline, D.S.

    1987-05-01

    There is a pressing need for a schema in which they can arrange the variety of fan forms, both modern and ancient. Such schemes have been generated for the delta depositional form, the beach form, and to some extent for aeolian, fluvial, and glacial deposits. Work by several workers has demonstrated that three necessary dimensions define the variety of submarine fan morphological responses: (1) fan size, (2) sediment supply rate, and (3) the proportion of sand and mud in that supply. These three dimensions form a space within which all submarine fans can be fitted and within which four subspaces can be defined on the basis of order-of-magnitude changes in all three dimensions. Fan morphologies in the less than 10 km scale are simple cones or lobes (suprafan lobes); those of the order of 10 to 100 km may have both lobe and leveed channel components; those in the size range from 100 to 1000 km tend to be dominated by channel systems and are probably composites of smaller fans analogous to crevasse splay systems in very large deltas. Fans larger than about 1000 km are few in number (giant fans) and are dominated by large-scale channels. Megaturbidites are probably limited to systems of the third zone by the constraints of sediment supply and receiving area.

  7. Facilitating Attuned Interactions: Using the FAN Approach to Family Engagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilkerson, Linda

    2015-01-01

    Erikson Institute's Fussy Baby Network® (FBN) is a national model prevention program known for its approach to family engagement called the FAN (Gilkerson & Gray, 2014; Gilkerson et al., 2012). The FAN is both a conceptual framework and a practical tool to facilitate attunement in helping relationships and promote reflective practice. This…

  8. Choosing the right boiler air fans at Weston 4

    SciTech Connect

    Spring, N.

    2009-04-15

    When it came to choosing the three 'big' boiler air fans - forced draft, induced draft and primary air, the decision revolved around efficiency. The decision making process for fan selection for the Western 4 supercritical coal-fired plant is described in this article. 3 photos.

  9. 30 CFR 75.311 - Main mine fan operation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... are used, the mine ventilation system shall be designed and maintained to eliminate areas without air... MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Ventilation § 75.311 Main mine fan operation. (a) Main mine fans shall be continuously operated, except as otherwise approved in the ventilation plan, or...

  10. 30 CFR 75.311 - Main mine fan operation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... are used, the mine ventilation system shall be designed and maintained to eliminate areas without air... MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Ventilation § 75.311 Main mine fan operation. (a) Main mine fans shall be continuously operated, except as otherwise approved in the ventilation plan, or...

  11. Screens Would Protect Wind-Tunnel Fan Blades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farmer, Moses G.

    1992-01-01

    Butterfly screen installed in wind tunnel between test section and fan blades to prevent debris from reaching fan blades if model structure fails. Protective screens deployed manually or automatically. Concept beneficial anywhere wind tunnels employed. Also useful in areas outside of aerospace industry, such as in airflow design of automobiles and other vehicles.

  12. The Retarding Force on a Fan-Cart Reversing Direction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aurora, Tarlok S.; Brunner, Bernard J.

    2011-01-01

    In introductory physics, students learn that an object tossed upward has a constant downward acceleration while going up, at the highest point and while falling down. To demonstrate this concept, a self-propelled fan cart system is used on a frictionless track. A quick push is given to the fan cart and it is allowed to move away on a track under…

  13. Acoustic Measurements of an Uninstalled Spacecraft Cabin Ventilation Fan Prototype

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koch, L. Danielle; Brown, Clifford A.; Shook, Tony D.; Winkel, James; Kolacz, John S.; Podboy, Devin M.; Loew, Raymond A.; Mirecki, Julius H.

    2012-01-01

    Sound pressure measurements were recorded for a prototype of a spacecraft cabin ventilation fan in a test in the NASA Glenn Acoustical Testing Laboratory. The axial fan is approximately 0.089 m (3.50 in.) in diameter and 0.223 m (9.00 in.) long and has nine rotor blades and eleven stator vanes. At design point of 12,000 rpm, the fan was predicted to produce a flow rate of 0.709 cu m/s (150 cfm) and a total pressure rise of 925 Pa (3.72 in. of water) at 12,000 rpm. While the fan was designed to be part of a ducted atmospheric revitalization system, no attempt was made to throttle the flow or simulate the installed configuration during this test. The fan was operated at six speeds from 6,000 to 13,500 rpm. A 13-microphone traversing array was used to collect sound pressure measurements along two horizontal planes parallel to the flow direction, two vertical planes upstream of the fan inlet and two vertical planes downstream of the fan exhaust. Measurements indicate that sound at blade passing frequency harmonics contribute significantly to the overall audible noise produced by the fan at free delivery conditions.

  14. Fan Size and Foil Type in Recognition Memory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walls, Richard T.; And Others

    An experiment involving 20 graduate and undergraduate students (7 males and 13 females) at West Virginia University (Morgantown) assessed "fan network structures" of recognition memory. A fan in network memory structure occurs when several facts are connected into a single node (concept). The more links from that concept to various…

  15. 9. EXTERIOR VIEW OF BALTIMORE FAN HOUSE LOOKING NORTHEAST The ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. EXTERIOR VIEW OF BALTIMORE FAN HOUSE LOOKING NORTHEAST The brick and concrete construction of the engine room, airways, and chimney are evident. The shaft housing and flywheel of the Allis- Chalmers Corliss steam engine are visible through the window of the engine room. - Dorrance Colliery Fan Complex, South side of Susquehanna River at Route 115 & Riechard Street, Wilkes-Barre, Luzerne County, PA

  16. 17. INTERIOR VIEW OF HILLMAN FAN HOUSE ENGINE ROOM LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. INTERIOR VIEW OF HILLMAN FAN HOUSE ENGINE ROOM LOOKING EAST The direct-acting 1883 Pittston Engine and Machine Company steam engine was made by George A. Parrish and W. B. Culver of West Pittston, Pennsylvania. - Dorrance Colliery Fan Complex, South side of Susquehanna River at Route 115 & Riechard Street, Wilkes-Barre, Luzerne County, PA

  17. Drawing Desire: Male Youth and Homoerotic Fan Art

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dennis, Jeffery P.

    2010-01-01

    Although Western mass media aimed at juvenile audiences aggressively eliminates any references to same-sex desire and behavior, it inspires a tremendous amount of homoerotic fan art. To determine how same-sex potential is portrayed in juvenile fan art, a content analysis was conducted of 872 male homoerotic images by 442 juvenile male and female…

  18. 23. INTERIOR VIEW OF NEW FAN HOUSE ENGINE ROOM LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    23. INTERIOR VIEW OF NEW FAN HOUSE ENGINE ROOM LOOKING EAST The flywheel, shaft, and coupling of the c. 1930 Buffalo Forge Corliss engine are shown. - Dorrance Colliery Fan Complex, South side of Susquehanna River at Route 115 & Riechard Street, Wilkes-Barre, Luzerne County, PA

  19. Design of impact-resistant boron/aluminum large fan blade

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salemme, C. T.; Yokel, S. A.

    1978-01-01

    The technical program was comprised of two technical tasks. Task 1 encompassed the preliminary boron/aluminum fan blade design effort. Two preliminary designs were evolved. An initial design consisted of 32 blades per stage and was based on material properties extracted from manufactured blades. A final design of 36 blades per stage was based on rule-of-mixture material properties. In Task 2, the selected preliminary blade design was refined via more sophisticated analytical tools. Detailed finite element stress analysis and aero performance analysis were carried out to determine blade material frequencies and directional stresses.

  20. Nocturnal Fanning Suppresses Downy Mildew Epidemics in Sweet Basil

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Yigal; Ben-Naim, Yariv

    2016-01-01

    Downy mildew is currently the most serious disease of sweet basil around the world. The oomycete causal agent Peronospora belbahrii requires ≥ 4h free leaf moisture for infection and ≥7.5h of water-saturated atmosphere (relative humidity RH≥95%) at night for sporulation. We show here that continued nocturnal fanning (wind speed of 0.4–1.5 m/s) from 8pm to 8am dramatically suppressed downy mildew development. In three experiments conducted during 2015, percent infected leaves in regular (non-fanned) net-houses reached a mean of 89.9, 94.3 and 96.0% compared to1.2, 1.7 and 0.5% in adjacent fanned net-houses, respectively. Nocturnal fanning reduced the number of hours per night with RH≥95% thus shortened the dew periods below the threshold required for infection or sporulation. In experiments A, B and C, the number of nights with ≥4h of RH≥95% was 28, 10 and 17 in the non-fanned net-houses compared to 5, 0 and 5 in the fanned net-houses, respectively. In the third experiment leaf wetness sensors were installed. Dew formation was strongly suppressed in the fanned net-house as compared to the non-fanned net-house. Healthy potted plants became infected and sporulated a week later if placed one night in the non-fanned house whereas healthy plants placed during that night in the fanned house remained healthy. Infected potted basil plants sporulated heavily after one night of incubation in the non-fanned house whereas almost no sporulation occurred in similar plants incubated that night in the fanned house. The data suggest that nocturnal fanning is highly effective in suppressing downy mildew epidemics in sweet basil. Fanning prevented the within-canopy RH from reaching saturation, reduced dew deposition on the leaves, and hence prevented both infection and sporulation of P. belbahrii. PMID:27171554

  1. Preliminary Aerodynamic Investigation of Fan Rotor Blade Morphing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tweedt, Daniel L.

