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Sample records for farmed australian penaeus

  1. Toxic effects of blooms of marine species of Oscillatoriales on farmed prawns (Penaeus monodon, Penaeus japonicus) and brine shrimp (Artemia salina).

    PubMed

    Smith, P T

    1996-08-01

    Benthic and planktonic blooms of species of Oscillatoriales coincided with mortalities of Penaeus monodon during four episodes at Australian prawn farms. Oscillatoria corakiana was the dominant planktonic species at 65-90,000 cells/ml, but Spirulina sp., Lyngbya sp., Oscillatoria sp. and Nodularia sp. were also identified from the water column, benthic layers or surface mats. The levels and variety of Vibrionaceae in prawn tissue, suggest that mortalities were caused by secondary infections of bacteria. However, experimental results indicate that toxicity of the blooms of Oscillatoriales was the primary cause of disease. Pond water and extracts from a tank culture of benthic Oscillatoriales caused mortalities when injected into P. monodon and P. japonicus. Immersion of artemia in extracts from the tank culture also caused mortalities, with L.D50 values for the supernatant extract of 70 mg/litre for artemia cysts and 50 mg/litre for adult artemia, and LD50 values for the pellet extract of 110 mg/litre for artemia cysts and 200 mg/litre for adult artemia. Experiments with artemia suggested the blooms of Oscillatoriales produced water-soluble, heat-labile toxin/s. Mortalities may have been caused by a neurotoxin because: (a) there was a lack of histopathological evidence of damage to the digestive tracts of prawns during each episode; and (b) artemia cysts immersed in extracts of Oscillatoriales died before they developed digestive tracts. PSP toxin, anatoxin-a, homoanatoxin-a and microcystins were not detected when pond water from a diseased pond was tested. It is proposed that sub-lethal levels of toxin weakened the prawns, causing reduced feeding behaviour and an impaired immune system. As a result, prawns were prone to secondary infection by pathogenic bacteria. Because Oscillatoriales are ubiquitous in prawn farms, the findings have significant implications for the assessment of disease in the prawn farming industry.

  2. Antibiotics in South Indian coastal sea and farmed prawns (Penaeus monodon).

    PubMed

    Palaniyappan, Venkatesh; Nagalingam, Arun Kumar; Ranganathan, Hari Prasad; Kandhikuppam, Krishnamoorthy Bharathi; Kothandam, Hari Prasath; Vasu, Soumya

    2013-01-01

    Sulphonamides and chloramphenicol antibiotics were analysed by using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) in sea and farmed prawn (Penaeus monodon) samples obtained from the coastal region of southern India during 2011-2012. Average recoveries were 77-99% and precision was between 1% and 8%. The results revealed that in sea prawn samples neither of the two antibiotics was detected, but in farmed samples from coastal Andhra Pradesh some sulphonamides were detected in a concentration range greater than the maximum residual limit as set by Council Directive 2377/90 EC.

  3. Farming fit? Dispelling the Australian agrarian myth

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Rural Australians face a higher mental health and lifestyle disease burden (obesity, diabetes and cardiovascular disease) than their urban counterparts. Our ongoing research reveals that the Australian farming community has even poorer physical and mental health outcomes than rural averages. In particular, farm men and women have high rates of overweightness, obesity, abdominal adiposity, high blood pressure and psychological distress when compared against Australian averages. Within our farming cohort we observed a significant association between psychological distress and obesity, abdominal adiposity and body fat percentage in the farming population. Presentation of hypothesis This paper presents a hypothesis based on preliminary data obtained from an ongoing study that could potentially explain the complex correlation between obesity, psychological distress and physical activity among a farming population. We posit that spasmodic physical activity, changing farm practices and climate variability induce prolonged stress in farmers. This increases systemic cortisol that, in turn, promotes abdominal adiposity and weight gain. Testing the hypothesis The hypothesis will be tested by anthropometric, biochemical and psychological analysis matched against systemic cortisol levels and the physical activity of the subjects. Implications of the hypothesis tested Previous studies indicate that farming populations have elevated rates of psychological distress and high rates of suicide. Australian farmers have recently experienced challenging climatic conditions including prolonged drought, floods and cyclones. Through our interactions and through the media it is not uncommon for farmers to describe the effect of this long-term stress with feelings of 'defeat'. By gaining a greater understanding of the role cortisol and physical activity have on mental and physical health we may positively impact the current rates of psychological distress in farmers. Trial

  4. Putative spawner-isolated mortality virus associated with mid-crop mortality syndrome in farmed Penaeus monodon from northern Australia.

    PubMed

    Owens, L; Haqshenas, G; McElnea, C; Coelen, R

    1998-11-30

    Beginning in 1994, farms in northern Australia experienced a higher than normal mortality rate in 12 to 15 g prawns from growout ponds. The farmers named this problem mid-crop mortality syndrome (MCMS). Intramuscular injection of filtered (450 nm), cell-free extracts of moribund prawns from these ponds killed healthy prawns between 5 to 30 d post-injection. A 20 nm virus was visualized by electron microscopy from a 1.4 g ml-1 band recovered from caesium chloride gradients of extracts from the moribund prawns. DNA was extracted from this band, restriction enzyme digested and ligated into pGEM7zf(+) vector. A digoxigenin-labelled polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-generated, gene probe was subsequently prepared by amplifying an inserted sequence (approximately 2 kb) of one selected clone specific for the virus. Specimens of the moribund prawns stained positively by in situ DNA hybridization in endodermal tissues, including the apical ends of hepatopancreatic tubules, the midgut and hindgut caecae, the midgut, and the hindgut folds. In prawns that showed haemocytic enteritis, some haemocytes in the affected midgut showed limited staining. The positively-staining cells showed no cytolysis. In prawns injected with cell-free viral extracts, additional tissues were positive by probe analysis, including strong staining in the male reproductive tract, specifically in the terminal ampoule and the medial vas deferens. Limited staining also occurred in the ovary and in both the stromal matrix and spheroid cells of the lymphoid organ. It was evident that the infection was enteric by natural pathways and systemic by injection. Historical specimens of Penaeus monodon experimentally infected with spawner-isolated mortality virus (SMV) were probe-positive in exactly the same pattern as the naturally and experimental MCMS prawns. Altogether, the evidence suggested that the MCMS agent was a parvo-like virus very similar or identical to SMV.

  5. How do older Australian farming couples construct generativity across the life course?: A narrative exploration.

    PubMed

    Downey, Heather; Threlkeld, Guinever; Warburton, Jeni

    2016-08-01

    Australian farming, predominantly based on a family farming model, reflects a distinct culture and identity within Australia. Generativity can be identified within the longstanding practice of patrilineal generational farm succession. However, the changing social, economic and environmental context facing farmers today, is now threatening the sustainability and viability of the family farming model. The outcome in Australia, as elsewhere, has been a significant decline in the number of farming families and a sharp reduction in the number of young people entering farming. Overall, farmers are increasingly aging on farm in two-person households and without a next generation to follow. In this scenario, the article presents research which aims to explore how older Australian couples construct generativity across their life course. The study draws on constructionist narrative research conducted in the Australian New South Wales Southern Riverina. Generativity, as presented by Erikson (1950) and Kotre (1996), is utilised as a theoretical frame by which to explore the meaning of generational family farming in six couples' stories of navigating later life challenges. Drawing on Gubrium and Holstein's (1998) 'narrative practice' analytic framework, this article examines tensions between couples' jointly constructed narratives and the grand narrative of Australian family farming. A 'narrative practice' approach permits examination of the meaning of experience, coherence, and the ways contexts, as well as stories of the past influence stories told about couples' present and future generative expression. This approach is highly consistent with the rapidly changing farming context where couples may be trying hard to construct a coherent story within a distinct family farming grand narrative under considerable tension. Findings show that in this context, and often in the absence of the next generation, there are visible changes in farming couples' expression of generativity

  6. A multi-biomarker approach to assess the impact of farming systems on black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon).

    PubMed

    Tu, Huynh Thi; Silvestre, Frederic; Wang, Neil; Thome, Jean-Pierre; Phuong, Nguyen Thanh; Kestemont, Patrick

    2010-11-01

    This study examined the advantages of the use of biomarkers as an early warning system by applying it to different shrimp farming systems in Soctrang and Camau provinces, main shrimp producers in Mekong River Delta, Vietnam. Shrimp were collected at 15 different farms divided into four different farming systems: three farms were converted from originally rice paddies into intensive shrimp farming systems (IS1, IS2, IS3); three farms were rice-shrimp integrated farming systems (RS4, RS5, RS6); three farms were intensive farming systems (IS7, IS8, IS9); six farms were extensive shrimp farming systems (From ES1 to ES6). Lipid peroxidation (LPO) and total glutathione (GSH) were measured as well as catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), glutathione S-transferase (GST) and acetylcholinesterase activities (ACHE). Organ specificity was observed between gills and hepatopancreas with generally higher activity of GST in gills (GSTG) whereas the contrary was observed for LPO level in gills (LPOG). Hierarchical clustering and principal component analysis clearly indicated that shrimp reared in extensive culture system formed a distinct group from those reared in intensive or rice-shrimp integrated systems. CAT in gills (CATG), GPX in gills (GPXG) and hepatopancreas (GPXHP) and ACHE in muscle (ACHEM) of shrimp collected in extensive farms showed a general higher level than those in intensively farmed shrimp. On the contrary, we observed clear high levels of GSTG and GST in hepatopancreas (GSTHP) and LPOG and hepatopancreas (LPOHP) of shrimp sampled in intensive and rice-shrimp integrated systems. Thus, we propose that LPO and CAT, GPX, GST and ACHE can be used as a set of biomarkers for the assessment of health condition and can discriminate between shrimp cultivated in different farming systems. These findings provide the usefulness of integrating a set of biomarkers to define the health status of shrimp in different shrimp culture systems.

  7. Hot air ablowin! 'Media-speak', social conflict, and the Australian 'decoupled' wind farm controversy.

    PubMed

    Hindmarsh, Richard

    2014-04-01

    In work in science, technology, and society social conflict around wind farms has a growing profile, not least because it draws our attention to two key interrelated themes: 'science, technology and governance' and 'socio-technological systems'. In this article on Australian wind farm development and siting, these themes are highlighted in contexts of sustainability, legitimacy, and competency for policy effectiveness. There is enduring social conflict around wind farms at the local community level, but little government understanding of this conflict or willingness to respond adequately to resolve it. This article examines the conflict through the lens of print media analysis. A key finding of the five identified is that people seeing wind farms as spoiling a sense of place is a primary cause of enduring social conflict at the local community level around wind farms, alongside significant environmental issues and inadequate community engagement; this finding also indicates a central reason for the highly problematic state of Australian wind energy transitions. In turn, by identifying this problematic situation as one of a significantly 'decoupled' and 'dysfunctional' condition of the Australian socio-technological wind farm development and siting system, I suggest remedies including those of a deliberative nature that also respond to the Habermas-Mouffe debate. These inform a socio-technical siting approach or pathway to better respect and navigate contested landscapes for enhanced renewable energy transitions at the local level.

  8. Neither "Family" nor "Corporate" Farming: Australian Tomato Growers as Farm Family Entrepreneurs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pritchard, Bill; Burch, David; Lawrence, Geoffrey

    2007-01-01

    For the past two decades there has been much debate about the future of family farming. The basic question on which this debate has turned is whether current pressures on family farm systems should be understood as symptomatic of a terminal condition, in which farmers are replaced progressively by corporate ownership; or whether family farms will…

  9. Factoid forensics: have "more than 40" Australian families abandoned their homes because of wind farm noise?

    PubMed

    Chapman, Simon

    2014-01-01

    Anti-wind farm activists repeatedly claim that families said to be adversely affected by noise from wind turbines "abandon" their homes. In Australia, a claim of "more than 40 families" has been made by a prominent anti-wind farm activist. Six sources (parliamentary submissions, media reports, an anti-wind farm website, wind industry sources, correspondence with known anti-wind farm activists and with three politicians opposed to wind farms) were used to find evidence of home "abandonments." Claims about 12 Australian households permanently (n = 10) or periodically (n = 2) leaving their homes were found. However, no house appears to have been permanently "abandoned" without sale, as the expression implies. These 12 cases need contextualizing against considerations that several of those involved were either dedicated activists against wind farms from times sometimes pre-dating their construction, were engaged in protracted negotiations for home purchase with wind companies, had pre-existing health problems, grievances with the wind company over employment or had left the area for unrelated reasons of employment elsewhere. The statement that "more than 40" houses have been "abandoned" because of wind turbines in Australia is a factoid promoted by wind farm opponents for dramatic, rhetorical impact. Other considerations are often involved in abandonment unrelated to the claims made about wind farm noise.

  10. The Pattern of Complaints about Australian Wind Farms Does Not Match the Establishment and Distribution of Turbines: Support for the Psychogenic, ‘Communicated Disease’ Hypothesis

    PubMed Central

    Chapman, Simon; St. George, Alexis; Waller, Karen; Cakic, Vince

    2013-01-01

    Background and Objectives With often florid allegations about health problems arising from wind turbine exposure now widespread, nocebo effects potentially confound any future investigation of turbine health impact. Historical audits of health complaints are therefore important. We test 4 hypotheses relevant to psychogenic explanations of the variable timing and distribution of health and noise complaints about wind farms in Australia. Setting All Australian wind farms (51 with 1634 turbines) operating 1993–2012. Methods Records of complaints about noise or health from residents living near 51 Australian wind farms were obtained from all wind farm companies, and corroborated with complaints in submissions to 3 government public enquiries and news media records and court affidavits. These are expressed as proportions of estimated populations residing within 5 km of wind farms. Results There are large historical and geographical variations in wind farm complaints. 33/51 (64.7%) of Australian wind farms including 18/34 (52.9%) with turbine size >1 MW have never been subject to noise or health complaints. These 33 farms have an estimated 21,633 residents within 5 km and have operated complaint-free for a cumulative 267 years. Western Australia and Tasmania have seen no complaints. 129 individuals across Australia (1 in 254 residents) appear to have ever complained, with 94 (73%) being residents near 6 wind farms targeted by anti wind farm groups. The large majority 116/129(90%) of complainants made their first complaint after 2009 when anti wind farm groups began to add health concerns to their wider opposition. In the preceding years, health or noise complaints were rare despite large and small-turbine wind farms having operated for many years. Conclusions The reported historical and geographical variations in complaints are consistent with psychogenic hypotheses that expressed health problems are “communicated diseases” with nocebo effects likely to play an

  11. Readily available sources of long-chain omega-3 oils: is farmed Australian seafood a better source of the good oil than wild-caught seafood?

    PubMed

    Nichols, Peter D; Glencross, Brett; Petrie, James R; Singh, Surinder P

    2014-03-11

    Seafood consumption enhances intake of omega-3 long-chain (≥C₂₀) polyunsaturated fatty acids (termed LC omega-3 oils). Humans biosynthesize only small amounts of LC-omega-3, so they are considered semi-essential nutrients in our diet. Concern has been raised that farmed fish now contain lower LC omega-3 content than wild-harvested seafood due to the use of oil blending in diets fed to farmed fish. However, we observed that two major Australian farmed finfish species, Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) and barramundi (Lates calcifer), have higher oil and LC omega-3 content than the same or other species from the wild, and remain an excellent means to achieve substantial intake of LC omega-3 oils. Notwithstanding, LC omega-3 oil content has decreased in these two farmed species, due largely to replacing dietary fish oil with poultry oil. For Atlantic salmon, LC omega-3 content decreased ~30%-50% between 2002 and 2013, and the omega-3/omega-6 ratio also decreased (>5:1 to <1:1). Australian consumers increasingly seek their LC omega-3 from supplements, therefore a range of supplement products were compared. The development and future application of oilseeds containing LC omega-3 oils and their incorporation in aquafeeds would allow these health-benefitting oils to be maximized in farmed Australian seafood. Such advances can assist with preventative health care, fisheries management, aquaculture nutrition, an innovative feed/food industry and ultimately towards improved consumer health.

  12. Culture, climate change and farm-level groundwater management: An Australian case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanderson, Matthew R.; Curtis, Allen L.

    2016-05-01

    Cultural factors - values, beliefs, and norms - provide important insights into the environmental attitudes, risk perceptions, and behaviors of the general population. Little is known, however, about the ostensibly complex relationships linking those elements of culture to climate change risk perceptions, especially in the context of farm level decision in the ground water context. This paper addresses that gap through an analysis of survey data provided by irrigators in the Namoi catchment of Australia's Murray-Darling Basin. We use Values-Beliefs-Norms theory to construct multivariate models of the relationship between ground water irrigators' interpretations of climate change risks and their implementation of adaptive water conservation practices. Results indicate that these cultural factors are important explanations of irrigators' climate change risk perceptions, and these risk perceptions are related to adaptive ground water management strategies at the farm level. The implications of the findings are discussed for research on the culture-environment nexus and for outreach designed to encourage agricultural adaptations to climate change.

  13. One Health approach to controlling a Q fever outbreak on an Australian goat farm.

    PubMed

    Bond, K A; Vincent, G; Wilks, C R; Franklin, L; Sutton, B; Stenos, J; Cowan, R; Lim, K; Athan, E; Harris, O; Macfarlane-Berry, L; Segal, Y; Firestone, S M

    2016-04-01

    A recent outbreak of Q fever was linked to an intensive goat and sheep dairy farm in Victoria, Australia, 2012-2014. Seventeen employees and one family member were confirmed with Q fever over a 28-month period, including two culture-positive cases. The outbreak investigation and management involved a One Health approach with representation from human, animal, environmental and public health. Seroprevalence in non-pregnant milking goats was 15% [95% confidence interval (CI) 7-27]; active infection was confirmed by positive quantitative PCR on several animal specimens. Genotyping of Coxiella burnetii DNA obtained from goat and human specimens was identical by two typing methods. A number of farming practices probably contributed to the outbreak, with similar precipitating factors to the Netherlands outbreak, 2007-2012. Compared to workers in a high-efficiency particulate arrestance (HEPA) filtered factory, administrative staff in an unfiltered adjoining office and those regularly handling goats and kids had 5·49 (95% CI 1·29-23·4) and 5·65 (95% CI 1·09-29·3) times the risk of infection, respectively; suggesting factory workers were protected from windborne spread of organisms. Reduction in the incidence of human cases was achieved through an intensive human vaccination programme plus environmental and biosecurity interventions. Subsequent non-occupational acquisition of Q fever in the spouse of an employee, indicates that infection remains endemic in the goat herd, and remains a challenge to manage without source control.

  14. Comparative phenotypic and genotypic virulence of Salmonella strains isolated from Australian layer farms

    PubMed Central

    McWhorter, Andrea R.; Chousalkar, Kapil K.

    2015-01-01

    There are over 2500 Salmonella enterica serovars that circulate globally. Of these, serovars those classified into subspecies I are the most common cause of human salmonellosis. Many subspecies I Salmonella serovars are routinely isolated from egg farm environments but are not frequently associated with causing disease in humans. In this study, virulence profiles were generated for 10 strains of Salmonella enterica isolated directly from egg farm environments to investigate their potential public health risk. Three virulence parameters were assessed including in vitro invasion, in vivo pathogenicity and characterization of genomic variation within five specific pathogenicity islands. These 10 Salmonella strains exhibited significant differences in invasion into the human intestinal epithelial cell line, Caco2. Low, moderate, and high invasion patterns were observed and the degree of invasion was dependent on bacterial growth in a nutritive environment. Interestingly, two Salmonella strains, S. Adelaide and S. Bredeney had consistently low invasion. The S. Typhimurium definitive types and S. Virchow exhibited the greatest cell invasion following growth in Luria Bertani broth. Only the S. Typhimurium strains caused disease in BALB/c mice, yet the majority of serovars were consistently detected in feces over the 21 day experiment. Genomic comparison of the five specific pathogenicity islands has shown that variation in virulence is likely multifactorial. Sequence variability was observed primarily in strains with low virulence. In particular, genes involved in forming the structures of the SPI-1 and SPI-2 type 3 secretion systems as well as multiple effector proteins were among the most variable. This variability suggest that serovars with low virulence are likely to have both invasion and within host replication defects that ultimately limit their pathogenicity. PMID:25667583

  15. Adoption of quad bike crush prevention devices on Australian dairy farms.

    PubMed

    Lower, Tony; Trotter, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Quad bikes (all-terrain vehicles) are the leading cause of nonintentional farm injury deaths in Australia. Approximately 50% result from rollovers of the vehicle, with death frequently due to crush injury/asphyxiation. Crush protection devices fitted to quads have been demonstrated to enhance safety. This exploratory study aimed to assess feedback from a small group of dairy farmers (N = 11) that had crush protection devices fitted to their quads. A mixed-methods design was adopted consisting of pre- and post-intervention surveys in addition to focus groups/interviews for this exploratory study. Results indicate that the crush protection device was viewed positively by the majority of participants, with virtually no impact on the reported performance of the quad in terms of braking, steering, suspension, and getting on/off. The most problematic issue was some contact with overhead objects, although the majority reported no issues at all. Some issues were also identified with attaching trailers, carrying loads, and noise from rattling. The participants reported that the likely potential benefits of a crush protection device clearly outweighed these issues. Some 4 to 6 months following the study, 10 of the 11 farmers continued to have the crush protection device fitted to their quad. The major barrier to adoption was the manufacturers' resistance and negative public statements regarding the effectiveness of crush protection devices. Participants suggested that there are steps that can be taken to increase the uptake of crush protection devices by dairy farmers. Further lag in promoting these potentially life-saving devices will only add to the death and injury burden associated with quad bikes.

  16. Separation of endogenous viral elements from infectious Penaeus stylirostris densovirus using recombinase polymerase amplification.

    PubMed

    Jaroenram, Wansadaj; Owens, Leigh

    2014-01-01

    Non-infectious Penaeus stylirostris densovirus (PstDV)-related sequences in the shrimp genome cause false positive results with current PCR protocols. Here, we examined and mapped PstDV insertion profile in the genome of Australian Penaeus monodon. A DNA sequence which is likely to represent infectious PstDV was also identified and used as a target sequence for recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA)-based approach, developed for specifically detecting PstDV. The RPA protocol at 37 °C for 30 min showed no cross-reaction with other shrimp viruses, and was 10 times more sensitive than the 309F/R PCR protocol currently recommended by the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE) for PstDV diagnosis. These features, together with the simplicity of the protocol, requiring only a heating block for the reaction, offer opportunities for rapid and efficient detection of PstDV.

  17. Climate change, water security and the need for integrated policy development: the case of on-farm infrastructure investment in the Australian irrigation sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maraseni, T. N.; Mushtaq, S.; Reardon-Smith, K.

    2012-09-01

    The Australian Government is currently addressing the challenge of increasing water scarcity through significant on-farm infrastructure investment to facilitate the adoption of new water-efficient pressurized irrigation systems. However, it is highly likely that conversion to these systems will increase on-farm energy consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, suggesting potential conflicts in terms of mitigation and adaptation policies. This study explored the trade-offs associated with the adoption of more water efficient but energy-intensive irrigation technologies by developing an integrated assessment framework. Integrated analysis of five case studies revealed trade-offs between water security and environmental security when conversion to pressurized irrigation systems was evaluated in terms of fuel and energy-related emissions, except in cases where older hand-shift sprinkler irrigation systems were replaced. These results suggest that priority should be given, in implementing on-farm infrastructure investment policy, to replacing inefficient and energy-intensive sprinkler irrigation systems such as hand-shift and roll-line. The results indicated that associated changes in the use of agricultural machinery and agrochemicals may also be important. The findings of this study support the use of an integrated approach to avoid possible conflicts in designing national climate change mitigation and adaptation policies, both of which are being developed in Australia.

  18. Molecular identification of three novel herpesviruses found in Australian farmed saltwater crocodiles (Crocodylus porosus) and Australian captive freshwater crocodiles (Crocodylus johnstoni).

    PubMed

    Hyndman, Timothy H; Shilton, Catherine M; Wellehan, James F X; Davis, Steven; Isberg, Sally R; Phalen, David; Melville, Lorna

    2015-12-31

    As part of a larger investigation into three emerging disease syndromes highlighted by conjunctivitis and pharyngitis, systemic lymphoid proliferation and encephalitis, and lymphonodular skin infiltrates in farmed saltwater crocodiles (Crocodylus porosus) and one emerging syndrome of systemic lymphoid proliferation in captive freshwater crocodiles (Crocodylus johnstoni), cytopathic effects (CPE), including syncytial cell formation, were observed in primary crocodile cell lines exposed to clarified tissue homogenates from affected crocodiles. Ten cell cultures with CPE were then screened for herpesviruses using two broadly-reactive herpesvirus PCRs. Amplicons were obtained from 9 of 10 cell cultures and were sequenced. Three novel herpesviruses were discovered and the phylogenetic analysis of these viruses showed there was a 63% Bayesian posterior probability value supporting these viruses clustering with the subfamily Alphaherpesvirinae, and 100% posterior probability of clustering with a clade containing the Alphaherpesvirinae and other unassigned reptile herpesviruses. It is proposed that they are named Crocodyline herpesvirus (CrHV) 1, 2 and 3. CrHV1 and 2 were only isolated from saltwater crocodiles and CrHV3 was only isolated from freshwater crocodiles. A duplex PCR was designed that was able to detect these herpesviruses in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues, a sample type that neither of the broadly-reactive PCRs was able to detect these herpesviruses in. This work describes the isolation, molecular detection and phylogeny of these novel herpesviruses but the association that they have with the emerging disease syndromes requires further investigation.

  19. Australian farmed Yellowtail Kingfish (Seriola lalandi) and Mulloway (Argyrosomus hololepidotus): residues of metallic, agricultural and veterinary chemicals, dioxins and polychlorinated biphenyls.

    PubMed

    Padula, David J; Madigan, Thomas L; Nowak, Barbara F

    2012-02-01

    Composite samples of Australian farmed Yellowtail Kingfish (Seriola lalandi) (YTKF) (n=27), Mulloway (Argyrosomus hololepidotus) (n=6) and manufactured feed (n=5) were analysed to benchmark levels of a broad range of residues and contaminants of potential public health and trade significance. A subset of these samples [YTKF (n=5), Mulloway (n=2) and feed (n=5)] was analysed for dioxins and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). The mean concentration of dioxins in YTKF was 0.6 pg TEQ g(-1) (range 0.22-0.8) and in Mulloway was 0.16 pg TEQ g(-1) (range 0.16-0.16). The mean concentration of dioxins and dioxin-like PCBs in YTKF was 2.6 pg TEQ g(-1) (range 1.4-3.5), while Mulloway had a mean concentration of 0.67 pg TEQ g(-1) (range 0.57-0.76). The mean concentration of PCBs in YTKF was 21 μg kg(-1) (range 8.6-29) and in Mulloway was 5.4 μg kg(-1) (mean 4.7-6). The mean concentration of dioxin-like PCBs in YTKF was 2.1 pg TEQ g(-1) (range 1.2-2.8) and in Mulloway was 0.51 pg TEQ g(-1) (range 0.41-0.61). The mean mercury concentration in YTKF was 0.03 mg kg(-1) (range 0.02-0.05) and in Mulloway it was 0.02 mg kg(-1) (range 0.02-0.04). There were no detectable levels of any pesticide or antimicrobial compounds in any sample of YTKF or Mulloway. Attention is drawn to technical differences in port of entry testing programs such as sampling strategies, portion tested, laboratory methodology, residue definitions and reporting conventions that exporters' products may be subject to. All residues and contaminants were either undetectable or present at very low levels when judged against Australian, Japanese and European Union regulatory standards (where set).

  20. Diagnostic investigation of new disease syndromes in farmed Australian saltwater crocodiles (Crocodylus porosus) reveals associations with herpesviral infection.

    PubMed

    Shilton, Catherine M; Jerrett, Ian V; Davis, Steven; Walsh, Susan; Benedict, Suresh; Isberg, Sally R; Webb, Grahame J W; Manolis, Charlie; Hyndman, Timothy H; Phalen, David; Brown, Gregory P; Melville, Lorna

    2016-05-01

    Since 2006, 3 new disease syndromes have emerged in farmed saltwater crocodiles (Crocodylus porosus) in the Northern Territory of Australia. We describe the syndromes through a retrospective study of laboratory findings from 187 diagnostic cases submitted to Berrimah Veterinary Laboratories between 2005 and 2014. The first syndrome was characterized by conjunctivitis and/or pharyngitis (CP), primarily in hatchlings. Herpesviruses were isolated in primary crocodile cell culture, or were detected by PCR directly from conjunctiva or pharyngeal tissue, in 21 of 39 cases of CP (54%), compared with 9 of 64 crocodiles without the syndrome (14%, p < 0.0001). Chlamydiaceae were detected by PCR in conjunctiva or pharyngeal tissue of 55% of 29 CP cases tested, and of these, 81% also contained herpesvirus. The second syndrome occurred in juveniles and growers exhibiting poor growth, and was characterized histologically by systemic lymphoid proliferation and nonsuppurative encephalitis (SLPE). Herpesviruses were isolated or detected by PCR from at least 1 internal organ in 31 of 33 SLPE cases (94%) compared with 5 of 95 crocodiles without the syndrome (5%, p < 0.0001). The third syndrome, characterized by multifocal lymphohistiocytic infiltration of the dermis (LNS), occurred in 6 harvest-sized crocodiles. Herpesviruses were isolated from at least 1 skin lesion in 4 of these 6 cases. Although our study revealed strong associations between herpesvirus and the CP and SLPE syndromes, the precise nature of the role of herpesvirus, along with the pathogenesis and epidemiology of the syndromes, requires further investigation.

  1. Structure of Penaeus stylirostris Densovirus, a Shrimp Pathogen

    SciTech Connect

    Kaufmann, Bärbel; Bowman, Valorie D.; Li, Yi; Szelei, Jozsef; Waddell, Peter J.; Tijssen, Peter; Rossmann, Michael G.

    2010-11-16

    Penaeus stylirostris densovirus (PstDNV), a pathogen of penaeid shrimp, causes significant damage to farmed and wild shrimp populations. In contrast to other parvoviruses, PstDNV probably has only one type of capsid protein that lacks the phospholipase A2 activity that has been implicated as a requirement during parvoviral host cell infection. The structure of recombinant virus-like particles, composed of 60 copies of the 37.5-kDa coat protein, the smallest parvoviral capsid protein reported thus far, was determined to 2.5-{angstrom} resolution by X-ray crystallography. The structure represents the first near-atomic resolution structure within the genus Brevidensovirus. The capsid protein has a {beta}-barrel 'jelly roll' motif similar to that found in many icosahedral viruses, including other parvoviruses. The N-terminal portion of the PstDNV coat protein adopts a 'domain-swapped' conformation relative to its twofold-related neighbor similar to the insect parvovirus Galleria mellonella densovirus (GmDNV) but in stark contrast to vertebrate parvoviruses. However, most of the surface loops have little structural resemblance to any of the known parvoviral capsid proteins.

  2. Thiamin requirement of juvenile shrimp (Penaeus monodon).

    PubMed

    Chen, H Y; Wu, F C; Tang, S Y

    1991-12-01

    In a 9-wk feeding trial, juvenile shrimp (Penaeus monodon) were fed semipurified diets containing seven levels (0, 20, 40, 60, 80, 160 and 320 mg/kg diet) of supplemental thiamin hydrochloride. The dietary thiamin level required for optimal growth in P. monodon was found to be approximately 14 mg/kg diet based on hemolymph (blood) thiamin analysis. The minimum dietary thiamin level that produced substantial shrimp growth was approximately 13 mg/kg diet. Shrimp fed unsupplemented diets (thiamin content of 0.12 mg/kg diet) did not demonstrate specific deficiency signs, except those universal signs such as retarded growth, poor food conversion and low survival rates.

  3. Ultrastructural and sequence characterization of Penaeus vannamei nodavirus (PvNV) from Belize.

    PubMed

    Tang, Kathy F J; Pantoja, Carlos R; Redman, Rita M; Navarro, Solangel A; Lightner, Donald V

    2011-05-09

    The Penaeus vannamei nodavirus (PvNV), which causes muscle necrosis in Penaeus vannamei from Belize, was identified in 2005. Infected shrimp show clinical signs of white, opaque lesions in the tail muscle. Under transmission electron microscopy, the infected cells exhibit increases in various organelles, including mitochondria, Golgi stacks, and rough endoplasmic reticulum. Cytoplasmic inclusions containing para-crystalline arrays of virions were visualized. The viral particle is spherical in shape and 19 to 27 nm in diameter. A cDNA library was constructed from total RNA extracted from infected shrimp. Through nucleotide sequencing from the cDNA clones and northern blot hybridization, the PvNV genome was shown to consist of 2 segments: RNA1 (3111 bp) and RNA2 (1183 bp). RNA1 contains 2 overlapped open reading frames (ORF A and B), which may encode a RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) and a B2 protein, respectively. RNA2 contains a single ORF that may encode the viral capsid protein. Sequence analyses showed the presence of 4 RdRp characteristic motifs and 2 conserved domains (RNA-binding B2 protein and viral coat protein) in the PvNV genome. Phylogenetic analysis based on the translated amino acid sequence of the RdRp reveals that PvNV is a member of the genus Alphanodavirus and closely related to Macrobrachium rosenbergii nodavirus (MrNV). In a study investigating potential PvNV vectors, we monitored the presence of PvNV by RT-PCR in seabird feces and various aquatic organisms collected around a shrimp farm in Belize. PvNV was detected in mosquitofish, seabird feces, barnacles, and zooplankton, suggesting that PvNV can be spread via these carriers.

  4. Horizontal transmission dynamics of White spot syndrome virus by cohabitation trials in juvenile Penaeus monodon and P. vannamei.

    PubMed

    Tuyen, N X; Verreth, J; Vlak, J M; de Jong, M C M

    2014-11-01

    White spot syndrome virus (WSSV), a rod-shaped double-stranded DNA virus, is an infectious agent causing fatal disease in shrimp farming around the globe. Within shrimp populations WSSV is transmitted very fast, however, the modes and dynamics of transmission of this virus are not well understood. In the current study the dynamics of disease transmission of WSSV were investigated in small, closed populations of Penaeus monodon and Penaeus vannamei. Pair cohabitation experiments using PCR as a readout for virus infection were used to estimate transmission parameters for WSSV in these two species. The mortality rate of contact-infected shrimp in P. monodon was higher than the rate in P. vannamei. The transmission rate parameters for WSSV were not different between the two species. The relative contribution of direct and indirect transmission rates of WSSV differed between the two species. For P. vannamei the direct contact transmission rate of WSSV was significantly lower than the indirect environmental transmission rate, but for P. monodon, the opposite was found. The reproduction ratio R0 for WSSV for these two species of shrimp was estimated to be above one: 2.07 (95%CI 1.53, 2.79) for P. monodon and 1.51 (95%CI 1.12, 2.03) for P. vannamei. The difference in R0 between the two species is due to a lower host mortality and hence a longer infectious period of WSSV in P. monodon.

  5. Experimental infection of Penaeus vannamei by a rickettsia-like bacterium (RLB) originating from P. monodon.

    PubMed

    Nunan, Linda M; Noble, Brenda; Le Groumellec, Marc; Lightner, Donald V

    2003-03-17

    A rickettsia-like bacterium (RLB), which caused severe mortalities of commercially farmed Penaeus monodon in the southwest region of Madagascar, was investigated to determine whether the organism would produce the same disease in P. vannamei. Two series of bioassays were performed to determine whether this RLB could be transmitted to P. vannamei through injection and per os exposure. The first series of challenge bioassays used frozen, RLB-infected P. monodon tissue from Madagascar as the inoculum and feed for the injection, and per os bioassays with specific pathogen free (SPF) P. vannamei. In the second series of bioassays, frozen RLB-infected P. vannamei tissue derived from the first series of injection bioassays was used as the inoculum to challenge by injection and per os SPF P. vannamei. Disease status was determined through standard histological techniques and by in situ hybridization assays with a digoxigenin-labeled probe specific for this RLB. The results indicated that P. vannamei did develop the RLB infection when injected with either RLB infected P. monodon or P. vannamei tissue homogenates. This contrasts with results from the per os exposure to the RLB in which the disease could not be reproduced.

  6. Identification and pathogenicity of Vibrio parahaemolyticus isolates and immune responses of Penaeus (Litopenaeus) vannamei (Boone).

    PubMed

    Hong, X P; Xu, D; Zhuo, Y; Liu, H Q; Lu, L Q

    2016-09-01

    Five different Vibrio parahaemolyticus strains (SH8, SH108, SH58, AH5 and GD10) isolated from the hepatopancreas of moribund shrimp in farms of mainland China were identified and capable of inducing massive mortality of Penaeus (Litopenaeus) vannamei. The immersion challenge results with five isolates indicated variance of virulence, while only GD10 caused massive sloughing of tubule epithelial cells which was recognized as the most significant symptom of AHPND. Differences in immune responses were detected of P. vannamei during 48 h post-infection (p.i.) by injection or immersion challenge with V. parahaemolyticus (SH8, SH108 and GD10) isolates. When injected SH8 and SH108 isolates, the expression of lysozyme (LSZ) showing statistically significant upregulation at 16 and 48 h p.i. and that of Toll-like receptors (TLR) showed statistically significant upregulation at 48 h p.i. When immersion challenge with the GD10 isolate, TLR were upregulated after 8 h p.i. challenge with 10(4)  cfu mL(-1) ; however, LSZ was downregulated when challenged with 10(3)  cfu mL(-1) . The results suggested that LSZ and TLR serve as crucial molecular markers of innate immunity in shrimp against V. parahaemolyticus infection. LSZ is a vital marker for acute bacterial infection, while TLR serves as a crucial marker for chronic infection.

  7. Australian Defense.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-12-01

    Australia in World Affairs 1966-1970, (Melbourne: Cheshire Publishing Pty Ltd , 1974), p. 258. 6Department of Defence, Australian Defence Review...Pvt, Ltd .: 1977), p. 69. 74 17Desmond Ball, "American Bases: Implications for Australian Securi- ty" The Strategic and Defence Studies Centre...million with aircraft, or 3) a " Woolworth " carrier costing $300-400 million with aircraft.33 Defence planners are now faced with determin- ing which

  8. Welfare and Support Services for Farm Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stayner, Richard; Barclay, Elaine

    Following the extended Australian drought of the 1990s, a review was undertaken to assess the programs and services that support farm families and respond to their welfare needs. A total of 43 service providers and 21 farm families were interviewed in New South Wales and Queensland. Following an introduction and description of methodology, the…

  9. Identification of a Proteus penneri isolate as the causal agent of red body disease of the cultured white shrimp Penaeus vannamei and its control with Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus.

    PubMed

    Cao, Haipeng; He, Shan; Lu, Liqun; Yang, Xianle; Chen, Baiyao

    2014-02-01

    Bacteriosis has become a major economic problem in the farming of the Pacific white shrimp Penaeus vannamei. However, no definitive data are available about Proteus penneri infection in cultured P. vannamei and its control. In this study, a virulent strain NC was isolated from diseased P. vannamei suffering from red body disease and identified as a P. penneri isolate through phylogenetic analysis and ATB 32GN system. A phylogenetic constructed tree using the neighbour-joining method identified the NC isolate as a P. penneri strain. In addition, Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus conferred significant protection against P. penneri: it exhibited significant bacteriolytic effects on the pathogenic P. penneri, had a wide prey range towards Proteus pathogens, and displayed a good protective efficacy on experimental P. penneri infection in P. vannamei. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of farmed P. vannamei infected with P. penneri and its control with B. bacteriovorus.

  10. A study on pathogens of Chinese prawn ( Penaeus Chinensis) virus diseases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Xiu-Qin; Zhang, Jin-Xing

    1995-09-01

    This pathogenic study shows that the viral diseases of Chinese prawns ( Penaeus chinensis, O'sbeck) is due to three kinds of viruses: epithelium envelope baculovirus of Penaeus chinensis (EEBV-PC, detected by the authors in 1993), infections hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis virus, and hepatopancreatic parvo-like virus, and that the first two viruses seem to be the main pathogens of the epidemic in the northern regions in 1993.

  11. Australian Extinctions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science Teacher, 2005

    2005-01-01

    Massive extinctions of animals and the arrival of the first humans in ancient Australia--which occurred 45,000 to 55,000 years ago--may be linked. Researchers at the Carnegie Institution, University of Colorado, Australian National University, and Bates College believe that massive fires set by the first humans may have altered the ecosystem of…

  12. Farm level and geographic predictors of antibiotic use in Sri Lankan shrimp farms.

    PubMed

    Munasinghe, Nalaka; Stephen, Craig; Robertson, Colin; Abeynayake, Preeni

    2012-03-01

    Black tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon farming is important for Sri Lanka's rural development plans. Consumer confidence is critical for the development and maintenance of export and domestic shrimp markets. Public concern about the use of antimicrobial drugs and chemicals on shrimp farms, however, could threaten market access. We sought to identify high-risk areas and farm-level risk factors for antimicrobial use to inform the core messages and strategic placement of extension programs to help farmers develop best management practices for antimicrobial use. We undertook a survey of 603 operating farms within the Puttalam district over 42 weeks. Lower stocking density and early harvest were associated with a lower risk of antimicrobial use, whereas standard management practices, including water treatment, feed supplements, probiotic use, pond fertilizing, disinfectant use, and pesticide use, were associated with increased risk. Spatial cluster detection found three significant clusters of antimicrobial-using farms. Antimicrobials were more likely to be used in areas with lower farm density. Some of our counterintuitive findings are discussed from a socioecological perspective. A comprehensive understanding of why antimicrobials are used on shrimp farms requires an evaluation of the physical, epidemiological, and socioeconomic factors.

  13. Genetic Signature of Rapid IHHNV (Infectious Hypodermal and Hematopoietic Necrosis Virus) Expansion in Wild Penaeus Shrimp Populations

    PubMed Central

    Robles-Sikisaka, Refugio; Bohonak, Andrew J.; McClenaghan, Leroy R.; Dhar, Arun K.

    2010-01-01

    Infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHHNV) is a widely distributed single-stranded DNA parvovirus that has been responsible for major losses in wild and farmed penaeid shrimp populations on the northwestern Pacific coast of Mexico since the early 1990's. IHHNV has been considered a slow-evolving, stable virus because shrimp populations in this region have recovered to pre-epizootic levels, and limited nucleotide variation has been found in a small number of IHHNV isolates studied from this region. To gain insight into IHHNV evolutionary and population dynamics, we analyzed IHHNV capsid protein gene sequences from 89 Penaeus shrimp, along with 14 previously published sequences. Using Bayesian coalescent approaches, we calculated a mean rate of nucleotide substitution for IHHNV that was unexpectedly high (1.39×10−4 substitutions/site/year) and comparable to that reported for RNA viruses. We found more genetic diversity than previously reported for IHHNV isolates and highly significant subdivision among the viral populations in Mexican waters. Past changes in effective number of infections that we infer from Bayesian skyline plots closely correspond to IHHNV epizootiological historical records. Given the high evolutionary rate and the observed regional isolation of IHHNV in shrimp populations in the Gulf of California, we suggest regular monitoring of wild and farmed shrimp and restriction of shrimp movement as preventative measures for future viral outbreaks. PMID:20668694

  14. Vibrio cholerae pathogen from the freshwater-cultured whiteleg shrimp Penaeus vannamei and control with Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus.

    PubMed

    Cao, Haipeng; An, Jian; Zheng, Weidong; He, Shan

    2015-09-01

    Vibriosis has become a major global economic problem in freshwater-farmed whiteleg shrimp (Penaeus vannamei). The prevention and control of vibriosis are now priority research topics. In this study, a pathogenic strain (QH) was isolated from vibriosis-infected freshwater-farmed P. vannamei that resulted in leg yellowing and was identified as a Vibrio cholerae isolate through phylogenetic analysis and the API 32GN system. A phylogenetic tree that was constructed using the neighbor-joining method further confirmed the QH isolate as a V. cholerae strain. A virulent outer membrane protein (ompU) gene was found to be present in the QH isolate, which further confirmed its pathogenicity. In addition, Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus conferred significant protection against V. cholerae: B. bacteriovorus exhibited significant bacteriolytic effects on the V. cholerae pathogen, possessed a wide prey range that included Vibrio pathogens, and displayed a positive protective efficacy against experimental V. cholerae infection in P. vannamei. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of the control of shrimp pathogen V. cholerae with B. bacteriovorus.

  15. Characterization and molecular methods for detection of a novel spiroplasma pathogenic to Penaeus vannamei.

    PubMed

    Nunan, Linda M; Pantoja, Carlos R; Salazar, Marcela; Aranguren, Fernando; Lightner, Donald V

    2004-12-13

    Traditionally, Spiroplasma spp. have only been isolated from the surfaces of flowers and other plant parts, from the guts and hemolymph of various insects, and from vascular plant fluids (phloem sap) and insects that feed on these fluids. In this article, we report the first pathogenic spiroplasma to be discovered in shrimp and the results of its characterization through histological evaluation, in situ hybridization assays, transmission electron microscopy, 16S rRNA sequence homology, and injection infectivity studies. In addition, molecular methods are described that were developed for the detection of this microorganism, which was determined to be the causative disease agent in Colombian farm-raised Penaeus vannamei suffering from high mortalities. Using standard histological methods and in situ hybridization assays, it was confirmed that P. vannamei was infected with this pathogenic spiroplasma. Histological analysis revealed systemic inflammatory reactions in affected organs/tissues. In an attempt to identify the bacteria, frozen infected P. vannamei samples, from the initial epizootic, were used to sequence the 16S rRNA gene and develop molecular detection methods. The 16S rRNA gene was amplified by PCR and then sequenced. The sequence data were analyzed using the GenBank BLAST search and the results revealed a 98% homology with Spiroplasma citri, a pathogen of citrus trees. The 16S rRNA sequence data were evaluated for development of unique PCR primers to the putative spiroplasma. Using PCR primers developed for the spiralin gene of Spiroplasma spp., a digoxigenin-labeled probe was developed and tested. This probe was species-specific, with no positive reactions or cross-reactivity occurring with other bacterial samples tested in this format.

  16. Expansion of the Litopenaeus vannamei and Penaeus monodon peptidomes using transcriptome shotgun assembly sequence data.

    PubMed

    Christie, Andrew E

    2014-09-15

    The shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei and Penaeus monodon are arguably the most important commercially farmed crustaceans. While expansion of their aquaculture has classically relied on improvements to rearing facilities, these options have largely been exhausted, and today a shift in focus is occurring, with increased investment in manipulating the shrimp themselves. Hormonal control is one strategy for increasing aquaculture output. However, to use it, one must first understand an animal's native hormonal systems. Here, transcriptome shotgun assembly (TSA) data were used to expand the peptidomes for L. vannamei and P. monodon. Via an established bioinformatics workflow, 41 L. vannamei and 25 P. monodon pre/preprohormone-encoding transcripts were identified, allowing for the prediction of 158 and 106 distinct peptide structures for these species, respectively. The identified peptides included isoforms of allatostatin A, B and C, as well as members the bursicon, CAPA, CCHamide, crustacean cardioactive peptide, crustacean hyperglycemic hormone, diuretic hormone 31, eclosion hormone, FLRFamide, GSEFLamide, intocin, leucokinin, molt-inhibiting hormone, myosuppressin, neuroparsin, neuropeptide F, orcokinin, orcomyotropin, pigment dispersing hormone, proctolin, red pigment concentrating hormone, RYamide, SIFamide, short neuropeptide F and tachykinin-related peptide families. While some of the predicted peptides are known L. vannamei and/or P. monodon isoforms (which vet the structures of many peptides identified previously via mass spectrometry and other means), most are described here for the first time. These data more than double the extant catalogs of L. vannamei and P. monodon peptides and provide platforms from which to launch future physiological studies of peptidergic signaling in these two commercially important species.

  17. Characterization of intestinal bacteria in wild and domesticated adult black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon).

    PubMed

    Rungrassamee, Wanilada; Klanchui, Amornpan; Maibunkaew, Sawarot; Chaiyapechara, Sage; Jiravanichpaisal, Pikul; Karoonuthaisiri, Nitsara

    2014-01-01

    The black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon) is a marine crustacean of economic importance in the world market. To ensure sustainability of the shrimp industry, production capacity and disease outbreak prevention must be improved. Understanding healthy microbial balance inside the shrimp intestine can provide an initial step toward better farming practice and probiotic applications. In this study, we employed a barcode pyrosequencing analysis of V3-4 regions of 16S rRNA genes to examine intestinal bacteria communities in wild-caught and domesticated P. monodon broodstock. Shrimp faeces were removed from intestines prior to further analysis in attempt to identify mucosal bacterial population. Five phyla, Actinobacteria, Fusobacteria, Proteobacteria, Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes, were found in all shrimp from both wild and domesticated environments. The operational taxonomic unit (OTU) was assigned at 97% sequence identity, and our pyrosequencing results identified 18 OTUs commonly found in both groups. Sequences of the shared OTUs were similar to bacteria in three phyla, namely i) Proteobacteria (Vibrio, Photobacterium, Novosphingobium, Pseudomonas, Sphingomonas and Undibacterium), ii) Firmicutes (Fusibacter), and iii) Bacteroidetes (Cloacibacterium). The shared bacterial members in P. monodon from two different habitats provide evidence that the internal environments within the host shrimp also exerts selective pressure on bacterial members. Intestinal bacterial profiles were compared using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). The sequences from DGGE bands were similar to those of Vibrio and Photobacterium in all shrimp, consistent with pyrosequencing results. This work provides the first comprehensive report on bacterial populations in the intestine of adult black tiger shrimp and reveals some similar bacterial members between the intestine of wild-caught and domesticated shrimp.

  18. Cloning of penaeidin gene promoter in tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon).

    PubMed

    Ho, Shih-Hu; Song, Yen-Ling

    2009-07-01

    Penaeidins belong to a family of antimicrobial peptides that are expressed in the hemocytes of penaeid shrimps. Using an extender PCR method and a nested PCR, we cloned two types of genomic fragment flanking the 5' end of penaeidin gene in tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon): Type536 and Type411 sequences. Both fragments contained TATA box, GATA, dorsal and AP-1 motifs and were ligated to an expression vector with a luciferase reporter gene. The constructs were then delivered into Drosophila S2 cell line. The promoter functions of the two fragments were determined using a luciferase expression assay. The study demonstrated that Type411 sequence performed higher transcriptional activity than Type536. Alignment of the upstream sequences of penaeidin genes in P. monodon and Litopenaeus vannamei showed that the promoter regions were obviously more diverse than the 5'UTRs. Phylogenetic analysis indicated the presence of two types of promoters that are not species-specific in the two shrimps.

  19. Australian Brain Alliance.

    PubMed

    2016-11-02

    A proposal for an Australian Brain Initiative (ABI) is under development by members of the Australian Brain Alliance. Here we discuss the goals of the ABI, its areas of research focus, its context in the Australian research setting, and its necessity for ensuring continued success for Australian brain research.

