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Sample records for far-infrared fir emission

  1. Properties and Applications of High Emissivity Composite Films Based on Far-Infrared Ceramic Powder.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Yabo; Huang, Shaoyun; Wang, Wenqi; Liu, Xinghai; Li, Houbin

    2017-11-29

    Polymer matrix composite materials that can emit radiation in the far-infrared region of the spectrum are receiving increasing attention due to their ability to significantly influence biological processes. This study reports on the far-infrared emissivity property of composite films based on far-infrared ceramic powder. X-ray fluorescence spectrometry, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, and X-ray powder diffractometry were used to evaluate the physical properties of the ceramic powder. The ceramic powder was found to be rich in aluminum oxide, titanium oxide, and silicon oxide, which demonstrate high far-infrared emissivity. In addition, the micromorphology, mechanical performance, dynamic mechanical properties, and far-infrared emissivity of the composite were analyzed to evaluate their suitability for strawberry storage. The mechanical properties of the far-infrared radiation ceramic (cFIR) composite films were not significantly influenced ( p ≥ 0.05) by the addition of the ceramic powder. However, the dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) properties of the cFIR composite films, including a reduction in damping and shock absorption performance, were significant influenced by the addition of the ceramic powder. Moreover, the cFIR composite films showed high far-infrared emissivity, which has the capability of prolonging the storage life of strawberries. This research demonstrates that cFIR composite films are promising for future applications.

  2. Properties and Applications of High Emissivity Composite Films Based on Far-Infrared Ceramic Powder

    PubMed Central

    Xiong, Yabo; Huang, Shaoyun; Wang, Wenqi; Liu, Xinghai; Li, Houbin

    2017-01-01

    Polymer matrix composite materials that can emit radiation in the far-infrared region of the spectrum are receiving increasing attention due to their ability to significantly influence biological processes. This study reports on the far-infrared emissivity property of composite films based on far-infrared ceramic powder. X-ray fluorescence spectrometry, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, and X-ray powder diffractometry were used to evaluate the physical properties of the ceramic powder. The ceramic powder was found to be rich in aluminum oxide, titanium oxide, and silicon oxide, which demonstrate high far-infrared emissivity. In addition, the micromorphology, mechanical performance, dynamic mechanical properties, and far-infrared emissivity of the composite were analyzed to evaluate their suitability for strawberry storage. The mechanical properties of the far-infrared radiation ceramic (cFIR) composite films were not significantly influenced (p ≥ 0.05) by the addition of the ceramic powder. However, the dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) properties of the cFIR composite films, including a reduction in damping and shock absorption performance, were significant influenced by the addition of the ceramic powder. Moreover, the cFIR composite films showed high far-infrared emissivity, which has the capability of prolonging the storage life of strawberries. This research demonstrates that cFIR composite films are promising for future applications. PMID:29186047

  3. Far infrared radiation (FIR): its biological effects and medical applications

    PubMed Central

    Vatansever, Fatma; Hamblin, Michael R.

    2013-01-01

    Far infrared (FIR) radiation (λ = 3–100 μm) is a subdivision of the electromagnetic spectrum that has been investigated for biological effects. The goal of this review is to cover the use of a further sub-division (3– 12 μm) of this waveband, that has been observed in both in vitro and in vivo studies, to stimulate cells and tissue, and is considered a promising treatment modality for certain medical conditions. Technological advances have provided new techniques for delivering FIR radiation to the human body. Specialty lamps and saunas, delivering pure FIR radiation (eliminating completely the near and mid infrared bands), have became safe, effective, and widely used sources to generate therapeutic effects. Fibers impregnated with FIR emitting ceramic nanoparticles and woven into fabrics, are being used as garments and wraps to generate FIR radiation, and attain health benefits from its effects. PMID:23833705

  4. Dust silicate emission in FIR/submm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coupeaud, A.; Demyk, K.; Mény, C.; Nayral, C.

    2010-12-01

    The far-infrared to millimeter wavelength (FIR-mm) range in astronomical observations is dominated by the thermal emission from large (10-100 nm) and cold (10-20 K) dust grains, which are in thermal equilibrium with the interstellar radiation field. However, the physics of the FIR-mm emission from such cold matter is not well understood as shown by the observed dependence with the temperature of the spectral index of the dust emissivity β and by the observed far infrared excess. Interestingly, a similar behaviour is observed in experiments of characterization of the spectral properties of dust analogues. We present a study of the optical properties of analogues of interstellar silicate grains at low temperature in the FIR/submm range aiming to understand their peculiar behaviour. Such studies are essential for the interpretation of the Herschel and Planck data.

  5. Fine-scale structure in the far-infrared Milky-Way

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waller, William H.; Wall, William F.; Reach, William T.; Varosi, Frank; Ebert, Rick; Laughlin, Gaylin; Boulanger, Francois

    1995-01-01

    This final report summarizes the work performed and which falls into five broad categories: (1) generation of a new data product (mosaics of the far-infrared emission in the Milky Way); (2) acquisition of associated data products at other wavelengths; (3) spatial filtering of the far-infrared mosaics and resulting images of the FIR fine-scale structure; (4) evaluation of the spatially filtered data; (5) characterization of the FIR fine-scale structure in terms of its spatial statistics; and (6) identification of interstellar counterparts to the FIR fine-scale structure.

  6. Alignment and Polarization Sensitivity Study for the Cassini-Composite InfraRed Spectrometer (CIRS) Far InfraRed (FIR) Interferometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crooke, Julie A.; Hagopian, John G.

    1998-01-01

    The Composite InfraRed Spectrometer (CIRS) instrument flying on the Cassini spacecraft to Saturn is a cryogenic spectrometer with far-infrared (FIR) and mid-infrared (MIR) channels. The CIRS FIR channel is a polarizing interferometer that contains three polarizing grid components. These components are an input polarizer, a polarizing beamsplitter, and an output polarizer/analyzer. They consist of a 1.5 micron thick mylar substrate with 2 gm wide copper wires, with 2 gm spacing (4 micron pitch) photolithographically deposited on the substrate. This paper details the polarization sensitivity studies performed on the output polarizer/analyzer, and the alignment sensitivity studies performed on the input polarizer and beamsplitter components in the FIR interferometer.

  7. Far-Infrared sources and diffuse emission in M31

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xu, Cong; Helou, George

    1994-01-01

    A study on the far-infrared (FIR) emission of M31 has been carried out with the High Resolution (HiRes) maps (approx. 1 min) derived from IRAS data. Sixty-eight FIR sources are detected in M31, which in general coincide with optical HII regions, and contribute 15, 23, 29, and 23 percent to the fluxes in 12, 25, 60, and 100 micron bands, respectively. The remaining diffuse emission, which dominates the FIR emission of M31, is studied using a dust heating model which utilizes the UV and optical photometry maps and the HI maps available in the literature. It is found that the global dust-to-gas ratio in M31 disk is 6.5 10(exp -3), very close to the dust-to-gas ratio in the solar neighborhood. There is a significant galactocentric gradient of the dust-to-HI-gas ratio, with an e-folding scale length of 9 kpc. The diffuse dust correlates tightly with the HI gas. The model indicates that the non-ionizing UV (913-4000A) radiation from massive and intermediate massive stars contributes only about 30 percent of the heating of the diffuse dust, while the optical-NIR (4000-9000A) radiation from the old stellar population is responsible for the most of the heating.

  8. Far-infrared line emission from the galaxy. Ph.D. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stacey, G. J.

    1985-01-01

    The diffuse 157.74 micron (CII) emission from the Galaxy was sampled at several galactic longitudes near the galactic plane including complete scan across the plane at (II) = 2.16 deg and (II) = 7.28 deg. The observed (CII) emission profiles follow closely the nearby (12)CO (J=1to0) emission profiles. The (CII) emission probably arises in neutral photodissociation regions near the edges of giant moleclar clouds (GMC's). These regions have densities of approximately 350 cm(-3) and temperatures of approximately 300 K, and amount to 4x10(8) solar mass of hydrogen in the inner Galaxy. The total 157.74 micron luminosity of the Galaxy is estimated to be 6x10(7) solar luminosity. Estimates were also made of the galactic emission in other far-infrared (FIR) cooling lines. The (CII) line was found to be the dominant FIR emission line from the galaxy and the primary coolant for the warm neutral gas near the galactic plane. Other cooling lines predicted to be prominent in the galactic spectrum are discussed. The 145.53 micron (OI) emission line from the Orion nebula was also measured.

  9. Tunable far infrared laser spectrometers

    SciTech Connect

    Blake, G.A.; Laughlin, K.B.; Cohen, R.C.

    The state of the art in far infrared (FIR) spectroscopy is reviewed. The development of tunable, coherent FIR radiation sources is discussed. Applications of tunable FIR laser spectrometers for measurement of rotational spectra and dipole moments of molecular ions and free radicals, vibration-rotation-tunneling (VRT) spectra of weakly bound complexes, and vibration-rotation spectra of linear carbon clusters are presented. A detailed description of the Berkeley tunable FIR laser spectrometers is presented in the following article.

  10. Far-infrared observations of the evolved H II region M16

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcbreen, B.; Fazio, G. G.; Jaffe, D. T.

    1982-01-01

    The results of far infrared (FIR) observations of the larger H II region M16, associated with the young open star cluster NGC 6611, are discussed. Three FIR sources detected on an extended ridge of FIR emission within the scanned region are described. The observations confirm that M16 is an H II region in a late stage of evolution. The H II region has expanded and is now extremely density bounded, consisting of an extended region of ionized gas and a series of ionization fronts located at the surrounding molecular cloud boundaries nearest to the exciting OB star cluster. The FIR radiation arises from heated dust at these boundaries.

  11. Far-Infrared Emission of Intracluster Dust (ICD)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arimoto, N.; Takagi, T.; Hanami, H.

    2000-12-01

    In the young universe, clusters of galaxies could be bright FIR-Submm sources due to the dust emissions from young ellipticals. The intracluster dust (ICD) could also contribute to the FIR-Submm emissions considerably, but the ICD is fragile in the ambient hot ICM. Therefore, a chance to detect the ICD emission would be much smaller than the dust emissions from galaxies. Dust emissions from elliptical galaxies (EROs) in the young Coma cluster at a distance of z=2-3 would be easily detected by a future mission of H2L2 satellite, thus the FIR-Submm survey would become a powerful tool for searching high-z clusters.

  12. Far-infrared Extinction Mapping of Infrared Dark Clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Wanggi; Tan, Jonathan C.

    2014-01-01

    Progress in understanding star formation requires detailed observational constraints on the initial conditions, i.e., dense clumps and cores in giant molecular clouds that are on the verge of gravitational instability. Such structures have been studied by their extinction of near-infrared and, more recently, mid-infrared (MIR) background light. It has been somewhat more of a surprise to find that there are regions that appear as dark shadows at far-infrared (FIR) wavelengths as long as ~100 μm! Here we develop analysis methods of FIR images from Spitzer-MIPS and Herschel-PACS that allow quantitative measurements of cloud mass surface density, Σ. The method builds on that developed for MIR extinction mapping by Butler & Tan, in particular involving a search for independently saturated, i.e., very opaque, regions that allow measurement of the foreground intensity. We focus on three massive starless core/clumps in the Infrared Dark Cloud (IRDC) G028.37+00.07, deriving mass surface density maps from 3.5 to 70 μm. A by-product of this analysis is the measurement of the spectral energy distribution of the diffuse foreground emission. The lower opacity at 70 μm allows us to probe to higher Σ values, up to ~1 g cm-2 in the densest parts of the core/clumps. Comparison of the Σ maps at different wavelengths constrains the shape of the MIR-FIR dust opacity law in IRDCs. We find that it is most consistent with the thick ice mantle models of Ossenkopf & Henning. There is tentative evidence for grain ice mantle growth as one goes from lower to higher Σ regions.

  13. Spectral Energy Distribution of Far-infrared Bright Quasar Sample in the Lockman Hole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Y.; Huang, J.-S.; Omont, A.; Hatziminaoglou, E.; Willmer, C.; Fazio, G.; Elvis, M.; Bergeron, J.; Rigopoulou, D.; Perez-Fournon, I.

    2011-10-01

    The far-infrared (FIR) properties of Quasi-Stellar Objects (QSOs) is important in connecting the Starburst (SB) and Active Galactic Nucleus (AGN) activities. Therefore, we constructed a 24 μ m selected QSO sample to study their FIR behavior. All sources were spectroscopically identified from MMT or the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) as broadline quasars. Of the total ˜330 sources, 37 have secure FIR detections in the Herschel-HERMES field. We compared their SEDs to previous QSO templates, and found that those FIR bright quasars differ from existing AGNs only by an additional dust component(s). Further studies on the origin for the FIR emission reveals the relative roles starburst and AGN play in powering the dust emission, based on the dust temperature, FIR luminosity, and the shapes of individual SEDs. The dust temperatures have a wide range from 20K to 80K with a median of ˜ 30K, indicating homogeneous heating mechanisms that could later be related to the origin of these cold dust emissions.

  14. FAR-INFRARED EXTINCTION MAPPING OF INFRARED DARK CLOUDS

    SciTech Connect

    Lim, Wanggi; Tan, Jonathan C.

    Progress in understanding star formation requires detailed observational constraints on the initial conditions, i.e., dense clumps and cores in giant molecular clouds that are on the verge of gravitational instability. Such structures have been studied by their extinction of near-infrared and, more recently, mid-infrared (MIR) background light. It has been somewhat more of a surprise to find that there are regions that appear as dark shadows at far-infrared (FIR) wavelengths as long as ∼100 μm! Here we develop analysis methods of FIR images from Spitzer-MIPS and Herschel-PACS that allow quantitative measurements of cloud mass surface density, Σ. The method buildsmore » on that developed for MIR extinction mapping by Butler and Tan, in particular involving a search for independently saturated, i.e., very opaque, regions that allow measurement of the foreground intensity. We focus on three massive starless core/clumps in the Infrared Dark Cloud (IRDC) G028.37+00.07, deriving mass surface density maps from 3.5 to 70 μm. A by-product of this analysis is the measurement of the spectral energy distribution of the diffuse foreground emission. The lower opacity at 70 μm allows us to probe to higher Σ values, up to ∼1 g cm{sup –2} in the densest parts of the core/clumps. Comparison of the Σ maps at different wavelengths constrains the shape of the MIR-FIR dust opacity law in IRDCs. We find that it is most consistent with the thick ice mantle models of Ossenkopf and Henning. There is tentative evidence for grain ice mantle growth as one goes from lower to higher Σ regions.« less

  15. Probing the infrared counterparts of diffuse far-ultraviolet sources in the Galaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saikia, Gautam; Shalima, P.; Gogoi, Rupjyoti; Pathak, Amit

    2017-12-01

    Recent availability of high quality infrared (IR) data for diffuse regions in the Galaxy and external galaxies have added to our understanding of interstellar dust. A comparison of ultraviolet (UV) and IR observations may be used to estimate absorption, scattering and thermal emission from interstellar dust. In this paper, we report IR and UV observations for selective diffuse sources in the Galaxy. Using archival mid-infrared (MIR) and far-infrared (FIR) observations from Spitzer Space Telescope, we look for counterparts of diffuse far-ultraviolet (FUV) sources observed by the Voyager, Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE) and Galaxy Evolution Explorer (GALEX) telescopes in the Galaxy. IR emission features at 8 μm are generally attributed to Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH) molecules, while emission at 24 μm are attributed to Very Small Grains (VSGs). The data presented here is unique and our study tries to establish a relation between various dust populations. By studying the FUV-IR correlations separately at low and high latitude locations, we have identified the grain component responsible for the diffuse FUV emission.

  16. Winter Far InfraRed Measurements in the High Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    S Pelletier, L.; Libois, Q.; Laurence, C.; Blanchet, J. P.

    2017-12-01

    During the polar night the majority of earth emission to space occurs in the Far InfraRed (FIR) (l>15mm). Below 10 mm of column integrated water vapour (WV) the atmosphere becomes partially transparent in this spectral range, extending the atmospheric window to longer wavelength. Small variations of WV content can thus lead to strong variations of the transmittance of the atmosphere, impacting its cooling rate and the water vapor greenhouse effect. This is especially true in the Arctic since more than 50% of atmospheric cooling occurs in the FIR. Furthermore, remote sensing observations from CALIPSO and CloudSat satellites over the Arctic have enlighten the ubiquity of optically thin ice clouds (TIC). Those clouds act as effective radiators through the whole troposphere and their formation process is still poorly understood. Theoretical work has shown the added value of FIR measurements for WV and TIC optical properties retrieval. Even so there is currently no spaceborne instrument performing spectrally resolved measurements in the FIR. The TICFIRE (Thin ice cloud in the far infrared experiment) satellite project aims to fill this gap. Here we present the results of the first ground experiments using a breadboard of the satellite, the Far InfraRed Radiometer (FIRR). It measured downwelling radiance at Eureka, NU (79°59'20″N 085°56'27″W) from 25/02/2016 to 31/05/2016. The FIRR uses an array of uncooled microbolometers to measure radiance in 9 spectral channels spanning from 8 - 50 μm. The emission of the atmosphere in this spectral region is extremely sensitive to its WV content and the effective diameter of TIC ice crystals. By comparing these measurements with the E-AERI, a Fourier transform interferometer which serves as a reference, and a radiative transfers model , we aim to assess the radiative accuracy of this new technology as well as its sensitivity to the state of the atmosphere. Results shows that the in situ radiometric accuracy of the FIRR

  17. Far-infrared properties of cluster galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bicay, M. D.; Giovanelli, R.

    1987-01-01

    Far-infrared properties are derived for a sample of over 200 galaxies in seven clusters: A262, Cancer, A1367, A1656 (Coma), A2147, A2151 (Hercules), and Pegasus. The IR-selected sample consists almost entirely of IR normal galaxies, with Log of L(FIR) = 9.79 solar luminosities, Log of L(FIR)/L(B) = 0,79, and Log of S(100 microns)/S(60 microns) = 0.42. None of the sample galaxies has Log of L(FIR) greater than 11.0 solar luminosities, and only one has a FIR-to-blue luminosity ratio greater than 10. No significant differences are found in the FIR properties of HI-deficient and HI-normal cluster galaxies.

  18. A Study of the Radio Continuum Far Infrared Correlation at Small Scales in the Galaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez-Martinez, Monica I.; Allen, R. J.; Wiklind, T.; Loinard, L.

    2006-12-01

    We present a study of the behavior of the Radio Continuum (RC) Far Infrared (FIR) correlation on scales corresponding to the size of small molecular clouds. This was done by comparing the spatial distribution of RC emission and FIR emission from a sample of several regions, distributed within the range 79 ≤ l ≤ 174 in the Galaxy. We have examined the 408 and 1420 MHz mosaic images of the sample, from the Canadian Galactic Plane Survey (CGPS), which later were compared with images at 60 and 100 μm. Preliminary results suggest that the RC -FIR correlation still holds at small scales, since a good qualitative correlation between RC and FIR emission is found. The physical process involved that may cause such correlation will be discussed as well as the nature of the RC emission. This research makes use of data from the Canadian Galactic Plane Survey.

  19. Characterizing Far-infrared Laser Emissions and the Measurement of Their Frequencies

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Michael; Zink, Lyndon R.

    2015-01-01

    The generation and subsequent measurement of far-infrared radiation has found numerous applications in high-resolution spectroscopy, radio astronomy, and Terahertz imaging. For about 45 years, the generation of coherent, far-infrared radiation has been accomplished using the optically pumped molecular laser. Once far-infrared laser radiation is detected, the frequencies of these laser emissions are measured using a three-laser heterodyne technique. With this technique, the unknown frequency from the optically pumped molecular laser is mixed with the difference frequency between two stabilized, infrared reference frequencies. These reference frequencies are generated by independent carbon dioxide lasers, each stabilized using the fluorescence signal from an external, low pressure reference cell. The resulting beat between the known and unknown laser frequencies is monitored by a metal-insulator-metal point contact diode detector whose output is observed on a spectrum analyzer. The beat frequency between these laser emissions is subsequently measured and combined with the known reference frequencies to extrapolate the unknown far-infrared laser frequency. The resulting one-sigma fractional uncertainty for laser frequencies measured with this technique is ± 5 parts in 107. Accurately determining the frequency of far-infrared laser emissions is critical as they are often used as a reference for other measurements, as in the high-resolution spectroscopic investigations of free radicals using laser magnetic resonance. As part of this investigation, difluoromethane, CH2F2, was used as the far-infrared laser medium. In all, eight far-infrared laser frequencies were measured for the first time with frequencies ranging from 0.359 to 1.273 THz. Three of these laser emissions were discovered during this investigation and are reported with their optimal operating pressure, polarization with respect to the CO2 pump laser, and strength. PMID:26709957

  20. Characterizing Far-infrared Laser Emissions and the Measurement of Their Frequencies.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Michael; Zink, Lyndon R

    2015-12-18

    The generation and subsequent measurement of far-infrared radiation has found numerous applications in high-resolution spectroscopy, radio astronomy, and Terahertz imaging. For about 45 years, the generation of coherent, far-infrared radiation has been accomplished using the optically pumped molecular laser. Once far-infrared laser radiation is detected, the frequencies of these laser emissions are measured using a three-laser heterodyne technique. With this technique, the unknown frequency from the optically pumped molecular laser is mixed with the difference frequency between two stabilized, infrared reference frequencies. These reference frequencies are generated by independent carbon dioxide lasers, each stabilized using the fluorescence signal from an external, low pressure reference cell. The resulting beat between the known and unknown laser frequencies is monitored by a metal-insulator-metal point contact diode detector whose output is observed on a spectrum analyzer. The beat frequency between these laser emissions is subsequently measured and combined with the known reference frequencies to extrapolate the unknown far-infrared laser frequency. The resulting one-sigma fractional uncertainty for laser frequencies measured with this technique is ± 5 parts in 10(7). Accurately determining the frequency of far-infrared laser emissions is critical as they are often used as a reference for other measurements, as in the high-resolution spectroscopic investigations of free radicals using laser magnetic resonance. As part of this investigation, difluoromethane, CH2F2, was used as the far-infrared laser medium. In all, eight far-infrared laser frequencies were measured for the first time with frequencies ranging from 0.359 to 1.273 THz. Three of these laser emissions were discovered during this investigation and are reported with their optimal operating pressure, polarization with respect to the CO2 pump laser, and strength.

  1. Far-infrared surface emissivity and climate.

    PubMed

    Feldman, Daniel R; Collins, William D; Pincus, Robert; Huang, Xianglei; Chen, Xiuhong

    2014-11-18

    Presently, there are no global measurement constraints on the surface emissivity at wavelengths longer than 15 μm, even though this surface property in this far-IR region has a direct impact on the outgoing longwave radiation (OLR) and infrared cooling rates where the column precipitable water vapor (PWV) is less than 1 mm. Such dry conditions are common for high-altitude and high-latitude locations, with the potential for modeled climate to be impacted by uncertain surface characteristics. This paper explores the sensitivity of instantaneous OLR and cooling rates to changes in far-IR surface emissivity and how this unconstrained property impacts climate model projections. At high latitudes and altitudes, a 0.05 change in emissivity due to mineralogy and snow grain size can cause a 1.8-2.0 W m(-2) difference in the instantaneous clear-sky OLR. A variety of radiative transfer techniques have been used to model the far-IR spectral emissivities of surface types defined by the International Geosphere-Biosphere Program. Incorporating these far-IR surface emissivities into the Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) 8.5 scenario of the Community Earth System Model leads to discernible changes in the spatial patterns of surface temperature, OLR, and frozen surface extent. The model results differ at high latitudes by as much as 2°K, 10 W m(-2), and 15%, respectively, after only 25 y of integration. Additionally, the calculated difference in far-IR emissivity between ocean and sea ice of between 0.1 and 0.2, suggests the potential for a far-IR positive feedback for polar climate change.

  2. Far-infrared surface emissivity and climate

    SciTech Connect

    Feldman, Daniel R.; Collins, William D.; Pincus, Robert

    Presently, there are no global measurement constraints on the surface emissivity at wavelengths longer than 15 μm, even though this surface property in this far-IR region has a direct impact on the outgoing longwave radiation (OLR) and infrared cooling rates where the column precipitable water vapor (PWV) is less than 1 mm. Such dry conditions are common for high-altitude and high-latitude locations, with the potential for modeled climate to be impacted by uncertain surface characteristics. This paper explores the sensitivity of instantaneous OLR and cooling rates to changes in far-IR surface emissivity and how this unconstrained property impacts climate modelmore » projections. At high latitudes and altitudes, a 0.05 change in emissivity due to mineralogy and snow grain size can cause a 1.8–2.0 W m⁻² difference in the instantaneous clear-sky OLR. A variety of radiative transfer techniques have been used to model the far-IR spectral emissivities of surface types defined by the International Geosphere-Biosphere Program. Incorporating these far-IR surface emissivities into the Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) 8.5 scenario of the Community Earth System Model leads to discernible changes in the spatial patterns of surface temperature, OLR, and frozen surface extent. The model results differ at high latitudes by as much as 2°K, 10 W m⁻², and 15%, respectively, after only 25 y of integration. The calculated difference in far-IR emissivity between ocean and sea ice of between 0.1 and 0.2, suggests the potential for a far-IR positive feedback for polar climate change.« less

  3. Far-infrared surface emissivity and climate

    PubMed Central

    Feldman, Daniel R.; Collins, William D.; Pincus, Robert; Huang, Xianglei; Chen, Xiuhong

    2014-01-01

    Presently, there are no global measurement constraints on the surface emissivity at wavelengths longer than 15 μm, even though this surface property in this far-IR region has a direct impact on the outgoing longwave radiation (OLR) and infrared cooling rates where the column precipitable water vapor (PWV) is less than 1 mm. Such dry conditions are common for high-altitude and high-latitude locations, with the potential for modeled climate to be impacted by uncertain surface characteristics. This paper explores the sensitivity of instantaneous OLR and cooling rates to changes in far-IR surface emissivity and how this unconstrained property impacts climate model projections. At high latitudes and altitudes, a 0.05 change in emissivity due to mineralogy and snow grain size can cause a 1.8–2.0 W m−2 difference in the instantaneous clear-sky OLR. A variety of radiative transfer techniques have been used to model the far-IR spectral emissivities of surface types defined by the International Geosphere-Biosphere Program. Incorporating these far-IR surface emissivities into the Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) 8.5 scenario of the Community Earth System Model leads to discernible changes in the spatial patterns of surface temperature, OLR, and frozen surface extent. The model results differ at high latitudes by as much as 2°K, 10 W m−2, and 15%, respectively, after only 25 y of integration. Additionally, the calculated difference in far-IR emissivity between ocean and sea ice of between 0.1 and 0.2, suggests the potential for a far-IR positive feedback for polar climate change. PMID:25368189

  4. Far-infrared surface emissivity and climate

    DOE PAGES

    Feldman, Daniel R.; Collins, William D.; Pincus, Robert; ...

    2014-11-03

    Presently, there are no global measurement constraints on the surface emissivity at wavelengths longer than 15 μm, even though this surface property in this far-IR region has a direct impact on the outgoing longwave radiation (OLR) and infrared cooling rates where the column precipitable water vapor (PWV) is less than 1 mm. Such dry conditions are common for high-altitude and high-latitude locations, with the potential for modeled climate to be impacted by uncertain surface characteristics. This paper explores the sensitivity of instantaneous OLR and cooling rates to changes in far-IR surface emissivity and how this unconstrained property impacts climate modelmore » projections. At high latitudes and altitudes, a 0.05 change in emissivity due to mineralogy and snow grain size can cause a 1.8–2.0 W m⁻² difference in the instantaneous clear-sky OLR. A variety of radiative transfer techniques have been used to model the far-IR spectral emissivities of surface types defined by the International Geosphere-Biosphere Program. Incorporating these far-IR surface emissivities into the Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) 8.5 scenario of the Community Earth System Model leads to discernible changes in the spatial patterns of surface temperature, OLR, and frozen surface extent. The model results differ at high latitudes by as much as 2°K, 10 W m⁻², and 15%, respectively, after only 25 y of integration. The calculated difference in far-IR emissivity between ocean and sea ice of between 0.1 and 0.2, suggests the potential for a far-IR positive feedback for polar climate change.« less

  5. Far-Infrared Line Emission from High Redshift Quasars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benford, D. J.; Cox, P.; Hunter, T. R.; Malhotra, S.; Phillips, T. G.; Yun, M. S.

    2002-01-01

    Recent millimeter and submillimeter detections of line emission in high redshift objects have yielded new information and constraints on star formation at early epochs. Only CO transitions and atomic carbon transitions have been detected from these objects, yet bright far-infrared lines such as C+ at 158 microns and N+ at 205 microns should be fairly readily detectable when redshifted into a submillimeter atmospheric window. We have obtained upper limits for C+ emission &om two high redshift quasars, BR1202-0725 at z=4.69 and BRI1335-0415 at z=4.41. These limits show that the ratio of the C+ line luminosity to the total far-infrared luminosity is less than 0.0l%, ten times smaller than has been observed locally. Additionally, we have searched for emission in the N+ 205 micron line from the Cloverleaf quasar, H1413+117, and detected emission in CO J=7-6. The N+ emission is found to be below the amount predicted based on comparison to the only previous detection of this line, in the starburst galaxy M82.

  6. The Far Infrared Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harries, John; Carli, Bruno; Rizzi, Rolando; Serio, Carmine; Mlynczak, Martin G.; Palchetti, Luca; Maestri, T.; Brindley, H.; Masiello, Guido

    2007-01-01

    The paper presents a review of the far infrared (FIR) properties of the Earth's atmosphere, and the role of these properties in climate. These properties have been relatively poorly understood, and it is one of the purposes of this review to demonstrate that, in recent years, we have made great strides in improving this understanding. Seen from space, the Earth is a cool object, with an effective emitting temperature of about 255 K. This contrasts with a global mean surface temperature of 288 K, and is due primarily to strong absorption of outgoing longwave energy by water vapour, carbon dioxide and clouds (especially ice). A large fraction of this absorption occurs in the FIR, and so the Earth is effectively a FIR planet. The FIR is important in a number of key climate processes, for example the water vapour and cloud feedbacks (especially ice clouds). The FIR is also a spectral region which can be used to remotely sense and retrieve atmospheric composition in the presence of ice clouds. Recent developments in instrumentation have allowed progress in each of these areas, which are described, and proposals for a spaceborne FIR instrument are being formulated. It is timely to review the FIR properties of the clear and cloudy atmosphere, the role of FIR processes in climate, and its use in observing our planet from space.

  7. HTS Fabry-Perot resonators for the far infrared

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keller, Philipp; Prenninger, Martin; Pechen, Evgeny V.; Renk, Karl F.

    1996-06-01

    We report on far infrared (FIR) Fabry-Perot resonators (FPR) with high temperature superconductor (HTS) thin films as mirrors. For the fabrication of FPR we use two parallel MgO plates covered with YBa2Cu3O7-delta thin films on adjacent sides. We have measured the far-infrared transmissivity at 10 K with a Fourier transform infrared spectrometer. Very sharp resonances can be observed for frequencies below 6 THz where the MgO is transparent. The finesse (width of the first order resonance) is comparable to the FPR with metallic meshes as reflectors that are applied in the FIR spectroscopy and astronomy. We have also shown that thin films of gold are not adequate substitute to HTS thin films and not suitable for the fabrication of high-quality FPR due to the ohmic losses.

  8. Far-red to near infrared emission and scattering spectroscopy for biomedical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Gang

    2001-06-01

    The thesis investigates the far-red and near infrared (NIR) spectral region from biomedical tissue samples for monitoring the state of tissues. The NIR emission wing intensity is weak in comparison to the emission in the visible spectral region. The wing emission from biomedical samples has revealed meaningful information about the state of the tissues. A model is presented to explain the shape of the spectral wing based on a continuum of energy levels. The wing can be used to classify different kinds of tissues; especially it can be used to differentiate cancer part from normal human breast tissues. The research work of the far-red emission from thermal damaged tissue samples shows that the emission intensity in this spectral region is proportional to the extent of the thermal damage of the tissue. Near infrared spectral absorption method is used to investigate blood hemodynamics (perfusion and oxygenation) in brain during sleep-wake transition. The result of the research demonstrates that the continuous wave (CW) type near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) device can be used to investigate brain blood perfusion and oxygenation with a similar precision with frequency domain (FD) type device. The human subject sleep and wake transition, has been monitored by CW type NIRS instrument with traditional electroencephalograph (EEG) method. Parallel change in oxy-Hb and deoxy-Hb is a discrete event that occurs in the transition from both sleep to wakefulness and wakefulness to sleep. These hemodynamic switches are generally about few seconds delayed from the human decided transition point between sleep and wake on the polygraph EEG recording paper. The combination of NIRS and EEG methods monitor the brain activity, gives more information about the brain activity. The sleep apnea investigation was associated with recurrent apneas, insufficient nasal continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) and the different response of the peripheral and central compartments to breathing

  9. Local Volume Hi Survey: the far-infrared radio correlation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, Li; Koribalski, Bärbel S.; Wang, Jing; Ho, Luis C.; Staveley-Smith, Lister

    2018-06-01

    In this paper we measure the far-infrared (FIR) and radio flux densities of a sample of 82 local gas-rich galaxies, including 70 "dwarf" galaxies (M* < 109 M⊙), from the Local Volume HI Survey (LVHIS), which is close to volume limited. It is found that LVHIS galaxies hold a tight linear FIR-radio correlation (FRC) over four orders of magnitude (F_1.4GHz ∝ F_FIR^{1.00± 0.08}). However, for detected galaxies only, a trend of larger FIR-to-radio ratio with decreasing flux density is observed. We estimate the star formation rate by combining UV and mid-IR data using empirical calibration. It is confirmed that both FIR and radio emission are strongly connected with star formation but with significant non-linearity. Dwarf galaxies are found radiation deficient in both bands, when normalized by star formation rate. It urges a "conspiracy" to keep the FIR-to-radio ratio generally constant. By using partial correlation coefficient in Pearson definition, we identify the key galaxy properties associated with the FIR and radio deficiency. Some major factors, such as stellar mass surface density, will cancel out when taking the ratio between FIR and radio fluxes. The remaining factors, such as HI-to-stellar mass ratio and galaxy size, are expected to cancel each other due to the distribution of galaxies in the parameter space. Such cancellation is probably responsible for the "conspiracy" to keep the FRC alive.

  10. Balloon measurements of stratospheric HCl and HF by far infrared emission spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shibasaki, Kazuo; Chance, Kelly V.; Johnson, David G.; Jucks, Kenneth W.; Traub, Wesley A.

    1994-01-01

    We have analyzed atmospheric thermal emission spectra obtained with the balloon-borne FIRS-2 far infrared Fourier transform spectrometer during balloon flights from Palestine, Texas on May 12-13, 1988 and from Fort Sumner, New Mexico on September 26-27, 1989 and on July 4-5, 1990. Seven and two pure rotational transition lines in 100-205 cm(exp -1) range are analyzed for deriving vertical profiles of stratospheric HCl and HF, respectively. We obtain both the daytime and nighttime average vertical profiles from 15 to 50 km. We compare these profiles with the ones obtained in June, 1983 with the first version of FIRS spectrometer during the Balloon Intercomparison Campaign (BIC-2). BIC-2 results were revised to be consistent with the present analysis which uses the latest spectral parameters. According to our comparison results no increase is recognized for HCl but about 3 percent per year increase for HF from 1983 to 1990, assuming a linear trend. These annual increase rates are smaller than those reported by other groups. Recently Rinsland et al. (1991) and Wallace and Livingston (1991) reported long term behavior of total HCl and HF observed on Kit Peak between 1977 and 1990. As Kit Peak is located near both balloon launching sites, Palestine and Fort Sumner, we think our results are favorably comparable with theirs. Comparison results with ours and ground-based measurements will be presented and discussed.

  11. Added value of far-infrared radiometry for remote sensing of ice clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Libois, Quentin; Blanchet, Jean-Pierre

    2017-06-01

    Several cloud retrieval algorithms based on satellite observations in the infrared have been developed in the last decades. However, these observations only cover the midinfrared (MIR, λ < 15 μm) part of the spectrum, and none are available in the far-infrared (FIR, λ≥ 15 μm). Using the optimal estimation method, we show that adding a few FIR channels to existing spaceborne radiometers would significantly improve their ability to retrieve ice cloud radiative properties. For clouds encountered in the polar regions and the upper troposphere, where the atmosphere is sufficiently transparent in the FIR, using FIR channels would reduce by more than 50% the uncertainties on retrieved values of optical thickness, effective particle diameter, and cloud top altitude. Notably, this would extend the range of applicability of current retrieval methods to the polar regions and to clouds with large optical thickness, where MIR algorithms perform poorly. The high performance of solar reflection-based algorithms would thus be reached in nighttime conditions. Since the sensitivity of ice cloud thermal emission to effective particle diameter is approximately 5 times larger in the FIR than in the MIR, using FIR observations is a promising venue for studying ice cloud microphysics and precipitation processes. This is highly relevant for cirrus clouds and convective towers. This is also essential to study precipitation in the driest regions of the atmosphere, where strong feedbacks are at play between clouds and water vapor. The deployment in the near future of a FIR spaceborne radiometer is technologically feasible and should be strongly supported.

  12. High Resolution Frequency Measurements of Far-Infrared Laser Lines

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-04-01

    1 High Resolution Frequency Measurements of Far-Infrared Laser Lines Elizabeth J. Ehasz, Thomas M. Goyette, Robert H. Giles and William E. Nixon...Abstract—The frequency of four previously reported far- infrared laser lines have been measured to an accuracy of 100 kHz. These laser lines were measured ... frequencies measured here and the listed frequencies for these laser lines ranged from 59 MHz to 3.9 GHz. Index Terms—FIR Laser, Gas Laser, Molecular

  13. Active Galactic Nuclei, Host Star Formation, and the Far Infrared

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Draper, Aden R.; Ballantyne, D. R.

    2011-05-01

    Telescopes like Herschel and the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) are creating new opportunities to study sources in the far infrared (FIR), a wavelength region dominated by cold dust emission. Probing cold dust in active galaxies allows for study of the star formation history of active galactic nuclei (AGN) hosts. The FIR is also an important spectral region for observing AGN which are heavily enshrouded by dust, such as Compton thick (CT) AGN. By using information from deep X-ray surveys and cosmic X-ray background synthesis models, we compute Cloudy photoionization simulations which are used to predict the spectral energy distribution (SED) of AGN in the FIR. Expected differential number counts of AGN and their host galaxies are calculated in the Herschel bands. The expected contribution of AGN and their hosts to the cosmic infrared background (CIRB) is also computed. Multiple star formation scenarios are investigated using a modified blackbody star formation SED. It is found that FIR observations at 350 and 500 um are an excellent tool in determining the star formation history of AGN hosts. Additionally, the AGN contribution to the CIRB can be used to determine whether star formation in AGN hosts evolves differently than in normal galaxies. AGN and host differential number counts are dominated by CT AGN in the Herschel-SPIRE bands. Therefore, X-ray stacking of bright SPIRE sources is likely to disclose a large fraction of the CT AGN population.

  14. Design of a Far-Infrared Spectrometer for Atmospheric Thermal Emission Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, David G.

    2004-01-01

    Global measurements of far infrared emission from the upper troposphere are required to test models of cloud radiative forcing, water vapor continuum emission, and cooling rates. Spectra with adequate resolution can also be used for retrieving atmospheric temperature and humidity profiles, and yet there are few spectrally resolved measurements of outgoing longwave flux at wavelengths longer than 16 m. It has been difficult to make measurements in the far infrared due to the need for liquid-helium cooled detectors and large optics to achieve adequate sensitivity and bandwidth. We review design considerations for infrared Fourier transform spectrometers, including the dependence of system performance on basic system parameters, and discuss the prospects for achieving useful sensitivity from a satellite platform with a lightweight spectrometer using uncooled detectors.

  15. A HIRES analysis of the FIR emission of supernova remnants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Zhong

    1994-01-01

    The high resolution (HiRes) algorithm has been used to analyze the far infrared emission of shocked gas and dust in supernova remnants. In the case of supernova remnant IC 443, we find a very good match between the resolved features in the deconvolved images and the emissions of shocked gas mapped in other wavelengths (lines of H2, CO, HCO+, and HI). Dust emission is also found to be surrounding hot bubbles of supernova remnants which are seen in soft X-ray maps. Optical spectroscopy on the emission of the shocked gas suggests a close correlation between the FIR color and local shock speed, which is a strong function of the ambient (preshock) gas density. These provide a potentially effective way to identify regions of strong shock interaction, and thus facilitate studies of kinematics and energetics in the interstellar medium.

  16. Far Infrared Synchrotron Near-Field Nanoimaging and Nanospectroscopy

    DOE PAGES

    Khatib, Omar; Bechtel, Hans A.; Martin, Michael C.; ...

    2018-05-11

    Here, scattering scanning near-field optical microscopy (s-SNOM) has emerged as a powerful imaging and spectroscopic tool for investigating nanoscale heterogeneities in biology, quantum matter, and electronic and photonic devices. However, many materials are defined by a wide range of fundamental molecular and quantum states at far-infrared (FIR) resonant frequencies currently not accessible by s-SNOM. Here we show ultrabroadband FIR s-SNOM nanoimaging and spectroscopy by combining synchrotron infrared radiation with a novel fast and low-noise copper-doped germanium (Ge:Cu) photoconductive detector. This approach of FIR synchrotron infrared nanospectroscopy (SINS) extends the wavelength range of s-SNOM to 31 μm (320 cm –1, 9.7more » THz), exceeding conventional limits by an octave to lower energies. We demonstrate this new nanospectroscopic window by measuring elementary excitations of exemplary functional materials, including surface phonon polariton waves and optical phonons in oxides and layered ultrathin van der Waals materials, skeletal and conformational vibrations in molecular systems, and the highly tunable plasmonic response of graphene.« less

  17. Far Infrared Synchrotron Near-Field Nanoimaging and Nanospectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Khatib, Omar; Bechtel, Hans A.; Martin, Michael C.

    Here, scattering scanning near-field optical microscopy (s-SNOM) has emerged as a powerful imaging and spectroscopic tool for investigating nanoscale heterogeneities in biology, quantum matter, and electronic and photonic devices. However, many materials are defined by a wide range of fundamental molecular and quantum states at far-infrared (FIR) resonant frequencies currently not accessible by s-SNOM. Here we show ultrabroadband FIR s-SNOM nanoimaging and spectroscopy by combining synchrotron infrared radiation with a novel fast and low-noise copper-doped germanium (Ge:Cu) photoconductive detector. This approach of FIR synchrotron infrared nanospectroscopy (SINS) extends the wavelength range of s-SNOM to 31 μm (320 cm –1, 9.7more » THz), exceeding conventional limits by an octave to lower energies. We demonstrate this new nanospectroscopic window by measuring elementary excitations of exemplary functional materials, including surface phonon polariton waves and optical phonons in oxides and layered ultrathin van der Waals materials, skeletal and conformational vibrations in molecular systems, and the highly tunable plasmonic response of graphene.« less

  18. Efficacy and safety of far infrared radiation in lymphedema treatment: clinical evaluation and laboratory analysis.

    PubMed

    Li, Ke; Zhang, Zheng; Liu, Ning Fei; Feng, Shao Qing; Tong, Yun; Zhang, Ju Fang; Constantinides, Joannis; Lazzeri, Davide; Grassetti, Luca; Nicoli, Fabio; Zhang, Yi Xin

    2017-04-01

    Swelling is the most common symptom of extremities lymphedema. Clinical evaluation and laboratory analysis were conducted after far infrared radiation (FIR) treatment on the main four components of lymphedema: fluid, fat, protein, and hyaluronan. Far infrared radiation is a kind of hyperthermia therapy with several and additional benefits as well as promoting microcirculation flow and improving collateral lymph circumfluence. Although FIR therapy has been applied for several years on thousands of lymphedema patients, there are still few studies that have reported the biological effects of FIR on lymphatic tissue. In this research, we investigate the effects of far infrared rays on the major components of lymphatic tissue. Then, we explore the effectiveness and safety of FIR as a promising treatment modality of lymphedema. A total of 32 patients affected by lymphedema in stage II and III were treated between January 2015 and January 2016 at our department. After therapy, a significant decrease of limb circumference measurements was noted and improving of quality of life was registered. Laboratory examination showed the treatment can also decrease the deposition of fluid, fat, hyaluronan, and protein, improving the swelling condition. We believe FIR treatment could be considered as both an alternative monotherapy and a useful adjunctive to the conservative or surgical lymphedema procedures. Furthermore, the real and significant biological effects of FIR represent possible future applications in wide range of the medical field.

  19. Effect of Tourmaline-Doped on the Far Infrared Emission of Iron Ore Tailings Ceramics.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jie; Meng, Junping; Liang, Jinsheng; Zhang, Hongchen; Gu, Xiaoyang

    2016-04-01

    Iron ore tailings as secondary resources have been of great importance to many countries in the world. Their compositions are similar to that of infrared emission ceramics, but there are few reports about it. In addition, tourmaline has high infrared emission properties due to its unique structure. With the purpose of expanding functional utilization of iron ore tailings, as well as reducing the production cost of far infrared ceramics, a new kind of far infrared emission ceramics was prepared by using iron ore tailings, calcium carbonate, silica, and natural tourmaline. The ceramics powders were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscope, X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy, respectively. The results show that after being sintered at 1065 °C, the percentage of pseudobrookite and lattice strain of samples increased with increasing the elbaite content. Furthermore, the added tourmaline was conducive to the densification sintering of ceramics. The appearance of Li-O vibration at 734.73 cm-1, as well as the strengthened Fe-O vibration at 987.68 cm-1 were attributed to the formation of Li0.375Fe1.23Ti1.4O5 solid solution, which led the average far infrared emissivity of ceramics increase from 0.861 to 0.906 within 8-14 µm.

  20. Tunable far infrared studies of molecular parameters in support of stratospheric measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chance, Kelly V.; Evenson, K. M.; Park, K.; Radostitz, J. V.; Jennings, D. A.; Nolt, I. G.; Vanek, M. D.

    1991-01-01

    Lab studies were made in support of far infrared spectroscopy of the stratosphere using the Tunable Far InfraRed (TuFIR) method of ultrahigh resolution spectroscopy and, more recently, spectroscopic and retrieval calculations performed in support of satellite-based atmospheric measurement programs: the Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME), and the SCanning Imaging Absorption spectroMeter for Atmospheric CHartographY (SCIAMACHY).

  1. Added Value of Far-Infrared Radiometry for Ice Cloud Remote Sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Libois, Q.; Blanchet, J. P.; Ivanescu, L.; S Pelletier, L.; Laurence, C.

    2017-12-01

    Several cloud retrieval algorithms based on satellite observations in the infrared have been developed in the last decades. However, most of these observations only cover the midinfrared (MIR, λ < 15 μm) part of the spectrum, and none are available in the far-infrared (FIR, λ ≥ 15 μm). Recent developments in FIR sensors technology, though, now make it possible to consider spaceborne remote sensing in the FIR. Here we show that adding a few FIR channels with realistic radiometric performances to existing spaceborne narrowband radiometers would significantly improve their ability to retrieve ice cloud radiative properties. For clouds encountered in the polar regions and the upper troposphere, where the atmosphere above clouds is sufficiently transparent in the FIR, using FIR channels would reduce by more than 50% the uncertainties on retrieved values of optical thickness, effective particle diameter, and cloud top altitude. This would somehow extend the range of applicability of current infrared retrieval methods to the polar regions and to clouds with large optical thickness, where MIR algorithms perform poorly. The high performance of solar reflection-based algorithms would thus be reached in nighttime conditions. Using FIR observations is a promising venue for studying ice cloud microphysics and precipitation processes, which is highly relevant for cirrus clouds and convective towers, and for investigating the water cycle in the driest regions of the atmosphere.

  2. Far infrared emitting plaster in knee osteoarthritis: a single blinded, randomised clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Bagnato, G L; Miceli, G; Atteritano, M; Marino, N; Bagnato, G F

    2012-12-20

    Therapeutic approach of osteoarthritis (OA) still represents a challenge in clinical practice. The aim of the study is to assess the efficacy of far infrared (FIR) emitting plaster in the treatment of knee OA. This is a randomized, single-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel group with equal randomization (1:1), clinical trial. Patients affected by knee OA were randomly allocated to 1 of 2 treatment groups, either placebo plaster or far infrared emitting plaster. Primary endpoint was to assess pain improvement from baseline to 1 months posttreatment in the visual analogue score (VAS). Secondary end point was to evaluate pain score after 1 week of treatment and to compare ultrasonographic findings after 1 month of treatment. Each group comprised 30 (in the FIR group) and 30 (in the placebo group) completers. VAS scores of the placebo and the FIR group were significantly lower at 1 week post-treatment (95% confidence interval CI = -1.14 to 0.31; P<0.05) and at the end of the study (95% confidence interval CI = -2.57 to -0.89; P=0.01). Effect size was -0.43 after one week of treatment and -1.38 after one month of treatment. The mean decrease in VAS values was ≥ 20% in the FIR group. The number of patients from the FIR group with joint effusion was lower (40%) compared to baseline (80%), while no changes were seen among the placebo group. Far infrared emitting plaster could be considered an effective non-pharmacological choice for the therapeutic management of knee OA.

  3. Properties and Expected Number Counts of Active Galactic Nuclei and Their Hosts in the Far-infrared

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Draper, A. R.; Ballantyne, D. R.

    2011-03-01

    Telescopes like Herschel and the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) are creating new opportunities to study sources in the far-infrared (FIR), a wavelength region dominated by cold dust emission. Probing cold dust in active galaxies allows for study of the star formation history of active galactic nucleus (AGN) hosts. The FIR is also an important spectral region for observing AGNs which are heavily enshrouded by dust, such as Compton thick (CT) AGNs. By using information from deep X-ray surveys and cosmic X-ray background synthesis models, we compute Cloudy photoionization simulations which are used to predict the spectral energy distribution (SED) of AGNs in the FIR. Expected differential number counts of AGNs and their host galaxies are calculated in the Herschel bands. The expected contribution of AGNs and their hosts to the cosmic infrared background (CIRB) and the infrared luminosity density are also computed. Multiple star formation scenarios are investigated using a modified blackbody star formation SED. It is found that FIR observations at ~500 μm are an excellent tool in determining the star formation history of AGN hosts. Additionally, the AGN contribution to the CIRB can be used to determine whether star formation in AGN hosts evolves differently than in normal galaxies. The contribution of CT AGNs to the bright end differential number counts and to the bright source infrared luminosity density is a good test of AGN evolution models where quasars are triggered by major mergers.

  4. Observations of CO isotopic emission and the far-infrared continuum of Centaurus A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eckart, A.; Cameron, M.; Rothermel, H.; Wild, W.; Zinnecker, H.; Olberg, M.; Rydbeck, G.; Wiklind, T.

    1990-01-01

    Researchers present maps of the CO-12(1=0) line and the 100 micron and 50 micron far-infrared emission of Centaurus A, as well as measurements of the CO-12(2-1), CO-13(1-0), and the C-18O(1-0) lines at selected positions. The observations were taken with the Swedish-ESO Submillimeter Telescope (SEST) and the CPC instrument on board the Infrared Astronomy Satellite (IRAS). The millimeter data show that the bulk molecular material is closely associated with the dust lane and contained in a disk of about 180 seconds diameter and a total molecular mass of about 2 x 10 to the 8th power solar mass. The total molecular mass of the disk and bulge is of the order of 3 x 10 to the 8th power solar mass. The molecular gas in the nucleus is warm with a kinetic temperature of the order of 15 K and a number density of 10 to the 3rd power to 3 x 10 to the 4th power cm(-3). Absorption features in the CO-12 and CO-13 lines against the nuclear continuum emission indicate that the properties of giant molecular clouds are comparable to those of the Galaxy. The far-infrared data show that to a good approximation the dust temperature is constant across the dust lane at a value of about 42 K. The ratio between the far-infrared luminosity and the total molecular mass is 18 solar luminosity/solar mass and close to the mean value obtained for isolated galaxies. A comparison of the CO-12(1-0) and the far-infrared data indicates that a considerable amount of the far-infrared emission is not intimately associated with massive star formation.

  5. ALMA WILL DETERMINE THE SPECTROSCOPIC REDSHIFT z > 8 WITH FIR [O III] EMISSION LINES

    SciTech Connect

    Inoue, A. K.; Shimizu, I.; Tamura, Y.

    We investigate the potential use of nebular emission lines in the rest-frame far-infrared (FIR) for determining spectroscopic redshift of z > 8 galaxies with the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA). After making a line emissivity model as a function of metallicity, especially for the [O III] 88 μm line which is likely to be the strongest FIR line from H II regions, we predict the line fluxes from high-z galaxies based on a cosmological hydrodynamics simulation of galaxy formation. Since the metallicity of galaxies reaches at ∼0.2 Z {sub ☉} even at z > 8 in our simulation, we expectmore » the [O III] 88 μm line as strong as 1.3 mJy for 27 AB objects, which is detectable at a high significance by <1 hr integration with ALMA. Therefore, the [O III] 88 μm line would be the best tool to confirm the spectroscopic redshifts beyond z = 8.« less

  6. Generation of tunable laser sidebands in the far-infrared region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farhoomand, J.; Frerking, M. A.; Pickett, H. M.; Blake, G. A.

    1985-01-01

    In recent years, several techniques have been developed for the generation of tunable coherent radiation at submillimeter and far-infrared (FIR) wavelengths. The harmonic generation of conventional microwave sources has made it possible to produce spectrometers capable of continuous operation to above 1000 GHz. However, the sensitivity of such instruments drops rapidly with frequency. For this reason, a great deal of attention is given to laser-based methods, which could cover the entire FIR region. Tunable FIR radiation (approximately 100 nW) has been produced by mixing FIR molecular lasers and conventional microwave sources in both open and closed mixer mounts. The present investigation is concerned with improvements in this approach. These improvements provide approximately thirty times more output power than previous results.

  7. Ice clouds optical properties in the Far Infrared from the ECOWAR-COBRA Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rizzi, Rolando; Tosi, Ennio

    ECOWAR-COBRA (Earth COoling by WAter vapouR emission -Campagna di Osservazioni della Banda Rotazionale del vapor d'Acqua) field campaign took place in Italy from 3 to 17 March 2007 with the main goal of studying the scarcely sensed atmospheric emission occurring beyond 17 microns. Instrumentation involved in the campaign included two different Fourier Transforms Spectrometers (FTS) : REFIR-PAD (at Testa Grigia Station, 3500 m a.s.l.) and FTIR-ABB (at Cervinia Station, 1990 m a.s.l.). In this work cloudy sky data have been ana-lyzed. A cloud properties retrieval methodology (RT-RET), based on high spectral resolution measurements in the atmospheric window (800-1000 cm-1), is applied to both FTS sensors. Cloud properties determined from the infrared retrievals are compared with those obtained from Raman lidar taken by the BASIL Lidar system that was operating at Cervinia station. Cloud microphysical and optical properties retrieved by RT-RET are used to perform forward simulations over the entire FTSs measurements spectral interval. Results are compared to FTS data to test the ability of single scattering ice crystals models to reproduce cloudy sky radiances in the Far Infra-Red (FIR) part of the spectrum. New methods to retrieve cloud optical and microphysical properties exploiting high spectral resolution FIR measurements are also investigated.

  8. Recent Advances in Laboratory Infrared Spectroscopy of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons: PAHs in the Far Infrared

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mattioda, Andrew L.; Ricca, Alessandra; Tucker, Jonathan; Boersma, Christiaan; Bauschlicher, Charles, Jr.; Allamandola, Louis J.

    2010-01-01

    Over 25 years of observations and laboratory work have shown that the mid-IR spectra of a majority of astronomical sources are dominated by emission features near 3.3, 6.2, 7.7, and 11.2 microns, which originate in free polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) molecules. PAHs dominate the mid-IR emission from many galactic and extragalactic objects. As such, this material tracks a wide variety of astronomical processes, making this spectrum a powerful probe of the cosmos Apart from bands in the mid-IR, PAHs have bands spanning the Far-IR (FIR) and emission from these FIR features should be present in astronomical sources showing the Mid-IR PAH bands. However, with one exception, the FIR spectral characteristics are known only for a few neutral small PAHs trapped in salt pellets or oils at room temperature, data which is not relevant to astrophysics. Furthermore, since most emitting PAHs responsible for the mid-IR astronomical features are ionized, the absence of any experimental or theoretical PAH ion FIR spectra will make it impossible to correctly interpret the FIR data from these objects. In view of the upcoming Herschel space telescope mission and SOFIA's FIR airborne instrumentation, which will pioneer the FIR region, it is now urgent to obtain PAH FIR spectra. This talk will present an overview recent advances in the laboratory spectroscopy of PAHs, Highlighting the FIR spectroscopy along with some quantum calculations.

  9. Technology Development of Miniaturized Far-Infrared Sources for Biomolecular Spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kono, Junichiro

    2003-01-01

    The objective of this project was to develop a purely solid-state based, thus miniaturized, far-infrared (FIR) (also known as terahertz (THz)) wave source using III-V semiconductor nanostructures for biomolecular detection and sensing. Many biomolecules, such as DNA and proteins, have distinct spectroscopic features in the FIR wavelength range as a result of vibration-rotation-tunneling motions and various inter- and intra-molecule collective motions. Spectroscopic characterization of such molecules requires narrow linewidth, sufficiently high power, tunable (in wavelength), and coherent FIR sources. Unfortunately, the FIR frequency is one of the least technologically developed ranges in the electromagnetic spectrum. Currently available FIR sources based on non-solid state technology are bulky, inefficient, and very often incoherent. In this project we investigated antimonide based compound semiconductor (ABCS) nanostructures as the active medium to generate FIR radiation. The final goal of this project was to demonstrate a semiconductor THz source integrated with a pumping diode laser module to achieve a compact system for biomolecular applications.

  10. Far-infrared laser diagnostics on the HT-6M tokamak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, X.; Lu, H. J.; Guo, Q. L.; Wan, Y. X.; Tong, X. D.

    1995-01-01

    A multichannel far-infrared (FIR) hydrogen cyanide (HCN) laser interferometer was developed to measure plasma electron density profile on the HT-6M tokamak. The structure of the seven-channel FIR laser interferometer is described. The laser source used in the interferometer was a continuous-wave glow discharge HCN laser with a cavity length of 3.4 m and power output of about 100 mW at 337 μm. The detection sensitivity was 1/15 fringe with a temporal resolution of 0.1 ms. Experimental results were measured by the seven-channel FIR HCN laser interferometer with edge Ohmic heating, a pumping limiter, and ion cyclotron resonant heating on the HT-6M tokamak are reported.

  11. The link between IRAS spectra and near-infrared emission features in external galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Desert, F. X.; Dennefeld, M.

    1988-01-01

    The relationship in external galaxies between the presence of the near-infrared (NIR) emission features attributed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) molecules, and the far-infrared (FIR) properties as observed by IRAS, is investigated. It is found that whenever the NIR features are absent in a galaxy, the FIR spectrum displays an enhancement at shorter wavelengths relative to normal galaxies. This enhancement is always associated with a strong activity in the galactic nucleus. Some Seyfert galaxies do not exhibit such an infrared signature and therefore they are probably energetically dominated by star-formation processes. Finally, the importance of hard UV photons and of the hot medium in the narrow line region of active nuclei is emphasized in relation to the survival of the PAH molecules. In this frame, the absence of PAHs in the galactic center could be taken as evidence for the presence of an active nucleus.

  12. Extremely Luminous Far-infrared Sources (ELFS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harwit, Martin; Houck, James R.; Soifer, B. Thomas; Palumbo, Giorgio G. C.

    1987-01-01

    The Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS) survey uncovered a class of Extremely Luminous Far Infrared Sources (ELFS), exhibiting luminosities up to and occasionally exceeding 10 to the 12th power L sub 0. Arguments are presented to show that sources with luminosities L equal to or greater than 3 x 10 to the 10th power L sub 0 may represent gas rich galaxies in collision. The more conventional explanation of these sources as sites of extremely active star formation fails to explain the observed low optical luminosities of ELFS as well as their high infrared excess. In contrast, a collisional model heats gas to a temperature of approx. 10 to the 6th power K where cooling takes place in the extreme ultraviolet. The UV is absorbed by dust and converted into far infrared radiation (FIR) without generation of appreciable optical luminosity. Gas recombination as it cools generates a Lyman alpha photon only once for every two extreme ultraviolet approx. 50eV photons emitted by the 10 to the 6th power gas. That accounts for the high infrared excess. Finally, the model also is able to explain the observed luminosity distribution of ELFS as well as many other traits.

  13. FIR statistics of paired galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sulentic, Jack W.

    1990-01-01

    Much progress has been made in understanding the effects of interaction on galaxies (see reviews in this volume by Heckman and Kennicutt). Evidence for enhanced emission from galaxies in pairs first emerged in the radio (Sulentic 1976) and optical (Larson and Tinsley 1978) domains. Results in the far infrared (FIR) lagged behind until the advent of the Infrared Astronomy Satellite (IRAS). The last five years have seen numerous FIR studies of optical and IR selected samples of interacting galaxies (e.g., Cutri and McAlary 1985; Joseph and Wright 1985; Kennicutt et al. 1987; Haynes and Herter 1988). Despite all of this work, there are still contradictory ideas about the level and, even, the reality of an FIR enhancement in interacting galaxies. Much of the confusion originates in differences between the galaxy samples that were studied (i.e., optical morphology and redshift coverage). Here, the authors report on a study of the FIR detection properties for a large sample of interacting galaxies and a matching control sample. They focus on the distance independent detection fraction (DF) statistics of the sample. The results prove useful in interpreting the previously published work. A clarification of the phenomenology provides valuable clues about the physics of the FIR enhancement in galaxies.

  14. The Far-Infrared Spectrum of Arp 220

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gonzalez-Alfonso, Eduardo; Smith, Howard A.; Fischer, Jacqueline; Cernicharo, Jose

    2004-01-01

    ISO/LWS grating observations of the ultraluminous infrared galaxy Arp 220 shows absorption in molecular lines of OH, H 2 0 , CH, NH, and "3, well as in the [0 I] 63 pm line and emission in the [C 111 158 pm line. We have modeled the continuum and the emission/absorption of all observed features by means of a non-local radiative transfer code. The continuum from 25 to 1300 pm is modeled AS A WARM (106 K) NUCLEAR REGION THAT IS OPTICALLY THICK IN THE FAR-INFRARED, attenuated by an extended region (size 2") that is heated mainly through absorption of nuclear infrared radiation. The molecular absorption in the nuclear region is characterized by high excitation due to the high infrared radiation density. The OH column densities are high toward the nucleus and the extended region (about 2 x 10 sup 17 cm sup-2). The H2O column density is also high toward the nucleus (2 - 10 x 1017 cm-2) and lower in the extended region. The column densities in a halo that accounts for the absorption by the lowest lying levels are similar to what are found in the diffuse clouds toward the star forming regions in the Sgr B2 molecular cloud complex near the Galactic Center. Most notable are the high column densities found for NH and NH3 toward the nucleus, with values of about 1.5 x 10supl6 cmsup-2 and about 3 x 10supl6 cmsup-2, respectively, whereas the NH2 column density is lower than about 2 x 10sup15 cmsup-2. A combination of PDRs in the extended region and hot cores with enhanced H20 photodissociation and a possible shock contribution in the nuclei may explain the relative column densities of OH and H20, whereas the nitrogen chemistry may be strongly affected by cosmic ray ionization. The [C II] 158 pm line is well reproduced by our models and its "deficit" relative to the CII/FIR ratio in normal and starburst galaxies is suggested to be mainly a consequence of the dominant non-PDR component of far- infrared radiation, ALTHOUGH OUR MODELS ALONE CANNOT RULE OUT EXTINCTION EFFECTS IN THE

  15. The Far-Infrared Spectrum of Arp 220

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gonzalez-Alfonso, Eduardo; Smith, Howard A.; Fischer, Jacqueline; Cernicharo, Jose

    2005-01-01

    ISO/LWS grating observations of the ultraluminous infrared galaxy Arp 220 shows absorption in molecular lines of OH, H(sub 2)O, CH, NH, and NH(sub 3), as well as in the [O I] 63 micron line and emission in the [C II] 158 micron line. We have modeled the continuum and the emission/absorption of all observed features by means of a non-local radiative transfer code. The continuum from 25 to 1300 microns is modeled as a warm (106 K) nuclear region that is optically thick in the far-infrared, attenuated by an extended region (size 2") that is heated mainly through absorption of nuclear infrared radiation. The molecular absorption in the nuclear region is characterized by high excitation due to the high infrared radiation density. The OH column densities are high toward the nucleus (2 - 6 x 10(exp 17) cm(exp -2)) and the extended region (approximately 2 x 10(exp 17) cm(exp -2)). The H(sub 2)O column density is also high toward the nucleus (2 - 10 x 10(exp 17) cm(exp -2)) and lower in the extended region. The column densities in a halo that accounts for the absorption by the lowest lying levels are similar to what are found in the diffuse clouds toward the star forming regions in the Sgr B2 molecular cloud complex near the Galactic Center. Most notable are the high column densities found for NH and NH(sub 3) toward the nucleus, with values of approximately 1.5 x 10(exp 16) cm(exp -2) and approximately 3 x 10(exp 16) cm(exp -2), respectively, whereas the NH(sub 2) column density is lower than approximately 2 x 10(exp 15) cm(exp -2). A combination of PDRs in the extended region and hot cores with enhanced H(sub 2)O photodissociation and a possible shock contribution in the nuclei may explain the relative column densities of OH and H(sub 2)O, whereas the nitrogen chemistry may be strongly affected by cosmic ray ionization. The [C II] 158 micron line is well reproduced by our models and its deficit relative to the CII/FIR ratio in normal and starburst galaxies is suggested to

  16. CROSS-CORRELATION OF NEAR- AND FAR-INFRARED BACKGROUND ANISOTROPIES AS TRACED BY SPITZER AND HERSCHEL

    SciTech Connect

    Thacker, Cameron; Gong, Yan; Cooray, Asantha

    We present the cross-correlation between the far-infrared (far-IR) background fluctuations as measured with the Herschel Space Observatory at 250, 350, and 500 μm and the near-infrared (near-IR) background fluctuations with the Spitzer Space Telescope at 3.6 and 4.5 μm. The cross-correlation between the FIR and NIR background anisotropies is detected such that the correlation coefficient at a few to 10 arcminute angular scale decreases from 0.3 to 0.1 when the FIR wavelength increases from 250 to 500 μm. We model the cross-correlation using a halo model with three components: (a) FIR bright or dusty star-forming galaxies below the masking depth inmore » Herschel maps, (b) NIR faint galaxies below the masking depth, and (c) intra-halo light (IHL), or diffuse stars in dark matter halos, that is likely dominating the large-scale NIR fluctuations. The model is able to reasonably reproduce the auto-correlations at each of the FIR wavelengths and at 3.6 μm and their corresponding cross-correlations. While the FIR and NIR auto-correlations are dominated by faint, dusty, star-forming galaxies and IHL, respectively, we find that roughly half of the cross-correlation between the NIR and FIR backgrounds is due to the same dusty galaxies that remain unmasked at 3.6 μm. The remaining signal in the cross-correlation is due to IHL present in the same dark matter halos as those hosting the same faint and unmasked galaxies.« less

  17. [Observation of carbon-bear free radicals using far infrared laser magnetic resonance spectroscopy].

    PubMed

    Huang, Guang-ming; Shi, Li-hua; Cai, Xin; Liu, Yu-yan

    2003-06-01

    The principle and technical characters of far infrared laser magnetic resonance (FIRLMR) spectrometer built up in China are introduced. A CO2 transversely pumped far infrared laser is adopted. In order to obtain high sensitivity, the sample absorption cell is placed in the FIR laser cavity and separated from laser gain cavity with thin polypropylene film. The spectrometer can be employed to study short lived free radicals. The spectra of many transient free radicals including CCH, CF and CH2 have been detected by the spectrometer. These transients are generated by mixing CH4 with the fluorine atoms produced with microwave discharge.

  18. Two views of the Andromeda Galaxy H-alpha and far infrared

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Devereux, Nicholas A.; Price, Rob; Wells, Lisa A.; Duric, Neb

    1994-01-01

    A complete H-alpha image of the Andromeda Galaxy (M31) is presented allowing the first direct measurement of the total H-alpha luminosity which is (7.3 +/- 2.4) x 10(exp 6) solar luminosity. The H-alpha emission is associated with three morphologically distinct components; a large scale star-forming ring, approximately 1.65 deg in diameter, contributing 66% of the total H-alpha emission, a bright nucleus contributing 6% of the total H-alpha emission with the remaining 28% contributed by a previously unidentified component of extended and filamentary H-alpha emission interior to the star forming ring. The correspondence between the H-alpha image and the Infrared Astronomy Satellite (IRAS) far-infrared high resolution image is striking when both are convolved to a common resolution of 105 arcsec. The close correspondence between the far-infrared and H-alpha images suggests a common origin for the two emissions. The star-forming ring contributes 70% of the far-infrared luminosity of M31. Evidence that the ring emission is energized by high mass stars includes the fact that peaks in the far-infrared emission coincide identically with H II regions in the H-alpha image. In addition, the far-infrared to H-alpha luminosity ratio within the star-forming ring is similar to what one would expect for H II regions powered by stars of spectral types ranging between O9 and B0. The origin of the filamentary H-alpha and far-infrared luminosity interior to the star-forming ring is less clear, but it is almost certainly not produced by high mass stars.

  19. Effect of ultraviolet and far infrared radiation on microbial decontamination and quality of cumin seeds.

    PubMed

    Erdoğdu, S Belgin; Ekiz, H İbrahim

    2011-01-01

    Cumin seeds might be exposed to a high level of natural bacterial contamination, and this could potentially create a public health risk besides leading to problems in exportation. Ultraviolet (UVC) and far infrared (FIR) radiation has low penetration power, and due to that, there might be no detrimental defects to the products during a possible decontamination process. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine the effect of UVC and FIR treatment on microbial decontamination and quality of cumin seeds. For this purpose, FIR treatment at different exposure times and temperatures were applied followed by constant UVC treatment with an intensity of 10.5 mW/cm² for 2 h. Total mesophilic aerobic bacteria of the cumin seeds were decreased to the target level of 10⁴ CFU/g after 1.57, 2.8, and 4.8 min FIR treatment at 300, 250, and 200 °C, respectively, following a 2 h UVC treatment. Under the given conditions, a complete elimination for total yeast and molds were obtained while there were no significant changes in volatile oil content and color of the cumin seeds. Consequently, combined UVC and FIR treatment was determined to be a promising method for decontamination of the cumin seeds. This research attempts to apply UVC and far infrared (FIR) radiation for pasteurization of cumin seeds. The data suggested that combined UVC and FIR radiation treatments can become a promising new method for pasteurization of cumin seeds without causing any detrimental defect to the quality parameters. The results of this industry partnered (Kadioglu Baharat, Mersin, Turkey--http://www.kadioglubaharat.com) study were already applied in industrial scale production lines. © 2011 Institute of Food Technologists®

  20. Far-IR and Radio Continua in Solar Flares

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinzel, P.; Kasparova, J.; Varady, M.; Karlicky, M.; Moravec, Z.

    2008-09-01

    With the invention of new far-infrared (FIR) and radio mm and sub-mm instruments (DESIR on SMESE satellite, ESO ALMA), there is a growing interest in observations and analysis of solar flares in this so far unexplored wavelength region. Two principal radition mechanisms play a role: the synchrotron emission due to accelerated particle beams moving in the magnetic field and the thermal emission due to energy deposit in the lower atmospheric layers. The latter one was recently explored for the case of semiempirical flare models, without considering the temporal evolution. However, as the radiation-hydrodynamical simulations do show, the lower atmosphere heated by beams exhibits fast temporal changes which are typically reflected in variations of spectral-line intensities. In this contribution we explore the time-dependent effects of beams on FIR and radio continua. We show how and where these continua are formed in the presence of time dependent beam heating and non-thermal excitation/ionization of the chromospheric hydrogen plasma. Our results should contribute to planning of new observations in FIR and radio domain.