    2012-01-01

    Various new technologies currently under development may enable controlled blade shape variability, or so-called blade morphing, to be practically employed in aircraft engine fans and compressors in the foreseeable future. The current study is a relatively brief, preliminary computational fluid dynamics investigation aimed at partially demonstrating and quantifying the aerodynamic potential of fan rotor blade morphing. The investigation is intended to provide information useful for near-term planning, as well as aerodynamic solution data sets that can be subsequently analyzed using advanced acoustic diagnostic tools, for the purpose of making fan noise comparisons. Two existing fan system models serve as baselines for the investigation: the Advanced Ducted Propulsor fan with a design tip speed of 806 ft/sec and a pressure ratio of 1.294, and the Source Diagnostic Test fan with a design tip speed of 1215 ft/sec and a pressure ratio of 1.470. Both are 22-in. sub-scale, low-noise research fan/nacelle models that have undergone extensive experimental testing in the 9- by 15-foot Low Speed Wind Tunnel at the NASA Glenn Research Center. The study, restricted to fan rotor blade morphing only, involves a fairly simple blade morphing technique. Specifically, spanwise-linear variations in rotor blade-section setting angle are applied to alter the blade shape; that is, the blade is linearly retwisted from hub to tip. Aerodynamic performance comparisons are made between morphed-blade and corresponding baseline configurations on the basis of equal fan system thrust, where rotor rotational speed for the morphed-blade fan is varied to change the thrust level for that configuration. The results of the investigation confirm that rotor blade morphing could be a useful technology, with the potential to enable significant improvements in fan aerodynamic performance. Even though the study is very limited in scope and confined to simple geometric perturbations of two existing fan

  2. Fan-In Communications On A Cray Gemini Interconnect

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, Terry R; Settlemyer, Bradley W

    2014-01-01

    Using the Cray Gemini interconnect as our platform, we present a study of an important class of communication operations the fan-in communication pattern. By its nature, fan-in communications form hot spots that present significant challenges for any interconnect fabric and communication software stack. Yet despite the inherent challenges, these communication patterns are common in both applications (which often perform reductions and other collective operations that include fan-in communication such as barriers) and system software (where they assume an important role within parallel file systems and other components requiring high-bandwidth or low-latency I/O). Our study determines the effectiveness of differing clientserver fan-in strategies. We describe fan-in performance in terms of aggregate bandwidth in the presence of varying degrees of congestion, as well as several other key attributes. Comparison numbers are presented for the Cray Aries interconnect. Finally, we provide recommended communication strategies based on our findings.

  3. Method for fabricating fan-fold shielded electrical leads

    DOEpatents

    Rohatgi, Rajeev R.; Cowan, Thomas E.

    1994-01-01

    Fan-folded electrical leads made from copper cladded Kapton, for example, with the copper cladding on one side serving as a ground plane and the copper cladding on the other side being etched to form the leads. The Kapton is fan folded with the leads located at the bottom of the fan-folds. Electrical connections are made by partially opening the folds of the fan and soldering, for example, the connections directly to the ground plane and/or the lead. The fan folded arrangement produces a number of advantages, such as electrically shielding the leads from the environment, is totally non-magnetic, and has a very low thermal conductivity, while being easy to fabricate.

  4. Advanced acoustic and aerodynamic 20-inch fan program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erwin, J. R.; Heldenbrand, R. W.

    1977-01-01

    The aerodynamic analyses, mechanical analyses, and stress tests of a 20-inch diameter advanced fan design intended for acoustic investigation by NASA-LeRC are discussed. A high tip speed transonic fan rotor was scaled directly to 20.0 inches (0.508 m) from a 28.74-inch (0.73-m) diameter rotor. A new stator was designed and fabricated for the fan and incorporated with a test rig housing and adapter hardware for installation in the NASA-LeRC Jet Noise Facility for acoustic evaluation. The stator was designed to allow mounting at three axial locations, and the fan, housing, and adapters are reversible so that either the inlet or the exhaust ends of the assembly face the open room of the test facility. Excellent aerodynamic performance is predicted, and a low noise signature is expected since the unique aerodynamic design features of this fan are directly conductive to producing minimum sound power.

  5. Portable Fan Assembly for the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jenkins, Arthur A.; Roman, Monsi C.

    1999-01-01

    NASA/ Marshall Space Flight Center (NASA/MSFC) is responsible for the design and fabrication of a Portable Fan Assembly (PFA) for the International Space Station (ISS). The PFA will be used to enhance ventilation inside the ISS modules as needed for crew comfort and for rack rotation. The PFA consists of the fan on-orbit replaceable unit (ORU) and two noise suppression packages (silencers). The fan ORU will have a mechanical interface with the Seat Track Equipment Anchor Assembly, in addition to the power supply module which includes a DC-DC converter, on/standby switch, speed control, power cable and connector. This paper provides a brief development history, including the criteria used for the fan, and a detailed description of the PFA operational configurations. Space Station requirements as well as fan performance characteristics are also discussed.

  6. Experimental quiet engine program aerodynamic performance of fan A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giffin, R. G.; Parker, D. E.; Dunbar, L. W.

    1971-01-01

    The aerodynamic component test results are presented of fan A, one of two high-bypass-ratio, 1160 feet per second single-stage fans, which was designed and tested as part of the NASA Experimental Quiet Engine Program. This fan was designed to deliver a bypass pressure ratio of 1.50 with an adiabatic efficiency of 86.5% at a total fan flow of 950 lb/sec. It was tested with and without inlet flow distortion. A bypass total-pressure ratio of 1.52 and an adiabatic efficiency of 88.3% at a total fan flow of 962 lb/sec were actually achieved. An operating margin of 12.4% was demonstrated at design speed.

  7. Design and Manufacture of Wood Blades for Windtunnel Fans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richardson, S. E.

    1998-01-01

    Many windtunnels use wooden fan blades, however, because of their usual long life (often in excess of 50 years) wooden blades typically do not have to be replaced very often; therefore, the expertise for designing and building wooden windtunnel fan blades is being lost. The purpose of this report is to document the design and build process so that when replacement blades are eventually required some of the critical information required is available. Information useful to fan-blade designers, fabricators, inspectors, and windtunnel operations personnel is included. Fixed pitch and variable pitch fans as well as fans which range in size from a few feet in diameter to over 40 ft. in diameter are described. Woods, adhesives, and coverings are discussed.

  8. V/STOL model fan stage rig design report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheatham, J. G.; Creason, T. L.

    1983-01-01

    A model single-stage fan with variable inlet guide vanes (VIGV) was designed to demonstrate efficient point operation while providing flow and pressure ratio modulation capability required for a V/STOL propulsion system. The fan stage incorporates a split-flap VIGV with an independently actuated ID flap to permit independent modulation of fan and core engine airstreams, a flow splitter integrally designed into the blade and vanes to completely segregate fan and core airstreams in order to maximize core stream supercharging for V/STOL operation, and an EGV with a variable leading edge fan flap for rig performance optimization. The stage was designed for a maximum flow size of 37.4 kg/s (82.3 lb/s) for compatibility with LeRC test facility requirements. Design values at maximum flow for blade tip velocity and stage pressure ratio are 472 m/s (1550 ft/s) and 1.68, respectively.

  9. Sports Fans, Alcohol Use, and Violent Behavior: A Sociological Review.

    PubMed

    Ostrowsky, Michael K

    2016-08-31

    This review makes four contributions to the sociological study of sports fans, alcohol use, and violent behavior. First, this article focuses explicitly on the relationship between alcohol use and violent behavior among sports fans. This is a worldwide social problem, yet it is quite understudied. Second, this article synthesizes the fragmented literature on alcohol use and violent behavior among sports fans. Third, this article identifies four broad sets of risk factors-sociocultural, event/venue, police, and crowd-that appear to be closely related to violent behavior among sports fans. Finally, to help explain the possible correlation between alcohol and violence among sports fans, this article draws upon the key understandings from the literature on alcohol and violence in wider society. The article concludes with suggestions for future research.

  10. Costs and benefits of energy efficiency improvements in ceiling fans

    SciTech Connect

    Shah, Nihar; Sathaye, Nakul; Phadke, Amol; Letschert, Virginie

    2013-10-15

    Ceiling fans contribute significantly to residential electricity consumption, especially in developing countries with warm climates. The paper provides analysis of costs and benefits of several options to improve the efficiency of ceiling fans to assess the global potential for electricity savings and green house gas (GHG) emission reductions. Ceiling fan efficiency can be cost-effectively improved by at least 50% using commercially available technology. If these efficiency improvements are implemented in all ceiling fans sold by 2020, 70 terawatt hours per year could be saved and 25 million metric tons of carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2-e) emissions per year could be avoided, globally. We assess how policies and programs such as standards, labels, and financial incentives can be used to accelerate the adoption of efficient ceiling fans in order to realize potential savings.

  11. Experimental quiet engine program aerodynamic performance of Fan C

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giffin, R. G.; Parker, D. E.; Dunbar, L. W.

    1972-01-01

    This report presents the aerodynamic component test results of Fan C, a high-bypass-ratio, low-aerodynamic-loading, 1550 feet per second (472.4 m/sec), single-stage fan, which was designed and tested as part of the NASA Experimental Quiet Engine Program. The fan was designed to deliver a bypass pressure ratio of 1.60 with an adiabatic efficiency of 84.2 percent at a total fan flow of 915 lb/sec (415.0 kg/sec). It was tested with and without inlet distortion. A bypass total-pressure ratio of 1.61 and an adiabatic efficiency of 83.9 percent at a total fan flow of 921 lb/sec (417.8 kg/sec) were actually achieved. An operating margin in excess of 14.6 percent was demonstrated at design speed.

  12. 3. EXTERIOR VIEW OF HILLMAN FAN HOUSE LOOKING NORTH The ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. EXTERIOR VIEW OF HILLMAN FAN HOUSE LOOKING NORTH The airway, with sloping concrete roof, is in the foreground. Two periods of construction are evident. In the center of the wall, to the left of the window, is a cover over the air velocity indicator. The building houses a 35 foot diameter cast iron and wood Guibal centrifugal fan. The curve of the fan housing with its iron roof are in the middle ground, and the rectangular upshaft chimney is in the background. The brick, metal, and concrete building was designed to be fireproof. The metal upshaft chimney of the New Fan House is to the left. - Dorrance Colliery Fan Complex, South side of Susquehanna River at Route 115 & Riechard Street, Wilkes-Barre, Luzerne County, PA

  13. Evaluation of Four Well Casing Materials for Monitoring Selected Trace Level Organics in Ground Water

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-10-01

    than in those from Several components of rigid PVC may possibly either plastic-lined well. leach. These components include vinyl chloride At site 2, the...casing materials, polyvinyl chloride ( PVC ), Teflon, stainless steel 304 (SS 304) and stainless steel 316 (SS 316), to determine their suitability for...virgin fluorocarbon resins, i.e., fluorinated ethyl- tion (NSF) or ASTM-approved polyvinyl chloride ene propylene (FEP), polytetrafluoroethylene ( PVC

  14. Use of spectral data and Landsat TM for mapping alluvial fan deposits of the Rosillos Mountains in Brewster County, Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Bittick, S.M.; Morgan, K.M.; Busbey, A.B. . Dept. of Geology)

    1993-02-01

    The Rosillos Mountains consist of a large, highly faulted and fracture, exposed Tertiary igneous intrusion (laccolith) located adjacent to Big Bend National Park. This study examines the alluvial deposits that fan out over the 25,000 acre privately owned Rosillos Ranch located on the east side of the laccolith. Using a field spectrometer, spectral curves were generated for the various materials present. These surface reflectance patterns were used for spectral recognition and, along with Landsat digital data, for computer classification mapping of the alluvial fans. Several computer classification techniques will be presented along with mapping accuracies. Initial results indicate the resulting Landsat generated fan deposit maps are, in fact, related to the source areas and the age of deposition.