  20. Farm Animals

    MedlinePlus

    ... Pets Pets Birds Cats Dogs Farm Animals Backyard Poultry Ferrets Fish Horses Reptiles and Amphibians Turtles Kept ... including cattle; sheep; pigs; goats; llamas; alpacas; and poultry only happens at petting zoos or on farm ...

  1. Molecular detection methods developed for a systemic rickettsia-like bacterium (RLB) in Penaeus monodon (Decapoda: Crustacea).

    PubMed

    Nunan, Linda M; Poulos, Bonnie; Redman, Rita; Le Groumellec, Marc; Lightner, Donald V

    2003-01-22

    Molecular detection methods were developed to aid in the diagnosis of a rickettsia-like bacterium (RLB) which caused severe mortalities of farm-raised Penaeus monodon in Madagascar. Using primers derived from the 16S rRNA gene of bacteria, a PCR assay was optimized to amplify this region of the genome of the RLB, using extracted DNA from infected P. monodon tissue as the template. The resulting amplified PCR product was sequenced and 2 novel primers were selected from the variable region of the gene. These primers amplified a 532 bp fragment of DNA originating from the rickettsia-infected samples. The PCR assay was optimized and tested on DNA extracted from specific pathogen-free (SPF) P. vannamei tissue and several other strains of bacteria. The PCR assay with the rickettsia-specific primers was specific for this RLB and did not amplify the other DNA samples tested. The 532 bp PCR-amplified fragment was labeled with digoxigenin (DIG) for in situ hybridization assays. This probe was tested on SPF, RLB and bacteria-infected shrimp specimens preserved in Davidson's fixative. The probe was specific for both natural and experimental rickettsial infections. Hybridization with this probe required a stringent temperature of 65 degrees C, otherwise cross-reactivity was observed with other types of bacteria.

  2. Baculoviral mid-gut gland necrosis (BMN) of kuruma shrimp (Penaeus japonicus) larvae in Japanese intensive culture systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sano, T.; Nishimura, T.; Fukuda, H.; Hayashida, T.; Momoyama, K.

    1984-03-01

    In many shrimp farms in the Kyushu and Chugoku areas of Japan, the so-called mid-gut gland cloudy disease of kuruma shrimp larvae (Penaeus japonicus) has occurred since 1971. The pathological changes associated with this baculoviral mid-gut gland necrosis (BMN) are extensive cellular necrosis, collapse of mid-gut gland cells, nuclear hypertrophy and finally karyorrhexis. Electron microscopic examination revealed the presence of virions and virogenic stages in the affected nuclei. Average length and diameter of the virions detected was 310 and 72 nm, respectively; nucleocapsids were 250 nm in size. Virions enclosing 2 nucleocapsids within a single envelope were rarely found. The spirally arranged capsomeres were at an angle of 37 to 38° to a horizontal line meeting at right angles with the long axis of the virion. Infectivity trials resulted in high mortality of healthy mysis and juveniles (2nd post-larval stage). Juveniles at the 9th post-larval stage showed no mortality, although they could be infected easily by the agent. Hypertrophied nuclei in squashed and stained preparations of the affected gland cells can be considered to be of reliable presumptive diagnostic character, and fluorescent antibody staining can be employed to confirm the diagnosis of BMN.

  3. Protein profiling in the gut of Penaeus monodon gavaged with oral WSSV-vaccines and live white spot syndrome virus.

    PubMed

    Kulkarni, Amod D; Kiron, Viswanath; Rombout, Jan H W M; Brinchmann, Monica F; Fernandes, Jorge M O; Sudheer, Naduvilamuriparampu S; Singh, Bright I S

    2014-07-01

    White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is a pathogen that causes considerable mortality of the farmed shrimp, Penaeus monodon. Candidate 'vaccines', WSSV envelope protein VP28 and formalin-inactivated WSSV, can provide short-lived protection against the virus. In this study, P. monodon was orally intubated with the aforementioned vaccine candidates, and protein expression in the gut of immunised shrimps was profiled. The alterations in protein profiles in shrimps infected orally with live-WSSV were also examined. Seventeen of the identified proteins in the vaccine and WSSV-intubated shrimps varied significantly compared to those in the control shrimps. These proteins, classified under exoskeletal, cytoskeletal, immune-related, intracellular organelle part, intracellular calcium-binding or energy metabolism, are thought to directly or indirectly affect shrimp's immunity. The changes in the expression levels of crustacyanin, serine proteases, myosin light chain, and ER protein 57 observed in orally vaccinated shrimp may probably be linked to immunoprotective responses. On the other hand, altered expression of proteins linked to exoskeleton, calcium regulation and energy metabolism in WSSV-intubated shrimps is likely to symbolise disturbances in calcium homeostasis and energy metabolism.

  4. Dietary pantothenic acid requirement of juvenile grass shrimp, Penaeus monodon.

    PubMed

    Shiau, S Y; Hsu, C W

    1999-03-01

    A feeding trial was conducted to estimate the minimal dietary pantothenic acid (PA) requirement for juvenile grass shrimp, Penaeus monodon. Purified diets with seven levels (0, 20, 40, 60, 120, 240, and 480 mg/kg) of supplemental PA were fed to P. monodon (mean weight 0.88 +/- 0.01 g) for 8 wk. The level of PA detected in the unsupplemented diet was 0.02 mg/kg. Each diet was fed to three replicate groups of shrimp. Feed efficiencies (FE) and protein efficiency ratios were highest in shrimp fed the diets supplemented with 120, 240, and 480 mg PA/kg diet, followed by the groups fed 60 mg/kg, then 40 mg/kg, and finally the unsupplemented control group (P < 0.05). Shrimp fed diets supplemented with PA had significantly higher survival percentages and lower hepatopancreatic lipid concentration than those fed the unsupplemented, control diets. Broken-line regression analyses of weight gain percentage and hepatopancreatic CoA and PA concentrations of the shrimp indicated that the adequate dietary PA concentration in growing P. monodon is 101-139 mg/kg.

  5. Characterization of a rediscovered haplosporidian parasite from cultured Penaeus vannamei.

    PubMed

    Nunan, Linda M; Lightner, Donald V; Pantoja, Carlos R; Stokes, Nancy A; Reece, Kimberly S

    2007-02-08

    Mortalities of Penaeus vannamei, cultured in ponds in Belize, Central America, began during the last part of the grow-out cycle during the cold weather months from September 2004 through February 2005. Tissue squashes of infected hepatopancreata and histological examination of infected shrimp revealed that the mortalities might have been caused by an endoparasite. To confirm the diagnosis, DNA was extracted from ethanol preserved hepatopancreata and the small-subunit rRNA gene was sequenced. The 1838 bp sequence was novel and phylogenetic analysis placed the P. vannamei parasite within the phylum Haplosporidia as a sister taxon to a clade that includes Bonamia and Minchinia species. In situ hybridization was performed using anti-sense DNA probes that were designed to hybridize specifically with the parasite's nucleic acid. This organism presents similar characteristics to those of a haplosporidian that infected cultured P. vannamei imported from Nicaragua into Cuba, as described by Dyková et al. (1988; Fish Dis 11:15-22).

  6. Cadmium uptake and accumulation by the decapod crustacean Penaeus indicus.

    PubMed

    Nuñez-Nogueira, Gabriel; Rainbow, Philip S

    2005-09-01

    Juveniles of the dendrobranchiate decapod Penaeus indicus take up radiolabelled cadmium from solution over the exposure concentration range of 1.8-31.5 microg L(-1), with an uptake rate constant of 0.090 L g(-1)d(-1) at 15 salinity and 25 degrees C. New cadmium taken up is added to the existing cadmium content of the prawn with no significant excretion, and the rate of accumulation of radiolabelled cadmium is a measure of the absolute cadmium uptake rate from solution. Moulting had no significant effect on the accumulation of cadmium. Newly accumulated cadmium is distributed to all organs with the highest proportions of body content being found in the hepatopancreas, exoskeleton, gills and remaining soft tissues, the hepatopancreas and gills containing the highest labelled cadmium concentrations. Like other crustaceans, penaeid prawns inhabiting anthropogenically contaminated coastal waters with raised cadmium bioavailabilities can be expected to contain raised body concentrations of cadmium. Cadmium concentrations of most field-collected adult penaeids are relatively low, as a probable consequence of the growth dilution of their cadmium contents as a result of the rapid growth rates of penaeid prawns.

  7. Identification of the core sequence elements in Penaeus stylirostris densovirus promoters

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This manuscript describes the role of different core elements in the transcriptional activity of promoters in a marine parvovirus, Penaeus stylirostris densovirus (PstDNV) that infects shrimp. Although comprehensive information on the role of different elements in the promoters of several animal par...

  8. Mercury content of shrimp (Penaeus vannamei) reared in a wastewater-seawater aquacultural system

    SciTech Connect

    Landau, M.; Pierce, R.

    1986-10-01

    Penaeus vannamei were reared in two ponds, one receiving 10% wastewater in seawater and no feed, and the other receiving only seawater and a prepared commercial feed. The pond receiving the wastewater had significantly more mercury in the sediment, yet shrimp in this pond did not accumulate significant amounts of the mercury in their edible tissue.

  9. Communication: Are Australians Different?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansford, B. C.

    1992-01-01

    Examines the question of the distinctive nature of communication in Australia. Discusses nonverbal messages, gender concerns, historical influences on communication, the Australian accent, communication with indigenous persons, communication apprehension, and classroom communication. Argues that Australians' communication is relatively similar to…

  10. Bittersweet Farms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kay, Bettye Ruth

    1990-01-01

    The article describes Bittersweet Farms, a rural Ohio farm community for autistic adults. The program is based on the rural, extended family community as a model and includes work components (horticulture, animal care, woodworking and carpentry, maintenance, housekeeping, food preparation), recreational activities, community integration, physical…

  11. Solvent extracts of the red seaweed Gracilaria fisheri prevent Vibrio harveyi infections in the black tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon.

    PubMed

    Kanjana, Kulwadee; Radtanatip, Tawut; Asuvapongpatana, Somluk; Withyachumnarnkul, Boonsirm; Wongprasert, Kanokpan

    2011-01-01

    Vibriosis is a common bacterial disease that can cause high mortality and morbidity in farmed shrimp. Since compounds from seaweed have been reported to have anti-bacterial and immunostimulant activity, this study was conducted to determine whether solvent extracts from the red seaweed Gracilaria fisheri might be a possible alternative for prevention and treatment of shrimp vibriosis caused by Vibrio harveyi. Seaweed extracts prepared using ethanol, methanol, chloroform and hexane were evaluated for anti-V. harveyi activity by the disc-diffusion method. The ethanol, methanol and chloroform extracts showed activity against a virulent strain of V. harveyi with potency (minimal inhibitory concentrations in the range of 90-190 μg ml(-1)) equivalent to the antibiotic norfloxacin. The ethanol extract was not toxic to the brine shrimp Artemia salina when it was fed to them for enrichment prior to their use, in turn, as feed for postlarvae of Penaeus monodon. Postlarvae fed with these enriched Artemia gave significantly lower mortality than control postlarvae after challenge with V. harveyi. In addition, P. monodon juveniles injected with the ethanol extract showed a significant increase in the total number of haemocytes and an increased proportion of semi-granulocytes and granulocytes when compared to control shrimp. The activities of phenoloxidase and superoxide dismutase were also increased, with an accompanying increase in superoxide anion production. When these juvenile shrimp were challenged with V. harveyi, mortality was markedly reduced compared to that of control shrimp. The results indicated that ethanol extracts of G. fisheri had immunostimulant and antimicrobial activity that could protect P. monodon against V. harveyi.

  12. Duplex real-time PCR for detection and quantification of monodon baculovirus (MBV) and hepatopancreatic parvovirus (HPV) in Penaeus monodon.

    PubMed

    Tang, Kathy F J; Lightner, Donald V

    2011-02-22

    We describe a duplex real-time PCR assay using TaqMan probes for the simultaneous detection of monodon baculovirus (MBV) and hepatopancreatic parvovirus (HPV). Both MBV and HPV are shrimp enteric viruses that infect intestinal and hepatopancreatic epithelial cells. Both viruses can cause significant mortalities and depressed growth in infected larval, postlarval, and early juvenile stages of shrimp, and thus present a risk to commercial aquaculture. In this duplex assay, we combined 2 single real-time PCRs, amplifying MBV and HPV, in a one-tube PCR reaction. The 2 viruses were distinguished by specific fluorescent labels at the 5' end of TaqMan probes: the MBV probe was labeled with dichlorodimethoxyfluorescein (JOE), and the HPV probe was labeled with 6-carboxyfluorescein (FAM). The duplex real-time PCR assay was performed in a multi-channel real-time PCR detection system, and MBV and HPV amplification signals were separately detected by the JOE and FAM channels. This duplex assay was validated to be specific to the target viruses and found to have a detection limit of single copies for each virus. The dynamic range was found to be from 1 to 1 x 10(8) copies per reaction. This assay was further applied to quantify MBV and HPV in samples of infected Penaeus monodon collected from Malaysia, Indonesia, and Thailand. The specificity and sensitivity of this duplex real-time PCR assay offer a valuable tool for routine diagnosis and quantification of MBV and HPV from both wild and farmed shrimp stocks.

  13. Involvement of opioid peptides in the regulation of reproduction in the prawn Penaeus indicus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sreenivasula Reddy, P.

    The possible involvement of an endogenous opioid system in the regulation of ovarian development in the prawn Penaeus indicus was investigated. Injection of leucine-enkephalin significantly increased the ovarian index and oocyte diameter in a dose-dependent manner. In contrast, injection of methionine-enkephalin significantly decreased the ovarian index and oocyte diameters. These results provide evidence to support the hypothesis that an opioid system is involved in the regulation of reproduction in crustaceans.

  14. Farm Equipment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1980-01-01

    In production of tractor and a line of farm vehicles, Deere and Company used a COSMIC computer program called FEATS for Finite Element Analysis of Thermal Stress in computer analysis of diesel engine pistons, connecting rods and rocker arms. Company reports that use of FEATS afforded considerable savings and improved analytical accuracies, process efficiencies and product reliability.

  15. White spot syndrome virus isolates of tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon (Fabricious) in India are similar to exotic isolates as revealed by polymerase chain reaction and electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Mishra, S S; Shekhar, M S

    2005-07-01

    Microbiological analysis of samples collected from cases of white spot disease outbreaks in cultured shrimp in different farms located in three regions along East Coast of India viz. Chidambram (Tamil Nadu), Nellore (Andhra Pradesh) and Balasore (Orissa), revealed presence of Vibrio alginolyticus, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, and Aeromonas spp. but experimental infection trials in Penaeus monodon with these isolates did not induce any acute mortality or formation of white spots on carapace. Infection trials using filtered tissue extracts by oral and injection method induced mortality in healthy P. monodon with all samples and 100% mortality was noted by the end of 7 day post-inoculation. Histopathological analysis demonstrated degenerated cells characterized by hypertrophied nuclei in gills, hepatopancreas and lymphoid organ with presence of intranuclear basophilic or eosino-basophilic bodies in tubular cells and intercellular spaces. Analysis of samples using 3 different primer sets as used by other for detection of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) generated 643, 1447 and 520bp amplified DNA products in all samples except in one instance. Variable size virions with mean size in the range of 110 x 320 +/- 20 nm were observed under electron microscope. It could be concluded that the viral isolates in India involved with white spot syndrome in cultured shrimp are similar to RV-PJ and SEMBV in Japan, WSBV in Taiwan and WSSV in Malaysia, Indonesia, Thailand, China and Japan.

  16. Dense populations of the microsporidian Enterocytozoon hepatopenaei (EHP) in feces of Penaeus vannamei exhibiting white feces syndrome and pathways of their transmission to healthy shrimp.

    PubMed

    Tang, Kathy F J; Han, Jee Eun; Aranguren, Luis Fernando; White-Noble, Brenda; Schmidt, Margeaux M; Piamsomboon, Patharapol; Risdiana, Eris; Hanggono, Bambang

    2016-10-01

    White feces syndrome (WFS) is an emerging problem for penaeid shrimp farming industries in SE Asia countries, Thailand, Malaysia, Vietnam, Indonesia, China, and in India. This occurrence of this syndrome is usually first evidenced by the appearance of white fecal strings floating on surface of the shrimp ponds. The gross signs of affected shrimp include the appearance of a whitish hindgut and loose carapace, and it is associated with reduced feeding and growth retardation. To investigate the nature of the white feces syndrome, samples of white feces and shrimp hepatopancreas tissue were collected from Penaeus vannamei in affected farms in Indonesia, and these were examined histologically. Within the white feces, we found densely packed spores of the microsporidian Enterocytozoon hepatopenaei (abbreviated as EHP) and relatively fewer numbers of rod-shaped bacteria. From WFS ponds, hepatopancreas samples form 30 individual shrimp were analyzed by histology and in situ hybridization. The results showed that all of the shrimp examined were infected with EHP accompanied by septic hepatopancreatic necrosis (SHPN). Midgut epithelial cells were also infected and this increased the number of tissue types being affected by EHP. By PCR, EHP was detected in all the samples analyzed from WFS-affected ponds, but not in those sampled from healthy shrimp ponds. To determine the modes of transmission for this parasite, we performed feeding and cohabitation bioassays, the results showed that EHP can be transmitted through per os feeding of EHP-infected hepatopancreas tissue to healthy shrimp and through cohabitation ofinfected and healthy shrimp. In addition, we found the use of Fumagillin-B, an antimicrobial agent, was ineffective in either reducing or eliminating EHP in infected shrimp.

  17. Australian Mineral Foundation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crowe, D. S.

    1980-01-01

    Provides details on the philosophy and operation of the Australian Mineral Foundation, established in 1970 to update professionals in the mining and petroleum industries. Services in continuing education courses and to secondary school teachers and students are described. (CS)

  18. Research Readings. Australian Apprenticeships.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smart, Nigel, Ed.

    This volume on apprenticeships in Australia summarizes 11 research studies. After an "Introduction" (Nigel Smart), the reports are: "Apprenticeship in Australia: A Concise History" (John Ray); "Issues and Directions from the Australian Apprenticeship and Traineeship Literature" (Stephen Saunders); "Determinants…

  19. "Candidatus Hepatobacter penaei," an intracellular pathogenic enteric bacterium in the hepatopancreas of the marine shrimp Penaeus vannamei (Crustacea: Decapoda).

    PubMed

    Nunan, Linda M; Pantoja, Carlos R; Gomez-Jimenez, Silvia; Lightner, Donald V

    2013-02-01

    The bacteria that cause necrotizing hepatopancreatitis in Penaeus vannamei adversely affect penaeid shrimp cultured in the western hemisphere. 16S rRNA and gyrase B gene analyses determined the taxonomic position of these bacteria. The name "Candidatus Hepatobacter penaei" is proposed for these pathogenic bacteria, which are members of the Rickettsiales order.

  20. INDUCTION OF MATURATION AND SPAWNING OF PINK SHRIMP, PENAEUS DURORARUM, BY CHANGING WATER TEMPERATURE, AND SURVIVAL AND GROWTH OF YOUNG.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Field surveys of Penaeus duorarum have frequently observed co-occurrence of rising water temperatures, reproductive maturation and appearance of larval stages of the shrimp. This study investigated the use of water temperature changes, instead of eye enucleation, to induce matura...

  1. [The Iowa Family Farm.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardesty, Carolyn, Ed.

    1990-01-01

    This issue of the "Goldfinch" focuses on the family farm of the past. All aspects of farm life are covered: what was grown on farms, how the chores were done and who was responsible for them, what the houses were like, and what tools and equipment were used. Comparisons are made between modern farms and farms of 50 or 150 years ago, and…

  2. Molecular characterization of the bifunctional VHDL-CP from the hemolymph of white shrimp Penaeus vannamei.

    PubMed

    Yepiz-Plascencia, Gloria; Jiménez-Vega, Florinda; Romo-Figueroa, María Gabriela; Sotelo-Mundo, Rogerio R; Vargas-Albores, Francisco

    2002-07-01

    A very high-density lipoprotein (VHDL) purified from the hemolymph of the white shrimp Penaeus vannamei is shown to be identical to the clotting protein (CP) previously reported from the same organism based on size, subunits and N-terminal amino acid sequence. The approximately 440-kDa protein, a homodimer of approximately 200-kDa subunits, was present in KBr gradient fractions ranging in density from 1.155 to 1.212 g/ml. Samples of VHDL after purification by strong cation exchange chromatography were subjected to electrophoresis on native polyacrylamide gels. Lipids associated with the VHDL were detected by Sudan Black and Oil Red O staining and comprise 9-15% of the purified protein. Circular dichroism of VHDL-CP indicates that the alpha-helix content of the VHDL-CP is 32%, while beta-sheets correspond to 33%, closely resembling the secondary structure of CP from the shrimp Penaeus monodon and, remarkably, the secondary structure of very high-density lipophorin E (VHDLpE) from the tobacco hornworm, Manduca sexta.

  3. Monoclonal antibody based immunodot for specific detection of proteins of the shrimp Penaeus species.

    PubMed

    Abhiman, P B; Shankar, K M; Patil, Rajreddy; Suresh Babu, P P; Sahoo, A K; Shamasundar, B A

    2014-05-01

    Frozen shrimp continued to be the single largest item of export from India in terms of value accounting for about 44% of the total marine export earnings. Headless, peeled frozen shrimp is a common and dominant item in the market and there is need for differentiating peeled Penaeus sp from Metapenaeus, Parapenopsis and Macrobrachium sp as consumer preference and price vary. Furthermore, there is need to find out original species used in value addition of shrimp products. Hence, it is essential for development of simple and consumer friendly technique for the identification of shrimp and their products in the market. Two monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) C-15 (IgG3) and C-52 (IgG2a) reacting with 65 and 47 kD proteins of Penaeus monodon respectively in the Western blot were selected. In epitope analysis by immunodot, the two MAbs reacted and recognized specific proteins of P. monodon, Fenneropenaeus indicus and Littopenaeus vannamei and not that of Metapenaeus, Parapenopsis, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, crabs and fishes. The immunodot required 120 min for completion. The sensitivity of the immunodot to detect proteins of P. monodon was 0.225 mg with MAb C-15 and 0.028 mg with MAb C-52. The MAb based immunodot developed, could be used for identifying and differentiating meat of P. monodon, F. indicus, and L. vannamei from that of Metapenaeus, Parapenopsis, M. rosenbergii, crabs and fishes.

  4. Immobilization of Penaeus merguiensis alkaline phosphatase on gold nanorods for heavy metal detection.

    PubMed

    Homaei, Ahmad

    2017-02-01

    Biotechnology of enzyme has gained popularity due to the growing need for novel environmental technologies and the development of innovative mass-production. The work describes the original application of biosensors based on Penaeus merguiensis alkaline phosphatase (PM ALP) immobilized on gold nanorods (GNRs) to heavy metal determination. Penaeus merguiensis alkaline phosphatase (PM ALP) was immobilized on gold nanorods (GNRs) by ionic exchange and hydrophobic interactions. The optimum pH and temperature for maximum enzyme activity for the immobilized PM ALP are identified to be 11.0 and 60°C, respectively, for the hydrolysis of para-Nitrophenylphosphate (p-NPP). The kinetic studies confirm the Michaelis-Menten behavior and suggests overall slightly decrease in the performance of the immobilized enzyme with reference to the free enzyme. Km and Vmax values were 0.32µm and 54µm. min(-1) for free and 0.39µm and 48µmmin(-1) for immobilized enzymes, respectively. Similarly, the thermal stability, storage stability and stability at extreme pH of the enzyme is found to increase after the immobilization. The inhibitory effect heavy metal ions was studied on free and immobilized PM ALP. The bi-enzymatic biosensor were tested to study the influence of heavy metal ions and pesticides on the corresponding enzyme. The obtained high stability and lower decrease in catalytic efficiency suggested the great potential and feasibility of immobilized PM ALP nanobiocatalyst in efficient and apply the biosensor in total toxic metal content determination.

  5. The use of insects as a bioassay for Penaeus merguiensis densovirus (PmergDNV).

    PubMed

    La Fauce, Kathy A; Owens, Leigh

    2008-05-01

    The lack of available cell lines has hampered the study of viral diseases in crustaceans. This is particularly important for aquaculture which has been plagued by viral diseases since its rapid expansion to meet with the growing demand for seafood products. This study was designed to find an alternative bioassay to cell lines by investigating the use of insects as potential animal models for Penaeus merguiensis densovirus (PmergDNV). Acheta domesticus (house cricket) and Tenebrio molitor (mealworms) were challenged with approximately 1x10(6) virions of PmergDNV by inoculation. PmergDNV was detected in 20% of Tenebrio molitor and 86.6% of Acheta domesticus challenged with PmergDNV. During a subsequent time course experiment, there was a non significant increase in PmergDNV titres (10(4-5) virions), reaching a maximum peak at day 5 (10(6) copies). A threshold of PmergDNV DNA level equal to or greater than 10(3) virions was necessary for mortality in Acheta domesticus. As the inoculum increased from 10(3) DNA copies to 10(4), 10(5), 10(6), mortality increased from 20% to 60%, 80% and 100%, respectively. This is the first evidence that insects may be directly used to study viruses from crustaceans and concludes Acheta domesticus may be used as a potential model to study Penaeus merguiensis densovirus.

  6. Pleonal muscle development in the shrimp Penaeus (Litopenaeus) vannamei (Crustacea: Malacostraca: Decapoda: Dendrobranchiata).

    PubMed

    Hertzler, Philip L; Freas, William R

    2009-05-01

    Penaeoidean shrimp pleonal muscle is a valuable economic resource worldwide, but little is known of its development during larval stages. The development of pleonal muscle in Penaeus (Litopenaeus) vannamei was studied by rhodamine-phalloidin staining and laser-scanning confocal microscopy. Dorsal pleonal muscle was first evident at the protozoea I stage while ventral pleonal muscle was present by the protozoea II stage. Identifiable ventral pleonal muscles were evident by the protozoea III stage and all ventral muscle types were present in the mysis I. The tail flex response began at the mysis stage and growth of existing pleonal muscles continued. The pleopods formed during the mysis stages, with coxal and basis muscles developed by mysis III. The pleopods became functional beginning with the first post-larval stage. We conclude that the pleonal muscle pattern of P. vannamei larvae is similar to that of adult Penaeus setiferus, and that homologous muscles are present. The major formation of dorsal pleonal muscles occurs during the protozoea II stage, while significant development of ventral pleonal muscles occurs during the protozoea III stage.

  7. Australian Film Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breen, Myles P.

    Although Australia had a vigorous film industry in the silent film era, it was stifled in the 1930s when United States and British interests bought up the Australian distribution channels and closed down the indigenous industry. However, the industry and film study have undergone a renaissance since the advent of the Labor government in 1972,…

  8. Trialling the Australian Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashman, Di

    2010-01-01

    In 2010, St. Leonards Primary School in Tasmania, along with other selected schools throughout Australia, trialled the draft Australian Curriculum: Mathematics. Mathematics had been a whole school focus at St. Leonards Primary School for several years, and the school found that the opportunity to be part of the trial strongly connected with their…

  9. Researching Australian Children's Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saxby, Maurice

    2004-01-01

    When in 1962 the author began to research the history of Australian children's literature, access to the primary sources was limited and difficult. From a catalogue drawer in the Mitchell Library of hand-written cards marked "Children's books" he could call up from the stacks, in alphabetical order, piles of early publications. His notes…

  10. Numeracy and Australian Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forgasz, Helen; Leder, Gilah

    2016-01-01

    Australian teachers, recruited via Facebook, completed an online survey about aspects of numeracy. The survey was designed to explore views on numeracy and capacity to respond to numeracy tasks. In this paper, we focus primarily on responses to two numeracy tasks--one numerical, the other requiring critical evaluation. On the first item, 40%…

  11. Music in Australian Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartle, Graham

    This document is an English-language abstract (approximately 1,500 words) of a survey of music in Australian schools. The survey included all types of schools, and includes facilities and equipment for musical education, and the use made of them. The courses of study, organization of musical activities, finance, supervision, teacher training, and…

  12. Australian Curriculum Linked Lessons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurrell, Derek

    2013-01-01

    In providing a continued focus on tasks and activities that help to illustrate key ideas embedded in the new Australian Curriculum, the focus in this issue is on Measurement in the Measurement and Geometry strand. The small unit of work on measurement presented in this article has activities that can be modified to meet the requirements of…

  13. Two new anti-apoptotic proteins of white spot syndrome virus that bind to an effector caspase (PmCasp) of the giant tiger shrimp Penaeus (Penaeus) monodon.

    PubMed

    Lertwimol, Tareerat; Sangsuriya, Pakkakul; Phiwsaiya, Kornsunee; Senapin, Saengchan; Phongdara, Amornrat; Boonchird, Chuenchit; Flegel, Timothy W

    2014-05-01

    White spot syndrome virus proteins WSSV134 and WSSV322 have been shown to bind with the p20 domain (residues 55-214) of Penaeus monodon caspase (PmCasp) protein through yeast two-hybrid screening. Binding was confirmed for the p20 domain and the full-length caspase by co-immunoprecipitation. WSSV134 is also known as the WSSV structural protein VP36A, but no function or conserved domains have been ascribed to WSSV322. Discovery of the caspase binding activity of these two proteins led to an investigation of their possible anti-apoptotic roles. Full-length PmCasp was confirmed to be an effector caspase by inducing apoptosis in transfected Sf-9 cells as assessed by DAPI staining. Using the same cell model, comparison of cells co-transfected with PmCasp and either WSSV134 or WSSV322 revealed that both of the binding proteins had anti-apoptotic activity. However, using the same Sf-9 protocol with anti-apoptosis protein-1 (AAP-1; also called WSSV449) previously shown to bind and inactivate a different effector caspase from P. monodon (Pm caspase) did not block apoptosis induced by PmCasp. The results revealed diversity in effector caspases and their viral protein inhibitors in P. monodon.

  14. Spiroplasma penaei sp. nov., associated with mortalities in Penaeus vannamei, Pacific white shrimp.

    PubMed

    Nunan, Linda M; Lightner, Donald V; Oduori, Marietta A; Gasparich, Gail E

    2005-11-01

    A new bacterial strain, designated SHRIMP(T), isolated from the haemolymph of the Pacific white shrimp, Penaeus vannamei, was serologically distinct from other spiroplasmas. Cells of this strain were helical in form and variable in length. Examination by electron microscopy revealed wall-less cells delineated by a single cytoplasmic membrane. The organisms grew well in M1D media supplemented with 2 % NaCl. Strain SHRIMP(T) grew at temperatures of 20-37 degrees C, with optimum growth occurring at 28 degrees C. The strain catabolized glucose and hydrolysed arginine, but did not hydrolyse urea. The G+C content of the DNA was 29 +/-1 mol%. Strain SHRIMP(T) (=ATCC BAA-1082T=CAIM 1252T) is designated the type strain of a novel species, Spiroplasma penaei sp. nov., which represents a new subgroup (I-9) of the group I spiroplasmas.

  15. Pathology Associated with White Spot Virus (WSV) Infection in Wild Broodstock of Tiger Prawns (Penaeus monodon)

    PubMed Central

    Kua, Beng Chu; Rashid, Noraziah Mat

    2012-01-01

    A total of six wild broodstocks of tiger prawns, Penaeus monodon, were found positive for White Spot Virus (WSV) with an IQ2000 detection kit. Using histopathology, the intranuclear inclusion of haemocyte due to WSV infection was observed in the epithelium cells of the antennal gland, stomach and gills. This result confirmed that the wild broodstocks were positive with WSV without showing any white spot. Additionally, histopathological examination also revealed an accumulation of haemocytes around the hepatopancreatic tubules resulting from bacterial infection. Encapsulation and nodule formation, as well as related necrosis, were also observed around the hepatopancreatic tubules infected with a metazoan parasite. Encysted tylocephalum larval cestodes were observed in the hepatopancreas, with haemocytic aggregation being observed around the infected tubules. These findings showed some bacterial and parasitic infections which, in addition to the viral infection itself, could contribute to the 80% mortality rate in wild broodstocks infected with WSV. PMID:24575228

  16. Pathology Associated with White Spot Virus (WSV) Infection in Wild Broodstock of Tiger Prawns (Penaeus monodon).

    PubMed

    Kua, Beng Chu; Rashid, Noraziah Mat

    2012-05-01

    A total of six wild broodstocks of tiger prawns, Penaeus monodon, were found positive for White Spot Virus (WSV) with an IQ2000 detection kit. Using histopathology, the intranuclear inclusion of haemocyte due to WSV infection was observed in the epithelium cells of the antennal gland, stomach and gills. This result confirmed that the wild broodstocks were positive with WSV without showing any white spot. Additionally, histopathological examination also revealed an accumulation of haemocytes around the hepatopancreatic tubules resulting from bacterial infection. Encapsulation and nodule formation, as well as related necrosis, were also observed around the hepatopancreatic tubules infected with a metazoan parasite. Encysted tylocephalum larval cestodes were observed in the hepatopancreas, with haemocytic aggregation being observed around the infected tubules. These findings showed some bacterial and parasitic infections which, in addition to the viral infection itself, could contribute to the 80% mortality rate in wild broodstocks infected with WSV.

  17. Genetic improvement of Pacific white shrimp [Penaeus (Litopenaeus) vannamei]: perspectives for genomic selection

    PubMed Central

    Castillo-Juárez, Héctor; Campos-Montes, Gabriel R.; Caballero-Zamora, Alejandra; Montaldo, Hugo H.

    2015-01-01

    The uses of breeding programs for the Pacific white shrimp [Penaeus (Litopenaeus) vannamei] based on mixed linear models with pedigreed data are described. The application of these classic breeding methods yielded continuous progress of great value to increase the profitability of the shrimp industry in several countries. Recent advances in such areas as genomics in shrimp will allow for the development of new breeding programs in the near future that will increase genetic progress. In particular, these novel techniques may help increase disease resistance to specific emerging diseases, which is today a very important component of shrimp breeding programs. Thanks to increased selection accuracy, simulated genetic advance using genomic selection for survival to a disease challenge was up to 2.6 times that of phenotypic sib selection. PMID:25852740

  18. Requirements of shrimp, Penaeus chinensis O'sbeck for potassium, sodium, magnesium and iodine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Fa-Yi; Li, He-Fang; Wang, Hui-Liang; Liang, De-Hai; Tian, Yu-Chuan

    1995-06-01

    Potassium, sodium, magnesium and iodine requirements of shrimp, Penaeus chinensis were studied. Orthogonal design was employed in this experiment. The composition of the basal diet consisted of fish meal, peanut cake, corn meal, soybean cake, wheat bran, vitamin mix and mineral mix, and supplementations of potassium, sodium, magnesium and iodine in the basal diet were made according to the L9(34) orthogonal table. The results indicated that iodine supplementation improved growth of the shrimp significantly and raised survival very significantly, iodine requirement of the shrimp was 0.003%; sodium requirement was 0.87% or less; and that 1.1 1.3% potassium and 0.18 0.38% magnesium in the diet were proper nutrition supplements for the shrimp.

  19. Melanosis in Penaeus monodon: Involvement of the Laccase-like Activity of Hemocyanin.

    PubMed

    Bris, Cédric Le; Cudennec, Benoit; Dhulster, Pascal; Drider, Djamel; Duflos, Guillaume; Grard, Thierry

    2016-01-27

    In shrimp, the development of postmortem melanosis resulting from phenoloxidase activities leads to important economic losses. Phenoloxidase enzymes include catechol oxidases, laccases, and tyrosinases, but hemocyanin is also capable of phenoloxidase activities. These activities have been explored in Penaeus monodon, using different substrates. Results highlighted that tyrosinase-specific substrates were little oxidized, whereas hydroquinone (laccase-specific substrate) was more highly oxidized than l-DOPA (nonspecific substrate) in the pereopods and pleopods. Global phenoloxidase activity, assayed with l-DOPA, did not appear thermally stable over time and probably resulted from phenoloxidase enzymes. Conversely, the laccase-like activity assayed with hydroquinone was thermally stable over time, reflecting the thermal stability of hemocyanin. Independently of the anatomical compartment, the temperature, or the substrate, the highest activities were assayed in the cuticular compartments. This study demonstrates the complexity of phenoloxidase activities in P. monodon, and the importance of considering all the activities, including laccase-like activities such as that of hemocyanin.

  20. How Programme Teams Progress Agricultural Innovation in the Australian Dairy Industry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nettle, Ruth; Brightling, Pauline; Hope, Anne

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: This article outlines the emergence of programme teams in the Australian dairy farm sector as a response to counter weaknesses in the institutional environment for agricultural innovation which favours technology adoption/diffusion approaches. Design/methodology/approach: The strengths, weaknesses and risks of different approaches to…

  1. Farm Safety

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, G. S.

    1966-01-01

    Accident and safety are related terms; the higher the accident rate in any industry, the greater is the need for safety measures designed to prevent accidents. This article discusses the accident and safety problems in agriculture, which includes horticulture and forestry. There is still a tendency among townspeople to think of the countryside as peaceful and tranquil, a place where nothing happens very quickly and far removed from violent death or crippling injury. This pleasant rustic picture has undergone a striking change in the last 30 years owing to considerable agricultural mechanization and the development of chemical pesticides, which have brought new dangers to those who live and work on the land. Although men have readily adapted themselves to new machines and methods, they have not proved as able to recognize new dangers and learn how to guard against them. In consequence, accidents have increased to such an extent that the whole industry has realized the need for positive preventive measures. In this country, it is generally accepted that an employer of labour has a responsibility to provide safe working conditions for those he employs. Farm safety legislation goes a little further and usually requires an employer to provide necessary safeguards, with the added requirement on a worker to make use of them. It is a feature of accident prevention work that it never reaches a stage when it can be regarded as complete. Even when a reduction in accidents has been achieved, the effort must be sustained or the trend will be quickly reversed. Images PMID:5904095

  2. Molecular cloning and sequencing of a cDNA encoding partial putative molt-inhibiting hormone from Penaeus chinensis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zai-Zhao; Xiang, Jian-Hai

    2002-09-01

    Total RNA was extracted from eyestalks of shrimp Penaeus chinensis. Eyestalk cDNA was obtained from total RNA by reverse transcription. Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was initiated using eyestalk cDNA and degenerate primers designed from the amino acid sequence of molt-inhibiting hormone from shrimp Penaeus japonicus. A specific cDNA was obtained and cloned into a T vector for sequencing. The cDNA consisted of 201 base pairs and encoding for a peptide of 67 amino acid residues. The peptide of P. chinensis had the highest identity with molt-inhibiting hormones of P. japonicus. The cDNA could be a partial gene of molt-inhibiting hormones from P. chinensis. This paper reports for the first time cDNA encoding for neuropeptide of P. chinensis.

  3. Hardening: Australian for Transformation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-01-01

    ADF towards homeland defense. For further details, see Jeffrey Grey. A Military History of Australia. Melbourne, Australia, Cambridge University...is a simplified explanation of the hardene d force structure proposed by FLW. The hardened concept encompasses other aspects that enhance Army...standardized with three rifle companies. A 196 Leahy “ A Land Force for the Future: The Australian Army in the Early 21st Century.” 2003: 19. 197 See Monk, Paul

  4. Review of Australian Higher Education: An Australian Policy Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montague, Alan

    2013-01-01

    Higher education is one of the key foundations that economic prosperity is founded upon. Government policies, funding and strategic planning require a fine balance to stimulate growth, prosperity health and well-being. The key Australian government policies influenced by a Review of Australian Higher Education report include attracting many more…

  5. Farm Parents' Attitudes Towards Farm Safety Experts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neufeld, Steven J.; Cinnamon, Jennifer L.

    2004-01-01

    Using both qualitative and quantitative data, this article analyzes farm parent's attitudes towards the trustworthiness, usefulness, and use of advice from farm safety experts. The article evaluates four different perspectives on trust in expert: the Validity of Knowledge perspective, the Salient Values Similarity perspective, the Diffusion of…

  6. The Distinguished American Farm.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Surdovel, Catherine; Gruber, Marcella

    1994-01-01

    Describes the development of an elementary school curriculum on farms to give students a knowledge and appreciation of the farm as a food source and of the steps involved moving food from the farm to the table. Specific activities are suggested, and appropriate book titles are recommended. (Contains 10 references.) (LRW)

  7. Towards Inclusion: An Australian Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forbes, Fiona

    2007-01-01

    This article outlines the views of the Australian Special Education Principals' Association (ASEPA) on inclusion and the impact this is having on Australian Government Schools from a school based perspective. ASEPA is a relatively young association and was formed in 1997 out of the need to put forward the case to support students with special…

  8. Australian University International Student Finances

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forbes-Mewett, Helen; Marginson, Simon; Nyland, Chris; Ramia, Gaby; Sawir, Erlenawati

    2009-01-01

    The omission of international students from the Australian Vice-Chancellor's Committee (AVCC) 2007 national study on student finances is indicative of a pattern of exclusion. The exclusion is unacceptable from a humane perspective and feeds the belief that Australians perceive international students primarily as "cash cows". This study…

  9. Learning on the Job: How Do Farm Business Managers Get the Skills and Knowledge To Manage Their Businesses? CRLRA Discussion Paper Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kilpatrick, Sue

    The methods used by Australian farm managers to obtain the skills and knowledge needed to manage their businesses were examined. Semi-structured telephone interviews were conducted with 85 farm owners/managers from South Australia, the Northern Territory, Queensland, Tasmania, and New South Wales. The farmers interviewed identified a wide range of…

  10. Tissue-specific expression and regulation of the haemolymph clottable protein of tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon).

    PubMed

    Yeh, Maw-Sheng; Huang, Chang-Jen; Cheng, Jin-Hwa; Tsai, Inn-Ho

    2007-08-01

    The clottable protein (CP) involved in Penaeus monodon haemolymph coagulation has previously been characterized and cloned. Polyclonal antibodies against purified CP were also prepared from rabbit serum. By Western blot analyses, we showed occurrence of CP in the shrimp central nervous system, gill, and lymphoid organ. Results of RT-PCR further indicated that the central nervous system, gill, and lymphoid organ transcribed more CP, heart and hepatopancreas transcribed less, while the haemocytes and the muscle did not. We further analyzed the CP distribution within shrimp lymphoid organ by immunohistochemical method, CP was found to localise in stromal cells of lymphoid organ rather than in the developing haemocytes. In addition, concentrations and regulation of the plasma CP under normal and artificially traumatic conditions were studied with rocket immunoelectrophoresis. The average plasma CP concentration in normal intermolt shrimps was elevated from 3 mg ml(-1) to above 12 mg ml(-1) after successive blood-withdrawing for a week. The production and secretion of CP apparently were increased more than 4 folds to compensate its loss. Our result also suggested that the shrimp sinus gland endocrine system is not directly required for the expression and up-regulation of CP.

  11. Dietary biotin requirement for maximum growth of juvenile grass shrimp, Penaeus monodon.

    PubMed

    Shiau, S Y; Chin, Y H

    1998-12-01

    A feeding trial was conducted to estimate the minimal dietary biotin requirement for juvenile grass shrimp, Penaeus monodon. Purified diets with eight levels (0, 0.2, 0.5, 1.0, 3.0, 6.0, 10.0 and 20.0 mg/kg) of supplemental biotin were fed to P. monodon (mean weight 0. 26 +/- 0.01 g) for 8 wk. Each diet was fed to three replicate groups of shrimp. Shrimp fed diets supplemented with biotin (0.2-20.0 mg/kg) had significantly (P < 0.05) higher weight gain, feed efficiency and protein efficiency ratio than those fed the unsupplemented control diet. Weight gain was high in shrimp fed 3. 0-10.0 mg biotin/kg diet and lowest in shrimp fed

  12. Quantifying the vitamin K requirement of juvenile marine shrimp (Penaeus monodon) with menadione.

    PubMed

    Shiau, S Y; Liu, J S

    1994-02-01

    A feeding trial was conducted to estimate the optimum dietary vitamin K requirement for juvenile marine shrimp, Penaeus monodon. Purified diets with eight levels (0, 5, 10, 20, 50, 80, 160 and 320 mg/kg) of supplemental menadione were fed to P. monodon (mean weight 1.33 +/- 0.05 g) for 12 wk. Each diet was fed to three replicate groups of shrimp. Shrimp fed diets supplemented with vitamin K (5-320 mg/kg) had significantly (P < 0.05) higher weight gain and feed efficiency than those fed the unsupplemented control diet. Shrimp fed diets supplemented with > or = 50 mg/kg vitamin K had higher protein efficiency ratios than shrimp fed the control diet. Calcium deposition in shrimp generally increased as dietary vitamin K supplementation increased. Vitamin K-dependent carboxylase activity was highest in shrimp fed the control diet, followed by shrimp fed 5-160 mg menadione/kg diet, and lowest in those fed 320 mg menadione/kg diet. Vitamin K-dependent protein precursor concentrations were high in shrimp fed 0-10 mg menadione/kg diet, lower in those fed 20 mg/kg, and lowest in shrimp fed > or = 50 mg/kg diet. Protein efficiency ratio and vitamin K-dependent protein precursor concentration analyzed by broken-line regression indicated that the adequate dietary vitamin K concentration in growing P. monodon is 30-40 mg/kg diet.

  13. Quantification of vitamin C requirements for juvenile shrimp (Penaeus monodon) using polyphosphorylated L-ascorbic acid.

    PubMed

    Chen, H Y; Chang, C F

    1994-10-01

    The vitamin C requirements of marine shrimp (Penaeus monodon) for optimal growth were evaluated in a 15-wk feeding trial using polyphosphorylated L-ascorbic acid (C2PP), a stable derivative of L-ascorbic acid (C1). Juvenile shrimp (0.55 +/- 0.01 g) were fed purified diets containing graded levels (0, 50, 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg diet) of supplemental C2PP or a high dosage of C1 (2500 mg/kg diet). Their weight gain, survival, feed efficiency and C1 storage in hepatopancreas and muscle were used to quantify the requirements. The growth of the shrimp fed the unsupplemented diet was significantly lower than those of the supplemented groups except the 100 mg C2PP/kg diet group. The C1 concentrations in muscle and hepatopancreas were greatest in shrimp fed 200 or 400 C2PP mg/kg diet. The dietary level required for juvenile P. monodon was found to be 209 mg/kg diet, based on the broken-line model analysis of weight gain, and was 220 mg/kg diet and 210 mg/kg diet, based on the analyses of C1 concentrations of hepatopancreas and muscle, respectively. Shrimp fed unsupplemented diet showed a significantly higher mortality than the supplemented groups. Most of the shrimp in the unsupplemented group that died suffered incomplete molting. No other overt deficiency sign was observed in any group.

  14. Protection of Penaeus monodon against white spot syndrome virus by inactivated vaccine with herbal immunostimulants.

    PubMed

    Yogeeswaran, Aiyakani; Velmurugan, Subramanian; Punitha, Stanislas Mary Josephine; Babu, Mariavincent Michael; Selvaraj, Thangaswamy; Kumaran, Thangamani; Citarasu, Thavasimuthu

    2012-06-01

    To improve the immune response in tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon against WSSV infection, juveniles (350 ± 10 mg) were vaccinated with formalin-inactivated WSSV and fed with herbal immunostimulants. The methanolic extracts of herbal immunostimulants such as Acalypha indica, Cynodon dactylon, Picrorrhiza kurrooa, Withania somnifera and Zingiber officinalis were incorporated in formulated diets at different concentrations; 250 (ED(1)), 500 (ED(2)), 1000 (ED(3)) and 2000 (ED(4)) mg kg(-1) of feed and fed for 60 days after vaccination. After 30 and 60 days intervals of feeding, the shrimps were challenged with WSSV, which were isolated and propagated from the infected crustaceans. The shrimps fed with control diets (C(1)) succumbed to death within 5 days after WSSV challenge, when no vaccination and immunostimulations were given. The other control groups (C(2) and C(3)) had slight improvements in all parameters including survival. The percentage survival was significantly (P < 0.05) increased to 30, 50 and 60% in the ED(2), ED(3) and ED(4) diets respectively after 60 days challenging. The better haematological, biochemical and immunological parameters were also found in the herbal extracts supplemented diets fed vaccinated shrimps. The present study revealed that the combined effect of immunostimulation and vaccination helped to boost the immune system against WSSV infection and hence this application can be adopted for shrimp culture.

  15. Bioaccumulation and depuration of anthracene in Penaeus monodon (Fibricius) through food ingestion.

    PubMed

    Ong, Pei Thing; Yong, Jaw Chuen; Chin, Kam Yew; Hii, Yii Siang

    2011-07-01

    Understanding on the bioaccumulation and depuration of PAHs (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) in Penaeus monodon is important in seafood safety because it is one of the most popular seafood consumed worldwide. In this study, we used anthracene as the precursor compound for PAHs accumulation and depuration in the shrimp. Commercial feed pellets spiked with anthracene were fed to P. monodon. At 20 mg kg(-1) anthracene, P. monodon accumulated 0.1% of the anthracene from the feed. P. monodon deputed the PAH two times faster than its accumulation. The shrimp reduced its feed consumption when anthracene content in the feed exceeded 20 mg kg(-1). At 100 mg kg(-1) anthracene, P. monodon started to have necrosis tissues on the posterior end of their thorax. The bioaccumulation factor (BAF), uptake rate constant (k(1)) and depuration rate constant (k(2)) of anthracene in P. monodon were 1.15×10(-3), 6.80×10(-4) d(-1) and 6.28×10(-1) d(-1), respectively. The depuration rate constant is about thousand times higher than the uptake rate constant and this indicated that this crustacean is efficient in depurating hydrocarbons from their tissue.

  16. Ultrastructural effect of gamma radiation on grass shrimps ( Penaeus monodon fabricius)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perng, Fang-Shiow; Yang, Jui-Sen

    The effect of ionizing radiation (2, 5, and 10 KGy of gamma rays) on muscle ultrastructure of grass shrimps ( Penaeus monodon Fabricius) tails at ambient or frozen (-18°C) temperature was investigated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). No significant change was found in muscle ultrastructure of shrimp meat irradiated at doses of 2 or 5 KGy and then stored at 4°C for 0 and 8 days. However, in shrimps which were irradiated at ambient temperature at a dose of 10 KGy, the margin of A-band of the myofibrils in longitudinal sections exhibited an irregular zig-zag pattern. In cross section some myosin filaments in the A-band regions were missing. A possible interpretation of these results would be that 10 KGy gamma irradiation dose at ambient temperature depolymerized myosin in the A-band from the tail of thick filament. Actin damage was also observed in some cross sections. Irradiation damage of sarcoplasmic membranes appeared in the specimens irradiated at a dose of 10KGy at ambient temperature. Shrimps frozen at -18°C and then irradiated with 10 KGy did not exhibit filament damage. Freezing apparently protected shrimp meat from irradiation injury.