  1. The Far-Infrared Emission Line and Continuum Spectrum of the Seyfert Galaxy NGC 1068

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spinoglio, Luigi; Smith, Howard A.; Gonzalez-Alfonso, Eduardo; Fisher, Jacqueline

    2005-01-01

    We report on the analysis of the first complete far-infrared spectrum (43-197 microns) of the Seyfert 2 galaxy NGC 1068 as observed with the Long Wavelength Spectrometer (LWS) onboard the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO). In addition to the 7 expected ionic fine structure emission lines, the OH rotational lines at 79, 119 and 163 microns were all detected in emission, which is unique among galaxies with full LWS spectra, where the 119 micron line, where detected, is always in absorption. The observed line intensities were modelled together with IS0 Short Wavelength Spectrometer (SWS) and optical and ultraviolet line intensities from the literature, considering two independent emission components: the AGN component and the starburst component in the circumnuclear ring of approximately 3kpc in size. Using the UV to mid-IR emission line spectrum to constrain the nuclear ionizing continuum, we have confirmed previous results: a canonical power-law ionizing spectrum is a poorer fit than one with a deep absorption trough, while the presence of a big blue bump is ruled out. Based on the instantaneous starburst age of 5 Myr constrained by the Br gamma equivalent width in the starburst ring, and starburst synthesis models of the mid- and far-infrared fine-structure line emission, a low ionization parameter (U=10(exp -3.5)) and low densities (n=100 cm (exp -3)) are derived. Combining the AGN and starburst components, we succeed in modeling the overall UV to far-IR atomic spectrum of SGC 1068, reproducing the line fluxes to within a factor 2.0 on average with a standard deviation of 1.4. The OH 119 micron emission indicates that the line is collisionally excited, and arises in a warm and dense region. The OH emission has been modeled using spherically symmetric, non-local, non-LTE radiative transfer models. The models indicate that the bulk of the emission arises from the nuclear region, although some extended contribution from the starburst is not ruled out. The OH abundance

  2. The radio emission from the ultraluminous far-infrared galaxy NGC 6240

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colbert, Edward J. M.; Wilson, Andrew S.; Bland-Hawthorn, Jonathan

    1994-01-01

    We present new radio observations of the 'prototypical' ultraluminous far-infrared galaxy NGC 6240, obtained using the Very Large Array (VLA) at lambda = 20 cm in B-configuration and at lambda = 3.6 cm in A-configuration. These data, along with those from four previous VLA observations, are used to perform a comprehensive study of the radio emission from NGC 6240. Approximately 70% (approximately 3 x 10(exp 23) W/Hz) of the total radio power at 20 cm originates from the nuclear region (approximately less than 1.5 kpc), of which half is emitted by two unresolved (R approximately less than 36 pc) cores and half by a diffuse component. The radio spectrum of the nuclear emission is relatively flat (alpha approximately equals 0.6; S(sub nu) proportional to nu(exp -alpha). The supernova rate required to power the diffuse component is consistent with that predicted by the stellar evolution models of Rieke et al. (1985). If the radio emission from the two compact cores is powered by supernova remnants, then either the remnants overlap and form hot bubbles in the cores, or they are very young (approximately less than 100 yr.) Nearly all of the remaining 30% of the total radio power comes from an 'armlike' region extending westward from the nuclear region. The western arm emission has a steep spectrum (alpha approximately equals 1.0), suggestive of aging effects from synchrotron or inverse-Compton losses, and is not correlated with starlight; we suggest that it is synchrotron emission from a shell of material driven by a galactic superwind. Inverse Compton scattering of far-infrared photons in the radio sources is expected to produce an X-ray flux of approximately 2 - 6 x 10(exp -14) ergs/s/sq cm in the 2 - 10 keV band. No significant radio emission is detected from or near the possible ultramassive 'dark core'.

  3. Far infrared promotes wound healing through activation of Notch1 signaling.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Yung-Ho; Lin, Yuan-Feng; Chen, Cheng-Hsien; Chiu, Yu-Jhe; Chiu, Hui-Wen

    2017-11-01

    The Notch signaling pathway is critically involved in cell proliferation, differentiation, development, and homeostasis. Far infrared (FIR) has an effect that promotes wound healing. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms are unclear. In the present study, we employed in vivo and HaCaT (a human skin keratinocyte cell line) models to elucidate the role of Notch1 signaling in FIR-promoted wound healing. We found that FIR enhanced keratinocyte migration and proliferation. FIR induced the Notch1 signaling pathway in HaCaT cells and in a microarray dataset from the Gene Expression Omnibus database. We next determined the mRNA levels of NOTCH1 in paired normal and wound skin tissues derived from clinical patients using the microarray dataset and Ingenuity Pathway Analysis software. The result indicated that the Notch1/Twist1 axis plays important roles in wound healing and tissue repair. In addition, inhibiting Notch1 signaling decreased the FIR-enhanced proliferation and migration. In a full-thickness wound model in rats, the wounds healed more rapidly and the scar size was smaller in the FIR group than in the light group. Moreover, FIR could increase Notch1 and Delta1 in skin tissues. The activation of Notch1 signaling may be considered as a possible mechanism for the promoting effect of FIR on wound healing. FIR stimulates keratinocyte migration and proliferation. Notch1 in keratinocytes has an essential role in FIR-induced migration and proliferation. NOTCH1 promotes TWIST1-mediated gene expression to assist wound healing. FIR might promote skin wound healing in a rat model. FIR stimulates keratinocyte migration and proliferation. Notch1 in keratinocytes has an essential role in FIR-induced migration and proliferation. NOTCH1 promotes TWIST1-mediated gene expression to assist wound healing. FIR might promote skin wound healing in a rat model.

  4. Measurement of Far-Infrared Paint Emissivity for Reference Blackbody Modeling and Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaplan, S. G.; Hanssen, L. M.; Mekhontsev, S. N.

    2008-12-01

    Blackbody sources are typically used for both ground-based and on-orbit calibration of infrared radiometers for atmospheric sounding. Accurate knowledge of the emissivity (or reflectivity) of the painted cavity surfaces is important for the design and modeling of the blackbody performance. Devices designed for the mid- to long-wave infrared (2 μm to 100 μm) generally use specular black paint and multiple (4 to 6) bounces to achieve high emissivity and uniform radiance over the required optical extent. To meet the CLARREO goal of long-term climate monitoring with an absolute uncertainty of < 0.1 K (3 σ), it will be necessary to calibrate radiance measurements to < 0.1 % uncertainty, which could require knowledge of paint emissivity with < 0.005 uncertainty at long wavelength. Critical material parameters include the dependence of emissivity on wavelength, angle of incidence, polarization, and temperature (200 K to 350 K), as well as contributions of scattered light. We present measurement methods and results in support of the CORSAIR SI-traceable far-infrared blackbody design, including temperature-dependent specular reflectance measurements out to 100 μm and angle-dependent data out to 25 μm. In addition, we describe the design for a proposed new facility at NIST (CBS3) that will enable hemispherical-directional emittance and reflectance measurements versus temperature and angle out to 100 μm.

  5. The Local Universe as Seen in the Far-Infrared and Far-Ultraviolet: A Global Point of View of the Local Recent Star Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buat, V.; Takeuchi, T. T.; Iglesias-Páramo, J.; Xu, C. K.; Burgarella, D.; Boselli, A.; Barlow, T.; Bianchi, L.; Donas, J.; Forster, K.; Friedman, P. G.; Heckman, T. M.; Lee, Y.-W.; Madore, B. F.; Martin, D. C.; Milliard, B.; Morissey, P.; Neff, S.; Rich, M.; Schiminovich, D.; Seibert, M.; Small, T.; Szalay, A. S.; Welsh, B.; Wyder, T.; Yi, S. K.

    2007-12-01

    We select far-infrared (FIR: 60 μm) and far-ultraviolet (FUV: 530 Å) samples of nearby galaxies in order to discuss the biases encountered by monochromatic surveys (FIR or FUV). Very different volumes are sampled by each selection, and much care is taken to apply volume corrections to all the analyses. The distributions of the bolometric luminosity of young stars are compared for both samples: they are found to be consistent with each other for galaxies of intermediate luminosities, but some differences are found for high (>5×1010 Lsolar) luminosities. The shallowness of the IRAS survey prevents us from securing a comparison at low luminosities (<2×109 Lsolar). The ratio of the total infrared (TIR) luminosity to the FUV luminosity is found to increase with the bolometric luminosity in a similar way for both samples up to 5×1010 Lsolar. Brighter galaxies are found to have a different behavior according to their selection: the LTIR/LFUV ratio of the FUV-selected galaxies brighter than 5×1010 Lsolar reaches a plateau, whereas LTIR/LFUV continues to increase with the luminosity of bright galaxies selected in FIR. The volume-averaged specific star formation rate (SFR per unit galaxy stellar mass, SSFR) is found to decrease toward massive galaxies within each selection. The mean values of the SSFR are found to be larger than those measured for optical and NIR-selected samples over the whole mass range for the FIR selection, and for masses larger than 1010 Msolar for the FUV selection. Luminous and massive galaxies selected in FIR appear as active as galaxies with similar characteristics detected at z~0.7.

  6. The correlation between far-IR and radio continuum emission from spiral galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dickey, John M.; Garwood, Robert W.; Helou, George

    1987-01-01

    A sample of 30 galaxies selected for their intense IRAS flux at 60 and 100 micron using the Arecibo telescope at 21 cm to measure the continuum and HI line luminosities were observed. The centimeter wave continuum correlates very well with the far-infrared flux, with a correlation coefficient as high as that found for other samples, and the same ratio between FIR and radio luminosities. Weaker correlations are seen between the FIR and optical luminosity and between the FIR and radio continuum. There is very little correlation between the FIR and the HI mass deduced from the integral of the 21 cm line. The strength of the radio continuum correlation suggests that there is little contribution to either the radio and FIR from physical processes not affecting both. If they each reflect time integrals of the star formation rate then the time constants must be similar, or the star formation rate must change slowly in these galaxies.

  7. THE PHYSICS OF THE FAR-INFRARED-RADIO CORRELATION. I. CALORIMETRY, CONSPIRACY, AND IMPLICATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Lacki, Brian C.; Thompson, Todd A.; Quataert, Eliot, E-mail: lacki@astronomy.ohio-state.ed

    2010-07-01

    The far-infrared (FIR) and radio luminosities of star-forming galaxies are linearly correlated over a very wide range in star formation rate, from normal spirals like the Milky Way to the most intense starbursts. Using one-zone models of cosmic ray (CR) injection, cooling, and escape in star-forming galaxies, we attempt to reproduce the observed FIR-radio correlation (FRC) over its entire span. The normalization and linearity of the FRC, together with constraints on the CR population in the Milky Way, have strong implications for the CR and magnetic energy densities in star-forming galaxies. We show that for consistency with the FRC, {approx}2%more » of the kinetic energy from supernova explosions must go into high-energy primary CR electrons and that {approx}10%-20% must go into high-energy primary CR protons. Secondary electrons and positrons are likely comparable to or dominate primary electrons in dense starburst galaxies. We discuss the implications of our models for the magnetic field strengths of starbursts, the detectability of starbursts by Fermi, and CR feedback. Overall, our models indicate that both CR protons and electrons escape from low surface density galaxies, but lose most of their energy before escaping dense starbursts. The FRC is caused by a combination of the efficient cooling of CR electrons (calorimetry) in starbursts and a conspiracy of several factors. For lower surface density galaxies, the decreasing radio emission caused by CR escape is balanced by the decreasing FIR emission caused by the low effective UV dust opacity. In starbursts, bremsstrahlung, ionization, and inverse Compton cooling decrease the radio emission, but they are countered by secondary electrons/positrons and the dependence of synchrotron frequency on energy, both of which increase the radio emission. Our conclusions hold for a broad range of variations in our fiducial model, such as those including winds, different magnetic field strengths, and different diffusive

  8. MODELING THE ANOMALY OF SURFACE NUMBER DENSITIES OF GALAXIES ON THE GALACTIC EXTINCTION MAP DUE TO THEIR FIR EMISSION CONTAMINATION

    SciTech Connect

    Kashiwagi, Toshiya; Suto, Yasushi; Taruya, Atsushi

    The most widely used Galactic extinction map is constructed assuming that the observed far-infrared (FIR) fluxes come entirely from Galactic dust. According to the earlier suggestion by Yahata et al., we consider how FIR emission of galaxies affects the SFD map. We first compute the surface number density of Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) DR7 galaxies as a function of the r-band extinction, A {sub r,} {sub SFD}. We confirm that the surface densities of those galaxies positively correlate with A {sub r,} {sub SFD} for A {sub r,} {sub SFD} < 0.1, as first discovered by Yahata et al.more » for SDSS DR4 galaxies. Next we construct an analytical model to compute the surface density of galaxies, taking into account the contamination of their FIR emission. We adopt a log-normal probability distribution for the ratio of 100 μm and r-band luminosities of each galaxy, y ≡ (νL){sub 100} {sub μm}/(νL) {sub r}. Then we search for the mean and rms values of y that fit the observed anomaly, using the analytical model. The required values to reproduce the anomaly are roughly consistent with those measured from the stacking analysis of SDSS galaxies. Due to the limitation of our statistical modeling, we are not yet able to remove the FIR contamination of galaxies from the extinction map. Nevertheless, the agreement with the model prediction suggests that the FIR emission of galaxies is mainly responsible for the observed anomaly. Whereas the corresponding systematic error in the Galactic extinction map is 0.1-1 mmag, it is directly correlated with galaxy clustering and thus needs to be carefully examined in precision cosmology.« less

  9. Far-infrared response of spherical quantum dots: Dielectric effects and the generalized Kohn's theorem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Movilla, J. L.; Planelles, J.

    2007-05-01

    The influence of the dielectric environment on the far-infrared (FIR) absorption spectra of two-electron spherical quantum dots is theoretically studied. Effective mass and envelope function approaches with realistic steplike confining potentials are used. Special attention is paid to absorptions that are induced by the electron-electron interaction. High confining barriers make the FIR absorption coefficients almost independent of the quantum dot dielectric environment. Low barrier heights and strong dielectric mismatches preserve the strong fundamental (Kohn) mode but yield the cancellation of excited absorptions, thus monitoring dielectrically induced phase transitions from volume to surface states.

  10. Far-infrared therapy for cardiovascular, autoimmune, and other chronic health problems: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Shui, Shanshan; Wang, Xia

    2015-01-01

    Physical therapy (physiotherapy), a complementary and alternative medicine therapy, has been widely applied in diagnosing and treating various diseases and defects. Increasing evidence suggests that convenient and non-invasive far-infrared (FIR) rays, a vital type of physiotherapy, improve the health of patients with cardiovascular disease, diabetes mellitus, and chronic kidney disease. Nevertheless, the molecular mechanisms by which FIR functions remain elusive. Hence, the purpose of this study was to review and summarize the results of previous investigations and to elaborate on the molecular mechanisms of FIR therapy in various types of disease. In conclusion, FIR therapy may be closely related to the increased expression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase as well as nitric oxide production and may modulate the profiles of some circulating miRNAs; thus, it may be a beneficial complement to treatments for some chronic diseases that yields no adverse effects. PMID:25716016

  11. Dichroic filters to protect milliwatt far-infrared detectors from megawatt ECRH radiation.

    PubMed

    Bertschinger, G; Endres, C P; Lewen, F; Oosterbeek, J W

    2008-10-01

    Dichroic filters have been used to shield effectively the far infrared (FIR) detectors at the interferometer/polarimeter on TEXTOR. The filters consist of metal foils with regular holes, the hole diameter, the mutual spacing and the thickness of the foils are chosen to transmit radiation at the design frequency with transmission >90%. The attenuation at the low frequency end of the bandpass filter is about 30 dB per octave, the high frequency transmission is between 20% and 40%. The filters have been used to block the stray radiation from the megawatt microwave heating beam to the detectors of the FIR interferometer, operating with power on the detector in the milliwatt range. If required, the low frequency attenuation can be still enhanced, without compromising the transmission in the passband. The FIR interferometer used for plasma density and position control is no longer disturbed by electromagnetic waves used for plasma heating.

  12. Optics Alignment of a Balloon-Borne Far-Infrared Interferometer BETTII

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dhabal, Arnab; Rinehart, Stephen A.; Rizzo, Maxime J.; Mundy, Lee; Sampler, Henry; Juanola Parramon, Roser; Veach, Todd; Fixsen, Dale; Vila Hernandez De Lorenzo, Jor; Silverberg, Robert F.

    2017-01-01

    The Balloon Experimental Twin Telescope for Infrared Interferometry (BETTII) is an 8-m baseline far-infrared (FIR: 30 90 micrometer) interferometer providing spatially resolved spectroscopy. The initial scientific focus of BETTII is on clustered star formation, but this capability likely has a much broader scientific application.One critical step in developing an interferometer, such as BETTII, is the optical alignment of the system. We discuss how we determine alignment sensitivities of different optical elements on the interferogram outputs. Accordingly, an alignment plan is executed that makes use of a laser tracker and theodolites for precise optical metrology of both the large external optics and the small optics inside the cryostat. We test our alignment on the ground by pointing BETTII to bright near-infrared sources and obtaining their images in the tracking detectors.

  13. ATR and transmission analysis of pigments by means of far infrared spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Kendix, Elsebeth L; Prati, Silvia; Joseph, Edith; Sciutto, Giorgia; Mazzeo, Rocco

    2009-06-01

    In the field of FTIR spectroscopy, the far infrared (FIR) spectral region has been so far less investigated than the mid-infrared (MIR), even though it presents great advantages in the characterization of those inorganic compounds, which are inactive in the MIR, such as some art pigments, corrosion products, etc. Furthermore, FIR spectroscopy is complementary to Raman spectroscopy if the fluorescence effects caused by the latter analytical technique are considered. In this paper, ATR in the FIR region is proposed as an alternative method to transmission for the analyses of pigments. This methodology was selected in order to reduce the sample amount needed for analysis, which is a must when examining cultural heritage materials. A selection of pigments have been analyzed in both ATR and transmission mode, and the resulting spectra were compared with each other. To better perform this comparison, an evaluation of the possible effect induced by the thermal treatment needed for the preparation of the polyethylene pellets on the transmission spectra of the samples has been carried out. Therefore, pigments have been analyzed in ATR mode before and after heating them at the same temperature employed for the polyethylene pellet preparation. The results showed that while the heating treatment causes only small changes in the intensity of some bands, the ATR spectra were characterized by differences in both intensity and band shifts towards lower frequencies if compared with those recorded in transmission mode. All pigments' transmission and ATR spectra are presented and discussed, and the ATR method was validated on a real case study.

  14. Far-infrared suppresses skin photoaging in ultraviolet B-exposed fibroblasts and hairless mice

    PubMed Central

    Chiu, Hui-Wen; Chen, Cheng-Hsien; Chen, Yi-Jie; Hsu, Yung-Ho

    2017-01-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) induces skin photoaging, which is characterized by thickening, wrinkling, pigmentation, and dryness. Collagen, which is one of the main building blocks of human skin, is regulated by collagen synthesis and collagen breakdown. Autophagy was found to block the epidermal hyperproliferative response to UVB and may play a crucial role in preventing skin photoaging. In the present study, we investigated whether far-infrared (FIR) therapy can inhibit skin photoaging via UVB irradiation in NIH 3T3 mouse embryonic fibroblasts and SKH-1 hairless mice. We found that FIR treatment significantly increased procollagen type I through the induction of the TGF-β/Smad axis. Furthermore, UVB significantly enhanced the expression of matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1) and MMP-9. FIR inhibited UVB-induced MMP-1 and MMP-9. Treatment with FIR reversed UVB-decreased type I collagen. In addition, FIR induced autophagy by inhibiting the Akt/mTOR signaling pathway. In UVB-induced skin photoaging in a hairless mouse model, FIR treatment resulted in decreased skin thickness in UVB irradiated mice and inhibited the degradation of collagen fibers. Moreover, FIR can increase procollagen type I via the inhibition of MMP-9 and induction of TGF-β in skin tissues. Therefore, our study provides evidence for the beneficial effects of FIR exposure in a model of skin photoaging. PMID:28301572

  15. Far-infrared suppresses skin photoaging in ultraviolet B-exposed fibroblasts and hairless mice.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Hui-Wen; Chen, Cheng-Hsien; Chen, Yi-Jie; Hsu, Yung-Ho

    2017-01-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) induces skin photoaging, which is characterized by thickening, wrinkling, pigmentation, and dryness. Collagen, which is one of the main building blocks of human skin, is regulated by collagen synthesis and collagen breakdown. Autophagy was found to block the epidermal hyperproliferative response to UVB and may play a crucial role in preventing skin photoaging. In the present study, we investigated whether far-infrared (FIR) therapy can inhibit skin photoaging via UVB irradiation in NIH 3T3 mouse embryonic fibroblasts and SKH-1 hairless mice. We found that FIR treatment significantly increased procollagen type I through the induction of the TGF-β/Smad axis. Furthermore, UVB significantly enhanced the expression of matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1) and MMP-9. FIR inhibited UVB-induced MMP-1 and MMP-9. Treatment with FIR reversed UVB-decreased type I collagen. In addition, FIR induced autophagy by inhibiting the Akt/mTOR signaling pathway. In UVB-induced skin photoaging in a hairless mouse model, FIR treatment resulted in decreased skin thickness in UVB irradiated mice and inhibited the degradation of collagen fibers. Moreover, FIR can increase procollagen type I via the inhibition of MMP-9 and induction of TGF-β in skin tissues. Therefore, our study provides evidence for the beneficial effects of FIR exposure in a model of skin photoaging.

  16. Effects of far infrared rays emitting clothing on recovery after an intense plyometric exercise bout applied to elite soccer players: a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Loturco, I; Abad, CCC; Nakamura, FY; Ramos, SP; Kobal, R; Gil, S; Pereira, LA; Burini, FHP; Roschel, H; Ugrinowitsch, C; Tricoli, V

    2016-01-01

    The aim was to investigate the effects of far infrared (FIR) ray emitting clothes on indirect markers of exercise-induced muscle damage and physical performance recovery after a plyometric bout applied to soccer players. Twenty-one male players (18.9±0.6 years; 70.8±5.01 kg; 178.3±0.06 cm) performed 100 drop-jumps. Six hours after the bout, athletes put on FIR clothes (FIR) (density of 225 g·m-2, 88% far infrared rays emitting polyamide 66 Emana yarn (PA66) fibre, 12% Spandex, emissivity of 0.88 and power emitted of 341 W/m2µm at 37°C in the 5-20 µm wavelength range, patent WO 2009/077834 A2) (N = 10) or placebo clothes (PLA) (N = 11). Mid-thigh circumferences, creatine kinase (CK), and delayed-onset muscle soreness (DOMS) were assessed before, immediately after and 24, 48, and 72 h after the bout. Squat (SJ) and countermovement jump (CMJ) heights were measured before and at 24, 48, and 72 h after, while 1RM leg press (maximum strength) was measured before and at 72 h after the plyometrics. No differences between groups were found in mid-thigh circumferences, SJ, CMJ or 1RM. CK increased significantly 24 h after the plyometrics in comparison to before (p < 0.05) in both groups. PLA showed significant DOMS increases at 24, 48, and 72 h, while FIR showed significant increases at 24 and 48 h (p < 0.05). DOMS effect sizes were greater in FIR (moderate at 48 h, ES = 0.737 and large at 72 h, ES = 0.844), suggesting that FIR clothes may reduce perceived DOMS after an intense plyometric session performed by soccer players. PMID:27601783

  17. Far-infrared Properties of Infrared-bright Dust-obscured Galaxies Selected with IRAS and AKARI Far-infrared All-sky Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toba, Yoshiki; Nagao, Tohru; Wang, Wei-Hao; Matsuhara, Hideo; Akiyama, Masayuki; Goto, Tomotsugu; Koyama, Yusei; Ohyama, Youich; Yamamura, Issei

    2017-05-01

    We investigate the star-forming activity of a sample of infrared (IR)-bright dust-obscured galaxies (DOGs) that show an extreme red color in the optical and IR regime, {(I-[22])}{AB}> 7.0. Combining an IR-bright DOG sample with the flux at 22 μm > 3.8 mJy discovered by Toba & Nagao with the IRAS faint source catalog version 2 and AKARI far-IR (FIR) all-sky survey bright source catalog version 2, we selected 109 DOGs with FIR data. For a subsample of seven IR-bright DOGs with spectroscopic redshifts (0.07< z< 1.0) that were obtained from the literature, we estimated their IR luminosity, star formation rate (SFR), and stellar mass based on the spectral energy distribution fitting. We found that (1) the WISE 22 μm luminosity at the observed frame is a good indicator of IR luminosity for IR-bright DOGs and (2) the contribution of the active galactic nucleus to IR luminosity increases with IR luminosity. By comparing the stellar mass and SFR relation for our DOG sample and the literature, we found that most of the IR-bright DOGs lie significantly above the main sequence of star-forming galaxies at similar redshift, indicating that the majority of IRAS- or AKARI-detected IR-bright DOGs are starburst galaxies.

  18. The Far-Infrared Emission of Radio Loud and Radio Quiet Quasars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Polletta, M.; Courvoisier, T. J.-L.; Wilkes, B. J.; Hooper, E. J.

    2000-01-01

    Continuum observations at radio, millimeter, infrared and soft X-ray energies are presented for a sample of 22 quasars, consisting of flat and steep spectrum radio loud, radio intermediate and radio quiet objects. The primary observational distinctions, among the different kinds of quasars in the radio and IR energy domains are studied using large observational datasets provided by ISOPHOT on board the Infrared Space Observatory, by the IRAM interferometer, by the sub-millimetre array SCUBA on JCMT, and by the European Southern Observatory (ESO) facilities IRAC1 on the 2.2 m telescope and SEST. The spectral energy distributions of all quasars from radio to IR energies are analyzed and modeled with non-thermal and thermal spectral components. The dominant mechanism emitting in the far/mid-IR is thermal dust emission in all quasars, with the exception of flat spectrum radio loud quasars for which the presence of thermal IR emission remains rather uncertain, since it is difficult to separate it from the bright non-thermal component. The dust is predominantly heated by the optical/ultraviolet radiation emitted from the external components of the AGN. A starburst contributes to the IR emission at different levels, but always less than the AGN (<= 27%). The distribution of temperatures, sizes, masses, and luminosities of the emitting dust are independent of the quasar type.

  19. Effect of nano-sized cerium-zirconium oxide solid solution on far-infrared emission properties of tourmaline powders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Bin; Yang, Liqing; Hu, Weijie; Li, Wenlong; Wang, Haojing

    2015-10-01

    Far-infrared functional nanocomposites were prepared by the co-precipitation method using natural tourmaline (XY3Z6Si6O18(BO3)3V3W, where X is Na+, Ca2+, K+, or vacancy; Y is Mg2+, Fe2+, Mn2+, Al3+, Fe3+, Mn3+, Cr3+, Li+, or Ti4+; Z is Al3+, Mg2+, Cr3+, or V3+; V is O2-, OH-; and W is O2-, OH-, or F-) powders, ammonium cerium(IV) nitrate and zirconium(IV) nitrate pentahydrate as raw materials. The reference sample, tourmaline modified with ammonium cerium(IV) nitrate alone was also prepared by a similar precipitation route. The results of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy show that tourmaline modified with Ce and Zr has a better far-infrared emission property than tourmaline modified with Ce alone. Through characterization by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), the mechanism for oxygen evolution during the heat process in the two composite materials was systematically studied. The XPS spectra show that Fe3+ ratio inside tourmaline modified with Ce alone can be raised by doping Zr. Moreover, it is showed that there is a higher Ce3+ ratio inside the tourmaline modified with Ce and Zr than tourmaline modified with Ce alone. In addition, XRD results indicate the formation of CeO2 and Ce1-xZrxO2 crystallites during the heat treatment and further TEM observations show they exist as nanoparticles on the surface of tourmaline powders. Based on these results, we attribute the improved far-infrared emission properties of Ce-Zr doped tourmaline to the enhanced unit cell shrinkage of the tourmaline arisen from much more oxidation of Fe2+ to Fe3+ inside the tourmaline caused by the change in the catalyst redox properties of CeO2 brought about by doping with Zr4+. In all samples, tourmaline modified with 7.14 wt.% Ce and 1.86 wt.% Zr calcined at 800∘C for 5 h has the best far-infrared emission property with the maximum emissivity value of 98%.

  20. [Ultra] luminous infrared galaxies selected at 90 μm in the AKARI deep field: a study of AGN types contributing to their infrared emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Małek, K.; Bankowicz, M.; Pollo, A.; Buat, V.; Takeuchi, T. T.; Burgarella, D.; Goto, T.; Malkan, M.; Matsuhara, H.

    2017-02-01

    Aims: The aim of this work is to characterize physical properties of ultra luminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs) and luminous infrared galaxies (LIRGs) detected in the far-infrared (FIR) 90 μm band in the AKARI Deep Field-South (ADF-S) survey. In particular, we want to estimate the active galactic nucleus (AGN) contribution to the LIRGs and ULIRGs' infrared emission and which types of AGNs are related to their activity. Methods: We examined 69 galaxies at redshift ≥0.05 detected at 90 μm by the AKARI satellite in the ADF-S, with optical counterparts and spectral coverage from the ultraviolet to the FIR. We used two independent spectral energy distribution fitting codes: one fitting the SED from FIR to FUV (CIGALE) (we use the results from CIGALE as a reference) and gray-body + power spectrum fit for the infrared part of the spectra (CMCIRSED) in order to identify a subsample of ULIRGs and LIRGs, and to estimate their properties. Results: Based on the CIGALE SED fitting, we have found that LIRGs and ULIRGs selected at the 90 μm AKARI band compose 56% of our sample (we found 17 ULIRGs and 22 LIRGs, spanning over the redshift range 0.06 infrared wavelengths. We have detected a significant AGN contribution to the mid-infrared luminosity for 63% of LIRGs and ULIRGs. Our LIRGs contain Type 1, Type 2, and intermediate types of AGN, whereas for ULIRGs, a majority (more than 50%) of AGN emission originates from Type 2 AGNs. The temperature-luminosity and temperature-mass relations for the dust component of ADF-S LIRGs and ULIRGs indicate that these relations are shaped by the dust mass and not by the increased dust heating. Conclusions: We conclude that LIRGs contain Type 1, Type 2, and intermediate types of AGNs, with an AGN contribution to the mid infrared emission at the median level of 13 ± 3

  1. α Centauri A in the far infrared. First measurement of the temperature minimum of a star other than the Sun

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liseau, R.; Montesinos, B.; Olofsson, G.; Bryden, G.; Marshall, J. P.; Ardila, D.; Bayo Aran, A.; Danchi, W. C.; del Burgo, C.; Eiroa, C.; Ertel, S.; Fridlund, M. C. W.; Krivov, A. V.; Pilbratt, G. L.; Roberge, A.; Thébault, P.; Wiegert, J.; White, G. J.

    2013-01-01

    Context. Chromospheres and coronae are common phenomena on solar-type stars. Understanding the energy transfer to these heated atmospheric layers requires direct access to the relevant empirical data. Study of these structures has, by and large, been limited to the Sun thus far. Aims: The region of the temperature reversal can be directly observed only in the far infrared and submillimetre spectral regime. We aim at determining the characteristics of the atmosphere in the region of the temperature minimum of the solar sister star α Cen A. As a bonus this will also provide a detailed mapping of the spectral energy distribution, i.e. knowledge that is crucial when searching for faint, Kuiper belt-like dust emission around other stars. Methods: For the nearby binary system α Cen, stellar parameters are known with high accuracy from measurements. For the basic model parameters Teff, log g and [Fe/H], we interpolate stellar model atmospheres in the grid of Gaia/PHOENIX and compute the corresponding model for the G2 V star α Cen A. Comparison with photometric measurements shows excellent agreement between observed photospheric data in the optical and infrared. For longer wavelengths, the modelled spectral energy distribution is compared to Spitzer-MIPS, Herschel-PACS, Herschel-SPIRE, and APEX-LABOCA photometry. A specifically tailored Uppsala model based on the MARCS code and extending further in wavelength is used to gauge the emission characteristics of α Cen A in the far infared. Results: Similar to the Sun, the far infrared (FIR) emission of α Cen A originates in the minimum temperature region above the stellar photosphere in the visible. However, in comparison with the solar case, the FIR photosphere of α Cen A appears marginally cooler, Tmin ~ T160 μm = 3920 ± 375 K. Beyond the minimum near 160 μm, the brightness temperatures increase, and this radiation very likely originates in warmer regions of the chromosphere of α Cen A. Conclusions: To the best of

  2. Herschel GASPS spectral observations of T Tauri stars in Taurus. Unraveling far-infrared line emission from jets and discs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alonso-Martínez, M.; Riviere-Marichalar, P.; Meeus, G.; Kamp, I.; Fang, M.; Podio, L.; Dent, W. R. F.; Eiroa, C.

    2017-07-01

    Context. At early stages of stellar evolution young stars show powerful jets and/or outflows that interact with protoplanetary discs and their surroundings. Despite the scarce knowledge about the interaction of jets and/or outflows with discs, spectroscopic studies based on Herschel and ISO data suggests that gas shocked by jets and/or outflows can be traced by far-IR (FIR) emission in certain sources. Aims: We want to provide a consistent catalogue of selected atomic ([OI] and [CII]) and molecular (CO, H2O, and OH) line fluxes observed in the FIR, separate and characterize the contribution from the jet and the disc to the observed line emission, and place the observations in an evolutionary picture. Methods: The atomic and molecular FIR (60-190 μm) line emission of protoplanetary discs around 76 T Tauri stars located in Taurus are analysed. The observations were carried out within the Herschel key programme Gas in Protoplanetary Systems (GASPS). The spectra were obtained with the Photodetector Array Camera and Spectrometer (PACS). The sample is first divided in outflow and non-outflow sources according to literature tabulations. With the aid of archival stellar/disc and jet/outflow tracers and model predictions (PDRs and shocks), correlations are explored to constrain the physical mechanisms behind the observed line emission. Results: Outflow sources exhibit brighter atomic and molecular emission lines and higher detection rates than non-outflow sources. The line detection fractions decrease with SED evolutionary status (from Class I to Class III). We find correlations between [OI] 63.18 μm and [OI] 6300 Å, o-H2O 78.74 μm, CO 144.78 μm, OH 79.12+79.18 μm, and the continuum flux at 24 μm. The atomic line ratios can be explain either by fast (Vshock > 50 km s-1) dissociative J-shocks at low densities (n 103 cm-3) occurring along the jet and/or PDR emission (G0 > 102, n 103-106 cm-3). To account for the [CII] absolute fluxes, PDR emission or UV irradiation of

  3. On the nature of the deeply embedded protostar OMC-2 FIR 4

    SciTech Connect

    Furlan, E.; Megeath, S. T.; Fischer, W. J.

    We use mid-infrared to submillimeter data from the Spitzer, Herschel, and Atacama Pathfinder Experiment telescopes to study the bright submillimeter source OMC-2 FIR 4. We find a point source at 8, 24, and 70 μm, and a compact, but extended source at 160, 350, and 870 μm. The peak of the emission from 8 to 70 μm, attributed to the protostar associated with FIR 4, is displaced relative to the peak of the extended emission; the latter represents the large molecular core the protostar is embedded within. We determine that the protostar has a bolometric luminosity of 37 L {submore » ☉}, although including more extended emission surrounding the point source raises this value to 86 L {sub ☉}. Radiative transfer models of the protostellar system fit the observed spectral energy distribution well and yield a total luminosity of most likely less than 100 L {sub ☉}. Our models suggest that the bolometric luminosity of the protostar could be as low as 12-14 L {sub ☉}, while the luminosity of the colder (∼20 K) extended core could be around 100 L {sub ☉}, with a mass of about 27 M {sub ☉}. Our derived luminosities for the protostar OMC-2 FIR 4 are in direct contradiction with previous claims of a total luminosity of 1000 L {sub ☉}. Furthermore, we find evidence from far-infrared molecular spectra and 3.6 cm emission that FIR 4 drives an outflow. The final stellar mass the protostar will ultimately achieve is uncertain due to its association with the large reservoir of mass found in the cold core.« less

  4. A census of radio-selected AGNs on the COSMOS field and of their FIR properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magliocchetti, M.; Popesso, P.; Brusa, M.; Salvato, M.

    2018-01-01

    We use the new catalogue by Laigle et al. to provide a full census of VLA-COSMOS radio sources. We identify 90 per cent of such sources and sub-divide them into active galactic nuclei (AGNs) and star-forming galaxies on the basis of their radio luminosity. The AGN sample is complete with respect to radio selection at all z ≲ 3.5. Out of 704 AGNs, 272 have a counterpart in the Herschel maps. By exploiting the better statistics of the new sample, we confirm the results of Magliocchetti et al.: the probability for a radio-selected AGN to be detected at far-infrared (FIR) wavelengths is both a function of radio luminosity and redshift, whereby powerful sources are more likely FIR emitters at earlier epochs. Such an emission is due to star-forming processes within the host galaxy. FIR emitters and non-FIR emitters only differentiate in the z ≲ 1 universe. At higher redshifts, they are indistinguishable from each other, as there is no difference between FIR-emitting AGNs and star-forming galaxies. Lastly, we focus on radio AGNs which show AGN emission at other wavelengths. We find that mid-infrared (MIR) emission is mainly associated with ongoing star formation and with sources which are smaller, younger and more radio luminous than the average parent population. X-ray emitters instead preferentially appear in more massive and older galaxies. We can therefore envisage an evolutionary track whereby the first phase of a radio-active AGN and of its host galaxy is associated with MIR emission, while at later stages the source becomes only active at radio wavelengths and possibly also in the X-ray.

  5. The radio-far infrared correlation: Spiral and blue compact dwarf galaxies opposed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klein, U.; Wunderlich, E.

    1987-01-01

    The recently established correlation between radio continuum and far infrared emission in galaxies was further investigated by comparing normal spiral and blue compact dwarf galaxies. The puzzling result is that the ratio of radio to far infrared luminosity and its dispersion is the same for both samples, although their ratios of blue to far infrared luminosity, their radio spectral indices and their dust temperatures exhibit markedly different mean values and dispersions. This suggests that the amount of energy radiated in the two regimes is enhanced in the same way although the mechanisms responsible for the two components are rather different and complex. The fact that the blue light does not increase at the same proportion shows that both the radio and the far infrared emission are connected with the recent star formation history.

  6. An Optically Pumped Far-Infrared Folded Mirror-Less Cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Chuang; Wang, Dashuai; Zhang, Peng; Qu, Yanchen

    2017-12-01

    A compact and efficient mirror-less cavity is presented for an optically pumped 192-μm far-infrared laser. With a gold-coated mirror and 30°-inclined anti-reflection coated Ge plate serving as highly reflective mirrors, a folded mirror-less CH3F cavity is achieved. Maximum energy of 0.72 mJ is obtained with the pump energy of 600 mJ, which gives an energy increment of 75% in comparison with the previous 1.85-m mirror-less system. The beam divergence angle of the FIR radiation from this folded mirror-less cavity is measured to be 14.2 mrad.

  7. Far-infrared /FIR/ optical black bidirectional reflectance distribution function /BRDF/

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, S. M.

    1981-01-01

    A nonspecular reflectometer and its operation at far-infrared wavelengths are described. Large differences in nonspecular reflectance were found to exist between different optically black coatings. Normal incidence bidirectional reflectance distribution function /BRDF) measurements at wavelengths between 12 and 316 microns of three black coatings show that their mean BRDFs increase with wavelength. The specularity of two of these coatings also showed a strong wavelength dependence, while the specularity of one coating seemed independent of wavelength. The BRDF of one coating depended on the angle of incidence at 12 and 38 microns, but not at 316 microns. Beyond 200 microns, it was found necessary to correct the measurements for the beam spread of the instrument.

  8. A far-infrared spatial/spectral Fourier interferometry laboratory-based testbed instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spencer, Locke D.; Naylor, David A.; Scott, Jeremy P.; Weiler, Vince F.; MacCrimmon, Roderick K.; Sitwell, Geoffrey R. H.; Ade, Peter A. R.

    2016-07-01

    We describe the current status, including preliminary design, characterization efforts, and recent progress, in the development of a spatial/spectral double Fourier laboratory-based interferometer testbed instrument within the Astronomical Instrumentation Group (AIG) laboratories at the University of Lethbridge, Canada (UL). Supported by CRC, CFI, and NSERC grants, this instrument development will provide laboratory demonstration of spatial-spectral interferometry with a concentration of furthering progress in areas including the development of spatial/spectral interferometry observation, data processing, characterization, and analysis techniques in the Far-Infrared (FIR) region of the electromagnetic spectrum.

  9. Use of COTS uncooled microbolometers for the observation of solar eruptions in far infrared

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Ruyet, B.; Bernardi, P.; Sémery, A.

    2017-11-01

    The Small Explorer for Solar Eruptions (SMESE) mission is a French-Chinese satellite dedicated to the combined study of coronal mass ejections and flares. It should operate by the beginning of 2013. The spacecraft is based on a generic MYRIADE platform developed by CNES. Its payload consists of a Lyman α imager and a Lyman α chronograph (LYOT), a far infrared telescope (DESIR) and a hard X and γ ray spectrometer (HEBS). Its Sun-synchronous orbit will allow for continuous observations. LESIA (Laboratoire d'Etudes Spatiales et d'Instrumentation en Astrophysique, in Paris-Meudon Observatory) is in charge of DESIR instrument. DESIR (Detection of Eruptive Solar InfraRed emission) is an imaging photometer observing the sun in two bandwidths: [25; 45μm] and [80; 130μm]. The detector is a commercially available, uncooled microbolometer focal plane array (UL 02 05 1, from ULIS) designed for thermographic imaging in the 8-14 μm wavelength range. The 160x120 pixels are based on amorphous silicon, with dimensions 35x35 μm2. The performances in terms of noise and dynamics given by the manufacturer associated with simulations of a perfect quarter-wave cavity to predict the microbolometer absorption, make possible the use of such a detector to fulfil the DESIR detection specifications in the two FIR bandwidths. During the A Phase, tests have been carried out in our laboratory to validate the feasibility of the project. In this work, we present the first results obtained on the microbolometer performances in the FIR domain.

  10. Stratospheric HBr mixing ratio obtained from far infrared emission spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Park, J. H.; Carli, B.; Barbis, A.

    1989-01-01

    Emission features of HBr isotopes have been identified in high-resolution FIR emission spectra obtained with a balloon-borne Fourier-transform spectrometer in the spring of 1979 at 32 deg N latitude. When six single-scan spectra at a zenith angle of 93.2 deg were averaged, two features of HBr isotopes at 50.054 and 50.069/cm were obtained with a signal-to-noise ratio of 2.5. The volume mixing ratio retrieved from the average spectrum is 2.0 x 10 to the -11th, which is assumed to be constant above 28 km, with an uncertainty of 35 percent. This stratospheric amount of HBr is about the same as the current level of tropospheric organic bromine compounds, 25 pptv. Thus HBr could be the major stratospheric bromine species.

  11. Far-infrared emission and star formation in spiral galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trinchieri, G.; Fabbiano, G.; Bandiera, R.

    1989-01-01

    The correlations between the emission in the far-IR, H-alpha, and blue in a sample of normal spiral galaxies are investigated. It is found that the luminosities in these three bands are all tightly correlated, although both the strength of the correlations and their functional dependencies are a function of the galaxies' morphological types. The best-fit power laws to these correlations are different for the comparison of different quantities and deviate significantly from linearity in some cases, implying the presence of additional emission mechanisms not related to the general increase of luminosity with galactic mass. Clear evidence is found of two independent effects in the incidence of warm far-IR emission in late-type spirals. One is a luminosity effect shown by the presence of excess far-IR relative to H-alpha or optical emission in the more luminous galaxies. The other is a dependence on widespread star-formation activity.

  12. Synchrotron far-infrared spectroscopy of the two lowest fundamental modes of 1,1-difluoroethane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Andy; Thompson, Christopher D.; Appadoo, Dominique R. T.; Plathe, Ruth; Roy, Pascale; Manceron, Laurent; Barros, Joanna; McNaughton, Don

    2013-08-01

    The far-infrared (FIR) spectrum (50-600 cm-1) of 1,1-difluoroethane was recorded using the high-resolution infrared AILES beamline at the Soleil synchrotron. A ro-vibrational assignment was performed on the lowest wavenumber, low intensity 181 0 and 171 0 modes, yielding band centres of 224.241903 (10) cm-1 and 384.252538 (13) cm-1, respectively. A total of 965 and 2031 FIR transitions were assigned to the 181 0 and 171 0 fundamentals, respectively. Previously measured pure rotational transitions from the upper states were included into the respective fits to yield improved rotational and centrifugal distortion constants. The 182 1 hot band was observed within the fundamental band, with 369 FIR transitions assigned and co-fitted with the fundamental to give a band centre of 431.956502 (39) cm-1 for ν 18 = 2. The 182 0 overtone was observed with 586 transitions assigned and fitted to give a band centre of 431.952763 (23) cm-1 for ν 18 = 2. The difference in energy is attributed to a torsional splitting of 0.003740 (45) cm-1 in the ν 18 = 2 state. Two hot bands originating from the ν 18 = 1 and ν 17 = 1 states were observed within the 171 0 fundamental.

  13. Atmospheric and spectroscopic research in the far infrared

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Park, Kwangjai; Radostitz, James V.

    1992-01-01

    The University of Oregon (UO) has been a major participant in the development of far infrared spectroscopic research of the stratosphere for the purpose of understanding the ozone layer processes. The UO has had a 15-year collaboration with the Italian group of B. Carli, and have participated in the 1978/79 Sub-millimeter Infrared Balloon Experiment (SIBEX), in the Balloon Intercomparison Campaign, (BIC), in the Infrared Balloon Experiment (IBEX), and in the recently concluded Far Infrared Experiment for UARS Correlative Measurements (FIREX). Both IBEX and FIREX programs were conducted in collaboration with NASA Langley, and were designed as validation flights in support of the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS) Program. The technique of atmospheric far infrared spectroscopy offers two important advantages. First, many chemically important species can be measured simultaneously and co-spatially in the atmosphere. Second, far infrared atmospheric spectra can be obtained in thermal emission without reference to the sun's position, enabling full diurnal and global coverage. Recent improvements in instrumentation, field measurements, and molecular concentration retrieval techniques are now making the far infrared a mature measurement technology. This work to date has largely focused on balloon-based studies, but the future efforts will focus also on satellite-based experiments. A program of research in the following general areas was proposed: Laboratory Pressure broadening coefficient studies; specialized detector system assembly and testing; and consultation and assistance with instrument and field support. The proposal was approved and a three-year research grant titled 'Atmospheric and Spectroscopic Research in the Far Infrared' was awarded. A summary of technical accomplishments attained during the grant period are presented.

  14. Pedestrian Detection in Far-Infrared Daytime Images Using a Hierarchical Codebook of SURF

    PubMed Central

    Besbes, Bassem; Rogozan, Alexandrina; Rus, Adela-Maria; Bensrhair, Abdelaziz; Broggi, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    One of the main challenges in intelligent vehicles concerns pedestrian detection for driving assistance. Recent experiments have showed that state-of-the-art descriptors provide better performances on the far-infrared (FIR) spectrum than on the visible one, even in daytime conditions, for pedestrian classification. In this paper, we propose a pedestrian detector with on-board FIR camera. Our main contribution is the exploitation of the specific characteristics of FIR images to design a fast, scale-invariant and robust pedestrian detector. Our system consists of three modules, each based on speeded-up robust feature (SURF) matching. The first module allows generating regions-of-interest (ROI), since in FIR images of the pedestrian shapes may vary in large scales, but heads appear usually as light regions. ROI are detected with a high recall rate with the hierarchical codebook of SURF features located in head regions. The second module consists of pedestrian full-body classification by using SVM. This module allows one to enhance the precision with low computational cost. In the third module, we combine the mean shift algorithm with inter-frame scale-invariant SURF feature tracking to enhance the robustness of our system. The experimental evaluation shows that our system outperforms, in the FIR domain, the state-of-the-art Haar-like Adaboost-cascade, histogram of oriented gradients (HOG)/linear SVM (linSVM) and MultiFtrpedestrian detectors, trained on the FIR images. PMID:25871724

  15. Electromagnetic modelling of a space-borne far-infrared interferometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donohoe, Anthony; O'Sullivan, Créidhe; Murphy, J. Anthony; Bracken, Colm; Savini, Giorgio; Pascale, Enzo; Ade, Peter; Sudiwala, Rashmi; Hornsby, Amber

    2016-02-01

    In this paper I will describe work done as part of an EU-funded project `Far-infrared space interferometer critical assessment' (FISICA). The aim of the project is to investigate science objectives and technology development required for the next generation THz space interferometer. The THz/FIR is precisely the spectral region where most of the energy from stars, exo-planetary systems and galaxy clusters deep in space is emitted. The atmosphere is almost completely opaque in the wave-band of interest so any observation that requires high quality data must be performed with a space-born instrument. A space-borne far infrared interferometer will be able to answer a variety of crucial astrophysical questions such as how do planets and stars form, what is the energy engine of most galaxies and how common are the molecule building blocks of life. The FISICA team have proposed a novel instrument based on a double Fourier interferometer that is designed to resolve the light from an extended scene, spectrally and spatially. A laboratory prototype spectral-spatial interferometer has been constructed to demonstrate the feasibility of the double-Fourier technique at far infrared wavelengths (0.15 - 1 THz). This demonstrator is being used to investigate and validate important design features and data-processing methods for future instruments. Using electromagnetic modelling techniques several issues related to its operation at long baselines and wavelengths, such as diffraction, have been investigated. These are critical to the design of the concept instrument and the laboratory testbed.

  16. The Far-Infrared Spectral Energy Distributions of Quasars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilkes, Belinda J.; West, Donald K. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The origin of the infrared emission in Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN), whose strength is comparable to the optical/ultraviolet (OUV) emission, is generally thought to be a combination of thermal emission from dust and non-thermal, synchrotron emission. Although data are sparse, particularly in the far-infrared, the broad wavelength range of this emission suggests a wide range of temperatures and a combination of AGN and starburst heating mechanisms. The strength of the non-thermal emission is expected to be related to the radio emission. While this scenario is well-established, basic questions, such as the spatial and temperature distribution of the dust, the relative importance of AGN and starburst heating, and the significance of the non-thermal contribution remain largely undetermined. The wide wavelength range of the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO) combined with its arcmin spatial resolution and increased sensitivity facilitated the observation of a larger subset of the AGN population than previously covered, allowing these questions to be investigated in more detail. This paper will review the spectral energy distributions (SED) of AGN with particular emphasis on the infrared emission and on ISO's contributions to our knowledge. Preliminary results from ISO observations of X-ray selected and high-redshift AGN will be described.

  17. Far infrared supplement: Catalog of infrared observations, second edition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gezari, Daniel Y.; Schmitz, Marion; Mead, Jaylee M.

    1988-01-01

    The Far Infrared Supplement: Catalog of Infrared Observations summarizes all infrared astronomical observations at far infrared wavelengths (5 to 1000 microns) published in the scientific literature from 1965 through 1986. The Supplement list contain 25 percent of the observations in the full Catalog of Infrared Observations (CIO), and essentially eliminates most visible stars from the listings. The Supplement is thus more compact than the main catalog, and is intended for easy reference during astronomical observations. The Far Infrared Supplement (2nd Edition) includes the Index of Infrared Source Positions and the Bibliography of Infrared Astronomy for the subset of far infrared observations listed.

  18. Strong far-infrared cooling lines, peculiar CO kinematics, and possible star-formation suppression in Hickson compact group 57

    SciTech Connect

    Alatalo, K.; Appleton, P. N.; Ogle, P. M.

    2014-11-10

    We present [C II] and [O I] observations from Herschel and CO(1-0) maps from the Combined Array for Research in Millimeter Astronomy (CARMA) of the Hickson compact group HCG 57, focusing on the galaxies HCG 57a and HCG 57d. HCG 57a has been previously shown to contain enhanced quantities of warm molecular hydrogen consistent with shock or turbulent heating. Our observations show that HCG 57d has strong [C II] emission compared to L {sub FIR} and weak CO(1-0), while in HCG 57a, both the [C II] and CO(1-0) are strong. HCG 57a lies at the upper end of the normalmore » distribution of the [C II]/CO and [C II]/FIR ratios, and its far-infrared (FIR) cooling supports a low-density, warm, diffuse gas that falls close to the boundary of acceptable models of a photon-dominated region. However, the power radiated in the [C II] and warm H{sub 2} emissions have similar magnitudes, as seen in other shock-dominated systems and predicted by recent models. We suggest that shock heating of the [C II] is a viable alternative to photoelectric heating in violently disturbed, diffuse gas. The existence of shocks is also consistent with the peculiar CO kinematics in the galaxy, indicating that highly noncircular motions are present. These kinematically disturbed CO regions also show evidence of suppressed star formation, falling a factor of 10-30 below normal galaxies on the Kennicutt-Schmidt relation. We suggest that the peculiar properties of both galaxies are consistent with a highly dissipative, off-center collisional encounter between HCG 57d and 57a, creating ring-like morphologies in both systems. Highly dissipative gas-on-gas collisions may be more common in dense groups because of the likelihood of repeated multiple encounters. The possibility of shock-induced star-formation suppression may explain why a subset of these HCG galaxies has been found previously to fall in the mid-infrared green valley.« less

  19. Strong Far-infrared Cooling Lines, Peculiar CO Kinematics, and Possible Star-formation Suppression in Hickson Compact Group 57

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alatalo, K.; Appleton, P. N.; Lisenfeld, U.; Bitsakis, T.; Guillard, P.; Charmandaris, V.; Cluver, M.; Dopita, M. A.; Freeland, E.; Jarrett, T.; Kewley, L. J.; Ogle, P. M.; Rasmussen, J.; Rich, J. A.; Verdes-Montenegro, L.; Xu, C. K.; Yun, M.

    2014-11-01

    We present [C II] and [O I] observations from Herschel and CO(1-0) maps from the Combined Array for Research in Millimeter Astronomy (CARMA) of the Hickson compact group HCG 57, focusing on the galaxies HCG 57a and HCG 57d. HCG 57a has been previously shown to contain enhanced quantities of warm molecular hydrogen consistent with shock or turbulent heating. Our observations show that HCG 57d has strong [C II] emission compared to L FIR and weak CO(1-0), while in HCG 57a, both the [C II] and CO(1-0) are strong. HCG 57a lies at the upper end of the normal distribution of the [C II]/CO and [C II]/FIR ratios, and its far-infrared (FIR) cooling supports a low-density, warm, diffuse gas that falls close to the boundary of acceptable models of a photon-dominated region. However, the power radiated in the [C II] and warm H2 emissions have similar magnitudes, as seen in other shock-dominated systems and predicted by recent models. We suggest that shock heating of the [C II] is a viable alternative to photoelectric heating in violently disturbed, diffuse gas. The existence of shocks is also consistent with the peculiar CO kinematics in the galaxy, indicating that highly noncircular motions are present. These kinematically disturbed CO regions also show evidence of suppressed star formation, falling a factor of 10-30 below normal galaxies on the Kennicutt-Schmidt relation. We suggest that the peculiar properties of both galaxies are consistent with a highly dissipative, off-center collisional encounter between HCG 57d and 57a, creating ring-like morphologies in both systems. Highly dissipative gas-on-gas collisions may be more common in dense groups because of the likelihood of repeated multiple encounters. The possibility of shock-induced star-formation suppression may explain why a subset of these HCG galaxies has been found previously to fall in the mid-infrared green valley.

  20. Atomic and molecular far-infrared lines from high redshift galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vallini, L.

    2015-03-01

    The advent of Atacama Large Millimeter-submillimeter Array (ALMA), with its unprecedented sensitivity, makes it possible the detection of far-infrared (FIR) metal cooling and molecular lines from the first galaxies that formed after the Big Bang. These lines represent a powerful tool to shed light on the physical properties of the interstellar medium (ISM) in high-redshift sources. In what follows we show the potential of a physically motivated theoretical approach that we developed to predict the ISM properties of high redshift galaxies. The model allows to infer, as a function of the metallicity, the luminosities of various FIR lines observable with ALMA. It is based on high resolution cosmological simulations of star-forming galaxies at the end of the Epoch of Reionization (z˜eq6) , further implemented with sub-grid physics describing the cooling and the heating processes that take place in the neutral diffuse ISM. Finally we show how a different approach based on semi-analytical calculations can allow to predict the CO flux function at z>6.

  1. Far infrared supplement: Catalog of infrared observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gezari, D. Y.; Schmitz, M.; Mead, J. M.

    1984-01-01

    The Far Infrared Supplement: catalog of infrared observations summarizes all infrared astronomical observations at far infrared wavelengths published in the scientific literature between 1965 and 1982. The Supplement list contains 25% of the observations in the full catalog of infrared observations (C10), and essentially eliminates most visible stars from the listings. The Supplement is more compact than the main Catalog (it does not contain the bibliography and position index of the C10), and is intended for easy reference during astronomical observations.

  2. Development of far infrared attenuation to measure electron densities in cw pin discharge lasers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Babcock, R. V.

    1977-01-01

    A two beam attenuation technique was devised to measure electron densities 10 to the 9th power to 10 to the 11th power cm/3 resolved to 1 cm, in a near atmospheric COFFEE laser discharge, using 496 micrometer and 1,220 micrometer radiations from CH3F, optically pumped by a CO2 laser. A far infrared generator was developed which was suitable except for a periodic intensity variation in FIR output deriving from frequency variation of the pump radiation.

  3. Detection of atomic oxygen and further line assignments in the far-infrared stratospheric spectrum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carli, B.; Mencaraglia, F.; Bonetti, A.; Carlotti, M.; Nolt, I.

    1985-01-01

    Recent progress in high-resolution measurement of sub-millimeter and far-infrared emission in the stratosphere is reviewed. Attention is given to the results of recent balloon measurements of the minor stratospheric constituents in the spectral range 40-190 per cm. Emission spectra are presented for HCl; HF; and OH. Emission spectra were also obtained for atomic oxygen; hydrobromic acid; and hydroperoxyl radical. The possibility of detecting HO2 and H2O2 in the far-infrared is also briefly discussed.

  4. Far Infrared Measurements of Cirrus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nolt, I. G.; Vanek, M. D.; Tappan, N. D.; Minnis, P.; Alltop, J. L.; Ade, A. R.; Lee, C.; Hamilton, P. A.; Evans, K. F.; Evans, A. H.

    1999-01-01

    Improved techniques for remote sensing of cirrus are needed to obtain global data for assessing the effect of cirrus in climate change models. Model calculations show that the far infrared/sub-millimeter spectral region is well suited for retrieving cirrus Ice Water Path and particle size parameters. Especially useful cirrus information is obtained at frequencies below 60 cm-1 where single particle scattering dominates over thermal emission for ice particles larger than about 50 m. Earth radiance spectra have been obtained for a range of cloud conditions using an aircraft-based Fourier transform spectrometer. The Far InfraRed Sensor for Cirrus (FIRSC) is a Martin-Puplett interferometer which incorporates a polarizer for the beamsplitter and can be operated in either intensity or linear polarization measurement mode. Two detector channels span 10 to 140 cm-1 with a spectral resolution of 0.1 cm-1; achieving a Noise Equivalent Temperature of approximately 1K at 30 cm-1 in a 4 sec scan. Examples are shown of measured and modeled Earth radiance for a range of cloud conditions from 1998 and 1999 flights.

  5. Far-infrared protects vascular endothelial cells from advanced glycation end products-induced injury via PLZF-mediated autophagy in diabetic mice

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Cheng-Hsien; Chen, Tso-Hsiao; Wu, Mei-Yi; Chou, Tz-Chong; Chen, Jia-Rung; Wei, Meng-Jun; Lee, San-Liang; Hong, Li-Yu; Zheng, Cai-Mei; Chiu, I-Jen; Lin, Yuh-Feng; Hsu, Ching-Min; Hsu, Yung-Ho

    2017-01-01

    The accumulation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) in diabetic patients induces vascular endothelial injury. Promyelocytic leukemia zinc finger protein (PLZF) is a transcription factor that can be activated by low-temperature far-infrared (FIR) irradiation to exert beneficial effects on the vascular endothelium. In the present study, we investigated the influence of FIR-induced PLZF activation on AGE-induced endothelial injury both in vitro and in vivo. FIR irradiation inhibited AGE-induced apoptosis in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). PLZF activation increased the expression of phosphatidylinositol-3 kinases (PI3K), which are important kinases in the autophagic signaling pathway. FIR-induced PLZF activation led to autophagy in HUVEC, which was mediated through the upregulation of PI3K. Immunofluorescence staining showed that AGEs were engulfed by HUVECs and localized to lysosomes. FIR-induced autophagy promoted AGEs degradation in HUVECs. In nicotinamide/streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice, FIR therapy reduced serum AGEs and AGEs deposition at the vascular endothelium. FIR therapy also reduced diabetes-induced inflammatory markers in the vascular endothelium and improved vascular endothelial function. These protective effects of FIR therapy were not found in PLZF-knockout mice. Our data suggest that FIR-induced PLZF activation in vascular endothelial cells protects the vascular endothelium in diabetic mice from AGE-induced injury. PMID:28071754

  6. Far-infrared HD emission as a measure of protoplanetary disk mass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trapman, L.; Miotello, A.; Kama, M.; van Dishoeck, E. F.; Bruderer, S.

    2017-09-01

    Context. Protoplanetary disks around young stars are the sites of planet formation. While the dust mass can be estimated using standard methods, determining the gas mass - and thus the amount of material available to form giant planets - has proven to be very difficult. Hydrogen deuteride (HD) is a promising alternative to the commonly used gas mass tracer, carbon monoxide. However, the potential of HD has not yet been investigated with models incorporating both HD and CO isotopologue-specific chemistry, and its sensitivity to uncertainties in disk parameters has not yet been quantified. Aims: We examine the robustness of HD as tracer of the disk gas mass, specifically the effect of gas mass on HD far-infrared emission and its sensitivity to the vertical structure. Also, we seek to provide requirements for future far-infrared missions such as SPICA. Methods: Deuterium chemistry reactions relevant for HD were implemented in the thermochemical code DALI and more than 160 disk models were run for a range of disk masses and vertical structures. Results: The HD J = 1-0 line intensity depends directly on the gas mass through a sublinear power law relation with a slope of 0.8. Assuming no prior knowledge about the vertical structure of a disk and using only the HD 1-0 flux, gas masses can be estimated to within a factor of two for low mass disks (Mdisk ≤ 10-3M⊙). For more massive disks, this uncertainty increases to more than an order of magnitude. Adding the HD 2-1 line or independent information about the vertical structure can reduce this uncertainty to a factor of 3 for all disk masses. For TW Hya, using the radial and vertical structure from the literature, the observations constrain the gas mass to 6 × 10-3M⊙ ≤ Mdisk ≤ 9 × 10-3M⊙. Future observations require a 5σ sensitivity of 1.8 × 10-20 W m-2 (2.5 × 10-20 W m-2) and a spectral resolving power R ≥ 300 (1000) to detect HD 1-0 (HD 2-1) for all disk masses above 10-5M⊙ with a line

  7. Detection of interstellar CH in the far-infrared

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stacey, Gordon J.; Lugten, J. B.; Genzel, R.

    1987-01-01

    The first astronomical detection of CH in the far-infrared has been made. A ground state of rotational transition was observed in absorption against the far-infrared continuum peak of Sgr B2. The lines are resolved at a velocity resolution of 62 km/s, have a line width of roughly 250 km/s, and a line center optical depth of about 0.29. The inferred total column density of CH in the ground state along the line of sight is roughly 1.6 x 10 to the 15th/sq cm. Comparison of the far-infrared profiles to the 3 GHz emission lines confirms that the ground-state Lambda-doublet levels are inverted and gives an accurate estimate of the excitation temperature. The excitation temperature of the 3264 MHz line varies from cloud to cloud along the line of sight, the levels being most inverted in the Sgr B2 molecular cloud. The large intensity of the 3264 MHz line in this cloud relative to other clouds along the line of sight may thus be primarily an excitation effect.

  8. Analysis and design of optically pumped far infrared oscillators and amplifiers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Galantowicz, T. A.

    1978-01-01

    A waveguide laser oscillator was designed and experimental measurements made of relationships among output power, pressure, pump power, pump frequency, cavity tuning, output beam pattern, and cavity mirror properties for various active gases. A waveguide regenerative amplifier was designed and gain measurements were made for various active gases. An external Fabry-Perot interferometer was fabricated and used for accurate wavelength determination and for measurements of the refractive indices of solids transparent in the far infrared. An electronic system was designed and constructed to provide an appropriate error signal for use in feedback control of pump frequency. Pump feedback from the FIR laser was decoupled using a vibrating mirror to phase modulate the pump signal.

  9. First Light from the Far-Infrared Spectroscopy of the Troposphere (FIRST) Instrument

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mlynczak, Martin G.; Johnson, David G.; Latvakoski, Harri; Jucks, Kenneth; Watson, Mike; Bingham, Gail; Kratz, David P.; Traub, Wesley A.; Wellard, Stanley J.; Hyde, Charles R.; hide

    2005-01-01

    We present first light spectra from the new Far-Infrared Spectroscopy of the Troposphere (FIRST) instrument. FIRST is a Fourier Transform Spectrometer developed to measure accurately the far-infrared (15 to 100 micrometers; 650 to 100 wavenumbers) emission spectrum of the Earth and its atmosphere. The observations presented here were obtained during a high altitude balloon flight from Ft. Sumner, New Mexico on 7 June 2005. The flight data demonstrate the instrument's ability to observe the entire energetically significant infrared emission spectrum (50 to 2000 wavenumbers) at high spectral and spatial resolution on a single focal plane in an instrument with one broad spectral bandpass beamsplitter. Comparisons with radiative transfer calculations demonstrate that FIRST accurately observes the very fine spectral structure in the far-infrared. Comparisons of the atmospheric window radiances measured by FIRST and by instruments on the NASA Aqua satellite that overflew FIRST are in excellent agreement. FIRST opens a new window on the spectrum that can be used for studying atmospheric radiation and climate, cirrus clouds, and water vapor in the upper troposphere.

  10. Application of far infrared rare earth mineral composite materials to liquefied petroleum gas.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Dongbin; Liang, Jinsheng; Ding, Yan; Xu, Anping

    2010-03-01

    Far infrared rare earth mineral composite materials were prepared by the coprecipitation method using tourmaline, cerium acetate, and lanthanum acetate as raw materials. The results of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy show that tourmaline modified with the rare earths La and Ce has a better far infrared emitting performance. Through XRD analysis, we attribute the improved far infrared emission properties of the tourmaline to the unit cell shrinkage of the tourmaline arising from La enhancing the redox properties of nano-CeO2. The effect of the composite materials on the combustion of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) was studied by the flue gas analysis and water boiling test. Based on the results, it was found that the composite materials could accelerate the combustion of LPG, and that the higher the emissivity of the rare earth mineral composite materials, the better the effects on combustion of LPG. In all activation styles, both air and LPG to be activated has a best effect, indicating the activations having a cumulative effect.

  11. The Single Aperture Far-Infrared (SAFIR) Observatory and its Cryogenic Detector Needs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benford, Dominic J.; Moseley, S. H.

    2003-01-01

    The development of a large, far-infrared telescope in space has taken on a new urgency with breakthroughs in detector technology and recognition of the fundamental importance of the far-infrared spectral region to questions ranging from cosmology to our own Solar System. The Single Aperture Far-InfraRed (SAFIR) Observatory is l0m-class far-infrared observatory that would begin development later in this decade to meet these needs. SAFIR's science goals are driven by the fact that youngest stages of almost all phenomena in the universe are shrouded in absorption by and emission from cool dust that emits strongly in the far-infrared, 20 microns - 1mm. Its operating temperature (4 K) and instrument complement would be optimized to reach the natural sky confusion limit in the far-infrared with diffraction-limited performance down to at least the atmospheric cutoff at 40 microns. This would provide a point source sensitivity improvement of several orders of magnitude over that of SIRTF. In order to achieve this, large arrays of detectors with NEPs ranging from a few to a hundred zeptowatts/sqrt(Hz) are needed. Very low temperature superconducting transition edge sensors and far-infrared "photon counting" detectors are critical technologies requiring development for the SAFIR mission.

  12. Reststrahlen Band Optics for the Advancement of Far-Infrared Optical Architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Streyer, William Henderson

    The dissertation aims to build a case for the benefits and means of investigating novel optical materials and devices operating in the underdeveloped far-infrared (20 - 60 microns) region of the electromagnetic spectrum. This dissertation and the proposed future investigations described here have the potential to further the advancement of new and enhanced capabilities in fields such as astronomy, medicine, and the petrochemical industry. The first several completed projects demonstrate techniques for developing far-infrared emission sources using selective thermal emitters, which could operate more efficiently than their simple blackbody counterparts commonly used as sources in this wavelength region. The later projects probe the possible means of linking bulk optical phonon populations through interaction with surface modes to free space photons. This is a breakthrough that would enable the development of a new class of light sources operating in the far-infrared. Chapter 1 introduces the far-infrared wavelength range along with many of its current and potential applications. The limited capabilities of the available optical architecture in this range are outlined along with a discussion of the state-of-the-art technology available in this range. Some of the basic physical concepts routinely applied in this dissertation are reviewed; namely, the Drude formalism, semiconductor Reststrahlen bands, and surface polaritons. Lastly, some of the physical challenges that impede the further advancement of far-infrared technology, despite remarkable recent success in adjacent regions of the electromagnetic spectrum, are discussed. Chapter 2 describes the experimental and computational methods employed in this dissertation. Spectroscopic techniques used to investigate both the mid-infrared and far-infrared wavelength ranges are reviewed, including a brief description of the primary instrument of infrared spectroscopy, the Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectrometer

  13. Antibacterial effect of citrus press-cakes dried by high speed and far-infrared radiation drying methods

    PubMed Central

    Samarakoon, Kalpa; Senevirathne, Mahinda; Lee, Won-Woo; Kim, Young-Tae; Kim, Jae-Il; Oh, Myung-Cheol

    2012-01-01

    In this study, the antibacterial effect was evaluated to determine the benefits of high speed drying (HSD) and far-infrared radiation drying (FIR) compared to the freeze drying (FD) method. Citrus press-cakes (CPCs) are released as a by-product in the citrus processing industry. Previous studies have shown that the HSD and FIR drying methods are much more economical for drying time and mass drying than those of FD, even though FD is the most qualified drying method. The disk diffusion assay was conducted, and the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) were determined with methanol extracts of the dried CPCs against 11 fish and five food-related pathogenic bacteria. The disk diffusion results indicated that the CPCs dried by HSD, FIR, and FD prevented growth of all tested bacteria almost identically. The MIC and MBC results showed a range from 0.5-8.0 mg/mL and 1.0-16.0 mg/mL respectively. Scanning electron microscopy indicated that the extracts changed the morphology of the bacteria cell wall, leading to destruction. These results suggest that CPCs dried by HSD and FIR showed strong antibacterial activity against pathogenic bacteria and are more useful drying methods than that of the classic FD method in CPCs utilization. PMID:22808341

  14. A High Spatial Resolution Study of Far IR Emission of Galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caldwell, Barrie A.

    2000-01-01

    This grant funded observations, data reduction, professional publications and travel for scientific efforts on the Kuiper Airborne Observatory. The research project was successfully completed. New insights into the distribution of far infrared emission across star forming regions was obtained, and student training was achieved. The efforts contributed towards new observing strategies, such as calibration and intercomparison of data from different infrared astronomical observing platforms, that will impact future NASA missions, such as SOFIA. The results of the effort have been presented in several papers in the refereed literature, including: "The Structure of IR Luminous Galaxies at 100 Microns". " Far Infrared Thermal Emission from the Inner Cooling Flow Region of NGC1275". "Distribution of Light in the "Dusty Hand" Galaxy NGC2146".

  15. A Measurement of the Rotational Spectrum of the CH Radical in the Far-Infrared

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davidson, Steven A.; Evenson, Kenneth M.; Brown, John M.

    2001-01-01

    Rotational and fine-structure transitions between the lower rotational levels of the CH radical in its X2Π state have been observed in absorption in the laboratory with a tunable far-infrared (TuFIR) spectrometer. The molecules were generated in an electric discharge through a mixture of methane and carbon monoxide in helium. The experimental line widths were limited by Doppler broadening and the measurements have a 1 σ experimental uncertainty of 100 kHz. The frequencies have been used together with all previous measurements of CH in the v=0 level of the X2Π electronic state to determine its molecular parameters and to predict an accurate set of rotational transition frequencies. ID="FN1">1We wish to dedicate this paper to our good friend and colleague, Harry Radford, who died on 2000 May 5. His name will live on in association with many groundbreaking pieces of work on the spectroscopy of small molecules, not least with the first detection of the far-infrared spectrum of the CH radical in 1970 March.

  16. The Infrared-Radio Correlation of Dusty Star Forming Galaxies at High Redshift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lower, Sidney; Vieira, Joaquin Daniel; Jarugula, Sreevani

    2018-01-01

    Far-infrared (FIR) and radio continuum emission in galaxies are related by a common origin: massive stars and the processes triggered during their birth, lifetime, and death. FIR emission is produced by cool dust, heated by the absorption of UV emission from massive stars, which is then re-emitted in the FIR. Thermal free-free radiation emitted from HII regions dominates the spectral energy density (SED) of galaxies at roughly 30 GHz, while non-thermal synchrotron radiation dominates at lower frequencies. At low redshift, the infrared radio correlation (IRC, or qIR) holds as a tight empirical relation for many star forming galaxy types, but until recently, there has not been sensitive enough radio observations to extend this relation to higher redshifts. Many selection biases cloud the results of these analyses, leaving the evolution of the IRC with redshift ambiguous. In this poster, I present CIGALE fitted spectral energy distributions (SEDs) for 24 gravitationally-lensed sources selected in the mm-wave from the South Pole Telescope (SPT) survey. I fit the IRC from infrared and submillimeter fluxes obtained with Herschel, Atacama Pathfinder Experiment (APEX), and SPT and radio fluxes obtained with ATCA at 2.1, 5.5, 9, and 30 GHz. This sample of SPT sources has a spectroscopic redshift range of 2.1

  17. Far-infrared and dc magnetotransport of CaMnO3-CaRuO3 superlattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yordanov, P.; Boris, A. V.; Freeland, J. W.; Kavich, J. J.; Chakhalian, J.; Lee, H. N.; Keimer, B.