  15. Alluvial Fan Morphology, distribution and formation on Titan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birch, S. P. D.; Hayes, A. G.; Howard, A. D.; Moore, J. M.; Radebaugh, J.

    2016-05-01

    Titan is a hydrologically active world, with dozens of alluvial fans that are evidence of sediment transport from high to low elevations. However, the distribution and requirements for the formation of fans on Titan are not well understood. We performed the first global survey of alluvial fans on Titan using Cassini Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) data, which cover 61% of Titan's surface. We identified 82 fans with areas ranging from 28 km2 to 27,000 km2. A significant fraction (∼60%) of the fans are restricted to latitudes of ±50-80°, suggesting that fluvial sediment transport may have been concentrated in the near-polar terrains in the geologically recent past. The density of fans is also found to be correlated with the latitudes predicted to have the highest precipitation rates by Titan Global Circulation Models. In equatorial regions, observable fans are not generally found in proximity to dune fields. Such observations suggest that sediment transport in these areas is dominated by aeolian transport mechanisms, though with some degree of recent equatorial fluvial activity. The fan area-drainage area relationship on Titan is more similar to that on Earth than on Mars, suggesting that the fans on Titan are smaller than what may be expected, and that the transport of bedload sediment is limited. We hypothesize that this has led to the development of a coarse gravel-lag deposit over much of Titan's surface. Such a model explains both the morphology of the fans and their latitudinal concentration, yielding insight into the sediment transport regimes that operate across Titan today.

  16. Boeing 18-Inch Fan Rig Broadband Noise Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ganz, Ulrich W.; Joppa, Paul D.; Patten, Timothy J.; Scharpf, Daniel F.

    1998-01-01

    The purposes of the subject test were to identify and quantify the mechanisms by which fan broadband noise is produced, and to assess the validity of such theoretical models of those mechanisms as may be available. The test was conducted with the Boeing 18-inch fan rig in the Boeing Low-Speed Aeroacoustic Facility (LSAF). The rig was designed to be particularly clean and geometrically simple to facilitate theoretical modeling and to minimize sources of interfering noise. The inlet is cylindrical and is equipped with a boundary layer suction system. The fan is typical of modern high-by-pass ratio designs but is capable of operating with or without fan exit guide vanes (stators), and there is only a single flow stream. Fan loading and tip clearance are adjustable. Instrumentation included measurements of fan performance, the unsteady flow field incident on the fan and stators, and far-field and in-duct acoustic fields. The acoustic results were manipulated to estimate the noise generated by different sources. Significant fan broadband noise was found to come from the rotor self-noise as measured with clean inflow and no boundary layer. The rotor tip clearance affected rotor self-noise somewhat. The interaction of the rotor with inlet boundary layer turbulence is also a significant source, and is strongly affected by rotor tip clearance. High level noise can be generated by a high-order nonuniform rotating at a fraction of the fan speed, at least when tip clearance and loading are both large. Stator-generated noise is the loudest of the significant sources, by a small margin, at least on this rig. Stator noise is significantly affected by propagation through the fan.

  17. Low Frequency Noise Contamination in Fan Model Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Clifford A.; Schifer, Nicholas A.

    2008-01-01

    Aircraft engine noise research and development depends on the ability to study and predict the noise created by each engine component in isolation. The presence of a downstream pylon for a model fan test, however, may result in noise contamination through pylon interactions with the free stream and model exhaust airflows. Additionally, there is the problem of separating the fan and jet noise components generated by the model fan. A methodology was therefore developed to improve the data quality for the 9 15 Low Speed Wind Tunnel (LSWT) at the NASA Glenn Research Center that identifies three noise sources: fan noise, jet noise, and rig noise. The jet noise and rig noise were then measured by mounting a scale model of the 9 15 LSWT model fan installation in a jet rig to simulate everything except the rotating machinery and in duct components of fan noise. The data showed that the spectra measured in the LSWT has a strong rig noise component at frequencies as high as 3 kHz depending on the fan and airflow fan exit velocity. The jet noise was determined to be significantly lower than the rig noise (i.e., noise generated by flow interaction with the downstream support pylon). A mathematical model for the rig noise was then developed using a multi-dimensional least squares fit to the rig noise data. This allows the rig noise to be subtracted or removed, depending on the amplitude of the rig noise relative to the fan noise, at any given frequency, observer angle, or nozzle pressure ratio. The impact of isolating the fan noise with this method on spectra, overall power level (OAPWL), and Effective Perceived Noise Level (EPNL) is studied.

  18. Advice on Life? Online Fan Forums as a Space for Peer-to-Peer Sex and Relationships Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masanet, Maria-Jose; Buckingham, David

    2015-01-01

    Previous research has pointed to the potential of entertainment media as a source of informal sex education for young people. New social media may offer additional potential in this respect. In this paper, we consider the pedagogical possibilities and limitations of online fan forums, via a case study of the forums of the controversial British…

  19. Fine fragmentation distribution from structural reactive material casings under explosive loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, William; Zhang, Fan; Kim, Kibong

    2015-06-01

    Structural reactive material (SRM) can be used for explosive casings to provide additional blast energy. SRM fragments can react either promptly or after impact with nearby structure. Better understanding of fine fragment distributions from SRM casings is important for optimization of initiation and reaction of the SRM fragments. Key to this is knowledge of the initial fragmentation character before it has been altered by early reaction or by subsequent impact with surrounding structure. The study must be conducted beyond critical charge diameter to minimize effects of the expansion wave on fragment sizes. The collection and analysis of fragment distribution down to 40 micron size from thick SRM casings are therefore investigated in a 1.18 m diameter, 2.1 m3 closed cylindrical chamber filled with artificially-made pure snow packed to density 0.35 g/cm3. The snow quenches early reaction of SRM fragments and soft-catches the fragments before impact with the chamber walls. A 100 g cylindrical C-4 explosive charge is used, packed in a 3.3 cm inner diameter SRM casing, with length-to-diameter ratio of L/d = 2, and casing-to-explosive mass ratio of M/C = 1.75. Three types of SRM are investigated, including a baseline of Aluminum 6061 for comparison. The cased charge is suspended in an argon filled cavity, 20 cm in diameter and 40 cm long, within the snow filed chamber.

  20. Noise generated by quiet engine fans. 2: Fan A. [measurement of power spectra and sideline perceived noise levels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Montegani, F. J.; Schaefer, J. W.; Stakolich, E. G.

    1974-01-01

    A significant effort within the NASA Quiet Engine Program has been devoted to acoustical evaluation at the Lewis Research Center noise test facility of a family of full-scale fans. This report, documents the noise results obtained with fan A - a 1.5-pressure-ratio, 1160-ft/sec-tip-speed fan. The fan is described and some aerodynamic operating data are given. Far-field noise around the fan was measured for a variety of configurations pertaining to acoustical treatment and over a range of operating conditions. Complete results of 1/3-octave band analysis of the data are presented in tabular form. Included also are power spectra and sideline perceived noise levels. Some representative 1/3-octave band data are presented graphically, and sample graphs of continuous narrow-band spectra are also provided.

  1. Method of fan sound mode structure determination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pickett, G. F.; Sofrin, T. G.; Wells, R. W.

    1977-01-01

    A method for the determination of fan sound mode structure in the Inlet of turbofan engines using in-duct acoustic pressure measurements is presented. The method is based on the simultaneous solution of a set of equations whose unknowns are modal amplitude and phase. A computer program for the solution of the equation set was developed. An additional computer program was developed which calculates microphone locations the use of which results in an equation set that does not give rise to numerical instabilities. In addition to the development of a method for determination of coherent modal structure, experimental and analytical approaches are developed for the determination of the amplitude frequency spectrum of randomly generated sound models for use in narrow annulus ducts. Two approaches are defined: one based on the use of cross-spectral techniques and the other based on the use of an array of microphones.

  2. Flutter Analysis of a Transonic Fan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Srivastava, R.; Bakhle, M. A.; Keith, T. G., Jr.; Stefko, G. L.

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes the calculation of flutter stability characteristics for a transonic forward swept fan configuration using a viscous aeroelastic analysis program. Unsteady Navier-Stokes equations are solved on a dynamically deforming, body fitted, grid to obtain the aeroelastic characteristics using the energy exchange method. The non-zero inter-blade phase angle is modeled using phase-lagged boundary conditions. Results obtained show good correlation with measurements. It is found that the location of shock and variation of shock strength strongly influenced stability. Also, outboard stations primarily contributed to stability characteristics. Results demonstrate that changes in blade shape impact the calculated aerodynamic damping, indicating importance of using accurate blade operating shape under centrifugal and steady aerodynamic loading for flutter prediction. It was found that the calculated aerodynamic damping was relatively insensitive to variation in natural frequency.

  3. FOD impact testing of composite fan blades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johns, R. H.

    1974-01-01

    The results of impact tests on large, fiber composite fan blades for aircraft turbofan engine applications are discussed. Solid composite blades of two different sizes and designs were tested. Both graphite/epoxy and boron/epoxy were evaluated. In addition, a spar-shell blade design was tested that had a boron/epoxy shell bonded to a titanium spar. All blades were tested one at a time in a rotating arm rig to simulate engine operating conditions. Impacting media included small gravel, two inch diameter ice balls, gelatin, and RTV foam-simulated birds, as well as starlings and pigeons. The results showed little difference in performance between the graphite and boron/epoxy blades. The results also indicate that composite blades may be able to tolerate ice ball and small bird impacts but need improvement to tolerate birds in the small duck and larger category.