  17. DNA double-strand break repair in Penaeus monodon is predominantly dependent on homologous recombination.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Shikha; Dahal, Sumedha; Naidu, Sharanya J; Anand, Deepika; Gopalakrishnan, Vidya; Kooloth Valappil, Rajendran; Raghavan, Sathees C

    2017-01-24

    DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) are mostly repaired by nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ) and homologous recombination (HR) in higher eukaryotes. In contrast, HR-mediated DSB repair is the major double-strand break repair pathway in lower order organisms such as bacteria and yeast. Penaeus monodon, commonly known as black tiger shrimp, is one of the economically important crustaceans facing large-scale mortality due to exposure to infectious diseases. The animals can also get exposed to chemical mutagens under the culture conditions as well as in wild. Although DSB repair mechanisms have been described in mammals and some invertebrates, its mechanism is unknown in the shrimp species. In the present study, we show that HR-mediated DSB repair is the predominant mode of repair in P. monodon Robust repair was observed at a temperature of 30 °C, when 2 µg of cell-free extract derived from hepatopancreas was used for the study. Although HR occurred through both reciprocal recombination and gene conversion, the latter was predominant when the bacterial colonies containing recombinants were evaluated. Unlike mammals, NHEJ-mediated DSB repair was undetectable in P. monodon However, we could detect evidence for an alternative mode of NHEJ that uses microhomology, termed as microhomology-mediated end joining (MMEJ). Interestingly, unlike HR, MMEJ was predominant at lower temperatures. Therefore, the results suggest that, while HR is major DSB repair pathway in shrimp, MMEJ also plays a role in ensuring the continuity and stability of the genome.

  18. Dataset on the importation of the exotic shrimp Penaeus vannamei broodstock (Boone, 1931) to India.

    PubMed

    Remany, M C; Kirubagaran, R; Cyriac, Daly; Varadaraju, P Krishnakanth; Prem O C, Sruthi; Panda, A K; Kumar, Jaideep

    2017-04-01

    Penaeus vannamei is an exotic shrimp species that has gained high culture momentum, since its introduction to India [1]. Currently, the culture of the species in the Country is being done by the shrimp farmers by importation of Specific Pathogen Free (SPF) vannamei broodstock from approved suppliers, which are located overseas. The value of one brooder normally ranges from 50 to 61 US $, excluding the custom duty, processing fee and other charges for the transboundary shipment of the stock to India. The P. vannamei stock are permitted to be imported to the Country by the hatchery operators only through the single declared port of entry, i.e. Chennai in Tamil Nadu in the Country. The imported parent shrimps are then to be quarantined at the Aquatic Quarantine Facility before being transported to the vannamei hatcheries [2]. This article reports the data available on import of vannamei broodstock to India since its importation to India in 2009. The dataset presented here contains information on transit and quarantine mortality of the brooders following the shipment of the stock by the various broodstock suppliers from the overseas.

  19. New insights into the spermatogenesis of the black tiger prawn, Penaeus monodon.

    PubMed

    Feng, Tianyi; Paterson, Brian; Johnston, Stephen

    2017-02-05

    This study reports a comprehensive description of penaeid spermatogenesis (Penaeus monodon) by light and transmission electron microscopy. A conspicuous characteristic of spermatocytogenesis was a ring-like structure with high electron-density adjacent to the nucleus of a primary spermatocyte. During the spermiogenesis from stage I (StI) to stage VI spermatid (StVI), the formation of the acrosome and decondensation of the nucleus were the most notable morphological transformations. StIs were small and compact and they were contained in the syncytia. In the cytoplasm of StII, mitochondrion-like bodies (MLB) participated the extension of perinuclear multi-layered lamellae. The association of MLBs and endoplasmic reticula appeared to contribute to the formation of small cytoplasmic pre-acrosomal vesicles (PV) which coalesced into an acrosomal chamber (AC) at the periphery of StIII. A dense anterior acrosomal body (AB) was formed in the enlarged AC in StIV. The nuclear envelope became disintegrated in StV. At last, an AB-derived spiky acrosome was emerged from AC in StVI. Sperm nuclei became increasingly decondensed during the entire process of spermiogenesis and the nuclear components in the testicular spermatozoa appeared to only contain chains of DNA and nucleosome-contained chromatin.

  20. Role of ecdysteroids in the molting and reproductive cycles of the white shrimp, Penaeus vannamei

    SciTech Connect

    Chan, S.M.

    1989-01-01

    The molt cycle was characterized in the white shrimp Penaeus vannamei based upon changes in the morphology of pleopod setae. These characters were used subsequently to determine changes in ecdysteroids and related biosynthetic events during the stages of the molting cycle and in relation to reproduction. Ecdysteroid titers were measured during the molting cycle. They increased during the premolt, decreased at ecdysis and remained minimal through the intermolt. 20-hydroxyecdysone (20-OHE) was the major ecdysteroid present during the premolt. Injection of ({sup 3}H)ecdysone resulted in label accumulation in the epidermis and hepatopancreas in the form of 20-OHE which was subsequently hydroxylated further to a polar metabolite. ({sup 3}H)ecdysone was not metabolized by the Y-organ, hemolymph, muscle or intestine. Eyestalk ablation elevated hemolymph ecdysteroid titers and reduced the duration of all molt stages. However, 20-OHE injection into intact animals caused a disproportionate reduction in the durations of only the intermolt and early premolt stages.

  1. Transgene expression in Penaeus monodon cells: evaluation of recombinant baculoviral vectors with shrimp specific hybrid promoters.

    PubMed

    Puthumana, Jayesh; Philip, Rosamma; Bright Singh, I S

    2016-08-01

    It has been realized that shrimp cell immortalization may not be accomplished without in vitro transformation by expressing immortalizing gene in cells. In this process, efficiency of transgene expression is confined to the ability of vectors to transmit gene of interests to the genome. Over the years, unavailability of such vectors has been hampering application of such a strategy in shrimp cells. We report the use of recombinant baculovirus mediated transduction using hybrid promoter system for transgene expression in lymphoid cells of Penaeus monodon. Two recombinant baculovirus vectors with shrimp viral promoters (WSSV-Ie1 and IHHNV-P2) were constructed (BacIe1-GFP and BacP2-GFP) and green fluorescent protein (GFP) used as the transgene. The GFP expression in cells under the control of hybrid promoters, PH-Ie1 or PH-P2, were analyzed and confirmed in shrimp cells. The results indicate that the recombinant baculovirus with shrimp specific viral promoters (hybrid) can be employed for delivery of foreign genes to shrimp cells for in vitro transformation.

  2. Laminin receptor protein is implicated in hemocyte homeostasis for the whiteleg shrimp Penaeus (Litopenaeus) vannamei.

    PubMed

    Charoensapsri, Walaiporn; Sangsuriya, Pakkakul; Lertwimol, Tareerat; Gangnonngiw, Warachin; Phiwsaiya, Kornsunee; Senapin, Saengchan

    2015-07-01

    Here we show that knockdown of laminin receptor (Lamr) with PvLamr dsRNA in the whiteleg shrimp Penaeus (Litopenaeus) vannamei (Pv) caused a dramatic reduction specifically in hyaline hemocytes prior to death. Since apoptosis was not detected in hemocytes or hematopoietic cells, other possible causes of hemocyte loss were investigated. Reports that suppression of crustacean hematopoietic factor (CHF)-like protein or hemocyte homeostasis-associated protein (HHAP) also reduced shrimp hemocyte counts led us to carry out yeast two-hybrid (Y2H) and co-immunoprecipitation (co-IP) assays to test for interactions between Lamr and Pv homologues to these proteins (PvCHF-like and PvHHAP). The assays revealed that Lamr bound to both these homologues, but that the homologues did not bind to each other. Subsequent RT-PCR assays confirmed that PvLamr dsRNA injection significantly reduced expression levels for both PvCHF-like and PvHHAP genes. Further work is needed to determine how interaction among these three proteins can regulate shrimp hemocyte homeostasis.

  3. Optimization of fixation methods for image analysis of the hepatopancreas in whiteleg shrimp, Penaeus vannamei (Boone).

    PubMed

    Cervellione, F; McGurk, C; Silva, P; Owen, M A G; Van den Broeck, W

    2017-04-01

    Pathology in penaeid shrimps relies on histology, which is subjective, time-consuming and difficult to grade in a reproducible manner. Automated image analysis is faster, objective and suitable for routine screening; however, it requires standardized protocols. The first critical step is proper fixation of the target tissue. Bell & Lightner's (A Handbook of Normal Penaeid Shrimp Histology, 1988, The World Aquaculture Society, Baton Rouge) fixation protocol, widely used for routine histology of paraffin sections, is not optimized for image analysis, and no protocol for frozen sections is described in the available literature. Therefore, the aim of this study was to optimize fixation of the hepatopancreas (HP) from whiteleg shrimp (Penaeus vannamei) for both paraffin and frozen sections using a semiquantitative scoring system. For paraffin sections, four injection volumes and three injection methods were compared, for frozen sections, four freezing methods and four fixation methods. For paraffin sections, optimal fixation was achieved by increasing threefold the fixative volume recommended by Bell and Lightner, from 10% to 30% of the shrimp body weight, combined with single injection into the HP. Optimal fixation for frozen sections was achieved by freezing the cephalothorax with liquid nitrogen, followed by fixation of the section with 60% isopropanol. These optimized methods enable the future use of image analysis and improve classical histology.

  4. Behavioural and biochemical alterations in Penaeus monodon post-larvae diet-exposed to inorganic mercury.

    PubMed

    Harayashiki, Cyntia Ayumi Yokota; Reichelt-Brushett, Amanda J; Liu, Lei; Butcher, Paul

    2016-12-01

    Mercury is a metal naturally present in the environment with concentrations in aquatic systems increasing annually due to human activities. This represents a great concern mainly due to its high toxicity to organisms and consequences for human health. Most studies regarding the toxic effect of mercury have focussed on freshwater species using water as the exposure and uptake pathway. In contrast, the present study investigated the effects of dietary exposure of mercury to the marine crustacean Penaeus monodon post-larvae during 96 h to evaluate changes in behaviour (swimming activity and risk taken) and in biochemical biomarkers [acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and glutathione S-transferase (GST)]. Results showed a decrease in swimming activity with an increase in mercury exposure, but no changes were observed regarding the behavioural response 'risk taken'. Prawns from medium (0.56 μg g(-1)) and high (1.18 μg g(-1)) treatments had their GST activity reduced in relation to the beginning of experiment (time 0), while AChE activity was increased in the low (0.15 μg g(-1)) treatment in relation to time 0. In the present study, behaviour analysis were clearer than biochemical biomarkers and results might indicate P. monodon populations from a mercury contaminated environment might be at risk, since the behavioural alterations observed increases the risk of predation.

  5. Occurrence of viral pathogens in Penaeus monodon post-larvae from aquaculture hatcheries.

    PubMed

    Joseph, Toms C; James, Roswin; Anbu Rajan, L; Surendran, P K; Lalitha, K V

    2015-09-01

    Viral pathogens appear to exert the most significant constraints on the growth and survival of crustaceans under culture conditions. The prevalence of viral pathogens White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV), Hepatopancreatic Parvo Virus (HPV), Monodon Baculo Virus (MBV) and Infectious Hypodermal and Hematopoietic Necrosis Virus (IHHNV) in Penaeus monodon post-larvae was studied. Samples collected from different hatcheries and also samples submitted by farmers from Kerala were analyzed. Out of 104 samples collected, WSSV was detected in 12.5% of the post-larvae samples. Prevalence of concurrent infections by HPV, MBV and WSSV (either dual or triple infection) was present in 60.6% of the total post-larvae tested. Out of the 51 double positives, 98% showed either HPV or IHHNV infection. HPV or IHHNV was detected in 11 post-larval samples showing triple viral infection. This is the first report of IHHNV from India. Result of this study reveals the lack of efficient screening strategies to eradicate viruses in hatchery reared post-larvae.

  6. Occurrence of viral pathogens in Penaeus monodon post-larvae from aquaculture hatcheries

    PubMed Central

    Joseph, Toms C.; James, Roswin; Anbu Rajan, L.; Surendran, P.K.; Lalitha, K.V.

    2015-01-01

    Viral pathogens appear to exert the most significant constraints on the growth and survival of crustaceans under culture conditions. The prevalence of viral pathogens White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV), Hepatopancreatic Parvo Virus (HPV), Monodon Baculo Virus (MBV) and Infectious Hypodermal and Hematopoietic Necrosis Virus (IHHNV) in Penaeus monodon post-larvae was studied. Samples collected from different hatcheries and also samples submitted by farmers from Kerala were analyzed. Out of 104 samples collected, WSSV was detected in 12.5% of the post-larvae samples. Prevalence of concurrent infections by HPV, MBV and WSSV (either dual or triple infection) was present in 60.6% of the total post-larvae tested. Out of the 51 double positives, 98% showed either HPV or IHHNV infection. HPV or IHHNV was detected in 11 post-larval samples showing triple viral infection. This is the first report of IHHNV from India. Result of this study reveals the lack of efficient screening strategies to eradicate viruses in hatchery reared post-larvae. PMID:26217783

  7. Molecular cloning and functional characterization of cyclin E and CDK2 from Penaeus monodon.

    PubMed

    Zhao, C; Fu, M J; Qiu, L H

    2016-09-16

    Reduced reproductive performance of the black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon) has caused economic losses and hampered the fishing industry. Detailed investigation of the molecular mechanism by which the cell cycle is regulated in this organism is needed to understand the development and maturation of ovaries and oocytes, with a view to improving reproductive capacity. Cell cycle progression is mainly determined by cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) and cyclin complexes, the cyclin E/CDK2 complex playing a key role in G1/S transition. However, knowledge of the interplay between cyclin E and CDK2 in invertebrates remains limited. In this study, full-length P. monodon cyclin E (Pmcyclin E) and CDK2 (PmCDK2) sequences were cloned. The open reading frame of Pmcyclin E was 1263 bp in length and encoded a 47.9-kDa protein, while that of PmCDK2 was 921 bp, encoding a protein of 34.9 kDa. Recombinant cyclin E and CDK2 proteins were expressed in Escherichia coli and purified by Ni-chelating affinity chromatography. In addition, a pull-down assay was performed to identify any interaction between Pmcyclin E and PmCDK2. This research provides a basis for the study of the functional mechanisms of the cyclin E/CDK2 complex in shrimp, further enriching our knowledge of invertebrate cell cycle regulation.

  8. Complete nucleic acid sequence of Penaeus stylirostris densovirus (PstDNV) from India.

    PubMed

    Rai, Praveen; Safeena, Muhammed P; Karunasagar, Iddya; Karunasagar, Indrani

    2011-06-01

    Infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHHNV) of shrimp, recently been classified as Penaeus stylirostris densovirus (PstDNV). The complete nucleic acid sequence of PstDNV from India was obtained by cloning and sequencing of different DNA fragment of the virus. The genome organisation of PstDNV revealed that there were three major coding domains: a left ORF (NS1) of 2001 bp, a mid ORF (NS2) of 1092 bp and a right ORF (VP) of 990 bp. The complete genome and amino acid sequences of three proteins viz., NS1, NS2 and VP were compared with the genomes of the virus reported from Hawaii, China and Mexico and with partial sequence available from isolates from different regions. The phylogenetic analysis of shrimp, insect and vertebrate parvovirus sequences showed that the Indian PstDNV isolate is phylogenetically more closely related to one of the three isolates from Taiwan (AY355307), and two isolates (AY362547 and AY102034) from Thailand.

  9. Protection of shrimp Penaeus monodon from WSSV infection using antisense constructs.

    PubMed

    Ahanger, Sajad; Sandaka, Supriyanka; Ananad, Deepika; Mani, Madhu K; Kondadhasula, Ravinder; Reddy, Chandra Sekhar; Marappan, Makesh; Valappil, Rajendran K; Majumdar, Kshitish C; Mishra, Rakesh K

    2014-02-01

    White spot syndrome caused by white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is one of the most threatening diseases of shrimp culture industry. Previous studies have successfully demonstrated the use of DNA- and RNA-based vaccines to protect WSSV infection in shrimp. In the present study, we have explored the protective efficacy of antisense constructs directed against WSSV proteins, VP24, and VP28, thymidylate synthase (TS), and ribonucleotide reductase-2 (RR2) under the control of endogenous shrimp histone-3 (H3) or penaedin (Pn) promoter. Several antisense constructs were generated by inserting VP24 (pH3-VP24, pPn-VP24), VP28 (pH3-VP28, pPn-VP28), TS (pH3-TS, pPn-TS), and RR2 (pH3-RR2) in antisense orientation. These constructs were tested for their protective potential in WSSV infected cell cultures, and their effect on reduction of the viral load was assessed. A robust reduction in WSSV copy number was observed upon transfection of antisense constructs in hemocyte cultures derived from Penaeus monodon and Scylla serrata. When tested in vivo, antisense constructs offered a strong protection in WSSV challenged P. monodon. Constructs expressing antisense VP24 and VP28 provided the best protection (up to 90 % survivability) with a corresponding decrease in the viral load. Our work demonstrates that shrimp treated with antisense constructs present an efficient control strategy for combating WSSV infection in shrimp aquaculture.

  10. Estimation of the dietary riboflavin required to maximize tissue riboflavin concentration in juvenile shrimp (Penaeus monodon).

    PubMed

    Chen, H Y; Hwang, G

    1992-12-01

    The riboflavin requirements of marine shrimp (Penaeus monodon) were evaluated in a 15-wk feeding trial. Juvenile shrimp (initial mean weight, 0.13 +/- 0.05 g) were fed purified diets containing seven levels (0, 8, 12, 16, 20, 40 and 80 mg/kg diet) of supplemental riboflavin. There were no significant differences in weight gains, feed efficiency ratios and survival of shrimp over the dietary riboflavin range. The riboflavin concentrations in shrimp bodies increased with the increasing vitamin supplementation. Hemolymph (blood) glutathione reductase activity coefficient was not a sensitive and specific indicator of riboflavin status of the shrimp. The dietary riboflavin level required for P. monodon was found to be 22.3 mg/kg diet, based on the broken-line model analysis of body riboflavin concentrations. Shrimp fed unsupplemented diet (riboflavin concentration of 0.48 mg/kg diet) for 15 wk showed signs of deficiency: light coloration, irritability, protuberant cuticle at intersomites and short-head dwarfism.

  11. Enhanced wound healing activity of desert locust (Schistocerca gregaria) vs. shrimp (Penaeus monodon) chitosan based scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Marei, Narguess H; El-Mazny, W; El-Shaer, Aida; Zaki, Kareem Dorri; Hussein, Zahra S; Abd-El-Samie, Emtithal M

    2017-04-01

    Chitosan (CS) has received great attention in tissue engineering, especially in wound healing acceleration. In this study, chitin was isolated from desert locust (Schistocerca gregaria) and shrimp (Penaeus monodon) then deacetylated to chitosan. Then, chitosan was characterized by degree of deacetylation (DD), molecular weight (M.Wt), swelling index (SI), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and X ray diffraction (XRD). The chitosan was then casted into 2D scaffolds and was pictured using scanning electron microscope (SEM). In a comparative study, primary cell cultures of neonatal (1-2day old) mice skin tissue, supplemented with 10% fetal calf serum, were seeded onto locust chitosan based scaffolds (LCSBS) and shrimp chitosan based scaffold (SCSBS). Their attachment percentage was determined after 1h. The cell proliferation rate was tested for 5days on LCSBS and SCSBS. Wound healing activity progress of LCSBS and SCSBS was tested in vivo using histopathology, and results revealed that seeded and unseeded LCSBS accelerated healing in contrast to SCSBS. The data demonstrated that LCSBS shows a high degree of biocompatibility in vivo. These results suggest that LCSBS is a potential substitute for the development of low cost implantable materials to accelerate wound healing.

  12. Gene Expression Profiling of the Cephalothorax and Eyestalk in Penaeus Monodon during Ovarian Maturation

    PubMed Central

    Brady, Philip; Elizur, Abigail; Williams, Richard; Cummins, Scott F.; Knibb, Wayne

    2012-01-01

    In crustaceans, a range of physiological processes involved in ovarian maturation occurs in organs of the cephalothorax including the hepatopancrease, mandibular and Y-organ. Additionally, reproduction is regulated by neuropeptide hormones and other proteins released from secretory sites within the eyestalk. Reproductive dysfunction in captive-reared prawns, Penaeus monodon, is believed to be due to deficiencies in these factors. In this study, we investigated the expression of gene transcripts in the cephalothorax and eyestalk from wild-caught and captive-reared animals throughout ovarian maturation using custom oligonucleotide microarray screening. We have isolated numerous transcripts that appear to be differentially expressed throughout ovarian maturation and between wild-caught and captive-reared animals. In the cephalothorax, differentially expressed genes included the 1,3-β-D-glucan-binding high-density lipoprotein, 2/3-oxoacyl-CoA thiolase and vitellogenin. In the eyestalk, these include gene transcripts that encode a protein that modulates G-protein coupled receptor activity and another that encodes an architectural transcription factor. Each may regulate the expression of reproductive neuropeptides, such as the crustacean hyperglycaemic hormone and molt-inhibiting hormone. We could not identify differentially expressed transcripts encoding known reproductive neuropeptides in the eyestalk of either wild-caught or captive-reared prawns at any ovarian maturation stage, however, this result may be attributed to low relative expression levels of these transcripts. In summary, this study provides a foundation for the study of target genes involved in regulating penaeid reproduction. PMID:22355268

  13. A formulated double-stranded RNA diet for reducing Penaeus monodon densovirus infection in black tiger shrimp.

    PubMed

    Chimwai, Chaweewan; Tongboonsong, Punnee; Namramoon, Orathai; Panyim, Sakol; Attasart, Pongsopee

    2016-02-01

    Penaeus monodon densovirus (PmDNV) is one of the major causes of stunted shrimp in the aquaculture industry in Thailand. Significant reductions in levels of PmDNV as assessed by PCR analysis of shrimp hepatopancreas were seen in both prophylactic and curative experiments after feeding shrimp with a formulated diet containing mixed inactivated bacteria harboring dsRNAs corresponding to the PmDNV ns1 and vp genes. Significant reductions of approximately 88% (prophylactic) and 64% (curative) of PmDNV were observed, suggesting that this diet has a high potential for application in commercial aquaculture for reducing PmDNV associated stunted growth of shrimp.

  14. Metallothionein-Like Proteins and Energy Reserve Levels after Ni and Pb Exposure in the Pacific White Prawn Penaeus vannamei

    PubMed Central

    Nunez-Nogueira, Gabriel; Mouneyrac, Catherine; Muntz, Alice; Fernandez-Bringas, Laura

    2010-01-01

    This study analyzed the changes in metallothionein-like proteins (MTLPs) and Energy Reserves (ERs) in hepatopancreas and abdominal muscle of the white prawn Penaeus vannamei. Realistic metal concentration exposure for 10 days to Ni and Pb in solution revealed that juvenile prawns partially induce MTLP in hepatopancreas after Pb exposure. Ni was distributed equally between soluble and insoluble fractions, while Pb was present only in the insoluble fraction, suggesting different detoxification strategy. No changes in lipids and glycogen concentration were detected under these experimental conditions in both tissues analyzed. MTLP could not be considered as a suitable indicator for lead exposure in hepatopancreas. PMID:20862200

  15. Metallothionein-Like Proteins and Energy Reserve Levels after Ni and Pb Exposure in the Pacific White Prawn Penaeus vannamei.

    PubMed

    Nunez-Nogueira, Gabriel; Mouneyrac, Catherine; Muntz, Alice; Fernandez-Bringas, Laura

    2010-01-01

    This study analyzed the changes in metallothionein-like proteins (MTLPs) and Energy Reserves (ERs) in hepatopancreas and abdominal muscle of the white prawn Penaeus vannamei. Realistic metal concentration exposure for 10 days to Ni and Pb in solution revealed that juvenile prawns partially induce MTLP in hepatopancreas after Pb exposure. Ni was distributed equally between soluble and insoluble fractions, while Pb was present only in the insoluble fraction, suggesting different detoxification strategy. No changes in lipids and glycogen concentration were detected under these experimental conditions in both tissues analyzed. MTLP could not be considered as a suitable indicator for lead exposure in hepatopancreas.

  16. Farm Health and Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... jobs in the United States. Farms have many health and safety hazards, including Chemicals and pesticides Machinery, ... equipment can also reduce accidents. Occupational Safety and Health Administration

  17. “Candidatus Hepatobacter penaei,” an Intracellular Pathogenic Enteric Bacterium in the Hepatopancreas of the Marine Shrimp Penaeus vannamei (Crustacea: Decapoda)

    PubMed Central

    Pantoja, Carlos R.; Gomez-Jimenez, Silvia; Lightner, Donald V.

    2013-01-01

    The bacteria that cause necrotizing hepatopancreatitis in Penaeus vannamei adversely affect penaeid shrimp cultured in the western hemisphere. 16S rRNA and gyrase B gene analyses determined the taxonomic position of these bacteria. The name “Candidatus Hepatobacter penaei” is proposed for these pathogenic bacteria, which are members of the Rickettsiales order. PMID:23241970

  18. Dietary vitamin C and its derivatives affect immune responses in grass shrimp, Penaeus monodon.

    PubMed

    Lee, Min Hsien; Shiau, Shi Yen

    2002-02-01

    Effects of L-ascorbic acid (AA) and its four derivatives, namely L-ascorbyl-2-sulfate (C2S), L-ascorbyl-2-polyphosphate (C2PP), L-ascorbyl-2-monophosphate-Na (C2MP-Na) and L-ascorbyl-2-monophosphate-Mg (C2MP-Mg) on the immune responses of juvenile grass shrimp, Penaeus monodon, were studied. The vitamin C deprived diet together with diets supplemented with either adequate or high (five times adequate) levels of AA, C2S, C2PP, C2MP-Na and C2MP-Mg were each fed to triplicate groups of shrimp (mean initial weight: 0.37 +/- 0.01 g) for 8 weeks. Significantly (P<0.01) higher weight gain (WG), feed efficiency (FE), survival, total haemocyte count (THC), superoxide anion (O2) production ratio and phenoloxidase (PO) activity were observed in shrimp fed diets supplemented with adequate and high levels of ascorbate than shrimp fed the vitamin C deprived diet, regardless of the ascorbate source. Among the ascorbate sources, shrimp fed C2MP-Mg and C2PP containing diets had higher THC than shrimp fed AA, C2S and C2MP-Na containing diets, regardless of the supplementation level. Shrimp fed adequate levels of C2MP-Mg and C2PP and high levels of C2MP-Mg containing diets had higher O2 production ratios than shrimp fed AA and C2S containing diets. Shrimp fed adequate levels of C2MP-Mg and C2PP and high levels of C2PP containing diets had higher PO activity than shrimp fed AA, C2S and C2MP-Na containing diets. These data suggest that dietary ascorbate enhances immune responses in P. monodon and different ascorbate sources may affect the immune responses differently.

  19. Homologous genetic recombination in the yellow head complex of nidoviruses infecting Penaeus monodon shrimp.

    PubMed

    Wijegoonawardane, Priyanjalie K M; Sittidilokratna, Nusra; Petchampai, Natthida; Cowley, Jeff A; Gudkovs, Nicholas; Walker, Peter J

    2009-07-20

    Yellow head virus (YHV) is a highly virulent pathogen of Penaeus monodon shrimp. It is one of six known genotypes in the yellow head complex of nidoviruses which also includes mildly pathogenic gill-associated virus (GAV, genotype 2) and four other genotypes (genotypes 3-6) that have been detected only in healthy shrimp. In this study, comparative phylogenetic analyses conducted on replicase- (ORF1b) and glycoprotein- (ORF3) gene amplicons identified 10 putative natural recombinants amongst 28 viruses representing all six genotypes from across the Indo-Pacific region. The approximately 4.6 kb genomic region spanning the two amplicons was sequenced for three putative recombinant viruses from Vietnam (genotype 3/5), the Philippines (genotype 5/2) and Indonesia (genotype 3/2). SimPlot analysis using these and representative parental virus sequences confirmed that each was a recombinant genotype and identified a recombination hotspot in a region just upstream of the ORF1b C-terminus. Maximum-likelihood breakpoint analysis predicted identical crossover positions in the Vietnamese and Indonesian recombinants, and a crossover position 12 nt upstream in the Philippine recombinant. Homologous genetic recombination in the same genome region was also demonstrated in recombinants generated experimentally in shrimp co-infected with YHV and GAV. The high frequency with which natural recombinants were identified indicates that genetic exchange amongst genotypes is occurring commonly in Asia and playing a significant role in expanding the genetic diversity in the yellow head complex. This is the first evidence of genetic recombination in viruses infecting crustaceans and has significant implications for the pathogenesis of infection and diagnosis of these newly emerging invertebrate pathogens.

  20. Interaction of Vibrio spp. with the Inner Surface of the Digestive Tract of Penaeus monodon

    PubMed Central

    Soonthornchai, Wipasiri; Chaiyapechara, Sage; Jarayabhand, Padermsak; Söderhäll, Kenneth; Jiravanichpaisal, Pikul

    2015-01-01

    Several species of Vibrio are the causative agent of gastroenteritis in humans. In aquaculture, Vibrio harveyi (Vh) and V. parahaemolyticus (Vp) have long been considered as shrimp pathogens in freshwater, brackish and marine environments. Here we show by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) that Penaeus monodon orally inoculated with each of these two pathogens via an Artemia diet had numerous bacteria attached randomly across the stomach surface, in single and in large biofilm-like clusters 6 h post-infection. A subsequent marked proliferation in the number of V. harveyi within the biofilm-like formations resulted in the development of infections in the stomach, the upper and middle midgut, but neither in the posterior midgut nor the hindgut. SEM also revealed the induced production of peritrichous pili-like structures by the Vp attaching to the stomach lining, whilst only a single polar fibre was seen forming an apparent physical bridge between Vh and the host’s epithelium. In contrast to these observations, no such adherences or linkages were seen when trials were conducted with non-pathogenic Vibrio spp. or with Micrococcus luteus, with no obvious resultant changes to the host’s gut surface. In naive shrimp, the hindgut was found to be a favorable site for bacteria notably curved, short-rod shaped bacteria which probably belong to Vibrio spp. Data from the current study suggests that pathogens of P. monodon must be able to colonize the digestive tract, particularly the stomach, where chitin is present, and then they use an array of virulent factors and enzymes to infect their host resulting in disease. Oral infection is a better way of mimicking natural routes of infection; investigating the host-bacteria interactions occurring in the digestive tract may lead to new strategies for the prevention or control of bacterial infections in penaeids. PMID:26285030

  1. Bacterial Population in Intestines of the Black Tiger Shrimp (Penaeus monodon) under Different Growth Stages

    PubMed Central

    Rungrassamee, Wanilada; Klanchui, Amornpan; Chaiyapechara, Sage; Maibunkaew, Sawarot; Tangphatsornruang, Sithichoke; Jiravanichpaisal, Pikul; Karoonuthaisiri, Nitsara

    2013-01-01

    Intestinal bacterial communities in aquaculture have been drawn to attention due to potential benefit to their hosts. To identify core intestinal bacteria in the black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon), bacterial populations of disease-free shrimp were characterized from intestines of four developmental stages (15-day-old post larvae (PL15), 1- (J1), 2- (J2), and 3-month-old (J3) juveniles) using pyrosequencing, real-time PCR and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) approaches. A total of 25,121 pyrosequencing reads (reading length = 442±24 bases) were obtained, which were categorized by barcode for PL15 (7,045 sequences), J1 (3,055 sequences), J2 (13,130 sequences) and J3 (1,890 sequences). Bacteria in the phyla Bacteroides, Firmicutes and Proteobacteria were found in intestines at all four growth stages. There were 88, 14, 27, and 20 bacterial genera associated with the intestinal tract of PL15, J1, J2 and J3, respectively. Pyrosequencing analysis revealed that Proteobacteria (class Gammaproteobacteria) was a dominant bacteria group with a relative abundance of 89% for PL15 and 99% for J1, J2 and J3. Real-time PCR assay also confirmed that Gammaproteobacteria had the highest relative abundance in intestines from all growth stages. Intestinal bacterial communities from the three juvenile stages were more similar to each other than that of the PL shrimp based on PCA analyses of pyrosequencing results and their DGGE profiles. This study provides descriptive bacterial communities associated to the black tiger shrimp intestines during these growth development stages in rearing facilities. PMID:23577162

  2. Molecular cloning and characterization of a hemolymph clottable protein from tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon).

    PubMed

    Yeh, M S; Huang, C J; Leu, J H; Lee, Y C; Tsai, I H

    1999-12-01

    To investigate the coagulation system in crustacean decapoda, a homodimeric glycoprotein of 380 kDa was purified from the hemolymph of tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon) by sequential DEAE anion exchange chromatography. The purified protein was coagulated by the shrimp hemocyte transglutaminase in the presence of Ca2+. The clottable protein contains 44% alpha helices and 26% beta sheets as determined by circular dichroism spectra. Its conformation is stable in buffer of pH 4-9. To solve its primary structure, partial sequences of the purified polypeptides from cyanogen bromide cleavage and endopeptidase digestion were also determined. A shrimp cDNA expression library was constructed. By combination with antibody screening, reverse transcriptase PCR using degenerate primers from determined amino acid sequences and cDNA library screening with digoxigenin-labeled DNA probes, the entire cDNA of 6124 bp was obtained. This cDNA encodes a protein of 1670 amino acids, including a 14-amino acid signal peptide. With four potential N-glycosylation sites, the clottable protein was found to contain 3.8% high-mannose glycan; and Man8GlcNAc and Man9GlcNAc were released upon endo-beta-N-acetylglucosaminidase hydrolysis. Upon conducting a protein sequence database survey, the shrimp clottable protein shows 36% identities to the crayfish clotting protein and lower similarities to members of insect vitellogenins, apolipoprotein B and mammalian von Willebrand factor. Notably, a region rich in Gln residues, a polyGln motif and five Ser-Lys-Thr-Ser repeats are present in the shrimp protein, suggesting this protein might be a transglutaminase substrate. Northern blot analysis revealed that the clottable protein is expressed in most of the shrimp tissues but not in the mature hemocytes.

  3. Australian helminths in Australian rodents: an issue of biodiversity.

    PubMed

    Warner, L R

    1998-06-01

    The Australian public as well as Australian funding bodies are generally unsympathetic to native murids, rats and mice, in spite of the fact that 36% have either become extinct or critically endangered since European settlement. The endemic Australian parasites of these rats and mice have been even less sympathetically regarded. Prior to 1958 very little work was carried out on the helminths of Australian rodents and little more is known today. Records are known from only 28% of the extant host species, comprising some 109 species of helminth identified at least to generic level. The rodents invaded Australia from the north, perhaps through New Guinea in at least two separate waves, 5-8 then about 1 million years ago. The parasites they brought with them have adapted and speciated and there has been some host switching between rodent groups and between rodents and the Australian marsupials. This is illustrated particularly in the Trichostrongyloidea. The origins of the rodents from Southeast Asia down the Indonesian island chain are reflected in the presence of the nematode genus Tikusnema in both Australia and Indonesia, and Cyclodontostomum purvisi across Southeast Asia and into New Guinea. Hydromys chrysogaster, the Australian water-rat, illustrates how the biogeographical influences of the host's distribution and lifestyle can affect its parasite fauna. Most of the research to date is merely indicative of where more data are needed. The links between Australian and New Guinean helminth fauna, as well as the links between rodent and marsupial hosts and their fauna, cannot be determined without further research.

  4. Migrant Farm Workers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slesinger, Doris P.; Pfeffer, Max J.

    This paper documents migrant farm workers as being among the most persistently underprivileged groups in American society. Migrant farm workers typically receive low wages from irregular employment and live in poverty with access to only substandard housing and inadequate health care. The lack of economic improvement stems from a number of…

  5. Not Your Family Farm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tenopir, Carol; Baker, Gayle; Grogg, Jill E.

    2007-01-01

    The information industry continues to consolidate, just as agribusiness has consolidated and now dominates farming. Both the family farm and the small information company still exist but are becoming rarer in an age of mergers, acquisitions, and increased economies of scale. Small companies distinguish themselves by high quality, special themes,…

  6. Biotechnology on the farm

    SciTech Connect

    Tangley, L.

    1986-10-01

    A new genetically engineered growth hormone promises to boost milk yields for dairy farms. Larger milk yields would worsen economic problems facing dairy farmers especially owners of small farms. The conflicts between new technologies and US agricultural policy are discussed here.

  7. The Civic Mission of Australian Universities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Lawrence; Muirhead, Bruce

    2003-01-01

    Discusses the origins and meaning of civic responsibility in the Australian model of the university, beginning with medieval European universities and progressing through Australian reforms of the 20th century. Warns against the university without a civic mission. (SLD)

  8. People on the Farm: Corn and Hog Farming.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC. Office of Governmental and Public Affairs.

    This booklet provides information on corn and hog farming on a small farm through a profile of a farm family. According to the profile, John and Mary Miller and their three children are a comfortable family operating a corn and hog farm in Iowa. John, the principal farmer, uses a variety of skills in management, veterinary science, soil science,…

  9. White meat-Green farm: case study of Brinson Farms

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Comprehensive on-farm resource utilization and renewable energy generation at the farm scale are not new concepts. However, truly encompassing implementation of these ideals is lacking. Brinson Farms operates 10 commercial broiler houses. The farm generates heat for its houses using biomass boile...

  10. Hazards of Farming

    PubMed Central

    Guilfoyle, John

    1992-01-01

    Farming is the most dangerous occupation in the industrialized world. Children, in particular, are at high risk for injury and disability. There is ample scope to improve this situation. Parents are the most important group to be educated. Emergency response services in rural areas are sometimes unable to provide optimum care for victims. Better surveillance methods need to be in place, both to gather information and to evaluate strategies aimed at prevention. Farm safety needs to be higher on the agenda for farmers, farm organizations, government, and health care professionals. PMID:21221275

  11. "English" in the "Australian Curriculum: English"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dixon, Robert

    2012-01-01

    This is the text of a paper given at the 2011 Symposium of the Australian Academy of the Humanities on the theme, "Educating the Nation: The Humanities in the New Australian Curriculum", the 42nd Annual Symposium of the Australian Academy of the Humanities at the University of Melbourne, 17 November 2011. It was presented in a session on…

  12. Embracing Babel: The "Framework for Australian Languages"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Troy, Jaky; Walsh, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The Australian Curriculum, Assessment and Reporting Authority (ACARA) has been developing language-specific curricula for a range of languages in the "Australian Curriculum: Language"s and has also undertaken development of a "Framework for Australian Languages", to provide guidance for the development of curricula for specific…

  13. Changing Patterns of Governance for Australian Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harman, Kay; Treadgold, Elaine

    2007-01-01

    Dissatisfaction with the "corporate" model for university governance, a model advocated by both sides of the Australian parliament and adopted by Australian universities over the past two decades, prompted the Australian Vice-Chancellors' Committee (AVCC) in 2003 to suggest an alternative "trusteeship" model. The paper…

  14. Agriculture: Organic Farming

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Organic Farming - Organically grown food is food grown and processed using no synthetic fertilizers or pesticides. Pesticides derived from natural sources (such as biological pesticides) may be used in producing organically grown food.

  15. Tifft Farm Nature Preserve.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benjamin, Thomas B.; Gannon, David J.

    1980-01-01

    Described are the creation, development, activities, and programs of Tifft Farm, a 264-acre nature preserve and environmental education center in Buffalo, New York, constructed on a sanitary landfill. (BT)

  16. Farm and Family Management Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iowa State Univ. of Science and Technology, Ames. Cooperative Extension Service.

    This teacher's guide contains four units for the farm and family management program, a three-year educational program through which farm families have the opportunity to participate in group and individualized instruction. The program is intended to help provide basic farm and home management information to farm families to meet the changes of the…

  17. Second Languages and Australian Schooling. Australian Education Review No. 54

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lo Bianco, Joseph

    2009-01-01

    It is an underlying principle of Australian Education Review (AER) 54 that active efforts should be made to cultivate the latent bilingual potential within Australia's wider population and that this should be linked to major improvements in the quality of language teaching in schools. A combined approach of this kind will require investment in…

  18. Accumulation and regulation effects from the metal mixture of Zn, Pb, and Cd in the tropical shrimp Penaeus vannamei.

    PubMed

    Núñez-Nogueira, Gabriel; Fernández-Bringas, Laura; Ordiano-Flores, Alfredo; Gómez-Ponce, Alejandro; de León-Hill, Claudia Ponce; González-Farías, Fernando

    2012-12-01

    Environmental metal pollution is one of the major problems faced by humankind. This type of pollution affects aquatic systems (estuaries, coastal lagoons, etc.), which are very dynamic systems, therefore making the study of the effects on the organisms that inhabit them an essential issue. In this study, the capacity of metal regulation by decapod crustacean Penaeus vannamei juveniles was determined. The effects of zinc, lead, and cadmium were tested individually and as a metal mixture exposure to determine possible synergism. The results showed that juvenile shrimps were capable of regulating zinc and lead, whereas cadmium was accumulated without any excretion, at least within the concentrations studied. It was also proved that under the estuarine conditions tested here, P. vannamei juveniles showed capacity to act as a bioindicator for cadmium.

  19. Domain 2 of a Kazal serine proteinase inhibitor SPIPm2 from Penaeus monodon possesses antiviral activity against WSSV.

    PubMed

    Visetnan, Suwattana; Donpudsa, Suchao; Supungul, Premruethai; Tassanakajon, Anchalee; Rimphanitchayakit, Vichien

    2014-12-01

    A 5-domain Kazal type serine proteinase inhibitor SPIPm2 from Penaeus monodon is involved in innate immune defense against white spot syndrome virus (WSSV). To test which domains were involved, the 5 domains of SPIPm2 were over-expressed and tested against WSSV infection. By using hemocyte primary cell culture treated with each recombinant SPIPm2 domain along with WSSV, the expression of WSSV early genes ie1, WSV477 and late gene VP28 were substantially reduced as compared to other domains when the recombinant domain 2, rSPIPm2D2, was used. Injecting the WSSV along with rSPIPm2D2 but not with other domains caused delay in mortality rate of the infected shrimp. The results indicate that the SPIPm2D2 possesses strong antiviral activity and, hence, contributes predominantly to the antiviral activity of SPIPm2.

  20. Copper accumulation and transport in a marine food chain composed of Platymonas subcordiformis, brachionus plicatilis and Penaeus monodon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, A.-Gen; Chen, Wei-Qi; Li, Wen-Quan

    1997-09-01

    Accumulation, transport and toxicity of Cu in the food chain consisting of Platymonas subcordiformis, Brachionus plicatilis and Penaeus monodon were studied. Effects of Cu on the growth of organisms in the food chain were investigated and the inhibiting effect concentration (EC50) of Cu was then determined according to the dynamics of the relative number of cells or total individuals of organisms, expressed in percentages with reference to the controlled system, under different culture conditions. On the basis of the variations in accumulation and percentages of accumulation of Cu in the biological phase, the relationship between the accumulation of Cu in organisms and its toxicity was analyzed and the main approach for determining the transport of Cu in the food chain was then discussed.

  1. Distribution of heavy metals in tissues of the shrimp Penaeus californiensis from the northwest coast of Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Paez-Osuna, F.; Tron-Mayen, L.

    1995-08-01

    The brown shrimp, Penaeus californiensis Holmes, is an Eastern Pacific species which is geographically distributed from San Francisco, California, USA, including the Gulf of California, to Callao, Peru. In Mexico and particularly in the Pacific Coast, this crustacean supports 75% of the commercial catch of shrimp. Knowledge of the distribution of metals in isolated tissues of marine organisms is useful in order to identify specific organs that may be particularly selective and sensitive to accumulation of heavy metals. This paper presents data on the levels of Fe, Mn, Ni, Cu, Cd, and Zn in five different tissues of the P. californiensis populations from the northwest coast of Mexico. Additionally, the accumulation of metals by males and females is examined. 16 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Species profiles: life histories and environmental requirements of coastal fishes and invertebrates (South Atlantic). White shrimp. [Penaeus setiferus

    SciTech Connect

    Muncy, R.J.

    1984-09-01

    The white shrimp, Penaeus setiferus, is the most important commercial species in the Southeastern United States. It serves an important ecological role as food for other large invertebrates and fishes. Major bait industry is in northeast Florida and Georgia. Spawning occurs offshore within 9-m depth contour where salinities are at least 27 ppt. In spring, postlarval shrimp move with tidal currents into inshore estuarine waters. Juvenile white shrimp prefer shallow organic-rich substrate with low salinities (1-10 ppt). Nearshore soft sediment areas correlated well with white and brown shrimp distributions. Water temperature influences spawning, growth, habitat selection, emigration, and mortality. Low winter temperatures have greatly affected survival, recruitment, and harvest in the South Atlantic fishery. Maintaining suitable nursery grounds is a major concern for the furture of the fishery. 66 refs., 2 figs.

  3. Hyperthermia does not protect Kona stock Penaeus vannamei against infection by a Taura syndrome virus isolate from Belize.

    PubMed

    Côté, Isabelle; Lightner, Donald V

    2010-01-25

    This study evaluated the susceptibility of Penaeus vannamei, Kona stock-line, to infection by an isolate of Taura syndrome virus from Belize (TSV-BZ) under hyperthermic conditions (32 degrees C). Shrimp exposed to the reference Hawaii-94 isolate of TSV (TSV-HI) showed resistance to infection at 32 degrees C as demonstrated by the absence of mortality, histopathological lesions and decreased viral load by qPCR. However, at 32 degrees C, shrimp were fully susceptible to the disease caused by TSV-BZ, exhibiting high mortality, severe histopathological lesions and increased viral load. This susceptibility of shrimp to TSV-BZ infection under hyperthermic conditions was independent of the route of infection (injection vs. per os) and the salinity of the water (11 vs. 28). TSV-BZ might be a temperature-permissible mutant of TSV.

  4. Isolation of a bacterium resembling Pirellula species from primary tissue culture of the giant tiger prawn (Penaeus monodon).

    PubMed Central

    Fuerst, J A; Sambhi, S K; Paynter, J L; Hawkins, J A; Atherton, J G

    1991-01-01

    During attempts to establish tissue cultures from hepatopancreas, heart, and hemolymph of the giant tiger prawn (Penaeus monodon), using a medium including penicillin, streptomycin, and amphotericin B, bacterial contamination in the form of a sheet of growth attached to the tissue culture vessel was a persistent problem. Contaminant bacteria were teardrop-shaped cells arranged in rosettes, and electron microscopy revealed buds, crateriform structures, and the absence of a peptidoglycan layer in the cell wall, features characteristic of bacteria in the Planctomyces-Pirellula group, a phylogenetically distinct group of eubacteria. Two strains of contaminant bacteria were isolated in pure culture. Both exhibited morphology and antibiotic resistance consistent with their membership in the Planctomyces-Pirellula group (order Planctomycetales) of eubacteria. Tissue culture media for marine invertebrates may select for such bacteria if high concentrations of cell wall synthesis-inhibiting antibiotics are included. Images PMID:1781677

  5. Invasion of Asian tiger shrimp, Penaeus monodon Fabricius, 1798, in the western north Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fuller, Pam L.; Knott, David M.; Kingsley-Smith, Peter R.; Morris, James A.; Buckel, Christine A.; Hunter, Margaret E.; Hartman, Leslie D.

    2014-01-01

    After going unreported in the northwestern Atlantic Ocean for 18 years (1988 to 2006), the Asian tiger shrimp, Penaeus monodon, has recently reappeared in the South Atlantic Bight and, for the first time ever, in the Gulf of Mexico. Potential vectors and sources of this recent invader include: 1) discharged ballast water from its native range in Asia or other areas where it has become established; 2) transport of larvae from established non-native populations in the Caribbean or South America via ocean currents; or 3) escape and subsequent migration from active aquaculture facilities in the western Atlantic. This paper documents recent collections of P. monodon from the South Atlantic Bight and the Gulf of Mexico, reporting demographic and preliminary phylogenetic information for specimens collected between North Carolina and Texas from 2006 through 2012. The increased number of reports in 2011 and 2012, ranging from 102 mm to 298 mm total length, indicates that an adult population is present in densities sufficient for breeding, which is indicative of incipient establishment. Based on these reports of P. monodon, its successful invasion elsewhere, and its life history, we believe that this species will become common in the South Atlantic Bight and Gulf of Mexico in less than 10 years. Penaeus monodon is an aggressive predator in its native range and, if established, may prey on native shrimps, crabs, and bivalves. The impacts of an established P. monodon population are potentially widespread (e.g., alterations in local commercial fisheries, direct and indirect pressures on native shrimp, crab and bivalve populations, and subsequent impacts on the populations of other predators of those organisms) and should be considered by resource managers. The impacts of P. monodon on native fauna and the source(s) or vector(s) of the invasion, however, remain unknown at this time.

  6. Synthesis of silver nanoparticles by coastal plant Prosopis chilensis (L.) and their efficacy in controlling vibriosis in shrimp Penaeus monodon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kandasamy, Kathiresan; Alikunhi, Nabeel M.; Manickaswami, Gayathridevi; Nabikhan, Asmathunisha; Ayyavu, Gopalakrishnan

    2013-02-01

    The present work investigated the effect of leaf extract from coastal plant Prosopis chilensis on synthesis of silver nanoparticles using AgNO3 as a substrate and to find their antibacterial potential on pathogenic Vibrio species in the shrimp, Penaeus monodon. The leaf extract could be able to produce silver nanoparticles, as evident by gradual change in colour of the reaction mixture consisted of the extract and 1 mM AgNO3 to dark brown. The silver nanoparticles exhibited 2 θ values corresponding to the presence of silver nanocrystal, as evident by X-ray diffraction spectrum. The peaks corresponding to flavanones and terpenoids were found to be stabilizing agents of the nanoparticles, as revealed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The size of silver nanoparticles ranged from 5 to 25 nm with an average of 11.3 ± 2.1 nm and was mostly of spherical in shape, as confirmed by transmission electron microscopy. The silver nanoparticles were found to inhibit Vibrio pathogens viz., Vibrio cholerae, V. harveyi, and V. parahaemolyticus and this antibacterial effect was better than that of leaf extract, as proved by disc diffusion assay. The nanoparticles were then tested in the shrimp Penaeus monodon challenged with the four species of Vibrio pathogens for 30 days. The shrimps fed with silver nanoparticles exhibited higher survival, associated with immunomodulation in terms of higher haemocyte counts, phenoloxidase and antibacterial activities of haemolymph of P. monodon which is on par with that of control. Thus, the present study proved the possibility of using silver nanoparticles produced by coastal Prosopis chilensis as antibacterial agent in controlling vibriosis.

