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Sample records for farmer field schools

  1. Fostering Transformative Learning in Non-Formal Settings: Farmer-Field Schools in East Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Edward W.; Duveskog, Deborah; Friis-Hansen, Esbern

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the practice of Farmer-Field Schools (FFS) theoretically framed from the perspective of transformative learning theory and non-formal education (NFE). Farmer-Field Schools are community-led NFE programs that provide a platform where farmers meet regularly to study the "how and why" of farming and…

  2. Sending Farmers Back to School: The Impact of Farmer Field Schools in Indonesia. World Bank Policy Research Working Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feder, Gershon; Murgai, Rinku; Quizon, Jaime B.

    A study evaluated the impact of Farmer Field Schools in Indonesia, an intensive participatory training program emphasizing integrated pest management. Focus was on whether program participation improved yields and reduced pesticide use among graduates and neighbors who gained knowledge through informal communications. It used a modified…

  3. The Impact of Farmer Field Schools on Human and Social Capital: A Case Study from Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    David, Soniia; Asamoah, Christopher

    2011-01-01

    Based on a case study of Ghanaian cocoa farmers who attended farmer field schools (FFS), this paper explores the impact of the FFS methodology on farmers' technical knowledge, experimentation, knowledge diffusion, group formation and social skills as a way of assessing whether the relatively high costs associated with the method is justified. We…

  4. From Collectives to Collective Decision-Making and Action: Farmer Field Schools in Vietnam

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van de Fliert, Elske; Dung, Ngo Tien; Henriksen, Ole; Dalsgaard, Jens Peter Tang

    2007-01-01

    In 1992, even before a formalized agricultural extension system existed, the Farmer Field School was introduced in Vietnam as a farmer education methodology aiming at enhancing farmers' agroecological knowledge, critical skills and collective action to support sustainable agricultural development. Over the years, the model saw a wide range of…

  5. Lessons from an Experiential Learning Process: The Case of Cowpea Farmer Field Schools in Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nederlof, E. Suzanne; Odonkor, Ezekiehl N.

    2006-01-01

    The Farmer Field School (FFS) is a form of adult education using experiential learning methods, aimed at building farmers' decision-making capacity and expertise. The National Research Institute in West Africa conducted FFS in cowpea cultivation and we use this experience to analyse the implementation of the FFS approach. How does it work in…

  6. Reducing pesticide risks to farming communities: cotton farmer field schools in Mali

    PubMed Central

    Settle, William; Soumaré, Mohamed; Sarr, Makhfousse; Garba, Mohamed Hama; Poisot, Anne-Sophie

    2014-01-01

    We provide results from a study of two separate sectors within the cotton-growing region of southern Mali. In one sector, farmers have engaged in a farmer field school (FFS) training programme since 2003—the other not. One goal of the training was the adoption of alternatives to the use of hazardous insecticides, through integrated pest management (IPM) methods. Over an 8-year period, analysis showed that with roughly 20% of the 4324 cotton-growing farm households having undergone training, hazardous insecticide use for the entire sector fell by 92.5% compared with earlier figures and with the second (control) sector. Yields for cotton in both sectors were highly variable over time, but no evidence was found for changes in yield owing to shifts in pest management practices. Evidence is presented for a likely diffusion of new practices having taken place, from FFS participants to non-participants. We discuss strengths and weaknesses of the FFS approach, in general, and highlight the need for improved baseline survey and impact analyses to be integrated into FFS projects. PMID:24535387

  7. Linking birds, fields and farmers.

    PubMed

    Swagemakers, Paul; Wiskerke, Han; Van Der Ploeg, Jan Douwe

    2009-05-01

    The dramatic decline in the presence of farmland birds during recent decades has provoked much attention in agri-environmental policy and ecological research. However, the still limited understanding of the socio-economical mechanisms that govern the decline in bird presence hampers the formulation of effective adjustments in land-use and farming practices that could support the return of birds to farmland, i.e. the required fine-tuning of management practices. As a consequence, the existing agri-environmental schemes that offer financial compensation to farmers for implementing generally simple and rather crude measures to stimulate the presence of birds have been limited in their effectiveness and subject to much debate. The objective of this paper is to provide a sociological appraisal of farmers' experiences with meadow bird protection in a mainly dairy farming area in the Netherlands. The methodology combined visual map analysis, surveys, interviews with farmers and experts, and monitoring farmers' discussions. The results allowed an assessment of (i) farmers' views on historical changes in bird numbers in the area and the current distribution of bird nests, (ii) locally adjusted, fine-tuned management practices that were considered to be promising for protecting bird nests, (iii) the importance of farm management with 'an eye for birds', i.e. farmers and/or birdwatchers paying additional attention to the presence of nests and chicks before carrying out farming activities, and (iv) the views of key experts in the socio-institutional network in the case study area. The paper concludes that there are various promising options for fine-tuning farm management so it offers better bird protection, but it is expected that such measures will predominantly be adopted on less intensively managed farms.

  8. Local Foods in Maryland Schools and Implications for Extension: Findings from Schools and Farmers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oberholtzer, Lydia; Hanson, James C.; Brust, Gerald; Dimitri, Carolyn; Richman, Nessa

    2012-01-01

    This article describes results from a study examining the supply chain for local foods in Maryland school meals, the barriers and opportunities for increasing local foods in schools, and the development of Extension efforts to meet the needs identified. Interviews and surveys were administered with stakeholders, including farmers and food service…

  9. Market Diversification and Social Benefits: Motivations of Farmers Participating in Farm to School Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Izumi, Betty T.; Wright, D. Wynne; Hamm, Michael W.

    2010-01-01

    Activists and academics are increasingly advocating for public procurement of locally grown food as a key market opportunity for farmers. In the United States, linking farmers directly with school cafeterias through farm to school programs are among the efforts that advocates say can provide a significant boost to rural economies. Through an…

  10. Increase of Farmers' Knowledge through Farmer Seed Production Schools in Vietnam as Assessed on the Basis of Ex-Ante and Ex-Post Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tin, Huynh Q.; Struik, Paul C.; Price, Lisa L.; Tuyen, Nguyen P.; Hoan, Nguyen P.; Bos, Heleen

    2010-01-01

    The study was designed to assess changes in farmers' knowledge of farmer seed production through schools (FSPSs) in Vietnam. A set of 25 questions covering five technical areas of the seed production process was used for pre and post knowledge testing at 12 FSPSs in the provinces Binh Dinh, Nam Dinh, Nghe An and Dong Thap. The main findings show…

  11. The Farmer Life School: experience from an innovative approach to HIV education among farmers in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Swaans, K; Broerse, J E W; Salomon, M; Mudhara, M; Mweli, M; Bunders, J F G

    2008-07-01

    The Farmer Life School (FLS) is an innovative approach to integrating HIV education into life skills and technical training for farmers. This study aims to gain insight into the strengths and weaknesses of this relatively new approach, through the implementation of an adapted version in South Africa. The results are presented of a pilot with three groups of community gardeners, predominantly women, attending weekly sessions. Impact was assessed in terms of three key elements: participation, learning, and empowerment. Data were collected through extensive session reports, follow-up interviews, and reflection exercises with facilitators and participating groups and individuals. The results suggest that a group-based discovery learning approach such as the FLS has great potential to improve food security and wellbeing, while allowing participants to explore issues around HIV/AIDS. However, the analysis also shows that HIV/AIDS-related illness and death, and the factors that drive the epidemic and its impact, undermine farmers' ability to participate, the safety and trust required for learning, and the empowerment process. Participatory approaches such as the FLS require a thorough understanding of and adaptation to the context.