    2011-07-01

    We report temperature- and magnetic-field-dependent measurements of the dc resistivity and the far-infrared reflectivity (FIR) (photon energies ℏω=50-700 cm-1) of superlattices comprising ten consecutive unit cells of the antiferromagnetic insulator CaMnO3, and four to ten unit cells of the correlated paramagnetic metal CaRuO3. Below the Néel temperature of CaMnO3, the dc resistivity exhibits a logarithmic divergence upon cooling, which is associated with a large negative, isotropic magnetoresistance. The ω→0 extrapolation of the resistivity extracted from the FIR reflectivity, on the other hand, shows a much weaker temperature and field dependence. We attribute this behavior to scattering of itinerant charge carriers in CaRuO3 from sparse, spatially isolated magnetic defects at the CaMnO3-CaRuO3 interfaces. This field-tunable “transport bottleneck” effect may prove useful for functional metal-oxide devices.

  18. Association of Far-Infrared Radiation Therapy and Ankle-Brachial Index of Patients on Hemodialysis with Peripheral Artery Occlusive Disease

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Szu-Chia; Lee, Mei-Yueh; Huang, Jiun-Chi; Kuo, I-Ching; Mai, Hsiu-Chin; Kuo, Po-Lin; Chang, Jer-Ming; Hwang, Shang-Jyh; Chen, Hung-Chun

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aim: The ankle-brachial index (ABI) is recognized to be a good marker for atherosclerosis, and is useful in the diagnosis of peripheral artery occlusive disease (PAOD) which is prevalent among patients on hemodialysis (HD). Methods: This randomized trial aimed to evaluate the effect of far-infrared radiation (FIR) therapy on ABI in HD patients with PAOD. PAOD was defined as patients with ABI < 0.95. One hundred and eight HD patients were enrolled, including 50 in the control group and 58 in the FIR group. A WS TY101 FIR emitter was applied for 40 minutes during each HD session, three times per week for six months. The ABI was measured before and after the FIR therapy. Results: Regardless of FIR therapy, the bilateral ABI decreased (in the FIR group, left: 0.88±0.22 to 0.85±0.24, p = 0.188; right: 0.92±0.20 to 0.90±0.23, p = 0.372; in control group, left: 0.91±0.23 to 0.88±0.21, p = 0144; right: 0.93±0.17 to 0.89±0.21, p = 0.082). Multivariate logistic analysis of the FIR group revealed that high uric acid (odds ratio [OR]: 2.335; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.117-4.882; p=0.024) and aspirin use (OR: 16.463; 95% CI: 1.787-151.638; p=0.013) were independently associated with increased bilateral ABI after FIR therapy. Conclusions: This study demonstrates that ABI is not increased after FIR therapy in HD patients with PAOD. However, in the FIR group, patients with higher uric acid level or those who used aspirin have increased bilateral ABI after FIR therapy. PMID:27994503

  19. a Question of Mass : Accounting for all the Dust in the Crab Nebula with the Deepest Far Infrared Maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matar, J.; Nehmé, C.; Sauvage, M.

    2017-12-01

    Supernovae represent significant sources of dust in the interstellar medium. In this work, deep far-infrared (FIR) observations of the Crab Nebula are studied to provide a new and reliable constraint on the amount of dust present in this supernova remnant. Deep exposures between 70 and 500 μm taken by PACS and SPIRE instruments on-board the Herschel Space Telescope, compiling all observations of the nebula including PACS observing mode calibration, are refined using advanced processing techniques, thus providing the most accurate data ever generated by Herschel on the object. We carefully find the intrinsic flux of each image by masking the source and creating a 2D polynomial fit to deduce the background emission. After subtracting the estimated non-thermal synchrotron component, two modified blackbodies were found to best fit the remaining infrared continuum, the cold component with T_c = 8.3 ± 3.0 K and M_d = 0.27 ± 0.05 M_{⊙} and the warmer component with T_w = 27.2 ± 1.3 K and M_d = (1.3 ± 0.4) ×10^{-3} M_{⊙}.

  20. The Far-Infrared Properties of the Most Isolated Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lisenfeld, U.; Verdes-Montenegro, L.; Sulentic, J.; Leon, S.; Espada, D.; Bergond, G.; García, E.; Sabater, J.; Santander-Vela, J. D.; Verley, S.

    2007-05-01

    A long-standing question in galaxy evolution involves the role of nature (self-regulation) vs. nurture (environment) on the observed properties (and evolution) of galaxies. A collaboration centreed at the Instituto de Astrofisica de Andalucia (Granada, Spain) is trying to address this question by producing a observational database for a sample of 1050 isolated galaxies from the catalogue of Karachentseva (1973) with the overarching goal being the generation of a "zero-point" sample against which effects of environment on galaxies can be assessed. The AMIGA (Analysis of the Interstellar Medium of Isolated Galaxies) database (see www.iaa.es/AMIGA.html) will include optical, IR and radio line and continuum measures. The galaxies in the sample represent the most isolated galaxies in the local universe. In the present contribution, we will present the project, as well as the results of an analysis of the far-infrared (FIR) and molecular gas properties of this sample.

  1. Far-infrared Beamline at the Canadian Light Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Jianbao; Billinghurst, Brant

    2017-06-01

    Far-infrared is a particularly useful technique for studies on lattice modes as they generally appear in the Far-infrared region. Far-infrared is also an important tool for gathering information on the electrical transport properties of metallic materials and the band gap of semiconductors. This poster will describe the horizontal microscope that has recently been built in the Far-infrared beamline at the Canadian Light Source Inc. (CLS). This microscope is specially designed for high-pressure Far-infrared absorbance and reflectance spectroscopic studies. The numerical aperture (0.5) and the long working distance (82.1 mm) in the microscope are good fits for Diamond Anvil Cell (DAC). The spectra are recorded using liquid helium cooled Si bolometer or Ge:Cu detector. The pressure in the DAC can be determined by using the fluorescence spectrometer available onsite. The Far-infrared beamline at CLS is a state-of-the-art synchrotron facility, offering significantly more brightness than conventional sources. Because of the high brightness of the synchrotron radiation, we can obtain the Far-infrared reflectance/absorbance spectra on the small samples with more throughput than with a conventional source. The Far-infrared beamline is open to users through peer review.

  2. Seasonal Disappearance of Far-Infrared Haze in Titan's Stratosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jennings, Donald E.; Anderson, C. M.; Flasar, F. M.; Nixon, C. A.; Kunde, V. G.; Achterberg, R. K.; Cottini, V.; deKok, R.; Coustenis, A.; Vinatier, S.; hide

    2012-01-01

    A far-infrared emission band attributed to volatile or refractory haze in Titan's stratosphere has been decreasing in intensity since Cassini's arrival in 2004. The 220 cm(sup -1) feature, first seen by the Voyager Infrared Interferometer Spectrometer, has only been found in Titan's winter polar region. The emission peaks at about 140 km altitude near the winter stratospheric temperature minimum. Observations recorded over the period 2004-2012 by the Composite Infrared Spectrometer on Cassini show a decrease in the intensity of this feature by about a factor of four. Possible seasonal causes of this decline are an increase in photolytic destruction of source chemicals at high altitude, a lessening of condensation as solar heating increased, or a weakening of downwelling of vapors. As of early 2012, the 220 cm(sup -1) haze has not yet been detected in the south. The haze composition is unknown, but its decrease is similar to that of HC3N gas in Titan's polar stratosphere, pointing to a nitrile origin.

  3. FAR-INFRARED SPECTROSCOPY OF CATIONIC POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS: ZERO KINETIC ENERGY PHOTOELECTRON SPECTROSCOPY OF PENTACENE VAPORIZED FROM LASER DESORPTION

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Jie; Han Fangyuan; Pei Linsen

    2010-05-20

    The distinctive set of infrared (IR) emission bands at 3.3, 6.2, 7.7, 8.6, and 11.3 {mu}m are ubiquitously seen in a wide variety of astrophysical environments. They are generally attributed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) molecules. However, not a single PAH species has yet been identified in space, as the mid-IR vibrational bands are mostly representative of functional groups and thus do not allow one to fingerprint individual PAH molecules. In contrast, the far-IR (FIR) bands are sensitive to the skeletal characteristics of a molecule, hence they are important for chemical identification of unknown species. With an aim to offermore » laboratory astrophysical data for the Herschel Space Observatory, Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy, and similar future space missions, in this work we report neutral and cation FIR spectroscopy of pentacene (C{sub 22}H{sub 14}), a five-ring PAH molecule. We report three IR active modes of cationic pentacene at 53.3, 84.8, and 266 {mu}m that may be detectable by space missions such as the SAFARI instrument on board SPICA. In the experiment, pentacene is vaporized from a laser desorption source and cooled by a supersonic argon beam. We have obtained results from two-color resonantly enhanced multiphoton ionization and two-color zero kinetic energy photoelectron (ZEKE) spectroscopy. Several skeletal vibrational modes of the first electronically excited state of the neutral species and those of the cation are assigned, with the aid of ab initio and density functional calculations. Although ZEKE is governed by the Franck-Condon principle different from direct IR absorption or emission, vibronic coupling in the long ribbon-like molecule results in the observation of a few IR active modes. Within the experimental resolution of {approx}7 cm{sup -1}, the frequency values from our calculation agree with the experiment for the cation, but differ for the electronically excited intermediate state. Consequently

  4. Biological activities caused by far-infrared radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inoué, Shojiro; Kabaya, Morihiro

    1989-09-01

    Contrary to previous presumption, accumulated evidence indicates that far-infrared rays are biologically active. A small ceramic disk that emist far-infrared rays (4 16 μm) has commonly been applied to a local spot or a whole part of the body for exposure. Pioneering attempts to experimentally analyze an effect of acute and chronic radiation of far-infrared rays on living organisms have detected a growth-promoting effect in growing rats, a sleep-modulatory effect in freely behaving rats and an insomiac patient, and a blood circulation-enhancing effect in human skin. Question-paires to 542 users of far-infrared radiator disks embedded in bedelothes revealed that the majority of the users subjectively evaluated an improvement of their health. These effects on living organisms appear to be non-specifically triggered by an exposure to far-infrared rays, which eventually induce an increase in temperature of the body tissues or, more basically, an elevated motility of body fluids due to decrease in size of water clusters.

  5. Determination of the Far-Infrared Cosmic Background Using COBE/DIRBE and WHAM Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Odegard, N.; Arendt, R. G.; Dwek, E.; Haffner, L. M.; Hauser, M. G.; Reynolds, R. J.

    2007-01-01

    Determination of the cosmic infrared background (CIB) at far infrared wavelengths using COBE/DIRBE data is limited by the accuracy to which foreground interplanetary and Galactic dust emission can be modeled and subtracted. Previous determinations of the far infrared CIB (e.g., Hauser et al. 1998) were based on the detection of residual isotropic emission in skymaps from which the emission from interplanetary dust and the neutral interstellar medium were removed. In this paper we use the Wisconsin H(alpha) Mapper (WHAM) Northern Sky Survey as a tracer of the ionized medium to examine the effect of this foreground component on determination of the CIB. We decompose the DIRBE far infrared data for five high Galactic latitude regions into HI- and H(alpha)- correlated components and a residual component. Eased on FUSE H2 absorption line observations, the contribution of a11 H2-correlated component is expected to he negligible. We find the H(alpha)-correlated component to be consistent with zero for each region, and we find that addition of an H(alpha)-correlated component in modeling the foreground emission has negligible effect on derived CIB results. Our CIB detections and 2(sigma) upper limits are essentially the same as those derived by Hauser et al. and are given by (nu)I(sub nu)(nW/sq m/sr) < 75, < 32, 25+/-8, and 13+/-3 at gamma = 60, 100, 140, and 240 microns, respectively. Our residuals have not been subjected to a detailed anisotropy test, so our CIB results do not supersede those of Hauser et al. Mie derive upper limits on the 100 micron emissivity of the ionized medium that are typically about 40% of the 100 micron emissivity of the neutral atomic medium. This low value may be caused in part by a lower dust-to-gas mass ratio in the ionized medium than in the neutral medium, and in part by a shortcoming of using H(alpha) intensity as a tracer of far infrared emission. If H(alpha) is not a reliable tracer, our analysis would underestimate the emissivity of

  6. Infrared Space Observatory Observations of Far-Infrared Rotational Emission Lines of Water Vapor Toward the Supergiant Star VY Canis Majoris

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neufeld, David A.; Feuchtgruber, Helmut; Harwit, Martin; Melnick, Gary J.

    1999-01-01

    We report the detection of numerous far-infrared emission lines of water vapor toward the supergiant star VY Canis Majoris. A 29.5-45 micron grating scan of VY CMa, obtained using the Short-Wavelength Spectrometer (SWS) of the Infrared Space Observatory at a spectral resolving power lambda/delat.lambda of approximately 2000, reveals at least 41 spectral features due to water vapor that together radiate a total luminosity of approximately 25 solar luminosity . In addition to pure rotational transitions within the ground vibrational state, these features include rotational transitions within the (010) excited vibrational state. The spectrum also shows the (sup 2)product(sub 1/2) (J = 5/2) left arrow (sup 2)product(sub 3/2) (J = 3/2) OH feature near 34.6 micron in absorption. Additional SWS observations of VY CMa were carried out in the instrument's Fabry-Perot mode for three water transitions: the 7(sub 25)-6(sub 16) line at 29.8367 micron, the 4(sub 41)-3(sub 12) line at 31.7721 micron, and the 4(sub 32)-3(sub 03) line at 40.6909 micron. The higher spectral resolving power lambda/delta.lambda of approximately 30,000 thereby obtained permits the line profiles to be resolved spectrally for the first time and reveals the "P Cygni" profiles that are characteristic of emission from an outflowing envelope.

  7. CALISTO: A Cryogenic Far-Infrared/Submillimeter Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldsmith, P. F.; Bradford, C. M.; Dragovan, M.; Khayatian, B.; Huffenberger, K.; O'Dwyer, I. J.; Gorski, K.; Yorke, H. W.; Zmuidzinas, J.; Paine, C.; hide

    2007-01-01

    We present a design for a cryogenically cooled large aperture telescope for far-infrared astronomy in the wavelength range 30 micrometers to 300 micrometers. The Cryogenic Aperture Large Infrared Space Telescope Observatory, or CALISTO, is based on an off-axis Gregorian telescope having a 4 m by 6 m primary reflector. This can be launched using an Atlas V 511, with the only optical deployment required being a simple hinged rotation of the secondary reflector. The off-axis design, which includes a cold stop, offers exceptionally good performance in terms of high efficiency and minimum coupling of radiation incident from angles far off the direction of maximum response. This means that strong astronomical sources, such as the Milky Way and zodiacal dust in the plane of the solar system, add very little to the background. The entire optical system is cooled to 4 K to make its emission less than even this low level of astronomical emission. Assuming that detector technology can be improved to the point where detector noise is less than that of the astronomical background, we anticipate unprecedented low values of system noise equivalent power, in the vicinity of 10(exp -19) WHz(exp -0.5), through CALISTO's operating range. This will enable a variety of new astronomical investigations ranging from studies of objects in the outer solar system to tracing the evolution of galaxies in the universe throughout cosmic time.

  8. An ISO far-infrared survey of line and continuum emission for 227 galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brauher, J. R.

    2002-01-01

    Far-infrared line and continuum fluxes are presented for a sample of 227 galaxies observed with the Long Wavelength Spectrometer on the Infrared Space Observatory, selected from the ISO Data Archive and having an IRAS 60/100 mu m color ration of 0.2-1.4 and IRAS 60 mu m flux density between 0.1 Jy and 1300 Jy.

  9. The Intrinsic Far-infrared Continua of Type-1 Quasars

    SciTech Connect

    Lyu, Jianwei; Rieke, George H., E-mail: jianwei@email.arizona.edu

    2017-06-01

    The range of currently proposed active galactic nucleus (AGN) far-infrared templates results in uncertainties in retrieving host galaxy information from infrared observations and also undermines constraints on the outer part of the AGN torus. We discuss how to test and reconcile these templates. Physically, the fraction of the intrinsic AGN IR-processed luminosity compared with that from the central engine should be consistent with the dust-covering factor. In addition, besides reproducing the composite spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of quasars, a correct AGN IR template combined with an accurate library of star-forming galaxy templates should be able to reproduce the IR propertiesmore » of the host galaxies, such as the luminosity-dependent SED shapes and aromatic feature strengths. We develop tests based on these expected behaviors and find that the shape of the AGN intrinsic far-IR emission drops off rapidly starting at ∼20 μ m and can be matched by an Elvis et al.-like template with a minor modification. Despite the variations in the near- to mid-IR bands, AGNs in quasars and Seyfert galaxies have remarkably similar intrinsic far-IR SEDs at λ ∼ 20–100 μ m, suggesting a similar emission character of the outermost region of the circumnuclear torus. The variations of the intrinsic AGN IR SEDs among the type-1 quasar population can be explained by the changing relative strengths of four major dust components with similar characteristic temperatures, and there is evidence for compact AGN-heated dusty structures at sub-kiloparsec scales in the far-IR.« less

  10. Far-infrared radiation acutely increases nitric oxide production by increasing Ca{sup 2+} mobilization and Ca{sup 2+}/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II-mediated phosphorylation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase at serine 1179

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Jung-Hyun; Lee, Sangmi; Cho, Du-Hyong

    Highlights: •Far-infrared (FIR) radiation increases eNOS-Ser{sup 1179} phosphorylation and NO production in BAEC. •CaMKII and PKA mediate FIR-stimulated increases in eNOS-Ser{sup 1179} phosphorylation. •FIR increases intracellular Ca{sup 2+} levels. •Thermo-sensitive TRPV Ca{sup 2+} channels are unlikely to be involved in the FIR-mediated eNOS-Ser{sup 1179} phosphorylation pathway. -- Abstract: Repeated thermal therapy manifested by far-infrared (FIR) radiation improves vascular function in both patients and mouse model with coronary heart disease, but its underlying mechanism is not fully understood. Using FIR as a thermal therapy agent, we investigate the molecular mechanism of its effect on endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) activity andmore » NO production. FIR increased the phosphorylation of eNOS at serine 1179 (eNOS-Ser{sup 1179}) in a time-dependent manner (up to 40 min of FIR radiation) in bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAEC) without alterations in eNOS expression. This increase was accompanied by increases in NO production and intracellular Ca{sup 2+} levels. Treatment with KN-93, a selective inhibitor of Ca{sup 2+}/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) and H-89, a protein kinase A inhibitor, inhibited FIR radiation-stimulated eNOS-Ser{sup 1179} phosphorylation. FIR radiation itself also increased the temperature of culture medium. As transient receptors potential vanilloid (TRPV) ion channels are known to be temperature-sensitive calcium channels, we explore whether TRPV channels mediate these observed effects. Reverse transcription-PCR assay revealed two TRPV isoforms in BAEC, TRPV2 and TRPV4. Although ruthenium red, a pan-TRPV inhibitor, completely reversed the observed effect of FIR radiation, a partial attenuation (∼20%) was found in cells treated with Tranilast, TRPV2 inhibitor. However, ectopic expression of siRNA of TRPV2 showed no significant alteration in FIR radiation-stimulated eNOS-Ser{sup 1179} phosphorylation

  11. HerMES: The Far-infrared Emission from Dust-obscured Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calanog, J. A.; Wardlow, J.; Fu, Hai; Cooray, A.; Assef, R. J.; Bock, J.; Casey, C. M.; Conley, A.; Farrah, D.; Ibar, E.; Kartaltepe, J.; Magdis, G.; Marchetti, L.; Oliver, S. J.; Pérez-Fournon, I.; Riechers, D.; Rigopoulou, D.; Roseboom, I. G.; Schulz, B.; Scott, Douglas; Symeonidis, M.; Vaccari, M.; Viero, M.; Zemcov, M.

    2013-09-01

    Dust-obscured galaxies (DOGs) are an ultraviolet-faint, infrared-bright galaxy population that reside at z ~ 2 and are believed to be in a phase of dusty star-forming and active galactic nucleus (AGN) activity. We present far-infrared (far-IR) observations of a complete sample of DOGs in the 2 deg2 of the Cosmic Evolution Survey. The 3077 DOGs have langzrang = 1.9 ± 0.3 and are selected from 24 μm and r + observations using a color cut of r + - [24] >= 7.5 (AB mag) and S 24 >= 100 μJy. Based on the near-IR spectral energy distributions, 47% are bump DOGs (star formation dominated) and 10% are power-law DOGs (AGN-dominated). We use SPIRE far-IR photometry from the Herschel Multi-tiered Extragalactic Survey to calculate the IR luminosity and characteristic dust temperature for the 1572 (51%) DOGs that are detected at 250 μm (>=3σ). For the remaining 1505 (49%) that are undetected, we perform a median stacking analysis to probe fainter luminosities. Herschel-detected and undetected DOGs have average luminosities of (2.8 ± 0.4) × 1012 L ⊙ and (0.77 ± 0.08) × 1012 L ⊙, and dust temperatures of (33 ± 7) K and (37 ± 5) K, respectively. The IR luminosity function for DOGs with S 24 >= 100 μJy is calculated, using far-IR observations and stacking. DOGs contribute 10%-30% to the total star formation rate (SFR) density of the universe at z = 1.5-2.5, dominated by 250 μm detected and bump DOGs. For comparison, DOGs contribute 30% to the SFR density for all z = 1.5-2.5 galaxies with S 24 >= 100 μJy. DOGs have a large scatter about the star formation main sequence and their specific SFRs show that the observed phase of star formation could be responsible for their total observed stellar mass at z ~ 2.

  12. Far-infrared Spectral Radiance Observations and Modeling of Arctic Cirrus: Preliminary Results From RHUBC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Humpage, Neil; Green, Paul D.; Harries, John E.

    2009-03-01

    Recent studies have highlighted the important contribution of the far-infrared (electromagnetic radiation with wavelengths greater than 12 μm) to the Earth's radiative energy budget. In a cloud-free atmosphere, a significant fraction of the Earth's cooling to space from the mid- and upper troposphere takes place via the water vapor pure rotational band between 17 and 33 μm. Cirrus clouds also play an important role in the Earth's outgoing longwave radiation. The effect of cirrus on far-infrared radiation is of particular interest, since the refractive index of ice depends strongly on wavelength in this spectral region. The scattering properties of ice crystals are directly related to the refractive index, so consequently the spectral signature of cirrus measured in the FIR is sensitive to the cloud microphysical properties [1, 2]. By examining radiances measured at wavelengths between the strong water vapor absorption lines in the FIR, the understanding of the relationship between cirrus microphysics and the radiative transfer of thermal energy through cirrus may be improved. Until recently, very few observations of FIR spectral radiances had been made. The Tropospheric Airborne Fourier Transform Spectrometer (TAFTS) was developed by Imperial College to address this lack of observational data. TAFTS observes both zenith and nadir radiances at 0.1 cm-1 resolution, between 80 and 600 cm-1. During February and March 2007, TAFTS was involved in RHUBC (the Radiative Heating in Under-explored Bands Campaign), an ARM funded field campaign based at the ACRF-North Slope of Alaska site near Barrow, situated at 71° latitude. Infrared zenith spectral observations were taken by both TAFTS and the AERI-ER (spectral range 400-3300 cm-1) from the ground during both cloud-free and cirrus conditions. A wide range of other instrumentation was also available at the site, including a micropulse lidar, 35 GHz radar and the University of Colorado/NOAA Ground-based Scanning Radiometer

  13. Charting the Winds that Change the Universe, II The Single Aperture Far Infrared Observatory (SAFIR)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leisawitz, David

    2003-01-01

    The Single Aperture Far Infrared Observatory (SAFIR) will study the birth and evolution of stars and planetary systems so young that they are invisible to optical and near-infrared telescopes such as NGST. Not only does the far-infrared radiation penetrate the obscuring dust clouds that surround these systems, but the protoplanetary disks also emit much of their radiation in the far infrared. Furthermore, the dust reprocesses much of the optical emission from the newly forming stars into this wavelength band. Similarly, the obscured central regions of galaxies, which harbor massive black holes and huge bursts of star formation, can be seen and analyzed in the far infrared. SAFIR will have the sensitivity to see the first dusty galaxies in the universe. For studies of both star-forming regions in our galaxy and dusty galaxies at high redshifts, SAFIR will be essential in tying together information that NGST will obtain on these systems at shorter wavelengths and that ALMA will obtain at longer wavelengths.

  14. Infrared Space Observatory Observations of Far-Infrared Rotational Emission Lines of Water Vapor toward the Supergiant Star VY Canis Majoris

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neufeld, David A.; Feuchtgruber, Helmut; Harwit, Martin; Melnick, Gary J.

    1999-06-01

    We report the detection of numerous far-infrared emission lines of water vapor toward the supergiant star VY Canis Majoris. A 29.5-45 μm grating scan of VY CMa, obtained using the Short-Wavelength Spectrometer (SWS) of the Infrared Space Observatory at a spectral resolving power λ/Δλ of ~2000, reveals at least 41 spectral features due to water vapor that together radiate a total luminosity of ~25 Lsolar. In addition to pure rotational transitions within the ground vibrational state, these features include rotational transitions within the (010) excited vibrational state. The spectrum also shows the 2Π1/2(J=5/2)<--2Π3/2(J=3/2) OH feature near 34.6 μm in absorption. Additional SWS observations of VY CMa were carried out in the instrument's Fabry-Perot mode for three water transitions: the 725-616 line at 29.8367 μm, the 441-312 line at 31.7721 μm, and the 432-303 line at 40.6909 μm. The higher spectral resolving power λ/Δλ of approximately 30,000 thereby obtained permits the line profiles to be resolved spectrally for the first time and reveals the ``P Cygni'' profiles that are characteristic of emission from an outflowing envelope. Based on observations with ISO, an ESA project with instruments funded by ESA Member States (especially the PI countries: France, Germany, the Netherlands, and the UK) with the participation of ISAS and NASA.

  15. Robust and fast pedestrian detection method for far-infrared automotive driving assistance systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Qiong; Zhuang, Jiajun; Ma, Jun

    2013-09-01

    Despite considerable effort has been contributed to night-time pedestrian detection for automotive driving assistance systems recent years, robust and real-time pedestrian detection is by no means a trivial task and is still underway due to the moving cameras, uncontrolled outdoor environments, wide range of possible pedestrian presentations and the stringent performance criteria for automotive applications. This paper presents an alternative night-time pedestrian detection method using monocular far-infrared (FIR) camera, which includes two modules (regions of interest (ROIs) generation and pedestrian recognition) in a cascade fashion. Pixel-gradient oriented vertical projection is first proposed to estimate the vertical image stripes that might contain pedestrians, and then local thresholding image segmentation is adopted to generate ROIs more accurately within the estimated vertical stripes. A novel descriptor called PEWHOG (pyramid entropy weighted histograms of oriented gradients) is proposed to represent FIR pedestrians in recognition module. Specifically, PEWHOG is used to capture both the local object shape described by the entropy weighted distribution of oriented gradient histograms and its pyramid spatial layout. Then PEWHOG is fed to a three-branch structured classifier using support vector machines (SVM) with histogram intersection kernel (HIK). An off-line training procedure combining both the bootstrapping and early-stopping strategy is introduced to generate a more robust classifier by exploiting hard negative samples iteratively. Finally, multi-frame validation is utilized to suppress some transient false positives. Experimental results on FIR video sequences from various scenarios demonstrate that the presented method is effective and promising.

  16. The Far Infrared Lines of OH as Molecular Cloud Diagnostics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Howard A.

    2004-01-01

    Future IR missions should give some priority to high resolution spectroscopic observations of the set of far-IR transitions of OH. There are 15 far-IR lines arising between the lowest eight rotational levels of OH, and ISO detected nine of them. Furthermore, ISO found the OH lines, sometimes in emission and sometimes in absorption, in a wide variety of galactic and extragalactic objects ranging from AGB stars to molecular clouds to active galactic nuclei and ultra-luminous IR galaxies. The ISO/LWS Fabry-Perot resolved the 119 m doublet line in a few of the strong sources. This set of OH lines provides a uniquely important diagnostic for many reasons: the lines span a wide wavelength range (28.9 m to 163.2 m); the transitions have fast radiative rates; the abundance of the species is relatively high; the IR continuum plays an important role as a pump; the contribution from shocks is relatively minor; and, not least, the powerful centimeter-wave radiation from OH allows comparison with radio and VLBI datasets. The problem is that the large number of sensitive free parameters, and the large optical depths of the strongest lines, make modeling the full set a difficult job. The SWAS montecarlo radiative transfer code has been used to analyze the ISO/LWS spectra of a number of objects with good success, including in both the lines and the FIR continuum; the DUSTY radiative transfer code was used to insure a self-consistent continuum. Other far IR lines including those from H2O, CO, and [OI] are also in the code. The OH lines all show features which future FIR spectrometers should be able to resolve, and which will enable further refinements in the details of each cloud's structure. Some examples are given, including the case of S140, for which independent SWAS data found evidence for bulk flows.

  17. Effects of far-infrared irradiation on myofascial neck pain: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled pilot study.

    PubMed

    Lai, Chien-Hung; Leung, Ting-Kai; Peng, Chih-Wei; Chang, Kwang-Hwa; Lai, Ming-Jun; Lai, Wen-Fu; Chen, Shih-Ching

    2014-02-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the relative efficacy of irradiation using a device containing a far-infrared emitting ceramic powder (cFIR) for the management of chronic myofascial neck pain compared with a control treatment. This was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled pilot study. The study comprised 48 patients with chronic, myofascial neck pain. Patients were randomly assigned to the experimental group or the control (sham-treatment) group. The patients in the experimental group wore a cFIR neck device for 1 week, and the control group wore an inert neck device for 1 week. Quantitative measurements based on a visual analogue scale (VAS) scoring of pain, a sleep quality assessment, pressure-pain threshold (PPT) testing, muscle tone and compliance analysis, and skin temperature analysis were obtained. Both the experimental and control groups demonstrated significant improvement in pain scores. However, no statistically significant difference in the pain scores was observed between the experimental and control groups. Significant decreases in muscle stiffness in the upper regions of the trapezius muscles were reported in the experimental group after 1 week of treatment. Short-term treatment using the cFIR neck device partly reduced muscle stiffness. Although the differences in the VAS and PPT scores for the experimental and control groups were not statistically significant, the improvement in muscle stiffness in the experimental group warrants further investigation of the long-term effects of cFIR treatment for pain management.

  18. Far-Infrared Extragalactic Surveys: Past, Present, and Future

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moseley, Samuel H., Jr.; Fisher, Richard R. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    As much as one third of the luminosity of the local universe is emitted in the far infrared. In order to understand the history of energy release in the universe, it is crucial to characterize this rest-frame far-infrared contribution from the present back to the era of initial galaxy formation. Over the redshift range from 0 to 10, this energy is received in the 80 micrometers to 1 mm spectral region. In the 1980's the Infrared Astronomy Satellite (IRAS) all-sky survey provided the first comprehensive view of the far infrared emission from the local universe. The diffuse background measurements by Cosmic Background Explorer Satellite (COBE) have provided constraints on the integral contributions from the high redshift universe. In the past five years, submillimeter measurements made using the SCUBA instrument have revealed powerful high redshift sources. To develop a clear history of energy release in the universe, we need numbers and redshifts of representative populations of energetically important objects. The near future will bring the Space Infrared Telescope Facility Multiband Imaging Photometer (SIRTF)(MIPS) survey, which will cover about 100 square degrees at wavelengths out to 160 micrometers, providing a large sample of energetically important galaxies out to z of approx.3. In 2005, the Japanese IRIS survey will provide a 160 micrometers full sky survey, which will provide larger samples of the high z galaxy populations and will find intrinsically rare high luminosity objects. The SPIRE instrument on the FIRST facility will extend these surveys to longer wavelengths, providing a view of the universe at higher redshifts in three spectral bands. A concept for an all-sky submillimeter survey is under development, called the Survey of Infrared Cosmic Evolution (SIRCE). With a 2 m cryogenic telescope, it can map the entire sky to the confusion limit in the 100 to 500 micrometers range in six months. This survey will provide photometric redshifts, number

  19. HerMES: THE FAR-INFRARED EMISSION FROM DUST-OBSCURED GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Calanog, J. A.; Wardlow, J.; Fu, Hai

    Dust-obscured galaxies (DOGs) are an ultraviolet-faint, infrared-bright galaxy population that reside at z ∼ 2 and are believed to be in a phase of dusty star-forming and active galactic nucleus (AGN) activity. We present far-infrared (far-IR) observations of a complete sample of DOGs in the 2 deg{sup 2} of the Cosmic Evolution Survey. The 3077 DOGs have (z) = 1.9 ± 0.3 and are selected from 24 μm and r {sup +} observations using a color cut of r {sup +} – [24] ≥ 7.5 (AB mag) and S{sub 24} ≥ 100 μJy. Based on the near-IR spectral energy distributions,more » 47% are bump DOGs (star formation dominated) and 10% are power-law DOGs (AGN-dominated). We use SPIRE far-IR photometry from the Herschel Multi-tiered Extragalactic Survey to calculate the IR luminosity and characteristic dust temperature for the 1572 (51%) DOGs that are detected at 250 μm (≥3σ). For the remaining 1505 (49%) that are undetected, we perform a median stacking analysis to probe fainter luminosities. Herschel-detected and undetected DOGs have average luminosities of (2.8 ± 0.4) × 10{sup 12} L{sub ☉} and (0.77 ± 0.08) × 10{sup 12} L{sub ☉}, and dust temperatures of (33 ± 7) K and (37 ± 5) K, respectively. The IR luminosity function for DOGs with S{sub 24} ≥ 100 μJy is calculated, using far-IR observations and stacking. DOGs contribute 10%-30% to the total star formation rate (SFR) density of the universe at z = 1.5-2.5, dominated by 250 μm detected and bump DOGs. For comparison, DOGs contribute 30% to the SFR density for all z = 1.5-2.5 galaxies with S{sub 24} ≥ 100 μJy. DOGs have a large scatter about the star formation main sequence and their specific SFRs show that the observed phase of star formation could be responsible for their total observed stellar mass at z ∼ 2.« less

  20. MicroRNA-134 Contributes to Glucose-Induced Endothelial Cell Dysfunction and This Effect Can Be Reversed by Far-Infrared Irradiation

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yen-Li; Chang, Shih-Ting; Liao, Ko-Hsun; Lo, Hung-Hao; Chiu, Ya-Lin; Hsieh, Tsung-Han; Huang, Tse-Shun; Lin, Chin-Sheng; Cheng, Shu-Meng; Cheng, Cheng-Chung

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a metabolic disease that is increasing worldwide. Furthermore, it is associated with the deregulation of vascular-related functions, which can develop into major complications among DM patients. Endothelial colony forming cells (ECFCs) have the potential to bring about medical repairs because of their post-natal angiogenic activities; however, such activities are impaired by high glucose- (HG) and the DM-associated conditions. Far-infrared radiation (FIR) transfers energy as heat that is perceived by the thermoreceptors in human skin. Several studies have revealed that FIR improves vascular endothelial functioning and boost angiogenesis. FIR has been used as anti-inflammatory therapy and as a clinical treatment for peripheral circulation improvement. In addition to vascular repair, there is increasing evidence to show that FIR can be applied to a variety of diseases, including cardiovascular disorders, hypertension and arthritis. Yet mechanism of action of FIR and the biomarkers that indicate FIR effects remain unclear. MicroRNA-134 (miR-134-5p) was identified by small RNA sequencing as being increased in high glucose (HG) treated dfECFCs (HG-dfECFCs). Highly expressed miR-134 was also validated in dmECFCs by RT-qPCR and it is associated with impaired angiogenic activities of ECFCs. The functioning of ECFCs is improved by FIR treatment and this occurs via a reduction in the level of miR-134 and an increase in the NRIP1 transcript, a direct target of miR-134. Using a mouse ischemic hindlimb model, the recovery of impaired blood flow in the presence of HG-dfECFCs was improved by FIR pretreatment and this enhanced functionality was decreased when there was miR-134 overexpression in the FIR pretreated HG-dfECFCs. In conclusion, our results reveal that the deregulation of miR-134 is involved in angiogenic defects found in DM patients. FIR treatment improves the angiogenic activity of HG-dfECFCs and dmECFCs and FIR has potential as a treatment

  1. MicroRNA-134 Contributes to Glucose-Induced Endothelial Cell Dysfunction and This Effect Can Be Reversed by Far-Infrared Irradiation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hsei-Wei; Su, Shu-Han; Wang, Yen-Li; Chang, Shih-Ting; Liao, Ko-Hsun; Lo, Hung-Hao; Chiu, Ya-Lin; Hsieh, Tsung-Han; Huang, Tse-Shun; Lin, Chin-Sheng; Cheng, Shu-Meng; Cheng, Cheng-Chung

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a metabolic disease that is increasing worldwide. Furthermore, it is associated with the deregulation of vascular-related functions, which can develop into major complications among DM patients. Endothelial colony forming cells (ECFCs) have the potential to bring about medical repairs because of their post-natal angiogenic activities; however, such activities are impaired by high glucose- (HG) and the DM-associated conditions. Far-infrared radiation (FIR) transfers energy as heat that is perceived by the thermoreceptors in human skin. Several studies have revealed that FIR improves vascular endothelial functioning and boost angiogenesis. FIR has been used as anti-inflammatory therapy and as a clinical treatment for peripheral circulation improvement. In addition to vascular repair, there is increasing evidence to show that FIR can be applied to a variety of diseases, including cardiovascular disorders, hypertension and arthritis. Yet mechanism of action of FIR and the biomarkers that indicate FIR effects remain unclear. MicroRNA-134 (miR-134-5p) was identified by small RNA sequencing as being increased in high glucose (HG) treated dfECFCs (HG-dfECFCs). Highly expressed miR-134 was also validated in dmECFCs by RT-qPCR and it is associated with impaired angiogenic activities of ECFCs. The functioning of ECFCs is improved by FIR treatment and this occurs via a reduction in the level of miR-134 and an increase in the NRIP1 transcript, a direct target of miR-134. Using a mouse ischemic hindlimb model, the recovery of impaired blood flow in the presence of HG-dfECFCs was improved by FIR pretreatment and this enhanced functionality was decreased when there was miR-134 overexpression in the FIR pretreated HG-dfECFCs. In conclusion, our results reveal that the deregulation of miR-134 is involved in angiogenic defects found in DM patients. FIR treatment improves the angiogenic activity of HG-dfECFCs and dmECFCs and FIR has potential as a treatment

  2. The Balloon Experimental Twin Telescope for Infrared Interferometry (BETTII): High Angular Resolution Astronomy at Far-Infrared Wavelengths

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rinehart, Stephen A.

    2008-01-01

    Astronomical studies at infrared wavelengths have dramatically improved our understanding of the universe, and observations with Spitzer, the upcoming Herschel mission. and SOFIA will continue to provide exciting new discoveries. The comparatively low spatial resolution of these missions, however. is insufficient to resolve the physical scales on which mid- to far-infrared emission arises, resulting in source and structure ambiguities that limit our ability to answer key science questions. Interferometry enables high angular resolution at these wavelengths. We have proposed a new high altitude balloon experiment, the Balloon Experimental Twin Telescope for Infrared Interferometry (BETTII). High altitude operation makes far-infrared (30- 300micron) observations possible, and BETTII's 8-meter baseline provides unprecedented angular resolution (-0.5 arcsec) in this band. BETTII will use a double- Fourier instrument to simultaneously obtain both spatial and spectral informatioT. he spatially resolved spectroscopy provided by BETTII will address key questions about the nature of disks in young cluster stars and active galactic nuclei and the envelopes of evolved stars. BETTII will also lay the groundwork for future space interferometers.

  3. A high-resolution three-dimensional far-infrared thermal and true-color imaging system for medical applications.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Victor S; Bai, Jinfen; Chen, Yazhu

    2009-11-01

    As the needs for various kinds of body surface information are wide-ranging, we developed an imaging-sensor integrated system that can synchronously acquire high-resolution three-dimensional (3D) far-infrared (FIR) thermal and true-color images of the body surface. The proposed system integrates one FIR camera and one color camera with a 3D structured light binocular profilometer. To eliminate the emotion disturbance of the inspector caused by the intensive light projection directly into the eye from the LCD projector, we have developed a gray encoding strategy based on the optimum fringe projection layout. A self-heated checkerboard has been employed to perform the calibration of different types of cameras. Then, we have calibrated the structured light emitted by the LCD projector, which is based on the stereo-vision idea and the least-squares quadric surface-fitting algorithm. Afterwards, the precise 3D surface can fuse with undistorted thermal and color images. To enhance medical applications, the region-of-interest (ROI) in the temperature or color image representing the surface area of clinical interest can be located in the corresponding position in the other images through coordinate system transformation. System evaluation demonstrated a mapping error between FIR and visual images of three pixels or less. Experiments show that this work is significantly useful in certain disease diagnoses.

  4. Far infrared polarization of the Kleinmann-Low Nebula in Orion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gull, G. E.; Houck, J. R.; Mccarthy, J. F.; Forrest, W. J.; Harwit, M.

    1978-01-01

    Elongated dust grains aligned by local magnetic fields are though to absorb background radiation and produce linear and circular polarization which exhibit strong wavelength dependence in the near infrared. The NASA Kuiper observatory 91 cm infrared telescope was used to observe polarization characteristics of the Kleinmann-Low nebula in four far infrared wavelength bands in order to detect emission from these same oriented grains at longer wavelengths, and determine whether this radiation shows a direction of polarization perpendicular to that seen in the near infrared. The polarization, if any, that characterized the radiation in the three longest wavelength filter positions (28-48 micron, 44-72 micron, and 70-115 micron) is small. The noisiest measurements were obtained in the 16-33 micron filter position. Possible explanations for the low polarization observed at long wavelengths are explored.

  5. Demonstrating a New Census of Infrared Galaxies with ALMA (DANCING-ALMA). I. FIR Size and Luminosity Relation at z = 0-6 Revealed with 1034 ALMA Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujimoto, Seiji; Ouchi, Masami; Shibuya, Takatoshi; Nagai, Hiroshi

    2017-11-01

    We present the large statistics of the galaxy effective radius R e in the rest-frame far-infrared (FIR) wavelength {R}{{e}({FIR})} obtained from 1627 Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) 1 mm band maps that become public by 2017 July. Our ALMA sample consists of 1034 sources with the star formation rate ˜ 100{--}1000 {M}⊙ {{yr}}-1 and the stellar mass ˜ {10}10{--}{10}11.5 {M}⊙ at z = 0-6. We homogeneously derive {R}{{e}({FIR})} and FIR luminosity L FIR of our ALMA sources via the uv-visibility method with the exponential disk model, carefully evaluating selection and measurement incompletenesses by realistic Monte-Carlo simulations. We find that there is a positive correlation between {R}{{e}({FIR})} and L FIR at the >99% significance level. The best-fit power-law function, {R}{{e}({FIR})}\\propto {L}{FIR}α , provides α =0.28+/- 0.07, and shows that {R}{{e}({FIR})} at a fixed L FIR decreases toward high redshifts. The best-fit α and the redshift evolution of {R}{{e}({FIR})} are similar to those of R e in the rest-frame UV (optical) wavelength {R}{{e}({UV})} ({R}{{e}({Opt}.)}) revealed by Hubble Space Telescope (HST) studies. We identify that our ALMA sources have significant trends of {R}{{e}({FIR})}≲ {R}{{e}({UV})} and {R}{{e}({Opt}.)}, which suggests that the dusty starbursts take place in compact regions. Moreover, {R}{{e}({FIR})} of our ALMA sources is comparable to {R}{{e}({Opt}.)} of quiescent galaxies at z ˜ 1-3 as a function of stellar mass, supporting the evolutionary connection between these two galaxy populations. We also investigate rest-frame UV and optical morphologies of our ALMA sources with deep HST images, and find that ˜30%-40% of our ALMA sources are classified as major mergers. This indicates that dusty starbursts are triggered by not only the major mergers but also the other mechanism(s).

  6. Highly tunable quantum Hall far-infrared photodetector by use of GaAs/Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1−x}As-graphene composite material

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, Chiu-Chun; Ling, D. C.; Chi, C. C.

    2014-11-03

    We have developed a highly tunable, narrow band far-infrared (FIR) photodetector which utilizes the characteristic merits of graphene and two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) in GaAs/Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1−x}As heterostructure in the Quantum Hall states (QHS). The heterostructure surface is covered with chemical vapor-deposited graphene, which functions as a transparent top-gate to vary the electron density of the 2DEG. FIR response observed in the vicinity of integer QH regime can be effectively tuned in a wide range of 27–102 cm{sup −1} with a bias voltage less than −1 V. In addition, we have found that the presence of graphene can genuinely modulate the photoresponse.more » Our results demonstrate a promising direction for realizing a tunable long-wavelength FIR detector using QHS in GaAs 2DEG/ graphene composite material.« less

  7. Conceptual design and structural analysis of the spectroscopy of the atmosphere using far infrared emission (SAFIRE) instrument

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moses, Robert W.; Averill, Robert D.

    1992-01-01

    The conceptual design and structural analysis for the Spectroscopy of the Atmosphere using Far Infrared Emission (SAFIRE) Instrument are provided. SAFIRE, which is an international effort, is proposed for the Earth Observing Systems (EOS) program for atmospheric ozone studies. A concept was developed which meets mission requirements and is the product of numerous parametric studies and design/analysis iterations. Stiffness, thermal stability, and weight constraints led to a graphite/epoxy composite design for the optical bench and supporting struts. The structural configuration was determined by considering various mounting arrangements of the optical, cryo, and electronic components. Quasi-static, thermal, modal, and dynamic response analyses were performed, and the results are presented for the selected configuration.

  8. Far-infrared observations of young clusters embedded in the R Coronae Austrinae and RHO Ophiuchi dark clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilking, B. A.; Harvey, P. M.; Joy, M.; Hyland, A. R.; Jones, T. J.

    1985-01-01

    Multicolor far infrared maps in two nearby dark clouds, R Coronae Austrinae and rho Ophiuchi, were made in order to investigate the individual contribution of low mass stars to the energetics and dynamics of the surrounding gas and dust. Emission from cool dust associated with five low mass stars in Cr A and four in rho Oph was detected; their far infrared luminosities range from 2 far infrared luminosities L. up to 40 far infrared luminosities. When an estimate of the bolometric luminosity was possible, it was found that typically more than 50% of the star's energy was radiated longward of 20 micrometers. meaningful limits to the far infrared luminosities of an additional eleven association members in Cr A and two in rho Oph were also obtained. The dust optical depth surrounding the star R Cr A appears to be asymmetric and may control the dynamics of the surrounding molecular gas. The implications of the results for the cloud energetics and star formation efficiency in these two clouds are discussed.

  9. Charting the Winds that Change the Universe, II: The Single Aperture Far Infrared Observatory (SAFIR)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rieke, G. H.; Benford, D. J.; Harvey, P. M.; Lawrence, C. R.; Leisawitz, D. T.; Lester, D. F.; Mather, J. C.; Stacey, G. J.; Werner, M. W.; Yorke, H. W.

    2004-01-01

    SAFIR will study the birth and evolution of stars and planetary systems so young that they are invisible to optical and near-infrared telescopes such as NGST. Not only does the far-infrared radiation penetrate the obscuring dust clouds that surround these systems, but the protoplanetary disks also emit much of their radiation in the far infrared. Furthermore, the dust reprocesses much of the optical emission from the newly forming stars into this wavelength band. Similarly, the obscured central regions of galaxies, which harbor massive black holes and huge bursts of star formation, can be seen and analyzed in the far infrared. SAFIR will have the sensitivity to see the first dusty galaxies in the universe. For studies of both star-forming regions in our galaxy and dusty galaxies at high redshifts, SAFIR will be essential in tying together information that NGST will obtain on these systems at shorter wavelengths and that ALMA will obtain at longer wavelengths.

  10. Fourier emission infrared microspectrophotometer for surface analysis. I - Application to lubrication problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lauer, J. L.; King, V. W.

    1979-01-01

    A far-infrared interferometer was converted into an emission microspectrophotometer for surface analysis. To cover the mid-infrared as well as the far-infrared the Mylar beamsplitter was made replaceable by a germanium-coated salt plate, and the Moire fringe counting system used to locate the moveable Michelson mirror was improved to read 0.5 micron of mirror displacement. Digital electronics and a dedicated minicomputer were installed for data collection and processing. The most critical element for the recording of weak emission spectra from small areas was, however, a reflecting microscope objective and phase-locked signal detection with simultaneous referencing to a blackbody source. An application of the technique to lubrication problems is shown.

  11. Comparison of the far-infrared and carbon monoxide emission in Heiles' Cloud 2 and B18

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snell, Ronald L.; Schloerb, F. Peter; Heyer, Mark H.

    1989-01-01

    A comparison is made of the far-IR emission detected by IRAS at 60 and 100 microns and the emission from C(-13)O in B18 and Heiles' Cloud 2. The results show that both these clouds have extended emission at the studied wavelengths and that this emission is correlated with the integrated intensity of (C-13)O emission. The dust temperature and optical depth, the gas column density, the mass of gas and dust, and the far-IR luminosity are derived and presented. The analysis shows that the dust optical depth is much better correlated with the gas column density than with the far-IR intensity. The dust temperature is found to be anticorrelated with the gas column density, suggesting that these clouds are externally heated by the interstellar radiation field. The far-IR luminosity-to-mass ratios for the clouds are substantially less than the average for the inner Galaxy.

  12. The Far-Infrared Luminosity Function and Star Formation Rate Density for Dust Obscured Galaxies in the Bootes Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calanog, Jae Alyson; Wardlow, J. L.; Fu, H.; Cooray, A. R.; HerMES

    2013-01-01

    We present the far-Infrared (FIR) luminosity function (LF) and the star-formation rate density (SFRD) for dust-obscured galaxies (DOGs) in the Bootes field at redshift 2. These galaxies are selected by having a large rest frame mid-IR to UV flux density ratio ( > 1000) and are expected to be some of the most luminous and heavily obscured galaxies in the Universe at this epoch. Photometric redshifts for DOGs are estimated from optical and mid-IR data using empirically derived low resolution spectral templates for AGN and galaxies. We use HerMES Herschel-SPIRE data to fit a modified blackbody to calculate the FIR luminosity (LFIR) and dust temperature (Td) for all DOGs individually detected in SPIRE maps. A stacking analyses was implemented to measure a median sub-mm flux of undetected DOGs. We find that DOGs have LIR and Td that are similar with the sub-millimeter galaxy (SMG) population, suggesting these two populations are related. The DOG LF and SFRD at 2 are calculated and compared to SMGs.

  13. Far infrared maser communications technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Claspy, P. C.; Pao, Y. H.

    1975-01-01

    An optically pumped FIR laser was constructed and tested. Optimum operating conditions were determined with CH3OH as the lasing medium. The laser was found to operate equally well with flowing gas or in a sealed off configuration. The FIR cavity stability and pump laser stability were found to have significant problems. The absorption coefficient per unit pressure of 1-1 difluoroethylene at the P(22) and P(24) lines of the 10.4 micron CO2 band was measured. The FIR line pumped by P(22) occurs at approximately 890 microns, which may be in an atmospheric transmission window. It was found that significant Stark tuning of absorption lines of methanol and 1-1 difluoroethylene can be accomplished, even at the usual 100 to 300 mTorr operating pressures of FIR lasers. This means that the use of Stark tuning may enable more effective use of pump laser output.

  14. Modelling the diffuse dust emission around Orion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saikia, Gautam; Shalima, P.; Gogoi, Rupjyoti

    2018-06-01

    We have studied the diffuse radiation in the surroundings of M42 using photometric data from the Galaxy Evolution Explorer (GALEX) in the far-ultraviolet (FUV) and infrared observations of the AKARI space telescope. The main source of the FUV diffuse emission is the starlight from the Trapezium stars scattered by dust in front of the nebula. We initially compare the diffuse FUV with the far-infrared (FIR) observations at the same locations. The FUV-IR correlations enable us to determine the type of dust contributing to this emission. We then use an existing model for studying the FUV dust scattering in Orion to check if it can be extended to regions away from the centre in a 10 deg radius. We obtain an albedo, α = 0.7 and scattering phase function asymmetry factor, g = 0.6 as the median values for our dust locations on different sides of the central Orion region. We find a uniform value of optical parameters across our sample of locations with the dust properties varying significantly from those at the centre of the nebula.

  15. Terahertz and far-infrared synchrotron spectroscopy and global modeling of methyl mercaptan, CH332SH

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Li-Hong; Lees, R. M.; Crabbe, G. T.; Myshrall, J. A.; Müller, H. S. P.; Endres, C. P.; Baum, O.; Lewen, F.; Schlemmer, S.; Menten, K. M.; Billinghurst, B. E.

    2012-09-01

    In this work, terahertz and Fourier transform far-infrared (FTFIR) synchrotron spectra of methyl mercaptan, CH3SH, have been investigated in order to provide new laboratory information for enhanced observations of this species in interstellar molecular clouds and star-forming regions. Like its methanol cousin, methyl mercaptan has particularly rich spectra associated with its large-amplitude internal rotation that extend throughout the THz and FIR regions. We have recorded new spectra for CH3SH from 1.1-1.5 and 1.790-1.808 THz at the University of Cologne as well as high-resolution FTFIR synchrotron spectra from 50-550 cm-1 at 0.001 cm-1 resolution on the far-IR beam-line at the Canadian Light Source. Assignments are reported for rotational quantum numbers up to J ≈ 40 and K ≈ 15, and torsional states up to vt = 2 for the THz measurements and vt = 3 for the FTFIR observations. The THz and FTFIR measurements together with literature results have been combined in a global analysis of a dataset comprising a total of 1725 microwave and THz frequencies together with ˜18000 FTFIR transitions, ranging up to vt = 2 and Jmax = 30 for MW/THz and 40 for FTFIR. The global fit employs 78 torsion-rotation parameters and has achieved a weighted standard deviation of ˜1.1. A prediction list (vt ≤ 2, J ≤ 45 and K ≤ 20) has been generated from the model giving essentially complete coverage of observable CH332SH transitions within the bandwidths of major new astronomical facilities such as HIFI (Heterodyne Instrument for the Far Infrared) on the Herschel Space Observatory, ALMA (Atacama Large Millimeter Array), SOFIA (Stratospheric Observatory For Infrared Astronomy) and APEX (Atacama Pathfinder Experiment) to close to spectroscopic accuracy.

  16. Community Plan for Far-Infrared/Submillimeter Space Astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ade, Peter; Akeson, Rachel; Ali, Shafinaz; Amato, Michael; Arendt, Richard; Baker, Charles; Benford, Dominic; Blain, Andrew; Bock, James; Borne, Kirk

    2004-01-01

    This paper represents the consensus view of the 124 participants in the Second Workshop on New Concepts for Far-Infrared/Submillimeter Space Astronomy.We recommend that NASA pursue the vision for far-IR astronomy outlined in the NAS Decadal Survey, which said: A rational coordinated program for space optical and infrared astronomy would build on the experience gained with NGST1 to construct [a JWST-scale filled-aperture far-IR telescope SAFIR, and then ultimately, in the decade 2010 to 2020, build on the SAFIR, TPF, and SIM experience to assemble a space-based, far-infrared interferometer. SAFIR will study star formation in the young universe, the buildup of elements heavier than hydrogen over cosmic history, the process of galaxy formation, and the early phases of star formation, which occur behind a veil of dust that precludes detection at mid IR and shorter wavelengths. The far-infrared interferometer will resolve distant galaxies to study protogalaxy interactions and mergers and the processes that led to enhanced star formation activity and the formation of Active Galactic Nuclei, and will resolve protostars and debris disks in our Galaxy to study how stars and planetary systems form.

  17. Herschel Key Program Heritage: a Far-Infrared Source Catalog for the Magellanic Clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seale, Jonathan P.; Meixner, Margaret; Sewiło, Marta; Babler, Brian; Engelbracht, Charles W.; Gordon, Karl; Hony, Sacha; Misselt, Karl; Montiel, Edward; Okumura, Koryo; Panuzzo, Pasquale; Roman-Duval, Julia; Sauvage, Marc; Boyer, Martha L.; Chen, C.-H. Rosie; Indebetouw, Remy; Matsuura, Mikako; Oliveira, Joana M.; Srinivasan, Sundar; van Loon, Jacco Th.; Whitney, Barbara; Woods, Paul M.

    2014-12-01

    Observations from the HERschel Inventory of the Agents of Galaxy Evolution (HERITAGE) have been used to identify dusty populations of sources in the Large and Small Magellanic Clouds (LMC and SMC). We conducted the study using the HERITAGE catalogs of point sources available from the Herschel Science Center from both the Photodetector Array Camera and Spectrometer (PACS; 100 and 160 μm) and Spectral and Photometric Imaging Receiver (SPIRE; 250, 350, and 500 μm) cameras. These catalogs are matched to each other to create a Herschel band-merged catalog and then further matched to archival Spitzer IRAC and MIPS catalogs from the Spitzer Surveying the Agents of Galaxy Evolution (SAGE) and SAGE-SMC surveys to create single mid- to far-infrared (far-IR) point source catalogs that span the wavelength range from 3.6 to 500 μm. There are 35,322 unique sources in the LMC and 7503 in the SMC. To be bright in the FIR, a source must be very dusty, and so the sources in the HERITAGE catalogs represent the dustiest populations of sources. The brightest HERITAGE sources are dominated by young stellar objects (YSOs), and the dimmest by background galaxies. We identify the sources most likely to be background galaxies by first considering their morphology (distant galaxies are point-like at the resolution of Herschel) and then comparing the flux distribution to that of the Herschel Astrophysical Terahertz Large Area Survey (ATLAS) survey of galaxies. We find a total of 9745 background galaxy candidates in the LMC HERITAGE images and 5111 in the SMC images, in agreement with the number predicted by extrapolating from the ATLAS flux distribution. The majority of the Magellanic Cloud-residing sources are either very young, embedded forming stars or dusty clumps of the interstellar medium. Using the presence of 24 μm emission as a tracer of star formation, we identify 3518 YSO candidates in the LMC and 663 in the SMC. There are far fewer far-IR bright YSOs in the SMC than the LMC

  18. Far-infrared photometry of compact extragalactic objects - Detection of 3C 345

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harvey, P. M.; Wilking, B. A.; Joy, M.

    1982-01-01

    The first detection of a quasar between 10 and 1000 microns is reported. The observation permits (1) the determination of the intersection of the optical/infrared and millimeter continua; (2) more precise determination of the total luminosity; (3) the placing of limits on the contribution of any thermal dust emission to the total luminosity. The quasar is the first object ever to have been observed whose energy distribution peaks at wavelength of about 100 microns without a large contribution to the total luminosity from thermal dust emission. The observed flux density of 2.2 + or - 0.5 Jy at 100 microns and an upper limit of 0.5 + or - 0.6 Jy at 50 microns clearly define the overall energy distribution and show the quasar to be a powerful far-infrared source.

  19. HAWCPol: a first-generation far-infrared polarimeter for SOFIA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dowell, C. Darren; Cook, Brant T.; Harper, D. Al; Lin, Lung-Sheng; Looney, Leslie W.; Novak, Giles; Stephens, Ian; Berthoud, Marc; Chuss, David T.; Crutcher, Richard M.; Dotson, Jessie L.; Hildebrand, Roger H.; Houde, Martin; Jones, Terry J.; Krejny, Megan; Lazarian, Alexandre; Moseley, S. Harvey; Tassis, Kostas; Vaillancourt, John E.; Werner, Michael W.

    2010-07-01

    We describe our ongoing project to build a far-infrared polarimeter for the HAWC instrument on SOFIA. Far-IR polarimetry reveals unique information about magnetic fields in dusty molecular clouds and is an important tool for understanding star formation and cloud evolution. SOFIA provides flexible access to the infrared as well as good sensitivity to and angular resolution of continuum emission from molecular clouds. We are making progress toward outfitting HAWC, a first-generation SOFIA camera, with a four-band polarimeter covering 50 to 220 microns wavelength. We have chosen a conservative design which uses quartz half-wave plates continuously rotating at ~0.5 Hz, ball bearing suspensions, fixed wire-grid polarizers, and cryogenic motors. Design challenges are to fit the polarimeter into a volume that did not originally envision one, to minimize the heating of the cryogenic optics, and to produce negligible interference in the detector system. Here we describe the performance of the polarimeter measured at cryogenic temperature as well as the basic method we intend for data analysis. We are on track for delivering this instrument early in the operating lifetime of SOFIA.

  20. Far Infrared Spectroscopy of H II Regions. Ph.D. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ward, D. B.

    1975-01-01

    The far infrared spectra of H II regions are investigated. A liquid helium cooled grating spectrometer designed to make observations from the NASA Lear Jet is described along with tests of the instrument. The observing procedure on the Lear Jet telescope is described and the method of data analysis is discussed. Results are presented from a search for the (O III) 88.16 micron line. An upper limit on the emission in this line is obtained and line detection is described. Results are compared to theoretical predictions, and future applications of fine structure line observations are discussed. Coarse resolution results are given along with calibration problems. The spectra obtained are compared to models for dust emission.

  1. Correlation among far-infrared reflection modes, crystal structures and dielectric properties of Ba(Zn{sub 1/3}Nb{sub 2/3})O{sub 3}–CaTiO{sub 3} ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Shi, Feng, E-mail: sf751106@sina.com.cn; Sun, Haiqing; Liu, Hongquan

    Highlights: • Crystal symmetry decreases with CT concentration from cubic to hexagonal structure. • Lattice constants as well as the ordered degree change with CT concentration. • Ordered structures turn from 1:1 to 1:2 ordering with change of crystal structures. • There is a correlation between FIR phonon modes and dielectric properties. • There is a correlation between FIR phonon modes and crystal structures. - Abstract: Ba(Zn{sub 1/3}Nb{sub 2/3})O{sub 3} (BZN)–CaTiO{sub 3} (CT) microwave dielectric ceramics were synthesized at 1395 °C for 4 h using conventional solid-state sintering technique with different CT contents. The ceramics were characterized by X-ray diffractionmore » (XRD) and far-infrared reflection (FIR) spectroscopy to evaluate correlations among crystal structures, dielectric properties, and infrared modes. XRD results showed that crystal symmetry decreased with increased CT concentration from cubic to hexagonal structure, and lattice constants and ordered degree changed accordingly. Ordered phases transformed from 1:1 to 1:2 ordered structure with crystal-structure change. FIR results demonstrated that two new IR active modes appeared at 300 cm{sup −1}, and another new mode appeared at 600 cm{sup −1} for the x ≥ 0.60 sample, which agreed with the change in crystal structures as confirmed by XRD results. Correlations between FIR modes and dielectric properties were established.« less

  2. Variable-delay Polarization Modulators (VPMs) for Far-infrared through Millimeter Astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chuss, David T.

    2008-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the use of Variable-delay Polarization Modulators (VPMs) for Far-infrared through Millimeter Astronomy. The two science goals are to use polarized emission from the partially-aligned dust that provides a probe of the role of magnetic fields in star formation and to use the polarization of the cosmic microwave background radiation CMB to test theories of the very early universe and provide a probe of fundamental physics.

  3. CALISTO - A Novel Architecture for the Single Aperture Far Infrared Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lester, Daniel F.; Goldsmith, P.; Benford, D.

    2007-12-01

    Following the success of Spitzer, and in expectation of success with JWST and Herschel, the astronomical community is looking ahead to a large aperture far infrared mission that can build on the scientific results of these missions. This expectation was formalized by the 2000 Decadal recommendation for design studies on a SAFIR - a single aperture far infrared observatory. A JWST-inspired architecture for SAFIR was considered in a Vision Mission study several years ago. We present here a exciting new architecture for this important mission that offers several advantages. This CALISTO (Cryogenic Far-Infrared/Submillimeter Observatory) architecture, originally developed by JPL, builds on the thermally optimized passive cooling design of the Vision Mission version of SAFIR, and focal plane instrument strategies as well, but is based on a 4x6m ellipsoidal primary that greatly simplifies deployment out of an ELV launch shroud. Used off-axis, this design is much less affected by scattered (e.g. galactic plane and ZODI) emission than previous architectures, providing astronomical background-limited facility over much of the sky. Technologies for such a large mirror, diffraction-limited at 20µm, are now becoming credible. Using the large focal plane to host envisioned large format sensor arrays operating with high spatial resolution, CALISTO will resolve the far infrared extragalactic background, and trace the chemical evolution of galaxies. Simple models suggest that detection of the first structure in the universe, marked by cooling primordial clouds of molecular hydrogen at high z, may be achievable with such a telescope. Further building on the work of Spitzer, CALISTO will trace the development of planetary systems, probing the inner structure of star forming disks, and reveal the structure of nearby solar systems using the structure of debris disks that surround them. We review in this paper the science goals and engineering challenges for this mission.

  4. WaFIRS, a Waveguide Far-IR Spectrometer: Enabling Space-Borne Spectroscopy of High-z Galaxies in the Far-IR and Submm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bradford, C. M.; Bock, J. J.; Dragovan, M.; Earle, L.; Glenn, J.; Naylor, B.; Nguyen, H.; Zmuidzinas, J.

    2004-01-01

    The discovery of galaxies beyond z approximately equal to 1 which emit the bulk of their luminosity at long wavelengths has demonstrated the need for high sensitivity, broadband spectroscopy in the far-IR/submm/mm bands. Because many of these sources are not detectable in the optical, long wavelength spectroscopy is key to measuring their redshifts and ISM conditions. The continuum source list will increase in the next decade with new ground-based instruments (SCUBA2, Bolocam, MAMBO) and the surveys of HSO and SIRTF. Yet the planned spectroscopic capabilities lag behind, primarily due to the difficulty in scaling existing IR spectrograph designs to longer wavelengths. To overcome these limitations, we are developing WaFIRS, a novel concept for long-wavelength spectroscopy which utilizes a parallel-plate waveguide and a curved diffraction grating. WaFIRS provides the large (approximately 60%) instantaneous bandwidth and high throughput of a conventional grating system, but offers a dramatic reduction in volume and mass. WaFIRS requires no space overheads for extra optical elements beyond the diffraction grating itself, and is two-dimensional because the propagation is confined between two parallel plates. Thus several modules could be stacked to multiplex either spatially or in different frequency bands. The size and mass savings provide opportunities for spectroscopy from space-borne observatories which would be impractical with conventional spectrographs. With background-limited detectors and a cooled 3.5 telescope, the line sensitivity would be better than that of ALMA, with instantaneous broad-band coverage. We have built and tested a WaFIRS prototype for 1-1.6 mm, and are currently constructing Z-Spec, a 100 mK model to be used as a ground-based lambda/DELTAlambda approximately equal to 350 submillimeter galaxy redshift machine.

  5. Optical Jitter Effects on Target Detection and Tracking of Overhead Persistent Infrared Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-12-01

    infrared CdSe cadmium selenide DSP Defense Support Program FIR far-infrared FPA focal plane array Ge germanium GEO geostationary earth orbit...HBCRT High Energy Laser Beam Control Research Testbed HEL high energy laser HgCdTe mercury cadmium telluride IR infrared InSb indium antimonide...MOD model MTF modulation transfer function MWIR mid-wave infrared NIR near infrared OPIR overhead persistent infrared PbSe lead selenide

  6. Very high resolution far infrared synchrotron radiation spectrum of methanol-D1 (CH2DOH) in the first three torsional-vibrational modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukhopadhyay, Indra; Billinghurst, B. E.

    2016-11-01

    In our effort to systematically study the far infrared (FIR) spectra of asymmetrically mono deuterated methanol (CH2DOH) and thereby obtain the transition wavenumbers with better and better accuracy (Mukhopadhyay, 2016a,b), the complete Fourier transform (FT) spectra from FIR to infrared (IR) vibrational bands (in the range 50-1190 cm-1) have been re-recorded using the Synchrotron Radiation Source at the Canadian Light Sources in Saskatchewan, Canada. The resolution of the spectrum is unprecedented, reaching beyond the Doppler limited resolution as low as about 0.0008 cm-1 with a signal to noise (S/N) ratio is many fold better than that can be obtained by commercially available FT spectrometer using thermal sources (e.g., Globar). Spectra were also recorded beyond 1190 cm-1 to about 5000 cm-1 at a somewhat lower resolution of 0.002-0.004 cm-1. In this report the analysis of the b-type and c-type torsional - rotational spectra in the ground vibrational state corresponding to gauche- (e1/o1) to gauche- (e1/o1) and gauche- (e1/o1) to trans- (e0) states in the ground vibrational state are reported and an atlas of the wavenumber for about 2500 FIR assigned absorption lines has been prepared. The transitions within a given sub-band are analyzed using state dependent expansion parameters and the Q-branch origins. The data from previous results (Mukhopadhyay, 2016a,b) along with the present work allowed a global analysis yielding a complete set of molecular parameters. The state dependent molecular parameters reproduce the experimental wavenumbers within experimental uncertainty. In addition, the sensitivity of the spectrum allowed observation of forbidden transitions previously unobserved and helped reassignment of rotational angular momentum quantum numbers of some ΔK = ±1, Q-branch transitions in highly excited states recently reported in the literature. To our knowledge the wavenumbers reported in the present work are the most accurate so far reported in the

  7. The Zugspitze radiative closure experiment for quantifying water vapor absorption over the terrestrial and solar infrared - Part 1: Setup, uncertainty analysis, and assessment of far-infrared water vapor continuum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sussmann, Ralf; Reichert, Andreas; Rettinger, Markus

    2016-09-01

    Quantitative knowledge of water vapor radiative processes in the atmosphere throughout the terrestrial and solar infrared spectrum is still incomplete even though this is crucial input to the radiation codes forming the core of both remote sensing methods and climate simulations. Beside laboratory spectroscopy, ground-based remote sensing field studies in the context of so-called radiative closure experiments are a powerful approach because this is the only way to quantify water absorption under cold atmospheric conditions. For this purpose, we have set up at the Zugspitze (47.42° N, 10.98° E; 2964 m a.s.l.) a long-term radiative closure experiment designed to cover the infrared spectrum between 400 and 7800 cm-1 (1.28-25 µm). As a benefit for such experiments, the atmospheric states at the Zugspitze frequently comprise very low integrated water vapor (IWV; minimum = 0.1 mm, median = 2.3 mm) and very low aerosol optical depth (AOD = 0.0024-0.0032 at 7800 cm-1 at air mass 1). All instruments for radiance measurements and atmospheric-state measurements are described along with their measurement uncertainties. Based on all parameter uncertainties and the corresponding radiance Jacobians, a systematic residual radiance uncertainty budget has been set up to characterize the sensitivity of the radiative closure over the whole infrared spectral range. The dominant uncertainty contribution in the spectral windows used for far-infrared (FIR) continuum quantification is from IWV uncertainties, while T profile uncertainties dominate in the mid-infrared (MIR). Uncertainty contributions to near-infrared (NIR) radiance residuals are dominated by water vapor line parameters in the vicinity of the strong water vapor bands. The window regions in between these bands are dominated by solar Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) calibration uncertainties at low NIR wavenumbers, while uncertainties due to AOD become an increasing and dominant contribution towards higher NIR wavenumbers

  8. Far-red light photoactivatable near-infrared fluorescent proteins engineered from a bacterial phytochrome.

    PubMed

    Piatkevich, Kiryl D; Subach, Fedor V; Verkhusha, Vladislav V

    2013-01-01

    The ability to modulate the fluorescence of optical probes can be used to enhance signal-to-noise ratios for imaging within highly autofluorescent environments, such as intact tissues and living organisms. Here, we report two bacteriophytochrome-based photoactivatable near-infrared fluorescent proteins, named PAiRFP1 and PAiRFP2. PAiRFPs utilize haem-derived biliverdin, ubiquitous in mammalian tissues, as the chromophore. Initially weakly fluorescent PAiRFPs undergo photoconversion into a highly fluorescent state with excitation/emission at 690/717 nm following a brief irradiation with far-red light. After photoactivation, PAiRFPs slowly revert back to initial state, enabling multiple photoactivation-relaxation cycles. Low-temperature optical spectroscopy reveals several intermediates involved in PAiRFP photocycles, which all differ from that of the bacteriophytochrome precursor. PAiRFPs can be photoactivated in a spatially selective manner in mouse tissues, and optical modulation of their fluorescence allows for substantial contrast enhancement, making PAiRFPs advantageous over permanently fluorescent probes for in vivo imaging conditions of high autofluorescence and low signal levels.

  9. Mapping IR Enhancements in Closely Interacting Spiral-Spiral Pairs: I. ISO CAM and ISO SWS Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xu, C.; Gao, Y.; Mazzarella, J.; Lu, N.; Sulentic, J.; Domingue, D.

    2000-01-01

    Mid-infrared (MIR) imaging and spectroscopic observations are presented for a well defined sample of eight closely interacting (CLO) pairs of spiral galaxies that have overlapping disks and show enhanced far-infrared (FIR) emission.