  7. Promoting Leadership in Australian Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradley, Andrew P.; Grice, Tim; Paulsen, Neil

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we review current practices for developing and promoting academic leadership in universities. We consider the forms of leadership that are appropriate for academic organisations, while exploring the types of leadership favoured by recruitment and promotion committees. Using the Australian higher education context as a case study, we…

  8. Australian Circuses as Cooperative Communities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moriarty, Beverley J.

    2000-01-01

    Studied how circus personnel of all ages interact in Australian circuses to preserve traditional circus lifestyles and entertainment. Interviews with 30 personnel from 4 circuses show the importance of learning to be a member of a cooperative society through immersion. Results provide information about the education of a community of occupational…

  9. Arabic in Australian Islamic Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Michael

    1996-01-01

    Presents census data on the Muslim population in Australia and overviews full-time independent Islamic schools offering a comprehensive education across the curriculum. Argues that these schools offer great potential for the successful development of Arabic language and cultural literacy skills required by Australian exporters and diplomats in the…

  10. The Spirituality of Young Australians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Michael; Singleton, Andrew; Webber, Ruth

    2007-01-01

    A research project conducted in 2003-2006, the Spirit of Generation Y, using both extended interviews and a nationwide survey, revealed three main strands in the spirituality of young Australians: traditional, alternative and humanist. Their involvement in traditional religions was declining, like that of their parents, and although some adopted…

  11. The 2005 Australian Informatics Competition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, David

    2006-01-01

    This article describes the Australian Informatics Competition (AIC), a non-programming competition aimed at identifying students with potential in programming and algorithmic design. It is the first step in identifying students to represent Australia at the International Olympiad in Informatics. The main aim of the AIC is to increase awareness of…

  12. Catalogue of Australian Cynipoidea (Hymenoptera)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A catalogue of all families, subfamilies, genera, and species of Cynipoidea present in Australia is presented here. The Australian cynipoid fauna is very poorly known, with 37 genera cited: one each for Austrocynipidae, Ibaliidae, Liopteridae, two for Cynipidae, and 32 for Figitidae. The first Austr...

  13. Stress Literacy in Australian Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Varlow, Megan; Wuthrich, Viviana; Murrihy, Rachael; Remond, Louise; Tuqiri, Rebekka; van Kessel, Jacobine; Wheatley, Anna; Dedousis-Wallace, Anna; Kidman, Antony

    2009-01-01

    Stress literacy is a term that refers to knowledge about stress and stress management techniques. Levels of stress literacy were examined in more than nine hundred Australian adolescents by providing a short stress-management education session and assessing stress literacy using a pre-post survey design. It was found that while adolescents had a…

  14. Staff Bullying in Australian Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riley, Dan; Duncan, Deirdre J.; Edwards, John

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to estimate the prevalence of staff bullying in Australian schools, to identify bullies and targets and to examine some implications for school leaders in dealing with staff bullying. Design/methodology/approach: The quantitative research design survey instrument contained 11 demographic items, 44 questions of…

  15. Skills Gaps in Australian Firms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindorff, Margaret

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports the results of a survey of more than 2000 managers examining perceptions of skills gaps in a range of Australian firms. It finds that three quarters report a skills gap, and almost one third report skills gaps across the whole organisation. Firm size and industry differences exist in perceptions of the effect of the skills gap…

  16. Big Ideas for Australian Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Steven

    2009-01-01

    Within weeks of taking office, Australia's new Labor government commissioned two major reviews--one of Australia's innovation system and one of Australian higher education. Taken together, these reviews will have major implications for the future of research and teaching in Australia for decades to come. This paper discusses the main…

  17. Transforming Farm Health and Safety: The Case for Business Coaching.

    PubMed

    Blackman, Anna; Franklin, Richard C; Rossetto, Allison; Gray, David E

    2015-01-01

    In the U.S. and Australia, agriculture is consistently ranked as one of the most hazardous industries. The cost of injuries and deaths on Australian farms is significant, estimated to be between AU$0.5 billion and AU$1.2 billion per year. Death and injury in agriculture also place a significant financial and social burden on the family and friends of the injured, the community, and the health system. This article proposes that if farmers were to employ coaching in their businesses, they would benefit from advances in safety practices, resulting in associated improvements in overall farm productivity and a reduction in injury costs to the wider community. A coaching model is presented to demonstrate what an effective coaching process would need to include. An agenda for future research areas is also provided.

  18. Studies on immunodiagnosis of hepatopancreatic parvo-like virus disease of the Chinese penaeid, Penaeus Chinensis I. Purification of the virus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Xiuqin; Wang, Wenxing; Zhou, Huimin; Zhang, Jinxing; Xue, Qinggang; Lu, Ying; Song, Qingyun

    1993-06-01

    The viral discase of penaeids is indistinet but highly dangerous because their symptoms are often masked by some secondary ones. In order to gain knowledge on how to prevent the occurrence and spread of this viral disease, diagnostic studies on the early phase of the hepatopancreatic parvo-like viral (HPV) disease of cultured Penaeus chinensis was conducted using ummuno-serological techniques. The purification of HPV was successfully done by density gradient ultracentrifugation of cane sugar.

  19. Effect of guava leaves on growth and the non-specific immune response of Penaeus monodon.

    PubMed

    Yin, Xiao-Li; Li, Zhuo-Jia; Yang, Keng; Lin, Hei-Zhao; Guo, Zhi-Xun

    2014-09-01

    Guava (Psidium guajava L.) leaf extracts have antiviral and antibacterial activity against shrimp pathogens such as yellow-head virus (YHV), white spot syndrome virus (WSSV), and Vibrio harveyi, which make it a potential water disinfectant for use in shrimp culture. In this study, the safety of guava leaf supplementation in shrimp was evaluated by studying its influence on growth and the non-specific immune response of Penaeus monodon. Six diets containing different levels of guava leaves (0% [basal diet], 0.025% [G1], 0.05% [G2], 0.1% [G3], 0.2% [G4], and 0.4% [G5]) were fed to groups of shrimp (1.576 ± 0.011 g body weight) in triplicate for 56 days. Growth performance (final body weight, WG, PWG, SGR) of shrimp fed guava leaf diets was significantly higher (P < 0.05) than that of shrimp fed on the basal diet. The G1 diet resulted in the highest body weight gain (308.44%), followed by the G2 (295.45%), G3 (283.05%), G5 (281.29%), G4 (276.11%), and finally the basal diet (214.58%). Survival of shrimp in the G1 diet group was higher than that of shrimp in the control and the other experimental groups; however, no statistical differences (P > 0.05) were found. Dietary supplementation with guava leaf improved the activities of prophenoloxidase (PO) and nitric oxide synthase (NOS) in serum, and of superoxide dismutase (SOD), acid phosphatase (ACP), alkaline phosphatase (AKP), and lysozyme (LSZ) both in serum and hepatopancreas of shrimp. In the experimental groups, the activities of these enzymes followed a similar pattern of change; they increased initially at low levels of dietary supplementation and then decreased with increasing concentrations of dietary guava leaf. Serum PO and SOD activities in shrimp fed the G1 diet reached 7.50 U ml(-1) and 178.33 U ml(-1), respectively, with PO activity being significantly higher than in controls. In shrimp fed the G1 diet, SOD, ACP, and AKP activities in hepatopancreas were significantly higher than in the controls, reaching

  20. Recombinase polymerase amplification combined with a lateral flow dipstick for discriminating between infectious Penaeus stylirostris densovirus and virus-related sequences in shrimp genome.

    PubMed

    Jaroenram, Wansadaj; Owens, Leigh

    2014-11-01

    Penaeus stylirostris densovirus (PstDV) is an important shrimp pathogen that causes mortality in P. stylirostris and runt deformity syndrome (RDS) in Penaeus vannamei and Penaeus monodon. Recently, PstDV-related sequences were found in the genome of P. monodon and P. vannamei. This led to false positive results by PCR-based detection system. Here, a more efficient detection platform based on recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA) and a lateral flow dipstick (LFD) was developed for detecting PstDV. Under the optimal conditions, 30 min at 37°C for RPA followed by 5 min at room temperature for LFD, the protocol was 10 times more sensitive than the Saksmerphrome et al's interim 3-tube nested PCR and showed no cross-reaction with other shrimp viruses. It also reduced false positive results arising from viral inserts to ∼5% compared to 76-78% by the IQ2000™ nested PCR kit and the 309F/R PCR protocol currently recommended by World Organization for Animal Health (OIE) for PstDV detection. Together with simplicity and portability, the protocol serves as an alternative tool to PCR for primarily screening PstDV, which is suitable for both laboratory and field application.

  1. Australian dingoes are definitive hosts of Neospora caninum.

    PubMed

    King, Jessica S; Slapeta, Jan; Jenkins, David J; Al-Qassab, Sarwat E; Ellis, John T; Windsor, Peter A

    2010-07-01

    To provide objective data on the potential role of dingoes (Canis lupus dingo) in the life cycle of Neospora caninum in Australia, the production of N. caninum oocysts by experimentally infected canids was investigated. Three dingo pups raised in captivity and three domestic dogs were fed tissue from calves infected with an Australian isolate of N. caninum, Nc-Nowra. Oocysts of N. caninum, confirmed by species-specific PCR, were shed in low numbers by one dingo pup at 12-14 days p.i. The remaining animals did not shed oocysts. Furthermore, the blood from two out of three dingoes tested positive for DNA of N. caninum using PCR tests at 14 and 28 days p.i. Oocyst shedding from the intestinal tract of a dingo demonstrates that dingoes are definitive hosts of N. caninum and horizontal transmission of N. caninum from dingoes to farm animals and wildlife may occur in Australia.

  2. On-farm Campylobacter and Escherichia coli in commercial broiler chickens: Re-used bedding does not influence Campylobacter emergence and levels across sequential farming cycles

    PubMed Central

    Chinivasagam, H. N.; Estella, W.; Rodrigues, H.; Mayer, D. G.; Weyand, C.; Tran, T.; Onysk, A.; Diallo, I.

    2016-01-01

    Limitations in quality bedding material have resulted in the growing need to re-use litter during broiler farming in some countries, which can be of concern from a food-safety perspective. The aim of this study was to compare the Campylobacter levels in ceca and litter across three litter treatments under commercial farming conditions. The litter treatments were (a) the use of new litter after each farming cycle; (b) an Australian partial litter re-use practice; and (c) a full litter re-use practice. The study was carried out on two farms over two years (Farm 1, from 2009–2010 and Farm 2, from 2010–2011), across three sheds (35,000 to 40,000 chickens/shed) on each farm, adopting three different litter treatments across six commercial cycles. A random sampling design was adopted to test litter and ceca for Campylobacter and Escherichia coli, prior to commercial first thin-out and final pick-up. Campylobacter levels varied little across litter practices and farming cycles on each farm and were in the range of log 8.0–9.0 CFU/g in ceca and log 4.0–6.0 MPN/g for litter. Similarly the E. coli in ceca were ∼log 7.0 CFU/g. At first thin-out and final pick-up, the statistical analysis for both litter and ceca showed that the three-way interaction (treatments by farms by times) was highly significant (P < 0.01), indicating that the patterns of Campylobacter emergence/presence across time vary between the farms, cycles and pickups. The emergence and levels of both organisms were not influenced by litter treatments across the six farming cycles on both farms. Either C. jejuni or C. coli could be the dominant species across litter and ceca, and this phenomenon could not be attributed to specific litter treatments. Irrespective of the litter treatments in place, cycle 2 on Farm 2 remained Campylobacter-free. These outcomes suggest that litter treatments did not directly influence the time of emergence and levels of Campylobacter and E. coli during commercial farming

  3. On-farm Campylobacter and Escherichia coli in commercial broiler chickens: Re-used bedding does not influence Campylobacter emergence and levels across sequential farming cycles.

    PubMed

    Chinivasagam, H N; Estella, W; Rodrigues, H; Mayer, D G; Weyand, C; Tran, T; Onysk, A; Diallo, I

    2016-05-01

    Limitations in quality bedding material have resulted in the growing need to re-use litter during broiler farming in some countries, which can be of concern from a food-safety perspective. The aim of this study was to compare the Campylobacter levels in ceca and litter across three litter treatments under commercial farming conditions. The litter treatments were (a) the use of new litter after each farming cycle; (b) an Australian partial litter re-use practice; and (c) a full litter re-use practice. The study was carried out on two farms over two years (Farm 1, from 2009-2010 and Farm 2, from 2010-2011), across three sheds (35,000 to 40,000 chickens/shed) on each farm, adopting three different litter treatments across six commercial cycles. A random sampling design was adopted to test litter and ceca for Campylobacter and Escherichia coli, prior to commercial first thin-out and final pick-up. Campylobacter levels varied little across litter practices and farming cycles on each farm and were in the range of log 8.0-9.0 CFU/g in ceca and log 4.0-6.0 MPN/g for litter. Similarly the E. coli in ceca were ∼log 7.0 CFU/g. At first thin-out and final pick-up, the statistical analysis for both litter and ceca showed that the three-way interaction (treatments by farms by times) was highly significant (P<0.01), indicating that the patterns of Campylobacter emergence/presence across time vary between the farms, cycles and pickups. The emergence and levels of both organisms were not influenced by litter treatments across the six farming cycles on both farms. Either C. jejuni or C. coli could be the dominant species across litter and ceca, and this phenomenon could not be attributed to specific litter treatments. Irrespective of the litter treatments in place, cycle 2 on Farm 2 remained Campylobacter-free. These outcomes suggest that litter treatments did not directly influence the time of emergence and levels of Campylobacter and E. coli during commercial farming.

  4. Long Island Solar Farm

    SciTech Connect

    Anders, R.

    2013-05-01

    The Long Island Solar Farm (LISF) is a remarkable success story, whereby very different interest groups found a way to capitalize on unusual circumstances to develop a mutually beneficial source of renewable energy. The uniqueness of the circumstances that were necessary to develop the Long Island Solar Farm make it very difficult to replicate. The project is, however, an unparalleled resource for solar energy research, which will greatly inform large-scale PV solar development in the East. Lastly, the LISF is a superb model for the process by which the project developed and the innovation and leadership shown by the different players.

  5. Wind Farm Recommendation Report

    SciTech Connect

    John Reisenauer

    2011-05-01

    On April 21, 2011, an Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Land Use Committee meeting was convened to develop a wind farm recommendation for the Executive Council and a list of proposed actions for proceeding with the recommendation. In terms of land use, the INL Land Use Committee unanimously agrees that Site 6 is the preferred location of the alternatives presented for an INL wind farm. However, further studies and resolution to questions raised (stated in this report) by the INL Land Use Committee are needed for the preferred location. Studies include, but are not limited to, wind viability (6 months), bats (2 years), and the visual impact of the wind farm. In addition, cultural resource surveys and consultation (1 month) and the National Environmental Policy Act process (9 to 12 months) need to be completed. Furthermore, there is no documented evidence of developers expressing interest in constructing a small wind farm on INL, nor a specific list of expectations or concessions for which a developer might expect INL to cover the cost. To date, INL assumes the National Environmental Policy Act activities will be paid for by the Department of Energy and INL (the environmental assessment has only received partial funding). However, other concessions also may be expected by developers such as roads, fencing, power line installation, tie-ins to substations, annual maintenance, snow removal, access control, down-time, and remediation. These types of concessions have not been documented, as a request, from a developer and INL has not identified the short and long-term cost liabilities for such concessions should a developer expect INL to cover these costs. INL has not identified a go-no-go funding level or the priority this Wind Farm Project might have with respect to other nuclear-related projects, should the wind farm remain an unfunded mandate. The Land Use Committee recommends Legal be consulted to determine what, if any, liabilities exist with the Wind Farm Project and

  6. Farm animal biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Bulfield, G

    2000-01-01

    As we enter a new millennium, the research with the greatest likely impact on both the biological sciences and the biotechnology industry will be the sequencing of the human and other genomes. Widespread interest in farm animal genomics as a method for identifying genes controlling commercially important traits started only a decade ago. Although the genomics of farm animals was relatively late to arrive on the scene compared with the genomics of crop plants, it has the advantage of being able to access the enormous amount of human genome information.

  7. An Examination of Hired Farm Workers on Iowa Farms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heitmann, Kenneth Harry

    Characteristics of farms, farmers and hired laborers were examined to provide a basis for decisions about labor needs on Iowa farms. The study was limited to year-round farm jobs in large-sized enterprises to develop some knowledge of working conditions, renumerations, and skills which will be required in the future. A 3-phase study was conducted…

  8. An introduction to the Australian and New Zealand flux tower network - OzFlux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beringer, Jason; Hutley, Lindsay B.; McHugh, Ian; Arndt, Stefan K.; Campbell, David; Cleugh, Helen A.; Cleverly, James; Resco de Dios, Víctor; Eamus, Derek; Evans, Bradley; Ewenz, Cacilia; Grace, Peter; Griebel, Anne; Haverd, Vanessa; Hinko-Najera, Nina; Huete, Alfredo; Isaac, Peter; Kanniah, Kasturi; Leuning, Ray; Liddell, Michael J.; Macfarlane, Craig; Meyer, Wayne; Moore, Caitlin; Pendall, Elise; Phillips, Alison; Phillips, Rebecca L.; Prober, Suzanne M.; Restrepo-Coupe, Natalia; Rutledge, Susanna; Schroder, Ivan; Silberstein, Richard; Southall, Patricia; Yee, Mei Sun; Tapper, Nigel J.; van Gorsel, Eva; Vote, Camilla; Walker, Jeff; Wardlaw, Tim

    2016-10-01

    OzFlux is the regional Australian and New Zealand flux tower network that aims to provide a continental-scale national research facility to monitor and assess trends, and improve predictions, of Australia's terrestrial biosphere and climate. This paper describes the evolution, design, and current status of OzFlux as well as provides an overview of data processing. We analyse measurements from all sites within the Australian portion of the OzFlux network and two sites from New Zealand. The response of the Australian biomes to climate was largely consistent with global studies except that Australian systems had a lower ecosystem water-use efficiency. Australian semi-arid/arid ecosystems are important because of their huge extent (70 %) and they have evolved with common moisture limitations. We also found that Australian ecosystems had a similar radiation-use efficiency per unit leaf area compared to global values that indicates a convergence toward a similar biochemical efficiency. The two New Zealand sites represented extremes in productivity for a moist temperate climate zone, with the grazed dairy farm site having the highest GPP of any OzFlux site (2620 gC m-2 yr-1) and the natural raised peat bog site having a very low GPP (820 gC m-2 yr-1). The paper discusses the utility of the flux data and the synergies between flux, remote sensing, and modelling. Lastly, the paper looks ahead at the future direction of the network and concludes that there has been a substantial contribution by OzFlux, and considerable opportunities remain to further advance our understanding of ecosystem response to disturbances, including drought, fire, land-use and land-cover change, land management, and climate change, which are relevant both nationally and internationally. It is suggested that a synergistic approach is required to address all of the spatial, ecological, human, and cultural challenges of managing the delicately balanced ecosystems in Australasia.

  9. Funding emergency care: Australian style.

    PubMed

    Bell, Anthony; Crilly, Julia; Williams, Ged; Wylie, Kate; Toloo, Ghasem Sam; Burke, John; FitzGerald, Gerry

    2014-08-01

    The ongoing challenge for ED leaders is to remain abreast of system-wide changes that impact on the day-to-day management of their departments. Changes to the funding model creates another layer of complexity and this introductory paper serves as the beginning of a discussion about the way in which EDs are funded and how this can and will impact on business decisions, models of care and resource allocation within Australian EDs. Furthermore it is evident that any funding model today will mature and change with time, and moves are afoot to refine and contextualise ED funding over the medium term. This perspective seeks to provide a basis of understanding for our current and future funding arrangements in Australian EDs.

  10. Urban Farm Business Plan Handbook

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Urban Farm Business Plan Handbook (this document) provides guidance for developing a business plan for the startup and operation of an urban farm. It focuses on food and non-food related cultivated agriculture.

  11. [Australian short-beaked echidna].

    PubMed

    Rismiller, P

    1995-12-01

    The Australian short-beaked echidna, a monotreme, is one of the oldest living mammals on earth. It is recorded to be the most widely distributed native mammal on the island continent and classed as 'common'. Yet, little is known about its natural history and biology in the wild. What science has learned about the echidna in the past 200 years and why there are still large gaps is reported here.

  12. Meteors in Australian Aboriginal Dreamings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamacher, Duane W.; Norris, Ray P.

    2010-06-01

    We present a comprehensive analysis of Australian Aboriginal accounts of meteors. The data used were taken from anthropological and ethnographic literature describing oral traditions, ceremonies, and Dreamings of 97 Aboriginal groups representing all states of modern Australia. This revealed common themes in the way meteors were viewed between Aboriginal groups, focusing on supernatural events, death, omens, and war. The presence of such themes around Australia was probably due to the unpredictable nature of meteors in an otherwise well-ordered cosmos.

  13. Policy: Australian astronomy looks forward

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhathal, Ragbir

    2005-12-01

    Over the next decade, a new generation of instruments will come into being for the benefit of astronomers across the world. Australian astronomers hope to build on their strong astronomical heritage and continue to take part in astronomy at the highest international level. To this end, they have prepared a Decadal Plan that envisages building, with international partners, a world-class radio telescope, greater invovlement with 8 metre telescopes, as well as making the most of the Antarctic opportunities that Australia offers.

  14. Australian Defence Force Demographic Data and Challenges

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-10-01

    AUSTRALIAN DEFENCE FORCE DEMOGRAPHIC DATA AND CHALLENGES Directorate of Strategic Personnel Planning and Research DSPPR Technical Note 10/2001...DATE 00 OCT 2001 2. REPORT TYPE N/A 3. DATES COVERED - 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Australian Defence Force Demographic Data and Challenges 5a...Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 AUSTRALIAN DEFENCE FORCE DEMOGRAPHIC DATA AND CHALLENGES The findings and views expressed in this report are the results

  15. The Politics Are Personal: "The Australian" vs the Australian Curriculum in History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Tony; Collins, Sue

    2012-01-01

    This article reviews the relationship between the conservative newspaper "The Australian" and the development of a national history curriculum in Australia. The lead author surveyed the major Australian press in the five-year period between 2007 and 2012 and found clear patterns of difference between "The Australian" and other…

  16. The Australian Science Facilities Program: A Study of Its Influence on Science Education in Australian Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ainley, John G.

    This report is a study conducted by the Australian Council for Educational Research to evaluate the influence of science material resources, provided under the Australian Science Facilities Program, on science education in Australia. Under the Australian Science Facilities Program some $123 million was spent, between July 1964 and June 1975, on…

  17. Farming the Sea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, William

    1971-01-01

    Florida has initiated a training program in an entirely new dimension--Sea Farming. Presented is a description of the vocational agriculture program designed to teach propagation, cultivation, harvesting, marketing, and conservation practices related to production of oysters, shrimp, scallops, crabs, and fin fishes. (Editor/GB)

  18. Modelling Farm Animal Welfare

    PubMed Central

    Collins, Lisa M.; Part, Chérie E.

    2013-01-01

    Simple Summary In this review paper we discuss the different modeling techniques that have been used in animal welfare research to date. We look at what questions they have been used to answer, the advantages and pitfalls of the methods, and how future research can best use these approaches to answer some of the most important upcoming questions in farm animal welfare. Abstract The use of models in the life sciences has greatly expanded in scope and advanced in technique in recent decades. However, the range, type and complexity of models used in farm animal welfare is comparatively poor, despite the great scope for use of modeling in this field of research. In this paper, we review the different modeling approaches used in farm animal welfare science to date, discussing the types of questions they have been used to answer, the merits and problems associated with the method, and possible future applications of each technique. We find that the most frequently published types of model used in farm animal welfare are conceptual and assessment models; two types of model that are frequently (though not exclusively) based on expert opinion. Simulation, optimization, scenario, and systems modeling approaches are rarer in animal welfare, despite being commonly used in other related fields. Finally, common issues such as a lack of quantitative data to parameterize models, and model selection and validation are discussed throughout the review, with possible solutions and alternative approaches suggested. PMID:26487411

  19. Tox Town Farm

    MedlinePlus

    ... download the Flash player. City Farm Town Port US Southwest U.S. National Library of Medicine 8600 Rockville Pike Bethesda, MD 20894 1-888-FIND-NLM National Institutes of Health Department of Health & Human Services ... Updates Contact Us: tehip@teh.nlm.nih.gov Copyright Privacy Freedom ...

  20. FARM LABOR MARKET DEVELOPMENT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Labor, Washington, DC.

    PART ONE OF THE REPORT CONSISTED OF AN ANALYSIS OF TRENDS BETWEEN 1960 AND 1961 IN WAGES OF UNITED STATES FARM WORKERS IN MAJOR AREAS USING MEXICAN NATIONALS. THE DATA WERE DERIVED FROM PREVAILING-WAGE REPORTS RECEIVED BY THE BUREAU OF EMPLOYMENT SECURITY FROM AFFILIATED STATE EMPLOYMENT SECURITY AGENCIES. THE SURVEY RATES WERE USED BY THE…

  1. Cryptosporidiois in farmed animals

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The disease, cryptosporidiosis, has been identified in humans and animals in 106 countries and has been attributed to 26 species of Cryptosporidium and several additional genotypes. The specific farmed animals discussed in this chapter include cattle, sheep, goats, water buffaloes, deer, camels, lla...

  2. Agriculture Education. Farm Machinery.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stuttgart Public Schools, AR.

    This curriculum guide is designed for group instruction of secondary agricultural education students enrolled in one or two semester-long courses in farm machinery. The guide presents units of study in the following areas: (1) small gas engines, (2) job opportunities, (3) tractors, (4) engines, (5) hydraulics, (6) electrical system, (7) combine…

  3. Studies on immunodiagnosis of hepatopancreatic parvo-like virus diseases of Penaeus orientalis . Rapid early diagnosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Xiuqin; Wang, Wenxin; Shao, Jijun; Zhang, Jinxin; Lu, Ying; Xue, Qinggang; Song, Qinyun

    1993-09-01

    This paper describes a rapid procedure for diagnosis of penaeid viral disease using the immune serological method. The SPA (Staphylococcal Protein A) coagglutination test in early diagnosis of penaeid viral disease has yielded satisfactory results. This is the first time SPA is used in China for diagnoses of viral diseases of marine invertebrates, especially penaeid shrimp. The SPA early diagnostic method is characterized by accuracy, rapidity, simplicity and convenience, low cost, high specificity, strong sensitivity and micro-detectability, and easy dissemination and adaptability in prawn farms.

  4. Farm Education at Stony Kill.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parisio, Richard

    1986-01-01

    Describes typical winter farm lessons for students visiting Stony Kill Farm Environmental Education Center located 70 miles north of New York City: butter and corncake making, soil erosion experiments, dissecting and growing seeds. Emphasizes major theme of conservation of farmland from destructive farming practices and careless development. (NEC)

  5. Content Priorities for Farm Mechanics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knotts, C. Don; Webb, Earl S.

    1974-01-01

    Fifty successful young Texas farmers evaluated agricultural mechanics skills (in the broad areas of farm power and machinery, farm shop, farm electricity, buildings and conveniences, and soil and water management) in terms of their importance. Teachers can use the findings to plan course content relevant to their students' needs. (AJ)

  6. The Changing Face of Farm Employment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ilg, Randy E.

    1995-01-01

    Increased farm size, improved technology, and competing demands for farm land resulted in substantial decline in farm acreage and consequent declines in farm employment. Remaining farm operators are more likely to be white, highly educated, and have larger, capital-intensive farms. (SK)

  7. 29 CFR 780.142 - Practices on a farm not related to farming operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Practices on a farm not related to farming operations. 780... FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT General Scope of Agriculture âsuch Farming Operationsâ-on the Farm § 780.142 Practices on a farm not related to farming operations. Practices performed on a farm in connection...

  8. Transgenic Farm Animals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solomon, Morse B.; Eastridge, Janet S.; Paroczay, Ernest W.

    Conventional science to improve muscle and meat parameters has involved breeding strategies, such as selection of dominant traits or selection of preferred traits by cross breeding, and the use of endogenous and exogenous hormones. Improvements in the quality of food products that enter the market have largely been the result of postharvest intervention strategies. Biotechnology is a more extreme scientific method that offers the potential to improve the quality, yield, and safety of food products by direct genetic manipulation. In the December 13, 2007 issue of the Southeast Farm Press, an article by Roy Roberson pointed out that biotechnology is driving most segments of U.S. farm growth. He indicated that nationwide, the agriculture industry is booming and much of that growth is the result of biotechnology advancements.

  9. Australian Literature in the Primary Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Sullivan, Colleen, Ed.

    This book was designed to supply information on available resources in Australian children's literature and a tradition of teaching which incorporates the Australian experience in an inclusive manner. Essays and their authors consist of the following: (1) "Children's Books in Australia: Two Hundred Years of Social Life" (Maurice Saxby);…

  10. Successful Principal Leadership: Australian Case Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gurr, David; Drysdale, Lawrie; Mulford, Bill

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to provide an Australian perspective on successful school leadership. Design/methodology/approach: The paper focuses on case studies in two Australian states (Tasmania and Victoria). Case studies for each state were developed independently and are reported separately. Findings: The findings show a remarkable degree of…

  11. Understanding Culture and Diversity: Australian Aboriginal Art

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vize, Anne

    2009-01-01

    Australian Aboriginal culture is rich, complex and fascinating. The art of Aboriginal Australians shows a great understanding of the earth and its creatures. This article presents an activity which has been designed as a multi-age project. The learning outcomes have been written to suit both younger and older students. Aspects of the project could…

  12. A National Australian Curriculum: In Whose Interests?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ditchburn, Geraldine

    2012-01-01

    The introduction of an Australian curriculum is likely to have a widespread and long-term impact on schools, teachers and students, and yet there has been a swift and an almost unquestioning acceptance of its introduction by the Australian public and by educators. This paper will use theoretical frameworks informed by Gramsci's cultural hegemony…

  13. Career Intentions of Australian Physical Education Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mäkelä, Kasper; Whipp, Peter R.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate Australian physical education (PE) teachers' career intentions and factors influencing their intentions. A sample (N = 234) of Western Australian PE teachers responded to a questionnaire determining PE teachers' work and the primary motivators for intention to leave the profession. Half (51.3%) of the…

  14. Australian Aboriginal Language Early Childhood Education Programmes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmes, Tony

    This report discusses the provision of culturally appropriate early childhood programs in Australian Aboriginal language in Australia, and the education of teachers for these programs. The first section of the report examines the education of indigenous peoples in the context of the current Australian education system. Evidence in support of the…

  15. The Australian Curriculum: Finding the Hidden Narrative?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ditchburn, Geraldine M.

    2012-01-01

    The Australian curriculum to be introduced in all Australian schools over the next few years provides two competing narratives about curriculum. An overt narrative provides an unproblematic view of curriculum where the rhetoric and discourse that promotes a "world-class curriculum" effectively obscures a second narrative. This second…

  16. Four Management Agendas for Australian Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharrock, Geoff

    2012-01-01

    In a new mixed economy of higher learning, Australian universities require more strategic management to compete and collaborate sustainably. However, many scholars argue that new modes of university management are at odds with scholarly aims and values. This article examines how Australian universities frame their missions and communicate their…

  17. Wind farm electrical system

    DOEpatents

    Erdman, William L.; Lettenmaier, Terry M.

    2006-07-04

    An approach to wind farm design using variable speed wind turbines with low pulse number electrical output. The output of multiple wind turbines are aggregated to create a high pulse number electrical output at a point of common coupling with a utility grid network. Power quality at each individual wind turbine falls short of utility standards, but the aggregated output at the point of common coupling is within acceptable tolerances for utility power quality. The approach for aggregating low pulse number electrical output from multiple wind turbines relies upon a pad mounted transformer at each wind turbine that performs phase multiplication on the output of each wind turbine. Phase multiplication converts a modified square wave from the wind turbine into a 6 pulse output. Phase shifting of the 6 pulse output from each wind turbine allows the aggregated output of multiple wind turbines to be a 24 pulse approximation of a sine wave. Additional filtering and VAR control is embedded within the wind farm to take advantage of the wind farm's electrical impedence characteristics to further enhance power quality at the point of common coupling.

  18. Immunomodulation by dietary beta-1, 3-glucan in the brooders of the black tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon.

    PubMed

    Chang, C F; Chen, H Y; Su, M S; Liao, I C

    2000-08-01

    The present study evaluated the effectiveness of beta-1,3-glucan derived from Schizophyllum commune in enhancing shrimp survival as well as haemocyte phagocytosis and superoxide anion production in brooder Penaeus monodon. Pond-reared P. monodon adults (135 +/- 25 g) stocked in outdoor or indoor tanks were fed either a test diet containing beta-1,3-glucan (2.0 g kg(-1) or a glucan-free control diet for 40 days. Their survival was compared. The brooders reared in indoor tanks were analysed at days 0, 1, 3, 6, 12, 24, 30 and 40 for their haemocyte phagocytic activity and superoxide anion production. The results showed that regardless of indoor or outdoor rearing the survival rate of shrimp fed the glucan diet was significantly higher (P<0.001) than that of the control group. The brooders showed enhanced haemocyte phagocytic activity, cell adhesion and superoxide anion production when glucan was administered in their diets. The immunostimulatory enhancement peaked at day 24 after starting the dietary exposure and subsequently decreased to the pre-feeding level at the end of the 40 days feeding trial.

  19. Experimental exposure of Artemia to hepatopancreatic parvo-like virus and subsequent transmission to post-larvae of Penaeus monodon.

    PubMed

    Sivakumar, V K; Sarathi, M; Venkatesan, C; Sivaraj, A; Hameed, A S Sahul

    2009-11-01

    The different life stages of Artemia franciscana were experimentally exposed to Hepatopancreatic parvo-like virus (HPV), in order to evaluate the possibility of Artemia acting as reservoir or carrier for HPV. All the five developmental stages of Artemia were challenged with HPV both by immersion and oral infection routes. The viral infectivity to Artemia was studied by PCR but not much difference in mortality between control and challenge groups were observed. To confirm the vector status of Artemia for HPV, the HPV exposed Artemia were fed to postlarval forms of Penaeus monodon. Post-larvae of P. monodon were fed with HPV exposed Artemia and could get infected upon feeding on them. Mortality was observed in the post-larvae, which were fed with HPV exposed Artemia, and whereas no mortality was observed in post-larvae fed with Artemia not exposed to HPV and these post-larvae were PCR negative for HPV, as well. Results of this experiment suggest that Artemia might be a possible horizontal transmission pathway for HPV. Further research however is required with histology, immunohistochemistry and transmission electron microcopy to determine whether the Artemia are actually infected with this virus or whether they are simply mechanical carriers. This will enable us to understand better whether Artemia is a carrier of this virus and if so the mechanism involved.

  20. A five-domain Kazal-type serine proteinase inhibitor from black tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon and its inhibitory activities.

    PubMed

    Somprasong, Nawarat; Rimphanitchayakit, Vichien; Tassanakajon, Anchalee

    2006-01-01

    A novel five-domain Kazal-type serine proteinase inhibitor, SPIPm2, identified from the hemocyte cDNA library of black tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon was successfully expressed in the Escherichia coli expression system. The expressed recombinant SPIPm2 (rSPIPm2) as inclusion bodies was solubilized with a sodium carbonate buffer, pH10, and purified by gel filtration chromatography. The molecular mass of rSPIPm2 was determined using MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry to be 29.065 kDa. The inhibitory activities of rSPIPm2 were tested against trypsin, alpha-chymotrypsin, subtilisin and elastase. The inhibitor exhibited potent inhibitory activities against subtilisin and elastase, weak inhibitory activity against trypsin, and did not inhibit chymotrypsin. Tight-binding inhibition assay suggested that the molar ratios of SPIPm2 to subtilisin and elastase were 1:2 and 1:1, respectively. The inhibition against subtilisin and elastase was a competitive type with inhibition constants (Ki) of 0.52 and 3.27 nM, respectively. The inhibitory activity of SPIPm2 against subtilisin implies that, in shrimp, it may function as a defense component against proteinases from pathogenic bacteria but the elastase inhibitory function is not known.

  1. Antibacterial function of herbal extracts on growth, survival and immunoprotection in the black tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon.

    PubMed

    AftabUddin, Sheikh; Siddique, Mohammad Abdul Momin; Romkey, Shaharin Salma; Shelton, William L

    2017-03-29

    This study examined the effects of an herbal extract composed of nine herbs i.e Aloe vera, Andrographis pariculata, Annona squamosa, Azadirachta indica, Citrus aurantifolia, Coriandrum sativum, Ocimum sanctum, Ollium cepa and Psidium guajava on growth, survival rate and immunoprotection against pathogenic Vibrio harveyi in the tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon. The petroleum ether, methanol and N-hexen extracts of different herbal plants were selected, processed and thoroughly mixed in equal proportions and added to the shrimp diets at a concentration of 1.0, 2.5 and 5.0 mL kg(-1). After 60 days of feeding, shrimps were challenged with V. harveyi bacteria (1 × 10(7) cells mL(-1)), which were isolated and propagated from the infected shrimps. The shrimps fed on diets with methanolic extraction of 2.5 mL kg(-1) had significantly (P < 0.001) higher survival rate (76%), specific growth rate (4.26 ± 0.11%) and better food conversion ratio (1.5) than the other groups. This study indicates that addition of methanolic herbal extracts of 2.5 mL kg(-1) can positively influence the immune response of tiger shrimp against V. harveyi infection.

  2. Therapeutic effect of Artemia enriched with Escherichia coli expressing double-stranded RNA in the black tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon.

    PubMed

    Thammasorn, Thitiporn; Somchai, Parinyachat; Laosutthipong, Chaowanee; Jitrakorn, Sarocha; Wongtripop, Somjai; Thitamadee, Siripong; Withyachumnarnkul, Boonsirm; Saksmerprome, Vanvimon

    2013-10-01

    We exploited Artemia as a double-stranded (ds)RNA-delivery system to combat viral diseases in shrimp. First, the transformed Escherichia coli (E. coli) expressing red fluorescent protein (RFP) was tested in the Artemia enrichment process. RFP signals detectable in the gut of Artemia under confocal microscope were evident for the successful encapsulation. Second, the Artemia enrichment process was performed using E. coli producing Laem-Singh virus (LSNV)-specific dsRNA, which has been previously shown to inhibit the viral infection in the black tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon by intramuscular injection and oral administration. The enriched Artemia nauplii were confirmed to contain dsRNA-LSNV by RT-PCR, and were subjected to the feeding test with P. monodon postlarvae. Quantitative RT-PCR indicated that a number of LSNV copies in most of the treated shrimp were, at least, 1000-fold lower than the untreated controls. During 11-17weeks after feeding, average body weight of the treated group was markedly increased relative to the control group. A smaller differential growth rate of the treated group as compared to the control was also noticed. These results suggested that feeding shrimp with the dsRNA-enriched Artemia can eliminate LSNV infection, which is the cause of retarded growth in P. monodon. The present study reveals for the first time the therapeutic effect of dsRNA-enriched Artemia for shrimp disease control.

  3. Three-dimensional reconstruction of black tiger prawn (Penaeus monodon) spermatozoa using serial block-face scanning electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Feng, Tianyi; Paterson, Brian D; Webb, Robyn; Johnston, Stephen D

    2016-05-01

    Serial Block-Face Scanning Electron Microscopy (SBF-SEM) was used in this study to examine the ultrastructural morphology of Penaeus monodon spermatozoa. SBF-SEM provided a large dataset of sequential electron-microscopic-level images that facilitated comprehensive ultrastructural observations and three-dimensional reconstructions of the sperm cell. Reconstruction divulged a nuclear region of the spermatophoral spermatozoon filled with decondensed chromatin but with two apparent levels of packaging density. In addition, the nuclear region contained, not only numerous filamentous chromatin elements with dense microregions, but also large centrally gathered granular masses. Analysis of the sperm cytoplasm revealed the presence of degenerated mitochondria and membrane-less dense granules. A large electron-lucent vesicle and "arch-like" structures were apparent in the subacrosomal area, and an acrosomal core was found in the acrosomal vesicle. The spermatozoal spike arose from the inner membrane of the acrosomal vesicle, which was slightly bulbous in the middle region of the acrosomal vesicle, but then extended distally into a broad dense plate and to a sharp point proximally. This study has demonstrated that SBF-SEM is a powerful technique for the 3D ultrastructural reconstruction of prawn spermatozoa, that will no doubt be informative for further studies of sperm assessment, reproductive pathology and the spermiocladistics of penaeid prawns, and other decapod crustaceans.

  4. A novel gonad-specific Argonaute 4 serves as a defense against transposons in the black tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon.

    PubMed

    Leebonoi, Wantana; Sukthaworn, Suchitraporn; Panyim, Sakol; Udomkit, Apinunt

    2015-02-01

    Argonaute is a key protein of the small-RNA guided gene regulation process. The Argonaute family is generally divided into two subfamilies; AGO and PIWI. In this study, a cDNA encoding a novel type of Argonaute (PmAgo4) in the black tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon was identified and characterized. PmAgo4 cDNA contained an open reading frame of 2433 nucleotides that can be translated into a deduced amino acid with the conserved PAZ and PIWI domains. PmAgo4 was phylogenetically clustered with the AGO subfamily while exhibited a gonad-specific expression pattern similar to that of proteins in the PIWI subfamily. The expression of PmAgo4 did not change significantly in response to either double-stranded RNA or yellow head virus injection suggesting that PmAgo4 may not be the main AGO proteins that play a role in dsRNA-mediated gene silencing or antiviral defense. Interestingly, PmAgo4 appeared to participate in the control of transposons since the activation of both DNA transposon and retrotransposon was detected in the testis of PmAgo4-knockdown shrimp. Our study thus provided the first evidence for an unusual type of the AGO proteins that was predominantly expressed in shrimp gonad and implication of its role in protecting the shrimp genome against an invasion of transposons.

  5. Species profiles: life histories and environmental requirements of coastal fishes and invertebrates (Gulf of Mexico). White shrimp. [Penaeus setiferus

    SciTech Connect

    Muncy, R.J.

    1984-09-01

    They are prepared to assist in environmental impact assessment. The white shrimp, Penaeus setiferus, is the second most abundant species in the Gulf of Mexico shrimp fishery, the most valuable fishery in the United States. It serves as food for many fishes and is sold in the bait industry. Spawning occurs in at least 27 ppt salinity at water depths of 8 to 31 m, from April through September. Postlarvae move on flood tides into inshore estuarine nursery areas; peak abundances are in June and September. Juvenile white shrimp move farther inland than do brown shrimp and prefer shallow water with soft substrate. Growth of 1.6 mm per day occurs at water temperatures above 20/sup 0/C before the shrimp move offshore when inshore waters begin to cool in fall. Juveniles and adults return inshore when water temperatures increase in fall or the following spring. Survival at 8/sup 0/ to 30/sup 0/C was related to temperature and salinities. Juvenile and adult white shrimp are omnivorous, selective-particulate, benthic feeders. Population abundance has been correlated with coastal marshes and freshwater inflows. Maintaining suitable nursery grounds will decide the future of Gulf Coast white shrimp resources. 71 refs. 2 figs.

  6. Identification of genes involved in the response of haemocytes of Penaeus japonicus by suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) following microbial challenge.

    PubMed

    He, Nanhai; Liu, Haipeng; Xu, Xun

    2004-08-01

    Penaeus japonicus were injected with a heat-killed microorganism suspension and 291 randomly selected cDNA fragments generated by suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) were sequenced. A total of 71 cDNA clones corresponding to 25 genes were found to have enhanced expression, of which eight are found for the first time in shrimp. The most abundant gene in the subtractive library was Kunitz-type protease inhibitor, clearly indicating this protease inhibitor in the response. A number of genes encoding signaling molecules, such as Ras-related nuclear protein (Ran), growth factor receptor bound protein (Grb), TGF-beta receptor interacting protein, integrin binding protein and interferon receptor bound protein were found for the first time in the shrimp, and they may be involved in the regulation of the host defense against the injected microbes. Furthermore, cDNAs of chaperonin, proteasome, antioxidant as well as genes associated with actin reorganization, which may be necessary for phagocytosis and encapsulation, were also expressed at a higher level after the challenge. These results may facilitate the understanding of shrimp immune responses.

  7. Acute toxicity of lead on tolerance, oxygen consumption, ammonia-N excretion, and metal accumulation in Penaeus indicus postlarvae.

    PubMed

    Chinni, Satyavathi; Khan, Ritindra N; Yallapragada, Prabhakara Rao

    2002-02-01

    The estuaries and backwaters that are the potential breeding grounds of penaeid shrimps are subject to heavy metal pollution through industrial effluents and domestic sewage. In the present investigation, laboratory experiments were conducted to study the acute toxicity of lead on tolerance, oxygen consumption, ammonia-N excretion, and metal accumulation in Penaeus indicus postlarvae. Static bioassay tests were employed to determine tolerance limits. Oxygen consumption, ammonia-N excretion, and metal accumulation were determined in postlarvae by exposing them to different concentrations of lead for a period of 48 h. Oxygen consumption measurements were made by using a respiratory chamber equipped with an oxygen electrode and ammonia-N was determined with trione (dichloro-S-triamine 2,4,6(1H,3H,5H-trione)). Accumulation of metal was estimated by wet-ash method. The LC50 value for 96 h was 7.223 ppm and the regression equation Y=4.1638+0.9738X with correlation coefficient of 0.9613 was obtained by probit method. A decrease in oxygen consumption and ammonia-N excretion was observed in postlarvae with increasing concentration of lead. A concentration-dependent accumulation of metal was noticed in these postlarvae. Modifications in O:N ratios of postlarvae suggest that lead accumulation might have altered utilization patterns.

  8. Extraction and purification of a highly thermostable alkaline caseinolytic protease from wastes Penaeus vannamei suitable for food and detergent industries.

    PubMed

    Dadshahi, Zahra; Homaei, Ahmad; Zeinali, Farrokhzad; Sajedi, Reza H; Khajeh, Khosro

    2016-07-01

    A novel thermostable protease was purified from Penaeus vannamei from Persian Gulf to homogeneity level using ammonium sulfate precipitation and anion-exchange chromatography. The purified protease showed a single band on native and SDS-PAGE with a molecular weight of 24kDa on SDS-PAGE. The enzyme showed the broad highest catalytic activity for hydrolysis of the substrate with maximal activity at pH 7 and 80°C. Activity of the enzyme was inhibited by Hg(2+), Zn(2+) Co(2+) and Cu(2+), while protease activity was increased in the presence of Fe(2+) and Mn(2+) by factors of 173% and 102%, respectively. Enzyme shows a broad substrate specificity and hydrolyzes both natural and synthetic substrates. Based on the Michaelis-Menten plots, the Km with casein as substrate was 16.8μM and Vmax was 82.6μM/min. The enzyme, derived from L. vannamei, possesses unique characteristics and could be used in various industrial and biotechnological applications.

  9. Impact of the insect growth regulator diflubenzuron on biochemical composition of cuticle of the shrimp Penaeus kerathurus.

    PubMed

    Soltani, N; Lechekhab, H; Smagghe, G

    2009-01-01

    Diflubenzuron (Dimilin 25WP) is an insecticide of the class of benzoylphenylurea (BPUs) and is widely used in the control of insect pest in agriculture and forestry. Typically, these chemistries prevent the moulting process by inhibiting chitin formation and thereby causing abnormal cuticular deposition and abortive moulting in insect and crustacean species. In a previous study, we have shown that diflubenzuron could cause a modification in the lamellar ultrastructural, particularly in the membranous layers, in the non-target organism, the caramote prawn or triple-grooved shrimp Penaeus kerathurus (Forskal, 1775) (Decapoda, Peneidae). Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate under laboratory conditions the potential side-effects of diflubenzuron on the biochemical composition of the cuticle of treated P. kerathurus. Diflubenzuron was added to the rearing seawater at a final concentration of 1 microg/L) and newly-ecdysed adult shrimps were exposed for 10 days, i.e. until stage C during the molting cycle. The most typical treatment symptoms were a significantly reduced thickness of both the principal and membranous layers, and reduced amounts of chitin in the cuticle. These symptoms help in explaining the structural alterations observed in treated cuticles, and confirm the primary mode of action of diflubenzuron to inhibit chitin biosynthesis.

  10. Chitin extraction from blue crab (Portunus segnis) and shrimp (Penaeus kerathurus) shells using digestive alkaline proteases from P. segnis viscera.

    PubMed

    Hamdi, Marwa; Hammami, Amal; Hajji, Sawssen; Jridi, Mourad; Nasri, Moncef; Nasri, Rim

    2017-03-20

    Since chitin is closely associated with proteins, deproteinization is a crucial step in the process of extracting chitin. Thus, this research aimed to extract chitin from Portunus segnis and Penaeus kerathurus shells by means of crude digestive alkaline proteases from the viscera of P. segnis, regarding deproteinization step, as an alternative to chemical treatment. Casein zymography revealed that five caseinolytic proteases bands exist, suggesting the presence of at least five different major proteases. The optimum pH and temperature for protease activity were pH 8.0 and 60°C, respectively, using casein as a substrate. The crude enzymes extract was highly stable at low temperatures and over a wide range of pH from 6.0 to 12.0. The crude alkaline protease extract was found to be effective in the deproteinization of blue crab and shrimp shells, to produce chitin. The best efficiency in deproteinization (84.69±0.65% for blue crab shells and 91.06±1.40% for shrimp shells) was achieved with an E/S ratio of 5U/mg of proteins after 3h incubation at 50°C. These results suggest that enzymatic deproteinization of crab and shrimp wastes by fish endogenous alkaline proteases could be a potential alternative in the chitin production process.

  11. Australian developments in marine science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coffin, Millard F.

    2012-07-01

    Australia is an island nation with about two thirds of its jurisdiction underwater. On 25 May 2012, Australia instituted the Seas and Submerged Lands (Limits of Continental Shelf) Proclamation 2012, confirming areas of seabed where Australia has exclusive rights to explore and exploit marine resources. This proclamation follows recommendations by the Commission on the Limits of the Continental Shelf, a body established under the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, confirming Australia's entitlement to extended continental shelf, i.e., that beyond 200 nautical miles from the coastline, of some 2.56 million square kilometers, excluding Australian Antarctic Territory [Symonds et al., 2009] (Figure 1a).

  12. Aurorae in Australian Aboriginal Traditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamacher, Duane W.

    2013-07-01

    Transient celestial phenomena feature prominently in the astronomical knowledge and traditions of Aboriginal Australians. In this paper, I collect accounts of the Aurora Australis from the literature regarding Aboriginal culture. Using previous studies of meteors, eclipses, and comets in Aboriginal traditions, I anticipate that the physical properties of aurora, such as their generally red colour as seen from southern Australia, will be associated with fire, death, blood, and evil spirits. The survey reveals this to be the case and also explores historical auroral events in Aboriginal cultures, aurorae in rock art, and briefly compares Aboriginal auroral traditions with other global indigenous groups, including the Maori of New Zealand.