  12. Innovative Marketing Opportunities for Small Farmers: Local Schools as Customers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schofer, Daniel P.; Holmes, Glyen; Richardson, Vonda; Connerly, Charles

    A group of limited-resource small farmers in northern Florida's Jackson County, the USDA, the West Florida Resource Conservation and Development Council, Florida A&M University, and the Federation of Southern Cooperatives organized the New North Florida Cooperative to increase farm income by introducing improved methods of marketing…

  13. Video in the Field: A Novel Approach to Farmer Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fraser, Colin

    1980-01-01

    Describes a farmer training program developed in Peru using videotape recorders and audiovisual trainees. Courses are produced and given to rural people on topics such as dairy cattle husbandry, irrigation, potato growing, citrus production, and reclamation of saline soils. (Author/SA)

  14. Challenges to Institutionalizing Participatory Extension: The Case of Farmer Livestock Schools in Vietnam

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minh, Thai Thi; Larsen, Carl Erik Schou; Neef, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The objective of this article is to analyze the introduction of participatory extension approaches (PEA) in the predominantly supply-driven, hierarchical Vietnamese extension system. Drawing on the case of the so-called Farmer Livestock School (FLS) concept, the authors investigate the potential and challenges of scaling up and out the…

  15. Farmers' perceptions of pesticides, and resultant health problems from exposures.

    PubMed

    Kishi, Misa

    2002-01-01

    As part of an evaluation study of the impacts of the Indonesian integrated pest management (IPM) Farmer Field Schools on farmers' health, focus group discussions were conducted with rice farmers who grew shallots in rotation. Farmers who had previously participated in IPM rice field schools and who were at the time participating in IPM shallot field schools were compared with farmers who had had no experience with IPM methods. The study found that farmers' knowledge concerning the health dangers of pesticides is not sufficient to change their behaviors. Their overriding concern is crop damage that leads to economic loss, not health. IPM field-school training offers farmers a viable alternative by concretely demonstrating the health, agricultural, environmental, and economic advantages of eliminating unnecessary pesticide use. If public health professionals aim to change behaviors through interventions, they must employ appropriate methods, meet the community's priorities and values, and offer feasible alternatives.

  16. A method to assess soil erosion from smallholder farmers' fields: a case study from Malawi.

    PubMed

    Mohamoud, Yusuf M

    2013-09-01

    Soil erosion by water is a major threat to sustainable food production systems in Africa. This study presents a qualitative soil erosion assessment method that links the number of broken ridges (NBRS) observed on a smallholder farmer's field after a rain event to factors of soil erosion (e.g., rainfall intensity, slope steepness, crop canopy height, and conservation practice) and to soil loss data measured from a runoff plot and receiving small streams. The assessment method consists of a rapid survey of smallholder farmers combined with field monitoring. Results show an indirect relationship between NBRS and factors of soil erosion. Results also show a direct relationship between NBRS and suspended sediment concentrations measured from an experimental runoff plot and receiving streams that drain the sub-watersheds where farmers' fields are located. Given the limited human and financial resources available to soil erosion research in developing countries, monitoring NBRS is a simple, cost-effective, and reliable erosion assessment method for regions where smallholder farmers practice contour ridging.

  17. Samuel A. Mudd, MD, physician-farmer, University of Maryland School of Medicine class of 1856.

    PubMed

    Harding, Richard K

    2012-12-01

    America is in the midst of experiencing the sesquicentennial of the Civil War. We do so with some ambivalence knowing that the war forged a great union and ended slavery but also caused the deaths of more than 600,000 fellow citizens. Samuel A. Mudd, MD, University of Maryland School of Medicine class of 1856, was a man of this time. As a physician-farmer in Southern Maryland, he was a highly respected physician, a slave owner, and a devout citizen. The Civil War (1861-1865) would alter his life in ways few could have imagined. This article looks at his background, his education, his work as a physician-farmer, and his dramatic rise to national attention and infamy. Convicted by a military tribunal and imprisoned for his "crimes," he was able to partially redeem himself using his medical skills and professionalism. Mudd was a man of his time. And what a time it was.

  18. Impact of Training Bolivian Farmers on Integrated Pest Management and Diffusion of Knowledge to Neighboring Farmers.

    PubMed

    Jørs, Erik; Konradsen, Flemming; Huici, Omar; Morant, Rafael C; Volk, Julie; Lander, Flemming

    2016-01-01

    Teaching farmers integrated pest management (IPM) in farmer field schools (FFS) has led to reduced pesticide use and safer handling. This article evaluates the long-term impact of training farmers on IPM and the diffusion of knowledge from trained farmers to neighboring farmers, a subject of importance to justify training costs and to promote a healthy and sustainable agriculture. Training on IPM of farmers took place from 2002 to 2004 in their villages in La Paz County, Bolivia, whereas dissemination of knowledge from trained farmer to neighboring farmer took place until 2009. To evaluate the impact of the intervention, self-reported knowledge and practice on pesticide handling and IPM among trained farmers (n = 23) and their neighboring farmers (n = 47) were analyzed in a follow-up study and compared in a cross-sectional analysis with a control group of farmers (n = 138) introduced in 2009. Variables were analyzed using χ2 test and analysis of variance (ANOVA). Trained farmers improved and performed significantly better in all tested variables than their neighboring farmers, although the latter also improved their performance from 2002 to 2009. Including a control group showed an increasing trend in all variables, with the control farmers having the poorest performance and trained farmers the best. The same was seen in an aggregated variable where trained farmers had a mean score of 16.55 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 15.45-17.65), neighboring farmers a mean score of 11.97 (95% CI: 10.56-13.38), and control farmers a mean score of 9.18 (95% CI: 8.55-9.80). Controlling for age and living altitude did not change these results. Trained farmers and their neighboring farmers improved and maintained knowledge and practice on IPM and pesticide handling. Diffusion of knowledge from trained farmers might explain the better performance of the neighboring farmers compared with the control farmers. Dissemination of knowledge can contribute to justify the cost and convince

  19. Factors affecting farmers' behaviour in pesticide use: Insights from a field study in northern China.

    PubMed

    Fan, Liangxin; Niu, Haipeng; Yang, Xiaomei; Qin, Wei; Bento, Célia P M; Ritsema, Coen J; Geissen, Violette

    2015-12-15

    Quantitative understanding of farmers' behaviour in pesticide use is critical to enhance sustainability of chemical pest control and protect farmers' health and the environment. However, reports on the levels of knowledge and awareness of farmers and the practices of pesticide use are often insufficient. Here, we conducted a comprehensive analysis on the effects of knowledge and awareness of farmers as well as the influence of the associated stakeholders (i.e. pesticide retailers and the government) on farmers' behaviour in pesticide use by using a detailed survey of 307 agricultural households (79 grain farms, 65 fruit farms, 53 vegetable farms and 110 mixed-crop farms) in the Wei River basin in northern China. Eight protective behaviours (PBs) were exhibited by farmers. Careful and safe storage of pesticides, changing clothes or showering after applying pesticides, and reading instructions of the container labels before application were the most frequent PBs. Vegetable and fruit farmers had higher levels of education and knowledge than grain farmers, but the former were less willing to reduce pesticide use because of fear of low profits and lack of trust in the government and pesticide retailers. The PBs of farmers were strongly affected by the perception of the consequences of their behaviour (standardised path coefficient, SPC=0.42) and the level of farmers' knowledge (SPC=0.33). Pesticide retailers and the government had a moderate and weak influence, respectively, on farmers' PBs, suggesting a large gap of trust among farmers, pesticide retailers, and the government. Training and supervising retailers, educating farmers, and improving information transparency across farmers, pesticide retailers and the staff of the Agricultural Extension and Technology Service are recommended for bridging the gap of trust between farmers and the associated stakeholders as well as for promoting the use of PBs among farmers.