  10. Progress in far-infrared spectroscopy: Approximately 1890 to 1970

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitsuishi, Akiyoshi

    2014-03-01

    The history of far-infrared spectroscopy from its beginning to around 1970 is reviewed. Before World War II, the size of the community investigating this topic was limited. During this period, in particular before 1925, about 90% of the papers were published by H. Rubens and his co-workers in Germany. One or two researchers from the US joined the Rubens group per year from 1890 to the beginning of 1910. During the next year or two, some researchers joined M. Czerny, who is seen as the successor of Rubens. After World War II, far-infrared techniques progressed further in the US, which did not suffer damage during the war. The advanced techniques of far-infrared grating spectroscopy were transferred from the US (R. A. Oetjen) to Japan (H. Yoshinaga). Yoshinaga and his co-workers expanded the techniques by themselves. This paper describes the historical development of far-infrared spectroscopy before Fourier transform spectroscopy became popular around 1970.

  11. Laboratory microwave, millimeter wave and far-infrared spectra of dimethyl sulfide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jabri, A.; Van, V.; Nguyen, H. V. L.; Mouhib, H.; Kwabia Tchana, F.; Manceron, L.; Stahl, W.; Kleiner, I.

    2016-05-01

    Context. Dimethyl sulfide, CH3SCH3 (DMS), is a nonrigid, sulfur-containing molecule whose astronomical detection is considered to be possible in the interstellar medium. Very accurate spectroscopic constants were obtained by a laboratory analysis of rotational microwave and millimeter wave spectra, as well as rotation-torsional far-infrared (FIR) spectra, which can be used to predict transition frequencies for a detection in interstellar sources. Aims: This work aims at the experimental study and theoretical analysis of the ground torsional state and ground torsional band ν15 of DMS in a large spectral range for astrophysical use. Methods: The microwave spectrum was measured in the frequency range 2-40 GHz using two Molecular Beam Fourier Transform MicroWave (MB-FTMW) spectrometers in Aachen, Germany. The millimeter spectrum was recorded in the 50-110 GHz range. The FIR spectrum was measured for the first time at high resolution using the FT spectrometer and the newly built cryogenic cell at the French synchrotron SOLEIL. Results: DMS has two equivalent methyl internal rotors with a barrier height of about 730 cm-1. We performed a fit, using the XIAM and BELGI-Cs-2Tops codes, that contained the new measurements and previous transitions reported in the literature for the ground torsional state νt = 0 (including the four torsional species AA, AE, EA and EE) and for the ground torsional band ν15 = 1 ← 0 (including only the AA species). In the microwave region, we analyzed 584 transitions with J ≤ 30 of the ground torsional state νt = 0 and 18 transitions with J ≤ 5 of the first excited torsional state νt = 1. In the FIR range, 578 transitions belonging to the torsional band ν15 = 1 ← 0 with J ≤ 27 were assigned. Totally, 1180 transitions were included in a global fit with 21 accurately determined parameters. These parameters can be used to produce a reliable line-list for an astrophysical detection of DMS. Full Tables B.1 and C.1, and Table E.1 are

  12. The Contribution of Ionizing Stars to the Far-Infrared and Radio Emission in the Galaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terebey, S.; Fich, M.; Taylor, R.

    1999-12-01

    A summary of research activities carried out in this eighth and final progress report. The final report includes: this summary document, copies of three published research papers, plus a draft manuscript of a fourth research paper entitled "The Contribution of Ionizing Stars to the FarInfrared and Radio Emission in the Milky Way; Evidence for a Swept-up Shell and Diffuse Ionized Halo around the W4 Chimney/Supershell." The main activity during the final quarterly reporting period was research on W4, including analysis of the radio and far-infrared images, generation of shell models, a literature search, and preparation of a research manuscript. There will be additional consultation with co-authors prior to submission of the paper to the Astrophysical Journal. The results will be presented at the 4th Tetons Summer Conference on "Galactic Structure, Stars, and the ISM" in May 2000. In this fourth and last paper we show W4 has a swept-up partially ionized shell of gas and dust which is powered by the OCl 352 star cluster. Analysis shows there is dense interstellar material directly below the shell, evidence that that the lower W4 shell "ran into a brick wall" and stalled, whereas the upper W4 shell achieved "breakout" to form a Galactic chimney. An ionized halo is evidence of Lyman continuum leakage which ionizes the WIM (warm ionized medium). It has long been postulated that the strong winds and abundant ionizing photons from massive stars are responsible for much of the large scale structure in the interstellar medium (ISM), including the ISM in other galaxies. However standard HII region theory predicts few photons will escape the local HII region. The significance of W4 and this work is it provides a direct example of how stellar winds power a galactic chimney, which in turn leads to a low density cavity from which ionizing photons can escape to large distances to ionize the WIM.

  13. The Contribution of Ionizing Stars to the Far-Infrared and Radio Emission in the Galaxy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Terebey, S.; Fich, M.; Taylor, R.

    1999-01-01

    A summary of research activities carried out in this eighth and final progress report. The final report includes: this summary document, copies of three published research papers, plus a draft manuscript of a fourth research paper entitled "The Contribution of Ionizing Stars to the FarInfrared and Radio Emission in the Milky Way; Evidence for a Swept-up Shell and Diffuse Ionized Halo around the W4 Chimney/Supershell." The main activity during the final quarterly reporting period was research on W4, including analysis of the radio and far-infrared images, generation of shell models, a literature search, and preparation of a research manuscript. There will be additional consultation with co-authors prior to submission of the paper to the Astrophysical Journal. The results will be presented at the 4th Tetons Summer Conference on "Galactic Structure, Stars, and the ISM" in May 2000. In this fourth and last paper we show W4 has a swept-up partially ionized shell of gas and dust which is powered by the OCl 352 star cluster. Analysis shows there is dense interstellar material directly below the shell, evidence that that the lower W4 shell "ran into a brick wall" and stalled, whereas the upper W4 shell achieved "breakout" to form a Galactic chimney. An ionized halo is evidence of Lyman continuum leakage which ionizes the WIM (warm ionized medium). It has long been postulated that the strong winds and abundant ionizing photons from massive stars are responsible for much of the large scale structure in the interstellar medium (ISM), including the ISM in other galaxies. However standard HII region theory predicts few photons will escape the local HII region. The significance of W4 and this work is it provides a direct example of how stellar winds power a galactic chimney, which in turn leads to a low density cavity from which ionizing photons can escape to large distances to ionize the WIM.

  14. Oxygenation dynamics of sepsis patients undergoing far-infrared intervention based on near-infrared spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Chuang, Kuei-Hung; Chuang, Ming-Lung; Sia, Sung-Kien; Sun, Chia-Wei

    2017-03-01

    Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS; continuous wave type) is a noninvasive tool for detecting the relative change of oxyhemoglobin and deoxyhemoglobin. To make this change, intervention methods must be applied. This study determined the hemodynamics of 44 healthy participants and 35 patients with sepsis during exposure to FIR as a novel physical intervention approach. Local microcirculation of their brachioradialis was monitored during exposure and recovery through NIRS. The variations in blood flow and microvascular reaction were determined by conducting paired and unpaired t tests. The oxyhemoglobin levels of the healthy participants increased continuously, even during recovery. In contrast to expextations, the oxyhemoglobin levels of the patients plateaued after only 5 min of FIR illumination. The proposed method has potential applications for ensuring efficient treatment and facilitating doctors in diagnosing the functions of vessels in intensive care units. Mapping diagrams of HbO 2 in healthy males and males with sepsis illustrated unique scenarios during the process. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. The High-Resolution Far-Infrared Spectra of Sulfur Di-Cyanide S(CN)2 and the Pursuit of that of Cyanogen Iso-Thiocyanate Ncncs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winnewisser, Manfred; Winnewisser, Brenda P.; De Lucia, Frank C.; Tokaryk, Dennis W.; Forthomme, Damien; Ross, Sephen C.; Billinghurst, Brant E.

    2012-06-01

    There are only pellet low resolution infrared spectra reported in the literature for sulfur di-cyanide S(CN){_2}, and none at all for cyanogen iso-thiocyanate, NCNCS. These two molecules are linked by a thermal isomerization reaction: NCSCN plus heat yields mainly NCNCS. Despite its difficult synthesis and its short kinetic life time, NCNCS is the best example so far of a quasi-linear molecule which clearly exhibits the distinctive monodromy-induced} dislocation of the ro-vibrational energy levels. The momentum maps (monodromy plots) of various physical quantities, such as effective rotational constants, ro-vibrational energies, dipole moment components etc. for NCNCS show at the top of the punt of the two-dimensional champaign-bottle potential energy function all the effects of quantum monodromy and exited state quantum phase transitions. For that reason it would be highly interesting to observe for NCNCS the high-resolution FIR bands of the lowest quasi-linear bending vibration. At the Canadian Light Source in May-June 2011 we first had to obtain the far-infrared spectrum of the precursor molecule S(CN)2 with the IFS125HR Bruker Fourier transform spectrometer. Six of the fundamental vibrational modes of this molecule have been observed and measured with the maximum resolution of 0.00096 cm-1. The analysis of the measured and assigned band systems is presently being carried out and will be reported in this contribution. The experimental strategy for synthesizing NCNCS and observing its FIR bands in a flow system through a multi-pass infrared absorption cell will also be discussed. B. P. Winnewisser, M. Winnewisser, I. R. Medvedev, F. C. De Lucia, S. C. Ross and J. Koput, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., 2010, 12, 8158-8189. D. Larese and F. Iachello, J. Mol. Struct., 1006 (2011) 611-628

  16. Thin Ice Clouds in Far IR Experiment: TICFIRE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanchet, Jean-Pierre

    The TICFIRE mission concept developed with the support of the Canadian Space Agency aims: 1) to improve measurements of water-vapor concentration in the low limit, where cold regions are most sensitive and 2) to determine the contribution of Thin Ice Clouds (TIC) to the energy balance and the role of their microphysical properties on atmospheric cooling. TICFIRE is a process-oriented mission on a micro-satellite platform dedicated to observe key parameters of TIC forming in the cold regions of the Poles and globally, in the upper troposphere. It locates cloud top profiles at the limb and measures at nadir the corresponding upwelling radiance of the atmosphere directly in the thermal window and in the Far Infrared (FIR) spectrum over cold geographical regions, precisely where most of the atmospheric thermal cooling takes place. Due to technological limitations, the FIR spectrum (17 to 50 m) is not regularly monitored by conventional sensors despite its major importance. This deficiency in key data also impacts operational weather forecasting. TICFIRE will provide on a global scale a needed contribution in calibrated radiance assimilation near the IR maximum emission to improve weather forecast. Therefore, TICFIRE is a science-driven mission with a strong operational component.

  17. Atmospheric and Spectroscopic Research in the Far Infrared

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Park, Kwangjai

    2001-01-01

    The University of Oregon (UO) was a participant in a number of far infrared spectroscopic projects over the past three decades. These include Sub-millimeter Infrared Balloon Experiment (SIBEX), the Balloon Intercomparison Campaign (BIC), and the Infrared Balloon Experiment (IBEX). In addition to these field studies, the UO program contained a detector research component and a laboratory spectroscopy element. Through a productive collaboration with Dr. Carli's group in Italy, with Prof. Ade's group in England and with Dr. Chance of Harvard-Smithsonian, we have made substantial contributions to the development of far infrared spectroscopy as a mature measurement technology for the atmospheric science. This report summarizes the activities during the latest grant period, covering the span from February 22, 1998 to February 21, 2002.

  18. MIR and FIR Analysis of Inorganic Species in a Single Data Acquisition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Peng; Shilov, Sergey

    2017-06-01

    The extension of the mid IR towards the far IR spectral range below 400 \\wn is of great interest for molecular vibrational analysis for inorganic and organometallic chemistry, for geological, pharmaceutical, and physical applications, polymorph screening and crystallinity analysis as well as for matrix isolation spectroscopy. In these cases, the additional far infrared region offers insight to low energy vibrations which are observable only there. This includes inorganic species, lattice vibrations or intermolecular vibrations in the ordered solid state. The spectral range of a FTIR spectrometer is defined by the major optical components such as the source, beamsplitter, and detector. The globar source covers a broad spectral range from 8000 to 20 \\wn. However a bottle neck exists with respect to the beamsplitter and detector. To extend the spectral range further into the far IR and THz spectral ranges, one or more additional far IR beam splitters and detectors have been previously required. Two new optic components have been incorporated in a spectrometer to achieve coverage of both the mid and far infrared in a single scan: a wide range MIR-FIR beam splitter and the wide range DLaTGS detector that utilizes a diamond window. The use of a standard SiC IR source with these components yields a spectral range of 6000 down to 50 \\wn in one step for all types of transmittance, reflectance and ATR measurements. Utilizing the external water cooled mercury arc high power lamp the spectral range can be ultimately extended down to 10 \\wn. Examples of application will include emission in MIR-THz range, identification of pigments, additives in polymers, and polymorphism studies.

  19. Water Emission from Early Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jarugula, Sreevani; Vieira, Joaquin

    2017-06-01

    The study of dusty star forming galaxies (DSFGs) is important to understand galaxy assembly in early universe. A bulk of star formation at z ˜ 2-3 takes place in DSFGs but are obscured by dust in optical/UV. However, they are extremely bright in far infrared (FIR) and submillimeter with infrared luminosities of 10^{11} - 10^{13} L_{⊙}. ALMA, with its high spatial and spectral resolution, has opened up a new window to study molecular lines, which are vital to our understanding of the excitation and physical processes in the galaxy. Carbon monoxide (CO) being the second most abundant and bright molecule after hydrogen (H_{2}), is an important tracer of star forming potential. Besides CO, water (H_{2}O) is also abundant and it's line strength is comparable to high-J CO lines in high redshift Ultra Luminous Infrared Galaxies (ULIRGs). Studies have shown H_{2}O to directly trace the FIR field and hence the star forming regions. Moreover, L_{H_{2}O}/L_{IR} ratio is nearly constant for five of the most important water lines and does not depend on the presence of AGN implying that H_{2}O is one of the best tracers of star forming regions (SFRs). This incredible correlation holds for nearly five orders of magnitude in luminosity and observed in both local and high redshift luminous infrared galaxies. In this talk, I will discuss the importance of H_{2}O in tracing FIR field and show the preliminary results of resolved water emission from three high-redshift gravitationally lensed South Pole Telescope (SPT) sources obtained from ALMA cycle 3 and cycle 4. These sources are among the first H_{2}O observations with resolved spatial scales ˜ 1 kpc and will prove to be important for ALMA and galaxy evolution studies.

  20. The Balloon Experimental Twin Telescope for Infrared Interferometry (BETTII): Spatially Resolved Spectroscopy in the Far-Infrared

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rinehart, Stephen

    2009-01-01

    Astronomical studies at infrared wavelengths have dramatically improved our understanding of the universe, and observations with Spitzer, the upcoming Herschel mission, and SOFIA will continue to provide exciting new discoveries. The relatively low angular resolution of these missions, however, is insufficient to resolve the physical scale on which mid-to far-infrared emission arises, resulting in source and structure ambiguities that limit our ability to answer key science questions. Interferometry enables high angular resolution at these wavelengths - a powerful tool for scientific discovery. We will build the Balloon Experimental Twin Telescope for Infrared Interferometry (BETTII), an eight-meter baseline Michelson stellar interferometer to fly on a high-altitude balloon. BETTII's spectral-spatial capability, provided by an instrument using double-Fourier techniques, will address key questions about the nature of disks in young star clusters and active galactic nuclei and the envelopes of evolved stars. BETTII will also lay the technological groundwork for future space interferometers and for suborbital programs optimized for studying extrasolar planets.

  1. GOODS Far Infrared Imaging with Herschel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frayer, David T.; Elbaz, D.; Dickinson, M.; GOODS-Herschel Team

    2010-01-01

    Most of the stars in galaxies formed at high redshift in dusty environments, where their energy was absorbed and re-radiated at infrared wavelengths. Similarly, much of the growth of nuclear black holes in active galactic nuclei (AGN) was also obscured from direct view at UV/optical and X-ray wavelengths. The Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey Herschel (GOODS-H) open time key program will obtain the deepest far-infrared view of the distant universe, mapping the history of galaxy growth and AGN activity over a broad swath of cosmic time. GOODS-H will image the GOODS-North field with the PACS and SPIRE instruments at 100 to 500 microns, matching the deep survey of GOODS-South in the guaranteed time key program. GOODS-H will also observe an ultradeep sub-field within GOODS-South with PACS, reaching the deepest flux limits planned for Herschel (0.6 mJy at 100 microns with S/N=5). GOODS-H data will detect thousands of luminous and ultraluminous infrared galaxies out to z=4 or beyond, measuring their far-infrared luminosities and spectral energy distributions, and providing the best constraints on star formation rates and AGN activity during this key epoch of galaxy and black hole growth in the young universe.

  2. High pressure far infrared spectroscopy of ionic solids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lowndes, R. P.

    1974-01-01

    A high-pressure far-infrared cell operating at up to truly hydrostatic pressures of 8 kbar is described and used to determine the anharmonic self-energies associated with the transverse optic modes of ionic solids in which q approximately equals zero. The cell allows far-infrared studies in the spectral range below 120 reciprocal cm. The transverse optic modes were investigated to determine their mode Gruneisen constants and the pressure dependence of their inverse lifetimes in RbI, CsI, and TlCl.

  3. Atrazine Molecular Imprinted Polymers: Comparative Analysis by Far-Infrared and Ultraviolet Induced Polymerization

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jun; Bai, Lian-Yang; Liu, Kun-Feng; Liu, Run-Qiang; Zhang, Yu-Ping

    2014-01-01

    Atrazine molecular imprinted polymers (MIPs) were comparatively synthesized using identical polymer formulation by far-infrared (FIR) radiation and ultraviolet (UV)-induced polymerization, respectively. Equilibrium binding experiments were carried out with the prepared MIPs; the results showed that MIPuv possessed specific binding to atrazine compared with their MIPFIR radiation counterparts. Scatchard plot’s of both MIPs indicated that the affinities of the binding sites in MIPs are heterogeneous and can be approximated by two dissociation-constants corresponding to the high-and low-affinity binding sites. Moreover, several common pesticides including atrazine, cyromazine, metamitron, simazine, ametryn, terbutryn were tested to determine their specificity, similar imprinting factor (IF) and different selectivity index (SI) for both MIPs. Physical characterization of the polymers revealed that the different polymerization methods led to slight differences in polymer structures and performance by scanning electron microscope (SEM), Fourier transform infrared absorption (FT-IR), and mercury analyzer (MA). Finally, both MIPs were used as selective sorbents for solid phase extraction (SPE) of atrazine from lake water, followed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis. Compared with commercial C18 SPE sorbent (86.4%–94.8%), higher recoveries of atrazine in spiked lake water were obtained in the range of 90.1%–97.1% and 94.4%–101.9%, for both MIPs, respectively. PMID:24398982

  4. The far-infrared spectrum of the OH radical

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, J. M.; Schubert, J. E.; Evenson, K. M.; Radford, H. E.

    1982-01-01

    It is thought likely that the study of spectral lines in the far-infrared might provide at least as much information about the physics and chemistry of the interstellar environment as radioastronomy. However, by comparison with the microwave region, the far-infrared is largely unexplored. There is a pressing need for good laboratory data to aid searches and assignments of spectra from the interstellar clouds and nebulae. Brown et al. (1981) have conducted a study of the laser magnetic resonance (LMR) spectrum of the OH radical in its ground state at far-infrared wavelengths. The present investigation is concerned with the computation of the frequencies of individual hyperfine transitions involving all rotational levels up to J = 4 1/2. The results of the calculation are presented in a table. The results are summarized in a diagram which shows the low-lying energy levels of OH. The frequencies of transitions between levels studied directly in the LMR spectrum are quite reliable.

  5. Revealing the Galactic Center in the Far-Infrared with SOFIA/FORCAST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lau, Ryan M.; Herter, Terry; Morris, Mark; Li, Zhiyuan; Becklin, Eric; Adams, Joseph; Hankins, Matthew

    2015-08-01

    We present a summary of far-infrared imaging observations of the inner 40 pc of the Galactic center addressing the dense, dusty torus around Sgr A*, massive star formation, and dust production around massive stars and in the Sgr A East supernova remnant. Observations of warm dust emission were performed using the Faint Object Infrared Camera for the SOFIA Telescope (FORCAST). The Circumnuclear Ring (CNR) surrounding and heated by central cluster in the vicinity of Sgr A* shows no internal active star formation but does exhibit significant density “clumps,” a surprising result because tidal shearing should act quickly to smear out structure. G-0.02-0.07, a complex consisting of three compact HII regions and one ultracompact HII region, is site of the most recent confirmed star formation within ~10 pc of the Galactic center. Our observations reveal the dust morphologies and SEDs of the regions to constrain the composition and gas-to-dust mass ratios of the emitting dust and identify heating sources candidates from archival near-IR images. FORCAST observations Luminous Blue Variables (LBVs) located in and near the Quintuplet Cluster reveal the asymmetric, compressed shell of hot dust surrounding the Pistol Star and provide the first detection of the thermal emission from the symmetric, hot dust envelope surrounding G0.120-0.048. These two LBV’s have nebulae with similar quantities of dust (~0.02 M⊙) but exhibit contrasting appearances due to the external influence of their different environments. Finally, the far-infrared observations indicate the presence of ~0.02 M⊙ of warm (~100 K) dust in the hot interior of the ~10,000 yr-old SgrA East supernova remnant indicating the dust has survived the passage of the reverse shock. The results suggest that supernovae may indeed be the dominant dust production mechanism in the dense environment of early Universe galaxies.

  6. Far Infrared spectroscopy of proteinogenic and other less common amino acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iglesias-Groth, S.; Cataldo, F.

    2018-05-01

    Far infrared spectroscopy is a powerful tool complementing the potential of mid infrared spectroscopy for the search and identification of organic molecules in space. The far infrared spectra of a total of 29 amino acids are reported in this study. In addition to the spectra of 20 common proteinogenic amino acids, spectra of a selection of 9 non-proteinogenic amino acids are also reported, including the 2-aminoisobutyric acid or α-aminoisobutyric acid which, with glycine, it is one of the most abundant amino acids found in meteorites. The present database of 29 far infrared spectra may serve as reference in the search for amino acids in space environments, given the new apportunities that JWST offers for mid and far IR spectroscopy.

  7. Observations of Far-Infrared Molecular Emission Lines from the Orion Molecular Cloud. Ph.D. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Viscuso, P. J.

    1986-01-01

    The Orion Nebula was the subject of intensive study for over one hundred years. Recently, several far infrared transitions among the low-lying levels of OH were observed toward IRc2. The OH is thought to be abundant, and plays an important role in the chemical evolution of shock and post-shock regions. The OH emission serves as a sensitive probe of the temperature and density for the shock-processed gas. A rigorous treatment of the radiative transfer of these measured transitions was performed using the escape probability formalism. From this analysis, the temperature of the OH-emitting region was determined to be on the order of 40K. This suggests that the gas is part of the post-shock gas that has cooled sufficiently, most likely by way of radiative cooling by CO. Such cooling from shock temperatures of several degrees can be accomplished in 100 years. A molecular hydrogen density of 3 million/cubic cm and an OH column density of 1.0 x 10 to the 17th /sq cm is found. The beam filling factor is determined to be 36%.

  8. Biological research by optically pumped far infrared lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhengyu, Mi

    1989-05-01

    The FIR breeding for paddy rice, black bean and wheat, the chlorophyll mutation of paddy rice induced by optically pumped FIR laser, etc., are presented. The results of SDS electrophoresis analysis of soluble proteins of Drosophita melanrgaster irradiated by optically pumped FIR laser are described and discussed.

  9. Stratospheric distribution of HCN from far infrared observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbas, M. M.; Guo, J.; Carli, B.; Mencaraglia, F.; Carlotti, M.

    1987-01-01

    Far infrared limb thermal emission measurements of the earth's stratosphere were made with a high resolution spectrometer on a balloon payload launched from Palestine, TX, on Oct. 5, 1982. Several limb sequences of a portion of the observed spectra have been analyzed for retrieval of the stratospheric HCN profile from a number of spectral lines in the 32 to 56 cm region. The mixing ratio profile in the 20 to 37 km altitude range has been retrieved with 2-sigma uncertainties of about 4-5 km. The HCN volume mixing ratio is found to be about 139 pptv at 20 km, 127 pptv at 25 km, and increasing to 172 pptv at 37 km. The results are compared with measurements by other groups and with photochemical model calculations reported in the literature.

  10. High-excitation OH and H2O Lines in Markarian 231: The Molecular Signatures of Compact Far-infrared Continuum Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González-Alfonso, Eduardo; Smith, Howard A.; Ashby, Matthew L. N.; Fischer, Jacqueline; Spinoglio, Luigi; Grundy, Timothy W.

    2008-03-01

    The ISO LWS far-infrared spectrum of the ultraluminous galaxy Mrk 231 shows OH and H2O lines in absorption from energy levels up to 300 K above the ground state, and emission in the [O I] 63 μm and [C II] 158 μm lines. Our analysis shows that OH and H2O are radiatively pumped by the far-infrared continuum emission of the galaxy. The absorptions in the high-excitation lines require high far-infrared radiation densities, allowing us to constrain the properties of the underlying continuum source. The bulk of the far-infrared continuum arises from a warm (Tdust = 70-100 K), optically thick (τ100μ m = 1-2) medium of effective diameter 200-400 pc. In our best-fit model of total luminosity LIR, the observed OH and H2O high-lying lines arise from a luminous (L/LIR ~ 0.56) region with radius ~100 pc. The high surface brightness of this component suggests that its infrared emission is dominated by the AGN. The derived column densities N(OH) gtrsim 1017 cm-2 and N(H2O) gtrsim 6 × 1016 cm-2 may indicate X-ray dominated region (XDR) chemistry, although significant starburst chemistry cannot be ruled out. The lower-lying OH, [C II] 158 μm, and [O I] 63 μm lines arise from a more extended (~350 pc) starburst region. We show that the [C II] deficit in Mrk 231 is compatible with a high average abundance of C+ because of an extreme overall luminosity to gas mass ratio. Therefore, a [C II] deficit may indicate a significant contribution to the luminosity by an AGN, and/or by extremely efficient star formation. Based on observations with the Infrared Space Observatory, an ESA project with instruments funded by ESA Member States (especially the principal investigator countries: France, Germany, Netherlands, and the United Kingdom) and with the participation of ISAS and NASA.

  11. Effects of whole-body cryotherapy vs. far-infrared vs. passive modalities on recovery from exercise-induced muscle damage in highly-trained runners.

    PubMed

    Hausswirth, Christophe; Louis, Julien; Bieuzen, François; Pournot, Hervé; Fournier, Jean; Filliard, Jean-Robert; Brisswalter, Jeanick

    2011-01-01

    Enhanced recovery following physical activity and exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD) has become a priority for athletes. Consequently, a number of post-exercise recovery strategies are used, often without scientific evidence of their benefits. Within this framework, the purpose of this study was to test the efficacy of whole body cryotherapy (WBC), far infrared (FIR) or passive (PAS) modalities in hastening muscular recovery within the 48 hours after a simulated trail running race. In 3 non-adjoining weeks, 9 well-trained runners performed 3 repetitions of a simulated trail run on a motorized treadmill, designed to induce muscle damage. Immediately (post), post 24 h, and post 48 h after exercise, all participants tested three different recovery modalities (WBC, FIR, PAS) in a random order over the three separate weeks. Markers of muscle damage (maximal isometric muscle strength, plasma creatine kinase [CK] activity and perceived sensations [i.e. pain, tiredness, well-being]) were recorded before, immediately after (post), post 1 h, post 24 h, and post 48 h after exercise. In all testing sessions, the simulated 48 min trail run induced a similar, significant amount of muscle damage. Maximal muscle strength and perceived sensations were recovered after the first WBC session (post 1 h), while recovery took 24 h with FIR, and was not attained through the PAS recovery modality. No differences in plasma CK activity were recorded between conditions. Three WBC sessions performed within the 48 hours after a damaging running exercise accelerate recovery from EIMD to a greater extent than FIR or PAS modalities.

  12. Effects of Whole-Body Cryotherapy vs. Far-Infrared vs. Passive Modalities on Recovery from Exercise-Induced Muscle Damage in Highly-Trained Runners

    PubMed Central

    Hausswirth, Christophe; Louis, Julien; Bieuzen, François; Pournot, Hervé; Fournier, Jean; Filliard, Jean-Robert; Brisswalter, Jeanick

    2011-01-01

    Enhanced recovery following physical activity and exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD) has become a priority for athletes. Consequently, a number of post-exercise recovery strategies are used, often without scientific evidence of their benefits. Within this framework, the purpose of this study was to test the efficacy of whole body cryotherapy (WBC), far infrared (FIR) or passive (PAS) modalities in hastening muscular recovery within the 48 hours after a simulated trail running race. In 3 non-adjoining weeks, 9 well-trained runners performed 3 repetitions of a simulated trail run on a motorized treadmill, designed to induce muscle damage. Immediately (post), post 24 h, and post 48 h after exercise, all participants tested three different recovery modalities (WBC, FIR, PAS) in a random order over the three separate weeks. Markers of muscle damage (maximal isometric muscle strength, plasma creatine kinase [CK] activity and perceived sensations [i.e. pain, tiredness, well-being]) were recorded before, immediately after (post), post 1 h, post 24 h, and post 48 h after exercise. In all testing sessions, the simulated 48 min trail run induced a similar, significant amount of muscle damage. Maximal muscle strength and perceived sensations were recovered after the first WBC session (post 1 h), while recovery took 24 h with FIR, and was not attained through the PAS recovery modality. No differences in plasma CK activity were recorded between conditions. Three WBC sessions performed within the 48 hours after a damaging running exercise accelerate recovery from EIMD to a greater extent than FIR or PAS modalities. PMID:22163272

  13. Far infrared all-sky survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richards, Paul L.

    1991-01-01

    An all-sky survey at submillimeter waves is examined. Far-infrared all-sky surveys were performed using high-thoroughput bolometric detectors from a one-meter balloon telescope. Based on the large-bodied experience obtained with the original all-sky survey telescope, a number of radically different approaches were implemented. Continued balloon measurements of the spectrum of the cosmic microwave background were performed.

  14. Stacked Metal Silicide/Silicon Far-Infrared Detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maserjian, Joseph

    1988-01-01

    Selective doping of silicon in proposed metal silicide/silicon Schottky-barrier infrared photodetector increases maximum detectable wavelength. Stacking layers to form multiple Schottky barriers increases quantum efficiency of detector. Detectors of new type enhance capabilities of far-infrared imaging arrays. Grows by molecular-beam epitaxy on silicon waferscontaining very-large-scale integrated circuits. Imaging arrays of detectors made in monolithic units with image-preprocessing circuitry.

  15. Titan's Far-Infrared 220 cm(exp -1) Cloud Seen for the First Time in the South

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jennings, Donald; Anderson, Carrie; Samuelson, Robert; Nixon, Conor; Flasar, Michael; Teanby, Nick; deKok, Remco; Coustenis, Athena; Vinatier, Sandrine

    2013-01-01

    In 2012 an emission feature at 220 cm(exp -1) in Titan's far-infrared spectrum was seen for the first time in the south. Attributed to a stratosphere ice cloud formed at the winter pole, the 220 (exp -1) emission had previously been seen only at high northern latitudes where it bad been decreasing since the arrival of Cassini in 2004. Our far-infrared observations were performed With the Composite Infrared Spectrometer (CIRS) on Caasini. Although it bad been expected that the 220 cm(exp -1) emission would eventnal1y appear in the south, the emission appeared rather suddenly, increasing by a factor of at least four between February (when it was not detected) and July 2012. At the time of our observations, one Titan month after equinox, the 220 cm(exp -1) feature was present in both the north and south and showed a trend of continued slow decrease in the north and steep increase in the south. As has been the case in the north, the emission in the south was confined to high latitudes associated with winter polar shadowing. Our spectroscopic detection of the southern 220 cm(exp -1) ice cloud coincided with the rapid formation in 2012 of a haze hood and vortex at the south pole as seen in Cassini image. The 220 cm(exp -1) feature was first observed by the Infrared Interferometer Spectrometer (IRIS) on Voyager I and has been extensively studied in the north by CIRS. Until now the 220 cm(exp -1) emission, like the polar hood, has been associated solely with the north, owing to the fact that Voyager and Cassini have viewed Titan only during winter-spring. In 2012 we witnessed the start of a seasonal shift of this pattern to the south. The 220 cm(exp -1) emission arises from altitudes of 80-150 km and peaks sharply near 140 km. The material responsible for the spectral feature is not known, but indirect evidence hints at a condensate arising from complex nitriles, which also tend to be present only at high winter latitudes.

  16. Method And Apparatus For Examining A Tissue Using The Spectral Wing Emission Therefrom Induced By Visible To Infrared Photoexcitation.

    DOEpatents

    Alfano, Robert R.; Demos, Stavros G.; Zhang, Gang

    2003-12-16

    Method and an apparatus for examining a tissue using the spectral wing emission therefrom induced by visible to infrared photoexcitation. In one aspect, the method is used to characterize the condition of a tissue sample and comprises the steps of (a) photoexciting the tissue sample with substantially monochromatic light having a wavelength of at least 600 nm; and (b) using the resultant far red and near infrared spectral wing emission (SW) emitted from the tissue sample to characterize the condition of the tissue sample. In one embodiment, the substantially monochromatic photoexciting light is a continuous beam of light, and the resultant steady-state far red and near infrared SW emission from the tissue sample is used to characterize the condition of the tissue sample. In another embodiment, the substantially monochromatic photoexciting light is a light pulse, and the resultant time-resolved far red and near infrared SW emission emitted from the tissue sample is used to characterize the condition of the tissue sample. In still another embodiment, the substantially monochromatic photoexciting light is a polarized light pulse, and the parallel and perpendicular components of the resultant polarized time-resolved SW emission emitted from the tissue sample are used to characterize the condition of the tissue sample.

  17. Far-infrared observations of young clusters embedded in the R Coronae Australis and Rho Ophiuchi dark clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilking, B. A.; Harvey, P. M.; Joy, M.; Hyland, A. R.; Jones, T. J.

    1985-01-01

    Multicolor far-infrared maps in two nearby dark clouds, R Coronae Australis and Rho Ophiuchi, have been made in order to investigate the individual contribution of low-mass stars to the energetics and dynamics of the surrounding gas and dust. Emission from cool dust associated with five low-mass stars has been detected in CrA and four in Rho Oph; their far-infrared luminosities range from 2 solar luminosities to 40 solar luminosities. When an estimate of the bolometric luminosity was possible, it was found that typically more than 50 percent of the star's energy was radiated longward of 20 microns. Meaningful limits to the far-infrared luminosities of an additional 11 association members in CrA and two in Rho Oph were also obtained. The dust optical depth surrounding the star R CrA appears to be asymmetric and may control the dynamics of the surrounding molecular gas. The implications of these results for the cloud energetics and star formation efficiency in these two clouds are discussed.

  18. Science with High Spatial Resolution Far-Infrared Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Terebey, Susan (Editor); Mazzarella, Joseph M. (Editor)

    1994-01-01

    The goal of this workshop was to discuss new science and techniques relevant to high spatial resolution processing of far-infrared data, with particular focus on high resolution processing of IRAS data. Users of the maximum correlation method, maximum entropy, and other resolution enhancement algorithms applicable to far-infrared data gathered at the Infrared Processing and Analysis Center (IPAC) for two days in June 1993 to compare techniques and discuss new results. During a special session on the third day, interested astronomers were introduced to IRAS HIRES processing, which is IPAC's implementation of the maximum correlation method to the IRAS data. Topics discussed during the workshop included: (1) image reconstruction; (2) random noise; (3) imagery; (4) interacting galaxies; (5) spiral galaxies; (6) galactic dust and elliptical galaxies; (7) star formation in Seyfert galaxies; (8) wavelet analysis; and (9) supernova remnants.

  19. Far-Infrared Beamline at the Canadian Light Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Billinghurst, Brant E.; May, Tim E.

    2014-06-01

    The far-infrared beamline at the Canadian Light Source is a state of the art user facility, which offers significantly more far-infrared brightness than conventional globar sources. The infrared radiation is collected from a bending magnet through a 55 X 37 mrad2 port to a Bruker IFS 125 HR spectrometer, which is equipped with a nine compartment scanning arm, allowing it to achieve spectral resolution better than 0.001 cm-1. Currently the beamline can achieve signal to noise ratios up to 8 times that which can be achieved using a traditional thermal source. This talk will provide an overview of the the beamline, and the capabilities available to users, recent and planned improvements including the addition of a Glow Discharge cell and advances in Coherent Synchrotron Radiation. Furthermore, the process of acquiring access to the facility will be covered.

  20. New insights into the interstellar medium of the dwarf galaxy IC 10: connection between magnetic fields, the radio-infrared correlation and star formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basu, Aritra; Roychowdhury, Sambit; Heesen, Volker; Beck, Rainer; Brinks, Elias; Westcott, Jonathan; Hindson, Luke

    2017-10-01

    We present the highest sensitivity and angular resolution study at 0.32 GHz of the dwarf irregular galaxy IC 10, observed using the Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope, probing ˜45 pc spatial scales. We find the galaxy-averaged radio continuum spectrum to be relatively flat, with a spectral index α = -0.34 ± 0.01 (Sν ∝ να), mainly due to a high contribution from free-free emission. At 0.32 GHz, some of the H II regions show evidence of free-free absorption as they become optically thick below ˜0.41 GHz with corresponding free electron densities of ˜ 11-22 cm- 3. After removing the free-free emission, we studied the radio-infrared (IR) relations on 55, 110 and 165 pc spatial scales. We find that on all scales the non-thermal emission at 0.32 and 6.2 GHz correlates better with far-infrared (FIR) emission at 70 μm than mid-IR emission at 24 μm. The dispersion of the radio-FIR relation arises due to variations in both magnetic field and dust temperature, and decreases systematically with increasing spatial scale. The effect of cosmic ray transport is negligible as cosmic ray electrons were only injected ≲5 Myr ago. The average magnetic field strength (B) of 12 μG in the disc is comparable to that of large star-forming galaxies. The local magnetic field is strongly correlated with local star formation rate (SFR) as B ∝ SFR0.35 ± 0.03, indicating a starburst-driven fluctuation dynamo to be efficient (˜10 per cent) in amplifying the field in IC 10. The high spatial resolution observations presented here suggest that the high efficiency of magnetic field amplification and strong coupling with SFR likely sets up the radio-FIR correlation in cosmologically young galaxies.

  1. The heating of dust in starburst galaxies: The contribution of the nonionizing radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calzetti, D.; Bohlin, R. C.; Kinney, Anne L.; Storchi-Bergmann, T.; Heckman, Timothy M.

    1995-01-01

    The IUE UV and optical spectra and the far-infrared (FIR) IRAS flux densities of a sample of starburst and blue compact galaxies are used to investigate the relationship between dust obscuration and dust emission. The amount of dust obscuration at UV wavelengths correlates with the FIR-to-blue ratio; and an analysis of the correlation indicates that not only the ionizing but also the nonionizing radiation contribute to the FIR emission. The amount of UV and optical energy lost to dust obscuration accounts for most of the cool dust FIUR emission and for about 70% of the warm dust FIR emission. The remaining 30% of the warm dust FIR flux is probably due to dust emission from regions of star formation which are embedded in opaque giant molecular clouds and do not contribute to the integrated UV and optical spectrum. The use of the FIR emission as an indicator of high-mass star formation rate in star-forming galaxies can be problematic, since the contribution to the FIR flux from cool dust emission heated by relatively old stars is nonnegligible.

  2. Pedestrian Detection Based on Adaptive Selection of Visible Light or Far-Infrared Light Camera Image by Fuzzy Inference System and Convolutional Neural Network-Based Verification.

    PubMed

    Kang, Jin Kyu; Hong, Hyung Gil; Park, Kang Ryoung

    2017-07-08

    A number of studies have been conducted to enhance the pedestrian detection accuracy of intelligent surveillance systems. However, detecting pedestrians under outdoor conditions is a challenging problem due to the varying lighting, shadows, and occlusions. In recent times, a growing number of studies have been performed on visible light camera-based pedestrian detection systems using a convolutional neural network (CNN) in order to make the pedestrian detection process more resilient to such conditions. However, visible light cameras still cannot detect pedestrians during nighttime, and are easily affected by shadows and lighting. There are many studies on CNN-based pedestrian detection through the use of far-infrared (FIR) light cameras (i.e., thermal cameras) to address such difficulties. However, when the solar radiation increases and the background temperature reaches the same level as the body temperature, it remains difficult for the FIR light camera to detect pedestrians due to the insignificant difference between the pedestrian and non-pedestrian features within the images. Researchers have been trying to solve this issue by inputting both the visible light and the FIR camera images into the CNN as the input. This, however, takes a longer time to process, and makes the system structure more complex as the CNN needs to process both camera images. This research adaptively selects a more appropriate candidate between two pedestrian images from visible light and FIR cameras based on a fuzzy inference system (FIS), and the selected candidate is verified with a CNN. Three types of databases were tested, taking into account various environmental factors using visible light and FIR cameras. The results showed that the proposed method performs better than the previously reported methods.

  3. Concluding Thoughts on New Directions in Infrared Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harwit, Martin

    Currently planned infrared space missions are ambitious and bound to be rewarding. We ask whether design criteria of the past still hold for these projects, and suggest that accumulating experience dictates new engineering guidelines for these increasingly sophisticated missions. Striking spectroscopic advances presented at this symposium indicate that generally held beliefs about the chemical evolution of galaxies may need to be revised. Similar changes in attitude may be required by the results of deep infrared surveys and the recent detectedion of a diffuse far-infrared (FIR) extragalactic background

  4. Exploring the early dust-obscured phase of galaxy formation with blind mid-/far-infrared spectroscopic surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonato, M.; Negrello, M.; Cai, Z.-Y.; De Zotti, G.; Bressan, A.; Lapi, A.; Gruppioni, C.; Spinoglio, L.; Danese, L.

    2014-03-01

    While continuum imaging data at far-infrared to submillimetre wavelengths have provided tight constraints on the population properties of dusty star-forming galaxies up to high redshifts, future space missions like the Space Infrared Telescope for Cosmology and Astrophysics (SPICA) and ground-based facilities like the Cerro Chajnantor Atacama Telescope (CCAT) will allow detailed investigations of their physical properties via their mid-/far-infrared line emission. We present updated predictions for the number counts and the redshift distributions of star-forming galaxies spectroscopically detectable by these future missions. These predictions exploit a recent upgrade of evolutionary models, that include the effect of strong gravitational lensing, in the light of the most recent Herschel and South Pole Telescope data. Moreover the relations between line and continuum infrared luminosity are re-assessed, considering also differences among source populations, with the support of extensive simulations that take into account dust obscuration. The derived line luminosity functions are found to be highly sensitive to the spread of the line to continuum luminosity ratios. Estimates of the expected numbers of detections per spectral line by SPICA/SpicA FAR-infrared Instrument (SAFARI) and by CCAT surveys for different integration times per field of view at fixed total observing time are presented. Comparing with the earlier estimates by Spinoglio et al. we find, in the case of SPICA/SAFARI, differences within a factor of 2 in most cases, but occasionally much larger. More substantial differences are found for CCAT.

  5. Titan's Stratospheric Water Vapor profile from Cassini CIRS far-infrared Spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cottini, V.; Nixon, C. A.; Achterberg, R. K.; Gorius, N.; Coustenis, A.; Irwin, P. G. J.; Anderson, C. M.; Bjoraker, G. L.; Jennings, D. E.; Flasar, F. M.; Ansty, T. M.

    2017-09-01

    In this work we present an update of water vapor abundance in Titan's stratosphere through modeling of its emission lines present in the spectral range (100 - 300 cm-1) observed by the Cassini Composite Infrared Spectrometer (CIRS) far-IR Focal Plane 1 (FP1) detector. We model and analyze high spectral resolution (0.5 cm-1) disk and limb observations acquired from December 2004 to December 2016 to determine the water mixing ratio profile. Nadir data and limb data acquired up to 2011 and pointing at two altitudes in Titan's stratosphere (125 and 225 km) have been previously used in [1] to detect water vapor and retrieve its abundance at two limb altitudes. Few years of more data and improved calibrations are now available to further investigate water vapor. In particular, three far-infrared limb integrations were planned and acquired in 2014 and 2016 with CIRS staring at a single altitude (175 km) for longer time. These new data provided us with one more altitude point to derive the water vapor abundance and improve its retrieved vertical profile, increasing significantly the science results. These results will also be compared to previous results and to the latest photochemical models of Titan's oxygen species.

  6. Device model for pixelless infrared image up-converters based on polycrystalline graphene heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryzhii, V.; Shur, M. S.; Ryzhii, M.; Karasik, V. E.; Otsuji, T.

    2018-01-01

    We developed a device model for pixelless converters of far/mid-infrared radiation (FIR/MIR) images into near-infrared/visible (NIR/VIR) images. These converters use polycrystalline graphene layers (PGLs) immersed in the van der Waals materials integrated with a light emitting diode (LED). The PGL serves as an element of the PGL infrared photodetector (PGLIP) sensitive to the incoming FIR/MIR due to the interband absorption. The spatially non-uniform photocurrent generated in the PGLIP repeats (mimics) the non-uniform distribution (image) created by the incident FIR/MIR. The injection of the nonuniform photocurrent into the LED active layer results in the nonuniform NIR/VIR image reproducing the FIR/MIR image. The PGL and the entire layer structure are not deliberately partitioned into pixels. We analyze the characteristics of such pixelless PGLIP-LED up-converters and show that their image contrast transfer function and the up-conversion efficiency depend on the PGL lateral resistivity. The up-converter exhibits high photoconductive gain and conversion efficiency when the lateral resistivity is sufficiently high. Several teams have successfully demonstrated the large area PGLs with the resistivities varying in a wide range. Such layers can be used in the pixelless PGLIP-LED image up-converters. The PGLIP-LED image up-converters can substantially surpass the image up-converters based on the quantum-well infrared photodetector integrated with the LED. These advantages are due to the use of the interband FIR/NIR absorption and a high photoconductive gain in the GLIPs.

  7. Sleep-enhancing effects of far-infrared radiation in rats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Honda, K.; Inoué, S.

    1988-06-01

    Unrestrained male rats continuously exposed to far-infrared radiation exhibited a significant increase in slow wave sleep (SWS) during the light period but not in the dark period. The change was largely due to the elevated occurrence of SWS episodes but not to the prolongation of their duration. Paradoxical sleep was not affected throughout the observation period except for a significant decrease at the end of the dark period. Thus the far-infrared radiation exerted a sleep modulatory effect closely related to the circadian activity-rest cycle.

  8. Night vision: requirements and possible roadmap for FIR and NIR systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Källhammer, Jan-Erik

    2006-04-01

    A night vision system must increase visibility in situations where only low beam headlights can be used today. As pedestrians and animals have the highest risk increase in night time traffic due to darkness, the ability of detecting those objects should be the main performance criteria, and the system must remain effective when facing the headlights of oncoming vehicles. Far infrared system has been shown to be superior to near infrared system in terms of pedestrian detection distance. Near infrared images were rated to have significantly higher visual clutter compared with far infrared images. Visual clutter has been shown to correlate with reduction in detection distance of pedestrians. Far infrared images are perceived as being more unusual and therefore more difficult to interpret, although the image appearance is likely related to the lower visual clutter. However, the main issue comparing the two technologies should be how well they solve the driver's problem with insufficient visibility under low beam conditions, especially of pedestrians and other vulnerable road users. With the addition of an automatic detection aid, a main issue will be whether the advantage of FIR systems will vanish given NIR systems with well performing automatic pedestrian detection functionality. The first night vision introductions did not generate the sales volumes initially expected. A renewed interest in night vision systems are however to be expected after the release of night vision systems by BMW, Mercedes and Honda, the latter with automatic pedestrian detection.

  9. Optically Pumped Far Infrared Molecular Lasers.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-04-01

    and 4 were reported by Fetterman , et al. and Gullberg, et al.3 An additional FIR transition (i.e., G:sR(5,4) has been reported,5 but is not shown in...attempt has been made to frequency stabilize the experiment. Recently, Fetterman , et al. 11 performed "real-ti adctral analysis for FIR laser pulses...wave device known 4 as a Reflective Array Compressor (RAC) was developed for just this sort of problem in the radar community. Recently, Fetterman , et al

  10. High Sensitivity, High Angular Resolution Far-infrared Photometry from the KAO

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lester, D.; Harvey, P. M.; Wilking, B. A.; Joy, M.

    1984-01-01

    Most of the luminosity of embedded sources is reemitted in the far-infrared continuum. Measurements in the far-infrared are essential to understand the energetics of the interstellar medium, and of star formation regions in particular. Measurements from the KAO, are made in diffraction limited beams that sample a spatial scale considerably smaller than that given by IRAS. The KAO instrument technology has matured to the point that the single scan limiting flux of IRAS at 100 micro can be reached in a diffraction limited beam in a single typical KAO observing leg. The far-infrared photometer system and selections of recent observations are presented.

  11. Far-infrared rotational emission by carbon monoxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mckee, C. F.; Storey, J. W. V.; Watson, D. M.; Green, S.

    1982-01-01

    Accurate theoretical collisional excitation rates are used to determine the emissivities of CO rotational lines for an H2 molecule content of at least 10,000/cu cm, temperature in the range 100-3000 K, and J not more than 60 under the assumption that the lines are optically thin. An approximate analytic expression for the emissivities which is valid in this region is obtained. Population inversions in the lower rotational levels occur for densities of molecular H2 around 1000-100,000/cu cm and temperatures T not more than about 50 K provided photon trapping is unimportant. Interstellar shocks observed edge-on are a potential source of weak millimeter-wave CO maser emission.

  12. Modelling and prediction for chaotic fir laser attractor using rational function neural network.

    PubMed

    Cho, S

    2001-02-01

    Many real-world systems such as irregular ECG signal, volatility of currency exchange rate and heated fluid reaction exhibit highly complex nonlinear characteristic known as chaos. These chaotic systems cannot be retreated satisfactorily using linear system theory due to its high dimensionality and irregularity. This research focuses on prediction and modelling of chaotic FIR (Far InfraRed) laser system for which the underlying equations are not given. This paper proposed a method for prediction and modelling a chaotic FIR laser time series using rational function neural network. Three network architectures, TDNN (Time Delayed Neural Network), RBF (radial basis function) network and the RF (rational function) network, are also presented. Comparisons between these networks performance show the improvements introduced by the RF network in terms of a decrement in network complexity and better ability of predictability.

  13. The Far-Infrared Surveyor Mission Study: Paper I, the Genesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meixner, M.; Cooray, A.; Carter, R.; DiPirro, M.; Flores, A.; Leisawitz, D.; Armus, L.; Battersby, C.; Bergin, E.; Bradford, C. M.; hide

    2017-01-01

    This paper describes the beginning of the Far-Infrared Surveyor mission study for NASA's Astrophysics Decadal 2020. We describe the scope of the study, and the open process approach of the Science and Technology Definition Team. We are currently developing the science cases and provide some preliminary highlights here. We note key areas for technological innovation and improvements necessary to make a Far-Infrared Surveyor mission a reality.

  14. New Concepts for Far-Infrared and Submillimeter Space Astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benford, Dominic J. (Editor); Leisawitz, David T. (Editor)

    2004-01-01

    The Second Workshop on New Concepts for Far-Infrared and Submillimeter Space Astronomy aimed to highlight the groundbreaking opportunities available for astronomical investigations in the far-infrared to submillimeter using advanced, space-based telescopes. Held at the University of Maryland on March 7-8, 2002, the Workshop was attended by 130 participants from 50 institutions, and represented scientists and engineers from many countries and with a wide variety of experience. The technical content featured 17 invited talks and 44 contributed posters, complemented by two sixperson panels to address questions of astronomy and technology.

  15. On the Prospects of Measuring the Cosmic History of Element Synthesis with Future Far-IR/Submillimeter Observatories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leisawitz, David

    2003-01-01

    To understand the cosmic history of element synthesis it will be important to obtain extinction-free measures of the heavy element contents of high-redshift objects and to chart two monumental events: the collapse of the first metal-free clouds to form stars, and the initial seeding of the universe with dust. The information needed to achieve these objectives is uniquely available in the far-infrared/submillimeter (FIR/SMM) spectral region. Following the Decadal Report and anticipating the development of the Single Aperature Far-IR (SAFIR) telescope capabilities of a large-aperature, background-limited FIR/SMM observatory and an interferometer on a boom, and discuss how such instruments could be used to measure the element synthesis history of the universe.

  16. Infrared-faint radio sources remain undetected at far-infrared wavelengths. Deep photometric observations using the Herschel Space Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herzog, A.; Norris, R. P.; Middelberg, E.; Spitler, L. R.; Leipski, C.; Parker, Q. A.

    2015-08-01

    Context. Showing 1.4 GHz flux densities in the range of a few to a few tens of mJy, infrared-faint radio sources (IFRS) are a type of galaxy characterised by faint or absent near-infrared counterparts and consequently extreme radio-to-infrared flux density ratios up to several thousand. Recent studies showed that IFRS are radio-loud active galactic nuclei (AGNs) at redshifts ≳2, potentially linked to high-redshift radio galaxies (HzRGs). Aims: This work explores the far-infrared emission of IFRS, providing crucial information on the star forming and AGN activity of IFRS. Furthermore, the data enable examining the putative relationship between IFRS and HzRGs and testing whether IFRS are more distant or fainter siblings of these massive galaxies. Methods: A sample of six IFRS was observed with the Herschel Space Observatory between 100 μm and 500 μm. Using these results, we constrained the nature of IFRS by modelling their broad-band spectral energy distribution (SED). Furthermore, we set an upper limit on their infrared SED and decomposed their emission into contributions from an AGN and from star forming activity. Results: All six observed IFRS were undetected in all five Herschel far-infrared channels (stacking limits: σ = 0.74 mJy at 100 μm, σ = 3.45 mJy at 500 μm). Based on our SED modelling, we ruled out the following objects to explain the photometric characteristics of IFRS: (a) known radio-loud quasars and compact steep-spectrum sources at any redshift; (b) starburst galaxies with and without an AGN and Seyfert galaxies at any redshift, even if the templates were modified; and (c) known HzRGs at z ≲ 10.5. We find that the IFRS analysed in this work can only be explained by objects that fulfil the selection criteria of HzRGs. More precisely, IFRS could be (a) known HzRGs at very high redshifts (z ≳ 10.5); (b) low-luminosity siblings of HzRGs with additional dust obscuration at lower redshifts; (c) scaled or unscaled versions of Cygnus A at any

  17. Observations of far-infrared fine structure lines: o III88.35 micrometer and oI 63.2 micrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Storey, J. W. V.; Watson, D. M.; Townes, C. H.

    1979-01-01

    Observations of the O III 88.35 micrometer line and the O I63.2 micrometer were made with a far infrared spectrometer. The sources M17, NGC 7538, and W51 were mapped in the O III line with 1 arc minute resolution and the emission is found to be quite widespread. In all cases the peak of the emission coincides with the maximum radio continuum. The far infrared continuum was mapped simultaneously and in M17, NGC 7538, and W51 the continuum peak is found to be distinct from the center of ionization. The O III line was also detected in W3, W49, and in a number of positions in the Orion nebula. Upper limits were obtained on NGS 7027, NGC 6572, DR21, G29.9-0.0 and M82. The 63.2 micrometer O I line was detected in M17, M42, and marginally in DR21. A partial map of M42 in this line shows that most of the emission observed arises from the Trapezium and from the bright optical bar to the southeast.

  18. Adaptive Optics Imaging Survey of Luminous Infrared Galaxies

    SciTech Connect

    Laag, E A; Canalizo, G; van Breugel, W

    2006-03-13

    We present high resolution imaging observations of a sample of previously unidentified far-infrared galaxies at z < 0.3. The objects were selected by cross-correlating the IRAS Faint Source Catalog with the VLA FIRST catalog and the HST Guide Star Catalog to allow for adaptive optics observations. We found two new ULIGs (with L{sub FIR} {ge} 10{sup 12} L{sub {circle_dot}}) and 19 new LIGs (with L{sub FIR} {ge} 10{sup 11} L{sub {circle_dot}}). Twenty of the galaxies in the sample were imaged with either the Lick or Keck adaptive optics systems in H or K{prime}. Galaxy morphologies were determined using the twomore » dimensional fitting program GALFIT and the residuals examined to look for interesting structure. The morphologies reveal that at least 30% are involved in tidal interactions, with 20% being clear mergers. An additional 50% show signs of possible interaction. Line ratios were used to determine powering mechanism; of the 17 objects in the sample showing clear emission lines--four are active galactic nuclei and seven are starburst galaxies. The rest exhibit a combination of both phenomena.« less

  19. A Radio Study of the Ultra-luminous FIR Galaxy NGC 6240

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colbert, E.; Wilson, A. S.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.

    1993-05-01

    A number of galaxies observed in the IRAS mission are noted to emit ~ 99% of their bolometric flux in the FIR, with FIR luminosities in excess of 10(11) Lsun. The interacting galaxy NGC 6240 has often been referred to as the ``proto-typical'' ultra-luminous (L_FIR >~ 10(12) Lsun) FIR galaxy. The origin of the FIR excess remains a disputed subject in the literature. New observations of NGC 6240 were taken with the VLA at 20cm in the B-configuration, and at 3.6cm in the A-configuration. No significant radio emission was detected from or near the possible ultra-massive ``dark core'' hypothesized by Bland-Hawthorn et. al. (1991); however, approximately 30% of Seyfert galaxies have 20 cm radio luminosities weaker than the upper limit derived from the radio maps. The non-thermal radio emission from luminous FIR galaxies is tightly correlated with the FIR emission. Previous radio observations of NGC 6240 revealed two compact, steep-spectrum nuclear sources, nearly coincident with the two nuclear sources seen in optical images. The 2 images from the new VLA observations and 5 images from previous VLA observations are used to identify the morphological and spectral features of the strong, compact components in the nuclear regions (<~ 1.5 kpc; D=100 Mpc) and of the weaker ``clumps'' of diffuse emission south and west (>~ 3 kpc) from the nucleus. Feasible explanations for the radio emission are discussed. The models that have been proposed in the literature for the FIR excess of NGC 6240 are evaluated for consistency with the observed radio emission.

  20. Far-infrared elastic scattering proposal for the Avogadro Project's silicon spheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Humayun, Muhammad Hamza; Khan, Imran; Azeem, Farhan; Chaudhry, Muhammad Rehan; Gökay, Ulaş Sabahattin; Murib, Mohammed Sharif; Serpengüzel, Ali

    2018-05-01

    Avogadro constant determines the number of particles in one mole of a substance, thus relating the molar mass of the substance to the mass of this substance. Avogadro constant is related to Système Internationale base units by defining the very concept of chemical quantity. Revisions of the base units created a need to redefine the Avogadro constant, where a collaborative work called the Avogadro Project is established to employ optical interferometry to measure the diameter of high quality 100 mm silicon spheres. We propose far-infrared spectroscopy for determining the Avogadro constant by using elastic scattering from the 100 mm Avogadro Project silicon spheres. Similar spectroscopic methods are already in use in the near-infrared, relating whispering gallery modes of the 1 mm silicon spheres to the diameter of the spheres. We present numerical simulations in the far-infrared and the near-infrared, as well as spatially scaled down elastic scattering measurements in the near-infrared. These numerical and experimental results show that, the diameter measurements of 100 mm single crystal silicon spheres with elastic scattering in the far-infrared can be considered as an alternative to optical interferometry.

  1. On the nitrogen-induced far-infrared absorption spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dore, P.; Filabozzi, A.

    1987-01-01

    The rototranslational absorption spectrum of gaseous N2 is analyzed, considering quadrupolar and hexadecapolar induction mechanisms. The available experimental data are accounted for by using a line-shape analysis in which empirical profiles describe the single-line translational profiles. Thus, a simple procedure is derived that allows the prediction of the N2 spectrum at any temperature. On the basis of the results obtained for the pure gas, a procedure to compute the far-infrared spectrum of the N2-Ar gaseous mixture is also proposed. The good agreement between computed and experimental N2-Ar data indicates that it is possible to predict the far-infrared absorption induced by N2 on the isotropic polarizability of any interacting partner.

  2. Mapping metals at high redshift with far-infrared lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pallottini, A.; Gallerani, S.; Ferrara, A.; Yue, B.; Vallini, L.; Maiolino, R.; Feruglio, C.

    2015-10-01

    Cosmic metal enrichment is one of the key physical processes regulating galaxy formation and the evolution of the intergalactic medium (IGM). However, determining the metal content of the most distant galaxies has proven so far almost impossible; also, absorption line experiments at z ≳ 6 become increasingly difficult because of instrumental limitations and the paucity of background quasars. With the advent of Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA), far-infrared emission lines provide a novel tool to study early metal enrichment. Among these, the [C II] line at 157.74 μm is the most luminous line emitted by the interstellar medium of galaxies. It can also resonant scatter comic microwave background (CMB) photons inducing characteristic intensity fluctuations (ΔI/ICMB) near the peak of the CMB spectrum, thus allowing to probe the low-density IGM. We compute both [C II] galaxy emission and metal-induced CMB fluctuations at z ˜ 6 by using adaptive mesh refinement cosmological hydrodynamical simulations and produce mock observations to be directly compared with ALMA Band 6 data (νobs ˜ 272 GHz). The [C II] line flux is correlated with MUV as log (F_peak/μ Jy)= -27.205 -2.253 M_UV -0.038 M_UV^2. Such relation is in very good agreement with recent ALMA observations of MUV < -20 galaxies by e.g. Maiolino et al. and Capak et al. We predict that a MUV = -19 (MUV = -18) galaxy can be detected at 4σ in ≃40 (2000) h, respectively. CMB resonant scattering can produce ≃ ± 0.1 μJy/beam emission/absorptions features that are very challenging to be detected with current facilities. The best strategy to detect these signals consists in the stacking of deep ALMA observations pointing fields with known MUV ≃ -19 galaxies. This would allow to simultaneously detect both [C II] emission from galactic reionization sources and CMB fluctuations produced by z ˜ 6 metals.

  3. Far-infrared observations of a star-forming region in the Corona Australis dark cloud

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cruz-Gonzalez, I.; Mcbreen, B.; Fazio, G. G.

    1984-01-01

    A high-resolution far-IR (40-250-micron) survey of a 0.9-sq-deg section of the core region of the Corona Australis dark cloud (containing very young stellar objects such as T Tauri stars, Herbig Ae and Be stars, Herbig-Haro objects, and compact H II regions) is presented. Two extended far-IR sources were found, one associated with the Herbig emission-line star R CrA and the other with the irregular emission-line variable star TY CrA. The two sources have substantially more far-IR radiation than could be expected from a blackbody extrapolation of their near-IR fluxes. The total luminosities of these sources are 145 and 58 solar luminosity, respectively, implying that the embedded objects are of intermediate or low mass. The infrared observations of the sources associated with R CrA and TY CrA are consistent with models of the evolution of protostellar envelopes of intermediate mass. However, the TY CrA source appears to have passed the evolutionary stage of expelling most of the hot dust near the central source, yielding an age of about 1 Myr.

  4. Measurement of stratospheric trace constituent distributions from balloon-borne far infrared observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbas, M. M.; Guo, J.; Carli, B.; Mencaraglia, F.; Bonetti, A.

    1987-01-01

    FIR limb thermal emission spectra obtained from balloon-borne measurements made as a part of the Balloon Intercomparison Campaign (BIC) have been analyzed for retrieval of stratospheric trace-constituent distributions. The measurements were made with a high-resolution Michelson interferometer and covered the 15-180/cm spectral range with an unapodized spectral resolution of 0.0033/cm. The retrieved vertical profiles of O3, H2O, HDO, HCN, CO, and isotopes of O3 are presented. The results are compared with the BIC measurements for O3 and H2O made from the same balloon gondola and with other published data. A comparison of the simultaneously retrieved profiles for several gases with the published data shows good agreement and indicates the validity of the FIR data and retrieval techniques and the accuracy of the inferred profiles.

  5. The Far-Infrared Beamline at the Canadian Light Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Billinghurst, Brant; May, Tim

    2009-06-01

    The far-infrared beamline at the Canadian Light Source. is a state of the art facility, which offers significantly more far-infrared brightness than conventional globar sources. While there is the potential to direct this advantage to many research areas, to date most of the effort has been directed toward high-resolution gas phase studies. The infrared radiation is collected from a bending magnet through a 55 X 37 mrad^{2} port to a Bruker IFS 125 HR spectrometer, which is equipped with a nine compartment scanning arm, allowing it to achieve spectral resolution better than 0.001 cm^{-1}. Currently the beamline can achieve signal to noise ratios up to 8 times that which can be achieved using a traditional thermal source. Data from the recently completed commissioning experiments will be presented along with a general overview of the beamline.

  6. The Case for Space-Borne Far-Infrared Line Surveys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bock, J. J.; Bradford, C. M.; Dragovan, M.; Earle, L.; Glenn, J.; Naylor, B.; Nguyen, H. T.; Zmuidzinas, J.

    2004-01-01

    The combination of sensitive direct detectors and a cooled aperture promises orders of magnitude improvement in the sensitivity and survey time for far-infrared and submillimeter spectroscopy compared to existing or planned capabilities. Continuing advances in direct detector technology enable spectroscopy that approaches the background limit available only from space at these wavelengths. Because the spectral confusion limit is significantly lower than the more familiar spatial confusion limit encountered in imaging applications, spectroscopy can be carried out to comparable depth with a significantly smaller aperture. We are developing a novel waveguide-coupled grating spectrometer that disperses radiation into a wide instantaneous bandwidth with moderate resolution (R 1000) in a compact 2-dimensional format. A line survey instrument coupled to a modest cooled single aperture provides an attractive scientific application for spectroscopy with direct detectors. Using a suite of waveguide spectrometers, we can obtain complete coverage over the entire far-infrared and sub-millimeter. This concept requires no moving parts to modulate the optical signal. Such an instrument would be able to conduct a far-infrared line survey 10 6 times faster than planned capabilities, assuming existing detector technology. However, if historical improvements in bolometer sensitivity continue, so that photon-limited sensitivity is obtained, the integration time can be further reduced by 2 to 4 orders of magnitude, depending on wavelength. The line flux sensitivity would be comparable to ALMA, but at shorter wavelengths and with the continuous coverage needed to extract line fluxes for sources at unknown redshifts. For example, this capability would break the current spectroscopic bottleneck in the study of far-infrared galaxies, the recently discovered, rapidly evolving objects abundant at cosmological distances.

  7. High resolution far-infrared observations of the evolved H II region M16

    SciTech Connect

    McBreen, B.; Fazio, G.G.; Jaffe, D.T.

    1982-03-01

    M16 is an evolved, extremely density bounded H II region, which now consists only of a series of ionization fronts at molecular cloud boundaries. The source of ionization is the OB star cluster (NGC 6611) which is about 5 x 10/sup 6/ years old. We used the CFA/UA 102 cm balloon-borne telescope to map this region and detected three far-infrared (far-IR) sources embedded in an extended ridge of emission. Source I is an unresolved far-IR source embedded in a molecular cloud near a sharp ionization front. An H/sub 2/O maser is associated with this source, but no radio continuum emissionmore » has been observed. The other two far-IR sources (II and III) are associated with ionized gas-molecular cloud interfaces, with the far-IR radiation arising from dust at the boundary heated by the OB cluster. Source II is located at the southern prominent neutral intrusion with its associated bright rims and dark ''elephant trunk'' globules that delineate the current progress of the ionization front into the neutral material, and Source III arises at the interface of the northern molecular cloud fragment.« less

  8. Dust models post-Planck: constraining the far-infrared opacity of dust in the diffuse interstellar medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fanciullo, L.; Guillet, V.; Aniano, G.; Jones, A. P.; Ysard, N.; Miville-Deschênes, M.-A.; Boulanger, F.; Köhler, M.

    2015-08-01

    Aims: We compare the performance of several dust models in reproducing the dust spectral energy distribution (SED) per unit extinction in the diffuse interstellar medium (ISM). We use our results to constrain the variability of the optical properties of big grains in the diffuse ISM, as published by the Planck collaboration. Methods: We use two different techniques to compare the predictions of dust models to data from the Planck HFI, IRAS, and SDSS surveys. First, we fit the far-infrared emission spectrum to recover the dust extinction and the intensity of the interstellar radiation field (ISRF). Second, we infer the ISRF intensity from the total power emitted by dust per unit extinction, and then predict the emission spectrum. In both cases, we test the ability of the models to reproduce dust emission and extinction at the same time. Results: We identify two issues. Not all models can reproduce the average dust emission per unit extinction: there are differences of up to a factor ~2 between models, and the best accord between model and observation is obtained with the more emissive grains derived from recent laboratory data on silicates and amorphous carbons. All models fail to reproduce the variations in the emission per unit extinction if the only variable parameter is the ISRF intensity: this confirms that the optical properties of dust are indeed variable in the diffuse ISM. Conclusions: Diffuse ISM observations are consistent with a scenario where both ISRF intensity and dust optical properties vary. The ratio of the far-infrared opacity to the V band extinction cross-section presents variations of the order of ~20% (40-50% in extreme cases), while ISRF intensity varies by ~30% (~60% in extreme cases). This must be accounted for in future modelling. Appendices are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  9. Far Infrared Imaging Spectrometer for Large Aperture Infrared Telescope System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-12-01

    resolution Fabry - Perot spectrometer (103 < Resolution < 104) for wavelengths from about 50 to 200 micrometer, employing extended field diffraction limited...photo- metry. The Naval Research Laboratory will provide a high resolution Far Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (FIRIS) using Fabry - Perot techniques in...detectors to provide spatial information. The Fabry - Perot uses electromagnetic coil displacement drivers with a lead screw drive to obtain parallel

  10. Exploring the relationship between black hole accretion and star formation with blind mid-/far-infrared spectroscopic surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonato, M.; Negrello, M.; Cai, Z.-Y.; De Zotti, G.; Bressan, A.; Lapi, A.; Pozzi, F.; Gruppioni, C.; Danese, L.

    2014-11-01

    We present new estimates of redshift-dependent luminosity functions of IR lines detectable by SPICA/SAFARI (SPace InfraRed telescope for Cosmology and Astrophysics/SpicA FAR infrared Instrument) and excited both by star formation and by AGN activity. The new estimates improve over previous work by using updated evolutionary models and dealing in a self-consistent way with emission of galaxies as a whole, including both the starburst and the AGN component. New relationships between line and AGN bolometric luminosity have been derived and those between line and IR luminosities of the starburst component have been updated. These ingredients were used to work out predictions for the source counts in 11 mid-/far-IR emission lines partially or entirely excited by AGN activity. We find that the statistics of the emission line detection of galaxies as a whole is mainly determined by the star formation rate, because of the rarity of bright AGNs. We also find that the slope of the line integral number counts is flatter than two implying that the number of detections at fixed observing time increases more by extending the survey area than by going deeper. We thus propose a wide spectroscopic survey of 1 h integration per field of view over an area of 5 deg2 to detect (at 5σ) ˜760 AGNs in [O IV]25.89 μm - the brightest AGN mid-infrared line - out to z ˜ 2. Pointed observations of strongly lensed or hyperluminous galaxies previously detected by large area surveys such as those by Herschel and by the South Pole Telescope can provide key information on the galaxy-AGN co-evolution out to higher redshifts.

  11. Water vapor in Titan's stratosphere from Cassini/CIRS Far-infrared spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cottini, V.; Nixon, C. A.; Jennings, D. E.; Anderson, C. M.; Gorius, N.; Bjoraker, G. L.; Coustenis, A.; Teanby, N. A.; Achterberg, R. K.; Bézard, B.; de Kok, R.; Lellouch, E.; Irwin, P. G. J.; Flasar, F. M.; Bampasidis, G.

    2012-09-01

    We report here the detection of stratospheric water vapor [1] using the Cassini Composite Infrared Spectrometer (CIRS, [2]). CIRS senses water emissions in the far infrared spectral region near 50 microns, which we have modeled using a radiative transfer computation code (NEMESIS, [3]). From the analysis of nadir spectra we have derived a mixing ratio of 0.14 ± 0.05 ppb at an altitude of 97 km, which corresponds to an integrated (from 0 to 600 km) surface normalized column abundance of 3.7 ± 1.3 × 1014 molecules/cm2. Using limb observations, we obtained mixing ratios of 0.13 ± 0.04 ppb at an altitude of 115 km and 0.45 ± 0.15 ppb at an altitude of 230 km, confirming that the water abundance has a positive vertical gradient as predicted by photochemical models (e.g. [4], [5] and [6]); retrieved scaling factors (from ~ 0.1 to ~ 0.6) to the water profile suggested by these models show that water vapor is present in Titan's stratosphere with less abundance than predicted.

  12. Experimental studies of the far-infrared spectra of cosmic-type ices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hudson, Reggie L.

    1992-01-01

    Work performed during the period is reported. The abstract of a paper presented at the Second International Workshop on the Nature of Cometary Organic Matter is included. Far infrared spectra of amorphous and crystalline water ice before and after proton irradiation is presented. Also, a study of clathrate hydrates was conducted in which a methanol (CH3OH) clathrate hydrate was prepared and its far-infrared spectrum investigated. This paper is also included.