  13. Australian Aboriginal Astronomy and Cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clarke, Philip A.

    Australian Aboriginal ethnoastronomical traditions were recorded from a wide variety of sources in different periods. While the corpus of mythology concerning the heavens is diverse, it is unified by beliefs of a Skyworld as land with its own topography, containing plants and animals familiar to those living below. Spirits of the dead reside alongside the Creation Ancestors as celestial bodies in the Skyworld. Aboriginal hunter-gatherers used the regular movement of constellations and planets to measure time and to indicate the season, while unexpected change in the sky was seen as an omen.

  14. Comets in Australian Aboriginal Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamacher, Duane W.; Norris, Ray P.

    2011-03-01

    We present 25 accounts of comets from 40 Australian Aboriginal communities, citing both supernatural perceptions of comets and historical accounts of historically bright comets. Historical and ethnographic descriptions include the Great Comets of 1843, 1861, 1901, 1910, and 1927. We describe the perceptions of comets in Aboriginal societies and show that they are typically associated with fear, death, omens, malevolent spirits, and evil magic, consistent with many cultures around the world. We also provide a list of words for comets in 16 different Aboriginal languages.

  15. Involvement of Wives in Farm Tasks as Related to Characteristics of the Farm, the Family and Work Off the Farm.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkening, Eugene A.; Ahrens, Nancy

    In an attempt to determine the basis of the farm wife's involvement in farm tasks, hypotheses regarding farm size and type, family cycle and wife's age, off-farm work of husband or wife, and family educational levels were tested in a 1978 random questionnaire survey of 532 Wisconsin farm families. As expected, wives were more involved with farm…

  16. 29 CFR 780.156 - Transportation of farm products from the fields or farm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... on a farm as an incident to or in conjunction with the farming operations of that farmer or that farm...” farming operations are also within section 3(f). These principles have been recognized by the courts...

  17. 29 CFR 780.156 - Transportation of farm products from the fields or farm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... on a farm as an incident to or in conjunction with the farming operations of that farmer or that farm...” farming operations are also within section 3(f). These principles have been recognized by the courts...

  18. Analysis of Farm Records. Teacher Edition. Farm Business Management Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This curriculum guide for the Oklahoma Farm Business Management Program contains three instructional units that teach students how to interpret farm records to get optimum use of facilities and maximize profits. Each unit of instruction includes some or all of these components: performance objectives, suggested activities for the instructor,…

  19. Economic Indicators of the Farm Sector. Farm Sector Review, 1985.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Economic Research Service (USDA), Washington, DC.

    Farm production rose 6 percent in 1985 due to record high yields in corn, soybeans, cotton, and several other crops. While United States consumption increased slightly, exports of farm products fell 23 percent in value and 19 percent in volume. Net cash income increased 12 percent due to increased output, lower cash expenses, and unusually high…

  20. Farm Household Survival Strategies and Diversification on Marginal Farms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meert, H.; Van Huylenbroeck, G.; Vernimmen, T.; Bourgeois, M.; van Hecke, E.

    2005-01-01

    On marginal farms, and in agriculture in general, sustainability is largely guaranteed by a broad range of survival strategies, closely interlinked and embedded in the household structure of typical family farms. This paper reports results of a socio-economic study carried out among Belgian farmers, focusing specifically on the opportunities…

  1. Whole Farm Nutrient Balance Calculator for New York Dairy Farms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soberon, Melanie A.; Ketterings, Quirine M.; Rasmussen, Caroline N.; Czymmek, Karl J.

    2013-01-01

    Nutrient loss and accumulation as well as associated environmental degradation have been a concern for animal agriculture for many decades. Federal and New York (NY) regulations apply to Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations and a comprehensive nutrient management plan (CNMP) is required for regulated farms. The whole farm nutrient mass balance…

  2. Farm-Size Structure and Off-Farm Income and Employment Generation in the North Central Region.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heady, Earl O.; Sonka, Steven T.

    The relationship between size of farm and the welfare of farm and nonfarm society was examined in terms of total income in the farm sector, the number and size of farms, income per farm, secondary income generation, and consumer food costs using four alternative farm structures: large farm (gross farm sales of at least $40,000); medium farm (gross…

  3. Wind Farm Feasibility Study

    SciTech Connect

    Richard Curry; Erik Foley; DOE Project Officer - Keith Bennett

    2007-07-11

    Saint Francis University has assessed the Swallow Farm property located in Shade Township, Somerset County, Pennsylvania as a potential wind power development site. Saint Francis worked with McLean Energy Partners to have a 50-meter meteorological tower installed on the property in April 2004 and continues to conduct a meteorological assessment of the site. Results suggest a mean average wind speed at 80 meters of 17 mph with a net capacity factor of 31 - 33%. Approximate electricity generation capacity of the project is 10 megawatts. Also, the University used matching funds provided by the federal government to contract with ABR, Inc. to conduct radar studies of nocturnal migration of birds and bats during the migrations seasons in the Spring and Fall of 2005 with a mean nocturnal flight altitude of 402 meters with less than 5% of targets at altitudes of less than 125 meters. The mean nocturnal passage rate was 166 targets/km/h in the fall and 145 targets/km/h in the spring. Lastly, University faculty and students conducted a nesting bird study May - July 2006. Seventy-three (73) species of birds were observed with 65 determined to be breeding or potentially breeding species; this figure represents approximately 30% of the 214 breeding bird species in Pennsylvania. No officially protected avian species were determined to be nesting at Swallow Farm.

  4. Eclipses in Australian Aboriginal Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamacher, Duane W.; Norris, Ray P.

    2011-07-01

    We explore about fifty different Australian Aboriginal accounts of lunar and solar eclipses to determine how Aboriginal groups understood this phenomenon. We summarize the literature on Aboriginal references to eclipses. We show that many Aboriginal groups viewed eclipses negatively, frequently associating them with bad omens, evil magic, disease, blood and death. In many communities, elders or medicine men claimed to be able to control or avert eclipses by magical means, solidifying their roles as providers and protectors within their communities. We also show that some Aboriginal groups seem to have understood the motions of the Sun-Earth-Moon system, the connection between the lunar phases and tides, and acknowledged that solar eclipses were caused by the Moon blocking the Sun.

  5. Vitamin E requirements of juvenile grass shrimp, Penaeus monodon, and effects on non-specific immune responses.

    PubMed

    Lee, Min-Hsien; Shiau, Shi-Yen

    2004-04-01

    A feeding trial was conducted to determine the dietary vitamin E (DL-alpha-tocopheryl acetate, dl-alpha-TOA) requirement and its effect on the non-specific immune responses of juvenile grass shrimp, Penaeus monodon. Purified diets with eight levels (0, 25, 50, 75, 100, 150, 200, 400 mg vitamin E kg diet-1) of supplemental dl-alpha-TOA were fed to P. monodon (mean initial weight 0.29 +/- 0.01 g) for eight weeks. Each diet was fed to three replicate groups of shrimp. Weight gains and total haemocyte count (THC) were higher (P < 0.05) in shrimp fed diets supplemented with 75 and 100 mg vitamin E kg diet-1 than in shrimp fed diets supplemented with

  6. Dietary copper requirement of juvenile grass shrimp, Penaeus monodon, and effects on non-specific immune responses.

    PubMed

    Lee, Min-Hsien; Shiau, Shi-Yen

    2002-10-01

    An 8-week feeding trial was conducted to determine the dietary copper (Cu) requirement and its effect on the non-specific immune responses of juvenile grass shrimp, Penaeus monodon. Purified diets with seven levels (0, 10, 20, 30, 40, 80, 160 mg Cu kg diet(-1) of supplemental Cu were fed to P. monodon (mean initial weight 0.29 +/- 0.004 g). Each diet was fed to three replicate groups of shrimp. The rearing water contained 1.53 microg Cu 1(-1). Shrimp fed diets supplemented with 10 and 20 mg Cu kg diet(-1) had significantly (P < 0.01) greater weight gain, feed efficiency (FE) and protein efficiency ratio (PER) than those fed the unsupplemented control diet and diets supplemented with > or = 40 mg Cu kg diet(-1). Whole body Cu concentration in shrimp generally increased as dietary Cu supplementation increased. Total haemocyte count (THC) was higher in shrimp fed diets supplemented with 10-30 mg Cu kg diet(-1) than shrimp fed the unsupplemented control diet and diets supplemented with > or = 40 mg Cu kg diet(-1). Intracellular superoxide anion (O2-) production ratios were significantly higher in shrimp fed diets supplemented with 10-30 mg Cu kg diet(-1) than shrimp fed the diet supplemented with 160 mg Cu kg diet(-1). Analysis by polynomial regression of weight gain percent, FE and by linear regression of the whole-body Cu retention of shrimp indicated that the adequate dietary Cu concentration in growing P. monodon is about 15-21 mg Cu kg diet (-1). The immune indicators suggest that an adequate dietary Cu concentration for non-specific immune responses in P. monodon is about 10-30 mg Cu kg diet(-1).

  7. Bdellovibrio and Like Organisms Enhanced Growth and Survival of Penaeus monodon and Altered Bacterial Community Structures in Its Rearing Water

    PubMed Central

    Li, Huanhuan; Chen, Cheng; Sun, Qiuping; Liu, Renliang

    2014-01-01

    In this study, a 96-h laboratory reduction test was conducted with strain BDHSH06 (GenBank accession no. EF011103) as the test strain for Bdellovibrio and like organisms (BALOs) and 20 susceptible marine bacterial strains forming microcosms as the targets. The results showed that BDHSH06 reduced the levels of approximately 50% of prey bacterial strains within 96 h in the seawater microcosms. An 85-day black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon) rearing experiment was performed. The shrimp survival rate, body length, and weight in the test tanks were 48.1% ± 1.2%, 99.8 ± 10.0 mm, and 6.36 ± 1.50 g, respectively, which were values significantly (P < 0.05) higher than those for the control, viz., 31.0% ± 2.1%, 86.0 ± 11.1 mm, and 4.21 ± 1.56 g, respectively. With the addition of BDHSH06, total bacterial and Vibrio numbers were significantly reduced (P < 0.05) by 1.3 to 4.5 log CFU · ml−1 and CFU · g−1 in both water and shrimp intestines, respectively, compared to those in the control. The effect of BDHSH06 on bacterial community structures in the rearing water was also examined using PCR amplification of the 16S rRNA gene and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). The DGGE profiles of rearing water samples from the control and test tanks revealed that the amounts of 44% of the bacterial species were reduced when BDHSH06 was added to the rearing water over the 85-day rearing period, and among these, approximately 57.1% were nonculturable. The results of this study demonstrated that BDHSH06 can be used as a biocontrol/probiotic agent in P. monodon culture. PMID:25107962

  8. Gene expression profiling in gill tissues of White spot syndrome virus infected black tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon by DNA microarray.

    PubMed

    Shekhar, M S; Gomathi, A; Gopikrishna, G; Ponniah, A G

    2015-06-01

    White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) continues to be the most devastating viral pathogen infecting penaeid shrimp the world over. The genome of WSSV has been deciphered and characterized from three geographical isolates and significant progress has been made in developing various molecular diagnostic methods to detect the virus. However, the information on host immune gene response to WSSV pathogenesis is limited. Microarray analysis was carried out as an approach to analyse the gene expression in black tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon in response to WSSV infection. Gill tissues collected from the WSSV infected shrimp at 6, 24, 48 h and moribund stage were analysed for differential gene expression. Shrimp cDNAs of 40,059 unique sequences were considered for designing the microarray chip. The Cy3-labeled cRNA derived from healthy and WSSV-infected shrimp was subjected to hybridization with all the DNA spots in the microarray which revealed 8,633 and 11,147 as up- and down-regulated genes respectively at different time intervals post infection. The altered expression of these numerous genes represented diverse functions such as immune response, osmoregulation, apoptosis, nucleic acid binding, energy and metabolism, signal transduction, stress response and molting. The changes in gene expression profiles observed by microarray analysis provides molecular insights and framework of genes which are up- and down-regulated at different time intervals during WSSV infection in shrimp. The microarray data was validated by Real Time analysis of four differentially expressed genes involved in apoptosis (translationally controlled tumor protein, inhibitor of apoptosis protein, ubiquitin conjugated enzyme E2 and caspase) for gene expression levels. The role of apoptosis related genes in WSSV infected shrimp is discussed herein.

  9. Transcript Analysis of White spot syndrome virus Latency and Phagocytosis Activating Protein Genes in Infected Shrimp (Penaeus monodon).

    PubMed

    Shekhar, M S; Dillikumar, M; Vinaya Kumar, K; Gopikrishna, G; Rajesh, S; Kiruthika, J; Ponniah, A G

    2012-12-01

    Viral latency has been recently observed to be associated with White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) infection in shrimp. In the present study, shrimp samples (Penaeus monodon) surviving WSSV infection were examined for presence of WSSV in latent phase. Virus latency was observed in shrimp which were either experimentally challenged with WSSV and survived the infection or those which survived the natural infection. Three viral transcripts (ORFs 427, 151, 366) associated with latency were analyzed by real-time PCR. The shrimp surviving the natural WSSV infection on estimation with RT-PCR were found to have low grade of WSSV infection (less than 56 copies of WSSV). All the shrimp samples were RT-PCR negative for structural protein genes of WSSV, VP24 and VP28, indicating that these samples were harboring latent phase virus. RT-PCR of all the shrimp samples which survived WSSV infection revealed amplification of phagocytosis activating protein (PAP) gene (435 bp) with higher gene expression levels in experimentally challenged shrimp when compared to naturally infected shrimp. The expression of PAP in WSSV infected shrimp samples indicates its possible role in host response for resistance against WSSV infection. PAP was cloned and expressed as recombinant protein for protection studies. Shrimp were injected with three doses (5, 15 and 20 μg g(-1) body weight) of recombinant PAP. Relative percent survival of 10 % was observed in shrimp immunized with the dose of 15 μg g(-1) body weight of recombinant PAP. The expression of both WSSV latency associated and PAP genes obtained from shrimp surviving the WSSV infection, indicates the possible role of these genes in host-pathogen interaction.

  10. The roles of haemocytes and the lymphoid organ in the clearance of injected Vibrio bacteria in Penaeus monodon shrimp.

    PubMed

    van de Braak, C B T; Botterblom, M H A; Taverne, N; van Muiswinkel, W B; Rombout, J H W M; van der Knaap, W P W

    2002-10-01

    In order to study the reaction of Penaeus monodon haemocytes, live Vibrio anguillarum bacteria were injected and the shrimp were periodically sampled. Immuno-double staining analysis with specific antisera against the haemocyte granules and bacteria showed that large numbers of haemocytes encapsulated the bacteria at the site of injection. A rapid decrease of live circulating bacteria was detected in the haemolymph. Bacterial clearance in the haemolymph was induced by humoral factors, as observed by agglutinated bacteria, and followed by uptake in different places in the body. Bacteria mainly accumulated in the lymphoid organ (LO), where they, or their degradation products, could be detected for at least 7 days after injection. The LO consists of folded tubules with a central haemal lumen and a wall, layered with cells. The haemolymph, including the antigens, seemed to migrate from the central tubular lumen through the wall, where the bacteria are arrested and their degradation is started. Electron microscopy of the LO revealed the presence of many phagocytic cells that morphologically resemble small-granular haemocytes. It is proposed that haemocytes settle in the tubule walls before they phagocytose. Immunostaining suggests that many of the haemocytes degranulate in the LO, producing a layer of fibrous material in the outer tubule wall. These findings might contribute to the reduced haemocyte concentration in the haemolymph of diseased animals or following injection of foreign material. It is proposed that the LO is a filter for virtually all foreign material encountered in the haemolymph. Observations from the present study are similar to clearance mechanisms in the hepatic haemolymph vessel in most decapod crustaceans that do not possess a LO. The experimental shrimp appeared to contain many LO spheroids, where bacterial antigens were finally observed as well. It is proposed that the spheroids have a degradation function for both bacterial and viral material

  11. Identification, characterization and expression of sex-related genes in testes of the giant tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon.

    PubMed

    Leelatanawit, Rungnapa; Sittikankeaw, Kanchana; Yocawibun, Patchari; Klinbunga, Sirawut; Roytrakul, Sittiruk; Aoki, Takashi; Hirono, Ikuo; Menasveta, Piamsak

    2009-01-01

    Isolation and characterization of genes involving gonadal development are an initial step towards understanding reproductive maturation and sex determination of the giant tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon). In the present study, 896 clones from the testis cDNA library were sequenced. A total of 606 ESTs (67.6%) significantly matched sequences in the GenBank (E-value <1e-04) whereas 290 ESTs (32.4%) were newly unidentified transcripts. The full length cDNA of genes functionally involved in testicular development including cyclophilin A (PMCYA), small ubiquitin-like modifier 1 (PMSUMO-1), ubiquitin conjugating enzyme E2, dynactin subunit 5, cell division cycle 2 (cdc2) and mitotic checkpoint BUB3 were discovered. In addition, Tra-2, a gene involving sex determination cascades, was successfully characterized by RACE-PCR and first reported in crustaceans. Expression analysis indicated that a homologue of low molecular weight neurofilament protein XNF-L (termed P. monodon testis-specific transcript 1, PMTST1; N=8 for each sex) was only expressed in testes but not ovaries. PMCYA, thyroid hormone receptor-associated protein complex 240 kDa component (Trap240), multiple inositol polyphosphate phosphatase 2 (MIPP2) and heat shock-related 70 kDa protein 2 (HSP70-2), but not PMSUMO-1, PMTra-2 and prohibitin2 were differentially expressed between ovaries and testes of P. monodon. Expression of PMTST1 was up-regulated but that of the remaining genes in testes of P. monodon broodstock was down-regulated after shrimp were molted (P<0.05). Significant reduction of PMSUMO-1 and increment of prohibitin2 transcripts in domesticated broodstock (P<0.05) suggested that these reproductively related genes may be used as biomarkers to evaluate reduced degrees of the reproductive maturation in domesticated P. monodon.

  12. Expression studies on NA+/K(+)-ATPase in gills of Penaeus monodon (Fabricius) acclimated to different salinities.

    PubMed

    Chaudhari, Aparna; Gireesh-Babu, P; Tripathi, Gayatri; Sabnis, Supriya; Dhamotharan, K; Vardarajan, Remya; Kumari, Kavita; Dasgupta, Subrata; Rajendran, K V

    2015-05-01

    The decapod crustacean Penaeus monodon survives large fluctuations in salinity through osmoregulation in which Na+/K(+)-ATPase (NKA) activity in the gills plays a central role. Adult P. monodon specimens were gradually acclimatized to 5, 25 and 35 per thousand salinities and maintained for 20 days to observe long-term alterations in NKA expression. Specific NKA activity assayed in gill tissues was found to be 3 folds higher at 5 per thousand compared to 25 per thousand (isosmotic salinity) and 0.48 folds lower at 35 per thousand. The enzyme was immunolocalized in gills using mouse α-5 monoclonal antibody that cross reacts with P. monodon NKA α-subunit. At 5 per thousand the immunopositive cells were distributed on lamellar tips and basal lamellar epithelium of the secondary gill filaments and their number was visibly higher. At both 25 per thousand and 35 per thousand NKA positive cells were observed in the inter-lamellar region but the expression was more pronounced at 25 per thousand. Gill architecture was normal at all salinities. However, the 1.5 fold increase in NKA α-subunit mRNA at 5 per thousand measured by quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) using EF1α as reference gene was not statistically significant. The study confirms the osmoregulating ability of P. monodon like other crustaceans at lower salinities. It is likely that significant increase in NKA transcript level happens at an earlier time point. At higher salinities all three methods record only marginal or no change from isosmotic controls confirming the hypothesis that the animal largely osmoconforms in hyperosmotic environment.

  13. Immune gene expression profile of Penaeus monodon in response to marine yeast glucan application and white spot syndrome virus challenge.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Wilsy; Lowman, Douglas; Antony, Swapna P; Puthumana, Jayesh; Bright Singh, I S; Philip, Rosamma

    2015-04-01

    Immunostimulant potential of eight marine yeast glucans (YG) from Candida parapsilosis R20, Hortaea werneckii R23, Candida spencermartinsiae R28, Candida haemulonii R63, Candida oceani R89, Debaryomyces fabryi R100, Debaryomyces nepalensis R305 and Meyerozyma guilliermondii R340 were tested against WSSV challenge in Penaeus monodon post larvae (PL). Structural characterization of these marine yeast glucans by proton nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) indicated structures containing (1-6)-branched (1-3)-β-D-glucan. PL were fed 0.2% glucan incorporated diet once in seven days for a period of 45 days and the animals were challenged with white spot syndrome virus (WSSV). The immunostimulatory activity of yeast glucans were assessed pre- and post-challenge WSSV by analysing the expression profile of six antimicrobial peptide (AMP) genes viz., anti-lipopolysaccharide factor (ALF), crustin-1, crustin-2, crustin-3, penaeidin-3 and penaeidin-5 and 13 immune genes viz., alpha-2-macroglobulin (α-2-M), astakine, caspase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione-s-transferase, haemocyanin, peroxinectin, pmCathepsinC, prophenol oxidase (proPO), Rab-7, superoxide dismutase and transglutaminase. Expression of seven WSSV genes viz., DNA polymerase, endonuclease, protein kinase, immediate early gene, latency related gene, thymidine kinase and VP28 were also analysed to detect the presence and intensity of viral infection in the experimental animals post-challenge. The study revealed that yeast glucans (YG) do possess immunostimulatory activity against WSSV and also supported higher survival (40-70 %) post-challenge WSSV. Among the various glucans tested, YG23 showed maximum survival (70.27%), followed by YG20 (66.66%), YG28 (60.97%), YG89 (58.53%), YG100 (54.05%), YG63 (48.64%), YG305 (45.7%) and YG340 (43.24%).

  14. Characterization and identification of calmodulin and calmodulin binding proteins in hemocyte of the black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon).

    PubMed

    Sengprasert, Panjana; Amparyup, Piti; Tassanakajorn, Anchalee; Wongpanya, Ratree

    2015-06-01

    Calmodulin (CaM), a ubiquitous intracellular calcium (Ca(2+)) sensor in all eukaryotic cells, is one of the well-known signaling proteins. Previously, CaM gene has shown a high transcriptional level in hemocyte of the pathogen infected shrimp, suggesting that shrimp CaM does not only regulate Ca(2+) metabolism, but is also involved in immune response cascade. In the present study, the CaM gene of shrimp Penaeus monodon was identified and the recombinant P.monodon CaM (rPmCaM) was produced and biochemically characterized. The identification of CaM-binding proteins was also performed. The PmCaM cDNA consisted of an open reading frame of 447 bp encoding for 149 amino acid residues with a calculated mass of 16,810 Da and an isoelectric point of 4.09. Tissue distribution showed that the PmCaM transcript was expressed in all examined tissues. The results of gel mobility shift assay, circular dichroism spectroscopy and fluorescence spectroscopy all confirmed that the conformational changes of the rPmCaM were observed after the calcium binding. According to the gene silencing of PmCaM transcript levels, the shrimp's susceptibility to pathogenic Vibrio harveyi infection increased in comparison with that of the control groups. Protein pull-down assay and LC-MS/MS analysis were performed to identify rPmCaM-binding proteins involved in shrimp immune responses and transglutaminase, elongation factor 1-alpha, elongation factor 2 and actin were found. However, by computational analysis, only the first three proteins contained CaM-binding domain. These findings suggested that PmCaM may play an important role in regulation of shrimp immune system.

  15. A snake-like serine proteinase (PmSnake) activates prophenoloxidase-activating system in black tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon.

    PubMed

    Monwan, Warunthorn; Amparyup, Piti; Tassanakajon, Anchalee

    2017-02-01

    Clip domain serine proteinases (ClipSPs) play critical roles in the activation of proteolytic cascade in invertebrate immune systems including the prophenoloxidase (proPO) activating system. In this study, we characterized a snake-like serine protease, namely PmSnake, from the shrimp Penaeus monodon which has previously been identified based on the subtractive cDNA library of proPO double-stranded RNA (dsRNA)-treated hemocytes. An open reading frame of PmSnake contains 1068 bp encoding a predicted protein of 355 amino acid residues with a putative signal peptide of 22 amino acids and two conserved domains (N-terminal clip domain and C-terminal trypsin-like serine proteinase domain). Sequence analysis revealed that PmSnake was closest to the AeSnake from ant Acromyrmex echinatior (53% similarity), but was quite relatively distant from other shrimp PmclipSPs. PmSnake transcript was mainly expressed in shrimp hemocytes and up-regulated after systemic Vibrio harveyi infection indicating that it is an immune-responsive gene. Suppression of PmSnake expression by dsRNA interference reduced both transcript and protein levels leading to a reduction of the hemolymph phenoloxidase (PO) activity (36%), compared to the control, suggesting that the PmSnake functions as a clip-SP in shrimp proPO system. Western blot analysis using anti-PmSnake showed that the PmSnake was detected in hemocytes but not in cell-free plasma. In vitro PO activity and serine proteinase activity assays showed that adding rPmSnake into the shrimp hemolymph could increase PO activity as well as serine proteinase activity suggesting that the rPmSnake activates the proPO system via serine proteinase cascade.

  16. Anti-white spot syndrome virus activity of Ceriops tagal aqueous extract in giant tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon.

    PubMed

    Sudheer, N S; Philip, Rosamma; Bright Singh, I S

    2012-09-01

    White spot syndrome virus (WSSV), the most contagious pathogen of cultured shrimp, causes mass mortality, leading to huge economic loss to the shrimp industry. The lack of effective therapeutic or prophylactic measures has aggravated the situation, necessitating the development of antiviral agents. With this objective, the antiviral activity in the aqueous extract of a mangrove plant Ceriops tagal in Penaeus monodon was evaluated. The Ceriops tagal aqueous extract (CTAE) was non-toxic to shrimps at 50 mg/ml when injected intramuscularly at a dosage of 10 μL/animal (0.5 mg/animal) and showed a protective effect against WSSV at 30 mg/ml when mixed with WSSV suspension at a 1:1 ratio. When the extract was administered along with the diet and the animals were challenged orally, there was a dose-dependent increase in survival, culminating in 100 % survival at a concentration of 500 mg/kg body weight/day. Neither hypertrophied nuclei nor the viral envelope protein VP28 could be demonstrated in surviving shrimps using histology and indirect immunofluorescence histochemistry (IIFH), respectively. To elucidate the mode of action, the temporal expression of WSSV genes and shrimp immune genes, including antimicrobial peptides, was attempted. None of the viral genes were found to be expressed in shrimps that were fed with the extract and challenged or in those that were administered CTAE-exposed WSSV. The overall results suggest that the aqueous extract from C. tagal can protect P. monodon from white spot syndrome virus infection.

  17. Poly-β-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) accumulating Bacillus spp. improve the survival, growth and robustness of Penaeus monodon (Fabricius, 1798) postlarvae.

    PubMed

    Laranja, Joseph Leopoldo Q; Ludevese-Pascual, Gladys L; Amar, Edgar C; Sorgeloos, Patrick; Bossier, Peter; De Schryver, Peter

    2014-10-10

    Low larval survival resulting from suboptimal culture conditions and luminous vibriosis poses a major problem for the larviculture of penaeid shrimp. In this study, a poly-β-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) accumulating mixed bacterial culture (mBC; 48.5% PHB on cell dry weight) and two PHB accumulating bacterial isolates, Bacillus sp. JL47 (54.7% PHB on cell dry weight) and Bacillus sp. JL1 (45.5% PHB on cell dry weight), were obtained from a Philippine shrimp culture pond and investigated for their capacity to improve growth, survival and robustness of Penaeus monodon postlarvae (PL). Shrimp PL1 and shrimp PL30 were provided with the PHB containing bacterial cultures in the feed for 30 days followed by, respectively, a challenge with pathogenic Vibrio campbellii and exposure to a lethal dose of ammonia. Prior to the pathogenic challenge or ammonia stress, growth and survival were higher for shrimp receiving the PHB accumulating bacteria as compared to shrimp receiving diets without bacterial additions. After exposure to the pathogenic challenge the shrimp fed PHB accumulating bacteria showed a higher survival as compared to non-treated shrimp, suggesting an increase in robustness for the shrimp. Similar effects were observed when shrimp PL30 were provided with the PHB accumulating bacterial cultures during a challenge with pathogenic V. campbellii through the water. The survival of shrimp exposed to lethal ammonia stress showed no significant difference between PHB accumulating bacteria-fed shrimp and non-PHB treated shrimp. The data illustrate that bacilli capable of accumulating PHB can provide beneficial effects to P. monodon post-larvae during culture in terms of growth performance, survival and resistance against pathogenic infection and ammonia stress. Further investigations are required to verify the PHB effect of the bacterial cultures on the shrimp.

  18. Molecular characterization and expression profile of MAP2K1ip1/MP1 gene from tiger shrimp, Penaeus monodon.

    PubMed

    Yang, Lishi; Liu, Xianjun; Huang, Jianhua; Yang, Qibin; Qiu, Lihua; Liu, Wenjing; Jiang, Shigui

    2012-05-01

    MAPK kinase 1 interacting protein 1 (MAP2K1ip1) is an important scaffold proteins of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway that form an active signaling module and enhance the specificity and spatiality of MAPK signaling. In the present study, we identified and characterized a MAP2K1ip1 cDNA from tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon (designated as PmMAP2K1ip1). The open reading frame of PmMAP2K1ip1 is 372 bp encoding 123 amino-acid residues with a MAPK interaction domain. The predicted PmMAP2Kip1 protein is 13.6 KDa with the theoretical isoelectric point of 6.3. PmMAP2K1ip1 shared the highest amino acid with Nasonia vitripennis and Strongylocentrotus purpuratus, at 48% and 47.5%, respectively. Phylogenic analysis shows PmMAP2Kip1 is clustering with SpMAP2Kip1, and close to the group of MAP2Kip1s from insect. Furthermore, semiquantitative RT-PCR revealed PmMAP2Kip1 is widely distributed in most examined tissues except nerve, and high expressed in ovary, hemocyte, intestines and hepatopancreas. Meanwhile, PmMAP2k1ip1 is expressed ubiquitously during larval and sex gland development, and keep a high level at the initial development stage. Quantitative real time RT-PCR revealed PmMAP2K1ip1 were up-regulated by lipopolysaccharide and peptidoglycan (PGN) in haemocyte. These data reveal MAP2K1ip1 is a multifunction protein that involved development and immune response. It is benefit to characterize other MAPK signal genes and elucidate the molecular regulation mechanism of MAPK signaling in tiger shrimp.

  19. Molecular cloning and expression of chitin deacetylase 1 gene from the gills of Penaeus monodon (black tiger shrimp).

    PubMed

    Sarmiento, Katreena P; Panes, Vivian A; Santos, Mudjekeewis D

    2016-08-01

    Chitin deacetylases have been identified and studied in several fungi and insects but not in crustaceans. These glycoproteins function in catalyzing the conversion of chitin to chitosan by the hydrolysis of N-acetamido bonds of chitin. Here, for the first time, the full length cDNA of chitin deacetylase (CDA) gene from crustaceans was fully cloned using a partial fragment obtained from a transcriptome database of the gills of black tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon that survived White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV) infection employing Rapid Amplification of cDNA Ends (RACE) PCR. The shrimp CDA, named PmCDA1, was further characterized by in silico analysis, and its constitutive expression determined in apparently healthy shrimp through reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR). Results revealed that the P. monodon chitin deacetylase (PmCDA1) is 2176 bp-long gene with an open reading frame (ORF) of 1596 bp encoding for 532 amino acids. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that PmCDA1 belongs to Group I CDAs together with CDA1 and CDA2 proteins found in insects. Moreover, PmCDA1 is composed of a conserved chitin-binding peritrophin-A domain (CBD), a low-density lipoprotein receptor class A domain (LDL-A) and a catalytic domain that is part of CE4 superfamily, all found in group I CDAs, which are known to serve critical immune function against WSSV. Finally, high expression of PmCDA1 gene in the gills of apparently healthy P. monodon was observed suggesting important basal function of the gene in this tissue. Taken together, this is a first report of the full chitin deacetylase 1 (CDA1) gene in crustaceans particularly in shrimp that exhibits putative immune function against WSSV and is distinctly highly expressed in the gills of shrimp.

  20. Isolation and characterisation of an enterocin P-producing Enterococcus lactis strain from a fresh shrimp (Penaeus vannamei).

    PubMed

    Ben Braïek, Olfa; Ghomrassi, Hamdi; Cremonesi, Paola; Morandi, Stefano; Fleury, Yannick; Le Chevalier, Patrick; Hani, Khaled; Bel Hadj, Omrane; Ghrairi, Taoufik

    2017-03-07

    Screening for lactic acid bacteria (LAB) from fresh shrimp samples (Penaeus vannamei) collected from retail seafood markets in the Tunisian's coast, resulted in the isolation of an Enterococcus strain termed Q1. This strain was selected for its antagonistic activity against pathogenic bacteria such as Listeria monocytogenes, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Lactococcus garvieae and against fungi (Aspergillus niger and Fusarium equiseti). The Q1 strain was characterised using standard morphological and biochemical tests, growth assays at different temperatures, pH and salinity. 16S rRNA, rpoA and pheS gene sequencing, as well as the 16S-23S rRNA intergenic spacer analyses, were combined to identify strain Q1 as a strain of Enterococcus lactis. The bacteriocin produced by E. lactis Q1 is thermostable, active in the pH range from 4.0 to 9.0 and has a bactericidal mode of action. The enterocin P structural gene was detected by specific PCR in strain E. lactis Q1, which is in good agreement with SDS-PAGE data of the purified bacteriocin. A lack of significant antibiotic resistance genes and virulence determinants was confirmed by specific PCRs. This work provides the first description of an enterocin P producer E. lactis strain isolated from a fresh shrimp. Based on its safety properties (absence of haemolytic activity, virulence factors and antibiotic resistance genes), this strain has the potential to be used as a natural additive or adjunct protective culture in food biopreservation and/or probiotic culture.

  1. Pyrogenic carbon in Australian soils.

    PubMed

    Qi, Fangjie; Naidu, Ravi; Bolan, Nanthi S; Dong, Zhaomin; Yan, Yubo; Lamb, Dane; Bucheli, Thomas D; Choppala, Girish; Duan, Luchun; Semple, Kirk T

    2017-02-16

    Pyrogenic carbon (PyC), the combustion residues of fossil fuel and biomass, is a versatile soil fraction active in biogeochemical processes. In this study, the chemo-thermal oxidation method (CTO-375) was applied to investigate the content and distribution of PyC in 30 Australian agricultural, pastoral, bushland and parkland soil with various soil types. Soils were sampled incrementally to 50cm in 6 locations and at another 7 locations at 0-10cm. Results showed that PyC in Australian soils typically ranged from 0.27-5.62mg/g, with three Dermosol soils ranging within 2.58-5.62mg/g. Soil PyC contributed 2.0-11% (N=29) to the total organic carbon (TOC), with one Ferrosol as high as 26%. PyC was concentrated either in the top (0-10cm) or bottom (30-50cm) soil layers, with the highest PyC:TOC ratio in the bottom (30-50cm) soil horizon in all soils. Principal component analysis - multiple linear regression (PCA-MLR) suggested the silt-associated organic C factor accounted for 38.5% of the variation in PyC. Our findings suggest that PyC is an important fraction of the TOC (2.0-11%, N=18) and chemically recalcitrant organic C (ROC) obtained by chemical C fractionation method accounts for a significant proportion of soil TOC (47.3-84.9%, N=18). This is the first study comparing these two methods, and it indicates both CTO-375 and C speciation methods can determine a fraction of recalcitrant organic C. However, estimated chemically recalcitrant organic carbon pool (ROC) was approximately an order of magnitude greater than that of thermally stable organic carbon (PyC).

  2. Population and Australian development assistance.

    PubMed

    Jones, R

    1992-07-01

    Australia's position on international population issues is consistent with the major international statements on population: the World Population Plan of Action (1974), the Mexico City Declaration (1984), and the Amsterdam Declaration (1989). Australia's policy emphasizes the importance of population policies as an integral part of social, economic, and cultural development aimed at improving the quality of life of the people. Factors that would promote smaller families include improving economic opportunities, old-age security, education and health (particularly for women), as well as improving the accessibility and quality of family planning services. The quality of care approach is directly complementary to the Australian International Development Assistance Bureau (AIDAB)'s Women-In-Development Policy and its Health Policy, which stresses the theme of Women And Their Children's Health (WATCH). Australia's support for population programs and activities has increased considerably over the last few years. Total assistance for the year 1990/91 was around $7 million out of a total aid program of $1216 million. In recent years AIDAB has funded family planning activities or health projects with family planning components in a number of countries in the Asia-Pacific region. In the South Pacific region AIDAB has funded a reproductive health video project taking into consideration the cultural sensitivities and customs of the peoples of the region. AIDAB has supported a UN Population Fund project in Thailand that aims to strengthen the capacity of the National Statistical Office to collect population data. The US currently accounts for around 40% of all population-related development assistance to improve the health of women and children through family planning. The other major donors are Japan, the Scandinavian countries, and the Netherlands. Funding for population has been a relatively low percentage of overall development assistance budgets in OECD countries. In the

  3. Australian Management Education for International Business Activity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gniewosz, Gerhard

    2000-01-01

    As Australian corporations have increased overseas activity, there has been a significant increase in international business degrees at the undergraduate and graduate levels. The curriculum is balanced between business-technical knowledge courses and cultural knowledge courses. (SK)

  4. Grieving for the Family Farm.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zeller, Simon H.

    1986-01-01

    Reviews impact of recent agricultural trends in South Dakota. Outlines Kubler-Ross' stages of grief/adaptation that farm families must negotiate as they cope with the trauma of the loss of their farms. Indicates service providers must overcome farmers' mistrust for human welfare services and reach out to this vulnerable population. (NEC)

  5. Visit a Farm? Surely Not!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graham, Bill

    2012-01-01

    Popular myth has it that visiting a farm can be dangerous, but there are only a few occasions when children have become ill during a school visit to a farm. Simple, sensible precautions, including wearing appropriate clothing, such as trousers and wellington boots (if wet) or sensible shoes, and careful hand-washing, are all that is required. The…

  6. Food and farm products surveillance

    SciTech Connect

    Poston, T.M.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the radiological analyses performed on food and farm samples collected during 1994. The food and farm sampling design addresses the potential influence of Hanford Site releases. Details of the sampling design and radionuclides analyzed are included in this section.

  7. An assessment of greenhouse gas emissions from the Australian vegetables industry.

    PubMed

    Maraseni, Tek N; Cockfield, Geoff; Maroulis, Jerry; Chen, Guangnan

    2010-08-01

    Recently, partly due to the increasing carbon consciousness in the electorates and partly due to the imminent introduction of the Australian Government's Carbon Pollution Reduction Scheme (CPRS), estimating carbon footprints is becoming increasingly necessary in agriculture. By taking data from several sources, this study estimates the national greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from a variety of farm inputs, for the 23 key vegetables crops grown in Australia. For the 121,122 ha of land occupied by vegetable farms, there are 1.1 MtCO(2)e GHG emissions or 9.2 tCO(2)e ha(-1). In total, 65% of total GHG emissions from the vegetable industry are due to electricity use for irrigation and post-harvest on-farm activities, 17% from soil N(2)O emissions due to N fertiliser use, 10% from agrochemicals, 7% through fossils fuels and 1% from on-farm machinery. The top four vegetables (by area), potatoes, lettuce, tomatoes and broccoli account for 29.1%, 7.9%, 5.9% and 7.2% of total GHG emissions from vegetables, respectively. However, the ratio of GHG emissions between the highest and lowest-emitting crops per hectare and per tonne, are different. Therefore, care must be exercised in carbon footprint labelling vegetable products to ensure that the labels reflect carbon emissions on a per tonnage basis.

  8. Molecular cloning, expression and functional analysis of three subunits of protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) from black tiger shrimps (Penaeus monodon).

    PubMed

    Zhao, Chao; Wang, Yan; Fu, Mingjun; Yang, Keng; Qiu, Lihua

    2017-02-01

    Protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) is a cellular serine-threonine (Ser/Thr) phosphatase that plays a crucial role in regulating most cellular functions. In the present study, the full-length cDNAs of three subunits of PmPP2A (PmPP2A-A, PP2A-B and PP2A-C) were cloned from Penaeus monodon, which are the first available for shrimps. Sequence analysis showed that PmPP2A-A, PmPP2A-B and PmPP2A-C encoded polypeptides of 591, 443, and 324 amino acids, respectively. The mRNAs of three subunits of PmPP2A were expressed constitutively in all tissues examined, and predominantly in the ovaries. In ovarian maturation stages, the three subunits of PmPP2A were continuously but differentially expressed. Dopamine and 5-hydroxytryptamine injection experiments were conducted to study the expression profile of three subunits of PmPP2A, and the results indicated that PmPP2A played a negative regulatory role in the process of ovarian maturation. In addition, the recombinant proteins of three subunits of PmPP2A were successfully obtained, and the phosphatase activity of PmPP2A was tested in vitro. The results of this study will advance our understanding about the molecular mechanisms of PmPP2A in Penaeus monodon.

  9. ANSTO: Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organization conducts or is engaged in collaborative research and development in the application of nuclear science and associated technology. Through its Australian radio-isotopes unit, it markets radioisotopes, their products and other services for the nuclear medicine industry and research. It also operates national nuclear facilities (HIFAR and Moata research reactors), promotes training, provides advice and disseminates information on nuclear science and technology. The booklet briefly outlines these activities.

  10. Farm Hall: The Play

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cassidy, David C.

    2013-03-01

    It's July 1945. Germany is in defeat and the atomic bombs are on their way to Japan. Under the direction of Samuel Goudsmit, the Allies are holding some of the top German nuclear scientists-among them Heisenberg, Hahn, and Gerlach-captive in Farm Hall, an English country manor near Cambridge, England. As secret microphones record their conversations, the scientists are unaware of why they are being held or for how long. Thinking themselves far ahead of the Allies, how will they react to the news of the atomic bombs? How will these famous scientists explain to themselves and to the world their failure to achieve even a chain reaction? How will they come to terms with the horror of the Third Reich, their work for such a regime, and their behavior during that period? This one-act play is based upon the transcripts of their conversations as well as the author's historical work on the subject.

  11. Habitat and Biodiversity of On-Farm Water Storages: A Case Study in Southeast Queensland, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markwell, Kim A.; Fellows, Christine S.

    2008-02-01

    On-farm water storages (locally known as farm dams or farm ponds) are an important part of many agricultural landscapes, as they provide a reliable source of water for irrigation and stock. Although these waterbodies are artificially constructed and morphologically simple, there is increasing interest in their potential role as habitat for native flora and fauna. In this article, we present results from a case study which examined the habitat characteristics (such as water physical and chemical parameters, benthic metabolism, and macrophyte cover) and the macrophyte and macroinvertebrate biodiversity of eight farm ponds on four properties in the Stanley Catchment, Southeast Queensland, Australia. Each landowner was interviewed to allow a comparison of the management of the ponds with measured habitat and biodiversity characteristics, and to understand landowners’ motivations in making farm pond management decisions. The physical and chemical water characteristics of the study ponds were comparable to the limited number of Australian farm ponds described in published literature. Littoral zones supported forty-five macroinvertebrate families, with most belonging to the orders Hemiptera, Coleoptera, Odonata, and Diptera. Invertebrate community composition was strongly influenced by littoral zone macrophyte structure, with significant differences between ponds with high macrophyte cover compared to those with bare littoral zones. The importance of littoral zone macrophytes was also suggested by a significant positive relationship between invertebrate taxonomic richness and macrophyte cover. The landowners in this study demonstrated sound ecological knowledge of their farm ponds, but many had not previously acknowledged them as having high habitat value for native flora and fauna. If managed for aquatic organisms as well as reliable water sources, these artificial habitats may help to maintain regional biodiversity, particularly given the large number of farm ponds

  12. The Australian bush fly (Musca vetustissima) as a potential vector in the transmission of foodborne pathogens at outdoor eateries.

    PubMed

    Vriesekoop, Frank; Shaw, Rachel

    2010-03-01

    Abstract Australian outdoor activities are often accompanied by a barbeque (BBQ) with family, friends, and guests, which are often interrupted by uninvited guests in the form of the Australian bush fly, Musca vetustissima. We investigated the bacterial loading associated with the Australian bush in three different environments: on a cattle farm, in a typical urban area (shopping center car park), and at a BBQ. The highest bacterial populations per fly were found to occur in a farm environment ( approximately 9.1 x 10(4) CFU per fly), whereas the bacterial population was lowest on flies caught in an urban environment ( approximately 1.9 x 10(4) CFU per fly). The median CFU per fly caught near a BBQ was approximately 5.0 x 10(4). Escherichia coli was the most commonly isolated potential pathogen, whereas Shigella sp. was the least common bacterial isolate that was screened. All isolated foodborne pathogens or indicator bacteria were screened for antibiotic resistance against commonly prescribed antibiotics. This revealed a very high prevalence of multidrug resistance, especially among the Salmonella and Shigella isolates of 94% and 87% resistance, respectively, against amoxicillin, roxythromycin and cefaclor.

  13. Why Do Chinese-Australian Students Outperform Their Australian Peers in Mathematics: A Comparative Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhao, Dacheng; Singh, Michael

    2011-01-01

    International comparative studies and cross-cultural studies of mathematics achievement indicate that Chinese students (whether living in or outside China) consistently outperform their Western counterparts. This study shows that the gap between Chinese-Australian and other Australian students is best explained by differences in motivation to…

  14. Australian Thesaurus of Education Descriptors. A Word-Stock for Indexing and Retrieving Australian Educational Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lavender, G. B.; Findlay, Margaret A.

    This core thesaurus of terms suitable for indexing Australian educational literature was developed by the Australian Council for Educational Research by means of a systematic and thorough revision of the "Thesaurus of ERIC Descriptors." Based on the actual terminology of education in Australia, this thesaurus includes: key words and…

  15. Issues and Directions from a Review of the Australian Apprenticeship and Traineeship Literature. Australian Apprenticeships.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saunders, S.

    This paper synthesizes issues and directions that a review of Australian apprenticeship and traineeship literature suggested. An overview discusses the paper's basis, which was a survey of 125 Australian references from 1985-99. Chapter 2 categorizes issues into seven groups, discusses them, and draws out salient themes. (The groups concerned…

  16. Understanding the Impacts of Soil, Climate, and Farming Practices on Soil Organic Carbon Sequestration: A Simulation Study in Australia.

    PubMed

    Godde, Cécile M; Thorburn, Peter J; Biggs, Jody S; Meier, Elizabeth A

    2016-01-01

    Carbon sequestration in agricultural soils has the capacity to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions, as well as to improve soil biological, physical, and chemical properties. The review of literature pertaining to soil organic carbon (SOC) dynamics within Australian grain farming systems does not enable us to conclude on the best farming practices to increase or maintain SOC for a specific combination of soil and climate. This study aimed to further explore the complex interactions of soil, climate, and farming practices on SOC. We undertook a modeling study with the Agricultural Production Systems sIMulator modeling framework, by combining contrasting Australian soils, climates, and farming practices (crop rotations, and management within rotations, such as fertilization, tillage, and residue management) in a factorial design. This design resulted in the transposition of contrasting soils and climates in our simulations, giving soil-climate combinations that do not occur in the study area to help provide insights into the importance of the climate constraints on SOC. We statistically analyzed the model's outputs to determinate the relative contributions of soil parameters, climate, and farming practices on SOC. The initial SOC content had the largest impact on the value of SOC, followed by the climate and the fertilization practices. These factors explained 66, 18, and 15% of SOC variations, respectively, after 80 years of constant farming practices in the simulation. Tillage and stubble management had the lowest impacts on SOC. This study highlighted the possible negative impact on SOC of a chickpea phase in a wheat-chickpea rotation and the potential positive impact of a cover crop in a sub-tropical climate (QLD, Australia) on SOC. It also showed the complexities in managing to achieve increased SOC, while simultaneously aiming to minimize nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions and nitrate leaching in farming systems. The transposition of contrasting soils and climates in

  17. Ascendancy of agricultural biotechnology in the Australian political mainstream coexists with technology criticism by a vocal-minority.

    PubMed

    Tribe, David

    2014-07-03

    Australia is a federation of States. This political structure necessitates collaborative arrangements between Australian governments to harmonize national regulation of gene technology and food standards. Extensive political negotiation among institutions of federal government has managed regulation of GM crops and food. Well-developed human resources in Australian government provided numerous policy documents facilitating a transparent political process. Workable legislation has been devised in the face of criticisms of gene technology though the political process. Conflicts between potential disruptions to food commodity trade by precautionary proposals for environmental protection were one cause of political tensions, and differences in policy priorities at regional political levels versus national and international forums for negotiation were another. Australian policy outcomes on GM crops reflect (a) strong economic self-interest in innovative and productive farming, (b) reliance on global agricultural market reforms through the Cairns trade group and the WTO, and (c) the importance of Codex Alimentarius and WTO instruments SPS and TBT. Precautionary frameworks for GM food safety assurance that are inconsistent with WTO obligations were avoided in legislation. Since 2008 the 2 major parties, Australian Labor Party (ALP) and the Liberals appear to have reached a workable consensus at the Federal policy level about an important role for agricultural biotechnology in Australia's economic future.

  18. Ascendancy of agricultural biotechnology in the Australian political mainstream coexists with technology criticism by a vocal-minority

    PubMed Central

    Tribe, David

    2014-01-01

    Australia is a federation of States. This political structure necessitates collaborative arrangements between Australian governments to harmonize national regulation of gene technology and food standards. Extensive political negotiation among institutions of federal government has managed regulation of GM crops and food. Well-developed human resources in Australian government provided numerous policy documents facilitating a transparent political process. Workable legislation has been devised in the face of criticisms of gene technology though the political process. Conflicts between potential disruptions to food commodity trade by precautionary proposals for environmental protection were one cause of political tensions, and differences in policy priorities at regional political levels versus national and international forums for negotiation were another. Australian policy outcomes on GM crops reflect (a) strong economic self-interest in innovative and productive farming, (b) reliance on global agricultural market reforms through the Cairns trade group and the WTO, and (c) the importance of Codex Alimentarius and WTO instruments SPS and TBT. Precautionary frameworks for GM food safety assurance that are inconsistent with WTO obligations were avoided in legislation. Since 2008 the 2 major parties, Australian Labor Party (ALP) and the Liberals appear to have reached a workable consensus at the Federal policy level about an important role for agricultural biotechnology in Australia's economic future. PMID:25437242

  19. The effect of changing cow production and fitness traits on net income and greenhouse gas emissions from Australian dairy systems.