  4. FOD impact testing of composite fan blades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johns, R. H.

    1974-01-01

    The results of impact tests on large, fiber composite fan blades for aircraft turbofan engine applications are discussed. Solid composite blades of two different sizes and designs were tested. Both graphite/epoxy and boron/epoxy were evaluated. In addition, a spar-shell blade design was tested that had a boron/epoxy shell bonded to a titanium spar. All blades were tested one at a time in a rotating arm rig to simulate engine operating conditions. Impacting media included small gravel, two inch diameter ice balls, gelatin and RTV foam-simulated birds, as well as starlings and pigeons. The results showed little difference in performance between the graphite and boron/epoxy blades. The results also indicate that composite blades may be able to tolerate ice ball and small bird impacts but need improvement to tolerate birds in the small duck and larger category.

  5. Impact testing on composite fan blades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johns, R. H.

    1974-01-01

    The results of impact tests on large, fiber composite fan blades for aircraft turbofan engine applications are discussed. Solid composite blades of two different sizes and designs were tested. Both graphite/epoxy and boron/epoxy were evaluated. In addition, a spar-shell blade design was tested that had a boron/epoxy shell bonded to a titanium spar. All blades were tested one at a time in a rotating arm rig to simulate engine operating conditions. Impacting media included small gravel, two inch diameter ice balls, gelatin and RTV foam-simulated birds, as well as starlings and pigeons. The results showed little difference in performance between the graphite and boron/epoxy blades. The results also indicate that composite blades may be able to tolerate ice ball and small bird impacts but need improvement to tolerate birds in the small duck and larger category.

  6. The Ebro Deep-Sea Fan system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nelson, C.H.; Maldonado, A.; Coumes, F.; Got, H.; Manaco, A.

    1984-01-01

    The Ebro Fan System consists of en echelon channel-levee complexes, 50??20 km in area and 200-m thick. A few strong reflectors in a generally transparent seismic facies identify the sand-rich channel floors and levee crests. Numerous continuous acoustic reflectors characterize overbank turbidites and hemipelagites that blanket abandoned channel-levee complexes. The interlobe areas between channel complexes fill with homogeneous mud and sand from mass flow and overbank deposition; these exhibit a transparent seismic character. The steep continental rise and sediment 'drainage' of Valencia Trough at the end of the channel-levee complexes prevent the development of distributary channels and midfan lobe deposits. ?? 1984 Springer-Verlag New York Inc.

  7. Constraints on Environmental Conditions on Mars during Periods of Alluvial Fan Formation: Results from Landform Evolution Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morgan, A. M.; Howard, A. D.; Moore, J. M.

    2015-12-01

    As depositional systems forming within enclosed crater basins, the Late Noachian and Hesperian -aged [1] alluvial fans on Mars (including the Peace Vallis fan in Gale crater) may be representative of the last vestiges of widespread fluvial activity on the planet's surface, an era during which the climate transitioned from a wetter early Mars to the cold and dry planet we observe today. We have constructed a landform evolution model that combines sediment transport with channel avulsion to study the evolution of a fan-forming channel network over timescales of decades to hundreds of thousands of years. We aim to address two related questions: (1) what were the characteristics of water discharge (flow magnitude and duration); and (2) what are the associated implications for the responsible climatic environment (e.g. amount and frequency of precipitation sourcing the fans). The model uses a cellular network with a grid spacing set equal to the channel width. Two end-members of sediment are transported through the channel network: gravel bedload and fine grained material that is deposited overbank as a function of distance and elevation difference from an active channel. Overbank deposition creates channel levees, which must be overtopped for the channel to undergo an avulsion. By recording the relative amounts of bedload and overbank deposition, the 3-D stratigraphy is recorded as the fan is constructed. Using measures such as channel width, relative proportions of channel versus overbank deposited sediment, and frequency of channel branching, output is statistically compared with digital elevation models that we been produced from high-resolution CTX and HiRISE stereo pairs. Our modeling suggests that the fans formed from many flow events over many thousands of years, in agreement with estimations based on geomorphological observations by [2]. We are continuing to refine the model to test for varying patterns of precipitation, duricrusts, and limits on sediment

  8. Evaluation of shuttle solid rocket booster case materials. Corrosion and stress corrosion susceptibility of several high temperature materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pionke, L. J.; Garland, K. C.

    1973-01-01

    Candidate alloys for the Shuttle Solid Rocket Booster (SRB) case were tested under simulated service conditions to define subcritical flaw growth behavior under both sustained and cyclic loading conditions. The materials evaluated were D6AC and 18 Ni maraging steel, both heat treated to a nominal yield strength of 1380 MN/sq m (200 ksi). The sustained load tests were conducted by exposing precracked, stressed specimens of both alloys to alternate immersion in synthetic sea water. It was found that the corrosion and stress corrosion resistance of the 18 Ni maraging steel were superior to that of the D6AC steel under these test conditions. It was also found that austenitizing temperature had little influence on the threshold stress intensity of the D6AC. The cyclic tests were conducted by subjecting precracked surface-flawed specimens of both alloys to repeated load/thermal/environmental profiles which were selected to simulate the SRB missions. It was found that linear removal operations that involve heating to 589 K (600 F) cause a decrease in cyclic life of D6AC steel relative to those tests conducted with no thermal cycling.

  9. High-resolution Observations of a Large Fan-shaped Surge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhen; Fang, Cheng; Guo, Yang; Chen, P. F.; Zou, Peng; Cao, Wenda

    2016-08-01

    We present high-resolution observations of a large fan-shaped surge, which was observed on 2013 June 5 with the current largest solar telescope, the 1.6 m New Solar Telescope (NST), at the Big Bear Solar Observatory. The observations are made at TiO, Hα, and 10830 Å wavebands with a spatial resolution better than 0\\buildrel{\\prime\\prime}\\over{.} 1 and a full-run cadence of ˜30 s. The fan-shaped surge consists of many small-scale threads with a typical width of 100 km and a length of up to 200 Mm at the maximum. The threads come from material ejections, which start with a velocity of several km s-1, and then accelerate up to 60-80 km s-1 over six to seven minutes with an acceleration of up to 0.2-0.3 km s-2. The threads can be observed in the Hα band and in SDO/AIA 171 Å images as absorbed objects, implying that they are cool material ejections. The surge is ejected along open magnetic field lines in the extrapolated non-linear force-free field, which might actually be a part of a large-scale magnetic loop stretching back to the solar surface. After 10-20 minutes, the ejections gradually decay and the surge eventually vanishes. The total lifetime is about 35 minutes. The Hα brightening at the root of the fan-shaped surge implies that there is heating in the chromosphere, which could be produced by low-atmosphere interchange magnetic reconnection. Our observation provides evidence of the reconnection model for the fan-shaped surges, which was proposed by Jiang et al.

  10. An approach for aerodynamic optimization of transonic fan blades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khelghatibana, Maryam

    Aerodynamic design optimization of transonic fan blades is a highly challenging problem due to the complexity of flow field inside the fan, the conflicting design requirements and the high-dimensional design space. In order to address all these challenges, an aerodynamic design optimization method is developed in this study. This method automates the design process by integrating a geometrical parameterization method, a CFD solver and numerical optimization methods that can be applied to both single and multi-point optimization design problems. A multi-level blade parameterization is employed to modify the blade geometry. Numerical analyses are performed by solving 3D RANS equations combined with SST turbulence model. Genetic algorithms and hybrid optimization methods are applied to solve the optimization problem. In order to verify the effectiveness and feasibility of the optimization method, a singlepoint optimization problem aiming to maximize design efficiency is formulated and applied to redesign a test case. However, transonic fan blade design is inherently a multi-faceted problem that deals with several objectives such as efficiency, stall margin, and choke margin. The proposed multi-point optimization method in the current study is formulated as a bi-objective problem to maximize design and near-stall efficiencies while maintaining the required design pressure ratio. Enhancing these objectives significantly deteriorate the choke margin, specifically at high rotational speeds. Therefore, another constraint is embedded in the optimization problem in order to prevent the reduction of choke margin at high speeds. Since capturing stall inception is numerically very expensive, stall margin has not been considered as an objective in the problem statement. However, improving near-stall efficiency results in a better performance at stall condition, which could enhance the stall margin. An investigation is therefore performed on the Pareto-optimal solutions to

  11. Aerodynamic performance of 1.38-pressure-ratio, variable-pitch fan stage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, R. D.; Osborn, W. M.

    1979-01-01

    The performance of a variable pitch fan stage tested over a range of blade setting angles, speeds, and flows is presented. The fan was designed for a tip speed of 289.6 m/sec and a flow of 29.6 kg/sec. The measured performance agreed reasonably well with the design point. The stall margin was only 5 percent. Static thrust values along an operating line ranged from less than 15 to over 115 percent of that at design angle as the blade setting angle was varied from 25 degrees (closed) to -8 degrees (opened). The use of casing treatment increased the stall margin to 20.6 percent but decreased efficiency by 4 percentage points.

  12. WINCOF-I code for prediction of fan compressor unit with water ingestion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murthy, S. N. B.; Mullican, A.

    1990-01-01

    The PURDUE-WINCOF code, which provides a numerical method of obtaining the performance of a fan-compressor unit of a jet engine with water ingestion into the inlet, was modified to take into account: (1) the scoop factor, (2) the time required for the setting-in of a quasi-steady distribution of water, and (3) the heat and mass transfer processes over the time calculated under 2. The modified code, named WINCOF-I was utilized to obtain the performance of a fan-compressor unit of a generic jet engine. The results illustrate the manner in which quasi-equilibrium conditions become established in the machine and the redistribution of ingested water in various stages in the form of a film out of the casing wall, droplets across the span, and vapor due to mass transfer.

  13. Characterizing subsurface hydraulic heterogeneity of alluvial fan using riverstage fluctuations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yu-Li; Yeh, Tian-Chyi Jim; Wen, Jet-Chau; Huang, Shao-Yang; Zha, Yuanyuan; Tsai, Jui-Pin; Hao, Yonghong; Liang, Yue

    2017-04-01

    The objective of this study is to demonstrate the ability of riverstage tomography to estimate 2-D spatial distribution of hydraulic diffusivity (D) of Zhuoshui River alluvial fan, Taiwan, using groundwater level data from 65 wells and stream stage data from 5 gauging stations. In order to accomplish this objective, wavelet analysis is first conducted to investigate the temporal characteristics of groundwater level, precipitation, and stream stage. The results of the analysis show that variations of groundwater level and stream stage are highly correlated over seasonal and annual periods while that between precipitation is less significant. Subsequently, spatial cross-correlation between seasonal variations of groundwater level and riverstage data is analyzed. It is found that the correlation contour map reflects the pattern of sediment distribution of the fan. This finding is further substantiated by the cross-correlation analysis using both noisy and noise-free groundwater and riverstage data of a synthetic aquifer, where aquifer heterogeneity is known exactly. The ability of riverstage tomography is then tested with these synthetic data sets to estimate D distribution. Finally, the riverstage tomography is applied to the alluvial fan. The results of the application reveal that the apex and southeast of the alluvial fan are regions with relatively high D and the D values gradually decrease toward the shoreline of the fan. In addition, D at northern alluvial fan is slightly larger than that at southern. These findings are consistent with the geologic evolution of this alluvial fan.