  13. Excited OH 4.7 GHz masers associated with IRAS far-infrared sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masheder, M. R. W.; Cohen, R. J.; Caswell, J. L.; Walker, R. N. F.; Shepherd, M.

    We describe the results of an all-sky search for maser emission from excited OH in the 2Pi(1/2), J = 1/2 state at 4765, 4750, and 4660 MHz, carried out at Jodrell Bank and at Parkes in 1989 and 1991. A total of 129 sources were observed in all including all objects from the Cohen et al. (1988) (CBJ) sample of far infrared IRAS sources with 60 micron flux, F(60) over 4000 Jy for which OH 18-cm emission was already known. A total of 18 objects were detected, including seven new discoveries and a new maser region in W49. Three of these were also detected at 4750 MHz, including the first strong 4750 MHz maser (S252). Three objects were detected at 4660 MHz, including a new discovery seen in this line only. We found strong variations in seven sources.

  14. HAWC+/SOFIA observations of Rho Oph A: far-infrared polarization spectrum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, Fabio; Dowell, Charles D.; Houde, Martin; Looney, Leslie; Lopez-Rodriguez, Enrique; Novak, Giles; Ward-Thompson, Derek; HAWC+ Science Team

    2018-01-01

    In this work, we present preliminary results from the HAWC+ far-infrared polarimeter that operates on the SOFIA airborne observatory. The densest portions of the Rho Ophiuchi molecular complex, known as Rho Oph A, have been mapped using HAWC+ bands C (89 microns) and D (155 microns). Rho Oph A is a well known nearby star forming region. At the target's distance of approximately 130 pc, our observations provide excellent spatial resolution (~5 mpc in band C).The magnetic field map suggests a compressed and distorted field morphology around Oph S1, a massive B3 star that is the main heat source of Rho Oph A. We compute the ratio p(D)/p(C), where p(C) and p(D) are the polarization degree maps at bands C and D, respectively. This ratio estimates the slope of the polarization spectrum in the far-infrared. Although the slope is predicted to be positive by dust grain models, previous observations of other molecular clouds have revealed that negative slopes are common. In Rho Oph A, we find that there is a smooth gradient of p(D)/p(C) across the mapped field. The change in p(D)/p(C) is well correlated with the integrated NH3 (1,1) emission. A positive slope dominates the lower density and well illuminated portions of the cloud, whereas a transition to a negative slope is observed at the denser and less evenly illuminated cloud core.We interpret the positive to negative slope transition as being consistent with the radiative torques (RATs) grain alignment theory. For the sight lines of higher column density, polarized emission from the warmer outer cloud layers is added to emission from the colder inner well-shielded layers lying along the same line-of-sight. Given that the outer layers receive more radiation from Oph S1, their grain alignment efficiency is expected to be higher according to RATs. The combination of warmer, well aligned grains with cooler, poorly aligned grains is what causes the negative slope. This effect is not present in the sight lines of lower column

  15. Far-infrared heterodyne spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boreiko, Rita T.; Betz, Al L.

    1995-01-01

    A far-infrared heterodyne spectrometer was designed and built by our group for observations of atomic and molecular lines from interstellar clouds. Linewidths as narrow as 1 km/s can be expected from such regions, and so the spectrometer is designed with sub-km/s resolution so that observed line profiles will be resolved. Since its debut on the Kuiper Airborne Observatory (KAO) in 1985, the instrument has been used in regular annual flight programs from both Moffett Field, CA and Christchurch, NZ. The basic plan of the spectrometer remains unchanged from the original design presented at the previous airborne science symposium. Numerous improvements and updates to the technical capability have of course been included over the many years of operational service.

  16. Far-infrared rotational emission by carbon monoxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mckee, C. F.; Storey, J. W. V.; Watson, D. M.; Green, S.

    1981-01-01

    Accurate theoretical collisional excitation rates are used to determine the emissivities of CO rotational lines 10 to the 4th power/cu cm n(H2), 100 K T 2000 K, and J 50. An approximate analytic expression for the emissitivities which is valid over most of this region is obtained. Population inversions in the lower rotational levels occur for densities n(H2) approximately 10 (to the 3rd to 5th power)/cu cm and temperatures T approximately 50 K. Interstellar shocks observed edge on are a potential source of millimeter wave CO maser emission. The CO rotational cooling function suggested by Hollenbach and McKee (1979) is verified, and accurate numerical values given. Application of these results to other linear molecules should be straightforward.

  17. EXPLAINING THE [C II]157.7 {mu}m DEFICIT IN LUMINOUS INFRARED GALAXIES-FIRST RESULTS FROM A HERSCHEL/PACS STUDY OF THE GOALS SAMPLE

    SciTech Connect

    Diaz-Santos, T.; Armus, L.; Howell, J. H.

    We present the first results of a survey of the [C II]157.7 {mu}m emission line in 241 luminous infrared galaxies (LIRGs) comprising the Great Observatories All-sky LIRG Survey (GOALS) sample, obtained with the PACS instrument on board the Herschel Space Observatory. The [C II] luminosities, L{sub [C{sub II]}}, of the LIRGs in GOALS range from {approx}10{sup 7} to 2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 9} L{sub Sun }. We find that LIRGs show a tight correlation of [C II]/FIR with far-IR (FIR) flux density ratios, with a strong negative trend spanning from {approx}10{sup -2} to 10{sup -4}, as the average temperature of dustmore » increases. We find correlations between the [C II]/FIR ratio and the strength of the 9.7 {mu}m silicate absorption feature as well as with the luminosity surface density of the mid-IR emitting region ({Sigma}{sub MIR}), suggesting that warmer, more compact starbursts have substantially smaller [C II]/FIR ratios. Pure star-forming LIRGs have a mean [C II]/FIR {approx} 4 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -3}, while galaxies with low polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) equivalent widths (EWs), indicative of the presence of active galactic nuclei (AGNs), span the full range in [C II]/FIR. However, we show that even when only pure star-forming galaxies are considered, the [C II]/FIR ratio still drops by an order of magnitude, from 10{sup -2} to 10{sup -3}, with {Sigma}{sub MIR} and {Sigma}{sub IR}, implying that the [C II]157.7 {mu}m luminosity is not a good indicator of the star formation rate (SFR) for most local LIRGs, for it does not scale linearly with the warm dust emission most likely associated to the youngest stars. Moreover, even in LIRGs in which we detect an AGN in the mid-IR, the majority (2/3) of galaxies show [C II]/FIR {>=} 10{sup -3} typical of high 6.2 {mu}m PAH EW sources, suggesting that most AGNs do not contribute significantly to the FIR emission. We provide an empirical relation between the [C II]/FIR and the specific SFR for star

  18. Far infrared pump injection using an alumina waveguide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nedvidek, F. J.; Kucerovsky, Z.; Brannen, Eric

    1987-01-01

    An alumina waveguide extension is employed to channel infrared radiation from a CO2 waveguide laser into an optically pumped far IR waveguide laser resonator in order to obtain far IR lasing with methyl alcohol and other media. Low pump transmission losses and efficient free space coupling are possible with proper choice of waveguide bore. The technique compares favorably with other injection schemes using refractive optics, and it offers greater flexibility, easier alignment, and less expense than optical arrangements using lenses.

  19. Concomitant expression of far upstream element (FUSE) binding protein (FBP) interacting repressor (FIR) and its splice variants induce migration and invasion of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells.

    PubMed

    Müller, Benedikt; Bovet, Michael; Yin, Yi; Stichel, Damian; Malz, Mona; González-Vallinas, Margarita; Middleton, Alistair; Ehemann, Volker; Schmitt, Jennifer; Muley, Thomas; Meister, Michael; Herpel, Esther; Singer, Stephan; Warth, Arne; Schirmacher, Peter; Drasdo, Dirk; Matthäus, Franziska; Breuhahn, Kai

    2015-11-01

    Transcription factors integrate a variety of oncogenic input information, facilitate tumour growth and cell dissemination, and therefore represent promising therapeutic target structures. Because over-expression of DNA-interacting far upstream element binding protein (FBP) supports non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) migration, we asked whether its repressor, FBP-interacting repressor (FIR) is functionally inactivated and how FIR might affect NSCLC cell biology. Different FIR splice variants were highly expressed in the majority of NSCLCs, with the highest levels in tumours carrying genomic gains of chromosome 8q24.3, which contained the FIR gene locus. Nuclear FIR expression was significantly enriched at the invasion front of primary NSCLCs, but this did not correlate with tumour cell proliferation. FIR accumulation was associated with worse patient survival and tumour recurrence; in addition, FIR over-expression significantly correlated with lymph node metastasis in squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs). In vitro, we applied newly developed methods and modelling approaches for the quantitative and time-resolved description of the pro-migratory and pro-invasive capacities of SCC cells. siRNA-mediated silencing of all FIR variants significantly reduced the speed and directional movement of tumour cells in all phases of migration. Furthermore, sprouting efficiency and single cell invasiveness were diminished following FIR inhibition. Interestingly, the silencing of FIR isoforms lacking exon 2 (FIR(Δexon2)) alone was sufficient to reduce lateral migration and invasion. In summary, by using scale-spanning data derived from primary human tissues, quantitative cellular analyses and mathematical modelling, we have demonstrated that concomitant over-expression of FIR and its splice variants drives NSCLC migration and dissemination. Copyright © 2015 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Evolution of the Far-Infrared Cloud at Titan's South Pole

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jennings, Donald E.; Achterberg, R. K.; Cottini, V.; Anderson, C. M.; Flasar, F. M.; Nixon, C. A.; Bjoraker, G. L.; Kunde, V. G.; Carlson, R. C.; Guandique, E.; hide

    2015-01-01

    A condensate cloud on Titan identified by its 220 cm (sup -1) far-infrared signature continues to undergo seasonal changes at both the north and south poles. In the north the cloud, which extends from 55 North to the pole, has been gradually decreasing in emission intensity since the beginning of the Cassini mission with a half-life of 3.8 years. The cloud in the south did not appear until 2012 but its intensity has increased rapidly, doubling every year. The shape of the cloud at the South Pole is very different from that in the north. Mapping in December 2013 showed that the condensate emission was confined to a ring with a maximum at 80 South. The ring was centered 4 degrees from Titan's pole. The pattern of emission from stratospheric trace gases like nitriles and complex hydrocarbons (mapped in January 2014) was also offset by 4 degrees, but had a central peak at the pole and a secondary maximum in a ring at about 70 South with a minimum at 80 South. The shape of the gas emissions distribution can be explained by abundances that are high at the atmospheric pole and diminish toward the equator, combined with correspondingly increasing temperatures. We discuss possible causes for the condensate ring. The present rapid build up of the condensate cloud at the South Pole is likely to transition to a gradual decline during 2015-16.

  1. Downwelling Far-Infrared Emission Spectra Measured By First at Cerro Toco, Chile and Table Mountain, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mast, J. C.; Mlynczak, M. G.; Cageao, R.; Kratz, D. P.; Johnson, D. G.; Mlawer, E. J.; Turner, D. D.

    2014-12-01

    The Far-Infrared Spectroscopy of the Troposphere (FIRST) instrument is a Fourier transform spectrometer developed to measure the important far-infrared spectrum between 100 and 650 cm-1. Presented here are measurements made by FIRST during two successful deployments in a ground-based configuration to measure downwelling longwave radiation at Earth's surface. The initial deployment was to Cerro Toco, Chile, where FIRST operated from August to October, 2009 as part of the Radiative Heating in Underexplored Bands Campaign (RHUBC-II) campaign. After recalibration, FIRST was deployed to the Table Mountain Facility from September through October, 2012. Spectra observed at each location are substantially different, due in large part to the order of magnitude difference in integrated precipitable water vapor (0.3 cm at Table Mountain, 0.03 cm at Cerro Toco). Dry days for both campaigns are chosen for analysis - 09/24/2009 and 10/19/2012. Also available during both deployments are coincident radiosonde temperature and water vapor vertical profiles which are used as inputs a line-by-line radiative transfer program. Comparisons between measured and modeled spectra are presented over the 200 to 800 cm-1 range. An extensive error analysis of both the measured and modeled spectra is presented. In general, the differences between the measured and modeled spectra are within their combined uncertainties.

  2. Far-Infrared Blocked Impurity Band Detector Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hogue, H. H.; Guptill, M. T.; Monson, J. C.; Stewart, J. W.; Huffman, J. E.; Mlynczak, M. G.; Abedin, M. N.

    2007-01-01

    DRS Sensors & Targeting Systems, supported by detector materials supplier Lawrence Semiconductor Research Laboratory, is developing far-infrared detectors jointly with NASA Langley under the Far-IR Detector Technology Advancement Partnership (FIDTAP). The detectors are intended for spectral characterization of the Earth's energy budget from space. During the first year of this effort we have designed, fabricated, and evaluated pilot Blocked Impurity Band (BIB) detectors in both silicon and germanium, utilizing pre-existing customized detector materials and photolithographic masks. A second-year effort has prepared improved silicon materials, fabricated custom photolithographic masks for detector process, and begun detector processing. We report the characterization results from the pilot detectors and other progress.

  3. VELOCITY-RESOLVED [C ii] EMISSION AND [C ii]/FIR MAPPING ALONG ORION WITH HERSCHEL *,**

    PubMed Central

    Goicoechea, Javier R.; Teyssier, D.; Etxaluze, M.; Goldsmith, P.F.; Ossenkopf, V.; Gerin, M.; Bergin, E.A.; Black, J.H.; Cernicharo, J.; Cuadrado, S.; Encrenaz, P.; Falgarone, E.; Fuente, A.; Hacar, A.; Lis, D.C.; Marcelino, N.; Melnick, G.J.; Müller, H.S.P.; Persson, C.; Pety, J.; Röllig, M.; Schilke, P.; Simon, R.; Snell, R.L.; Stutzki, J.

    2015-01-01

    We present the first ~7.5′×11.5′ velocity-resolved (~0.2 km s−1) map of the [C ii] 158 μm line toward the Orion molecular cloud 1 (OMC 1) taken with the Herschel/HIFI instrument. In combination with far-infrared (FIR) photometric images and velocity-resolved maps of the H41α hydrogen recombination and CO J=2-1 lines, this data set provides an unprecedented view of the intricate small-scale kinematics of the ionized/PDR/molecular gas interfaces and of the radiative feedback from massive stars. The main contribution to the [C ii] luminosity (~85 %) is from the extended, FUV-illuminated face of the cloud (G0>500, nH>5×103 cm−3) and from dense PDRs (G≳104, nH≳105 cm−3) at the interface between OMC 1 and the H ii region surrounding the Trapezium cluster. Around ~15 % of the [C ii] emission arises from a different gas component without CO counterpart. The [C ii] excitation, PDR gas turbulence, line opacity (from [13C ii]) and role of the geometry of the illuminating stars with respect to the cloud are investigated. We construct maps of the L[C ii]/LFIR and LFIR/MGas ratios and show that L[C ii]/LFIR decreases from the extended cloud component (~10−2–10−3) to the more opaque star-forming cores (~10−3–10−4). The lowest values are reminiscent of the “[C ii] deficit” seen in local ultra-luminous IR galaxies hosting vigorous star formation. Spatial correlation analysis shows that the decreasing L[C ii]/LFIR ratio correlates better with the column density of dust through the molecular cloud than with LFIR/MGas. We conclude that the [C ii] emitting column relative to the total dust column along each line of sight is responsible for the observed L[C ii]/LFIR variations through the cloud. PMID:26568638

  4. FIR Detector Sensitivity, Dynamic Range, and Multiplexing Requirements for the Origins Space Telescope (OST)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Staguhn, Johannes G.

    2018-05-01

    Spectroscopic, cold, space-based mid-to-far-infrared (FIR) missions, such as the Origins Space Telescope, will require large (tens of kilopixels), ultra-sensitive FIR detector arrays with sufficient dynamic range and high-density multiplexing schemes for the readout, in order to optimize the scientific return while staying within a realistic cost range. Issues like power consumption of multiplexers and their readout are significantly more important for space missions than they are for ground-based or suborbital applications. In terms of the detectors and their configuration into large arrays, significant development efforts are needed even for both of the most mature candidate superconducting detector technologies, namely transition edge sensors and (microwave) kinetic inductance detectors. Here we explore both practical and fundamental limits for those technologies in order to lay out a realistic path forward for both technologies. We conclude that beyond the need to enhance the detector sensitivities and pixel numbers by about an order of magnitude over currently existing devices, improved concepts for larger dynamic range and multiplexing density will be needed in order to optimize the scientific return of future cold FIR space missions. Background-limited, very high spectral resolution instruments will require photon-counting detectors.

  5. The [CII]/[NII] far-infrared line ratio at z>5: extreme conditions for “normal” galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavesi, Riccardo; Riechers, Dominik; Capak, Peter L.; Carilli, Chris Luke; Sharon, Chelsea E.; Stacey, Gordon J.; Karim, Alexander; Scoville, Nicholas; Smolcic, Vernesa

    2017-01-01

    Thanks to the Atacama Large (sub-)Millimeter Array (ALMA), observations of atomic far-infrared fine structure lines are a very productive way of measuring physical properties of the interstellar medium (ISM) in galaxies at high redshift, because they provide an unobscured view into the physical conditions of star formation. While the bright [CII] line has become a routine probe of the dynamical properties of the gas, its intensity needs to be compared to other lines in order to establish the physical origin of the emission. [NII] selectively traces the emission coming from the ionized fraction of the [CII]-emitting gas, offering insight into the phase structure of the ISM. Here we present ALMA measurements of [NII] 205 μm fine structure line emission from a representative sample of galaxies at z=5-6 spanning two orders of magnitude in star formation rate (SFR). Our results show at least two different regimes of ionized gas properties for galaxies in the first billion years of cosmic time, separated by their L[CII]/L[NII] ratio. First, we find extremely low [NII] emission compared to [CII] from a “typical” Lyman Break Galaxy (LBG-1), likely due to low dust content and reminiscent of local dwarfs. Second, the dusty Lyman Break Galaxy HZ10 and the extreme starburst AzTEC-3 show ionized gas fractions typical of local star-forming galaxies and show hints of spatial variations in their [CII]/[NII] line ratio. These observations of far-infrared lines in “normal” galaxies at z>5 yield some of the first constraints on ISM models for young galaxies in the first billion years of cosmic time and shed light on the observed evolution of the dust and gas properties.

  6. Water Vapor in Titan's Stratosphere from Cassini CIRS Far-Infrared Spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cottini, V.; Nixon, C. A.; Jennings, D. E.; Anderson, C. M.; Gorius, N.; Bjoraker, G. L.; Coustenis, A.; Teanby, N. A.; Achterberg, R. K.; Bezard, B.; hide

    2012-01-01

    Here we report the measurement of water vapor in Titan's stratosphere using the Cassini Composite Infrared Spectrometer (CIRS). CIRS senses water emissions in the far infrared spectral region near 50 micron, which we have modeled using two independent radiative transfer codes. From the analysis of nadir spectra we have derived a mixing ratio of 0.14 +/- 0.05 ppb at an altitude of 97 km, which corresponds to an integrated (from 0 to 600 km) surface normalized column abundance of 3.7 +/- 1.3 1014 molecules/cm2. In the latitude range 80S to 30N we see no evidence for latitudinal variations in these abundances within the error bars. Using limb observations, we obtained mixing ratios of 0.13 +/- 0.04 ppb at an altitude of 115 km and 0.45 +/- 0.15 ppb at an altitude of 230 km, confirming that the water abundance has a positive vertical gradient as predicted by photochemical models. We have also fitted our data using scaling factors of 0.1-0.6 to these photochemical model profiles, indicating that the models over-predict the water abundance in Titan's lower stratosphere.

  7. Microwave, Millimeter, Submillimeter, and Far Infrared Spectral Databases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pearson, J. C.; Pickett, H. M.; Drouin, B. J.; Chen, P.; Cohen, E. A.

    2002-01-01

    The spectrum of most known astrophysical molecules is derived from transitions between a few hundred to a few hundred thousand energy levels populated at room temperature. In the microwave and millimeter wave regions. spectroscopy is almost always performed with traditional microwave techniques. In the submillimeter and far infrared microwave technique becomes progressively more technologically challenging and infrared techniques become more widely employed as the wavelength gets shorter. Infrared techniques are typically one to two orders of magnitude less precise but they do generate all the strong features in the spectrum. With microwave technique, it is generally impossible and rarely necessary to measure every single transition of a molecular species, so careful fitting of quantum mechanical Hamiltonians to the transitions measured are required to produce the complete spectral picture of the molecule required by astronomers. The fitting process produces the most precise data possible and is required in the interpret heterodyne observations. The drawback of traditional microwave technique is that precise knowledge of the band origins of low lying excited states is rarely gained. The fitting of data interpolates well for the range of quantum numbers where there is laboratory data, but extrapolation is almost never precise. The majority of high resolution spectroscopic data is millimeter or longer in wavelength and a very limited number of molecules have ever been studied with microwave techniques at wavelengths shorter than 0.3 millimeters. The situation with infrared technique is similarly dire in the submillimeter and far infrared because the black body sources used are competing with a very significant thermal background making the signal to noise poor. Regardless of the technique used the data must be archived in a way useful for the interpretation of observations.

  8. Far-infrared bandpass filters from cross-shaped grids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tomaselli, V. P.; Edewaard, D. C.; Gillan, P.; Moller, K. D.

    1981-01-01

    The optical transmission characteristics of electroformed metal grids with inductive and capacitive cross patterns have been investigated in the far-infrared spectral region. The transmission characteristics of one- and two-grid devices are represented by transmission line theory parameters. Results are used to suggest construction guidelines for two-grid bandpass filters.

  9. Infrared and infrared emission spectroscopic study of typical Chinese kaolinite and halloysite.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Hongfei; Frost, Ray L; Yang, Jing; Liu, Qinfu; He, Junkai

    2010-12-01

    The structure and thermal stability between typical Chinese kaolinite and halloysite were analysed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), infrared spectroscopy, infrared emission spectroscopy (IES) and Raman spectroscopy. Infrared emission spectroscopy over the temperature range of 300-700°C has been used to characterise the thermal decomposition of both kaolinite and halloysite. Halloysite is characterised by two bands in the water bending region at 1629 and 1648 cm(-1), attributed to structural water and coordinated water in the interlayer. Well defined hydroxyl stretching bands at around 3695, 3679, 3652 and 3625 cm(-1) are observed for both kaolinite and halloysite. The 550°C infrared emission spectrum of halloysite is similar to that of kaolinite in 650-1350 cm(-1) spectral region. The infrared emission spectra of halloysite were found to be considerably different to that of kaolinite at lower temperatures. These differences are attributed to the fundamental difference in the structure of the two minerals. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. NGC 2024: Far-infrared and radio molecular observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thronson, H. A., Jr.; Lada, C. J.; Schwartz, P. R.; Smith, H. A.; Smith, J.; Glaccum, W.; Harper, D. A.; Loewenstein, R. F.

    1984-01-01

    Far infrared continuum and millimeter wave molecular observations are presented for the infrared and radio source NGC 2024. The measurements are obtained at relatively high angular resolution, enabling a description of the source energetics and mass distribution in greater detail than previously reported. The object appears to be dominated by a dense ridge of material, extended in the north/south direction and centered on the dark lane that is seen in visual photographs. Maps of the source using the high density molecules CS and HCN confirm this picture and allow a description of the core structure and molecular abundances. The radio molecular and infrared observations support the idea that an important exciting star in NGC 2024 has yet to be identified and is centered on the dense ridge about 1' south of the bright mid infrared source IRS 2. The data presented here allows a presentation of a model for the source.

  11. Evolution of the Far-Infrared Cloud at Titan's South Pole

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jennings, Donald E.; Achterberg, R. K.; Cottini, V.; Anderson, C. M.; Flasar, F. M.; Nixon, C. A.; Bjoraker, G. L.; Kunde, V. G.; Carlson, R. C.; Guandique, E.; hide

    2015-01-01

    A condensate cloud on Titan identified by its 220 cm-1 far-infrared signature continues to undergo seasonal changes at both the north and south poles. In the north, the cloud, which extends from 55 N to the pole, has been gradually decreasing in emission intensity since the beginning of the Cassini mission with a half-life of 3.8 years. The cloud in the south did not appear until 2012 but its intensity has increased rapidly, doubling every year. The shape of the cloud at the south pole is very different from that in the north. Mapping in 2013 December showed that the condensate emission was confined to a ring with a maximum at 80 S. The ring was centered 4deg from Titan's pole. The pattern of emission from stratospheric trace gases like nitriles and complex hydrocarbons (mapped in 2014 January) was also offset by 4deg, but had a central peak at the pole and a secondary maximum in a ring at about 70 S with a minimum at 80 S. The shape of the gas emission distribution can be explained by abundances that are high at the atmospheric pole and diminish toward the equator, combined with correspondingly increasing temperatures. We discuss possible causes for the condensate ring. The present rapid build up of the condensate cloud at the south pole is likely to transition to a gradual decline from 2015 to 2016. Key words: molecular processes - planets and satellites: atmospheres - planets and satellites: composition - planets and satellites: individual (Titan) - radiation mechanisms: thermal

  12. Far-infrared signatures and inner hole sizes of protoplanetary discs undergoing inside-out dust dispersal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ercolano, Barbara; Koepferl, Christine; Owen, James; Robitaille, Thomas

    2015-10-01

    By means of radiative transfer simulation, we study the evolution of the far-infrared colours of protoplanetary discs undergoing inside-out dispersal, often referred to as transition discs. We show that a brightening of the mid- and far-infrared emission from these objects is a natural consequence of the removal of the inner disc. Our results can fully explain recent observations of transition discs in the Chamaleon and Lupus star-forming regions from the Herschel Gould Belt Survey, which shows a higher median for the 70 μm (Herschel PACS 1) band of known transition objects compared with primordial discs. Our theoretical results hence support the suggestion that the 70 μm band may be a powerful diagnostic for the identification of transition discs from photometry data, provided that the inner hole is larger than tens of au, depending on spectral type. Furthermore, we show that a comparison of photometry in the K, 12 μm and 70 μm bands to model tracks can provide a rough, but quick estimate of the inner hole size of these objects, provided their inclination is below ˜85° and the inner hole size is again larger than tens of au.

  13. Development of Aluminum LEKIDs for Balloon-Borne Far-IR Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hailey-Dunsheath, S.; Barlis, A. C. M.; Aguirre, J. E.; Bradford, C. M.; Redford, J. G.; Billings, T. S.; LeDuc, H. G.; McKenney, C. M.; Hollister, M. I.

    2018-04-01

    We are developing lumped-element kinetic inductance detectors (LEKIDs) designed to achieve background-limited sensitivity for far-infrared (FIR) spectroscopy on a stratospheric balloon. The spectroscopic terahertz airborne receiver for far-infrared exploration will study the evolution of dusty galaxies with observations of the [CII] 158 μm and other atomic fine-structure transitions at z=0.5 -1.5, both through direct observations of individual luminous infrared galaxies, and in blind surveys using the technique of line intensity mapping. The spectrometer will require large format (˜ 1800 detectors) arrays of dual-polarization sensitive detectors with NEPs of 1 × 10^{-17} W Hz^{-1/2} . The low-volume LEKIDs are fabricated with a single layer of aluminum (20-nm-thick) deposited on a crystalline silicon wafer, with resonance frequencies of 100-250 MHz. The inductor is a single meander with a linewidth of 0.4 μm , patterned in a grid to absorb optical power in both polarizations. The meander is coupled to a circular waveguide, fed by a conical feedhorn. Initial testing of a small array prototype has demonstrated good yield and a median NEP of 4 × 10^{-18} W Hz^{-1/2}.

  14. Far-infrared spectrophotometer for astronomical observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moseley, H.; Silverberg, R. F.

    1981-01-01

    A liquid-helium-cooled far infrared spectrophotometer was built and used to make low resolution observations of the continua of several kinds of astronomical objects using the Kuiper Airborne Observatory. This instrument fills a gap in both sensitivity to continuum sources and spectral resolution between the broadband photometers with lambda/Delta lambda approximately 1 and spectrometers with lambda/Delta lambda greater than 50. While designed primarily to study planetary nebulae, the instrument permits study of the shape of the continua of many weak sources which cannot easily be observed with high resolution systems.

  15. Far-infrared spectra of acetanilide revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spire, A.; Barthes, M.; Kellouai, H.; De Nunzio, G.

    2000-03-01

    A new investigation of the temperature dependence of the far-infrared spectra of acetanilide and some isotopomers is presented. Four absorption bands are considered at 31, 42, 64, and 80 cm-1, and no significant change of their integrated intensity is observed when reducing the temperature. The temperature induced frequency shift values and other properties of these bands are consistent with an assignment as anharmonic lattice phonons. These results rule out the assignment of the 64, 80, and 106 cm-1 bands as normal modes of the polaronic excitation, as previously suggested.

  16. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Far-infrared Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boersma, C.; Bauschlicher, C. W., Jr.; Ricca, A.; Mattioda, A. L.; Peeters, E.; Tielens, A. G. G. M.; Allamandola, L. J.

    2011-03-01

    The far-IR characteristics of astrophysically relevant polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) averaging in size around 100 carbon atoms have been studied using the theoretical spectra in the NASA Ames PAH IR Spectroscopic Database. These spectra were calculated using density functional theory. Selections of PAH species are made, grouped together by common characteristics or trends, such as size, shape, charge, and composition, and their far-IR spectra compared. The out-of-plane modes involving the entire molecule are explored in detail, astronomical relevance is assessed, and an observing strategy is discussed. It is shown that PAHs produce richer far-IR spectra with increasing size. PAHs also produce richer far-IR spectra with increasing number of irregularities. However, series of irregular-shaped PAHs with the same compact core have common "Jumping-Jack" modes that "pile up" at specific frequencies in their average spectrum. For the PAHs studied here, around 100 carbon atoms in size, this band falls near 50 μm. PAH charge and nitrogen inclusion affect band intensities but have little effect on far-IR band positions. Detailed analysis of the two-dimensional, out-of-plane bending "drumhead" modes in the coronene and pyrene "families" and the one-dimensional, out-of-plane bending "bar" modes in the acene "family" show that these molecular vibrations can be treated as classical vibrating sheets and bars of graphene, respectively. The analysis also shows that the peak position of these modes is very sensitive to the area of the emitting PAH and does not depend on the particular geometry. Thus, these longest wavelength PAH bands could provide a unique handle on the size of the largest species in the interstellar PAH family. However, these bands are weak. Observing highly excited regions showing the mid-IR bands in which the emission from classical dust peaks at short wavelengths offers the best chance of detecting PAH emission in the far-IR. For these regions

  17. HIGH-LYING OH ABSORPTION, [C II] DEFICITS, AND EXTREME L {sub FIR}/M {sub H2} RATIOS IN GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    González-Alfonso, E.; Blasco, A.; Fischer, J.

    Herschel/PACS observations of 29 local (ultra)luminous infrared galaxies, including both starburst and active galactic nucleus (AGN) dominated sources as diagnosed in the mid-infrared/optical, show that the equivalent width of the absorbing OH 65 μm Π{sub 3/2} J = 9/2-7/2 line (W {sub eq}(OH65)) with lower level energy E {sub low} ≈ 300 K, is anticorrelated with the [C II]158 μm line to far-infrared luminosity ratio, and correlated with the far-infrared luminosity per unit gas mass and with the 60-to-100 μm far-infrared color. While all sources are in the active L {sub IR}/M {sub H2} > 50L {sub ☉}/M {sub ☉}more » mode as derived from previous CO line studies, the OH65 absorption shows a bimodal distribution with a discontinuity at L {sub FIR}/M {sub H2} ≈ 100 L {sub ☉}/M {sub ☉}. In the most buried sources, OH65 probes material partially responsible for the silicate 9.7 μm absorption. Combined with observations of the OH 71 μm Π{sub 1/2} J = 7/2-5/2 doublet (E {sub low} ≈ 415 K), radiative transfer models characterized by the equivalent dust temperature, T {sub dust}, and the continuum optical depth at 100 μm, τ{sub 100}, indicate that strong [C II]158 μm deficits are associated with far-IR thick (τ{sub 100} ≳ 0.7, N {sub H} ≳ 10{sup 24} cm{sup –2}), warm (T {sub dust} ≳ 60 K) structures where the OH 65 μm absorption is produced, most likely in circumnuclear disks/tori/cocoons. With their high L {sub FIR}/M {sub H2} ratios and columns, the presence of these structures is expected to give rise to strong [C II] deficits. W {sub eq}(OH65) probes the fraction of infrared luminosity arising from these compact/warm environments, which is ≳ 30%-50% in sources with high W {sub eq}(OH65). Sources with high W {sub eq}(OH65) have surface densities of both L {sub IR} and M {sub H2} higher than inferred from the half-light (CO or UV/optical) radius, tracing coherent structures that represent the most buried/active stage of (circum

  18. Infrared Detectors Overview in the Short Wave Infrared to Far Infrared for CLARREO Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abedin, M. N.; Mlynczak, Martin G.; Refaat, Tamer F.

    2010-01-01

    There exists a considerable interest in the broadband detectors for CLARREO Mission, which can be used to detect CO2, O3, H2O, CH4, and other gases. Detection of these species is critical for understanding the Earth?s atmosphere, atmospheric chemistry, and systemic force driving climatic changes. Discussions are focused on current and the most recent detectors developed in SWIR-to-Far infrared range for CLARREO space-based instrument to measure the above-mentioned species. These detector components will make instruments designed for these critical detections more efficient while reducing complexity and associated electronics and weight. We will review the on-going detector technology efforts in the SWIR to Far-IR regions at different organizations in this study.

  19. A balloon-borne 102-cm telescope for far-infrared astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fazio, Giovanni G.

    1990-01-01

    In the early 1970's, the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory and the University of Arizona engaged in a cooperative program to develop a balloon-borne 102-cm telescope capable of carrying out far infrared (40 to 250 micron) observations of astronomical interest above the earth's atmosphere. Since 1972, the telescope has flown and successfully recovered a total of nineteen times. Thirteen of the flights produced high-quality astronomical data, resulting in more than 92.5 hours of photometric and spectroscopic observations of numerous objects, such as H 2 regions, dark clouds, molecular clouds, a planetary nebula, a galaxy, the galactic center, the planets, and an asteroid. From the launch site in Palestine, Texas, sources as far south as -50 degrees declination were observed. The balloon-borne telescope was one of the most sensitive instruments ever used for observation in the far infrared region of the spectrum. It was most productive in producing high resolution maps of large areas (typically square degrees) centered on known H 2 regions, molecular clouds, and dark cloud complexes. In many cases, these scans produced the first far infrared maps of these regions, and many new sources were discovered. The results have led to a better understanding of the distribution of gas and dust in these regions, the evolution of H 2 regions, and the processes of star formation in giant molecular clouds. The following topics are presented: (1) the focal plane instrumentation; (2) the history and flight record; (3) scientific results and publications; (4) eduational aspects; and (5) future planes.

  20. High resolution spectroscopy in the microwave and far infrared

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pickett, Herbert M.

    1990-01-01

    High resolution rotational spectroscopy has long been central to remote sensing techniques in atmospheric sciences and astronomy. As such, laboratory measurements must supply the required data to make direct interpretation of data for instruments which sense atmospheres using rotational spectra. Spectral measurements in the microwave and far infrared regions are also very powerful tools when combined with infrared measurements for characterizing the rotational structure of vibrational spectra. In the past decade new techniques were developed which have pushed high resolution spectroscopy into the wavelength region between 25 micrometers and 2 mm. Techniques to be described include: (1) harmonic generation of microwave sources, (2) infrared laser difference frequency generation, (3) laser sideband generation, and (4) ultrahigh resolution interferometers.

  1. Far infrared radiation promotes rabbit renal proximal tubule cell proliferation and functional characteristics, and protects against cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Chiang, I-Ni; Pu, Yeong-Shiau; Huang, Chao-Yuan; Young, Tai-Horng

    2017-01-01

    Far infrared radiation, a subdivision of the electromagnetic spectrum, is beneficial for long-term tissue healing, anti-inflammatory effects, growth promotion, sleep modulation, acceleration of microcirculation, and pain relief. We investigated if far infrared radiation is beneficial for renal proximal tubule cell cultivation and renal tissue engineering. We observed the effects of far infrared radiation on renal proximal tubules cells, including its effects on cell proliferation, gene and protein expression, and viability. We also examined the protective effects of far infrared radiation against cisplatin, a nephrotoxic agent, using the human proximal tubule cell line HK-2. We found that daily exposure to far infrared radiation for 30 min significantly increased rabbit renal proximal tubule cell proliferation in vitro, as assessed by MTT assay. Far infrared radiation was not only beneficial to renal proximal tubule cell proliferation, it also increased the expression of ATPase Na+/K+ subunit alpha 1 and glucose transporter 1, as determined by western blotting. Using quantitative polymerase chain reaction, we found that far infrared radiation enhanced CDK5R1, GNAS, NPPB, and TEK expression. In the proximal tubule cell line HK-2, far infrared radiation protected against cisplatin-mediated nephrotoxicity by reducing apoptosis. Renal proximal tubule cell cultivation with far infrared radiation exposure resulted in better cell proliferation, significantly higher ATPase Na+/K+ subunit alpha 1 and glucose transporter 1 expression, and significantly enhanced expression of CDK5R1, GNAS, NPPB, and TEK. These results suggest that far infrared radiation improves cell proliferation and differentiation. In HK-2 cells, far infrared radiation mediated protective effects against cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity by reducing apoptosis, as indicated by flow cytometry and caspase-3 assay.

  2. Dusty Feedback from Massive Black Holes in Two Elliptical Galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Temi, P.; Brighenti, F.; Mathews, W. G.; Amblard, A.; Riguccini, L.

    2013-01-01

    Far-infrared dust emission from elliptical galaxies informs us about galaxy mergers, feedback energy outbursts from supermassive black holes and the age of galactic stars. We report on the role of AGN feedback observationally by looking for its signatures in elliptical galaxies at recent epochs in the nearby universe. We present Herschel observations of two elliptical galaxies with strong and spatially extended FIR emission from colder grains 5-10 kpc distant from the galaxy cores. Extended excess cold dust emission is interpreted as evidence of recent feedback-generated AGN energy outbursts in these galaxies, visible only in the FIR, from buoyant gaseous outflows from the galaxy cores.

  3. Far-infrared spectra of yttrium-doped gold clusters Au(n)Y (n=1-9).

    PubMed

    Lin, Ling; Claes, Pieterjan; Gruene, Philipp; Meijer, Gerard; Fielicke, André; Nguyen, Minh Tho; Lievens, Peter

    2010-06-21

    The geometric, spectroscopic, and electronic properties of neutral yttrium-doped gold clusters Au(n)Y (n=1-9) are studied by far-infrared multiple photon dissociation (FIR-MPD) spectroscopy and quantum chemical calculations. Comparison of the observed and calculated vibrational spectra allows the structures of the isomers present in the molecular beam to be determined. Most of the isomers for which the IR spectra agree best with experiment are calculated to be the energetically most stable ones. Attachment of xenon to the Au(n)Y cluster can cause changes in the IR spectra, which involve band shifts and band splittings. In some cases symmetry changes, as a result of the attachment of xenon atoms, were also observed. All the Au(n)Y clusters considered prefer a low spin state. In contrast to pure gold clusters, which exhibit exclusively planar lowest-energy structures for small sizes, several of the studied species are three-dimensional. This is particularly the case for Au(4)Y and Au(9)Y, while for some other sizes (n=5, 8) the 3D structures have an energy similar to that of their 2D counterparts. Several of the lowest-energy structures are quasi-2D, that is, slightly distorted from planar shapes. For all the studied species the Y atom prefers high coordination, which is different from other metal dopants in gold clusters.

  4. In-flight Far-Infrared Performance of the CIRS Instrument on Cassini

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nixon, Conor A.; Brasunas, John C.; Lakew, Brook; Fettig, Rainer; Jennings, Donald E.; Carlson, Ronald; Kunde, Virgil G.

    2004-01-01

    The Composite Infrared Spectrometer (CIRS) on-board Cassini consists of two interferometers: a conventional Michelson for the mid-infrared; and a Martin-Puplett type in the far-infrared employing wire grid polarizers to split, recombine and analyze the radiation. The far-IR focal plane (FP1) assembly uses two thermopile detectors to measure the final transmitted and reflected beams at the polarizer-analyzer: if one fails, the interferometer can still operate, albeit with a lower efficiency. The combined effect is for good response from 10 to 300/cm, and declining response to 600/cm. This paper will examine in-flight performance of the far-IR interferometer, including NESR and response. Regular noise spikes, resulting from pickup from other electrical sub-systems has been found on the CIRS interferograms, and the removal of these effects is discussed. The radiometric calibration is described, and then we show how the calibration was applied to science data taken during the Jupiter flyby of December 2000. Finally, we discuss signal-to-noise on the calibrated spectra, emphasizing limitations of the current instrument and the potential for improvement in future missions.

  5. The Far Infrared Vibration-Rotation Spectrum of the Ammonia Dimer.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loeser, Jennifer Gertrud

    1995-11-01

    The ammonia dimer has been shown to exhibit unusual weak bonding properties relative to those of the other prototypical second row systems, the hydrogen fluoride dimer and the water dimer. The ultimate goal of the work initiated in this dissertation is to determine a complete intermolecular potential energy surface for the ammonia dimer. It is first necessary to observe its far infrared vibration-rotation-tunneling (VRT) spectrum and to develop a group theoretical model that explains this spectrum in terms of the internal dynamics of the ammonia dimer. These first steps are the subject of this dissertation. First, the current understanding of the ammonia dimer system is reviewed. Group theoretical descriptions of the nature of the ammonia dimer VRT states are explained in detail. An overview of the experimental and theoretical studies of the ammonia dimer made during the last decade is presented. Second, progress on the analysis of the microwave and far infrared spectrum of (ND_3)_2 below 13 cm^{-1} is reported. These spectra directly measure the 'donor -acceptor' interchange splittings in (ND_3) _2, and determine some of the monomer umbrella inversion tunneling splittings. Third, new 80-90 cm^{-1} far infrared spectra of (NH_3)_2 are presented and a preliminary analysis is proposed. Most of the new excited VRT states have been assigned as tunneling sublevels of an out-of-plane intermolecular vibration.

  6. Herschel/PACS far-IR spectral imaging of a jet from an intermediate mass protostar in the OMC-2 region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González-García, B.; Manoj, P.; Watson, D. M.; Vavrek, R.; Megeath, S. T.; Stutz, A. M.; Osorio, M.; Wyrowski, F.; Fischer, W.; Tobin, J. J.; Sánchez-Portal, M.; Diaz Rodriguez, A. K.; Wilson, T. L.

    2016-11-01

    We present the first detection of a jet in the far-IR [O I] lines from an intermediate mass protostar. This jet was detected in a Herschel/PACS spectral mapping study in the [O I] lines of OMC-2 FIR 3 and FIR 4, two of the most luminous protostars in Orion outside of the Orion Nebula. The spatial morphology of the fine structure line emission reveals the presence of an extended photodissociation region (PDR) and a narrow, but intense jet connecting the two protostars. The jet seen in [O I] emission is spatially aligned with the Spitzer/IRAC 4.5 μm jet and the CO (6-5) molecular outflow centered on FIR 3. The mass-loss rate derived from the total [O I] 63 μm line luminosity of the jet is 7.7 × 10-6M⊙ yr-1, more than an order of magnitude higher than that measured for typical low-mass class 0 protostars. The implied accretion luminosity is significantly higher than the observed bolometric luminosity of FIR 4, indicating that the [O I] jet is unlikely to be associated with FIR 4. We argue that the peak line emission seen toward FIR 4 originates in the terminal shock produced by the jet driven by FIR 3. The higher mass-loss rate that we find for FIR 3 is consistent with the idea that intermediate-mass protostars drive more powerful jets than their low-mass counterparts. Our results also call into question the nature of FIR 4. Herschel is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by European-led Principal Investigator consortia and with important participation from NASA.The final reduced Herschel data used in this paper (FITS) are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (http://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/596/A26

  7. Detection of the 158 Micrometers[CII] Transition at z=1.3: Evidence for a Galaxy-Wide Starburst

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hailey-Dunsheath, S.; Nikola, T.; Stacey, G. J.; Oberst, T. E.; Parshley, S. C.; Benford, D. J.; Staguhn, J. G.; Tucker, C. E.

    2010-01-01

    We report the detection of 158 micrometer [C II] fine-structure line emission from MIPS J 142824.0+3526l9, a hyperluminous (L(sub IR) approx. 10(exp 13) Solar Luminosity starburst galaxy at z = 1.3. The line is bright, corresponding to a fraction L[C II]/L(sub FIR) approx. equals 2 x l0(exp -3) of the far-IR(FIR) continuum. The [C II], CO, and FIR continuum emission may be modeled as arising from photodissociation regions (PDRs) that have a characteristic gas density of n approx. 10(exp 4.2)/cu cm., and that are illuminated by a far-UV radiation field approx. 10(exp 3.2) times more intense than the local interstellar radiation field. The mass in these PDRs accounts for approximately half of the molecular gas mass in this galaxy. The L[C II]/L(sub F1R) ratio is higher than observed in local ultraluminous infrared galaxies or in the few high-redshift QSOs detected in [C II], but the L[CII]/L(sub FIR) and L(sub CO)/L(sub FIR) ratios are similar to the values seen in nearby starburst galaxies

  8. Far infrared filters for a rocket-borne radiometer.

    PubMed

    Romero, H V; Gursky, J; Blair, A G

    1972-04-01

    Low pass far infrared radiation filters with cutoff frequencies in the spectral region of 10-25 cm(-1) were required for a rocket-borne radiometer experiment. The paper describes the theory, fabrication, and laboratory transmission measurements of prototype grid filters investigated in a study prior to the construction of flight filters. Characteristics of the final flight filters are also presented.

  9. Prospects for Studying Interstellar Magnetic Fields with a Far-Infrared Polarimeter for SAFIR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dowell, C. Darren; Chuss, D. T.; Dotson, J. L.

    2008-01-01

    Polarimetry at mid-infrared through millimeter wavelengths using airborne and ground-based telescopes has revealed magnetic structures in dense molecular clouds in the interstellar medium, primarily in regions of star formation. Furthermore, spectropolarimetry has offered clues about the composition of the dust grains and the mechanism by which they are aligned with respect to the local magnetic field. The sensitivity of the observations to date has been limited by the emission from the atmosphere and warm telescopes. A factor of 1000 in sensitivity can be gained by using instead a cold space telescope. With 5 arcminute resolution, Planck will make the first submillimeter polarization survey of the full Galaxy early in the next decade. We discuss the science case for and basic design of a far-infrared polarimeter on the SAFIR space telescope, which offers resolution in the few arcsecond range and wavelength selection of cold and warm dust components. Key science themes include the formation and evolution of molecular clouds in nearby spiral galaxies, the magnetic structure of the Galactic center, and interstellar turbulence.

  10. FIR/THz Space Interferometry: Science Opportunities, Mission Concepts, and Technical Challenges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leisawitz, David

    2007-01-01

    Sensitive far-IR imaging and spectroscopic measurements of astronomical objects on sub-arcsecond angular scales are essential to our understanding of star and planet formation, the formation and evolution of galaxies, and to the detection and characterization of extrasolar planets. Cold single-aperture telescopes in space, such as the Spitzer Space Telescope and the Herschel Space Observatory, are very sensitive, but they lack the necessary angular resolution by two or more orders of magnitude. Far-IR space interferometers will address this need in the coming decades. Several mission concepts have already been studied, including in the US the Space Infrared Interferometric Telescope (SPIRIT) and the more ambitious Submillimeter Probe of the Evolution of Cosmic Structure (SPECS). This talk will describe science goals and summarize alternative concepts for future FIR/THz space interferometry missions. Small arrays of sensitive, fast, direct detectors are a key enabling technology for SPIRIT and SPECS. I will describe the technology requirements for far-IR interferometry, including the detector requirements, and their derivation from the mission science goals and instrument concepts.

  11. Far-infrared Spectroscopic Characterization of Anti-vinyl Alcohol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bunn, Hayley; Soliday, Rebekah M.; Sumner, Isaiah; Raston, Paul L.

    2017-09-01

    We report a detailed analysis of the high-resolution far-infrared spectrum of anti-vinyl alcohol, which has been previously identified toward Sagittarius B2(N). The ν 15 OH torsional fundamental investigated here is more than 200 cm-1 removed from the next nearest vibration, making it practically unperturbed and ideal to help refine the ground state rotational constants that were previously determined from 25 microwave lines. We assigned 1335 lines within the ν 15 fundamental centered at 261.5512 cm-1, with J and K a ranges of 1-59 and 0-16, respectively. The microwave and far-infrared line positions were fit with Watson-type A- and S-reduced Hamiltonians, with the inclusion of quartic and select sextic distortion terms. This resulted in a significant refinement of the ground state constants, in addition to the determination of the {ν }15=1 state constants for the first time. The spectroscopic parameters are in good agreement with the results from anharmonic coupled-cluster calculations, and should be useful in searches for rotationally and/or vibrationally warm anti-vinyl alcohol in interstellar molecular clouds.

  12. A BRIGHT SUBMILLIMETER SOURCE IN THE BULLET CLUSTER (1E0657-56) FIELD DETECTED WITH BLAST

    SciTech Connect

    Rex, Marie; Devlin, Mark J.; Dicker, Simon R.

    2009-09-20

    We present the 250, 350, and 500 {mu}m detection of bright submillimeter emission in the direction of the Bullet Cluster measured by the Balloon-borne Large-Aperture Submillimeter Telescope (BLAST). The 500 {mu}m centroid is coincident with an AzTEC 1.1 mm point-source detection at a position close to the peak lensing magnification produced by the cluster. However, the 250 {mu}m and 350 {mu}m centroids are elongated and shifted toward the south with a differential shift between bands that cannot be explained by pointing uncertainties. We therefore conclude that the BLAST detection is likely contaminated by emission from foreground galaxies associated with themore » Bullet Cluster. The submillimeter redshift estimate based on 250-1100 {mu}m photometry at the position of the AzTEC source is z{sub phot} = 2.9{sup +0.6}{sub -0.3}, consistent with the infrared color redshift estimation of the most likely Infrared Array Camera counterpart. These flux densities indicate an apparent far-infrared (FIR) luminosity of L{sub FIR} = 2 x 10{sup 13} L {sub sun}. When the amplification due to the gravitational lensing of the cluster is removed, the intrinsic FIR luminosity of the source is found to be L{sub FIR} <= 10{sup 12} L{sub sun}, consistent with typical luminous infrared galaxies.« less

  13. Water Vapor in Titan's Stratosphere from Cassini/CIRS Far-infrared Spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cottini, V.; Nixon, C. A.; Jennings, D. E.; Anderson, C. M.; Gorius, N.; Bjoraker, G. L.; Coustenis, A.; Teanby, N. A.; Achterberg, R. K.; Bezard, B.; hide

    2012-01-01

    Since the first detection of water vapor in Titan's stratosphere by disk-average observations from the Infrared Space Observatory (Coustenis et al. 1998) we report here the successful detection of stratospheric water vapor using the Cassini Composite Infrared Spectrometer (CIRS, Flasar et al. 2004). CIRS senses water emissions in the far infrared spectral region near 50 microns, which we have modeled using two independent radiative transfer codes (NEMESIS, Irwin et al 2008 and ART, Coustenis et al. 2007, 2010). From the analysis of nadir spectra we have derived a mixing ratio of (0.14 0.05) ppb at an altitude of 97 kilometers, which corresponds to an integrated (from 0 to 600 kilometers) surface normalized column abundance of (3.7 plus or minus 1.3) x 10(exp 14) molecules per square centimeter. In the latitude range 80 S to 30 N we see no evidence for latitudinal variations in these abundances within the error bars. Using limb observations, we obtained mixing ratios of (0.13 plus or minus 0.04) ppb at an altitude of 115 kilometers and (0.45 plus or minus 0.15) ppb at an altitude of 230 kilometers, confirming that the water abundance has a positive vertical gradient as predicted by photochemical models (e.g. Lara et al. 1996, Wilson and Atreya 2004, Horst et al. 2008); retrieved scaling factors (from approximately 0.1 to approximately 0.6) to the water profile suggested by these models show that water vapor is present in Titan stratosphere with less abundance than predicted.

  14. Water Vapor in Titan’s Stratosphere from Cassini CIRS Far-infrared Spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cottini, Valeria; Nixon, C. A.; Jennings, D. E.; Anderson, C. M.; Gorius, N.; Bjoraker, G. L.; Coustenis, A.; Teanby, N. A.; Achterberg, R. K.; Bézard, B.; de Kok, R.; Lellouch, E.; Irwin, P. G. J.; Flasar, F. M.; Bampasidis, G.

    2012-10-01

    We will report the measurement of water vapor in Titan’s stratosphere (Cottini et al. 2012), using the Cassini Composite Infrared Spectrometer (CIRS, Flasar et al. 2004). CIRS senses water emissions in the far infrared spectral region near 50 microns, which we have modeled using a radiative transfer code (NEMESIS, Irwin et al. 2008). From the analysis of nadir spectra we have derived a mixing ratio of 0.14 ± 0.05 ppb at an altitude of 97 km, which corresponds to an integrated (from 0 to 600 km) surface normalized column abundance of 3.7±1.3 × 1014 molecules/cm2. In the latitude range 80°S to 30°N we see no evidence for latitudinal variations in these abundances within the error bars. Using limb observations, we obtained mixing ratios of 0.13 ± 0.04 ppb at an altitude of 115 km and 0.45 ± 0.15 ppb at an altitude of 230 km, confirming that the water abundance has a positive vertical gradient as predicted by previous photochemical models. We have also fitted our data using scaling factors of 0.1-0.6 to these photochemical model profiles, indicating that the models over-predict the water abundance in Titan’s lower stratosphere. Valeria Cottini is supported by the NASA Postdoctoral Program. References Cottini V. et al., 2012. Detection of water vapor in Titan’s atmosphere from Cassini/CIRS infrared spectra. Icarus, 220, 2, 855-862 Flasar, F.M., and 44 colleagues, 2004. Exploring the Saturn system in the thermal infrared: The Composite Infrared Spectrometer. Space Sci. Rev., 115, 169-297 Irwin, P.G.J., et al., 2008. The NEMESIS planetary atmosphere radiative transfer and retrieval tool. J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Trans., 109, 1136-1150.

  15. Mid infrared emission spectroscopy of carbon plasma.

    PubMed

    Nemes, Laszlo; Brown, Ei Ei; S-C Yang, Clayton; Hommerich, Uwe

    2017-01-05

    Mid infrared time-resolved emission spectra were recorded from laser-induced carbon plasma. These spectra constitute the first study of carbon materials LIB spectroscopy in the mid infrared range. The carbon plasma was induced using a Q-switched Nd: YAG laser. The laser beam was focused to high purity graphite pellets mounted on a translation stage. Mid infrared emission from the plasma in an atmospheric pressure background gas was detected by a cooled HgCdTe detector in the range 4.4-11.6μm, using long-pass filters. LIB spectra were taken in argon, helium and also in air. Despite a gate delay of 10μs was used there were strong backgrounds in the spectra. Superimposed on this background broad and noisy emission bands were observed, the form and position of which depended somewhat on the ambient gas. The spectra were digitally smoothed and background corrected. In argon, for instance, strong bands were observed around 4.8, 6.0 and 7.5μm. Using atomic spectral data by NIST it could be concluded that carbon, argon, helium and nitrogen lines from neutral and ionized atoms are very weak in this spectral region. The width of the infrared bands supports molecular origin. The infrared emission bands were thus compared to vibrational features of carbon molecules (excluding C2) of various sizes on the basis of previous carbon cluster infrared absorption and emission spectroscopic analyses in the literature and quantum chemical calculations. Some general considerations are given about the present results. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. New far infrared images of bright, nearby, star-forming regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harper, D. AL, Jr.; Cole, David M.; Dowell, C. Darren; Lees, Joanna F.; Lowenstein, Robert F.

    1995-01-01

    Broadband imaging in the far infrared is a vital tool for understanding how young stars form, evolve, and interact with their environment. As the sensitivity and size of detector arrays has increased, a richer and more detailed picture has emerged of the nearest and brightest regions of active star formation. We present data on M 17, M 42, and S 106 taken recently on the Kuiper Airborne Observatory with the Yerkes Observatory 60-channel far infrared camera, which has pixel sizes of 17 in. at 60 microns, 27 in. at 100 microns, and 45 in. at 160 and 200 microns. In addition to providing a clearer view of the complex central cores of the regions, the images reveal new details of the structure and heating of ionization fronts and photodissociation zones where radiation form luminous stars interacts with adjacent molecular clouds.

  17. Far-infrared Spectroscopy of Interstellar Gas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, T. G.

    1984-01-01

    Research results of far-infrared spectroscopy with the Kuiper Airborne Observatory are discussed. Both high and intermediate resolution have been successfully employed in the detection of many new molecular and atomic lines including rotational transition of hydrides such as OH, H2O, NH3 and HCl; high J rotational transitions of CO; and the ground state fine structure transitions of atomic carbon, oxygen, singly ionized carbon and doubly ionized oxygen and nitrogen. These transitions have been used to study the physics and chemistry of clouds throughout the galaxy, in the galactic center region and in neighboring galaxies. This discussion is limited to spectroscopic studies of interstellar gas.

  18. A Broadband Micro-Machined Far-Infrared Absorber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wollack, E. J.; Datesman, A. M.; Jhabvala, C. A.; Miller, K. H.; Quijada, M. A.

    2016-01-01

    The experimental investigation of a broadband far-infrared meta-material absorber is described. The observed absorptance is greater than 0.95 from 1 to 20 terahertz (300-15 microns) over a temperature range spanning 5-300 degrees Kelvin. The meta-material, realized from an array of tapers approximately 100 microns in length, is largely insensitive to the detailed geometry of these elements and is cryogenically compatible with silicon-based micro-machined technologies. The electromagnetic response is in general agreement with a physically motivated transmission line model.

  19. Auroral nitric oxide concentration and infrared emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reidy, W. P.; Degges, T. C.; Hurd, A. G.; Stair, A. T., Jr.; Ulwick, J. C.

    1982-05-01

    Rocket-borne measurements of infrared auroral emission by nitric oxide are analyzed. Four rocket flights provided opportunities to measure 5.3- and 2.7-micron NO emission by means of infrared fixed band radiometers and CVF spectrometers, narrow band photometers, and incident energy spectra on various occasions. Analysis of infrared emission profiles and electron flux data indicates the NO density to be significantly enhanced with respect to midlatitude values. NO emission in the fundamental 5.3-micron band is attributed to resonance excitation by warm earth radiation, collisional excitation primarily by O atoms and chemiluminescence from the reaction of N with O2; with an energy efficiency of 0.015. The overtone band emission at 2.7 microns is accounted for by chemiluminescence produced with an energy efficiency of 0.0054. Total photon yield for the chemiluminescence reaction is estimated to range from 1.2 to 2.4 vibrational quanta per NO molecule.

  20. Measuring the Evolution of Stellar Populations And Gas Metallicity in Galaxies with Far-Infrared Space Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stacey, Gordon

    We propose a study of the evolution of stellar populations and gas metallicities in about 80 nearby star forming galaxies based on mining the NASA data archives for observations of the [NIII] 57 µm, [OIII] 52 µm and/or 88 µm, [NII] 122 and [CII] 158 µm far-infrared (FIR) fine- structure lines and other archives for thermal radio continuum. These lines are powerful probes of both stellar populations and gas properties and our primary science derives from these tracers. For sources that show both signs of active galactic nuclei (AGN) and star formation, we will take advantage of the readily available NASA Spitzer IRS data base that includes mid-IR [NeII] 12.8 µm, [NeIII] 15.6 µm and [NeV] 14.3 µm, [OIV] 25.9 µm and PAH observations. These complementary data reveal the relative fractions of the FIR line emission that might arise from star formation and the narrow line regions (NLR) associated with an AGN, thereby providing a robust set of observations to compare with star formation models. Subsets of the FIR lines have been detected from hundreds of nearby galaxies. From both theoretical studies and the results of these pioneering observations we know that these lines can be powerful probes of stellar populations and star formation in galaxies. Here we plan to use various combinations of the lines to constrain (1) the age of the stellar populations (through lines that trace the hardness of the stellar radiation fields, hence stellar spectral type), (2) the degree of processing of the interstellar medium (through lines that trace growth of secondary to primary element abundances for example, the N/O ratio), (3) the efficiency of star formation (through growth in absolute abundances of N and O, the N/H and O/H ratios), and (4) the current day mass function of upper main sequence stars. Surprisingly, there has been no systematic study of the large sample of these line detections made with PACS on Herschel in order to truly assess and calibrate their diagnostic

  1. Infrared to millimetre photometry of ultra-luminous IR galaxies: New evidence favouring a 3-stage dust model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klaas, U.; Haas, M.; Müller, S. A. H.; Chini, R.; Schulz, B.; Coulson, I.; Hippelein, H.; Wilke, K.; Albrecht, M.; Lemke, D.

    2001-12-01

    Infrared to millimetre spectral energy distributions (SEDs) have been obtained for 41 bright ultra-luminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs). The observations were carried out with ISOPHOT between 10 and 200 mu m and supplemented for 16 sources with JCMT/SCUBA at 450 and 850 mu m and with SEST at 1.3 mm. In addition, seven sources were observed at 1.2 and 2.2 mu m with the 2.2 m telescope on Calar Alto. These new SEDs represent the most complete set of infrared photometric templates obtained so far on ULIRGs in the local universe. The SEDs peak at 60-100 mu m and show often a quite shallow Rayleigh-Jeans tail. Fits with one single modified blackbody yield a high FIR opacity and small dust emissivity exponent beta < 2. However, this concept leads to conflicts with several other observational constraints, like the low PAH extinction or the extended filamentary optical morphology. A more consistent picture is obtained using several dust components with beta = 2, low to moderate FIR opacity and cool (50 K > T > 30 K) to cold (30 K > T > 10 K) temperatures. This provides evidence for two dust stages, the cool starburst dominated one and the cold cirrus-like one. The third stage with several hundred Kelvin warm dust is identified in the AGN dominated ULIRGs, showing up as a NIR-MIR power-law flux increase. While AGNs and SBs appear indistinguishable at FIR and submm wavelengths, they differ in the NIR-MIR. This suggests that the cool FIR emitting dust is not related to the AGN, and that the AGN only powers the warm and hot dust. In comparison with optical and MIR spectroscopy, a criterion based on the SED shapes and the NIR colours is established to reveal AGNs among ULIRGs. Also the possibility of recognising evolutionary trends among the ULIRGs via the relative amounts of cold, cool and warm dust components is investigated. Based on observations with the Infrared Space Observatory ISO, the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope JCMT, the Swedish ESO Submillimetre Telescope SEST and

  2. The Small Magellanic Cloud in the far infrared. I. ISO's 170 mu m map and revisit of the IRAS 12-100 mu m data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilke, K.; Stickel, M.; Haas, M.; Herbstmeier, U.; Klaas, U.; Lemke, D.

    2003-04-01

    The ISOPHOT experiment onboard the ISO satellite generated a complete view of the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) at 170 mu m with 1.5 arcmin resolution. The map is analysed using an automated photometry program enabling accurate photometric characterization of the far infrared (FIR) emitting regions. An integrated FIR luminosity of 8.5x 107 Lsun is obtained, leading to a star formation rate of SFRFIR=0.015 Msun/yr. With an average dust temperature of , the total dust mass follows to MD=3.7x105 Msun. In this paper, the sources detected at 170 mu m are compared with those obtainable from the IRAS satellite data. For this purpose, the 12 mu m, 25 mu m, 60 mu m, and 100 mu m IRAS high resolution (HiRes) maps of the SMC are re-examined using the same method. In contrast to former studies, this provides an all-band ISO/IRAS source catalog which is no longer based on eyeball classification, but relies on an algorithm which is capable of automated, repeatable photometry, even for irregular sources. In the mid infrared IRAS bands numerous bright FIR emitting regions in the SMC are detected and classified: 73 sources are found at 12 mu m, 135 at 25 mu m (most of them with Fnu <1.0 Jy). All three FIR bands at 170 mu m, 100 mu m, and 60 mu m reproduce the overall morphological structure of the SMC similarly well, in contrast to the 12 mu m and 25 mu m maps which only contain a limited number of extended sources and do not trace the main body of the SMC. 243 sources are detected in the ISO 170 mu m map, 155 of them with Fnu >=2.0 Jy. Comparable numbers are found for the two FIR IRAS maps at 60 mu m (384) and 100 mu m (338) with fluxes up to 450 Jy. 70 of the 243 170 mu m sources are assigned a general SED type (``cold'', ``warm'', i.e., <30 K, >30 K) for the first time. A comparison with earlier IRAS results suggests that many source flux densities in those studies have been under- or overestimated because of non-standardized fitting methods. Many sources

  3. Far-Infrared and Nebular Star-Formation Rate of Dusty Star Forming Galaxies from Herschel, CANDELS and 3D-HST at z~1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasan, Farhanul; Nayyeri, Hooshang; Cooray, Asantha R.; Herschel Group: University of California Irvine. Dept. of Physics & Astronomy. Led by professor Asantha Cooray, Reed College Undergraduate Research Committee

    2017-06-01

    We present a combined Herschel/PACS and SPIRE and HST/WFC3 observations of the five CANDELS fields, EGS, GOODS-N, GOODS-S, COSMOS and UDS, to study star-formation activity in dusty star-forming galaxies (DSFGs) at z~1. We use 3D-HST photometry and Grism spectroscopic redshifts to construct the Spectral Energy Distributions (SED) of galaxies in the near UV, optical and near infrared, along with IRAC measurements at 3.6-8 μm in the mid-infrared, and Herschel data at 250-500 μm in the far-infrared. The 3D-HST grism line measurements are used to estimate the star-formation rate from nebular emission. In particular, we compare the H-alpha measured SFRs (corrected for attenuation) to that of direct observations of the far-infrared from Herschel. We further look at the infrared excess in this sample of dusty star-forming galaxies (denoted by LIR/LUV) as a function of the UV slope. We find that the population of high-z DSFGs sit above the trend expected for normal star-forming galaxies. Additionally, we study the dependence of SFR on total dust attenuation and confirm a strong correlation between SFR(Ha) and the balmer decrement (Hα/Hβ).

  4. Far infrared supplement: Catalog of infrared observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gezari, D. Y.; Schmitz, M.; Mead, J. M.

    1982-01-01

    The development of a new generation of orbital, airborne and ground-based infrared astronomical observatory facilities, including the infrared astronomical satellite (IRAS), the cosmic background explorer (COBE), the NASA Kuiper airborne observatory, and the NASA infrared telescope facility, intensified the need for a comprehensive, machine-readable data base and catalog of current infrared astronomical observations. The Infrared Astronomical Data Base and its principal data product, this catalog, comprise a machine-readable library of infrared (1 micrometer to 1000 micrometers) astronomical observations published in the scientific literature since 1965.

  5. MgB2-Based Bolometer Array for Far Infra-Red Thermal Imaging and Fourier Transform Spectroscopy Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lakew, B.; Aslam, S.; Brasunas, J.

    2012-01-01

    The mid-superconducting critical temperature (T(sub c) approximately 39 K) of the simple binary, intermetallic MgB, [1] makes it a very good candidate for the development of the next generation of electrooptical devices (e.g. [2]). In particular, recent advances in thin film deposition teclmiques to attain higb quality polycrystalline thin film MgB, deposited on SiN-Si substrates, with T(sub c) approximately 38K [3] coupled with the low voltage noise performance of the film [4] makes it higbly desirable for the development of moderately cooled bolometer arrays for integration into future space-bourne far infra-red (FIR) spectrometers and thermal mappers for studying the outer planets, their icy moons and other moons of interest in the 17-250 micrometer spectral wavelength range. Presently, commercially available pyroelectric detectors operating at 300 K have specific detectivity, D(*), around 7 x 10(exp 8) to 2 x 10(exp 9) centimeters square root of Hz/W. However, a MgB2 thin film based bolometer using a low-stress (less than 140 MPa) SiN membrane isolated from the substrate by a small thermal conductive link, operating at 38 K, promises to have two orders of magnitude higher specific detectivity [5][6].

  6. Progress on FIR interferometry and Thomson Scattering measurements on HIT-SI3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Everson, Christopher; Jarboe, Thomas; Morgan, Kyle

    2017-10-01

    Spatially resolved measurements of the electron temperature (Te) and density (ne) will be fundamental in assessing the degree to which HIT-SI3 demonstrates closed magnetic flux and energy confinement. Further, electron temperature measurements have not yet been made on an inductively-driven spheromak. Far infrared (FIR) interferometer and Thomson Scattering (TS) systems have been installed on the HIT-SI3 spheromak. The TS system currently implemented on HIT-SI3 was originally designed for other magnetic confinement experiments, and progress continues toward modifying and optimizing for HIT-SI3 plasmas. Initial results suggest that the electron temperature is of order 10 eV. Plans to modify the TS system to provide more sensitivity and accuracy at low temperatures are presented. The line-integrated ne is measured on one chord by the FIR interferometer, with densities near 5x1019 m-3. Four cylindrical volumes have been added to the HIT-SI3 apparatus to enhance passive pumping. It is hoped that this will allow for more control of the density during the 2 ms discharges. Density measurements from before and after the installation of the passive pumping volumes are presented for comparison.

  7. Far-infrared line observations of planetary nebulae. 1: The O 3 spectrum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dinerstein, H. L.; Lester, D. F.; Werner, M. W.

    1985-01-01

    Observations of the far-infrared fine structure lines of O III have been obtained for six planetary nebulae. The infrared measurements are combined with optical O III line fluxes to probe physical conditions in the gas. From the observed line intensity ratios, a simultaneous solution was obtained for electron temperature and density, as well as means of evaluating the importance of inhomogeneities. Densities determined from the far-infrared O III lines agree well density diagnostics from other ions, indicating a fairly homogeneous density in the emitting gas. Temperatures are determined separately from the O III 4363/5007 A and 5007 A/52 micron intensity ratios and compared. Systematically higher values are derived from the former ratio, which is expected from a nebula which is not isothermal. Allowance for the presence of temperature variations within these nebulae raises their derived oxygen abundances, determinations to be reconciled with the solar value.

  8. Stratospheric O3, H2O, and HDO distributions from balloon-based far-infrared observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbas, M. M.; Guo, J.; Carli, B.; Mencaraglia, F.; Bonetti, A.

    1987-01-01

    Limb thermal emission spectra of the earth's stratosphere in the FIR obtained as part of the Balloon Intercomparison Campaign (BIC), have been analyzed for retrieval of trace constituent distributions. The observations analyzed here were made with a balloon-borne high-resolution Michelson interferometer operating in the 20-100/cm region, with an unapodized spectral resolution of 0.0033/cm. In this paper the vertical profiles of O3, H2O, and HDO retrieved from the observed spectra are presented and compared with the results from other BIC experiments. The retrieved profiles are found to be in good agreement with other measurements. The measurement of the HDO profile provides information about the sources of stratospheric water vapor. The variation of the D/H ratio of water vapor is derived from an analysis of HDO and H2O lines observed in the FIR spectra and is compared with the available measurements in the literature.

  9. Quasi-optical analysis of a far-infrared spatio-spectral space interferometer concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bracken, C.; O'Sullivan, C.; Murphy, J. A.; Donohoe, A.; Savini, G.; Lightfoot, J.; Juanola-Parramon, R.; Fisica Consortium

    2016-07-01

    FISICA (Far-Infrared Space Interferometer Critical Assessment) was a three year study of a far-infrared spatio-spectral double-Fourier interferometer concept. One of the aims of the FISICA study was to set-out a baseline optical design for such a system, and to use a model of the system to simulate realistic telescope beams for use with an end-to-end instrument simulator. This paper describes a two-telescope (and hub) baseline optical design that fulfils the requirements of the FISICA science case, while minimising the optical mass of the system. A number of different modelling techniques were required for the analysis: fast approximate simulation tools such as ray tracing and Gaussian beam methods were employed for initial analysis, with GRASP physical optics used for higher accuracy in the final analysis. Results are shown for the predicted far-field patterns of the telescope primary mirrors under illumination by smooth walled rectangular feed horns. Far-field patterns for both on-axis and off-axis detectors are presented and discussed.

  10. Developing Wide-Field Spatio-Spectral Interferometry for Far-Infrared Space Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leisawitz, David; Bolcar, Matthew R.; Lyon, Richard G.; Maher, Stephen F.; Memarsadeghi, Nargess; Rinehart, Stephen A.; Sinukoff, Evan J.

    2012-01-01

    Interferometry is an affordable way to bring the benefits of high resolution to space far-IR astrophysics. We summarize an ongoing effort to develop and learn the practical limitations of an interferometric technique that will enable the acquisition of high-resolution far-IR integral field spectroscopic data with a single instrument in a future space-based interferometer. This technique was central to the Space Infrared Interferometric Telescope (SPIRIT) and Submillimeter Probe of the Evolution of Cosmic Structure (SPECS) space mission design concepts, and it will first be used on the Balloon Experimental Twin Telescope for Infrared Interferometry (BETTII). Our experimental approach combines data from a laboratory optical interferometer (the Wide-field Imaging Interferometry Testbed, WIIT), computational optical system modeling, and spatio-spectral synthesis algorithm development. We summarize recent experimental results and future plans.

