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Sample records for farmed australian penaeus

  1. Antibiotics in South Indian coastal sea and farmed prawns (Penaeus monodon).

    PubMed

    Palaniyappan, Venkatesh; Nagalingam, Arun Kumar; Ranganathan, Hari Prasad; Kandhikuppam, Krishnamoorthy Bharathi; Kothandam, Hari Prasath; Vasu, Soumya

    2013-01-01

    Sulphonamides and chloramphenicol antibiotics were analysed by using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) in sea and farmed prawn (Penaeus monodon) samples obtained from the coastal region of southern India during 2011-2012. Average recoveries were 77-99% and precision was between 1% and 8%. The results revealed that in sea prawn samples neither of the two antibiotics was detected, but in farmed samples from coastal Andhra Pradesh some sulphonamides were detected in a concentration range greater than the maximum residual limit as set by Council Directive 2377/90 EC. PMID:24779904

  2. Farming fit? Dispelling the Australian agrarian myth

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Rural Australians face a higher mental health and lifestyle disease burden (obesity, diabetes and cardiovascular disease) than their urban counterparts. Our ongoing research reveals that the Australian farming community has even poorer physical and mental health outcomes than rural averages. In particular, farm men and women have high rates of overweightness, obesity, abdominal adiposity, high blood pressure and psychological distress when compared against Australian averages. Within our farming cohort we observed a significant association between psychological distress and obesity, abdominal adiposity and body fat percentage in the farming population. Presentation of hypothesis This paper presents a hypothesis based on preliminary data obtained from an ongoing study that could potentially explain the complex correlation between obesity, psychological distress and physical activity among a farming population. We posit that spasmodic physical activity, changing farm practices and climate variability induce prolonged stress in farmers. This increases systemic cortisol that, in turn, promotes abdominal adiposity and weight gain. Testing the hypothesis The hypothesis will be tested by anthropometric, biochemical and psychological analysis matched against systemic cortisol levels and the physical activity of the subjects. Implications of the hypothesis tested Previous studies indicate that farming populations have elevated rates of psychological distress and high rates of suicide. Australian farmers have recently experienced challenging climatic conditions including prolonged drought, floods and cyclones. Through our interactions and through the media it is not uncommon for farmers to describe the effect of this long-term stress with feelings of 'defeat'. By gaining a greater understanding of the role cortisol and physical activity have on mental and physical health we may positively impact the current rates of psychological distress in farmers. Trial

  3. Detection of Australian gill-associated virus (GAV) and lymphoid organ virus (LOV) of Penaeus monodon by RT-nested PCR.

    PubMed

    Cowley, J A; Dimmock, C M; Spann, K M; Walker, P J

    2000-02-01

    A highly sensitive test based on reverse transcription followed by nested polymerase chain reaction (RT-nPCR) was developed to detect the Australian yellow-head-like viruses, gill-associated virus (GAV) and lymphoid organ virus (LOV) of Penaeus monodon. The RT-nPCR detected viral RNA in as little as 10 fg lymphoid organ total RNA isolated from GAV-infected P. monodon. Amplification of serial dilutions of a GAV cDNA clone showed that the nested PCR was sufficiently sensitive to detect a single genome equivalent using a DNA template. The specificity and sensitivity of the RT-nPCR was also demonstrated using experimentally infected P. (Marsupenaeus) japonicus, where GAV sequences could be amplified from lymphoid organ and haemocyte RNA as early as 6 h post infection (p.i.), and from gills by 24 h p.i. In contrast, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) identified nucleocapsids and virions in lymphoid organ cells and haemocytes from Days 3 and 6 p.i., respectively, while there was no evidence of infection in gill cells at any time. The practical application of the RT-nPCR was demonstrated by screening healthy wild-caught P. monodon broodstock. The high prevalence (>98%) of broodstock that were positive by RT-nPCR suggests that LOV is endemic in northern Queensland. In addition, results with lymphoid organ, gill and haemocyte RNA suggest that small gill biopsies may be best suited to the non-sacrificial testing of valuable broodstock. The speed and sensitivity of the RT-nPCR make it a useful adjunct to TEM for diagnosing LOV/GAV infection of P. monodon, with the additional benefit that screening of gill biopsies may facilitate selection of LOV-free broodstock.

  4. Educational Issues for Children of Itinerant Seasonal Farm Workers: A Case Study in an Australian Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Robyn

    2004-01-01

    Although many Australian children change schools during the course of a school year, the children of itinerant seasonal farm workers can move residences as well as schools on a regular basis, often two or three times annually. Surprisingly, however, educational itinerancy has not been widely researched, particularly in Australian contexts. The…

  5. A multi-biomarker approach to assess the impact of farming systems on black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon).

    PubMed

    Tu, Huynh Thi; Silvestre, Frederic; Wang, Neil; Thome, Jean-Pierre; Phuong, Nguyen Thanh; Kestemont, Patrick

    2010-11-01

    This study examined the advantages of the use of biomarkers as an early warning system by applying it to different shrimp farming systems in Soctrang and Camau provinces, main shrimp producers in Mekong River Delta, Vietnam. Shrimp were collected at 15 different farms divided into four different farming systems: three farms were converted from originally rice paddies into intensive shrimp farming systems (IS1, IS2, IS3); three farms were rice-shrimp integrated farming systems (RS4, RS5, RS6); three farms were intensive farming systems (IS7, IS8, IS9); six farms were extensive shrimp farming systems (From ES1 to ES6). Lipid peroxidation (LPO) and total glutathione (GSH) were measured as well as catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), glutathione S-transferase (GST) and acetylcholinesterase activities (ACHE). Organ specificity was observed between gills and hepatopancreas with generally higher activity of GST in gills (GSTG) whereas the contrary was observed for LPO level in gills (LPOG). Hierarchical clustering and principal component analysis clearly indicated that shrimp reared in extensive culture system formed a distinct group from those reared in intensive or rice-shrimp integrated systems. CAT in gills (CATG), GPX in gills (GPXG) and hepatopancreas (GPXHP) and ACHE in muscle (ACHEM) of shrimp collected in extensive farms showed a general higher level than those in intensively farmed shrimp. On the contrary, we observed clear high levels of GSTG and GST in hepatopancreas (GSTHP) and LPOG and hepatopancreas (LPOHP) of shrimp sampled in intensive and rice-shrimp integrated systems. Thus, we propose that LPO and CAT, GPX, GST and ACHE can be used as a set of biomarkers for the assessment of health condition and can discriminate between shrimp cultivated in different farming systems. These findings provide the usefulness of integrating a set of biomarkers to define the health status of shrimp in different shrimp culture systems.

  6. How do older Australian farming couples construct generativity across the life course?: A narrative exploration.

    PubMed

    Downey, Heather; Threlkeld, Guinever; Warburton, Jeni

    2016-08-01

    Australian farming, predominantly based on a family farming model, reflects a distinct culture and identity within Australia. Generativity can be identified within the longstanding practice of patrilineal generational farm succession. However, the changing social, economic and environmental context facing farmers today, is now threatening the sustainability and viability of the family farming model. The outcome in Australia, as elsewhere, has been a significant decline in the number of farming families and a sharp reduction in the number of young people entering farming. Overall, farmers are increasingly aging on farm in two-person households and without a next generation to follow. In this scenario, the article presents research which aims to explore how older Australian couples construct generativity across their life course. The study draws on constructionist narrative research conducted in the Australian New South Wales Southern Riverina. Generativity, as presented by Erikson (1950) and Kotre (1996), is utilised as a theoretical frame by which to explore the meaning of generational family farming in six couples' stories of navigating later life challenges. Drawing on Gubrium and Holstein's (1998) 'narrative practice' analytic framework, this article examines tensions between couples' jointly constructed narratives and the grand narrative of Australian family farming. A 'narrative practice' approach permits examination of the meaning of experience, coherence, and the ways contexts, as well as stories of the past influence stories told about couples' present and future generative expression. This approach is highly consistent with the rapidly changing farming context where couples may be trying hard to construct a coherent story within a distinct family farming grand narrative under considerable tension. Findings show that in this context, and often in the absence of the next generation, there are visible changes in farming couples' expression of generativity

  7. How do older Australian farming couples construct generativity across the life course?: A narrative exploration.

    PubMed

    Downey, Heather; Threlkeld, Guinever; Warburton, Jeni

    2016-08-01

    Australian farming, predominantly based on a family farming model, reflects a distinct culture and identity within Australia. Generativity can be identified within the longstanding practice of patrilineal generational farm succession. However, the changing social, economic and environmental context facing farmers today, is now threatening the sustainability and viability of the family farming model. The outcome in Australia, as elsewhere, has been a significant decline in the number of farming families and a sharp reduction in the number of young people entering farming. Overall, farmers are increasingly aging on farm in two-person households and without a next generation to follow. In this scenario, the article presents research which aims to explore how older Australian couples construct generativity across their life course. The study draws on constructionist narrative research conducted in the Australian New South Wales Southern Riverina. Generativity, as presented by Erikson (1950) and Kotre (1996), is utilised as a theoretical frame by which to explore the meaning of generational family farming in six couples' stories of navigating later life challenges. Drawing on Gubrium and Holstein's (1998) 'narrative practice' analytic framework, this article examines tensions between couples' jointly constructed narratives and the grand narrative of Australian family farming. A 'narrative practice' approach permits examination of the meaning of experience, coherence, and the ways contexts, as well as stories of the past influence stories told about couples' present and future generative expression. This approach is highly consistent with the rapidly changing farming context where couples may be trying hard to construct a coherent story within a distinct family farming grand narrative under considerable tension. Findings show that in this context, and often in the absence of the next generation, there are visible changes in farming couples' expression of generativity

  8. Hot air ablowin! 'Media-speak', social conflict, and the Australian 'decoupled' wind farm controversy.

    PubMed

    Hindmarsh, Richard

    2014-04-01

    In work in science, technology, and society social conflict around wind farms has a growing profile, not least because it draws our attention to two key interrelated themes: 'science, technology and governance' and 'socio-technological systems'. In this article on Australian wind farm development and siting, these themes are highlighted in contexts of sustainability, legitimacy, and competency for policy effectiveness. There is enduring social conflict around wind farms at the local community level, but little government understanding of this conflict or willingness to respond adequately to resolve it. This article examines the conflict through the lens of print media analysis. A key finding of the five identified is that people seeing wind farms as spoiling a sense of place is a primary cause of enduring social conflict at the local community level around wind farms, alongside significant environmental issues and inadequate community engagement; this finding also indicates a central reason for the highly problematic state of Australian wind energy transitions. In turn, by identifying this problematic situation as one of a significantly 'decoupled' and 'dysfunctional' condition of the Australian socio-technological wind farm development and siting system, I suggest remedies including those of a deliberative nature that also respond to the Habermas-Mouffe debate. These inform a socio-technical siting approach or pathway to better respect and navigate contested landscapes for enhanced renewable energy transitions at the local level.

  9. Hot air ablowin! 'Media-speak', social conflict, and the Australian 'decoupled' wind farm controversy.

    PubMed

    Hindmarsh, Richard

    2014-04-01

    In work in science, technology, and society social conflict around wind farms has a growing profile, not least because it draws our attention to two key interrelated themes: 'science, technology and governance' and 'socio-technological systems'. In this article on Australian wind farm development and siting, these themes are highlighted in contexts of sustainability, legitimacy, and competency for policy effectiveness. There is enduring social conflict around wind farms at the local community level, but little government understanding of this conflict or willingness to respond adequately to resolve it. This article examines the conflict through the lens of print media analysis. A key finding of the five identified is that people seeing wind farms as spoiling a sense of place is a primary cause of enduring social conflict at the local community level around wind farms, alongside significant environmental issues and inadequate community engagement; this finding also indicates a central reason for the highly problematic state of Australian wind energy transitions. In turn, by identifying this problematic situation as one of a significantly 'decoupled' and 'dysfunctional' condition of the Australian socio-technological wind farm development and siting system, I suggest remedies including those of a deliberative nature that also respond to the Habermas-Mouffe debate. These inform a socio-technical siting approach or pathway to better respect and navigate contested landscapes for enhanced renewable energy transitions at the local level. PMID:24941611

  10. Neither "Family" nor "Corporate" Farming: Australian Tomato Growers as Farm Family Entrepreneurs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pritchard, Bill; Burch, David; Lawrence, Geoffrey

    2007-01-01

    For the past two decades there has been much debate about the future of family farming. The basic question on which this debate has turned is whether current pressures on family farm systems should be understood as symptomatic of a terminal condition, in which farmers are replaced progressively by corporate ownership; or whether family farms will…

  11. Factoid forensics: have "more than 40" Australian families abandoned their homes because of wind farm noise?

    PubMed

    Chapman, Simon

    2014-01-01

    Anti-wind farm activists repeatedly claim that families said to be adversely affected by noise from wind turbines "abandon" their homes. In Australia, a claim of "more than 40 families" has been made by a prominent anti-wind farm activist. Six sources (parliamentary submissions, media reports, an anti-wind farm website, wind industry sources, correspondence with known anti-wind farm activists and with three politicians opposed to wind farms) were used to find evidence of home "abandonments." Claims about 12 Australian households permanently (n = 10) or periodically (n = 2) leaving their homes were found. However, no house appears to have been permanently "abandoned" without sale, as the expression implies. These 12 cases need contextualizing against considerations that several of those involved were either dedicated activists against wind farms from times sometimes pre-dating their construction, were engaged in protracted negotiations for home purchase with wind companies, had pre-existing health problems, grievances with the wind company over employment or had left the area for unrelated reasons of employment elsewhere. The statement that "more than 40" houses have been "abandoned" because of wind turbines in Australia is a factoid promoted by wind farm opponents for dramatic, rhetorical impact. Other considerations are often involved in abandonment unrelated to the claims made about wind farm noise.

  12. Factoid forensics: have "more than 40" Australian families abandoned their homes because of wind farm noise?

    PubMed

    Chapman, Simon

    2014-01-01

    Anti-wind farm activists repeatedly claim that families said to be adversely affected by noise from wind turbines "abandon" their homes. In Australia, a claim of "more than 40 families" has been made by a prominent anti-wind farm activist. Six sources (parliamentary submissions, media reports, an anti-wind farm website, wind industry sources, correspondence with known anti-wind farm activists and with three politicians opposed to wind farms) were used to find evidence of home "abandonments." Claims about 12 Australian households permanently (n = 10) or periodically (n = 2) leaving their homes were found. However, no house appears to have been permanently "abandoned" without sale, as the expression implies. These 12 cases need contextualizing against considerations that several of those involved were either dedicated activists against wind farms from times sometimes pre-dating their construction, were engaged in protracted negotiations for home purchase with wind companies, had pre-existing health problems, grievances with the wind company over employment or had left the area for unrelated reasons of employment elsewhere. The statement that "more than 40" houses have been "abandoned" because of wind turbines in Australia is a factoid promoted by wind farm opponents for dramatic, rhetorical impact. Other considerations are often involved in abandonment unrelated to the claims made about wind farm noise. PMID:25033786

  13. Cryopreservation of sperm in farmed Australian greenlip abalone Haliotis laevigata.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yibing; Xu, Tong; Robinson, Nicholas; Qin, Jianguang; Li, Xiaoxu

    2014-04-01

    This study investigated factors important to the development of the liquid nitrogen (LN) vapor sperm cryopreservation technique in farmed greenlip abalone Haliotis laevigata, including (1) cryoprotectant agent (CPA) toxicity; (2) cooling temperature (height above LN surface); (3) thawing temperature; (4) sperm to egg ratio; and (5) sugar supplementation, using sperm motility, fertilization rate or integrity/potential of sperm components and organelles as quality assessment indicators. Results suggested that among the single CPAs evaluated 6% dimethyl sulfoxide (Me2SO) would be the most suitable for sperm cryopreservation in this species. The highest post-thaw sperm motility was achieved with the sperm that had been exposed to LN vapor for 10min at 5.2cm above the LN surface, thawed and recovered in 60 and 18°C seawater bathes, respectively after at least 2h storage in LN. The highest fertilization rates were achieved at a sperm to egg ratio of 10,000:1 or 15,000:1. Addition of 1% glucose or 2% sucrose produced significantly higher post-thaw sperm motility than 6% Me2SO alone. Among the three cryoprotectant solutions further trialled, 6% Me2SO+1% glucose produced the highest fertilization rate of 83.6±3.7%. Evaluation of sperm has shown that the addition of glucose could significantly improve the sperm plasma membrane integrity and mitochondrial membrane potential. These results demonstrated a positive role of glucose in the improvement of sperm cryopreservation in farmed greenlip abalone. PMID:24440870

  14. The Pattern of Complaints about Australian Wind Farms Does Not Match the Establishment and Distribution of Turbines: Support for the Psychogenic, ‘Communicated Disease’ Hypothesis

    PubMed Central

    Chapman, Simon; St. George, Alexis; Waller, Karen; Cakic, Vince

    2013-01-01

    Background and Objectives With often florid allegations about health problems arising from wind turbine exposure now widespread, nocebo effects potentially confound any future investigation of turbine health impact. Historical audits of health complaints are therefore important. We test 4 hypotheses relevant to psychogenic explanations of the variable timing and distribution of health and noise complaints about wind farms in Australia. Setting All Australian wind farms (51 with 1634 turbines) operating 1993–2012. Methods Records of complaints about noise or health from residents living near 51 Australian wind farms were obtained from all wind farm companies, and corroborated with complaints in submissions to 3 government public enquiries and news media records and court affidavits. These are expressed as proportions of estimated populations residing within 5 km of wind farms. Results There are large historical and geographical variations in wind farm complaints. 33/51 (64.7%) of Australian wind farms including 18/34 (52.9%) with turbine size >1 MW have never been subject to noise or health complaints. These 33 farms have an estimated 21,633 residents within 5 km and have operated complaint-free for a cumulative 267 years. Western Australia and Tasmania have seen no complaints. 129 individuals across Australia (1 in 254 residents) appear to have ever complained, with 94 (73%) being residents near 6 wind farms targeted by anti wind farm groups. The large majority 116/129(90%) of complainants made their first complaint after 2009 when anti wind farm groups began to add health concerns to their wider opposition. In the preceding years, health or noise complaints were rare despite large and small-turbine wind farms having operated for many years. Conclusions The reported historical and geographical variations in complaints are consistent with psychogenic hypotheses that expressed health problems are “communicated diseases” with nocebo effects likely to play an

  15. Readily available sources of long-chain omega-3 oils: is farmed Australian seafood a better source of the good oil than wild-caught seafood?

    PubMed

    Nichols, Peter D; Glencross, Brett; Petrie, James R; Singh, Surinder P

    2014-01-01

    Seafood consumption enhances intake of omega-3 long-chain (≥C₂₀) polyunsaturated fatty acids (termed LC omega-3 oils). Humans biosynthesize only small amounts of LC-omega-3, so they are considered semi-essential nutrients in our diet. Concern has been raised that farmed fish now contain lower LC omega-3 content than wild-harvested seafood due to the use of oil blending in diets fed to farmed fish. However, we observed that two major Australian farmed finfish species, Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) and barramundi (Lates calcifer), have higher oil and LC omega-3 content than the same or other species from the wild, and remain an excellent means to achieve substantial intake of LC omega-3 oils. Notwithstanding, LC omega-3 oil content has decreased in these two farmed species, due largely to replacing dietary fish oil with poultry oil. For Atlantic salmon, LC omega-3 content decreased ~30%-50% between 2002 and 2013, and the omega-3/omega-6 ratio also decreased (>5:1 to <1:1). Australian consumers increasingly seek their LC omega-3 from supplements, therefore a range of supplement products were compared. The development and future application of oilseeds containing LC omega-3 oils and their incorporation in aquafeeds would allow these health-benefitting oils to be maximized in farmed Australian seafood. Such advances can assist with preventative health care, fisheries management, aquaculture nutrition, an innovative feed/food industry and ultimately towards improved consumer health.

  16. Readily Available Sources of Long-Chain Omega-3 Oils: Is Farmed Australian Seafood a Better Source of the Good Oil than Wild-Caught Seafood?

    PubMed Central

    Nichols, Peter D.; Glencross, Brett; Petrie, James R.; Singh, Surinder P.

    2014-01-01

    Seafood consumption enhances intake of omega-3 long-chain (≥C20) polyunsaturated fatty acids (termed LC omega-3 oils). Humans biosynthesize only small amounts of LC-omega-3, so they are considered semi-essential nutrients in our diet. Concern has been raised that farmed fish now contain lower LC omega-3 content than wild-harvested seafood due to the use of oil blending in diets fed to farmed fish. However, we observed that two major Australian farmed finfish species, Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) and barramundi (Lates calcifer), have higher oil and LC omega-3 content than the same or other species from the wild, and remain an excellent means to achieve substantial intake of LC omega-3 oils. Notwithstanding, LC omega-3 oil content has decreased in these two farmed species, due largely to replacing dietary fish oil with poultry oil. For Atlantic salmon, LC omega-3 content decreased ~30%–50% between 2002 and 2013, and the omega-3/omega-6 ratio also decreased (>5:1 to <1:1). Australian consumers increasingly seek their LC omega-3 from supplements, therefore a range of supplement products were compared. The development and future application of oilseeds containing LC omega-3 oils and their incorporation in aquafeeds would allow these health-benefitting oils to be maximized in farmed Australian seafood. Such advances can assist with preventative health care, fisheries management, aquaculture nutrition, an innovative feed/food industry and ultimately towards improved consumer health. PMID:24618601

  17. Prevalence and characterization of foodborne pathogens from Australian dairy farm environments.

    PubMed

    McAuley, Catherine M; McMillan, Kate; Moore, Sean C; Fegan, Narelle; Fox, Edward M

    2014-12-01

    The ability of foodborne pathogens to gain entry into food supply systems remains an ongoing concern. In dairy products, raw milk acts as a major vehicle for this transfer; however, the sources of pathogenic bacteria that contaminate raw milk are often not clear, and environmental sources of contamination or the animals themselves may contribute to the transfer. This survey examined the occurrence of 9 foodborne pathogens in raw milk and environments of 7 dairy farms (3 bovine, 3 caprine, and 1 ovine farm) in summer and autumn, in Victoria, Australia. A total of 120 samples were taken from sampling points common to dairy farms, including pasture, soil, feed, water sources, animal feces, raw milk, and milk filters. The prevalence of the Bacillus cereus group, Campylobacter, Clostridium perfringens, Cronobacter, Shiga-toxigenic Escherichia coli, Listeria, Salmonella, coagulase-positive staphylococci (CPS), and Yersinia enterocolitica across the farms was investigated. The 2 most prevalent bacteria, which were detected on all farms, were the B. cereus group, isolated from 41% of samples, followed by Cl. perfringens, which was isolated from 38% of samples. The highest occurrence of any pathogen was the B. cereus group in soil, present in 93% of samples tested. Fecal samples showed the highest diversity of pathogens, containing 7 of the 9 pathogens tested. Salmonella was isolated from 1 bovine farm, although it was found in multiple samples on both visits. Out of the 14 occurrences where any pathogen was detected in milk filters, only 5 (36%) of the corresponding raw milk samples collected at the same time were positive for the same pathogen. All of the CPS were Staphylococcus aureus, and were found in raw milk or milk filter samples from 6 of the 7 farms, but not in other sample types. Pathogenic Listeria species were detected on 3 of the 7 farms, and included 4 L. ivanovii-positive samples, and 1 L. monocytogenes-positive water sample. Shiga-toxigenic Escherichia coli

  18. The "fire stick farming" hypothesis: Australian Aboriginal foraging strategies, biodiversity, and anthropogenic fire mosaics.

    PubMed

    Bliege Bird, R; Bird, D W; Codding, B F; Parker, C H; Jones, J H

    2008-09-30

    Aboriginal burning in Australia has long been assumed to be a "resource management" strategy, but no quantitative tests of this hypothesis have ever been conducted. We combine ethnographic observations of contemporary Aboriginal hunting and burning with satellite image analysis of anthropogenic and natural landscape structure to demonstrate the processes through which Aboriginal burning shapes arid-zone vegetational diversity. Anthropogenic landscapes contain a greater diversity of successional stages than landscapes under a lightning fire regime, and differences are of scale, not of kind. Landscape scale is directly linked to foraging for small, burrowed prey (monitor lizards), which is a specialty of Aboriginal women. The maintenance of small-scale habitat mosaics increases small-animal hunting productivity. These results have implications for understanding the unique biodiversity of the Australian continent, through time and space. In particular, anthropogenic influences on the habitat structure of paleolandscapes are likely to be spatially localized and linked to less mobile, "broad-spectrum" foraging economies.

  19. Culture, climate change and farm-level groundwater management: An Australian case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanderson, Matthew R.; Curtis, Allen L.

    2016-05-01

    Cultural factors - values, beliefs, and norms - provide important insights into the environmental attitudes, risk perceptions, and behaviors of the general population. Little is known, however, about the ostensibly complex relationships linking those elements of culture to climate change risk perceptions, especially in the context of farm level decision in the ground water context. This paper addresses that gap through an analysis of survey data provided by irrigators in the Namoi catchment of Australia's Murray-Darling Basin. We use Values-Beliefs-Norms theory to construct multivariate models of the relationship between ground water irrigators' interpretations of climate change risks and their implementation of adaptive water conservation practices. Results indicate that these cultural factors are important explanations of irrigators' climate change risk perceptions, and these risk perceptions are related to adaptive ground water management strategies at the farm level. The implications of the findings are discussed for research on the culture-environment nexus and for outreach designed to encourage agricultural adaptations to climate change.

  20. One Health approach to controlling a Q fever outbreak on an Australian goat farm.

    PubMed

    Bond, K A; Vincent, G; Wilks, C R; Franklin, L; Sutton, B; Stenos, J; Cowan, R; Lim, K; Athan, E; Harris, O; Macfarlane-Berry, L; Segal, Y; Firestone, S M

    2016-04-01

    A recent outbreak of Q fever was linked to an intensive goat and sheep dairy farm in Victoria, Australia, 2012-2014. Seventeen employees and one family member were confirmed with Q fever over a 28-month period, including two culture-positive cases. The outbreak investigation and management involved a One Health approach with representation from human, animal, environmental and public health. Seroprevalence in non-pregnant milking goats was 15% [95% confidence interval (CI) 7-27]; active infection was confirmed by positive quantitative PCR on several animal specimens. Genotyping of Coxiella burnetii DNA obtained from goat and human specimens was identical by two typing methods. A number of farming practices probably contributed to the outbreak, with similar precipitating factors to the Netherlands outbreak, 2007-2012. Compared to workers in a high-efficiency particulate arrestance (HEPA) filtered factory, administrative staff in an unfiltered adjoining office and those regularly handling goats and kids had 5·49 (95% CI 1·29-23·4) and 5·65 (95% CI 1·09-29·3) times the risk of infection, respectively; suggesting factory workers were protected from windborne spread of organisms. Reduction in the incidence of human cases was achieved through an intensive human vaccination programme plus environmental and biosecurity interventions. Subsequent non-occupational acquisition of Q fever in the spouse of an employee, indicates that infection remains endemic in the goat herd, and remains a challenge to manage without source control. PMID:26493615

  1. One Health approach to controlling a Q fever outbreak on an Australian goat farm.

    PubMed

    Bond, K A; Vincent, G; Wilks, C R; Franklin, L; Sutton, B; Stenos, J; Cowan, R; Lim, K; Athan, E; Harris, O; Macfarlane-Berry, L; Segal, Y; Firestone, S M

    2016-04-01

    A recent outbreak of Q fever was linked to an intensive goat and sheep dairy farm in Victoria, Australia, 2012-2014. Seventeen employees and one family member were confirmed with Q fever over a 28-month period, including two culture-positive cases. The outbreak investigation and management involved a One Health approach with representation from human, animal, environmental and public health. Seroprevalence in non-pregnant milking goats was 15% [95% confidence interval (CI) 7-27]; active infection was confirmed by positive quantitative PCR on several animal specimens. Genotyping of Coxiella burnetii DNA obtained from goat and human specimens was identical by two typing methods. A number of farming practices probably contributed to the outbreak, with similar precipitating factors to the Netherlands outbreak, 2007-2012. Compared to workers in a high-efficiency particulate arrestance (HEPA) filtered factory, administrative staff in an unfiltered adjoining office and those regularly handling goats and kids had 5·49 (95% CI 1·29-23·4) and 5·65 (95% CI 1·09-29·3) times the risk of infection, respectively; suggesting factory workers were protected from windborne spread of organisms. Reduction in the incidence of human cases was achieved through an intensive human vaccination programme plus environmental and biosecurity interventions. Subsequent non-occupational acquisition of Q fever in the spouse of an employee, indicates that infection remains endemic in the goat herd, and remains a challenge to manage without source control.

  2. Separation of endogenous viral elements from infectious Penaeus stylirostris densovirus using recombinase polymerase amplification.

    PubMed

    Jaroenram, Wansadaj; Owens, Leigh

    2014-01-01

    Non-infectious Penaeus stylirostris densovirus (PstDV)-related sequences in the shrimp genome cause false positive results with current PCR protocols. Here, we examined and mapped PstDV insertion profile in the genome of Australian Penaeus monodon. A DNA sequence which is likely to represent infectious PstDV was also identified and used as a target sequence for recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA)-based approach, developed for specifically detecting PstDV. The RPA protocol at 37 °C for 30 min showed no cross-reaction with other shrimp viruses, and was 10 times more sensitive than the 309F/R PCR protocol currently recommended by the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE) for PstDV diagnosis. These features, together with the simplicity of the protocol, requiring only a heating block for the reaction, offer opportunities for rapid and efficient detection of PstDV.

  3. Transcriptional analysis of Penaeus stylirostris densovirus genes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Penaeus stylirostris densovirus (PstDNV) genome contains three open reading frames (ORFs), left, middle, and right, which encode a non-structural (NS) protein, an unknown protein, and a capsid protein (CP), respectively. Transcription mapping revealed that P2, P11 and P61 promoters transcribe the le...

  4. Climate change, water security and the need for integrated policy development: the case of on-farm infrastructure investment in the Australian irrigation sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maraseni, T. N.; Mushtaq, S.; Reardon-Smith, K.

    2012-09-01

    The Australian Government is currently addressing the challenge of increasing water scarcity through significant on-farm infrastructure investment to facilitate the adoption of new water-efficient pressurized irrigation systems. However, it is highly likely that conversion to these systems will increase on-farm energy consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, suggesting potential conflicts in terms of mitigation and adaptation policies. This study explored the trade-offs associated with the adoption of more water efficient but energy-intensive irrigation technologies by developing an integrated assessment framework. Integrated analysis of five case studies revealed trade-offs between water security and environmental security when conversion to pressurized irrigation systems was evaluated in terms of fuel and energy-related emissions, except in cases where older hand-shift sprinkler irrigation systems were replaced. These results suggest that priority should be given, in implementing on-farm infrastructure investment policy, to replacing inefficient and energy-intensive sprinkler irrigation systems such as hand-shift and roll-line. The results indicated that associated changes in the use of agricultural machinery and agrochemicals may also be important. The findings of this study support the use of an integrated approach to avoid possible conflicts in designing national climate change mitigation and adaptation policies, both of which are being developed in Australia.

  5. Molecular identification of three novel herpesviruses found in Australian farmed saltwater crocodiles (Crocodylus porosus) and Australian captive freshwater crocodiles (Crocodylus johnstoni).

    PubMed

    Hyndman, Timothy H; Shilton, Catherine M; Wellehan, James F X; Davis, Steven; Isberg, Sally R; Phalen, David; Melville, Lorna

    2015-12-31

    As part of a larger investigation into three emerging disease syndromes highlighted by conjunctivitis and pharyngitis, systemic lymphoid proliferation and encephalitis, and lymphonodular skin infiltrates in farmed saltwater crocodiles (Crocodylus porosus) and one emerging syndrome of systemic lymphoid proliferation in captive freshwater crocodiles (Crocodylus johnstoni), cytopathic effects (CPE), including syncytial cell formation, were observed in primary crocodile cell lines exposed to clarified tissue homogenates from affected crocodiles. Ten cell cultures with CPE were then screened for herpesviruses using two broadly-reactive herpesvirus PCRs. Amplicons were obtained from 9 of 10 cell cultures and were sequenced. Three novel herpesviruses were discovered and the phylogenetic analysis of these viruses showed there was a 63% Bayesian posterior probability value supporting these viruses clustering with the subfamily Alphaherpesvirinae, and 100% posterior probability of clustering with a clade containing the Alphaherpesvirinae and other unassigned reptile herpesviruses. It is proposed that they are named Crocodyline herpesvirus (CrHV) 1, 2 and 3. CrHV1 and 2 were only isolated from saltwater crocodiles and CrHV3 was only isolated from freshwater crocodiles. A duplex PCR was designed that was able to detect these herpesviruses in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues, a sample type that neither of the broadly-reactive PCRs was able to detect these herpesviruses in. This work describes the isolation, molecular detection and phylogeny of these novel herpesviruses but the association that they have with the emerging disease syndromes requires further investigation.

  6. Molecular identification of three novel herpesviruses found in Australian farmed saltwater crocodiles (Crocodylus porosus) and Australian captive freshwater crocodiles (Crocodylus johnstoni).

    PubMed

    Hyndman, Timothy H; Shilton, Catherine M; Wellehan, James F X; Davis, Steven; Isberg, Sally R; Phalen, David; Melville, Lorna

    2015-12-31

    As part of a larger investigation into three emerging disease syndromes highlighted by conjunctivitis and pharyngitis, systemic lymphoid proliferation and encephalitis, and lymphonodular skin infiltrates in farmed saltwater crocodiles (Crocodylus porosus) and one emerging syndrome of systemic lymphoid proliferation in captive freshwater crocodiles (Crocodylus johnstoni), cytopathic effects (CPE), including syncytial cell formation, were observed in primary crocodile cell lines exposed to clarified tissue homogenates from affected crocodiles. Ten cell cultures with CPE were then screened for herpesviruses using two broadly-reactive herpesvirus PCRs. Amplicons were obtained from 9 of 10 cell cultures and were sequenced. Three novel herpesviruses were discovered and the phylogenetic analysis of these viruses showed there was a 63% Bayesian posterior probability value supporting these viruses clustering with the subfamily Alphaherpesvirinae, and 100% posterior probability of clustering with a clade containing the Alphaherpesvirinae and other unassigned reptile herpesviruses. It is proposed that they are named Crocodyline herpesvirus (CrHV) 1, 2 and 3. CrHV1 and 2 were only isolated from saltwater crocodiles and CrHV3 was only isolated from freshwater crocodiles. A duplex PCR was designed that was able to detect these herpesviruses in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues, a sample type that neither of the broadly-reactive PCRs was able to detect these herpesviruses in. This work describes the isolation, molecular detection and phylogeny of these novel herpesviruses but the association that they have with the emerging disease syndromes requires further investigation. PMID:26475649

  7. Acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease (AHPND) outbreaks in Penaeus vannamei and P. monodon cultured in the Philippines.

    PubMed

    de la Peña, Leobert D; Cabillon, Nikko Alvin R; Catedral, Demy D; Amar, Edgar C; Usero, Roselyn C; Monotilla, Wilberto D; Calpe, Adelaida T; Fernandez, Dalisay Dg; Saloma, Cynthia P

    2015-10-27

    Acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease (AHPND) has recently emerged as a serious disease of cultured shrimp. It has also been described as early mortality syndrome (EMS) due to mass mortalities occurring within 20 to 30 d after stocking of ponds with postlarvae. Here, Penaeus vannamei and Penaeus monodon from shrimp farms in the Philippines were examined for the toxin-producing strain of Vibrio parahaemolyticus due to AHPND-like symptoms occurring in marketable size shrimp. In the P. vannamei, histology revealed typical AHPND pathology, such as sloughing of undifferentiated cells in the hepatopancreatic tubule epithelium. Analysis using the IQ2000 AHPND/EMS Toxin 1 PCR test generated 218 bp and 432 bp amplicons confirmative of the toxin-producing strain of V. parahaemolyticus among shrimp sampled from 8 of 9 ponds. In the P. monodon, histology revealed massive sloughing of undifferentiated cells of the hepatopancreatic tubule epithelium in the absence of basophilic bacterial cells. PCR testing generated the 2 amplicons confirmatory for AHPND among shrimp sampled from 5 of 7 ponds. This study confirms the presence of AHPND in P. vannamei and P. monodon farmed in the Philippines and suggests that the disease can also impact late-stage juvenile shrimp.

  8. Structure of Penaeus stylirostris Densovirus, a Shrimp Pathogen

    SciTech Connect

    Kaufmann, Bärbel; Bowman, Valorie D.; Li, Yi; Szelei, Jozsef; Waddell, Peter J.; Tijssen, Peter; Rossmann, Michael G.

    2010-11-16

    Penaeus stylirostris densovirus (PstDNV), a pathogen of penaeid shrimp, causes significant damage to farmed and wild shrimp populations. In contrast to other parvoviruses, PstDNV probably has only one type of capsid protein that lacks the phospholipase A2 activity that has been implicated as a requirement during parvoviral host cell infection. The structure of recombinant virus-like particles, composed of 60 copies of the 37.5-kDa coat protein, the smallest parvoviral capsid protein reported thus far, was determined to 2.5-{angstrom} resolution by X-ray crystallography. The structure represents the first near-atomic resolution structure within the genus Brevidensovirus. The capsid protein has a {beta}-barrel 'jelly roll' motif similar to that found in many icosahedral viruses, including other parvoviruses. The N-terminal portion of the PstDNV coat protein adopts a 'domain-swapped' conformation relative to its twofold-related neighbor similar to the insect parvovirus Galleria mellonella densovirus (GmDNV) but in stark contrast to vertebrate parvoviruses. However, most of the surface loops have little structural resemblance to any of the known parvoviral capsid proteins.

  9. “Candidatus Similichlamydia laticola”, a Novel Chlamydia-like Agent of epitheliocystis in Seven Consecutive Cohorts of Farmed Australian Barramundi, Lates calcarifer (Bloch)

    PubMed Central

    Stride, Megan C.; Polkinghorne, Adam; Powell, Mark D.; Nowak, Barbara F.

    2013-01-01

    Six consecutively hatched cohorts and one cohort of pre-hatch eggs of farmed barramundi (Lates calcarifer) from south Australia were examined for Chlamydia-like organisms associated with epitheliocystis. To identify and characterise the bacteria, 59 gill samples and three pre-hatch egg samples were processed for histology, in situ hybridisation and 16S rRNA amplification, sequencing and comprehensive phylogenetic analysis. Cases of epitheliocystis were observed microscopically and characterised by membrane-enclosed basophilic cysts filled with a granular material that caused hypertrophy of the epithelial cells. In situ hybridisation with a Chlamydiales-specific probe lead to specific labelling of the epitheliocystis inclusions within the gill epithelium. Two distinct but closely related 16S rRNA chlamydial sequences were amplified from gill DNA across the seven cohorts, including from pre-hatch eggs. These genotype sequences were found to be novel, sharing 97.1 - 97.5% similarity to the next closest 16S rRNA sequence, Ca. Similichlamydia latridicola, from Australian striped trumpeter. Comprehensive phylogenetic analysis of these genotype sequences against representative members of the Chlamydiales order and against other epitheliocystis agents revealed these Chlamydia-like organisms to be novel and taxonomically placed them within the recently proposed genus Ca. Similichlamydia. Following Fredricks and Relman’s molecular postulates and based on these observations, we propose the epitheliocystis agents of barramundi to be known as “Candidatus Similichlamydia laticola” (sp. nov.). PMID:24349386

  10. Selenium requirement of shrimp Penaeus chinensis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Yuchuan; Liu, Fayi

    1993-09-01

    Penaeus chinensis were reared in fibreglass tanks for the study of their selenium requirements. The shrimp were fed semipurified diets containing graded levels of selenium, and weight gains, activities of glutatione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and selenium contents in muscle and hepatopancreas were determined. Weight gain and GSH-Px activity were the highest when the shrimp were fed diet containing 20 mg/kg selenium. Good linear correlation was found between GSH-Px activities and selenium contents in the diets, and the number of healthy shrimp. The experiment showed that 20 mg/kg selenium in the diet is optimal for the shrimp and that GSH-Px activity can be an important biochemical index of the selenium nutrition status of the animal.

  11. Diagnostic investigation of new disease syndromes in farmed Australian saltwater crocodiles (Crocodylus porosus) reveals associations with herpesviral infection.

    PubMed

    Shilton, Catherine M; Jerrett, Ian V; Davis, Steven; Walsh, Susan; Benedict, Suresh; Isberg, Sally R; Webb, Grahame J W; Manolis, Charlie; Hyndman, Timothy H; Phalen, David; Brown, Gregory P; Melville, Lorna

    2016-05-01

    Since 2006, 3 new disease syndromes have emerged in farmed saltwater crocodiles (Crocodylus porosus) in the Northern Territory of Australia. We describe the syndromes through a retrospective study of laboratory findings from 187 diagnostic cases submitted to Berrimah Veterinary Laboratories between 2005 and 2014. The first syndrome was characterized by conjunctivitis and/or pharyngitis (CP), primarily in hatchlings. Herpesviruses were isolated in primary crocodile cell culture, or were detected by PCR directly from conjunctiva or pharyngeal tissue, in 21 of 39 cases of CP (54%), compared with 9 of 64 crocodiles without the syndrome (14%, p < 0.0001). Chlamydiaceae were detected by PCR in conjunctiva or pharyngeal tissue of 55% of 29 CP cases tested, and of these, 81% also contained herpesvirus. The second syndrome occurred in juveniles and growers exhibiting poor growth, and was characterized histologically by systemic lymphoid proliferation and nonsuppurative encephalitis (SLPE). Herpesviruses were isolated or detected by PCR from at least 1 internal organ in 31 of 33 SLPE cases (94%) compared with 5 of 95 crocodiles without the syndrome (5%, p < 0.0001). The third syndrome, characterized by multifocal lymphohistiocytic infiltration of the dermis (LNS), occurred in 6 harvest-sized crocodiles. Herpesviruses were isolated from at least 1 skin lesion in 4 of these 6 cases. Although our study revealed strong associations between herpesvirus and the CP and SLPE syndromes, the precise nature of the role of herpesvirus, along with the pathogenesis and epidemiology of the syndromes, requires further investigation. PMID:27075848

  12. Diagnostic investigation of new disease syndromes in farmed Australian saltwater crocodiles (Crocodylus porosus) reveals associations with herpesviral infection.

    PubMed

    Shilton, Catherine M; Jerrett, Ian V; Davis, Steven; Walsh, Susan; Benedict, Suresh; Isberg, Sally R; Webb, Grahame J W; Manolis, Charlie; Hyndman, Timothy H; Phalen, David; Brown, Gregory P; Melville, Lorna

    2016-05-01

    Since 2006, 3 new disease syndromes have emerged in farmed saltwater crocodiles (Crocodylus porosus) in the Northern Territory of Australia. We describe the syndromes through a retrospective study of laboratory findings from 187 diagnostic cases submitted to Berrimah Veterinary Laboratories between 2005 and 2014. The first syndrome was characterized by conjunctivitis and/or pharyngitis (CP), primarily in hatchlings. Herpesviruses were isolated in primary crocodile cell culture, or were detected by PCR directly from conjunctiva or pharyngeal tissue, in 21 of 39 cases of CP (54%), compared with 9 of 64 crocodiles without the syndrome (14%, p < 0.0001). Chlamydiaceae were detected by PCR in conjunctiva or pharyngeal tissue of 55% of 29 CP cases tested, and of these, 81% also contained herpesvirus. The second syndrome occurred in juveniles and growers exhibiting poor growth, and was characterized histologically by systemic lymphoid proliferation and nonsuppurative encephalitis (SLPE). Herpesviruses were isolated or detected by PCR from at least 1 internal organ in 31 of 33 SLPE cases (94%) compared with 5 of 95 crocodiles without the syndrome (5%, p < 0.0001). The third syndrome, characterized by multifocal lymphohistiocytic infiltration of the dermis (LNS), occurred in 6 harvest-sized crocodiles. Herpesviruses were isolated from at least 1 skin lesion in 4 of these 6 cases. Although our study revealed strong associations between herpesvirus and the CP and SLPE syndromes, the precise nature of the role of herpesvirus, along with the pathogenesis and epidemiology of the syndromes, requires further investigation.

  13. Ultrastructural and sequence characterization of Penaeus vannamei nodavirus (PvNV) from Belize.

    PubMed

    Tang, Kathy F J; Pantoja, Carlos R; Redman, Rita M; Navarro, Solangel A; Lightner, Donald V

    2011-05-01

    The Penaeus vannamei nodavirus (PvNV), which causes muscle necrosis in Penaeus vannamei from Belize, was identified in 2005. Infected shrimp show clinical signs of white, opaque lesions in the tail muscle. Under transmission electron microscopy, the infected cells exhibit increases in various organelles, including mitochondria, Golgi stacks, and rough endoplasmic reticulum. Cytoplasmic inclusions containing para-crystalline arrays of virions were visualized. The viral particle is spherical in shape and 19 to 27 nm in diameter. A cDNA library was constructed from total RNA extracted from infected shrimp. Through nucleotide sequencing from the cDNA clones and northern blot hybridization, the PvNV genome was shown to consist of 2 segments: RNA1 (3111 bp) and RNA2 (1183 bp). RNA1 contains 2 overlapped open reading frames (ORF A and B), which may encode a RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) and a B2 protein, respectively. RNA2 contains a single ORF that may encode the viral capsid protein. Sequence analyses showed the presence of 4 RdRp characteristic motifs and 2 conserved domains (RNA-binding B2 protein and viral coat protein) in the PvNV genome. Phylogenetic analysis based on the translated amino acid sequence of the RdRp reveals that PvNV is a member of the genus Alphanodavirus and closely related to Macrobrachium rosenbergii nodavirus (MrNV). In a study investigating potential PvNV vectors, we monitored the presence of PvNV by RT-PCR in seabird feces and various aquatic organisms collected around a shrimp farm in Belize. PvNV was detected in mosquitofish, seabird feces, barnacles, and zooplankton, suggesting that PvNV can be spread via these carriers. PMID:21790065

  14. Sequence and conservation of a rRNA and tRNAVal mitochondrial gene fragment from Penaeus californiensis and comparison with Penaeus vannamei and Penaeus stylirostris.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez-Millán, Luis Enrique; Peregrino-Uriarte, Alma Beatriz; Sotelo-Mundo, Rogerio; Vargas-Albores, Francisco; Yepiz-Plascencia, Gloria

    2002-09-01

    Penaeus californiensis is an important species for shrimp fisheries in the Pacific Ocean and has recently been described as a potential cultured species, mainly through the winter season in subtropical regions. A fragment of the mitochondrial 12S rRNA-tRNAVal-16S rRNA genes from P. californiensis was sequenced and compared with the corresponding regions from Penaeus vannamei and Penaeus stylirostris. Purified mitochondrial DNA was used for polymerase chain reaction amplification with primers for 12S and 16S rRNA genes. A 1379 +/- 1-bp fragment was obtained, including 90% 16S rRNA, tRNAVal, and a portion of 12S rRNA, cloned, and sequenced. Genetic distances were calculated according to the Kimura 2-parameter distance model, and maximum-likelihood analysis was applied with 1000 bootstrap replications. Sequence identity of P. californiensis with both P. vannamei and P. stylirostris was 0.88, while for P. vannamei and P. stylirostris the identity was 0.92. Maximum-likelihood analysis grouped P. vannamei and P. stylirostris separately from P. californiensis.

  15. Horizontal transmission dynamics of White spot syndrome virus by cohabitation trials in juvenile Penaeus monodon and P. vannamei.

    PubMed

    Tuyen, N X; Verreth, J; Vlak, J M; de Jong, M C M

    2014-11-01

    White spot syndrome virus (WSSV), a rod-shaped double-stranded DNA virus, is an infectious agent causing fatal disease in shrimp farming around the globe. Within shrimp populations WSSV is transmitted very fast, however, the modes and dynamics of transmission of this virus are not well understood. In the current study the dynamics of disease transmission of WSSV were investigated in small, closed populations of Penaeus monodon and Penaeus vannamei. Pair cohabitation experiments using PCR as a readout for virus infection were used to estimate transmission parameters for WSSV in these two species. The mortality rate of contact-infected shrimp in P. monodon was higher than the rate in P. vannamei. The transmission rate parameters for WSSV were not different between the two species. The relative contribution of direct and indirect transmission rates of WSSV differed between the two species. For P. vannamei the direct contact transmission rate of WSSV was significantly lower than the indirect environmental transmission rate, but for P. monodon, the opposite was found. The reproduction ratio R0 for WSSV for these two species of shrimp was estimated to be above one: 2.07 (95%CI 1.53, 2.79) for P. monodon and 1.51 (95%CI 1.12, 2.03) for P. vannamei. The difference in R0 between the two species is due to a lower host mortality and hence a longer infectious period of WSSV in P. monodon. PMID:25189688

  16. Horizontal transmission dynamics of White spot syndrome virus by cohabitation trials in juvenile Penaeus monodon and P. vannamei.

    PubMed

    Tuyen, N X; Verreth, J; Vlak, J M; de Jong, M C M

    2014-11-01

    White spot syndrome virus (WSSV), a rod-shaped double-stranded DNA virus, is an infectious agent causing fatal disease in shrimp farming around the globe. Within shrimp populations WSSV is transmitted very fast, however, the modes and dynamics of transmission of this virus are not well understood. In the current study the dynamics of disease transmission of WSSV were investigated in small, closed populations of Penaeus monodon and Penaeus vannamei. Pair cohabitation experiments using PCR as a readout for virus infection were used to estimate transmission parameters for WSSV in these two species. The mortality rate of contact-infected shrimp in P. monodon was higher than the rate in P. vannamei. The transmission rate parameters for WSSV were not different between the two species. The relative contribution of direct and indirect transmission rates of WSSV differed between the two species. For P. vannamei the direct contact transmission rate of WSSV was significantly lower than the indirect environmental transmission rate, but for P. monodon, the opposite was found. The reproduction ratio R0 for WSSV for these two species of shrimp was estimated to be above one: 2.07 (95%CI 1.53, 2.79) for P. monodon and 1.51 (95%CI 1.12, 2.03) for P. vannamei. The difference in R0 between the two species is due to a lower host mortality and hence a longer infectious period of WSSV in P. monodon.

  17. Identification and pathogenicity of Vibrio parahaemolyticus isolates and immune responses of Penaeus (Litopenaeus) vannamei (Boone).

    PubMed

    Hong, X P; Xu, D; Zhuo, Y; Liu, H Q; Lu, L Q

    2016-09-01

    Five different Vibrio parahaemolyticus strains (SH8, SH108, SH58, AH5 and GD10) isolated from the hepatopancreas of moribund shrimp in farms of mainland China were identified and capable of inducing massive mortality of Penaeus (Litopenaeus) vannamei. The immersion challenge results with five isolates indicated variance of virulence, while only GD10 caused massive sloughing of tubule epithelial cells which was recognized as the most significant symptom of AHPND. Differences in immune responses were detected of P. vannamei during 48 h post-infection (p.i.) by injection or immersion challenge with V. parahaemolyticus (SH8, SH108 and GD10) isolates. When injected SH8 and SH108 isolates, the expression of lysozyme (LSZ) showing statistically significant upregulation at 16 and 48 h p.i. and that of Toll-like receptors (TLR) showed statistically significant upregulation at 48 h p.i. When immersion challenge with the GD10 isolate, TLR were upregulated after 8 h p.i. challenge with 10(4)  cfu mL(-1) ; however, LSZ was downregulated when challenged with 10(3)  cfu mL(-1) . The results suggested that LSZ and TLR serve as crucial molecular markers of innate immunity in shrimp against V. parahaemolyticus infection. LSZ is a vital marker for acute bacterial infection, while TLR serves as a crucial marker for chronic infection.

  18. Food sources and carbon dudget of chinese prawn Penaeus chinensis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Shuang-Lin; Zhang, Shuo; Wang, Fang

    2002-03-01

    This study deals with contribution of artificial food pellet and natural food to Chinese prawn ( Penaeus orientalis) growth in a semi-intensive culture pond. The prawn carbon consumption, budget, and the effects of some factors on the budget were investigated. The results showed that 26.2% of P. orientalis growth carbon came from formulated feed at the initial culture stage (when the prawns were 0.06±0.01 g in wet weight), and was 62.5% when the prawns were 9.56±1.04 g. The remaining part of the growth carbon was derived from organic fertilizer and natural food. The highest growth rate occurred at 20×10-3 salinity. Suitable salinity for culturing Chinese prawn was (20 28)×10-3.

  19. The cytochemistry of oocytes of Chinese shrimp Penaeus orientalis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Qiu

    1991-06-01

    In the growth of oocytes of Penaeus orientalis Kishinouye, five stages were distinguished. Histochemical tests showed the presence of DNA in the chromatin and nucleolus of the cell. The cytoplasm at the previtellogenetic stage and the nucleolus are rich in RNA and the proteins abounding with cysteine, tyrosine and tryptophan. The yolk consists mainly of proteins and phospholipids. The 1,2-glycol groups of carbohydrate occur in the cytoplasm at stage II, and aggregate mostly into cortical rods at stages IV and V. Neutral lipid droplets, and protein containing disulfides, appear in the cytoplasm at stages III and IV respectively. The proteins in the cortical rod differ from those in other components of the cell in the presence of cystine and absence of arginine.

  20. Comparative analysis of differentially expressed genes in normal and white spot syndrome virus infected Penaeus monodon

    PubMed Central

    Leu, Jiann-Horng; Chang, Chih-Chin; Wu, Jin-Lu; Hsu, Chun-Wei; Hirono, Ikuo; Aoki, Takashi; Juan, Hsueh-Fen; Lo, Chu-Fang; Kou, Guang-Hsiung; Huang, Hsuan-Cheng

    2007-01-01

    Background White spot syndrome (WSS) is a viral disease that affects most of the commercially important shrimps and causes serious economic losses to the shrimp farming industry worldwide. However, little information is available in terms of the molecular mechanisms of the host-virus interaction. In this study, we used an expressed sequence tag (EST) approach to observe global gene expression changes in white spot syndrome virus (WSSV)-infected postlarvae of Penaeus monodon. Results Sequencing of the complementary DNA clones of two libraries constructed from normal and WSSV-infected postlarvae produced a total of 15,981 high-quality ESTs. Of these ESTs, 46% were successfully matched against annotated genes in National Center of Biotechnology Information (NCBI) non-redundant (nr) database and 44% were functionally classified using the Gene Ontology (GO) scheme. Comparative EST analyses suggested that, in postlarval shrimp, WSSV infection strongly modulates the gene expression patterns in several organs or tissues, including the hepatopancreas, muscle, eyestalk and cuticle. Our data suggest that several basic cellular metabolic processes are likely to be affected, including oxidative phosphorylation, protein synthesis, the glycolytic pathway, and calcium ion balance. A group of immune-related chitin-binding protein genes is also likely to be strongly up regulated after WSSV infection. A database containing all the sequence data and analysis results is accessible at . Conclusion This study suggests that WSSV infection modulates expression of various kinds of genes. The predicted gene expression pattern changes not only reflect the possible responses of shrimp to the virus infection but also suggest how WSSV subverts cellular functions for virus multiplication. In addition, the ESTs reported in this study provide a rich source for identification of novel genes in shrimp. PMID:17506900

  1. Characterization of intestinal bacteria in wild and domesticated adult black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon).