  20. Farmers, the Practice of Farming and the Future of Agroforestry: An Application of Bourdieu's Concepts of Field and Habitus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raedeke, Andrew H.; Green, John J.; Hodge, Sandra S.; Valdivia, Corinne

    2003-01-01

    Agroforestry, the practice of raising crops and trees together in ways that are mutually beneficial, provides farmers with an alternative to more conventional farming practices. In this paper, we apply Bourdieu's concepts of "field" and "habitus" in an attempt to better understand the practice of farming and the role that…

  1. Impact of integrated nutrient management on tomato yield under farmers field conditions.

    PubMed

    Pandey, S K; Chandra, K K

    2013-11-01

    Field trials were conducted in farmer's field of district Chandauli, Uttar Pradesh, India to assess the impact of integrated nutrient management (INM) on the performance of tomato crop during rabi (2008) and kharif (2009) season. Before conducting trials technological gap between actual and potential productivity were analyzed by interviewing growers to find out the major causes for low yield. Overall gap in use of fertilizers was recorded 64.90 % whereas overall mean gap in technology was 43.83%. On-farm experiments on INM were conducted by applying FYM (10t ha(-1)) + (NPK (150:80:60 kg ha(-1)) followed by dipping seedling roots in 1% Azotobacter solution for 15 min and foliar spray with 20 ppm ferrous ammonium sulphate after 30, 45 and 75 days of transplantation. The plant height, root length, number of primary branches, average fruit weight increased in INM plots as compared to farm practice. The increment in yield was found to be 28.84 and 33.86% during rabi and kharif season respectively. The maximum marketable yield obtained in INM plot during kharif and rabi seasons was 1025 q ha(-1) and 955 q ha(-1) respectively, whereas as farm practice yielded 740 q ha(-1) and 713 q ha(-1) during the same seasons. The percent loss from total production was recorded 8.5 % and 8.8 % in control plot and only 4.9 % and 5.7 % in INM plot during rabi and kharif seasons respectively. The higher fruit weight and lower incidence of disease and pest were observed in INM field in comparison to farm practice. The benefit cost ratio with INM treatment was recorded 4.25 and 4.23 in rabi and kharif season respectively against the benefit cost ratio of 2.98 and 2.82 in control plot during the same respective seasons.

  2. Evidence for the emergence of new rice types of interspecific hybrid origin in West African farmers' fields.

    PubMed

    Nuijten, Edwin; van Treuren, Robbert; Struik, Paul C; Mokuwa, Alfred; Okry, Florent; Teeken, Béla; Richards, Paul

    2009-10-06

    In West Africa two rice species (Oryza glaberrima Steud. and Oryza sativa L.) co-exist. Although originally it was thought that interspecific hybridization is impossible without biotechnological methods, progenies of hybridization appear to occur in farmer fields. AFLP analysis was used to assess genetic diversity in West Africa (including the countries The Gambia, Senegal, Guinea Bissau, Guinea Conakry, Sierra Leone, Ghana and Togo) using 315 rice samples morphologically classified prior to analysis. We show evidence for farmer interspecific hybrids of African and Asian rice, resulting in a group of novel genotypes, and identify possible mechanisms for in-field hybridization. Spontaneous back-crossing events play a crucial role, resulting in different groups of genetic diversity in different regions developed by natural and cultural selection, often under adverse conditions. These new groups of genotypes may have potential relevance for exploitation by plant breeders. Future advances in crop development could be achieved through co-operation between scientists and marginalized farmer groups in order to address challenges of rapid adaptation in a world of increasing socio-political and climatic uncertainty.

  3. Fish Pond Aquaculture in Cameroon: A Field Survey of Determinants for Farmers' Adoption Behaviour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ndah, Hycenth Tim; Knierim, Andrea; Ndambi, Oghaiki Asaah

    2011-01-01

    Although fish farming in Cameroon started in the late 1940s, currently the country meets only half of its domestic demand for fish. This article examines the complex issue of farmers' adoption decisions and attempts to answer why there is a lag in the diffusion process. The theory of behaviour modification and key variables of adoption form the…

  4. SU-E-T-431: Vertically-Oriented Farmer-Type Chamber for Small-Field Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Ahmad, M; Chu, A; Lincoln, H; Chen, Z; Deng, J; Nath, R

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To introduce a non-conventional measurement setup using Farmer-type chambers to accommodate several situations of small-field dose measurements without compromising accuracy. The validation of this technique was demonstrated for photon small-field output measurements, and electron small-field percentage depth-dose (PDD) measurements. Methods: Initial chamber alignment was performed using the conventional (horizontally-oriented) chamber setup. A PDD was acquired for a 4×4 cm{sup 2} field size using this arrangement. This PDD was used as a positional reference for the vertically-oriented chamber (VOC) configuration. Next, a PDD was acquired for a 4×4 cm{sup 2} field size with the VOC. The PDD's were superimposed to find the effective shift of the VOC. Using the shifted VOC setup, photon small-field output factors were measured and compared to stereotactic diode output factor measurements. Additionally, electron smallfield PDD's were acquired using the VOC setup and results were compared to electron Monte Carlo (eMC) predictions in the Eclipse treatment planning system (TPS). Results: (1) For photon small-field output factors field-sizes 2×2 cm{sup 2} and larger, the difference between the VOC setup and SFD measurements were less than 0.8%. For field sizes less than 2×2 cm{sup 2} discrepancies ranged from 4.0 to 10.6%. (2) PDD's measured by VOC setup show better than 1.6% agreement as compared to eMC for all electron energies measured down to the 80% depth on the 2×2 cm{sup 2} PDD curve. Disagreement between the VOC setup measurement and eMC calculations for depths down to the 50% depth on the PDD curve is 3.6% or less. Conclusion: Using the VOC setup, it is possible to use a conventional farmer chamber for small field-size measurements down to 2×2 cm{sup 2} field size without sacrificing the accuracy of measurements.

  5. Farmer Field Schools for Improving Farming Practices and Farmer Outcomes: A Systematic Review. Campbell Systematic Reviews 2014:6

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waddington, Hugh; Snilstveit, Birte; Hombrados, Jorge; Vojtkova, Martina; Phillips, Daniel; Davies, Philip; White, Howard

    2014-01-01

    Since the 1980s there has been a decline or stagnation in public expenditure on agriculture in most developing countries (Akroyd & Smith, 2007). Likewise, the proportion of official development assistance (ODA) going to agriculture is estimated to have declined from around 20 per cent in 1979 to a low of 3.7 per cent in 2006, and has remained…

  6. Cover crops as a gateway to greater conservation in Iowa?: Integrating crop models, field trials, economics and farmer perspectives regarding soil resilience in light of climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roesch-McNally, G. E.; Basche, A.; Tyndall, J.; Arbuckle, J. G.; Miguez, F.; Bowman, T.