  11. Effect of rare earth Ce on the far infrared radiation property of iron ore tailings ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Jie; Institute of Power Source and Ecomaterials Science, Hebei University of Technology, Tianjin 300130; Meng, Junping, E-mail: srlj158@sina.com

    2015-06-15

    Highlights: • Detailed process proposed for preparation of iron ore tailings ceramics. • Replace natural minerals with iron ore tailings as raw materials for preparing functional ceramics. • Impact mechanism of Ce on far infrared ceramics, as well as its optimum addition amounts can be obtained. • Propose a new perspective on considering the mechanism of far infrared radiation. - Abstract: A kind of far infrared radiation ceramics was prepared by using iron ore tailings, CaCO{sub 3} and SiO{sub 2} as main raw materials, and Ce as additive. The result of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy showed that the sample exhibitsmore » excellent radiation value of 0.914 when doping 7 wt.% Ce. Ce{sup 4+} dissolved into iron diopside and formed interstitial solid solution with it sintered at 1150 °C. The oxidation of Fe{sup 2+} to Fe{sup 3+} caused by Ce{sup 4+} led to a decrease of crystallite sizes and enhancement of Mg–O and Fe–O vibration in iron diopside, which consequently improved the far infrared radiation properties of iron ore tailings ceramics.« less

  12. Planck intermediate results. XIV. Dust emission at millimetre wavelengths in the Galactic plane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Planck Collaboration; Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.; Alves, M. I. R.; Arnaud, M.; Ashdown, M.; Atrio-Barandela, F.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Banday, A. J.; Barreiro, R. B.; Bartlett, J. G.; Battaner, E.; Benabed, K.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Bernard, J.-P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bielewicz, P.; Bobin, J.; Bonaldi, A.; Bond, J. R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F. R.; Boulanger, F.; Bucher, M.; Burigana, C.; Butler, R. C.; Cardoso, J.-F.; Catalano, A.; Chamballu, A.; Chiang, H. C.; Chiang, L.-Y.; Christensen, P. R.; Clements, D. L.; Colombi, S.; Colombo, L. P. L.; Couchot, F.; Crill, B. P.; Curto, A.; Cuttaia, F.; Danese, L.; Davies, R. D.; Davis, R. J.; de Bernardis, P.; de Rosa, A.; de Zotti, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Dickinson, C.; Diego, J. M.; Dole, H.; Donzelli, S.; Doré, O.; Douspis, M.; Dupac, X.; Enßlin, T. A.; Eriksen, H. K.; Falgarone, E.; Finelli, F.; Forni, O.; Frailis, M.; Franceschi, E.; Galeotta, S.; Ganga, K.; Ghosh, T.; Giard, M.; Giardino, G.; González-Nuevo, J.; Górski, K. M.; Gregorio, A.; Gruppuso, A.; Hansen, F. K.; Harrison, D. L.; Hernández-Monteagudo, C.; Herranz, D.; Hildebrandt, S. R.; Hivon, E.; Holmes, W. A.; Hornstrup, A.; Hovest, W.; Jaffe, A. H.; Jones, W. C.; Juvela, M.; Keihänen, E.; Keskitalo, R.; Kisner, T. S.; Kneissl, R.; Knoche, J.; Kunz, M.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lagache, G.; Lähteenmäki, A.; Lamarre, J.-M.; Lasenby, A.; Laureijs, R. J.; Lawrence, C. R.; Leonardi, R.; Levrier, F.; Liguori, M.; Lilje, P. B.; Linden-Vørnle, M.; López-Caniego, M.; Macías-Pérez, J. F.; Maffei, B.; Maino, D.; Mandolesi, N.; Maris, M.; Marshall, D. J.; Martin, P. G.; Martínez-González, E.; Masi, S.; Matarrese, S.; Mazzotta, P.; Melchiorri, A.; Mendes, L.; Mennella, A.; Migliaccio, M.; Mitra, S.; Miville-Deschênes, M.-A.; Moneti, A.; Montier, L.; Morgante, G.; Mortlock, D.; Munshi, D.; Murphy, J. A.; Naselsky, P.; Nati, F.; Natoli, P.; Nørgaard-Nielsen, H. U.; Noviello, F.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; Oxborrow, C. A.; Pagano, L.; Pajot, F.; Paladini, R.; Paoletti, D.; Pasian, F.; Patanchon, G.; Peel, M.; Perdereau, O.; Perrotta, F.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Pierpaoli, E.; Pietrobon, D.; Plaszczynski, S.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polenta, G.; Ponthieu, N.; Popa, L.; Pratt, G. W.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J.-L.; Rachen, J. P.; Reach, W. T.; Rebolo, R.; Reinecke, M.; Remazeilles, M.; Renault, C.; Ricciardi, S.; Riller, T.; Ristorcelli, I.; Rocha, G.; Rosset, C.; Rubiño-Martín, J. A.; Rusholme, B.; Sandri, M.; Savini, G.; Scott, D.; Spencer, L. D.; Starck, J.-L.; Stolyarov, V.; Sureau, F.; Sutton, D.; Suur-Uski, A.-S.; Sygnet, J.-F.; Tauber, J. A.; Tavagnacco, D.; Terenzi, L.; Toffolatti, L.; Tomasi, M.; Tristram, M.; Tucci, M.; Valenziano, L.; Valiviita, J.; Van Tent, B.; Verstraete, L.; Vielva, P.; Villa, F.; Vittorio, N.; Wade, L. A.; Wandelt, B. D.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.; Zonca, A.

    2014-04-01

    We use Planck HFI data combined with ancillary radio data to study the emissivity index of the interstellar dust emission in the frequency range 100-353 GHz, or 3-0.8 mm, in the Galactic plane. We analyse the region l = 20°-44° and |b| ≤ 4° where the free-free emission can be estimated from radio recombination line data. We fit the spectra at each sky pixel with a modified blackbody model and two opacity spectral indices, βmm and βFIR, below and above 353 GHz, respectively. We find that βmm is smaller than βFIR, and we detect a correlation between this low frequency power-law index and the dust optical depth at 353 GHz, τ353. The opacity spectral index βmm increases from about 1.54 in the more diffuse regions of the Galactic disk, |b| = 3°-4° and τ353 ~ 5 × 10-5, to about 1.66 in the densest regions with an optical depth of more than one order of magnitude higher. We associate this correlation with an evolution of the dust emissivity related to the fraction of molecular gas along the line of sight. This translates into βmm ~ 1.54 for a medium that is mostly atomic and βmm ~ 1.66 when the medium is dominated by molecular gas. We find that both the two-level system model and magnetic dipole emission by ferromagnetic particles can explain the results. These results improve our understanding of the physics of interstellar dust and lead towards a complete model of the dust spectrum of the Milky Way from far-infrared to millimetre wavelengths.

  13. Probing the Baryon Cycle of Galaxies with SPICA Mid- and Far-Infrared Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Tak, F. F. S.; Madden, S. C.; Roelfsema, P.; Armus, L.; Baes, M.; Bernard-Salas, J.; Bolatto, A.; Bontemps, S.; Bot, C.; Bradford, C. M.; Braine, J.; Ciesla, L.; Clements, D.; Cormier, D.; Fernández-Ontiveros, J. A.; Galliano, F.; Giard, M.; Gomez, H.; González-Alfonso, E.; Herpin, F.; Johnstone, D.; Jones, A.; Kaneda, H.; Kemper, F.; Lebouteiller, V.; De Looze, I.; Matsuura, M.; Nakagawa, T.; Onaka, T.; Pérez-González, P.; Shipman, R.; Spinoglio, L.

    2018-01-01

    The SPICA mid- and far-infrared telescope will address fundamental issues in our understanding of star formation and ISM physics in galaxies. A particular hallmark of SPICA is the outstanding sensitivity enabled by the cold telescope, optimised detectors, and wide instantaneous bandwidth throughout the mid- and far-infrared. The spectroscopic, imaging, and polarimetric observations that SPICA will be able to collect will help in clarifying the complex physical mechanisms which underlie the baryon cycle of galaxies. In particular, (i) the access to a large suite of atomic and ionic fine-structure lines for large samples of galaxies will shed light on the origin of the observed spread in star-formation rates within and between galaxies, (ii) observations of HD rotational lines (out to 10 Mpc) and fine structure lines such as [C ii] 158 μm (out to 100 Mpc) will clarify the main reservoirs of interstellar matter in galaxies, including phases where CO does not emit, (iii) far-infrared spectroscopy of dust and ice features will address uncertainties in the mass and composition of dust in galaxies, and the contributions of supernovae to the interstellar dust budget will be quantified by photometry and monitoring of supernova remnants in nearby galaxies, (iv) observations of far-infrared cooling lines such as [O i] 63 μm from star-forming molecular clouds in our Galaxy will evaluate the importance of shocks to dissipate turbulent energy. The paper concludes with requirements for the telescope and instruments, and recommendations for the observing strategy.

  14. Experimental Study of Electronic States at Interfaces.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-01-01

    8217 infrared and far infrared spectra associated with the acceptor complexes Be-H and Be-D in Si provide a direct identification of motional tunneling at...is either a Golay cell probed in more detail with intense far- infrared (FIR) radi- or a Ge:Ga bolometer operated at 2 K. The detector signal is ation...TABLE 11. Far- infrared tunneling transition frequencies A, B, and C in inverse centimeters for A(D,Be) and A(H,Be). E fir ir D H D H _ _O C 12.9 (weak

  15. Detection of the 158 Micrometers[CII] Transition at z=1.3: Evidence for a Galaxy-Wide Starburst

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hailey-Dunsheath, S.; Nikola, T.; Oberst, T. E.; Parshley, S. C.; Benford, D. J.; Staguhn, J. G.; Tucker, C. E.

    2010-01-01

    We report the detection of 158 micron [C II] fine-structure line emission from MIPS J142824.0+352619, a hyperluminous ( L(sub IR) approximates 10(exp 13) L (sub solar)) starburst galaxy at z = 1.3. The line is bright, corresponding to a fraction L(sub [Cu II] L(sub Fir) approximates 2 x 10(exp -3) of the far-IR (FIR) continuum. The [C II], CO, and FIR continuum emission may be modeled as arising from photodissociation regions (PDRs) that have a characteristic gas density of n approximates 10(exp 4.2) /cm(exp 3) , and that are illuminated by a far-UV radiation field approximately 10(exp 3.2) times more intense than the local interstellar radiation field. The mass in these PDRs accounts for approximately half of the molecular gas mass in this galaxy. The L(sub [CII])/L(sub FIR) ratio is higher than observed in local ultralummous infrared galaxies or in the few high-redshift QSOs detected in [C II], but the L(sub [CII])/L(sub FIR) and L(sub CO)/L(sub FIR) ratios are similar to the values seen in nearby starburst galaxies. This suggests that MIPS J142824.0+352619 is a scaled-up version of a starburst nucleus, with the burst extended over several kiloparsecs.

  16. Relative emission-line strengths for the 146 and 63 micron transitions in O I and a comparison with far-infrared observations of photodissociation regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keenan, F. P.; Conlon, E. S.; Rubin, R. H.

    1994-10-01

    Theoretical O I density-sensitive emission-line ratios R = I(2s2)(2p4)(3P0)-((2s2)(2p4)(3P1))/I((2s2)(2p4)(3P1)-(2s2)(2p4)(3P2)) = I(146 micrometers)/I(63 micrometers) are presented for a range of temperatures (T = 100-10,000 K), neutral hydrogen densities (NH = 10-2 to 107/cu cm) and radiation fields (G0 = 1-106) applicable to both photodissociation regions (PDRs) and H II regions and the diffuse ionized medium (DIM). The observed values of R for several PDRs, measured from far-infrared spectra obtained with the Kuiper Airborne Observatory (KAO), imply hydrogen densities which are in good agreement with those determined using other methods. This provides observational support for the validity of the theoretical O I line ratios, and hence the atomic data used in their derivation.

  17. Doping of germanium and silicon crystals with non-hydrogenic acceptors for far infrared lasers

    DOEpatents

    Haller, Eugene E.; Brundermann, Erik

    2000-01-01

    A method for doping semiconductors used for far infrared lasers with non-hydrogenic acceptors having binding energies larger than the energy of the laser photons. Doping of germanium or silicon crystals with beryllium, zinc or copper. A far infrared laser comprising germanium crystals doped with double or triple acceptor dopants permitting the doped laser to be tuned continuously from 1 to 4 terahertz and to operate in continuous mode. A method for operating semiconductor hole population inversion lasers with a closed cycle refrigerator.

  18. Rooting cuttings from douglas-fir, white-fir, and California red fir christmas trees

    Treesearch

    C. M. Blankensop; R. Z. Callaham

    1960-01-01

    Christmas tree growers in California have asked geneticists to help improve the characteristics of the - wild species they are cultivating. The preferred Christmas trees of California are Shasta red fir (Abies magnifica A. Murr.), white fir (A. concolor (Gord. & Glend.) Lindl.), and Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga...

  19. Far-Infrared Heterodyne Spectrometer for Sofia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Betz, A. L.

    1998-01-01

    The project goal was to evaluate the scientific capabilities and technical requirements for a far-infrared heterodyne spectrometer suitable for the SOFIA Airborne Observatory, which is now being developed by NASA under contract to the Universities Space Research Association (USRA). The conclusions detailed below include our specific recommendations for astronomical observations, as well as our intended technical approach for reaching these scientific goals. These conclusions were presented to USRA in the form of a proposal to build this instrument. USRA subsequently awarded the University of Colorado a 3-year grant to develop the proposed Hot-Electron micro-Bolometer (HEB) mixer concept for high frequencies above 3 THz, as well as other semiconductor mixer technologies suitable for high sensitivity receivers in the 2-6 THz frequency band.

  20. The Dust Content and Opacity of Actively Star-Forming Galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calzetti, Daniela; Armus, Lee; Bohlin, Ralph C.; Kinney, Anne L.; Koornneef, Jan; Storchi-Bergmann, Thaisa

    2000-01-01

    We present far-infrared (FIR) photometry at 150 and 205 micron(s) of eight low-redshift starburst galaxies obtained with the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO) ISOPHOT. Five of the eight galaxies are detected in both wave bands, and these data are used, in conjunction with IRAS archival photometry, to model the dust emission at lambda approximately greater than 40 microns. The FIR spectral energy distributions (SEDs) are best fitted by a combination of two modified Planck functions, with T approx. 40 - 55 K (warm dust) and T approx. 20-23 K (cool dust) and with a dust emissivity index epsilon = 2. The cool dust can be a major contributor to the FIR emission of starburst galaxies, representing up to 60% of the total flux. This component is heated not only by the general interstellar radiation field, but also by the starburst itself. The cool dust mass is up to approx. 150 times larger than the warm dust mass, bringing the gas-to-dust ratios of the starbursts in our sample close to Milky Way values, once resealed for the appropriate metallicity. The ratio between the total dust FIR emission in the range 1-1000 microns and the IRAS FIR emission in the range 40 - 120 microns is approx. 1.75, with small variations from galaxy to galaxy. This ratio is about 40% larger than previously inferred from data at millimeter wavelengths. Although the galaxies in our sample are generally classified as "UV bright," for four of them the UV energy emerging shortward of 0.2 microns is less than 15% of the FIR energy. On average, about 30% of the bolometric flux is coming out in the UV-to-near-IR wavelength range; the rest is emitted in the FIR. Energy balance calculations show that the FIR emission predicted by the dust reddening of the UV-to-near-IR stellar emission is within a factor of approx. 2 of the observed value in individual galaxies and within 20% when averaged over a large sample. If our sample of local starbursts is representative of high-redshift (z approx. greater than 1

  1. Photometry of Galactic and Extragalactic Far-Infrared Sources using the 91.5 cm Airborne Infrared Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harper, D. A.

    1996-01-01

    The objective of this grant was to construct a series of far infrared photometers, cameras, and supporting systems for use in astronomical observations in the Kuiper Airborne Observatory. The observations have included studies of galaxies, star formation regions, and objects within the Solar System.

  2. Continued development and application of far-infrared detection techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Low, F. J.

    1974-01-01

    The development of a balloon gondola and pointing system are discussed which can be used with the low background far infrared telescope. Flight test progress of the new gondola is reported using a 3-axis system which would provide much greater capabilities. In this design both a polar and declination axis are use and are maintained in the proper orientation by a free handing (vertical) azimuth shaft.

  3. The Origins of [C ii] Emission in Local Star-forming Galaxies

    SciTech Connect

    Croxall, K. V.; Smith, J. D.; Pellegrini, E.

    The [C ii] 158 μ m fine-structure line is the brightest emission line observed in local star-forming galaxies. As a major coolant of the gas-phase interstellar medium, [C ii] balances the heating, including that due to far-ultraviolet photons, which heat the gas via the photoelectric effect. However, the origin of [C ii] emission remains unclear because C{sup +} can be found in multiple phases of the interstellar medium. Here we measure the fractions of [C ii] emission originating in the ionized and neutral gas phases of a sample of nearby galaxies. We use the [N ii] 205 μ m fine-structuremore » line to trace the ionized medium, thereby eliminating the strong density dependence that exists in the ratio of [C ii]/[N ii] 122 μ m. Using the FIR [C ii] and [N ii] emission detected by the KINGFISH (Key Insights on Nearby Galaxies: a Far- Infrared Survey with Herschel ) and Beyond the Peak Herschel programs, we show that 60%–80% of [C ii] emission originates from neutral gas. We find that the fraction of [C ii] originating in the neutral medium has a weak dependence on dust temperature and the surface density of star formation, and has a stronger dependence on the gas-phase metallicity. In metal-rich environments, the relatively cooler ionized gas makes substantially larger contributions to total [C ii] emission than at low abundance, contrary to prior expectations. Approximate calibrations of this metallicity trend are provided.« less

  4. A method to quickly test the emissivity with an infrared thermal imaging system within a small distance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xuan-yu; Hu, Rui; Wang, Rui-xin

    2015-10-01

    A simple method has been set up to quickly test the emissivity with an infrared thermal imaging system within a small distance according to the theory of measuring temperature by infrared system, which is based on the Planck radiation law and Lambert-beer law. The object's temperature is promoted and held on by a heater while a temperature difference has been formed between the target and environment. The emissivity of human skin, galvanized iron plate, black rubber and liquid water has been tested under the condition that the emissivity is set in 1.0 and the testing distance is 1m. According to the invariance of human's body temperature, a testing curve is established to describe that the thermal imaging temperatures various with the emissivity which is set in from 0.9 to 1.0. As a result, the method has been verified. The testing results show that the emissivity of human skin is 0.95. The emissivity of galvanized iron plate, black rubber and liquid water decreases with the increase of object's temperature. The emissivity of galvanized iron plate is far smaller than the one of human skin, black rubber or water. The emissivity of water slowly linearly decreases with the increase of its temperature. By the study, within a small distance and clean atmosphere, the infrared emissivity of objects may be expediently tested with an infrared thermal imaging system according to the method, which is promoting the object's temperature to make it different from the environment temperature, then simultaneously measures the environmental temperature, the real temperature and thermal imaging temperature of the object when the emissivity is set in 1.0 and the testing distance is 1.0m.

  5. A comparison of the far-infrared and low-frequency Raman spectra of glass-forming liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perova, T. S.; Vij, J. K.; Christensen, D. H.; Nielsen, O. F.

    1999-04-01

    Far-infrared and low-frequency Raman spectra in the wavenumber range from 15 to 500 cm -1 were recorded for glycerol, triacetin (glycerol triacetate) and o-terphenyl at temperatures from 253 to 355 K. The far-infrared spectra of glycerol appear complex compared with the spectra of triacetin owing to the presence of hydrogen bonding in glycerol. The experimental results obtained for o-terphenyl are in good agreement with normal mode analyses carried out for crystalline o-terphenyl (A. Criado, F.J. Bermejo, A. de Andres, Mol. Phys. 82 (1994) 787). The far-infrared results are compared with the low-frequency Raman spectra of these three glass-forming liquids. The difference in temperature dependences found from these spectra is explained on the basis of different temperature contributions of the relaxational and vibrational processes to the low-frequency vibrational spectra.

  6. Infrared emission of a freestanding plasmonic membrane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monshat, Hosein; Liu, Longju; McClelland, John; Biswas, Rana; Lu, Meng

    2018-01-01

    This paper reports a free-standing plasmonic membrane as a thermal emitter in the near- and mid-infrared regions. The plasmonic membrane consists of an ultrathin gold film perforated with a two-dimensional array of holes. The device was fabricated using an imprint and transfer process and fixed on a low-emissivity metal grid. The thermal radiation characteristics of the plasmonic membrane can be engineered by controlling the array period and the thickness of the gold membrane. Plasmonic membranes with two different periods were designed using electromagnetic simulation and then characterized for their transmission and infrared radiation properties. The free-standing membranes exhibit extraordinary optical transmissions with the resonant transmission coefficient as high as 76.8%. After integration with a customized heater, the membranes demonstrate narrowband thermal emission in the wavelength range of 2.5 μm to 5.5 μm. The emission signatures, including peak emission wavelength and bandwidth, are associated with the membrane geometry. The ultrathin membrane infrared emitter can be adopted in applications, such as chemical analysis and thermal imaging.

  7. Far-forward collective scattering measurements by FIR polarimeter-interferometer on J-TEXT tokamak

    SciTech Connect

    Shi, P.; Chen, J., E-mail: jiech@hust.edu.cn; Gao, L.

    The multi-channel three-wave polarimeter-interferometer system on J-TEXT tokamak has been exploited to measure far-forward collective scattering from electron density fluctuations. The diagnostic utilizes far infrared lasers operated at 432 μm with 17-channel vertical chords (3 cm chord spacing), covering the entire cross section of plasma. Scattering laser power is measured using a high-sensitivity Schottky planar diode mixer which can also detect polarimetric and interferometric phase simultaneously. The system provides a line-integrated measurement of density fluctuations with maximum measurable wave number: k{sub ⊥max} ≤ 2 cm{sup −1} and time response up to 350 kHz. Feasibility of the diagnostic has been tested,more » showing higher sensitivity to detect fluctuation than interferometric measurement. Capability of providing spatial-resolved information of fluctuation has also been demonstrated in preliminary experimental applications.« less

  8. Spitzer Quasar and ULIRG Evolution Study (QUEST). II. The Spectral Energy Distributions of Palomar-Green Quasars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Netzer, Hagai; Lutz, Dieter; Schweitzer, Mario; Contursi, Alessandra; Sturm, Eckhard; Tacconi, Linda J.; Veilleux, Sylvain; Kim, D.-C.; Rupke, David; Baker, Andrew J.; Dasyra, Kalliopi; Mazzarella, Joseph; Lord, Steven

    2007-09-01

    This is the second paper studying the QSOs in the Spitzer QUEST sample. Previously we presented new PAH measurements and argued that most of the observed far-infrared (FIR) radiation is due to star-forming activity. Here we present spectral energy distributions (SEDs) by supplementing our data with optical, NIR, and FIR observations. We define two subgroups, of ``weak FIR'' and ``strong FIR'' QSOs, and a third group of FIR nondetections. Assuming a starburst origin for the FIR, we obtain ``intrinsic'' active galactic nucleus (AGN) SEDs by subtracting a starburst template from the mean SEDs. The resulting SEDs are remarkably similar for all groups. They show three distinct peaks corresponding to two silicate emission features and a 3 μm bump, which we interpret as the signature of the hottest AGN dust. They also display drops beyond ~20 μm that we interpret as the signature of the minimum temperature (~200 K) dust. This component must be optically thin to explain the silicate emission and the slope of the long-wavelength continuum. We discuss the merits of an alternative model in which most of the FIR emission is due to AGN heating. Such models are unlikely to explain the properties of our QSOs, but they cannot be ruled out for more luminous objects. We also find correlations between the luminosity at 5100 Å and two infrared starburst indicators: L(60 μm) and L(PAH 7.7 μm). The correlation of L(5100 Å) with L(60 μm) can be used to measure the relative growth rates and lifetimes of the black hole and the new stars.

  9. Using indicator plants to assess susceptibility of Californian red fir and white fir to the fir engraver beetle

    Treesearch

    George T. Ferrell

    1986-01-01

    Using a Vegetation Drought Index (VDI) for estimating the susceptibility of California red and white firs to the fir engraver beetle (Scolytus venttralis) was evaluated in northern California forests where these true firs (Abies species) occur in mixed conifer and true fir stands. Midway through the summer drought, true fir...

  10. Density functional theory for prediction of far-infrared vibrational frequencies: molecular crystals of astrophysical interest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ennis, C.; Auchettl, R.; Appadoo, D. R. T.; Robertson, E. G.

    2017-11-01

    Solid-state density functional theory code has been implemented for the structure optimization of crystalline methanol, acetaldehyde and acetic acid and for the calculation of infrared frequencies. The results are compared to thin film spectra obtained from low-temperature experiments performed at the Australian Synchrotron. Harmonic frequency calculations of the internal modes calculated at the B3LYP-D3/m-6-311G(d) level shows higher deviation from infrared experiment than more advanced theory applied to the gas phase. Importantly for the solid-state, the simulation of low-frequency molecular lattice modes closely resembles the observed far-infrared features after application of a 0.92 scaling factor. This allowed experimental peaks to be assigned to specific translation and libration modes, including acetaldehyde and acetic acid lattice features for the first time. These frequency calculations have been performed without the need for supercomputing resources that are required for large molecular clusters using comparable levels of theory. This new theoretical approach will find use for the rapid characterization of intermolecular interactions and bonding in crystals, and the assignment of far-infrared spectra for crystalline samples such as pharmaceuticals and molecular ices. One interesting application may be for the detection of species of prebiotic interest on the surfaces of Kuiper-Belt and Trans-Neptunian Objects. At such locations, the three small organic molecules studied here could reside in their crystalline phase. The far-infrared spectra for their low-temperature solid phases are collected under planetary conditions, allowing us to compile and assign their most intense spectral features to assist future far-infrared surveys of icy Solar system surfaces.

  11. THE FAR-INFRARED ROTATIONAL SPECTRUM OF ETHYLENE OXIDE

    SciTech Connect

    Medcraft, Chris; Thompson, Christopher D.; McNaughton, Don

    2012-07-01

    High-resolution FTIR spectra of ethylene oxide have been measured in the far-infrared region using synchrotron radiation. A total of 1182 lines between 15 and 73 cm{sup -1} were assigned, with J{sub max} = 64, expanding upon previous studies that had recorded spectra up to 12 cm{sup -1}, J{sub max} = 49. All available data were co-fitted to provide greatly imp- roved rotational constants for the ground vibrational state that are capable of predicting transitions up to 73 cm{sup -1}.

  12. High Resolution Far Infrared Fourier Transform Spectroscopy of the NH_2 Radical.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin-Drumel, M. A.; Pirali, O.; Balcon, D.; Vervloet, M.

    2011-06-01

    First identified toward Sgr B2, the NH_2 radical has recently been detected in the interstellar medium by the HIFI instrument on board of Herschel. Despite the fact that this radical has not been detected in brown dwarfs and exoplanets yet, it is already included in physical and chemical models of those environments (temperature higher than 2000 K expected in several objects). Its detection in those objects will depend on the existence of a reliable high temperature and high resolution spectroscopic database on the NH_2 radical.The absorption spectrum of NH_2 has been recorded between 15 and 700 Cm-1 at the highest resolution available using the Bruker IFS125HR Fourier transform interferometer connected to the far infrared AILES beamline at SOLEIL (R=0.001 Cm-1). The radical was produced by an electrical discharge (DC) through a continuous flow of NH_3 and He using the White-type discharge cell developped on the beamline (optical path: 24m). Thanks to the brilliance of the synchrotron radiation, more than 700 pure rotational transitions of NH_2 have been identified with high N values (NMax=25) in its fundamental and first excited vibrational modes. By comparison to the previous FT spectroscopic study on that radical in the FIR spectral range, asymmetric splitting as well as fine and hyperfine structure have been resolved for several transitions. E. F. Van Dishoeck, D. J. Jansen, P. Schilke, T. G. Phillips The Astrophysical Journal 416, L83-L86 (1993) C. M. Persson, J. H. Black, J. Cernicharo et al. Astronomy and Astrophysics 521, L45 (2010) K. Lodders and B. Fegley, Jr Icarus 155, 393-424 (2002) I. Morino and K. Kawaguchi Journal of Molecular Spectroscopy 182, 428-438 (1997)

  13. Method and means for generation of tunable laser sidebands in the far-infrared region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pickett, Herbert M. (Inventor); Farhoomand, Jam (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    A method for generating tunable far-infrared radiation is described. The apparatus includes a Schottky-barrier diode which has one side coupled through a conductor to a waveguide that carries a tunable microwave frequency; the diode has an opposite side which is coupled through a radiating whisker to a bias source. Infrared light is directed at the diode, and infrared light with tunable sidebands is radiated by the whisker through an open space to a reflector. The original infrared is separated from a tunable infrared sideband by a polarizing Michelson interferometer.

  14. Identification of cyanobacteriochromes detecting far-red light

    SciTech Connect

    Rockwell, Nathan C.; Martin, Shelley S.; Lagarias, J. Clark

    The opacity of mammalian tissue to visible light and the strong attenuation of infrared light by water at ≥900 nm have contributed to growing interest in the development of far-red and near-infrared absorbing tools for visualizing and actuating responses within live cells. Here we report the discovery of cyanobacteriochromes (CBCRs) responsive to light in this far-red window. CBCRs are linear tetrapyrrole (bilin)-based light sensors distantly related to plant phytochrome sensors. Our studies reveal far-red (λ max = 725–755 nm)/orange (λ max = 590–600 nm) and far-red/red (λ max = 615–685 nm) photoswitches that are small (<200 amino acids) and canmore » be genetically reconstituted in living cells. Phylogenetic analysis and characterization of additional CBCRs demonstrated that far-red/orange CBCRs evolved after a complex transition from green/red CBCRs known for regulating complementary chromatic acclimation. Incorporation of different bilin chromophores demonstrated that tuning mechanisms responsible for red-shifted chromophore absorption act at the A-, B-, and/ or C-rings, whereas photoisomerization occurs at the D-ring. Two such proteins exhibited detectable fluorescence extending well into the near-infrared region. In conclusion, this work extends the spectral window of CBCRs to the edge of the infrared, raising the possibility of using CBCRs in synthetic biology applications in the far-red region of the spectrum.« less

  15. Identification of cyanobacteriochromes detecting far-red light

    DOE PAGES

    Rockwell, Nathan C.; Martin, Shelley S.; Lagarias, J. Clark

    2016-06-13

    The opacity of mammalian tissue to visible light and the strong attenuation of infrared light by water at ≥900 nm have contributed to growing interest in the development of far-red and near-infrared absorbing tools for visualizing and actuating responses within live cells. Here we report the discovery of cyanobacteriochromes (CBCRs) responsive to light in this far-red window. CBCRs are linear tetrapyrrole (bilin)-based light sensors distantly related to plant phytochrome sensors. Our studies reveal far-red (λ max = 725–755 nm)/orange (λ max = 590–600 nm) and far-red/red (λ max = 615–685 nm) photoswitches that are small (<200 amino acids) and canmore » be genetically reconstituted in living cells. Phylogenetic analysis and characterization of additional CBCRs demonstrated that far-red/orange CBCRs evolved after a complex transition from green/red CBCRs known for regulating complementary chromatic acclimation. Incorporation of different bilin chromophores demonstrated that tuning mechanisms responsible for red-shifted chromophore absorption act at the A-, B-, and/ or C-rings, whereas photoisomerization occurs at the D-ring. Two such proteins exhibited detectable fluorescence extending well into the near-infrared region. In conclusion, this work extends the spectral window of CBCRs to the edge of the infrared, raising the possibility of using CBCRs in synthetic biology applications in the far-red region of the spectrum.« less

  16. Far infrared supplement. Third edition: Catalog of infrared observations (lambda greater than or equal to 4.6 micrometers)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gezari, Daniel Y.; Schmitz, Marion; Pitts, Patricia S.; Mead, Jaylee M.

    1993-01-01

    The Far Infrared Supplement contains a subset of the data in the full Catalog of Infrared Observations (all observations at wavelengths greater than 4.6 microns). The Catalog of Infrared Observations (CIO), NASA RP-1294, is a compilation of infrared astronomical observational data obtained from an extensive literature search of scientific journals and major astronomical catalogs and surveys. The literature search is complete for years 1965 through 1990 in this third edition. The catalog contains about 210,000 observations of roughly 20,000 individual sources, and supporting appendices. The expanded third edition contains coded IRAS 4-band data for all CIO sources detected by IRAS. The appendices include an atlas of infrared source positions (also included in this volume), two bibliographies of catalog listings, and an atlas of infrared spectral ranges. The complete CIO database is available to qualified users in printed, microfiche, and magnetic tape formats.

  17. A flattened cloud core in NGC 2024

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ho, Paul T. P.; Peng, Yun-Lou; Torrelles, Jose M.; Gomez, Jose F.; Rodriguez, Luis F.; Canto, Jorge

    1993-01-01

    The (J, K) (1, 1) and (2, 2) NH3 lines were mapped toward a molecular cloud core in NGC 2024 using the VLA in its C/D-configuration. This region is associated with one of the most highly collimated molecular outflows. We find that the molecular condensations associated with the far-infrared sources FIR 5, FIR 6, and FIR 7 have kinetic temperatures of about 40 K. We also find line broadening toward FIR 6 and FIR 7. This suggests that these condensations may not be protostars heated by gravitational energy released during collapse but that they have an internal heating source. A flattened structure of ammonia emission is found extending parallel to the unipolar CO outflow structure, but displaced systematically to the east. If the NH3 emission traces the denser gas environment, there is no evidence that a dense gas structure is confining the molecular outflow. Instead, the location of the high-velocity outflow along the surface of the NH3 structure suggests that a wind is sweeping material from the surface of this elongated cloud core.

  18. Predictions for imaging and spectroscopic surveys of galaxies and Active Galactic Nuclei in the mid-/far-Infrared

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonato, Matteo

    2015-02-01

    While continuum imaging data at far-infrared to sub-millimeter wavelengths have provided tight constraints on the population properties of dusty star-forming galaxies up to high redshifts, future space missions like the Space Infra-Red Telescope for Cosmology and Astrophysics (SPICA) and ground based facilities like the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) and the Cerro Chajnantor Atacama Telescope (CCAT) will allow detailed investigations of their physical properties via their mid-/far-infrared line emission. The goal of this thesis project was to carry out predictions for these spectroscopic surveys using both a phenomenological approach and physically grounded models. These predictions are useful to optimize the planning of the surveys. In the first part of the work, I present updated predictions for the number counts and the redshift distributions of star-forming galaxies spectroscopically detectable by these future missions. These predictions exploit a recent upgrade of evolutionary models, that includes the effect of strong gravitational lensing, in the light of the most recent Herschel and South Pole Telescope (SPT) data. Moreover the relations between line and continuum infrared luminosity are re-assessed, considering also differences among source populations, with the support of extensive simulations that take into account dust obscuration. My reference model for the redshift dependent IR luminosity functions is the one worked out by Cai et al. (2013) based on a comprehensive hybrid approach combining a physical model for the progenitors of early-type galaxies with a phenomenological one for late-type galaxies. The derived line luminosity functions are found to be highly sensitive to the spread of the line to continuum luminosity ratios. Estimates of the expected numbers of detections per spectral line by the SpicA FAR infrared Instrument (SAFARI) and by CCAT surveys for different integration times per field of view at fixed total observing

  19. Pluto's Far Ultraviolet Spectrum and Airglow Emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steffl, A.; Schindhelm, E.; Kammer, J.; Gladstone, R.; Greathouse, T. K.; Parker, J. W.; Strobel, D. F.; Summers, M. E.; Versteeg, M. H.; Ennico Smith, K.; Hinson, D. P.; Linscott, I.; Olkin, C.; Parker, A. H.; Retherford, K. D.; Singer, K. N.; Tsang, C.; Tyler, G. L.; Weaver, H. A., Jr.; Woods, W. W.; Young, L. A.; Stern, A.

    2015-12-01

    The Alice far ultraviolet spectrograph on the New Horizons spacecraft is the second in a family of six instruments in flight on, or under development for, NASA and ESA missions. Here, we present initial results from the Alice observations of Pluto during the historic flyby. Pluto's far ultraviolet spectrum is dominated by sunlight reflected from the surface with absorption by atmospehric constituents. We tentatively identify C2H2 and C2H4 in Pluto's atmosphere. We also present evidence for weak airglow emissions.

  20. AKARI and Spinning Dust: A look at microwave dust emission via the Infrared

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, Aaron Christopher; Onaka, Takashi; Wu, Ronin; Doi, Yasuo

    2015-08-01

    Rapidly spinning dust particles having a permanent electric dipole moment have been shown to be a likely carrier of the anomalous microwave emission (AME), a continuous excess of microwave flux in the 10 to 90 GHz range. Small grains, possibly polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), are a leading suspect. Due to the overlap frequency overlap with the CMB, the AME is requiring cosmologists to consider the ISM with more care. ISM astronomers are also needing to consider the contribution of cosmological radiation to large-scale dust investigations. We present data from AKARI/Infrared Camera (IRC) due to the effective PAH band coverage of its 9 um survey to investigate PAH emission within 98 AME candidate regions identified by Planck Collaboration et al. (2014). We supplement AKARI data with the four Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS) all-sky maps and complement with the Planck High Frequency Instrument (HFI) bands at 857 and 545GHz to constrain the full dust SED. We sample analyse the SEDs of all 98 regions. We utilize all 7 AKARI photometric bands, as well as the 4 IRAS bands and 2 HFI. We carry out a modified blackbody fitting, and estimate the optical depth of thermal dust at 250 um, and compare this to AME parameters. We also show plots of each band's average intensity for all 98 regions vs. AME parameters. We find a positive trend between the optical depth and AME. In the band-by-band comparison the AKARI 9 um intensity shows a weaker trend with AME. In general, the MIR correlates less strongly with AME than the FIR. The optical depth vs. AME trend improves slightly when looking only at significant AME regions. Scaling the IR intensities by the ISRF strength G0 does not improve the correlations. We cannot offer strong support of a spinning dust model. The results highlight the need for full dust SED modelling, and for a better understanding of the role that magnetic dipole emission from dust grains could play in producing the AME.

  1. Superfluid-helium-cooled rocket-borne far-infrared radiometer.

    PubMed

    Blair, A G; Edeskuty, F; Hiebert, R D; Jones, D M; Shipley, J P; Williamson, K D

    1971-05-01

    A far-infrared radiometer, cooled to 1.6 K by superfluid helium, has been flown in a Terrier-Sandhawk rocket. The instrument was designed to measure night-sky radiation in three wavelength passbands between 6 mm and 0.1 mm at altitudes between 120 km and 350 km. A failure in the rocket nose cone separation system prevented the measurement of this radiation, but the performance of the instrument during flight was generally satisfactory. Design features and operational characteristics of the cryogenic, optical, detection, and electronic systems are presented.

  2. Emission beyond 4  μm and mid-infrared lasing in a dysprosium-doped indium fluoride (InF3) fiber.

    PubMed

    Majewski, Matthew R; Woodward, Robert I; Carreé, Jean-Yves; Poulain, Samuel; Poulain, Marcel; Jackson, Stuart D

    2018-04-15

    Optical emission from rare-earth-doped fluoride fibers has thus far been limited to less than 4 μm. We extend emission beyond this limit by employing an indium fluoride (InF 3 ) glass fiber as the host, which exhibits an increased infrared transparency over commonly used zirconium fluoride (ZBLAN). Near-infrared pumping of a dysprosium-doped InF 3 fiber results in broad emission centered around 4.3 μm, representing the longest emission yet achieved from a fluoride fiber. The first laser emission in an InF 3 fiber is also demonstrated from the 3 μm dysprosium transition. Finally, a frequency domain excited state lifetime measurement comparison between fluoride hosts suggests that multiphonon effects are significantly reduced in indium fluoride fiber, paving the way to more efficient, longer wavelength lasers compared to ZBLAN fibers.

  3. Spatially Resolved Far-Infrared Spectroscopic Analysis of Planetary Nebulae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rattray, Rebecca; Ueta, Toshiya

    2015-01-01

    Planetary Nebulae (PNs) are late-life intermediate-mass (1-8 solar mass) stars that have shed their outer layers. A wide variety of morphologies and physical conditions is seen in PNs, but a complete understanding of what causes these various conditions is still needed. Spatially resolved far-infrared spectroscopic analysis has been performed on 11 targets using both PACS and SPIRE instruments on the Herschel Space Observatory as part of the Herschel Planetary Nebula Survey (HerPlaNS). Far-IR lines probe the ionized parts of the nebulae and suffer less extinction than optical lines, so observations in the far-IR are critical to our complete understanding of PNs. Because PNs are extended objects, the spectral mapping capabilities of both PACS and SPIRE allow us to better understand the spatial variations of the objects by tracking line strengths as a function of location within the nebula. The far-IR lines detected in this study can be used as tracers of electron density and electron temperature which are critical parameters in radiative transfer modeling of PNs. Information on atomic, ionic, and molecular lines identified in these 11 targets will be presented.

  4. RADIO IMAGING OF THE NGC 2024 FIR 5/6 REGION: A HYPERCOMPACT H II REGION CANDIDATE IN ORION

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, Minho; Kang, Miju; Lee, Jeong-Eun, E-mail: minho@kasi.re.kr

    The NGC 2024 FIR 5/6 region was observed in the 6.9 mm continuum with an angular resolution of about 1.5 arcsec. The 6.9 mm continuum map shows four compact sources, FIR 5w, 5e, 6c, and 6n, as well as an extended structure of the ionization front associated with the optical nebulosity. FIR 6c has a source size of about 0.4 arcsec or 150 AU. The spectral energy distribution (SED) of FIR 6c is peculiar: rising steeply around 6.9 mm and flat around 1 mm. The possibility of a hypercompact H II region is explored. If the millimeter flux of FIRmore » 6c comes from hot ionized gas heated by a single object at the center, the central object may be a B1 star of about 5800 solar luminosities and about 13 solar masses. The 6.9 mm continuum of FIR 6n may be a mixture of free-free emission and dust continuum emission. Archival data show that both FIR 6n and 6c exhibit water maser activity, suggesting the existence of shocked gas around them. The 6.9 mm continuum emission from FIR 5w has a size of about 1.8 arcsec or 760 AU. The SEDs suggest that the 6.9 mm emission of FIR 5w and 5e comes from dust, and the masses of the dense molecular gas are about 0.6 and 0.5 solar masses, respectively.« less

  5. Apparatus and method for transient thermal infrared emission spectrometry

    DOEpatents

    McClelland, John F.; Jones, Roger W.

    1991-12-24

    A method and apparatus for enabling analysis of a solid material (16, 42) by applying energy from an energy source (20, 70) top a surface region of the solid material sufficient to cause transient heating in a thin surface layer portion of the solid material (16, 42) so as to enable transient thermal emission of infrared radiation from the thin surface layer portion, and by detecting with a spectrometer/detector (28, 58) substantially only the transient thermal emission of infrared radiation from the thin surface layer portion of the solid material. The detected transient thermal emission of infrared radiation is sufficiently free of self-absorption by the solid material of emitted infrared radiation, so as to be indicative of characteristics relating to molecular composition of the solid material.

  6. Gravitational lensing reveals extreme dust-obscured star formation in quasar host galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stacey, H. R.; McKean, J. P.; Robertson, N. C.; Ivison, R. J.; Isaak, K. G.; Schleicher, D. R. G.; van der Werf, P. P.; Baan, W. A.; Berciano Alba, A.; Garrett, M. A.; Loenen, A. F.

    2018-06-01

    We have observed 104 gravitationally lensed quasars at z ˜ 1-4 with Herschel/SPIRE, the largest such sample ever studied. By targeting gravitational lenses, we probe intrinsic far-infrared (FIR) luminosities and star formation rates (SFRs) more typical of the population than the extremely luminous sources that are otherwise accessible. We detect 72 objects with Herschel/SPIRE and find 66 per cent (69 sources) of the sample have spectral energy distributions (SEDs) characteristic of dust emission. For 53 objects with sufficiently constrained SEDs, we find a median effective dust temperature of 38^{+12}_{-5} K. By applying the radio-infrared correlation, we find no evidence for an FIR excess that is consistent with star-formation-heated dust. We derive a median magnification-corrected FIR luminosity of 3.6^{+4.8}_{-2.4} × 10^{11} L_{⊙} and median SFR of 120^{+160}_{-80} M_{⊙} yr^{-1}} for 94 quasars with redshifts. We find ˜10 per cent of our sample have FIR properties similar to typical dusty star-forming galaxies at z ˜ 2-3 and a range of SFRs <20-10 000 M⊙ yr-1 for our sample as a whole. These results are in line with current models of quasar evolution and suggests a coexistence of dust-obscured star formation and AGN activity is typical of most quasars. We do not find a statistically significant difference in the FIR luminosities of quasars in our sample with a radio excess relative to the radio-infrared correlation. Synchrotron emission is found to dominate at FIR wavelengths for <15 per cent of those sources classified as powerful radio galaxies.

  7. Kinetic inductance detectors for far-infrared spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barlis, Alyssa; Aguirre, James; Stevenson, Thomas

    2016-07-01

    The star formation mechanisms at work in the early universe remain one of the major unsolved problems of modern astrophysics. Many of the luminous galaxies present during the period of peak star formation (between redshifts 1 and 3) were heavily enshrouded in dust, which makes observing their properties difficult at optical wavelengths. However, many spectral lines exist at far-infrared wavelengths that serve as tracers of star formation during that period, in particular fine structure lines of nitrogen, carbon, and oxygen, as well as the carbon monoxide molecule. Using an observation technique known as intensity mapping, it would be possible to observe the total line intensity for a given redshift range even without detecting individual sources. Here, we describe a detector system suitable for a balloonborne spectroscopic intensity mapping experiment at far-infrared wavelengths. The experiment requires an "integralfield" type spectrograph, with modest spectral resolution (R 100) for each of a number of spatial pixels spanning several octaves in wavelength. The detector system uses lumped-element kinetic inductance detectors (LEKIDs), which have the potential to achieve the high sensitivity, low noise, and high multiplexing factor required for this experiment. We detail the design requirements and considerations, and the fabrication process for a prototype LEKID array of 1600 pixels. The pixel design is driven by the need for high responsivity, which requires a small physical volume for the LEKID inductor. In order to minimize two-level system noise, the resonators include large-area interdigitated capacitors. High quality factor resonances are required for a large frequency multiplexing factor. Detectors were fabricated using both trilayer TiN/Ti/TiN recipes and thin-film Al, and are operated at base temperatures near 250 mK.

  8. Optical pumping by CO2 and n2O lasers - new CW FIR emissions in 1,1-difluoroethane

    SciTech Connect

    Fourrier, M.; Belland, P.; Redon, M.

    1985-01-01

    Fifty-three new CW FIR laser lines are reported in 1,1-difluoroethane optically pumped near 10 microns by CO2 and N2O lasers. The emission spectrum initially reported in the literature consisted of four lines between 770 and 458 microns and has now been extended to the 2.39 mm-319 micron region. The reason for this extension, especially to the long wavelengths, is analyzed. 12 references.

  9. Far-Infrared Spectroscopy of Anti-Vinyl Alcohol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raston, Paul; Bunn, Hayley

    2016-06-01

    Vinyl alcohol can exist in two rotameric forms, known as syn- and anti- vinyl alcohol, where syn is the most stable. Both rotamers have been observed in the interstellar medium towards Sagittarius B2(N) making them of particular astrophysical importance. Vinyl alcohol has been subject to various spectroscopic investigations, however, the anti rotamer has only been obsvered in the microwave region. We report the high resolution (0.001 wn) FTIR spectrum of anti-vinyl alcohol collected at the infrared beamline facility of the Australian Synchrotron. Vinyl alcohol was produced via the pyrolysis of 2-chloroethanol at 900°C, and its far infrared spectrum reveals the presence of the strong νb{15} fundamental and hot band of anti-vinyl alcohol. Rotational and centrifugal distortion constants of this higher energy rotamer have since been determined for the νb{15} and 2νb{15} states, and the ground state constants have been refined. B. E. Turner, A. J. Apponi, ApJ 561, 207 (2001) M. Rodler, J. Mol. Spec. 114, 23 (1985) D-L Joo, et al., J. Mol. Spec. 197, 68 (1999)

  10. Experimental verification of the spectral shift between near- and far-field peak intensities of plasmonic infrared nanoantennas.

    PubMed

    Alonso-González, P; Albella, P; Neubrech, F; Huck, C; Chen, J; Golmar, F; Casanova, F; Hueso, L E; Pucci, A; Aizpurua, J; Hillenbrand, R

    2013-05-17

    Theory predicts a distinct spectral shift between the near- and far-field optical response of plasmonic antennas. Here we combine near-field optical microscopy and far-field spectroscopy of individual infrared-resonant nanoantennas to verify experimentally this spectral shift. Numerical calculations corroborate our experimental results. We furthermore discuss the implications of this effect in surface-enhanced infrared spectroscopy.

  11. Vacuum variable-angle far-infrared ellipsometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friš, Pavel; Dubroka, Adam

    2017-11-01

    We present the design and performance of a vacuum far-infrared (∼50-680 cm-1) ellipsometer with a rotating analyser. The system is based on a Fourier transform spectrometer, an in-house built ellipsometer chamber and a closed-cycle bolometer. The ellipsometer chamber is equipped with a computer controlled θ-2θ goniometer for automated measurements at various angles of incidence. We compare our measurements on SrTiO3 crystal with the results acquired above 300 cm-1 with a commercially available ellipsometer system. After the calibration of the angle of incidence and after taking into account the finite reflectivity of mirrors in the detector part we obtain a very good agreement between the data from the two instruments. The system can be supplemented with a closed-cycle He cryostat for measurements between 5 and 400 K.

  12. Inverse Compton X-Ray Halos Around High-z Radio Galaxies: A Feedback Mechanism Powered by Far-Infrared Starbursts or the Cosmic Microwave Background?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Small, Ian; Blundell, Katherine M.; Lehmer, B. D.; Alexander, D. M.

    2012-01-01

    We report the detection of extended X-ray emission around two powerful radio galaxies at z approx. 3.6 (4C 03.24 and 4C 19.71) and use these to investigate the origin of extended, inverse Compton (IC) powered X-ray halos at high redshifts. The halos have X-ray luminosities of L(sub X) approx. 3 x 10(exp 44) erg/s and sizes of approx.60 kpc. Their morphologies are broadly similar to the approx.60 kpc long radio lobes around these galaxies suggesting they are formed from IC scattering by relativistic electrons in the radio lobes, of either cosmic microwave background (CMB) photons or far-infrared photons from the dust-obscured starbursts in these galaxies. These observations double the number of z > 3 radio galaxies with X-ray-detected IC halos. We compare the IC X-ray-to-radio luminosity ratios for the two new detections to the two previously detected z approx. 3.8 radio galaxies. Given the similar redshifts, we would expect comparable X-ray IC luminosities if millimeter photons from the CMB are the dominant seed field for the IC emission (assuming all four galaxies have similar ages and jet powers). Instead we see that the two z approx. 3.6 radio galaxies, which are 4 fainter in the far-infrared than those at z 3.8, also have approx.4x fainter X-ray IC emission. Including data for a further six z > or approx. 2 radio sources with detected IC X-ray halos from the literature, we suggest that in the more compact, majority of radio sources, those with lobe sizes < or approx.100-200 kpc, the bulk of the IC emission may be driven by scattering of locally produced far-infrared photons from luminous, dust-obscured starbursts within these galaxies, rather than millimeter photons from the CMB. The resulting X-ray emission appears sufficient to ionize the gas on approx.100-200 kpc scales around these systems and thus helps form the extended, kinematically quiescent Ly(alpha) emission line halos found around some of these systems. The starburst and active galactic nucleus

  13. Effect of boron on enhancing infrared emissivity of Ni-Cr system coating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yongjia; Ouyang, Taoyuan; Wang, Xiaohuan; Li, Shuhao; Mao, Jiawei; Cheng, Xudong

    2018-03-01

    High infrared emissivity coating possesses great value in practical application, whether in the military or civilian areas. In this study, B-NiCr precursor powder containing NiO, Cr2O3 and ZrB2 was calcined at 1300 °C and then used to prepare a high infrared emissivity B-NiCr coating via atmospheric plasma spraying. A large number of test methods were employed to analyze the powder and coating, including TG-DSC, XRD, FE-SEM, infrared spectrometer and so on. The result of infrared emissivity measurement indicates that the coating possesses maximum infrared emissivity of 0.908 at 1000 °C while the infrared emissivity is 0.901 after thermal shock test. Comparing with NiCr coating, Ni2CrO2(BO3) formed during calcination may be the main factor to improve the infrared emissivity of B-NiCr coating. The B-NiCr coating possesses good thermal shock resistance and can withstand 50 times thermal shock at least without falling off, from 800 °C to room temperature.

  14. Far-infrared Line Spectra of Active Galaxies from the Herschel/PACS Spectrometer: The Complete Database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández-Ontiveros, Juan Antonio; Spinoglio, Luigi; Pereira-Santaella, Miguel; Malkan, Matthew A.; Andreani, Paola; Dasyra, Kalliopi M.

    2016-10-01

    We present a coherent database of spectroscopic observations of far-IR fine-structure lines from the Herschel/Photoconductor Array Camera and Spectrometer archive for a sample of 170 local active galactic nuclei (AGNs), plus a comparison sample of 20 starburst galaxies and 43 dwarf galaxies. Published Spitzer/IRS and Herschel/SPIRE line fluxes are included to extend our database to the full 10-600 μm spectral range. The observations are compared to a set of Cloudy photoionization models to estimate the above physical quantities through different diagnostic diagrams. We confirm the presence of a stratification of gas density in the emission regions of the galaxies, which increases with the ionization potential of the emission lines. The new [O IV]{}25.9μ {{m}}/[O III]{}88μ {{m}} versus [Ne III]{}15.6μ {{m}}/[Ne II]{}12.8μ {{m}} diagram is proposed as the best diagnostic to separate (1) AGN activity from any kind of star formation and (2) low-metallicity dwarf galaxies from starburst galaxies. Current stellar atmosphere models fail to reproduce the observed [O IV]{}25.9μ {{m}}/[O III]{}88μ {{m}} ratios, which are much higher when compared to the predicted values. Finally, the ([Ne III]{}15.6μ {{m}} + [Ne II]{}12.8μ {{m}})/([S IV]{}10.5μ {{m}} +[S III]{}18.7μ {{m}}) ratio is proposed as a promising metallicity tracer to be used in obscured objects, where optical lines fail to accurately measure the metallicity. The diagnostic power of mid- to far-infrared spectroscopy shown here for local galaxies will be of crucial importance to study galaxy evolution during the dust-obscured phase at the peak of the star formation and black hole accretion activity (1\\lt z\\lt 4). This study will be addressed by future deep spectroscopic surveys with present and forthcoming facilities such as the James Webb Space Telescope, the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array, and the Space Infrared telescope for Cosmology and Astrophysics.

  15. Far-infrared self-broadening in methylcyanide - Absorber-perturber resonance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buffa, G.; Tarrini, O.; De Natale, P.; Inguscio, M.; Pavone, F. S.; Prevedelli, M.; Evenson, K. M.; Zink, L. R.; Schwaab, G. W.

    1992-01-01

    Using tunable far-infrared spectrometers with high-frequency stability and accuracy, the self-pressure broadening and shift of CH3CN are measured. Evidence of absorber-perturber resonance effects on the collisional line shape are obtained. This tests the theoretical model and its possible improvements and also allows predictions of broadening and shift for a large class of molecules. Moreover, the resonance effect produces a theoretical temperature dependence of self-broadening that is different from what is commonly assumed.

  16. Infrared and far-infrared transition frequencies for the CH2 radical. [in interstellar gas clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sears, T. J.; Mckellar, A. R. W.; Bunker, P. R.; Evenson, K. M.; Brown, J. M.

    1984-01-01

    A list of frequencies and intensities for transitions of CH2 in the middle and far infrared regions is presented which should aid in the detection of CH2 and provide valuable information on the local physical and chemical environment. Results are presented for frequency, vacuum wavelength, and line strength for rotational transition frequencies and for the transition frequencies of the v(2) band.

  17. Infrared dust and millimeter-wave carbon monoxide emission in the Orion region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bally, John; Langer, William D.; Liu, Weihong

    1991-01-01

    The far-infrared dust emission seen by the IRAS satellite in the Orion region is analyzed as a function of the local radiation field intensity, and the dust temperature and opacity are compared with (C-12)O and (C-13)O emission. The infrared radiation is interpreted within the framework of a single-component large grain model and a multicomponent grain model consisting of subpopulations of grains with size-dependent temperatures. A strong dependence of the 100-micron optical depth derived is found using the large grain model on the average line-of-sight dust temperature and radiation field. In the hot environment surrounding high-luminosity sources and H II regions, all dust along the line-of-sight radiates at 100 microns, and the dust-to-gas ratio, based on the 100-micron opacity and I(/C-13/O), appears to be in agreement with the standard value, about 1 percent by mass. A relationship is found between the inferred dust-to-gas ratio and the radiation field intensity responsible for heating the dust which can be used to estimate the gas column density from the dust opacity derived from the 60- and 100-micron IRAS fluxes.

  18. Modeling the light-travel-time effect on the far-infrared size of IRC +10216

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, Edward L.; Baganoff, Frederick K.

    1995-01-01

    Models of the far-infrared emission from the large circumstellar dust envelope surrounding the carbon star IRC +10216 are used to assess the importance of the light-travel-time effect (LTTE) on the observed size of the source. The central star is a long-period variable with an average period of 644 +/- 17 days and a peak-to-peak amplitude of two magnituds, so a large light-travel-time effect is seen at 1 min radius. An attempt is made to use the LTTE to reconcile the discrepancy between the observations of Fazio et al. and Lester et al. regarding the far-infrared source size. This discrepancy is reviewed in light of recent, high-spatial-resolution observations at 11 microns by Danchi et al. We conclude that IRC +10216 has been resolved on the arcminute scale by Fazio et al. Convolution of the model intensity profile at 61 microns with the 60 sec x 90 sec Gaussian beam of Fazio et al. yields an observed source size full width at half maximum (FWHM) that ranges from approximately 67 sec to 75 sec depending on the phase of the star and the assumed distance to the source. Using a simple r(exp -2) dust distribution and the 106 deg phase of the Fazio et al. observations, the LTTE model reaches a peak size of 74.3 sec at a distance of 300 pc. This agrees favorably with the 78 sec x 6 sec size measured by Fazio et al. Finally, a method is outlined for using the LTTE as a distance indicator to IRC +10216 and other stars with extended mass outflows.

  19. Astronomical imaging Fourier spectroscopy at far-infrared wavelengths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naylor, David A.; Gom, Brad G.; van der Wiel, Matthijs H. D.; Makiwa, Gibion

    2013-11-01

    The principles and practice of astronomical imaging Fourier transform spectroscopy (FTS) at far-infrared wavelengths are described. The Mach–Zehnder (MZ) interferometer design has been widely adopted for current and future imaging FTS instruments; we compare this design with two other common interferometer formats. Examples of three instruments based on the MZ design are presented. The techniques for retrieving astrophysical parameters from the measured spectra are discussed using calibration data obtained with the Herschel–SPIRE instrument. The paper concludes with an example of imaging spectroscopy obtained with the SPIRE FTS instrument.

  20. Atomic oxygen fine-structure splittings with tunable far-infrared spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zink, Lyndon R.; Evenson, Kenneth M.; Matsushima, Fusakazu; Nelis, Thomas; Robinson, Ruth L.

    1991-01-01

    Fine-structure splittings of atomic oxygen (O-16) in the ground state have been accurately measured using a tunable far-infrared spectrometer. The 3P0-3pl splitting is 2,060,069.09 (10) MHz, and the 3Pl-3P2 splitting is 4,744,777.49 (16) MHz. These frequencies are important for measuring atomic oxygen concentration in earth's atmosphere and the interstellar medium.

  1. High-resolution maps of H2 regions at far-infrared wavelengths. [balloon-borne cassegrain telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fazio, G. G.; Kleinmann, D. E.; Noyes, R. W.; Wright, E. L.; Zeilik, M., II; Low, F. J.

    1974-01-01

    The first successful flight of a balloon-borne 1-m telescope for far-infrared (40 micron) astronomy occurred on 4 February 1974 (UT), from Palestine, Texas. During 6 h at float altitude, the gyrostabilized telescope mapped the intensity of far-infrared radiation from the H 2 regions Ori A and W3 with a resolution of 1 prime. Partial maps of these regions were made with a resolution of 0.5 prime. These sources were resolved into several components, some of which were previously unknown. Observations of Mars were used for calibration.

  2. Sub-millimetre-wave and far infrared ESA missions with a focus on antenna technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Maagt, Peter; Polegre, Arturo; Crone, Gerry

    2017-11-01

    The are of (sub)millimetre wave and far-infrared antenna technology is a very dynamic sector in electromagnetics. Several future ESA missions have been planned and their requirements are pushing the limits of existing technologies. Feasibility studies have provided baseline concepts, which have helped to grasp the main features of these instruments and to identify their critical aspects. A number of scientific and technical activities have then followed, dedicated to specific topics. The paper discusses (sub)millimetre wave and far-infrared Earth observation and astronomical instruments. Furthermore, generic technology work carried out in the frame of ESA contracts, applicable to this frequency range, is reported on.

  3. Far-infrared observations of the exciting stars of Herbig-Haro objects. III - Circumstellar disks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, M.; Harvey, P. M.; Schwartz, R. D.

    1985-01-01

    Far-infrared observations of the exciting stars of Herbig-Haro objects are presented that (1) show these stars to be of low luminosity; (2) indicate that it is not usual for these objects themselves to be visible at far-infrared wavelengths; and (3) demonstrate the existence of spatially resolved, physically large, potentially disklike structures. These latter structures are resolved perpendicular to the directions of flow from the stars, but not parallel to the flows. In addition to these general properties, two new HH-exciting stars were discovered by searching along the extrapolated proper motion vectors for these HHs; and the jetlike object 'DG Tau B' was also detected.

  4. Far-Infrared Heterodyne Spectrometer for SOFIA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Betz, A. L.; Boreiko, R. T.

    1998-01-01

    This report summarizes work done under NASA Grant NAG2-1062 awarded to the University of Colorado. The project goal was to evaluate the scientific capabilities and technical requirements for a far-infrared heterodyne spectrometer suitable for the SOFIA Airborne Observatory, which is now being developed by NASA under contract to the Universities Space Research Association (USRA). The conclusions detailed below include our specific recommendations for astronomical observations, as well as our intended technical approach for reaching these scientific goals. These conclusions were presented to USRA in the form of a proposal to build this instrument. USRA subsequently awarded the University of Colorado a 3-year grant (USRA 8500-98-010) to develop the proposed Hot-Electron micro-Bolometer (HEB) mixer concept for high frequencies above 3 THz, as well as other semiconductor mixer technologies suitable for high sensitivity receivers in the 2-6 THz frequency band.

  5. WATER AND METHANOL MASER ACTIVITIES IN THE NGC 2024 FIR 6 REGION

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, Minho; Kang, Miju; Byun, Do-Young

    The NGC 2024 FIR 6 region was observed in the water maser line at 22 GHz and the methanol class I maser lines at 44, 95, and 133 GHz. The water maser spectra displayed several velocity components and month-scale time variabilities. Most of the velocity components may be associated with FIR 6n, while one component was associated with FIR 4. A typical lifetime of the water maser velocity components is about eight months. The components showed velocity fluctuations with a typical drift rate of about 0.01 km s{sup -1} day{sup -1}. The methanol class I masers were detected toward FIRmore » 6. The methanol emission is confined within a narrow range around the systemic velocity of the FIR 6 cloud core. The methanol masers suggest the existence of shocks driven by either the expanding H II region of FIR 6c or the outflow of FIR 6n.« less

  6. Seed maturity in white fir and red fir

    Treesearch

    William W. Oliver

    1974-01-01

    White fir and red fir seed collected over a 2-month period in northern California was tested for germination of fresh and stratified seed. Ratio of embryo length to embryo cavity length was found to be the most useful index of seed maturity for white and red fir. Cone specific gravity also was correlated with nearly all measures of seed germination. Data suggest that...

  7. Hydrophobic-Sheath Segregated Macromolecular Fluorophores: Colloidal Nanoparticles of Polycaprolactone-Grafted Conjugated Polymers with Bright Far-Red/Near-Infrared Emission for Biological Imaging.

    PubMed

    Yang, Cangjie; Liu, Hui; Zhang, Yingdan; Xu, Zhigang; Wang, Xiaochen; Cao, Bin; Wang, Mingfeng

    2016-05-09

    This article describes molecular design, synthesis and characterization of colloidal nanoparticles containing polycaprolactone-grafted conjugated polymers that exhibit strong far red/near-infrared (FR/NIR) fluorescence for bioimaging. Specifically, we synthesized two kinds of conjugated polymer bottle brushes (PFTB(out)-g-PCL and PFTB(in)-g-PCL) with different positions of the hexyl groups on the thiophene rings. A synthetic amphiphilic block copolymer PCL-b-POEGMA was employed as surfactants to encapsulate PFTB-g-PCL polymers into colloidal nanoparticles (denoted as "nanoREDs") in aqueous media. The chain length of the PCL side chains in PFTB-g-PCL played a critical role in determining the fluorescence properties in both bulk solid states and the colloidal nanoparticles. Compared to semiconducting polymer dots (Pdots) composed of PFTB(out) without grafted PCL, nanoRED(out) showed at least four times higher fluorescence quantum yield (∼20%) and a broader emission band centered at 635 nm. We further demonstrated the application of this new class of nanoREDs for effective labeling of L929 cells and HeLa cancer cells with good biocompatibility. This strategy of hydrophobic-sheath segregated macromolecular fluorophores is expected to be applicable to a broad range of conjugated polymers with tunable optical properties for applications such as bioimaging.

  8. Star formation in the inner galaxy: A far-infrared and radio study of two H2 regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lester, D. F.; Dinerstein, H. L.; Werner, M. W.; Harvey, P. M.; Evans, N. J.; Brown, R. L.

    1985-01-01

    Far-infrared and radio continuum maps have been made of the central 6' of the inner-galaxy HII regions G30.8-0.0 (in the W43 complex) and G25.4-0.2, along with radio and molecular line measurements at selected positions. The purpose of this study is an effort to understand star formation in the molecular ring at 5 kpc in galactic radius. Measurements at several far infrared wavelengths allow the dust temperature structures and total far infrared fluxes to be determined. Comparison of the radio and infrared maps shows a close relationship between the ionized gas and the infrared-emitting material. There is evidence that parts of G30.8 are substantially affected by extinction, even at far-infrared wavelengths. Using radio recombination line and CO line data for G25.4-0.2, the distance ambiguity for this source is resolved. The large distance previously ascribed to the entire complex is found to apply to only one of the two main components. The confusion in distance determination is found to result from an extraordinary near-superposition of two bright HII regions. Using the revised distances of 4.3 kpc for G25.4SE and 12 kpc for G25.4NW, it is found that the latter, which is apparently the fainter of the two sources, is actually the more luminous. The ratio of total luminosity to ionizing luminosity is very similar to that of HII regions in the solar circle. Assuming a coeval population of ionizing stars, a normal initial mass function is indicated.

  9. Near- and far-field spectroscopic imaging investigation of resonant square-loop infrared metasurfaces.

    PubMed

    D' Archangel, Jeffrey; Tucker, Eric; Kinzel, Ed; Muller, Eric A; Bechtel, Hans A; Martin, Michael C; Raschke, Markus B; Boreman, Glenn

    2013-07-15

    Optical metamaterials have unique properties which result from geometric confinement of the optical conductivity. We developed a series of infrared metasurfaces based on an array of metallic square loop antennas. The far-field absorption spectrum can be designed with resonances across the infrared by scaling the geometric dimensions. We measure the amplitude and phase of the resonant mode as standing wave patterns within the square loops using scattering-scanning near-field optical microscopy (s-SNOM). Further, using a broad-band synchrotron-based FTIR microscope and s-SNOM at the Advanced Light Source, we are able to correlate far-field spectra to near-field modes of the metasurface as the resonance is tuned between samples. The results highlight the importance of multi-modal imaging for the design and characterization of optical metamaterials.

  10. The far-infrared/submillimeter properties of galaxies located behind the Bullet cluster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rex, M.; Rawle, T. D.; Egami, E.; Pérez-González, P. G.; Zemcov, M.; Aretxaga, I.; Chung, S. M.; Fadda, D.; Gonzalez, A. H.; Hughes, D. H.; Horellou, C.; Johansson, D.; Kneib, J.-P.; Richard, J.; Altieri, B.; Fiedler, A. K.; Pereira, M. J.; Rieke, G. H.; Smail, I.; Valtchanov, I.; Blain, A. W.; Bock, J. J.; Boone, F.; Bridge, C. R.; Clement, B.; Combes, F.; Dowell, C. D.; Dessauges-Zavadsky, M.; Ilbert, O.; Ivison, R. J.; Jauzac, M.; Lutz, D.; Omont, A.; Pelló, R.; Rodighiero, G.; Schaerer, D.; Smith, G. P.; Walth, G. L.; van der Werf, P.; Werner, M. W.; Austermann, J. E.; Ezawa, H.; Kawabe, R.; Kohno, K.; Perera, T. A.; Scott, K. S.; Wilson, G. W.; Yun, M. S.

    2010-07-01

    The Herschel Lensing Survey (HLS) takes advantage of gravitational lensing by massive galaxy clusters to sample a population of high-redshift galaxies which are too faint to be detected above the confusion limit of current far-infrared/submillimeter telescopes. Measurements from 100-500 μm bracket the peaks of the far-infrared spectral energy distributions of these galaxies, characterizing their infrared luminosities and star formation rates. We introduce initial results from our science demonstration phase observations, directed toward the Bullet cluster (1E0657-56). By combining our observations with LABOCA 870 μm and AzTEC 1.1 mm data we fully constrain the spectral energy distributions of 19 MIPS 24 μm-selected galaxies which are located behind the cluster. We find that their colors are best fit using templates based on local galaxies with systematically lower infrared luminosities. This suggests that our sources are not like local ultra-luminous infrared galaxies in which vigorous star formation is contained in a compact highly dust-obscured region. Instead, they appear to be scaled up versions of lower luminosity local galaxies with star formation occurring on larger physical scales. Herschel is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by European-led Principal Investigator consortia and with important participation from NASA. Data presented in this paper were analyzed using “The Herschel interactive processing environment (HIPE)”, a joint development by the Herschel Science Ground Segment Consortium, consisting of ESA, the NASA Herschel Science Center, and the HIFI, PACS, and SPIRE consortia.Table 1 and Figs. 3, 4 are only available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  11. A Bridge from Optical to Infrared Galaxies: Explaining Local Properties, Predicting Galaxy Counts and the Cosmic Background Radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Totani, T.; Takeuchi, T. T.

    2001-12-01

    A new model of infrared galaxy counts and the cosmic background radiation (CBR) is developed by extending a model for optical/near-infrared galaxies. Important new characteristics of this model are that mass scale dependence of dust extinction is introduced based on the size-luminosity relation of optical galaxies, and that the big grain dust temperature T dust is calculated based on a physical consideration for energy balance, rather than using the empirical relation between T dust and total infrared luminosity L IR found in local galaxies, which has been employed in most of previous works. Consequently, the local properties of infrared galaxies, i.e., optical/infrared luminosity ratios, L IR-T dust correlation, and infrared luminosity function are outputs predicted by the model, while these have been inputs in a number of previous models. Our model indeed reproduces these local properties reasonably well. Then we make predictions for faint infrared counts (in 15, 60, 90, 170, 450, and 850 μ m) and CBR by this model. We found considerably different results from most of previous works based on the empirical L IR-T dust relation; especially, it is shown that the dust temperature of starbursting primordial elliptical galaxies is expected to be very high (40--80K). This indicates that intense starbursts of forming elliptical galaxies should have occurred at z ~ 2--3, in contrast to the previous results that significant starbursts beyond z ~ 1 tend to overproduce the far-infrared (FIR) CBR detected by COBE/FIRAS. On the other hand, our model predicts that the mid-infrared (MIR) flux from warm/nonequilibrium dust is relatively weak in such galaxies making FIR CBR, and this effect reconciles the prima facie conflict between the upper limit on MIR CBR from TeV gamma-ray observations and the COBE\\ detections of FIR CBR. The authors thank the financial support by the Japan Society for Promotion of Science.

  12. Fir Engraver (FIDL)

    Treesearch

    George T. Ferrell

    1986-01-01

    The fir engraver, Scolytus ventralis LeConte, belongs to the family of insects called bark beetles, which live between the bark and wood of host trees. A wide-ranging, native beetle, the fir engraver attacks most species of fir in the Western United States. Epidemics can cause severe tree mortality. From 1977 to 1978, for example, the fir engraver killed an estimated 1...