    PubMed

    Rungrassamee, Wanilada; Klanchui, Amornpan; Maibunkaew, Sawarot; Chaiyapechara, Sage; Jiravanichpaisal, Pikul; Karoonuthaisiri, Nitsara

    2014-01-01

    The black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon) is a marine crustacean of economic importance in the world market. To ensure sustainability of the shrimp industry, production capacity and disease outbreak prevention must be improved. Understanding healthy microbial balance inside the shrimp intestine can provide an initial step toward better farming practice and probiotic applications. In this study, we employed a barcode pyrosequencing analysis of V3-4 regions of 16S rRNA genes to examine intestinal bacteria communities in wild-caught and domesticated P. monodon broodstock. Shrimp faeces were removed from intestines prior to further analysis in attempt to identify mucosal bacterial population. Five phyla, Actinobacteria, Fusobacteria, Proteobacteria, Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes, were found in all shrimp from both wild and domesticated environments. The operational taxonomic unit (OTU) was assigned at 97% sequence identity, and our pyrosequencing results identified 18 OTUs commonly found in both groups. Sequences of the shared OTUs were similar to bacteria in three phyla, namely i) Proteobacteria (Vibrio, Photobacterium, Novosphingobium, Pseudomonas, Sphingomonas and Undibacterium), ii) Firmicutes (Fusibacter), and iii) Bacteroidetes (Cloacibacterium). The shared bacterial members in P. monodon from two different habitats provide evidence that the internal environments within the host shrimp also exerts selective pressure on bacterial members. Intestinal bacterial profiles were compared using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). The sequences from DGGE bands were similar to those of Vibrio and Photobacterium in all shrimp, consistent with pyrosequencing results. This work provides the first comprehensive report on bacterial populations in the intestine of adult black tiger shrimp and reveals some similar bacterial members between the intestine of wild-caught and domesticated shrimp.

  2. Habitat Type Influences the Microhabitat Preference of Juvenile Tiger Prawns ( Penaeus esculentusHaswell and Penaeus semisulcatusDe Haan)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kenyon, R. A.; Loneragan, N. R.; Hughes, J. M.; Staples, D. J.

    1997-09-01

    The microhabitat preferences of juvenile tiger prawns (3-10 mm carapace length),Penaeus esculentusandPenaeus semisulcatus, were tested in the field at Groote Eylandt, in the western Gulf of Carpentaria, Australia. A partitioned apparatus containing live seagrass was used. Both species of prawns selected seagrass (Syringodium isoetifolium) over bare substrate. JuvenileP. esculentus, the most abundant species in this region, were also given paired choices of seagrasses with different leaf morphologies (representing a range of structural complexity) and sediments of different particle size. They selected a seagrass with broad, long leaves (Cymodocea serrulata) over one with narrow, long leaves (S. isoetifolium), which in turn was selected over the seagrasses with narrow, short leaves (Halodule uninervisand shortenedS. isoetifolium). Predation experiments have shown that juvenileP. esculentusare detected and eaten less often in broad, long-leaved seagrass than in narrow, short-leaved seagrass or bare substrate, so their preference for the former may shelter them from predators. No habitat preference was evident forP. esculentuswhen offered a choice between sediments consisting mainly of sand (71% sand particles) and silt (60% of silt and clay). The selection by both species of tiger prawn of seagrass over bare substrate, andP. esculentus's selection of seagrass with long, broad leaves, provides an explanation for the distribution of juvenile tiger prawns in the field. Thus, in the seagrass beds around Groote Eylandt,P. esculentusis more abundant in seagrass with broad, long leaves than in seagrass with short, thin leaves. In addition, its distribution in this region is relatively independent of sediment type. Leaf surface area (or habitat structural complexity) appears to be the main determinant of distribution for juvenileP. esculentus.

  3. Australian Extinctions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science Teacher, 2005

    2005-01-01

    Massive extinctions of animals and the arrival of the first humans in ancient Australia--which occurred 45,000 to 55,000 years ago--may be linked. Researchers at the Carnegie Institution, University of Colorado, Australian National University, and Bates College believe that massive fires set by the first humans may have altered the ecosystem of…

  4. Welfare and Support Services for Farm Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stayner, Richard; Barclay, Elaine

    Following the extended Australian drought of the 1990s, a review was undertaken to assess the programs and services that support farm families and respond to their welfare needs. A total of 43 service providers and 21 farm families were interviewed in New South Wales and Queensland. Following an introduction and description of methodology, the…

  5. High prevalence of Enterocytozoon hepatopenaei in shrimps Penaeus monodon and Litopenaeus vannamei sampled from slow growth ponds in India.

    PubMed

    Biju, Narayanan; Sathiyaraj, Ganesan; Raj, Mithun; Shanmugam, Venu; Baskaran, Babu; Govindan, Umamaheswari; Kumaresan, Gayathri; Kasthuriraju, Karthick Kannan; Chellamma, Thampi Sam Raj Yohannan

    2016-08-01

    Hepatopancreatic microsporidiosis in cultivated Litopenaeus vannamei and Penaeus monodon is caused by the newly emerged pathogen Enterocytozoon hepatopenaei (EHP). It has been detected in shrimp cultured in China, Vietnam and Thailand and is suspected to have occurred in Malaysia and Indonesia and to be associated with severely retarded growth. Due to retarded shrimp growth being reported at farms in the major grow-out states of Tamilnadu, Andhra Pradesh and Odisha in India, shrimp were sampled from a total of 235 affected ponds between March 2014 and April 2015 to identify the presence of EHP. PCR and histology detected a high prevalence of EHP in both P. monodon and L. vannamei, and infection was confirmed by in situ hybridization using an EHP-specific DNA probe. Histology revealed basophilic inclusions in hepatopancreas tubule epithelial cells in which EHP was observed at various developmental stages ranging from plasmodia to mature spores. The sequence of a region of the small subunit rDNA gene amplified by PCR was found to be identical to EHP sequences deposited in GenBank. Bioassays confirmed that EHP infection could be transmitted orally to healthy shrimp. Histology also identified bacterial co-infections in EHP-infected shrimp sampled from slow-growth ponds with low-level mortality. The data confirm that hepatopancreatic microsporidiosis caused by EHP is prevalent in shrimp being cultivated in India. EHP infection control measures thus need to be implemented urgently to limit impacts of slowed shrimp growth. PMID:27503918

  6. Cadmium uptake and accumulation by the decapod crustacean Penaeus indicus.

    PubMed

    Nuñez-Nogueira, Gabriel; Rainbow, Philip S

    2005-09-01

    Juveniles of the dendrobranchiate decapod Penaeus indicus take up radiolabelled cadmium from solution over the exposure concentration range of 1.8-31.5 microg L(-1), with an uptake rate constant of 0.090 L g(-1)d(-1) at 15 salinity and 25 degrees C. New cadmium taken up is added to the existing cadmium content of the prawn with no significant excretion, and the rate of accumulation of radiolabelled cadmium is a measure of the absolute cadmium uptake rate from solution. Moulting had no significant effect on the accumulation of cadmium. Newly accumulated cadmium is distributed to all organs with the highest proportions of body content being found in the hepatopancreas, exoskeleton, gills and remaining soft tissues, the hepatopancreas and gills containing the highest labelled cadmium concentrations. Like other crustaceans, penaeid prawns inhabiting anthropogenically contaminated coastal waters with raised cadmium bioavailabilities can be expected to contain raised body concentrations of cadmium. Cadmium concentrations of most field-collected adult penaeids are relatively low, as a probable consequence of the growth dilution of their cadmium contents as a result of the rapid growth rates of penaeid prawns. PMID:15769503

  7. [Effects of probiotics on Penaeus vannamei pond sediments].

    PubMed

    Wang, Yanbo; Zha, Longying; Xu, Zirong

    2006-09-01

    This paper studied the effects of probiotics on the sediment of Penaeus vannamei pond during 117 days of culture period. The results showed that probiotics application significantly decreased the concentrations of total nitrogen, total phosphorous, and sulfide in sediment, but no significant difference was observed in total plate count (TPC) of microbes between treated and control ponds. The final average presumptive vibrio count (PVC) of treated pond sediment (3.65 x 10(3) cfu x g(-1)) was significantly lower than that of the control (1.16 x 10(5) cfu x g(-1)), while the average number of BS (Bacillus), AB (ammonifying bacteria), PSOB (presumptive sulphur oxidizing bacteria) and SRB (sulphur reducing bacteria) in treated pond sediment was higher than that of the control. These data showed that probiotics could decrease the nutrients (nitrogen, phosphate and sulfur) accumulation and improve the composition of bacterial populations in pond sediment, and thus, supply a good sediment environment for the healthily culture of the shrimp.

  8. Antimicrobial effects of essential oils of Cinnamosma fragrans on the bacterial communities in the rearing water of Penaeus monodon larvae.

    PubMed

    Sarter, Samira; Randrianarivelo, Roger; Ruez, Philippe; Raherimandimby, Marson; Danthu, Pascal

    2011-04-01

    Farmed shrimps are vectors of various Vibrio species that are considered a potential health hazard. Previous study has shown that Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Vibrio vulnificus, and Vibrio alginolyticus dominated in the water and larval samples of shrimp hatchery (Randrianarivelo et al. 2010 ). The effects of two essential oils (EOs) of Cinnamosma fragrans, an endemic plant to Madagascar (B8: linalool-type and B143: 1,8-cineole-type), were determined on the total heterotrophic aerobic bacteria and the Vibrio concentrations in the rearing water of Penaeus monodon hatchery. The assays took place in OSO Farming's shrimp hatchery in Madagascar. EOs were directly added to the water tank. The bacterial concentrations of water tank were assessed on marine agar and thiosulfate citrate bile sucrose agar. The larvae culture corresponded to four replicates each of B8, B143, erythromycin (E), and control (oil and antibiotic free). The bacterial concentration of the rearing water in B8, B143, and antibiotic (E) tanks were significantly lower (p < 0.05) than in the control. Further, there was no significant difference (p > 0.05) between the three treatments B8, B143, and E. This study demonstrated that both EOs of C. fragrans, like antibiotic, inhibited bacterial growth in the rearing water of P. monodon larvae. The potential of C. fragrans EO to control the bacterial load in in vivo conditions of P. monodon hatchery makes it a relevant option for producers to minimize risk of Vibrio growth in the rearing water of larvae, which is the primary source of colonization of shrimp larvae.

  9. Mercury content of shrimp (Penaeus vannamei) reared in a wastewater-seawater aquacultural system

    SciTech Connect

    Landau, M.; Pierce, R.

    1986-10-01

    Penaeus vannamei were reared in two ponds, one receiving 10% wastewater in seawater and no feed, and the other receiving only seawater and a prepared commercial feed. The pond receiving the wastewater had significantly more mercury in the sediment, yet shrimp in this pond did not accumulate significant amounts of the mercury in their edible tissue.

  10. Identification of the core sequence elements in Penaeus stylirostris densovirus promoters

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This manuscript describes the role of different core elements in the transcriptional activity of promoters in a marine parvovirus, Penaeus stylirostris densovirus (PstDNV) that infects shrimp. Although comprehensive information on the role of different elements in the promoters of several animal par...

  11. Effect of preservatives, temperature and storage duration on stability of nucleic acids of pleopod tissues of Penaeus vannamei (Boone) and screening of viral infections.

    PubMed

    Remany, M C; Cyriac, Daly; Raju, P Krishnakanth Varada; Prem, Sruthi O C; Panda, A K; Kumar, Jaideep; Samraj, Y C Thampi

    2015-10-01

    In shrimp farming, screening for economically significant viral pathogens in nucleic acids of shrimps is vital for disease surveillance programmes and further, to take necessary precautions to ensure the sustainability of the farms and thereby the shrimp industry. Different preservatives, temperature and storage durations of the pleopod tissues of Penaeus vannamei broodstock were tested to investigate its effect on the quality and quantity of the nucleic acids. The pleopods were subjected to two preservation regimes and the yield and stability of the extracted nucleic acids were monitored over a time period of 12 months. Stability of the nucleic acids was assessed with nested polymerase chain reaction, and the yield was checked spectrophotometrically. Data was analysed by performing two way ANOVA and Tukeys Paired test. Preservation treatments included storage at -20 degrees C and 5 degrees C in RNAlater and in 70% ethanol. Significant variation (P < 0.05) was observed in both DNA and RNA yield and stability from ethanol and RNAlater stored pleopods at 5 degrees C. However, the yield and stability did not differ (P > 0.05) in both the preservatives at -20 degrees C. The RNA was degraded and yielded lesser quantity when pleopod tissues were stored in ethanol at -20 degrees C than when stored in RNAlater during storage duration of 9 months. This study would help the shrimp farmers and researchers to adopt better preservation strategy, vital for shrimp disease surveillance programmes and for traceability studies in the event of any disease outbreak. PMID:26665297

  12. Effect of preservatives, temperature and storage duration on stability of nucleic acids of pleopod tissues of Penaeus vannamei (Boone) and screening of viral infections.

    PubMed

    Remany, M C; Cyriac, Daly; Raju, P Krishnakanth Varada; Prem, Sruthi O C; Panda, A K; Kumar, Jaideep; Samraj, Y C Thampi

    2015-10-01

    In shrimp farming, screening for economically significant viral pathogens in nucleic acids of shrimps is vital for disease surveillance programmes and further, to take necessary precautions to ensure the sustainability of the farms and thereby the shrimp industry. Different preservatives, temperature and storage durations of the pleopod tissues of Penaeus vannamei broodstock were tested to investigate its effect on the quality and quantity of the nucleic acids. The pleopods were subjected to two preservation regimes and the yield and stability of the extracted nucleic acids were monitored over a time period of 12 months. Stability of the nucleic acids was assessed with nested polymerase chain reaction, and the yield was checked spectrophotometrically. Data was analysed by performing two way ANOVA and Tukeys Paired test. Preservation treatments included storage at -20 degrees C and 5 degrees C in RNAlater and in 70% ethanol. Significant variation (P < 0.05) was observed in both DNA and RNA yield and stability from ethanol and RNAlater stored pleopods at 5 degrees C. However, the yield and stability did not differ (P > 0.05) in both the preservatives at -20 degrees C. The RNA was degraded and yielded lesser quantity when pleopod tissues were stored in ethanol at -20 degrees C than when stored in RNAlater during storage duration of 9 months. This study would help the shrimp farmers and researchers to adopt better preservation strategy, vital for shrimp disease surveillance programmes and for traceability studies in the event of any disease outbreak.

  13. Duplex real-time PCR for detection and quantification of monodon baculovirus (MBV) and hepatopancreatic parvovirus (HPV) in Penaeus monodon.

    PubMed

    Tang, Kathy F J; Lightner, Donald V

    2011-02-22

    We describe a duplex real-time PCR assay using TaqMan probes for the simultaneous detection of monodon baculovirus (MBV) and hepatopancreatic parvovirus (HPV). Both MBV and HPV are shrimp enteric viruses that infect intestinal and hepatopancreatic epithelial cells. Both viruses can cause significant mortalities and depressed growth in infected larval, postlarval, and early juvenile stages of shrimp, and thus present a risk to commercial aquaculture. In this duplex assay, we combined 2 single real-time PCRs, amplifying MBV and HPV, in a one-tube PCR reaction. The 2 viruses were distinguished by specific fluorescent labels at the 5' end of TaqMan probes: the MBV probe was labeled with dichlorodimethoxyfluorescein (JOE), and the HPV probe was labeled with 6-carboxyfluorescein (FAM). The duplex real-time PCR assay was performed in a multi-channel real-time PCR detection system, and MBV and HPV amplification signals were separately detected by the JOE and FAM channels. This duplex assay was validated to be specific to the target viruses and found to have a detection limit of single copies for each virus. The dynamic range was found to be from 1 to 1 x 10(8) copies per reaction. This assay was further applied to quantify MBV and HPV in samples of infected Penaeus monodon collected from Malaysia, Indonesia, and Thailand. The specificity and sensitivity of this duplex real-time PCR assay offer a valuable tool for routine diagnosis and quantification of MBV and HPV from both wild and farmed shrimp stocks.

  14. Involvement of opioid peptides in the regulation of reproduction in the prawn Penaeus indicus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sreenivasula Reddy, P.

    The possible involvement of an endogenous opioid system in the regulation of ovarian development in the prawn Penaeus indicus was investigated. Injection of leucine-enkephalin significantly increased the ovarian index and oocyte diameter in a dose-dependent manner. In contrast, injection of methionine-enkephalin significantly decreased the ovarian index and oocyte diameters. These results provide evidence to support the hypothesis that an opioid system is involved in the regulation of reproduction in crustaceans.

  15. Farm Living.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marcoux, Mary F.

    1990-01-01

    Described are activities using ants. Ant hunting, a list of books on the topic, information, and ant farming are included. The procedures for assembling and maintenance of an ant farm are presented. (KR)

  16. Prevalence of the infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis virus in shrimp (Penaeus vannamei) broodstock in northwestern Mexico.

    PubMed

    Mendoza-Cano, Fernando; Enríquez-Espinoza, Tania; Encinas-García, Trinidad; Sánchez-Paz, Arturo

    2014-11-01

    The Penaeus stylirostris densovirus (PstDNV or IHHNV) is the smallest of the known shrimp viruses. It causes severe mortalities in juveniles and sub-adults of the blue shrimp Penaeus stylirostris, while specimens of the white shrimp Penaeus vannamei infected by this virus exhibit reduced growth rates and negative effects on the feed-conversion rate (FCR). To date, no descriptive epidemiological surveys on the prevalence of this virus in shrimp broodstock have been performed. In this study, the prevalence of IHHNV in broodstock of the white shrimp P. vannamei from hatcheries on the northwest of Mexico region was estimated. Prevalence vary across different regions from high (63%) to low (6%) in shrimp broodstock. Several factors, as transport of pathogens by human activities, or the absence or implementation of ineffective biosecurity measures, may explain the observed differences. To the best of our knowledge, the present study is the first to examine the prevalence of IHHNV on broodstock.

  17. An improved validated SYBR green-based real-time quantitative PCR assay for the detection of the Penaeus stylirostris densovirus in penaeid shrimp.

    PubMed

    Encinas-García, Trinidad; Mendoza-Cano, Fernando; Enríquez-Espinoza, Tania; Luken-Vega, Leonardo; Vichido-Chávez, Rodrigo; Sánchez-Paz, Arturo

    2015-02-01

    The Penaeus stylirostris densovirus (PstDV) (also known as infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis virus, IHHNV), one of the major shrimp pathogens, has a worldwide distribution in farmed and wild shrimp populations. Outbreaks of IHHNV have been associated with substantial economic losses which are accompanied by a negative social impact. Current diagnostic PCR tests may result in false-positive results as several parts of PstDV genome may be endogenized in the nuclear genome of the shrimp P. stylirostris. A one-step qPCR SYBR-Green based quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assay to detect different isolates of the IHHNV in shrimp samples was developed. The detection limit of the assay was 81 viral copies of targeted DNA per reaction. The specificity of the assay was evaluated by melting curve analysis, which showed that the IHHNV product generated a single melt peak at 81.4±0.044°C. The assay was more sensitive than conventional PCR. The standardized PCR was shown to be highly sensible, specific, robust, and reproducible, which makes it an economical and powerful tool for both diagnostic applications and general research of IHHNV.

  18. Farm Team.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Debra

    2001-01-01

    Describes a Philadelphia high school in which urban students study agricultural sciences to prepare for college and careers. The campus has a complete working farm, and students are exposed to a wide range of agricultural career opportunities while also studying core academic subjects. The school's farm units are real businesses, so students are…

  19. Bittersweet Farms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kay, Bettye Ruth

    1990-01-01

    The article describes Bittersweet Farms, a rural Ohio farm community for autistic adults. The program is based on the rural, extended family community as a model and includes work components (horticulture, animal care, woodworking and carpentry, maintenance, housekeeping, food preparation), recreational activities, community integration, physical…

  20. INDUCTION OF MATURATION AND SPAWNING OF PINK SHRIMP, PENAEUS DURORARUM, BY CHANGING WATER TEMPERATURE, AND SURVIVAL AND GROWTH OF YOUNG.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Field surveys of Penaeus duorarum have frequently observed co-occurrence of rising water temperatures, reproductive maturation and appearance of larval stages of the shrimp. This study investigated the use of water temperature changes, instead of eye enucleation, to induce matura...

  1. Identification of upregulated immune-related genes in Vibrio harveyi challenged Penaeus monodon postlarvae.

    PubMed

    Nayak, S; Singh, S K; Ramaiah, N; Sreepada, R A

    2010-09-01

    A subtracted cDNA library was constructed and analyzed to elucidate the response of Penaeus monodon postlarvae challenged with Vibrio harveyi. As many as 960 randomly selected cDNA fragments generated through suppression subtractive hybridization were single pass sequenced. Forty five genes and 20 hypothetical proteins were identified, a few being first reports from shrimps. The most abundant immune relevant genes were ferritin, hemocyanin, and TCTP (translationally controlled tumor protein) indicating their upregulation as also confirmed through qPCR. Post-infection qPCR analyses confirmed 2.04, 2.09, 3.28, 5.49, 6.47, and 11.63 fold rise respectively in ferritin, penaeidin, MnSOD, lysozyme, TCTP, and hemocyanin genes. These genes may be involved in the regulation of the host defense against V. harveyi.

  2. Genetic improvement of Pacific white shrimp [Penaeus (Litopenaeus) vannamei]: perspectives for genomic selection

    PubMed Central

    Castillo-Juárez, Héctor; Campos-Montes, Gabriel R.; Caballero-Zamora, Alejandra; Montaldo, Hugo H.

    2015-01-01

    The uses of breeding programs for the Pacific white shrimp [Penaeus (Litopenaeus) vannamei] based on mixed linear models with pedigreed data are described. The application of these classic breeding methods yielded continuous progress of great value to increase the profitability of the shrimp industry in several countries. Recent advances in such areas as genomics in shrimp will allow for the development of new breeding programs in the near future that will increase genetic progress. In particular, these novel techniques may help increase disease resistance to specific emerging diseases, which is today a very important component of shrimp breeding programs. Thanks to increased selection accuracy, simulated genetic advance using genomic selection for survival to a disease challenge was up to 2.6 times that of phenotypic sib selection. PMID:25852740

  3. Genetic improvement of Pacific white shrimp [Penaeus (Litopenaeus) vannamei]: perspectives for genomic selection.

    PubMed

    Castillo-Juárez, Héctor; Campos-Montes, Gabriel R; Caballero-Zamora, Alejandra; Montaldo, Hugo H

    2015-01-01

    The uses of breeding programs for the Pacific white shrimp [Penaeus (Litopenaeus) vannamei] based on mixed linear models with pedigreed data are described. The application of these classic breeding methods yielded continuous progress of great value to increase the profitability of the shrimp industry in several countries. Recent advances in such areas as genomics in shrimp will allow for the development of new breeding programs in the near future that will increase genetic progress. In particular, these novel techniques may help increase disease resistance to specific emerging diseases, which is today a very important component of shrimp breeding programs. Thanks to increased selection accuracy, simulated genetic advance using genomic selection for survival to a disease challenge was up to 2.6 times that of phenotypic sib selection. PMID:25852740

  4. Molecular cloning and sequencing of a cDNA encoding partial putative molt-inhibiting hormone from Penaeus chinensis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zai-Zhao; Xiang, Jian-Hai

    2002-09-01

    Total RNA was extracted from eyestalks of shrimp Penaeus chinensis. Eyestalk cDNA was obtained from total RNA by reverse transcription. Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was initiated using eyestalk cDNA and degenerate primers designed from the amino acid sequence of molt-inhibiting hormone from shrimp Penaeus japonicus. A specific cDNA was obtained and cloned into a T vector for sequencing. The cDNA consisted of 201 base pairs and encoding for a peptide of 67 amino acid residues. The peptide of P. chinensis had the highest identity with molt-inhibiting hormones of P. japonicus. The cDNA could be a partial gene of molt-inhibiting hormones from P. chinensis. This paper reports for the first time cDNA encoding for neuropeptide of P. chinensis.

  5. Fiscal incentives for Australian bushland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomson, Norman J.

    1986-09-01

    The clearing of over 80% of the native vegetation from Australian agricultural areas has contributed significantly to the degradation classification applied to more than half this land. Soil erosion, siltation, and salinity damage continue to increase yearly. This situation not only threatens the productivity of the farm sector but has contributed to the estimated loss of 78 species of native flora, endangerment of an additional 2206 species, and the loss of 20 species of Australia's marsupials. Private returns diverge from social returns because the action (or inaction) of farmers has an impact upon others, both now and in the future. There is justification, therefore, for the public sector to intervene on behalf of society in an attempt to influence private decision making for the social good. This article argues for increased incentives from the public sector in Australia to encourage the voluntary cooperation of farmers to improve the balance between development and conservation. In contrast to the essentially temporary nature of man-made measures such as flood-mitigating capital works, increasing the area set aside to native bushland offers scope for the permanent stewardship of the resource—land.

  6. Australian Courseware in Geographical Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lidstone, John G.; Gerber, Rod

    Students pursuing Australian studies should be given every possible opportunity to work with materials produced in Australia. There is a substantial and growing list of good curriculum software written within Australia and from an Australian perspective which can add interest and excitement to Australian geography classrooms. Computers can be used…

  7. Australian Curriculum Linked Lessons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurrell, Derek

    2013-01-01

    In providing a continued focus on tasks and activities that help to illustrate key ideas embedded in the new Australian Curriculum, the focus in this issue is on Measurement in the Measurement and Geometry strand. The small unit of work on measurement presented in this article has activities that can be modified to meet the requirements of…

  8. Researching Australian Children's Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saxby, Maurice

    2004-01-01

    When in 1962 the author began to research the history of Australian children's literature, access to the primary sources was limited and difficult. From a catalogue drawer in the Mitchell Library of hand-written cards marked "Children's books" he could call up from the stacks, in alphabetical order, piles of early publications. His notes about the…

  9. Australian Public and Smallpox

    PubMed Central

    Muller, Reinhold; Saunders, Vicki; Speare, Rick; Lowe, John B.

    2005-01-01

    A national survey of 1,001 Australians found that most were concerned about a bioterrorist attack and were ill-informed about smallpox prevention and response. Since general practitioners were commonly identified as the initial point of care, they should become a focus of bioterrorism response planning in Australia. PMID:16318729

  10. Research Readings. Australian Apprenticeships.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smart, Nigel, Ed.

    This volume on apprenticeships in Australia summarizes 11 research studies. After an "Introduction" (Nigel Smart), the reports are: "Apprenticeship in Australia: A Concise History" (John Ray); "Issues and Directions from the Australian Apprenticeship and Traineeship Literature" (Stephen Saunders); "Determinants of Apprentice Training by Small and…

  11. Religion in Australian Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mavor, Ian

    1989-01-01

    Explains the various instructional approaches taken to religious education in Australia. Examines how church agencies throughout Australia's history have influenced these approaches. States that sectarianism affected religious instruction. Summarizes current patterns and trends in religious education in six Australian states, pointing out that…

  12. Australian Curriculum Linked Lessons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurrell, Derek

    2014-01-01

    In providing a continued focus on tasks and activities that help to illustrate key ideas embedded in the new Australian Curriculum, this issue will focus on Number in the Number and Algebra strand. In this article Derek Hurrell provides a few tried and proven activities to develop place value understanding. These activities are provided for…

  13. Australian Film Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breen, Myles P.

    Although Australia had a vigorous film industry in the silent film era, it was stifled in the 1930s when United States and British interests bought up the Australian distribution channels and closed down the indigenous industry. However, the industry and film study have undergone a renaissance since the advent of the Labor government in 1972,…

  14. Australian Curriculum Linked Lessons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurrell, Derek; O'Neil, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    In providing a continued focus on tasks and activities that help to illustrate key ideas embedded in the new Australian Curriculum, this issue the authors focus, on Geometry in the Measurement and Geometry strand with strong links for an integrated focus on the Statistics and Probability strand. The small unit of work on the sorting and…

  15. DNA vaccines against viral diseases of farmed fish.

    PubMed

    Evensen, Øystein; Leong, Jo-Ann C

    2013-12-01

    Immunization by an antigen-encoding DNA was approved for commercial sale in Canada against a Novirhabdovirus infection in fish. DNA vaccines have been particularly successful against the Novirhabdoviruses while there are reports on the efficacy against viral pathogens like infectious pancreatic necrosis virus, infectious salmon anemia virus, and lymphocystis disease virus and these are inferior to what has been attained for the novirhabdoviruses. Most recently, DNA vaccination of Penaeus monodon against white spot syndrome virus was reported. Research efforts are now focused on the development of more effective vectors for DNA vaccines, improvement of vaccine efficacy against various viral diseases of fish for which there is currently no vaccines available and provision of co-expression of viral antigen and immunomodulatory compounds. Scientists are also in the process of developing new delivery methods. While a DNA vaccine has been approved for commercial use in farmed salmon in Canada, it is foreseen that it is still a long way to go before a DNA vaccine is approved for use in farmed fish in Europe.

  16. How Programme Teams Progress Agricultural Innovation in the Australian Dairy Industry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nettle, Ruth; Brightling, Pauline; Hope, Anne

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: This article outlines the emergence of programme teams in the Australian dairy farm sector as a response to counter weaknesses in the institutional environment for agricultural innovation which favours technology adoption/diffusion approaches. Design/methodology/approach: The strengths, weaknesses and risks of different approaches to…

  17. Abundance of potentially pathogenic micro-organisms in Penaeus monodon larvae rearing systems in India.

    PubMed

    Vaseeharan, Baskaralingam; Ramasamy, Palaniappan

    2003-01-01

    Monodon baculovirls (MBV), external fouling organisms (EFO) and bacteria (especially Vibrio species) were monitored during 1996-1997 at nine different Penaeus monodon rearing hatcheries in India. Total cultivable heterotrophic bacteria, Vibrio-like-bacteria, presumptive Vibrio harveyi, Vibrio anguillarum, Vibrio vulnificus counts were determined from shrimp eggs, post larvae, rearing tank water, source sea water, feed (Artemia nauplii and microencapsulated feed). The MBV infected post larvae and their environment showed higher Vibrio-like-bacteria than uninfected post larvae. An overwhelming predominance of presumptive Vibrio harveyi and Vibrio anguillarum was observed in post larval rearing tank water, MBV infected and uninfected post larvae. Vibrio-like-bacteria in Artemia nauplii clearly showed the possible source of these pathogenic bacteria in the hatchery environments. Quantitative analysis of Vibrio-like-bacteria in hatcheries revealed that when the Vibrio-like-bacteria increases to 2 x 10(2) CFU mortality of the post larvae occurs. Abundance of these micro-organisms in hatchery samples indicated that they are opportunistic pathogens which can invade the shrimp tissue, subsequently cause disease when the post larvae were under stressful conditions.

  18. Transgene expression in Penaeus monodon cells: evaluation of recombinant baculoviral vectors with shrimp specific hybrid promoters.

    PubMed

    Puthumana, Jayesh; Philip, Rosamma; Bright Singh, I S

    2016-08-01

    It has been realized that shrimp cell immortalization may not be accomplished without in vitro transformation by expressing immortalizing gene in cells. In this process, efficiency of transgene expression is confined to the ability of vectors to transmit gene of interests to the genome. Over the years, unavailability of such vectors has been hampering application of such a strategy in shrimp cells. We report the use of recombinant baculovirus mediated transduction using hybrid promoter system for transgene expression in lymphoid cells of Penaeus monodon. Two recombinant baculovirus vectors with shrimp viral promoters (WSSV-Ie1 and IHHNV-P2) were constructed (BacIe1-GFP and BacP2-GFP) and green fluorescent protein (GFP) used as the transgene. The GFP expression in cells under the control of hybrid promoters, PH-Ie1 or PH-P2, were analyzed and confirmed in shrimp cells. The results indicate that the recombinant baculovirus with shrimp specific viral promoters (hybrid) can be employed for delivery of foreign genes to shrimp cells for in vitro transformation.

  19. Role of ecdysteroids in the molting and reproductive cycles of the white shrimp, Penaeus vannamei

    SciTech Connect

    Chan, S.M.

    1989-01-01

    The molt cycle was characterized in the white shrimp Penaeus vannamei based upon changes in the morphology of pleopod setae. These characters were used subsequently to determine changes in ecdysteroids and related biosynthetic events during the stages of the molting cycle and in relation to reproduction. Ecdysteroid titers were measured during the molting cycle. They increased during the premolt, decreased at ecdysis and remained minimal through the intermolt. 20-hydroxyecdysone (20-OHE) was the major ecdysteroid present during the premolt. Injection of ({sup 3}H)ecdysone resulted in label accumulation in the epidermis and hepatopancreas in the form of 20-OHE which was subsequently hydroxylated further to a polar metabolite. ({sup 3}H)ecdysone was not metabolized by the Y-organ, hemolymph, muscle or intestine. Eyestalk ablation elevated hemolymph ecdysteroid titers and reduced the duration of all molt stages. However, 20-OHE injection into intact animals caused a disproportionate reduction in the durations of only the intermolt and early premolt stages.

  20. Melanosis in Penaeus monodon: Involvement of the Laccase-like Activity of Hemocyanin.

    PubMed

    Bris, Cédric Le; Cudennec, Benoit; Dhulster, Pascal; Drider, Djamel; Duflos, Guillaume; Grard, Thierry

    2016-01-27

    In shrimp, the development of postmortem melanosis resulting from phenoloxidase activities leads to important economic losses. Phenoloxidase enzymes include catechol oxidases, laccases, and tyrosinases, but hemocyanin is also capable of phenoloxidase activities. These activities have been explored in Penaeus monodon, using different substrates. Results highlighted that tyrosinase-specific substrates were little oxidized, whereas hydroquinone (laccase-specific substrate) was more highly oxidized than l-DOPA (nonspecific substrate) in the pereopods and pleopods. Global phenoloxidase activity, assayed with l-DOPA, did not appear thermally stable over time and probably resulted from phenoloxidase enzymes. Conversely, the laccase-like activity assayed with hydroquinone was thermally stable over time, reflecting the thermal stability of hemocyanin. Independently of the anatomical compartment, the temperature, or the substrate, the highest activities were assayed in the cuticular compartments. This study demonstrates the complexity of phenoloxidase activities in P. monodon, and the importance of considering all the activities, including laccase-like activities such as that of hemocyanin. PMID:26671070

  1. Occurrence of viral pathogens in Penaeus monodon post-larvae from aquaculture hatcheries

    PubMed Central

    Joseph, Toms C.; James, Roswin; Anbu Rajan, L.; Surendran, P.K.; Lalitha, K.V.

    2015-01-01

    Viral pathogens appear to exert the most significant constraints on the growth and survival of crustaceans under culture conditions. The prevalence of viral pathogens White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV), Hepatopancreatic Parvo Virus (HPV), Monodon Baculo Virus (MBV) and Infectious Hypodermal and Hematopoietic Necrosis Virus (IHHNV) in Penaeus monodon post-larvae was studied. Samples collected from different hatcheries and also samples submitted by farmers from Kerala were analyzed. Out of 104 samples collected, WSSV was detected in 12.5% of the post-larvae samples. Prevalence of concurrent infections by HPV, MBV and WSSV (either dual or triple infection) was present in 60.6% of the total post-larvae tested. Out of the 51 double positives, 98% showed either HPV or IHHNV infection. HPV or IHHNV was detected in 11 post-larval samples showing triple viral infection. This is the first report of IHHNV from India. Result of this study reveals the lack of efficient screening strategies to eradicate viruses in hatchery reared post-larvae. PMID:26217783

  2. Preparation of an novel botanic biopreservative and its efficacy in keeping quality of peeled Penaeus vannamei.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jing; Deng, Shanggui; Li, Jianrong

    2013-06-01

    A novel botanic biopreservative was successfully prepared by the combination of the bamboo leaves extracts and ebony extracts, designated as ebony-bamboo leaves complex extracts (EBLCE), whose antimicrobial activity was assessed according to an inhibition zone method against 10 common pathogenic and spoilage microorganisms. It was found that EBLCE was more effective from all the chosen microorganisms, as compared by potassium sorbate. Due to its excellent antimicrobial activity, and some additional properties like edibility, safety and economy, EBLCE was selected for further study to evaluate the efficacy in prolonging shelf life and improving the quality of peeled Penaeus vannamei during storage at 4 °C, based on periodical microbiological, chemical and sensory analysis. As a result, EBLCE was observed to prevent spoilage of peeled P. vannamei efficiently as reflected by a distinct decrease in total viable count, pH and total volatile basic nitrogen, as well as a slower decline in the sensory evaluation scores. Therefore, a prolonged shelf life of 16 days was obtained for EBLCE pre-treated peeled shrimps with comparison of 6 days for the control group, demonstrating EBLCE as a promising alternative for preserving food. PMID:23463785

  3. Impaired telomerase activity hinders proliferation and in vitro transformation of Penaeus monodon lymphoid cells.

    PubMed

    Jayesh, P; Vrinda, S; Priyaja, P; Philip, Rosamma; Singh, I S Bright

    2016-08-01

    Retaining terminal transferase activity of telomerase, the ribonucleoprotein enzyme which add telomeric repeats on chromosome end is thought to be required to prevent cellular ageing. Additionally, telomerase considered as a marker for cell proliferation and immortalization in eukaryotes. We examined telomerase activity in tissues and lymphoid cell culture of Penaeus monodon. Along with telomerase activity, telomere repeats and an attempt on identification of telomerase reverse transcriptase (PmTERT) were made. Telomeric repeat amplification protocol revealed that telomerase-dependent telomeric lengthening has been taking place in P. monodon and the adult tissues were retaining this capacity throughout their lifespan with the highest activity in ovary, testis and lymphoid organ. However, telomerase activity could not be detected in lymphoid cells in culture. The canonical telomeric repeats added by telomerase of lymphoid tissue extract were identified as TTAGG, but pentameric repeats GGTTA and AGGTT were also added by the telomerase. PmTERT protein sequence (partial) shared 100 % identity with the TERT sequence of Daphnia pulex, 27 % sequence identity with Purple sea urchin and 24-25 % with Zebra fish. Undetectable telomerase activity in lymphoid cell culture supports the hypothesis that the inadequate telomerase activity or gene expression may be a reason that prevents neoplastic transformation and spontaneous immortalization of the cells in vitro. Thus, it is envisaged that telomerase activation in lymphoid cells may surmount cellular ageing for in vitro transformation and cell line establishment.

  4. Molecular cloning and expression analysis of MAT1 gene in black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon).

    PubMed

    Wang, Y; Fu, M J; Zhao, C; Bao, W Y; Zhou, F L; Yang, Q B; Jiang, S G; Qiu, L H

    2016-01-01

    MAT1 (ménage à trois 1), an assembly factor and targeting subunit of the CDK-dependent kinase (CAK), can regulate the cell cycle, transcription, and DNA repair. This study was intended to investigate the role of MAT1 in the reproductive maturation of black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon). In this study, the P. monodon MAT1 (PmMAT1) gene was identified and characterized. The full-length cDNA of PmMAT1 was 1490 bp in length with an open-reading frame of 993 bp corresponding to 330 amino acids. The temporal expression of PmMAT1 in various tissues was measured by quantitative real-time PCR with the highest expression observed in ovaries. In the ovaries, the PmMAT1 gene was continuously but differentially expressed during the maturation stages. Comparative analyses of MAT1, CDK7, and cyclin H in the CAK complex of P. monodon indicated that the expression of CDK7 and cyclin H coincided with that of MAT1 during the ovary maturation stages. Serotonin (5-HT) injection promoted the expression level of PmMAT1 in the ovaries of shrimp at 6-48 h post-injection. These results indicate that PmMat1 plays a prominent role in the process of ovarian maturation. PMID:26909956

  5. Hemocytes of the palaemonids Macrobrachium rosenbergii and M. acanthurus, and of the penaeid Penaeus paulensis.

    PubMed

    Gargioni, R; Barracco, M A

    1998-06-01

    The hemocytes of two palaemonids and one penaeid were characterized using light and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The blood cells in all three species were classified as hyaline hemocytes (HH), small granule hemocytes (SGH), and large granule hemocytes (LGH). The HH are unstable hemocytes with a characteristic high nucleo-cytoplasmic ratio. Their cytoplasm appears particularly dense and has from few to numerous granules that often exhibit a typical striated substructure. In both palaemonids, the great majority of the HH contain numerous granules, whereas in Penaeus paulensis, a small number of these cells have few or no granules. The cytoplasm of some HH of the penaeid exhibits typical electron-dense deposits. The granulocytes, LGH and SGH, contain abundant electron-dense granules that are usually smaller in the SGH. In both hemocyte types, the cytosol, but not the granules, is rich in carbohydrates (PAS positive) and numerous vesicles contain acid phosphatase (Gomori reactive). In all studied shrimps, the SGH and LGH were actively phagocytic when examined on blood cell monolayers incubated with the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. A few mitotic figures (less than 1%) were observed in the granulocytes of P. paulensis, but not in the palaemonids. SGH is the main circulating blood cell type in both palaemonids, whereas HH is predominant in the penaeid. Based on morphological and functional features, it appears that the hyaline and the granular hemocytes of the three shrimp species represent different cell lineages.

  6. Prediction of spoilage of tropical shrimp (Penaeus notialis) under dynamic temperature regimes.

    PubMed

    Dabadé, D Sylvain; Azokpota, Paulin; Nout, M J Robert; Hounhouigan, D Joseph; Zwietering, Marcel H; den Besten, Heidy M W

    2015-10-01

    The spoilage activity of Pseudomonas psychrophila and Carnobacterium maltaromaticum, two tropical shrimp (Penaeus notialis) spoilage organisms, was assessed in cooked shrimps stored at 0 to 28 °C. Microbiological, chemical and sensory analyses were performed during storage. P. psychrophila had a higher growth rate and showed a higher spoilage activity at temperatures from 0 to 15 °C, while at 28 °C, C. maltaromaticum had a higher growth rate. The spoilage activity of P. psychrophila was found to be higher in cooked shrimp than in fresh shrimp. Observed shelf-life data of shrimps stored at constant temperatures were used to validate a previously developed model that predicts tropical shrimp shelf-life at constant storage temperatures. Models predicting the growth of the spoilage organisms as a function of temperature were constructed. The validation of these models under dynamic storage temperatures simulating temperature fluctuation in the shrimp supply chain showed that they can be used to predict the shelf-life of cooked and fresh tropical shrimps.

  7. Histological and three dimensional organizations of lymphoid tubules in normal lymphoid organ of Penaeus monodon.

    PubMed

    Duangsuwan, Pornsawan; Phoungpetchara, Ittipon; Tinikul, Yotsawan; Poljaroen, Jaruwan; Wanichanon, Chaitip; Sobhon, Prasert

    2008-04-01

    The normal lymphoid organ of Penaeus monodon (which tested negative for WSSV and YHV) was composed of two parts: lymphoid tubules and interstitial spaces, which were permeated with haemal sinuses filled with large numbers of haemocytes. There were three permanent types of cells present in the wall of lymphoid tubules: endothelial, stromal and capsular cells. Haemocytes penetrated the endothelium of the lymphoid tubule's wall to reside among the fixed cells. The outermost layer of the lymphoid tubule was covered by a network of fibers embedded in a PAS-positive extracellular matrix, which corresponded to a basket-like network that covered all the lymphoid tubules as visualized by a scanning electron microscope (SEM). Argyrophilic reticular fibers surrounded haemal sinuses and lymphoid tubules. Together they formed the scaffold that supported the lymphoid tubule. Using vascular cast and SEM, the three dimensional structure of the subgastric artery that supplies each lobe of the lymphoid organ was reconstructed. This artery branched into highly convoluted and blind-ending terminal capillaries, each forming the lumen of a lymphoid tubule around which haemocytes and other cells aggregated to form a cuff-like wall. Stromal cells which form part of the tubular scaffold were immunostained for vimentin. Examination of the whole-mounted lymphoid organ, immunostained for vimentin, by confocal microscopy exhibited the highly branching and convoluted lymphoid tubules matching the pattern of the vascular cast observed in SEM.

  8. Differentially expressed transcripts in stomach of Penaeus monodon in response to AHPND infection.

    PubMed

    Soonthornchai, Wipasiri; Chaiyapechara, Sage; Klinbunga, Sirawut; Thongda, Wilawan; Tangphatsornruang, Sithichoke; Yoocha, Thippawan; Jarayabhand, Padermsak; Jiravanichpaisal, Pikul

    2016-12-01

    Acute Hepatopancreatic Necrosis Disease (AHPND) is an emerging disease in aquacultured shrimp caused by a pathogenic strain of Vibrio parahaemolyticus. As with several pathogenic bacteria, colonization of the stomach appeared to be the initial step of the infection for AHPND-causing Vibrio. To understand the immune responses in the stomach of black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon), differentially expressed transcripts (DETs) in the stomach during V. parahaemolyticus strain 3HP (VP3HP) infection was examined using Ion Torrent sequencing. From the total 42,998 contigs obtained, 1585 contigs representing 1513 unigenes were significantly differentially expressed with 1122 and 391 unigenes up- and down-regulated, respectively. Among the DETs, there were 141 immune-related unigenes in 10 functional categories: antimicrobial peptide, signal transduction pathway, proPO system, oxidative stress, proteinases/proteinase inhibitors, apoptotic tumor-related protein, pathogen recognition immune regulator, blood clotting system, adhesive protein and heat shock protein. Expression profiles of 20 of 22 genes inferred from RNA sequencing were confirmed with the results from qRT-PCR. Additionally, a novel isoform of anti-lipopolysaccharide factor, PmALF7 whose transcript was induced in the stomach after challenge with VP3HP was discovered. This study provided a fundamental information on the molecular response in the shrimp stomach during the AHPND infection that would be beneficial for future research. PMID:27339467

  9. A tool for tracking genetic contributions of wild Penaeus (Melicertus) plebejus broodstock to hatchery populations.

    PubMed

    Chan, Jackie T; Sherwin, William B; Taylor, Matthew D

    2014-12-01

    Stock enhancement, restocking and sea ranching are being increasingly applied in both fisheries and conservation. The contribution of hatchery stock to fishery harvest and the maintenance of the genetic structure of stocked populations are both important considerations when releasing captive-bred organisms into natural systems. Use of wild-caught broodstock generally overcomes some of the genetic problems associated with domesticated hatchery populations, but there is still a need to ensure that a sufficient proportion of the natural population contribute to production of the stocked cohort to realise the genetic benefits of using wild-caught broodstock. Releases of Penaeus (Melicertus) plebejus are under investigation as a means of increasing prawn production in recruitment-limited areas. We used the highly variable mitochondrial control region (mtCR) to assign post-larvae to maternal lineages in the hatchery and also to investigate the reproductive performance of female broodstock in terms of contribution to the production of the cohorts of post-larvae in the hatchery. Our data showed that mtCR can be a useful tool for tracking lineages and provided genetic evidence that unequal contribution and underproducing females can occur even in wild-caught broodstock. This work therefore highlights the importance of monitoring the genetic composition of pre-release hatchery stocks.

  10. Molecular cloning, characterization and expression analysis of thrombospondin gene from Penaeus monodon.

    PubMed

    Zhou, FaLin; Zheng, Liming; Zhang, Dianchang; Huang, JianHua; Qiu, Lihua; Yang, QiBin; Jiang, ShiGui

    2011-06-01

    In present study, a thrombospondin gene was obtained from the ovary and neurosecretory organ in eyestalk cDNA library of black tiger prawn (Penaeus monodon). The full-length P. monodon thrombospondin (PmTSP) cDNA contained a 5' untranslated region (UTR) of 9 bp, an open reading frame (ORF) of 2778 bp encoding a polypeptide of 925 amino acids with molecular mass 100.57 kDa, and a 3'UTR of 99 bp. ScanProsite analysis indicated that PmTSP contained four chitin-binding type-II domains, an EGF-like domain, eight thrombospondin type-III repeats and one thrombospondin C-terminal domain. Homology analysis of the deduced amino acid sequence of the PmTSP with other known TSP sequences by MatGAT software revealed that the PmTSP shows very high homology with the sequences of Fennerpenaeus chinensis (89.9% similarity, 83.8% identity). Analysis of the tissue expression pattern of the PmTSP gene showed that the PmTSP mRNA was expressed in all tested tissues, including hepatopancreas, ovary, muscle, intestine, neurosecretory organ in eyestalk, neurosecretory organ in brain, stomach, and heart, with highest level in the ovary. Furthermore, the PmTSP expression was found to be of high level in six development stages of the ovary. The results indicated that PmTSP might play an important role in ovarian development.

  11. Oxidative stress response of the black tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon to Vibrio parahaemolyticus challenge.

    PubMed

    Duan, Yafei; Zhang, Jiasong; Dong, Hongbiao; Wang, Yun; Liu, Qingsong; Li, Hua

    2015-10-01

    Vibrio parahaemolyticus is a virulent pathogen that affects shrimp aquaculture. Reactive oxygen species are produced by the immune system that defends the host against foreign microorganisms. In the present study, the oxidative stress response in hepatopancreas and gills of Penaeus monodon to V. parahaemolyticus challenge were studied, such as respiratory burst, ROS production (·O2(-) and ·OH), activities of antioxidant enzymes (CAT, GPx, SOD, POD and GST) and oxidative damage to lipid and protein (indexed by contents of MDA). Compared with the control group, after V. parahaemolyticus challenge, respiratory burst and ROS production were up-regulated significantly. GPx and POD activity increased significantly in hepatopancreas and gills of the shrimps at 12 h, but CAT activity decreased markedly at 12 h and 24 h. SOD and GST activity in hepatopancreas of the shrimps increased significantly at 1.5 h, but decreased markedly at 12 h-48 h. MDA content increased significantly after 6 h-24 h challenge. HE staining showed that V. parahaemolyticus challenge induced damage symptoms in hepatopancreas of P. monodon. Our study revealed that V. parahaemolyticus influenced the antioxidative status and caused oxidative stress and tissue damage via confusion of antioxidant enzymes in P. monodon.

  12. Molecular cloning and mRNA expression of peroxiredoxin gene in black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon).

    PubMed

    Qiu, Lihua; Ma, Zhuojun; Jiang, Shigui; Wang, Weifang; Zhou, Falin; Huang, Jianhua; Li, Jianzhu; Yang, Qibin

    2010-07-01

    The techniques of homology cloning and anchored PCR were used to clone the peroxiredoxin (Prx) gene from black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon). The full length cDNA of black tiger shrimp Prx (PmPrx) contained a 5' untranslated region (UTR) of 51 bp, an ORF (open reading frame) of 582 bp encoding a polypeptide of 193 amino acids with an estimated molecular mass of 22.15 kDa and a 3' UTR of 948 bp. Sequence comparison showed that PmPrx shared higher identities with Prx IVs than that with other isoforms of Prx, indicating PmPrx was a member of the Prx IV family. A quantitative reverse transcriptase Real-Time PCR (qRT-PCR) assay was developed to assess the mRNA expression of PmPrx in different tissues and the temporal expression of PmPrx in the hepatopancreas challenged by lipopolyssacharide (LPS). Higher-level mRNA expression of PmPrx was detected in the tissues of hepatopancreas, gonad and heart. The expression of PmPrx in the hepatopancreas was up regulated after stimulated by LPS. The results indicated that PmPrx was a constitutive and inducible expressed protein and could be induced by LPS.

  13. Ammonia and salinity tolerance of Penaeus monodon across eight breeding families.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jinsong; Zhou, Falin; Huang, Jianhua; Ma, Zhenhua; Jiang, Shigui; Qiu, Lihua; Qin, Jian G

    2016-01-01

    Ammonia nitrogen and salinity tolerance of Penaeus monodon from eight selected breeding families were evaluated at the concentration of 67.65 mg L(-1) ammonia-N and reducing salinity from 15 to 0 ‰. The final survival of family A (88.67 ± 9.81 %) was highest, and the final survival of family B was lowest (24.33 ± 14.01 %) after the ammonia tolerance test. Upon completing the sudden drop salinity test from 15 to 0 ‰, the highest survival was observed in family B (98.00 ± 1.73 %), and the lowest survival was found in family H (18.00 ± 1.73 %). Family A showed the strongest ability to tolerate ammonia stress, and family B showed the strongest tolerance to low salinity. This study suggests that the tolerance of salinity and ammonia nitrogen varied between breeding families. Results from the present study provide useful information towards selective breeding in shrimp in aquaculture for environmental tolerance.

  14. Isolation and characterization of homologous TRBP cDNA for RNA interference in Penaeus monodon.

    PubMed

    Yang, Lishi; Li, Xiaolan; Huang, Jianhua; Zhou, Falin; Su, Tianfeng; Jiang, Shigui

    2013-02-01

    The transactivation response RNA-binding protein (TRBP) interacts with Dicer and binds to double-stranded RNA as a critical component of the RNA-induced silencing complex, which is a key complex in the RNA interference pathway. The full-length cDNA of TRBP from the tiger prawn, Penaeus monodon, (PmTRBP; 1548 bp long with a 1029 bp coding region) was isolated. The encoded polypeptide of 343 amino acids had a predicted molecular mass of 36.8 kDa. Sequence homology and phylogenetic analysis indicated that PmTRBP was evolutionarily closest to TRBP1 from Litopenaeus vannamei, with the three double-stranded RNA-binding motifs that were typical of the TRBP family. Tissue expression profile analysis by quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction showed that PmTRBP1 was constitutively expressed in all the examined tissues, with a predominant expression in the lymphatic organs and with the weakest expression in the ovaries. Significantly upregulated PmTRBP1 expression was elicited by systemic injections of Staphylococcus aureus, Vibrio vulnificus, and white spot syndrome virus, thereby revealing its pathogen inducibility. Furthermore, exogenous viral nucleoside analogs (high-molecular-weight poly(I:C) dsRNAs as well as R484 single-stranded RNA) were remarkably induced PmTRBP1 transcription at 48 h and 9 h post-injection, respectively, which suggested that PmTRBP1 might function in tiger prawn antibacterial and antiviral response.

  15. Cellular responses of the tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon haemocytes after lipopolysaccharide injection.

    PubMed

    Xian, Jian-An; Zhang, Xiu-Xia; Guo, Hui; Wang, Dong-Mei; Wang, An-Li

    2016-07-01

    This study was aimed at investigating the in vivo effects of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) injection on Penaeus monodon haemocytes at a cellular level. Cellular responses of LPS-injected shrimp were analysed using flow cytometry. Results showed that LPS injection caused total haemocyte count (THC) and count of large cells (semigranular and granular cells) decline. In LPS-injected shrimp, percentage of large cells decreased at the initial stage, and returned to the original level later. After LPS infection, non-specific esterase activity, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and nitric oxide (NO) production in haemocytes were significantly induced, while apoptotic cell ratio of haemocytes increased. PO activity in plasma increased in shrimp received LPS at 2 μg g(-1) after 3-12 h and at 8 μg g(-1) after 3-6 h, and then returned to the initial levels. These results demonstrated that LPS induced immune responses on haemocytes, including production of ROS and NO, and release of esterase and PO. On the other hand, THC reduction might be due to the ROS/NO-induced apoptosis. Haemocyte apoptosis which would eliminate damaged or weak cells and contribute to haemocyte renewal, may be a defending strategie against pathogens.

  16. Molecular cloning and expression analysis of MAT1 gene in black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon).