    2014-12-01

    Scientists predict a number of climate changes for the US Midwest with expected declines in crop productivity as well as eco-hydrological impacts. More frequent extreme rain events particularly in the spring may well increase saturated soils thus complicating agronomic interests and also exacerbate watershed scale impairments (e.g., sediment, nutrient loss). In order to build more resilient production systems in light of climate change, farmers will increasingly need to implement conservation practices (singularly or more likely in combination) that enable farmers to manage profitable businesses yet mitigate consequential environmental impacts that have both in-field and off-farm implications. Cover crops are empirically known to promote many aspects of soil and water health yet even the most aggressive recent estimates show that only 1-2% of the total acreage in Iowa have been planted to cover crops. In order to better understand why farmers are reluctant to adopt cover crops across Iowa we combined agronomic and financial data from long-term field trials, working farm trials and model simulations so as to present comprehensive data-driven information to farmers in focus group discussions in order to understand existing barriers, perceived benefits and responses to the information presented. Four focus groups (n=29) were conducted across Iowa in four geographic regions. Focus group discussions help explore the nuance of farmers' responses to modeling outputs and their real-life agronomic realities, thus shedding light on the social and psychological barriers with cover crop utilization. Among the key insights gained, comprehensive data-driven research can influence farmer perspectives on potential cover crop impacts to cash crop yields, experienced costs are potentially quite variable, and having field/farm benefits articulated in economic terms are extremely important when farmers weigh the opportunity costs associated with adopting new practices. Our work

  7. Elementary school children's science learning from school field trips

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glick, Marilyn Petty

    This research examines the impact of classroom anchoring activities on elementary school students' science learning from a school field trip. Although there is prior research demonstrating that students can learn science from school field trips, most of this research is descriptive in nature and does not examine the conditions that enhance or facilitate such learning. The current study draws upon research in psychology and education to create an intervention that is designed to enhance what students learn from school science field trips. The intervention comprises of a set of "anchoring" activities that include: (1) Orientation to context, (2) Discussion to activate prior knowledge and generate questions, (3) Use of field notebooks during the field trip to record observations and answer questions generated prior to field trip, (4) Post-visit discussion of what was learned. The effects of the intervention are examined by comparing two groups of students: an intervention group which receives anchoring classroom activities related to their field trip and an equivalent control group which visits the same field trip site for the same duration but does not receive any anchoring classroom activities. Learning of target concepts in both groups was compared using objective pre and posttests. Additionally, a subset of students in each group were interviewed to obtain more detailed descriptive data on what children learned through their field trip.

  8. A Prototype Tool to Enable Farmers to Measure and Improve the Welfare Performance of the Farm Animal Enterprise: The Unified Field Index

    PubMed Central

    Colditz, Ian G.; Ferguson, Drewe M.; Collins, Teresa; Matthews, Lindsay; Hemsworth, Paul H.

    2014-01-01

    Simple Summary Benchmarking is a tool widely used in agricultural industries that harnesses the experience of farmers to generate knowledge of practices that lead to better on-farm productivity and performance. We propose, by analogy with production performance, a method for measuring the animal welfare performance of an enterprise and describe a tool for farmers to monitor and improve the animal welfare performance of their business. A general framework is outlined for assessing and monitoring risks to animal welfare based on measures of animals, the environment they are kept in and how they are managed. The tool would enable farmers to continually improve animal welfare. Abstract Schemes for the assessment of farm animal welfare and assurance of welfare standards have proliferated in recent years. An acknowledged short-coming has been the lack of impact of these schemes on the welfare standards achieved on farm due in part to sociological factors concerning their implementation. Here we propose the concept of welfare performance based on a broad set of performance attributes of an enterprise and describe a tool based on risk assessment and benchmarking methods for measuring and managing welfare performance. The tool termed the Unified Field Index is presented in a general form comprising three modules addressing animal, resource, and management factors. Domains within these modules accommodate the principle conceptual perspectives for welfare assessment: biological functioning; emotional states; and naturalness. Pan-enterprise analysis in any livestock sector could be used to benchmark welfare performance of individual enterprises and also provide statistics of welfare performance for the livestock sector. An advantage of this concept of welfare performance is its use of continuous scales of measurement rather than traditional pass/fail measures. Through the feedback provided via benchmarking, the tool should help farmers better engage in on-going improvement of

  9. Field-based evaluations of horizontal flat-plate fish screens, II: Testing of a unique off-stream channel device - The Farmers Screen

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mesa, Matthew G.; Rose, Brien P.; Copeland, Elizabeth S.

    2012-01-01

    Screens are installed at water diversion sites to reduce entrainment of fish. Recently, the Farmers Irrigation District (Oregon) developed a unique flat-plate screen (the “Farmers Screen”) that operates passively and may offer reduced installation and operating costs. To evaluate the effectiveness of this screen on fish, we conducted two separate field experiments. First, juvenile coho salmon Oncorhynchus kisutch were released over a working version of this screen under a range of inflows (0.02–0.42 m3/s) and diversion flows (0.02–0.34 m3/s) at different water depths. Mean approach velocities ranged from 0 to 5 cm/s and sweeping velocities ranged from 36 to 178 cm/s. Water depths over the screen surface ranged from 1 to 25 cm and were directly related to inflow. Passage of fish over the screen under these conditions did not severely injure them or cause delayed mortality, and no fish were observed becoming impinged on the screen surface. Second, juvenile coho salmon and steelhead O. mykiss were released at the upstream end of a 34-m flume and allowed to volitionally move downstream and pass over a 3.5-m section of the Farmers Screen to determine whether fish would refuse to pass over the screen after encountering its leading edge. For coho salmon, 75–95% of the fish passed over the screen within 5 min and 82–98% passed within 20 min, depending on hydraulic conditions. For steelhead, 47–90% of the fish passed over the screen within 5 min and 79–95% passed within 20 min. Our results indicate that when operated within its design criteria, the Farmers Screen provides safe and efficient downstream passage of juvenile salmonids under a variety of hydraulic conditions.

  10. The Turbulent Field of Public School Administration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conners, Dennis A.; Reed, Donald B.

    1983-01-01

    Business and industry have exerted a strong influence on public schools and school administration, especially on assumptions about the school setting and its implications for administrator behavior. Schools have been assumed to be bureaucratic organizations in a stable environment, which implies that administrators should be leaders in…

  11. Can Schools Offer Solutions to Small-Scale Farmers in Africa? Analysis of the Socioeconomic Benefits of Primary School Agriculture in Uganda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okiror, John James; Oonyu, Joseph; Matsiko, Frank; Kibwika, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Agriculture;This paper discusses the factors influencing application of school gardening knowledge and skills by pupils at school and household level; and whether pupils are effective sources of information to their parents. A quasi-experimental design was used to compare cohorts of 30 pupils randomly selected from eight schools in Kumi and Tororo…

  12. Inclusion and Comprehensive School Reform: Lessons from the Field

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bain, Alan; Lancaster, Julie

    2006-01-01

    Sustaining comprehensive secondary school reform (CSR) represents an immensely difficult and unresolved challenge for the field. The problems associated with CSR are of significant concern to proponents of inclusion given that more responsive schools and classrooms are connected to, if not dependent upon, the success of broader school reform…

  13. Farmers Insures Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freifeld, Lorri

    2012-01-01

    Farmers Insurance claims the No. 2 spot on the Training Top 125 with a forward-thinking training strategy linked to its primary mission: FarmersFuture 2020. It's not surprising an insurance company would have an insurance policy for the future. But Farmers takes that strategy one step further, setting its sights on 2020 with a far-reaching plan to…

  14. Value Added School Review Field Guide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The "Value-Added School Review (VSR)" is an analytical model designed to assist schools in identifying and addressing opportunities for school improvement. The model works best when it is focused purposefully on students and the student learning outcomes as defined in the "Guide to Education". It complements the processes…

  15. High School Students' Representations and Understandings of Electric Fields

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cao, Ying; Brizuela, Bárbara M.

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the representations and understandings of electric fields expressed by Chinese high school students 15 to 16 years old who have not received high school level physics instruction. The physics education research literature has reported students' conceptions of electric fields post-instruction as indicated by students'…

  16. THE FIELD STUDY NOTEBOOK FOR THE OUTDOOR SCHOOL.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BURGESS, ROBERT A.; GILFILLAN, WARREN C.