  14. An Experimental Study of Fan Inflow Distortion Tone Noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koch, L. Danielle

    2010-01-01

    The tone noise generated when a fan ingests circumferentially distorted flow was studied by an experiment conducted with the Advanced Noise Control Fan at the NASA Glenn Research Center. The inflow was distorted by inserting cylindrical rods radially into the duct. The rods were arranged in circumferentially irregular patterns in three of the five configurations tested. Rods were held in place using a mounting ring with 30 equally spaced holes placed at an axial location one rotor chordlength upstream of the fan. Acoustic pressure was measured in the inlet and exhaust duct of the fan using the Rotating Rake fan tone measurement system. Sound power levels, calculated from the measured data, were plotted as a function of circumferential mode. An analytic description of the unsteady pressure distribution at the interaction plane between the stationary rods and the fan rotor is presented in a form suitable for representing the circumferentially irregularly placed rods. Terms in the analytical description for sound power were proven to be useful in determining the dominant circumferential modes measured in the experiment and the differences in mode power level between the configurations tested. Insight gained through this work will be useful in the development of tools to compute fan inflow distortion tone noise.

  15. Reactive control of subsonic axial fan noise in a duct.

    PubMed

    Liu, Y; Choy, Y S; Huang, L; Cheng, L

    2014-10-01

    Suppressing the ducted fan noise at low frequencies without varying the flow capacity is still a technical challenge. This study examines a conceived device consisting of two tensioned membranes backed with cavities housing the axial fan for suppression of the sound radiation from the axial fan directly. The noise suppression is achieved by destructive interference between the sound fields from the axial fan of a dipole nature and sound radiation from the membrane via vibroacoustics coupling. A two-dimensional model with the flow effect is presented which allows the performance of the device to be explored analytically. The air flow influences the symmetrical behavior and excites the odd in vacuo mode response of the membrane due to kinematic coupling. Such an asymmetrical effect can be compromised with off-center alignment of the axial fan. Tension plays an important role to sustain the performance to revoke the deformation of the membrane during the axial fan operation. With the design of four appropriately tensioned membranes covered by a cylindrical cavity, the first and second blade passage frequencies of the axial fan can be reduced by at least 20 dB. The satisfactory agreement between experiment and theory demonstrates that its feasibility is practical.

  16. Aerodynamic Performance Measurements for a Forward Swept Low Noise Fan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fite, E. Brian

    2006-01-01

    One source of noise in high tip speed turbofan engines, caused by shocks, is called multiple pure tone noise (MPT's). A new fan, called the Quiet High Speed Fan (QHSF), showed reduced noise over the part speed operating range, which includes MPT's. The QHSF showed improved performance in most respects relative to a baseline fan; however, a partspeed instability discovered during testing reduced the operating range below acceptable limits. The measured QHSF adiabatic efficiency on the fixed nozzle acoustic operating line was 85.1 percent and the baseline fan 82.9 percent, a 2.2 percent improvement. The operating line pressure rise at design point rotational speed and mass flow was 1.764 and 1.755 for the QHSF and baseline fan, respectively. Weight flow at design point speed was 98.28 lbm/sec for the QHSF and 97.97 lbm/sec for the baseline fan. The operability margin for the QHSF approached 0 percent at the 75 percent speed operating condition. The baseline fan maintained sufficient margin throughout the operating range as expected. Based on the stage aerodynamic measurements, this concept shows promise for improved performance over current technology if the operability limitations can be solved.

  17. Follow-on Low Noise Fan Aerodynamic Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heidegger, Nathan J.; Hall, Edward J.; Delaney, Robert A.

    1999-01-01

    The focus of the project was to investigate the effects of turbulence models on the prediction of rotor wake structures. The Advanced Ducted Propfan Analysis (ADPAC) code was modified through the incorporation of the Spalart-Allmaras one-equation turbulence model. Suitable test cases were solved numerically using ADPAC employing the Spalart-Allmaras turbulence model and another prediction code for comparison. A near-wall spacing study was also completed to determine the adequate spacing of the first computational cell off the wall. Solutions were also collected using two versions of the algebraic Baldwin-Lomax turbulence model in ADPAC. The effects of the turbulence model on the rotor wake definition was examined by obtaining ADPAC solutions for the Low Noise Fan rotor-only steady-flow case using the standard algebraic Baldwin-Lomax turbulence model, a modified version of the Baldwin-Lomax turbulence model and the one-equation Spalart-Allmaras turbulence model. The results from the three different turbulence modeling techniques were compared with each other and the available experimental data. These results include overall rotor performance, spanwise exit profiles, and contours of axial velocity taken along constant axial locations and along blade-to-blade surfaces. Wake characterizations were also performed on the experimental and ADPAC predicted results including the definition of a wake correlation function. Correlations were evaluated for wake width and wake depth. Similarity profiles of the wake shape were also compared between all numerical solutions and experimental data.

  18. Boll weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) survival through cotton gin trash fans.

    PubMed

    Sappington, Thomas W; Brashears, Alan D; Parajulee, Megha N; Carroll, Stanley C; Arnold, Mark D; Baker, Roy V

    2004-10-01

    There is concern that cotton gins may serve as loci for reintroduction of boll weevils, Anthonomus grandis grandis Boheman, to eradicated or suppressed zones when processing weevil-infested cotton from neighboring zones. Previous work has shown that virtually all weevils entering the gin in the seed cotton will be removed before they reach the gin stand. Those not killed by the seed cotton cleaning machinery will be shunted alive into the trash fraction, which passes through a centrifugal trash fan before exiting the gin. The objective of this study was to determine survival potential of boll weevils passed through a trash fan. Marked adult weevils were distributed in gin trash and fed through a 82.6-cm (32.5-in.) diameter centrifugal fan operated across a range of fan-tip speeds. A small number of boll weevils were recovered alive immediately after passage through the fan, but all were severely injured and did not survive 24 h. In another experiment, green bolls infested with both adult- and larval-stage weevils were fed through the fan. Several teneral adults survived 24 h, and there was no evidence that fan-tip speed affected either initial survival of weevils, or the number of unbroken boll locks that could harbor an infesting weevil. Thus, designating a minimum fan-tip speed for ensuring complete kill is not possible for the boll weevil. Experiments suggest that a device installed in a gin that partially crushes or cracks bolls open before entering a trash fan will increase mortality, possibly enough that further precautions would be unnecessary.

  19. End-wall boundary layer measurements in a two-stage fan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ball, C. L.; Reid, L.; Schmidt, J. F.

    1983-01-01

    Detailed flow measurements made in the casing boundary layer of a two-stage transonic fan are summarized. These measurements were taken at stations upstream of the fan, between all blade rows, and downstream of the last blade row. At the design tip speed of 429 m/sec the fan achieved a peak efficiency of 0.846 at a pressure ratio of 2.471. The boundary layer data were obtained at three weight flows at the design speed: one near choke flow, one near peak efficiency, and one near stall. Conventional boundary layer parameters were calculated from the data measured at each measuring station for each of the three flows. A classical two dimensional casing boundary layer was measured at the fan inlet and extended inward to approximately 15 percent of span. A highly three dimensional boundary layer was measured at the exit of each blade row and extended inward to approximately 10 percent of span. The steep radial gradient of axial velocity noted at the exit of the rotors was reduced substantially as the flow passed through the stators. This reduced gradient is attributed to flow mixing. The amount of flow mixing was reflected in the radial redistribution of total temperature as the flow passed through the stators. The data also show overturning of the tip flow at the stator exits that is consistent with the expected effect of the secondary flow field. The blockage factors calculated from the measured data show an increase in blockage across the rotors and a decrease across the stators.

  20. Fan-head shear rupture mechanism as a source of off-fault tensile cracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarasov, Boris

    2016-04-01

    This presentation discusses the role of a recently identified fan-head shear rupture mechanism [1] in the creation of off-fault tensile cracks observed in earthquake laboratory experiments conducted on brittle photoelastic specimens [2,3]. According to the fan-mechanism the shear rupture propagation is associated with consecutive creation of small slabs in the fracture tip which, due to rotation caused by shear displacement of the fracture interfaces, form a fan-structure representing the fracture head. The fan-head combines such unique features as: extremely low shear resistance (below the frictional strength) and self-sustaining tensile stress intensification along one side of the interface. The variation of tensile stress within the fan-head zone is like this: it increases with distance from the fracture tip up to a maximum value and then decreases. For the initial formation of the fan-head high local stresses corresponding to the fracture strength should be applied in a small area, however after completions of the fan-head it can propagate dynamically through the material at low shear stresses (even below the frictional strength). The fan-mechanism allows explaining all unique features associated with the off-fault cracking process observed in photoelastic experiments [2,3]. In these experiments spontaneous shear ruptures were nucleated in a bonded, precut, inclined and pre-stressed interface by producing a local pressure pulse in a small area. Isochromatic fringe patterns around a shear rupture propagating along bonded interface indicate the following features of the off-fault tensile crack development: tensile cracks nucleate and grow periodically along one side of the interface at a roughly constant angle (about 80 degrees) relative to the shear rupture interface; the tensile crack nucleation takes place some distance behind the rupture tip; with distance from the point of nucleation tensile cracks grow up to a certain length within the rupture head zone

  1. Turbine Engine with Differential Gear Driven Fan and Compressor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suciu, Gabriel L. (Inventor); Pagluica, Gino J. (Inventor); Duong, Loc Quang (Inventor); Portlock, Lawrence E. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A gas turbine engine provides a differential gear system coupling the turbine to the bypass fan and the compressor. In this manner, the power/speed split between the bypass fan and the compressor can be optimized under all conditions. In the example shown, the turbine drives a sun gear, which drives a planet carrier and a ring gear in a differential manner. One of the planet carrier and the ring gear is coupled to the bypass fan, while the other is coupled to the compressor.