    PubMed

    Wang, Y; Fu, M J; Zhao, C; Bao, W Y; Zhou, F L; Yang, Q B; Jiang, S G; Qiu, L H

    2016-01-01

    MAT1 (ménage à trois 1), an assembly factor and targeting subunit of the CDK-dependent kinase (CAK), can regulate the cell cycle, transcription, and DNA repair. This study was intended to investigate the role of MAT1 in the reproductive maturation of black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon). In this study, the P. monodon MAT1 (PmMAT1) gene was identified and characterized. The full-length cDNA of PmMAT1 was 1490 bp in length with an open-reading frame of 993 bp corresponding to 330 amino acids. The temporal expression of PmMAT1 in various tissues was measured by quantitative real-time PCR with the highest expression observed in ovaries. In the ovaries, the PmMAT1 gene was continuously but differentially expressed during the maturation stages. Comparative analyses of MAT1, CDK7, and cyclin H in the CAK complex of P. monodon indicated that the expression of CDK7 and cyclin H coincided with that of MAT1 during the ovary maturation stages. Serotonin (5-HT) injection promoted the expression level of PmMAT1 in the ovaries of shrimp at 6-48 h post-injection. These results indicate that PmMat1 plays a prominent role in the process of ovarian maturation.

  17. Characterization and expression analysis of a cyclin B gene from black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon).

    PubMed

    Zhao, C; Fu, M J; Zhou, F L; Yang, Q B; Jiang, S G; Qiu, L H

    2015-01-01

    The open reading frame of black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon) cyclin B (Pmcyclin B) was identified, based on cDNA sequence registered in GenBank (accession No. EF015590). The target sequence was 1206 bp, corresponding to 401 amino acids. Two conserved signature sequences of the cyclin B gene family were found in the Pmcyclin B deduced aa sequence. Temporal expression of Pmcyclin B in different tissues, including ovary, lymphoid organ, brain, blood, muscle, heart, gill, hepatopancreas, and intestine, were quantified by quantitative real time PCR. Messenger RNA expression levels of Pmcyclin B were greatest in the ovary, compared to other tissues (P < 0.05). Temporal expression of Pmcyclin B in the ovary at six different developmental stages was investigated by real-time PCR; no significant difference was observed (P < 0.05). Recombinant Pmcyclin B protein and its polyclonal antibody were successfully produced. Western blot analysis revealed differential expression of Pmcyclin B in ovaries in developmental stages II to IV; a positive signal (45 kDa) was observed in all ovarian stages assessed, but was most intense at stage III. Pmcyclin B protein was assessed by immunohistochemistry and was localized to the cytoplasm of prophase oocytes at stage II and enriched in the nuclei of pro-metaphase oocytes at stages III and IV. Results from this study indicate that Pmcyclin B is constitutively expressed and plays an important role in ovarian maturation in P. monodon.

  18. Huntington disease in indigenous Australians.

    PubMed

    Panegyres, P K; McGrath, F

    2008-02-01

    Huntington disease (HD) in indigenous Australians is a poorly analysed and difficult problem. This study addresses the issue of HD in remote indigenous Australian populations in the north-west of Western Australia. Proband identification, clinical assessment, neurogenetic studies and pedigree analysis led to the discovery of HD in the 63-year-old male proband and his family. HD in remote indigenous Australian communities is a challenging diagnostic and management problem compounded by the complexity of distance. PMID:18290828

  19. A formulated double-stranded RNA diet for reducing Penaeus monodon densovirus infection in black tiger shrimp.

    PubMed

    Chimwai, Chaweewan; Tongboonsong, Punnee; Namramoon, Orathai; Panyim, Sakol; Attasart, Pongsopee

    2016-02-01

    Penaeus monodon densovirus (PmDNV) is one of the major causes of stunted shrimp in the aquaculture industry in Thailand. Significant reductions in levels of PmDNV as assessed by PCR analysis of shrimp hepatopancreas were seen in both prophylactic and curative experiments after feeding shrimp with a formulated diet containing mixed inactivated bacteria harboring dsRNAs corresponding to the PmDNV ns1 and vp genes. Significant reductions of approximately 88% (prophylactic) and 64% (curative) of PmDNV were observed, suggesting that this diet has a high potential for application in commercial aquaculture for reducing PmDNV associated stunted growth of shrimp.

  20. Metallothionein-Like Proteins and Energy Reserve Levels after Ni and Pb Exposure in the Pacific White Prawn Penaeus vannamei

    PubMed Central

    Nunez-Nogueira, Gabriel; Mouneyrac, Catherine; Muntz, Alice; Fernandez-Bringas, Laura

    2010-01-01

    This study analyzed the changes in metallothionein-like proteins (MTLPs) and Energy Reserves (ERs) in hepatopancreas and abdominal muscle of the white prawn Penaeus vannamei. Realistic metal concentration exposure for 10 days to Ni and Pb in solution revealed that juvenile prawns partially induce MTLP in hepatopancreas after Pb exposure. Ni was distributed equally between soluble and insoluble fractions, while Pb was present only in the insoluble fraction, suggesting different detoxification strategy. No changes in lipids and glycogen concentration were detected under these experimental conditions in both tissues analyzed. MTLP could not be considered as a suitable indicator for lead exposure in hepatopancreas. PMID:20862200

  1. Review of Australian Higher Education: An Australian Policy Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montague, Alan

    2013-01-01

    Higher education is one of the key foundations that economic prosperity is founded upon. Government policies, funding and strategic planning require a fine balance to stimulate growth, prosperity health and well-being. The key Australian government policies influenced by a Review of Australian Higher Education report include attracting many more…

  2. Farm Play Center.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Linda; And Others

    Because many cultures celebrate a harvest time or festival with which many children can identify, this farm preschool curriculum unit is appropriate for a cross-cultural setting. The farm unit is introduced to children through a field trip to a local farm, with children having the opportunity for experiential learning. The farm may be integrated…

  3. “Candidatus Hepatobacter penaei,” an Intracellular Pathogenic Enteric Bacterium in the Hepatopancreas of the Marine Shrimp Penaeus vannamei (Crustacea: Decapoda)

    PubMed Central

    Pantoja, Carlos R.; Gomez-Jimenez, Silvia; Lightner, Donald V.

    2013-01-01

    The bacteria that cause necrotizing hepatopancreatitis in Penaeus vannamei adversely affect penaeid shrimp cultured in the western hemisphere. 16S rRNA and gyrase B gene analyses determined the taxonomic position of these bacteria. The name “Candidatus Hepatobacter penaei” is proposed for these pathogenic bacteria, which are members of the Rickettsiales order. PMID:23241970

  4. Australian University International Student Finances

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forbes-Mewett, Helen; Marginson, Simon; Nyland, Chris; Ramia, Gaby; Sawir, Erlenawati

    2009-01-01

    The omission of international students from the Australian Vice-Chancellor's Committee (AVCC) 2007 national study on student finances is indicative of a pattern of exclusion. The exclusion is unacceptable from a humane perspective and feeds the belief that Australians perceive international students primarily as "cash cows". This study partially…

  5. New Directions in Australian Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bassett, G. W.; And Others

    This book consists of 16 selected papers that focus on the broad topic of new trends in Australian education. All the papers were originally presented at the Seventeenth Annual Conference of the Australian College of Education, which was held in May 1976. Titles of the papers include "Perspectives on Recent Changes in Australian…

  6. Sexuality and Australian law.

    PubMed

    Kirby, Michael

    2005-01-01

    The author describes the changing legal environment concerning same-sex relationships in the common law world with special reference to Australia. He refers to shifts in public opinion recorded in opinion polls; important decisions of human rights courts and tribunals; and changes in national law and court decisions. He then reviews the Australian constitutional setting which divides lawmaking responsibility on such subjects between the federal, State and Territory legislatures. He describes initiatives adopted in the States and Territories and the more modest changes effected in federal law and practice. He concludes on a note of optimism concerning Australia's future reforms affecting discrimination on the grounds of sexuality.

  7. Expression of immune-related genes in larval stages of the giant tiger shrimp, Penaeus monodon.

    PubMed

    Jiravanichpaisal, Pikul; Puanglarp, Narongsak; Petkon, Sasithon; Donnuea, Seri; Söderhäll, Irene; Söderhäll, Kenneth

    2007-10-01

    Shrimp undergo several morphologically different stages during development and therefore the expression of some immune-related genes such as prophenoloxidase (proPO), peroxinectin (Prx), crustin (Crus), penaeidin (Pen), transglutaminase (TGase), haemocyanin (Hc) and astakine (Ak) were determined during larval development of the shrimp (Penaeus monodon), i.e. nauplius 4 (N4), protozoea 1 and 3 (Z1 and 3), mysis 3 (My 3), post-larvae 3 (PL3) and also in haemocytes of juveniles. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR analysis showed that all transcripts were already present in the early larval stage of N4 but at different levels. The transcript of proPO was found to be extremely low or even absent at N4, whereas Prx, Crus, Pen, TGase, Hc and Ak were significantly expressed at all larval stages. Up to now expression of proPO and Prx has only been reported from haemocytes in crustaceans and in this study Prx also appeared to be expressed in stages which appear to lack haemocytes. Thus, this may suggest that Prx is expressed in other cells than haemocytes. It is well known among invertebrates that the proPO system plays a crucial role as an immune effector molecule against microbes. However, in this study, the transcript of proPO was low during the larval stages and hardly present at all at N4. This might indicate that the development of immune-competent haemocytes during the larval stages is not completed and as a consequence they are likely to be more susceptible to infectious diseases during these stages.

  8. Bacterial population in intestines of the black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon) under different growth stages.

    PubMed

    Rungrassamee, Wanilada; Klanchui, Amornpan; Chaiyapechara, Sage; Maibunkaew, Sawarot; Tangphatsornruang, Sithichoke; Jiravanichpaisal, Pikul; Karoonuthaisiri, Nitsara

    2013-01-01

    Intestinal bacterial communities in aquaculture have been drawn to attention due to potential benefit to their hosts. To identify core intestinal bacteria in the black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon), bacterial populations of disease-free shrimp were characterized from intestines of four developmental stages (15-day-old post larvae (PL15), 1- (J1), 2- (J2), and 3-month-old (J3) juveniles) using pyrosequencing, real-time PCR and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) approaches. A total of 25,121 pyrosequencing reads (reading length = 442±24 bases) were obtained, which were categorized by barcode for PL15 (7,045 sequences), J1 (3,055 sequences), J2 (13,130 sequences) and J3 (1,890 sequences). Bacteria in the phyla Bacteroides, Firmicutes and Proteobacteria were found in intestines at all four growth stages. There were 88, 14, 27, and 20 bacterial genera associated with the intestinal tract of PL15, J1, J2 and J3, respectively. Pyrosequencing analysis revealed that Proteobacteria (class Gammaproteobacteria) was a dominant bacteria group with a relative abundance of 89% for PL15 and 99% for J1, J2 and J3. Real-time PCR assay also confirmed that Gammaproteobacteria had the highest relative abundance in intestines from all growth stages. Intestinal bacterial communities from the three juvenile stages were more similar to each other than that of the PL shrimp based on PCA analyses of pyrosequencing results and their DGGE profiles. This study provides descriptive bacterial communities associated to the black tiger shrimp intestines during these growth development stages in rearing facilities.

  9. Aquimarina penaei sp. nov., isolated from intestinal tract contents of Pacific white shrimp, Penaeus vannamei.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaoyi; Wang, Liping; Huang, Hui; Lai, Qiliang; Shao, Zongze

    2014-12-01

    A novel bacterial strain designated P3-1(T) was isolated from the intestinal tract contents of Pacific white shrimp (Penaeus vannamei) in Zhangpu, Fujian province, China. The isolate was found to be Gram-negative, long rod shaped, oxidase- and catalase- positive. Growth was observed at 1-7 % sea salt (w/v, optimum, 3 %), at pH 7.0-9.0 (optimum, pH 7.0) and at 10-37 °C (optimum, 28 °C). The isolate was capable of hydrolysing gelatin, casein, starch and DNA but unable to degrade Tween 20, 40, 80 and cellulose. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that strain P3-1(T) belongs to the genus Aquimarina, with highest sequence similarity to Aquimarina gracilis PSC32(T) (96.2 %), followed by Aquimarina intermedia KMM 6258(T) (96.1 %), Aquimarina spongiae A6(T) (95.9 %) and Aquimarina muelleri KMM 6020(T) (95.8 %). The principal cellular fatty acids were identified as iso-C15:0, iso-C17:0 3OH, C16:1 ω7c/ω6c, iso-C15:1 G, iso-C15:0 3OH, iso-C17:1 ω9c/C16:0 10-methyl and C16:0. The G+C content of the chromosomal DNA was determined to be 33.3 mol%. The respiratory quinone was determined to be MK-6 (100 %). The combined genotypic and phenotypic data show that strain P3-1(T) represents a novel species within the genus Aquimarina, for which the name Aquimarina penaei sp. nov. is proposed, with the type strain P3-1(T) (=MCCC 1A09871(T) = LMG 27943(T)).

  10. Hyperthermia reduces viral load of white spot syndrome virus in Penaeus vannamei.

    PubMed

    Granja, Clarissa B; Vidal, Oscar M; Parra, Gustavo; Salazar, Marcela

    2006-01-30

    We have previously reported that white spot syndrome virus-infected Penaeus vannamei (also called Litopenaeus vannamei) maintained at 32 degrees C show higher survival rates and a significant increase in number of apoptotic cells when compared to infected shrimp kept at 26 degrees C. As apoptosis plays an important part in the antiviral response of invertebrates, we hypothesized that this process would reduce WSSV replication, allowing the shrimp to control the disease and survive. To test this hypothesis, shrimp were orally infected and maintained at either 26 degrees C (Group 1) or 32 degrees C (Group 2), DNA was extracted from haemolymph collected at various times from 6 to 216 h post-infection, and the number of viral units was quantified by real time PCR using SYBR Green. In parallel, histological examination was carried out to confirm the WSSV infection and to rule out concomitant diseases. Linear regression of real time PCR units (rtPCRU) of WSSV from Group 1 showed a significant increase with time post-infection (r2 = 0.7383; p < 0.001). Conversely, there was no increase in rtPCRU with time post-infection in Group 2 (r2 = 0.142), indicating that hyperthermia inhibited, either directly or indirectly, viral replication. In addition, comparison between the groups showed no difference in WSSV rtPCRU up to 48 h post-infection. After 72 h, shrimp from Group 1 had a significantly higher viral rtPCRU (ANOVA, p < 0.001). We conclude that hyperthermia-associated WSSV rtPCRU reduction could reflect either an increase in the shrimp antiviral response, or a direct negative effect on viral replication, or both. PMID:16532608

  11. Isolation and molecular identification of planctomycete bacteria from postlarvae of the giant tiger prawn, Penaeus monodon.

    PubMed Central

    Fuerst, J A; Gwilliam, H G; Lindsay, M; Lichanska, A; Belcher, C; Vickers, J E; Hugenholtz, P

    1997-01-01

    Bacteria phenotypically resembling members of the phylogenetically distinct planctomycete group of the domain Bacteria were isolated from postlarvae of the giant tiger prawn, Penaeus monodon. A selective medium designed in the light of planctomycete antibiotic resistance characteristics was used for this isolation. Planctomycetes were isolated from both healthy and monodon baculovirus-infected prawn postlarvae. The predominant colony type recovered from postlarvae regardless of viral infection status was nonpigmented. Other, less commonly observed types were pink or orange pigmented. A planctomycete-specific 16S rRNA-directed probe was designed and used to screen the isolates for their identity as planctomycetes prior to molecular phylogenetic characterization. 16S rRNA genes from nine prawn isolates together with two planctomycete reference strains (Planctomyces brasiliensis and Gemmata obscuriglobus) were sequenced and compared with reference sequences from the planctomycetes and other members of the domain Bacteria. Phylogenetic analyses and sequence signatures of the 16S rRNA genes demonstrated that the prawn isolates were members of the planctomycete group. Five representatives of the predominant nonpigmented colony type were members of the Pirellula group within the planctomycetes, as were three pink-pigmented colony type representatives. Homology values and tree topology indicated that representatives of the nonpigmented and pink-pigmented colony types formed two discrete clusters within the Pirellula group, not identical to any known Pirellula species. A sole representative of the orange colony type was a member of the Planctomyces group, virtually identical in 16S rDNA sequence to P. brasiliensis, and exhibited distinctive morphology. PMID:8979353

  12. Interaction of Vibrio spp. with the Inner Surface of the Digestive Tract of Penaeus monodon

    PubMed Central

    Soonthornchai, Wipasiri; Chaiyapechara, Sage; Jarayabhand, Padermsak; Söderhäll, Kenneth; Jiravanichpaisal, Pikul

    2015-01-01

    Several species of Vibrio are the causative agent of gastroenteritis in humans. In aquaculture, Vibrio harveyi (Vh) and V. parahaemolyticus (Vp) have long been considered as shrimp pathogens in freshwater, brackish and marine environments. Here we show by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) that Penaeus monodon orally inoculated with each of these two pathogens via an Artemia diet had numerous bacteria attached randomly across the stomach surface, in single and in large biofilm-like clusters 6 h post-infection. A subsequent marked proliferation in the number of V. harveyi within the biofilm-like formations resulted in the development of infections in the stomach, the upper and middle midgut, but neither in the posterior midgut nor the hindgut. SEM also revealed the induced production of peritrichous pili-like structures by the Vp attaching to the stomach lining, whilst only a single polar fibre was seen forming an apparent physical bridge between Vh and the host’s epithelium. In contrast to these observations, no such adherences or linkages were seen when trials were conducted with non-pathogenic Vibrio spp. or with Micrococcus luteus, with no obvious resultant changes to the host’s gut surface. In naive shrimp, the hindgut was found to be a favorable site for bacteria notably curved, short-rod shaped bacteria which probably belong to Vibrio spp. Data from the current study suggests that pathogens of P. monodon must be able to colonize the digestive tract, particularly the stomach, where chitin is present, and then they use an array of virulent factors and enzymes to infect their host resulting in disease. Oral infection is a better way of mimicking natural routes of infection; investigating the host-bacteria interactions occurring in the digestive tract may lead to new strategies for the prevention or control of bacterial infections in penaeids. PMID:26285030

  13. Insights into the Prostanoid Pathway in the Ovary Development of the Penaeid Shrimp Penaeus monodon

    PubMed Central

    Wimuttisuk, Wananit; Tobwor, Punsa; Deenarn, Pacharawan; Danwisetkanjana, Kannawat; Pinkaew, Decha; Kirtikara, Kanyawim; Vichai, Vanicha

    2013-01-01

    The prostanoid pathway converts polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) into bioactive lipid mediators, including prostaglandins, thromboxanes and prostacyclins, all of which play vital roles in the immune and reproductive systems in most animal phyla. In crustaceans, PUFAs and prostaglandins have been detected and often associated with female reproductive maturation. However, the presence of prostanoid biosynthesis genes remained in question in these species. In this study, we outlined the prostanoid pathway in the black tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon based on the amplification of nine prostanoid biosynthesis genes: cytosolic phospholipase A2, hematopoietic prostaglandin D synthase, glutathione-dependent prostaglandin D synthase, prostaglandin E synthase 1, prostaglandin E synthase 2, prostaglandin E synthase 3, prostaglandin F synthase, thromboxane A synthase and cyclooxygenase. TBLASTX analysis confirmed the identities of these genes with 51-99% sequence identities to their closest homologs. In addition, prostaglandin F2α (PGF2α), which is a product of the prostaglandin F synthase enzyme, was detected for the first time in P. monodon ovaries along with the previously identified PUFAs and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) using RP-HPLC and mass-spectrometry. The prostaglandin synthase activity was also observed in shrimp ovary homogenates using in vitro activity assay. When prostaglandin biosynthesis was examined in different stages of shrimp ovaries, we found that the amounts of prostaglandin F synthase gene transcripts and PGF2α decreased as the ovaries matured. These findings not only indicate the presence of a functional prostanoid pathway in penaeid shrimp, but also suggest a possible role of the PGF2α biosynthesis in shrimp ovarian development. PMID:24116186

  14. Impact of mineral deposition on shrimp, Penaeus monodon in a high alkaline water.

    PubMed

    Gopalakrishnan, A; Rajkumar, M; Sun, Jun; Martin, Gary G; Parida, A

    2011-05-01

    This study compares water quality parameters, shrimp growth and mortality rates, and biomass at harvest in two ponds of equal size, seeded with the same density (7 m2) of White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV) and Monodon Baculo Virus (MBV) negative post-larvae (PL)-20 of shrimp, Penaeus monodon in the Vellar estuary of South India. The primary difference between the ponds was the water source; one was filled from the estuary and the second with water from bore wells with high alkalinity. Temperature in both ponds was similar and reached 320C after 185 days of culture. Dissolved oxygen (DO) levels were within the acceptable range although levels in the alkaline pond were near the lower limit for the last 90 days before harvest. Salinity levels were similar in both ponds, above optimal levels, and increased over the 185 days. Alkalinity in the estuarine water was typically <50 ppm and again 200-320 ppm in the alkaline pond. In the alkaline pond, beginning on the 75th day mineral deposits was observed covering all parts of the shrimp including the eye and the inner gill chambers, and by harvest, 42% of the shrimp showed this coating. Elemental analysis identified the major constituents as calcium, phosphorus and manganese. Survival rates in the estuarine-water-fed pond was 92% with a total pond biomass at harvest of 1.65 tons ha-1 compared to survival of 79% in the alkaline pond and a biomass at harvest of 1.020 tons ha-1. When well water must be used, its alkalinity should be monitored and diluted with water from other sources.

  15. Homologous genetic recombination in the yellow head complex of nidoviruses infecting Penaeus monodon shrimp.

    PubMed

    Wijegoonawardane, Priyanjalie K M; Sittidilokratna, Nusra; Petchampai, Natthida; Cowley, Jeff A; Gudkovs, Nicholas; Walker, Peter J

    2009-07-20

    Yellow head virus (YHV) is a highly virulent pathogen of Penaeus monodon shrimp. It is one of six known genotypes in the yellow head complex of nidoviruses which also includes mildly pathogenic gill-associated virus (GAV, genotype 2) and four other genotypes (genotypes 3-6) that have been detected only in healthy shrimp. In this study, comparative phylogenetic analyses conducted on replicase- (ORF1b) and glycoprotein- (ORF3) gene amplicons identified 10 putative natural recombinants amongst 28 viruses representing all six genotypes from across the Indo-Pacific region. The approximately 4.6 kb genomic region spanning the two amplicons was sequenced for three putative recombinant viruses from Vietnam (genotype 3/5), the Philippines (genotype 5/2) and Indonesia (genotype 3/2). SimPlot analysis using these and representative parental virus sequences confirmed that each was a recombinant genotype and identified a recombination hotspot in a region just upstream of the ORF1b C-terminus. Maximum-likelihood breakpoint analysis predicted identical crossover positions in the Vietnamese and Indonesian recombinants, and a crossover position 12 nt upstream in the Philippine recombinant. Homologous genetic recombination in the same genome region was also demonstrated in recombinants generated experimentally in shrimp co-infected with YHV and GAV. The high frequency with which natural recombinants were identified indicates that genetic exchange amongst genotypes is occurring commonly in Asia and playing a significant role in expanding the genetic diversity in the yellow head complex. This is the first evidence of genetic recombination in viruses infecting crustaceans and has significant implications for the pathogenesis of infection and diagnosis of these newly emerging invertebrate pathogens.

  16. Characterization, expression and silencing by RNAi of p53 from Penaeus monodon.

    PubMed

    Dai, Wenting; Qiu, Lihua; Zhao, Chao; Fu, Mingjun; Ma, Zhenhua; Zhou, Falin; Yang, Qibin

    2016-06-01

    The tumor suppressor p53 is a sequence-specific transcription factor, whose target genes can regulate genomic stability, the cellular response to DNA damage and cell-cycle progression. In the present study, the full-length complementary DNA (cDNA) sequence of p53 gene from Penaeus monodon (Pmp53) was cloned by the technology of rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE). The cDNA of Pmp53 was 2239 bp, encoding a protein of 450 amino acids with calculated molecular weight of 50.62 kDa. The temporal expression of Pmp53 in different tissues (ovary, heart, intestine, brain, muscles, stomach and gills) and different developmental stages of ovary was investigated by real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR). The lowest expression level of Pmp53 was observed in the stomach, while the highest expression level was detected in the brain. During the ovary development stages, the expression level of Pmp53 reached the peak at stage III. RNA interference (RNAi) and serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) injection experiments were conducted to study the expression profile of Pmp53 and PmCDK2 (cyclin-dependent kinase 2, CDK2). Knocked down of Pmp53 by dsRNA-p53 was sequence-specific and successful. Expression levels of Pmp53 and PmCDK2 in ovary of P. monodon were significantly increased at 12-96 h post 5-HT injection. These results indicate that Pmp53 may be involved in the regulation of ovarian development of P. monodon.

  17. Characterization, expression and silencing by RNAi of p53 from Penaeus monodon.

    PubMed

    Dai, Wenting; Qiu, Lihua; Zhao, Chao; Fu, Mingjun; Ma, Zhenhua; Zhou, Falin; Yang, Qibin

    2016-06-01

    The tumor suppressor p53 is a sequence-specific transcription factor, whose target genes can regulate genomic stability, the cellular response to DNA damage and cell-cycle progression. In the present study, the full-length complementary DNA (cDNA) sequence of p53 gene from Penaeus monodon (Pmp53) was cloned by the technology of rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE). The cDNA of Pmp53 was 2239 bp, encoding a protein of 450 amino acids with calculated molecular weight of 50.62 kDa. The temporal expression of Pmp53 in different tissues (ovary, heart, intestine, brain, muscles, stomach and gills) and different developmental stages of ovary was investigated by real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR). The lowest expression level of Pmp53 was observed in the stomach, while the highest expression level was detected in the brain. During the ovary development stages, the expression level of Pmp53 reached the peak at stage III. RNA interference (RNAi) and serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) injection experiments were conducted to study the expression profile of Pmp53 and PmCDK2 (cyclin-dependent kinase 2, CDK2). Knocked down of Pmp53 by dsRNA-p53 was sequence-specific and successful. Expression levels of Pmp53 and PmCDK2 in ovary of P. monodon were significantly increased at 12-96 h post 5-HT injection. These results indicate that Pmp53 may be involved in the regulation of ovarian development of P. monodon. PMID:27112755

  18. The Australian SKA Pathfinder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schinckel, Antony E.; Bunton, John D.; Cornwell, Tim J.; Feain, Ilana; Hay, Stuart G.

    2012-09-01

    The Australian Square Kilometre Array Pathfinder (ASKAP) will be the fastest cm-wave survey radio-telescope and is under construction on the new Murchison Radio-astronomy Observatory (MRO) in Western Australia. ASKAP consists of 36 12-meter 3-axis antennas, each with a large chequerboard phased array feed (PAF) operating from 0.7 to 1.8 GHz, and digital beamformer preceding the correlator. The PAF has 94 dual-polarization elements (188 receivers) and the beamformer will provide about 36 beams (at 1.4 GHz) to produce a 30 square degree field of view, allowing rapid, deep surveys of the entire visible sky. As well as a large field of view ASKAP has high spectral resolution across the 304 MHz of bandwidth processed at any one time generating a large data-rate (30Gb/sec in to the imaging system) that requires real-time processing of the data. To minimise this processing and maximise the field of view for long observations the antenna incorporates a third axis, which keeps the PAF field of view and sidelobes fixed relative to the sky. This largely eliminates time varying artefact in the data that is processed. The MRO is 315 kilometres north-east of Geraldton, in Western Australia’s Mid West region. The primary infrastructure construction for ASKAP and other telescopes hosted at the Murchison Radio-astronomy Observatory has now been completed by CSIRO, the MRO manager, including installation of the fibre connection from the MRO site to Perth via Geraldton. The radio-quietness of the region is protected by the Mid West Radio Quiet Zone, implemented by the Australian Federal Government, out to a radius of 260km surrounding the MRO.

  19. Farm Parents' Attitudes Towards Farm Safety Experts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neufeld, Steven J.; Cinnamon, Jennifer L.

    2004-01-01

    Using both qualitative and quantitative data, this article analyzes farm parent's attitudes towards the trustworthiness, usefulness, and use of advice from farm safety experts. The article evaluates four different perspectives on trust in expert: the Validity of Knowledge perspective, the Salient Values Similarity perspective, the Diffusion of…

  20. The cellular death pattern of primary haemocytes isolated from the black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon).

    PubMed

    Thansa, Kwanta; Yocawibun, Patchari; Suksodsai, Hathaitip

    2016-10-01

    A key to successfully generate the penaeid shrimp cell line is to find out how primary cells died. The most suitable period to culture Penaeus monodon haemocytes was in the first 48 h of culture because cells had normal morphology, high percent of viable cells (65.29 ± 5.43%), low percent of early (11.75 ± 1.30%) and late apoptotic cells (15.47 ± 11.71%) determined by Annexin V and TUNEL including constant IAP (0.06 ± 0.01-0.07 ± 0.01) and caspase-3 expression (0.30 ± 0.06-0.39 ± 0.10) by real-time PCR throughout the experiment. Moreover, adding 50 and 250 μM of the cell permeable pan caspase inhibitor Z-VAD-FMK produced some melanised cells since the 48(th) hour, while percent of viable cells was decreased since the 24(th) hour with no difference in percent of early and late apoptotic cells compared to control at each time point. No difference of IAP and caspase-3 expression level in both Z-VAD-FMK groups was found compared to control and vehicle groups at each time point, excluding caspase-3 in 250 μM Z-VAD-FMK at the 24(th) hour was higher than control and vehicle. Supplementing sodium fluoride (NaF) induced cell membrane damage and cellular shrinkage of primary haemocytes within 2 h. Even percent of viable cells was reduced down to zero and percent of late apoptotic cells was increased by 2 h of incubation in 25 and 50 mM NaF, IAP and caspase-3 in all NaF groups was not different from control. These results indicate that a number of primary haemocytes derived in this study die through the apoptotic process. PMID:27561625

  1. Farm Safety (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... wheels or blind spots. Because adults who are operating machinery may be unable to see or hear ... a tractor and farm vehicle safety course before operating farm vehicles. Finally, teach older kids how to ...

  2. Evaluating the Australian Traineeship System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, R. J.

    1987-01-01

    Describes the Australian Traineeship System (ATS), a program integrating formal education and employment designed to increase options for dropouts. Discusses problems involving the centrality of ATS's educational component and implementation of a program evaluation strategy. Includes two references. (MLH)

  3. North Carolina Farm Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lilley, Stephen; And Others

    Interviews with 725 North Carolina farm operators revealed: the extent of economic, social, and emotional stresses on farm families; perceptions of the future of agriculture; the degree of reliance on off-farm income; financial management practices; and programs needed from the Agricultural Extension Service. Almost 66% viewed their future in…

  4. Species profiles: life histories and environmental requirements of coastal fishes and invertebrates (South Atlantic). White shrimp. [Penaeus setiferus

    SciTech Connect

    Muncy, R.J.

    1984-09-01

    The white shrimp, Penaeus setiferus, is the most important commercial species in the Southeastern United States. It serves an important ecological role as food for other large invertebrates and fishes. Major bait industry is in northeast Florida and Georgia. Spawning occurs offshore within 9-m depth contour where salinities are at least 27 ppt. In spring, postlarval shrimp move with tidal currents into inshore estuarine waters. Juvenile white shrimp prefer shallow organic-rich substrate with low salinities (1-10 ppt). Nearshore soft sediment areas correlated well with white and brown shrimp distributions. Water temperature influences spawning, growth, habitat selection, emigration, and mortality. Low winter temperatures have greatly affected survival, recruitment, and harvest in the South Atlantic fishery. Maintaining suitable nursery grounds is a major concern for the furture of the fishery. 66 refs., 2 figs.

  5. Distribution of heavy metals in tissues of the shrimp Penaeus californiensis from the northwest coast of Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Paez-Osuna, F.; Tron-Mayen, L.

    1995-08-01

    The brown shrimp, Penaeus californiensis Holmes, is an Eastern Pacific species which is geographically distributed from San Francisco, California, USA, including the Gulf of California, to Callao, Peru. In Mexico and particularly in the Pacific Coast, this crustacean supports 75% of the commercial catch of shrimp. Knowledge of the distribution of metals in isolated tissues of marine organisms is useful in order to identify specific organs that may be particularly selective and sensitive to accumulation of heavy metals. This paper presents data on the levels of Fe, Mn, Ni, Cu, Cd, and Zn in five different tissues of the P. californiensis populations from the northwest coast of Mexico. Additionally, the accumulation of metals by males and females is examined. 16 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Isolation of a bacterium resembling Pirellula species from primary tissue culture of the giant tiger prawn (Penaeus monodon).

    PubMed Central

    Fuerst, J A; Sambhi, S K; Paynter, J L; Hawkins, J A; Atherton, J G

    1991-01-01

    During attempts to establish tissue cultures from hepatopancreas, heart, and hemolymph of the giant tiger prawn (Penaeus monodon), using a medium including penicillin, streptomycin, and amphotericin B, bacterial contamination in the form of a sheet of growth attached to the tissue culture vessel was a persistent problem. Contaminant bacteria were teardrop-shaped cells arranged in rosettes, and electron microscopy revealed buds, crateriform structures, and the absence of a peptidoglycan layer in the cell wall, features characteristic of bacteria in the Planctomyces-Pirellula group, a phylogenetically distinct group of eubacteria. Two strains of contaminant bacteria were isolated in pure culture. Both exhibited morphology and antibiotic resistance consistent with their membership in the Planctomyces-Pirellula group (order Planctomycetales) of eubacteria. Tissue culture media for marine invertebrates may select for such bacteria if high concentrations of cell wall synthesis-inhibiting antibiotics are included. Images PMID:1781677

  7. Regional variations in trace element concentrations in tissues of black tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon (Decapoda: Penaeidae) from South Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Tu, Nguyen Phuc Cam; Ha, Nguyen Ngoc; Ikemoto, Tokutaka; Tuyen, Bui Cach; Tanabe, Shinsuke; Takeuchi, Ichiro

    2008-01-01

    The goal of the present study was to examine the specific bioaccumulation of 22 trace elements in muscle, exoskeleton and hepatopancreas of black tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon from the Mekong River Delta (MRD), and the South Key Economic Zone (SKEZ), South Vietnam. The general tendency in most trace element concentrations among different tissues were hepatopancreas>exoskeleton>muscle. Comparisons of trace element levels in tissues between the two regions showed that concentrations of Se in muscle and As in all three tissues were higher in SKEZ; whereas in MRD, the higher concentrations of most elements such as Mn, Cu, Cd, Ba, Hg, were observed in tissues. These geographical variations in trace element levels may reflect the differences in human activities between the two regions of South Vietnam. The target hazard quotient (THQ) values for trace elements (<1) indicate that local residents are not exposed to potential health risks via the consumption of shrimp. PMID:18395229

  8. Learning and Building Social Capital in a Community of Family Farm Businesses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kilpatrick, Sue

    2002-01-01

    Interviews with 14 Australian farmers involved in farm business learning activities described how social capital is built through support networks. Four stages of development were identified: (1) individual self-confidence, interpersonal, and leadership skills; (2) getting acquainted; (3) credibility of group members; and (4) commitment. A model…

  9. Invasion of Asian tiger shrimp, Penaeus monodon Fabricius, 1798, in the western north Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fuller, Pam L.; Knott, David M.; Kingsley-Smith, Peter R.; Morris, James A.; Buckel, Christine A.; Hunter, Margaret E.; Hartman, Leslie D.

    2014-01-01

    After going unreported in the northwestern Atlantic Ocean for 18 years (1988 to 2006), the Asian tiger shrimp, Penaeus monodon, has recently reappeared in the South Atlantic Bight and, for the first time ever, in the Gulf of Mexico. Potential vectors and sources of this recent invader include: 1) discharged ballast water from its native range in Asia or other areas where it has become established; 2) transport of larvae from established non-native populations in the Caribbean or South America via ocean currents; or 3) escape and subsequent migration from active aquaculture facilities in the western Atlantic. This paper documents recent collections of P. monodon from the South Atlantic Bight and the Gulf of Mexico, reporting demographic and preliminary phylogenetic information for specimens collected between North Carolina and Texas from 2006 through 2012. The increased number of reports in 2011 and 2012, ranging from 102 mm to 298 mm total length, indicates that an adult population is present in densities sufficient for breeding, which is indicative of incipient establishment. Based on these reports of P. monodon, its successful invasion elsewhere, and its life history, we believe that this species will become common in the South Atlantic Bight and Gulf of Mexico in less than 10 years. Penaeus monodon is an aggressive predator in its native range and, if established, may prey on native shrimps, crabs, and bivalves. The impacts of an established P. monodon population are potentially widespread (e.g., alterations in local commercial fisheries, direct and indirect pressures on native shrimp, crab and bivalve populations, and subsequent impacts on the populations of other predators of those organisms) and should be considered by resource managers. The impacts of P. monodon on native fauna and the source(s) or vector(s) of the invasion, however, remain unknown at this time.

  10. Synthesis of silver nanoparticles by coastal plant Prosopis chilensis (L.) and their efficacy in controlling vibriosis in shrimp Penaeus monodon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kandasamy, Kathiresan; Alikunhi, Nabeel M.; Manickaswami, Gayathridevi; Nabikhan, Asmathunisha; Ayyavu, Gopalakrishnan

    2013-02-01

    The present work investigated the effect of leaf extract from coastal plant Prosopis chilensis on synthesis of silver nanoparticles using AgNO3 as a substrate and to find their antibacterial potential on pathogenic Vibrio species in the shrimp, Penaeus monodon. The leaf extract could be able to produce silver nanoparticles, as evident by gradual change in colour of the reaction mixture consisted of the extract and 1 mM AgNO3 to dark brown. The silver nanoparticles exhibited 2 θ values corresponding to the presence of silver nanocrystal, as evident by X-ray diffraction spectrum. The peaks corresponding to flavanones and terpenoids were found to be stabilizing agents of the nanoparticles, as revealed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The size of silver nanoparticles ranged from 5 to 25 nm with an average of 11.3 ± 2.1 nm and was mostly of spherical in shape, as confirmed by transmission electron microscopy. The silver nanoparticles were found to inhibit Vibrio pathogens viz., Vibrio cholerae, V. harveyi, and V. parahaemolyticus and this antibacterial effect was better than that of leaf extract, as proved by disc diffusion assay. The nanoparticles were then tested in the shrimp Penaeus monodon challenged with the four species of Vibrio pathogens for 30 days. The shrimps fed with silver nanoparticles exhibited higher survival, associated with immunomodulation in terms of higher haemocyte counts, phenoloxidase and antibacterial activities of haemolymph of P. monodon which is on par with that of control. Thus, the present study proved the possibility of using silver nanoparticles produced by coastal Prosopis chilensis as antibacterial agent in controlling vibriosis.

  11. Australian-Antarctic discordance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sempeéreé, Jean-Christophe; Palmer, Jeb; Christie, David M.; Phipps Morgan, Jason; Shor, Alexander N.

    1991-05-01

    The Australian-Antarctic discordance is a region of anomalous geophysical and geochemical properties along the mid-ocean ridge system. It includes the isotopic boundary between Pacific Ocean and Indian Ocean basalts. Its lavas have compositions consistent with low mantle temperatures and a relatively low overall extent of melting. These characteristics have been attributed to downward flow in the underlying mantle. New bathymetric and side-scan sonar data show that (1) the spreading axis within the discordance is predominantly characterized by a broad rift valley and segmentation characteristics typical of slow-spreading centers, (2) the isotopic boundary appears to be associated with unusual, chaotic sea floor, and (3) the spreading axis east of the discordance is characterized by an axial ridge typical of fast-spreading centers. These extreme variations, at an essentially constant (intermediate) spreading rate are consistent with differences in melt supply and mantle properties along the spreading axis within and east of the discordance, as suggested in previous studies.

  12. Studies on immunodiagnosis of hepatopancreatic parvo-like virus disease of the Chinese penaeid, Penaeus Chinensis I. Purification of the virus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Xiuqin; Wang, Wenxing; Zhou, Huimin; Zhang, Jinxing; Xue, Qinggang; Lu, Ying; Song, Qingyun

    1993-06-01

    The viral discase of penaeids is indistinet but highly dangerous because their symptoms are often masked by some secondary ones. In order to gain knowledge on how to prevent the occurrence and spread of this viral disease, diagnostic studies on the early phase of the hepatopancreatic parvo-like viral (HPV) disease of cultured Penaeus chinensis was conducted using ummuno-serological techniques. The purification of HPV was successfully done by density gradient ultracentrifugation of cane sugar.

  13. ASA24-Australian Version (Under Development)

    Cancer.gov

    In collaboration with the National Cancer Institute (NCI), a consortium of Australian Researchers is adapting the ASA24 system to the Australian context to account for variations in food consumed, portion sizes, and nutrient composition.

  14. Recombinase polymerase amplification combined with a lateral flow dipstick for discriminating between infectious Penaeus stylirostris densovirus and virus-related sequences in shrimp genome.

    PubMed

    Jaroenram, Wansadaj; Owens, Leigh

    2014-11-01

    Penaeus stylirostris densovirus (PstDV) is an important shrimp pathogen that causes mortality in P. stylirostris and runt deformity syndrome (RDS) in Penaeus vannamei and Penaeus monodon. Recently, PstDV-related sequences were found in the genome of P. monodon and P. vannamei. This led to false positive results by PCR-based detection system. Here, a more efficient detection platform based on recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA) and a lateral flow dipstick (LFD) was developed for detecting PstDV. Under the optimal conditions, 30 min at 37°C for RPA followed by 5 min at room temperature for LFD, the protocol was 10 times more sensitive than the Saksmerphrome et al's interim 3-tube nested PCR and showed no cross-reaction with other shrimp viruses. It also reduced false positive results arising from viral inserts to ∼5% compared to 76-78% by the IQ2000™ nested PCR kit and the 309F/R PCR protocol currently recommended by World Organization for Animal Health (OIE) for PstDV detection. Together with simplicity and portability, the protocol serves as an alternative tool to PCR for primarily screening PstDV, which is suitable for both laboratory and field application.

  15. Effect of guava leaves on growth and the non-specific immune response of Penaeus monodon.

    PubMed

    Yin, Xiao-Li; Li, Zhuo-Jia; Yang, Keng; Lin, Hei-Zhao; Guo, Zhi-Xun

    2014-09-01

    Guava (Psidium guajava L.) leaf extracts have antiviral and antibacterial activity against shrimp pathogens such as yellow-head virus (YHV), white spot syndrome virus (WSSV), and Vibrio harveyi, which make it a potential water disinfectant for use in shrimp culture. In this study, the safety of guava leaf supplementation in shrimp was evaluated by studying its influence on growth and the non-specific immune response of Penaeus monodon. Six diets containing different levels of guava leaves (0% [basal diet], 0.025% [G1], 0.05% [G2], 0.1% [G3], 0.2% [G4], and 0.4% [G5]) were fed to groups of shrimp (1.576 ± 0.011 g body weight) in triplicate for 56 days. Growth performance (final body weight, WG, PWG, SGR) of shrimp fed guava leaf diets was significantly higher (P < 0.05) than that of shrimp fed on the basal diet. The G1 diet resulted in the highest body weight gain (308.44%), followed by the G2 (295.45%), G3 (283.05%), G5 (281.29%), G4 (276.11%), and finally the basal diet (214.58%). Survival of shrimp in the G1 diet group was higher than that of shrimp in the control and the other experimental groups; however, no statistical differences (P > 0.05) were found. Dietary supplementation with guava leaf improved the activities of prophenoloxidase (PO) and nitric oxide synthase (NOS) in serum, and of superoxide dismutase (SOD), acid phosphatase (ACP), alkaline phosphatase (AKP), and lysozyme (LSZ) both in serum and hepatopancreas of shrimp. In the experimental groups, the activities of these enzymes followed a similar pattern of change; they increased initially at low levels of dietary supplementation and then decreased with increasing concentrations of dietary guava leaf. Serum PO and SOD activities in shrimp fed the G1 diet reached 7.50 U ml(-1) and 178.33 U ml(-1), respectively, with PO activity being significantly higher than in controls. In shrimp fed the G1 diet, SOD, ACP, and AKP activities in hepatopancreas were significantly higher than in the controls, reaching

  16. Effect of guava leaves on growth and the non-specific immune response of Penaeus monodon.

    PubMed

    Yin, Xiao-Li; Li, Zhuo-Jia; Yang, Keng; Lin, Hei-Zhao; Guo, Zhi-Xun

    2014-09-01

    Guava (Psidium guajava L.) leaf extracts have antiviral and antibacterial activity against shrimp pathogens such as yellow-head virus (YHV), white spot syndrome virus (WSSV), and Vibrio harveyi, which make it a potential water disinfectant for use in shrimp culture. In this study, the safety of guava leaf supplementation in shrimp was evaluated by studying its influence on growth and the non-specific immune response of Penaeus monodon. Six diets containing different levels of guava leaves (0% [basal diet], 0.025% [G1], 0.05% [G2], 0.1% [G3], 0.2% [G4], and 0.4% [G5]) were fed to groups of shrimp (1.576 ± 0.011 g body weight) in triplicate for 56 days. Growth performance (final body weight, WG, PWG, SGR) of shrimp fed guava leaf diets was significantly higher (P < 0.05) than that of shrimp fed on the basal diet. The G1 diet resulted in the highest body weight gain (308.44%), followed by the G2 (295.45%), G3 (283.05%), G5 (281.29%), G4 (276.11%), and finally the basal diet (214.58%). Survival of shrimp in the G1 diet group was higher than that of shrimp in the control and the other experimental groups; however, no statistical differences (P > 0.05) were found. Dietary supplementation with guava leaf improved the activities of prophenoloxidase (PO) and nitric oxide synthase (NOS) in serum, and of superoxide dismutase (SOD), acid phosphatase (ACP), alkaline phosphatase (AKP), and lysozyme (LSZ) both in serum and hepatopancreas of shrimp. In the experimental groups, the activities of these enzymes followed a similar pattern of change; they increased initially at low levels of dietary supplementation and then decreased with increasing concentrations of dietary guava leaf. Serum PO and SOD activities in shrimp fed the G1 diet reached 7.50 U ml(-1) and 178.33 U ml(-1), respectively, with PO activity being significantly higher than in controls. In shrimp fed the G1 diet, SOD, ACP, and AKP activities in hepatopancreas were significantly higher than in the controls, reaching

  17. Dietary supplementation of honeysuckle improves the growth, survival and immunity of Penaeus monodon.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xu; Lin, Hei-Zhao; Jiang, Shi-Gui; Wu, Kai-Chang; Liu, Yong-Jian; Tian, Li-Xia; Zhang, Yun-Qiang; Niu, Jin

    2013-07-01

    Two trials were conducted to determine the effects of honeysuckle on shrimp, Penaeus monodon, first on growth performance, secondly on the immune response of shrimp. In trial 1, shrimp (mean initial wet weight about 3.02 g) were fed with five diets containing 0% (basal diet), 0.1%, 0.2%, 0.4% and 0.8% honeysuckle in triplicate for 60 days. Growth performance (final body wet weight, FBW; weight gain, WG; biomass gain, BG) of shrimp fed honeysuckle diets were higher (P < 0.05) than that of shrimp fed the basal diet, shrimp fed 0.4% honeysuckle diet showed the highest value of growth performance. Shrimp fed 0.2% honeysuckle diet showed highest value of survival. The total antioxidant status (TAS) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity of shrimp fed 0.2%, 0.4% and 0.8% honeysuckle diets were higher (P < 0.05) than those of shrimp fed basal and 0.1% honeysuckle diets. Hepatopancreas malondialdehyde (MDA) of shrimp fed honeysuckle diets were lower (P < 0.05) than that of shrimp fed the basal diet. Total haemocyte count of shrimp fed the basal diet was lower (P < 0.05) than that of shrimp fed honeysuckle diets. Haemolymph clotting time of shrimp had the opposite trend with the total haemocyte count of shrimp. In trial 2, the shrimp were exposed to air during a simulated live transportation for 36 h after the rearing trial. The antioxidant responses were characterized by lower TAS and higher antioxidant enzyme activities (superoxide dismutase: SOD, GSH-Px) and higher oxidative stress level (MDA) in the hepatopancreas compared to levels found in trial 1. No mortalities were observed in any diet groups after 36 h of simulated live transportation. The glutathione (GSH) content and TAS of shrimp fed 0.2%, 0.4% and 0.8% honeysuckle diets were higher (P < 0.05) than those of shrimp fed the basal and 0.1% honeysuckle diets. The SOD activity of shrimp fed the basal diet was higher (P < 0.05) than that of shrimp fed honeysuckle diets. The GSH-Px activity of shrimp fed the

  18. Dietary supplementation of honeysuckle improves the growth, survival and immunity of Penaeus monodon.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xu; Lin, Hei-Zhao; Jiang, Shi-Gui; Wu, Kai-Chang; Liu, Yong-Jian; Tian, Li-Xia; Zhang, Yun-Qiang; Niu, Jin

    2013-07-01

    Two trials were conducted to determine the effects of honeysuckle on shrimp, Penaeus monodon, first on growth performance, secondly on the immune response of shrimp. In trial 1, shrimp (mean initial wet weight about 3.02 g) were fed with five diets containing 0% (basal diet), 0.1%, 0.2%, 0.4% and 0.8% honeysuckle in triplicate for 60 days. Growth performance (final body wet weight, FBW; weight gain, WG; biomass gain, BG) of shrimp fed honeysuckle diets were higher (P < 0.05) than that of shrimp fed the basal diet, shrimp fed 0.4% honeysuckle diet showed the highest value of growth performance. Shrimp fed 0.2% honeysuckle diet showed highest value of survival. The total antioxidant status (TAS) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity of shrimp fed 0.2%, 0.4% and 0.8% honeysuckle diets were higher (P < 0.05) than those of shrimp fed basal and 0.1% honeysuckle diets. Hepatopancreas malondialdehyde (MDA) of shrimp fed honeysuckle diets were lower (P < 0.05) than that of shrimp fed the basal diet. Total haemocyte count of shrimp fed the basal diet was lower (P < 0.05) than that of shrimp fed honeysuckle diets. Haemolymph clotting time of shrimp had the opposite trend with the total haemocyte count of shrimp. In trial 2, the shrimp were exposed to air during a simulated live transportation for 36 h after the rearing trial. The antioxidant responses were characterized by lower TAS and higher antioxidant enzyme activities (superoxide dismutase: SOD, GSH-Px) and higher oxidative stress level (MDA) in the hepatopancreas compared to levels found in trial 1. No mortalities were observed in any diet groups after 36 h of simulated live transportation. The glutathione (GSH) content and TAS of shrimp fed 0.2%, 0.4% and 0.8% honeysuckle diets were higher (P < 0.05) than those of shrimp fed the basal and 0.1% honeysuckle diets. The SOD activity of shrimp fed the basal diet was higher (P < 0.05) than that of shrimp fed honeysuckle diets. The GSH-Px activity of shrimp fed the

  19. "English" in the "Australian Curriculum: English"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dixon, Robert

    2012-01-01

    This is the text of a paper given at the 2011 Symposium of the Australian Academy of the Humanities on the theme, "Educating the Nation: The Humanities in the New Australian Curriculum", the 42nd Annual Symposium of the Australian Academy of the Humanities at the University of Melbourne, 17 November 2011. It was presented in a session on "History,…

  20. Changing Patterns of Governance for Australian Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harman, Kay; Treadgold, Elaine

    2007-01-01

    Dissatisfaction with the "corporate" model for university governance, a model advocated by both sides of the Australian parliament and adopted by Australian universities over the past two decades, prompted the Australian Vice-Chancellors' Committee (AVCC) in 2003 to suggest an alternative "trusteeship" model. The paper discusses how this model…

  1. Farm Health and Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... jobs in the United States. Farms have many health and safety hazards, including Chemicals and pesticides Machinery, ... equipment can also reduce accidents. Occupational Safety and Health Administration

  2. Second Languages and Australian Schooling. Australian Education Review No. 54

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lo Bianco, Joseph

    2009-01-01

    It is an underlying principle of Australian Education Review (AER) 54 that active efforts should be made to cultivate the latent bilingual potential within Australia's wider population and that this should be linked to major improvements in the quality of language teaching in schools. A combined approach of this kind will require investment in…

  3. Economic aspects of triticale growing: Australian farmer experience.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Katharine V; Elleway, Michael G

    2014-01-01

    Australian farmers grow triticale for economic benefit. A range of farmers in different localities, with different farm size, soil type, rainfall and proximity to markets, were asked why they grew triticale and how it contributed to their farm economics. The main encouragements to grow triticale relate to its agronomic prowess: its reliability and magnitude of production on all soil types and particularly in conditions in which other crops are relatively poor producers. Also in favour of triticale is its ability to produce economic return following a high yielding wheat crop, whilst providing soil benefits as a rotation crop reducing root and stubble diseases. Triticale's versatility and utility as high grade animal feed, by supplying grazing, fodder for conservation, and grain for on-farm animal production, further encourages farmers to include triticale in their cropping programs. The main inhibitor to growing triticale relates to the cost and ease of marketing the product, relative to other crops, and even triticale enthusiasts do not persist with triticale, if the economics are not in its favour. A downturn in the dairy industry, and the cessation of triticale grain receivals at bulk handling sites has resulted in a contraction of triticale production in some regions. Less triticale is likely to be grown where farmers have to provide their own storage, find their own markets, freight the product further, or have limited market options. New specific markets, such as high grade hay from reduced-awn triticale varieties, for the horse industry, may increase the profitability of triticale producing enterprises.

  4. The 2005 Australian Informatics Competition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, David

    2006-01-01

    This article describes the Australian Informatics Competition (AIC), a non-programming competition aimed at identifying students with potential in programming and algorithmic design. It is the first step in identifying students to represent Australia at the International Olympiad in Informatics. The main aim of the AIC is to increase awareness of…

  5. Arabic in Australian Islamic Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Michael

    1996-01-01

    Presents census data on the Muslim population in Australia and overviews full-time independent Islamic schools offering a comprehensive education across the curriculum. Argues that these schools offer great potential for the successful development of Arabic language and cultural literacy skills required by Australian exporters and diplomats in the…

  6. Catalogue of Australian Cynipoidea (Hymenoptera)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A catalogue of all families, subfamilies, genera, and species of Cynipoidea present in Australia is presented here. The Australian cynipoid fauna is very poorly known, with 37 genera cited: one each for Austrocynipidae, Ibaliidae, Liopteridae, two for Cynipidae, and 32 for Figitidae. The first Austr...

  7. The Spirituality of Young Australians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Michael; Singleton, Andrew; Webber, Ruth

    2007-01-01

    A research project conducted in 2003-2006, the Spirit of Generation Y, using both extended interviews and a nationwide survey, revealed three main strands in the spirituality of young Australians: traditional, alternative and humanist. Their involvement in traditional religions was declining, like that of their parents, and although some adopted…

  8. Cataloguing Practices in Australian Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hine, Janet D.

    A survey sought to compile comprehensive information about the cataloging codes, classification schemes, subject headings lists, and filing rules used in Australian libraries. Questionnaires were sent to 112 libraries, and 98 returns were received, included in the sample were national, state, public, university, college, and special libraries.…

  9. Stress Literacy in Australian Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Varlow, Megan; Wuthrich, Viviana; Murrihy, Rachael; Remond, Louise; Tuqiri, Rebekka; van Kessel, Jacobine; Wheatley, Anna; Dedousis-Wallace, Anna; Kidman, Antony

    2009-01-01

    Stress literacy is a term that refers to knowledge about stress and stress management techniques. Levels of stress literacy were examined in more than nine hundred Australian adolescents by providing a short stress-management education session and assessing stress literacy using a pre-post survey design. It was found that while adolescents had a…

  10. Australian Rural Education Award, 1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education in Rural Australia, 1999

    1999-01-01

    Profiles and contact information for 14 candidate programs for the 1999 Australian Rural Education Award. Programs feature tree planting, transportation to boarding school, community development, business awareness, early childhood services, GIS technology, community-based curriculum development, reading resources, environmental service learning,…

  11. Skills Gaps in Australian Firms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindorff, Margaret

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports the results of a survey of more than 2000 managers examining perceptions of skills gaps in a range of Australian firms. It finds that three quarters report a skills gap, and almost one third report skills gaps across the whole organisation. Firm size and industry differences exist in perceptions of the effect of the skills gap…

  12. Staff Bullying in Australian Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riley, Dan; Duncan, Deirdre J.; Edwards, John

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to estimate the prevalence of staff bullying in Australian schools, to identify bullies and targets and to examine some implications for school leaders in dealing with staff bullying. Design/methodology/approach: The quantitative research design survey instrument contained 11 demographic items, 44 questions of…

  13. Biotechnology on the farm

    SciTech Connect

    Tangley, L.