    THE "FIELD STUDY NOTEBOOK" HAS BEEN PREPARED FOR USE BY PAROCHIAL AND PUBLIC ELEMENTARY SCHOOL STUDENTS FOR STUDYING ECOLOGY AT AN OUTDOOR SCHOOL. THE NOTEBOOK EMPHASIZES COMMUNITY DYNAMICS THROUGH STUDENT ACTIVITIES THAT ILLUSTRATE ECOLOGICAL RELATIONSHIPS. INFORMATION IS PROVIDED ON THE ORGANIZATION OF A FIELD STUDY AND ON PERFORMING…

  17. Field Placement Schools and Instructional Effectiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ronfeldt, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    Student teaching has long been considered a cornerstone of teacher preparation. One dimension thought to affect student teacher learning is the kinds of schools in which these experiences occur. Drawing on extensive survey and administrative data on all teachers, students, and schools in a large, urban district, this study investigates whether…

  18. Out-of-School Field on Hunt for Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fleming, Nora

    2012-01-01

    As out-of-school programs--and the expectations for them--grow, the field is struggling to identify the kind of training staff members need to meet those expectations. A variety of efforts have sprung up across the country to define and improve the quality of after-school staff, some of which bear resemblance to the quest to improve the…

  19. A Prototype Tool to Enable Farmers to Measure and Improve the Welfare Performance of the Farm Animal Enterprise: The Unified Field Index.

    PubMed

    Colditz, Ian G; Ferguson, Drewe M; Collins, Teresa; Matthews, Lindsay; Hemsworth, Paul H

    2014-07-15

    Schemes for the assessment of farm animal welfare and assurance of welfare standards have proliferated in recent years. An acknowledged short-coming has been the lack of impact of these schemes on the welfare standards achieved on farm due in part to sociological factors concerning their implementation. Here we propose the concept of welfare performance based on a broad set of performance attributes of an enterprise and describe a tool based on risk assessment and benchmarking methods for measuring and managing welfare performance. The tool termed the Unified Field Index is presented in a general form comprising three modules addressing animal, resource, and management factors. Domains within these modules accommodate the principle conceptual perspectives for welfare assessment: biological functioning; emotional states; and naturalness. Pan-enterprise analysis in any livestock sector could be used to benchmark welfare performance of individual enterprises and also provide statistics of welfare performance for the livestock sector. An advantage of this concept of welfare performance is its use of continuous scales of measurement rather than traditional pass/fail measures. Through the feedback provided via benchmarking, the tool should help farmers better engage in on-going improvement of farm practices that affect animal welfare.

  20. Fashion a Field Guide To Your School Nature Area.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dean, Bruce R.

    1996-01-01

    Outlines activities for creating a field guide by studying nature around a school. Includes instructions for creation of a database for recording information, for identification of various plants and animals, and for actual creation of a book. (AIM)

  1. School Facilities and Electric and Magnetic Field Radiation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carr, Richard L.

    1990-01-01

    The possibility that electric and magnetic field radiation poses a health hazard should be recognized during the planning and designing of a school. A preconstruction assessment of possible exposure should be evaluated before the start of construction. (MLF)

  2. How Local Farmers and School Food Service Buyers Are Building Alliances: Lessons Learned from the USDA Small Farm/School Meals Workshop, May 1, 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tropp, Debra; Olowolayemo, Surajudeen

    This report summarizes the educational highlights of a workshop sponsored by the U.S. Department of Agriculture, the University of Kentucky's Cooperative Extension Service, and the Kentucky Department of Agriculture aimed at boosting the use of locally produced fresh food in school feeding programs. The workshop was designed to provide a forum for…

  3. Preparing Middle School Teachers: Using Collaborative Middle School Field Experiences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramey, Linda K.

    Wright State University, Ohio, has developed an undergraduate degree in Middle Childhood Education with extensive content preparation and initial field experiences. Participants complete an undergraduate program in two specialized areas accompanied by 15 hours of teacher education professional coursework and field experiences in urban and suburban…

  4. Risk Factors for Low Back Disorders in Saskatchewan Farmers: Field-based Exposure Assessment to Build a Foundation for Epidemiological Studies

    PubMed Central

    Bath, Brenna; Johnson, Peter W; Teschke, Kay

    2016-01-01

    Background Studies of many geographical settings and agricultural commodities show that low back disorders are an important public health issue among farmers, who represent a special rural population. However, few studies have examined the impact of low back disorders on farmers’ work or the strategies that they adopt to avoid associated pain and disability. Objective This study protocol will investigate 3 issues related to low back disorders in Saskatchewan farmers: (1) the vibration, heavy lifting, and awkward postures farmers encounter during their work that might contribute to low back disorders; (2) the impact low back disorders have on farmers in terms of their ability to work; and (3) the types of preventative measures and solutions that farmers implement to reduce the occurrence of low back pain. Methods To answer these questions, researchers will travel to 30 farms to make measurements of vibration, lifting, and posture during the farmers’ regular work tasks. Farmers will be interviewed about any pain and/or disability using standardized interview questions. Farmers will also be asked about safety measures they have implemented at their farm, such as modified tools or equipment, to reduce the occurrence of low back disorders or pain. Results Data collection is currently underway for this study, with the intention to complete all data collection and analysis by the end of 2018. Conclusions Occupational determinants of health such as vibration, heavy lifting, and awkward postures are important in the development and progression of low back disorders, and the results of this study will allow for cost-effective epidemiological studies of these determinants in the future. In identifying prevention strategies, this study will also facilitate future research evaluating the effectiveness of safety measures. PMID:27286748

  5. Agricultural Mechanical Skills Needed by Farmers in Texas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webb, Earl S.; Knotts, Clifton Don

    This study identified skills that should be taught in the agricultural mechanics area of production vocational agriculture courses in Texas high schools. The data were obtained from questionnaires given to 50 young farmers who had been recognized by the State Association of Young Farmers of Texas for outstanding farming programs during one of the…

  6. Effects of crop rotation on properties of a Vietnam clay soil under rice-based cropping systems in small-scale farmers' fields

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In tropical deltas, intensive monocultures with three rice crops per year have been the standard for decades. In recent years, though, rice-based rotations with one or more upland crops per year are being adopted by several farmers. Their trends of increasing grain yields raise the question whether ...

  7. Current Practices for Providing School Field Trip Meals: Perspectives of School Nutrition Managers and Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sneed, Jeannie; Vaterlaus Patten, Emily

    2015-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: The Healthy, Hunger Free Kids Act of 2010 extended the requirements for a school food safety program to wherever food is stored, prepared, or served, including meals for field trips. The purpose of this study was to determine what foods are used for field trip meals, how those foods are transported and stored, and what standard…

  8. Instructor's Field Manual: North Carolina Outward Bound School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Outward Bound, Morganton, NC.

    A supplement to the North Carolina Outward Bound School's Instructor's Handbook, this field manual presents useful, but not required, information gleaned from old timers and resource books which may enable the instructor to conduct a better course. Section one considers advantages and disadvantages and provides directions and topographical maps…

  9. Summer School Effects in a Randomized Field Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zvoch, Keith; Stevens, Joseph J.

    2013-01-01

    This field-based randomized trial examined the effect of assignment to and participation in summer school for two moderately at-risk samples of struggling readers. Application of multiple regression models to difference scores capturing the change in summer reading fluency revealed that kindergarten students randomly assigned to summer school…

  10. Attitude Change As a Function of Field Medical Service School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pishel, Robert Gordon

    Using a test retest design, this study investigated effects of Marine oriented Field Medical Service School training on the attitudes of 337 Navy corpsmen. Six issues pertaining to corpsmen and their work were created and administered as a survey instrument based on the Sherif Method of Ordered Alternatives. Attitude and ego involvement changes…

  11. Third International Volcanological Field School in Kamchatka and Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melnikov, D.; Eichelberger, J.; Gordeev, E.; Malcolm, J.; Shipman, J.; Izbekov, P.