    PubMed

    Bell, M J; Eckard, R J; Haile-Mariam, M; Pryce, J E

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effect of changing a range of biological traits on farm net income and greenhouse gas emissions (expressed in carbon dioxide equivalents, CO2-eq.) in the Australian dairy cow population. An average cow was modeled, using breed-average information for Holsteins and Jerseys from the Australian Dairy Herd Improvement Scheme. A Markov chain approach was used to describe the steady-state herd structure, as well as estimate the CO2-eq. emissions per cow and per kilogram of milk solids. The effects of a single unit change in herd milk volume, fat and protein yields, live weight, survival, dry matter intake, somatic cell count, and calving interval were assessed. With the traits studied, the only single-unit change that would bring about a desirable increase in both net income and reduced emissions intensity per cow and per kilogram of milk solids in Australian dairy herds would be an increase in survival and reductions in milk volume, live weight, DMI, SCC, and calving interval. The models developed can be used to assess lifetime dairy system abatement options by breeding, feeding, and management. Selective breeding and appropriate management can both improve health, fertility, and feed utilization of Australian dairy systems and reduce its environmental impact.

  20. CDF II production farm project

    SciTech Connect

    Baranovski, A.; Benjamin, D.; Cooper, G.; Farrington, S.; Genser, K.; Hou, S.; Hsieh, T.; Kotwal, A.; Lipeles, E.; Murat, P.; Norman, M.; /Fermilab /Duke U. /Taiwan, Inst. Phys. /UC, San Diego /Glasgow U. /Frascati

    2006-12-01

    We describe the architecture and discuss our operational experience in running the off-line reconstruction farm of the CDFII experiment. The Linux PC-based farm performs a wide set of tasks,ranging from producing calibrations and primary event reconstruction to large scale ntuple production.The farm control software uses a standard Condor toolkit and the data handling part is based on SAM (Sequential Access via Metadata)software.During its lifetime,the CDFII experiment will integrate a large amount of data (several petabytes)and the data processing chain is one of the key components of the successful physics program of the experiment.

  1. Marine Biodiversity in the Australian Region

    PubMed Central

    Butler, Alan J.; Rees, Tony; Beesley, Pam; Bax, Nicholas J.

    2010-01-01

    The entire Australian marine jurisdictional area, including offshore and sub-Antarctic islands, is considered in this paper. Most records, however, come from the Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) around the continent of Australia itself. The counts of species have been obtained from four primary databases (the Australian Faunal Directory, Codes for Australian Aquatic Biota, Online Zoological Collections of Australian Museums, and the Australian node of the Ocean Biogeographic Information System), but even these are an underestimate of described species. In addition, some partially completed databases for particular taxonomic groups, and specialized databases (for introduced and threatened species) have been used. Experts also provided estimates of the number of known species not yet in the major databases. For only some groups could we obtain an (expert opinion) estimate of undiscovered species. The databases provide patchy information about endemism, levels of threat, and introductions. We conclude that there are about 33,000 marine species (mainly animals) in the major databases, of which 130 are introduced, 58 listed as threatened and an unknown percentage endemic. An estimated 17,000 more named species are either known from the Australian EEZ but not in the present databases, or potentially occur there. It is crudely estimated that there may be as many as 250,000 species (known and yet to be discovered) in the Australian EEZ. For 17 higher taxa, there is sufficient detail for subdivision by Large Marine Domains, for comparison with other National and Regional Implementation Committees of the Census of Marine Life. Taxonomic expertise in Australia is unevenly distributed across taxa, and declining. Comments are given briefly on biodiversity management measures in Australia, including but not limited to marine protected areas. PMID:20689847

  2. Stress in farmed saltwater crocodiles (Crocodylus porosus): no difference between individually- and communally-housed animals.

    PubMed

    Isberg, Sally R; Shilton, Cathy M

    2013-01-01

    Minimising stress in farmed crocodiles is not only important for improving animal welfare, but may also improve skin blemish healing and infection resistance, which influence the quality of the final skin product. Forty near-harvest size saltwater crocodiles (1.6-1.8 m TL) from two Australian farms were sampled to evaluate the effect of different pen types (communal pens n=20; individual pens n=20) on stress as indicated by plasma corticosterone. Blood samples were taken within three minutes of immobilisation and analysed using a commercial enzyme immunoassay kit. There was no relationship with animal size (P=0.16), between farms (P=0.86), pen types (P=0.69), communal pens between farms (P=0.28) or individual pens between farms (P=0.24). Based on corticosterone levels, it appears that individual pens do not cause significantly more stress on harvest-size animals than communal pens. Individual pens meet their design specifications by achieving comparable healing rates of belly skin blemishes as communal pens without compromising animal welfare and minimising the possibility of new blemishes.

  3. Comparison of native, lyso and hydrogenated soybean phosphatidylcholine as phospholipid source in the diet of postlarval Penaeus japonicus bate.

    PubMed

    Kontara, E K; Djunaidah, I S; Coutteau, P; Sorgeloos, P

    1998-01-01

    Native and two modified forms of soybean phosphatidylcholine were used to study the nutritional effect of their fatty acids for postlarval Penaeus japonicus. Five semipurified and isolipidic diets were formulated using casein as a protein source. Three diets contained 1.5% of different types of phosphatidylcholine (95% purity), i.e. native soybean phosphatidylcholine, hydrogenated soybean phosphatidylcholine and 1-acyl lyso soybean phosphatidylcholine, besides 1% of n-3 highly unsaturated fatty acid formulated as triglycerides. Two negative control diets contained either triglycerides or ethyl esters as a source of n-3 highly unsaturated fatty acids without phospholipid. The experiment was conducted during two successive phases of 20 d starting from 12-d old postlarvae. Feeding the diet containing native soybean phosphatidylcholine resulted in significantly better growth and resistance to osmotic shock of P. japonicus postlarvae compared to the other diets. The total lipid content of the tissue was significantly increased by the supplementation of soybean phosphatidylcholine, whereas no significant difference was observed for the shrimp fed the modified phosphatidylcholine sources compared to the phosphatidylcholine-free diet at the end of the experiment. Shrimp fed the diet containing soybean phosphatidylcholine exhibited a higher polar lipid fraction in the whole body total lipid mainly as a result of the increased proportion of phosphatidylcholine and to a lesser extent of phosphatidylinositol at the expense of free fatty acids, free sterols and sterol esters. The content of 20:5n-3, 22:6n-3 and total n-3 highly unsaturated fatty acids in the shrimp tissue were higher in shrimp fed the native soybean and hydrogenated soybean phosphatidylcholine diets compared to those fed the phosphatidylcholine-free and 1-acyl lyso soybean phosphatidylcholine-based diets. The fatty acid profile of tissue phosphatidylethanolamine was more influenced by the type of dietary

  4. Green Care Farms

    PubMed Central

    de Bruin, Simone R.; Stoop, Annerieke; Molema, Claudia C. M.; Vaandrager, Lenneke; Hop, Peter J. W. M.; Baan, Caroline A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To explore the value of day services at green care farms (GCFs) in terms of social participation for people with dementia. Method: Semi-structured interviews were conducted with people with dementia who attended day services at a GCF (GCF group, n = 21), were on a waiting list (WL) for day services at a GCF (WL group, n = 12), or attended day services in a regular day care facility (RDCF group, n = 17) and with their family caregivers. Results: People with dementia in the GCF and WL group were primarily males, with an average age of 71 and 76 years, respectively, who almost all had a spousal caregiver. People with dementia in the RDCF group were mostly females with an average age of 85 years, most of whom had a non-spousal caregiver. For both the GCF and RDCF groups, it was indicated that day services made people with dementia feel part of society. The most important domains of social participation addressed by RDCFs were social interactions and recreational activities. GCFs additionally addressed the domains “paid employment” and “volunteer work.” Conclusion: GCFs are valuable in terms of social participation for a particular group of people with dementia. Matching characteristics of adult day services (ADS) centers to the preferences and capacities of people with dementia is of importance. Diversity in ADS centers is therefore desirable. PMID:28138469

  5. Space Farm 7 Belvedere Plantation

    NASA Video Gallery

    A space theme maze and NASA exhibits turned a Virginia farm into an out-of-this-world experience for families and visitors at the Belvedere Plantation in Fredericksburg, Virginia. Belvedere Plantat...

  6. Push-pull farming systems.

    PubMed

    Pickett, John A; Woodcock, Christine M; Midega, Charles A O; Khan, Zeyaur R

    2014-04-01

    Farming systems for pest control, based on the stimulo-deterrent diversionary strategy or push-pull system, have become an important target for sustainable intensification of food production. A prominent example is push-pull developed in sub-Saharan Africa using a combination of companion plants delivering semiochemicals, as plant secondary metabolites, for smallholder farming cereal production, initially against lepidopterous stem borers. Opportunities are being developed for other regions and farming ecosystems. New semiochemical tools and delivery systems, including GM, are being incorporated to exploit further opportunities for mainstream arable farming systems. By delivering the push and pull effects as secondary metabolites, for example, (E)-4,8-dimethyl-1,3,7-nonatriene repelling pests and attracting beneficial insects, problems of high volatility and instability are overcome and compounds are produced when and where required.

  7. Organic Farming, Gender, and the Labor Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Alan; Mogyorody, Veronika

    2007-01-01

    This paper seeks to explain variations in gender participation in farm production and decision-making through an analysis of organic farm types, sizes, and orientations. Based on both survey and case study data, the analysis shows that female farmers on vegetable farms and mixed livestock/cash crop farms are more likely to be involved in farm…

  8. Dairying. People on the Farm. [Revised].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC. Office of Governmental and Public Affairs.

    This booklet, one in a series about life on modern farms, describes the daily lives of two dairy farm families, the Schwartzbecks and the Bealls of Maryland. Beginning with early morning milking, the booklet traces the farm families through their daily work and community activities, explaining how a modern dairy farm is run. Although this booklet…

  9. 7 CFR 795.16 - Custom farming.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Custom farming. 795.16 Section 795.16 Agriculture... PROVISIONS COMMON TO MORE THAN ONE PROGRAM PAYMENT LIMITATION General § 795.16 Custom farming. (a) Custom farming is the performance of services on a farm such as land preparation, seeding, cultivating,...

  10. 7 CFR 795.16 - Custom farming.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Custom farming. 795.16 Section 795.16 Agriculture... PROVISIONS COMMON TO MORE THAN ONE PROGRAM PAYMENT LIMITATION General § 795.16 Custom farming. (a) Custom farming is the performance of services on a farm such as land preparation, seeding, cultivating,...

  11. Alcohol fuel from Ohio farms

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    Brief descriptions of on-farm ethanol production methods including feedstock preparation, cooking, fermentation, and distillation are presented. Safety conditions are described. Investment in on-farm ethanol production facilities and their potential returns are addressed. The market for ethanol and ethanol blends as well as for by-products is encouraging. Legal aspects for permitting and environmental regulations both for Ohio and federal agencies are discussed. (DMC)

  12. Wind Farms and Weather Modification.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrie, D. B.; Kirk-Davidoff, D. B.

    2008-12-01

    Electrical generation by wind turbines is increasing rapidly, and has been projected to satisfy 15 percent of world electric demand by 2030. The extensive installation of wind farms would alter surface roughness and significantly impact the atmospheric circulation. This forcing could be changed deliberately by adjusting the attitude of the turbine blades with respect to the wind. Using the NCAR Community Atmosphere Model, we model the impact of time-dependent surface roughness changes due to manipulation of a continent-scale wind farm. We show that initial disturbances caused by a step change in roughness grow within four days such that the flow is altered at synoptic scales. The growth rate of the induced perturbations is largest in regions of high atmospheric instability. For a roughness change imposed over North America, the induced perturbations involve substantial changes in the track and development of cyclones over the North Atlantic. For example, in some cases, weather over the British Isles changes from cloudy to clear, depending on whether wind turbines in the American Midwest are "on" or "off" three days beforehand. We explore the dependence of the downstream effects on the size and roughness of the wind farm installation, showing that as the size of individual wind farms and turbines grows, the scale of atmospheric impacts increases in extent and magnitude. We also look at the dependence of the wind farm impacts on the initial state of the atmosphere, confirming that the impacts are largest when the wind farm perturbation projects onto growing error modes in the atmosphere. In particular, rapid growth occurs when the initial disturbance is carried into regions of high baroclinic instability such as the North Atlantic. By running ensemble experiments, we estimate the robustness of the wind farm impacts with respect to realistic uncertainty in the initial conditions. Our results suggest the possibility of a method for weather modification that in some

  13. 29 CFR 780.141 - Practices must relate to farming operations on the particular farm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Practices must relate to farming operations on the... UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT General Scope of Agriculture âsuch Farming Operationsâ-on the Farm § 780.141 Practices must relate to farming operations on the particular farm. “Practices * * *...

  14. Off-Farm Labour Decision of Canadian Farm Operators: Urbanization Effects and Rural Labour Market Linkages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alasia, Alessandro; Weersink, Alfons; Bollman, Ray D.; Cranfield, John

    2009-01-01

    Understanding the factors affecting off-farm labour decisions of census-farm operators has significant implications for rural development and farm income support policy. We examine the off-farm labour decisions of Canadian farm operators using micro-level data from the 2001 Census of Agriculture combined with community level data from the 2001…

  15. 29 CFR 780.141 - Practices must relate to farming operations on the particular farm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Practices must relate to farming operations on the... UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT General Scope of Agriculture âsuch Farming Operationsâ-on the Farm § 780.141 Practices must relate to farming operations on the particular farm. “Practices * * *...

  16. 29 CFR 780.141 - Practices must relate to farming operations on the particular farm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Practices must relate to farming operations on the... UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT General Scope of Agriculture âsuch Farming Operationsâ-on the Farm § 780.141 Practices must relate to farming operations on the particular farm. “Practices * * *...

  17. 29 CFR 780.141 - Practices must relate to farming operations on the particular farm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Practices must relate to farming operations on the... UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT General Scope of Agriculture âsuch Farming Operationsâ-on the Farm § 780.141 Practices must relate to farming operations on the particular farm. “Practices * * *...

  18. 29 CFR 780.141 - Practices must relate to farming operations on the particular farm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Practices must relate to farming operations on the... UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT General Scope of Agriculture âsuch Farming Operationsâ-on the Farm § 780.141 Practices must relate to farming operations on the particular farm. “Practices * * *...

  19. Characterization of a new strain of Taura syndrome virus (TSV) from Colombian shrimp farms and the implication in the selection of TSV resistant lines.

    PubMed

    Aranguren, Luis Fernando; Salazar, Marcela; Tang, Kathy; Caraballo, Xenia; Lightner, Donald

    2013-01-01

    Prior to 2004, Colombian shrimp farming benefited from a selection program in which Penaeus vannamei stocks were developed with resistance to Taura syndrome disease (TS). However since 2004, TS reappeared as a significant disease. In 2010, an apparently new strain of TSV (designated as CO 10) was collected in Colombia. Its genome was sequenced and compared with six other fully sequenced isolates. This analysis revealed that the TSV CO 10 is closely related to the isolates from Hawaii and Venezuela. Phylogenetic analysis based on capsid protein 2 (CP2) region from 59 TSV isolates shows that the recent Colombian isolates (2006-2010) form a new cluster and differ from the previous Colombia isolates (1994-1998) by 4% in nucleotide sequence. The virulence of this CO 10 isolate was similar to a Belize TSV determined through experimental infection in P. vannamei showing 100% mortalities and similar survival curves. By RT-qPCR for TSV, the viral loads were also close in the infected shrimp from both CO 10 and Belize at the order of 1×10(10) copies per μl RNA. To develop TSV-resistant lines, the candidate shrimp should be challenged with virus strains that have been isolated most recently from the regions where they will be cultured. This study suggests that the TSV present in Colombian shrimp farms during the last 5 years is a new TSV strain with high virulence.

  20. Modelling Choice: Factors Influencing Modes of Delivery in Australian Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Andrew; Ling, Peter; Hill, Doug

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports the findings of a study of Multiple Modes of Delivery in Australian universities that was commissioned by Australian Universities Teaching Committee over the period 2001-2004. The project examined and described the various means of educational delivery deployed by Australian universities. It identified the pedagogical,…

  1. Australian Indigenous Perspectives on Quality Assurance in Children's Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutchins, Teresa; Frances, Katie; Saggers, Sherry

    2009-01-01

    The Australian Government has recently committed to the development of an integrated system of assuring national quality standards for Australian childcare and preschool services (Australian Government, 2008). This article addresses two fundamental issues relating to the development of an integrated system as it applies to Indigenous children's…

  2. Drama in the Australian National Curriculum: Decisions, Tensions and Uncertainties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stinson, Madonna; Saunders, John Nicholas

    2016-01-01

    In September 2015, the Australian Federal Government endorsed the final version of the Australian Curriculum arts framework a document resulting from nearly seven years of consultation and development. "The Australian Curriculum: The Arts Version 8.0" comprises five subjects: dance, drama, media arts, music and visual arts. This article…

  3. Building Innovation: Learning with Technologies. Australian Education Review Number 56

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moyle, Kathryn

    2010-01-01

    Australian Education Review (AER) 56 explores national and international policy priorities for building students' innovation capabilities through information and communication technologies (ICT) in Australian schools. Section 1 sets out the Australian policy context for digital education and highlights some of the emerging challenges. It provides…

  4. Development of SYBR Green based real time PCR assay for detection of monodon baculovirus in Penaeus monodon.

    PubMed

    Ramesh Kumar, D; Sanjuktha, M; Rajan, J J S; Ananda Bharathi, R; Santiago, T C; Alavandi, S V; Poornima, M

    2014-09-01

    Shrimp farming is one of the most important aquaculture activities. Expansion and intensification of shrimp farming has been accompanied with the outbreak of diseases, which threaten the development and sustainability of the industry. Viral diseases are the major challenges faced by shrimp farming industries. The prevention/control of such diseases have become critical in determining the viability of the shrimp farming. The disease caused by monodon baculovirus (MBV) is the major limiting factor especially in shrimp hatchery. There are no therapeutic measures to control the viral diseases. So the detection of the disease is crucial in the prevention and spread of the disease. Hence, in this study, SYBR Green based real time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay was developed for the detection of MBV. The sensitivity of the real time PCR was determined using 10-fold dilutions of purified plasmid DNA with the concentration in the range of 10(1)-10(5) copies per reaction. The assay could detect as low as 12 copies indicating that the assay was sensitive and could be effectively used for the quantification of MBV. The real time PCR assay was found to be specific and did not show any amplification with P. monodon infected with infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHHNV), white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) and hepatopancreatic parvo-like virus (HPV). The novelty of this assay is that it could be employed for diagnosis of low level MBV infection in broodstock using fecal matter of shrimp, a non-invasive diagnostic tool.

  5. Ships as future floating farm systems?

    PubMed

    Moustafa, Khaled

    2016-09-29

    Environmental and agriculture challenges such as severe drought, desertification, sprawling cities and shrinking arable lands in large regions in the world compel us to think about alternative and sustainable farming systems. Ongoing projects to build floating cities in the sea suggest that building specific ships for farming purposes (as farming ships or farming boats) would also be attainable to introduce new farming surfaces and boost food production worldwide to cope with food insecurity issues.

  6. Data Convergence - An Australian Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, S. S.; Howell, B.

    2012-12-01

    Coupled numerical physical, biogeochemical and sediment models are increasingly being used as integrators to help understand the cumulative or far field effects of change in the coastal environment. This reliance on modeling has forced observations to be delivered as data streams ingestible by modeling frameworks. This has made it easier to create near real-time or forecasting models than to try to recreate the past, and has lead in turn to the conversion of historical data into data streams to allow them to be ingested by the same frameworks. The model and observation frameworks under development within Australia's Commonwealth and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO) are now feeding into the Australian Ocean Data Network's (AODN's) MARine Virtual Laboratory (MARVL) . The sensor, or data stream, brokering solution is centred around the "message" and all data flowing through the gateway is wrapped as a message. Messages consist of a topic and a data object and their routing through the gateway to pre-processors and listeners is determined by the topic. The Sensor Message Gateway (SMG) method is allowing data from different sensors measuring the same thing but with different temporal resolutions, units or spatial coverage to be ingested or visualized seamlessly. At the same time the model output as a virtual sensor is being explored, this again being enabled by the SMG. It is only for two way communications with sensor that rigorous adherence to standards is needed, by accepting existing data in less than ideal formats, but exposing them though the SMG we can move a step closer to the Internet Of Things by creating an Internet of Industries where each vested interest can continue with business as usual, contribute to data convergence and adopt more open standards when investment seems appropriate to that sector or business.Architecture Overview

  7. Encephalization of Australian and New Guinean marsupials.

    PubMed

    Ashwell, K W S

    2008-01-01

    Encephalization of Australian marsupials was analyzed using the endocranial volume (ECV) of 52 species of Dasyuromorphia and Notoryctemorphia, 14 species of Peramelemorphia and 116 species of Diprotodontia from Australia and New Guinea and compared with 16 species of Ameridelphian marsupials and 3 species of native and recently introduced Australian eutherian carnivores (dingo, feral cat and feral fox). Linear regression analysis of the relationship between ECV and body weight for marsupials revealed that allometric parameters for these groups are different from those previously derived for samples of (mainly eutherian) mammals, with higher slopes for Dasyuromorphia and Diprotodontia and lower slopes for Ameridelphians and Peramelemorphia. Absolute ECV for small Australian and New Guinea marsupial carnivores (Antechinus and Sminthopsis) were found to be comparable to eutherians of similar body weight, but large marsupial carnivores such as the Tasmanian devil and thylacine had substantially smaller ECVs than eutherian carnivores of similar body weight. Similarly, members of some superfamilies within Diprotodontia (Burramyoidea, Petauroidea, Tarsipedoidea) had ECVs comparable to prosimians, whereas bandicoots, bilbies and many macropods were found to be poorly encephalized. When both encephalization quotient (EQ) and residuals from regression analysis were used to compare relative ECV of extinct/threatened species with common species there were no significant differences for any of the orders of Australian marsupials, suggesting that encephalization is not a major factor in the current extinction crisis for Australian marsupials. Similarly there were no consistent differences in relative ECV between marsupials from New Guinea and associated islands compared to Australia or between arid and non-arid Australian regions for any of the marsupial orders. The results indicate that marsupials are not uniformly poorly encephalized and that small marsupial carnivores and

  8. Mercury accumulation in selected tissues of shrimp Penaeus merguiensis from Musa estuary, Persian Gulf: variations related to sex, size, and season.

    PubMed

    Hosseini, Mehdi; Nabavi, Seyed Mohammad Bagher; Parsa, Yaghoob; Ardashir, Rashid Alijani

    2014-09-01

    The levels of mercury in tissues of Penaeus merguiensis from Musa estuary, northwest of the Persian Gulf, were investigated. This study assessed the relationship between mercury levels in hepatopancrea, gill, and muscle with sex, size, and season. The order of mercury concentrations in tissues of the shrimp P. merguiensis was as follows: hepatopancreas > gill > muscle. There was a positive correlation between mercury concentrations in shrimp species with sex and size of its food items. We expected to see higher mercury levels in tissues of female species because they are larger and can eat larger food items. Also, there was a positive correlation between mercury concentrations in shrimp species with its food source. Therefore, female species feed more on shrimp and plant and are contaminated with high levels of mercury. There was significant difference (p < 0.05) in mercury levels between different seasons; higher mercury levels were found in July (summer season).

  9. Expression profile of key immune-related genes in Penaeus monodon juveniles after oral administration of recombinant envelope protein VP28 of white spot syndrome virus.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Ancy; Sudheer, Naduvilamuriparampu Saidumuhammed; Kiron, Viswanath; Bright Singh, Issac S; Narayanan, Rangarajan Badri

    2016-07-01

    White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is the most catastrophic pathogen the shrimp industry has ever encountered. VP28, the abundant envelope protein of WSSV was expressed in bacteria, the purified protein administered orally to Penaeus monodon juveniles and its immune modulatory effects examined. The results indicated significant up-regulation of caspase, penaeidin, crustin, astakine, syntenin, PmRACK, Rab7, STAT and C-type lectin in animals orally administered with this antigen. This revealed the immune modulations in shrimps followed by oral administration of rVP28P which resulted in the reduced transcription of viral gene vp28 and delay in mortality after WSSV challenge. The study suggests the potential of rVP28P to elicit a non-specific immune stimulation in shrimps.

  10. Selection of the Australian indicator region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reed, C. R. (Principal Investigator)

    1981-01-01

    Each Australian state was examined for the availability of LANDSAT data, area, yield, and production characteristics, statistics, crop calendars, and other ancillary data. Agrophysical conditions that could influence labeling and classification accuracies were identified in connection with the highest producing states as determined from available Australian crop statistics. Based primarily on these production statistics, Western Australia and New South Wales were selected as the wheat indicator region for Australia. The general characteristics of wheat in the indicator region, with potential problems anticipated for proportion estimation are considered. The varieties of wheat, the diseases and pests common to New South Wales, and the wheat growing regions of both states are examined.

  11. Successes, challenges and developments in Australian rheumatology.

    PubMed

    Morand, Eric F; Leech, Michelle T

    2015-07-01

    Australia is a geographically vast but sparsely populated country with many unique factors affecting the practice of rheumatology. With a population comprising minority Indigenous peoples, a historically European-origin majority population, and recent large-scale migration from Asia, the effect of ethnic diversity on the phenotype of rheumatic diseases such as systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a constant of Australian rheumatology practice. Australia has a strong system of universal healthcare and subsidized access to medications, and clinical and research rheumatology are well developed, but inequitable access to specialist care in urban and regional centres, and the complex disconnected structure of the Australian healthcare system, can hinder the management of chronic diseases.

  12. Phenylphenalenones from the Australian plant Haemodorum simplex.

    PubMed

    Dias, Daniel Anthony; Goble, David James; Silva, Claudio Andres; Urban, Sylvia

    2009-06-01

    Chemical investigation of the Australian plant Haemodorum simplex resulted in the isolation of three new phenylphenalenones, haemodorone (10), haemodorol (11), and haemodorose (12), together with the previously reported compounds 5, dilatrin (6), and xiphidone (8). The first complete 2D NMR characterization for all of the compounds isolated, including several chemical shift reassignments for dilatrin (6), is reported. In addition this is one of the few reports to discuss the isolation of new phenylphenalenones from an Australian medicinal plant. The crude extract of both the bulbaceous and aerial components of the plant exhibited varying degrees of antibacterial, antifungal, and antiviral activity, and only the bulbs displayed potent cytotoxic activity.

  13. Reducing psychological distress and obesity in Australian farmers by promoting physical activity

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Studies have confirmed that the rate of mental illness is no higher in rural Australians than that of urban Australians. However, the rate of poor mental health outcomes, and in particular suicide, is significantly raised in rural populations. This is thought to be due to lack of early diagnosis, health service access, the distance-decay effect, poor physical health determinants and access to firearms. Research conducted by the National Centre for Farmer Health between 2004 and 2009 reveals that there is a correlation between obesity and psychological distress among the farming community where suicide rates are recognised as high. Chronic stress overstimulates the regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis that is associated with abdominal obesity. Increasing physical activity may block negative thoughts, increase social contact, positively influence brain chemistry and improve both physical and mental health. This paper describes the design of the Farming Fit study that aims to identify the effect of physical activity on psychological distress, obesity and health behaviours such as diet patterns and smoking in farm men and women. Methods/Design For this quasi-experimental (convenience sample) control-intervention study, overweight (Body Mass Index ≥25 kg/m2) farm men and women will be recruited from Sustainable Farm Families™ (SFF) programs held across Victoria, Australia. Baseline demographic data, health data, depression anxiety stress scale (DASS) scores, dietary information, physical activity data, anthropometric data, blood pressure and biochemical analysis of plasma and salivary cortisol levels will be collected. The intervention group will receive an exercise program and regular phone coaching in order to increase their physical activity. Analysis will evaluate the impact of the intervention by longitudinal data (baseline and post intervention) comparison of intervention and control groups. Discussion This study is designed

  14. A Review of Children's Literature about Farming and Rural Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chu, Nancy L.

    1994-01-01

    Reviews children's books suitable for preschool to secondary students concerning life on a farm, farm animals, various crops, regional differences, farming methods, farm machinery, livestock care, veterinary science, the history of farming, difficulties with farm life, and poetry about farm life. (KS)

  15. Labor Used on U.S. Farms, 1964-1966.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sellers, Walter E., Jr.

    Such factors as type of farm, farm production region, and farm size affect the percentage of farms hiring workers, the number of hours worked by hired workers, the length of the farm workweek, and the hours of labor used per $100 of sales. Labor costs and shortages most directly affected farms that sold $20,000 or more of farm products in 1964 and…

  16. Shrimp Farms, Ecuador

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    In many parts of the world, wetlands are being converted to shrimp ponds in order to farm these crustaceans for food and sale. One example is on the west coast of Ecuador, south of Guayaquil. The 1991 Landsat image on top shows a coastal area where 143 square kilometers of wetlands were converted to shrimp ponds. By the time ASTER acquired the bottom image in 2001, 243 square kilometers had been converted, eliminating 83% of the wetlands. These scenes cover an area of 30 x 31 km, and are centered near 3.4 degrees south latitude and 80.2 degrees west longitude.

    With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER images Earth to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.

    ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products.

    The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER provides scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring of dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface temperature mapping of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

    Size: 30 by 31 kilometers (18.6 by 19.2 miles) Location: 3.4 degrees South latitude, 80.2 degrees West longitude Orientation: North at top Image Data

  17. Offshore wind farm layout optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elkinton, Christopher Neil

    Offshore wind energy technology is maturing in Europe and is poised to make a significant contribution to the U.S. energy production portfolio. Building on the knowledge the wind industry has gained to date, this dissertation investigates the influences of different site conditions on offshore wind farm micrositing---the layout of individual turbines within the boundaries of a wind farm. For offshore wind farms, these conditions include, among others, the wind and wave climates, water depths, and soil conditions at the site. An analysis tool has been developed that is capable of estimating the cost of energy (COE) from offshore wind farms. For this analysis, the COE has been divided into several modeled components: major costs (e.g. turbines, electrical interconnection, maintenance, etc.), energy production, and energy losses. By treating these component models as functions of site-dependent parameters, the analysis tool can investigate the influence of these parameters on the COE. Some parameters result in simultaneous increases of both energy and cost. In these cases, the analysis tool was used to determine the value of the parameter that yielded the lowest COE and, thus, the best balance of cost and energy. The models have been validated and generally compare favorably with existing offshore wind farm data. The analysis technique was then paired with optimization algorithms to form a tool with which to design offshore wind farm layouts for which the COE was minimized. Greedy heuristic and genetic optimization algorithms have been tuned and implemented. The use of these two algorithms in series has been shown to produce the best, most consistent solutions. The influences of site conditions on the COE have been studied further by applying the analysis and optimization tools to the initial design of a small offshore wind farm near the town of Hull, Massachusetts. The results of an initial full-site analysis and optimization were used to constrain the boundaries of

  18. Mercury concentrations in the Australian fur seal Arctocephalus pusillus from SE Australian waters

    SciTech Connect

    Bacher, G.J.

    1985-10-01

    Marine carnivores such as seals and sea lions occupy an important position in the upper trophic level of the marine food web and this, together with their longevity, makes these marine mammals useful indicators of mercury accumulation in the marine environment. Little information exists on mercury concentrations in marine mammals from the southern hemisphere. This paper reports total mercury concentrations in the tissues of the Australian Fur Seal Arctocephalus pusillus from southeastern Australian waters.

  19. The Asian currency crisis and the Australian health industry.

    PubMed

    Barraclough, S

    1998-01-01

    This article identifies linkages between the Australian health industry and the global economy. It discusses some of the consequences of the Asian currency crisis of 1997-98 for the Australian economy and health industry, with special emphasis upon exports. Devaluation of the Australian dollar will increase the cost of most pharmaceutical and medical imports, but may offer competitive advantages to some Australian exporters. The nascent engagement with Asia of many health industry enterprises is likely to be stifled. It is therefore important for Australian governments, as well as the Australian health industry, to provide intelligence and encouragement to those enterprises that wish to continue their engagement with Asia or resume it when economic equilibrium returns. Markets throughout the world must also be further developed. The crisis may therefore provide the stimulus for re-thinking and re-stating Australian health export policy.

  20. Is There Cultural Safety in Australian Universities?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rochecouste, Judith; Oliver, Rhonda; Bennell, Debra

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the cultural safety offered to Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander students within their university environments. In the context of this paper, cultural safety includes cultural competency, as recently subscribed by Universities Australia, and "extends beyond (to) cultural awareness and cultural…

  1. Understanding Australian Aboriginal Tertiary Student Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliver, Rhonda; Rochecouste, Judith; Bennell, Debra; Anderson, Roz; Cooper, Inala; Forrest, Simon; Exell, Mike

    2013-01-01

    Drawing from a study of the experiences of Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander university students, this paper presents an overview of the specific needs of these students as they enter and progress through their tertiary education. Extracts from a set of case studies developed from both staff and student interviews and an online…

  2. Western Australian School Students' Understanding of Biotechnology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dawson, Vaille; Schibeci, Renato

    2003-01-01

    Surveys (n=1116) 15-year-old students from 11 Western Australian schools to determine their understanding of and attitude towards recent advances in modern biotechnology. Discusses reasons for students' over-estimation of the use of biotechnology in society. Provides a rationale for the inclusion of biotechnology, a cutting edge science, in the…

  3. Revitalising Languages in Australian Universities: What Chance?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lo Bianco, Joseph

    2009-01-01

    Institutions of higher education teach fewer languages, in less secure ways, for less time per week, for shorter periods, by an increasingly casually employed staff, in often underfunded, underappreciated and under stress modes, but participants in the Australian Academy of the Humanities' "Beyond the Crisis: Revitalising Languages in…

  4. Australian National University Science Extension Day

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fletcher, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    The first Australian National University (ANU) Science Extension Day was held on September 8, 2015. The ANU Science Extension Day is a project that was initiated by Theodore Primary School (ACT) and developed by Theodore Primary, Calwell High School, Science Educators Association of the ACT (SEA*ACT), and the ANU. The project was developed with a…

  5. Does Academic Work Make Australian Academics Happy?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duncan, Roderick; Tilbrook, Kerry; Krivokapic-Skoko, Branka

    2015-01-01

    Happiness research is a rapidly-growing area in social psychology and has emphasised the link between happiness and workplace productivity and creativity for knowledge workers. Recent articles in this journal have raised concerns about the level of happiness and engagement of Australian academics with their work, however there is little research…

  6. Intergenerational Challenges in Australian Jewish School Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gross, Zehavit; Rutland, Suzanne D.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this research is to investigate the intergenerational changes that have occurred in Australian Jewish day schools and the challenges these pose for religious and Jewish education. Using a grounded theory approach according to the constant comparative method (Strauss 1987), data from three sources (interviews [296], observations [27],…

  7. Brain drain threat to Australian science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banks, Michael

    2011-11-01

    Around half of all academics in Australia intend to retire, move to an overseas university or leave Australian higher education within the next 10 years, according to a survey of more than 5500 researchers based at 20 universities in the country.

  8. Linguistic Aspects of Australian Aboriginal English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butcher, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    It is probable that the majority of the 455 000 strong Aboriginal population of Australia speak some form of Australian Aboriginal English (AAE) at least some of the time and that it is the first (and only) language of many Aboriginal children. This means their language is somewhere on a continuum ranging from something very close to Standard…

  9. Professional Standards for Australian Special Education Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dempsey, Ian; Dally, Kerry

    2014-01-01

    Although professional standards for Australian teachers were developed several years ago, this country is yet to develop such standards for special education teachers. The lack of standards for the special education profession is associated with the absence of a consistent process of accreditation in Australia and a lack of clarity in the pathways…

  10. Australian University Libraries: Collections Overlap Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Missingham, Roxanne; Walls, Robert

    2003-01-01

    In 2002, the Department of Education, Science and Training (DEST), Higher Education Information Infrastructure Advisory Committee commissioned the National Library of Australia to analyse the uniqueness and overlap of Australian university library collections, comparing library collections in each state, using the National Bibliographic Database…

  11. Conversion Disorder in Australian Pediatric Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kozlowska, Kasia; Nunn, Kenneth P.; Rose, Donna; Morris, Anne; Ouvrier, Robert A.; Varghese, John

    2007-01-01

    Objectives: To describe the incidence and clinical features of children presenting to Australian child health specialists with conversion disorder. Method: Active, national surveillance of conversion disorder in children younger than 16 years of age during 2002 and 2003. Results: A total of 194 children were reported on. The average age was 11.8…

  12. Australian Education Journals: Quantitative and Qualitative Indicators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haddow, Gaby; Genoni, Paul

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports on a study that applied citation-based measurements to Australian education journals. Citations data were drawn from two sources, Web of Science and Scopus, and these data were used to calculate each journal's impact factor, "h"-index, and diffusion factor. The rankings resulting from these analyses were compared with…

  13. Education for Sustainability and the Australian Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennelly, Julie; Taylor, Neil; Serow, Pep

    2011-01-01

    A national curriculum is presently being developed in Australia with implementation due during 2014. Associated standards for the accreditation of teachers and for teacher education providers have been prepared with the standards describing skills and attributes that teachers are expected to attain. The developing Australian Curriculum, along with…

  14. Markets, Distance Education, and Australian Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nunan, Ted

    2005-01-01

    The paper argues that the Australian university system is unstable. There will be significant change as government implements its reform agenda and even more radical change if it moves to new deregulation. The role of distance education in university education needs to be analyzed against this "market" agenda of government in terms of…

  15. Open Learning: The Unique Australian Option.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Latchem, Colin; Pritchard, Tony

    1994-01-01

    Describes Open Learning Australia (OLA), a national program that was developed to widen and facilitate access to undergraduate education by providing open admission. Highlights include other Australian distance education programs; services provided by OLA and those provided by participating universities; electronic support services; fees; and…

  16. Homelessness: An Annotated Bibliography of Australian Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loft, Jenny, Comp.; Davis, Mari, Comp.

    This bibliography, compiled for the International Year of Shelter for the Homeless, lists Australian works published since 1974 about homelessness. It includes definitions of homelessness from the literature and an introductory article looking at different perspectives on homelessness. The entries, mainly taken from FAMILY database, are each…

  17. A survey of Australian haematology reference intervals.

    PubMed

    Sinclair, Leanne; Hall, Sara; Badrick, Tony

    2014-10-01

    This study was designed to create a snapshot of Australian haematology reference intervals (RIs) in use, in particular red cell parameters. We present an analysis of survey results conducted across Australian laboratories between November 2012 and January 2013.All Australian laboratories enrolled in the Royal College of Pathologists of Australasia Quality Assurance Program (RCPA QAP) were invited to participate in the December 2012 Survey Monkey survey, with a response from 85 laboratories (17%) received. The scope included laboratory demographics (location, size/throughput, and network), RIs in use for the full blood count and selected derived parameters, their frequency of revision, source and statistical approach for derivation. Further questions related to uncertainty of measurement, pregnancy values, paediatric/adult cut-off, haematology profiles reported and the use of extended parameters.There is more consistency with some upper and lower limits than others, and wide ranges for reported uncertainty of measurement (UM). There is no apparent consistency with RIs used for particular instruments and technologies. When laboratories change their RIs, most obtain them from a text book, paper or another laboratory and have difficulty in determining the source. If they do determine their own, most don't have a standard operating procedure and calculations are not consistent in terms of sample size and statistical methods used.We have presented evidence of the wide variations in RIs used in Australian laboratories and that arguably these do not differ significantly from each other. The paediatric age cut-off requires standardisation.

  18. Marketing in the Australian Higher Education Sector

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Favaloro, Chrissa

    2015-01-01

    This article examines domestic marketing in the Australian higher education sector, specifically, the marketing investment patterns of universities and their levels of student growth as a return on marketing investment. Marketing expenditure by universities has risen 23 per cent in the five years to 2013, with several institutions allocating in…

  19. Australian Study Cites Low English Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, David

    2007-01-01

    This article reports the findings of a study showing that one-third of all foreign students who studied at Australian universities speak English so poorly that they should never have been granted visas to study in the country in the first place. The study, by Robert Birrell, director of the Centre for Population and Urban Research at Australia's…

  20. OZI: Australian English Communicative Development Inventory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalashnikova, Marina; Schwarz, Iris-Corinna; Burnham, Denis

    2016-01-01

    For more than 20 years, the MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventory (CDI) and its adaptations for languages other than English have been used as reliable measures of infants' and toddlers' early receptive and productive vocabulary size. This article introduces the OZI, the Australian English adaptation of the MacArthur-Bates CDI, now…

  1. Citizen Child: Australian Law and Children's Rights.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Funder, Kathleen, Ed.

    Ratification by Australia of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child in 1990 acted as a potent stimulus for a series of debates and controversies concerning the place of children in Australian society. The debate has largely taken place in relatively specialized forums involving lawyers, members of the judiciary, social…

  2. Reshaping Australian Education, 1960-1985.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connell, W. F.

    This book provides an overview of the educational events and ideas that emerged in Australia during the years 1960 to 1985. It offers a comprehensive view of Australian education, covering all levels from kindergarten to university. Focusing on the remodelling of curricula and the teaching process, the book describes and assesses the…

  3. Australian Teachers' Careers. Teachers in Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maclean, Rupert, Ed.; McKenzie, Phillip, Ed.

    This book focuses on career patterns and promotion of Australian school teachers. Following an introduction by the editors, the book is divided into 4 parts: Part 1, entitled "Understanding Teachers' Careers" includes 2 chapters: (l) "Teachers' Careers: A Conceptual Framework" (Rupert Maclean); and (2) "Teachers' Work: A…

  4. Native Americans and Aboriginal Australian Stereotypes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muir, Sharon Pray

    Aboriginal Australians represent 1.5% of Australia's population, nearly double the percentage of native people in the U.S. population. While indigenous peoples throughout the world share common similarities, particularly contemporary issues and their spiritual regard for nature, many aspects of their lifestyles are different, such as governance,…

  5. The Dawkins Reconstruction of Australian Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harman, Grant

    Aspects of recent changes in Australian higher education are explored, with focus on the Dawkins Agenda, which is related to the current political and economic situation. Questions about the success of John Dawkins, Federal Minister for Employment, Education and Training, in regard to higher education are raised (why he has been successful and…

  6. Should there be an Australian Army Association?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-12-15

    plans. Warnings. Bad news on the economic horizon? The regulatory front? In the courts? Associations serve as "early warning systems" for their...prohibited from having economic activities as their primary purpose. Under Australian state and federal legislation, bodies that seek to be political

  7. Making Space for Multilingualism in Australian Schooling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Marianne; Cross, Russell

    2016-01-01

    In this article we introduce the special issue: Language(s) across the curriculum in Australian schools. The special issue includes a focus on English as an additional language in mainstream classes, Indigenous education, heritage languages and foreign languages, and we give background to these different--though frequently overlapping--contexts.…

  8. Voluntary Group Participation by Third Age Australians.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayhew, Claire; Swindell, Rick

    A study investigated characteristics of retirees and types of voluntary groups they joined after retirement. Data were collected through face-to-face interviews and completed questionnaires of 206 Australians over age 50. Five categories of voluntary organizations were studied: intellectually challenging, sporting/exercise, social, helping others,…

  9. Learning Choices, Older Australians and Active Ageing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boulton-Lewis, Gillian M.; Buys, Laurie

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on the findings of qualitative, semistructured interviews conducted with 40 older Australian participants who either did or did not engage in organized learning. Phenomenology was used to guide the interviews and analysis to explore the lived learning experiences and perspectives of these older people. Their experiences of…

  10. Synergy, 2003. Australian Transcultural Mental Health Network.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Australian Transcultural Mental Health Network, Parramatta.

    Each issue in the 2002 edition of the Australian Transcultural Mental Health Network (ATMHN) newsletter represents a theme critical to mental health practitioners. The Winter 2002 issue features articles on the psychological consequences of interpreters in relation to working with torture and trauma clients, addressing language issues on mental…

  11. Publications of Australian LIS Academics in Databases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Concepcion S.; Boell, Sebastian K.; Kennan, Mary Anne; Willard, Patricia

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines aspects of journal articles published from 1967 to 2008, located in eight databases, and authored or co-authored by academics serving for at least two years in Australian LIS programs from 1959 to 2008. These aspects are: inclusion of publications in databases, publications in journals, authorship characteristics of…

  12. Young Australians: Their Health and Wellbeing 2011

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milnes, Annette; Pegrum, Karen; Nebe, Brett; Topfer, Alex; Gaal, Lisa; Zhang, Jessica; Hunter, Nicole

    2011-01-01

    This paper is the fourth in a series of national statistical reports on young people aged 12-24 years produced by the Australian Institute of Health and Welfare (AIHW). This report provides the latest available information on how Australia's young people are faring according to national indicators of health and wellbeing. Many young Australians…

  13. Locational Issues in New Apprenticeships. Australian Apprenticeships.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dumbrell, T.; Finnegan, W.; de Montfort, R.

    A study examined geographical distribution of Australian apprenticeship commencements (ACs) in the context of various labor force and population statistics by industry, location of jobs by industry, and youth population. Apprenticeship and traineeship statistics between 1995-98 were examined to demonstrate differences in development of the system…

  14. Australian Allograpta Osten Sacken (Diptera, Syrphidae)

    PubMed Central

    Mengual, Ximo; Thompson, F. Christian

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Allograpta terraenovae sp. n. and Allograpta notiale sp. n. are described from Australia. Notes on the Australian species of Allograpta and an identification key to them are also given. The lectotype of Allograpta javana Wiedemann is designated, and the species Syrphus pallidus Bigot is synonymized under Allograpta australensis (Schiner). PMID:26257569

  15. Commercial Activities and Copyright in Australian Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shelly, Marita

    2008-01-01

    With government funding for most Australian universities below 60% and falling a major strategic emphasis for universities has been on securing other sources of operating revenue, including commercial opportunities and partnerships. The implication of increasing commercial activities such as non-award and tailored professional programmes, contract…

  16. Financial Management and Young Australian Workers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dowling, Nicki; Hoiles, Lauren; Corney, Tim; Clark, David

    2008-01-01

    In two studies of young Australian workers, participants generally displayed positive attitudes towards financial management practices; however, a substantial proportion failed to display positive financial management practices, experienced financial problems and dissatisfaction, and reported low rates of seeking financial assistance, particularly…

  17. Box Plots in the Australian Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Jane M.

    2012-01-01

    This article compares the definition of "box plot" as used in the "Australian Curriculum: Mathematics" with other definitions used in the education community; describes the difficulties students experience when dealing with box plots; and discusses the elaboration that is necessary to enable teachers to develop the knowledge…

  18. Ethnicity and Gender in Australian Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harvey, Jim

    The Australian education system is denying equity and social justice to ethnic minorities and women. This paper examines the development of Australia's educational policy for those two groups. It argues that the educational disadvantages they have experienced have been enhanced by the marginalization of the issues. Policies such as multicultural…

  19. Inclusion and Equity in Australian Secondary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paterson, David; Graham, Lorraine; Stevens, Robert

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents findings from a large-scale, in-depth study of secondary schools in one Australian state that were achieving exceptional outcomes. The element of that study on which this paper focuses is equity and inclusion. We examine the Equity programs operating in seven sites where schools were including students experiencing some form of…

  20. The Australians--A "Fair Go" People.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurst, Herschel

    1984-01-01

    Australians are known for their egalitarian spirit, manifested by a dislike of social pretension and affectation. A brief history of the country from the time of its establishment in 1788 as a dumping ground for Britain's unwanted criminals to the present is presented. (RM)

  1. Sustainability in the Australian Curriculum: Geography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maude, Alaric

    2014-01-01

    "Sustainability" is one of the seven major concepts in the geography curriculum. It is also one of the three cross-curriculum priorities in the Australian curriculum, together with Asia and Australia's engagement with Asia, and Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander histories and cultures. This paper describes how the concept is explained…

  2. Australian Children's Understanding of Display Rules

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choy, Grace

    2009-01-01

    Cultural display rules govern the manifestation of emotional expressions. In compliance with display rules, the facial expressions displayed (i.e. apparent emotion) may be incongruent with the emotion experienced (i.e. real emotion). This study investigates Australian Caucasian children's understanding of display rules. A sample of 80 four year…

  3. After Bureaucracy, What?: An Australian Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rice, Alan

    1983-01-01

    In the Australian state of Victoria, control of academic curriculum has shifted from the bureaucrats to locally based teacher networks and statewide associations which limit subject scope and teaching styles. However, curriculum has not changed significantly, indicating that institutional reforms do not necessarily result in radical alterations of…

  4. Mature Age Students in Australian Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hore, Terry; West, Leo H. T.

    A study was undertaken, in 1976 and for the three following years, of adult students in Australian higher education. The study examined: (1) the phenomenon of adult students and the extent of their involvement in higher education; (2) the politics and practices of institutions towards these students; (3) staff attitudes in the courses; (4) adult…

  5. Developments in Australian Agricultural and Related Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McSweeney, Peter; Rayner, John

    2011-01-01

    While the calm waters metaphor might explain the changes navigated by Australian agricultural education through most of its history, the last 20 or so years have been very turbulent. Now, the new millennium sees agricultural education in both Australia and the Western world facing a different and less certain future. This paper analyses some of…

  6. Australian orchids and the doctors they commemorate.

    PubMed

    Pearn, John H

    2013-01-21

    Botanical taxonomy is a repository of medical biographical information. Such botanical memorials include the names of some indigenous orchids of Australia. By searching reference texts and journals relating to Australian botany and Australian orchidology, as well as Australian and international medical and botanical biographical texts, I identified 30 orchids indigenous to Australia whose names commemorate doctors and other medical professionals. Of these, 24 have names that commemorate a total of 16 doctors who worked in Australia. The doctors and orchids I identified include: doctor-soldiers Richard Sanders Rogers (1862-1942), after whom the Rogers' Greenhood (Pterostylis rogersii) is named, and Robert Brown (1773-1858), after whom the Purple Enamel Orchid (Elythranthera brunonis) is named; navy surgeon Archibald Menzies (1754-1842), after whom the Hare Orchid (Leptoceras menziesii) is named; radiologist Hugo Flecker (1884-1957) after whom the Slender Sphinx Orchid (Cestichis fleckeri) is named; and general medical practitioner Hereward Leighton Kesteven (1881-1964), after whom the Kesteven's Orchid (Dendrobium kestevenii) is named. Biographic references in scientific names of plants comprise a select but important library of Australian medical history. Such botanical taxonomy commemorates, in an enduring manner, clinicians who have contributed to biology outside clinical practice.

  7. Farm 2000 and other projects

    SciTech Connect

    Edson, D.V.