    1986-10-01

    A new genetically engineered growth hormone promises to boost milk yields for dairy farms. Larger milk yields would worsen economic problems facing dairy farmers especially owners of small farms. The conflicts between new technologies and US agricultural policy are discussed here.

  14. Not Your Family Farm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tenopir, Carol; Baker, Gayle; Grogg, Jill E.

    2007-01-01

    The information industry continues to consolidate, just as agribusiness has consolidated and now dominates farming. Both the family farm and the small information company still exist but are becoming rarer in an age of mergers, acquisitions, and increased economies of scale. Small companies distinguish themselves by high quality, special themes,…

  15. Migrant Farm Workers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slesinger, Doris P.; Pfeffer, Max J.

    This paper documents migrant farm workers as being among the most persistently underprivileged groups in American society. Migrant farm workers typically receive low wages from irregular employment and live in poverty with access to only substandard housing and inadequate health care. The lack of economic improvement stems from a number of…

  16. Occupations and the Farm.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ewert-Krocker, Laurie

    2001-01-01

    Describes "occupation" as a Montessori term, which the Hershey Montessori Farm School, in Huntsburg, Ohio, has adopted for any task arising from the needs of the farm that then generates a scientific or historic study. Includes lists of occupations pursued during 2000-2001 and samples of record forms students used to manage their work. (Author/KB)

  17. Occupational Hazards of Farming

    PubMed Central

    White, Gill; Cessna, Allan

    1989-01-01

    A number of occupational hazards exist for the farmer and farm worker. They include the hazards of farm machinery, biologic and chemical hazards, and social and environmental stresses. Recognizing of these hazards will help the family physician care for farmers and their families. PMID:21248929

  18. New reports of Australian cutaneous leishmaniasis in Northern Australian macropods.

    PubMed

    Dougall, A; Shilton, C; Low Choy, J; Alexander, B; Walton, S

    2009-10-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by various species of Leishmania is a significant zoonotic disease in many parts of the world. We describe the first cases of Australian cutaneous leishmaniasis in eight northern wallaroos, one black wallaroo and two agile wallabies from the Northern Territory of Australia. Diagnosis was made through a combination of gross appearance of lesions, cytology, histology, direct culture, serology and a species-specific real-time PCR. The causative organism was found to be the same unique species of Leishmania previously identified in red kangaroos. These clinical findings provide further evidence for the continuous transmission of the Australian Leishmania species and its presence highlights the importance of continued monitoring and research into the life-cycle of this parasite. PMID:19288959

  19. New reports of Australian cutaneous leishmaniasis in Northern Australian macropods.

    PubMed

    Dougall, A; Shilton, C; Low Choy, J; Alexander, B; Walton, S

    2009-10-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by various species of Leishmania is a significant zoonotic disease in many parts of the world. We describe the first cases of Australian cutaneous leishmaniasis in eight northern wallaroos, one black wallaroo and two agile wallabies from the Northern Territory of Australia. Diagnosis was made through a combination of gross appearance of lesions, cytology, histology, direct culture, serology and a species-specific real-time PCR. The causative organism was found to be the same unique species of Leishmania previously identified in red kangaroos. These clinical findings provide further evidence for the continuous transmission of the Australian Leishmania species and its presence highlights the importance of continued monitoring and research into the life-cycle of this parasite.

  20. In vivo therapeutic potentiality of red seaweed, Asparagopsis (Bonnemaisoniales, Rhodophyta) in the treatment of Vibriosis in Penaeus monodon Fabricius

    PubMed Central

    Manilal, Aseer; Selvin, Joseph; George, Shiney

    2011-01-01

    The crude extract of the red seaweed, Asparagopsis sp. was evaluated for in vivo antibacterial activity against the shrimp vibrio pathogens. The algal extract was rationalized with commercial shrimp feed and orally administered for different duration of time followed by the artificial bacterial challenge experiment. In dose titration experiments, the oral administration of Asparagopsis sp. at a dosage of 850 mg kg–1 of biomass was highly efficacious in the treatment of natural infestations of Vibriosis in Penaeus monodon. The results of the confirmatory dose experiment revealed that the prophylactic treatment with moderate dose of 850 mg kg–1 of biomass day–1 for four weeks followed by 14 days of post infection therapy was highly effective in controlling Vibrio infection in shrimps. Moreover, results of the percent survival index and microbiological analysis clearly show that Asparagopsis extract incorporated medicated feed had broad therapeutic potential for managing shrimp Vibriosis. In addition, in vivo trials and results obtained in this work are based on the crude organic extract sourced from an unidentified Asparagopsis cryptic lineage, therefore further molecular analysis to identify the species will be required. PMID:23961176

  1. Use of prawn blood agar hemolysis to screen for bacteria pathogenic to cultured tiger prawns Penaeus monodon.

    PubMed

    Chang, C I; Liu, W Y; Shyu, C Z

    2000-11-14

    A newly developed prawn blood agar consisting of 1 ml of tiger prawn hemolymph in medium containing 200 ppm Rose Bengal was used to determine the hemolytic activity of 35 isolates of bacteria obtained from cultured tiger prawns Penaeus monodon and their rearing water. For comparison, the hemolytic activity of these isolates was also determined in sheep blood agar. Nine isolates (25.7% of total) showed different hemolytic reactions on prawn blood agar and sheep blood agar. From the 35 isolates, 8 with various hemolytic characteristics were selected and the relationship between the type of hemolytic activity and pathogenicity was determined and compared. Four isolates that showed hemolytic activity in prawn blood agar caused high mortality to cultured tiger prawns. By contrast, a significantly lower mortality rate was observed for tiger prawns injected with 4 isolates that did not exhibit hemolytic activity on prawn blood agar. Results further showed that mortality did not correlate with hemolytic activity determined using sheep blood agar. Prawn blood agar containing P. monodon hemocytes was faster and more accurate for determining prawn hemolytic activity of bacterial isolates.

  2. Species profiles: life histories and environmental requirements of coastal fishes and invertebrates (Gulf of Mexico). White shrimp. [Penaeus setiferus

    SciTech Connect

    Muncy, R.J.

    1984-09-01

    They are prepared to assist in environmental impact assessment. The white shrimp, Penaeus setiferus, is the second most abundant species in the Gulf of Mexico shrimp fishery, the most valuable fishery in the United States. It serves as food for many fishes and is sold in the bait industry. Spawning occurs in at least 27 ppt salinity at water depths of 8 to 31 m, from April through September. Postlarvae move on flood tides into inshore estuarine nursery areas; peak abundances are in June and September. Juvenile white shrimp move farther inland than do brown shrimp and prefer shallow water with soft substrate. Growth of 1.6 mm per day occurs at water temperatures above 20/sup 0/C before the shrimp move offshore when inshore waters begin to cool in fall. Juveniles and adults return inshore when water temperatures increase in fall or the following spring. Survival at 8/sup 0/ to 30/sup 0/C was related to temperature and salinities. Juvenile and adult white shrimp are omnivorous, selective-particulate, benthic feeders. Population abundance has been correlated with coastal marshes and freshwater inflows. Maintaining suitable nursery grounds will decide the future of Gulf Coast white shrimp resources. 71 refs. 2 figs.

  3. New yellow head virus genotype (YHV7) in giant tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon indigenous to northern Australia.

    PubMed

    Mohr, Peter G; Moody, Nicholas J G; Hoad, John; Williams, Lynette M; Bowater, Rachel O; Cummins, David M; Cowley, Jeff A; StJ Crane, Mark

    2015-08-20

    In 2012, giant tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon originally sourced from Joseph Bonaparte Gulf in northern Australia were examined in an attempt to identify the cause of elevated mortalities among broodstock at a Queensland hatchery. Nucleic acid extracted from ethanol-fixed gills of 3 individual shrimp tested positive using the OIE YHV Protocol 2 RT-PCR designed to differentiate yellow head virus (YHV1) from gill-associated virus (GAV, synonymous with YHV2) and the OIE YHV Protocol 3 RT-nested PCR designed for consensus detection of YHV genotypes. Sequence analysis of the 794 bp (Protocol 2) and 359 bp (Protocol 3) amplicons from 2 distinct regions of ORF1b showed that the yellow-head-complex virus detected was novel when compared with Genotypes 1 to 6. Nucleotide identity on the Protocol 2 and Protocol 3 ORF1b sequences was highest with the highly pathogenic YHV1 genotype (81 and 87%, respectively) that emerged in P. monodon in Thailand and lower with GAV (78 and 82%, respectively) that is enzootic to P. monodon inhabiting eastern Australia. Comparison of a longer (725 bp) ORF1b sequence, spanning the Protocol 3 region and amplified using a modified YH30/31 RT-nPCR, provided further phylogenetic evidence for the virus being distinct from the 6 described YHV genotypes. The virus represents a unique seventh YHV genotype (YHV7). Despite the mortalities observed, the role of YHV7 remains unknown.

  4. Dietary effect of Rubus coreanus ethanolic extract on immune gene expression in white leg shrimp, Penaeus vannamei.

    PubMed

    Subramanian, Dharaneedharan; Jang, Yeoung-Hwan; Kim, Dong-Hwi; Kang, Bong-Jo; Heo, Moon-Soo

    2013-09-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of dietary supplementation of a Rubus coreanus ethanolic extract on immunostimulatory response in white leg shrimp Penaeus vannamei. Shrimps with an average initial weight of 0.5 ± 0.04 g were collected and acclimatized for 10 days. Four experimental diets including a control diet, a probiotic diet and 0.25 and 0.5% of R. coreanus ethanolic extract (RcEE) diets were used to feed the shrimps. After 8 weeks of culture, shrimp fed with probiotic and 0.25% RcEE diet had showed significant enhancement in the growth while shrimp fed with 0.5% RcEE diet showed significantly increased expression of immune genes and antioxidant enzymes activities. One week of challenge experiments for all the four diets fed shrimps showed decreased cumulative mortality in the 0.5% RcEE diets fed shrimps, when compared with the probiotic and 0.25% RcEE diet fed shrimp groups. The results indicates that R. coreanus ethanolic extract could be used as a herbal immunostimulant for shrimps to increase its immunity and disease resistance against the bacterial pathogen, Vibrio alginolyticus. PMID:23811352

  5. Attempts on producing lymphoid cell line from Penaeus monodon by induction with SV40-T and 12S EIA oncogenes.

    PubMed

    Puthumana, Jayesh; Prabhakaran, Priyaja; Philip, Rosamma; Singh, I S Bright

    2015-12-01

    In an attempt of in vitro transformation, transfection mediated expression of Simian virus-40 (T) antigen (SV40-T) and transduction mediated expression of Adenovirus type 12 early region 1A (12S E1A) oncogene were performed in Penaeus monodon lymphoid cells. pSV3-neo vector encoding SV40-T oncogene and a recombinant baculovirus BacP2-12S E1A-GFP encoding 12S E1A oncogene under the control of hybrid promoters were used. Electroporation and lipofection mediated transformation of SV40-T in lymphoid cells confirmed the transgene expression by phenotypic variation and the expression of GFP in co-transfection experiment. The cells transfected by lipofection (≥ 5%) survived for 14 days with lower toxicity (30%), whilst on electroporation, most of the cells succumbed to death (60%) and survived cells lived up to 7 days. Transduction efficiency in primary lymphoid cells was more than 80% within 14 days of post-transduction, however, an incubation period of 7 days post-transduction was observed without detectable expression of 12S E1A. High level of oncogenic 12S E1A expression were observed after 14 day post-transduction and the proliferating cells survived for more than 90 days with GFP expression, however, without in vitro transformation and immortalization. The study put forth the requirement of transduction mediated 'specific' oncogene expression along with telomerase activation and epigenetic induction for the immortalization and establishment of shrimp cell line.

  6. A novel gonad-specific Argonaute 4 serves as a defense against transposons in the black tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon.

    PubMed

    Leebonoi, Wantana; Sukthaworn, Suchitraporn; Panyim, Sakol; Udomkit, Apinunt

    2015-02-01

    Argonaute is a key protein of the small-RNA guided gene regulation process. The Argonaute family is generally divided into two subfamilies; AGO and PIWI. In this study, a cDNA encoding a novel type of Argonaute (PmAgo4) in the black tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon was identified and characterized. PmAgo4 cDNA contained an open reading frame of 2433 nucleotides that can be translated into a deduced amino acid with the conserved PAZ and PIWI domains. PmAgo4 was phylogenetically clustered with the AGO subfamily while exhibited a gonad-specific expression pattern similar to that of proteins in the PIWI subfamily. The expression of PmAgo4 did not change significantly in response to either double-stranded RNA or yellow head virus injection suggesting that PmAgo4 may not be the main AGO proteins that play a role in dsRNA-mediated gene silencing or antiviral defense. Interestingly, PmAgo4 appeared to participate in the control of transposons since the activation of both DNA transposon and retrotransposon was detected in the testis of PmAgo4-knockdown shrimp. Our study thus provided the first evidence for an unusual type of the AGO proteins that was predominantly expressed in shrimp gonad and implication of its role in protecting the shrimp genome against an invasion of transposons. PMID:25463288

  7. Adaptation of the black tiger shrimp, Penaeus monodon, to different salinities through an excretory function of the antennal gland.

    PubMed

    Buranajitpirom, Decha; Asuvapongpatana, Somluk; Weerachatyanukul, Wattana; Wongprasert, Kanokpan; Namwong, Wisa; Poltana, Pisit; Withyachumnarnkul, Boonsirm

    2010-06-01

    Black tiger shrimps (Penaeus monodon) are able to survive and can be reared under various salinities, possibly by the cellular adaptation of their excretory system, particularly the antennal gland, which is known to regulate body fluid in crustaceans. We have investigated the morphological and biochemical alterations of the antennal glands in shrimp reared in 7, 15, or 30 ppt seawater. Drastic changes occur in animals reared under 7 ppt conditions. Ultrastructural studies of the antennal gland in shrimps reared in 7 ppt seawater have revealed that podocytic cells in the coelomosacs ramify with more cytoplasmic processes forming the filtration slits, and that the tubular labyrinth cells possess more mitochondria in their basal striation and a wider tubular lumen than those found in the other groups. Many apical cytoplasmic blebs from labyrinth cells have also been seen in the lumen of the labyrinths under 7 ppt conditions, a feature that is not as prominent under the other conditions. The expression and activity of the Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase in the antennal gland are also correlated with the surrounding environment: the lower the salinity, the higher the expression and activity of the enzyme. Immunohistochemistry results have demonstrated the highest staining intensity in the labyrinth cells of shrimps reared under 7 ppt conditions. Our findings thus suggest that one of the adaptation mechanisms of this shrimp to the surrounding salinity is the regulation of Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase expression in the antennal gland, in conjunction with subcellular changes in its excretory cells.

  8. Transformation of primary cultures of shrimp (Penaeus stylirostris) lymphoid (Oka) organ with Simian virus-40 (T) antigen.

    PubMed

    Tapay, L M; Lu, Y; Brock, J A; Nadala, E C; Loh, P C

    1995-05-01

    Primary cultures of lymphoid (Oka) organ from Penaeus stylirostris were transformed with naked or Lipofectin-mediated pSV-3 neo, a shuttle vector containing the tumor (T) antigen gene from Simian virus-40. The transformed cells, OKTr-1 and OKTr-23, exhibited the following characteristics: rounded morphology forming grapelike aggregates, loosely adhesive, increased growth rate in Medium-199, resistance to G-418 (a neomycin analog marker in the shuttle vector), cloning efficiencies of 68.7% and 36.7% in soft agarose, respectively, and stability in liquid nitrogen storage. Immunofluorescence staining (IFA) of the transformed cells using a monoclonal antibody against SV-40 tumor antigen showed positive results. In contrast, primary cell cultures exhibited fibroblast-like morphology and formed a tight, adhesive monolayer on the surface of the culture vessel. They were sensitive to G-418, and showed negative results with IFA. To date, OKTr-1 and OKTr-23 have undergone 44 and 18 passages, respectively. Primary cultures of the lymphoid organ have not been successfully passaged beyond the primary stage.

  9. Three-dimensional reconstruction of black tiger prawn (Penaeus monodon) spermatozoa using serial block-face scanning electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Feng, Tianyi; Paterson, Brian D; Webb, Robyn; Johnston, Stephen D

    2016-05-01

    Serial Block-Face Scanning Electron Microscopy (SBF-SEM) was used in this study to examine the ultrastructural morphology of Penaeus monodon spermatozoa. SBF-SEM provided a large dataset of sequential electron-microscopic-level images that facilitated comprehensive ultrastructural observations and three-dimensional reconstructions of the sperm cell. Reconstruction divulged a nuclear region of the spermatophoral spermatozoon filled with decondensed chromatin but with two apparent levels of packaging density. In addition, the nuclear region contained, not only numerous filamentous chromatin elements with dense microregions, but also large centrally gathered granular masses. Analysis of the sperm cytoplasm revealed the presence of degenerated mitochondria and membrane-less dense granules. A large electron-lucent vesicle and "arch-like" structures were apparent in the subacrosomal area, and an acrosomal core was found in the acrosomal vesicle. The spermatozoal spike arose from the inner membrane of the acrosomal vesicle, which was slightly bulbous in the middle region of the acrosomal vesicle, but then extended distally into a broad dense plate and to a sharp point proximally. This study has demonstrated that SBF-SEM is a powerful technique for the 3D ultrastructural reconstruction of prawn spermatozoa, that will no doubt be informative for further studies of sperm assessment, reproductive pathology and the spermiocladistics of penaeid prawns, and other decapod crustaceans. PMID:26877112

  10. Response of Penaeus indicus females at two different stages of ovarian development to a lethal infection with Vibrio penaeicida.

    PubMed

    Avarre, J-C; Saulnier, D; Labreuche, Y; Ansquer, D; Tietz, A; Lubzens, Esther

    2003-01-01

    An association between vitellogenesis and the immune system was suggested in crustaceans from studies on plasma lipoproteins. The present research studies the effect of an experimentally induced bacterial infection on vitellogenesis in females of the shrimp Penaeus indicus, as a model for penaeid species. Pre-vitellogenic and vitellogenic P. indicus females were experimentally infected with an extremely pathogenic bacterium, Vibrio penaeicida. The peak in mortality occurred earlier in pre-vitellogenic animals than in vitellogenic ones, although the final mortality level ( approximately 64-74%) 52h post-infection was nearly the same for the two groups. Twenty hours after infection, the total number of haemocytes was significantly reduced in vitellogenic females while there was no change in the pre-vitellogenic group. Protein synthesis in ovaries was not significantly affected by infection, at the two stages of ovarian development. No differences were found in mRNA levels of shrimp ovarian peritrophin protein (SOP), but preliminary results showed that mRNA expression of vitellin (VT) was reduced in a heavily infected vitellogenic female. The total amount of lipids in the haemolymph of vitellogenic females was almost twice higher than that of pre-vitellogenic ones. However, there was no change in the total content of lipids, lipid classes and fatty acid distribution in haemolymph or hepatopancreas following infection. Although vitellogenic and pre-vitellogenic females probably respond differently to a lethal bacterial infection, physiological differences may be concealed by the rapid onset of mortality.

  11. Use of prawn blood agar hemolysis to screen for bacteria pathogenic to cultured tiger prawns Penaeus monodon.

    PubMed

    Chang, C I; Liu, W Y; Shyu, C Z

    2000-11-14

    A newly developed prawn blood agar consisting of 1 ml of tiger prawn hemolymph in medium containing 200 ppm Rose Bengal was used to determine the hemolytic activity of 35 isolates of bacteria obtained from cultured tiger prawns Penaeus monodon and their rearing water. For comparison, the hemolytic activity of these isolates was also determined in sheep blood agar. Nine isolates (25.7% of total) showed different hemolytic reactions on prawn blood agar and sheep blood agar. From the 35 isolates, 8 with various hemolytic characteristics were selected and the relationship between the type of hemolytic activity and pathogenicity was determined and compared. Four isolates that showed hemolytic activity in prawn blood agar caused high mortality to cultured tiger prawns. By contrast, a significantly lower mortality rate was observed for tiger prawns injected with 4 isolates that did not exhibit hemolytic activity on prawn blood agar. Results further showed that mortality did not correlate with hemolytic activity determined using sheep blood agar. Prawn blood agar containing P. monodon hemocytes was faster and more accurate for determining prawn hemolytic activity of bacterial isolates. PMID:11145455

  12. Molecular cloning and mRNA expression of cyclophilin A gene in black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon).

    PubMed

    Qiu, Lihua; Jiang, Shigui; Huang, Jianhua; Wang, Weifang; Zhu, Caiyan; Su, Tianfeng

    2009-01-01

    The techniques of homology cloning and anchored PCR were used to clone the cyclophilin A (CypA) gene from black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon). The full-length cDNA of black tiger shrimp CypA (btsCypA) contained a 5' untranslated region (UTR) of 81 bp, an ORF (open reading frame) of 495 bp encoding a polypeptide of 164 amino acids with an estimated molecular mass of 17.68 kDa and a 3' UTR of 308 bp. The predicted amino acid sequence of btsCypA shared high identity with CypA in other organisms. A quantitative reverse transcriptase Real-Time PCR (qRT-PCR) assay was developed to assess the mRNA expression of btsCypA in different tissues and the temporal expression of btsCypA in the hepatopancreas challenged by lipopolyssacharide (LPS). Higher-level mRNA expression of btsCypA was detected in the tissues of hepatopancreas and blood. The expression of btsCypA in the hepatopancreas was up regulated after stimulated by LPS. The results indicated that btsCypA was a constitutive and inducible expressed protein and could be induced by LPS.

  13. Characterization and function analysis of Hsp60 and Hsp10 under different acute stresses in black tiger shrimp, Penaeus monodon.

    PubMed

    Shi, Jinxuan; Fu, Mingjun; Zhao, Chao; Zhou, Falin; Yang, Qibin; Qiu, Lihua

    2016-03-01

    Heat shock proteins (Hsps) are a class of highly conserved proteins produced in virtually all living organisms from bacteria to humans. Hsp60 and Hsp10, the most important mitochondrial chaperones, participate in environmental stress responses. In this study, the full-length complementary DNAs (cDNAs) of Hsp60 (PmHsp60) and Hsp10 (PmHsp10) were cloned from Penaeus monodon. Sequence analysis showed that PmHsp60 and PmHsp10 encoded polypeptides of 578 and 102 amino acids, respectively. The expression profiles of PmHsp60 and PmHsp10 were detected in the gills and hepatopancreas of the shrimps under pH challenge, osmotic stress, and heavy metal exposure, and results suggested that PmHsp60 and PmHsp10 were involved in the responses to these stimuli. ATPase and chaperone activity assay indicated that PmHsp60 could slow down protein denaturation and that Hsp60/Hsp10 may be combined to produce a chaperone complex with effective chaperone and ATPase activities. Overall, this study provides useful information to help further understand the functional mechanisms of the environmental stress responses of Hsp60 and Hsp10 in shrimp.

  14. Molecular analysis of the QM gene from Penaeus monodon and its expression on the different ovarian stages of development.

    PubMed

    Zhou, FaLin; Jiang, ShiGui; Huang, JianHua; Qiu, LiHua; Zhang, DianChang; Su, TiannFeng

    2011-03-01

    In present study, a QM gene was obtained from the ovary and neurosecretory organ in eyestalk cDNA library of black tiger prawn (Penaeus monodon). The full-length black tiger prawn QM (PmQM) cDNA contained a 5'-UTR of 41 bp, an ORF of 663 bp encoding a polypeptide of 220 amino acids with molecular weight 25.5 kDa, and a 3'-UTR of 54 bp. Homology analysis of the deduced amino acid sequence of the PmQM with other known QM sequences by MatGAT software revealed that the PmQM was high homology with other invertebrates. A conserved signature sequence of the QM family was found in the PmQM deduced amino acid sequence. Analysis of the tissue expression pattern of the PmQM gene showed that the PmQM mRNA was expressed in all tissues tested, with highest levels in ovary. Furthermore, the PmQM expression was found to be different in three important ovarian stages of development. The results indicated PmQM might play an important role in ovarian development.

  15. White meat-Green farm: case study of Brinson Farms

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Comprehensive on-farm resource utilization and renewable energy generation at the farm scale are not new concepts. However, truly encompassing implementation of these ideals is lacking. Brinson Farms operates 10 commercial broiler houses. The farm generates heat for its houses using biomass boile...

  16. People on the Farm: Corn and Hog Farming.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC. Office of Governmental and Public Affairs.

    This booklet provides information on corn and hog farming on a small farm through a profile of a farm family. According to the profile, John and Mary Miller and their three children are a comfortable family operating a corn and hog farm in Iowa. John, the principal farmer, uses a variety of skills in management, veterinary science, soil science,…

  17. Nazi medical experiments on Australian prisoners of war: Commentary on the testimony of an Australian soldier.

    PubMed

    Weisz, George M

    2015-12-01

    Archival research reveals that Australian prisoners of war were exposed to non-consensual medical experiments during World War II. This article discusses the first known case of an Australian soldier exposed to German medical experiments.

  18. Nazi medical experiments on Australian prisoners of war: Commentary on the testimony of an Australian soldier.

    PubMed

    Weisz, George M

    2015-12-01

    Archival research reveals that Australian prisoners of war were exposed to non-consensual medical experiments during World War II. This article discusses the first known case of an Australian soldier exposed to German medical experiments. PMID:26939510

  19. Australian dingoes are definitive hosts of Neospora caninum.

    PubMed

    King, Jessica S; Slapeta, Jan; Jenkins, David J; Al-Qassab, Sarwat E; Ellis, John T; Windsor, Peter A

    2010-07-01

    To provide objective data on the potential role of dingoes (Canis lupus dingo) in the life cycle of Neospora caninum in Australia, the production of N. caninum oocysts by experimentally infected canids was investigated. Three dingo pups raised in captivity and three domestic dogs were fed tissue from calves infected with an Australian isolate of N. caninum, Nc-Nowra. Oocysts of N. caninum, confirmed by species-specific PCR, were shed in low numbers by one dingo pup at 12-14 days p.i. The remaining animals did not shed oocysts. Furthermore, the blood from two out of three dingoes tested positive for DNA of N. caninum using PCR tests at 14 and 28 days p.i. Oocyst shedding from the intestinal tract of a dingo demonstrates that dingoes are definitive hosts of N. caninum and horizontal transmission of N. caninum from dingoes to farm animals and wildlife may occur in Australia. PMID:20149793

  20. Australian network of magnetic observatories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barton, C. E.

    Six magnetic observatories are presently operated by the Australian Bureau of Mineral Resources, Geology and Geophysics (BMR), with assistance from various other organizations. Variometer recordings are made of three or more elements of the field at minute intervals, and absolute measurements are made weekly. There are four observatories on the continent (Canberra, Gnangara, Charters Towers, and Learmonth), one on Macquarie Island, and one at Mawson Station in eastern Antarctica (Figure 1). In addition, semiweekly absolute observations of the field (D, H, and F) are made at the other two permanent Australian Antarctic bases (Casey and Davis). A three-axis fluxgate magnetometer (EDA Electronics, Toronto , Canada) is operated independently by the Upper Atmosphere Physics group at Davis. Monthly mean values, K indices, and information about magnetic disturbances are published monthly in the BMR Geophysical Observatory Report.

  1. Funding emergency care: Australian style.

    PubMed

    Bell, Anthony; Crilly, Julia; Williams, Ged; Wylie, Kate; Toloo, Ghasem Sam; Burke, John; FitzGerald, Gerry

    2014-08-01

    The ongoing challenge for ED leaders is to remain abreast of system-wide changes that impact on the day-to-day management of their departments. Changes to the funding model creates another layer of complexity and this introductory paper serves as the beginning of a discussion about the way in which EDs are funded and how this can and will impact on business decisions, models of care and resource allocation within Australian EDs. Furthermore it is evident that any funding model today will mature and change with time, and moves are afoot to refine and contextualise ED funding over the medium term. This perspective seeks to provide a basis of understanding for our current and future funding arrangements in Australian EDs.

  2. Meteors in Australian Aboriginal Dreamings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamacher, Duane W.; Norris, Ray P.

    2010-06-01

    We present a comprehensive analysis of Australian Aboriginal accounts of meteors. The data used were taken from anthropological and ethnographic literature describing oral traditions, ceremonies, and Dreamings of 97 Aboriginal groups representing all states of modern Australia. This revealed common themes in the way meteors were viewed between Aboriginal groups, focusing on supernatural events, death, omens, and war. The presence of such themes around Australia was probably due to the unpredictable nature of meteors in an otherwise well-ordered cosmos.

  3. Immune indices and identical functions of two prophenoloxidases from the haemolymph of green tiger shrimp Penaeus semisulcatus and its antibiofilm activity.

    PubMed

    Ishwarya, Ramachandran; Jayanthi, Sangily; Muthulakshmi, Perumal; Anjugam, Mahalingam; Jayakumar, Rengarajan; Khudus Nazar, Abdul; Vaseeharan, Baskaralingam

    2016-04-01

    In the present study, we purified two prophenoloxidases (proPO) from haemolymph of green tiger shrimp, Penaeus semisulcatus by gel fermentation chromatography using blue Sepharose matrix. The two purified prophenoloxidase macromolecules are of about 76 and 75 kDa determined through SDS-PAGE and named as Penaeus semisulcatus prophenoloxidase I (PSproPO I) and Penaeus semisulcatus prophenoloxidase II (PSproPO II). It was further characterized by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), Circular Dichroism (CD) and High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) analysis. The purified PSproPO I and PSproPO II showed the strongest agglutination titre against human erythrocytes compared to goat RBC. The PSproPO I and PSproPO II showed phagocytic activity against yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and encapsulation activity against Sepharose CL 6B beads compared to CM Sepharose and Sodium alginate beads. The functional analysis of purified PSproPO I and PSproPO II showed enhanced PO activity when added with the triggering molecules such as pathogen associated molecular patterns (PAMPs), metals and chemicals. In addition, eluted fraction containing PSproPO I and PSproPO II showed antibiofilm activity against Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria. The above results concluded that no significant differences were found between the purified PSproPO I and PSproPO II immune indices and functions. This study might provide a sensitive platform to understand more about the critical roles of PSproPO I and PSproPO II in crustacean immune system. PMID:26899630

  4. Farm accidents in children.

    PubMed

    Cogbill, T H; Busch, H M; Stiers, G R

    1985-10-01

    During a 6 1/2 year period, 105 children were admitted to the hospital as the result of trauma that occurred on farms. The mechanism of injury was animal related in 42 (40%), tractor or wagon accident in 28 (26%), farm machinery in 21 (20%), fall from farm building in six (6%), and miscellaneous in eight (8%). Injury Severity Score was calculated for each patient. An Injury Severity Score of greater than or equal to 25 was determined for 11 children (11%). Life-threatening injuries, therefore, are frequently the result of childhood activities that take place in agricultural environments. The most common injuries were orthopedic, neurologic, thoracoabdominal, and maxillofacial. There was one death in the series, and only one survivor sustained major long-term disability. Such injuries are managed with optimal outcome in a regional trauma center. Educational programs with an emphasis on prevention and safety measures may reduce the incidence of farm accidents. PMID:4047799

  5. Tifft Farm Nature Preserve.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benjamin, Thomas B.; Gannon, David J.

    1980-01-01

    Described are the creation, development, activities, and programs of Tifft Farm, a 264-acre nature preserve and environmental education center in Buffalo, New York, constructed on a sanitary landfill. (BT)

  6. The Australian Education Union: From Federal Registration to National Reconciliation. Australian Education Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spaull, Andrew

    This book is a study of the Australian Education Union (AEU), a federal organization of government schoolteachers in the states and territories of Australia. Founded in 1984 as the Australian Teachers Union, it became the AEU in 1993. By 1998, the AEU had grown to become the third largest trade union in Australian, with some 157,000 members. This…

  7. The Politics Are Personal: "The Australian" vs the Australian Curriculum in History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Tony; Collins, Sue

    2012-01-01

    This article reviews the relationship between the conservative newspaper "The Australian" and the development of a national history curriculum in Australia. The lead author surveyed the major Australian press in the five-year period between 2007 and 2012 and found clear patterns of difference between "The Australian" and other press outlets in…

  8. Transforming Farm Health and Safety: The Case for Business Coaching.

    PubMed

    Blackman, Anna; Franklin, Richard C; Rossetto, Allison; Gray, David E

    2015-01-01

    In the U.S. and Australia, agriculture is consistently ranked as one of the most hazardous industries. The cost of injuries and deaths on Australian farms is significant, estimated to be between AU$0.5 billion and AU$1.2 billion per year. Death and injury in agriculture also place a significant financial and social burden on the family and friends of the injured, the community, and the health system. This article proposes that if farmers were to employ coaching in their businesses, they would benefit from advances in safety practices, resulting in associated improvements in overall farm productivity and a reduction in injury costs to the wider community. A coaching model is presented to demonstrate what an effective coaching process would need to include. An agenda for future research areas is also provided.

  9. Certified safe farm: identifying and removing hazards on the farm.

    PubMed

    Rautiainen, R H; Grafft, L J; Kline, A K; Madsen, M D; Lange, J L; Donham, K J

    2010-04-01

    This article describes the development of the Certified Safe Farm (CSF) on-farm safety review tools, characterizes the safety improvements among participating farms during the study period, and evaluates differences in background variables between low and high scoring farms. Average farm review scores on 185 study farms improved from 82 to 96 during the five-year study (0-100 scale, 85 required for CSF certification). A total of 1292 safety improvements were reported at an estimated cost of $650 per farm. A wide range of improvements were made, including adding 9 rollover protective structures (ROPS), 59 power take-off (PTO) master shields, and 207 slow-moving vehicle (SMV) emblems; improving lighting on 72 machines: placing 171 warning decals on machinery; shielding 77 moving parts; locking up 17 chemical storage areas, adding 83 lockout/tagout improvements; and making general housekeeping upgrades in 62 farm buildings. The local, trained farm reviewers and the CSF review process overall were well received by participating farmers. In addition to our earlier findings where higher farm review scores were associated with lower self-reported health outcome costs, we found that those with higher farm work hours, younger age, pork production in confinement, beef production, poultry production, and reported exposure to agrichemicals had higher farm review scores than those who did not have these characteristics. Overall, the farm review process functioned as expected. encouraging physical improvements in the farm environment, and contributing to the multi-faceted CSF intervention program.

  10. Certified safe farm: identifying and removing hazards on the farm.

    PubMed

    Rautiainen, R H; Grafft, L J; Kline, A K; Madsen, M D; Lange, J L; Donham, K J

    2010-04-01

    This article describes the development of the Certified Safe Farm (CSF) on-farm safety review tools, characterizes the safety improvements among participating farms during the study period, and evaluates differences in background variables between low and high scoring farms. Average farm review scores on 185 study farms improved from 82 to 96 during the five-year study (0-100 scale, 85 required for CSF certification). A total of 1292 safety improvements were reported at an estimated cost of $650 per farm. A wide range of improvements were made, including adding 9 rollover protective structures (ROPS), 59 power take-off (PTO) master shields, and 207 slow-moving vehicle (SMV) emblems; improving lighting on 72 machines: placing 171 warning decals on machinery; shielding 77 moving parts; locking up 17 chemical storage areas, adding 83 lockout/tagout improvements; and making general housekeeping upgrades in 62 farm buildings. The local, trained farm reviewers and the CSF review process overall were well received by participating farmers. In addition to our earlier findings where higher farm review scores were associated with lower self-reported health outcome costs, we found that those with higher farm work hours, younger age, pork production in confinement, beef production, poultry production, and reported exposure to agrichemicals had higher farm review scores than those who did not have these characteristics. Overall, the farm review process functioned as expected. encouraging physical improvements in the farm environment, and contributing to the multi-faceted CSF intervention program. PMID:20503809

  11. Molecular cloning and expression of chitin deacetylase 1 gene from the gills of Penaeus monodon (black tiger shrimp).

    PubMed

    Sarmiento, Katreena P; Panes, Vivian A; Santos, Mudjekeewis D

    2016-08-01

    Chitin deacetylases have been identified and studied in several fungi and insects but not in crustaceans. These glycoproteins function in catalyzing the conversion of chitin to chitosan by the hydrolysis of N-acetamido bonds of chitin. Here, for the first time, the full length cDNA of chitin deacetylase (CDA) gene from crustaceans was fully cloned using a partial fragment obtained from a transcriptome database of the gills of black tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon that survived White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV) infection employing Rapid Amplification of cDNA Ends (RACE) PCR. The shrimp CDA, named PmCDA1, was further characterized by in silico analysis, and its constitutive expression determined in apparently healthy shrimp through reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR). Results revealed that the P. monodon chitin deacetylase (PmCDA1) is 2176 bp-long gene with an open reading frame (ORF) of 1596 bp encoding for 532 amino acids. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that PmCDA1 belongs to Group I CDAs together with CDA1 and CDA2 proteins found in insects. Moreover, PmCDA1 is composed of a conserved chitin-binding peritrophin-A domain (CBD), a low-density lipoprotein receptor class A domain (LDL-A) and a catalytic domain that is part of CE4 superfamily, all found in group I CDAs, which are known to serve critical immune function against WSSV. Finally, high expression of PmCDA1 gene in the gills of apparently healthy P. monodon was observed suggesting important basal function of the gene in this tissue. Taken together, this is a first report of the full chitin deacetylase 1 (CDA1) gene in crustaceans particularly in shrimp that exhibits putative immune function against WSSV and is distinctly highly expressed in the gills of shrimp.

  12. Gene expression profiling in gill tissues of White spot syndrome virus infected black tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon by DNA microarray.

    PubMed

    Shekhar, M S; Gomathi, A; Gopikrishna, G; Ponniah, A G

    2015-06-01

    White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) continues to be the most devastating viral pathogen infecting penaeid shrimp the world over. The genome of WSSV has been deciphered and characterized from three geographical isolates and significant progress has been made in developing various molecular diagnostic methods to detect the virus. However, the information on host immune gene response to WSSV pathogenesis is limited. Microarray analysis was carried out as an approach to analyse the gene expression in black tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon in response to WSSV infection. Gill tissues collected from the WSSV infected shrimp at 6, 24, 48 h and moribund stage were analysed for differential gene expression. Shrimp cDNAs of 40,059 unique sequences were considered for designing the microarray chip. The Cy3-labeled cRNA derived from healthy and WSSV-infected shrimp was subjected to hybridization with all the DNA spots in the microarray which revealed 8,633 and 11,147 as up- and down-regulated genes respectively at different time intervals post infection. The altered expression of these numerous genes represented diverse functions such as immune response, osmoregulation, apoptosis, nucleic acid binding, energy and metabolism, signal transduction, stress response and molting. The changes in gene expression profiles observed by microarray analysis provides molecular insights and framework of genes which are up- and down-regulated at different time intervals during WSSV infection in shrimp. The microarray data was validated by Real Time analysis of four differentially expressed genes involved in apoptosis (translationally controlled tumor protein, inhibitor of apoptosis protein, ubiquitin conjugated enzyme E2 and caspase) for gene expression levels. The role of apoptosis related genes in WSSV infected shrimp is discussed herein.

  13. Characterization and identification of calmodulin and calmodulin binding proteins in hemocyte of the black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon).

    PubMed

    Sengprasert, Panjana; Amparyup, Piti; Tassanakajorn, Anchalee; Wongpanya, Ratree

    2015-06-01

    Calmodulin (CaM), a ubiquitous intracellular calcium (Ca(2+)) sensor in all eukaryotic cells, is one of the well-known signaling proteins. Previously, CaM gene has shown a high transcriptional level in hemocyte of the pathogen infected shrimp, suggesting that shrimp CaM does not only regulate Ca(2+) metabolism, but is also involved in immune response cascade. In the present study, the CaM gene of shrimp Penaeus monodon was identified and the recombinant P.monodon CaM (rPmCaM) was produced and biochemically characterized. The identification of CaM-binding proteins was also performed. The PmCaM cDNA consisted of an open reading frame of 447 bp encoding for 149 amino acid residues with a calculated mass of 16,810 Da and an isoelectric point of 4.09. Tissue distribution showed that the PmCaM transcript was expressed in all examined tissues. The results of gel mobility shift assay, circular dichroism spectroscopy and fluorescence spectroscopy all confirmed that the conformational changes of the rPmCaM were observed after the calcium binding. According to the gene silencing of PmCaM transcript levels, the shrimp's susceptibility to pathogenic Vibrio harveyi infection increased in comparison with that of the control groups. Protein pull-down assay and LC-MS/MS analysis were performed to identify rPmCaM-binding proteins involved in shrimp immune responses and transglutaminase, elongation factor 1-alpha, elongation factor 2 and actin were found. However, by computational analysis, only the first three proteins contained CaM-binding domain. These findings suggested that PmCaM may play an important role in regulation of shrimp immune system.

  14. Anti-white spot syndrome virus activity of Ceriops tagal aqueous extract in giant tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon.

    PubMed

    Sudheer, N S; Philip, Rosamma; Bright Singh, I S

    2012-09-01

    White spot syndrome virus (WSSV), the most contagious pathogen of cultured shrimp, causes mass mortality, leading to huge economic loss to the shrimp industry. The lack of effective therapeutic or prophylactic measures has aggravated the situation, necessitating the development of antiviral agents. With this objective, the antiviral activity in the aqueous extract of a mangrove plant Ceriops tagal in Penaeus monodon was evaluated. The Ceriops tagal aqueous extract (CTAE) was non-toxic to shrimps at 50 mg/ml when injected intramuscularly at a dosage of 10 μL/animal (0.5 mg/animal) and showed a protective effect against WSSV at 30 mg/ml when mixed with WSSV suspension at a 1:1 ratio. When the extract was administered along with the diet and the animals were challenged orally, there was a dose-dependent increase in survival, culminating in 100 % survival at a concentration of 500 mg/kg body weight/day. Neither hypertrophied nuclei nor the viral envelope protein VP28 could be demonstrated in surviving shrimps using histology and indirect immunofluorescence histochemistry (IIFH), respectively. To elucidate the mode of action, the temporal expression of WSSV genes and shrimp immune genes, including antimicrobial peptides, was attempted. None of the viral genes were found to be expressed in shrimps that were fed with the extract and challenged or in those that were administered CTAE-exposed WSSV. The overall results suggest that the aqueous extract from C. tagal can protect P. monodon from white spot syndrome virus infection. PMID:22643833

  15. Low impact of infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHHNV) on growth and reproductive performance of Penaeus monodon.

    PubMed

    Withyachumnarnkul, Boonsirm; Chayaburakul, Kanokporn; Lao-Aroon, Supak; Plodpai, Pornthep; Sritunyalucksana, Kallaya; Nash, Gary

    2006-04-01

    No controlled studies on the effect of infectous hypodermal and necrosis virus (IHHNV) on Penaeus monodon have been previously reported. Here we describe domesticated P. monodon that became positive for IHHNV and other viruses at variable levels of prevalence during cultivation in 16 open-air, earthen ponds. These were stocked with domesticated postlarvae (PL) that tested negative for 7 shrimp viruses including IHHNV at 6% prevalence in 3 checks using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) methods. These PL were derived from domesticated female broodstock that individually tested negative for the same viruses. At 4 mo of culture, the shrimp in some ponds without obvious mortality tested positive by PCR methods for IHHNV and 3 other viruses at variable levels of maximum estimated prevalence (MEP). Stained tissue sections showed no lesions typical of IHHNV, but in situ hybridization tests with an IHHNV-specific DNA probe were positive. There was no significant difference in mean body weight (i.e. ca. 25 g) between shrimp groups positive or negative for IHHNV. Similar results were obtained with IHHNV negative and positive adults at 1 yr. Adults that individually tested negative for all 7 viruses and some that tested lightly positive for IHHNV were bred for the next generation. There were no significant differences in the number of eggs (> 600 000) and nauplii (ca. 300,000) produced by females negative and positive for IHHNV. From these females, 11/49 (22%) IHHNV PCR-positive PL batches were obtained from PCR-negative spawners, while 8/11 (73%) were obtained from IHHNV PCR-positive spawners. The results suggested that IHHNV infection can be transmitted vertically but does not seriously retard growth of P. monodon or affect fecundity of lightly infected broodstock.

  16. Anti-lipopolysaccharide factor isoform 3 from Penaeus monodon (ALFPm3) exhibits antiviral activity by interacting with WSSV structural proteins.

    PubMed

    Suraprasit, Sivalee; Methatham, Thanachai; Jaree, Phattarunda; Phiwsaiya, Kornsunee; Senapin, Saengchan; Hirono, Ikuo; Lo, Chu Fang; Tassanakajon, Anchalee; Somboonwiwat, Kunlaya

    2014-10-01

    In innate immunity, antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) play a vital role in combating microbial pathogens. Among the AMPs identified in Penaeus monodon, only anti-lipopolysaccharide factor isoform 3 (ALFPm3) has been reported to exhibit activity against white spot syndrome virus (WSSV). However, the mechanism(s) involved are still not clear. In the present study, ALFPm3-interacting proteins were screened for from a WSSV library using the yeast two-hybrid screening system, revealing the five potential ALFPm3-interacting proteins of WSSV186, WSSV189, WSSV395, WSSV458 and WSSV471. Temporal transcriptional analysis in WSSV-infected P. monodon revealed that all five of these WSSV gene transcripts were expressed in the late phase of infection (24h and 48h post-infection). Of these, WSSV189 that was previously identified as a structural protein, was selected for further analysis and was shown to be an enveloped protein by Western blot and immunoelectron microscopy analyses. The in vitro pull-down assay using recombinant WSSV189 (rWSSV189) protein as bait confirmed the interaction between ALFPm3 and WSSV189 proteins. Moreover, pre-incubation of rWSSV189 protein with rALFPm3 protein interfered with the latter's neutralization effect on WSSV in vivo, as shown by the increased cumulative mortality of shrimp injected with WSSV following prior treatment with pre-incubated rWSSV189 and rALFPm3 proteins compared to that in shrimp pre-treated with rALFPm3 protein. Thus, ALFPm3 likely performs its anti-WSSV action by binding to the envelope protein WSSV189 and possibly other WSSV structural proteins.

  17. Bdellovibrio and Like Organisms Enhanced Growth and Survival of Penaeus monodon and Altered Bacterial Community Structures in Its Rearing Water

    PubMed Central

    Li, Huanhuan; Chen, Cheng; Sun, Qiuping; Liu, Renliang

    2014-01-01

    In this study, a 96-h laboratory reduction test was conducted with strain BDHSH06 (GenBank accession no. EF011103) as the test strain for Bdellovibrio and like organisms (BALOs) and 20 susceptible marine bacterial strains forming microcosms as the targets. The results showed that BDHSH06 reduced the levels of approximately 50% of prey bacterial strains within 96 h in the seawater microcosms. An 85-day black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon) rearing experiment was performed. The shrimp survival rate, body length, and weight in the test tanks were 48.1% ± 1.2%, 99.8 ± 10.0 mm, and 6.36 ± 1.50 g, respectively, which were values significantly (P < 0.05) higher than those for the control, viz., 31.0% ± 2.1%, 86.0 ± 11.1 mm, and 4.21 ± 1.56 g, respectively. With the addition of BDHSH06, total bacterial and Vibrio numbers were significantly reduced (P < 0.05) by 1.3 to 4.5 log CFU · ml−1 and CFU · g−1 in both water and shrimp intestines, respectively, compared to those in the control. The effect of BDHSH06 on bacterial community structures in the rearing water was also examined using PCR amplification of the 16S rRNA gene and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). The DGGE profiles of rearing water samples from the control and test tanks revealed that the amounts of 44% of the bacterial species were reduced when BDHSH06 was added to the rearing water over the 85-day rearing period, and among these, approximately 57.1% were nonculturable. The results of this study demonstrated that BDHSH06 can be used as a biocontrol/probiotic agent in P. monodon culture. PMID:25107962

  18. Cloning, characterization, and expression of the macrophage migration inhibitory factor gene from the black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon).

    PubMed

    Xie, Bobo; Fu, Mingjun; Zhao, Chao; Shi, Jinxuan; Shi, Gongfang; Jiao, Zongyao; Qiu, Lihua

    2016-09-01

    Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is an ancient cytokine that engages in innate immune system of vertebrates and invertebrates. In this study, the MIF gene homologue (PmMIF) was cloned from the black tiger shrimp, Penaeus monodon. The full-length cDNA sequence of PmMIF was 838 bp and contained 78 bp 5' untranslated region (UTR) and 397 bp 3' UTR, and an open reading frame (ORF) of 363 bp which coded 120 amino acids (aa). Multiple alignment analysis showed that the deduced amino acid sequence shared 98% identities with MIF from closely related species of Litopenaeus vannamei. Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis indicated that PmMIF was highly expression observed in hepatotpancreas and gills. After Vibrio harveyi challenge, PmMIF mRNA level in hepatopancreas and gills were sharply up-regulated at 6 h post-injection, and reached the maximum at 12 h. PmMIF expression level in the hepatopancreas and gills were up-regulated markedly under low (2.3%) and high (4.3%) salinity exposure, respectively. PmMIF expression level in gills increased significantly at 12 h and reached peak values (2.5- fold, 6.4-fold and 1.8-fold compared with the control) at 12 h, 48 h and 12 h after zinc, cadmium and copper exposure, respectively. In the hepatopancreas, the expression of PmMIF reached maximum levels (8.5- fold, 6.2-fold and 2.1-fold compared with the control) at 24 h, 6 h and 48 h after zinc, cadmium and copper exposure, respectively. All the results indicate that PmMIF plays an important role in responding in the innate immune system of shrimps. PMID:27514787

  19. Molecular characterization and expression profile of MAP2K1ip1/MP1 gene from tiger shrimp, Penaeus monodon.

    PubMed

    Yang, Lishi; Liu, Xianjun; Huang, Jianhua; Yang, Qibin; Qiu, Lihua; Liu, Wenjing; Jiang, Shigui

    2012-05-01

    MAPK kinase 1 interacting protein 1 (MAP2K1ip1) is an important scaffold proteins of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway that form an active signaling module and enhance the specificity and spatiality of MAPK signaling. In the present study, we identified and characterized a MAP2K1ip1 cDNA from tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon (designated as PmMAP2K1ip1). The open reading frame of PmMAP2K1ip1 is 372 bp encoding 123 amino-acid residues with a MAPK interaction domain. The predicted PmMAP2Kip1 protein is 13.6 KDa with the theoretical isoelectric point of 6.3. PmMAP2K1ip1 shared the highest amino acid with Nasonia vitripennis and Strongylocentrotus purpuratus, at 48% and 47.5%, respectively. Phylogenic analysis shows PmMAP2Kip1 is clustering with SpMAP2Kip1, and close to the group of MAP2Kip1s from insect. Furthermore, semiquantitative RT-PCR revealed PmMAP2Kip1 is widely distributed in most examined tissues except nerve, and high expressed in ovary, hemocyte, intestines and hepatopancreas. Meanwhile, PmMAP2k1ip1 is expressed ubiquitously during larval and sex gland development, and keep a high level at the initial development stage. Quantitative real time RT-PCR revealed PmMAP2K1ip1 were up-regulated by lipopolysaccharide and peptidoglycan (PGN) in haemocyte. These data reveal MAP2K1ip1 is a multifunction protein that involved development and immune response. It is benefit to characterize other MAPK signal genes and elucidate the molecular regulation mechanism of MAPK signaling in tiger shrimp. PMID:22209950

  20. Immune gene expression profile of Penaeus monodon in response to marine yeast glucan application and white spot syndrome virus challenge.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Wilsy; Lowman, Douglas; Antony, Swapna P; Puthumana, Jayesh; Bright Singh, I S; Philip, Rosamma

    2015-04-01

    Immunostimulant potential of eight marine yeast glucans (YG) from Candida parapsilosis R20, Hortaea werneckii R23, Candida spencermartinsiae R28, Candida haemulonii R63, Candida oceani R89, Debaryomyces fabryi R100, Debaryomyces nepalensis R305 and Meyerozyma guilliermondii R340 were tested against WSSV challenge in Penaeus monodon post larvae (PL). Structural characterization of these marine yeast glucans by proton nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) indicated structures containing (1-6)-branched (1-3)-β-D-glucan. PL were fed 0.2% glucan incorporated diet once in seven days for a period of 45 days and the animals were challenged with white spot syndrome virus (WSSV). The immunostimulatory activity of yeast glucans were assessed pre- and post-challenge WSSV by analysing the expression profile of six antimicrobial peptide (AMP) genes viz., anti-lipopolysaccharide factor (ALF), crustin-1, crustin-2, crustin-3, penaeidin-3 and penaeidin-5 and 13 immune genes viz., alpha-2-macroglobulin (α-2-M), astakine, caspase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione-s-transferase, haemocyanin, peroxinectin, pmCathepsinC, prophenol oxidase (proPO), Rab-7, superoxide dismutase and transglutaminase. Expression of seven WSSV genes viz., DNA polymerase, endonuclease, protein kinase, immediate early gene, latency related gene, thymidine kinase and VP28 were also analysed to detect the presence and intensity of viral infection in the experimental animals post-challenge. The study revealed that yeast glucans (YG) do possess immunostimulatory activity against WSSV and also supported higher survival (40-70 %) post-challenge WSSV. Among the various glucans tested, YG23 showed maximum survival (70.27%), followed by YG20 (66.66%), YG28 (60.97%), YG89 (58.53%), YG100 (54.05%), YG63 (48.64%), YG305 (45.7%) and YG340 (43.24%). PMID:25555812

  1. Molecular cloning and expression of chitin deacetylase 1 gene from the gills of Penaeus monodon (black tiger shrimp).

    PubMed

    Sarmiento, Katreena P; Panes, Vivian A; Santos, Mudjekeewis D

    2016-08-01

    Chitin deacetylases have been identified and studied in several fungi and insects but not in crustaceans. These glycoproteins function in catalyzing the conversion of chitin to chitosan by the hydrolysis of N-acetamido bonds of chitin. Here, for the first time, the full length cDNA of chitin deacetylase (CDA) gene from crustaceans was fully cloned using a partial fragment obtained from a transcriptome database of the gills of black tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon that survived White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV) infection employing Rapid Amplification of cDNA Ends (RACE) PCR. The shrimp CDA, named PmCDA1, was further characterized by in silico analysis, and its constitutive expression determined in apparently healthy shrimp through reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR). Results revealed that the P. monodon chitin deacetylase (PmCDA1) is 2176 bp-long gene with an open reading frame (ORF) of 1596 bp encoding for 532 amino acids. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that PmCDA1 belongs to Group I CDAs together with CDA1 and CDA2 proteins found in insects. Moreover, PmCDA1 is composed of a conserved chitin-binding peritrophin-A domain (CBD), a low-density lipoprotein receptor class A domain (LDL-A) and a catalytic domain that is part of CE4 superfamily, all found in group I CDAs, which are known to serve critical immune function against WSSV. Finally, high expression of PmCDA1 gene in the gills of apparently healthy P. monodon was observed suggesting important basal function of the gene in this tissue. Taken together, this is a first report of the full chitin deacetylase 1 (CDA1) gene in crustaceans particularly in shrimp that exhibits putative immune function against WSSV and is distinctly highly expressed in the gills of shrimp. PMID:27335260

  2. Molecular cloning and mRNA expression of cathepsin C gene in black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon).