    2005-12-01

    The Kamchatka State University, Institute of Volcanology and Seismology FEB RAS (Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky, Russia) and University of Alaska Fairbanks have developed an international field school focused on explosive volcanism of the North Pacific. The concept of the field school envisages joint field studies by young Russian scientists and their peers from the United States and Japan. Beyond providing first-hand experience with some of Earth's most remarkable volcanic features, the intent is to foster greater interest in language study, cultures, and ultimately in international research collaborations. The students receive both theoretical and practical knowledge of active volcanic systems, as well experience in working productively in a harsh environment. Each year, the class is offered in both Alaska and Kamchatka. The Alaska session is held in the Valley of Ten Thousand Smokes, Katmai National Park, product of the greatest volcanic eruption of the 20th century. A highlight in 2005 was the discovery of a new 70-m crater atop Trident Volcano. Also this year, we added the Great Tolbachik Eruption of 1975-76 to the itinerary of the Kamchatka school. Day trips were conducted to summit craters of New Tolbachik volcanoes and Plosky Tolbachik, Tolbachik lava flows; fumarole fields of Mutnovsky volcano, and a geothermal area and 60 MWe power plant. Students who attended both the Alaska and Kamchatka sessions could ponder the implications of great lateral separation of active vents - 10 km at Katmai and 30 km at Tolbachik - with multiple magmas and non-eruptive caldera collapse at the associated stratocones. During the evenings and on days of bad weather, the school faculty conducted lectures on various topics of volcanology in either Russian or English, with translation. The field school is a strong stimulus for growth of young volcanologists and cooperation among Russia, USA and Japan, leading naturally to longer student exchange visits and to joint research projects.

  12. Reading the Water Table: The Interaction between Literacy Practices and Groundwater Management Training in Preparing Farmers for Climate Change in South India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chavva, Konda Reddy; Smith, Cristine A.

    2012-01-01

    This article focuses on farmers' use of literacy for individual decision-making on crop-water management and crop choices and investigates how farmer participants perceive the usefulness of Farmer Water School (FWS) training. It draws upon a study conducted with farmers of Kurnool district of Andhra Pradesh, India. This study has demonstrated that…

  13. International Field School on Permafrost, Polar Urals, 2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Streletskiy, D. A.; Grebenets, V.; Ivanov, M.; Sheinkman, V.; Shiklomanov, N. I.; Shmelev, D.

    2012-12-01

    The international field school on permafrost was held in the Polar Urals region from June, 30 to July 9, 2012 right after the Tenth International Conference on Permafrost which was held in Salekhard, Russia. The travel and accommodation support generously provided by government of Yamal-Nenets Autonomous Region allowed participation of 150 permafrost young research scientists, out of which 35 students from seven countries participated in the field school. The field school was organized under umbrella of International Permafrost Association and Permafrost Young Research Network. The students represented diverse educational backgrounds including hydrologists, engineers, geologists, soil scientists, geocryologists, glaciologists and geomorphologists. The base school camp was located near the Harp settlement in the vicinity of Polar Urals foothills. This unique location presented an opportunity to study a diversity of cryogenic processes and permafrost conditions characteristic for mountain and plain regions as well as transition between glacial and periglacial environments. A series of excursions was organized according to the following topics: structural geology of the Polar Urals and West Siberian Plain (Chromite mine "Centralnaya" and Core Storage in Labitnangy city); quaternary geomorphology (investigation of moraine complexes and glacial conditions of Ronamantikov and Topographov glaciers); principles of construction and maintains of structures built on permafrost (Labitnangy city and Obskaya-Bovanenkovo Railroad); methods of temperature and active-layer monitoring in tundra and forest-tundra; cryosols and soil formation in diverse landscape condition; periglacial geomorphology; types of ground ice, etc. Every evening students and professors gave a series of presentations on climate, vegetation, hydrology, soil conditions, permafrost and cryogenic processes of the region as well as on history, economic development, endogenous population of the Siberia and the

  14. The Lamont-Doherty Secondary School Field Research Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newton, R.; Vincent, S.; Shaw, A.

    2007-12-01

    Three years ago the Lamont Doherty Earth Observatory instituted an educational outreach program with several New York City high schools. The schools all serve lower-income students (greater than 90 percent Title 1 eligible), and are focused on the STEM disciplines as potentially "leveling" areas, where motivated students can make up ground if properly supported. The program enlists high school teachers and several of their students to work alongside Lamont scientists on funded research programs that have a local (NYC/Hudson Valley) field and/or laboratory measurement component. The program runs full-time for 6 weeks in the summer and continues through laboratory visits and enhanced curriculum during the school year. Preliminary results are positive: teachers report that the program has deepened their curriculum; heightened their enthusiasm; and expanded their view of their students' potential. Nearly all of the participating students are college bound, and several are working their way through their freshmen year in college as laboratory technicians. In addition, the participating teachers and students have been able to collect large numbers of samples in the Hudson estuary, contributing concretely to funded research there. Lessons learned and best practices will be discussed for expanding such partnerships, with a focus on issues faced by partnerships between research scientists and public school science programs in urban areas.

  15. PREFACE: XV Mexican School of Particles and Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salazar, Humberto; Napsuciale Mendivil, Mauro; Delepine, David

    2013-11-01

    The XV Mexican School of Particles and Fields was held at Puebla, Mexico at The Old and beautiful building of the Colegio Carolino from 6-15 September 2013. It gathered more than 132 national physicists, and 10 from other countries. This school lasted seven days and consisted of pedagogical lectures, discussions and poster sessions. Experimental, and theoretical developments were presented by distinguished physicists; addressing the most recent results in particle and field physics. The school lectures included topics on collider physics, neutrino physics, physics beyond the standard model, astroparticle physics, effective theories among others. The highlight topic of the conference was the discovery of the new boson, announced on 4 July 2012 by the LHC. The discovery of a particle consistent with the long-sought Higgs boson, considered one of the most important discoveries of the 21st Century, was fully addressed. The particle represented the final piece of the standard model. The searching methods and latest results were extensively presented as well as the detector design. The physics implications of the discovery and the future of searches for physics BSM, like SUSY, were covered. The topical conference included: 'Recent results on Higgs' by John Ellis, 'The CMS experiment, Highlights and Performance' by Tiziano Camporesi (CMS spokesperson), and 'LHC physics program by Emilio' Meschi (LHC physics coordinator). For many of the participants, however, the highlight of the school may have been the Sunday excursion to the Large Millimeter Telescope and HAWC Observatory, two of the world's largest astrophysics experiments in their field. We thank all the lecturers for making this a timely and informative school. Thanks to all who encouraged the discussions and stimulated the flow of information during the question time and the discussion sessions. Finally, the School and these Proceedings would have not been possible without the efforts of the sponsors as well as the

  16. High school students' representations and understandings of electric fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Ying; Brizuela, Bárbara M.

    2016-12-01

    This study investigates the representations and understandings of electric fields expressed by Chinese high school students 15 to 16 years old who have not received high school level physics instruction. The physics education research literature has reported students' conceptions of electric fields postinstruction as indicated by students' performance on textbook-style questions. It has, however, inadequately captured student ideas expressed in other situations yet informative to educational research. In this study, we explore students' ideas of electric fields preinstruction as shown by students' representations produced in open-ended activities. 92 participant students completed a worksheet that involved drawing comic strips about electric charges as characters of a cartoon series. Three students who had spontaneously produced arrow diagrams were interviewed individually after class. We identified nine ideas related to electric fields that these three students spontaneously leveraged in the comic strip activity. In this paper, we describe in detail each idea and its situated context. As most research in the literature has understood students as having relatively fixed conceptions and mostly identified divergences in those conceptions from canonical targets, this study shows students' reasoning to be more variable in particular moments, and that variability includes common sense resources that can be productive for learning about electric fields.