    1981-07-20

    Three projects are discussed here: Farm 2000 (a tractorless, energy self-sufficient farm); an energy self-sufficient farm building; and a mobile, three-in-one still, fertilizer spreader and standby generator. The mobile still produces 20 to 25 gallons of 196-proof alcohol per hour, or roughly 50 to 65 gallons per 750 gallons of mash. The diesel powered generator provides electricity for the vacuum pump and for fermentation heat, consuming approximately 2.4 gallons of fuel each hour, and because it can be towed, the by-product can be spread as fertilizer without transferring it to other equipment. This is the invention of Dr. Vladimir Tica, the president of Solar Energy Innovations Corp., Maspeth, NY.

  8. Data Farming and Defense Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horne, Gary; Meyer, Ted

    2011-01-01

    .Data farm,ing uses simulation modeling, high performance computing, experimental design and analysis to examine questions of interest with large possibility spaces. This methodology allows for the examination of whole landscapes of potential outcomes and provides the capability of executing enough experiments so that outliers might be captured and examined for insights. It can be used to conduct sensitivity studies, to support validation and verification of models, to iteratively optimize outputs using heuristic search and discovery, and as an aid to decision-makers in understanding complex relationships of factors. In this paper we describe efforts at the Naval Postgraduate School in developing these new and emerging tools. We also discuss data farming in the context of application to questions inherent in military decision-making. The particular application we illustrate here is social network modeling to support the countering of improvised explosive devices.

  9. Economic Indicators of the Farm Sector. Farm Sector Review, 1986.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Economic Research Service (USDA), Washington, DC.

    This report contains 44 tables and 23 figures, along with narrative summaries, that provide an overall view of the farm sector in the United States in 1986. Some of the findings highlighted in the report are the following: (1) farmers spent less to produce their crops and livestock in 1986; (2) government payments to farmers increased, but prices…

  10. To what extent does organic farming rely on nutrient inflows from conventional farming?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nowak, Benjamin; Nesme, Thomas; David, Christophe; Pellerin, Sylvain

    2013-12-01

    Organic farming is increasingly recognized as a prototype for sustainable agriculture. Its guidelines ban the use of artificial fertilizers. However, organic farms may import nutrients from conventional farming through material exchanges. In this study, we aimed at estimating the magnitude of these flows through the quantification of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium inflows from conventional farming to organic farming. Material inflows and outflows were collected for two cropping years on 63 farms. The farms were located in three French agricultural districts distributed over a gradient of farming activity defined by both the stocking rate and the ratio of the farm area under arable crops. Our results showed that on average, inflows from conventional farming were 23%, 73% and 53% for nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium, respectively. These inflows were strongly determined by the farm production systems. However, for farms similar in terms of production systems, the inflows also depended on the local context, such as the proximity of organic livestock farms: the reliance of organic farming on conventional farming was lower in mixed than in specialized districts. These results highlight the necessity to quantify the contribution of nutrient inflows from conventional farming when assessing organic farming and development scenarios.

  11. Using hyperspectral data in precision farming applications

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Precision farming practices such as variable rate applications of fertilizer and agricultural chemicals require accurate field variability mapping. This chapter investigated the value of hyperspectral remote sensing in providing useful information for five applications of precision farming: (a) Soil...

  12. Organic farming improves pollination success in strawberries.

    PubMed

    Andersson, Georg K S; Rundlöf, Maj; Smith, Henrik G

    2012-01-01

    Pollination of insect pollinated crops has been found to be correlated to pollinator abundance and diversity. Since organic farming has the potential to mitigate negative effects of agricultural intensification on biodiversity, it may also benefit crop pollination, but direct evidence of this is scant. We evaluated the effect of organic farming on pollination of strawberry plants focusing on (1) if pollination success was higher on organic farms compared to conventional farms, and (2) if there was a time lag from conversion to organic farming until an effect was manifested. We found that pollination success and the proportion of fully pollinated berries were higher on organic compared to conventional farms and this difference was already evident 2-4 years after conversion to organic farming. Our results suggest that conversion to organic farming may rapidly increase pollination success and hence benefit the ecosystem service of crop pollination regarding both yield quantity and quality.

  13. Entomology: A Bee Farming a Fungus.

    PubMed

    Oldroyd, Benjamin P; Aanen, Duur K

    2015-11-16

    Farming is done not only by humans, but also by some ant, beetle and termite species. With the discovery of a stingless bee farming a fungus that provides benefits to its larvae, bees can be added to this list.

  14. Climate impacts of Australian land cover change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawrence, P. J.

    2004-05-01

    Australian land cover has been dramatically altered since European settlement primarily for agricultural utilization, with native vegetation widely replaced or modified for cropping and intensive animal production. While there have been numerous investigations into the regional and near surface climate impacts of Australian land cover change, these investigation have not included the climate impacts of larger-scale changes in atmospheric circulation and their associated feedbacks, or the impacts of longer-term soil moisture feedbacks. In this research the CSIRO General Circulation Model (GCM) was used to investigate the climate impacts of Australian land cover change, with larger-scale and longer-term feedbacks. To avoid the common problem of overstating the magnitude and spatial extent of changes in land surface conditions prescribed in land cover change experiments, the current Australian land surface properties were described from finer-scale, satellite derived land cover datasets, with land surface conditions extrapolating from remnant native vegetation to pre-clearing extents to recreate the pre-clearing land surface properties. Aggregation rules were applied to the fine-scale data to generate the land surface parameters of the GCM, ensuring the equivalent sub-grid heterogeneity and land surface biogeophysics were captured in both the current and pre-clearing land surface parameters. The differences in climate simulated in the pre-clearing and current experiments were analyzed for changes in Australian continental and regional climate to assess the modeled climate impacts of Australian land cover change. The changes in modeled climate were compared to observed changes in Australian precipitation over the last 50 and 100 years to assess whether modeled results could be detected in the historical record. The differences in climate simulation also were analyzed at the global scale to assess the impacts of local changes on larger scale circulation and climate at

  15. Farm Foundation Annual Report, 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farm Foundation, Oak Brook, IL.

    The Farm Foundation was established in 1933 as a private agency to help coordinate the work of other public and private groups and agencies to improve agriculture and rural life without taking political positions or supporting specific legislation. An operating rather than a grant-making foundation, the foundation develops national and regional…

  16. Problems associated with shellfish farming.

    PubMed

    Chinabut, S; Somsiri, T; Limsuwan, C; Lewis, S

    2006-08-01

    Shellfish culture is a major sector of aquaculture production worldwide, and zoonoses and drug residues associated with shellfish farm practice are of concern to public health. This paper focuses on three of the most important shellfish species: molluscs, crabs and shrimp. Although many diseases can affect shellfish, they do not appear to be transmittable to humans. Rather, the main hazards are associated with the methods used to farm the different species. The risk to human health from shellfish most commonly relates to contamination by biotoxins produced by marine algae. Another well-recognised problem associated with shellfish culture is the contamination of shellfish with domestic sewage that contains human pathogenic bacteria and viruses, which causes diseases such as typhoid fever and hepatitis. In shrimp farming, the main potential food safety hazards are zoonoses, chemical contamination and veterinary drug residues. Untreated effluent from shrimp farms is a major concern to the environmental sector as it is known to promote plankton blooms if directly discharged into natural water sources.

  17. Remote sensing for cotton farming

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Application of remote sensing technologies in agriculture began with the use of aerial photography to identify cotton root rot in the late 1920s. From then on, agricultural remote sensing has developed gradually until the introduction of precision farming technologies in the late 1980s and biotechno...

  18. Imagining the ideal dairy farm.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, Clarissa S; Hötzel, Maria José; Weary, Daniel M; Robbins, Jesse A; von Keyserlingk, Marina A G

    2016-02-01

    Practices in agriculture can have negative effects on the environment, rural communities, food safety, and animal welfare. Although disagreements are possible about specific issues and potential solutions, it is widely recognized that public input is needed in the development of socially sustainable agriculture systems. The aim of this study was to assess the views of people not affiliated with the dairy industry on what they perceived to be the ideal dairy farm and their associated reasons. Through an online survey, participants were invited to respond to the following open-ended question: "What do you consider to be an ideal dairy farm and why are these characteristics important to you?" Although participants referenced social, economic, and ecological aspects of dairy farming, animal welfare was the primary issue raised. Concern was expressed directly about the quality of life for the animals, and the indirect effect of animal welfare on milk quality. Thus participants appeared to hold an ethic for dairy farming that included concern for the animal, as well as economic, social, and environmental aspects of the dairy system.

  19. ANNUAL FARM LABOR REPORT - 1962.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LENHART, MARGOT WAKEMAN

    THE ADMINISTRATION OF THE FARM PLACEMENT SERVICE WHICH INCLUDED ORGANIZATION, STAFF, OFFICES, ASSOCIATES AND ADVISORS, AND MEETINGS WAS PRESENTED. AT THE STATE LEVEL, THERE WAS A RISE IN OVERALL CROP PRODUCTION AND A DECREASE IN TOTAL CROPLAND HARVEST. AT THE LOCAL LEVEL, URBAN ENCROACHMENT CHANGED THE NATURE OF PRODUCTION IN SOME AREAS AND…

  20. EMF Responses in Farm Animals

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Larry E. ); R Matthes, JH Bernhardt, and MH Repacholi

    1999-10-19

    Relatively few studies have been performed investigating the effects of EMF exposure on farm animals. Most of those that have been described in the literature are of surveys of animals living in the vicinity of power transmission lines. Even fewer studies have been conducted in large animals under controlled laboratory conditions. Results generally provide little evidence that electric and/or magnetic fields at environmental levels (under transmission lines up to 1000 kV) affect farm animals. There is limited evidence that cows exposed to EMF may exhibit slight changes in length of estrous cycle, although associated hormones (eg. progesterone) appear to be unaffected. The effects of electric fields on development in swine (some increase in birth defects and malformations) exposed to high strength electric fields were not consistent across generations nor supported by comparable rodent studies. Finally, electrical currents and"stray voltages", parameters associated with EMF, are found on some farms above perception levels. These voltages and currents can produce behavioral changes in farm animals and may impact production or health of the animals.

  1. Farming. Canada at Work Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Love, Ann; Drake, Jane

    This book is part of the Canada At Work series that introduces children to the people, machines, work and environmental concerns involved in bringing to market the products from important Canadian natural resources. This volume features a year-round look at two kinds of agriculture in Canada. On the vegetable farm, children find out about spring…

  2. The Roots of "Animal Farm".

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaefer, Barbara E.

    The presentation of the book "Animal Farm" by George Orwell to sophomores at East Orange Catholic High School, New Jersey, as a "political document" is discussed. Through research, panel discussions and voluntary comments, the students studied the book in depth comparing it to the power struggle between Stalin and Trotsky in…

  3. The Rapid Adjustment Farm Program's Influence on Other Farms in the Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simeral, Kenneth D.

    The study investigated the diffusion of innovative farming practices from Rapid Adjustment Farms (RAF) to other farms in southeast Ohio. The RAF program, begun in 1968, introduced new technology and management practices to its participant farmers. After reviewing literature of farming programs' information diffusion, a descriptive survey was made…

  4. Farm population of the United States: 1986.

    PubMed

    Deare, D; Kalbacher, J Z

    1987-11-01

    This report presents annual estimates of selected social and economic characteristics of the farm population in 1986. Also included are fertility characteristics from the June 1986 Current Population Survey (CPS) and data from the March 1986 CPS supplement. The Census Bureau and the Economic Research Service of the Department of Agriculture prepared the farm population estimates for 1986 from CPS data. Highlights of the data follow. 1) About 5,226,000 persons lived on farms in rural areas of the US in 1986. About 1 of 46 persons, or 2.2% of the nation's population, had a farm residence in 1986, compared to 30.2% in 1920. The farm population consists of persons living on farms in rural areas of the country; it does not include residents of the small number of farms in urban areas. 2) No statistically significant change in the number of farm residents occurred between 1985 and 1986. 3) Half of all farm residents now live in the Midwest. The Southern farm population has rapidly declined to just 29% of the national total; its 11% loss over the last year made it the only 1 of the 4 geographic regions to experience a significant change in number of farm residents. 4) About 1/4 (1.3 million) of the farm population live in metropolitan areas, while 3/4 live in non metropolitan areas. 5) In 1986, 97% of farm residents were white, 2% black, and 2% hispanic. 6) The median age of rural farm residents was 37 years in 1986, which is significantly higher than the median of 31.6 years for the non-farm production. There were 110 men/100 women living on farms in 1986, compared with just 93 men/100 women in the nonfarm population. 7) About 69% of farm residents 15+ were married and living with a spouse, compared with 56% of nonfarm residents. 8) About 87% of farm households were made up of families; the comparable proportion of nonfarm families was 72%. The average size of the farm family is 3.18 members compared to 3.21 members/nonfarm family. 9) The number of children born to ever

  5. Salmonella Mississippi infections in Tasmania: the role of native Australian animals and untreated drinking water.

    PubMed

    Ashbolt, R; Kirk, M D

    2006-12-01

    Salmonella Mississippi infections are very common in Australia's island state - Tasmania - with an annual rate of 17 cases/100000 population. A case-control study conducted during 2001-2002 found single variable associations with indirect exposure to many native animal species, untreated drinking water, travelling within the state, hand-mouth behaviours and contact with pet faeces. No associations were detected with farm animal or pet species or with any food. Indirect contact with native birds, untreated drinking water and travel within the state remained significant predictors of infection in the final model with population attributable fractions of 0.57 and 0.54 for native animals and untreated drinking water respectively. In Tasmania, Australian wildlife species are the likely reservoir for S. Mississippi, contaminating land and water environments. To decrease infection rates requires treatment of water supplies, particularly private rainwater collection systems and advising people to wash their hands after being outdoors and prior to eating.

  6. USGS analysis of the Australian UNCLOS submission

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hutchinson, Deborah R.; Rowland, Robert W.

    2006-01-01

    In November 2004, the Government of Australia made a submission to the Commission on the Limits of the Continental Shelf (CLCS) for 10 extended continental shelf (ECS) regions, utilizing Article-76 of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS). With information provided in the Australian Executive Summary, the USGS examined the 10 regions of the submission from geological, morphological, and resource perspectives. By their own request, the Australians asked that CLCS take no action on the Australian-Antarctic Territory. The major limitation in this analysis is that no bathymetric soundings or detailed hydrographic profiles were provided in the Australian Executive Summary that might show why the Foot of the Slope (FOS) was chosen or where the 2,500-m contour is located. This represents a major limitation because more than half of the 4,205 boundary points utilize the bathymetric formula line and more than one-third of them utilize the bathymetric constraint line. CLCS decisions on the components of this submission may set a precedent for how ECSs are treated in future submissions. Some of the key decisions will cover (a) how a 'natural prolongation' of a continental margin is determined, particularly if a bathymetric saddle that appears to determine the prolongation is in deep water and is well outside of the 200-nm limit (Exmouth Plateau), (b) defining to what extent that plateaus, rises, caps, banks and spurs that are formed of oceanic crust and from oceanic processes can be considered to be 'natural prolongations' (Kerguelen Plateau), (c) to what degree UNCLOS recognizes reefs and uninhabited micro-islands (specifically, rocks and/or sand shoals) as islands that can have an EEZ (Middleton and Elizabeth Reefs north of Lord Howe Island), and (d) how the Foot of the Slope (FOS) is chosen (Great Australian Bight). The submission contains situations that are relevant to potential future U.S. submissions and are potentially analogous to certain

  7. 7 CFR 795.16 - Custom farming.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Custom farming. 795.16 Section 795.16 Agriculture... PROVISIONS COMMON TO MORE THAN ONE PROGRAM PAYMENT LIMITATION General § 795.16 Custom farming. (a) Custom... agricultural chemicals by firms regularly engaged in such businesses shall not be regarded as custom farming....

  8. Growing Vegetables. People on the Farm.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC. Office of Governmental and Public Affairs.

    This booklet, one in a series about life on modern farms, describes farm operations and some activities in the lives of six vegetable farmers throughout the United States. The booklet visits the tomato growing of Carl Schneider and his partners and the lettuce growing farm of Norman Martella, both in California. It then includes brief accounts of…

  9. Population Characteristics of Farm Operator Households.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zimmer, John M.; Manny, Elsie S.

    A 1968 analysis used 1964 data to compare all U.S. farm operator households on the bases of age, color, sex, educational attainment, and size of farm business (gross sales). In addition, 30 counties were selected for special income data study. Results from both studies indicated that relatively deprived farm operator households were: (1) composed…

  10. Iowa Farm and Rural Life Poll. Summary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lasley, Paul

    The 1984 Iowa Farm and Rural Life Poll is summarized in this report. Responses from 1,585 randomly selected Iowa farm families showed that respondents opposed relaxing current state laws limiting foreign investors and non-farm corporations' ownership of farmland; had mixed feelings on absentee ownership, changing banking laws to allow banks to…

  11. Missouri Small Farm Family Program. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Enlow, George; And Others

    Records maintained by rural extension designees on the Missouri Small Farm Family Program, (initiated in 1972 by the cooperative extension service to help low income farm families learn to use available resources to improve their quality of life) provided data re: family characteristics, farm improvement progress, and improvement in the quality of…

  12. 25 CFR 700.65 - Farm operation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Farm operation. 700.65 Section 700.65 Indians THE OFFICE OF NAVAJO AND HOPI INDIAN RELOCATION COMMISSION OPERATIONS AND RELOCATION PROCEDURES General Policies and Instructions Definitions § 700.65 Farm operation. Farm operation means any activity conducted...

  13. Managerial Perception and Success in Farming.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathis, Gilbert Lander

    To improve farm management instruction in vocational agriculture, survey data were secured from 125 young farmers in 35 Ohio counties to determine the relationship between their perception of themselves as entrepreneurs and their success in farming. The respondents represented a range of success in farming, were full-time farmers between the ages…

  14. 7 CFR 718.201 - Farm constitution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... or joint operation as a single farming unit except that it shall not include: (1) Land under separate... operated as a single farming unit as set forth in § 718.202; or (iii) Because of a change in operation, tracts or parts of tracts will be divided from the parent farm that currently has land in more than...

  15. The limitations of environmental management systems in Australian agriculture.

    PubMed

    Cary, John; Roberts, Anna

    2011-03-01

    The efficacy of government-supported programs to encourage improved management of land and water systems associated with agricultural land in Australia has been mixed. The broad approach of Australian governments is reviewed briefly. Evidence is presented from case assessments of a program to promote adoption of environmental management systems (EMSs) to improve environmental outcomes from agricultural practices. EMSs are systems implemented to manage the environmental impacts and ameliorate environmental risk associated with business activity. Data are presented on reported EMS activity and experience of four selected groups of farmers in Victoria, south-eastern Australia, representing broad-acre cropping, beef and dairy farming. The pro-environmental behaviours of farmers were mediated through voluntary adoption of government and industry sponsored EMSs, often with financial incentives and other support. Findings from the study were that adoption of EMS practices with sufficient public benefits is unlikely to occur at sufficient scale for significant environmental impact. Farmers more readily adopted practices which were financially beneficial than those which had a positive environmental impact. Although the focus on voluntary market-based instrument (MBI) type programs is popular in western countries, enforcing regulation is an important, but usually politically unpopular, component of land use policy. The comparative advantage of EMSs differed for the industries studied, but overall there were insufficient market drivers for widespread EMS adoption in Australia. Environmental outcomes could be more effectively achieved by directly funding land management practices which have highest public net benefits. Having a clear and unambiguous management objective for a particular land management policy is more likely to achieve outcomes than having multiple objectives as occurs in a number of international programs currently.

  16. Nature Study, Aborigines and the Australian Kindergarten: Lessons from Martha Simpson's "Australian Programme Based on the Life and Customs of the Australian Black"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    This article examines an experimental kindergarten programme "Work in the Kindergarten: An Australian Programme based on the Life and Customs of the Australian Black" developed by Martha Simpson in early twentieth-century Australia. Here Simpson adapted international Revisionist Froebelian approaches to cultural epoch theory and nature…

  17. Role of Livelihood Capital in Reducing Climatic Vulnerability: Insights of Australian Wheat from 1990-2010.

    PubMed

    Huai, Jianjun

    2016-01-01

    In many agricultural countries, development of rural livelihood through increasing capital is a major regional policy to adapt to climate change. However, the role of livelihood capital in reducing climatic vulnerability is uncertain. This study assesses vulnerability and identifies the effects of common capital indicators on it, using Australian wheat as an example. We calculate exposure (a climate index) and sensitivity (a wheat failure index) to measure vulnerability and classify the resilient and sensitive cases, and express adaptive capacity through financial, human, natural, physical, and social capital indicators for 12 regions in the Australian wheat-sheep production zone from 1991-2010. We identify relationships between 12 indicators of five types of capital and vulnerability with t-tests and six logistic models considering the capital indicator itself, its first-order lag and its square as dependent variables to test the hypothesis that a high level of each capital metric results in low vulnerability. Through differing adaptive capacities between resilient and sensitive groups, we found that only four of the 12 (e.g., the access to finance, cash income level, total crop gross revenues, and family share of farm income) relate to vulnerability, which challenges the hypothesis that increasing capital reduces vulnerability. We conclude that further empirical reexaminations are required to test the relationships between capital measures and vulnerability under the sustainable livelihood framework (SLF).

  18. Role of Livelihood Capital in Reducing Climatic Vulnerability: Insights of Australian Wheat from 1990–2010

    PubMed Central

    Huai, Jianjun

    2016-01-01

    In many agricultural countries, development of rural livelihood through increasing capital is a major regional policy to adapt to climate change. However, the role of livelihood capital in reducing climatic vulnerability is uncertain. This study assesses vulnerability and identifies the effects of common capital indicators on it, using Australian wheat as an example. We calculate exposure (a climate index) and sensitivity (a wheat failure index) to measure vulnerability and classify the resilient and sensitive cases, and express adaptive capacity through financial, human, natural, physical, and social capital indicators for 12 regions in the Australian wheat–sheep production zone from 1991–2010. We identify relationships between 12 indicators of five types of capital and vulnerability with t-tests and six logistic models considering the capital indicator itself, its first-order lag and its square as dependent variables to test the hypothesis that a high level of each capital metric results in low vulnerability. Through differing adaptive capacities between resilient and sensitive groups, we found that only four of the 12 (e.g., the access to finance, cash income level, total crop gross revenues, and family share of farm income) relate to vulnerability, which challenges the hypothesis that increasing capital reduces vulnerability. We conclude that further empirical reexaminations are required to test the relationships between capital measures and vulnerability under the sustainable livelihood framework (SLF). PMID:27022910

  19. 38 CFR 21.4264 - Farm cooperative courses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Farm cooperative courses... § 21.4264 Farm cooperative courses. (a) Description of a farm cooperative course. A farm cooperative... farming operation will not permit them to attend class at least 10 hours per week. (b) Farm...

  20. 38 CFR 21.4264 - Farm cooperative courses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Farm cooperative courses... § 21.4264 Farm cooperative courses. (a) Description of a farm cooperative course. A farm cooperative... farming operation will not permit them to attend class at least 10 hours per week. (b) Farm...

  1. Empirical Analysis of Farm Credit Risk under the Structure Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yan, Yan

    2009-01-01

    The study measures farm credit risk by using farm records collected by Farm Business Farm Management (FBFM) during the period 1995-2004. The study addresses the following questions: (1) whether farm's financial position is fully described by the structure model, (2) what are the determinants of farm capital structure under the structure model, (3)…

  2. 12 CFR 619.9140 - Farm Credit bank(s).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Farm Credit bank(s). 619.9140 Section 619.9140 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM DEFINITIONS § 619.9140 Farm Credit bank(s). Except as otherwise defined, the term Farm Credit bank(s) includes Farm Credit...

  3. 12 CFR 619.9140 - Farm Credit bank(s).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Farm Credit bank(s). 619.9140 Section 619.9140 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM DEFINITIONS § 619.9140 Farm Credit bank(s). Except as otherwise defined, the term Farm Credit bank(s) includes Farm Credit...

  4. Stability analysis of offshore wind farm and marine current farm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shawon, Mohammad Hasanuzzaman

    Renewable energy has been playing an important role to meet power demand and 'Green Energy' market is getting bigger platform all over the world in the last few years. Due to massive increase in the prices of fossil fuels along with global warming issues, energy harvesting from renewable energy sources has received considerable interest, nowadays, where extensive researches are going on to ensure optimum use of renewable sources. In order to meet the increasing demand of electricity and power, integration of renewable energy is getting highest priorities around the world. Wind is one of the most top growing renewable energy resources and wind power market penetration is expected to reach 3.35 percent by 2013 from its present market of about 240 GW. A wind energy system is the most environmental friendly, cost effective and safe among all renewable energy resources available. Another promising form of renewable energy is ocean energy which covers 70 % of the earth. Ocean energy can be tapped from waves, tides and thermal elements. Offshore Wind farm (OWF) has already become very popular for large scale wind power integration with the onshore grid. Recently, marine current farm (MCF) is also showing good potential to become mainstream energy sources and already successfully commissioned in United Kingdom. However, squirrel cage induction generator (SCIG) has the stability problem similar to synchronous generator especially during fault location to restore the electromagnetic torque. Series dynamic braking resistor (SDBR) has been known as a useful mean to stabilize fixed speed wind generator system. On the other hand, doubly fed induction generator (DFIG) has the capability of coupling the control of active and reactive power and to provide necessary reactive power demand during grid fault conditions. Series dynamic braking resistor (SDBR) can also be employed with DFIG to limit the rotor over current. An integration of wind and tidal energy represents a new

  5. Energy integrated farm system: Millbrook Farm and Cornell University

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-01-01

    Millbrook Farm, a New York State dairy farm with corn and alfalfa crops, is designed to conserve energy through energy integrated concepts including methane digestion, cogeneration, energy conservation crop practices, and a computer management system. The integrated energy concepts to be demonstrated are: methane generation from cow manure; cogeneration of thermal and electric energy from methane combustion. New York State Electric and Gas Company will accept excess electric power into its grid; energy conservation in crop production through conservation tillage and substitution of manure for nitrogen fertilizers; energy conservation through waste-heat recovery in milk cooling and in recycling of wastewater; and application of microprocessor control systems to control and monitor energy in the methane digester, the cogeneration equipment, and the waste-heat exchangers.

  6. Ecological Model of Australian Indigenous Men's Health.

    PubMed

    McCabe, Marita P; Mellor, David; Ricciardelli, Lina A; Mussap, Alexander J; Hallford, David J

    2016-11-01

    This study was designed to examine the health behaviors as well as the enablers and barriers to health behaviors among Indigenous Australian men. One hundred and fifty Indigenous Australian men in rural, regional, and urban locations were interviewed about their health behaviors. The results revealed several themes of importance: (a) role of community activities, (b) the Indigenous man as a leader and role model, (c) negative impact of discrimination/racism, (d) importance of partner and family, (e) positive and negative role of peer relationships, (f) central role of culturally appropriate health care facilities, and (g) association between employment and health care problems. These findings highlight the importance of broad community-based (rather than individualistic) approaches to promoting health behavior in Indigenous men.

  7. Combustion of Australian spent shales compared

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-12-01

    The combustion kinetics of spent oil shales from seven major Australian deposits have been examined using a fluidized bed batch technique. Chemical rate constants were shown to vary between the shales and to be less than extrapolations of data from American spent oil shales. The effective diffusivity also varies widely among the shales. The seven oil shales were from the Condor, Duaringa, Lowmead, Nagoorin, Nagoorin South, Rundle and Stuart deposits in Queensland. Results are briefly described. 1 figure, 1 table.

  8. Laboratory Evaluation of Australian Ration Packs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-10-01

    described in Official Methods of Analysis of the Association of Official Analytical Chemists ( AOAC , 1980). Fat was determined in sweetened condensed milk...reviewed. 10 7. REFERENCES Anon (1982) "Dietary guidelines for Australians" J. Fd Nutr., 38, 111-119. AOAC , (1980) Official Methods of Analysis of the...Research Council (NH & MRC, 1984). The Reference Man is 70 kg and has the requirements for various grades of activity listed in Table 2. 2. METHODS OF

  9. Australian Gonococcal Surveillance Programme annual report, 2013.

    PubMed

    Lahra, Monica M

    2015-03-31

    The Australian Gonococcal Surveillance Programme has continuously monitored antimicrobial resistance in clinical isolates of Neisseria gonorrhoeae from all states and territories since 1981. In 2013, 4,897 clinical isolates of gonococci from public and private sector sources were tested for in vitro antimicrobial susceptibility by standardised methods. Decreased susceptibility to ceftriaxone (MIC value 0.06-0.125 mg/L) was found nationally in 8.8% of isolates, double that reported in 2012 (4.4%). The highest proportions were reported from New South Wales and Victoria (both states reporting 11.8%), with a high proportion of strains also reported from Tasmania but a low number of isolates were tested. In addition, there was a multi-drug-resistant strain of N. gonorrhoeae isolated from a traveller to Australia, with a ceftraixone MIC value of 0.5 mgL-the highest ever reported in Australia. These antimicrobial resistance data from Australia in 2013 are cause for considerable concern. With the exception of remote Northern Territory where penicillin resistance rates remain low (1.3%) the proportion of strains resistant to penicillin remained high in all jurisdictions ranging from 15.6% in the Australian Capital Territory to 44.1% in Victoria. Quinolone resistance ranged from 16% in the Australian Capital Territory to 46% in Victoria. Azithromycin susceptibility testing was performed in all jurisdictions and resistance ranged from 0.3% in the Northern Territory to 5.7% in Queensland. High level resistance to azithromycin (MIC value was > 256 mg/L) was reported for the first time in Australia, in 4 strains: 2 each from Queensland and Victoria. Azithromycin resistant gonococci were not detected in the Australian Capital Territory, Tasmania or from the remote Northern Territory. Nationally, all isolates remained susceptible to spectinomycin.

  10. Australian Oceanographic Data Centre. Bulletin 15.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-07-01

    bathythermal data for Coral Sea , Tasman Sea plus other Australian areas 4. Department of Science and the Environment, (Antarctic Division...RAN meteorological/oceanographic officers, of an ocean analysis and forecasting scheme for the Tasman /Coral Sea area. This scheme uses sea -surface...layers are heated up and mixed layer depth is fairly uniform except near fronts. The Tasman Front is the boundary between Coral Sea and Tasman Sea

  11. Would the Formation of a Combat Maneuver Corps Support the Transformation of the Australian Army as Envisaged in the Hardened and Networked Army Concept?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-06-16

    1978. Australian Armour. Canberra, Australian Capital Territory: The Australian War Memorial and the Australian Government Publishing Service. Jones ... Ian . 1987. The Australian Light Horse. Sydney, New South Wales: Time Life Books. Krause, Michael, Lieutenant Colonel. 2004. Lest We Forget

  12. Deep Roots for Aboriginal Australian Y Chromosomes.

    PubMed

    Bergström, Anders; Nagle, Nano; Chen, Yuan; McCarthy, Shane; Pollard, Martin O; Ayub, Qasim; Wilcox, Stephen; Wilcox, Leah; van Oorschot, Roland A H; McAllister, Peter; Williams, Lesley; Xue, Yali; Mitchell, R John; Tyler-Smith, Chris

    2016-03-21

    Australia was one of the earliest regions outside Africa to be colonized by fully modern humans, with archaeological evidence for human presence by 47,000 years ago (47 kya) widely accepted [1, 2]. However, the extent of subsequent human entry before the European colonial age is less clear. The dingo reached Australia about 4 kya, indirectly implying human contact, which some have linked to changes in language and stone tool technology to suggest substantial cultural changes at the same time [3]. Genetic data of two kinds have been proposed to support gene flow from the Indian subcontinent to Australia at this time, as well: first, signs of South Asian admixture in Aboriginal Australian genomes have been reported on the basis of genome-wide SNP data [4]; and second, a Y chromosome lineage designated haplogroup C(∗), present in both India and Australia, was estimated to have a most recent common ancestor around 5 kya and to have entered Australia from India [5]. Here, we sequence 13 Aboriginal Australian Y chromosomes to re-investigate their divergence times from Y chromosomes in other continents, including a comparison of Aboriginal Australian and South Asian haplogroup C chromosomes. We find divergence times dating back to ∼50 kya, thus excluding the Y chromosome as providing evidence for recent gene flow from India into Australia.

  13. Origins of the southeastern Australian vegetation.

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Robert S

    2004-01-01

    Australia is an ancient continent with an interesting geological history that includes a recent major shift in its position, both globally and compared with neighbouring land masses. This has led to a great deal of confusion over many years about the origins of the Australian biomes. The plant fossil record is now clarifying this, and it is clear that the ancient Gondwanan rainforests that covered Australia while it was still part of that supercontinent contained many of the elements of the modern vegetation. However, major climatic sifting, along with responses to other factors, including soil nutrient levels, disturbance regimes, atmospheric CO2 levels, fire frequency and intensity, glaciations and the arrival of humans, have had profound impacts on the Australian vegetation, which today reflects the sum of all these factors and more. The origins of Australian vegetation and its present-day management cannot be properly understood without an appreciation of this vast history, and the fossil record has a vital role to play in maintaining the health of this continent's vegetation into the future. PMID:15519971

  14. A novel lectin domain-containing protein (LvCTLD) associated with response of the whiteleg shrimp Penaeus (Litopenaeus) vannamei to yellow head virus (YHV).

    PubMed

    Junkunlo, Kingkamon; Prachumwat, Anuphap; Tangprasittipap, Amornrat; Senapin, Saengchan; Borwornpinyo, Suparerk; Flegel, Timothy W; Sritunyalucksana, Kallaya

    2012-07-01

    When using mRNA from gills of normal whiteleg shrimp Penaeus (Litopenaeus) vannamei as the tester and mRNA from yellow head virus (YHV)-infected shrimp as the driver, subtractive suppression hybridization (SSH) revealed that a novel EST clone of 198 bp with a putative C-type lectin-like domain (CTLD) was downregulated in YHV-infected shrimp. The clone nucleotide sequence had 99% identity with one contig MGID1052359 (1,380 bp) reported in an EST database of P. vannamei, and the presence of this target in normal shrimp was confirmed by RT-PCR using primers designed from the MGID1052359 sequence. Analysis of the primary structure of the deduced amino acid (a.a.) sequence of the contig revealed a short portion (40 a.a. residues) at its N-terminus with high similarity to a low density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) class A domain and another 152 a.a. residues at its C-terminus with high similarity to a C-type lectin domain. Thus, the clone was named LvCTLD and three recombinant proteins (LvCTLD, the LDLR domain and the CTLD domain) were synthesized in a bacterial system based on its sequence. An in vitro encapsulation assay revealed that Sepharose 4B beads coated with rLvCTLD were encapsulated by shrimp hemocytes and that melanization followed by 24 h post-encapsulation. The encapsulation activity of rLvCTLD was inhibited by 100 mM galactose, but not mannose or EDTA. In vivo injection of rLvCTLD or rLvCTLD plus YHV resulted in a significant elevation of PO activity in the hemolymph of the challenged shrimp when compared to shrimp injected with buffer, suggesting that rLvCTLD could activate the proPO system. An ELISA test revealed that rLvCTLD could bind to YHV particles in the presence of shrimp hemolymph. Phylogenetic analysis suggested that the LvCTLD sequence was more closely related to an antiviral gene found in Penaeus monodon (PmAV) than to other reported shrimp lectins. Taken together, we conclude that a novel shrimp LvCTLD is a host recognition molecule involved in

  15. Household and farm transitions in environmental context.

    PubMed

    Leonard, Susan Hautaniemi; Deane, Glenn D; Gutmann, Myron P

    2011-06-01

    Recent debate in the literature on population, environment, and land use questions the applicability of theory that patterns of farm extensification and intensification correspond to the life course of farmers and to the life cycle of farm families. This paper extends the debate to the agricultural development of the United States Great Plains region, using unique data from 1875 to 1930 that link families to farms over time in 25 environmentally diverse Kansas townships. Results of multilevel statistical modeling indicate that farmer's age, household size, and household structure are simultaneously related to both the extent of farm operations and the intensity of land use, taking into account local environmental conditions and time trends as Kansas was settled and developed. These findings validate farm- and life cycle theories and offer support for intergenerational motivations for farm development that include both daughters and sons. Environmental variation in aridity was a key driver of farm structure.

  16. Projected integrated farm in Nepal

    SciTech Connect

    Dhital, K.

    1980-01-01

    A proposed integrated crop-livestock agro-processing complex to be based at Janakpur, Nepal is described. This project was proposed by the Agricultural Development Bank and is a small effort towards creating a self-sufficient rural community similar to one reported in China. The plan of the farm aims to achieve the integration of several agricultural, aquacultural, solar energy and biogas energy components with complete recycling of waste. These include biogas plants with associated slurry and storage tanks for operating a 3-kW generator, a 3.7-kW pump, providing domestic cooking, as well as energy to operate a fruit-processing plant. Energy for water heating, crop drying and refrigeration will be supplied by solar energy. Fish, livestock, fruits and vegetables will be produced by the farm.

  17. The CDF Central Analysis Farm

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, T.H.; Neubauer, M.; Sfiligoi, I.; Weems, L.; Wurthwein, F.; /UC, San Diego

    2004-01-01

    With Run II of the Fermilab Tevatron well underway, many computing challenges inherent to analyzing large volumes of data produced in particle physics research need to be met. We present the computing model within CDF designed to address the physics needs of the collaboration. Particular emphasis is placed on current development of a large O(1000) processor PC cluster at Fermilab serving as the Central Analysis Farm for CDF. Future plans leading toward distributed computing and GRID within CDF are also discussed.

  18. Branchburg Solar Farm and Carport

    SciTech Connect

    Gregory, John

    2013-10-23

    To meet the goal of becoming a model of green, clean, and efficient consumer of energy, the Township of Branchburg will install of a 250kw solar farm to provide energy for the Township of Branchburg Municipal Building, a 50kw Solar carport to provide power to the Municipal Annex, purchase 3 plug in hybrid-electric vehicles, and install 3 dual-head charging stations.

  19. Interdisciplinary Irrigated Precision Farming Research

    SciTech Connect

    Heermann, D F.; Hoeting, Jennifer A.; Thompson, Sandra ); Duke, H R.; Westfall, D G.; Buchleiter, G W.; Westra, P; Peairs, F B.; Fleming, K

    2001-12-01

    The USDA-Agricultural Research Service and Colorado State University are conducting an inter-disciplinary study that focuses on developing a clearer scientific understanding of the causes of yield variability. Two years of data have been collected from two commercial center pivot irrigated fields (72 and 52 ha). Cooperating farmers manage all farming operations for crop production and provide maps of the maise grown on the fields.

  20. Genetic selection in farmed deer.

    PubMed

    McManus, C

    1991-02-02

    Selection is the major tool used by breeders to improve the genetic quality of their livestock. Traditional methods of selection are well proven and useful in improving the economic merit of livestock. The performance of an animal is affected by its genetic quality and by the environment in which it is reared. While environmental improvement is expensive and requires continuous inputs, genetic improvement is cumulative and permanent, provided that selection is maintained. To select an animal on its genetic merit account must be taken of the environmental effects on its performance. Comparisons between the performance of animals on different farms or in different years are not valid unless they have genetic material in common. The speed at which genetic improvement is passed on to the rest of a population is affected by the variation and heritability of the traits being selected, the selection intensity and the generation interval. The deer population in the United Kingdom has a high degree of variation for important traits but the selection intensity is low and the generation intervals are larger than in other farmed species. Central performance testing, group breeding schemes and the use of artificial insemination are tools which will be important in the genetic improvement of farmed deer.

  1. Geothermal eel farm in Slovakia

    SciTech Connect

    Lund, J.W.; Thomka, J.; Sarlinova, K.

    1998-12-01

    Turcianske Teplice, a small town in west-central Slovakia, has written records of using thermal waters since 1281. In 1992, an eel raising farm was started on the outskirts of the town and since 1994, it has been operated by the firm of Janex Slovensko. The farm, using a specialized water recirculation system, raises a species of migrating eels (Anguilla anguilla). A 220-meter deep well at 42 C provides 48 gpm to the facility for heating through a plate heat exchanger. This is the maximum flow permitted, so as not to influence the springs and wells at the spa about 1 km away. For this reason, the flow is monitored carefully by the state. A second geothermal well at 52 C and 1,500 meters deep is used only as an observation well. Cold water, which is heated by the geothermal water, is pumped from wells near the Turiec River 1.8 km away at 8 to 12 C, depending upon the season, for use in the various holding or raising tanks. The operation of the farm is described.

  2. Fungal farming in a snail

    PubMed Central

    Silliman, Brian R.; Newell, Steven Y.

    2003-01-01

    Mutualisms between fungi and fungus-growing animals are model systems for studying coevolution and complex interactions between species. Fungal growing behavior has enabled cultivating animals to rise to major ecological importance, but evolution of farming symbioses is thought to be restricted to three terrestrial insect lineages. Surveys along 2,000 km of North America's Atlantic coast documented that the marine snail Littoraria irrorata grazes fungus-infected wounds on live marsh grass throughout its range. Field experiments demonstrate a facultative, farming mutualism between Littoraria and intertidal fungi. Snails graze live grass primarily not to feed but to prepare substrate for fungal growth and consume invasive fungi. Fungal removal experiments show that snails and fungi act synergistically to suppress marsh grass production. These results provide a case of fungus farming in the marine environment and outside the class Insecta and reveal a previously undemonstrated ecological mechanism (i.e., facilitation of fungal invasion) by which grazers can exert top-down control of marine plant production. PMID:14657360

  3. Energy integrated farm system: Mathis Farm and Georgia Institute of Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-01-01

    Mathis Farm, a dairy farm with corn and soybean crops, is designed to conserve energy through energy integrated concepts including energy-efficient farming practices, methane digestion, irrigation and wastewater management, and efficient use of electrical energy. The integrated energy concepts to be demonstrated are: anaerobic digestion of cattle manure to produce methane for an engine generator to provide electricity for the farm, with waste-heat recovery to produce hot water; use of digester sludge materials as bedding and fertilizer; farm energy audit and subsequent implementation of energy conservation practices; waste management on the farm; and energy conservation crop practices.

  4. Isolation and characterization of an antibacterium against Vibrio harveyi 11593 from a mixed pond with penaeus japonicus bate, portunus trituberculatus and ruditapes philippinarum in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    An, X. H.; Xu, Y. J.; Li, F. H.; Ma, G. Z.; Li, L. T.

    2016-08-01

    Aquaculture diseases, particularly Vibriosis, are becoming a pressing concern due to incurred aquacultural loss in China. Commercial antibiotics may be used to control it, but its increased antibiotic resistance to prominent pathogenic bacteria has become a prevalent problem nationwide, and a global threat to public health. Probiotics are recommended instead because they are healthy, environment-friendly, and capable of maintaining productivity. An antibacterium against Vibrio harveyi 11593 was isolated from a mariculture pond with shrimp, crabs, and shellfish in China. The bacterium, E14, has an inhibitory zone diameter (DIZ) of 24.5 ± 0.5 mm. The strain was identified as Bacillus pumilus based on morphological observation, conventional biochemical tests, and 16S rDNA sequence analysis. The gram-positiveand motile bacterium is around 1.10-1.32 pm × 0.67-0.83 μm in size. Optimized conditions for antimicrobial substance production of B. pumilus E14 require that it be cultured for 26 h at 28 °C, with an initial pH of 7.0 in 100 mL/500 mL LB with 3% NaCl. The B. pumilus E14 cultures were confirmed to be safe and efficacious and actually worked to protect the host animal in shrimp larvae (Penaeus chinensis) culture. The B. pumilus E14 obtained in this study strengthened the strain's defense against aquaculture disease and made a good candidate for an alternative probiotics and benefit to sustainability of aquaculture.

  5. Enhanced survival of shrimp, Penaeus (Marsupenaeus) japonicus from white spot syndrome disease after oral administration of recombinant VP28 expressed in Brevibacillus brevis.

    PubMed

    Caipang, Christopher Marlowe A; Verjan, Noel; Ooi, Ei Lin; Kondo, Hidehiro; Hirono, Ikuo; Aoki, Takashi; Kiyono, Hiroshi; Yuki, Yoshikazu

    2008-09-01

    White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) disease is a major threat to shrimp culture worldwide. Here, we assessed the efficacy of the oral administration of purified recombinant VP28, an envelope protein of WSSV, expressed in a Gram-positive bacterium, Brevibacillus brevis, in providing protection in shrimp, Penaeus japonicus, upon challenge with WSSV. Juvenile shrimp (2-3g in body weight) fed with pellets containing purified recombinant VP28 (50microg/shrimp) for 2 weeks showed significantly higher survival rates than control groups when challenged with the virus at 3 days after the last day of feeding. However, when shrimp were challenged 2 weeks after the last day of feeding, survival rates decreased (33.4% and 24.93%, respectively). Survival rate was dose-dependent, increasing from 60.7 to 80.3% as the dose increased from 1 to 50microg/shrimp. At a dose of 50microg/shrimp, the recombinant protein provided protection as soon as 1 day after feeding (72.5% survival). Similar results were obtained with larger-sized shrimp. These results show that recombinant VP28 expressed in a Gram-positive bacterium is a potential oral vaccine against WSSV.

  6. PmVRP15, a novel viral responsive protein from the black tiger shrimp, Penaeus monodon, promoted white spot syndrome virus replication.

    PubMed

    Vatanavicharn, Tipachai; Prapavorarat, Adisak; Jaree, Phattarunda; Somboonwiwat, Kunlaya; Tassanakajon, Anchalee

    2014-01-01

    Suppression subtractive hybridization of Penaeus monodon hemocytes challenged with white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) has identified the viral responsive gene, PmVRP15, as the highest up-regulated gene ever reported in shrimps. Expression analysis by quantitative real time RT-PCR revealed 9410-fold up-regulated level at 48 h post WSSV injection. Tissue distribution analysis showed that PmVRP15 transcript was mainly expressed in the hemocytes of shrimp. The full-length cDNA of PmVRP15 transcript was obtained and showed no significant similarity to any known gene in the GenBank database. The predicted open reading frame of PmVRP15 encodes for a deduced 137 amino acid protein containing a putative transmembrane helix. Immunofluorescent localization of the PmVRP15 protein revealed it accumulated around the nuclear membrane in all three types of shrimp hemocytes and that the protein was highly up-regulated in WSSV-infected shrimps. Double-stranded RNA interference-mediated gene silencing of PmVRP15 in P. monodon significantly decreased WSSV propagation compared to the control shrimps (injected with GFP dsRNA). The significant decrease in cumulative mortality rate of WSSV-infected shrimp following PmVRP15 knockdown was observed. These results suggest that PmVRP15 is likely to be a nuclear membrane protein and that it acts as a part of WSSV propagation pathway.

  7. Identification of RAPD-SCAR marker linked to white spot syndrome virus resistance in populations of giant black tiger shrimp, Penaeus monodon Fabricius.

    PubMed

    Dutta, S; Biswas, S; Mukherjee, K; Chakrabarty, U; Mallik, A; Mandal, N

    2014-05-01

    White spot disease (WSD) caused by white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) creates severe epizootics in shrimp aquaculture industry worldwide. Despite several efforts, no such permanent remedy was yet developed. Selective breeding using DNA markers would be a cost-effective strategy for long-term solution of this problem. In the present investigation, out of 30 random primers, only one primer produced a statistically significant (P < 0.01) randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) marker of 502 bp, which provided a good discrimination between disease resistant and disease susceptible populations of Penaeus monodon from three geographical locations along the East coast of India. Because RAPD markers are dominant, a sequence characterized amplified region (SCAR) marker was developed by cloning and sequencing of 502 bp RAPD fragment, which generates a single 457 bp DNA fragment after PCR amplification only in the disease resistant shrimps. Challenge experiment was also conducted to validate this 457 bp SCAR marker, and the results suggested that the WSSV loads were 2.25 × 10(3) fold higher in disease susceptible than that in disease resistant shrimps using real-time PCR. Therefore, this 457 bp DNA SCAR marker will be very valuable towards the development of disease-free shrimp aquaculture industry.

  8. PmTBC1D20, a Rab GTPase-activating protein from the black tiger shrimp, Penaeus monodon, is involved in white spot syndrome virus infection.

    PubMed

    Yingvilasprasert, Wanchart; Supungul, Premruethai; Tassanakajon, Anchalee

    2014-02-01

    TBC (TRE2/BUB2/CDC16) domain proteins contain an ≈ 200-amino-acid motif and function as Rab GTPase-activating proteins that are required for regulating the activity of Rab proteins, and so, in turn, endocytic membrane trafficking in cells. TBC domain family member 20 (TBC1D20) has recently been reported to mediate Hepatitis C virus replication. Herein, PmTBC1D20 identified from the black tiger shrimp, Penaeus monodon, was characterized and evaluated for its role in white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) infection. The full-length cDNA sequence of PmTBC1D20 contains 2003 bp with a predicted 1443 bp open reading frame encoding a deduced 480 amino acid protein. Its transcript levels were significantly up-regulated at 24 and 48 h by ≈ 2.3- and 2.1-fold, respectively, after systemic infection with WSSV. In addition, depletion of PmTBC1D20 transcript in shrimps by double stranded RNA interference led to a decrease in the level of transcripts of three WSSV genes (VP28, ie1 and wsv477). This suggests the importance of PmTBC1D20 in WSSV infection. This is the first report of TBC1D20 in a crustacean and reveals the possible mechanism used by WSSV to modulate the activity of the host protein, PmTBC1D20, for its benefit in viral trafficking and replication.

  9. The expression and purification of WSSV134 from white spot syndrome virus and its inhibitory effect on caspase activity from Penaeus monodon.

    PubMed

    Bowornsakulwong, Thanunthon; Charoensapsri, Walaiporn; Rattanarojpong, Triwit; Khunrae, Pongsak

    2017-02-01

    WSSV134 or VP36A protein of white spot syndrome virus was previously reported to be able to reduce apoptosis in Sf-9 cells transfected with caspase of Penaeus monodon (PmCasp). The protein was therefore believed to have a role in supporting the survival of WSSV inside the host cells during infection. However, the anti-apoptosis activity of WSSV134 involved in the inhibition of PmCasp is still unclear. In this study, we produced a recombinant WSSV134 (rWSSV134) and tested for its ability to inhibit PmCasp in vitro. The results from a caspase inhibition assay revealed that rWSSV134 could inhibit PmCasp in a dose-dependent manner. Since WSSV134 was predicted to contain three potential caspase binding sites, corresponding to the D54, D104 and D259, we then employed site-directed mutagenesis to investigate the involvement of these sites in PmCasp inhibition. D54A and D259A mutants could still inhibit PmCasp while D104A mutant lacks this activity. Our results confirmed that the WSSV134 is an inhibitor for PmCasp and that residue D104 is important for PmCasp inhibition.

  10. Expression profile of bio-defense genes in Penaeus monodon gills in response to formalin inactivated white spot syndrome virus vaccine.