  2. Design of flood protection for transportation alignments on alluvial fans

    SciTech Connect

    French, R.H.

    1991-01-01

    The method of floodplain delineation on alluvial fans developed for the national flood insurance program is modified to provide estimates of peak flood flows at transportation alignments crossing an alluvial fan. The modified methodology divides the total alignment length into drainage design segments and estimates the peak flows that drainage structures would be required to convey as a function of the length of the drainage design segment, the return period of the event, and the location of the alignment on the alluvial fan. An example of the application of the methodology is provided. 16 refs., 5 figs.

  3. Large Fluvial Fans: Aspects of the Attribute Array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilkinson, Justin M.

    2015-01-01

    In arguing for a strict definition of the alluvial fan (coarse-grained with radii less than10 km, in mountain-front settings), Blair and McPherson (1994) proposed that there is no meaningful difference between large fluvial fans (LFF) and floodplains, because the building blocks of both are channel-levee-overbank deposits. Sediment bodies at the LFF scale (greater than 100 km long, fan-shaped in planform), are relatively unstudied although greater than 160 are now identified globally. The following perspectives suggest that the significance of LFF needs to be reconsidered.

  4. Performance Study and CFD Predictions of a Ducted Fan System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abrego, Anita I.; Chang, I-Chung; Bulaga, Robert W.; Rutkowski, Michael (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    An experimental investigation was completed in the NASA Ames 7 by 10-Foot Wind Tunnel to study the performance characteristics of a ducted fan. The goal of this effort is to study the effect of ducted fan geometry and utilize Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) analysis to provide a baseline for correlation. A 38-inch diameter, 10-inch chord duct with a five-bladed fixed-pitch fan was tested. Duct performance data were obtained in hover, vertical climb, and forward flight test conditions. This paper will present a description of the test, duct performance results and correlation with CFD predictions.

  5. Development of a fan model for the CONTAIN code

    SciTech Connect

    Pevey, R.E.

    1987-01-08

    A fan model has been added to the CONTAIN code with a minimum of disruption of the standard CONTAIN calculation sequence. The user is required to supply a simple pressure vs. flow rate curve for each fan in his model configuration. Inclusion of the fan model required modification to two CONTAIN subroutines, IFLOW and EXEQNX. The two modified routines and the resulting executable module are located on the LANL mass storage system as /560007/iflow, /560007/exeqnx, and /560007/cont01, respectively. The model has been initially validated using a very simple sample problem and is ready for a more complete workout using the SRP reactor models from the RSRD probabilistic risk analysis.

  6. 13. INTERIOR VIEW OF HILLMAN FAN HOUSE LOOKING NORTHEAST This ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. INTERIOR VIEW OF HILLMAN FAN HOUSE LOOKING NORTHEAST This view, taken in the southern airway, shows the circular brick-work surrounding the air intake, the cast iron shaft support, and one of the 1883 Guibal fan cast iron spiders. Three cast iron spiders support the ten feet by eleven feet wooden paddles. Remnants of the catwalk with its screen grating lead to the inner door of the airlock. Note also the support beams and reinforced concrete roof. The concrete floor of the airway has deteriorated. - Dorrance Colliery Fan Complex, South side of Susquehanna River at Route 115 & Riechard Street, Wilkes-Barre, Luzerne County, PA

  7. 16. INTERIOR VIEW OF HILLMAN FAN HOUSE ENGINE ROOM LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. INTERIOR VIEW OF HILLMAN FAN HOUSE ENGINE ROOM LOOKING EAST This overview of the 1883 Pittston Engine and Machine Company steam engine includes the flywheel and pillowblock in the foreground, with the shaft and cylinder in the background. The engine is a horizontal, slide valve type of 30 inch bore and 60 inch stroke that turned the fan at 49 revolutions per minute. - Dorrance Colliery Fan Complex, South side of Susquehanna River at Route 115 & Riechard Street, Wilkes-Barre, Luzerne County, PA

  8. Debris flow dominated alluvial fans in the Australian high country indicate that landscape denudation through the Holocene has been dominated by post-bushfire runoff events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marren, Philip; Nyman, Petter; Kermode, Stephanie

    2016-04-01

    Bushfires play a major role in shaping landscapes across the globe. Whilst the role of fire in shaping and changing vegetation assemblages is relatively well understood, there is still debate about the significance of fire in driving landscape denudation, relative to other processes, such as major rainfall and flood events and questions remain about the frequency of extreme fire events over longer timescales in response to climate forcing. Studies of post-fire landscape impact of recent bushfires in southeast Australia indicate that where storm events occur shortly after a major bushfire, hillslope erosion is enhanced, due to debris flows and erosion of both primary hillslope sediment and sediment stored in hillslope channel networks. In Australia, knowledge of long-term bushfire frequency is largely derived from pollen and micro-charcoal records in lake-sediment archives and is not directly relevant to resolving questions regarding fire impacts on landscape denudation and sediment transfer. We excavated trenches in four alluvial fans at the base of hillslopes in the high country of northeast Victoria, Australia. This area was burnt by bushfires in 1939 and 2003, and regional climate and hydrology are strongly controlled by El Niño. The trenches were up to 3.5m deep, and in most cases intersected underlying floodplain sediment at the base of the trench, indicating that they provide a full record of sedimentation for that sector of the fan. Fan stratigraphy consisted of sub-horizontal (parallel to the fan surface) units 0.3-0.5m thick, with occasional units 1-1.2m thick, and cross-cutting channelized units. Debris flow deposits accounted for 70-80% of the observed sediments, with water-laid gravels and soil units forming the remainder. Most soil layers were burnt, and most (but not all) debris flow units contained charcoal. A typical stratigraphy consisted of 6-8 debris flow units per fan, with four units containing a fire signature or overlying a burnt soil layer

  9. Evaluation of municipal solid waste management performance by material flow analysis: Theoretical approach and case study.

    PubMed

    Zaccariello, Lucio; Cremiato, Raffaele; Mastellone, Maria Laura

    2015-10-01

    The main role of a waste management plan is to define which is the combination of waste management strategies and method needed to collect and manage the waste in such a way to ensure a given set of targets is reached. Objectives have to be sustainable and realistic, consistent with the environmental policies and regulations and monitored to verify the progressive achievement of the given targets. To get the aim, the setting up and quantification of indicators can allow the measurement of efficiency of a waste management system. The quantification of efficiency indicators requires the developing of a material flow analysis over the system boundary, from waste collection to secondary materials selling, processing and disposal. The material flow analysis has been carried out with reference to a case study for which a reliable, time- and site-specific database was available. The material flow analysis allowed the evaluation of the amount of materials sent to recycling, to landfilling and to waste-to-energy, by highlighting that the sorting of residual waste can further increase the secondary materials amount. The utilisation of energy recovery to treat the low-grade waste allows the maximisation of waste diversion from landfill with a low production of hazardous ash. A preliminary economic balance has been carried out to define the gate fee of the waste management system that was in the range of 84-145 € t(-1) without including the separate collection cost. The cost of door-by-door separate collection, designed to ensure the collection of five separate streams, resulted in 250 € t(-1) ±30%.

  10. Materialism.

    PubMed

    Melnyk, Andrew

    2012-05-01

    Materialism is nearly universally assumed by cognitive scientists. Intuitively, materialism says that a person's mental states are nothing over and above his or her material states, while dualism denies this. Philosophers have introduced concepts (e.g., realization and supervenience) to assist in formulating the theses of materialism and dualism with more precision, and distinguished among importantly different versions of each view (e.g., eliminative materialism, substance dualism, and emergentism). They have also clarified the logic of arguments that use empirical findings to support materialism. Finally, they have devised various objections to materialism, objections that therefore serve also as arguments for dualism. These objections typically center around two features of mental states that materialism has had trouble in accommodating. The first feature is intentionality, the property of representing, or being about, objects, properties, and states of affairs external to the mental states. The second feature is phenomenal consciousness, the property possessed by many mental states of there being something it is like for the subject of the mental state to be in that mental state. WIREs Cogn Sci 2012, 3:281-292. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1174 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website.

  11. Can hazardous waste become a raw material? The case study of an aluminium residue: a review.

    PubMed

    López-Delgado, Aurora; Tayibi, Hanan

    2012-05-01

    The huge number of research studies carried out during recent decades focused on finding an effective solution for the waste treatment, have allowed some of these residues to become new raw materials for many industries. Achieving this ensures a reduction in energy and natural resources consumption, diminishing of the negative environmental impacts and creating secondary and tertiary industries. A good example is provided by the metallurgical industry, in general, and the aluminium industry in this particular case. The aluminium recycling industry is a beneficial activity for the environment, since it recovers resources from primary industry, manufacturing and post-consumer waste. Slag and scrap which were previously considered as waste, are nowadays the raw material for some highly profitable secondary and tertiary industries. The most recent European Directive on waste establishes that if waste is used as a common product and fulfils the existing legislation for this product, then this waste can be defined as 'end-of-waste'. The review presented here, attempts to show several proposals for making added-value materials using an aluminium residue which is still considered as a hazardous waste, and accordingly, disposed of in secure storage. The present proposal includes the use of this waste to manufacture glass, glass-ceramic, boehmite and calcium aluminate. Thus the waste might effectively be recovered as a secondary source material for various industries.

  12. Ultrasonic Fingerprinting of Structural Materials: Spent Nuclear Fuel Containers Case-Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sednev, D.; Lider, A.; Demyanuk, D.; Kroening, M.; Salchak, Y.

    Nowadays, NDT is mainly focused on safety purposes, but it seems possible to apply those methods to provide national and IAEA safeguards. The containment of spent fuel in storage casks could be dramatically improved in case of development of so-called "smart" spent fuel storage and transfer casks. Such casks would have tamper indicating and monitoring/tracking features integrated directly into the cask design. The microstructure of the containers material as well as of the dedicated weld seam is applied to the lid and the cask body and provides a unique fingerprint of the full container, which can be reproducibly scanned by using an appropriate technique. The echo-sounder technique, which is the most commonly used method for material inspection, was chosen for this project. The main measuring parameter is acoustic noise, reflected from material's artefacts. The purpose is to obtain structural fingerprinting. Reference measurement and additional measurement results were compared. Obtained results have verified the appliance of structural fingerprint and the chosen control method. The successful authentication demonstrates the levels of the feature points' compliance exceeding the given threshold which differs considerably from the percentage of the concurrent points during authentication from other points. Since reproduction or doubling of the proposed unique identification characteristics is impossible at the current state science and technology, application of this technique is considered to identify the interference into the nuclear materials displacement with high accuracy.