  17. International Field School on Permafrost: Yenisei, Russian Federation - 2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nyland, K. E.; Streletskiy, D. A.; Grebenets, V. I.

    2013-12-01

    The International Field School on Permafrost was established in Russia as part of International Polar Year activities. The first course was offered in 2007 in Northwestern Siberia and attracted students from Russia, Germany, and the United States. Over the past seven years undergraduate and graduate students representing eight different countries in North America, Europe, and Asia have participated in the field school. This annual summer field course visits different regions of the Russian Arctic each year, but the three course foci remain consistent, which are to make in depth examinations of, 1) natural permafrost characteristics and conditions, 2) field techniques and applications, and 3) engineering practices and construction on permafrost. During these field courses students participate in excursions to local museums and exhibitions, meet with representatives from local administrations, mining and construction industries, and learn field techniques for complex permafrost investigations, including landscape and soil descriptions, temperature monitoring, active-layer measurements, cryostratigraphy, and more. During these courses students attend an evening lecture series by their professors and also give presentations on various regionally oriented topics of interest, such as the local geology, climate, or historical development of the region. This presentation will relate this summer's (July 2013) field course which took place in the Yenisei River region of central Siberia. The course took place along a bioclimatic transect from south to north along the Yenisei River and featured extended stays in the cities of Igarka and Noril'sk. This year's students (undergraduate, masters, and one PhD student) represented universities in the United States, Canada, and the Russian Federation. The organization of this course was accomplished through the cooperation of The George Washington University's Department of Geography and the Lomonosov Moscow State University

  18. PREFACE: The XI Mexican School on Particles and Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2005-01-01

    The XI Mexican School on Particles and Fields took place on 2-13 August 2004, in the city of Xalapa, Veracruz, México. The School continued with the tradition of promoting High Energy Physics among the younger generation in Mexico. Thus, it was aimed specifically at graduate students and postdocs. The School consisted of several courses delivered by international experts on subjects of current interest to the scientific community. The length of each course was of six to eight hours, English being the language of instruction. A novelty in this edition of the School was its total duration (two weeks as opposed to one), the number of hours assigned to one subject, and the addition of some experimental courses for the students to overcome their inhibitions of a direct encounter with the equipment and its usage. There were also a few overview talks delivered by local experts on the current status of some of the research fields actively pursued in Mexico. The XI-MSPF was organized by the Particles and Fields Division of the Mexican Physical Society. It was generously sponsored by several institutions: Universidad de Veracruz, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolás de Hidalgo, Centro de Investigaciones y Estudios Avanzados del IPN (CINVESTAV) and Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnología (CONACyT). We are very grateful to Dr Raúl Arias Lovillo, Dr Víctor Manuel Alcaráz Romero, Dr Asdrúbal Flóres López and Mtro Walter Saiz González, head of the Academic Secretariat, Director and Subdirector of the Office of Scientific Research and Director of the Division of Exact Sciences of the University of Veracruz, respectively, for their invaluable support in all senses to our Summer School. We also appreciate the important and useful assistance provided by Dr Rubén Bernardo Morante López, Director of the Museum of Anthropology of Xalapa, and Dr Héctor Coronel Brizio of the Secretariat of Education and Culture of the state of

  19. Sparkling Geomagnetic Field: Involving Schools in Geomagnetic Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bailey, Rachel; Leonhardt, Roman; Leichter, Barbara

    2014-05-01

    Solar activity will be reaching a maximum in 2013/2014 as the sun reaches the end of its cycle, bringing with it an opportunity to study in greater detail the effect of solar wind or "space weather" on our planet's magnetic field. Heightened solar activity leads to a larger amount of clouds of energetic particles bombarding the Earth. Although the Earth's magnetic field shields us from most of these particles, the field becomes distorted and compacted by the solar wind, which leads to magnetic storms that we detect from the surface. These storms cause aurorae at higher latitudes and can lead to widespread disruption of communication and navigation equipment all over the Earth when sufficiently strong. This project, "Sparkling Geomagnetic Field," is a part of Austria's Sparkling Science programme, which aims to involve schools in active scientific research to encourage interest in science from a young age. Researchers from the Central Institute for Meteorology and Geodynamics (ZAMG) in Vienna have worked hand-in-hand with three schools across Austria to set up regional geomagnetic stations consisting of state-of-the-art scalar and vector magnetometers to monitor the effects of the solar wind on the geomagnetic field. The students have been an active part of the research team from the beginning, first searching for a suitable location to set up the stations as well as later overseeing the continued running of the equipment and analysing the data output. Through this project the students will gain experience in contemporary scientific methods: data processing and analysis, field work, as well as equipment setup and upkeep. A total of three stations have been established with schools in Innsbruck, Tamsweg and Graz at roughly equal distances across Austria to run alongside the already active station in the Conrad Observatory near Vienna. Data acquisition runs through a data logger and software developed to deliver data in near realtime. This network allows for

  20. [Impacts of technological knowledge of small indigenous farmers on food availability in the Mexican southeast].

    PubMed

    Cirilo Sergio, Orozco; Bautista Juan, Antonio; Miguel Angel, Damián Huato; Moreno Finlandia, Barbosa; Vásquez Benito, Gutiérrez; Flores Rafael, Ariza

    2011-03-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the impact of technological knowledge (acquired in Farmer Field Schools) on the availability of food for poor indigenous farmers, who are mainly dedicated to the production of maize for home consumption in the Cuicateca regi6n, Oaxaca, Mexico. The variables analyzed were 1) Level of technological knowledge, 2) maize yield, and 3) time that the last maize harvest supplied the food needs of the farmers in question (a proxy indicator of food availability). A random sample of 36 participants in the rural training schools and a control group of the same size were given questionnaires at the beginning and end of their study. The statistical analysis was done using the Pearson chi-2 contrast test and the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. After finding that there was no normal distribution, the Wilcoxon test to contrast paired data was used, and finally, correlations were obtained. It was found that the increase in technological knowledge of 7.29 +/- 1.01 to 46.64 +/- 18.40 did not correlate (P > or = 0.05) with the time that the last maize harvest lasted in providing food. The results show that the increase in technological knowledge does not increase availability of maize as food.

  1. Evaluation of sound field systems in elementary school classrooms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vigeant, Michelle C.; Kruger, Kelly

    2003-10-01

    Our primary purpose in this study was to determine the relevant ergonomic issues associated with daily use of sound field systems in elementary school classrooms, in order to develop a purchasing guideline and technical specification. The secondary purpose was to evaluate these systems to identify if one or more acoustical parameters could be used to determine the quality and effectiveness of a system. Six sound field systems, with varying numbers and types of speakers, were chosen as a cross-section of available systems on the market. Six representative classrooms, currently in use, were selected based on a range of reverberation times and background noise levels. All systems were installed for two weeks in each classroom. Student speech intelligibility (SI) tests using phonetically balanced word lists were conducted, as well as teacher interviews. The acoustical parameters measured were clarity ratios C50 and C80, speech transmission indices STI and R(rapid)STI, sound pressure level (SPL) uniformity and frequency response. An improvement in SI was found for all systems. Only SPL uniformity and frequency response were found to be useful distinguishing performance parameters between systems. Ergonomic design aspects of sound field systems had a significant influence on the acceptance and usage in the classroom.