    PubMed

    Qiu, Lihua; Jiang, Shigui; Huang, Jianhua; Wang, Weifang; Zhang, Dianchang; Wu, Qiaer; Yang, Keng

    2008-07-01

    Cathepsin C (dipeptidyl-peptidase I, DPPI) is a lysosomal cysteine proteinase belonging to the papain superfamily, which is capable of removing dipeptides sequentially from the amino terminus of peptide and protein substrates. In the present study, the cDNA of a cathepsin C was cloned from black tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon (designated PmcathepsinC) by homology cloning and rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) approaches. The full-length cDNA of PmcathepsinC consisted of 2051 nucleotides with a canonical polyadenylation signal sequence AATAAA and a poly(A) tail, and an open reading frame (ORF) of 1350 bp encoding a polypeptide of 449 amino acid residues with a predicted molecular weight of 50.0 kDa and theoretical isoelectric point of 5.65. The high identity of PmcathepsinC with Cathepsin C in other organisms indicated that PmcathepsinC should be a new member of the Cathepsin C family. By fluorescent quantitative real-time PCR, mRNA transcript of PmcathepsinC was detectable in all the examined tissues with higher level in ovary and heart. The temporal expression of PmcathepsinC mRNA in the hepatopancreas was up-regulated by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation and reached the maximum level at 4 h post-stimulation, and then dropped back to the original level gradually. These results indicated that PmcathepsinC was a constitutive and inducible acute-phase protein that perhaps involved in the immune defense of P. monodon.

  3. Characterization of Argonaute2 gene from black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon) and its responses to immune challenges.

    PubMed

    Yang, Lishi; Li, Xiaolan; Jiang, Song; Qiu, Lihua; Zhou, Falin; Liu, Wenjing; Jiang, Shigui

    2014-01-01

    Argonaute2 binds to a short guide RNA (microRNA or short interfering RNA) and guides RNAs direct RISC to complementary mRNAs that are targets for RISC-mediated gene silencing. Here we identified and characterized Argonaute2 from black tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon (designated as PmAgo2). The full-length cDNA of PmAgo2 contained a 5' untranslated region (UTR) of 106 bp, an open reading frame (ORF) of 2616 bp and a 3' UTR of 123 bp. The predicted PmAgo2 protein is 99.4 KDa with the theoretical isoelectric point of 9.54. PmAgo2 shared the highest similarity of amino acid with Marsupenaeus japonicus Argonaute2 and Litopenaeus vannamei Argonaute2, at 69.0% and 68.5%, respectively. Phylogenic analysis showed PmAgo2 clustered with shrimp Argonaute2, and closed to the group of insects. Real-time quantitative PCR showed that PmAgo2 was widely expressed in almost all examined tissues except eyestalk, with high expression in lymph and haemocyte. mRNA expression also revealed that PmAgo2 was significantly up-regulated by Staphylococcus aureus and White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV) in hepatopancreas. Furthermore, our study also confirmed that dsRNA and ssRNA homologous poly (I:C) and R848 activated the expression of PmAgo2. The result indicated that PmAgo2 responded to both bacterial infection and viral infection, especially, it may induce an ssRNA-mediated RNAi with other core members of siRNA pathway in black tiger shrimp.

  4. Identification and expression analysis of Dicer2 in black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon) responses to immune challenges.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaolan; Yang, Lishi; Jiang, Song; Fu, Mingjun; Huang, Jianhua; Jiang, Shigui

    2013-07-01

    Dicer is a key initiative protein of the RNA interference (RNAi) pathway that produces small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) or micro RNAs (miRNA), which then leads to RNA-directed gene regulation or viral immunity. In the present study, we identified and characterized a Dicer2 cDNA from black tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon (designated as PmDcr2). The full length cDNA of PmDcr2 contains a 5' untranslated region (UTR) of 109 bp, an open reading frame (ORF) of 4509 bp and a 3' UTR of 842 bp. The molecular weight (MW) of predicted PmDcr2 protein is 171.7 KDa with the theoretical isoelectric point of 6.23. PmDcr2 amino acid shared the highest similarity of 91.8% and 90.7% with Dicer2 of Litopenaeus vannamei and Marsupenaeus japonicas, respectively. Phylogenic analysis showed PmDcr2 was clustering with shrimp Dicer2, and closed to the insect group including Tribolium castaneum Dicer2. Real-time quantitative PCR showed that PmDcr2 was widely expressed in almost all examined tissues except muscle, with high expression in gill, hemocyte and lymph. The expression of PmDcr2 in hepatopancreas was up-regulated by Vibrio vulnificus and White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV), but not by Staphylococcus aureus. Furthermore, the viral nucleotide homologue dsRNA poly (I:C) and ssRNA R484 also remarkably induced PmDcr2 mRNA expression more efficient and stronger. These data reflect that PmDcr2 is not only response to the gram negative bacteria infection, but also specially to the viral infection in black tiger shrimp.

  5. Cloning, characterization, and expression of the macrophage migration inhibitory factor gene from the black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon).

    PubMed

    Xie, Bobo; Fu, Mingjun; Zhao, Chao; Shi, Jinxuan; Shi, Gongfang; Jiao, Zongyao; Qiu, Lihua

    2016-09-01

    Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is an ancient cytokine that engages in innate immune system of vertebrates and invertebrates. In this study, the MIF gene homologue (PmMIF) was cloned from the black tiger shrimp, Penaeus monodon. The full-length cDNA sequence of PmMIF was 838 bp and contained 78 bp 5' untranslated region (UTR) and 397 bp 3' UTR, and an open reading frame (ORF) of 363 bp which coded 120 amino acids (aa). Multiple alignment analysis showed that the deduced amino acid sequence shared 98% identities with MIF from closely related species of Litopenaeus vannamei. Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis indicated that PmMIF was highly expression observed in hepatotpancreas and gills. After Vibrio harveyi challenge, PmMIF mRNA level in hepatopancreas and gills were sharply up-regulated at 6 h post-injection, and reached the maximum at 12 h. PmMIF expression level in the hepatopancreas and gills were up-regulated markedly under low (2.3%) and high (4.3%) salinity exposure, respectively. PmMIF expression level in gills increased significantly at 12 h and reached peak values (2.5- fold, 6.4-fold and 1.8-fold compared with the control) at 12 h, 48 h and 12 h after zinc, cadmium and copper exposure, respectively. In the hepatopancreas, the expression of PmMIF reached maximum levels (8.5- fold, 6.2-fold and 2.1-fold compared with the control) at 24 h, 6 h and 48 h after zinc, cadmium and copper exposure, respectively. All the results indicate that PmMIF plays an important role in responding in the innate immune system of shrimps.

  6. Molecular cloning and mRNA expression of M-phase phosphoprotein 6 gene in black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon).

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jun; Qiu, Lihua; Jiang, Shigui; Zhou, Falin; Huang, Jianhua; Yang, Lishi; Su, Tianfeng; Zhang, Dianchang

    2013-02-01

    It is widely accepted that protein phosphorylation is a major control event in regulating cell cycle. In the present study, a novel M-phase phosphoprotein 6 (MPP6) was identified from black tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon (designated as PmMPP6) by cDNA library and RACE approaches. The full-length cDNA of PmMPP6 was of 690 bp, including a 5'-terminal un-translated region (5'UTR) of 68 bp, a 3'UTR of 172 bp with a poly (A) tail, and an open reading frame (ORF) of 450 bp encoding a polypeptide of 149 amino acids with a predicted molecular weight of 17.01 kDa. Blastx and phylogenetic analysis together supported that PmMPP6 was a novel member of shrimp MPP6. The mRNA expression of PmMPP6 in thirteen tissues was examined by real-time PCR, and mRNA transcript of PmMPP6 was predominantly detectable in tissues of lymphoid and muscle, to a lesser degree in the tissues of gill, ovary and hepatopancreas, and mainly detected in haemocytes, heart and gonad. The temporal expression of PmMPP6 in different developmental stages of ovary was investigated by real-time PCR. During the six stages of ovary development, two peaks expression of PmMPP6 was detected in stage II with 3.78-fold increase and stage V with 3.48-fold increase compared to that in stage I. All these results indicated that PmMPP6 might be involved in regulating shrimp cell cycle and ovary development.

  7. Molecular characterization and expression profile of MAP2K1ip1/MP1 gene from tiger shrimp, Penaeus monodon.

    PubMed

    Yang, Lishi; Liu, Xianjun; Huang, Jianhua; Yang, Qibin; Qiu, Lihua; Liu, Wenjing; Jiang, Shigui

    2012-05-01

    MAPK kinase 1 interacting protein 1 (MAP2K1ip1) is an important scaffold proteins of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway that form an active signaling module and enhance the specificity and spatiality of MAPK signaling. In the present study, we identified and characterized a MAP2K1ip1 cDNA from tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon (designated as PmMAP2K1ip1). The open reading frame of PmMAP2K1ip1 is 372 bp encoding 123 amino-acid residues with a MAPK interaction domain. The predicted PmMAP2Kip1 protein is 13.6 KDa with the theoretical isoelectric point of 6.3. PmMAP2K1ip1 shared the highest amino acid with Nasonia vitripennis and Strongylocentrotus purpuratus, at 48% and 47.5%, respectively. Phylogenic analysis shows PmMAP2Kip1 is clustering with SpMAP2Kip1, and close to the group of MAP2Kip1s from insect. Furthermore, semiquantitative RT-PCR revealed PmMAP2Kip1 is widely distributed in most examined tissues except nerve, and high expressed in ovary, hemocyte, intestines and hepatopancreas. Meanwhile, PmMAP2k1ip1 is expressed ubiquitously during larval and sex gland development, and keep a high level at the initial development stage. Quantitative real time RT-PCR revealed PmMAP2K1ip1 were up-regulated by lipopolysaccharide and peptidoglycan (PGN) in haemocyte. These data reveal MAP2K1ip1 is a multifunction protein that involved development and immune response. It is benefit to characterize other MAPK signal genes and elucidate the molecular regulation mechanism of MAPK signaling in tiger shrimp.

  8. Characterization of complement 1q binding protein of tiger shrimp, Penaeus monodon, and its C1q binding activity.

    PubMed

    Yang, Lishi; Liu, Xianjun; Liu, Wenjing; Li, Xiaolan; Qiu, Lihua; Huang, Jianhua; Jiang, Shigui

    2013-01-01

    The receptor for the globular heads of C1q, C1qBP/gC1qR/p33, is a multicompartmental, multifunctional cellular protein with an important role in infection and in inflammation. In the present study, we identified and characterized the complement component 1q subcomponent binding protein (C1qBP) from the tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon (designated as PmC1qBP). The open reading frame of PmC1qBP encodes 262 amino acid residues with a conserved MAM33 domain, an arginine-glycine-aspartate cell adhesion motif, and a mitochondrial targeting sequence in the first 53 amino acids. PmC1qBP shares 32%-81% similarity with known C1qBPs and clusters with lobster gC1qR under phylogenetic analysis. The temporal PmC1qBP mRNA expression in the hepatopancreas was significantly enhanced at 9 h after Vibrio vulnificus challenge. The native PmC1qBP was expressed in the gills, hepatopancreas, ovaries, and intestines as a precursor (38 kDa) and the active peptide (35 kDa). The recombinant PmC1qBP protein was expressed in Escherichia coli BL21, and was purified using nickel-nitrilotriacetic acid agarose. A complement 1q binding assay indicated that the rC1qBP protein competitively binds to C1q in mouse serum. The data reveal that PmC1qBP is not only involved in shrimp immune responses to pathogenic infections, but also cross-binding to the mouse C1q.

  9. Farm accidents in children.

    PubMed Central

    Cameron, D.; Bishop, C.; Sibert, J. R.

    1992-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To examine the problem of accidental injury to children on farms. DESIGN--Prospective county based study of children presenting to accident and emergency departments over 12 months with injuries sustained in a farm setting and nationwide review of fatal childhood farm accidents over the four years April 1986 to March 1990. SETTING--Accident and emergency departments in Aberystwyth, Carmarthen, Haverfordwest, and Llanelli and fatal accidents in England, Scotland, and Wales notified to the Health and Safety Executive register. SUBJECTS--Children aged under 16. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE--Death or injury after farm related accidents. RESULTS--65 accidents were recorded, including 18 fractures. Nine accidents necessitated admission to hospital for a mean of two (range one to four) days. 13 incidents were related to tractors and other machinery; 24 were due to falls. None of these incidents were reported under the statutory notification scheme. 33 deaths were notified, eight related to tractors and allied machinery and 10 related to falling objects. CONCLUSIONS--Although safety is improving, the farm remains a dangerous environment for children. Enforcement of existing safety legislation with significant penalties and targeting of safety education will help reduce accident rates further. PMID:1638192

  10. A National Australian Curriculum: In Whose Interests?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ditchburn, Geraldine

    2012-01-01

    The introduction of an Australian curriculum is likely to have a widespread and long-term impact on schools, teachers and students, and yet there has been a swift and an almost unquestioning acceptance of its introduction by the Australian public and by educators. This paper will use theoretical frameworks informed by Gramsci's cultural hegemony…

  11. Four Management Agendas for Australian Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharrock, Geoff

    2012-01-01

    In a new mixed economy of higher learning, Australian universities require more strategic management to compete and collaborate sustainably. However, many scholars argue that new modes of university management are at odds with scholarly aims and values. This article examines how Australian universities frame their missions and communicate their…

  12. Understanding Culture and Diversity: Australian Aboriginal Art

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vize, Anne

    2009-01-01

    Australian Aboriginal culture is rich, complex and fascinating. The art of Aboriginal Australians shows a great understanding of the earth and its creatures. This article presents an activity which has been designed as a multi-age project. The learning outcomes have been written to suit both younger and older students. Aspects of the project could…

  13. Career Intentions of Australian Physical Education Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mäkelä, Kasper; Whipp, Peter R.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate Australian physical education (PE) teachers' career intentions and factors influencing their intentions. A sample (N = 234) of Western Australian PE teachers responded to a questionnaire determining PE teachers' work and the primary motivators for intention to leave the profession. Half (51.3%) of the…

  14. Characteristics of Religious Knowledge among Australian Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Philip

    2007-01-01

    Drawing on the Spirit of Generation Y project and extensions of that project undertaken in 25 Australian schools by the Christian Research Association, it is argued that the approach to religious knowledge by Australian students can be contrasted with their approach to other forms of knowledge by four features. These are diversity of opinion in…

  15. Identification and characterization of a QM protein as a possible peptidoglycan recognition protein (PGRP) from the giant tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon.

    PubMed

    Udompetcharaporn, Attasit; Junkunlo, Kingkamon; Senapin, Saengchan; Roytrakul, Sittiruk; Flegel, Timothy W; Sritunyalucksana, Kallaya

    2014-10-01

    In an attempt to identify a peptidoglycan recognition protein (PGRP) in Penaeus (Penaeus) monodon, in vitro pull-down binding assays were used between shrimp proteins and purified peptidoglycan (PG). By gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry followed by Mascot program analysis, proteins from shrimp hemocyte peripheral membrane proteins showed significant homology to records for a QM protein, actin and prophenoloxidase 2 precursor (proPO2), while proteins from cell-free plasma showed significant homology to records for a vitellogenin, a fibrinogen related protein (FREP) and a C-type lectin. Due to time and resource limitations, specific binding to PG was examined only for recombinant PmQM protein and PmLec that were synthesized based on sequences reported in the Genbank database (accession numbers FJ766846 and DQ078266, respectively). An in vitro assay revealed that hemocytes would bind with and encapsulate agarose beads coated with recombinant PmQM (rPmQM) or rPmLec and that melanization followed 2h post-encapsulation. ELISA tests confirmed specific binding of rPmQM protein to PG. This is the first time that PmQM has been reported as a potential PGRP in shrimp or any other crustacean. The two other potential PGRP identified (FREP and the vitellin-like protein present in male P. monodon, unlike other vitellin subunits) should also be expressed heterologously and tested for their ability to activate shrimp hemocytes.

  16. On-farm Campylobacter and Escherichia coli in commercial broiler chickens: Re-used bedding does not influence Campylobacter emergence and levels across sequential farming cycles.

    PubMed

    Chinivasagam, H N; Estella, W; Rodrigues, H; Mayer, D G; Weyand, C; Tran, T; Onysk, A; Diallo, I

    2016-05-01

    Limitations in quality bedding material have resulted in the growing need to re-use litter during broiler farming in some countries, which can be of concern from a food-safety perspective. The aim of this study was to compare the Campylobacter levels in ceca and litter across three litter treatments under commercial farming conditions. The litter treatments were (a) the use of new litter after each farming cycle; (b) an Australian partial litter re-use practice; and (c) a full litter re-use practice. The study was carried out on two farms over two years (Farm 1, from 2009-2010 and Farm 2, from 2010-2011), across three sheds (35,000 to 40,000 chickens/shed) on each farm, adopting three different litter treatments across six commercial cycles. A random sampling design was adopted to test litter and ceca for Campylobacter and Escherichia coli, prior to commercial first thin-out and final pick-up. Campylobacter levels varied little across litter practices and farming cycles on each farm and were in the range of log 8.0-9.0 CFU/g in ceca and log 4.0-6.0 MPN/g for litter. Similarly the E. coli in ceca were ∼log 7.0 CFU/g. At first thin-out and final pick-up, the statistical analysis for both litter and ceca showed that the three-way interaction (treatments by farms by times) was highly significant (P<0.01), indicating that the patterns of Campylobacter emergence/presence across time vary between the farms, cycles and pickups. The emergence and levels of both organisms were not influenced by litter treatments across the six farming cycles on both farms. Either C. jejuni or C. coli could be the dominant species across litter and ceca, and this phenomenon could not be attributed to specific litter treatments. Irrespective of the litter treatments in place, cycle 2 on Farm 2 remained Campylobacter-free. These outcomes suggest that litter treatments did not directly influence the time of emergence and levels of Campylobacter and E. coli during commercial farming.

  17. On-farm Campylobacter and Escherichia coli in commercial broiler chickens: Re-used bedding does not influence Campylobacter emergence and levels across sequential farming cycles

    PubMed Central

    Chinivasagam, H. N.; Estella, W.; Rodrigues, H.; Mayer, D. G.; Weyand, C.; Tran, T.; Onysk, A.; Diallo, I.

    2016-01-01

    Limitations in quality bedding material have resulted in the growing need to re-use litter during broiler farming in some countries, which can be of concern from a food-safety perspective. The aim of this study was to compare the Campylobacter levels in ceca and litter across three litter treatments under commercial farming conditions. The litter treatments were (a) the use of new litter after each farming cycle; (b) an Australian partial litter re-use practice; and (c) a full litter re-use practice. The study was carried out on two farms over two years (Farm 1, from 2009–2010 and Farm 2, from 2010–2011), across three sheds (35,000 to 40,000 chickens/shed) on each farm, adopting three different litter treatments across six commercial cycles. A random sampling design was adopted to test litter and ceca for Campylobacter and Escherichia coli, prior to commercial first thin-out and final pick-up. Campylobacter levels varied little across litter practices and farming cycles on each farm and were in the range of log 8.0–9.0 CFU/g in ceca and log 4.0–6.0 MPN/g for litter. Similarly the E. coli in ceca were ∼log 7.0 CFU/g. At first thin-out and final pick-up, the statistical analysis for both litter and ceca showed that the three-way interaction (treatments by farms by times) was highly significant (P < 0.01), indicating that the patterns of Campylobacter emergence/presence across time vary between the farms, cycles and pickups. The emergence and levels of both organisms were not influenced by litter treatments across the six farming cycles on both farms. Either C. jejuni or C. coli could be the dominant species across litter and ceca, and this phenomenon could not be attributed to specific litter treatments. Irrespective of the litter treatments in place, cycle 2 on Farm 2 remained Campylobacter-free. These outcomes suggest that litter treatments did not directly influence the time of emergence and levels of Campylobacter and E. coli during commercial farming

  18. Australian Aboriginal Astronomy and Cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clarke, Philip A.

    Australian Aboriginal ethnoastronomical traditions were recorded from a wide variety of sources in different periods. While the corpus of mythology concerning the heavens is diverse, it is unified by beliefs of a Skyworld as land with its own topography, containing plants and animals familiar to those living below. Spirits of the dead reside alongside the Creation Ancestors as celestial bodies in the Skyworld. Aboriginal hunter-gatherers used the regular movement of constellations and planets to measure time and to indicate the season, while unexpected change in the sky was seen as an omen.

  19. Aurorae in Australian Aboriginal Traditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamacher, Duane W.

    2013-07-01

    Transient celestial phenomena feature prominently in the astronomical knowledge and traditions of Aboriginal Australians. In this paper, I collect accounts of the Aurora Australis from the literature regarding Aboriginal culture. Using previous studies of meteors, eclipses, and comets in Aboriginal traditions, I anticipate that the physical properties of aurora, such as their generally red colour as seen from southern Australia, will be associated with fire, death, blood, and evil spirits. The survey reveals this to be the case and also explores historical auroral events in Aboriginal cultures, aurorae in rock art, and briefly compares Aboriginal auroral traditions with other global indigenous groups, including the Maori of New Zealand.

  20. Australian developments in marine science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coffin, Millard F.

    2012-07-01

    Australia is an island nation with about two thirds of its jurisdiction underwater. On 25 May 2012, Australia instituted the Seas and Submerged Lands (Limits of Continental Shelf) Proclamation 2012, confirming areas of seabed where Australia has exclusive rights to explore and exploit marine resources. This proclamation follows recommendations by the Commission on the Limits of the Continental Shelf, a body established under the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, confirming Australia's entitlement to extended continental shelf, i.e., that beyond 200 nautical miles from the coastline, of some 2.56 million square kilometers, excluding Australian Antarctic Territory [Symonds et al., 2009] (Figure 1a).

  1. Hearing loss in Australian divers.

    PubMed

    Edmonds, C; Freeman, P

    1985-11-11

    Permanent hearing loss of the sensorineural type has been demonstrated to be an occupational hazard of professional SCUBA divers. An audiometric survey was performed on a group of professional abalone divers, all of whom had experienced excessive exposure to dysbaric conditions. The results of this survey revealed that, even allowing for the very liberal requirements of the Australian Standard for divers, over 60% had unacceptable sensorineural, high frequency deafness. In half these cases deafness was unilateral, and in half bilateral. Making allowance for age, two-thirds had hearing loss to a degree which is compensable, according to the method of the National Acoustic Laboratories (1974) for determining proportional loss of hearing.

  2. Comets in Australian Aboriginal Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamacher, Duane W.; Norris, Ray P.

    2011-03-01

    We present 25 accounts of comets from 40 Australian Aboriginal communities, citing both supernatural perceptions of comets and historical accounts of historically bright comets. Historical and ethnographic descriptions include the Great Comets of 1843, 1861, 1901, 1910, and 1927. We describe the perceptions of comets in Aboriginal societies and show that they are typically associated with fear, death, omens, malevolent spirits, and evil magic, consistent with many cultures around the world. We also provide a list of words for comets in 16 different Aboriginal languages.

  3. Wind Farm Recommendation Report

    SciTech Connect

    John Reisenauer

    2011-05-01

    On April 21, 2011, an Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Land Use Committee meeting was convened to develop a wind farm recommendation for the Executive Council and a list of proposed actions for proceeding with the recommendation. In terms of land use, the INL Land Use Committee unanimously agrees that Site 6 is the preferred location of the alternatives presented for an INL wind farm. However, further studies and resolution to questions raised (stated in this report) by the INL Land Use Committee are needed for the preferred location. Studies include, but are not limited to, wind viability (6 months), bats (2 years), and the visual impact of the wind farm. In addition, cultural resource surveys and consultation (1 month) and the National Environmental Policy Act process (9 to 12 months) need to be completed. Furthermore, there is no documented evidence of developers expressing interest in constructing a small wind farm on INL, nor a specific list of expectations or concessions for which a developer might expect INL to cover the cost. To date, INL assumes the National Environmental Policy Act activities will be paid for by the Department of Energy and INL (the environmental assessment has only received partial funding). However, other concessions also may be expected by developers such as roads, fencing, power line installation, tie-ins to substations, annual maintenance, snow removal, access control, down-time, and remediation. These types of concessions have not been documented, as a request, from a developer and INL has not identified the short and long-term cost liabilities for such concessions should a developer expect INL to cover these costs. INL has not identified a go-no-go funding level or the priority this Wind Farm Project might have with respect to other nuclear-related projects, should the wind farm remain an unfunded mandate. The Land Use Committee recommends Legal be consulted to determine what, if any, liabilities exist with the Wind Farm Project and

  4. Long Island Solar Farm

    SciTech Connect

    Anders, R.

    2013-05-01

    The Long Island Solar Farm (LISF) is a remarkable success story, whereby very different interest groups found a way to capitalize on unusual circumstances to develop a mutually beneficial source of renewable energy. The uniqueness of the circumstances that were necessary to develop the Long Island Solar Farm make it very difficult to replicate. The project is, however, an unparalleled resource for solar energy research, which will greatly inform large-scale PV solar development in the East. Lastly, the LISF is a superb model for the process by which the project developed and the innovation and leadership shown by the different players.

  5. Australian scientists develop male contraceptive.

    PubMed

    1974-05-20

    The Australian Information Service in Canberra reports that Australian scientists have formulated a contraceptive pill to temporarily stop spermatogenesis in man, thus producing infertility. The research was done by a team consisting of Dr. Henry Burger, director of the Medical Reserach Center at Prince Henry's Hospital in Melbourne, Dr. Bryan Hudson, Principal Research Fellow at the Howard Florey Institute of Experimental Medicine at the Univeristy of Melbourne, and Dr. David de Kretser, senior lecturer in Monash University's Department of Medicine at Prince Henry's Hospital. The contraceptive pill consists of progestagen (d-norgestrel) with androgen (methyltestosterone), a combination that suppresses the production of the sperm but conserves libido and potency. The testing program has yet to be undertaken in human volunteers. There will be three phases to the drug trial: pretreatment, during which the health of the volunteers and the safety of the drug will be established; the treatment phase, lasting six months, during which the volunteers will be given daily oral dose of the drugs; and the recovery phase, lasting at least three months, during which the restoration of normal spermatogenesis will be observed. PMID:12333267

  6. Hog Farms in Pennsylvania.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shannon, Patrick

    2003-01-01

    Discusses a community's opinion and reaction to corporate hog farms. Acknowledges the vivid demonstration of literacy in these communities. Considers how these citizens use their literacy as political agents--just like they were taught to do in civics classes in high school--to participate in decisions affecting their lives. Considers the…

  7. Farming the Sea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, William

    1971-01-01

    Florida has initiated a training program in an entirely new dimension--Sea Farming. Presented is a description of the vocational agriculture program designed to teach propagation, cultivation, harvesting, marketing, and conservation practices related to production of oysters, shrimp, scallops, crabs, and fin fishes. (Editor/GB)

  8. FARM LABOR MARKET DEVELOPMENT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Labor, Washington, DC.

    PART ONE OF THE REPORT CONSISTED OF AN ANALYSIS OF TRENDS BETWEEN 1960 AND 1961 IN WAGES OF UNITED STATES FARM WORKERS IN MAJOR AREAS USING MEXICAN NATIONALS. THE DATA WERE DERIVED FROM PREVAILING-WAGE REPORTS RECEIVED BY THE BUREAU OF EMPLOYMENT SECURITY FROM AFFILIATED STATE EMPLOYMENT SECURITY AGENCIES. THE SURVEY RATES WERE USED BY THE…

  9. Cryptosporidiois in farmed animals

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The disease, cryptosporidiosis, has been identified in humans and animals in 106 countries and has been attributed to 26 species of Cryptosporidium and several additional genotypes. The specific farmed animals discussed in this chapter include cattle, sheep, goats, water buffaloes, deer, camels, lla...

  10. Agriculture Education. Farm Machinery.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stuttgart Public Schools, AR.

    This curriculum guide is designed for group instruction of secondary agricultural education students enrolled in one or two semester-long courses in farm machinery. The guide presents units of study in the following areas: (1) small gas engines, (2) job opportunities, (3) tractors, (4) engines, (5) hydraulics, (6) electrical system, (7) combine…

  11. Modelling Farm Animal Welfare

    PubMed Central

    Collins, Lisa M.; Part, Chérie E.

    2013-01-01

    Simple Summary In this review paper we discuss the different modeling techniques that have been used in animal welfare research to date. We look at what questions they have been used to answer, the advantages and pitfalls of the methods, and how future research can best use these approaches to answer some of the most important upcoming questions in farm animal welfare. Abstract The use of models in the life sciences has greatly expanded in scope and advanced in technique in recent decades. However, the range, type and complexity of models used in farm animal welfare is comparatively poor, despite the great scope for use of modeling in this field of research. In this paper, we review the different modeling approaches used in farm animal welfare science to date, discussing the types of questions they have been used to answer, the merits and problems associated with the method, and possible future applications of each technique. We find that the most frequently published types of model used in farm animal welfare are conceptual and assessment models; two types of model that are frequently (though not exclusively) based on expert opinion. Simulation, optimization, scenario, and systems modeling approaches are rarer in animal welfare, despite being commonly used in other related fields. Finally, common issues such as a lack of quantitative data to parameterize models, and model selection and validation are discussed throughout the review, with possible solutions and alternative approaches suggested. PMID:26487411

  12. Content Priorities for Farm Mechanics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knotts, C. Don; Webb, Earl S.

    1974-01-01

    Fifty successful young Texas farmers evaluated agricultural mechanics skills (in the broad areas of farm power and machinery, farm shop, farm electricity, buildings and conveniences, and soil and water management) in terms of their importance. Teachers can use the findings to plan course content relevant to their students' needs. (AJ)

  13. Farm Education at Stony Kill.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parisio, Richard

    1986-01-01

    Describes typical winter farm lessons for students visiting Stony Kill Farm Environmental Education Center located 70 miles north of New York City: butter and corncake making, soil erosion experiments, dissecting and growing seeds. Emphasizes major theme of conservation of farmland from destructive farming practices and careless development. (NEC)

  14. A survey of Australian dairy farmers to investigate animal welfare risks associated with increasing scale of production.

    PubMed

    Beggs, D S; Fisher, A D; Jongman, E C; Hemsworth, P E

    2015-08-01

    Although large herds (more than 500 cows) only represent 13% of Australian dairy farms, they represent more than 35% of the cows milked. A survey of Australian dairy farmers was conducted to assess relationships between herd size and known or proposed risk factors for adverse animal welfare outcomes in Australian dairy herds in relation to increasing scale of production. Responses from 863 Australian dairy farms (13% of Australian dairy farms) were received. Increasing herd size was associated with increases in stocking density, stock per labor unit, and grain fed per day-all of which could reasonably be hypothesized to increase the risk of adverse welfare outcomes unless carefully managed. However, increasing herd size was also associated with an increased likelihood of staff with formal and industry-based training qualifications. Herd size was not associated with reported increases in mastitis or lameness treatments. Some disease conditions, such as milk fever, gut problems, and down cows, were reported less in larger herds. Larger herds were more likely to have routine veterinary herd health visits, separate milking of the main herd and the sick herd, transition diets before calving, and written protocols for disease treatment. They were more likely to use monitoring systems such as electronic identification in the dairy, computerized records, daily milk yield or cell count monitoring, and pedometers or activity meters. Euthanasia methods were consistent between herds of varying sizes, and it was noted that less than 3% of farms make use of captive-bolt devices despite their effectiveness and ready availability. Increasing herd size was related to increased herd milking time, increased time away from the paddock, and increased distance walked. If the milking order of cows is consistent, this may result in reduced feed access for late-milking-order cows because of a difference in time away from the paddock. More than 95% of farmers believed that their cows were

  15. A survey of Australian dairy farmers to investigate animal welfare risks associated with increasing scale of production.

    PubMed

    Beggs, D S; Fisher, A D; Jongman, E C; Hemsworth, P E

    2015-08-01

    Although large herds (more than 500 cows) only represent 13% of Australian dairy farms, they represent more than 35% of the cows milked. A survey of Australian dairy farmers was conducted to assess relationships between herd size and known or proposed risk factors for adverse animal welfare outcomes in Australian dairy herds in relation to increasing scale of production. Responses from 863 Australian dairy farms (13% of Australian dairy farms) were received. Increasing herd size was associated with increases in stocking density, stock per labor unit, and grain fed per day-all of which could reasonably be hypothesized to increase the risk of adverse welfare outcomes unless carefully managed. However, increasing herd size was also associated with an increased likelihood of staff with formal and industry-based training qualifications. Herd size was not associated with reported increases in mastitis or lameness treatments. Some disease conditions, such as milk fever, gut problems, and down cows, were reported less in larger herds. Larger herds were more likely to have routine veterinary herd health visits, separate milking of the main herd and the sick herd, transition diets before calving, and written protocols for disease treatment. They were more likely to use monitoring systems such as electronic identification in the dairy, computerized records, daily milk yield or cell count monitoring, and pedometers or activity meters. Euthanasia methods were consistent between herds of varying sizes, and it was noted that less than 3% of farms make use of captive-bolt devices despite their effectiveness and ready availability. Increasing herd size was related to increased herd milking time, increased time away from the paddock, and increased distance walked. If the milking order of cows is consistent, this may result in reduced feed access for late-milking-order cows because of a difference in time away from the paddock. More than 95% of farmers believed that their cows were

  16. [Oxytetracycline and oxolinic acid residues in kuruma prawn (Penaeus japonicus) and the effect of cooking procedures on the residues].

    PubMed

    Uno, Kazuaki

    2002-04-01

    Tissue distribution and residue depletion of oxytetracycline (OTC) and oxolinic acid (OA) were studied in the kuruma prawn (Penaeus japonicus). The prawn were kept in tanks with recirculated artificial seawater at a salinity of 22-23@1000. The water temperature was maintained at 25 degrees C. The average body weight was 22.9 +/- 4.9 g for OTC and 22.5 +/- 3.6 g for OA. The drug was mixed with the diet and orally administered through a catheter to the prawn. The doses of OTC and OA, respectively, were 50 mg/kg body weight. At each sample time, four prawns were sacrificed and tissues were sampled. OTC and OA levels were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. At the highest levels, the concentrations of OTC were in the other: shell (13.57 micrograms/g) > hemolymph (12.20 micrograms/mL) > muscle (8.30 micrograms/g). For OA, the order was: shell (20.74 micrograms/g) > hemolymph (7.06 micrograms/mL) > muscle (2.05 micrograms/g). The elimination half-lives of hemolymph and muscle were 44.7 and 46.8 hours for OTC and 55.0 and 107.9 hours for OA, respectively. Residual OTC could not be detected in hemolymph and muscle at 20 days after dosing. Residual OA disappeared from hemolymph and muscle at 25 days after dosing. A 25-day period for OTC and 30-day period for OA could be regarded as the proper withdrawal time established for kuruma prawn by the Pharmaceutical Law in Japan. However, the elimination half-lives of shell for OTC and OA could not be calculated because both drug residues persisted in shell tissues, and the elimination phase was not completed during the experimental period. Residual OTC (14.10 +/- 2.26 micrograms/g, n = 6) and OA (0.32 +/- 0.06 microgram/g, n = 7) were detected in exuviae at 3 days and 4 days after dosing, respectively. Residual OTC was reduced to 50-70% in muscle by the usual methods of cooking (boiling, baking at 200 degrees C and frying at 180 degrees C), whereas reduction levels in shell were only 20-30%. Residual OA was

  17. Composition and Localization of Lipids in Penaeus merguiensis Ovaries during the Ovarian Maturation Cycle as Revealed by Imaging Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Chansela, Piyachat; Goto-Inoue, Naoko; Zaima, Nobuhiro; Hayasaka, Takahiro; Sroyraya, Morakot; Kornthong, Napamanee; Engsusophon, Attakorn; Tamtin, Montakan; Chaisri, Chatchawalee; Sobhon, Prasert; Setou, Mitsutoshi

    2012-01-01

    Ovary maturation, oocyte differentiation, and embryonic development in shrimp are highly dependent on nutritional lipids taken up by female broodstocks. These lipids are important as energy sources as well as for cell signaling. In this study, we report on the compositions of major lipids, i.e. phosphatidylcholines (PCs), triacylglycerols (TAGs), and fatty acids (FAs), in the ovaries of the banana shrimp, Penaeus merguiensis, during ovarian maturation. Thin-layer chromatography analysis showed that the total PC and TAG signal intensities increased during ovarian maturation. Further, by using gas chromatography, we found that (1) FAs 14∶0, 16∶1, 18∶1, 18∶2, 20∶1, and 22∶6 proportionally increased as ovarian development progressed to more mature stages; (2) FAs 16∶0, 18∶0, 20∶4, and 20∶5 proportionally decreased; and (3) FAs 15∶0, 17∶0, and 20∶2 remained unchanged. By using imaging mass spectrometry, we found that PC 16∶0/16∶1 and TAG 18∶1/18∶2/22∶6 were detected in oocytes stages 1 and 2. PCs 16∶1/20∶4, 16∶0/22∶6, 18∶3/22∶6, 18∶1/22∶6, 20∶5/22∶6, and 22∶6/22∶6 and TAGs 16∶0/16∶1/18∶3, 16∶0/18∶1/18∶3, 16∶0/18∶1/18∶1, and 16∶0/18∶2/22∶6 were present in all stages of oocytes. In contrast, the PC- and TAG-associated FAs 20∶4, 20∶5, and 22∶6 showed high signal intensities in stage 3 and 4 oocytes. These FAs may act as nutrition sources as well as signaling molecules for developing embryos and the hatching process. Knowledge of lipid compositions and localization could be helpful for formulating the diet for female broodstocks to promote fecundity and larval production. PMID:22432001

  18. Eclipses in Australian Aboriginal Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamacher, Duane W.; Norris, Ray P.

    2011-07-01

    We explore about fifty different Australian Aboriginal accounts of lunar and solar eclipses to determine how Aboriginal groups understood this phenomenon. We summarize the literature on Aboriginal references to eclipses. We show that many Aboriginal groups viewed eclipses negatively, frequently associating them with bad omens, evil magic, disease, blood and death. In many communities, elders or medicine men claimed to be able to control or avert eclipses by magical means, solidifying their roles as providers and protectors within their communities. We also show that some Aboriginal groups seem to have understood the motions of the Sun-Earth-Moon system, the connection between the lunar phases and tides, and acknowledged that solar eclipses were caused by the Moon blocking the Sun.

  19. Population and Australian development assistance.

    PubMed

    Jones, R

    1992-07-01

    Australia's position on international population issues is consistent with the major international statements on population: the World Population Plan of Action (1974), the Mexico City Declaration (1984), and the Amsterdam Declaration (1989). Australia's policy emphasizes the importance of population policies as an integral part of social, economic, and cultural development aimed at improving the quality of life of the people. Factors that would promote smaller families include improving economic opportunities, old-age security, education and health (particularly for women), as well as improving the accessibility and quality of family planning services. The quality of care approach is directly complementary to the Australian International Development Assistance Bureau (AIDAB)'s Women-In-Development Policy and its Health Policy, which stresses the theme of Women And Their Children's Health (WATCH). Australia's support for population programs and activities has increased considerably over the last few years. Total assistance for the year 1990/91 was around $7 million out of a total aid program of $1216 million. In recent years AIDAB has funded family planning activities or health projects with family planning components in a number of countries in the Asia-Pacific region. In the South Pacific region AIDAB has funded a reproductive health video project taking into consideration the cultural sensitivities and customs of the peoples of the region. AIDAB has supported a UN Population Fund project in Thailand that aims to strengthen the capacity of the National Statistical Office to collect population data. The US currently accounts for around 40% of all population-related development assistance to improve the health of women and children through family planning. The other major donors are Japan, the Scandinavian countries, and the Netherlands. Funding for population has been a relatively low percentage of overall development assistance budgets in OECD countries. In the

  20. 29 CFR 780.142 - Practices on a farm not related to farming operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Practices on a farm not related to farming operations. 780... FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT General Scope of Agriculture âsuch Farming Operationsâ-on the Farm § 780.142 Practices on a farm not related to farming operations. Practices performed on a farm in connection...

  1. 29 CFR 780.142 - Practices on a farm not related to farming operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Practices on a farm not related to farming operations. 780... FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT General Scope of Agriculture âsuch Farming Operationsâ-on the Farm § 780.142 Practices on a farm not related to farming operations. Practices performed on a farm in connection...

  2. 29 CFR 780.142 - Practices on a farm not related to farming operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Practices on a farm not related to farming operations. 780... FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT General Scope of Agriculture âsuch Farming Operationsâ-on the Farm § 780.142 Practices on a farm not related to farming operations. Practices performed on a farm in connection...

  3. 29 CFR 780.142 - Practices on a farm not related to farming operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Practices on a farm not related to farming operations. 780... FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT General Scope of Agriculture âsuch Farming Operationsâ-on the Farm § 780.142 Practices on a farm not related to farming operations. Practices performed on a farm in connection...

  4. 29 CFR 780.142 - Practices on a farm not related to farming operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Practices on a farm not related to farming operations. 780... FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT General Scope of Agriculture âsuch Farming Operationsâ-on the Farm § 780.142 Practices on a farm not related to farming operations. Practices performed on a farm in connection...

  5. The Use of Telecommunications in Australian Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammond, Morrison F.

    1986-01-01

    Discusses telecommunications services used in Australian education. They include Minerva (electronic mail), Midas (database accessing), Viatel (interactive videotext), and Telememo (electronic mail used to exchange information between schools. (JN)

  6. Innovation in Australian Workplaces: An Empirical Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Mark

    1999-01-01

    The determinants of innovation were examined using data from 698 Australian workplaces. Results suggest that better employee-management communications are associated with more change and that workplaces with higher levels of training undergo more change. (Author/JOW)

  7. Farm Work-Related Asthma Among US Primary Farm Operators

    PubMed Central

    Mazurek, Jacek M.; White, Gretchen E.; Rodman, Chad; Schleiff, Patricia L.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of current asthma and the proportion of current asthma that is related to work on the farm among primary farm operators. The 2011 Farm and Ranch Safety Survey data were used to produce estimates and prevalence odds ratios. An estimated 5.1% of farm operators had asthma. Of these, 15.4% had farm work-related asthma. Among operators with farm work-related asthma, 54.8% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 41.8%–68.2%) had an asthma attack in the prior 12 months and 33.3% (95% CI: 21.2%–45.4%) had an asthma attack that occurred while doing farm work. Of those who had an asthma attack that occurred while doing farm work, 65.0% associated their asthma attack with plant/tree materials. This study provides updated information on asthma and the proportion of current asthma that is related to work on the farm and identifies certain groups of farm operators that might benefit from workplace asthma prevention intervention. PMID:25635741

  8. Transgenic Farm Animals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solomon, Morse B.; Eastridge, Janet S.; Paroczay, Ernest W.

    Conventional science to improve muscle and meat parameters has involved breeding strategies, such as selection of dominant traits or selection of preferred traits by cross breeding, and the use of endogenous and exogenous hormones. Improvements in the quality of food products that enter the market have largely been the result of postharvest intervention strategies. Biotechnology is a more extreme scientific method that offers the potential to improve the quality, yield, and safety of food products by direct genetic manipulation. In the December 13, 2007 issue of the Southeast Farm Press, an article by Roy Roberson pointed out that biotechnology is driving most segments of U.S. farm growth. He indicated that nationwide, the agriculture industry is booming and much of that growth is the result of biotechnology advancements.

  9. Software for batch farms

    SciTech Connect

    Ian Bird; Bryan Hess; Andy Kowalski

    2000-02-01

    Over the past few years, LSF has become a standard for job management on batch farms. However, there are many instances where it cannot be deployed for a variety of reasons. In large farms the cost may be prohibitive for the set of features actually used; small university groups who wish to clone the farms and software of larger laboratories often have constraints which preclude the use of LSF. This paper discusses a generic interface developed at Jefferson Lab to provide a set of common services to the user, while using any one of a variety of underlying batch management software products. Initially the system provides an interface to LSF and an alternative--Portable Batch System (PBS) developed by NASA and freely available in source form. It is straightforward to extend this to other systems. Such a generic interface allows users to move from one location to another and run their jobs with no modification, and by extension provides a framework for a ''global'' batch system where jobs submitted at one site may be transparently executed at another. The interface also provides additional features not found in the underlying batch software. Being written in Java, the client can be easily installed anywhere and allows for authenticated remote job submission and manipulation, including a web interface. This paper will also discuss the problem of keeping a large batch farm occupied with work without waiting for slow tape access. The use of file caching, pre-staging of files from tape and the interconnection with the batch system will be discussed. As well as automated techniques, the provision of appropriate information to the user to allow optimization should not be overlooked.

  10. Wind farm electrical system

    DOEpatents

    Erdman, William L.; Lettenmaier, Terry M.

    2006-07-04

    An approach to wind farm design using variable speed wind turbines with low pulse number electrical output. The output of multiple wind turbines are aggregated to create a high pulse number electrical output at a point of common coupling with a utility grid network. Power quality at each individual wind turbine falls short of utility standards, but the aggregated output at the point of common coupling is within acceptable tolerances for utility power quality. The approach for aggregating low pulse number electrical output from multiple wind turbines relies upon a pad mounted transformer at each wind turbine that performs phase multiplication on the output of each wind turbine. Phase multiplication converts a modified square wave from the wind turbine into a 6 pulse output. Phase shifting of the 6 pulse output from each wind turbine allows the aggregated output of multiple wind turbines to be a 24 pulse approximation of a sine wave. Additional filtering and VAR control is embedded within the wind farm to take advantage of the wind farm's electrical impedence characteristics to further enhance power quality at the point of common coupling.

  11. Expression profile of key immune-related genes in Penaeus monodon juveniles after oral administration of recombinant envelope protein VP28 of white spot syndrome virus.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Ancy; Sudheer, Naduvilamuriparampu Saidumuhammed; Kiron, Viswanath; Bright Singh, Issac S; Narayanan, Rangarajan Badri

    2016-07-01

    White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is the most catastrophic pathogen the shrimp industry has ever encountered. VP28, the abundant envelope protein of WSSV was expressed in bacteria, the purified protein administered orally to Penaeus monodon juveniles and its immune modulatory effects examined. The results indicated significant up-regulation of caspase, penaeidin, crustin, astakine, syntenin, PmRACK, Rab7, STAT and C-type lectin in animals orally administered with this antigen. This revealed the immune modulations in shrimps followed by oral administration of rVP28P which resulted in the reduced transcription of viral gene vp28 and delay in mortality after WSSV challenge. The study suggests the potential of rVP28P to elicit a non-specific immune stimulation in shrimps.

  12. Detection of a new microsporidium Perezia sp. in shrimps Penaeus monodon and P. indicus by histopathology, in situ hybridization and PCR.

    PubMed

    Han, Jee Eun; Tang, Kathy F J; Pantoja, Carlos R; Lightner, Donald V; Redman, Rita M; Le Groumellec, Marc

    2016-07-01

    Samples of microsporidia-infected shrimps exhibiting clinical signs of cotton shrimp disease were collected from Madagascar, Mozambique, and the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia from 2005 to 2014. The tails of the infected shrimps appeared opaque and whitish; subsequent histological examination revealed the presence of cytoplasmic inclusions and mature spores in tissues of the muscle, hepatopancreas, gills, heart, and lymphoid organ. PCR analysis targeting the small subunit rDNA (SSU rDNA) from infected samples resulted in the amplification of a 1.2 kbp SSU rDNA sequence fragment 94% identical to the corresponding region in the genome of the microsporidian Perezia nelsoni, which infects populations of Penaeus setiferus in the USA. Its SSU rDNA sequence was 100% identical among isolates from Madagascar and Saudi Arabia, indicating that shrimps from the Red Sea and Indian Ocean were infected with the same microsporidium, the novel Perezia sp. A 443 bp fragment of the SSU rDNA sequence was cloned, labeled with digoxigenin and subjected to an in situ hybridization assay with tissue sections of Perezia sp.-infected Penaeus monodon from Madagascar and Mozambique, and P. indicus from Saudi Arabia. The probe hybridized to the mature spores in the hepatopancreas and muscle from which the spores had been obtained for DNA isolation. This assay was specific, showing no reaction to another microsporidium, Enterocytozoon hepatopenaei (EHP), infecting the hepatopancreas of shrimp P. stylirostris cultured in SE Asian countries. We also developed an SSU rDNA-based PCR assay, specific for the novel Perezia sp. This PCR did not react to EHP, nor to genomic DNA of shrimp and other invertebrates. PMID:27409240

  13. Australian Thesaurus of Education Descriptors. A Word-Stock for Indexing and Retrieving Australian Educational Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lavender, G. B.; Findlay, Margaret A.

    This core thesaurus of terms suitable for indexing Australian educational literature was developed by the Australian Council for Educational Research by means of a systematic and thorough revision of the "Thesaurus of ERIC Descriptors." Based on the actual terminology of education in Australia, this thesaurus includes: key words and phrases used…

  14. Why Do Chinese-Australian Students Outperform Their Australian Peers in Mathematics: A Comparative Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhao, Dacheng; Singh, Michael

    2011-01-01

    International comparative studies and cross-cultural studies of mathematics achievement indicate that Chinese students (whether living in or outside China) consistently outperform their Western counterparts. This study shows that the gap between Chinese-Australian and other Australian students is best explained by differences in motivation to…

  15. Telling Tales: Australian Voices. Australian Studies in Language and Education Monograph Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moss, Peter

    This monograph contains a report of the field work stage of a research project, on the educational significance of the modern Australian oral tradition, which involved the collection of recordings of people telling tales, reminiscing, recalling personal events of significance, and recounting traditional Australian legends from non-Aboriginal…

  16. New breeding objectives and selection indices for the Australian dairy industry.

    PubMed

    Byrne, T J; Santos, B F S; Amer, P R; Martin-Collado, D; Pryce, J E; Axford, M

    2016-10-01

    This study comprises an update of the economic values for dairy traits for the Australian industry and the formulation of updated selection indices. An economic model, which calculates partial economic values for each trait individually, was developed to determine the economic implications of selective dairy breeding, based on the effect of trait changes on the profit of commercial dairy farms in Australia. Selection indices were developed from economic values, which were transformed into base economic weights by including the discounted genetic expressions coefficients. Economic weights (in Australian dollars) were 1.79, 6.92, -0.10, -5.44, 8.84, 7.68, 1.07, 4.86, 1.91, 3.51, 4.90, 0.31, 2.03, 2.00, and 0.59, for milk fat (kg), milk protein (kg), milk volume (L), body weight (kg), survival (%), residual survival (%), somatic cell count (cells/mL), fertility (%), mammary system [Australian Breeding Value (ABV) unit], temperament (ABV unit), milking speed (ABV unit), udder depth (%), overall type (%), fore udder attachment (%), and pin set (%), respectively. The updated economic weights presented in this study constituted the basis of the definition for 3 new indices. These indices were developed from combination of bioeconomic principles, patterns of farmer preferences for trait improvements, and desired gains approaches. The 3 indices, Balanced Performance Index, Health Weighted Index, and Type Weighted Index, have been released to the industry. PMID:27522425

  17. The Australian bush fly (Musca vetustissima) as a potential vector in the transmission of foodborne pathogens at outdoor eateries.

    PubMed

    Vriesekoop, Frank; Shaw, Rachel

    2010-03-01

    Abstract Australian outdoor activities are often accompanied by a barbeque (BBQ) with family, friends, and guests, which are often interrupted by uninvited guests in the form of the Australian bush fly, Musca vetustissima. We investigated the bacterial loading associated with the Australian bush in three different environments: on a cattle farm, in a typical urban area (shopping center car park), and at a BBQ. The highest bacterial populations per fly were found to occur in a farm environment ( approximately 9.1 x 10(4) CFU per fly), whereas the bacterial population was lowest on flies caught in an urban environment ( approximately 1.9 x 10(4) CFU per fly). The median CFU per fly caught near a BBQ was approximately 5.0 x 10(4). Escherichia coli was the most commonly isolated potential pathogen, whereas Shigella sp. was the least common bacterial isolate that was screened. All isolated foodborne pathogens or indicator bacteria were screened for antibiotic resistance against commonly prescribed antibiotics. This revealed a very high prevalence of multidrug resistance, especially among the Salmonella and Shigella isolates of 94% and 87% resistance, respectively, against amoxicillin, roxythromycin and cefaclor.

  18. Marine Biodiversity in the Australian Region

    PubMed Central

    Butler, Alan J.; Rees, Tony; Beesley, Pam; Bax, Nicholas J.

    2010-01-01

    The entire Australian marine jurisdictional area, including offshore and sub-Antarctic islands, is considered in this paper. Most records, however, come from the Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) around the continent of Australia itself. The counts of species have been obtained from four primary databases (the Australian Faunal Directory, Codes for Australian Aquatic Biota, Online Zoological Collections of Australian Museums, and the Australian node of the Ocean Biogeographic Information System), but even these are an underestimate of described species. In addition, some partially completed databases for particular taxonomic groups, and specialized databases (for introduced and threatened species) have been used. Experts also provided estimates of the number of known species not yet in the major databases. For only some groups could we obtain an (expert opinion) estimate of undiscovered species. The databases provide patchy information about endemism, levels of threat, and introductions. We conclude that there are about 33,000 marine species (mainly animals) in the major databases, of which 130 are introduced, 58 listed as threatened and an unknown percentage endemic. An estimated 17,000 more named species are either known from the Australian EEZ but not in the present databases, or potentially occur there. It is crudely estimated that there may be as many as 250,000 species (known and yet to be discovered) in the Australian EEZ. For 17 higher taxa, there is sufficient detail for subdivision by Large Marine Domains, for comparison with other National and Regional Implementation Committees of the Census of Marine Life. Taxonomic expertise in Australia is unevenly distributed across taxa, and declining. Comments are given briefly on biodiversity management measures in Australia, including but not limited to marine protected areas. PMID:20689847

  19. Marine biodiversity in the Australian region.

    PubMed

    Butler, Alan J; Rees, Tony; Beesley, Pam; Bax, Nicholas J

    2010-01-01

    The entire Australian marine jurisdictional area, including offshore and sub-Antarctic islands, is considered in this paper. Most records, however, come from the Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) around the continent of Australia itself. The counts of species have been obtained from four primary databases (the Australian Faunal Directory, Codes for Australian Aquatic Biota, Online Zoological Collections of Australian Museums, and the Australian node of the Ocean Biogeographic Information System), but even these are an underestimate of described species. In addition, some partially completed databases for particular taxonomic groups, and specialized databases (for introduced and threatened species) have been used. Experts also provided estimates of the number of known species not yet in the major databases. For only some groups could we obtain an (expert opinion) estimate of undiscovered species. The databases provide patchy information about endemism, levels of threat, and introductions. We conclude that there are about 33,000 marine species (mainly animals) in the major databases, of which 130 are introduced, 58 listed as threatened and an unknown percentage endemic. An estimated 17,000 more named species are either known from the Australian EEZ but not in the present databases, or potentially occur there. It is crudely estimated that there may be as many as 250,000 species (known and yet to be discovered) in the Australian EEZ. For 17 higher taxa, there is sufficient detail for subdivision by Large Marine Domains, for comparison with other National and Regional Implementation Committees of the Census of Marine Life. Taxonomic expertise in Australia is unevenly distributed across taxa, and declining. Comments are given briefly on biodiversity management measures in Australia, including but not limited to marine protected areas. PMID:20689847

  20. Elements of Australian petroleum geology

    SciTech Connect

    Masters, C.D.; Scott, E.W.