  13. Material versus social deprivation and health: a case study of an urban area.

    PubMed

    Testi, Angela; Ivaldi, Enrico

    2009-07-01

    Socioeconomic factors are one of the main determinants of health inequalities. However, which component of socioeconomic status affects health most and how that relationship should be measured remains an open question. The aim of this study was to compare material and social deprivation indexes in order to determine which better explains health inequalities within an urban area. Following a review of the literature on small area deprivation indexes, a case study of the Italian city Genoa is presented. The city of Genoa is split into 71 small areas [urbanistic units (UU)], each of which has about 9,500 inhabitants. For each small area, socioeconomic indicators were extracted from the 2001 Census, whereas health indicators were computed from the death registry for 2001-2003. Factorial analyses was used to choose the deprivation variables, which were utilised to create two distinct deprivation indexes referring to material and social deprivation, respectively. Both deprivation indexes are positively correlated with health status proxied by standardised mortality ratios (SMRs) under 65. The material index, however, correlates more highly with SMRs than the social index, and thus the material index is the more suitable measure to explain variations in premature mortality within an urban area. Moreover, the two indexes must be kept distinct.

  14. Use of a new retrograde filling material (Biodentine) for endodontic surgery: two case reports

    PubMed Central

    Caron, Grégory; Azérad, Jean; Faure, Marie-Odile; Machtou, Pierre; Boucher, Yves

    2014-01-01

    Mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) is considered at the present time as the gold standard for root-end filling in endodontic surgery. However, this biocompatible material presents several drawbacks such as a long setting time and handling difficulties. The aim of this article is to present a new commercialized calcium silicate-based material named Biodentine with physical improved properties compared to MTA in a clinical application. Two endodontic microsurgeries were performed by using specific armamentarium (microsurgical instrumentation, ultrasonic tips) under high-power magnification with an operatory microscope. Biodentine was used as a root-end filling in order to seal the root canal system. The two cases were considered completely healed at 1 year and were followed for one more year. The 2-year follow-up consolidated the previous observation with absence of clinical symptoms and radiographic evidence of regeneration of the periapical tissues. PMID:24810806

  15. Thoracoscopic esophageal repair with barbed suture material in a case of Boerhaave’s syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Chiaki; Sakurai, Tadashi; Kamiya, Kurodo; Kamei, Takashi; Ohuchi, Noriaki

    2016-01-01

    A 53-year-old man was referred to our hospital with Boerhaave’s syndrome. Thirty hours after onset, a left thoracoscopic operation was performed, with carbon dioxide pneumothorax and the patient in right semi-prone position. The thoracic cavity was copiously irrigated with physiological saline and a 4-cm longitudinal rupture was identified on the left side of the lower esophagus. The esophageal injury was repaired in 2 layers by using barbed absorbable suture material. The patient was allowed oral feeds after contrast esophagography confirmed the absence of contrast leak at the sutured site on postoperative day 7, and discharged by day 28. Suturing of the ruptured esophagus under thoracoscopic guidance is considered to be difficult and requires expertise. This case report demonstrates that the use of a barbed suture material simplifies thoracoscopic esophageal repair and also highlights the importance of pneumothorax and patient position in improving access to the esophagus. PMID:28149585

  16. 30 CFR 75.313 - Main mine fan stoppage with persons underground.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... and the ventilating quantity provided by the fan is not maintained by a back-up fan system— (1... are determined to be safe. (e) Any atmospheric monitoring system operated during fan stoppages shall... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Main mine fan stoppage with persons...

  17. 30 CFR 75.312 - Main mine fan examinations and records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...)(1) If a main mine fan monitoring system is used, a trained person designated by the operator shall— (i) At least once each day review the data provided by the fan monitoring system to assure that the fan and the fan monitoring system are operating properly. No review is required on any day when no...

  18. 30 CFR 75.312 - Main mine fan examinations and records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...)(1) If a main mine fan monitoring system is used, a trained person designated by the operator shall— (i) At least once each day review the data provided by the fan monitoring system to assure that the fan and the fan monitoring system are operating properly. No review is required on any day when no...

  19. 30 CFR 75.313 - Main mine fan stoppage with persons underground.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... and the ventilating quantity provided by the fan is not maintained by a back-up fan system— (1... are determined to be safe. (e) Any atmospheric monitoring system operated during fan stoppages shall... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Main mine fan stoppage with persons...

  20. 78 FR 16443 - Energy Efficiency Program for Consumer Products: Energy Conservation Standards for Ceiling Fans...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-15

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY 10 CFR Part 430 RIN 1904-AC87 Energy Efficiency Program for Consumer Products: Energy Conservation Standards for Ceiling Fans and Ceiling Fan Light Kits AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and... process to consider amending the energy conservation standards for ceiling fans and ceiling fan light...

  1. Gross extrusion of endodontic obturation materials into the maxillary sinus: a case report.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Keiji; Matsunaga, Tsunenori; Hayashi, Yoshihiko

    2007-07-01

    A gross extrusion of endodontic obturation materials occurred from tooth 3 into the right maxillary sinus. The patient had never been conscious of uncomfortable symptoms, both at tooth 3 or buccal regions. A computed tomographic (CT) scan showed cord-like foreign substances extruded from the apex of the tooth and the hyperplasticity of the sinal mucosa. The surgical removal of foreign substances and partial curettage of sinal mucosa were indicated to prevent the possibility of sinus infection. At the 4-month recall, the patient was symptom free. This case emphasizes that an open apex can become potentially dangerous when the vertical condensation method is used. If massive overfilling is recognized radiographically in molar regions, an examination using panoramic radiograph is indispensable to detect the gross extrusion into the maxillary sinus, such as in this case.

  2. Rapid transport and high accumulation of amorphous silica in the Congo deep-sea fan: A preliminary budget

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raimonet, Mélanie; Ragueneau, Olivier; Jacques, Vincent; Corvaisier, Rudolph; Moriceau, Brivaëla; Khripounoff, Alexis; Pozzato, Lara; Rabouille, Christophe

    2015-01-01

    Mechanisms controlling the transfer and retention of silicon (Si) along continental margins are poorly understood, but play a major role in the functioning of coastal ecosystems and the oceanic biological pump of carbon. Deep-sea fans are well recognized as carbon sink spots, but we lack knowledge about the importance of the fans in the global Si cycle. Here, we provide a first estimate of the role played by the Congo deep-sea fan, one of the biggest in the world, in the Si cycle. Sediment cores sampled in the deep-sea fan were analyzed to build a Si mass balance. An exceptionally high accumulation rate of amorphous silica aSiO2 (2.29 ± 0.58 mol Si m- 2 y- 1) was found, due to a high sedimentation rate and the presence of aluminum in the sediments. Although favored by bioirrigation, recycling fluxes remained low (0.3 mol Si m- 2 y- 1) and reconstructed input fluxes could only be explained by lateral inputs coming from the canyon. Preliminary calculations show that the rapid transport of aSiO2 through the canyon and the excellent preservation efficiency in the sediments imply that 50% of aSiO2 river inputs from the Congo River accumulate annually in the deep-sea fan. Si:C ratios in deep-sea fan sediments were very low (0.2) and only three times as high as those measured in the river itself, which suggests that material from the river and the continental shelf was delivered directly through the canyon, with very little time for Si and C cycle decoupling to take place.

  3. Conceptual design studies of a V/STOL civil lift fan transport including effect of size and fan pressure ratio

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    Conceptual design studies of V/STOL Lift Fan Commercial short-haul transport aircraft for the 1980-85 time period were studied to determine their technical and economic feasibility. The remote lift fan configurations with a variation in fan pressure ratio from 1.2 to 1.5 were investigated. Also studied were variation in stage length from 200 nautical miles to 800 nautical miles and cruise Mach numbers of 0.75 and 0.85. These results indicate a four engine configuration was feasible. The 95 PNdb noise footprint would be approximately 45 acres and the DOC's would be about 60% greater than conventional transports.

  4. Contact Stress Analysis and Fatigue Life Prediction of a Turbine Fan Disc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Liang; Zhu, Shun-Peng; Lv, Zhiqiang; Zuo, Fang-Jun; Huang, Hong-Zhong

    2016-06-01

    Fan discs are critical components of an aero engine. In this paper, contact stress and life prediction of a turbine fan disc were investigated. A simplified pin/disc model was conducted to simulate the practical working condition under applied loads using finite element (FE) analysis. This study is devoted to examining the effects of interface condition of pin/disc such as gap and coefficient upon the maximum stress. The FE model indicated that the maximum stress occurs at the top right corner in the second pin hole, and larger gap or friction coefficient has a significant effect on the maximum stress. In addition, FE analysis without considering friction is also conducted. The results show that the dangerous point is similar to the result which considers friction and the stress state is relatively larger than that of considering friction. Finally, based on FE analysis result, life prediction for the fan disc is conducted to combine the material S-N curve, mean stress effects and concentration stress factor obtained by means of FE method.

  5. Structural Analysis and Optimization of a Composite Fan Blade for Future Aircraft Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coroneos, Rula M.

    2012-01-01

    This report addresses the structural analysis and optimization of a composite fan blade sized for a large aircraft engine. An existing baseline solid metallic fan blade was used as a starting point to develop a hybrid honeycomb sandwich construction with a polymer matrix composite face sheet and honeycomb aluminum core replacing the original baseline solid metallic fan model made of titanium. The focus of this work is to design the sandwich composite blade with the optimum number of plies for the face sheet that will withstand the combined pressure and centrifugal loads while the constraints are satisfied and the baseline aerodynamic and geometric parameters are maintained. To satisfy the requirements, a sandwich construction for the blade is proposed with composite face sheets and a weak core made of honeycomb aluminum material. For aerodynamic considerations, the thickness of the core is optimized whereas the overall blade thickness is held fixed so as to not alter the original airfoil geometry. Weight is taken as the objective function to be minimized by varying the core thickness of the blade within specified upper and lower bounds. Constraints are imposed on radial displacement limitations and ply failure strength. From the optimum design, the minimum number of plies, which will not fail, is back-calculated. The ply lay-up of the blade is adjusted from the calculated number of plies and final structural analysis is performed. Analyses were carried out by utilizing the OpenMDAO Framework, developed at NASA Glenn Research Center combining optimization with structural assessment.