  13. Weather and tree growth associated with white fir mortality caused by fir engraver and roundheaded fir borer

    Treesearch

    George T. Ferrell; Ralph C. Hall

    1975-01-01

    White fir (Abides concolor [Cord. & Glend.] Lindl.) stands in Western North America periodically suffer extensive tree mortality caused by outbreaks of the fir engraver bark beetle (Scolytus ventralis Lec.). The cambial zone of the boles infested by S. ventralis is also colonized by the roundheaded fir borer...

  14. Interpreting the cosmic far-infrared background anisotropies using a gas regulator model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Hao-Yi; Doré, Olivier; Teyssier, Romain; Serra, Paolo

    2018-04-01

    Cosmic far-infrared background (CFIRB) is a powerful probe of the history of star formation rate (SFR) and the connection between baryons and dark matter across cosmic time. In this work, we explore to which extent the CFIRB anisotropies can be reproduced by a simple physical framework for galaxy evolution, the gas regulator (bathtub) model. This model is based on continuity equations for gas, stars, and metals, taking into account cosmic gas accretion, star formation, and gas ejection. We model the large-scale galaxy bias and small-scale shot noise self-consistently, and we constrain our model using the CFIRB power spectra measured by Planck. Because of the simplicity of the physical model, the goodness of fit is limited. We compare our model predictions with the observed correlation between CFIRB and gravitational lensing, bolometric infrared luminosity functions, and submillimetre source counts. The strong clustering of CFIRB indicates a large galaxy bias, which corresponds to haloes of mass 1012.5 M⊙ at z = 2, higher than the mass associated with the peak of the star formation efficiency. We also find that the far-infrared luminosities of haloes above 1012 M⊙ are higher than the expectation from the SFR observed in ultraviolet and optical surveys.

  15. Hybrid metasurfaces for microwave reflection and infrared emission reduction.

    PubMed

    Pang, Yongqiang; Li, Yongfeng; Yan, Mingbao; Liu, Dongqing; Wang, Jiafu; Xu, Zhuo; Qu, Shaobo

    2018-04-30

    Controlling of electromagnetic wave radiation is of great importance in many fields. In this work, a hybrid metasurface (HMS) is designed to simultaneously reduce the microwave reflection and the infrared emission. The HMS is composed of the metal/dielectric/metal/dielectric/metal configuration. The reflection reduction at microwave frequencies mainly results from the phase cancellation technique, while the infrared emission reduction is due to the reflection of the metal with a high filling ration in the top layer. It has been analytically indicated that reflection reduction with an efficiency larger than 10 dB can be achieved in the frequency band of 8.2-18 GHz, and this has been well verified by the simulated and experimental results. Meanwhile, the designed HMS displays a low emission performance in the infrared band, with the emissivity less than 0.27 from 3 to 14 μm. It is believed that our proposal may find the application of multispectral stealth technology.

  16. Damage from wind and other causes in mixed white fir-red fir stands adjacent to clearcuttings

    Treesearch

    Donald T. Gordon

    1973-01-01

    Damage to timber surrounding clearcuttings and in one light selection cutting in mixed white fir-red fir stands was monitored for 6 years in northeastern California. In some years, bark beetles apparently killed more trees than did wind damage, but in two of the study years, severe wind storms caused much damage. One storm produced mainly break-age, apparently...

  17. Optical properties of Ag- and AgI-doped Ge-Ga-Te far-infrared chalcogenide glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Ci; Wang, Xunsi; Xu, Tiefeng; Sun, Lihong; Pan, Zhanghao; Liu, Shuo; Zhu, Qingde; Liao, Fangxing; Nie, Qiuhua; Dai, Shixun; Shen, Xiang; Zhang, Xianghua; Chen, Wei

    2016-05-01

    Te-based glasses are ideal material for life detection and infrared-sensing applications because of their excellent far-infrared properties. In this study, the influence of Ag- and AgI- doped Te-based glasses were discussed. Thermal and optical properties of the prepared glasses were evaluated using X-ray diffraction, differential scanning calorimetry, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Results show that these glass samples have good amorphous state and thermal stability. However, Ge-Ga-Te-Ag and Ge-Ga-Te-AgI glass systems exhibit completely different in optical properties. With an increase of Ag content, the absorption cut-off edge of Ge-Ga-Te-Ag glass system has a red shift. On the contrary, a blue shift appears in Ge-Ga-Te-AgI glass system with an increase of AgI content. Moreover, the transmittance of Ge-Ga-Te-Ag glass system deteriorates while that of Ge-Ga-Te-AgI glass system ameliorates. All glass samples have wide infrared transmission windows and the far-infrared cut-off wavelengths of these glasses are beyond 25 μm. The main absorption peaks of these glasses are eliminated through a purifying method.

  18. Radio and infrared emission from Markarian starburst galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stine, Peter C.

    1992-01-01

    Radio and infrared emission were compared for a sample of 58 Markarian starburst galaxies, chosen to cover a wide range of 60-micron luminosity density. New radio observations were from the VLA at 6 and 20 cm in the B and A configurations. IRAS data were reanalyzed for 25 of the starbursts that were previously undetected at either 25 or 100 microns. The correlation between the global radio and IR emission for the starbursts in the sample is strongest at 25 and 60 microns, wavelengths in which the warm dust dominates. The radio spectral index steepens away from the center. This indicates that nonthermal emission leaks out of the starburst region. The change in the spectral index implies that while nonthermal sources dominate in the entire region, the bulk of the interior emission at 6 cm is thermal. The radio spectral index does not appear to vary as a function of the infrared luminosity or the infrared colors, which indicates that the slope of the initial mass function does not appear to be a function of either the mass or temperature of the starburst.

  19. Temperature dependence Infrared and Raman studies of III-V/II-VI core-shell nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manciu, Felicia S.; McCombe, Bruce D.; Lucey, Derrick

    2005-03-01

    The temperature dependence (8 K < T < 300 K) of optical phonon modes confined in InP/II-VI core-shell nanostructures have been investigated by far-infrared (FIR) and Raman scattering spectroscopies. The core-shell nanostructures were fabricated by colloidal chemistry and characterized by transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction prior to being embedded in a polycrystalline CsI matrix for the present studies. The FIR measurements of InP/ZnSe sample exhibits three absorption features, one clearly due to the Froelich mode of the InP cores, and the others related to modes associated with the shell layer and its coupling to the matrix. Strong mixing of the characteristic vibrations of each constituent material was observed for InP/ZnS sample. Raman scattering (457.9 nm excitation) features were determined without polarization selection in the backscattering geometry. Interesting T-dependent resonant Raman effect of the surface optical phonon modes has been discovered in InP/ZnSe sample. Reasonable agreement is obtained between the Raman and FIR results, as well as with theoretical calculations.

  20. Optical Properties of Natural Minerals in the Far-Infrared

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Long, Larry Lavern

    The reflectivity of natural mineral powders were measured in the far infrared. The complex indices of refraction were then determined by Kramers-Kronig analysis or dispersive analysis. The samples were constructed by pressing the powdered sample into a 13 mm diameter pellet. A few of the samples that were measured were kaolin, illite, and montmorillonite, clay samples that could not be obtained in large single crystals. For calcite and gypsum crystals a comparison between the single crystal measurements and powder measurements was done to determine the effect of sample preparation on the measured spectra.

  1. Far-infrared laser magnetic resonance of vibrationally excited CD2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evenson, K. M.; Sears, T. J.; Mckellar, A. R. W.

    1984-01-01

    The detection of 13 rotational transitions in the first excited bending state (010) of CD2 using the technique of far-infrared laser magnetic resonance spectroscopy is reported. Molecular parameters for this state are determined from these new data together with existing infrared observations of the v(2) band. Additional information on the ground vibrational state (000) is also provided by the observation of a new rotational transition, and this is combined with existing data to provide a refined set of molecular parameters for the CD2 ground state. One spectrum has been observed that is assigned as a rotational transition within the first excited symmetric stretching state (100) of CD2. These data will be of use in refining the structure and the potential function of the methylene radical.

  2. The hydration dependence of CaCO3 absorption lines in the Far IR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Powell, Johnny; Emery, Logan P

    2014-06-01

    The far infrared (FIR) absorption lines of CaCO3 have been measured at a range of relative humidities (RH) between 33 and 92% RH using a Bruker 66v/S spectrometer. Hydration measurements on CaCO3 have been made in the mid-infrared (MIR) by [Al-Hosney, H.A. and Grassian, V.H., 2005, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., 7, 1266], and astrophysically-motivated temperature-dependent FIR measurements of CaCO3 in vacuum have also been reported [Posch, T., et al., 2007, Ap. J., 668, 993]. The custom sample cell constructed for these hydrated-FIR spectra is required because the 66v/S bench is under vacuum (3 mbar) during typical measurements. Briefly, the sample cell consists of two Thalium Bromoiodide (KRS-5) windows, four O-rings, a plastic ring for separating the windows and providing a volume for the saturated atmosphere. CaCO3 was deposited on KRS-5 windows using doubly-distilled water as an intermediary. The KRS-5 window with sample and assembled sample cell were placed in a desiccator with the appropriated saturated salt solution [Washburn, E.W. (Ed.), International Critical Tables of Numerical Data, Physics Chemistry and Technology, Vol. 1, (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1926), p. 67-68] and allowed to hydrate for 23 hours. For spectroscopy the desiccator was quickly opened and the second KRS-5 window placed in the cell to seal the chamber. A spectrum was then taken of the sample at the appropriate RH. The spectra taken characterize the adsorption of water vapor and CaCO3 that might occur in circumstellar environments [Melnick, G.J., et al. 2001, Nature, 412, 160].The MIR and FIR reflectance spectra of calcite (CaCO3) have been thoroughly studied by [Hellwege, K.H., et al., 1970, Z. Physik, 232, 61]. Five Lorentzian curves were fit to our data in the range from 378-222 cm-1/SUP> and each was able to be assigned to a known mode of CaCO3. The data does not support the conclusion of a hydration effect on these modes of CaCO3, but it does suggest a possible broadening of three modes

  3. Far-Infrared and Millimeter Continuum Studies of K-Giants: Alpha Boo and Alpha Tau

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, Martin; Carbon, Duane F.; Welch, William J.; Lim, Tanya; Forster, James R.; Goorvitch, David; Thigpen, William (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    We have imaged two normal, non-coronal, infrared-bright K-giants, alpha Boo and alpha Tau, in the 1.4-millimeter and 2.8-millimeter continuum using BIMA. These stars have been used as important absolute calibrators for several infrared satellites. Our goals are: (1) to probe the structure of their upper photospheres; (2) to establish whether these stars radiate as simple photospheres or possess long-wavelength chromospheres; and (3) to make a connection between millimeter-wave and far-infrared absolute flux calibrations. To accomplish these goals we also present ISO Long Wavelength Spectrometer (LWS) measurements of both these K-giants. The far-infrared and millimeter continuum radiation is produced in the vicinity of the temperature minimum in a Boo and a Tau, offering a direct test of the model photospheres and chromospheres for these two cool giants. We find that current photospheric models predict fluxes in reasonable agreement with those observed for those wavelengths which sample the upper photosphere, namely less than or equal to 170 micrometers in alpha Tau and less than or equal to 125 micrometers in alpha Boo. It is possible that alpha Tau is still radiative as far as 0.9 - 1.4 millimeters. We detect chromospheric radiation from both stars by 2.8 millimeters (by 1.4 millimeters in alpha Boo), and are able to establish useful bounds on the location of the temperature minimum. An attempt to interpret the chromospheric fluxes using the two-component "bifurcation model" proposed by Wiedemann et al. (1994) appears to lead to a significant contradiction.

  4. A far-red fluorescent protein evolved from a cyanobacterial phycobiliprotein.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Erik A; Tran, Geraldine N; Gross, Larry A; Crisp, Jessica L; Shu, Xiaokun; Lin, John Y; Tsien, Roger Y

    2016-09-01

    Far-red fluorescent proteins (FPs) are desirable for in vivo imaging because with these molecules less light is scattered, absorbed, or re-emitted by endogenous biomolecules compared with cyan, green, yellow, and orange FPs. We developed a new class of FP from an allophycocyanin α-subunit (APCα). Native APC requires a lyase to incorporate phycocyanobilin. The evolved FP, which we named small ultra-red FP (smURFP), covalently attaches a biliverdin (BV) chromophore without a lyase, and has 642/670-nm excitation-emission peaks, a large extinction coefficient (180,000 M(-1)cm(-1)) and quantum yield (18%), and photostability comparable to that of eGFP. smURFP has significantly greater BV incorporation rate and protein stability than the bacteriophytochrome (BPH) FPs. Moreover, BV supply is limited by membrane permeability, and smURFPs (but not BPH FPs) can incorporate a more membrane-permeant BV analog, making smURFP fluorescence comparable to that of FPs from jellyfish or coral. A far-red and near-infrared fluorescent cell cycle indicator was created with smURFP and a BPH FP.

  5. Directional infrared temperature and emissivity of vegetation: Measurements and models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norman, J. M.; Castello, S.; Balick, L. K.

    1994-01-01

    Directional thermal radiance from vegetation depends on many factors, including the architecture of the plant canopy, thermal irradiance, emissivity of the foliage and soil, view angle, slope, and the kinetic temperature distribution within the vegetation-soil system. A one dimensional model, which includes the influence of topography, indicates that thermal emissivity of vegetation canopies may remain constant with view angle, or emissivity may increase or decrease as view angle from nadir increases. Typically, variations of emissivity with view angle are less than 0.01. As view angle increases away from nadir, directional infrared canopy temperature usually decreases but may remain nearly constant or even increase. Variations in directional temperature with view angle may be 5C or more. Model predictions of directional emissivity are compared with field measurements in corn canopies and over a bare soil using a method that requires two infrared thermometers, one sensitive to the 8 to 14 micrometer wavelength band and a second to the 14 to 22 micrometer band. After correction for CO2 absorption by the atmosphere, a directional canopy emissivity can be obtained as a function of view angle in the 8 to 14 micrometer band to an accuracy of about 0.005. Modeled and measured canopy emissivities for corn varied slightly with view angle (0.990 at nadir and 0.982 at 75 deg view zenith angle) and did not appear to vary significantly with view angle for the bare soil. Canopy emissivity is generally nearer to unity than leaf emissivity may vary by 0.02 with wavelength even though leaf emissivity. High spectral resolution, canopy thermal emissivity may vary by 0.02 with wavelength even though leaf emissivity may vary by 0.07. The one dimensional model provides reasonably accurate predictions of infrared temperature and can be used to study the dependence of infrared temperature on various plant, soil, and environmental factors.

  6. Silvics of grand fir

    Treesearch

    Marvin W. Foiles

    1959-01-01

    Grand fir (Abies grandis) is one of the two balsam firs found in the northern Rocky Mountain region and one of seven in the Pacific Northwest. Except in the southern part of its range, where it is often confused with white fir (Abies concolor), it is distinguished from other firs in its range by its needles, which are distinctly two-ranked. Grand fir differs...

  7. Price projections for selected grades of Douglas-fir, coast hem-fir, inland hem-fir, and ponderosa pine lumber.

    Treesearch

    Richard W. Haynes; Roger D. Fight

    1992-01-01

    Grade-specific price projections were developed for Douglas-fir, coast hem-fir, inland hem-fir, and ponderosa pine lumber. These grade-specific price projections can be used in evaluating management practices that will affect the quality of saw logs produced under various management regimes.

  8. STARFIRE: The Spectroscopic Terahertz Airborne Receiver for Far-InfraRed Exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aguirre, James; STARFIRE Collaboration

    2018-01-01

    Understanding the formation and evolution of galaxies is one of the foremost goals of astrophysics and cosmology today. The cosmic star formation rate has undergone a dramatic evolution over the course of the last seven billion years, with a peak in cosmic star formation near z ~ 1, largely in dust-obscured star forming galaxies (DSFGs), followed by a dramatic fall in both the star formation rate and the fraction of star formation occurring in DSFGs. A variety of unextincted diagnostic lines are present in the far-infrared (FIR) which can provide insight into the conditions of star formation in DSFGs. Spectroscopy in the far-infrared is thus scientifically crucial for understanding galaxy evolution, yet remains technically difficult, particularly for wavelengths shorter than those accessible to ALMA.STARFIRE (the Spectroscopic Terahertz Airborne Receiver for Far-InfraRed Exploration) is a proposed integral-field spectrometer using kinetic inductance detectors, operating from 240 - 420 μm and coupled to a 2.5 meter low-emissivity carbon-fiber balloon-borne telescope. Using dispersive spectroscopy and the stratospheric platform, STARFIRE can achieve better performance than SOFIA or Herschel-SPIRE FTS. STARFIRE is designed to study the ISM of galaxies from 0.5 < z < 1.5, primarily in the [CII](158 μm) line, and also in cross-correlation with [NII] (122 μm). This offers a view of the star-forming medium with minimal impact from dust extinction through the period of peak cosmic star formation and into the current epoch where the star formation rate begins to decline. STARFIRE will be capable of making a high significance detection of the [CII] power spectrum in at least 4 redshift bins and measuring the [CII] x [NII] power spectrum at z ~ 1. The intensity mapped power spectra will be sensitive to one- and two-halo clustering, as well as shot noise, and will relate the mean [CII] intensity as a function of redshift (a proxy for star formation rate density) to the

  9. Looking at the bright side of the rho Ophiuchi dark cloud. Far infrared spectrophotometric observations of the rho Oph cloud with the ISO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liseau, R.; White, G. J.; Larsson, B.; Sidher, S.; Olofsson, G.; Kaas, A.; Nordh, L.; Caux, E.; Lorenzetti, D.; Molinari, S.; Nisini, B.; Sibille, F.

    1999-04-01

    We present far infrared (45-195 mu m) spectrophotometric observations with the Iso-Lws of the active star forming rho Oph main cloud (L 1688). The [C ii] 158 mu m and [O i] 63 mu m lines were detected at each of the 33 positions observed, whereas the [O i] 145 mu m line was clearly seen toward twelve. The principal observational result is that the [C ii] 158 mu m line fluxes exhibit a clear correlation with projected distance from the dominant stellar source in the field (HD 147889). We interpret this in terms of Pdr-type emission from the surface layers of the rho Ophc. The observed [C ii] 158 mu m/[O i] 63 mu m flux ratios are larger than unity everywhere. A comparison of the [C ii] 158 mu m line emission and the Fir dust continuum fluxes yields estimates of the efficiency at which the gas in the cloud converts stellar to [C ii] 158 mu m photons (chi_ {_C II},>_{ ~ },0.5%). We first develop an empirical model, which provides us with a three dimensional view of the far and bright side of the dark rho Ophc, showing that the cloud surface towards the putative energy source is concave. This model also yields quantitative estimates of the incident flux of ultraviolet radiation (G_0 ~ , \\powten{1} - \\powten{2}) and of the degree of clumpiness/texture of the cloud surface (filling of the 80({') '} beam ~ ,0.2). Subsequently, we use theoretical models of Pdr s to derive the particle density, n(H), and the temperature structures, for T_gas and T_dust, in the surface layers of the rho Ophc. T_gas is relatively low, ~ ,60 K, but higher than T_dust ( ~ ,30 K), and densities are generally found within the interval (1-3) \\powten{4} cm(-3) . These Pdr models are moderately successful in explaining the Lws observations. They correctly predict the [O i] 63 mu m and [C ii] 158 mu m line intensities and the observed absence of any molecular line emission. The models do fail, however, to reproduce the observed small [O i] 63 mu m/[O i] 145 mu m ratios. We examine several possible

  10. Peripherally hydrogenated neutral polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons as carriers of the 3 micron interstellar infrared emission complex: results from single-photon infrared emission spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wagner, D. R.; Kim, H. S.; Saykally, R. J.

    2000-01-01

    Infrared emission spectra of five gas-phase UV laser-excited polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) containing aliphatic hydrogens are compared with the main 3.3 microns and associated interstellar unidentified infrared emission bands (UIRs). We show that neutral PAHs can account for the majority of the 3 microns emission complex while making little contribution to the other UIR bands; peripherally hydrogenated PAHs produce a better match to astrophysical data than do those containing methyl side groups; 3.4 microns plateau emission is shown to be a general spectral feature of vibrationally excited PAHs containing aliphatic hydrogens, especially those containing methyl groups; and finally, hot-band and overtone emissions arising from aromatic C-H vibrations are not observed in laboratory emission spectra, and therefore, in contrast to current assignments, are not expected to be observed in the UIRs.

  11. New measurements and analysis of the far-infrared spectrum of CH2DOH in the lowest torsional vibrational state (e0)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukhopadhyay, Indra

    2016-05-01

    In this work the far infrared (FIR) absorption spectrum has been measured for the asymmetrically mono deuterated Methanol (CH2DOH) species in the wavenumber range of 15-1200 cm-1 better accuracy and signal/noise ratio than known before. Assignments have been made for b-type transitions in the lowest lying torsional vibrational state trans-(e0) for a wide range of rotational angular momentum. The assignments have been rigorously confirmed by the residual loop defect methods. The rR-branch wavenumbers are analyzed by the usual state dependent expansion parameters and the Q-Branch origins. These origins have been used to calculate the torsional and torsional-rotation interaction contributions. These findings are in good agreement with predicted from the Hamiltonian model described in recent publications. A large number of assignments have also been made in the millimeter wave spectrum recorded earlier and thereby evaluated the asymmetry splitting parameters for 4 different axial rotational angular momentum quantum numbers. The analysis and interpretation of the spectra are reported. New assignments for about 260 transitions are included the text and a catalog of about 1500 transitions belonging to the e0 species is prepared (Appendix 1) and is made available through the open server in "Research Gate" and will be freely available to others.

  12. The far-infrared view on the distant Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elbaz, David

    2015-08-01

    I will review what we have learnt on distant galaxies from far infrared surveys and present news ways to identify z>2 highly star-forming galaxies, often missed by standard techniques such as LBGs, that may represent the missing progenitors of passive z~2 galaxies. I will also discuss inconsistencies between SFR indicators that can be linked to the starburstiness and compactness of star-forming galaxies. Based on these results we will discuss the evidence in favor/against the existence of a SFR-M* main sequence up to z=4. The impact of the spatial distribution of star formation and its evolution with redshift will be discussed on the basis of newly obtained ALMA data.

  13. Synchrotron Radiation and the Far-Infrared and Mid-Infrared Spectra of Ncncs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winnewisser, Manfred; Winnewisser, Brenda P.; De Lucia, Frank C.; Tokaryk, Dennis; Ross, Stephen Cary; Billinghurst, Brant E.

    2014-06-01

    The large-amplitude in-plane bending vibration of NCNCS at 85 wn has a potential energy function which includes a barrier to linearity with a height of about 285 wn. The topology of the surface of the space defined by this two-dimensional potential function exhibits non-trivial monodromy. Therefore an energy/momentum map for a quantum system with its motion determined by such a potential takes the form of a lattice which contains a defect associated with the top of the barrier. In NCNCS, the wavenumber values of the fundamental vibrational excitation and the barrier height mean that easily accessible energy levels allow us to observe 3 bending vibrational levels below and 3 above the barrier, yet still below all of the other vibrational levels, allowing the study of all the levels in the neighborhood of the defect. In three measuring campaigns at the Canadian Light Source in May of the years 2011, 2012, and 2013 we have now obtained 8 of the 9 fundamental vibrational band systems of NCNCS in high resolution, in particular that of the large-amplitude bend in the FIR. So far only a-type spectra have been assigned. Thus we have now determined the Δvb = 1, and ΔKa = 0 vibrational intervals (using bent molecule notation) but do not yet have experimental values for either rotational ΔKa = +/- 1 intervals nor ro-vibrational Δvb = 1, ΔKa = +/- 1 intervals. In May of 2014 we will have our last measuring campaign and hope to observe the more elusive b-type transitions.

  14. Fir dwarf mistletoe (FIDL).

    Treesearch

    Gregory M. Filip; Jerome S. Beatty; Robert L. Mathiasen

    2000-01-01

    Fir dwarf mistletoe (Arceuthobium abietinum Engelmann ex Munz) is a common and damaging parasite of white fir (Abies concolor (Gord. & Glend.) Lindl. ex Hildebr.), grand fir (Abies grandis (Dougl. ex D. Don) Lindl.), and California red fir (A. magnifica A. Murr.) in the western...

  15. Growth classification systems for red fir and white fir in northern California

    Treesearch

    George T. Ferrell

    1983-01-01

    Selected crown and bole characteristics were predictor variables in growth classification equations developed for California red fir, Shasta red fir, and white fir in northern California. Individual firs were classified on the basis of percent basal area increment (PCTBAI ) as Class 1 (≤ 1 pct), Class 2 (> 1 pct and ≤ 3 pct), or Class 3 (> 3...

  16. Determining the Leaf Emissivity of Three Crops by Infrared Thermometry

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chiachung

    2015-01-01

    Plant temperature can provide important physiological information for crop management. Non-contact measurement with an infrared thermometer is useful for detecting leaf temperatures. In this study, a novel technique was developed to measure leaf emissivity using an infrared thermometer with an infrared sensor and a thermocouple wire. The measured values were transformed into true temperatures by calibration equations to improve the measurement accuracy. The relationship between two kinds of measurement temperatures and setting emissivities was derived as a model for calculating of true emissivity. The emissivities of leaves of three crops were calculated by the mathematical equation developed in this study. The mean emissivities were 0.9809, 0.9783, 0.981 and 0.9848 for Phalaenopsis mature and new leaves and Paphiopedilum and Malabar chestnut leaves, respectively. Emissivity differed significantly between leaves of Malabar chestnut and the two orchids. The range of emissivities determined in this study was similar to that in the literature. The precision of the measurement is acceptable. The method developed in this study is a real-time, in situ technique and could be used for agricultural and forestry plants. PMID:25988870

  17. Modeling the HD 32297 Debris Disk With Far-Infrared Herschel Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Donaldson, J.K.; Lebreton, J.; Roberge, A.; Augereau, J.-C.; Krivov, A. V.

    2013-01-01

    HD 32297 is a young A-star (approx. 30 Myr) 112 pc away with a bright edge-on debris disk that has been resolved in scattered light. We observed the HD 32297 debris disk in the far-infrared and sub-millimeter with the Herschel Space Observatory PACS and SPIRE instruments, populating the spectral energy distribution (SED) from 63 to 500 micron..We aimed to determine the composition of dust grains in the HD 32297 disk through SED modeling, using geometrical constraints from the resolved imaging to break the degeneracies inherent in SED modeling. We found the best fitting SED model has two components: an outer ring centered around 110 AU, seen in the scattered light images, and an inner disk near the habitable zone of the star. The outer disk appears to be composed of grains>2 micron consisting of silicates, carbonaceous material, and water ice with an abundance ratio of 1:2:3 respectively and 90% porosity. These grains appear consistent with cometary grains, implying the underlying planetesimal population is dominated by comet-like bodies. We also discuss the 3.7 sigma detection of [C ii] emission at 158 micron with the Herschel PACS instrument, making HD 32297 one of only a handful of debris disks with circumstellar gas detected

  18. Mission Concept for the Single Aperture Far-Infrared (SAFIR) Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benford, Dominic J.; Amato, Michael J.; Mather, John C.; Moseley, S. Harvey, Jr.

    2004-01-01

    We have developed a preliminary but comprehensive mission concept for SAFIR, as a 10 m-class far-infrared and submillimeter observatory that would begin development later in this decade to meet the needs outlined above. Its operating temperature (< or = 4K) and instrument complement would be optimized to reach the natural sky confusion limit in the far-infrared with diffraction-limited performance down to at least the atmospheric cutoff, lambda > or approx. 40 microns. This would provide a point source sensitivity improvement of several orders of magnitude over that of the Spitzer Space Telescope (previously SIRTF) or the Herschel Space Observatory. Additionally, it would have an angular resolution 12 times finer than that of Spitzer and three times finer than Herschel. This sensitivity and angular resolution are necessary to perform imaging and spectroscopic studies of individual galaxies in the early universe. We have considered many aspects of the SAFIR mission, including the telescope technology (optical design, materials, and packaging), detector needs and technologies, cooling method and required technology developments, attitude and pointing, power systems, launch vehicle, and mission operations. The most challenging requirements for this mission are operating temperature and aperture size of the telescope, and the development of detector arrays. SAFIR can take advantage of much of the technology under development for JWST, but with much less stringent requirements on optical accuracy.

  19. The AU Mic Debris Disk: Far-infrared and Submillimeter Resolved Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matthews, Brenda C.; Kennedy, Grant; Sibthorpe, Bruce; Holland, Wayne; Booth, Mark; Kalas, Paul; MacGregor, Meredith; Wilner, David; Vandenbussche, Bart; Olofsson, Göran; Blommaert, Joris; Brandeker, Alexis; Dent, W. R. F.; de Vries, Bernard L.; Di Francesco, James; Fridlund, Malcolm; Graham, James R.; Greaves, Jane; Heras, Ana M.; Hogerheijde, Michiel; Ivison, R. J.; Pantin, Eric; Pilbratt, Göran L.

    2015-10-01

    We present far-infrared and submillimeter maps from the Herschel Space Observatory and the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope of the debris disk host star AU Microscopii. Disk emission is detected at 70, 160, 250, 350, 450, 500, and 850 μm. The disk is resolved at 70, 160, and 450 μm. In addition to the planetesimal belt, we detect thermal emission from AU Mic’s halo for the first time. In contrast to the scattered light images, no asymmetries are evident in the disk. The fractional luminosity of the disk is 3.9× {10}-4 and its milimeter-grain dust mass is 0.01 {M}\\oplus (±20%). We create a simple spatial model that reconciles the disk spectral energy distribution as a blackbody of 53 ± 2 K (a composite of 39 and 50 K components) and the presence of small (non-blackbody) grains which populate the extended halo. The best-fit model is consistent with the “birth ring” model explored in earlier works, i.e., an edge-on dust belt extending from 8.8 to 40 AU, but with an additional halo component with an {r}-1.5 surface density profile extending to the limits of sensitivity (140 AU). We confirm that AU Mic does not exert enough radiation force to blow out grains. For stellar mass-loss rates of 10-100 times solar, compact (zero porosity) grains can only be removed if they are very small; consistently with previous work, if the porosity is 0.9, then grains approaching 0.1 μm can be removed via corpuscular forces (i.e., the stellar wind).

  20. Water vapor in Titan's stratosphere from Cassini CIRS far-infrared spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cottini, V.; Nixon, C. A.; Jennings, D. E.; Anderson, C. M.; Gorius, N.; Bjoraker, G. L.; Coustenis, A.; Teanby, N. A.; Achterberg, R. K.; Bézard, B.; de Kok, R.; Lellouch, E.; Irwin, P. G. J.; Flasar, F. M.; Bampasidis, G.

    2012-08-01

    Here we report the measurement of water vapor in Titan's stratosphere using the Cassini Composite Infrared Spectrometer (CIRS, Flasar, F.M. et al. [2004]. Space Sci. Rev. 115, 169-297). CIRS senses water emissions in the far infrared spectral region near 50 μm, which we have modeled using two independent radiative transfer codes (NEMESIS (Irwin, P.G.J. et al. [2008]. J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Trans. 109, 1136-1150) and ART (Coustenis, A. et al. [2007]. Icarus 189, 35-62; Coustenis, A. et al. [2010]. Icarus 207, 461-476). From the analysis of nadir spectra we have derived a mixing ratio of 0.14 ± 0.05 ppb at an altitude of 97 km, which corresponds to an integrated (from 0 to 600 km) surface normalized column abundance of 3.7 ± 1.3 × 1014 molecules/cm2. In the latitude range 80°S to 30°N we see no evidence for latitudinal variations in these abundances within the error bars. Using limb observations, we obtained mixing ratios of 0.13 ± 0.04 ppb at an altitude of 115 km and 0.45 ± 0.15 ppb at an altitude of 230 km, confirming that the water abundance has a positive vertical gradient as predicted by photochemical models (e.g. Lara, L.M., Lellouch, F., Lopez-Moreno, J.J., Rodrigo, R. [1996]. J. Geophys. Res. 101(23), 261; Wilson, E.H., Atreya, S.K. [2004]. J. Geophys. Res. 109, E6; Hörst, S.M., Vuitton, V., Yelle, R.V. [2008]. J. Geophys. Res., 113, E10). We have also fitted our data using scaling factors of ˜0.1-0.6 to these photochemical model profiles, indicating that the models over-predict the water abundance in Titan's lower stratosphere.

  1. Submillimeter and far-infrared dielectric properties of thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cataldo, Giuseppe; Wollack, Edward J.

    2016-07-01

    The complex dielectric function enables the study of a material's refractive and absorptive properties and provides information on a material's potential for practical application. Commonly employed line shape profile functions from the literature are briefly surveyed and their suitability for representation of dielectric material properties are discussed. An analysis approach to derive a material's complex dielectric function from observed transmittance spectra in the far-infrared and submillimeter regimes is presented. The underlying model employed satisfies the requirements set by the Kramers-Kronig relations. The dielectric function parameters derived from this approachtypically reproduce the observed transmittance spectra with an accuracy of < 4%.

  2. Far infrared edge photoresponse and persistent edge transport in an inverted InAs/GaSb heterostructure

    SciTech Connect

    Dyer, G. C.; Olson, B. V.; Hawkins, S. D.

    2016-01-04

    Direct current (DC) transport and far infrared photoresponse were studied an InAs/GaSb double quantum well with an inverted band structure. The DC transport depends systematically upon the DC bias configuration and operating temperature. Surprisingly, it reveals robust edge conduction despite prevalent bulk transport in our device of macroscopic size. Under 180 GHz far infrared illumination at oblique incidence, we measured a strong photovoltaic response. We conclude that quantum spin Hall edge transport produces the observed transverse photovoltages. Overall, our experimental results support a hypothesis that the photoresponse arises from direct coupling of the incident radiation field to edge states.

  3. Molecular-Beam Epitaxial Growth of a Far-Infrared Transparent Electrode for Extrinsic Germanium Photoconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Toyoaki; Wada, Takehiko; Hirose, Kazuyuki; Makitsubo, Hironobu; Kaneda, Hidehiro

    2012-08-01

    We have evaluated the optical and electrical properties of a far-infrared (IR) transparent electrode for extrinsic germanium (Ge) photoconductors at 4 K, which was fabricated by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). As a far-IR transparent electrode, an aluminum (Al)-doped Ge layer is formed at well-optimized doping concentration and layer thickness in terms of the three requirements: high far-IR transmittance, low-resistivity, and excellent ohmic contact. The Al-doped Ge layer has the far-IR transmittance of >95% within the wavelength range of 40-200 μm, while low-resistivity ( ˜5 Ω cm) and ohmic contact are ensured at 4 K. We demonstrate the applicability of the MBE technology in fabricating the far-IR transparent electrode satisfying the above requirements.

  4. Harvesting renewable energy from Earth's mid-infrared emissions.

    PubMed

    Byrnes, Steven J; Blanchard, Romain; Capasso, Federico

    2014-03-18

    It is possible to harvest energy from Earth's thermal infrared emission into outer space. We calculate the thermodynamic limit for the amount of power available, and as a case study, we plot how this limit varies daily and seasonally in a location in Oklahoma. We discuss two possible ways to make such an emissive energy harvester (EEH): A thermal EEH (analogous to solar thermal power generation) and an optoelectronic EEH (analogous to photovoltaic power generation). For the latter, we propose using an infrared-frequency rectifying antenna, and we discuss its operating principles, efficiency limits, system design considerations, and possible technological implementations.

  5. Origins Space Telescope: The Far Infrared Imager and Polarimeter FIP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Staguhn, Johannes G.; Chuss, David; Howard, Joseph; Meixner, Margaret; Vieira, Joaquin; Amatucci, Edward; Bradley, Damon; Carter, Ruth; Cooray, Asantha; Flores, Anel; Leisawitz, David; Moseley, Samuel Harvey; Wollack, Edward; Origins Space Telescope Study Team

    2018-01-01

    The Origins Space Telescope (OST)* is the mission concept for the Far-Infrared Surveyor, one of the four science and technology definition studies of NASA Headquarters for the 2020 Astronomy and Astrophysics Decadal survey. The current "concept 1", which envisions a cold (4K) 9m space telescope, includes 5 instruments, providing a wavelength coverage ranging from 6um and 667um. The achievable sensitivity of the observatory will provide three to four orders of magnitude of improvement in sensitivity over current observational capabilities, allowing to address a wide range of new and so far inaccessible scientific questions, ranging from bio-signatures on exo-planets to mapping primordial H_2 from the "dark ages" before the universe went through the phase of re-ionization.Here we present the Far Infrared Imager and Polarimeter (FIP) for OST. The cameral will cover four bands, 40um, 80um, 120um, and 240um. It will allow for differential polarimetry in those bands with the ability to observe two colors in polarimtery mode simultaneously, while all four bands can be observed simultaneously in total power mode. While the confusion limit will be reached in only 32ms at 240um, at 40um the source density on the sky is so low, that at the angular resolution of 1" of OST at this wavelength there will be no source confusion, even for the longest integration times. Science topics that can be addressed by FIP include but are not limited to galactic and extragalactic magnetic field studies, Deep Galaxy Surveys, and Outer Solar System objects..*Origins will enable flagship-quality general observing programs led by the astronomical community in the 2030s. We welcome you to contact the Science and Technology Definition Team (STDT) with your science needs and ideas by emailing us at ost_info@lists.ipac.caltech.edu

  6. Herschel-PACS photometry of faint stars for sensitivity performance assessment and establishment of faint FIR primary photometric standards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klaas, U.; Balog, Z.; Nielbock, M.; Müller, T. G.; Linz, H.; Kiss, Cs.

    2018-05-01

    Aims: Our aims are to determine flux densities and their photometric accuracy for a set of seventeen stars that range in flux from intermediately bright (≲2.5 Jy) to faint (≳5 mJy) in the far-infrared (FIR). We also aim to derive signal-to-noise dependence with flux and time, and compare the results with predictions from the Herschel exposure-time calculation tool. Methods: We obtain aperture photometry from Herschel-PACS high-pass-filtered scan maps and chop/nod observations of the faint stars. The issues of detection limits and sky confusion noise are addressed by comparison of the field-of-view at different wavelengths, by multi-aperture photometry, by special processing of the maps to preserve extended emission, and with the help of large-scale absolute sky brightness maps from AKARI. This photometry is compared with flux-density predictions based on photospheric models for these stars. We obtain a robust noise estimate by fitting the flux distribution per map pixel histogram for the area around the stars, scaling it for the applied aperture size and correcting for noise correlation. Results: For 15 stars we obtain reliable photometry in at least one PACS filter, and for 11 stars we achieve this in all three PACS filters (70, 100, 160 μm). Faintest fluxes, for which the photometry still has good quality, are about 10-20 mJy with scan map photometry. The photometry of seven stars is consistent with models or flux predictions for pure photospheric emission, making them good primary standard candidates. Two stars exhibit source-intrinsic far-infrared excess: β Gem (Pollux), being the host star of a confirmed Jupiter-size exoplanet, due to emission of an associated dust disk, and η Dra due to dust emission in a binary system with a K1 dwarf. The investigation of the 160 μm sky background and environment of four sources reveals significant sky confusion prohibiting the determination of an accurate stellar flux at this wavelength. As a good model

  7. Optical pumping by CO/sub 2/ and N/sub 2/O lasers: new CW FIR emissions in 1,1-difluoroethane

    SciTech Connect

    Fourrier, M.; Belland, P.; Gastaud, C.

    1985-01-01

    Abstract-53 new CW FIR laser lines are reported in 1,1-difluoroethane optically pumped near 10 ..mu..m by CO/sub 2/ and N/sub 2/O lasers. The emission spectrum initially reported in the literature consisted of four lines between 770 and 458 ..mu..m and has now been extended to the 2.39 mm319 ..mu..m region. The reason for this extension, especially to the long wavelengths, is analyzed.

  8. Detection of Thermal Water Vapor Emission from W Hydrae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neufeld, David A.; Chen, Wesley; Melnick, Gary J.; DeGraauw, Thijs; Feuchtgruber, Helmut; Harwitt, Martin

    1997-01-01

    We have detected four far-infrared emission lines of water vapor toward the evolved star W Hydrae, using the Short Wavelength Spectrometer (SWS) of the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO). This is the first detection of thermal water vapor emission from a circumstellar outflow.

  9. Near Infrared Emission from Defects in Few-Layer Phosphorene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aghaeimeibodi, Shahriar; Kim, Je-Hyung; Waks, Edo

    Atomically thin films of black phosphorus have recently received significant attention as low dimensional optical materials with a direct exciton emission whose wavelength is tunable by controlling the number of layers. In addition to this excitonic emission, recent work has revealed emission from defect states and reported new methods to manipulate them. Monolayer phosphorene exhibits emission from localized defect states at wavelengths near 920 nm. Increasing the number of layers should shift defect emission to longer wavelengths, enabling the material to span a broader spectral range. But defect emission from few-layer phosphorene has not yet been reported. Here, we demonstrate a new class of near infrared defects in few layer phosphorene. Photoluminescence measurement shows a bright emission around 1240 nm with a sublinear growth of emission intensity with linear increase of excitation intensity, confirming the defect nature of this emission. From time-resolved lifetime measurements we determine an emission lifetime of 1.2 ns, in contrast to exciton and trion lifetimes from few layer phosphorene previously reported to be in the range of a few hundred picoseconds. This work highlights the potential of bright defects of phosphorene for near infrared optoelectronic applications.

  10. Nacre biomimetic design--a possible approach to prepare low infrared emissivity composite coatings.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Weigang; Xu, Guoyue; Ding, Ruya; Duan, Kaige; Qiao, Jialiang

    2013-01-01

    Mimicking the highly organized brick-and-mortar structure of nacre, a kind of nacre-like organic-inorganic composite material of polyurethane (PU)/flaky bronze composite coatings with low infrared emissivity was successfully designed and prepared by using PU and flaky bronze powders as adhesives and pigments, respectively. The infrared emissivity and microstructure of the coatings were systematically investigated by infrared emissometer and scanning electron microscopy, respectively, and the cause of low infrared emissivity of the coatings was discussed by using the theories of one-dimensional photonic structure. The results show that the infrared emissivity of the nacre-like PU/flaky bronze composite coatings can be as low as 0.206 at the bronze content of 60 wt. %, and it is significantly lower than the value of PU/sphere bronze composite coatings. Microstructure observation illustrated that the nacre-like PU/flaky bronze composite coatings have similar one-dimensional photonic structural characteristics. The low infrared emissivity of PU/flaky bronze composite coatings is derived from the similar one-dimensional photonic structure in the coatings. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Far-infrared, submillimeter, and millimeter spectroscopy of the Galactic center - Radio ARC and +20/+50 kilometer per second clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Genzel, R.; Harris, A. I.; Geis, N.; Stacey, G. J.; Townes, C. H.

    1990-01-01

    Results are presented from FIR, sub-mm, and mm spectroscopic observations of the radio arc and the +20/+50 km/s molecular clouds in the Galactic center. The results for the radio arc are analyzed, including the spatial distribution of C II forbidden line emission, the spatial distribution of CO emission, the luminosity and mass of C(+) regions, and the CO 7 - 6 emission and line profiles. Model calculations are used to study molecular gas in the radio arc. In addition, forbidden C II, CO 7 - 6, and C(O-18) mapping is presented for the +20/+50 km/x clouds. Consideration is given to the impact of the results on the interpretation of the physical conditions, excitation, and heating of the gas clouds in the arc and near the center.

  12. Optical Temperature Sensor Based on Infrared Excited Green Upconversion Emission in Hexagonal Phase NaLuF4:Yb3+/Er3+ Nanorods.

    PubMed

    Li, Dongyu; Tian, Linlin; Huang, Zhen; Shao, Lexi; Quan, Jun; Wang, Yuxiao

    2016-04-01

    Hexagonal phase NaLuF4:Yb3+/Er3+ nanorods were synthesized hydrothermally. An analysis of the intense green upconversion emissions at 525 nm and 550 nm in hexagonal phase NaLuF4:Yb3/+Er3+ nanorods under excitation power density of 4.2 W/cm2 available from a diode laser emitting at 976 nm, have been undertaken. Fluorescence intensity ratio (FIR) variation of temperature-sensitive green upconversion emissions at 525 nm and 550 nm in this material was recorded in the physiological range from 295 to 343 K. The maximum sensitivity derived from the FIR technique of the green upconversion emissions is approximately 0.0044 K-1. Experimental results implied that hexagonal phase NaLuF4:Yb3/+Er3+ nanorods was a potential candidate for optical temperature sensor.

  13. Far-infrared reflectance spectra of optical black coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, S. M.

    1983-01-01

    Far-infrared specular reflectance spectra of six optically black coatings near normal incidence are presented. The spectra were obtained using nine bandpass transmission filters in the wavelength range between 12 and 300 microns. Data on the construction, thickness, and rms surface roughness of the coatings are also presented. The chemical composition of two coatings can be distinguished from that of the others by a strong absorption feature between 20 and 40 microns which is attributed to amorphous silicate material. Inverse relationships between these spectra and coating roughness and thickness are noted and lead to development of a reflecting-layer model for the measured reflectance. The model is applied to the spectra of several coatings whose construction falls within its constraints.

  14. Focal plane optics in far-infrared and submillimeter astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hildebrand, R. H.

    1985-10-01

    The construction of airborne observatories, high mountain-top observatories, and space observatories designed especially for infrared and submillimeter astronomy has opened fields of research requiring new optical techniques. A typical far-IR photometric study involves measurement of a continuum spectrum in several passbands between approx 30 microns and 1000 microns and diffraction-limited mapping of the source. At these wavelengths, diffraction effects strongly influence the design of the field optics systems which couple the incoming flux to the radiation sensors (cold bolometers). The Airy diffraction disk for a typical telescope at submillimeter wavelengths approx 100 microns-1000 microns is many millimeters in diameter; the size of the field stop must be comparable. The dilute radiation at the stop is fed through a Winston nonimaging concentrator to a small cavity containing the bolometer. The purpose of this paper is to review the principles and techniques of infrared field optics systems, including spectral filters, concentrators, cavities, and bolometers (as optical elements), with emphasis on photometric systems for wavelengths longer than 60 microns.

  15. Focal plane optics in far-infrared and submillimeter astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hildebrand, R. H.

    1986-01-01

    The construction of airborne observatories, high mountain-top observatories, and space observatories designed especially for infrared and submillimeter astronomy has opened fields of research requiring new optical techniques. A typical far-IR photometric study involves measurement of a continuum spectrum in several passbands between approx 30 microns and 1000 microns and diffraction-limited mapping of the source. At these wavelengths, diffraction effects strongly influence the design of the field optics systems which couple the incoming flux to the radiation sensors (cold bolometers). The Airy diffraction disk for a typical telescope at submillimeter wavelengths approx 100 microns-1000 microns is many millimeters in diameter; the size of the field stop must be comparable. The dilute radiation at the stop is fed through a Winston nonimaging concentrator to a small cavity containing the bolometer. The purpose of this paper is to review the principles and techniques of infrared field optics systems, including spectral filters, concentrators, cavities, and bolometers (as optical elements), with emphasis on photometric systems for wavelengths longer than 60 microns.

  16. Focal plane optics in far-infrared and submillimeter astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hildebrand, R. H.

    1986-02-01

    The construction of airborne observatories, high mountain-top observatories, and space observatories designed especially for infrared and submillimeter astronomy has opened fields of research requiring new optical techniques. A typical far-IR photometric study involves measurement of a continuum spectrum in several passbands between approx 30 microns and 1000 microns and diffraction-limited mapping of the source. At these wavelengths, diffraction effects strongly influence the design of the field optics systems which couple the incoming flux to the radiation sensors (cold bolometers). The Airy diffraction disk for a typical telescope at submillimeter wavelengths approx 100 microns-1000 microns is many millimeters in diameter; the size of the field stop must be comparable. The dilute radiation at the stop is fed through a Winston nonimaging concentrator to a small cavity containing the bolometer. The purpose of this paper is to review the principles and techniques of infrared field optics systems, including spectral filters, concentrators, cavities, and bolometers (as optical elements), with emphasis on photometric systems for wavelengths longer than 60 microns.

  17. Focal plane optics in far-infrared and submillimeter astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hildebrand, R. H.

    1985-01-01

    The construction of airborne observatories, high mountain-top observatories, and space observatories designed especially for infrared and submillimeter astronomy has opened fields of research requiring new optical techniques. A typical far-IR photometric study involves measurement of a continuum spectrum in several passbands between approx 30 microns and 1000 microns and diffraction-limited mapping of the source. At these wavelengths, diffraction effects strongly influence the design of the field optics systems which couple the incoming flux to the radiation sensors (cold bolometers). The Airy diffraction disk for a typical telescope at submillimeter wavelengths approx 100 microns-1000 microns is many millimeters in diameter; the size of the field stop must be comparable. The dilute radiation at the stop is fed through a Winston nonimaging concentrator to a small cavity containing the bolometer. The purpose of this paper is to review the principles and techniques of infrared field optics systems, including spectral filters, concentrators, cavities, and bolometers (as optical elements), with emphasis on photometric systems for wavelengths longer than 60 microns.

  18. Estimate of Radiosonde Dry Bias From Far-Infrared Measurements on the Antarctic Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rizzi, R.; Maestri, T.; Arosio, C.

    2018-03-01

    The experimental data set of downwelling radiance spectra measured at the ground in clear conditions during 2013 by a Far-Infrared Fourier Transform Spectrometer at Dome-C, Antarctica, presented in Rizzi et al. (2016, https://doi.org/10.1002/2016JD025341) is used to estimate the effect of solar heating of the radiosonde humidity sensor, called dry bias. The effect is quite evident comparing residuals for the austral summer and winter clear cases and can be modeled by an increase of the water vapor concentration at all levels by about 15%. Such an estimate has become possible only after a new version of the simulation code and spectroscopic data has become available, which has substantially improved the modeling of water vapor absorption in the far infrared. The negative yearly spectral bias reported in Rizzi et al. (2016, https://doi.org/10.1002/2016JD025341) is in fact greatly reduced when compared to the same measurement data set.

  19. High speed FPGA-based Phasemeter for the far-infrared laser interferometers on EAST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Y.; Liu, H.; Zou, Z.; Li, W.; Lian, H.; Jie, Y.

    2017-12-01

    The far-infrared laser-based HCN interferometer and POlarimeter/INTerferometer\\break (POINT) system are important diagnostics for plasma density measurement on EAST tokamak. Both HCN and POINT provide high spatial and temporal resolution of electron density measurement and used for plasma density feedback control. The density is calculated by measuring the real-time phase difference between the reference beams and the probe beams. For long-pulse operations on EAST, the calculation of density has to meet the requirements of Real-Time and high precision. In this paper, a Phasemeter for far-infrared laser-based interferometers will be introduced. The FPGA-based Phasemeter leverages fast ADCs to obtain the three-frequency signals from VDI planar-diode Mixers, and realizes digital filters and an FFT algorithm in FPGA to provide real-time, high precision electron density output. Implementation of the Phasemeter will be helpful for the future plasma real-time feedback control in long-pulse discharge.

  20. Star Formation Under the Outflow: The Discovery of a Non-thermal Jet from OMC-2 FIR 3 and Its Relationship to the Deeply Embedded FIR 4 Protostar

    SciTech Connect

    Osorio, Mayra; Díaz-Rodríguez, Ana K.; Anglada, Guillem

    We carried out multiwavelength (0.7–5 cm), multi-epoch (1994–2015) Very Large Array (VLA) observations toward the region enclosing the bright far-IR sources FIR 3 (HOPS 370) and FIR 4 (HOPS 108) in OMC-2. We report the detection of 10 radio sources, 7 of them identified as young stellar objects. We image a well-collimated radio jet with a thermal free–free core (VLA 11) associated with the Class I intermediate-mass protostar HOPS 370. The jet features several knots (VLA 12N, 12C, 12S) of non-thermal radio emission (likely synchrotron from shock-accelerated relativistic electrons) at distances of ∼7500–12,500 au from the protostar, in a regionmore » where other shock tracers have been previously identified. These knots are moving away from the HOPS 370 protostar at ∼100 km s{sup −1}. The Class 0 protostar HOPS 108, which itself is detected as an independent, kinematically decoupled radio source, falls in the path of these non-thermal radio knots. These results favor the previously proposed scenario in which the formation of HOPS 108 is triggered by the impact of the HOPS 370 outflow with a dense clump. However, HOPS 108 has a large proper motion velocity of ∼30 km s{sup −1}, similar to that of other runaway stars in Orion, whose origin would be puzzling within this scenario. Alternatively, an apparent proper motion could result because of changes in the position of the centroid of the source due to blending with nearby extended emission, variations in the source shape, and/or opacity effects.« less

  1. Development of a gallium-doped germanium far-infrared photoconductor direct hybrid two-dimensional array.

    PubMed

    Fujiwara, Mikio; Hirao, Takanori; Kawada, Mitsunobu; Shibai, Hiroshi; Matsuura, Shuji; Kaneda, Hidehiro; Patrashin, Mikhail; Nakagawa, Takao

    2003-04-20

    To our knowledge, we are the first to successfully report a direct hybrid two-dimensional (2D) detector array in the far-infrared region. Gallium-doped germanium (Ge:Ga) has been used extensively to produce sensitive far-infrared detectors with a cutoff wavelength of approximately equal to 110 microm (2.7 THz). It is widely used in the fields of astronomy and molecular and solid spectroscopy. However, Ge:Ga photoconductors must be cooled below 4.2 K to reduce thermal noise, and this operating condition makes it difficult to develop a large format array because of the need for a warm amplifier. Development of Ge:Ga photoconductor arrays to take 2D terahertz images is now an important target in such research fields as space astronomy. We present the design of a 20 x 3 Ge:Ga far-infrared photoconductor array directly hybridized to a Si p-type metal-oxide-semiconductor readout integrated circuit using indium-bump technology. The main obstacles in creating this 2D array were (1) fabricating a monolithic Ge:Ga 2D array with a longitudinal configuration, (2) developing a cryogenic capacitive transimpedance amplifer, and (3) developing a technology for connecting the detector to the electronics. With this technology, a prototype Ge:Ga photoconductor with a direct hybrid structure has shown a responsivity as high as 14.6 A/W and a minimum detectable power of 5.6 x 10(-17) W for an integration time of 0.14 s when it was cooled to 2.1 K. Its noise is limited by the readout circuit with 20 microV/Hz(1/2) at 1 Hz. Vibration and cooling tests demonstrated that this direct hybrid structure is strong enough for spaceborne instruments. This detector array will be installed on the Japanese infrared satellite ASTRO-F.

  2. The First Reported Infrared Emission from the SN1006 Remnant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winkler, P. Frank; Williams, Brian J.; Blair, William P.; Borkowski, Kazimierz J.; Ghavamian, Parviz; Long, Knox S.; Raymond, John C.; Reynolds, Stephen P.

    2012-01-01

    We report results of infrared imaging and spectroscopic observations of the SN 1006 remnant, carried out with the Spitzer Space Telescope. The 24 m image from MIPS clearly shows faint filamentary emission along the northwest rim of the remnant shell, nearly coincident with the Balmer filaments that delineate the present position of the expanding shock. The 24 m emission traces the Balmer filaments almost perfectly, but lies a few arcsec within, indicating an origin in interstellar dust heated by the shock. Subsequent decline in the IR behind the shock is presumably due largely to grain destruction through sputtering. The emission drops far more rapidly than current models predict, however, even for a higher proportion of small grains than would be found closer to the Galactic plane. The rapid drop may result in part from a grain density that has always been lowera relic effect from an earlier epoch when the shock was encountering a lower densitybut higher grain destruction rates still seem to be required. Spectra from three positions along the NW filament from the IRS instrument all show only a featureless continuum, consistent with thermal emission from warm dust. The dust-to-gas mass ratio in the pre-shock interstellar medium is lower than that expected for the Galactic ISM-as has also been observed in the analysis of IR emission from other SNRs but whose cause remains unclear. As with other SNIa remnants, SN1006 shows no evidence for dust grain formation in the supernova ejecta.

  3. A Herschel resolved far-infrared dust ring around HD 207129

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, J. P.; Löhne, T.; Montesinos, B.; Krivov, A. V.; Eiroa, C.; Absil, O.; Bryden, G.; Maldonado, J.; Mora, A.; Sanz-Forcada, J.; Ardila, D.; Augereau, J.-Ch.; Bayo, A.; Del Burgo, C.; Danchi, W.; Ertel, S.; Fedele, D.; Fridlund, M.; Lebreton, J.; González-García, B. M.; Liseau, R.; Meeus, G.; Müller, S.; Pilbratt, G. L.; Roberge, A.; Stapelfeldt, K.; Thébault, P.; White, G. J.; Wolf, S.

    2011-05-01

    Context. Dusty debris discs around main sequence stars are thought to be the result of continuous collisional grinding of planetesimals in the system. The majority of these systems are unresolved and analysis of the dust properties is limited by the lack of information regarding the dust location. Aims: The Herschel DUNES key program is observing 133 nearby, Sun-like stars (<20 pc, FGK spectral type) in a volume limited survey to constrain the absolute incidence of cold dust around these stars by detection of far infrared excess emission at flux levels comparable to the Edgeworth-Kuiper belt (EKB). Methods: We have observed the Sun-like star HD 207129 with Herschel PACS and SPIRE. In all three PACS bands we resolve a ring-like structure consistent with scattered light observations. Using α Boötis as a reference point spread function (PSF), we deconvolved the images, clearly resolving the inner gap in the disc at both 70 and 100 μm. Results: We have resolved the dust-producing planetesimal belt of a debris disc at 100 μm for the first time. We measure the radial profile and fractional luminosity of the disc, and compare the values to those of discs around stars of similar age and/or spectral type, placing this disc in context of other resolved discs observed by Herschel/DUNES. Herschel is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by European-led Principal Investigator consortia and with important participation from NASA.

  4. Far-Infrared Spectroscopy of Planetary Nebulae with the KAO

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rubin, Robert H.; Colgan, S.; Haas, M. R.; Lord, S. D.; Simpson, Janet P.

    1996-01-01

    We present new far-infrared line observations of the planetary nebulae (PNs) NGC 7027, NGC 7009, and NGC 6210 obtained with the Kuiper Airborne Observatory (KAO). The bulk of our data are for NGC 7027 and NGC 7009, including [Ne(V)] 24 micrometers, [O(IV)] 26 micrometers, [O(III)] (52, 88) micrometers, and [N(III)] 57 micrometers. Our data for [O(III)] (52, 88) and [N(III)] 57 in NGC 7027 represent the first measurements of these lines in this source. The large [O(III)] 52/88-micrometer flux ratio implies an electron density (cubic cm) of log N(sub e)[O(III)] = 4.19, the largest Ne ever inferred from these lines. We derive N(++)/O(++) = 0.394 +/- 0.062 for NGC 7027 and 0.179 +/- 0.043 for NGC 6210. We are able to infer the O(+3)/O(++) ionic ratio from our data. As gauged by this ionic ratio, NGC 7027 is substantially higher ionization than is NGC 7009 - consistent with our observation that the former produces copious [Ne(V)] emission while the latter does not. These data help characterize the stellar ionizing radiation field. From our [O(IV)] and [O(III)] fluxes, we are able to show that O(++) is by far the dominant oxygen ion in NGC 7009. As a result, the O/H abundance inferred using these data tends to corroborate the value found from UV/optical, collisionally excited lines. We determined accurate rest wavelengths for the [Ne(V)] 2s(2)2p(2)P(sub 1) to 2s(2)2p(2)3P(sub 0) (lambda(sub rest) = 24.316 +/- 0.008 micrometers) and [O(IV)] 2s(2)2p(2)P(sup 0, sub 3/2) to 2s(2)2p(2)P(sup 0, sub 1/2) (lambda(sub rest) = 25.887 +/- 0.007 micrometers) transitions from observations of one or both of the bright PNs NGC 7027 and NGC 7009. Our [O(IV)] value, to the best of our knowledge, is the most accurate direct determination of this lambda(sub rest). These new KAO data will be beneficial for comparison with ISO observations of these PNs.

  5. A Bridge from Optical to Infrared Galaxies: Explaining Local Properties and Predicting Galaxy Counts and the Cosmic Background Radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Totani, Tomonori; Takeuchi, Tsutomu T.

    2002-05-01

    We give an explanation for the origin of various properties observed in local infrared galaxies and make predictions for galaxy counts and cosmic background radiation (CBR) using a new model extended from that for optical/near-infrared galaxies. Important new characteristics of this study are that (1) mass scale dependence of dust extinction is introduced based on the size-luminosity relation of optical galaxies and that (2) the large-grain dust temperature Tdust is calculated based on a physical consideration for energy balance rather than by using the empirical relation between Tdust and total infrared luminosity LIR found in local galaxies, which has been employed in most previous works. Consequently, the local properties of infrared galaxies, i.e., optical/infrared luminosity ratios, LIR-Tdust correlation, and infrared luminosity function are outputs predicted by the model, while these have been inputs in a number of previous models. Our model indeed reproduces these local properties reasonably well. Then we make predictions for faint infrared counts (in 15, 60, 90, 170, 450, and 850 μm) and CBR using this model. We found results considerably different from those of most previous works based on the empirical LIR-Tdust relation; especially, it is shown that the dust temperature of starbursting primordial elliptical galaxies is expected to be very high (40-80 K), as often seen in starburst galaxies or ultraluminous infrared galaxies in the local and high-z universe. This indicates that intense starbursts of forming elliptical galaxies should have occurred at z~2-3, in contrast to the previous results that significant starbursts beyond z~1 tend to overproduce the far-infrared (FIR) CBR detected by COBE/FIRAS. On the other hand, our model predicts that the mid-infrared (MIR) flux from warm/nonequilibrium dust is relatively weak in such galaxies making FIR CBR, and this effect reconciles the prima facie conflict between the upper limit on MIR CBR from TeV gamma

  6. Submillimeter and Far-Infrared Dielectric Properties of Thin Films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cataldo, Giuseppe; Wollack, Edward J.

    2016-01-01

    The complex dielectric function enables the study of a material's refractive and absorptive properties and provides information on a material's potential for practical application. Commonly employed line shape profile functions from the literature are briefly surveyed and their suitability for representation of dielectric material properties are discussed. An analysis approach to derive a material's complex dielectric function from observed transmittance spectra in the far-infrared and submillimeter regimes is presented. The underlying model employed satisfies the requirements set by the Kramers-Kronig relations. The dielectric function parameters derived from this approach typically reproduce the observed transmittance spectra with an accuracy of less than 4%.

  7. Physical Retrieval of Surface Emissivity Spectrum from Hyperspectral Infrared Radiances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Jun; Weisz, Elisabeth; Zhou, Daniel K.

    2007-01-01

    Retrieval of temperature, moisture profiles and surface skin temperature from hyperspectral infrared (IR) radiances requires spectral information about the surface emissivity. Using constant or inaccurate surface emissivities typically results in large retrieval errors, particularly over semi-arid or arid areas where the variation in emissivity spectrum is large both spectrally and spatially. In this study, a physically based algorithm has been developed to retrieve a hyperspectral IR emissivity spectrum simultaneously with the temperature and moisture profiles, as well as the surface skin temperature. To make the solution stable and efficient, the hyperspectral emissivity spectrum is represented by eigenvectors, derived from the laboratory measured hyperspectral emissivity database, in the retrieval process. Experience with AIRS (Atmospheric InfraRed Sounder) radiances shows that a simultaneous retrieval of the emissivity spectrum and the sounding improves the surface skin temperature as well as temperature and moisture profiles, particularly in the near surface layer.

  8. Gas and Dust Properties in Dwarf Irregular Galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, A. P.; Madden, S. C.; Colgan, S. W. J.; Geis, N.; Haas, M.; Maloney, P.; Nikola, T.; Poglitsch, A.

    1997-01-01

    We present a study of the 158 (micron)meter [C II] fine structure emission line from a sample of 11 low metallicity irregular galaxies using the NASA Kuiper Airborne Observatory (KAO). Our preliminary results demonstrate that the ratio of the 158 (micron)meter [C II] emission to the CO-12(1 yields 0) emission ranges from 6,000 to 46,000. These ratios are significantly enhanced relative to clouds within the Galaxy and to normal metallicity galaxies, which typically have values in the range 2,000 to 6,300. We also find that the [C II] emission in dwarf irregular galaxies can be up to 5% of the far-infrared (FIR) emission, a higher fraction of the FIR than in normal metallicity galaxies. We discuss these results for the dwarf irregular galaxies and compare them to those observed in normal metallicity galaxies. The enhanced 158 (micron)meter [C II] emission relative to CO-12(1 yields 0) emission can be understood in terms of the increased penetration depth of ultraviolet (UV) photons into the clouds in low metallicity environments.

  9. A far-red fluorescent protein evolved from a cyanobacterial phycobiliprotein

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez, Erik A.; Tran, Geraldine N.; Gross, Larry A.; Crisp, Jessica L.; Shu, Xiaokun; Lin, John Y.; Tsien, Roger Y.

    2016-01-01

    Far-red fluorescent proteins (FPs) are desirable for in vivo imaging because less light is scattered, absorbed, or reemitted by endogenous biomolecules. A new class of FP was developed from an allophycocyanin α-subunit (APCα). Native APC requires a lyase to incorporate phycocyanobilin. The evolved FP, named small Ultra-Red FP (smURFP), covalently attaches biliverdin (BV) without a lyase, and has 642/670 nm excitation/emission peaks, a large extinction coefficient (180,000 M−1cm−1) and quantum yield (18%), and comparable photostability to eGFP. SmURFP has significantly increased BV incorporation rate and protein stability compared to the bacteriophytochrome (BPH) FPs. BV supply is limited by membrane permeability, so expression of heme oxygenase-1 with heme precursors increases fluorescence of BPH/APCα FPs. SmURFP (but not BPH FPs) can incorporate a more membrane-permeant BV analog, making smURFP fluorescence in situ comparable to FPs from jellyfish/coral. A far-red/near-infrared fluorescent cell cycle indicator was created with smURFP and a BPH FP. PMID:27479328

  10. The structural and optical constants of Ag2S semiconductor nanostructure in the Far-Infrared.

    PubMed

    Zamiri, Reza; Abbastabar Ahangar, Hossein; Zakaria, Azmi; Zamiri, Golnoosh; Shabani, Mehdi; Singh, Budhendra; Ferreira, J M F

    2015-01-01

    In this paper a template-free precipitation method was used as an easy and low cost way to synthesize Ag2S semiconductor nanoparticles. The Kramers-Kronig method (K-K) and classical dispersion theory was applied to calculate the optical constants of the prepared samples, such as the reflective index n(ω) and dielectric constant ε(ω) in Far-infrared regime. Nanocrystalline Ag2S was synthesized by a wet chemical precipitation method. Ag2S nanoparticle was characterized by X-ray diffraction, Scanning Electron Microscopy, UV-visible, and FT-IR spectrometry. The refinement of the monoclinic β-Ag2S phase yielded a structure solution similar to the structure reported by Sadanaga and Sueno. The band gap of Ag2S nanoparticles is around 0.96 eV, which is in good agreement with previous reports for the band gap energy of Ag2S nanoparticles (0.9-1.1 eV). The crystallite size of the synthesized particles was obtained by Hall-Williamson plot for the synthesized Ag2S nanoparticles and it was found to be 217 nm. The Far-infrared optical constants of the prepared Ag2S semiconductor nanoparticles were evaluated by means of FTIR transmittance spectra data and K-K method. Graphical abstractThe Far-infrared optical constants of Ag2S semiconductor nanoparticles.

  11. Thirteen years of thinning in a Douglas-fir woodland

    Treesearch

    Norman P. Worthington

    1963-01-01

    The impressive, integrated forest products industries and large forest ownerships of the Douglas-fir region are well known. Sometimes overlooked are the 53,000 owners of woodlands of under 100 acres, the average holding being 35 acres. These small tracts, totaling 1,900,000 acres, are growing timber at rates far below their potential.1 To secure...

  12. Reconsidering price projections for selected grades of Douglas-fir, coast hem-fir, inland hem-fir, and ponderosa pine lumber.

    Treesearch

    Richard W. Haynes; Roger D. Fight

    2004-01-01

    Grade-specific price projections were once again developed for Douglas-fir, coast hem-fir, inland hem-fir, and ponderosa pine lumber. These grade-specific price projections can be used to demonstrate the returns to land management of practices that lead to high-quality logs that produce a larger proportion of high grades of lumber. The price ratios among low, medium,...

  13. Infrared emission spectra of candidate interstellar aromatic molecules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schlemmer, S.; Balucani, N.; Wagner, D. R.; Steiner, B.; Saykally, R. J.

    1996-01-01

    Interstellar dust is responsible, through surface reactions, for the creation of molecular hydrogen, the main component of the interstellar clouds in which new stars form. Intermediate between small, gas-phase molecules and dust are the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Such molecules could account for 2-30% of the carbon in the Galaxy, and may provide nucleation sites for the formation of carbonaceous dust. Although PAHs have been proposed as the sources of the unidentified infrared emission bands that are observed in the spectra of a variety of interstellar sources, the emission characteristics of such molecules are still poorly understood. Here we report laboratory emission spectra of several representative PAHs, obtained in conditions approximating those of the interstellar medium, and measured over the entire spectral region spanned by the unidentified infrared bands. We find that neutral PAHs of small and moderate size can at best make only a minor contribution to these emission bands. Cations of these molecules, as well as much larger PAHs and their cations, remain viable candidates for the sources of these bands.

  14. Far infrared maps of the ridge between OMC-1 and OMC-2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keene, J.; Smith, J.; Harper, D. A.; Hildebrand, R. H.; Whitcomb, S. E.

    1979-01-01

    Dust continuum emission from a 6 ft x 20 ft region surrounding OMC-1 and OMC-2 were mapped at 55 and 125 microns with 4 ft resolution. The dominant features of the maps are a strong peak at OMC-1 and a ridge of lower surface brightness between OMC-1 and OMC-2. Along the ridge the infrared flux densities and the color temperature decreases smoothly from OMC-1 to OMC-2. OMC-1 is heated primarily by several optical and infrared stars situated within or just at the boundary of the cloud. At the region of minimum column density between OMC-1 and OMC-2 the nearby B0.5 V star NU Ori may contribute significantly to the dust heating. Near OMC-2 dust column densities are large enough so that, in addition to the OMC-2 infrared cluster, the nonlocal infrared sources associated with OMC-1 and NU Ori can contribute to the heating.

  15. Stellar-based calibration in the far infrared with application to IRAS Band 4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirby, D. J.; Rieke, G. H.; Lebofsky, L. A.

    1994-01-01

    Because stars emit very small portions of their outputs in the far infrared, using them as calibrators requires precise measurement and correction for filter leaks at shorter wavelengths. Therefore, it is common to base far infrared calibrations on planetary objects such as asteriods. However, asteroids are complex geological bodies whose thermal properties depend on their evolutionary histories as well as on their gross parameters such as mass and composition, making them difficult to model as calibrators. We propose a new method for measuring filter leaks that can be carried out using the end-to-end detector system and therefore allows reliable use of stellar calibrators. We illustrate this method by showing that the Infrared Astronomy Satellite (IRAS) 100 micrometers (Band 4) filters had a short wavelength leak of 14.3% +/- 3.6% on stars similar to alpha Boo, but that there is no detectable leak in the 60 micrometers (Band 3) filters. We derive a calibration for Band 4 from stellar colors in a way that is closely analogous to the calibrations of Bands 1, 2, and 3. With correction for the leak, the stellar-based calibration is virtually identical to the original calibration based on asteroids; this result requires that the spectra of the asteriods for the original calibration differ from greybody behavior between 60 and 100 micrometers by about 10%.

  16. Synchrotron Based Fourier Transform Far-Infrared Spectroscopy of CH3NO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Twagirayezu, Sylvestre; Billinghurst, Brant E.; May, Tim; Dawadi, Mahesh B.; Perry, David S.

    2013-06-01

    As a slightly asymmetric top molecule (κ = 0.25) with both a free internal rotor and a methyl group, CH_3NO_2 is a benchmark system for studies of torsional motion in a 6-fold potential and of the coupling between a large amplitude vibration and other small-amplitude vibrations. For this purpose, rotationally resolved infrared spectra of CH_3NO_2, have been recorded using the Far-Infrared beamline at the Canadian Light Source, which is equipped with a high resolution Bruker IFS 125HR spectrometer. The observed infrared spectra, in the range 550-1000cm^{-1}, are the average of 300 interferometer scans collected at a nominal resolution of 0.00096cm^{-1}. Two a-type bands, centered at 657.08cm^{-1}for NO symmetric bend and at 917.99cm^{-1}for CN-stretch, have been measured. The initial analysis of a number of torsional states is currently being carried out and the progress will be reported in this talk.