    PubMed

    Sudheer, N S; Poulose, Gigi; Thomas, Ancy; Viswanath, Kiron; Kulkarni, Amod; Narayanan, R B; Philip, Rosamma; Singh, I S Bright

    2015-05-01

    White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is the most devastating pathogen of penaeid shrimp. While developing technology to vaccinate shrimp against WSSV, it is imperative to look into the immune response of the animal at molecular level. However, very little information has been generated in this direction. The present study is an attempt to understand the expression of bio-defense genes in gill tissues of Penaeus monodon in response to formalin inactivated WSSV. A WSSV vaccine with a viral titer of 1×10(9) DNA copies was prepared and orally administered to P. monodon at a rate of 1.75×10(6) DNA copies of inactivated virus preparation (IVP) day(-1) for 7days. The animals were challenged with WSSV on 1st and 5th day post vaccination, and temporal expression of bio-defense genes in gill tissues was studied. Survival of 100% and 50% were observed respectively on 1st and 5th day post vaccination challenge. The humoral immune genes prophenoloxidase (proPO), alpha 2-macroglobulin (α2M), crustin and PmRACK, and the cell mediated immune genes caspase and Rab7 were up regulated in gill tissue upon vaccination and challenge. The expression of humoral gene crustin and cellular gene Rab7 was related to survival in IVP administered shrimp. Results of the study suggest that these genes have roles in protecting shrimp from WSSV on vaccination.

  11. Development of antiviral gene therapy for Monodon baculovirus using dsRNA loaded chitosan-dextran sulfate nanocapsule delivery system in Penaeus monodon post-larvae.

    PubMed

    Ramesh Kumar, D; Elumalai, Rajasegaran; Raichur, Ashok M; Sanjuktha, M; Rajan, J J; Alavandi, S V; Vijayan, K K; Poornima, M; Santiago, T C

    2016-07-01

    In the present study, a suitable carrier system was developed for the delivery of dsRNA into Penaeus monodon (P. monodon) post larvae to silence the Monodon baculovirus (MBV) structural gene of p74. The carrier system was developed by layer by layer adsorption of oppositely charged chitosan-dextran sulfate, on charged silica nanoparticles. The silica template was removedto produce multilayered hollow nanocapsules (CS-DS) that were utilized for dsRNA loading at an alkaline pH. The capsule's surface was modified by conjugating with shrimp feed for enhanced cellular uptake. In vivo cellular uptake of CS-DS/FITC loaded nanocapsules conjugated with feed was studied after oral administration into post-larvae. The results revealed that the encapsulated FITC was effectively delivered and exhibited a sustained release into the cytoplasm of shrimp post-larvae. The MBV challenge study for structural gene p74was conducted after 3-25 days of post infection (dpi) with respective CS-DS/dsRNA coated with feed. The results showed a significant survival rate of 86.63% and effective gene silencing in P. monodon. Our findings indicated that the delivery of dsRNA using shrimp feed coatedCS-DSnanocapsules could be a novel approach to prevent viral infections in shrimp.

  12. Spoilage evaluation, shelf-life prediction, and potential spoilage organisms of tropical brackish water shrimp (Penaeus notialis) at different storage temperatures.

    PubMed

    Dabadé, D Sylvain; den Besten, Heidy M W; Azokpota, Paulin; Nout, M J Robert; Hounhouigan, D Joseph; Zwietering, Marcel H

    2015-06-01

    Maintaining the freshness of shrimp is a concern to shrimp stakeholders. To improve shrimp quality management, it is of importance to evaluate shrimp spoilage characteristics. Therefore, microbiological, sensory, and chemical changes of naturally contaminated tropical brackish water shrimp (Penaeus notialis) during storage at 28 °C, 7 °C and 0 °C were assessed. H2S-producing bacteria were the dominant group of microorganisms at 28 °C and 7 °C whereas Pseudomonas spp. were dominant at 0 °C. Total volatile basic nitrogen and trimethylamine correlated well (R(2) > 0.90) with the sensory scores. An empirical model to predict the shelf-life of naturally contaminated tropical shrimp as a function of storage temperature was developed. Specific groups of organisms were isolated at the sensory rejection times and assessed for spoilage potential in shrimps of which the endogenous flora was heat inactivated. Isolates capable of producing strong off-odor identified by 16S rRNA sequencing were mainly lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and Enterobacteriaceae at 28 °C or 7 °C and Pseudomonas spp. and LAB at 0 °C. The study contributes to the knowledge about tropical shrimp spoilage and provides a basis for the development of methods and tools to improve shrimp quality management.

  13. Isolation and characterization of genes functionally involved in ovarian development of the giant tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon by suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH).

    PubMed

    Preechaphol, Rachanimuk; Klinbunga, Sirawut; Khamnamtong, Bavornlak; Menasveta, Piamsak

    2010-10-01

    Suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) libraries between cDNA in stages I (previtellogenic) and III (cortical rod) ovaries of the giant tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon) were established. In all, 452 ESTs were unidirectionally sequenced. Sequence assembly generated 28 contigs and 201 singletons, 109 of which (48.0%) corresponding to known sequences previously deposited in GenBank. Several reproduction-related transcripts were identified. The full-length cDNA of anaphase promoting complex subunit 11 (PmAPC11; 600 bp with an ORF of 255 bp corresponding to a polypeptide of 84 amino acids) and selenoprotein Mprecursor (PmSePM; 904 bp with an ORF of 396 bp corresponding to a polypeptide of 131 amino acids) were characterized and reported for the first time in penaeid shrimp. Semiquantitative RT-PCR revealed that the expression levels of PmSePM and keratinocyte-associated protein 2 significantly diminished throughout ovarian development, whereas Ser/Thrcheckpoint kinase 1 (Chk1), DNA replication licensing factor mcm2 and egalitarian were down-regulated in mature ovaries of wild P. monodon (p < 0.05). Accordingly, the expression profiles of PmSePM and keratinocyte-associated protein 2 could be used as biomarkers for evaluating the degree of reproductive maturation in domesticated P. monodon.

  14. Suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) for isolation and characterization of genes related to testicular development in the giant tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon.

    PubMed

    Leelatanawit, Rungnapa; Klinbunga, Sirawut; Aoki, Takashi; Hirono, Ikuo; Valyasevi, Rudd; Menasveta, Piamsak

    2008-11-30

    Suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) cDNA libraries of the giant tiger shrimp, Penaeus monodon, were constructed. In total, 178 and 187 clones from the forward and reverse SSH libraries, respectively, of P. monodon were unidirectionally sequenced. From these, 37.1% and 53.5% Expressed Sequence Tags (ESTs) significantly matched known genes (E-value < 1e-04). Three isoforms of P. monodon progestin membrane receptor component 1: PM-PGMRC1-s (1980 bp), PM-PGMRC1-m (2848 bp), and PM-PGMRC1-l (2971 bp), with an identical ORF of 573 bp corresponding to a deduced polypeptide of 190 amino acids, were successfully identified by RACE-PCR. Interestingly, PMPGMRC1 showed a greater expression level in testes of juvenile than broodstock P. monodon (P < 0.05). Dopamine administration (10(-6) mol/shrimp) resulted in up-regulation of PMPGMRC1 in testes of juveniles at 3 hrs post treatment (P < 0.05), but had no effect on PM-Dmc1 (P > 0.05).

  15. Osmo and ionic regulation of black tiger prawn (Penaeus monodon Fabricius 1798) juveniles exposed to K(+) deficient inland saline water at different salinities.

    PubMed

    Tantulo, Uras; Fotedar, Ravi

    2007-02-01

    An 11-day trial was conducted to investigate the osmoregulatory capacity (OC) and regulation of K(+), Na(+), Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) of Penaeus monodon juveniles when exposed to K(+) deficient inland saline water (ISW) of four different salinities (5, 15, 25 and 35 ppt). The survival of juveniles showed a positive linear relationship (R(2) ranging from 0.72 to 0.98) with salinity. At the end of the trial, juveniles were able to survive only in 5 ppt of ISW and showed no changes in OC when transferred from ocean water (OW) to ISW. Further, the OC of juveniles in 5 ppt of ISW was significantly different (P<0.05) from the OC of juveniles exposed to 15, 25 and 35 ppt and exhibited strong serum K(+), Na(+), Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) regulation monitored over 16 h. In contrast, at 35 ppt, significant decrease (P<0.05) in serum K(+) and Mg(2+) concentrations and accumulation of serum Na(+) concentration occurred after 16 h of exposure to ISW. At higher salinity, an increase in serum Na(+) concentration leads to an increase in the serum osmolality of the juveniles, which in turn causes decrease in the OC of the juveniles. The results of this study suggest that K(+) deficiency in ISW has a negative effect on survival, OC and the ability of P. monodon juveniles to regulate serum Na(+), K(+), Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) concentrations. These effects are compounded as salinity increases.

  16. Environmental Factors Associated with Success Rates of Australian Stock Herding Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Arnott, Elizabeth R.; Early, Jonathan B.; Wade, Claire M.; McGreevy, Paul D.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the current management practices associated with stock herding dogs on Australian farms. A parallel goal was to determine whether these practices and the characteristics of the dog handlers were associated with success rates. Success rate refers to the proportion of dogs acquired by the farmer that were retained as working dogs. Data on a total of 4,027 dogs were obtained through The Farm Dog Survey which gathered information from 812 herding dog owners around Australia. Using logistic regression, significant associations were identified between success rate and seven variables: dog breed, housing method, trial participation, age of the dog at acquisition, electric collar use, hypothetical maximum treatment expenditure and the conscientiousness score of the owner's personality. These findings serve as a guide to direct further research into ways of optimising herding dog performance and welfare. They emphasise the importance of not only examining the genetic predispositions of the working dog but also the impact the handler can have on a dog's success in the workplace. PMID:25136828

  17. Australian Apprentice & Trainee Statistics: Electrical and Electronics Trades, 1995 to 1999. Australian Vocational Education & Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Centre for Vocational Education Research, Leabrook (Australia).

    Statistics regarding Australians participating in apprenticeships and traineeships in the electrical and electronics trades in 1995-1999 were reviewed to provide an indication of where skill shortages may be occurring or will likely occur in relation to the following occupations: electrical engineering associate professional; electronics…

  18. National Statement for Engaging Young Australians with Asia in Australian Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ministerial Council on Education, Employment, Training and Youth Affairs (NJ1), 2006

    2006-01-01

    "Engaging Young Australians with Asia" is a national policy statement which supports "The Adelaide Declaration on National Goals for Schooling in the Twenty-First Century." These goals promote understanding of the value of cultural and linguistic diversity, and possessing the knowledge, skills and understanding to contribute…

  19. The Arts and Australian Education: Realising Potential. Australian Education Review No. 58

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ewing, Robyn

    2011-01-01

    Australian Education Review (AER) 58 surveys the international and national research on the role and effect of arts-rich programming in schools and in the broader community, and examines the policies and practices that inhibit or support these initiatives. It puts the case that embedding the Arts in learning would be a powerful catalyst for…

  20. The Australian-Ness of Curriculum Jigsaws: Where Does Environmental Education Fit?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gough, Annette

    2011-01-01

    This paper reviews Australian Government actions related to environmental education, particularly in the past decade, and examines the actions forthcoming from two national action plans (Environment Australia, 2000 and DEWHA, 2009), the implementation strategy for the Decade of ESD (DEWHA, 2006) and developments related to the Australian…

  1. Immigrant Australians and Education. A Review of Research. Australian Education Review Number 22.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sturman, Andrew

    This review examines whether immigrant Australians are disadvantaged educationally or vocationally by the education they receive, and whether their educational experiences are of a high quality and relevant to their needs. First, data is provided on the patterns of post-war immigration, along with information about the changing attitudes of…

  2. New Visions: Exploring Australian Identity through Films Highlighting Experiences of Indigenous Australians: Year 8 Film Unit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, Monika; Wenlock, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    Prior to 2011, Year 8 students studied a single film as text, "Yolngu Boy." This had been on the syllabus for several years, and the consensus was that it was time to review the unit, refresh the text and introduce multiple film texts that would present varying visions and perspectives of notions of what it is to be "Australian". The authors aimed…

  3. Australian Item Bank Program: Science Item Bank. Book 3: Biology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Australian Council for Educational Research, Hawthorn.

    The Australian Science Item Bank consists of three volumes of multiple-choice questions. Book 3 contains questions on the biological sciences. The questions are designed to be suitable for high school students (year 8 to year 12 in Australian schools). The questions are classified by the subject content of the question, the cognitive skills…

  4. Casual Academic Staff in an Australian University: Marginalised and Excluded

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Suzanne; Burgess, John; Connell, Julia; Groen, Egbert

    2013-01-01

    Over the past 25 years, the Australian workforce has become more casualised, with approximately one-quarter of the workforce in casual employment today. One of the highest users of casual employees is the higher education sector, where casual academics (referred to as sessionals in the Australian context) are estimated to account for 50% of the…

  5. Commonwealth Infrastructure Funding for Australian Universities: 2004 to 2011

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koshy, Paul; Phillimore, John

    2013-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of recent trends in the provision of general infrastructure funding by the Commonwealth for Australian universities (Table A providers) over the period 2004 to 2011. It specifically examines general infrastructure development and excludes funding for research infrastructure through the Australian Research Council or…

  6. Cultural Patterns of Metacognitive Guidance in Australian Homes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanagavarapu, Prathyusha

    2008-01-01

    This article provides insight into the cultural patterns of metacognitive guidance that occurs among children and mothers in selected Australian homes. Fourteen Anglo Australian and eight immigrant Indian (Telugu) mothers' interactions with their 4-year-old male and female children on a puzzle-solving task were videotaped. Mother-child dyads'…

  7. Australian Higher Education and the Relevance of Newman.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coady, Tony; Miller, Seumas

    1993-01-01

    John Henry Newman's conception of the university as a teaching institution in which the guiding concept is transmission of liberal knowledge is examined as it applies to the Australian context. The theory is seen as a useful starting point for developing a theory of the modern Australian university. (MSE)

  8. Learning for the Future: Developing Information Services in Australian Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Australian School Library Association, Goulburn.

    This guide is intended to set a context for the development of library and information services in Australian schools. The focus reflects recent changes in Australian education, in particular the development of national curriculum statements. These changes emphasize the processes of learning and the consequent need for information and information…

  9. Educational and Institutional Flexibility of Australian Educational Software

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shurville, Simon; O'Grady, Thomas; Mayall, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to provide context for papers in this special issue on Australasian e-learning. The paper aims to examine the background to Australian flexible and transnational education and to evaluate the educational and intuitional flexibility of three typical products of the Australian educational software industry.…

  10. Teaching Australian Football in Physical Education: Constraints Theory in Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pill, Shane

    2013-01-01

    This article outlines a constraints-led process of exploring, modifying, experimenting, adapting, and developing game appreciation known as Game Sense (Australian Sports Commission, 1997; den Duyn, 1996, 1997) for the teaching of Australian football. The game acts as teacher in this constraints-led process. Rather than a linear system that…

  11. The Shades of Grey of Cyberbullying in Australian Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goff, Wendy

    2011-01-01

    This article explores the effects of cyberbullying in relation to a school's duty of care. By examining the impact of cyberbullying through an increasingly common scenario, it becomes apparent that the strategies for Australian schools in maintaining their duty of care may be unclear and uncommunicated. Findings suggest that Australian law in its…

  12. Living Smart Homes: A Pilot Australian Sustainability Education Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Evonne; Buys, Laurie; Bell, Lorraine

    2009-01-01

    This article documents the rationale and experience of a pilot Australian sustainability education programme, "Living Smart Homes" (LSH) based on a community-based social marketing model. Inspired by the Australian "Land for Wildlife" scheme, LSH is designed to engage homeowners with sustainable practices through face-to-face…

  13. Australian Catholic Schools Today: School Identity and Leadership Formation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neidhart, Helga; Lamb, Janeen T.

    2016-01-01

    This article focuses on the challenge of faith leadership in Catholic schools. In particular, it reviews Australian research that has aimed to understand how principals conceptualize and enact their role as faith leaders. Consistent with American research, Australian research found that principals saw themselves as playing a leadership role in the…

  14. Some Religious Beliefs and Behaviours of Australian Catholic School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rymarz, Richard; Cleary, Anthony

    2016-01-01

    Students in Catholic schools make up a significant sub group of the Australian population. As such, studies of this group provide valuable information about the religious beliefs and practices of some Australian youth. Many students in Catholic schools express traditional religious views and have relatively high levels of religious behaviours.…

  15. Australian Higher Education Reforms--Unification or Diversification?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coombe, Leanne

    2015-01-01

    The higher education policy of the previous Australian government aimed to achieve an internationally competitive higher education sector while expanding access opportunities to all Australians. This policy agenda closely reflects global trends that focus on achieving both quality and equity objectives. In this paper, the formulation and…

  16. The Future of Religious Freedom in Australian Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Babie, Paul; Mylius, Ben

    2012-01-01

    This article explores the place of religion within Australian primary and secondary education. It is divided into three parts. The first examines religion within the Australian legal and constitutional structure. The second considers the accommodation of religion in government (public or state) and nongovernment (private) schools, using the State…

  17. Teacher Transculturalism and Cultural Difference: Addressing Racism in Australian Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casinader, Niranjan R.; Walsh, Lucas

    2015-01-01

    The increasing cultural diversity of students in Australia's schools is one of the salient changes in education over the last 30 years. In 2011, nearly half of all Australians had one or more parents born overseas, with migration from China, the Indian subcontinent and Africa increasing during the early 2000s (Australian Bureau of Statistics,…

  18. Australian Early Childhood Educators: From Government Policy to University Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davies, Sharon; Trinidad, Sue

    2013-01-01

    This article provides an overview of the Australian Federal Government initiatives in the area of early childhood with regard to the provision of early childhood education and care. These changes have influenced a Western Australian university to develop an innovative birth to 8 years preservice educator education curriculum. Using an ecological…

  19. Educational Malpractice: American Trends and Implications for Australian Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whalley, P. W. F.

    1986-01-01

    Educational malpractice developments in America may affect legal accountability of Australian teachers and educational institutions. This paper discusses significant American cases and commentators' observations in the context of the Australian legal system. Teachers should embrace their widening legal responsibility in order to advance…

  20. Australian English-Language Textbooks: The Gender Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Jackie F. K.; Collins, Peter

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines the nature and extent of gender stereotyping, both linguistic and pictorial, in a set of 10 Australian English-language textbooks for intermediate learners. In order to determine how accurately the books reflect the status of women in contemporary Australian society a content and linguistic analysis was conducted, focusing on,…

  1. Unit: The Australian Scene, Inspection Pack, National Trial Print.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Australian Science Education Project, Toorak, Victoria.

    As a part of the interim unit materials in the series produced by the Australian Science Education Project, this teachers' guide is composed of five sections: an introduction to nature in the balance, tests, excursion activities, options, and research activities. Options are under the headings: The Changing Face, Australian Soils, Distribution of…

  2. The Sleep Patterns and Well-Being of Australian Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Short, Michelle A.; Gradisar, Michael; Lack, Leon C.; Wright, Helen R.; Dohnt, Hayley

    2013-01-01

    Aim: Adolescent sleep patterns vary between countries, and these differences influence adolescent functioning and well-being. The present study provides data on the sleep and well-being of Australian adolescents. Methods: 385 adolescents aged 13-18 years were recruited from 8 South Australian schools spanning the socio-economic spectrum.…

  3. An Australian Story: School Sustainability Education in the Lucky Country

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salter, Zarin; Venville, Grady; Longnecker, Nancy

    2011-01-01

    This paper documents a case study involving a Perth primary school accompanied on its sustainability journey by Millennium Kids Inc, a local not-for-profit community organisation. Tension between the school's sustainability focus, its prestige as an elite private school and a "lucky country" mentality frames the Australian-ness of this…

  4. Investigating the Validity of the Australian Early Development Index

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brinkman, Sally A.; Silburn, Sven; Lawrence, David; Goldfeld, Sharon; Sayers, Mary; Oberklaid, Frank

    2007-01-01

    This article aims to contribute to the ongoing evaluation of the Australian Early Development Index (AEDI) by investigating its construct and concurrent validity with a subsample of 642 children aged 4 to 5 years drawn from the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children (LSAC). Construct validity was examined by considering the theoretical…

  5. An annotated checklist of Acanthocephala from Australian fish.

    PubMed

    Smales, Lesley R; Weaver, Haylee J

    2015-07-13

    Thirty one genera, comprising 58 named species, 15 undetermined species and nine species known only as cystacanths from paratenic fish hosts were found infesting 144 marine, esturine and freshwater species of fish from Australian and Australian Antarctic waters. Host habitats are given and the distribution and records of the acanthocephalans are given. A key to these parasites at the generic level is provided.

  6. Teachers' Planning Processes: Seeking Insights from Australian Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Peter; Clarke, Doug M.; Albright, James; Clarke, David J.; Farrell, Lesley; Freebody, Peter; Gerrard, Jessica; Michels, Deborah

    2012-01-01

    The Australian Curriculum: Mathematics (AC:M) prompts consideration of planning processes teachers typically use (as a whole school, in grade levels, and at the classroom level). In order to gain insights into the nature of the planning decisions teachers make, Australian teachers drawn from every state and territory were invited to respond to a…

  7. Determinants of Successful Training Practices in Large Australian Firms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dawe, Susan

    The determinants of successful training practices in large Australian firms were examined. The study's three phases were as follows: (1) a review of existing literature; (2) a meta-analysis of previously conducted case studies of 49 large Australian firms in 14 industrial sectors; and (3) a comparative analysis of the findings of the past studies…

  8. Defining and Assessing Generic Competencies in Australian Universities: Ongoing Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapman, Elaine; O'Neill, Marnie

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss ongoing challenges in defining and assessing generic competencies in Australian universities. The paper begins with a discussion of factors that led to, and later fuelled, the focus on generic competencies in Australian higher education. Broad constructs that have underpinned research and practice in the field are then…

  9. The Role of Further Government Intervention in Australian International Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carrington, Roger; Meek, V. Lynn; Wood, Fiona Q.

    2007-01-01

    Trade in Australian education services has expanded rapidly over recent years. The sector is the third largest exporter of Australian services. In 2001-2002, exports of education were about $A 4.2 billion. Government assistance to the sector includes export market development, regulation of education standards, and funding education activities;…

  10. Civic Engagement and the Arts and Humanities: An Australian Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Adrian

    2015-01-01

    An Australian scholar in the Arts and Humanities responds to recent US models emphasizing civic-engaged learning as a way to renew the humanities in undergraduate education. Policy contexts and curriculum initiatives of kindred trends in recent Australian undergraduate education in the humanities are contrasted in this essay. The Australian…

  11. Competing Issues in Australian Primary Curriculum: Learning from International Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ewing, Robyn

    2012-01-01

    There is no doubt that the increasing politicisation of education in an economically rationalist climate is contributing to less equity, access, participation and, therefore, social justice for many Australian primary children. This article initially explores how the development of the impending national Australian curriculum replete with a high…

  12. Training at the Australian school of nuclear technology

    SciTech Connect

    Culley, D.; Fredsall, J.R.; Toner, B.

    1988-01-01

    The Australian School of Nuclear Technology was founded in 1964 as a joint enterprise of the Australian Atomic Energy Commission and the University of New South Wales to support nuclear developments primarily in Australia. However, ASNT has developed into an important century for nuclear science and technology training within the South East Asian Region with participants also attending from countries outside this Region.

  13. Australian Curriculum Linked Lessons: The Language of Chance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurrell, Derek

    2015-01-01

    In providing a continued focus on tasks and activities that help to illustrate key ideas embedded in the "Australian Curriculum," this issue focuses on the Statistics and probability strand and the sub-strand of Chance. In the Australian Curriculum (ACARA, 2015), students are not asked to list outcomes of chance experiments and represent…

  14. A Reconceptualisation of "Knowing Asia" in Australian Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salter, Peta

    2015-01-01

    Since 1969, over 60 Australian government and non-government policies, documents, committees, working parties and organisations have explored the need to "know Asia". In schools, this engagement is conceptualised as "Asia literacy" and disseminated in the emerging Australian Curriculum through the cross-curriculum priority…

  15. Ethics Education in Australian Preservice Teacher Programs: A Hidden Imperative?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boon, Helen J.; Maxwell, Bruce

    2016-01-01

    This paper provides a snapshot of the current approach to ethics education in accredited Australian pre-service teacher programs. Methods included a manual calendar search of ethics related subjects required in teacher programs using a sample of 24 Australian universities and a survey of 26 university representatives. Findings show a paucity of…

  16. Internet Services and Academic Work: An Australian Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruce, Harry

    1994-01-01

    Describes a pilot study examining how Australian academics are using the Australian Academic and Research Network. Ten tables provide details on network services used in relation to academic role, importance of services used and relationship to academic work, and specific applications for e-mail, remote login, news groups and FTP (file transfer…

  17. Philosophy and Ethics in Western Australian Secondary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Millett, Stephan; Tapper, Alan

    2014-01-01

    The introduction of Philosophy and Ethics to the Western Australian Certificate of Education courses in 2008 brought philosophy into the Western Australian secondary school curriculum for the first time. How philosophy came to be included is part of a larger story about the commitment and perseverance of a relatively small number of Australian…

  18. The "Paradox of Interdisciplinarity" in Australian Research Governance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woelert, Peter; Millar, Victoria

    2013-01-01

    This paper identifies what can be called the "paradox of interdisciplinarity" (Weingart 2000) in Australian higher education research governance and explores some of its constitutive dimensions. In the Australian context, the paradox of interdisciplinarity primarily concerns the proliferation of a programmatic discourse of…

  19. Redefining & Leading the Academic Discipline in Australian Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harkin, Damien G.; Healy, Annah H.

    2013-01-01

    Disciplines have emerged as an alternative administrative structure to departments or schools in Australian universities. We presently investigate the pattern of discipline use and by way of case study examine a role for distributed leadership in discipline management. Over forty per cent of Australian universities currently employ disciplines,…

  20. Australian Gonococcal Surveillance Programme annual report, 2014.

    PubMed

    Lahra, Monica M

    2015-09-30

    The Australian Gonococcal Surveillance Programme (AGSP) has continuously monitored antimicrobial resistance in clinical isolates of Neisseria gonorrhoeae from all states and territories since 1981. In 2014, 4,804 clinical isolates of gonococci from public and private sector sources were tested for in vitro antimicrobial susceptibility by standardised methods. Decreased susceptibility to ceftriaxone (MIC value 0.06-0.125 mg/L) was found nationally in 5.4% of isolates, a lower proportion than that reported in the AGSP 2013 annual report (8.8%). The highest proportions were reported from New South Wales and Victoria (7.1% and 6.6% respectively). The proportion of strains resistant to penicillin in urban and rural Australia ranged from 11% in South Australia to 43% in New South Wales. In rural and remote Northern Territory penicillin resistance rates remained low (1.5%). In remote Western Australia relatively low numbers of strains are available for testing, however there is now widespread molecular testing for penicillin resistance in Western Australia to monitor resistance and inform guidelines and, for first time, these data are included in the AGSP annual report. Quinolone resistance ranged from 27% in the urban and rural areas of the Northern Territory, to 44% in the Australian Capital Territory, and quinolone resistance rates remain comparatively low in remote areas of the Northern Territory (3.1%) and remote areas of Western Australia (5.6%). Azithromycin resistance ranged from 0.5% in South Australia to 5.3% in rural and urban Western Australia. High rates were also reported from the Australian Capital Territory but relatively low numbers were tested. High level resistance to azithromycin (MIC value ≥256 mg/L) was again reported in 2014, in 2 strains from New South Wales. No resistance was reported from the Northern Territory, or remote Western Australia.

  1. The Australian Natural Disaster Resilience Index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thoms, Martin

    2016-04-01

    The Australian Natural Disaster Resilience Index Martin Thoms, Melissa Parsons, Phil Morley Bushfire and Natural Hazards Cooperative Research Centre, Geography and Planning, University of New England, Armidale NSW 2351, Australia. Natural hazard management policy directions in Australia - and indeed internationally - are increasingly being aligned to ideas of resilience. Resilience to natural hazards is the ability of individuals and communities to cope with disturbance and adversity and to maintain adaptive behaviour. Operationalizing the measurement and assessment of disaster resilience is often undertaken using a composite index, but this exercise is yet to be undertaken in Australia. The Australian Natural Disaster Resilience Index is a top-down, national scale assessment of the resilience of communities to natural hazards. Resilience is assessed based on two sets of capacities: coping and adaptive capacities. Coping capacity relates to the factors influencing the ability of a community to prepare for, absorb and recover from a natural hazard event. Adaptive capacity relates to the arrangements and processes that enable adjustment through learning, adaptation and transformation. Indicators are derived under themes of social character, economic capital, infrastructure and planning, emergency services, community capital, information and engagement and governance/leadership/policy, using existing data sets (e.g. census data) or evaluation of policy and procedure (e.g. disaster management planning). A composite index of disaster resilience is then computed for each spatial division, giving national scale coverage. The results of the Australian Natural Disaster Resilience Index will be reported in a State of Disaster Resilience report, due in 2018. The index is co-designed with emergency service agencies, and will support policy development, planning, community engagement and emergency management.

  2. Multiplex real-time PCR and high-resolution melting analysis for detection of white spot syndrome virus, yellow-head virus, and Penaeus monodon densovirus in penaeid shrimp.

    PubMed

    Panichareon, Benjaporn; Khawsak, Paisarn; Deesukon, Warin; Sukhumsirichart, Wasana

    2011-12-01

    A multiplex real-time PCR and high-resolution melting (HRM) analysis was developed to detect simultaneously three of the major viruses of penaeid shrimp including white spot syndrome virus (WSSV), yellow-head virus (YHV), and Penaeus monodon densovirus (PmDNV). Plasmids containing DNA/cDNA fragments of WSSV and YHV, and genomic DNAs of PmDNV and normal shrimp were used to test sensitivity of the procedure. Without the need of any probe, the products were identified by HRM analysis after real-time PCR amplification using three sets of viral specific primers. The results showed DNA melting curves that were specific for individual virus. No positive result was detected with nucleic acids from shrimp, Penaeus monodon nucleopolyhedrovirus (PemoNPV), Penaeus stylirostris densovirus (PstDNV), or Taura syndrome virus (TSV). The detection limit for PmDNV, YHV and WSSV DNAs were 40fg, 50fg, and 500fg, respectively, which was 10 times more sensitive than multiplex real-time PCR analyzed by agarose gel electrophoresis. In viral nucleic acid mixtures, HRM analysis clearly identified each virus in dual and triple infection. To test the capability to use this method in field, forty-one of field samples were examined by HRM analysis in comparison with agarose gel electrophoresis. For HRM analysis, 11 (26.83%), 9 (21.95%), and 4 (9.76%) were infected with WSSV, PmDNV, and YHV, respectively. Agarose gel electrophoresis detected lesser number of PmDNV infection which may due to the limit of sensitivity. No multiple infection was found in these samples. This method provides a rapid, sensitive, specific, and simultaneous detection of three major viruses making it as a useful tool for diagnosis and epidemiological studies of these viruses in shrimp and carriers.

  3. Understanding the role of farm dams in the Murray-Darling Basin in Australia through hydrological analysis coupled with stakeholder interviews

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuil, Linda; Winnubst, Madelinde; van Dijk, Albert

    2013-04-01

    Climate predictions suggest that surface water availability in the Murray-Darling Basin (MDB) in Australia is more likely to decline than to increase in the next decades. In 2000, farm dams were first recognized as a significant risk to future flows in the MDB and have since been the subject of hydrological research. This study was conducted to provide insight into the role of farm dams in the Yass catchment, which is a subcatchment of the MDB close to Canberra, in order to indentify obstacles for integrated water management. The role of farm dams was investigated from both a hydrological and social perspective. Model prediction and data inference were used to estimate the impact of farm dams on streamflow. The density of farm dams in the catchment was estimated at 5.7 dams km-2. The impact on the Yass River was simulated to be in the order of 20 percent of mean annual streamflow. To understand why farm dams are used, semi-structured interviews were conducted to capture views and opinions of land holders. Research found that farm dams play a very important role in terms of individuals' water supply, although other systems are also used. Furthermore, land holders are responsible for their own water supply for drinking and agricultural water needs. Water rights are based on a right to rainfall or groundwater that is present on an individual's property. This means that landholders have both a need and a right to collect and store runoff. Current legislation put in place by the New South Wales government to restrict the amount of rain water to be captured does not seem to affect most people. If additional policy to minimize the impact of farm dams on streamflow were to be introduced, this has to be based on well-thought-out arguments based on a long term vision as the interview results indicate that farm dams are deeply embedded in Australian rural culture.

  4. Our 31,000 Largest Farms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nikolitch, Radoje

    Between 1959 and 1964, the number of farms with annual product sales of over $100,000 rose from 19,979 to 31,401, increasing this group's share of the market from 16 to 24 percent. During the same period, the 408 farms reaching the $1 million mark with a 4 percent share of the market increased to 919 farms with 7 percent of the market. This report…

  5. Occupational safety risk management in Australian mining.

    PubMed

    Joy, J

    2004-08-01

    In the past 15 years, there has been a major safety improvement in the Australian mining industry. Part of this change can be attributed to the development and application of risk assessment methods. These systematic, team-based techniques identify, assess and control unacceptable risks to people, assets, the environment and production. The outcomes have improved mine management systems. This paper discusses the risk assessment approach applied to equipment design and mining operations, as well as the specific risk assessment methodology. The paper also discusses the reactive side of risk management, incident and accident investigation. Systematic analytical methods have also been adopted by regulatory authorities and mining companies to investigate major losses.

  6. The last dicynodont: an Australian Cretaceous relict.

    PubMed Central

    Thulborn, Tony; Turner, Susan

    2003-01-01

    Some long-forgotten fossil evidence reveals that a dicynodont (mammal-like reptile of the infraorder Dicynodontia) inhabited Australia as recently as the Early Cretaceous, ca. 110 Myr after the supposed extinction of dicynodonts in the Late Triassic. This remarkably late occurrence more than doubles the known duration of dicynodont history (from ca. 63 Myr to ca. 170 Myr) and betrays the profound impact of geographical isolation on Australian terrestrial faunas through the Mesozoic. Australia's late-surviving dicynodont may be envisaged as a counterpart of the ceratopians (horned dinosaurs) in Cretaceous tetrapod faunas of Asia and North America. PMID:12803915

  7. Australian Paediatric Surveillance Unit annual report, 2013.

    PubMed

    Deverell, Marie; Zurynski, Yvonne A; Elliott, Elizabeth J

    2014-12-31

    This report provides an update on the surveillance conducted by the Australian Paediatric Surveillance Unit (APSU) during the period January to December 2013. The APSU facilitates national active surveillance of uncommon diseases of childhood including selected communicable diseases. This report includes data on the following conditions: acute flaccid paralysis (AFP), congenital cytomegalovirus (cCMV), congenital rubella, perinatal exposure to HIV and paediatric HIV infection, neonatal herpes simplex virus (HSV), congenital varicella, neonatal varicella, severe complications of varicella and juvenile onset recurrent respiratory papillomatosis (JoRRP). Surveillance of severe complications of influenza was undertaken during the influenza season (July to September 2013).

  8. Tectonic evolution of the Western Australian Shield

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myers, John S.

    1988-01-01

    Geological and geochronological studies in the Western Australian Shield were updated. This terrane bears many similarities to the Indian Shield since they were neighboring parts of Gondwanaland. Western Australia consists of two cratons (Pilbara and Yilgarn) and four orogenic belts (Capricorn, Pingarra, Albany-Fraser, and Patterson), as well as some relatively young (1.6 to 0.75 Ga) sedimentary rocks. The two cratonic blocks are both older than about 2.5 Ga, and the orogenic belts range in age from 2.0 to 0.65 Ga.

  9. Ciguatera: Australian perspectives on a global problem.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Richard J

    2006-12-01

    Ciguatera is a global disease caused by the consumption of certain warm-water fish that have accumulated orally effective levels of sodium channel activator toxins (ciguatoxins) through the marine food chain. Symptoms of ciguatera arising from the consumption of ciguateric fish include a range of gastrointestinal, neurological and cardiovascular disturbances. This review examines progress in our understanding of ciguatera from an Australian perspective, especially the laboratory-based research into the problem that was initiated by the late "Bob" Endean at the University of Queensland.

  10. Debrisoquine oxidation in an Australian population.

    PubMed Central

    Peart, G F; Boutagy, J; Shenfield, G M

    1986-01-01

    The standard laboratory method for determination of debrisoquine phenotype has been modified and shortened with no loss of sensitivity. Debrisoquine metabolic ratios (MR) at 4 and 8 h showed excellent correlation indicating that collection time can also be shortened. Same day phenotyping is therefore possible. One hundred normal, Caucasian Australian subjects were phenotyped (46 males, 54 females) and 6% were poor metabolisers (PM) of debrisoquine. Fifty of the original subjects were also acetylation phenotyped and 34% were fast and 66% slow acetylators. One PM of debrisoquine was a fast acetylator of sulphadimidine and four PM were slow acetylators. This was a non-significant association. PMID:3718805

  11. A new era in Australian migration policy.

    PubMed

    Birrell, R

    1984-01-01

    The discussion traces the evolution of Australian migration policy since 1975, arguing that the primary factor shaping policy has been interparty competition for influence within Australia's ethnic communities. Since late 1975 when the Liberal/National Country Party (LibNCP) Conservative Government returned to power, Australian immigration policy has moved in different directions from the previous post World War II experience. The demographic implications have been profound. In 1975 the LibNCP government returned to office committed to restoring an active migration program. By 1980-81 it had largely succeeded in this numerical goal. Australia's migration growth rate at .82% of the total population exceeded almost all other Western society. What was new, in comparison to previous policy, was the migrant selection system and source countries. By the time the government lost office in March 1983, family reunion had become the major migration program souce and Asia was rapidly becoming the dominant place of migrant origin. This emphasis on family reunion was not intended by government immigration planners but was a product of domestic political change and resultant new influences over migration policy. As to the increasing Asian component, it has mainly been an unintended consequence of the expansion in the family reunion program. Although the liberalization of family reunion eligibility has largely been designed to appease the major Southern European ethnic communities, few applications have been forthcoming from these countries. Asian applicants have been numerous. Labor government policy since March 1983 has shown remarkable continuity with that of the LibNCP both in its selection system and in the size of the migrant intake. The motivation for the commitment to immigration derived first from longstanding traditions within the Australian business community that Australia's economic growth and dynamism depended on rapid population growth. More specifically there

  12. Military Retirement Reform: An Australian Perspective

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-03-01

    by Disney and Johnson (2001) and the World Bank (Pordes, 1994). There have also been various papers and reviews about Australian and U.S. military...once they reach a certain age prescribed by the state. As described by Disney and Johnson (2001) there are three main types of publicly supported plans...income and assets. The maximum amount is AU$21,505 per annum for an individual or AU$32,471 for a couple. According to Disney and Johnson (2001) this

  13. CPS and the Fermilab farms

    SciTech Connect

    Fausey, M.R.

    1992-06-01

    Cooperative Processes Software (CPS) is a parallel programming toolkit developed at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory. It is the most recent product in an evolution of systems aimed at finding a cost-effective solution to the enormous computing requirements in experimental high energy physics. Parallel programs written with CPS are large-grained, which means that the parallelism occurs at the subroutine level, rather than at the traditional single line of code level. This fits the requirements of high energy physics applications, such as event reconstruction, or detector simulations, quite well. It also satisfies the requirements of applications in many other fields. One example is in the pharmaceutical industry. In the field of computational chemistry, the process of drug design may be accelerated with this approach. CPS programs run as a collection of processes distributed over many computers. CPS currently supports a mixture of heterogeneous UNIX-based workstations which communicate over networks with TCP/IR CPS is most suited for jobs with relatively low I/O requirements compared to CPU. The CPS toolkit supports message passing remote subroutine calls, process synchronization, bulk data transfers, and a mechanism called process queues, by which one process can find another which has reached a particular state. The CPS software supports both batch processing and computer center operations. The system is currently running in production mode on two farms of processors at Fermilab. One farm consists of approximately 90 IBM RS/6000 model 320 workstations, and the other has 85 Silicon Graphics 4D/35 workstations. This paper first briefly describes the history of parallel processing at Fermilab which lead to the development of CPS. Then the CPS software and the CPS Batch queueing system are described. Finally, the experiences of using CPS in production on the Fermilab processor farms are described.

  14. The Relationship between Self-Esteem and Parenting Style: A Cross-Cultural Comparison of Australian and Vietnamese Australian Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herz, Lara; Gullone, Eleonora

    1999-01-01

    Studied the relationship between self-esteem and parenting style with 118 Vietnamese Australian and 120 Anglo-Australian adolescents. As expected, parenting characterized by high levels of overprotection and low levels of acceptance related negatively with self-esteem for both samples of adolescents. (SLD)

  15. Revisiting the Occupational Aspirations and Destinations of Anglo-Australian and Chinese-Australian High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malik, Ranbir Singh

    2015-01-01

    Evidence from Australia lends support to the "Asian high achieving syndrome" in Chinese-Australian students and "self-deprivation syndrome" in Anglo-Australian students. Applying ethnographic case studies approach for doctoral thesis the author collected data on a longitudinal basis from homes and school of these students. All…

  16. 7 CFR 761.103 - Farm assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Agency assesses each farming operation to determine the applicant's financial condition, organizational...) of this section that have significantly changed since the initial assessment. (d) The Agency...

  17. INVITED REVIEW: Farm size and animal welfare.

    PubMed

    Robbins, J A; von Keyserlingk, M A G; Fraser, D; Weary, D M

    2016-12-01

    Critics of agricultural intensification have argued that the transition from smaller to larger farms has compromised animal welfare. To critically examine evidence relevant to this claim, we reviewed more than 150 publications that examined the relationship between farm size and at least one animal welfare indicator. Although much of this literature focuses on dairy cattle, we also reference other farmed species where appropriate. We found little evidence of any simple relationship, negative or positive, between farm size and animal welfare. Instead, the evidence suggests that larger farms provide some opportunities to improve animal welfare but may also create welfare risks. For example, larger farms permit more specialized and professional management of animal health but can make it more difficult to accommodate outdoor access that some view as integral to animal welfare. Future research should attempt to specify the underlying casual mechanisms by which statistical associations between farm size and indicators of welfare are believed to occur. We also suggest that policy and advocacy efforts aimed at reversing increases in farm size would be better directed toward improving welfare on farms of all sizes.

  18. 50 CFR 14.23 - Live farm-raised fish and farm-raised fish eggs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... eggs. 14.23 Section 14.23 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... Exportation at Designated Ports § 14.23 Live farm-raised fish and farm-raised fish eggs. Live farm-raised fish and farm-raised fish eggs meet the definition of “bred in captivity” as stated in 50 CFR 17.3....

  19. 50 CFR 14.23 - Live farm-raised fish and farm-raised fish eggs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... eggs. 14.23 Section 14.23 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... Exportation at Designated Ports § 14.23 Live farm-raised fish and farm-raised fish eggs. Live farm-raised fish and farm-raised fish eggs meet the definition of “bred in captivity” as stated in 50 CFR 17.3....

  20. 50 CFR 14.23 - Live farm-raised fish and farm-raised fish eggs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... eggs. 14.23 Section 14.23 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... Exportation at Designated Ports § 14.23 Live farm-raised fish and farm-raised fish eggs. Live farm-raised fish and farm-raised fish eggs meet the definition of “bred in captivity” as stated in 50 CFR 17.3....

  1. 50 CFR 14.23 - Live farm-raised fish and farm-raised fish eggs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... eggs. 14.23 Section 14.23 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... Exportation at Designated Ports § 14.23 Live farm-raised fish and farm-raised fish eggs. Live farm-raised fish and farm-raised fish eggs meet the definition of “bred in captivity” as stated in 50 CFR 17.3....

  2. 50 CFR 14.23 - Live farm-raised fish and farm-raised fish eggs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... eggs. 14.23 Section 14.23 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... Exportation at Designated Ports § 14.23 Live farm-raised fish and farm-raised fish eggs. Live farm-raised fish and farm-raised fish eggs meet the definition of “bred in captivity” as stated in 50 CFR 17.3....

  3. Protocol for disposition of tank farm equipment lists and tank farm drawings for year 2000 compliance

    SciTech Connect

    ADAMS, M.R.

    1999-02-23

    A program has been initiated to assess, renovate, document and certify tank farm field equipment for year 2000 compliance. The program is necessary to assure no adverse effects occur in tank farm operations as a result of equipment malfunction due to what is widely known as the ''millennium bug''. This document elaborates the protocols for reviewing field equipment lists and tank farm drawings for the purpose of identifying and resolving year 2000 compliance problems in tank farm equipment.

  4. The Socioeconomic Basis of Farm Enterprise Diversification Decisions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anosike, Nnamdi; Coughenour, C. Milton

    1990-01-01

    Examines research relating farm size inversely to specialization and directly to farm-enterprise diversification. Develops model of farm management decision making. Tests model using survey examining land tenure, off-farm work, education, and environmental factors. Concludes diversification linked to farm size, human capital, and environmental…

  5. 26 CFR 48.4041-9 - Exemption for farm use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... farming purposes. The tax applies in the case of diesel fuel delivered into the fuel supply tank of a..., even if it is known that the liquid fuel is to be used on a farm for farming purposes. Credit or refund... taxable liquid was used on a farm for farming purposes. A tax-free sale of fuel delivered into the...

  6. Crop Farm Employee. Agricultural Cooperative Training. Vocational Agriculture. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyd, Chester; And Others

    Designed for students enrolled in the Vocational Agricultural Cooperative Part-Time Training Program, this course of study contains 13 units for crop farm employees. Units include (examples of unit topics in parentheses): introduction (opportunities in farming, farming as a science, and farming in the United States), farm records (keeping farm…

  7. 29 CFR 780.157 - Other transportation incident to farming.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... operations, such as seed, animal or poultry feed, farm machinery or equipment, etc., would be incidental to... transportation incident to farming. (a) Transportation by a farmer or on a farm as an incident to or in conjunction with the farming operations of the farmer or of that farm is within the scope of agriculture...

  8. 29 CFR 780.157 - Other transportation incident to farming.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... operations, such as seed, animal or poultry feed, farm machinery or equipment, etc., would be incidental to... transportation incident to farming. (a) Transportation by a farmer or on a farm as an incident to or in conjunction with the farming operations of the farmer or of that farm is within the scope of agriculture...

  9. 12 CFR 619.9145 - Farm Credit Bank.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Farm Credit Bank. 619.9145 Section 619.9145 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM DEFINITIONS § 619.9145 Farm Credit Bank. The term Farm Credit Bank refers to a bank resulting from the mandatory merger of the Federal...

  10. 12 CFR 600.1 - The Farm Credit Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false The Farm Credit Act. 600.1 Section 600.1 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS ORGANIZATION AND FUNCTIONS Farm Credit Administration § 600.1 The Farm Credit Act. The Farm Credit Act of 1971, Public Law...

  11. 12 CFR 619.9146 - Farm Credit institutions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Farm Credit institutions. 619.9146 Section 619.9146 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM DEFINITIONS § 619.9146 Farm Credit institutions. Except as otherwise defined, the term Farm Credit institutions refers to all...

  12. 12 CFR 619.9145 - Farm Credit Bank.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Farm Credit Bank. 619.9145 Section 619.9145 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM DEFINITIONS § 619.9145 Farm Credit Bank. The term Farm Credit Bank refers to a bank resulting from the mandatory merger of the Federal...

  13. 12 CFR 619.9146 - Farm Credit institutions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Farm Credit institutions. 619.9146 Section 619.9146 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM DEFINITIONS § 619.9146 Farm Credit institutions. Except as otherwise defined, the term Farm Credit institutions refers to all...

  14. 26 CFR 48.4041-9 - Exemption for farm use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... farming purposes. The tax applies in the case of diesel fuel delivered into the fuel supply tank of a..., even if it is known that the liquid fuel is to be used on a farm for farming purposes. Credit or refund... taxable liquid was used on a farm for farming purposes. A tax-free sale of fuel delivered into the...

  15. 26 CFR 48.4041-9 - Exemption for farm use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... farming purposes. The tax applies in the case of diesel fuel delivered into the fuel supply tank of a..., even if it is known that the liquid fuel is to be used on a farm for farming purposes. Credit or refund... taxable liquid was used on a farm for farming purposes. A tax-free sale of fuel delivered into the...

  16. 29 CFR 780.157 - Other transportation incident to farming.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Other transportation incident to farming. 780.157 Section... transportation incident to farming. (a) Transportation by a farmer or on a farm as an incident to or in conjunction with the farming operations of the farmer or of that farm is within the scope of agriculture...

  17. 29 CFR 780.157 - Other transportation incident to farming.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Other transportation incident to farming. 780.157 Section... transportation incident to farming. (a) Transportation by a farmer or on a farm as an incident to or in conjunction with the farming operations of the farmer or of that farm is within the scope of agriculture...

  18. 29 CFR 780.157 - Other transportation incident to farming.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Other transportation incident to farming. 780.157 Section... transportation incident to farming. (a) Transportation by a farmer or on a farm as an incident to or in conjunction with the farming operations of the farmer or of that farm is within the scope of agriculture...

  19. 26 CFR 48.4041-9 - Exemption for farm use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... farming purposes. The tax applies in the case of diesel fuel delivered into the fuel supply tank of a..., even if it is known that the liquid fuel is to be used on a farm for farming purposes. Credit or refund... taxable liquid was used on a farm for farming purposes. A tax-free sale of fuel delivered into the...

  20. Improving Environmental Management on Small-scale Farms: Perspectives of Extension Educators and Horse Farm Operators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rebecca, Perry-Hill; Linda, Prokopy

    2015-01-01

    Although the number of small-scale farms is increasing in North America and Europe, few studies have been conducted to better understand environmental management in this sector. We investigate this issue by examining environmental management on horse farms from both the perspective of the "expert" extension educator and horse farm operator. We conducted a Delphi survey and follow-up interviews with extension educators in Indiana and Kentucky. We also conducted interviews and farm assessments with 15 horse farm operators in the two states. Our results suggest a disconnection between the perceptions of extension educators and horse farm operators. Extension educators believed that operators of small horse farms are unfamiliar with conservation practices and their environmental benefits and they found it difficult to target outreach to this audience. In the interviews with horse farm operators, we found that the majority were somewhat familiar with conservation practices like rotational grazing, soil testing, heavy use area protection, and manure composting. It was not common, however, for practices to be implemented to generally recognized standards. The horse farm respondents perceived these practices as interrelated parts of a system of farm management that has developed over time to best deal with the physical features of the property, needs of the horses, and available resources. Because conservation practices must be incorporated into a complex farm management system, traditional models of extension (i.e., diffusion of innovations) may be inappropriate for promoting better environmental management on horse farms.