    1986-05-01

    The petroleum geology of Australia reflects the existence of a large cratonic block broken away from India and Antarctica in the early Mesozoic and early Tertiary that has resulted in a rifted passive-margin character on the northwestern, western, and southern boundaries of the continent. Pre-breakup paleozoic sediments are widely distributed but commonly not deeply buried nor particularly thick, and hence contribute minimally to petroleum resource occurrence. Like their Asian neighbors, much of Australian petroleum geology is nonmarine and associated with marginal rift basins. The small Gippsland basin on the southeastern coast, which is responsible for more than 90% of oil and 28% of the gas discovered in Australia, derives its petroleum from nonmarine Eocene to Cretaceous graben-fill sediments, sealed and buried by Oligocene marine shales. The most active play in Australia is in the Eromanga depression of the Great Artesian basin, where nonmarine oil is trapped stratigraphically in small fields in Jurassic and Cretaceous sandstones. These Mesozoic sediments are sag-fill deposits above the Permian-Triassic Cooper basin, and are responsible for some 12% of the gas reserves in Australia. Offshore of the western coast, graben basins filled with late Paleozoic to Mesozoic sediments are prolific and gas-prone - 55% of reserves - owing to coaly source rocks. North Sea-type, Upper Jurassic grabens off the northwestern coast of Australia contain Kimmeridgian hot shales, but developmental drilling, following the initial Jabiru discovery, has yet to demonstrate large reserves.

  1. 29 CFR 780.156 - Transportation of farm products from the fields or farm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... on a farm as an incident to or in conjunction with the farming operations of that farmer or that farm...” farming operations are also within section 3(f). These principles have been recognized by the courts...

  2. 29 CFR 780.156 - Transportation of farm products from the fields or farm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... on a farm as an incident to or in conjunction with the farming operations of that farmer or that farm...” farming operations are also within section 3(f). These principles have been recognized by the courts...

  3. Ascendancy of agricultural biotechnology in the Australian political mainstream coexists with technology criticism by a vocal-minority.

    PubMed

    Tribe, David

    2014-07-01

    Australia is a federation of States. This political structure necessitates collaborative arrangements between Australian governments to harmonize national regulation of gene technology and food standards. Extensive political negotiation among institutions of federal government has managed regulation of GM crops and food. Well-developed human resources in Australian government provided numerous policy documents facilitating a transparent political process. Workable legislation has been devised in the face of criticisms of gene technology though the political process. Conflicts between potential disruptions to food commodity trade by precautionary proposals for environmental protection were one cause of political tensions, and differences in policy priorities at regional political levels versus national and international forums for negotiation were another. Australian policy outcomes on GM crops reflect (a) strong economic self-interest in innovative and productive farming, (b) reliance on global agricultural market reforms through the Cairns trade group and the WTO, and (c) the importance of Codex Alimentarius and WTO instruments SPS and TBT. Precautionary frameworks for GM food safety assurance that are inconsistent with WTO obligations were avoided in legislation. Since 2008 the 2 major parties, Australian Labor Party (ALP) and the Liberals appear to have reached a workable consensus at the Federal policy level about an important role for agricultural biotechnology in Australia's economic future. PMID:25437242

  4. Ascendancy of agricultural biotechnology in the Australian political mainstream coexists with technology criticism by a vocal-minority.

    PubMed

    Tribe, David

    2014-07-01

    Australia is a federation of States. This political structure necessitates collaborative arrangements between Australian governments to harmonize national regulation of gene technology and food standards. Extensive political negotiation among institutions of federal government has managed regulation of GM crops and food. Well-developed human resources in Australian government provided numerous policy documents facilitating a transparent political process. Workable legislation has been devised in the face of criticisms of gene technology though the political process. Conflicts between potential disruptions to food commodity trade by precautionary proposals for environmental protection were one cause of political tensions, and differences in policy priorities at regional political levels versus national and international forums for negotiation were another. Australian policy outcomes on GM crops reflect (a) strong economic self-interest in innovative and productive farming, (b) reliance on global agricultural market reforms through the Cairns trade group and the WTO, and (c) the importance of Codex Alimentarius and WTO instruments SPS and TBT. Precautionary frameworks for GM food safety assurance that are inconsistent with WTO obligations were avoided in legislation. Since 2008 the 2 major parties, Australian Labor Party (ALP) and the Liberals appear to have reached a workable consensus at the Federal policy level about an important role for agricultural biotechnology in Australia's economic future.

  5. Ascendancy of agricultural biotechnology in the Australian political mainstream coexists with technology criticism by a vocal-minority

    PubMed Central

    Tribe, David

    2014-01-01

    Australia is a federation of States. This political structure necessitates collaborative arrangements between Australian governments to harmonize national regulation of gene technology and food standards. Extensive political negotiation among institutions of federal government has managed regulation of GM crops and food. Well-developed human resources in Australian government provided numerous policy documents facilitating a transparent political process. Workable legislation has been devised in the face of criticisms of gene technology though the political process. Conflicts between potential disruptions to food commodity trade by precautionary proposals for environmental protection were one cause of political tensions, and differences in policy priorities at regional political levels versus national and international forums for negotiation were another. Australian policy outcomes on GM crops reflect (a) strong economic self-interest in innovative and productive farming, (b) reliance on global agricultural market reforms through the Cairns trade group and the WTO, and (c) the importance of Codex Alimentarius and WTO instruments SPS and TBT. Precautionary frameworks for GM food safety assurance that are inconsistent with WTO obligations were avoided in legislation. Since 2008 the 2 major parties, Australian Labor Party (ALP) and the Liberals appear to have reached a workable consensus at the Federal policy level about an important role for agricultural biotechnology in Australia's economic future. PMID:25437242

  6. Farm-Size Structure and Off-Farm Income and Employment Generation in the North Central Region.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heady, Earl O.; Sonka, Steven T.

    The relationship between size of farm and the welfare of farm and nonfarm society was examined in terms of total income in the farm sector, the number and size of farms, income per farm, secondary income generation, and consumer food costs using four alternative farm structures: large farm (gross farm sales of at least $40,000); medium farm (gross…

  7. Whole Farm Nutrient Balance Calculator for New York Dairy Farms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soberon, Melanie A.; Ketterings, Quirine M.; Rasmussen, Caroline N.; Czymmek, Karl J.

    2013-01-01

    Nutrient loss and accumulation as well as associated environmental degradation have been a concern for animal agriculture for many decades. Federal and New York (NY) regulations apply to Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations and a comprehensive nutrient management plan (CNMP) is required for regulated farms. The whole farm nutrient mass balance…

  8. Economic Indicators of the Farm Sector. Farm Sector Review, 1985.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Economic Research Service (USDA), Washington, DC.

    Farm production rose 6 percent in 1985 due to record high yields in corn, soybeans, cotton, and several other crops. While United States consumption increased slightly, exports of farm products fell 23 percent in value and 19 percent in volume. Net cash income increased 12 percent due to increased output, lower cash expenses, and unusually high…

  9. In Uzbekistan, Is It Farm Management or FARM "Management?"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Long, James S.; Luery, Andrea

    A broad spectrum of stakeholders in Uzbekistan were interviewed to identify areas in which Winrock International's Farmer-to-Farmer program volunteers could be targeted to help Uzbeks complete the transition to privatized farms. The interviews revealed that Uzbeks have a much broader conception of the "farm" than do people in Western countries and…

  10. Farm Household Survival Strategies and Diversification on Marginal Farms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meert, H.; Van Huylenbroeck, G.; Vernimmen, T.; Bourgeois, M.; van Hecke, E.

    2005-01-01

    On marginal farms, and in agriculture in general, sustainability is largely guaranteed by a broad range of survival strategies, closely interlinked and embedded in the household structure of typical family farms. This paper reports results of a socio-economic study carried out among Belgian farmers, focusing specifically on the opportunities…

  11. Wind Farm Feasibility Study

    SciTech Connect

    Richard Curry; Erik Foley; DOE Project Officer - Keith Bennett

    2007-07-11

    Saint Francis University has assessed the Swallow Farm property located in Shade Township, Somerset County, Pennsylvania as a potential wind power development site. Saint Francis worked with McLean Energy Partners to have a 50-meter meteorological tower installed on the property in April 2004 and continues to conduct a meteorological assessment of the site. Results suggest a mean average wind speed at 80 meters of 17 mph with a net capacity factor of 31 - 33%. Approximate electricity generation capacity of the project is 10 megawatts. Also, the University used matching funds provided by the federal government to contract with ABR, Inc. to conduct radar studies of nocturnal migration of birds and bats during the migrations seasons in the Spring and Fall of 2005 with a mean nocturnal flight altitude of 402 meters with less than 5% of targets at altitudes of less than 125 meters. The mean nocturnal passage rate was 166 targets/km/h in the fall and 145 targets/km/h in the spring. Lastly, University faculty and students conducted a nesting bird study May - July 2006. Seventy-three (73) species of birds were observed with 65 determined to be breeding or potentially breeding species; this figure represents approximately 30% of the 214 breeding bird species in Pennsylvania. No officially protected avian species were determined to be nesting at Swallow Farm.

  12. Part-time Farming: Saving the Farm or Saving the Life-style?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barlett, Peggy F.

    1986-01-01

    Study of part-time farmers in a Georgia county examines mobility patterns, economic circumstances, scale of farming, reasons for part-time farming, commitment to farm, household division of labor, and impact of current farm crisis. Finds most part-time farmers obtained stable off-farm jobs, then added farms later in their adult years. (LFL)

  13. Data Convergence - An Australian Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, S. S.; Howell, B.

    2012-12-01

    Coupled numerical physical, biogeochemical and sediment models are increasingly being used as integrators to help understand the cumulative or far field effects of change in the coastal environment. This reliance on modeling has forced observations to be delivered as data streams ingestible by modeling frameworks. This has made it easier to create near real-time or forecasting models than to try to recreate the past, and has lead in turn to the conversion of historical data into data streams to allow them to be ingested by the same frameworks. The model and observation frameworks under development within Australia's Commonwealth and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO) are now feeding into the Australian Ocean Data Network's (AODN's) MARine Virtual Laboratory (MARVL) . The sensor, or data stream, brokering solution is centred around the "message" and all data flowing through the gateway is wrapped as a message. Messages consist of a topic and a data object and their routing through the gateway to pre-processors and listeners is determined by the topic. The Sensor Message Gateway (SMG) method is allowing data from different sensors measuring the same thing but with different temporal resolutions, units or spatial coverage to be ingested or visualized seamlessly. At the same time the model output as a virtual sensor is being explored, this again being enabled by the SMG. It is only for two way communications with sensor that rigorous adherence to standards is needed, by accepting existing data in less than ideal formats, but exposing them though the SMG we can move a step closer to the Internet Of Things by creating an Internet of Industries where each vested interest can continue with business as usual, contribute to data convergence and adopt more open standards when investment seems appropriate to that sector or business.Architecture Overview

  14. The Australian Antarctic lidar facility

    SciTech Connect

    Klekociuk, A.R.; Morris, R.J.; Yates, P.; Fleming, A.; Murphy, D.J.; Greet, P.A. |; Argall, P.S. |; Vincent, R.A.; Reid, I.M.

    1994-12-31

    A high spectral resolution lidar, under development by the Australian Antarctic Division and the University of Adelaide, is described. This instrument will be stationed at Davis, Antarctica (68.6{degree}S, 78.0{degree}E) from early 1996 for the long-term measurement of atmospheric parameters as a function of altitude from the lower stratosphere to the mesopause. The siting of the lidar will allow for data comparison with existing optical, radar and balloon-borne atmospheric studies. Research utilizing the multi-instrument database will be aimed at assessing climatic variability and coupling processes throughout the atmosphere. The lidar transmitter consists of a commercial injection-seeded pulsed ND:YAG laser coupled to a altazimuth mounted Cassegrain telescope with a 1 meter diameter primary mirror. The laser emits at a wavelength of 532 nm with an average power of 30 W. The telescope also serves as the collecting optics for the receiving system. The lidar is switched between transmit and receive modes by a high speed rotating shutter system. The detection system consists of a dual scanning Fabry Perot Spectrometer (FPS) followed by a cooled photomultiplier operated in `photon counting` mode. The received signal is integrated as a function of equivalent range over a bandpass that may be either fixed or scanned in the wavelength domain. Performance simulations for the fixed bandpass operating mode are discussed. These indicate that useful measurements of density and inferred temperature should be achievable for the mesopause region, particularly at night and during twilight. In addition, detection of clouds in the mesosphere during the day appears feasible.

  15. Building Innovation: Learning with Technologies. Australian Education Review Number 56

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moyle, Kathryn

    2010-01-01

    Australian Education Review (AER) 56 explores national and international policy priorities for building students' innovation capabilities through information and communication technologies (ICT) in Australian schools. Section 1 sets out the Australian policy context for digital education and highlights some of the emerging challenges. It provides…

  16. Modelling Choice: Factors Influencing Modes of Delivery in Australian Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Andrew; Ling, Peter; Hill, Doug

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports the findings of a study of Multiple Modes of Delivery in Australian universities that was commissioned by Australian Universities Teaching Committee over the period 2001-2004. The project examined and described the various means of educational delivery deployed by Australian universities. It identified the pedagogical,…

  17. Drama in the Australian National Curriculum: Decisions, Tensions and Uncertainties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stinson, Madonna; Saunders, John Nicholas

    2016-01-01

    In September 2015, the Australian Federal Government endorsed the final version of the Australian Curriculum arts framework a document resulting from nearly seven years of consultation and development. "The Australian Curriculum: The Arts Version 8.0" comprises five subjects: dance, drama, media arts, music and visual arts. This article…

  18. Visit a Farm? Surely Not!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graham, Bill

    2012-01-01

    Popular myth has it that visiting a farm can be dangerous, but there are only a few occasions when children have become ill during a school visit to a farm. Simple, sensible precautions, including wearing appropriate clothing, such as trousers and wellington boots (if wet) or sensible shoes, and careful hand-washing, are all that is required. The…

  19. Electrocution Hazards on the Farm

    MedlinePlus

    ... by overhead power lines, standby generators, and general operating procedures of electrical systems at the farm work site. Electrocution hazards The ... electricity generated by a farm operation’s emergency power system from entering the ... operating precautions, equipment can come in contact with electrical ...

  20. Food and farm products surveillance

    SciTech Connect

    Poston, T.M.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the radiological analyses performed on food and farm samples collected during 1994. The food and farm sampling design addresses the potential influence of Hanford Site releases. Details of the sampling design and radionuclides analyzed are included in this section.

  1. Habitat and Biodiversity of On-Farm Water Storages: A Case Study in Southeast Queensland, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markwell, Kim A.; Fellows, Christine S.

    2008-02-01

    On-farm water storages (locally known as farm dams or farm ponds) are an important part of many agricultural landscapes, as they provide a reliable source of water for irrigation and stock. Although these waterbodies are artificially constructed and morphologically simple, there is increasing interest in their potential role as habitat for native flora and fauna. In this article, we present results from a case study which examined the habitat characteristics (such as water physical and chemical parameters, benthic metabolism, and macrophyte cover) and the macrophyte and macroinvertebrate biodiversity of eight farm ponds on four properties in the Stanley Catchment, Southeast Queensland, Australia. Each landowner was interviewed to allow a comparison of the management of the ponds with measured habitat and biodiversity characteristics, and to understand landowners’ motivations in making farm pond management decisions. The physical and chemical water characteristics of the study ponds were comparable to the limited number of Australian farm ponds described in published literature. Littoral zones supported forty-five macroinvertebrate families, with most belonging to the orders Hemiptera, Coleoptera, Odonata, and Diptera. Invertebrate community composition was strongly influenced by littoral zone macrophyte structure, with significant differences between ponds with high macrophyte cover compared to those with bare littoral zones. The importance of littoral zone macrophytes was also suggested by a significant positive relationship between invertebrate taxonomic richness and macrophyte cover. The landowners in this study demonstrated sound ecological knowledge of their farm ponds, but many had not previously acknowledged them as having high habitat value for native flora and fauna. If managed for aquatic organisms as well as reliable water sources, these artificial habitats may help to maintain regional biodiversity, particularly given the large number of farm ponds

  2. Habitat and biodiversity of on-farm water storages: a case study in Southeast Queensland, Australia.

    PubMed

    Markwell, Kim A; Fellows, Christine S

    2008-02-01

    On-farm water storages (locally known as farm dams or farm ponds) are an important part of many agricultural landscapes, as they provide a reliable source of water for irrigation and stock. Although these waterbodies are artificially constructed and morphologically simple, there is increasing interest in their potential role as habitat for native flora and fauna. In this article, we present results from a case study which examined the habitat characteristics (such as water physical and chemical parameters, benthic metabolism, and macrophyte cover) and the macrophyte and macroinvertebrate biodiversity of eight farm ponds on four properties in the Stanley Catchment, Southeast Queensland, Australia. Each landowner was interviewed to allow a comparison of the management of the ponds with measured habitat and biodiversity characteristics, and to understand landowners' motivations in making farm pond management decisions.The physical and chemical water characteristics of the study ponds were comparable to the limited number of Australian farm ponds described in published literature. Littoral zones supported forty-five macroinvertebrate families, with most belonging to the orders Hemiptera, Coleoptera, Odonata, and Diptera. Invertebrate community composition was strongly influenced by littoral zone macrophyte structure, with significant differences between ponds with high macrophyte cover compared to those with bare littoral zones. The importance of littoral zone macrophytes was also suggested by a significant positive relationship between invertebrate taxonomic richness and macrophyte cover.The landowners in this study demonstrated sound ecological knowledge of their farm ponds, but many had not previously acknowledged them as having high habitat value for native flora and fauna. If managed for aquatic organisms as well as reliable water sources, these artificial habitats may help to maintain regional biodiversity, particularly given the large number of farm ponds across

  3. Encephalization of Australian and New Guinean marsupials.

    PubMed

    Ashwell, K W S

    2008-01-01

    Encephalization of Australian marsupials was analyzed using the endocranial volume (ECV) of 52 species of Dasyuromorphia and Notoryctemorphia, 14 species of Peramelemorphia and 116 species of Diprotodontia from Australia and New Guinea and compared with 16 species of Ameridelphian marsupials and 3 species of native and recently introduced Australian eutherian carnivores (dingo, feral cat and feral fox). Linear regression analysis of the relationship between ECV and body weight for marsupials revealed that allometric parameters for these groups are different from those previously derived for samples of (mainly eutherian) mammals, with higher slopes for Dasyuromorphia and Diprotodontia and lower slopes for Ameridelphians and Peramelemorphia. Absolute ECV for small Australian and New Guinea marsupial carnivores (Antechinus and Sminthopsis) were found to be comparable to eutherians of similar body weight, but large marsupial carnivores such as the Tasmanian devil and thylacine had substantially smaller ECVs than eutherian carnivores of similar body weight. Similarly, members of some superfamilies within Diprotodontia (Burramyoidea, Petauroidea, Tarsipedoidea) had ECVs comparable to prosimians, whereas bandicoots, bilbies and many macropods were found to be poorly encephalized. When both encephalization quotient (EQ) and residuals from regression analysis were used to compare relative ECV of extinct/threatened species with common species there were no significant differences for any of the orders of Australian marsupials, suggesting that encephalization is not a major factor in the current extinction crisis for Australian marsupials. Similarly there were no consistent differences in relative ECV between marsupials from New Guinea and associated islands compared to Australia or between arid and non-arid Australian regions for any of the marsupial orders. The results indicate that marsupials are not uniformly poorly encephalized and that small marsupial carnivores and

  4. Livestock farming and atmospheric emissions.

    PubMed

    Zicari, Giuseppe; Soardo, Vincenzo; Rivetti, Daniela; Cerrato, Elena; Russo, Domenico

    2013-01-01

    Livestock farming produces atmospheric emissions that may pose a risk to workers and a disturbance to the population. Emissions into the atmosphere produced by livestock farming consist of gases such as ammonia, dust, compounds such as aliphatic hydrocarbons and bio-aerosols formed by microorganisms. Some gases, such as ammonia and hydrogen sulphide, have foul odours and are thus potentially annoying to the population. Gaseous or volatile molecules produced by livestock installations and related activities may have several adverse effects on health and environment. The most significant exposure certainly relates to workers in the confined spaces of farms, rather than to residents in the surrounding areas. In this article we examine potential hazards to farm workers and to the population living in the vicinity of livestock farms, arising from emissions into the atmosphere.

  5. Selection of the Australian indicator region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reed, C. R. (Principal Investigator)

    1981-01-01

    Each Australian state was examined for the availability of LANDSAT data, area, yield, and production characteristics, statistics, crop calendars, and other ancillary data. Agrophysical conditions that could influence labeling and classification accuracies were identified in connection with the highest producing states as determined from available Australian crop statistics. Based primarily on these production statistics, Western Australia and New South Wales were selected as the wheat indicator region for Australia. The general characteristics of wheat in the indicator region, with potential problems anticipated for proportion estimation are considered. The varieties of wheat, the diseases and pests common to New South Wales, and the wheat growing regions of both states are examined.

  6. Successes, challenges and developments in Australian rheumatology.

    PubMed

    Morand, Eric F; Leech, Michelle T

    2015-07-01

    Australia is a geographically vast but sparsely populated country with many unique factors affecting the practice of rheumatology. With a population comprising minority Indigenous peoples, a historically European-origin majority population, and recent large-scale migration from Asia, the effect of ethnic diversity on the phenotype of rheumatic diseases such as systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a constant of Australian rheumatology practice. Australia has a strong system of universal healthcare and subsidized access to medications, and clinical and research rheumatology are well developed, but inequitable access to specialist care in urban and regional centres, and the complex disconnected structure of the Australian healthcare system, can hinder the management of chronic diseases.

  7. Farm Hall: The Play

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cassidy, David C.

    2013-03-01

    It's July 1945. Germany is in defeat and the atomic bombs are on their way to Japan. Under the direction of Samuel Goudsmit, the Allies are holding some of the top German nuclear scientists-among them Heisenberg, Hahn, and Gerlach-captive in Farm Hall, an English country manor near Cambridge, England. As secret microphones record their conversations, the scientists are unaware of why they are being held or for how long. Thinking themselves far ahead of the Allies, how will they react to the news of the atomic bombs? How will these famous scientists explain to themselves and to the world their failure to achieve even a chain reaction? How will they come to terms with the horror of the Third Reich, their work for such a regime, and their behavior during that period? This one-act play is based upon the transcripts of their conversations as well as the author's historical work on the subject.

  8. Understanding the Impacts of Soil, Climate, and Farming Practices on Soil Organic Carbon Sequestration: A Simulation Study in Australia.

    PubMed

    Godde, Cécile M; Thorburn, Peter J; Biggs, Jody S; Meier, Elizabeth A

    2016-01-01

    Carbon sequestration in agricultural soils has the capacity to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions, as well as to improve soil biological, physical, and chemical properties. The review of literature pertaining to soil organic carbon (SOC) dynamics within Australian grain farming systems does not enable us to conclude on the best farming practices to increase or maintain SOC for a specific combination of soil and climate. This study aimed to further explore the complex interactions of soil, climate, and farming practices on SOC. We undertook a modeling study with the Agricultural Production Systems sIMulator modeling framework, by combining contrasting Australian soils, climates, and farming practices (crop rotations, and management within rotations, such as fertilization, tillage, and residue management) in a factorial design. This design resulted in the transposition of contrasting soils and climates in our simulations, giving soil-climate combinations that do not occur in the study area to help provide insights into the importance of the climate constraints on SOC. We statistically analyzed the model's outputs to determinate the relative contributions of soil parameters, climate, and farming practices on SOC. The initial SOC content had the largest impact on the value of SOC, followed by the climate and the fertilization practices. These factors explained 66, 18, and 15% of SOC variations, respectively, after 80 years of constant farming practices in the simulation. Tillage and stubble management had the lowest impacts on SOC. This study highlighted the possible negative impact on SOC of a chickpea phase in a wheat-chickpea rotation and the potential positive impact of a cover crop in a sub-tropical climate (QLD, Australia) on SOC. It also showed the complexities in managing to achieve increased SOC, while simultaneously aiming to minimize nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions and nitrate leaching in farming systems. The transposition of contrasting soils and climates in

  9. Understanding the Impacts of Soil, Climate, and Farming Practices on Soil Organic Carbon Sequestration: A Simulation Study in Australia

    PubMed Central

    Godde, Cécile M.; Thorburn, Peter J.; Biggs, Jody S.; Meier, Elizabeth A.

    2016-01-01

    Carbon sequestration in agricultural soils has the capacity to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions, as well as to improve soil biological, physical, and chemical properties. The review of literature pertaining to soil organic carbon (SOC) dynamics within Australian grain farming systems does not enable us to conclude on the best farming practices to increase or maintain SOC for a specific combination of soil and climate. This study aimed to further explore the complex interactions of soil, climate, and farming practices on SOC. We undertook a modeling study with the Agricultural Production Systems sIMulator modeling framework, by combining contrasting Australian soils, climates, and farming practices (crop rotations, and management within rotations, such as fertilization, tillage, and residue management) in a factorial design. This design resulted in the transposition of contrasting soils and climates in our simulations, giving soil–climate combinations that do not occur in the study area to help provide insights into the importance of the climate constraints on SOC. We statistically analyzed the model’s outputs to determinate the relative contributions of soil parameters, climate, and farming practices on SOC. The initial SOC content had the largest impact on the value of SOC, followed by the climate and the fertilization practices. These factors explained 66, 18, and 15% of SOC variations, respectively, after 80 years of constant farming practices in the simulation. Tillage and stubble management had the lowest impacts on SOC. This study highlighted the possible negative impact on SOC of a chickpea phase in a wheat–chickpea rotation and the potential positive impact of a cover crop in a sub-tropical climate (QLD, Australia) on SOC. It also showed the complexities in managing to achieve increased SOC, while simultaneously aiming to minimize nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions and nitrate leaching in farming systems. The transposition of contrasting soils and

  10. Understanding the Impacts of Soil, Climate, and Farming Practices on Soil Organic Carbon Sequestration: A Simulation Study in Australia.

    PubMed

    Godde, Cécile M; Thorburn, Peter J; Biggs, Jody S; Meier, Elizabeth A

    2016-01-01

    Carbon sequestration in agricultural soils has the capacity to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions, as well as to improve soil biological, physical, and chemical properties. The review of literature pertaining to soil organic carbon (SOC) dynamics within Australian grain farming systems does not enable us to conclude on the best farming practices to increase or maintain SOC for a specific combination of soil and climate. This study aimed to further explore the complex interactions of soil, climate, and farming practices on SOC. We undertook a modeling study with the Agricultural Production Systems sIMulator modeling framework, by combining contrasting Australian soils, climates, and farming practices (crop rotations, and management within rotations, such as fertilization, tillage, and residue management) in a factorial design. This design resulted in the transposition of contrasting soils and climates in our simulations, giving soil-climate combinations that do not occur in the study area to help provide insights into the importance of the climate constraints on SOC. We statistically analyzed the model's outputs to determinate the relative contributions of soil parameters, climate, and farming practices on SOC. The initial SOC content had the largest impact on the value of SOC, followed by the climate and the fertilization practices. These factors explained 66, 18, and 15% of SOC variations, respectively, after 80 years of constant farming practices in the simulation. Tillage and stubble management had the lowest impacts on SOC. This study highlighted the possible negative impact on SOC of a chickpea phase in a wheat-chickpea rotation and the potential positive impact of a cover crop in a sub-tropical climate (QLD, Australia) on SOC. It also showed the complexities in managing to achieve increased SOC, while simultaneously aiming to minimize nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions and nitrate leaching in farming systems. The transposition of contrasting soils and climates in

  11. Reducing psychological distress and obesity in Australian farmers by promoting physical activity

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Studies have confirmed that the rate of mental illness is no higher in rural Australians than that of urban Australians. However, the rate of poor mental health outcomes, and in particular suicide, is significantly raised in rural populations. This is thought to be due to lack of early diagnosis, health service access, the distance-decay effect, poor physical health determinants and access to firearms. Research conducted by the National Centre for Farmer Health between 2004 and 2009 reveals that there is a correlation between obesity and psychological distress among the farming community where suicide rates are recognised as high. Chronic stress overstimulates the regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis that is associated with abdominal obesity. Increasing physical activity may block negative thoughts, increase social contact, positively influence brain chemistry and improve both physical and mental health. This paper describes the design of the Farming Fit study that aims to identify the effect of physical activity on psychological distress, obesity and health behaviours such as diet patterns and smoking in farm men and women. Methods/Design For this quasi-experimental (convenience sample) control-intervention study, overweight (Body Mass Index ≥25 kg/m2) farm men and women will be recruited from Sustainable Farm Families™ (SFF) programs held across Victoria, Australia. Baseline demographic data, health data, depression anxiety stress scale (DASS) scores, dietary information, physical activity data, anthropometric data, blood pressure and biochemical analysis of plasma and salivary cortisol levels will be collected. The intervention group will receive an exercise program and regular phone coaching in order to increase their physical activity. Analysis will evaluate the impact of the intervention by longitudinal data (baseline and post intervention) comparison of intervention and control groups. Discussion This study is designed

  12. Mercury concentrations in the Australian fur seal Arctocephalus pusillus from SE Australian waters

    SciTech Connect

    Bacher, G.J.

    1985-10-01

    Marine carnivores such as seals and sea lions occupy an important position in the upper trophic level of the marine food web and this, together with their longevity, makes these marine mammals useful indicators of mercury accumulation in the marine environment. Little information exists on mercury concentrations in marine mammals from the southern hemisphere. This paper reports total mercury concentrations in the tissues of the Australian Fur Seal Arctocephalus pusillus from southeastern Australian waters.

  13. A novel lectin domain-containing protein (LvCTLD) associated with response of the whiteleg shrimp Penaeus (Litopenaeus) vannamei to yellow head virus (YHV).

    PubMed

    Junkunlo, Kingkamon; Prachumwat, Anuphap; Tangprasittipap, Amornrat; Senapin, Saengchan; Borwornpinyo, Suparerk; Flegel, Timothy W; Sritunyalucksana, Kallaya

    2012-07-01

    When using mRNA from gills of normal whiteleg shrimp Penaeus (Litopenaeus) vannamei as the tester and mRNA from yellow head virus (YHV)-infected shrimp as the driver, subtractive suppression hybridization (SSH) revealed that a novel EST clone of 198 bp with a putative C-type lectin-like domain (CTLD) was downregulated in YHV-infected shrimp. The clone nucleotide sequence had 99% identity with one contig MGID1052359 (1,380 bp) reported in an EST database of P. vannamei, and the presence of this target in normal shrimp was confirmed by RT-PCR using primers designed from the MGID1052359 sequence. Analysis of the primary structure of the deduced amino acid (a.a.) sequence of the contig revealed a short portion (40 a.a. residues) at its N-terminus with high similarity to a low density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) class A domain and another 152 a.a. residues at its C-terminus with high similarity to a C-type lectin domain. Thus, the clone was named LvCTLD and three recombinant proteins (LvCTLD, the LDLR domain and the CTLD domain) were synthesized in a bacterial system based on its sequence. An in vitro encapsulation assay revealed that Sepharose 4B beads coated with rLvCTLD were encapsulated by shrimp hemocytes and that melanization followed by 24 h post-encapsulation. The encapsulation activity of rLvCTLD was inhibited by 100 mM galactose, but not mannose or EDTA. In vivo injection of rLvCTLD or rLvCTLD plus YHV resulted in a significant elevation of PO activity in the hemolymph of the challenged shrimp when compared to shrimp injected with buffer, suggesting that rLvCTLD could activate the proPO system. An ELISA test revealed that rLvCTLD could bind to YHV particles in the presence of shrimp hemolymph. Phylogenetic analysis suggested that the LvCTLD sequence was more closely related to an antiviral gene found in Penaeus monodon (PmAV) than to other reported shrimp lectins. Taken together, we conclude that a novel shrimp LvCTLD is a host recognition molecule involved in

  14. The Asian currency crisis and the Australian health industry.

    PubMed

    Barraclough, S

    1998-01-01

    This article identifies linkages between the Australian health industry and the global economy. It discusses some of the consequences of the Asian currency crisis of 1997-98 for the Australian economy and health industry, with special emphasis upon exports. Devaluation of the Australian dollar will increase the cost of most pharmaceutical and medical imports, but may offer competitive advantages to some Australian exporters. The nascent engagement with Asia of many health industry enterprises is likely to be stifled. It is therefore important for Australian governments, as well as the Australian health industry, to provide intelligence and encouragement to those enterprises that wish to continue their engagement with Asia or resume it when economic equilibrium returns. Markets throughout the world must also be further developed. The crisis may therefore provide the stimulus for re-thinking and re-stating Australian health export policy.

  15. The Asian currency crisis and the Australian health industry.

    PubMed

    Barraclough, S

    1998-01-01

    This article identifies linkages between the Australian health industry and the global economy. It discusses some of the consequences of the Asian currency crisis of 1997-98 for the Australian economy and health industry, with special emphasis upon exports. Devaluation of the Australian dollar will increase the cost of most pharmaceutical and medical imports, but may offer competitive advantages to some Australian exporters. The nascent engagement with Asia of many health industry enterprises is likely to be stifled. It is therefore important for Australian governments, as well as the Australian health industry, to provide intelligence and encouragement to those enterprises that wish to continue their engagement with Asia or resume it when economic equilibrium returns. Markets throughout the world must also be further developed. The crisis may therefore provide the stimulus for re-thinking and re-stating Australian health export policy. PMID:10537568

  16. Australian abalone (Haliotis laevigata, H. rubra and H. conicopora) are susceptible to infection by multiple abalone herpesvirus genotypes.

    PubMed

    Corbeil, Serge; Williams, Lynette M; McColl, Kenneth A; Crane, Mark St J

    2016-05-01

    From 2006 to 2012, acute mortalities occurred in farmed and wild abalone (Haliotis spp.) along the coast of Victoria, Australia. The disease (abalone viral ganglioneuritis; AVG) is associated with infection by an abalone herpesvirus (AbHV). The relative pathogenicity of 5 known variants of AbHV was evaluated on abalone stocks from different states in Australia. Results indicated that all virus variants (Vic1, Tas1, Tas2, Tas3 and Tas4) cause disease and mortality in all abalone stocks tested (greenlip, blacklip and brownlip). In order to avoid further AVG outbreaks in Australian wild abalone, strict regulations on the transfer of abalone stocks must be implemented. PMID:27137068

  17. Does Academic Work Make Australian Academics Happy?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duncan, Roderick; Tilbrook, Kerry; Krivokapic-Skoko, Branka

    2015-01-01

    Happiness research is a rapidly-growing area in social psychology and has emphasised the link between happiness and workplace productivity and creativity for knowledge workers. Recent articles in this journal have raised concerns about the level of happiness and engagement of Australian academics with their work, however there is little research…

  18. Open Learning: The Unique Australian Option.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Latchem, Colin; Pritchard, Tony

    1994-01-01

    Describes Open Learning Australia (OLA), a national program that was developed to widen and facilitate access to undergraduate education by providing open admission. Highlights include other Australian distance education programs; services provided by OLA and those provided by participating universities; electronic support services; fees; and…

  19. Australian Study Cites Low English Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, David

    2007-01-01

    This article reports the findings of a study showing that one-third of all foreign students who studied at Australian universities speak English so poorly that they should never have been granted visas to study in the country in the first place. The study, by Robert Birrell, director of the Centre for Population and Urban Research at Australia's…

  20. Australian National University Science Extension Day

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fletcher, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    The first Australian National University (ANU) Science Extension Day was held on September 8, 2015. The ANU Science Extension Day is a project that was initiated by Theodore Primary School (ACT) and developed by Theodore Primary, Calwell High School, Science Educators Association of the ACT (SEA*ACT), and the ANU. The project was developed with a…

  1. Professional Standards for Australian Special Education Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dempsey, Ian; Dally, Kerry

    2014-01-01

    Although professional standards for Australian teachers were developed several years ago, this country is yet to develop such standards for special education teachers. The lack of standards for the special education profession is associated with the absence of a consistent process of accreditation in Australia and a lack of clarity in the pathways…

  2. Bill Boyd and the Australian Connection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smart, Don

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author shares a short account of Bill Boyd's contribution to Australian research and practice in educational administration and education policymaking. The author has sought the views and recollections of some of the colleagues who worked closely with Bill. He has chosen to quote them at length rather than attempt to summarize…

  3. Intergenerational Challenges in Australian Jewish School Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gross, Zehavit; Rutland, Suzanne D.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this research is to investigate the intergenerational changes that have occurred in Australian Jewish day schools and the challenges these pose for religious and Jewish education. Using a grounded theory approach according to the constant comparative method (Strauss 1987), data from three sources (interviews [296], observations [27],…

  4. Scholarly Communication Costs in Australian Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houghton, John W

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports on the development and application of a model used to estimate the costs of scholarly communication (i.e. scholarly publishing and related activities) in Australian higher education. A systems perspective was used to frame a review of the literature on the costs involved in the entire scholarly communication value chain and…

  5. Australian Teachers' Careers. Teachers in Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maclean, Rupert, Ed.; McKenzie, Phillip, Ed.

    This book focuses on career patterns and promotion of Australian school teachers. Following an introduction by the editors, the book is divided into 4 parts: Part 1, entitled "Understanding Teachers' Careers" includes 2 chapters: (l) "Teachers' Careers: A Conceptual Framework" (Rupert Maclean); and (2) "Teachers' Work: A Perspective on Schooling,"…

  6. OZI: Australian English Communicative Development Inventory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalashnikova, Marina; Schwarz, Iris-Corinna; Burnham, Denis

    2016-01-01

    For more than 20 years, the MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventory (CDI) and its adaptations for languages other than English have been used as reliable measures of infants' and toddlers' early receptive and productive vocabulary size. This article introduces the OZI, the Australian English adaptation of the MacArthur-Bates CDI, now…

  7. Understanding Australian Aboriginal Tertiary Student Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliver, Rhonda; Rochecouste, Judith; Bennell, Debra; Anderson, Roz; Cooper, Inala; Forrest, Simon; Exell, Mike

    2013-01-01

    Drawing from a study of the experiences of Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander university students, this paper presents an overview of the specific needs of these students as they enter and progress through their tertiary education. Extracts from a set of case studies developed from both staff and student interviews and an online…

  8. Is There Cultural Safety in Australian Universities?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rochecouste, Judith; Oliver, Rhonda; Bennell, Debra

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the cultural safety offered to Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander students within their university environments. In the context of this paper, cultural safety includes cultural competency, as recently subscribed by Universities Australia, and "extends beyond (to) cultural awareness and cultural…

  9. Developments in Australian Agricultural and Related Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McSweeney, Peter; Rayner, John

    2011-01-01

    While the calm waters metaphor might explain the changes navigated by Australian agricultural education through most of its history, the last 20 or so years have been very turbulent. Now, the new millennium sees agricultural education in both Australia and the Western world facing a different and less certain future. This paper analyses some of…

  10. Learning Choices, Older Australians and Active Ageing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boulton-Lewis, Gillian M.; Buys, Laurie

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on the findings of qualitative, semistructured interviews conducted with 40 older Australian participants who either did or did not engage in organized learning. Phenomenology was used to guide the interviews and analysis to explore the lived learning experiences and perspectives of these older people. Their experiences of…

  11. The Australians--A "Fair Go" People.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurst, Herschel

    1984-01-01

    Australians are known for their egalitarian spirit, manifested by a dislike of social pretension and affectation. A brief history of the country from the time of its establishment in 1788 as a dumping ground for Britain's unwanted criminals to the present is presented. (RM)

  12. Australian Policy Activism in Language and Literacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lo Bianco, Joseph, Ed.; Wickert, Rosie, Ed.

    This book presents the dynamics of language and literacy policy activism in Australia. The introduction is "Activists and Policy" (LoBianco, Wickert). Part 1, "From Policy to Anti-Policy" (LoBianco), sets a frame and overarching context of the pattern of Australian language and literacy policy. Part 2 contains accounts of how policy activists…

  13. Inequity in the Australian Education System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorey, Aybek

    2007-01-01

    This article deals with the current situation of the Australian education system--particularly the public schools in disadvantaged areas. Research undertaken in the last decade show that while Australia has developed intensively in economic terms in the last ten years, inequality has spread nonetheless. Furthermore, there are legal barriers for…

  14. Financial Management and Young Australian Workers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dowling, Nicki; Hoiles, Lauren; Corney, Tim; Clark, David

    2008-01-01

    In two studies of young Australian workers, participants generally displayed positive attitudes towards financial management practices; however, a substantial proportion failed to display positive financial management practices, experienced financial problems and dissatisfaction, and reported low rates of seeking financial assistance, particularly…

  15. Commercial Activities and Copyright in Australian Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shelly, Marita

    2008-01-01

    With government funding for most Australian universities below 60% and falling a major strategic emphasis for universities has been on securing other sources of operating revenue, including commercial opportunities and partnerships. The implication of increasing commercial activities such as non-award and tailored professional programmes, contract…

  16. Australian orchids and the doctors they commemorate.

    PubMed

    Pearn, John H

    2013-01-21

    Botanical taxonomy is a repository of medical biographical information. Such botanical memorials include the names of some indigenous orchids of Australia. By searching reference texts and journals relating to Australian botany and Australian orchidology, as well as Australian and international medical and botanical biographical texts, I identified 30 orchids indigenous to Australia whose names commemorate doctors and other medical professionals. Of these, 24 have names that commemorate a total of 16 doctors who worked in Australia. The doctors and orchids I identified include: doctor-soldiers Richard Sanders Rogers (1862-1942), after whom the Rogers' Greenhood (Pterostylis rogersii) is named, and Robert Brown (1773-1858), after whom the Purple Enamel Orchid (Elythranthera brunonis) is named; navy surgeon Archibald Menzies (1754-1842), after whom the Hare Orchid (Leptoceras menziesii) is named; radiologist Hugo Flecker (1884-1957) after whom the Slender Sphinx Orchid (Cestichis fleckeri) is named; and general medical practitioner Hereward Leighton Kesteven (1881-1964), after whom the Kesteven's Orchid (Dendrobium kestevenii) is named. Biographic references in scientific names of plants comprise a select but important library of Australian medical history. Such botanical taxonomy commemorates, in an enduring manner, clinicians who have contributed to biology outside clinical practice. PMID:23330773

  17. The Australian Curriculum: Continuing the National Conversation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atweh, Bill; Singh, Parlo

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to identify some key areas of the Australian curriculum that remain sites of struggle and contestation. We propose that there remain a number of contentious points in relation to the national curriculum. These points relate variously to the content and form of the curricular documents; assumptions about knowledge,…

  18. Making Space for Multilingualism in Australian Schooling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Marianne; Cross, Russell

    2016-01-01

    In this article we introduce the special issue: Language(s) across the curriculum in Australian schools. The special issue includes a focus on English as an additional language in mainstream classes, Indigenous education, heritage languages and foreign languages, and we give background to these different--though frequently overlapping--contexts.…

  19. Essential Features of Australian Training Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Australian Commonwealth/State Training Advisory Committee, Canberra.

    This document provides a variety of material on the Australian training systems. Section 1 summarizes apprenticeship and traineeship training and administration in Australia and provides a broad overview of the responsibilities and roles of industry, government, and trade unions. It also outlines the financial support provided by the state and…

  20. Australian Children's Understanding of Display Rules

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choy, Grace

    2009-01-01

    Cultural display rules govern the manifestation of emotional expressions. In compliance with display rules, the facial expressions displayed (i.e. apparent emotion) may be incongruent with the emotion experienced (i.e. real emotion). This study investigates Australian Caucasian children's understanding of display rules. A sample of 80 four year…

  1. Marketing in the Australian Higher Education Sector

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Favaloro, Chrissa

    2015-01-01

    This article examines domestic marketing in the Australian higher education sector, specifically, the marketing investment patterns of universities and their levels of student growth as a return on marketing investment. Marketing expenditure by universities has risen 23 per cent in the five years to 2013, with several institutions allocating in…

  2. Native Americans and Aboriginal Australian Stereotypes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muir, Sharon Pray

    Aboriginal Australians represent 1.5% of Australia's population, nearly double the percentage of native people in the U.S. population. While indigenous peoples throughout the world share common similarities, particularly contemporary issues and their spiritual regard for nature, many aspects of their lifestyles are different, such as governance,…

  3. School Libraries Empowering Learning: The Australian Landscape.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Todd, Ross J.

    2003-01-01

    Describes school libraries in Australia. Highlights include the title of teacher librarian and their education; the history of the role of school libraries in Australian education; empowerment; information skills and benchmarks; national standards for school libraries; information literacy; learning outcomes; evidence-based practice; digital…

  4. The Quality Movement in Australian University Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williamson, Vicki; Exon, F. C. A.

    1996-01-01

    Discussion of the reorganization of the national higher education system by the Australian government focuses on a questionnaire distributed to university librarians that examined quality assurance processes and management. Topics include quality indicators and libraries; methodologies, including Total Quality Management; allocation of quality…

  5. Exporting Australian Educational Services to China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kendall, Timothy

    2004-01-01

    This article examines the deregulation of the overseas student sector that took place in Australia during the mid-1980s. It focuses specifically upon the short-term English- language courses that were sold to students from the People's Republic of China. The article suggests that the Hawke government's policy of encouraging Australian language…

  6. Young Australians: Their Health and Wellbeing 2011

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milnes, Annette; Pegrum, Karen; Nebe, Brett; Topfer, Alex; Gaal, Lisa; Zhang, Jessica; Hunter, Nicole

    2011-01-01

    This paper is the fourth in a series of national statistical reports on young people aged 12-24 years produced by the Australian Institute of Health and Welfare (AIHW). This report provides the latest available information on how Australia's young people are faring according to national indicators of health and wellbeing. Many young Australians…

  7. Cognitive and Social Play of Australian Preschoolers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyver, Shirley R.; Spence, Susan H.

    1995-01-01

    Observed behaviors of 37 female and 23 male Australian preschoolers. Found that only 20% engaged in thematic pretend play (linked to perspective taking, language development, impulse control, divergent problem solving) whereas 24% used cooperative social play (linked to divergent problem solving). Results suggest need for assistance in the…

  8. Linguistic Aspects of Australian Aboriginal English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butcher, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    It is probable that the majority of the 455 000 strong Aboriginal population of Australia speak some form of Australian Aboriginal English (AAE) at least some of the time and that it is the first (and only) language of many Aboriginal children. This means their language is somewhere on a continuum ranging from something very close to Standard…

  9. Adolescent Breakfast Skipping: An Australian Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Mary E.

    1998-01-01

    Reports on the findings of an Australian survey of adolescents concerning the extent of skipping breakfast. Finds that skippers are more likely to be dissatisfied with their body shape and to be on a diet to lose weight. Findings suggest that skipping breakfast is a matter of individual choice rather than a result of poverty. (Author/GCP)

  10. Conversion Disorder in Australian Pediatric Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kozlowska, Kasia; Nunn, Kenneth P.; Rose, Donna; Morris, Anne; Ouvrier, Robert A.; Varghese, John

    2007-01-01

    Objectives: To describe the incidence and clinical features of children presenting to Australian child health specialists with conversion disorder. Method: Active, national surveillance of conversion disorder in children younger than 16 years of age during 2002 and 2003. Results: A total of 194 children were reported on. The average age was 11.8…

  11. Study of Australian Multi-Campus Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Geoff; Grebennikov, Leonid; Johnston, Kim

    2007-01-01

    This study investigates whether Australian multi-campus universities are distinctive in terms of their student profile by field of education (FOE), funding and expenditure profiles, and learning and teaching outcomes, and identifies the implications for higher education policy and funding. Both parametric and non-parametric techniques are used to…

  12. Australian Allograpta Osten Sacken (Diptera, Syrphidae)

    PubMed Central

    Mengual, Ximo; Thompson, F. Christian

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Allograpta terraenovae sp. n. and Allograpta notiale sp. n. are described from Australia. Notes on the Australian species of Allograpta and an identification key to them are also given. The lectotype of Allograpta javana Wiedemann is designated, and the species Syrphus pallidus Bigot is synonymized under Allograpta australensis (Schiner). PMID:26257569

  13. Australian Society of Educational Technology Yearbook, 1978.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Australian Society of Educational Technology, Adelaide.

    This report of the 1978 activities of the Australian Society of Educational Technology includes reports, articles, a state of the art review, and a technical report. Section I lists the memberships of the national executive and state chapter council, and presents a national report and reports from four state chapters. Three articles are presented…

  14. [Australian Vocational Education & Training Statistics. Four Reports.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Centre for Vocational Education Research, Leabrook (Australia).

    This item consists of four separate documents covering various aspects of Australian Vocational Education and Training (VET) statistics. The first two documents, "Statistics 1996: Women at a Glance" and "Statistics 1996: Young People at a Glance," provide summary information about women and young people (15- to 24-year-olds) who undertook public…

  15. Reshaping Australian Education, 1960-1985.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connell, W. F.

    This book provides an overview of the educational events and ideas that emerged in Australia during the years 1960 to 1985. It offers a comprehensive view of Australian education, covering all levels from kindergarten to university. Focusing on the remodelling of curricula and the teaching process, the book describes and assesses the "curriculum…

  16. Citizen Child: Australian Law and Children's Rights.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Funder, Kathleen, Ed.

    Ratification by Australia of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child in 1990 acted as a potent stimulus for a series of debates and controversies concerning the place of children in Australian society. The debate has largely taken place in relatively specialized forums involving lawyers, members of the judiciary, social…

  17. Western Australian School Students' Understanding of Biotechnology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dawson, Vaille; Schibeci, Renato

    2003-01-01

    Surveys (n=1116) 15-year-old students from 11 Western Australian schools to determine their understanding of and attitude towards recent advances in modern biotechnology. Discusses reasons for students' over-estimation of the use of biotechnology in society. Provides a rationale for the inclusion of biotechnology, a cutting edge science, in the…

  18. Lower respiratory infections in Australian Indigenous children.

    PubMed

    O'Grady, Kerry-Ann F; Chang, Anne B

    2010-09-01

    Despite Australia being one of the wealthiest countries of the world, Australian Indigenous children have a health status and social circumstance comparable to developing countries. Indigenous infants have 10 times the mortality rate for respiratory conditions. The lower respiratory infection (LRI) rate in Australian Indigenous children is at least as high as that of children in developing countries; the frequency of hospitalisations of Indigenous infants is triple that of non-Indigenous Australian infants (201.7 vs. 62.6/1000, respectively). While Indigenous Australian children have many risk factors for LRIs described in developing countries, there is little specific data, and hence, evidence-based intervention points are yet to be identified. Efficacy of conjugate vaccines for common bacterial causes of pneumonia has been less marked in Indigenous children than that documented overseas. Gaps in the management and prevention of disease are glaring. Given the burden of LRI in Indigenous children and the association with long-term respiratory dysfunction, LRIs should be addressed as a matter of priority.

  19. Box Plots in the Australian Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Jane M.

    2012-01-01

    This article compares the definition of "box plot" as used in the "Australian Curriculum: Mathematics" with other definitions used in the education community; describes the difficulties students experience when dealing with box plots; and discusses the elaboration that is necessary to enable teachers to develop the knowledge necessary to use them…

  20. Rheumatic disease and the Australian Aborigine

    PubMed Central

    Roberts-Thomson, R.; Roberts-Thomson, P

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To document the frequency and disease phenotype of various rheumatic diseases in the Australian Aborigine.
METHODS—A comprehensive review was performed of the archaeological, ethnohistorical, and contemporary literature relating to rheumatic diseases in these indigenous people.
RESULTS—No evidence was found to suggest that rheumatoid arthritis (RA), ankylosing spondylitis (AS), or gout occurred in Aborigines before or during the early stages of white settlement of Australia. Part of the explanation for the absence of these disorders in this indigenous group may relate to the scarcity of predisposing genetic elements, for example, shared rheumatoid epitope for RA, B27 antigen for AS. In contrast, osteoarthritis appeared to be common particularly involving the temporomandibular joint, right elbow and knees and, most probably, was related to excessive joint loading in their hunter gatherer lifestyle. Since white settlement, high frequency rates for rheumatic fever, systemic lupus erythematosus, and pyogenic arthritis have been observed and there are now scanty reports of the emergence of RA and gout in these original Australians.
CONCLUSION—The occurrence and phenotype of various rheumatic disorders in Australian Aborigines is distinctive but with recent changes in diet, lifestyle, and continuing genetic admixture may be undergoing change. An examination of rheumatic diseases in Australian Aborigines and its changing phenotype may lead to a greater understanding of the aetiopathogenesis of these disorders.

 PMID:10225809

  1. Australian Education Journals: Quantitative and Qualitative Indicators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haddow, Gaby; Genoni, Paul

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports on a study that applied citation-based measurements to Australian education journals. Citations data were drawn from two sources, Web of Science and Scopus, and these data were used to calculate each journal's impact factor, "h"-index, and diffusion factor. The rankings resulting from these analyses were compared with draft…

  2. International Mobility of Australian University Students: 2005

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olsen, Alan

    2008-01-01

    Australia as a destination for international students is well researched. However, less is known about the numbers of Australian students who undertake international study experiences during their courses, the characteristics of those students, their types of experiences, their fields of education, and their destinations. This study finds that…

  3. Sustainability in the Australian Curriculum: Geography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maude, Alaric

    2014-01-01

    "Sustainability" is one of the seven major concepts in the geography curriculum. It is also one of the three cross-curriculum priorities in the Australian curriculum, together with Asia and Australia's engagement with Asia, and Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander histories and cultures. This paper describes how the concept is explained…

  4. Demands of Training: Australian Tourism and Hospitality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeland, Brett

    Qualitative research was conducted as part of a four-industry project studying operation of training markets, one of which was Australian tourism and hospitality (T&H). Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 23 individuals representing stakeholder groups. Interviews were conducted across Queensland, Victoria, and South Australia and…

  5. Connected Speech Processes in Australian English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ingram, J. C. L.

    1989-01-01

    Explores the role of Connected Speech Processes (CSP) in accounting for sociolinguistically significant dimensions of speech variation, and presents initial findings on the distribution of CSPs in the speech of Australian adolescents. The data were gathered as part of a wider survey of speech of Brisbane school children. (Contains 26 references.)…

  6. Situated Learning in an Australian Surf Club

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Light, Richard

    2006-01-01

    The article examines learning and identity formation for young people in an Australian surf club. Drawing on Lave and Wenger's notion of situated learning, it identifies how membership in the surf club from an early age involves highly significant and meaningful learning and identity formation, where learning is co-constructed with other members…

  7. Artist Academics: Performing the Australian Research Agenda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Dawn; Wright, David; Blom, Diana

    2009-01-01

    Despite the recent focus on creativity and innovation as the backbone of Western knowledge economies, the presence of the creative arts within universities remains problematic. Australian artist academics who seek a balance between their artistic and academic lives work within a government-directed research environment that is unable to quantify;…

  8. Does Training Pay? Evidence from Australian Enterprises.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blandy, Richard; Dockery, Michael; Hawke, Anne; Webster, Elizabeth

    A study was conducted to obtain pilot evidence that could serve as a basis for developing convincing methods for individual Australian companies to use in determining their returns from investment in training. The study attempted to replicate survey results from significant overseas surveys by using information collected on more than 90 Australian…

  9. Librarians Abroad: Australian Librarianship in the World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrne, Alex

    2005-01-01

    Australian librarians have participated in and contributed to international librarianship for over 125 years. Individual and collective practice is well regarded internationally since it is in dialogue with international concerns, is based on shared values and reaches high standards. Many are willing contributors to international initiatives,…

  10. Synergy, 2003. Australian Transcultural Mental Health Network.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Australian Transcultural Mental Health Network, Parramatta.