  6. 8. VIEW OF THE FAN HOUSE FROM THE MINE ROAD, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. VIEW OF THE FAN HOUSE FROM THE MINE ROAD, LOOKING NORTHWEST. - Tower Hill No. 2 Mine, Approximately 0.47 mile Southwest of intersection of Stone Church Road & Township Route 561, Hibbs, Fayette County, PA

  7. 4. VENTILATION FAN SHOWING RELATIVE POSITION IN THE AIR TUNNEL. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. VENTILATION FAN SHOWING RELATIVE POSITION IN THE AIR TUNNEL. - Hot Springs National Park, Bathhouse Row, Ozark Bathhouse: Mechanical & Piping Systems, State Highway 7, 1 mile north of U.S. Highway 70, Hot Springs, Garland County, AR

  8. Pathological effects of cyanobacteria on sea fans in southeast Florida.

    PubMed

    Kiryu, Y; Landsberg, J H; Peters, E C; Tichenor, E; Burleson, C; Perry, N

    2015-07-01

    In early August 2008, observations by divers indicated that sea fans, particularly Gorgonia ventalina, Gorgonia flabellum, and Iciligorgia schrammi, were being covered by benthic filamentous cyanobacteria. From August 2008 through January 2009 and again in April 2009, tissue samples from a targeted G. ventalina colony affected by cyanobacteria and from a nearby, apparently healthy (without cyanobacteria) control colony, were collected monthly for histopathological examination. The primary cellular response of the sea fan to overgrowth by cyanobacteria was an increase in the number of acidophilic amoebocytes (with their granular contents dispersed) that were scattered throughout the coenenchyme tissue. Necrosis of scleroblasts and zooxanthellae and infiltration of degranulated amoebocytes were observed in the sea fan surface tissues at sites overgrown with cyanobacteria. Fungal hyphae in the axial skeleton were qualitatively more prominent in cyanobacteria-affected sea fans than in controls.

  9. 13. VIEW NORTHEAST, BUILDING 12 INTERIOR, WIND TUNNEL FAN ASSEMBLY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. VIEW NORTHEAST, BUILDING 12 INTERIOR, WIND TUNNEL FAN ASSEMBLY - Naval Surface Warfare Center, Transonic Wind Tunnel Building, Bounded by Clara Barton Parkway & McArthur Boulevard, Silver Spring, Montgomery County, MD

  10. 4. EXTERIOR VIEW OF HILLMAN FAN HOUSE LOOKING NORTHEAST This ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. EXTERIOR VIEW OF HILLMAN FAN HOUSE LOOKING NORTHEAST This view shows the concrete roof covering the airways and the engine room. The reinforced concrete roof is supported by metal beams. Note how the airshaft, in the foreground, widens to create an airway on either side for the double inlet fan. The brick fan housing is capped by a curved sheet metal roof whose segments are bolted together. The brick updraft chimney, capped with concrete, is to the rear (northeast). Also evident on the wall is the cover over the air velocity indicator. The Hollenback Cemetery, which adjoins the Dorrance Colliery property is in the background. - Dorrance Colliery Fan Complex, South side of Susquehanna River at Route 115 & Riechard Street, Wilkes-Barre, Luzerne County, PA

  11. Field testing the prototype BNL fan-atomized oil burner

    SciTech Connect

    McDonald, R.; Celebi, Y.

    1995-04-01

    BNL has developed a new oil burner design referred to as the Fan Atomized burner System. The primary objective of the field study was to evaluate and demonstrate the reliable operation of the Fan Atomized Burner. The secondary objective was to establish and validate the ability of a low firing rate burner (0.3-0.4 gph) to fully satisfy the heating and domestic hot water load demands of an average household in a climate zone with over 5,000 heating-degree-days. The field activity was also used to evaluate the practicality of side-wall venting with the Fan Atomized Burner with a low stack temperature (300F) and illustrate the potential for very high efficiency with an integrated heating system approach based on the Fan Atomized Burner.

  12. PLSS 2.5 Fan Design and Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quinn, Gregory; Carra, Michael; Converse, David; Chullen, Cinda

    2015-01-01

    NASA is building a high fidelity prototype of an advanced portable life support system (PLSS) as part of the Advanced Exploration Systems Program. This new PLSS, designated as PLSS 2.5, will advance component technologies and systems knowledge in order to inform a future flight program. The oxygen ventilation loop of its predecessor, PLSS 2.0, is driven by a centrifugal fan developed using specifications from the Constellation Program. PLSS technology and system parameters have matured to the point where the existing fan will not perform adequately for the new prototype. In addition, areas of potential improvement have been identified with the existing fan that could be addressed in a new design. As a result, a new fan was designed and tested for the PLSS 2.5.

  13. 2. PADDLE FAN IN PLENUM INTERIOR. Hot Springs National ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. PADDLE FAN IN PLENUM INTERIOR. - Hot Springs National Park Bathhouse Row, Maurice Bathhouse: Mechanical & Piping Systems, State Highway 7, 1 mile north of U.S. Highway 70, Hot Springs, Garland County, AR

  14. 15. FAN HOUSE ON TOP OF ELEVATOR SHAFT. Hot ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. FAN HOUSE ON TOP OF ELEVATOR SHAFT. - Hot Springs National Park, Bathhouse Row, Fordyce Bathhouse: Mechanical & Piping Systems, State Highway 7, 1 mile north of U.S. Highway 70, Hot Springs, Garland County, AR

  15. North wall, near east end, showing exhaust fan and exit ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    North wall, near east end, showing exhaust fan and exit (series 3 of 4) - Bureau of Mines Metallurgical Research Laboratory, Original Building, Date Street north of U.S. Highway 93, Boulder City, Clark County, NV

  16. 15. INTERIOR VIEW OF HILLMAN FAN HOUSE LOOKING WEST The ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. INTERIOR VIEW OF HILLMAN FAN HOUSE LOOKING WEST The No. 2 (Hillman) shaft is on the other side of the rail barrier. In the background are the ventilating doors leading to the airway from the No. 4 (Baltimore) shaft. The brick wall on the left is pointed; it splits the air directing it to both sides of the double inlet Guibal centrifugal fan. The concrete rail support also is pointed to reduce air resistance. The rails are recycled light guage mine railroad tracks. The alterations to the fan house are evident in the left background, where a sloping joint between the concrete and brick suggests an earlier roof pitched the other way. - Dorrance Colliery Fan Complex, South side of Susquehanna River at Route 115 & Riechard Street, Wilkes-Barre, Luzerne County, PA

  17. 2. DETAIL OF CEILING MOUNTED EXHAUST FAN USED TO REMOVE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. DETAIL OF CEILING MOUNTED EXHAUST FAN USED TO REMOVE STEAM FROM SCALDING/SCRAPING AREA ON LEVEL 4 - Rath Packing Company, Hog Killing Building, Sycamore Street between Elm & Eighteenth Streets, Waterloo, Black Hawk County, IA

  18. Supersonic through-flow fan engine and aircraft mission performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Franciscus, Leo C.; Maldonado, Jaime J.

    1989-01-01

    A study was made to evaluate potential improvement to a commercial supersonic transport by powering it with supersonic through-flow fan turbofan engines. A Mach 3.2 mission was considered. The three supersonic fan engines considered were designed to operate at bypass ratios of 0.25, 0.5, and 0.75 at supersonic cruise. For comparison a turbine bypass turbojet was included in the study. The engines were evaluated on the basis of aircraft takeoff gross weight with a payload of 250 passengers for a fixed range of 5000 N.MI. The installed specific fuel consumption of the supersonic fan engines was 7 to 8 percent lower than that of the turbine bypass engine. The aircraft powered by the supersonic fan engines had takeoff gross weights 9 to 13 percent lower than aircraft powered by turbine bypass engines.

  19. Reduced-complexity probabilistic reconstruction of alluvial aquifer stratigraphy, and application to sedimentary fans in northwestern India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Dijk, Wout M.; Densmore, Alexander L.; Sinha, Rajiv; Singh, Ajit; Voller, Vaughan R.

    2016-10-01

    Generating a realistic model of subsurface stratigraphy that fits data from multiple well locations is a well-established problem in the field of aquifer characterisation. This is particularly critical for the alluvial fan-hosted aquifers in northwestern India, as they have some of the highest rates of groundwater extraction in the world and spatially limited subsurface observations. The objective of this study is to develop a reduced-complexity model that generates probabilistic estimates of aquifer body occurrence within a sedimentary fan, based loosely on the northwestern Indian aquifer system. We propose a parsimonious, inverse-weighted random walk model that reconstructs potential channel belt pathways within a discrete depth range or slice by (i) connecting known aquifer locations with the fan apex, (ii) filling adjacent cells with non-aquifer material based on estimated channel-body dimensions, and (iii) random filling of the remaining cells until the model fraction of aquifer material is comparable to the bulk aquifer fraction observed from well data. Once filled, individual depth slices can be stacked to produce a three-dimensional representation of aquifer-body geometry, allowing informed inference and testable predictions about the configuration of aquifer units in the subsurface. A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve shows that the model performs better than fully random filling, both in matching the locations of aquifer material in the subsurface and in reconstructing the geometry of relict channel bodies preserved on the fan surface. The model differs from purely statistical-empirical approaches by incorporating some geomorphic knowledge of fluvial channel belt geometry within the fan system. In contrast to a fully process-based approach, the model is computationally fast and is easily refined as new subsurface data become available.

  20. PBF Cooling Tower. Hot deck of Cooling Tower with fan ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    PBF Cooling Tower. Hot deck of Cooling Tower with fan motors in place. Fan's propeller blades (not in view) rotate within lower portion of vents. Inlet pipe is a left of view. Contractor's construction buildings in view to right. Photographer: Larry Page. Date: June 30, 1969. INEEL negative no. 69-3781 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, SPERT-I & Power Burst Facility Area, Scoville, Butte County, ID