  17. Disturbed alternative splicing of FIR (PUF60) directed cyclin E overexpression in esophageal cancers.

    PubMed

    Ogura, Yukiko; Hoshino, Tyuji; Tanaka, Nobuko; Ailiken, Guzhanuer; Kobayashi, Sohei; Kitamura, Kouichi; Rahmutulla, Bahityar; Kano, Masayuki; Murakami, Kentarou; Akutsu, Yasunori; Nomura, Fumio; Itoga, Sakae; Matsubara, Hisahiro; Matsushita, Kazuyuki

    2018-05-01

    Overexpression of alternative splicing of far upstream element binding protein 1 (FUBP1) interacting repressor (FIR; poly(U) binding splicing factor 60 [PUF60]) and cyclin E were detected in esophageal squamous cell carcinomas (ESCC). Accordingly, the expression of FBW7 was examined by which cyclin E is degraded as a substrate via the proteasome system. Expectedly, FBW7 expression was decreased significantly in ESCC. Conversely, c-myc gene transcriptional repressor FIR (alias PUF60; U2AF-related protein) and its alternative splicing variant form (FIRΔexon2) were overexpressed in ESCC. Further, anticancer drugs (cis-diaminedichloroplatinum/cisplatin [CDDP] or 5-fluorouracil [5-FU]) and knockdown of FIR by small interfering RNA (siRNA) increased cyclin E while knockdown of FIRΔexon2 by siRNA decreased cyclin E expression in ESCC cell lines (TE1, TE2, and T.Tn) or cervical SCC cells (HeLa cells). Especially, knockdown of SAP155 (SF3b1), a splicing factor required for proper alternative splicing of FIR pre-mRNA, decreased cyclin E. Therefore, disturbed alternative splicing of FIR generated FIR/FIRΔexon2 with cyclin E overexpression in esophageal cancers, indicating that SAP155 siRNA potentially rescued FBW7 function by reducing expression of FIR and/or FIRΔexon2. Remarkably, Three-dimensional structure analysis revealed the hypothetical inhibitory mechanism of FBW7 function by FIR/FIRΔexon2, a novel mechanism of cyclin E overexpression by FIR/FIRΔexon2-FBW7 interaction was discussed. Clinically, elevated FIR expression potentially is an indicator of the number of lymph metastases and anti-FIR/FIRΔexon2 antibodies in sera as cancer diagnosis, indicating chemical inhibitors of FIR/FIRΔexon2-FBW7 interaction could be potential candidate drugs for cancer therapy. In conclusion, elevated cyclin E expression was, in part, induced owing to potential FIR/FIRΔexon2-FBW7 interaction in ESCC.

  18. Development of FIR arrays with integrating amplifiers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, Erick T.

    1988-01-01

    The development of optimized photoconductor arrays suitable for far infrared space astronomical applications are described. Although the primary impetus is the production of a 16 by 16 element Ge:Ga demonstration array for SIRTF, the extension of this technology to Large Deployable Reflector (LDR) is considered. The optimization of Ge:Ga and Ge:Be photoconductor materials is discussed. In collaboration with Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, measurements of FIR photoconductors with quantum efficiencies greater than 20 percent at 100 micrometers, and dark currents below 300 electrons/s are presented. Integrating J-FET amplifier technology is discussed. The current generation of integrating amplifiers has a demonstrated read noise of less than 20 electrons for an integration time of 100 s. The design is shown for a stackable 16 x n Ge:Ga array that utilizes a 16-channel monolithic version of the J-FET integrator. A part of the design is the use of a thin, thermally insulating substrate that allows the electronics to operate at the optimum temperature of 50 K while maintaining thermal and optical isolation from the detectors at 2 K. The power dissipation for the array is less than 16 mW. The array design may particularly be applicable to high resolution imaging spectrometers for LDR.

  19. Development of FIR arrays with integrating amplifiers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, Erick T.

    1988-08-01

    The development of optimized photoconductor arrays suitable for far infrared space astronomical applications are described. Although the primary impetus is the production of a 16 by 16 element Ge:Ga demonstration array for SIRTF, the extension of this technology to Large Deployable Reflector (LDR) is considered. The optimization of Ge:Ga and Ge:Be photoconductor materials is discussed. In collaboration with Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, measurements of FIR photoconductors with quantum efficiencies greater than 20 percent at 100 micrometers, and dark currents below 300 electrons/s are presented. Integrating J-FET amplifier technology is discussed. The current generation of integrating amplifiers has a demonstrated read noise of less than 20 electrons for an integration time of 100 s. The design is shown for a stackable 16 x n Ge:Ga array that utilizes a 16-channel monolithic version of the J-FET integrator. A part of the design is the use of a thin, thermally insulating substrate that allows the electronics to operate at the optimum temperature of 50 K while maintaining thermal and optical isolation from the detectors at 2 K. The power dissipation for the array is less than 16 mW. The array design may particularly be applicable to high resolution imaging spectrometers for LDR.

  20. Use of a night vision intensifier for direct visualization by eye of far-red and near-infrared fluorescence through an optical microscope.

    PubMed

    Siddiqi, M A; Kilduff, G M; Gearhart, J D

    2003-11-01

    We describe the design, construction and testing of a prototype device that allows the direct visualization by eye of far-red and near-infrared (NIR) fluorescence through an optical microscope. The device incorporates a gallium arsenide (GaAs) image intensifier, typically utilized in low-light or 'night vision' applications. The intensifier converts far-red and NIR light into electrons and then into green light, which is visible to the human eye. The prototype makes possible the direct, real-time viewing by eye of normally invisible far-red and NIR fluorescence from a wide variety of fluorophores, using the full field of view of the microscope to which it is applied. The high sensitivity of the image intensifier facilitates the viewing of a wide variety of photosensitive specimens, including live cells and embryos, at vastly reduced illumination levels in both fluorescence and bright-field microscopy. Modifications to the microscope are not required in order to use the prototype, which is fully compatible with all current fluorescence techniques. Refined versions of the prototype device will have broad research and clinical applications.

  1. Effects of far-infrared radiation on heart rate variability and central manifestations in healthy subjects: a resting-fMRI study.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yii-Jeng; Kung, Yen-Ying; Kuo, Wen-Jui; Niddam, David M; Cheng, Chou-Ming; Chou, Chih-Che; Yeh, Tzu-Chen; Hsieh, Jen-Chuen; Chiu, Jen-Hwey

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the autonomic responses and central manifestations by peripheral FIR stimulation. Ten subjects (mean ± SD age 26.2 ± 3.52 years) received FIR stimulation at left median nerve territory for 40 min. Electrocardiograph was continuously recorded and heart rate variability (HRV) were analyzed. By using a 3 T-MRI scanner, three sessions of resting-state functional magnetic resonance images (fMRI) were acquired, namely, before (baseline-FIR), immediately after (IA-FIR) and 15 min after FIR was turned off (Post-FIR). The fractional amplitude of low-frequency (0.01-0.08 Hz) fluctuation (fALFF) of each session to evaluate the intensity of resting-brain activity in each session was analyzed. Our results showed that FIR stimulation induced significant HRV responses such as an increasing trend of nLF and LF/HF ratio, while FIR increased fALFF in right superior front gyrus, middle frontal gyrus and decreased the resting brain activity at fusiform gyrus, extrastriae cortex, inferior temporal gyrus and middle temporal gyrus, especially 15 min after FIR was turned off. We conclude that the central manifestation and the autonomic responses are prominent during and after FIR stimulation, which provide important mechanistic explanation on human disorder treated by such energy medicine.

  2. Jet-Cooled Spectroscopy on the Ailes Infrared Beamline of the Synchrotron Radiation Facility Soleil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Georges, Robert

    2015-06-01

    The Advanced Infrared Line Exploited for Spectroscopy (AILES) extracts the bright far infrared (FIR) synchrotron continuum of the third generation radiation facility SOLEIL. This beamline is equipped with a high resolution (10-3 cm-1) Bruker IFS125 Fourier transform spectrometer which can be operated in the FIR but also in the mid and near infrared by using its internal conventional sources. The jet-AILES consortium (IPR, PhLAM, MONARIS, SOLEIL) has implemented a supersonic-jet apparatus on the beamline to record absorption spectra at very low temperature (5-50 K) and in highly supersaturated gaseous conditions. Heatable slit-nozzles of various lengths and widths are used to set properly the stagnation conditions. A mechanical pumping (roots pumps) was preferred for its ability to evacuate important mass flow rates and therefore to boost the experimental sensitivity of the set-up, the counterpart being a non-negligible consumption of both carrier (argon, helium or nitrogen) and spectroscopic gases. Various molecular systems were investigated up to now using the Jet-AILES apparatus. The very low temperature achieved in the gas expansion was either used to simplify the rotation-vibration structure of monomers, such as SF6, CF4 or naphthalene, or to stabilize the formation of weakly bonded molecular complexes such as the trimer of HF or the dimer of acetic acid. The nucleation of water vapor and the nuclear spin conversion of water were also investigated under free-jet conditions in the mid infrared. High-resolution spectroscopy and analysis of the νb{2} + νb{3} combination band of SF6 in a supersonic jet expansion. V. Boudon, P. Asselin, P. Soulard, M. Goubet, T. R. Huet, R. Georges, O. Pirali, P. Roy, Mol. Phys. 111, 2154-2162 (2013) The far infrared spectrum of naphthalene characterized by high resolution synchrotron FTIR spectroscopy and anharmonic DFT calculations. O. Pirali, M. Goubet, T.R. Huet, R. Georges, P. Soulard, P. Asselin, J. Courbe, P. Roy and M

  3. Hi-fidelity multi-scale local processing for visually optimized far-infrared Herschel images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li Causi, G.; Schisano, E.; Liu, S. J.; Molinari, S.; Di Giorgio, A.

    2016-07-01

    In the context of the "Hi-Gal" multi-band full-plane mapping program for the Galactic Plane, as imaged by the Herschel far-infrared satellite, we have developed a semi-automatic tool which produces high definition, high quality color maps optimized for visual perception of extended features, like bubbles and filaments, against the high background variations. We project the map tiles of three selected bands onto a 3-channel panorama, which spans the central 130 degrees of galactic longitude times 2.8 degrees of galactic latitude, at the pixel scale of 3.2", in cartesian galactic coordinates. Then we process this image piecewise, applying a custom multi-scale local stretching algorithm, enforced by a local multi-scale color balance. Finally, we apply an edge-preserving contrast enhancement to perform an artifact-free details sharpening. Thanks to this tool, we have thus produced a stunning giga-pixel color image of the far-infrared Galactic Plane that we made publicly available with the recent release of the Hi-Gal mosaics and compact source catalog.

  4. Vehicle/Atmosphere Interaction Glows: Far Ultraviolet, Visible, and Infrared

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swenson, G.

    1999-01-01

    Spacecraft glow information has been gathered from a number of spacecraft including Atmospheric and Dynamic satellites, and Space Shuttles (numerous flights) with dedicated pallet flow observations on STS-39 (DOD) and STS-62 (NASA). In addition, a larger number of laboratory experiments with low energy oxygen beam studies have made important contributions to glow understanding. The following report provides information on three engineering models developed for spacecraft glow including the far ultraviolet to ultraviolet (1400-4000 A), and infrared (0.9-40 microns) spectral regions. The models include effects resulting from atmospheric density/altitude, spacecraft temperature, spacecraft material, and ram angle. Glow brightness would be predicted as a function of distance from surfaces for all wavelengths.

  5. Tuning direct bandgap GeSn/Ge quantum dots' interband and intraband useful emission wavelength: Towards CMOS compatible infrared optical devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baira, Mourad; Salem, Bassem; Madhar, Niyaz Ahamad; Ilahi, Bouraoui

    2018-05-01

    In this work, interband and intraband optical transitions from direct bandgap strained GeSn/Ge quantum dots are numerically tuned by evaluating the confined energies for heavy holes and electrons in D- and L-valley. The practically exploitable emission wavelength ranges for efficient use in light emission and sensing should fulfill specific criteria imposing the electrons confined states in D-valley to be sufficiently below those in L-valley. This study shows that GeSn quantum dots offer promising opportunity towards high efficient group IV based infrared optical devices operating in the mid-IR and far-IR wavelength regions.

  6. Harvesting renewable energy from Earth’s mid-infrared emissions

    PubMed Central

    Byrnes, Steven J.; Blanchard, Romain; Capasso, Federico

    2014-01-01

    It is possible to harvest energy from Earth's thermal infrared emission into outer space. We calculate the thermodynamic limit for the amount of power available, and as a case study, we plot how this limit varies daily and seasonally in a location in Oklahoma. We discuss two possible ways to make such an emissive energy harvester (EEH): A thermal EEH (analogous to solar thermal power generation) and an optoelectronic EEH (analogous to photovoltaic power generation). For the latter, we propose using an infrared-frequency rectifying antenna, and we discuss its operating principles, efficiency limits, system design considerations, and possible technological implementations. PMID:24591604

  7. Improvement in exercise capacity and delayed anaerobic metabolism induced by far-infrared-emitting garments in active healthy subjects: A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Mantegazza, Valentina; Contini, Mauro; Botti, Maurizia; Ferri, Ada; Dotti, Francesca; Berardi, Pierluigi; Agostoni, Piergiuseppe

    2018-01-01

    Background Far-infrared-emitting garments have several biological properties including the capability to increase blood perfusion in irradiated tissues. Design The aim of the study was to evaluate whether far-infrared radiation increases exercise capacity and delays anaerobic metabolism in healthy subjects. Methods With a double-blind, crossover protocol, a maximal cardiopulmonary exercise test was performed in 20 volunteers, wearing far-infrared or common sport clothes, identical in texture and colour. Results Comparing far-infrared with placebo garments, higher oxygen uptake at peak of exercise and longer endurance time were observed (peak oxygen uptake 38.0 ± 8.9 vs. 36.2 ± 8.5 ml/kg/min, endurance time 592 ± 85 vs. 570 ± 71 seconds; P < 0.01); the anaerobic threshold was significantly delayed (anaerobic threshold time 461 ± 93 vs. 417 ± 103 seconds) and anaerobic threshold oxygen uptake and anaerobic threshold oxygen pulse were significantly higher (25.3 ± 6.4 vs. 20.9 ± 5.4 ml/kg/min and 13.3 ± 3.8 vs. 12.4 ± 3.3 ml/beat, respectively). In 10 subjects the blood lactate concentration was measured every 2 minutes during exercise and at peak; lower values were observed with far-infrared fabrics compared to placebo from the eighth minute of exercise, reaching a significant difference at 10 minutes (3.6 ± 0.83 vs. 4.4 ± 0.96 mmol/l; P = 0.02). Conclusions In healthy subjects, exercising with a far-infrared outfit is associated with an improvement in exercise performance and a delay in anaerobic metabolism. In consideration of the acknowledged non-thermic properties of functionalised clothes, these effects could be mediated by an increase in oxygen peripheral delivery secondary to muscular vasodilation. These data suggest the need for testing far-infrared-emitting garments in patients with exercise limitation or in chronic cardiovascular and respiratory patients engaged in rehabilitation

  8. A Multi-Band Far-Infrared Survey with a Balloon-Borne Telescope. Final Report, 20 Nov. 1972 - 19 Feb. 1978. Ph.D. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobson, M. R.; Harwit, M.; Frederick, C.; Ward, D. B.; Melnick, G.; Stasavage, G.

    1978-01-01

    Nine additional radiation sources, above a 3-sigma confidence level of 1300 Jy, were identified at 100 microns by far infrared photometry of the galactic plane using a 0.4 meter aperture, liquid helium cooled, multichannel far infrared balloon-borne telescope. The instrument is described, including its electronics, pointing and suspension systems, and ground support equipment. Testing procedures and flight staging are discussed along with the reduction and analysis of the data acquired. The history of infrared astronomy is reviewed. General infrared techniques and the concerns of balloon astronomers are explored.

  9. Far-infrared image restoration analysis of the protostellar cluster in S140

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lester, D. F.; Harvey, P. M.; Joy, M.; Ellis, H. B., Jr.

    1986-01-01

    Image restoration techniques are applied to one-dimensional scans at 50 and 100 microns of the protostellar cluster in S140. These measurements resolve the surrounding nebula clearly, and Fourier methods are used to match the effective beam profiles at these wavelengths. This allows the radial distribution of temperature and dust column density to be derived at a diffraction limited spatial resolution of 23 arcsec (0.1 pc). Evidence for heating of the S140 molecular cloud by a nearby ionization front is established, and the dissociation of molecules inside the ionization front is spatially well correlated with the heating of the dust. The far-infrared spectral distribution of the three near-infrared sources within 10 arcsesc of the cluster center is presented.

  10. Far-infrared Fourier Transform Spectroscopy Measurements of Mn12-acetate.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tu, Jiufeng; Suzuki, Yoko; Mertes, K. M.; Sarachik, M. P.; Agladze, N. I.; Sievers, A. J.; Rumberger, E. M.; Hendrickson, D. N.; Christou, G.

    2004-03-01

    The transmission spectra of both powder samples and assemblies of single crystals of Mn_12-acetate were measured in the far infrared region (2.0 - 20 cm-1) using a Fourier transform technique. The energies of the observed aborption lines agree with those obtained by Mukhin et al. [1] using the backwards wave oscillator technique. The temperature dependence of the aborption lines, as well as the presence of additional absorption lines, will be discussed. [1] A. A. Mukhin, V. D. Travkin, A. K. Zvesdin, A. Caneschi, D. Gatteschi and R. Sessoli, Physica B 284-288 (2000) 1221-1222

  11. Enhanced infrared emissivity of CeO2 coatings by La doping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Jianping; Fan, Chenglei; Song, Guangping; Li, Yibin; He, Xiaodong; Zhang, Xinjiang; Sun, Yue; Du, Shanyi; Zhao, Yijie

    2013-09-01

    Pure CeO2 and La doped CeO2 (LDC) coatings were prepared on nickel-based substrates by electron beam physical vapor deposition at 1173 K. The infrared emissivity in 2.5-25 μm of LDC coatings was enhanced with the increase of La concentration at high temperature 873-1273 K. Compared to the undoped CeO2 coating, the infrared emissivity of 16.7% LDC coating increases by 55%, and reaches up to 0.9 at 873 K. The enhancement of doped coatings’ emissivity is attributed to the increasing lattice absorption and free-carrier absorption. The high emissivity LDC coatings show a promising potential in high temperature application.

  12. Light-Regulated Polymerization under Near-Infrared/Far-Red Irradiation Catalyzed by Bacteriochlorophyll a.

    PubMed

    Shanmugam, Sivaprakash; Xu, Jiangtao; Boyer, Cyrille

    2016-01-18

    Photoregulated polymerizations are typically conducted using high-energy (UV and blue) light, which may lead to undesired side reactions. Furthermore, as the penetration of visible light is rather limited, the range of applications with such wavelengths is likewise limited. We herein report the first living radical polymerization that can be activated and deactivated by irradiation with near-infrared (NIR) and far-red light. Bacteriochlorophyll a (Bachl a) was employed as a photoredox catalyst for photoinduced electron transfer/reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (PET-RAFT) polymerization. Well-defined polymers were thus synthesized within a few hours under NIR (λ=850 nm) and far-red (λ=780 nm) irradiation with excellent control over the molecular weight (M(n)/M(w)<1.25). Taking advantage of the good penetration of NIR light, we showed that the polymerization also proceeded smoothly when a translucent barrier was placed between light source and reaction vessel. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Optical characterisation and analysis of multi-mode pixels for use in future far infrared telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCarthy, Darragh; Trappe, Neil; Murphy, J. Anthony; Doherty, Stephen; Gradziel, Marcin; O'Sullivan, Créidhe; Audley, Michael D.; de Lange, Gert; van der Vorst, Maarten

    2016-07-01

    In this paper we present the development and verification of feed horn simulation code based on the mode- matching technique to simulate the electromagnetic performance of waveguide based structures of rectangular cross-section. This code is required to model multi-mode pyramidal horns which may be required for future far infrared (far IR) space missions where wavelengths in the range of 30 to 200 µm will be analysed. Multi-mode pyramidal horns can be used effectively to couple radiation to sensitive superconducting devices like Kinetic Inductance Detectors (KIDs) or Transition Edge Sensor (TES) detectors. These detectors could be placed in integrating cavities (to further increase the efficiency) with an absorbing layer used to couple to the radiation. The developed code is capable of modelling each of these elements, and so will allow full optical characterisation of such pixels and allow an optical efficiency to be calculated effectively. As the signals being measured at these short wavelengths are at an extremely low level, the throughput of the system must be maximised and so multi-mode systems are proposed. To this end, the focal planes of future far IR missions may consist of an array of multi-mode rectangular feed horns feeding an array of, for example, TES devices contained in individual integrating cavities. Such TES arrays have been fabricated by SRON Groningen and are currently undergoing comprehensive optical, electrical and thermal verification. In order to fully understand and validate the optical performance of the receiver system, it is necessary to develop comprehensive and robust optical models in parallel. We outline the development and verification of this optical modelling software by means of applying it to a representative multi-mode system operating at 150 GHz in order to obtain sufficiently short execution times so as to comprehensively test the code. SAFARI (SPICA FAR infrared Instrument) is a far infrared imaging grating spectrometer

  14. “Super-deblended” Dust Emission in Galaxies. I. The GOODS-North Catalog and the Cosmic Star Formation Rate Density out to Redshift 6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Daizhong; Daddi, Emanuele; Dickinson, Mark; Owen, Frazer; Pannella, Maurilio; Sargent, Mark; Béthermin, Matthieu; Magdis, Georgios; Gao, Yu; Shu, Xinwen; Wang, Tao; Jin, Shuowen; Inami, Hanae

    2018-02-01

    We present a new technique to measure multi-wavelength “super-deblended” photometry from highly confused images, which we apply to Herschel and ground-based far-infrared (FIR) and (sub-)millimeter (mm) data in the northern field of the Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey. There are two key novelties. First, starting with a large database of deep Spitzer 24 μm and VLA 20 cm detections that are used to define prior positions for fitting the FIR/submm data, we perform an active selection of useful priors independently at each frequency band, moving from less to more confused bands. Exploiting knowledge of redshift and all available photometry, we identify hopelessly faint priors that we remove from the fitting pool. This approach significantly reduces blending degeneracies and allows reliable photometry to be obtained for galaxies in FIR+mm bands. Second, we obtain well-behaved, nearly Gaussian flux density uncertainties, individually tailored to all fitted priors for each band. This is done by exploiting extensive simulations that allow us to calibrate the conversion of formal fitting uncertainties to realistic uncertainties, depending on directly measurable quantities. We achieve deeper detection limits with high fidelity measurements and uncertainties at FIR+mm bands. As an illustration of the utility of these measurements, we identify 70 galaxies with z≥slant 3 and reliable FIR+mm detections. We present new constraints on the cosmic star formation rate density at 3< z< 6, finding a significant contribution from z≥slant 3 dusty galaxies that are missed by optical-to-near-infrared color selection. Photometric measurements for 3306 priors, including more than 1000 FIR+mm detections, are released publicly with our catalog.

  15. Douglas-Fir Tussock Moth

    Treesearch

    Boyd E. Wickman; Richard R. Mason; Galen C. Trostle

    1981-01-01

    The Douglas-fir tussock moth (Orgyia pseudotsugata McDunnough) is an important defoliator of true firs and Douglas-fir in Western North America. Severe tussock moth outbreaks have occurred in British Columbia, Idaho, Washington, Oregon, Nevada, California, Arizona, and New Mexico, but the area subject to attack is more extensive

  16. Multi-wavelength seds of Herschel-selected galaxies in the cosmos field

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Nicholas; Sanders, D. B.; Casey, Caitlin M.

    2013-12-01

    We combine Herschel Photodetector Array Camera and Spectrometer and Spectral and Photometric Imaging Receiver maps of the full 2 deg{sup 2} Cosmic Evolution Survey (COSMOS) field with existing multi-wavelength data to obtain template and model-independent optical-to-far-infrared spectral energy distributions (SEDs) for 4218 Herschel-selected sources with log(L {sub IR}/L {sub ☉}) = 9.4-13.6 and z = 0.02-3.54. Median SEDs are created by binning the optical to far-infrared (FIR) bands available in COSMOS as a function of infrared luminosity. Herschel probes rest-frame wavelengths where the bulk of the infrared radiation is emitted, allowing us to more accurately determine fundamental dust properties ofmore » our sample of infrared luminous galaxies. We find that the SED peak wavelength (λ{sub peak}) decreases and the dust mass (M {sub dust}) increases with increasing total infrared luminosity (L {sub IR}). In the lowest infrared luminosity galaxies (log(L {sub IR}/L {sub ☉}) = 10.0-11.5), we see evidence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) features (λ ∼ 7-9 μm), while in the highest infrared luminosity galaxies (L {sub IR} > 10{sup 12} L {sub ☉}) we see an increasing contribution of hot dust and/or power-law emission, consistent with the presence of heating from an active galactic nucleus (AGN). We study the relationship between stellar mass and star formation rate of our sample of infrared luminous galaxies and find no evidence that Herschel-selected galaxies follow the SFR/M {sub *} 'main sequence' as previously determined from studies of optically selected, star-forming galaxies. Finally, we compare the mid-infrared to FIR properties of our infrared luminous galaxies using the previously defined diagnostic, IR8 ≡ L {sub IR}/L {sub 8}, and find that galaxies with L {sub IR} ≳ 10{sup 11.3} L {sub ☉} tend to systematically lie above (× 3-5) the IR8 'infrared main sequence', suggesting either suppressed PAH emission or an increasing

  17. Germanium blocked impurity band far infrared detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossington, Carolyn Sally

    1988-04-01

    The infrared portion of the electromagnetic spectrum has been of interest to scientist since the eighteenth century when Sir William Herschel discovered the infrared as he measured temperatures in the sun's spectrum and found that there was energy beyond the red. In the late nineteenth century, Thomas Edison established himself as the first infrared astronomer to look beyond the solar system when he observed the star Arcturus in the infrared. Significant advances in infrared technology and physics, long since Edison's time, have resulted in many scientific developments, such as the Infrared Astronomy Satellite (IRAS) which was launched in 1983, semiconductor infrared detectors for materials characterization, military equipment such as night-vision goggles and infrared surveillance equipment. It is now planned that cooled semiconductor infrared detectors will play a major role in the Star Wars nuclear defense scheme proposed by the Reagan administration.

  18. Mid-infrared, long wave infrared (4-12 μm) molecular emission signatures from pharmaceuticals using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS).

    PubMed

    Yang, Clayton S-C; Brown, Ei E; Kumi-Barimah, Eric; Hommerich, Uwe H; Jin, Feng; Trivedi, Sudhir B; Samuels, Alan C; Snyder, A Peter

    2014-01-01

    In an effort to augment the atomic emission spectra of conventional laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) and to provide an increase in selectivity, mid-wave to long-wave infrared (IR), LIBS studies were performed on several organic pharmaceuticals. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy signature molecular emissions of target organic compounds are observed for the first time in the IR fingerprint spectral region between 4-12 μm. The IR emission spectra of select organic pharmaceuticals closely correlate with their respective standard Fourier transform infrared spectra. Intact and/or fragment sample molecular species evidently survive the LIBS event. The combination of atomic emission signatures derived from conventional ultraviolet-visible-near-infrared LIBS with fingerprints of intact molecular entities determined from IR LIBS promises to be a powerful tool for chemical detection.

  19. Impact of the plasmonic near- and far-field resonance-energy shift on the enhancement of infrared vibrational signals.

    PubMed

    Vogt, Jochen; Huck, Christian; Neubrech, Frank; Toma, Andrea; Gerbert, David; Pucci, Annemarie

    2015-09-07

    We report on the impact of the differing spectral near- and far-field properties of resonantly excited gold nanoantennas on the vibrational signal enhancement in surface-enhanced infrared absorption (SEIRA). The knowledge on both spectral characteristics is of considerable importance for the optimization of plasmonic nanostructures for surface-enhanced spectroscopy techniques. From infrared micro-spectroscopic measurements, we simultaneously obtain spectral information on the plasmonic far-field response and, via SEIRA spectroscopy of a test molecule, on the near-field enhancement. The molecular test layer of 4,4'-bis(N-carbazolyl)-1,1'-biphenyl (CBP) was deposited on the surface of gold nanoantennas with different lengths and thus different far-field resonance energies. We carefully studied the Fano-type vibrational lines in a broad spectral window, in particular, how the various vibrational signals are enhanced in relation to the ratio of the far-field plasmonic resonance and the molecular vibrational frequencies. As a detailed experimental proof of former simulation studies, we show the clearly red-shifted maximum SEIRA enhancement compared to the far-field resonance.

  20. Spatially scanned two-color mid-infrared interferometer for FTU

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canton, A.; Innocente, P.; Martini, S.; Tasinato, L.; Tudisco, O.

    2001-01-01

    The design of a scanning beam two-color mid-infrared (MIR) interferometer is presented. The diagnostic is being developed for the Frascati Tokamak Upgrade (FTU) which calls for a new interferometer to perform detailed study of advanced confinement regimes in D-shaped plasmas. After performing a feasibility study and a prototype test, we designed a scanning interferometer based on a resonant tilting mirror providing 40 chords of ≈1 cm diameter and a full profile every 62 μs. Such a high number of chords is obtained with a very simple optical scheme, resulting in a system which is compact, low cost, and easy to align. An important feature of the interferometer is its higher immunity to fringe jumps compared to conventional far infrared (FIR) systems. Three main factors contribute to that: the high critical density associated to MIR beams, the large bandwidth provided by 40 MHz heterodyne detection, and the fact that each scan provides a "self-consistent" profile.

  1. Environmental Temperature Effect on the Far-Infrared Absorption Features of Aromatic-Based Titan's Aerosol Analogs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gautier, Thomas; Trainer, Melissa G.; Loeffler, Mark J.; Sebree, Joshua A.; Anderson, Carrie M.

    2016-01-01

    Benzene detection has been reported in Titans atmosphere both in the stratosphere at ppb levels by remote sensing and in the thermosphere at ppm levels by the Cassini's Ion and Neutral Mass Spectrometer. This detection supports the idea that aromatic and heteroaromatic reaction pathways may play an important role in Titans atmospheric chemistry, especially in the formation of aerosols. Indeed, aromatic molecules are easily dissociated by ultraviolet radiation and can therefore contribute significantly to aerosol formation. It has been shown recently that aerosol analogs produced from a gas mixture containing a low concentration of aromatic and/or heteroaromatic molecules (benzene, naphthalene, pyridine, quinoline and isoquinoline) have spectral signatures below 500/cm, a first step towards reproducing the aerosol spectral features observed by Cassini's Composite InfraRed Spectrometer (CIRS) in the far infrared. In this work we investigate the influence of environmental temperature on the absorption spectra of such aerosol samples, simulating the temperature range to which aerosols, once formed, are exposed during their transport through Titans stratosphere. Our results show that environmental temperature does not have any major effect on the spectral shape of these aerosol analogs in the far-infrared, which is consistent with the CIRS observations.

  2. CORSAIR-Calibrated Observations of Radiance Spectra from the Atmosphere in the Far- Infrared

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mlynczak, M. G.; Johnson, D.; Abedin, N.; Liu, X.; Kratz, D.; Jordan, D.; Wang, J.; Bingham, G.; Latvakoski, H.; Bowman, K.; Kaplan, S.

    2008-12-01

    The CORSAIR project is a new NASA Instrument Incubator Project (IIP) whose primary goal is to develop and demonstrate the necessary technologies to achieve SI-traceable, on-orbit measurements of Earth's spectral radiance in the far-infrared (far-IR). The far-IR plays a vital role in the energy balance of the Earth yet its spectrum has not been comprehensively observed from space for the purposes of climate sensing. The specific technologies being developed under CORSAIR include: passively cooled, antenna-coupled terahertz detectors for the far-IR (by Raytheon Vision Systems); accurately calibrated, SI-traceable blackbody sources for the far-IR (by Space Dynamics Laboratory); and high-performance broad bandpass beamsplitters (by ITT). These technologies complement those already developed under past Langley IIP projects (FIRST; INFLAME) in the areas of Fourier Transform Spectrometers and dedicated far-IR beamsplitters. The antenna-coupled far-IR detectors will be validated in the FIRST instrument at Langley. The SI-traceable far-IR blackbodies will be developed in conjunction with the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). An overview of the CORSAIR technologies will be presented as well as their larger role in the Climate Absolute Radiance and Refractivity Observatory (CLARREO) mission. Upon successful completion of CORSAIR these IIP efforts will provide the necessary technologies to achieve the first comprehensive, accurate, high-resolution measurements from a satellite of the far-IR spectrum of the Earth and its atmosphere, enabling major advances in our understanding of Earth's climate.

  3. A study of the far infrared counterparts of new candidates for planetary nebulae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iyengar, K. V. K.

    1986-05-01

    The IRAS Point Source Catalog was searched for infrared counterparts of the fourteen new candidates for planetary nebulae of low surface brightness detected by Hartl and Tritton (1985). Five of these candidates were identified with sources in the Catalog. All five nebulae are found in regions of high cirrus flux at 100 microns, and all have both point sources and small size extended sources with numbers varying from field to field. The infrared emission from these nebulae is connected with dust temperatures of about 100 K, characteristic of planetary nebulae.

  4. The physics of heterodyne detection in the far-infrared: Transition from electric-field to photon-absorption detection in a simple system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Teich, M. C.

    1980-01-01

    The history of heterodyne detection is reviewed from the radiowave to the optical regions of the electromagnetic spectrum with emphasion the submillimeter/far infrared. The transition from electric field to photon absorption detection in a simple system is investigated. The response of an isolated two level detector to a coherent source of incident radiation is calculated for both heterodyne and video detection. When the processes of photon absorption and photon emission cannot be distinguished, the relative detected power at double- and sum-frequencies is found to be multiplied by a coefficient, which is less than or equal to unity, and which depends on the incident photon energy and on the effective temperature of the system.

  5. Electron impact contribution to infrared NO emissions in auroral conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, L.; Brunger, M. J.

    2007-11-01

    Infrared emissions from nitric oxide, other than nightglow, are observed in aurora, principally due to a chemiluminescent reaction between excited nitrogen atoms and oxygen molecules that produces vibrationally excited NO. The rates for this chemiluminescent reaction have recently been revised. Based on new measurements of electron impact vibrational excitation of NO, it has been suggested that electron impact may also be significant in producing auroral NO emissions. We show results of a detailed calculation which predicts the infrared spectrum observed in rocket measurements, using the revised chemiluminescent rates and including electron impact excitation. For emissions from the second vibrational level and above, the shape of the spectrum can be reproduced within the statistical errors of the analysis of the measurements, although there is an unexplained discrepancy in the absolute value of the emissions. The inclusion of electron impact improves the agreement of the shape of the predicted spectrum with the measurements by accounting for part of the previously unexplained peak in emissions from the first vibrational level.

  6. A new efficient far-infrared optically pumped laser Gas - CH3(O-18)(H)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ioli, N.; Moretti, A.; Pereira, D.; Strumia, F.; Garelli, G.

    1989-04-01

    The (C-12)(H3)(O-18)(H) molecule has been investigated for new far-infrared laser lines by optically pumping it with a CW waveguide CO2 laser. The larger tunability (318 MHz) with respect to a conventional CO2 laser permits the pumping of many (C-12)(H3)(O-18)(H) lines. As a consequence 100 new laser lines have been discovered, ranging from 34.6 to 653.2-microns in wavelength. The infrared spectrum of (C-12)(H3)(O-18)(H) has been observed and all the fundamental vibration energies measured.

  7. Infrared Emission from the Smallest Active Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barth, Aaron; Greene, Jenny; Ho, Luis

    2006-05-01

    Virtually all of our current knowledge of black hole demographics, both in nearby inactive galaxies and in AGNs, comes from observations of black holes with masses between a few million and a few billion solar masses in host galaxies with stellar velocity dispersions between about 70 and 400 km/sec. Searching for smaller black holes in low-mass galaxies can yield important clues to the origin and early evolution of supermassive black holes, and AGN surveys are the best available way to identify such objects. Using the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, we have identified 19 Seyfert 1 galaxies with black hole mass below 10^6 solar masses (Greene & Ho 2004), and 20 Seyfert 2 galaxies having stellar velocity dispersions smaller than 70 km/sec as determined by new Keck observations. These AGN samples offer a unique opportunity to study the very early growth stages of black holes and their host galaxies. Spitzer observations of mid-infrared emission will be the best available calorimeter of the energetics of these tiny AGNs. Our primary goal is to determine the infrared contribution to the bolometric luminosities, which will be a key to understanding the black hole accretion rates. From the infrared spectral shapes we will constrain the dust temperatures and search for silicate features in emission or absorption that may indicate the presence of an obscuring torus, and which will help to determine whether the Type 1 and Type 2 objects differ primarily as a result of our viewing angle, as in classic AGN unified models. PAH features and narrow emission lines will be used to diagnose the relative contributions of AGN and star formation to the infrared luminosity. To accomplish these goals, we request IRS staring-mode spectroscopy in the SL2, SL1, LL2, and LL1 settings for our Sloan-selected sample of 19 Seyfert 1s and 20 Seyfert 2s, as well as NGC 4395 and POX 52, which are the prototypical nearby examples of Seyfert nuclei in dwarf host galaxies.

  8. Downwelling Far-Infrared Radiance Spectra Measured by FIRST at Cerro Toco, Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mast, J. C.; Mlynczak, M. G.; Cageao, R.; Kratz, D. P.; Latvakoski, H.; Johnson, D. G.; Mlawer, E. J.; Turner, D. D.

    2015-12-01

    The Far-Infrared Spectroscopy of the Troposphere (FIRST) instrument is a Fourier transform spectrometer developed by NASA Langley Research Center in collaboration with the Space Dynamics Laboratory and the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics. FIRST was initially developed for measuring the far-infrared portion of Earth's longwave spectrum as a balloon borne instrument and later was reconfigured to operate as a ground-based instrument. In its current ground-based configuration FIRST was deployed at 17500 ft on Cerro Toco, a mountain in the Atacama Desert of Chile, from August to October, 2009. There the integrated precipitable water (IPW) was as low as 0.02 cm. FIRST measurements from days with IPW between 0.024 and 0.035 cm during the campaign are presented here between 200 cm-1 and 800 cm-1. Significant spectral development in the far-IR is observed over the entire 200 cm-1 to 800 cm-1 band. Water vapor and temperature profiles from radiosonde and GVRP measurements are used as inputs to the AER Line-by-Line Radiative Transfer Model (LBLRTM) utilizing the AER v3.2 line parameter database. Uncertainties in both the measured and modeled radiances are accounted for in this study. The residual LBLRTM - FIRST is calculated to assess agreement between the measured and modeled spectra. Measured and model radiances generally agree to within the combined uncertainties for wavenumbers greater than 360 cm-1. At wavenumbers less than 360 cm-1 persistent troughs in the residual are present outside of the combined uncertainties. These features are present on different days and at different water vapor amounts. Possible solutions for these features are discussed.

  9. VizieR Online Data Catalog: FIR data of IR-bright dust-obscured galaxies (DOGs) (Toba+, 2017)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toba, Y.; Nagao, T.; Wang, W.-H.; Matsuhara, H.; Akiyama, M.; Goto, T.; Koyama, Y.; Ohyama, Y.; Yamamura, I.

    2017-11-01

    We investigate the star-forming activity of a sample of infrared (IR)-bright dust-obscured galaxies (DOGs) that show an extreme red color in the optical and IR regime, (i-[22])AB>7.0. Combining an IR-bright DOG sample with the flux at 22μm>3.8mJy discovered by Toba & Nagao (2016ApJ...820...46T) with the IRAS faint source catalog version 2 and AKARI far-IR (FIR) all-sky survey bright source catalog version 2, we selected 109 DOGs with FIR data. For a subsample of seven IR-bright DOGs with spectroscopic redshifts (0.07

  10. Far-infrared vibration--rotation-tunneling spectroscopy of Ar--NH sub 3 : Intermolecular vibrations and effective angular potential energy surface

    SciTech Connect

    Schmuttenmaer, C.A.; Cohen, R.C.; Loeser, J.G.

    Two new intermolecular vibration--rotation-tunneling (VRT) bands of Ar--NH{sub 3} have been measured using tunable far infrared laser spectroscopy. We have unambiguously assigned these and a previously measured FIR band (Gwo {ital et} {ital al}., Mol. Phys. {bold 71}, 453 (1990)) as {Pi}(1{sub 0}, {ital n}=0){l arrow}{Sigma}(0{sub 0}, {ital n}=0), {Sigma}(1{sub 0}, {ital n}=0){l arrow}{Sigma}(0{sub 0}, {ital n}=0), and {Sigma}(0{sub 0}, {ital n}=1){l arrow}{Sigma}(0{sub 0}, {ital n}=0). The three upper states of these are found to be strongly mixed by anisotropy and Coriolis effects. A simultaneous least squares fit of all transitions has yielded vibrational frequencies, rotational and centrifugal distortion constants,more » and a Coriolis parameter as well as quadrupole hyperfine coupling constants for the upper states. An effective angular potential energy surface for Ar--NH{sub 3} in its lowest stretching state has been determined from these data, after explicitly accounting for the effects of bend stretch interactions. Features of the surface include a global minimum at the near T-shaped configuration ({theta}=90{degree}), a 30 cm{sup {minus}1} to 60 cm{sup {minus}1} barrier to rotation at {theta}=180{degree} (or 0{degree}), and a very low barrier or possibly a secondary minimum at {theta}=0{degree} (or 180{degree}). Both attractive and repulsive interactions are shown to contribute significantly to the anisotropic forces in the complex. Comparison with {ital ab} {ital initio} calculations are presented.« less

  11. Observing Star and Planet Formation in the Submillimeter and Far Infrared

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yorke, Harold W.

    2004-01-01

    Stars from in the densest parts of cold interstellar clouds which-due to presence of obscuring dust-cannot be observed with optical telescopes. Recent rapid progress in understanding how stars and planets are formed has gone hand in hand with our ability to observe extremely young systems in the infrared and (submillimeter) spectral regimes. The detections and silhouetted imaging of disks around young objects in the visible and NIR have demonstrated the common occurrence of circumstellar disks and their associated jets and outflows in star forming regions. However, in order to obtain quantitative information pertaining to even earlier evolutionary phases, studies at longer wavelengths are necessary. From spectro-photometric imaging at all wavelengths we learn about the temperature and density structure of the young stellar environment. From narrow band imaging in the far infrared and submillimeter spectral regimes we can learn much about the velocity structure and the chemical makeup (pre-biotic material) of the planet-forming regions.

  12. The MPE/UCB far-infrared imaging Fabry-Perot interferometer (FIFI)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poglitsch, A.; Geis, N.; Genzel, R.; Haggerty, M.; Beeman, J. W.

    1991-01-01

    FIFI, an imaging spectrometer with two or three Fabry-Perot interferometers in a series for astronomical observations in the FIR range, is described. Spectral resolutions of 2 km/s can be obtained with FIFI. Design considerations are discussed as well as optics, the detector array, the transimpedance amplifier array, signal demodulation, data acquisition, and instrument control.

  13. Foreground Bias from Parametric Models of Far-IR Dust Emission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kogut, A.; Fixsen, D. J.

    2016-01-01

    We use simple toy models of far-IR dust emission to estimate the accuracy to which the polarization of the cosmic microwave background can be recovered using multi-frequency fits, if the parametric form chosen for the fitted dust model differs from the actual dust emission. Commonly used approximations to the far-IR dust spectrum yield CMB residuals comparable to or larger than the sensitivities expected for the next generation of CMB missions, despite fitting the combined CMB plus foreground emission to precision 0.1 percent or better. The Rayleigh-Jeans approximation to the dust spectrum biases the fitted dust spectral index by (Delta)(Beta)(sub d) = 0.2 and the inflationary B-mode amplitude by (Delta)(r) = 0.03. Fitting the dust to a modified blackbody at a single temperature biases the best-fit CMB by (Delta)(r) greater than 0.003 if the true dust spectrum contains multiple temperature components. A 13-parameter model fitting two temperature components reduces this bias by an order of magnitude if the true dust spectrum is in fact a simple superposition of emission at different temperatures, but fails at the level (Delta)(r) = 0.006 for dust whose spectral index varies with frequency. Restricting the observing frequencies to a narrow region near the foreground minimum reduces these biases for some dust spectra but can increase the bias for others. Data at THz frequencies surrounding the peak of the dust emission can mitigate these biases while providing a direct determination of the dust temperature profile.

  14. Infrared camera assessment of skin surface temperature--effect of emissivity.

    PubMed

    Bernard, V; Staffa, E; Mornstein, V; Bourek, A

    2013-11-01

    Infrared thermoimaging is one of the options for object temperature analysis. Infrared thermoimaging is unique due to the non-contact principle of measurement. So it is often used in medicine and for scientific experimental measurements. The presented work aims to determine whether the measurement results could be influenced by topical treatment of the hand surface by various substances. The authors attempted to determine whether the emissivity can be neglected or not in situations of topical application of substances such as ultrasound gel, ointment, disinfection, etc. The results of experiments showed that the value of surface temperature is more or less distorted by the topically applied substance. Our findings demonstrate the effect of emissivity of applied substances on resulting temperature and showed the necessity to integrate the emissivity into calculation of the final surface temperature. Infrared thermoimaging can be an appropriate method for determining the temperature of organisms, if this is understood as the surface temperature, and the surrounding environment and its temperature is taken into account. Copyright © 2012 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Application of far-infrared spectroscopy to the structural identification of protein materials.

    PubMed

    Han, Yanchen; Ling, Shengjie; Qi, Zeming; Shao, Zhengzhong; Chen, Xin

    2018-05-03

    Although far-infrared (IR) spectroscopy has been shown to be a powerful tool to determine peptide structure and to detect structural transitions in peptides, it has been overlooked in the characterization of proteins. Herein, we used far-IR spectroscopy to monitor the structure of four abundant non-bioactive proteins, namely, soybean protein isolate (SPI), pea protein isolate (PPI) and two types of silk fibroins (SFs), domestic Bombyx mori and wild Antheraea pernyi. The two globular proteins SPI and PPI result in broad and weak far-IR bands (between 50 and 700 cm-1), in agreement with those of some other bioactive globular proteins previously studied (lysozyme, myoglobin, hemoglobin, etc.) that generally only have random amino acid sequences. Interestingly, the two SFs, which are characterized by a structure composed of highly repetitive motifs, show several sharp far-IR characteristic absorption peaks. Moreover, some of these characteristic peaks (such as the peaks at 260 and 428 cm-1 in B. mori, and the peaks at 245 and 448 cm-1 in A. pernyi) are sensitive to conformational changes; hence, they can be directly used to monitor conformational transitions in SFs. Furthermore, since SF absorption bands clearly differ from those of globular proteins and different SFs even show distinct adsorption bands, far-IR spectroscopy can be applied to distinguish and determine the specific SF component within protein blends.

  16. Exploring the Large Scale Anisotropy in the Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation at 170 GHz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganga, Kenneth Matthew

    1994-01-01

    In this thesis, data from the Far Infra-Red Survey (FIRS), a balloon-borne experiment designed to measure the large scale anisotropy in the cosmic microwave background radiation, are analyzed. The FIRS operates in four frequency bands at 170, 280, 480, and 670 GHz, using an approximately Gaussian beam with a 3.8 deg full-width-at-half-maximum. A cross-correlation with the COBE/DMR first-year maps yields significant results, confirming the DMR detection of anisotropy in the cosmic microwave background radiation. Analysis of the FIRS data alone sets bounds on the amplitude of anisotropy under the assumption that the fluctuations are described by a Harrison-Peebles-Zel'dovich spectrum and further analysis sets limits on the index of the primordial density fluctuations for an Einstein-DeSitter universe. Galactic dust emission is discussed and limits are set on the magnitude of possible systematic errors in the measurement.

  17. Radial growth of grand fir and Douglas-fir 10 years after defoliation by the Douglas-fir tussock moth in the Blue Mountains outbreak.

    Treesearch

    Boyd E. Wickman

    1986-01-01

    Radial-growth recovery related to amount of tree defoliation was measured 10 years after a severe outbreak of Douglas-fir tussock moth (Orgyia pseudotsugata (McDunnough). For the period 1978-82, growth of qrand fir surpassed and was significantly greater than in the preoutbreak period, 1968-72. Douglas-fir growth during the postoutbreak period...

  18. Douglas-fir tussock moth- and Douglas-fir beetle-caused mortality in a ponderosa pine/Douglas-fir forest in the Colorado Front Range, USA

    Treesearch

    Jose F. Negron; Ann M. Lynch; Willis C. Schaupp; Vladimir Bocharnikov

    2014-01-01

    An outbreak of the Douglas-fir tussock moth, Orgyia pseudotsugata McDunnough, occurred in the South Platte River drainage on the Pike-San Isabel National Forest in the Colorado Front Range attacking Douglas-fir, Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco. Stocking levels, species composition, and tree size in heavily and lightly defoliated stands were similar. Douglas-fir...

  19. Risk-rating systems for mature red fir and white fir in northern California

    Treesearch

    George T. Ferrell

    1980-01-01

    On the basis of crown and bole characteristics, risk-rating systems to predict the probability that a tree will die within 5 years were developed for mature red fir and white fir in northern California. The systems apply to firs at least 10 inches (25.4 cm) in diameter-at-breast-height (d.b.h.), growing in mature stands, with the original overstory at least partially...

  20. Foliar Temperature Gradients as Drivers of Budburst in Douglas-fir: New Applications of Thermal Infrared Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, R.; Lintz, H. E.; Thomas, C. K.; Salino-Hugg, M. J.; Niemeier, J. J.; Kruger, A.

    2014-12-01

    Budburst, the initiation of annual growth in plants, is sensitive to climate and is used to monitor physiological responses to climate change. Accurately forecasting budburst response to these changes demands an understanding of the drivers of budburst. Current research and predictive models focus on population or landscape-level drivers, yet fundamental questions regarding drivers of budburst diversity within an individual tree remain unanswered. We hypothesize that foliar temperature, an important physiological property, may be a dominant driver of differences in the timing of budburst within a single tree. Studying these differences facilitates development of high throughput phenotyping technology used to improve predictive budburst models. We present spatial and temporal variation in foliar temperature as a function of physical drivers culminating in a single-tree budburst model based on foliar temperature. We use a novel remote sensing approach, combined with on-site meteorological measurements, to demonstrate important intra-canopy differences between air and foliar temperature. We mounted a thermal infrared camera within an old-growth canopy at the H.J. Andrews LTER forest and imaged an 8m by 10.6m section of a Douglas-fir crown. Sampling one image per minute, approximately 30,000 thermal infrared images were collected over a one-month period to approximate foliar temperature before, during and after budburst. Using time-lapse photography in the visible spectrum, we documented budburst at fifteen-minute intervals with eight cameras stratified across the thermal infrared camera's field of view. Within the imaged tree's crown, we installed a pyranometer, 2D sonic anemometer and fan-aspirated thermohygrometer and collected 3,000 measurements of net shortwave radiation, wind speed, air temperature and relative humidity. We documented a difference of several days in the timing of budburst across both vertical and horizontal gradients. We also observed clear

  1. Infrared fine-structure line diagnostics of shrouded active galactic nuclei

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Voit, G. M.

    1993-01-01

    Far-infrared spectroscopy of celestial objects will improve dramatically in the coming decade, allowing astronomers to use fine-structure line emission to probe photoionized regions obscured in the optical band by thick clouds of dust. The ultraluminous far-IR galaxies revealed by IRAS, quasar-like in luminosity but smothered in molecular gas, probably conceal either immense starbursts or luminous active nuclei. In both scenarios, these objects ought to produce copious infrared fine-structure emission with several lines comparable to H(beta) in luminosity. This paper shows how these lines, if detected, can be used to determine the electron densities and far-IR obscurations of shrouded photoionized regions and to constrain the shape and ionization parameter of the ionizing spectra. The presence of (Ne V) emission in particular will distinguish shrouded AGN's from shrouded starbursts. Since all active galaxies photoionize at least some surrounding material, these diagnostics can also be applied to active galaxies in general and will aid in studying how an active nucleus interacts with the interstellar medium of its host galaxy.

  2. Infrared coronal emission lines and the possibility of their maser emission in Seyfert nuclei

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenhouse, Matthew A.; Feldman, Uri; Smith, Howard A.; Klapisch, Marcel; Bhatia, Anand K.; Bar-Shalom, Abi

    1993-01-01

    Energetic emitting regions have traditionally been studied via x-ray, UV and optical emission lines of highly ionized intermediate mass elements. Such lines are often referred to as 'coronal lines' since the ions, when produced by collisional ionization, reach maximum abundance at electron temperatures of approx. 10(exp 5) - 10(exp 6) K typical of the sun's upper atmosphere. However, optical and UV coronal lines are also observed in a wide variety of Galactic and extragalactic sources including the Galactic interstellar medium, nova shells, supernova remnants, galaxies and QSOs. Infrared coronal lines are providing a new window for observation of energetic emitting regions in heavily dust obscured sources such as infrared bright merging galaxies and Seyfert nuclei and new opportunities for model constraints on physical conditions in these sources. Unlike their UV and optical counterparts, infrared coronal lines can be primary coolants of collisionally ionized plasmas with 10(exp 4) less than T(sub e)(K) less than 10(exp 6) which produce little or no optical or shorter wavelength coronal line emission. In addition, they provide a means to probe heavily dust obscured emitting regions which are often inaccessible to optical or UV line studies. In this poster, we provide results from new model calculations to support upcoming Infrared Space Observatory (ISO) and current ground-based observing programs involving infrared coronal emission lines in AGN. We present a complete list of infrared (lambda greater than 1 micron) lines due to transitions within the ground configurations 2s(2)2p(k) and 3s(2)3p(k) (k = 1 to 5) or the first excited configurations 2s2p and 3s3p of highly ionized (x greater than or equal to 100 eV) astrophysically abundant (n(X)/n(H) greater than or equal to 10(exp -6)) elements. Included are approximately 74 lines in ions of O, Ne, Na, Mg, Al, Si, S, Ar, Ca, Fe, and Ni spanning a wavelength range of approximately 1 - 280 microns. We present new

  3. Measured and Modeled Downwelling Far-Infrared Radiances in Very Dry Environments and Calibration Requirements for Future Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mast, J. C.; Mlynczak, M. G.; Cageao, R.; Kratz, D. P.; Latvakoski, H.; Johnson, D. G.; Mlawer, E. J.; Turner, D. D.

    2016-12-01

    Downwelling radiances measured by the Far-Infrared Spectroscopy of the Troposphere (FIRST) instrument in an environment with integrated precipitable water as low as 0.03 cm are compared with calculated spectra in the far-infrared and mid-infrared. In its current ground-based configuration FIRST was deployed to 5.38 km on Cerro Toco, a mountain in the Atacama Desert of Chile, from August to October 2009. There FIRST took part in the Radiative Heating in Unexplored Bands Campaign Part 2. Water vapor and temperature profiles from an optimal-estimation-based physical retrieval algorithm (using simultaneous radiosonde and multichannel 183 GHz microwave radiometer measurements) are input to the AER Line-by-Line Radiative Transfer Model (LBLRTM) to compute radiances for comparison with FIRST. The AER v3.4 line parameter database is used. The low water vapor amounts and relatively cold atmosphere result in extremely small far-IR radiances (1.5 mW/m2/sr/cm-1) with corresponding brightness temperatures of 120 K. The residual LBLRTM minus FIRST is calculated to assess agreement between the measured and modeled spectra. Uncertainties in both the measured and modeled radiances are accounted for in the comparison. A goal of the deployment and subsequent analysis is the assessment of water vapor spectroscopy in the far-infrared and mid-infrared. While agreement is found between measured and modeled radiances within the combined uncertainties across all spectra, uncertainties in the measured water vapor profiles and from the laboratory calibration exceed those associated with water vapor spectroscopy in this very low radiance environment. Consequently, no improvement in water vapor spectroscopy is afforded by these measurements. However, we use these results to place requirements on instrument calibration accuracy and water vapor profile accuracy for future campaigns to similarly dry environments. Instrument calibration uncertainty needs to be at 2% (1-sigma) of measured radiance

  4. Mid-Infrared Ethane Emission on Neptune: 2005-2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammel, Heidi B.; Sitko, M. L.; Russell, R. W.; Lynch, D. K.; Bernstein, L. S.; Perry, R. B.

    2009-09-01

    Hammel et al. (2006, ApJ 644, 1326) reported 8- to 13-micron spectral observations of Neptune spanning more than a decade. Those data indicated a steady increase in Neptune's 12-micron atmospheric ethane emission from 1985 to 2003, followed by a slight decrease in 2004. The simplest explanation for the intensity variation was an increase in stratospheric effective temperature from 155 K in 1985 to 176 K in 2003 (an average rate of 1.2 K/year), and subsequent decrease to 165 K in 2004 (uncertainties +/- 3 K). Later disk-resolved 12-micron images (Hammel et al. 2007, AJ 134, 637; Orton et al. 2007, AA 473, L5) showed Neptune's ethane emission arose mainly from two regions: emission distributed nearly uniformly around the planet's limb and emission near the south pole. Because much of the non-limb emission was confined to the near-polar region, seasonal variation may play some role in the long-term mid-infrared brightness variations: i.e., more of that region was revealed as Neptune neared solstice in 2005. We will report the results of an additional half decade of mid-infrared spectroscopic observations, from 2005 through 2009, using the Broadband Array Spectrograph System on the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility (IRTF). These post-solstice data should elucidate whether the variations are intrinsic, or due to changes in viewing angle. HBH acknowledges support from NASA grants NNX06AD12G and NNA07CN65A. This work was supported at The Aerospace Corporation by the Independent Research and Development Program. LSB acknowledges the support of Spectral Sciences, Inc. IR and D funding. We also gratefully acknowledge D. Kim (The Aerospace Corporation) for BASS technical support, as well as the support of IRTF staff and telescope operators. We recognize the significant cultural role of Mauna Kea within the indigenous Hawaiian community, and we appreciate the opportunity to conduct observations from this revered site.

  5. Weather, logging, and tree growth associated with fir engraver attack scars in white fir

    Treesearch

    George T. Ferrell

    1973-01-01

    The boles of 32 recently killed, and 41 living, white fir were examined for embedded fir engraver (Scolytus ventralis) attack scars. Of 287 scars found in annual rings for the years 1934-69, only 2 to 3 percent represented reproductively successful attacks. Trends in scar abundance were directly correlated with trends in white fir killed by ...

  6. ALMA resolves extended star formation in high-z AGN host galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrison, C. M.; Simpson, J. M.; Stanley, F.; Alexander, D. M.; Daddi, E.; Mullaney, J. R.; Pannella, M.; Rosario, D. J.; Smail, Ian

    2016-03-01

    We present high-resolution (0.3 arcsec) Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) 870 μm imaging of five z ≈ 1.5-4.5 X-ray detected AGN (with luminosities of L2-8keV > 1042 erg s-1). These data provide a ≳20 times improvement in spatial resolution over single-dish rest-frame far-infrared (FIR) measurements. The sub-millimetre emission is extended on scales of FWHM ≈ 0.2 arcsec-0.5 arcsec, corresponding to physical sizes of 1-3 kpc (median value of 1.8 kpc). These sizes are comparable to the majority of z=1-5 sub-millimetre galaxies (SMGs) with equivalent ALMA measurements. In combination with spectral energy distribution analyses, we attribute this rest-frame FIR emission to dust heated by star formation. The implied star-formation rate surface densities are ≈20-200 M⊙ yr-1 kpc-2, which are consistent with SMGs of comparable FIR luminosities (I.e. LIR ≈ [1-5] × 1012 L⊙). Although limited by a small sample of AGN, which all have high-FIR luminosities, our study suggests that the kpc-scale spatial distribution and surface density of star formation in high-redshift star-forming galaxies is the same irrespective of the presence of X-ray detected AGN.

  7. Durable silver mirror with ultra-violet thru far infra-red reflection

    DOEpatents

    Wolfe, Jesse D.

    2010-11-23

    A durable highly reflective silver mirror characterized by high reflectance in a broad spectral range of about 300 nm in the UV to the far infrared (.about.10000 nm), as well as exceptional environmental durability. A high absorptivity metal underlayer is used which prevents the formation of a galvanic cell with a silver layer while increasing the reflectance of the silver layer. Environmentally durable overcoat layers are provided to enhance mechanical and chemical durability and protect the silver layer from corrosion and tarnishing, for use in a wide variety of surroundings or climates, including harsh or extreme environments.

  8. Multimode simulations of a wide field of view double-Fourier far-infrared spatio-spectral interferometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bracken, Colm P.; Lightfoot, John; O'Sullivan, Creidhe; Murphy, J. Anthony; Donohoe, Anthony; Savini, Giorgio; Juanola-Parramon, Roser; The Fisica Consortium, On Behalf Of

    2018-01-01

    In the absence of 50-m class space-based observatories, subarcsecond astronomy spanning the full far-infrared wavelength range will require space-based long-baseline interferometry. The long baselines of up to tens of meters are necessary to achieve subarcsecond resolution demanded by science goals. Also, practical observing times command a field of view toward an arcminute (1‧) or so, not achievable with a single on-axis coherent detector. This paper is concerned with an application of an end-to-end instrument simulator PyFIInS, developed as part of the FISICA project under funding from the European Commission's seventh Framework Programme for Research and Technological Development (FP7). Predicted results of wide field of view spatio-spectral interferometry through simulations of a long-baseline, double-Fourier, far-infrared interferometer concept are presented and analyzed. It is shown how such an interferometer, illuminated by a multimode detector can recover a large field of view at subarcsecond angular resolution, resulting in similar image quality as that achieved by illuminating the system with an array of coherent detectors. Through careful analysis, the importance of accounting for the correct number of higher-order optical modes is demonstrated, as well as accounting for both orthogonal polarizations. Given that it is very difficult to manufacture waveguide and feed structures at sub-mm wavelengths, the larger multimode design is recommended over the array of smaller single mode detectors. A brief note is provided in the conclusion of this paper addressing a more elegant solution to modeling far-infrared interferometers, which holds promise for improving the computational efficiency of the simulations presented here.

  9. The Douglas-Fir Genome Sequence Reveals Specialization of the Photosynthetic Apparatus in Pinaceae

    PubMed Central

    Neale, David B.; McGuire, Patrick E.; Wheeler, Nicholas C.; Stevens, Kristian A.; Crepeau, Marc W.; Cardeno, Charis; Zimin, Aleksey V.; Puiu, Daniela; Pertea, Geo M.; Sezen, U. Uzay; Casola, Claudio; Koralewski, Tomasz E.; Paul, Robin; Gonzalez-Ibeas, Daniel; Zaman, Sumaira; Cronn, Richard; Yandell, Mark; Holt, Carson; Langley, Charles H.; Yorke, James A.; Salzberg, Steven L.; Wegrzyn, Jill L.

    2017-01-01

    A reference genome sequence for Pseudotsuga menziesii var. menziesii (Mirb.) Franco (Coastal Douglas-fir) is reported, thus providing a reference sequence for a third genus of the family Pinaceae. The contiguity and quality of the genome assembly far exceeds that of other conifer reference genome sequences (contig N50 = 44,136 bp and scaffold N50 = 340,704 bp). Incremental improvements in sequencing and assembly technologies are in part responsible for the higher quality reference genome, but it may also be due to a slightly lower exact repeat content in Douglas-fir vs. pine and spruce. Comparative genome annotation with angiosperm species reveals gene-family expansion and contraction in Douglas-fir and other conifers which may account for some of the major morphological and physiological differences between the two major plant groups. Notable differences in the size of the NDH-complex gene family and genes underlying the functional basis of shade tolerance/intolerance were observed. This reference genome sequence not only provides an important resource for Douglas-fir breeders and geneticists but also sheds additional light on the evolutionary processes that have led to the divergence of modern angiosperms from the more ancient gymnosperms. PMID:28751502

  10. Transient Infrared Emission Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Roger W.; McClelland, John F.

    1989-12-01

    Transient Infrared Emission Spectroscopy (TIRES) is a new technique that reduces the occurrence of self-absorption in optically thick solid samples so that analytically useful emission spectra may be observed. Conventional emission spectroscopy, in which the sample is held at an elevated, uniform temperature, is practical only for optically thin samples. In thick samples the emission from deep layers of the material is partially absorbed by overlying layers.1 This self-absorption results in emission spectra from most optically thick samples that closely resemble black-body spectra. The characteristic discrete emission bands are severely truncated and altered in shape. TIRES bypasses this difficulty by using a laser to heat only an optically thin surface layer. The increased temperature of the layer is transient since the layer will rapidly cool and thicken by thermal diffusion; hence the emission collection must be correlated with the laser heating. TIRES may be done with both pulsed and cw lasers.2,3 When a pulsed laser is used, the spectrometer sampling must be synchronized with the laser pulsing so that only emission during and immediately after each laser pulse is observed.3 If a cw laser is used, the sample must move rapidly through the beam. The hot, transient layer is then in the beam track on the sample at and immediately behind the beam position, so the spectrometer field of view must be limited to this region near the beam position.2 How much self-absorption the observed emission suffers depends on how thick the heated layer has grown by thermal diffusion when the spectrometer samples the emission. Use of a pulsed laser synchronized with the spectrometer sampling readily permits reduction of the time available for heat diffusion to about 100 acs .3 When a cw laser is used, the heat-diffusion time is controlled by how small the spectrometer field of view is and by how rapidly the sample moves past within this field. Both a very small field of view and a

  11. Optically active polyurethane@indium tin oxide nanocomposite: Preparation, characterization and study of infrared emissivity

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Yong; Zhou, Yuming, E-mail: ymzhou@seu.edu.cn; Ge, Jianhua

    Highlights: ► Silane coupling agent of KH550 was used to connect the ITO and polyurethanes. ► Infrared emissivity values of the hybrids were compared and analyzed. ► Interfacial synergistic action and orderly secondary structure were the key factors. -- Abstract: Optically active polyurethane@indium tin oxide and racemic polyurethane@indium tin oxide nanocomposites (LPU@ITO and RPU@ITO) were prepared by grafting the organics onto the surfaces of modified ITO nanoparticles. LPU@ITO and RPU@ITO composites based on the chiral and racemic tyrosine were characterized by FT-IR, UV–vis spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), SEM, TEM, and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and the infrared emissivity values (8–14 μm)more » were investigated in addition. The results indicated that the polyurethanes had been successfully grafted onto the surfaces of ITO without destroying the crystalline structure. Both composites possessed the lower infrared emissivity values than the bare ITO nanoparticles, which indicated that the interfacial interaction had great effect on the infrared emissivity. Furthermore, LPU@ITO based on the optically active polyurethane had the virtue of regular secondary structure and more interfacial synergistic actions between organics and inorganics, thus it exhibited lower infrared emissivity value than RPU@ITO based on the racemic polyurethane.« less

  12. Thermal-infrared spectral observations of geologic materials in emission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christensen, Philip R.; Luth, Sharon J.

    1987-01-01

    The thermal-infrared spectra of geologic materials in emission were studied using the prototype Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES). A variety of of processes and surface modifications that may influence or alter the spectra of primary rock materials were studied. It was confirmed that thermal emission spectra contain the same absorption features as those observed in transmission and reflection spectra. It was confirmed that the TES instrument can be used to obtain relevant spectra for analysis of rock and mineral composition.

  13. [Cii] emission from L1630 in the Orion B molecular cloud.

    PubMed

    Pabst, C H M; Goicoechea, J R; Teyssier, D; Berné, O; Ochsendorf, B B; Wolfire, M G; Higgins, R D; Riquelme, D; Risacher, C; Pety, J; Le Petit, F; Roueff, E; Bron, E; Tielens, A G G M

    2017-10-01

    L1630 in the Orion B molecular cloud, which includes the iconic Horsehead Nebula, illuminated by the star system σ Ori, is an example of a photodissociation region (PDR). In PDRs, stellar radiation impinges on the surface of dense material, often a molecular cloud, thereby inducing a complex network of chemical reactions and physical processes. Observations toward L1630 allow us to study the interplay between stellar radiation and a molecular cloud under relatively benign conditions, that is, intermediate densities and an intermediate UV radiation field. Contrary to the well-studied Orion Molecular Cloud 1 (OMC1), which hosts much harsher conditions, L1630 has little star formation. Our goal is to relate the [Cii] fine-structure line emission to the physical conditions predominant in L1630 and compare it to studies of OMC1. The [Cii] 158 μ m line emission of L1630 around the Horsehead Nebula, an area of 12' × 17', was observed using the upgraded German Receiver for Astronomy at Terahertz Frequencies (upGREAT) onboard the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA). Of the [Cii] emission from the mapped area 95%, 13 L ⊙ , originates from the molecular cloud; the adjacent Hii region contributes only 5%, that is, 1 L ⊙ . From comparison with other data (CO(1-0)-line emission, far-infrared (FIR) continuum studies, emission from polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)), we infer a gas density of the molecular cloud of n H ∼ 3 · 10 3 cm -3 , with surface layers, including the Horsehead Nebula, having a density of up to n H ∼ 4 · 10 4 cm -3 . The temperature of the surface gas is T ∼ 100 K. The average [Cii] cooling efficiency within the molecular cloud is 1.3 · 10 -2 . The fraction of the mass of the molecular cloud within the studied area that is traced by [Cii] is only 8%. Our PDR models are able to reproduce the FIR-[Cii] correlations and also the CO(1-0)-[Cii] correlations. Finally, we compare our results on the heating efficiency of the

  14. [Cii] emission from L1630 in the Orion B molecular cloud

    PubMed Central

    Pabst, C. H. M.; Goicoechea, J. R.; Teyssier, D.; Berné, O.; Ochsendorf, B. B.; Wolfire, M. G.; Higgins, R. D.; Riquelme, D.; Risacher, C.; Pety, J.; Le Petit, F.; Roueff, E.; Bron, E.; Tielens, A. G. G. M.

    2017-01-01

    Context L1630 in the Orion B molecular cloud, which includes the iconic Horsehead Nebula, illuminated by the star system σ Ori, is an example of a photodissociation region (PDR). In PDRs, stellar radiation impinges on the surface of dense material, often a molecular cloud, thereby inducing a complex network of chemical reactions and physical processes. Aims Observations toward L1630 allow us to study the interplay between stellar radiation and a molecular cloud under relatively benign conditions, that is, intermediate densities and an intermediate UV radiation field. Contrary to the well-studied Orion Molecular Cloud 1 (OMC1), which hosts much harsher conditions, L1630 has little star formation. Our goal is to relate the [Cii] fine-structure line emission to the physical conditions predominant in L1630 and compare it to studies of OMC1. Methods The [Cii] 158 μm line emission of L1630 around the Horsehead Nebula, an area of 12′ × 17′, was observed using the upgraded German Receiver for Astronomy at Terahertz Frequencies (upGREAT) onboard the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA). Results Of the [Cii] emission from the mapped area 95%, 13 L⊙, originates from the molecular cloud; the adjacent Hii region contributes only 5%, that is, 1 L⊙. From comparison with other data (CO(1-0)-line emission, far-infrared (FIR) continuum studies, emission from polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)), we infer a gas density of the molecular cloud of nH ∼ 3 · 103 cm−3, with surface layers, including the Horsehead Nebula, having a density of up to nH ∼ 4 · 104 cm−3. The temperature of the surface gas is T ∼ 100 K. The average [Cii] cooling efficiency within the molecular cloud is 1.3 · 10−2. The fraction of the mass of the molecular cloud within the studied area that is traced by [Cii] is only 8%. Our PDR models are able to reproduce the FIR-[Cii] correlations and also the CO(1-0)-[Cii] correlations. Finally, we compare our results on the

  15. The identification of Douglas-fir wood

    Treesearch

    Forest Products Laboratory (U.S.)

    1963-01-01

    Douglas-fir is one of the largest, most abundant and widely distributed species of trees native to North America, and next to the southern yellow pines, it is cut in the greatest quantities of any wood of commercial importance. It belongs to the coniferous family and is, therefore, a softwood. Other names for Douglas -fir are red fir, yellow fir, Oregon pine, Puget...

  16. Far red bioluminescence from two deep-sea fishes.

    PubMed

    Widder, E A; Latz, M I; Herring, P J; Case, J F

    1984-08-03

    Spectral measurements of red bioluminescence were obtained from the deep-sea stomiatoid fishes Aristostomias scintillans (Gilbert) and Malacosteus niger (Ayres). Red luminescence from suborbital light organs extends to the near infrared, with peak emission at approximately 705 nanometers in the far red. These fishes also have postorbital light organs that emit blue luminescence with maxima between 470 and 480 nanometers. The red bioluminescence may be due to an energy transfer system and wavelength-selective filtering.

  17. The far-ultraviolet /1180-1950 A/ emission spectrum of Arcturus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mckinney, W. R.; Giles, J. W.; Moos, H. W.

    1976-01-01

    The far-ultraviolet (1180-1950 A) emission spectrum of the K2 IIIp star, Arcturus, has been obtained with a rocket-borne multichannel spectrometer. The use of multiple detectors gave an increase in effective observing time and permitted an improvement in spectral resolution over two previous rocket measurements. H I at 1216-A and O I at 1304 A are the only identified emissions, and the observed H I 1216-A flux is low compared with previous observations. A third unidentified feature was observed at 1511 A. The absence of many lines found in emission from the sun is striking. The absence of certain features implies that the coronal temperature must be either below 50,000 K or above 350,000 K.

  18. Efficient generation of far-infrared radiation in the vicinity of polariton resonance of lithium niobate.

    PubMed

    Lin, Xiaomu; Wang, Lei; Ding, Yujie J

    2012-09-01

    We efficiently generated far-infrared radiation at the wavelengths centered at 20.8 μm in the vicinity of one of the polariton resonances of lithium niobate. Such an efficient nonlinear conversion is made possible by exploiting phase matching for difference-frequency generation in lithium niobate. The highest peak power reached 233 W.