    Each issue in the 2002 edition of the Australian Transcultural Mental Health Network (ATMHN) newsletter represents a theme critical to mental health practitioners. The Winter 2002 issue features articles on the psychological consequences of interpreters in relation to working with torture and trauma clients, addressing language issues on mental…

  11. CDF II production farm project

    SciTech Connect

    Baranovski, A.; Benjamin, D.; Cooper, G.; Farrington, S.; Genser, K.; Hou, S.; Hsieh, T.; Kotwal, A.; Lipeles, E.; Murat, P.; Norman, M.; /Fermilab /Duke U. /Taiwan, Inst. Phys. /UC, San Diego /Glasgow U. /Frascati

    2006-12-01

    We describe the architecture and discuss our operational experience in running the off-line reconstruction farm of the CDFII experiment. The Linux PC-based farm performs a wide set of tasks,ranging from producing calibrations and primary event reconstruction to large scale ntuple production.The farm control software uses a standard Condor toolkit and the data handling part is based on SAM (Sequential Access via Metadata)software.During its lifetime,the CDFII experiment will integrate a large amount of data (several petabytes)and the data processing chain is one of the key components of the successful physics program of the experiment.

  12. Organic Farming, Gender, and the Labor Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Alan; Mogyorody, Veronika

    2007-01-01

    This paper seeks to explain variations in gender participation in farm production and decision-making through an analysis of organic farm types, sizes, and orientations. Based on both survey and case study data, the analysis shows that female farmers on vegetable farms and mixed livestock/cash crop farms are more likely to be involved in farm…

  13. 7 CFR 795.16 - Custom farming.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Custom farming. 795.16 Section 795.16 Agriculture... PROVISIONS COMMON TO MORE THAN ONE PROGRAM PAYMENT LIMITATION General § 795.16 Custom farming. (a) Custom farming is the performance of services on a farm such as land preparation, seeding, cultivating,...

  14. 7 CFR 795.16 - Custom farming.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Custom farming. 795.16 Section 795.16 Agriculture... PROVISIONS COMMON TO MORE THAN ONE PROGRAM PAYMENT LIMITATION General § 795.16 Custom farming. (a) Custom farming is the performance of services on a farm such as land preparation, seeding, cultivating,...

  15. 7 CFR 795.16 - Custom farming.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Custom farming. 795.16 Section 795.16 Agriculture... PROVISIONS COMMON TO MORE THAN ONE PROGRAM PAYMENT LIMITATION General § 795.16 Custom farming. (a) Custom farming is the performance of services on a farm such as land preparation, seeding, cultivating,...

  16. 7 CFR 795.16 - Custom farming.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Custom farming. 795.16 Section 795.16 Agriculture... PROVISIONS COMMON TO MORE THAN ONE PROGRAM PAYMENT LIMITATION General § 795.16 Custom farming. (a) Custom farming is the performance of services on a farm such as land preparation, seeding, cultivating,...

  17. 7 CFR 795.16 - Custom farming.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Custom farming. 795.16 Section 795.16 Agriculture... PROVISIONS COMMON TO MORE THAN ONE PROGRAM PAYMENT LIMITATION General § 795.16 Custom farming. (a) Custom farming is the performance of services on a farm such as land preparation, seeding, cultivating,...

  18. Dairying. People on the Farm. [Revised].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC. Office of Governmental and Public Affairs.

    This booklet, one in a series about life on modern farms, describes the daily lives of two dairy farm families, the Schwartzbecks and the Bealls of Maryland. Beginning with early morning milking, the booklet traces the farm families through their daily work and community activities, explaining how a modern dairy farm is run. Although this booklet…

  19. 7 CFR 718.201 - Farm constitution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Farm constitution. 718.201 Section 718.201 Agriculture... Reconstitution of Farms, Allotments, Quotas, and Bases § 718.201 Farm constitution. (a) In order to implement... this section. The constitution and identification of land as a farm for the first time and...

  20. 7 CFR 718.201 - Farm constitution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Farm constitution. 718.201 Section 718.201 Agriculture... Reconstitution of Farms, Allotments, Quotas, and Bases § 718.201 Farm constitution. (a) In order to implement... this section. The constitution and identification of land as a farm for the first time and...

  1. 7 CFR 718.201 - Farm constitution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Farm constitution. 718.201 Section 718.201 Agriculture... Reconstitution of Farms, Allotments, Quotas, and Bases § 718.201 Farm constitution. (a) In order to implement... this section. The constitution and identification of land as a farm for the first time and...

  2. 7 CFR 718.201 - Farm constitution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Farm constitution. 718.201 Section 718.201 Agriculture... Reconstitution of Farms, Allotments, Quotas, and Bases § 718.201 Farm constitution. (a) In order to implement... this section. The constitution and identification of land as a farm for the first time and...

  3. Space Farm 7 Belvedere Plantation

    NASA Video Gallery

    A space theme maze and NASA exhibits turned a Virginia farm into an out-of-this-world experience for families and visitors at the Belvedere Plantation in Fredericksburg, Virginia. Belvedere Plantat...

  4. Push-pull farming systems.

    PubMed

    Pickett, John A; Woodcock, Christine M; Midega, Charles A O; Khan, Zeyaur R

    2014-04-01

    Farming systems for pest control, based on the stimulo-deterrent diversionary strategy or push-pull system, have become an important target for sustainable intensification of food production. A prominent example is push-pull developed in sub-Saharan Africa using a combination of companion plants delivering semiochemicals, as plant secondary metabolites, for smallholder farming cereal production, initially against lepidopterous stem borers. Opportunities are being developed for other regions and farming ecosystems. New semiochemical tools and delivery systems, including GM, are being incorporated to exploit further opportunities for mainstream arable farming systems. By delivering the push and pull effects as secondary metabolites, for example, (E)-4,8-dimethyl-1,3,7-nonatriene repelling pests and attracting beneficial insects, problems of high volatility and instability are overcome and compounds are produced when and where required.

  5. Alcohol fuel from Ohio farms

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    Brief descriptions of on-farm ethanol production methods including feedstock preparation, cooking, fermentation, and distillation are presented. Safety conditions are described. Investment in on-farm ethanol production facilities and their potential returns are addressed. The market for ethanol and ethanol blends as well as for by-products is encouraging. Legal aspects for permitting and environmental regulations both for Ohio and federal agencies are discussed. (DMC)

  6. 29 CFR 780.141 - Practices must relate to farming operations on the particular farm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Practices must relate to farming operations on the... UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT General Scope of Agriculture âsuch Farming Operationsâ-on the Farm § 780.141 Practices must relate to farming operations on the particular farm. “Practices * * *...

  7. 29 CFR 780.141 - Practices must relate to farming operations on the particular farm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Practices must relate to farming operations on the... UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT General Scope of Agriculture âsuch Farming Operationsâ-on the Farm § 780.141 Practices must relate to farming operations on the particular farm. “Practices * * *...

  8. 29 CFR 780.141 - Practices must relate to farming operations on the particular farm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Practices must relate to farming operations on the... UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT General Scope of Agriculture âsuch Farming Operationsâ-on the Farm § 780.141 Practices must relate to farming operations on the particular farm. “Practices * * *...

  9. 29 CFR 780.141 - Practices must relate to farming operations on the particular farm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Practices must relate to farming operations on the... UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT General Scope of Agriculture âsuch Farming Operationsâ-on the Farm § 780.141 Practices must relate to farming operations on the particular farm. “Practices * * *...

  10. 29 CFR 780.141 - Practices must relate to farming operations on the particular farm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Practices must relate to farming operations on the... UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT General Scope of Agriculture âsuch Farming Operationsâ-on the Farm § 780.141 Practices must relate to farming operations on the particular farm. “Practices * * *...

  11. Off-Farm Labour Decision of Canadian Farm Operators: Urbanization Effects and Rural Labour Market Linkages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alasia, Alessandro; Weersink, Alfons; Bollman, Ray D.; Cranfield, John

    2009-01-01

    Understanding the factors affecting off-farm labour decisions of census-farm operators has significant implications for rural development and farm income support policy. We examine the off-farm labour decisions of Canadian farm operators using micro-level data from the 2001 Census of Agriculture combined with community level data from the 2001…

  12. Farm Population Trends and Farm Characteristics. Rural Development Research Report No. 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banks, Vera J.

    While total farm population is declining, the number of people living on the farms which produce the bulk of the nation's food and fiber is increasing. The 1970-75 total farm population decline was 13 percent, but the number of people living on farms with annual sales greater than $40,000 increased 76 percent. Such farms account for about 80…

  13. Population genetic structure of Penaeus monodon, in relation to monsoon current patterns in Southwest, East and Andaman coastal waters of India.

    PubMed

    Mandal, Anup; Rao, Divya; Karuppaiah, Deepa; Gopalakrishnan, Achamveetil; Pozhoth, Jayagopal; Samraj, Yohannan Chellamma Thampi; Doyle, Roger W

    2012-01-10

    The black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon), a commercially important penaeid species, is widely distributed across the Indo-Pacific region. Genetic diversity in P. monodon collected from eight geographical regions in Southwest, East and Andaman coastal waters of India (N=418) was investigated using 10 polymorphic microsatellite loci. Average observed heterozygosity at sampled loci were high, ranging from 0.643 (Coromandel Coast) to 0.753 (South Andaman). Pairwise F(ST) (ranged from 0.005 to 0.078) and R(ST) (ranged from 0.005 to 0.171) estimates revealed surprisingly strong and statistically significant genetic structure among tiger shrimp populations. A synthetic map generated by multidimensional scaling shows an apparent cline in allele frequencies paralleling the roughly circular flow of surface currents in the Bay of Bengal. Significant heterozygote deficiencies were noted in most population samples at most loci. Andaman Island sites showed the highest diversity. Recognition of high genetic diversity and distinct population structuring of P. monodon in Indian seas has important implications for future domestication of this species in India, for two reasons: identification of the best wild founding stocks for aquaculture and, subsequently, the potential impacts of release of domesticates to the wild, either accidentally or deliberately (i.e. for stock enhancement).

  14. Isolation and characterization of an antibacterium against Vibrio harveyi 11593 from a mixed pond with penaeus japonicus bate, portunus trituberculatus and ruditapes philippinarum in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    An, X. H.; Xu, Y. J.; Li, F. H.; Ma, G. Z.; Li, L. T.

    2016-08-01

    Aquaculture diseases, particularly Vibriosis, are becoming a pressing concern due to incurred aquacultural loss in China. Commercial antibiotics may be used to control it, but its increased antibiotic resistance to prominent pathogenic bacteria has become a prevalent problem nationwide, and a global threat to public health. Probiotics are recommended instead because they are healthy, environment-friendly, and capable of maintaining productivity. An antibacterium against Vibrio harveyi 11593 was isolated from a mariculture pond with shrimp, crabs, and shellfish in China. The bacterium, E14, has an inhibitory zone diameter (DIZ) of 24.5 ± 0.5 mm. The strain was identified as Bacillus pumilus based on morphological observation, conventional biochemical tests, and 16S rDNA sequence analysis. The gram-positiveand motile bacterium is around 1.10-1.32 pm × 0.67-0.83 μm in size. Optimized conditions for antimicrobial substance production of B. pumilus E14 require that it be cultured for 26 h at 28 °C, with an initial pH of 7.0 in 100 mL/500 mL LB with 3% NaCl. The B. pumilus E14 cultures were confirmed to be safe and efficacious and actually worked to protect the host animal in shrimp larvae (Penaeus chinensis) culture. The B. pumilus E14 obtained in this study strengthened the strain's defense against aquaculture disease and made a good candidate for an alternative probiotics and benefit to sustainability of aquaculture.

  15. Spoilage evaluation, shelf-life prediction, and potential spoilage organisms of tropical brackish water shrimp (Penaeus notialis) at different storage temperatures.

    PubMed

    Dabadé, D Sylvain; den Besten, Heidy M W; Azokpota, Paulin; Nout, M J Robert; Hounhouigan, D Joseph; Zwietering, Marcel H

    2015-06-01

    Maintaining the freshness of shrimp is a concern to shrimp stakeholders. To improve shrimp quality management, it is of importance to evaluate shrimp spoilage characteristics. Therefore, microbiological, sensory, and chemical changes of naturally contaminated tropical brackish water shrimp (Penaeus notialis) during storage at 28 °C, 7 °C and 0 °C were assessed. H2S-producing bacteria were the dominant group of microorganisms at 28 °C and 7 °C whereas Pseudomonas spp. were dominant at 0 °C. Total volatile basic nitrogen and trimethylamine correlated well (R(2) > 0.90) with the sensory scores. An empirical model to predict the shelf-life of naturally contaminated tropical shrimp as a function of storage temperature was developed. Specific groups of organisms were isolated at the sensory rejection times and assessed for spoilage potential in shrimps of which the endogenous flora was heat inactivated. Isolates capable of producing strong off-odor identified by 16S rRNA sequencing were mainly lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and Enterobacteriaceae at 28 °C or 7 °C and Pseudomonas spp. and LAB at 0 °C. The study contributes to the knowledge about tropical shrimp spoilage and provides a basis for the development of methods and tools to improve shrimp quality management.

  16. Molecular cloning of cDNAs encoding two pigment-dispersing hormones and two corresponding genes from the kuruma prawn (Penaeus japonicus).

    PubMed

    Ohira, Tsuyoshi; Nagasawa, Hiromichi; Aida, Katsumi

    2002-10-01

    Pigment-dispersing hormone (PDH) controls pigment dispersion in chromatophores. In this study cDNAs encoding 2 PDH precursors of the kuruma prawn (Penaeus japonicus) (Pej-PDH-I and Pej-PDH-II) were cloned. Both precursors consisted of a signal peptide, a PDH-precursor-related peptide (PPRP), and PDH. The PPRPs were homologous to those in other crustacean species, but not to those of pigment-dispersing factors (PDFs) in insects, which were members of the PDH/PDF family. Two corresponding genes were also cloned. Sequence analyses revealed that the Pej-PDH-I gene had 3 exons separated by 2 introns, while the Pej-PDH-II gene had 2 exons separated by 1 intron. The exon/intron organizations in the PDH genes were different from that of the Drosophila melanogaster PDF gene, which is intronless. Analyses by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction demonstrated that both transcripts existed only in the eyestalk, but not in the brain, thoracic ganglia, abdominal ganglia, hindgut, or hepatopancreas.

  17. A Kazal type serine proteinase SPIPm2 from the black tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon is capable of neutralization and protection of hemocytes from the white spot syndrome virus.

    PubMed

    Ponprateep, Sirikwan; Tassanakajon, Anchalee; Rimphanitchayakit, Vichien

    2011-12-01

    A Kazal type serine proteinase SPIPm2 is abundantly expressed in the hemocytes and shown to be involved in innate immune response against white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) in Penaeus monodon. The SPIPm2 is expressed and stored in the granules in the cytoplasm of semigranular and granular but not the hyaline hemocytes. Upon WSSV challenge and progression of infection, the SPIPm2 was secreted readily from the semigranular and granular hemocytes. The more they secreted the SPIPm2, the less they were distinguishable from the hyaline cells. The WSSV-infected cells were either semigranular or granular hemocytes or both and depleted of SPIPm2. The rSPIPm2 was able to temporarily and dose-dependently neutralize the WSSV and protect the hemocytes from viral infection judging from the substantially less expression of WSSV late gene VP28. The antiviral activity was very likely due to the binding of SPIPm2 to the components of viral particle and hemocyte cell membrane.

  18. PmVRP15, a novel viral responsive protein from the black tiger shrimp, Penaeus monodon, promoted white spot syndrome virus replication.

    PubMed

    Vatanavicharn, Tipachai; Prapavorarat, Adisak; Jaree, Phattarunda; Somboonwiwat, Kunlaya; Tassanakajon, Anchalee

    2014-01-01

    Suppression subtractive hybridization of Penaeus monodon hemocytes challenged with white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) has identified the viral responsive gene, PmVRP15, as the highest up-regulated gene ever reported in shrimps. Expression analysis by quantitative real time RT-PCR revealed 9410-fold up-regulated level at 48 h post WSSV injection. Tissue distribution analysis showed that PmVRP15 transcript was mainly expressed in the hemocytes of shrimp. The full-length cDNA of PmVRP15 transcript was obtained and showed no significant similarity to any known gene in the GenBank database. The predicted open reading frame of PmVRP15 encodes for a deduced 137 amino acid protein containing a putative transmembrane helix. Immunofluorescent localization of the PmVRP15 protein revealed it accumulated around the nuclear membrane in all three types of shrimp hemocytes and that the protein was highly up-regulated in WSSV-infected shrimps. Double-stranded RNA interference-mediated gene silencing of PmVRP15 in P. monodon significantly decreased WSSV propagation compared to the control shrimps (injected with GFP dsRNA). The significant decrease in cumulative mortality rate of WSSV-infected shrimp following PmVRP15 knockdown was observed. These results suggest that PmVRP15 is likely to be a nuclear membrane protein and that it acts as a part of WSSV propagation pathway.

  19. Identification of RAPD-SCAR marker linked to white spot syndrome virus resistance in populations of giant black tiger shrimp, Penaeus monodon Fabricius.

    PubMed

    Dutta, S; Biswas, S; Mukherjee, K; Chakrabarty, U; Mallik, A; Mandal, N

    2014-05-01

    White spot disease (WSD) caused by white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) creates severe epizootics in shrimp aquaculture industry worldwide. Despite several efforts, no such permanent remedy was yet developed. Selective breeding using DNA markers would be a cost-effective strategy for long-term solution of this problem. In the present investigation, out of 30 random primers, only one primer produced a statistically significant (P < 0.01) randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) marker of 502 bp, which provided a good discrimination between disease resistant and disease susceptible populations of Penaeus monodon from three geographical locations along the East coast of India. Because RAPD markers are dominant, a sequence characterized amplified region (SCAR) marker was developed by cloning and sequencing of 502 bp RAPD fragment, which generates a single 457 bp DNA fragment after PCR amplification only in the disease resistant shrimps. Challenge experiment was also conducted to validate this 457 bp SCAR marker, and the results suggested that the WSSV loads were 2.25 × 10(3) fold higher in disease susceptible than that in disease resistant shrimps using real-time PCR. Therefore, this 457 bp DNA SCAR marker will be very valuable towards the development of disease-free shrimp aquaculture industry.

  20. PmTBC1D20, a Rab GTPase-activating protein from the black tiger shrimp, Penaeus monodon, is involved in white spot syndrome virus infection.

    PubMed

    Yingvilasprasert, Wanchart; Supungul, Premruethai; Tassanakajon, Anchalee

    2014-02-01

    TBC (TRE2/BUB2/CDC16) domain proteins contain an ≈ 200-amino-acid motif and function as Rab GTPase-activating proteins that are required for regulating the activity of Rab proteins, and so, in turn, endocytic membrane trafficking in cells. TBC domain family member 20 (TBC1D20) has recently been reported to mediate Hepatitis C virus replication. Herein, PmTBC1D20 identified from the black tiger shrimp, Penaeus monodon, was characterized and evaluated for its role in white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) infection. The full-length cDNA sequence of PmTBC1D20 contains 2003 bp with a predicted 1443 bp open reading frame encoding a deduced 480 amino acid protein. Its transcript levels were significantly up-regulated at 24 and 48 h by ≈ 2.3- and 2.1-fold, respectively, after systemic infection with WSSV. In addition, depletion of PmTBC1D20 transcript in shrimps by double stranded RNA interference led to a decrease in the level of transcripts of three WSSV genes (VP28, ie1 and wsv477). This suggests the importance of PmTBC1D20 in WSSV infection. This is the first report of TBC1D20 in a crustacean and reveals the possible mechanism used by WSSV to modulate the activity of the host protein, PmTBC1D20, for its benefit in viral trafficking and replication.

  1. Isolation and characterization of genes functionally involved in ovarian development of the giant tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon by suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH).

    PubMed

    Preechaphol, Rachanimuk; Klinbunga, Sirawut; Khamnamtong, Bavornlak; Menasveta, Piamsak

    2010-10-01

    Suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) libraries between cDNA in stages I (previtellogenic) and III (cortical rod) ovaries of the giant tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon) were established. In all, 452 ESTs were unidirectionally sequenced. Sequence assembly generated 28 contigs and 201 singletons, 109 of which (48.0%) corresponding to known sequences previously deposited in GenBank. Several reproduction-related transcripts were identified. The full-length cDNA of anaphase promoting complex subunit 11 (PmAPC11; 600 bp with an ORF of 255 bp corresponding to a polypeptide of 84 amino acids) and selenoprotein Mprecursor (PmSePM; 904 bp with an ORF of 396 bp corresponding to a polypeptide of 131 amino acids) were characterized and reported for the first time in penaeid shrimp. Semiquantitative RT-PCR revealed that the expression levels of PmSePM and keratinocyte-associated protein 2 significantly diminished throughout ovarian development, whereas Ser/Thrcheckpoint kinase 1 (Chk1), DNA replication licensing factor mcm2 and egalitarian were down-regulated in mature ovaries of wild P. monodon (p < 0.05). Accordingly, the expression profiles of PmSePM and keratinocyte-associated protein 2 could be used as biomarkers for evaluating the degree of reproductive maturation in domesticated P. monodon.

  2. Effects of dietary Dunaliella salina extract and highly unsaturated fatty acids on the fecundity and lipid content of pond-reared Penaeus japonicus brood-stock.

    PubMed

    El-Bermawi, N

    2013-01-01

    Five basic diets containing fresh squid meat and trash fish were supplemented with different amount of Dunaleilla salina extract (DSE) and highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFA). Supplemented diets were fed to pond-reared Penaeus japonicus broodstock. Diet A was solely squid and trash fish. Diets B 1 and B2 were supplemented with 400 and 600mg DSE.kg-1 diet, respectively. Diets C1 and C2 were supplemented with HUFA 5 and 10g.kg-1 and 400mg.kg-1DSE, respectively. The results showed that the group fed diet C2 had the best reproductive performance in all experimental groups. It had the highest proportion of spawns (73.5%) and egg production per female (589.0) than all the other experimental groups. The fatty acid composition strongly affected fecundity and stress tolerance of broodstock. The results showed that both HUFA and beta-carotene DSE may play role in stress tolerance and reproductive performance

  3. Differential expression of immune-related genes and transposable elements in black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon) exposed to a range of environmental stressors.

    PubMed

    de la Vega, Enrique; Degnan, Bernard M; Hall, Michael R; Wilson, Kate J

    2007-11-01

    The health of aquatic species is dependent on interactions between the environment, pathogens and the host. Under intensive shrimp aquaculture, environmental conditions can degrade, causing significant stress to the cultured organisms. To investigate the effect of environmental stress on shrimp hemocyte gene expression profiles, we applied suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) in juvenile Penaeus monodon exposed to hyperthermal, hypoxic or hyposmotic conditions. Random sequencing of 258 clones from the SSH revealed 176 distinct sequences of which 58 shared high similarity to sequences in the public databases. The three most common groups of identifiable unique sequences in the SSH libraries were the POL region of non-LTR retrotransposons (31%), genes with immune or potential immune functions (30%), and genes involved in protein synthesis and processing (18%). Stress-regulated differential expression was further verified by quantitative qRT-PCR, with seven out of eight randomly selected genes showing qRT-PCR profiles that conformed to the patterns predicted by SSH. Hence this work provides a list of genes which appear to be up- or down-regulated in response to stress, providing a basis for studying the genetic response of shrimp to environmental stress. PMID:17613247

  4. Population genetic structure of Penaeus monodon, in relation to monsoon current patterns in Southwest, East and Andaman coastal waters of India.

    PubMed

    Mandal, Anup; Rao, Divya; Karuppaiah, Deepa; Gopalakrishnan, Achamveetil; Pozhoth, Jayagopal; Samraj, Yohannan Chellamma Thampi; Doyle, Roger W

    2012-01-10

    The black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon), a commercially important penaeid species, is widely distributed across the Indo-Pacific region. Genetic diversity in P. monodon collected from eight geographical regions in Southwest, East and Andaman coastal waters of India (N=418) was investigated using 10 polymorphic microsatellite loci. Average observed heterozygosity at sampled loci were high, ranging from 0.643 (Coromandel Coast) to 0.753 (South Andaman). Pairwise F(ST) (ranged from 0.005 to 0.078) and R(ST) (ranged from 0.005 to 0.171) estimates revealed surprisingly strong and statistically significant genetic structure among tiger shrimp populations. A synthetic map generated by multidimensional scaling shows an apparent cline in allele frequencies paralleling the roughly circular flow of surface currents in the Bay of Bengal. Significant heterozygote deficiencies were noted in most population samples at most loci. Andaman Island sites showed the highest diversity. Recognition of high genetic diversity and distinct population structuring of P. monodon in Indian seas has important implications for future domestication of this species in India, for two reasons: identification of the best wild founding stocks for aquaculture and, subsequently, the potential impacts of release of domesticates to the wild, either accidentally or deliberately (i.e. for stock enhancement). PMID:22020227

  5. Osmo and ionic regulation of black tiger prawn (Penaeus monodon Fabricius 1798) juveniles exposed to K(+) deficient inland saline water at different salinities.

    PubMed

    Tantulo, Uras; Fotedar, Ravi

    2007-02-01

    An 11-day trial was conducted to investigate the osmoregulatory capacity (OC) and regulation of K(+), Na(+), Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) of Penaeus monodon juveniles when exposed to K(+) deficient inland saline water (ISW) of four different salinities (5, 15, 25 and 35 ppt). The survival of juveniles showed a positive linear relationship (R(2) ranging from 0.72 to 0.98) with salinity. At the end of the trial, juveniles were able to survive only in 5 ppt of ISW and showed no changes in OC when transferred from ocean water (OW) to ISW. Further, the OC of juveniles in 5 ppt of ISW was significantly different (P<0.05) from the OC of juveniles exposed to 15, 25 and 35 ppt and exhibited strong serum K(+), Na(+), Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) regulation monitored over 16 h. In contrast, at 35 ppt, significant decrease (P<0.05) in serum K(+) and Mg(2+) concentrations and accumulation of serum Na(+) concentration occurred after 16 h of exposure to ISW. At higher salinity, an increase in serum Na(+) concentration leads to an increase in the serum osmolality of the juveniles, which in turn causes decrease in the OC of the juveniles. The results of this study suggest that K(+) deficiency in ISW has a negative effect on survival, OC and the ability of P. monodon juveniles to regulate serum Na(+), K(+), Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) concentrations. These effects are compounded as salinity increases.

  6. Molecular cloning of the black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon) elongation factor 2 (EF-2): sequence analysis and its expression on the ovarian maturation stage.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Lihua; Jiang, Shigui; Zhou, Falin; Zhang, Dianchang; Huang, Jianhua; Guo, Yihui

    2008-09-01

    The techniques of homology cloning and anchored PCR were used to clone the elongation factor 2 (EF-2) gene from black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon). The full length cDNA of black tiger shrimp EF-2 (btsEF-2) contained a 5' untranslated region (UTR) of 73 bp, an ORF of 2541 bp encoding a polypeptide of 846 amino acids with an estimated molecular mass of 95 kDa, and a 3( UTR of 112 bp. The searches for protein sequence similarities with BLAST analysis indicated that the deduced amino acid sequence of btsEF-2 was homological to the EF-2 of other species and even the mammalians. The conserved signature sequence of EF-2 gene family, GTPase effector domain and ADP-ribosylation domain were found in the btsEF-2 deduced amino acid sequence. The temporal expressions of gene in the different ovarian stages were measured by real time PCR. The mRNA expressions of the gene were constitutively expressed in ovary and different during the maturation stages. The result indicated that EF-2 gene was constitutively expressed and could play a critical role in the ovarian maturation stage.

  7. Recombinant tropomyosin from Penaeus aztecus (rPen a 1) for measurement of specific immunoglobulin E antibodies relevant in food allergy to crustaceans and other invertebrates.

    PubMed

    DeWitt, Asa Marknell; Mattsson, Lars; Lauer, Iris; Reese, Gerald; Lidholm, Jonas

    2004-10-01

    Immunoglobulin E (IgE)-mediated food allergy to crustaceans and mollusks is relatively common and affected individuals typically react to a range of different species. The only known major allergen of shrimp was first described over 20 years ago and later identified as the muscle protein tropomyosin. This protein may be useful as a defined and relevant diagnostic marker for allergic sensitization to invertebrate foods. In order to generate an assay reagent suitable for this purpose, tropomyosin from the shrimp Penaeus aztecus (Pen a 1) was produced as a recombinant protein in Escherichia coli and characterized with respect to IgE antibody binding properties in comparison to natural shrimp tropomyosin. Hexahistidine-tagged rPen a 1 accumulated as a predominantly soluble protein in the E. coli expression host and a two-step chromatographic procedure provided a high yield of pure and homogeneous protein. rPen a 1 displayed chromatographic and folding characteristics similar to those of purified natural shrimp tropomyosin. Serum preincubation with serial protein dilutions revealed similar capacity of recombinant and natural tropomyosin to compete with immobilized shrimp extract for IgE binding. rPen a 1 was further shown to extensively and specifically compete for IgE binding to extracts of other crustacean species, house dust mite and German cockroach.

  8. Analysis of the allergenic proteins in black tiger prawn (Penaeus monodon) and characterization of the major allergen tropomyosin using mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Abdel Rahman, Anas M; Rahman, Anas M Abdel; Kamath, Sandip; Lopata, Andreas L; Helleur, Robert J

    2010-08-30

    Crustaceans are the third most prevalent cause of food-induced anaphylaxis after peanuts and tree nuts. The severity of the allergenic proteins depends mainly on the amino acid sequence that induces production of IgE antibodies. In black tiger prawn (Penaeus monodon), the crude protein extract was profiled and its allergenic potency was examined against patient's sera. Proteins having strong immunoreactivity with patient's IgE were characterized using peptide mass fingerprinting (PMF). Tropomyosin (TM) (33 kDa), myosin light chain (20 kDa), and arginine kinase (40 kDa) were identified as allergenic proteins. Tropomyosin, the most abundant and potent allergen, was purified using ion-exchange chromatography for de novo sequencing experiments. Using bottom up tandem mass spectrometry, the full amino acid sequence was achieved by a combination of matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) and electrospray ionization (ESI) tandem mass spectrometry (QqToF). Myosin light chain and arginine kinase were also characterized, and their related peptides were de novo sequenced using the same approach. The immunological reactivity of the crude prawn extracts and purified TM samples were analyzed using a large number of patients' sera. A signature peptide was assigned for the TM protein for future quantification work of black tiger prawn TM levels in different matrices (i.e. water, air, food) in the seafood industry. PMID:20658686

  9. Reading the Weather: Ruling Passions, Numeracy and Reading Practices in an Australian Farming Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baynham, Mike

    2001-01-01

    Shows how one of his ruling passions, the weather, led a teenage boy to engage in a variety of reading practices (and associated writing practices) in a variety of semiotic modes, drawing in different ways on numeracy knowledge. Concludes by arguing that both research on multi-modality and the New Literacy Studies point in a similar direction:…

  10. USGS analysis of the Australian UNCLOS submission

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hutchinson, Deborah R.; Rowland, Robert W.

    2006-01-01

    In November 2004, the Government of Australia made a submission to the Commission on the Limits of the Continental Shelf (CLCS) for 10 extended continental shelf (ECS) regions, utilizing Article-76 of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS). With information provided in the Australian Executive Summary, the USGS examined the 10 regions of the submission from geological, morphological, and resource perspectives. By their own request, the Australians asked that CLCS take no action on the Australian-Antarctic Territory. The major limitation in this analysis is that no bathymetric soundings or detailed hydrographic profiles were provided in the Australian Executive Summary that might show why the Foot of the Slope (FOS) was chosen or where the 2,500-m contour is located. This represents a major limitation because more than half of the 4,205 boundary points utilize the bathymetric formula line and more than one-third of them utilize the bathymetric constraint line. CLCS decisions on the components of this submission may set a precedent for how ECSs are treated in future submissions. Some of the key decisions will cover (a) how a 'natural prolongation' of a continental margin is determined, particularly if a bathymetric saddle that appears to determine the prolongation is in deep water and is well outside of the 200-nm limit (Exmouth Plateau), (b) defining to what extent that plateaus, rises, caps, banks and spurs that are formed of oceanic crust and from oceanic processes can be considered to be 'natural prolongations' (Kerguelen Plateau), (c) to what degree UNCLOS recognizes reefs and uninhabited micro-islands (specifically, rocks and/or sand shoals) as islands that can have an EEZ (Middleton and Elizabeth Reefs north of Lord Howe Island), and (d) how the Foot of the Slope (FOS) is chosen (Great Australian Bight). The submission contains situations that are relevant to potential future U.S. submissions and are potentially analogous to certain

  11. Nature Study, Aborigines and the Australian Kindergarten: Lessons from Martha Simpson's "Australian Programme Based on the Life and Customs of the Australian Black"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    This article examines an experimental kindergarten programme "Work in the Kindergarten: An Australian Programme based on the Life and Customs of the Australian Black" developed by Martha Simpson in early twentieth-century Australia. Here Simpson adapted international Revisionist Froebelian approaches to cultural epoch theory and nature…

  12. Salmonella Mississippi infections in Tasmania: the role of native Australian animals and untreated drinking water.

    PubMed

    Ashbolt, R; Kirk, M D

    2006-12-01

    Salmonella Mississippi infections are very common in Australia's island state - Tasmania - with an annual rate of 17 cases/100000 population. A case-control study conducted during 2001-2002 found single variable associations with indirect exposure to many native animal species, untreated drinking water, travelling within the state, hand-mouth behaviours and contact with pet faeces. No associations were detected with farm animal or pet species or with any food. Indirect contact with native birds, untreated drinking water and travel within the state remained significant predictors of infection in the final model with population attributable fractions of 0.57 and 0.54 for native animals and untreated drinking water respectively. In Tasmania, Australian wildlife species are the likely reservoir for S. Mississippi, contaminating land and water environments. To decrease infection rates requires treatment of water supplies, particularly private rainwater collection systems and advising people to wash their hands after being outdoors and prior to eating.

  13. The potential for carbon sequestration in Australian agricultural soils is technically and economically limited

    PubMed Central

    Lam, Shu Kee; Chen, Deli; Mosier, Arvin R.; Roush, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Concerns about increasing concentrations of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, primarily carbon dioxide (CO2), have raised worldwide interest in the potential of agricultural soils to be carbon (C) sinks. In Australia, studies that have quantified the effects of improved management practices in croplands on soil C have generally been inconclusive and contradictory for different soil depths and durations of the management changes. We therefore quantitatively synthesised the results of Australian studies using meta-analytic techniques to assess the technical and economic feasibility of increasing the soil C stock by improved management practices. Our results indicate that the potential of these improved practices to store C is limited to the surface 0–10 cm of soil and diminishes with time. None of these widely adopted practices is currently financially attractive under Australia's new legislation known as the Carbon Farming Initiative. PMID:23846398

  14. Occurrence and abundance of anisakid nematode larvae in five species of fish from southern Australian waters.

    PubMed

    Shamsi, Shokoofeh; Eisenbarth, Albert; Saptarshi, Shruti; Beveridge, Ian; Gasser, Robin B; Lopata, Andreas L

    2011-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to conduct, in southern Australian waters, a preliminary epidemiological survey of five commercially significant species of fish (yellow-eye mullet, tiger flathead, sand flathead, pilchard and king fish) for infections with anisakid nematodes larvae using a combined morphological-molecular approach. With the exception of king fish, which was farmed and fed commercial pellets, all other species were infected with at least one species of anisakid nematode, with each individual tiger flathead examined being infected. Five morphotypes, including Anisakis, Contracaecum type I and II and Hysterothylacium type IV and VIII, were defined genetically using mutation scanning and targeted sequencing of the second internal transcribed spacer of nuclear ribosomal DNA. The findings of the present study provide a basis for future investigations of the genetic composition of anisakid populations in a wide range of fish hosts in Australia and for assessing their public health significance. PMID:21057811

  15. Labor Used on U.S. Farms, 1964-1966.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sellers, Walter E., Jr.

    Such factors as type of farm, farm production region, and farm size affect the percentage of farms hiring workers, the number of hours worked by hired workers, the length of the farm workweek, and the hours of labor used per $100 of sales. Labor costs and shortages most directly affected farms that sold $20,000 or more of farm products in 1964 and…

  16. Toward health and wellbeing for indigenous Australians.

    PubMed

    van Holst Pellekaan, S M; Clague, L

    2005-10-01

    The health of indigenous Australians remains well below that of non-indigenous Australians and indigenous peoples in Canada and New Zealand. Although recent planning has initiated many outstanding, culturally appropriate programmes with indigenous involvement, health statistics only reflect marginal improvement in recent years. It is crucial that positive programmes are sustained with appropriately directed funding. An approach that includes respect for the emotional and spiritual wellbeing of Australia's indigenous peoples will assist to redress some of the disadvantage caused by dispossession of country, language, and identity. It is clear from many programmes that are in place, that primary health care delivered locally through community controlled organisations, will minimise the impact of serious illnesses that currently threaten whole families and communities. Westernized health care systems are slow to learn from indigenous peoples in Australia and other places, that maintenance of wellness, not management of illness should be the goal.

  17. Support for gay men: an Australian study.

    PubMed

    Copolov, Carly; Knowles, Ann

    2016-01-01

    Recently, research in the U.S.A. has shown that women, and young people in particular, have become increasingly supportive of gay men. The current study used a cross-sectional, correlational design to investigate these same issues in Australia. The sample included 575 heterosexual participants, 184 men and 390 women. Because a literature search failed to identify an Australian measure of support for gay men, a Support for Gay Men Scale was developed by the researchers. Multiple regression analyses were used to investigate whether scores on the Brief Multidimensional Measure of Religiousness/Spirituality and the respondents' sex predicted scores on the Support for Gay Men subscales, and the strength of these relationships. Findings reveal that this relatively young university undergraduate Australian sample indicated they strongly supported gay men.

  18. Successes, challenges and developments in Australian rheumatology.

    PubMed

    Morand, Eric F; Leech, Michelle T

    2015-07-01

    Australia is a geographically vast but sparsely populated country with many unique factors affecting the practice of rheumatology. With a population comprising minority Indigenous peoples, a historically European-origin majority population, and recent large-scale migration from Asia, the effect of ethnic diversity on the phenotype of rheumatic diseases such as systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a constant of Australian rheumatology practice. Australia has a strong system of universal healthcare and subsidized access to medications, and clinical and research rheumatology are well developed, but inequitable access to specialist care in urban and regional centres, and the complex disconnected structure of the Australian healthcare system, can hinder the management of chronic diseases. PMID:25756549

  19. Australian bat lyssavirus: implications for public health.

    PubMed

    Francis, Joshua R; McCall, Bradley J; Hutchinson, Penny; Powell, Jodie; Vaska, Vikram L; Nourse, Clare

    2014-12-11

    Australian bat lyssavirus (ABLV) infection in humans is rare but fatal, with no proven effective therapy. ABLV infection can be prevented by administration of a post-exposure prophylaxis regimen of human rabies immunoglobulin and rabies vaccine. All Australian bats (flying foxes and microbats) should be considered to be carrying ABLV unless proven otherwise. Any bat-related injury (bite, scratch or mucosal exposure to bat saliva or neural tissue) should be notified immediately to the relevant public health unit - no matter how small the injury or how long ago it occurred. Human-to-human transmission of ABLV has not been reported but is theoretically possible. Standard infection control precautions should be employed when managing patients with suspected or confirmed ABLV infection. PMID:25495308

  20. Combustion of Australian spent shales compared

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-12-01

    The combustion kinetics of spent oil shales from seven major Australian deposits have been examined using a fluidized bed batch technique. Chemical rate constants were shown to vary between the shales and to be less than extrapolations of data from American spent oil shales. The effective diffusivity also varies widely among the shales. The seven oil shales were from the Condor, Duaringa, Lowmead, Nagoorin, Nagoorin South, Rundle and Stuart deposits in Queensland. Results are briefly described. 1 figure, 1 table.

  1. Simulation of the Australian Mobilesat signalling scheme

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rahman, Mushfiqur

    1990-01-01

    The proposed Australian Mobilesat system will provide a range of circuit switched voice/data services using the B-series satellites. The reliability of the signalling scheme between the Network Management Station (NMS) and the mobile terminal (MT) is of critical importance to the performance of the overall system. Simulation results of the performance of the signalling scheme under various channel conditions and coding schemes are presented.

  2. Importance of mentoring in Australian radiology training.

    PubMed

    Rhodes, Alexander

    2013-10-01

    Mentoring is widely accepted as a fundamental component of a number of professions; however, mentoring is underutilized, and its practice is poorly instituted in most Australian radiology training programmes. This article highlights the benefits of mentoring within the radiology training context. Potential barriers to successful mentoring are elucidated, and future pathways for improved implementation and application of mentor programmes with radiology training programmes are presented.

  3. Deep Roots for Aboriginal Australian Y Chromosomes

    PubMed Central

    Bergström, Anders; Nagle, Nano; Chen, Yuan; McCarthy, Shane; Pollard, Martin O.; Ayub, Qasim; Wilcox, Stephen; Wilcox, Leah; van Oorschot, Roland A.H.; McAllister, Peter; Williams, Lesley; Xue, Yali; Mitchell, R. John; Tyler-Smith, Chris

    2016-01-01

    Summary Australia was one of the earliest regions outside Africa to be colonized by fully modern humans, with archaeological evidence for human presence by 47,000 years ago (47 kya) widely accepted [1, 2]. However, the extent of subsequent human entry before the European colonial age is less clear. The dingo reached Australia about 4 kya, indirectly implying human contact, which some have linked to changes in language and stone tool technology to suggest substantial cultural changes at the same time [3]. Genetic data of two kinds have been proposed to support gene flow from the Indian subcontinent to Australia at this time, as well: first, signs of South Asian admixture in Aboriginal Australian genomes have been reported on the basis of genome-wide SNP data [4]; and second, a Y chromosome lineage designated haplogroup C∗, present in both India and Australia, was estimated to have a most recent common ancestor around 5 kya and to have entered Australia from India [5]. Here, we sequence 13 Aboriginal Australian Y chromosomes to re-investigate their divergence times from Y chromosomes in other continents, including a comparison of Aboriginal Australian and South Asian haplogroup C chromosomes. We find divergence times dating back to ∼50 kya, thus excluding the Y chromosome as providing evidence for recent gene flow from India into Australia. PMID:26923783

  4. Deep Roots for Aboriginal Australian Y Chromosomes.

    PubMed

    Bergström, Anders; Nagle, Nano; Chen, Yuan; McCarthy, Shane; Pollard, Martin O; Ayub, Qasim; Wilcox, Stephen; Wilcox, Leah; van Oorschot, Roland A H; McAllister, Peter; Williams, Lesley; Xue, Yali; Mitchell, R John; Tyler-Smith, Chris

    2016-03-21

    Australia was one of the earliest regions outside Africa to be colonized by fully modern humans, with archaeological evidence for human presence by 47,000 years ago (47 kya) widely accepted [1, 2]. However, the extent of subsequent human entry before the European colonial age is less clear. The dingo reached Australia about 4 kya, indirectly implying human contact, which some have linked to changes in language and stone tool technology to suggest substantial cultural changes at the same time [3]. Genetic data of two kinds have been proposed to support gene flow from the Indian subcontinent to Australia at this time, as well: first, signs of South Asian admixture in Aboriginal Australian genomes have been reported on the basis of genome-wide SNP data [4]; and second, a Y chromosome lineage designated haplogroup C(∗), present in both India and Australia, was estimated to have a most recent common ancestor around 5 kya and to have entered Australia from India [5]. Here, we sequence 13 Aboriginal Australian Y chromosomes to re-investigate their divergence times from Y chromosomes in other continents, including a comparison of Aboriginal Australian and South Asian haplogroup C chromosomes. We find divergence times dating back to ∼50 kya, thus excluding the Y chromosome as providing evidence for recent gene flow from India into Australia.

  5. Deep Roots for Aboriginal Australian Y Chromosomes.

    PubMed

    Bergström, Anders; Nagle, Nano; Chen, Yuan; McCarthy, Shane; Pollard, Martin O; Ayub, Qasim; Wilcox, Stephen; Wilcox, Leah; van Oorschot, Roland A H; McAllister, Peter; Williams, Lesley; Xue, Yali; Mitchell, R John; Tyler-Smith, Chris

    2016-03-21

    Australia was one of the earliest regions outside Africa to be colonized by fully modern humans, with archaeological evidence for human presence by 47,000 years ago (47 kya) widely accepted [1, 2]. However, the extent of subsequent human entry before the European colonial age is less clear. The dingo reached Australia about 4 kya, indirectly implying human contact, which some have linked to changes in language and stone tool technology to suggest substantial cultural changes at the same time [3]. Genetic data of two kinds have been proposed to support gene flow from the Indian subcontinent to Australia at this time, as well: first, signs of South Asian admixture in Aboriginal Australian genomes have been reported on the basis of genome-wide SNP data [4]; and second, a Y chromosome lineage designated haplogroup C(∗), present in both India and Australia, was estimated to have a most recent common ancestor around 5 kya and to have entered Australia from India [5]. Here, we sequence 13 Aboriginal Australian Y chromosomes to re-investigate their divergence times from Y chromosomes in other continents, including a comparison of Aboriginal Australian and South Asian haplogroup C chromosomes. We find divergence times dating back to ∼50 kya, thus excluding the Y chromosome as providing evidence for recent gene flow from India into Australia. PMID:26923783

  6. Mental health and welfare in Australian anaesthetists.

    PubMed

    McDonnell, N J; Kaye, R M; Hood, S; Shrivastava, P; Khursandi, D C S

    2013-09-01

    This survey was designed to evaluate the factors affecting mental health and welfare in Australian anaesthetists and to investigate current sources of support. An electronic survey was sent to 500 randomly selected Fellows and trainees of the Australian and New Zealand College of Anaesthetists. Questions were related to: anxiety, stress, depression, substance misuse, self-medication, suicide, reporting illness, and help-seeking. Current psychological wellbeing was assessed using the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (K10). A total of 191 completed surveys were received (a response rate of 38%): 26% had attended their general practitioner for mental health issues, of whom half had been diagnosed with a mental illness; 7% of all respondents were currently prescribed medication for this; 25% had previously self-prescribed psychoactive medication; 17% admitted to using alcohol to deal with stress, anxiety or depression; and 8% responded that mental illness had at some point impaired clinical care. Sixteen percent of all respondents reported previous suicidal ideation. Despite a low response rate, and the possibility of responder bias, the mental health of Australian anaesthetists would appear to be subject to common and persistent risk factors, many of which are well described in previous studies. We identify general practitioners as particularly valuable in targeting initiatives for improvements in mental health and welfare. The significant prevalence of suicidal ideation and reluctance to approach senior colleagues with concerns about mental health or welfare issues are specific causes for concern and suggest that further investigation, education and a potential review of support networks is required.

  7. Role of Livelihood Capital in Reducing Climatic Vulnerability: Insights of Australian Wheat from 1990-2010.

    PubMed

    Huai, Jianjun

    2016-01-01

    In many agricultural countries, development of rural livelihood through increasing capital is a major regional policy to adapt to climate change. However, the role of livelihood capital in reducing climatic vulnerability is uncertain. This study assesses vulnerability and identifies the effects of common capital indicators on it, using Australian wheat as an example. We calculate exposure (a climate index) and sensitivity (a wheat failure index) to measure vulnerability and classify the resilient and sensitive cases, and express adaptive capacity through financial, human, natural, physical, and social capital indicators for 12 regions in the Australian wheat-sheep production zone from 1991-2010. We identify relationships between 12 indicators of five types of capital and vulnerability with t-tests and six logistic models considering the capital indicator itself, its first-order lag and its square as dependent variables to test the hypothesis that a high level of each capital metric results in low vulnerability. Through differing adaptive capacities between resilient and sensitive groups, we found that only four of the 12 (e.g., the access to finance, cash income level, total crop gross revenues, and family share of farm income) relate to vulnerability, which challenges the hypothesis that increasing capital reduces vulnerability. We conclude that further empirical reexaminations are required to test the relationships between capital measures and vulnerability under the sustainable livelihood framework (SLF).

  8. Role of Livelihood Capital in Reducing Climatic Vulnerability: Insights of Australian Wheat from 1990–2010

    PubMed Central

    Huai, Jianjun

    2016-01-01

    In many agricultural countries, development of rural livelihood through increasing capital is a major regional policy to adapt to climate change. However, the role of livelihood capital in reducing climatic vulnerability is uncertain. This study assesses vulnerability and identifies the effects of common capital indicators on it, using Australian wheat as an example. We calculate exposure (a climate index) and sensitivity (a wheat failure index) to measure vulnerability and classify the resilient and sensitive cases, and express adaptive capacity through financial, human, natural, physical, and social capital indicators for 12 regions in the Australian wheat–sheep production zone from 1991–2010. We identify relationships between 12 indicators of five types of capital and vulnerability with t-tests and six logistic models considering the capital indicator itself, its first-order lag and its square as dependent variables to test the hypothesis that a high level of each capital metric results in low vulnerability. Through differing adaptive capacities between resilient and sensitive groups, we found that only four of the 12 (e.g., the access to finance, cash income level, total crop gross revenues, and family share of farm income) relate to vulnerability, which challenges the hypothesis that increasing capital reduces vulnerability. We conclude that further empirical reexaminations are required to test the relationships between capital measures and vulnerability under the sustainable livelihood framework (SLF). PMID:27022910

  9. Role of Livelihood Capital in Reducing Climatic Vulnerability: Insights of Australian Wheat from 1990-2010.

    PubMed

    Huai, Jianjun

    2016-01-01

    In many agricultural countries, development of rural livelihood through increasing capital is a major regional policy to adapt to climate change. However, the role of livelihood capital in reducing climatic vulnerability is uncertain. This study assesses vulnerability and identifies the effects of common capital indicators on it, using Australian wheat as an example. We calculate exposure (a climate index) and sensitivity (a wheat failure index) to measure vulnerability and classify the resilient and sensitive cases, and express adaptive capacity through financial, human, natural, physical, and social capital indicators for 12 regions in the Australian wheat-sheep production zone from 1991-2010. We identify relationships between 12 indicators of five types of capital and vulnerability with t-tests and six logistic models considering the capital indicator itself, its first-order lag and its square as dependent variables to test the hypothesis that a high level of each capital metric results in low vulnerability. Through differing adaptive capacities between resilient and sensitive groups, we found that only four of the 12 (e.g., the access to finance, cash income level, total crop gross revenues, and family share of farm income) relate to vulnerability, which challenges the hypothesis that increasing capital reduces vulnerability. We conclude that further empirical reexaminations are required to test the relationships between capital measures and vulnerability under the sustainable livelihood framework (SLF). PMID:27022910

  10. Shrimp Farms, Ecuador

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    In many parts of the world, wetlands are being converted to shrimp ponds in order to farm these crustaceans for food and sale. One example is on the west coast of Ecuador, south of Guayaquil. The 1991 Landsat image on top shows a coastal area where 143 square kilometers of wetlands were converted to shrimp ponds. By the time ASTER acquired the bottom image in 2001, 243 square kilometers had been converted, eliminating 83% of the wetlands. These scenes cover an area of 30 x 31 km, and are centered near 3.4 degrees south latitude and 80.2 degrees west longitude.

    With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER images Earth to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.

    ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products.

    The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER provides scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring of dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface temperature mapping of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

    Size: 30 by 31 kilometers (18.6 by 19.2 miles) Location: 3.4 degrees South latitude, 80.2 degrees West longitude Orientation: North at top Image Data

  11. Commercial crocodile farming in Botswana.

    PubMed

    Dzoma, B M; Sejoe, S; Segwagwe, B V E

    2008-06-01

    A survey-based study was carried out to assess the state of crocodile farming in Botswana. A prepared, structured questionnaire was dispatched to crocodile farmers based on a directory provided by the Fisheries section of the Department of Wildlife and National Parks in the Ministry of Environment, Wildlife and National Parks. The oldest farm was established in 1986. An average of three farms have been in operation since then, all of which obtained their stock from the Okavango and Thamalakane rivers in Botswana. The current stock averages 5,419 animals as follows: breeders 4%, hatchlings 56%, and growers 40%. The average clutch size and average hatchability were 47 eggs/clutch and 67% respectively. Mortality among hatchings and growers averaged 8.3% up to 12 weeks of age. Only one farm encountered some problems with Salmonella and fungal infections of the belly. Raw skins are sold to South Africa as a result of the absence of a tannery. Crocodile farming should be encouraged in Botswana since a good market for crocodile products already exists.

  12. Commercial crocodile farming in Botswana.

    PubMed

    Dzoma, B M; Sejoe, S; Segwagwe, B V E

    2008-06-01

    A survey-based study was carried out to assess the state of crocodile farming in Botswana. A prepared, structured questionnaire was dispatched to crocodile farmers based on a directory provided by the Fisheries section of the Department of Wildlife and National Parks in the Ministry of Environment, Wildlife and National Parks. The oldest farm was established in 1986. An average of three farms have been in operation since then, all of which obtained their stock from the Okavango and Thamalakane rivers in Botswana. The current stock averages 5,419 animals as follows: breeders 4%, hatchlings 56%, and growers 40%. The average clutch size and average hatchability were 47 eggs/clutch and 67% respectively. Mortality among hatchings and growers averaged 8.3% up to 12 weeks of age. Only one farm encountered some problems with Salmonella and fungal infections of the belly. Raw skins are sold to South Africa as a result of the absence of a tannery. Crocodile farming should be encouraged in Botswana since a good market for crocodile products already exists. PMID:18509947

  13. Nationwide surveillance study of Clostridium difficile in Australian neonatal pigs shows high prevalence and heterogeneity of PCR ribotypes.

    PubMed

    Knight, Daniel R; Squire, Michele M; Riley, Thomas V

    2015-01-01

    Clostridium difficile is an important enteric pathogen of humans and the cause of diarrhea and enteritis in neonatal pigs. Outside Australia, prevalence in piglets can be up to 73%, with a single PCR ribotype (RT), 078, predominating. We investigated the prevalence and genotype of C. difficile in Australian pig herds. Rectal swabs (n = 229) were collected from piglets aged <7 days from 21 farms across Australia. Selective culture for C. difficile was performed and isolates characterized by PCR for toxin genes and PCR ribotyping. C. difficile was isolated from 52% of samples by direct culture on chromogenic agar and 67% by enrichment culture (P = 0.001). No association between C. difficile recovery or genotype and diarrheic status of either farm or piglets was found. The majority (87%; 130/154) of isolates were toxigenic. Typing revealed 23 different RTs, several of which are known to cause disease in humans, including RT014, which was isolated most commonly (23%; 36/154). RT078 was not detected. This study shows that colonization of Australian neonatal piglets with C. difficile is widespread in the herds sampled.

  14. Advances in farm animal transgenesis.

    PubMed

    Kues, Wilfried A; Niemann, Heiner

    2011-11-01

    The first transgenic livestock were produced in 1985 by microinjection of foreign DNA into zygotic pronuclei. This was the method of choice for more than 20 years, but more efficient protocols are now available, including somatic cell nuclear transfer and lentiviral transgenesis. Typical applications include carcass composition, lactational performance and wool production, as well as enhanced disease resistance and reduced environmental impact. Transgenic farm animal production for biomedical applications has found broad acceptance. In 2006 the European Medicines Agency (EMA) approved commercialization of the first recombinant pharmaceutical protein, antithrombin, produced in the mammary gland of transgenic goats. As the genome sequencing projects for various farm animal species are completed, it has become feasible to perform precise genetic modifications employing the emerging tools of lentiviral vectors, small interfering ribonucleic acids, meganucleases, zinc finger nucleases and transposons. We anticipate that genetic modification of farm animals will be instrumental in meeting global challenges in agricultural production and will open new horizons in biomedicine.

  15. Data Farming and Defense Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horne, Gary; Meyer, Ted

    2011-01-01

    .Data farm,ing uses simulation modeling, high performance computing, experimental design and analysis to examine questions of interest with large possibility spaces. This methodology allows for the examination of whole landscapes of potential outcomes and provides the capability of executing enough experiments so that outliers might be captured and examined for insights. It can be used to conduct sensitivity studies, to support validation and verification of models, to iteratively optimize outputs using heuristic search and discovery, and as an aid to decision-makers in understanding complex relationships of factors. In this paper we describe efforts at the Naval Postgraduate School in developing these new and emerging tools. We also discuss data farming in the context of application to questions inherent in military decision-making. The particular application we illustrate here is social network modeling to support the countering of improvised explosive devices.

  16. Farm 2000 and other projects

    SciTech Connect

    Edson, D.V.

    1981-07-20

    Three projects are discussed here: Farm 2000 (a tractorless, energy self-sufficient farm); an energy self-sufficient farm building; and a mobile, three-in-one still, fertilizer spreader and standby generator. The mobile still produces 20 to 25 gallons of 196-proof alcohol per hour, or roughly 50 to 65 gallons per 750 gallons of mash. The diesel powered generator provides electricity for the vacuum pump and for fermentation heat, consuming approximately 2.4 gallons of fuel each hour, and because it can be towed, the by-product can be spread as fertilizer without transferring it to other equipment. This is the invention of Dr. Vladimir Tica, the president of Solar Energy Innovations Corp., Maspeth, NY.

  17. Seasonal incidence of protozoan parasites of the black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon) of Sundarbans, West Bengal, India.

    PubMed

    Chakraborti, Jayati; Bandyapadhyay, Probir K

    2011-06-01

    There is a delicate balance between the host, pathogen and environment. Aquatic organisms, including shellfish, respond directly to climatic changes in their biological environment as their metabolic processes are influenced by temperature, salinity, and oxygen levels. Certain environmental conditions are more conducive to diseases than others among which water temperature is significantly associated with disease outbreak. The present study showed that Peneaus monodon of Sundarbans serve as a host for many protozoan parasites and epibionts including ciliates, gregarines and microsporidia. The protozoan parasites also require a particular environmental condition for their maximum growth and survival. The intensity of infection significantly increases with rise in temperature (P < 0.05) following a definite trend but no significant relationship between infection rate of ciliates and pH of water. In case of gregarine parasites significance (P < 0.05) exists among infection rate and temperature as well as pH of the farm water. Microsporidian parasites do not follow any significant seasonal trend in infecting the host P. monodon.

  18. Seasonal incidence of protozoan parasites of the black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon) of Sundarbans, West Bengal, India.

    PubMed

    Chakraborti, Jayati; Bandyapadhyay, Probir K

    2011-06-01

    There is a delicate balance between the host, pathogen and environment. Aquatic organisms, including shellfish, respond directly to climatic changes in their biological environment as their metabolic processes are influenced by temperature, salinity, and oxygen levels. Certain environmental conditions are more conducive to diseases than others among which water temperature is significantly associated with disease outbreak. The present study showed that Peneaus monodon of Sundarbans serve as a host for many protozoan parasites and epibionts including ciliates, gregarines and microsporidia. The protozoan parasites also require a particular environmental condition for their maximum growth and survival. The intensity of infection significantly increases with rise in temperature (P < 0.05) following a definite trend but no significant relationship between infection rate of ciliates and pH of water. In case of gregarine parasites significance (P < 0.05) exists among infection rate and temperature as well as pH of the farm water. Microsporidian parasites do not follow any significant seasonal trend in infecting the host P. monodon. PMID:22654317

  19. Genomic imprinting in farm animals.

    PubMed

    Tian, Xiuchun Cindy

    2014-02-01

    The mouse is the first species in which genomic imprinting was studied. Imprinting research in farm species has lagged behind owing to a lack of sequencing and genetic background information, as well as long generation intervals and high costs in tissue collection. Since the creation of Dolly, the first cloned mammal from an adult sheep, studies on genomic imprinting in domestic species have accelerated because animals from cloning and other assisted reproductive technologies exhibit phenotypes of imprinting disruptions. Although this review focuses on new developments in farm animals, most of the imprinting mechanism information was derived from the mouse.

  20. INDUSTRIAL INJURIES OF FARM WORKERS

    PubMed Central

    LaTourette, Donald P.

    1957-01-01

    Most industrial employees receive physical examinations to evaluate their physical fitness in relation to their work. The farm worker is neglected in this matter, in that he is hired for almost any type of work without physical evaluation. As a result, his accident rate is high. His efficiency at his work is low. His time loss from work because of sickness and accident is high, and the employer pays a very high rate of insurance for the patient's care and his own legal protection. Physical fitness cards should be carried by all farm laborers so that they would be put in properly graded jobs. PMID:13460719

  1. Genomic imprinting in farm animals.

    PubMed

    Tian, Xiuchun Cindy

    2014-02-01

    The mouse is the first species in which genomic imprinting was studied. Imprinting research in farm species has lagged behind owing to a lack of sequencing and genetic background information, as well as long generation intervals and high costs in tissue collection. Since the creation of Dolly, the first cloned mammal from an adult sheep, studies on genomic imprinting in domestic species have accelerated because animals from cloning and other assisted reproductive technologies exhibit phenotypes of imprinting disruptions. Although this review focuses on new developments in farm animals, most of the imprinting mechanism information was derived from the mouse. PMID:25384133

  2. Economic Indicators of the Farm Sector. Farm Sector Review, 1986.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Economic Research Service (USDA), Washington, DC.

    This report contains 44 tables and 23 figures, along with narrative summaries, that provide an overall view of the farm sector in the United States in 1986. Some of the findings highlighted in the report are the following: (1) farmers spent less to produce their crops and livestock in 1986; (2) government payments to farmers increased, but prices…

  3. How to Keep 'em Up On the Farm and Farming.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sorenson, Douglas D.

    1987-01-01

    To counter elementary school children's ignorance about farming, a 1981 Agriculture in the Classroom Task Force recommended that states create their own groups and awareness programs. This article describes cooperative efforts between private and public sector organizations in Arizona, Colorado, Georgia, Iowa, Oregon, and Virginia. An address and…

  4. Genetic analysis of Black Tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon) across its natural distribution range reveals more recent colonization of Fiji and other South Pacific islands

    PubMed Central

    Waqairatu, Salote S; Dierens, Leanne; Cowley, Jeff A; Dixon, Tom J; Johnson, Karyn N; Barnes, Andrew C; Li, Yutao

    2012-01-01

    The Black Tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon) has a natural distribution range from East Africa to the South Pacific Islands. Although previous studies of Indo-Pacific P. monodon have found populations from the Indian Ocean and Australasia to differ genetically, their relatedness to South Pacific shrimp remains unknown. To address this, polymorphisms at eight shared microsatellite loci and haplotypes in a 418-bp mtDNA-CR (control region) sequence were examined across 682 P. monodon from locations spread widely across its natural range, including the South Pacific islands of Fiji, Palau, and Papua New Guinea (PNG). Observed microsatellite heterozygosities of 0.82–0.91, allele richness of 6.85–9.69, and significant mtDNA-CR haplotype variation indicated high levels of genetic diversity among the South Pacific shrimp. Analysis of microsatellite genotypes using a Bayesian STRUCTURE method segregated Indo-Pacific P. monodon into eight distinct clades, with Palau and PNG shrimp clustering among others from Southeast Asia and eastern Australia, respectively, and Fiji shrimp clustering as a distinct group. Phylogenetic analyses of mtDNA-CR haplotypes delineated shrimp into three groupings, with shrimp from Fiji again being distinct by sharing no haplotypes with other populations. Depending on regional location, the genetic structures and substructures identified from the genotyping and mtDNA-CR haplotype phylogeny could be explained by Metapopulation and/or Member–Vagrant type evolutionary processes. Neutrality tests of mutation-drift equilibrium and estimation of the time since population expansion supported a hypothesis that South Pacific P. monodon were colonized from Southeast Asia and eastern Australia during the Pleistocene period over 60,000 years ago when land bridges were more expansive and linked these regions more closely. PMID:22957205

  5. PmLT, a C-type lectin specific to hepatopancreas is involved in the innate defense of the shrimp Penaeus monodon.

    PubMed

    Ma, Tracy Hoi-Tung; Benzie, John A H; He, Jian-Guo; Chan, Siu-Ming

    2008-11-01

    A diverse class of proteins called lectins plays a major role in shrimp innate immunity. In this study, the cDNA encoding a C-type lectin of Penaeus monodon (PmLT) was cloned, and its potential role examined. Despite the low overall amino acid sequence identity with other animal lectins, PmLT includes conserved carbohydrate recognition domains (CRDs) characteristic of animal C-type lectins. Unlike the other two P. monodon lectin-like proteins described to date that have one CRD, PmLT has two CRDs. The first CRD contains a QPD motif with specificity for binding galactose, while the second CRD contains a EPN motif for binding mannose. PmLT transcripts can be detected in the hepatopancreas but not in other tissues. Expression studies showed that PmLT mRNA transcript level decreased initially and then gradually increased after whole shrimp or hepatopancreas tissue fragments were treated with white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) extract but were not affected by bacteria. Using anti-rPmLT antibody, PmLT was detected only in the hepatopancreas specific F cells (Hpf). In vitro encapsulation assay showed that agarose beads coated with rPmLT were encapsulated by hemocytes indicating a role in innate immune response. In summary, PmLT is produced in the hepatopancreas and may act as a pattern recognition protein for viral pathogens and also activates the innate immune responses of the shrimp to bacteria. The dual-CRD structure of PmLT may assist the recognition of diverse pathogens.

  6. Primary hemocyte culture of Penaeus monodon as an in vitro model for white spot syndrome virus titration, viral and immune related gene expression and cytotoxicity assays.

    PubMed

    Jose, Seena; Mohandas, A; Philip, Rosamma; Bright Singh, I S

    2010-11-01

    Immortal cell lines have not yet been reported from Penaeus monodon, which delimits the prospects of investigating the associated viral pathogens especially white spot syndrome virus (WSSV). In this context, a method of developing primary hemocyte culture from this crustacean has been standardized by employing modified double strength Leibovitz-15 (L-15) growth medium supplemented with 2% glucose, MEM vitamins (1×), tryptose phosphate broth (2.95 gl⁻¹), 20% FBS, N-phenylthiourea (0.2 mM), 0.06 μg ml⁻¹ chloramphenicol, 100 μg ml⁻¹ streptomycin and 100 IU ml⁻¹ penicillin and hemolymph drawn from shrimp grown under a bio-secured recirculating aquaculture system (RAS). In this medium the hemocytes remained viable up to 8 days. 5-Bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) labeling assay revealed its incorporation in 22 ± 7% of cells at 24h. Susceptibility of the cells to WSSV was confirmed by immunofluorescence assay using a monoclonal antibody against 28 kDa envelope protein of WSSV. A convenient method for determining virus titer as MTT(50)/ml was standardized employing the primary hemocyte culture. Expression of viral genes and cellular immune genes were also investigated. The cell culture could be demonstrated for determining toxicity of a management chemical (benzalkonium chloride) by determining its IC(50). The primary hemocyte culture could serve as a model for WSSV titration and viral and cellular immune related gene expression and also for investigations on cytotoxicity of aquaculture drugs and chemicals.

  7. Identification and characterisation of microsatellite DNA markers in order to recognise the WSSV susceptible populations of marine giant black tiger shrimp, Penaeus monodon.

    PubMed

    Chakrabarty, Usri; Dutta, Sourav; Mallik, Ajoy; Mondal, Debabrata; Mandal, Nripendranath

    2015-01-01

    White spot disease (WSD) which is caused by white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) creates severe epizootics in captured and cultured black tiger shrimp, resulting a huge loss in the economic output of the aquaculture industry worldwide. Performing selective breeding using DNA markers would prove to be a potential cost effective strategy for long term disease control in shrimps. In the present investigation, microsatellite DNA fingerprints were compared between naturally occurring WSSV resistant and susceptible populations of Penaeus monodon. After PCR with a set of shrimp specific primers three reproducible DNA fragments of varying sizes were found, among which 442 bp and 236 bp fragments were present in considerably higher frequencies in the WSSV susceptible shrimp population (p ≤ 0.0001). After WSSV challenge experiment the copy no. of WSSV was determined using real-time PCR, where it was found to be almost 4 × 10(3) fold higher in WSSV susceptible shrimps than in the resistant ones. Thus, these microsatellite DNA markers will be useful to distinguish between WSSV susceptible and resistant brood stocks of P. monodon. Sequencing studies revealed that these DNA markers were novel in P. monodon. Highest WSSV resistance using these DNA markers, was observed in the shrimp populations of Andaman Island and Chennai among the different coastal areas of India, suggesting these places as safe for specific pathogen resistant brood stock shrimp collection. This study will be a very effective platform towards understanding the molecular pathogenesis of WSD for generation of disease free shrimp aquaculture industry.

  8. The novel white spot syndrome virus-induced gene, PmERP15, encodes an ER stress-responsive protein in black tiger shrimp, Penaeus monodon.

    PubMed

    Leu, Jiann-Horng; Liu, Kuan-Fu; Chen, Kuan-Yu; Chen, Shu-Hwa; Wang, Yu-Bin; Lin, Chung-Yen; Lo, Chu-Fang

    2015-04-01

    By microarray screening, we identified a white spot syndrome virus (WSSV)-strongly induced novel gene in gills of Penaeus monodon. The gene, PmERP15, encodes a putative transmembrane protein of 15 kDa, which only showed some degree of similarity (54-59%) to several unknown insect proteins, but had no hits to shrimp proteins. RT-PCR showed that PmERP15 was highly expressed in the hemocytes, heart and lymphoid organs, and that WSSV-induced strong expression of PmERP15 was evident in all tissues examined. Western blot analysis likewise showed that WSSV strongly up-regulated PmERP15 protein levels. In WSSV-infected hemocytes, immunofluorescence staining showed that PmERP15 protein was colocalized with an ER enzyme, protein disulfide isomerase, and in Sf9 insect cells, PmERP15-EGFP fusion protein colocalized with ER -Tracker™ Red dye as well. GRP78, an ER stress marker, was found to be up-regulated in WSSV-infected P. monodon, and both PmERP15 and GRP78 were up-regulated in shrimp injected with ER stress inducers tunicamycin and dithiothreitol. Silencing experiments showed that although PmERP15 dsRNA-injected shrimp succumbed to WSSV infection more rapidly, the WSSV copy number had no significant changes. These results suggest that PmERP15 is an ER stress-induced, ER resident protein, and its induction in WSSV-infected shrimp is caused by the ER stress triggered by WSSV infection. Furthermore, although PmERP15 has no role in WSSV multiplication, its presence is essential for the survival of WSSV-infected shrimp.

  9. Response of a Mu-class glutathione S-transferase from black tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon to aflatoxin B1 exposure.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yun; Liu, Lihui; Huang, Jianhua; Duan, Yafei; Wang, Jun; Fu, Mingjun; Lin, Heizhao

    2016-01-01

    Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) are a family of multifunctional phase II enzymes that are involved in the detoxification of exogenous and endogenous compounds. In this study, a full-length cDNA of Mu-class GST (PmMuGST) was isolated from the hepatopancreas of Penaeus monodon using rapid amplification of cDNA ends method. The full length cDNA of PmMuGST is 867 bp, contains an open read frame of 660 bp, and encodes a polypeptide of 219 amino acids with a molecular mass of 25.61 kDa and pI of 6.15. Sequence analysis indicated that the predicted protein sequence of PmMuGST was very similar to (86 %) that of Litopenaeus vannamei. A conserved domain of GST_N_Mu_like (PSSM: cd03075) and GST_C_family_superfamily_like (PSSM: cl02776) was indentified in PmMuGST. Real time quantitative RT-PCR analysis indicated that PmMuGST was present in all of the tested tissues. PmMuGST transcripts both in the hepatopancreas and in the muscle were significantly induced after 14 days of treatment with a low dosage of AFB1 (50 μg/kg) exposure and were significantly inhibited after 42 and 56 days of a high dosage of AFB1 (1000, 2500 μg/kg AFB1) exposure. Taken together, the Mu-class GST from P. monodon was inducible and was involved in the response to AFB1 exposure. PMID:27386274

  10. The novel white spot syndrome virus-induced gene, PmERP15, encodes an ER stress-responsive protein in black tiger shrimp, Penaeus monodon.

    PubMed

    Leu, Jiann-Horng; Liu, Kuan-Fu; Chen, Kuan-Yu; Chen, Shu-Hwa; Wang, Yu-Bin; Lin, Chung-Yen; Lo, Chu-Fang

    2015-04-01

    By microarray screening, we identified a white spot syndrome virus (WSSV)-strongly induced novel gene in gills of Penaeus monodon. The gene, PmERP15, encodes a putative transmembrane protein of 15 kDa, which only showed some degree of similarity (54-59%) to several unknown insect proteins, but had no hits to shrimp proteins. RT-PCR showed that PmERP15 was highly expressed in the hemocytes, heart and lymphoid organs, and that WSSV-induced strong expression of PmERP15 was evident in all tissues examined. Western blot analysis likewise showed that WSSV strongly up-regulated PmERP15 protein levels. In WSSV-infected hemocytes, immunofluorescence staining showed that PmERP15 protein was colocalized with an ER enzyme, protein disulfide isomerase, and in Sf9 insect cells, PmERP15-EGFP fusion protein colocalized with ER -Tracker™ Red dye as well. GRP78, an ER stress marker, was found to be up-regulated in WSSV-infected P. monodon, and both PmERP15 and GRP78 were up-regulated in shrimp injected with ER stress inducers tunicamycin and dithiothreitol. Silencing experiments showed that although PmERP15 dsRNA-injected shrimp succumbed to WSSV infection more rapidly, the WSSV copy number had no significant changes. These results suggest that PmERP15 is an ER stress-induced, ER resident protein, and its induction in WSSV-infected shrimp is caused by the ER stress triggered by WSSV infection. Furthermore, although PmERP15 has no role in WSSV multiplication, its presence is essential for the survival of WSSV-infected shrimp. PMID:25499032

  11. Response of a Mu-class glutathione S-transferase from black tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon to aflatoxin B1 exposure.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yun; Liu, Lihui; Huang, Jianhua; Duan, Yafei; Wang, Jun; Fu, Mingjun; Lin, Heizhao

    2016-01-01

    Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) are a family of multifunctional phase II enzymes that are involved in the detoxification of exogenous and endogenous compounds. In this study, a full-length cDNA of Mu-class GST (PmMuGST) was isolated from the hepatopancreas of Penaeus monodon using rapid amplification of cDNA ends method. The full length cDNA of PmMuGST is 867 bp, contains an open read frame of 660 bp, and encodes a polypeptide of 219 amino acids with a molecular mass of 25.61 kDa and pI of 6.15. Sequence analysis indicated that the predicted protein sequence of PmMuGST was very similar to (86 %) that of Litopenaeus vannamei. A conserved domain of GST_N_Mu_like (PSSM: cd03075) and GST_C_family_superfamily_like (PSSM: cl02776) was indentified in PmMuGST. Real time quantitative RT-PCR analysis indicated that PmMuGST was present in all of the tested tissues. PmMuGST transcripts both in the hepatopancreas and in the muscle were significantly induced after 14 days of treatment with a low dosage of AFB1 (50 μg/kg) exposure and were significantly inhibited after 42 and 56 days of a high dosage of AFB1 (1000, 2500 μg/kg AFB1) exposure. Taken together, the Mu-class GST from P. monodon was inducible and was involved in the response to AFB1 exposure.

  12. Molecular analysis of a ras-like nuclear (Ran) gene from Penaeus monodon and its expression at the different ovarian stages of development.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Falin; Zheng, Liming; Yang, Qibin; Qiu, Lihua; Huang, Jianhua; Su, Tiannfeng; Jiang, Shigui

    2012-04-01

    In the present study, a ras-like nuclear (Ran) gene was obtained from the ovary and neurosecretory organ in eyestalk cDNA library of black tiger prawn (Penaeus monodon). The full-length black tiger prawn Ran (PmRan) cDNA consisted of 1140 nucleotides including an open reading frame (ORF) 648 bp, a 5' untranslated region (5'UTR) of 117 bp and a 3'UTR of 375 bp with a polyadenylation signal sequence "aataaa" and a poly (A) tail. The ORF encoded a peptide of 215 amino acids with molecular mass 24.6 kDa and a theoretical isoelectric point of 7.39. ScanProsite analysis indicated that PmRan protein sequence contained a small GTPase Ran family motif. Homology analysis of the deduced amino acid sequence of the PmRan with other known Ran sequences by MatGAT software revealed that the PmRan show very high homology with the sequences of other animals (92.1-98.6% similarity, 85.6-98.1% identity). Analysis of the tissue expression pattern of the PmRan gene showed that the PmRan mRNA was expressed in all tested tissues, including hepatopancreas, ovary, muscle, intestine, neurosecretory organ in eyestalk, neurosecretory organ in brain, stomach, and heart, with the highest levels in ovary. Furthermore, the PmRan expression was found to be high level in the six ovarian stages of development. The results indicated PmRan might play an important role in ovarian development.

  13. Organic farming improves pollination success in strawberries.

    PubMed

    Andersson, Georg K S; Rundlöf, Maj; Smith, Henrik G

    2012-01-01

    Pollination of insect pollinated crops has been found to be correlated to pollinator abundance and diversity. Since organic farming has the potential to mitigate negative effects of agricultural intensification on biodiversity, it may also benefit crop pollination, but direct evidence of this is scant. We evaluated the effect of organic farming on pollination of strawberry plants focusing on (1) if pollination success was higher on organic farms compared to conventional farms, and (2) if there was a time lag from conversion to organic farming until an effect was manifested. We found that pollination success and the proportion of fully pollinated berries were higher on organic compared to conventional farms and this difference was already evident 2-4 years after conversion to organic farming. Our results suggest that conversion to organic farming may rapidly increase pollination success and hence benefit the ecosystem service of crop pollination regarding both yield quantity and quality.

  14. The School Farm--A Practical Facility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Puckett, James D.

    1977-01-01

    This description of the development and operation of a school farm, by the William Campbell High School in Virginia, includes suggestions for planning and management of a school farm set up for teaching agricultural principles. (TA)

  15. Using hyperspectral data in precision farming applications

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Precision farming practices such as variable rate applications of fertilizer and agricultural chemicals require accurate field variability mapping. This chapter investigated the value of hyperspectral remote sensing in providing useful information for five applications of precision farming: (a) Soil...

  16. Entomology: A Bee Farming a Fungus.

    PubMed

    Oldroyd, Benjamin P; Aanen, Duur K

    2015-11-16

    Farming is done not only by humans, but also by some ant, beetle and termite species. With the discovery of a stingless bee farming a fungus that provides benefits to its larvae, bees can be added to this list.

  17. Linking on-farm change to catchment response using dynamic simulation modelling: assessing the impacts of farm-scale land management change on catchment-scale phosphorus transport processes and water-quality.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivers, M.; Clarendon, S.

    2012-04-01

    Australian Natural Resource Management and Agri-industry Development agencies have recently invested considerable resources into a number of research and development projects that have investigated the actual and potential economic, social and, particularly, environmental impacts of varying farming activities (with a strong focus on dairies) in a "catchment context". These activities have resulted in the development of a much-improved understanding of the likely impacts of changed farm management practices within the farms and regions in which they were investigated, as well as the development of a number of conceptual models which place dairy farming within this broader catchment context. The project discussed in this paper was charged with the objective of transforming these conceptual models of dairy farm nutrient management and transport processes into a more temporally and spatially dynamic model. This could then be loaded with catchment-specific data and used as a "policy support tool" to allow the Australian dairy industry to examine the potential farm and catchment-scale impacts of varying dairy farm management practices within some key dairy farming regions. This paper describes the series of dynamic models and farm management - land use scenarios which were executed to examine these issues. Models were developed, validated and calibrated for the Peel-Harvey catchment in Western Australia and the Gippsland and Latrobe (a sub-catchment of Gippsland) catchments in Victoria. Scenarios which range from simple, on-farm riparian management, through changes in fertiliser application rates, to gross changes in the land use mosaic were examined and described in terms which included changes to phosphorus (P) loss rates at the farm scale, the relative contributions to catchment P loads from dairying and, ultimately, changes to downstream water quality. A comprehensive suite of scenarios and policy options was examined but, in summary, the results indicate that whilst

  18. Australian Apprentice & Trainee Statistics: Mechanical Engineering and Fabrication Trades, 1995-1999. Australian Vocational Education & Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Centre for Vocational Education Research, Leabrook (Australia).

    Statistics regarding Australians participating in apprenticeships and traineeships in the mechanical engineering and fabrication trades in 1995-1999 were reviewed to provide an indication of where skill shortages may be occurring or will likely occur in relation to the following occupations: mechanical engineering trades; fabrication engineering…

  19. The Australian-Ness of Curriculum Jigsaws: Where Does Environmental Education Fit?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gough, Annette

    2011-01-01

    This paper reviews Australian Government actions related to environmental education, particularly in the past decade, and examines the actions forthcoming from two national action plans (Environment Australia, 2000 and DEWHA, 2009), the implementation strategy for the Decade of ESD (DEWHA, 2006) and developments related to the Australian…

  20. Australian Apprentice & Trainee Statistics: Electrical and Electronics Trades, 1995 to 1999. Australian Vocational Education & Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Centre for Vocational Education Research, Leabrook (Australia).

    Statistics regarding Australians participating in apprenticeships and traineeships in the electrical and electronics trades in 1995-1999 were reviewed to provide an indication of where skill shortages may be occurring or will likely occur in relation to the following occupations: electrical engineering associate professional; electronics…

  1. The Arts and Australian Education: Realising Potential. Australian Education Review No. 58

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ewing, Robyn

    2011-01-01

    Australian Education Review (AER) 58 surveys the international and national research on the role and effect of arts-rich programming in schools and in the broader community, and examines the policies and practices that inhibit or support these initiatives. It puts the case that embedding the Arts in learning would be a powerful catalyst for…

  2. New Visions: Exploring Australian Identity through Films Highlighting Experiences of Indigenous Australians: Year 8 Film Unit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, Monika; Wenlock, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    Prior to 2011, Year 8 students studied a single film as text, "Yolngu Boy." This had been on the syllabus for several years, and the consensus was that it was time to review the unit, refresh the text and introduce multiple film texts that would present varying visions and perspectives of notions of what it is to be "Australian". The authors aimed…

  3. Australian Apprentice & Trainee Statistics: Automotive Repairs and Service Trades, 1995 to 1999. Australian Vocational Education & Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Centre for Vocational Education Research, Leabrook (Australia).

    Statistics regarding Australians participating in apprenticeships and traineeships in the automotive repairs and service trades in 1995-1999 were reviewed to provide an indication of where skill shortages may be occurring or will likely occur in relation to the following occupations: motor mechanic, automotive electrician, and panel beater. The…

  4. The Rapid Adjustment Farm Program's Influence on Other Farms in the Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simeral, Kenneth D.

    The study investigated the diffusion of innovative farming practices from Rapid Adjustment Farms (RAF) to other farms in southeast Ohio. The RAF program, begun in 1968, introduced new technology and management practices to its participant farmers. After reviewing literature of farming programs' information diffusion, a descriptive survey was made…

  5. Remote sensing for cotton farming

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Application of remote sensing technologies in agriculture began with the use of aerial photography to identify cotton root rot in the late 1920s. From then on, agricultural remote sensing has developed gradually until the introduction of precision farming technologies in the late 1980s and biotechno...

  6. The Roots of "Animal Farm".

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaefer, Barbara E.

    The presentation of the book "Animal Farm" by George Orwell to sophomores at East Orange Catholic High School, New Jersey, as a "political document" is discussed. Through research, panel discussions and voluntary comments, the students studied the book in depth comparing it to the power struggle between Stalin and Trotsky in Soviet Russia.…

  7. Imagining the ideal dairy farm.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, Clarissa S; Hötzel, Maria José; Weary, Daniel M; Robbins, Jesse A; von Keyserlingk, Marina A G

    2016-02-01

    Practices in agriculture can have negative effects on the environment, rural communities, food safety, and animal welfare. Although disagreements are possible about specific issues and potential solutions, it is widely recognized that public input is needed in the development of socially sustainable agriculture systems. The aim of this study was to assess the views of people not affiliated with the dairy industry on what they perceived to be the ideal dairy farm and their associated reasons. Through an online survey, participants were invited to respond to the following open-ended question: "What do you consider to be an ideal dairy farm and why are these characteristics important to you?" Although participants referenced social, economic, and ecological aspects of dairy farming, animal welfare was the primary issue raised. Concern was expressed directly about the quality of life for the animals, and the indirect effect of animal welfare on milk quality. Thus participants appeared to hold an ethic for dairy farming that included concern for the animal, as well as economic, social, and environmental aspects of the dairy system.

  8. Child Rearing on the Farm.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Sam; And Others

    During the second year of a 3-year study involving 112 Iowa farm families, mothers of children aged 4 to 10 years old expressed expectations of independence, responsibility, and hard work from their children during home interviews. The importance of the parent-child relationship together with the lack of sufficient child-rearing research on rural…

  9. ANNUAL FARM LABOR REPORT - 1962.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LENHART, MARGOT WAKEMAN

    THE ADMINISTRATION OF THE FARM PLACEMENT SERVICE WHICH INCLUDED ORGANIZATION, STAFF, OFFICES, ASSOCIATES AND ADVISORS, AND MEETINGS WAS PRESENTED. AT THE STATE LEVEL, THERE WAS A RISE IN OVERALL CROP PRODUCTION AND A DECREASE IN TOTAL CROPLAND HARVEST. AT THE LOCAL LEVEL, URBAN ENCROACHMENT CHANGED THE NATURE OF PRODUCTION IN SOME AREAS AND…

  10. Farming. Canada at Work Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Love, Ann; Drake, Jane

    This book is part of the Canada At Work series that introduces children to the people, machines, work and environmental concerns involved in bringing to market the products from important Canadian natural resources. This volume features a year-round look at two kinds of agriculture in Canada. On the vegetable farm, children find out about spring…

  11. Farm Foundation Annual Report, 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farm Foundation, Oak Brook, IL.

    The Farm Foundation was established in 1933 as a private agency to help coordinate the work of other public and private groups and agencies to improve agriculture and rural life without taking political positions or supporting specific legislation. An operating rather than a grant-making foundation, the foundation develops national and regional…

  12. EMF Responses in Farm Animals

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Larry E. ); R Matthes, JH Bernhardt, and MH Repacholi

    1999-10-19

    Relatively few studies have been performed investigating the effects of EMF exposure on farm animals. Most of those that have been described in the literature are of surveys of animals living in the vicinity of power transmission lines. Even fewer studies have been conducted in large animals under controlled laboratory conditions. Results generally provide little evidence that electric and/or magnetic fields at environmental levels (under transmission lines up to 1000 kV) affect farm animals. There is limited evidence that cows exposed to EMF may exhibit slight changes in length of estrous cycle, although associated hormones (eg. progesterone) appear to be unaffected. The effects of electric fields on development in swine (some increase in birth defects and malformations) exposed to high strength electric fields were not consistent across generations nor supported by comparable rodent studies. Finally, electrical currents and"stray voltages", parameters associated with EMF, are found on some farms above perception levels. These voltages and currents can produce behavioral changes in farm animals and may impact production or health of the animals.

  13. Imagining the ideal dairy farm.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, Clarissa S; Hötzel, Maria José; Weary, Daniel M; Robbins, Jesse A; von Keyserlingk, Marina A G

    2016-02-01

    Practices in agriculture can have negative effects on the environment, rural communities, food safety, and animal welfare. Although disagreements are possible about specific issues and potential solutions, it is widely recognized that public input is needed in the development of socially sustainable agriculture systems. The aim of this study was to assess the views of people not affiliated with the dairy industry on what they perceived to be the ideal dairy farm and their associated reasons. Through an online survey, participants were invited to respond to the following open-ended question: "What do you consider to be an ideal dairy farm and why are these characteristics important to you?" Although participants referenced social, economic, and ecological aspects of dairy farming, animal welfare was the primary issue raised. Concern was expressed directly about the quality of life for the animals, and the indirect effect of animal welfare on milk quality. Thus participants appeared to hold an ethic for dairy farming that included concern for the animal, as well as economic, social, and environmental aspects of the dairy system. PMID:26709190

  14. Farm Women: Challenge to Scholarship.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Frances

    1981-01-01

    Assesses current state of knowledge of the multiple roles of farm women as farmers, women, family members, individuals, and members of agricultural organizations; suggests directions for future research; discusses issues in research design. Available from: Rural Sociological Society, 325 Morgan Hall, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37916.…

  15. Improving Dispute Resolution in Australian Universities: Options for the Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Astor, Hilary

    2005-01-01

    Disputes in Australian universities cost millions of dollars each year that could be spent more fruitfully on core activities such as research and teaching. This paper uses three case studies to examine what we know about disputes and dispute resolution in Australian universities. The impact of changing higher education funding and policy on…

  16. An annotated checklist of Acanthocephala from Australian fish.

    PubMed

    Smales, Lesley R; Weaver, Haylee J

    2015-07-13

    Thirty one genera, comprising 58 named species, 15 undetermined species and nine species known only as cystacanths from paratenic fish hosts were found infesting 144 marine, esturine and freshwater species of fish from Australian and Australian Antarctic waters. Host habitats are given and the distribution and records of the acanthocephalans are given. A key to these parasites at the generic level is provided.

  17. Australian Higher Education Reforms--Unification or Diversification?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coombe, Leanne

    2015-01-01

    The higher education policy of the previous Australian government aimed to achieve an internationally competitive higher education sector while expanding access opportunities to all Australians. This policy agenda closely reflects global trends that focus on achieving both quality and equity objectives. In this paper, the formulation and…

  18. Some Religious Beliefs and Behaviours of Australian Catholic School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rymarz, Richard; Cleary, Anthony

    2016-01-01

    Students in Catholic schools make up a significant sub group of the Australian population. As such, studies of this group provide valuable information about the religious beliefs and practices of some Australian youth. Many students in Catholic schools express traditional religious views and have relatively high levels of religious behaviours.…

  19. Australian Catholic Schools Today: School Identity and Leadership Formation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neidhart, Helga; Lamb, Janeen T.

    2016-01-01

    This article focuses on the challenge of faith leadership in Catholic schools. In particular, it reviews Australian research that has aimed to understand how principals conceptualize and enact their role as faith leaders. Consistent with American research, Australian research found that principals saw themselves as playing a leadership role in the…

  20. Redefining & Leading the Academic Discipline in Australian Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harkin, Damien G.; Healy, Annah H.

    2013-01-01

    Disciplines have emerged as an alternative administrative structure to departments or schools in Australian universities. We presently investigate the pattern of discipline use and by way of case study examine a role for distributed leadership in discipline management. Over forty per cent of Australian universities currently employ disciplines,…

  1. The "Paradox of Interdisciplinarity" in Australian Research Governance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woelert, Peter; Millar, Victoria

    2013-01-01

    This paper identifies what can be called the "paradox of interdisciplinarity" (Weingart 2000) in Australian higher education research governance and explores some of its constitutive dimensions. In the Australian context, the paradox of interdisciplinarity primarily concerns the proliferation of a programmatic discourse of…

  2. Competing Issues in Australian Primary Curriculum: Learning from International Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ewing, Robyn

    2012-01-01

    There is no doubt that the increasing politicisation of education in an economically rationalist climate is contributing to less equity, access, participation and, therefore, social justice for many Australian primary children. This article initially explores how the development of the impending national Australian curriculum replete with a high…

  3. An Australian Story: School Sustainability Education in the Lucky Country

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salter, Zarin; Venville, Grady; Longnecker, Nancy

    2011-01-01

    This paper documents a case study involving a Perth primary school accompanied on its sustainability journey by Millennium Kids Inc, a local not-for-profit community organisation. Tension between the school's sustainability focus, its prestige as an elite private school and a "lucky country" mentality frames the Australian-ness of this…

  4. The Shades of Grey of Cyberbullying in Australian Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goff, Wendy

    2011-01-01

    This article explores the effects of cyberbullying in relation to a school's duty of care. By examining the impact of cyberbullying through an increasingly common scenario, it becomes apparent that the strategies for Australian schools in maintaining their duty of care may be unclear and uncommunicated. Findings suggest that Australian law in its…

  5. Numeracy in the Making: Twenty Years of Australian Adult Numeracy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Betty

    A project that focused on how the field of adult numeracy education had been shaped in Australia over the last 20 years sought answers to these research questions: (1) What does the past tell about adult literacy and numeracy policy, provision, and research? (2) Are Australians numerate? (3) What sort of numeracy activities do Australians engage…

  6. Financial Planning in Australian Universities. AIR 1996 Annual Forum Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharma, Raj; And Others

    This paper describes resource allocation in Australian universities including the broader context of national restructuring and a case study of one university's attempt to restructure resource allocation within the university. The 1987 restructuring of the Australian system from a binary system to a unified national system and the associated…

  7. Educational and Institutional Flexibility of Australian Educational Software

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shurville, Simon; O'Grady, Thomas; Mayall, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to provide context for papers in this special issue on Australasian e-learning. The paper aims to examine the background to Australian flexible and transnational education and to evaluate the educational and intuitional flexibility of three typical products of the Australian educational software industry.…

  8. Internet Services and Academic Work: An Australian Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruce, Harry

    1994-01-01

    Describes a pilot study examining how Australian academics are using the Australian Academic and Research Network. Ten tables provide details on network services used in relation to academic role, importance of services used and relationship to academic work, and specific applications for e-mail, remote login, news groups and FTP (file transfer…

  9. Living Smart Homes: A Pilot Australian Sustainability Education Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Evonne; Buys, Laurie; Bell, Lorraine

    2009-01-01

    This article documents the rationale and experience of a pilot Australian sustainability education programme, "Living Smart Homes" (LSH) based on a community-based social marketing model. Inspired by the Australian "Land for Wildlife" scheme, LSH is designed to engage homeowners with sustainable practices through face-to-face workshops, an…

  10. International Education in Australian Universities: Concepts and Definitions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clyne, Fiona; Marginson, Simon; Woock, Roger

    This paper grew out of the research study "Mapping the Internationalization of Higher Education," a 1998-2000 Australian Research Council-funded project. The project's objectives included: documenting the practices of international education in Australian universities; analyzing the cultural, political, and economic assumptions on which they are…

  11. What Do We Know about the Chancellors of Australian Universities?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Meara, Bernard; Petzall, Stanley

    2008-01-01

    This research attempts to explore the key social characteristics and demographics of Australian chancellors to determine who they are and where they come from. The chancellor of an Australian university wields an enormous amount of power, from overseeing the appointment of the Vice-Chancellor (VC) to fulfilling various statutory requirements.…

  12. Teacher Transculturalism and Cultural Difference: Addressing Racism in Australian Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casinader, Niranjan R.; Walsh, Lucas

    2015-01-01

    The increasing cultural diversity of students in Australia's schools is one of the salient changes in education over the last 30 years. In 2011, nearly half of all Australians had one or more parents born overseas, with migration from China, the Indian subcontinent and Africa increasing during the early 2000s (Australian Bureau of Statistics,…

  13. Australian Early Childhood Educators: From Government Policy to University Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davies, Sharon; Trinidad, Sue

    2013-01-01

    This article provides an overview of the Australian Federal Government initiatives in the area of early childhood with regard to the provision of early childhood education and care. These changes have influenced a Western Australian university to develop an innovative birth to 8 years preservice educator education curriculum. Using an ecological…

  14. A Reconceptualisation of "Knowing Asia" in Australian Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salter, Peta

    2015-01-01

    Since 1969, over 60 Australian government and non-government policies, documents, committees, working parties and organisations have explored the need to "know Asia". In schools, this engagement is conceptualised as "Asia literacy" and disseminated in the emerging Australian Curriculum through the cross-curriculum priority…

  15. The Australian Curriculum: Excellence or Equity. A Rural Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drummond, Aaron

    2012-01-01

    In 2008 it was agreed by the Australian Education Ministers that a national curriculum be implemented with the rationale that it would help to ensure high quality education for all young Australians (ACARA, 2012b). One reason for the shift to a standardised national curriculum is so that "School and curriculum authorities can collaborate to ensure…

  16. The Sleep Patterns and Well-Being of Australian Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Short, Michelle A.; Gradisar, Michael; Lack, Leon C.; Wright, Helen R.; Dohnt, Hayley

    2013-01-01

    Aim: Adolescent sleep patterns vary between countries, and these differences influence adolescent functioning and well-being. The present study provides data on the sleep and well-being of Australian adolescents. Methods: 385 adolescents aged 13-18 years were recruited from 8 South Australian schools spanning the socio-economic spectrum.…

  17. Australian Item Bank Program: Science Item Bank. Book 3: Biology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Australian Council for Educational Research, Hawthorn.

    The Australian Science Item Bank consists of three volumes of multiple-choice questions. Book 3 contains questions on the biological sciences. The questions are designed to be suitable for high school students (year 8 to year 12 in Australian schools). The questions are classified by the subject content of the question, the cognitive skills…

  18. Expectations about Development in Greek- and Anglo-Australian Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenthal, Doreen; Bornholt, Laurel

    1988-01-01

    Examination of the child development beliefs of 40 families reveals that Greek-Australians regard behaviors reflecting initiative and independence, personal maturity, and interpersonal sensitivity to be appropriate at a later age than do Anglo-Australians, but the converse holds true for respect, self-control, and unsupervised activities. Parents'…

  19. Civic Engagement and the Arts and Humanities: An Australian Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Adrian

    2015-01-01

    An Australian scholar in the Arts and Humanities responds to recent US models emphasizing civic-engaged learning as a way to renew the humanities in undergraduate education. Policy contexts and curriculum initiatives of kindred trends in recent Australian undergraduate education in the humanities are contrasted in this essay. The Australian…

  20. Investigating the Validity of the Australian Early Development Index

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brinkman, Sally A.; Silburn, Sven; Lawrence, David; Goldfeld, Sharon; Sayers, Mary; Oberklaid, Frank

    2007-01-01

    This article aims to contribute to the ongoing evaluation of the Australian Early Development Index (AEDI) by investigating its construct and concurrent validity with a subsample of 642 children aged 4 to 5 years drawn from the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children (LSAC). Construct validity was examined by considering the theoretical…

  1. The Future of Religious Freedom in Australian Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Babie, Paul; Mylius, Ben

    2012-01-01

    This article explores the place of religion within Australian primary and secondary education. It is divided into three parts. The first examines religion within the Australian legal and constitutional structure. The second considers the accommodation of religion in government (public or state) and nongovernment (private) schools, using the State…

  2. Teaching Australian Football in Physical Education: Constraints Theory in Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pill, Shane

    2013-01-01

    This article outlines a constraints-led process of exploring, modifying, experimenting, adapting, and developing game appreciation known as Game Sense (Australian Sports Commission, 1997; den Duyn, 1996, 1997) for the teaching of Australian football. The game acts as teacher in this constraints-led process. Rather than a linear system that…

  3. Pearls, Not Problems: Exploring Transformative Education in Indigenous Australian Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mackinlay, Elizabeth; Barney, Katelyn

    2012-01-01

    This article explores the shift in terminology that occurred in a 2-year Australian Learning and Teaching Council (ALTC)-funded curriculum renewal project that set out to broadly explore current teaching and learning practice in Indigenous Australian studies (www.teaching4change.edu.au). While we started with the term "Problem-Based Learning", it…

  4. Educational Malpractice: American Trends and Implications for Australian Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whalley, P. W. F.

    1986-01-01

    Educational malpractice developments in America may affect legal accountability of Australian teachers and educational institutions. This paper discusses significant American cases and commentators' observations in the context of the Australian legal system. Teachers should embrace their widening legal responsibility in order to advance…

  5. Unit: The Australian Scene, Inspection Pack, National Trial Print.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Australian Science Education Project, Toorak, Victoria.

    As a part of the interim unit materials in the series produced by the Australian Science Education Project, this teachers' guide is composed of five sections: an introduction to nature in the balance, tests, excursion activities, options, and research activities. Options are under the headings: The Changing Face, Australian Soils, Distribution of…

  6. Commonwealth Infrastructure Funding for Australian Universities: 2004 to 2011

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koshy, Paul; Phillimore, John

    2013-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of recent trends in the provision of general infrastructure funding by the Commonwealth for Australian universities (Table A providers) over the period 2004 to 2011. It specifically examines general infrastructure development and excludes funding for research infrastructure through the Australian Research Council or…

  7. Australian Curriculum Linked Lessons: The Language of Chance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurrell, Derek

    2015-01-01

    In providing a continued focus on tasks and activities that help to illustrate key ideas embedded in the "Australian Curriculum," this issue focuses on the Statistics and probability strand and the sub-strand of Chance. In the Australian Curriculum (ACARA, 2015), students are not asked to list outcomes of chance experiments and represent…

  8. A History of Australian Children's Literature, 1941-1970.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saxby, H. M.

    This book is a systematic examination of the range of fiction available to Australian children from 1941 to 1970. The author not only provides a guide for parents, teachers, librarians, and students who are discovering that there is a considerable body of Australian fiction for children, but he also outlines possible trends and patterns that are…

  9. Philosophy and Ethics in Western Australian Secondary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Millett, Stephan; Tapper, Alan

    2014-01-01

    The introduction of Philosophy and Ethics to the Western Australian Certificate of Education courses in 2008 brought philosophy into the Western Australian secondary school curriculum for the first time. How philosophy came to be included is part of a larger story about the commitment and perseverance of a relatively small number of Australian…

  10. Determinants of Successful Training Practices in Large Australian Firms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dawe, Susan

    The determinants of successful training practices in large Australian firms were examined. The study's three phases were as follows: (1) a review of existing literature; (2) a meta-analysis of previously conducted case studies of 49 large Australian firms in 14 industrial sectors; and (3) a comparative analysis of the findings of the past studies…

  11. The Role of Further Government Intervention in Australian International Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carrington, Roger; Meek, V. Lynn; Wood, Fiona Q.

    2007-01-01

    Trade in Australian education services has expanded rapidly over recent years. The sector is the third largest exporter of Australian services. In 2001-2002, exports of education were about $A 4.2 billion. Government assistance to the sector includes export market development, regulation of education standards, and funding education activities;…

  12. Cultural Patterns of Metacognitive Guidance in Australian Homes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanagavarapu, Prathyusha

    2008-01-01

    This article provides insight into the cultural patterns of metacognitive guidance that occurs among children and mothers in selected Australian homes. Fourteen Anglo Australian and eight immigrant Indian (Telugu) mothers' interactions with their 4-year-old male and female children on a puzzle-solving task were videotaped. Mother-child dyads'…

  13. Casual Academic Staff in an Australian University: Marginalised and Excluded

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Suzanne; Burgess, John; Connell, Julia; Groen, Egbert

    2013-01-01

    Over the past 25 years, the Australian workforce has become more casualised, with approximately one-quarter of the workforce in casual employment today. One of the highest users of casual employees is the higher education sector, where casual academics (referred to as sessionals in the Australian context) are estimated to account for 50% of the…

  14. Environmental Factors Associated with Success Rates of Australian Stock Herding Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Arnott, Elizabeth R.; Early, Jonathan B.; Wade, Claire M.; McGreevy, Paul D.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the current management practices associated with stock herding dogs on Australian farms. A parallel goal was to determine whether these practices and the characteristics of the dog handlers were associated with success rates. Success rate refers to the proportion of dogs acquired by the farmer that were retained as working dogs. Data on a total of 4,027 dogs were obtained through The Farm Dog Survey which gathered information from 812 herding dog owners around Australia. Using logistic regression, significant associations were identified between success rate and seven variables: dog breed, housing method, trial participation, age of the dog at acquisition, electric collar use, hypothetical maximum treatment expenditure and the conscientiousness score of the owner's personality. These findings serve as a guide to direct further research into ways of optimising herding dog performance and welfare. They emphasise the importance of not only examining the genetic predispositions of the working dog but also the impact the handler can have on a dog's success in the workplace. PMID:25136828

  15. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing of Australian isolates of Brachyspira hyodysenteriae using a new broth dilution method.

    PubMed

    Karlsson, Märit; Oxberry, Sophy L; Hampson, David J

    2002-01-01

    The antimicrobial susceptibilities of 76 field isolates of Brachyspira hyodysenteriae from different states of Australia were tested in a newly developed broth dilution procedure. The antimicrobial agents used were tiamulin, valnemulin, tylosin, erythromycin, lincomycin and clindamycin. The results from the broth dilution susceptibility testing of 39 of the isolates were compared with results obtained for the same isolates using the agar dilution method. Amongst the isolates tested by broth dilution, 17 were from three farms and had been collected over a number of years. Their pulsed field gel electrophoresis pattern previously had been determined. The broth dilution technique was simple to use, less labor intensive than agar dilution, and gave clear end points. The results obtained using the two methods generally corresponded well, although in a few cases the MIC obtained by broth dilution were lower than those with agar dilution. For the 76 isolates tested by broth dilution, the MIC(90) (mg/l) was: tiamulin, 1; valnemulin, 0.5; tylosin>256; erythromycin>256; lincomycin, 64 and clindamycin, 16. Only minor differences in susceptibility patterns were found amongst isolates from different Australian states. Over all the isolates, and also amongst the isolates obtained from different years on the three farms, there was no trend for the susceptibility of the isolates to alter with time. PMID:11731165

  16. Patient Experience of Australian General Practices.

    PubMed

    Narayanan, Ajit; Greco, Michael

    2016-03-01

    The number of data-based research articles focusing on patient sociodemographic profiling and experience with healthcare practices is still relatively small. One of the reasons for this relative lack of research is that categorizing patients into different demographic groups can lead to significant reductions in sample numbers for homogeneous subgroups. The aim of this article is to identify problems and issues when dealing with big data that contains information at two levels: patient experience of their general practice, and scores received by practices. The Practice Accreditation and Improvement Survey (PAIS) consisting of 27 five-point Likert items and 11 sociodemographic questions is a Royal Australian College of General Practitioners (RACGP)-endorsed instrument for seeking patient views as part of the accreditation of Australian general practices. The data were collected during the 3-year period May 2011-July 2014, during which time PAIS was completed for 3734 individual general practices throughout Australia involving 312,334 anonymous patients. This represents over 60% of practices in Australia, and ∼75% of practices that undergo voluntary accreditation. The sampling method for each general practice was convenience sampling. The results of our analysis show how sociodemographic profiles of Australian patients can affect their ratings of practices and also how the location of the practice (State/Territory, remote access area) can affect patient experience. These preliminary findings can act as an initial set of results against which future studies in patient experience trends can be developed and measured in Australia. Also, the methods used in this article provide a methodological framework for future patient experience researchers to use when dealing with data that contain information at two levels, such as the patient and practice. Finally, the outcomes demonstrate that different subgroups can experience healthcare provision differently, especially

  17. Patient Experience of Australian General Practices.

    PubMed

    Narayanan, Ajit; Greco, Michael

    2016-03-01

    The number of data-based research articles focusing on patient sociodemographic profiling and experience with healthcare practices is still relatively small. One of the reasons for this relative lack of research is that categorizing patients into different demographic groups can lead to significant reductions in sample numbers for homogeneous subgroups. The aim of this article is to identify problems and issues when dealing with big data that contains information at two levels: patient experience of their general practice, and scores received by practices. The Practice Accreditation and Improvement Survey (PAIS) consisting of 27 five-point Likert items and 11 sociodemographic questions is a Royal Australian College of General Practitioners (RACGP)-endorsed instrument for seeking patient views as part of the accreditation of Australian general practices. The data were collected during the 3-year period May 2011-July 2014, during which time PAIS was completed for 3734 individual general practices throughout Australia involving 312,334 anonymous patients. This represents over 60% of practices in Australia, and ∼75% of practices that undergo voluntary accreditation. The sampling method for each general practice was convenience sampling. The results of our analysis show how sociodemographic profiles of Australian patients can affect their ratings of practices and also how the location of the practice (State/Territory, remote access area) can affect patient experience. These preliminary findings can act as an initial set of results against which future studies in patient experience trends can be developed and measured in Australia. Also, the methods used in this article provide a methodological framework for future patient experience researchers to use when dealing with data that contain information at two levels, such as the patient and practice. Finally, the outcomes demonstrate that different subgroups can experience healthcare provision differently, especially

  18. The Australian Natural Disaster Resilience Index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thoms, Martin

    2016-04-01

    The Australian Natural Disaster Resilience Index Martin Thoms, Melissa Parsons, Phil Morley Bushfire and Natural Hazards Cooperative Research Centre, Geography and Planning, University of New England, Armidale NSW 2351, Australia. Natural hazard management policy directions in Australia - and indeed internationally - are increasingly being aligned to ideas of resilience. Resilience to natural hazards is the ability of individuals and communities to cope with disturbance and adversity and to maintain adaptive behaviour. Operationalizing the measurement and assessment of disaster resilience is often undertaken using a composite index, but this exercise is yet to be undertaken in Australia. The Australian Natural Disaster Resilience Index is a top-down, national scale assessment of the resilience of communities to natural hazards. Resilience is assessed based on two sets of capacities: coping and adaptive capacities. Coping capacity relates to the factors influencing the ability of a community to prepare for, absorb and recover from a natural hazard event. Adaptive capacity relates to the arrangements and processes that enable adjustment through learning, adaptation and transformation. Indicators are derived under themes of social character, economic capital, infrastructure and planning, emergency services, community capital, information and engagement and governance/leadership/policy, using existing data sets (e.g. census data) or evaluation of policy and procedure (e.g. disaster management planning). A composite index of disaster resilience is then computed for each spatial division, giving national scale coverage. The results of the Australian Natural Disaster Resilience Index will be reported in a State of Disaster Resilience report, due in 2018. The index is co-designed with emergency service agencies, and will support policy development, planning, community engagement and emergency management.

  19. Iowa Farm and Rural Life Poll. Summary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lasley, Paul

    The 1984 Iowa Farm and Rural Life Poll is summarized in this report. Responses from 1,585 randomly selected Iowa farm families showed that respondents opposed relaxing current state laws limiting foreign investors and non-farm corporations' ownership of farmland; had mixed feelings on absentee ownership, changing banking laws to allow banks to…

  20. 25 CFR 700.65 - Farm operation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Farm operation. 700.65 Section 700.65 Indians THE OFFICE OF NAVAJO AND HOPI INDIAN RELOCATION COMMISSION OPERATIONS AND RELOCATION PROCEDURES General Policies and Instructions Definitions § 700.65 Farm operation. Farm operation means any activity conducted...