  2. Accelerated Schools in Action: Lessons from the Field.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finnan, Christine, Ed.; And Others

    This book provides insights into one of the nation's largest and most comprehensive school-restructuring movements, the Accelerated Schools Project. Since its inception in 1986, the focus of the movement has been on transforming schools with students at risk of dropping out into schools with high expectations of all students. This is accomplished,…

  3. Spreading Geodiversity awareness in schools through field trips and ICT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magagna, Alessandra; Giardino, Marco; Ferrero, Elena

    2014-05-01

    Geodiversity, unlike Biodiversity, is not a topic included in the Italian schools curriculum. Nevertheless, Geomorphology is taught at all levels, and it seems to be the right tool for introducing the students to the concepts related to Geodiversity. In this context, a research on the use of field trips and Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) is being carried out for spreading the value of Geodiversity in Secondary Schools. Relevant international literature states that field trips are effective didactic tools for Earth Science education, because they stimulate an active learning process and allow students to appreciate the geological complexity of an area. On the other side, ICT allow students to get knowledge about the variety of landforms of their own territory by staying indoor, using virtual field trips and free software like Google Earth, Google Maps, Bing etc. In order to connect the two strategies, an innovative educational project is proposed here; it involves both the indoor and the outdoor activities, by enhancing a critical approach to the complexity of geological processes. As a starting point, a multimedia product on 20 Italian geological tours, designed for analyzing Geodiversity at a regional scale, has been tested with teachers and students, in order to understand its effectiveness by using it solely indoor. In a second phase, teachers and students have been proposed to compare and integrate indoor and outdoor activities to approach Geodiversity directly at a local scale, by means of targeted field trips. For achieving this goal, during the field trips, students used their mobile devices (smartphone and tablet) equipped with free and/or open source applications (Epicollect, Trimble Outdoor Navigator). These tools allow to track field trips, to gather data (geomorphological observations and related photographs), and to elaborate them in the laboratory; a process useful for reasoning on concepts such as spatial and temporal scales and for

  4. Predicting High School Students' Interest in Majoring in a STEM Field: Insight into High School Students' Postsecondary Plans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lichtenberger, Eric; George-Jackson, Casey

    2013-01-01

    This study examined how various individual, family, and school level contextual factors impact the likelihood of planning to major in one of the science, technology, engineering, or mathematics (STEM) fields for high school students. A binary logistic regression model was developed to determine the extent to which each of the covariates helped to…

  5. PREFACE: XIV Mexican School on Particles and Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bashir, Adnan; Contreras, Guillermo; Raya, Alfredo; Tejeda-Yeomans, Maria Elena

    2011-03-01

    The XIV Mexican School on Particles and Fields took place from 8-12 November, 2010, in the colonial city of Morelia, Michoacan, Mexico. The format of the school was such that the morning sessions were devoted to theoretical and experimental reviews, whereas parallel thematic sessions were held in the afternoons. All the reviews and seminars were delivered by experts of international prestige on subjects which are of current interest to the global scientific community and are also actively pursued within Mexico. In order to equip the attending graduate students and post docs with the necessary introductory tools to allow them to benefit substantially from the specialized seminars, a series of mini-courses were offered prior to the event from 4-7 November 2010, in the Auditorium of the Faculty of Science of the University of Michoacan (UMSNH). The length of each course was about 5 hours, English being the language of instruction. An informal and friendly atmosphere was encouraged during the courses so that the students could overcome their inhibitions and actively participate in the discussions. A novel feature of this event was a colloquium aimed at the general public and younger students of pre-undergraduate level, which allowed the expert scientists to reach out to a wider community and raise their awareness and interest in one of the most fascinating and vital fields of knowledge. The XIV-MSPF was organized by the Division of Particles and Fields of the Mexican Physical Society. It was generously sponsored by several institutions: Consejo Estatal de Ciencia y Tecnológico (COECyT) del Estado de Michoacán, Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolás de Hidalgo, Universidad de Sonora, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Universidad de Guanajuato, Universidad de Sinaloa, Centro de Investigaciones de Estudios Avanzados del IPN (CINVESTAV), Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnología (CONACyT), la Academia Mexicana de Ciencias and, most importantly, the Red Nacional

  6. Upper Primary Level History Teachers' Attitudes toward the Use of School Field Trips as an Educational Aid throughout Schools in Irbid First Education Directorate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menazel, Basil H.

    2015-01-01

    The study aimed to identify upper primary level History teachers' attitudes toward the use of school field trips as an educational aid throughout schools in the Irbid First Education Directorate, through exploring the importance of school field trips in the creation of an interactive atmosphere and to encourage school administration attitudes…

  7. Educational Priorities of Small Farmers in West Tennessee.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford, Carey L.

    1995-01-01

    According to survey responses from 108 of 150 Western Tennessee small farmers, 53% had less than a high school education and most were near retirement age. Greatest educational needs were in the areas of crop marketing, soil conservation, and pesticide use. Individualized methods and a focus on improving technical knowledge and existing marketing…

  8. Replicating High-Performing Public Schools: Lessons from the Field

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wicoff, Kimberly; Howard, Don; Huggett, Jon

    2006-01-01

    The fact that far too many students leave high school unprepared to become contributing members of society is hardly news. What is news is the growing number of schools that are proving public education can work for every student. Unlike a decade ago, when it was hard to find more than a handful of high-performing public schools, today many such…

  9. Which Field Experiences Best Prepare Future School Leaders? An Analysis of Kentucky's Principal Preparation Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dodson, Richard L.

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the effectiveness of field experiences in preparing school principals for the exigencies of the job. Current school principals throughout Kentucky were surveyed regarding their perceptions of the utility and comparative effectiveness of field experiences in the principal preparation program (PPP) each attended. Surveys were…

  10. A Day at the Museum: The Impact of Field Trips on Middle School Science Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitesell, Emilyn Ruble

    2016-01-01

    Field trips are an important feature of the United States' education system, although in the current context of high-stakes tests and school accountability, many schools are shifting resources away from enrichment. It is critical to understand how field trips and other informal learning experiences contribute to student test scores, but little…

  11. Communication, Community, and Disconnection: Pre-Service Teachers in Virtual School Field Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkens, Christian; Eckdahl, Kelli; Morone, Mike; Cook, Vicki; Giblin, Thomas; Coon, Joshua

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the experiences of 11 graduate-level pre-service teachers completing Virtual School Field Experiences (VSFEs) with cooperating teachers in fully online, asynchronous high school courses in New York State. The VSFEs included a 7-week online teacher training course, and a 7-week online field experience. Pre-service teachers…

  12. Wolves Are Beautiful and Proud: Science Learning from a School Field Trip

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glick, Marilyn Petty; Samarapungavan, Ala

    2008-01-01

    This research examines the impact of related classroom activities on fourth grade students' science learning from a school field trip. The current study draws upon research in psychology and education to create an intervention that is designed to enhance what students learn from school science field trips. The intervention comprises a set of…

  13. Farmer's lung in Northern Ireland.

    PubMed Central

    Stanford, C F; Hall, G; Chivers, A; Martin, B; Nicholls, D P; Evans, J

    1990-01-01

    A total of 381 farmers in Northern Ireland were studied using a questionnaire, pulmonary function tests, and antibody levels to Micropolyspora faena to assess the incidence of farmer's lung. Twenty (4.9%) had a history of a previous diagnosis of farmer's lung by their doctor. Forty four (10.4%) had delayed onset symptoms compatible with farmer's lung, 32 (7.9%) had precipitant antibody, and 61 (15%) had raised antibody by the enzyme linked immunosorbent (ELISA) method. Restricted lungs were present physiologically in 40 (9.8%). A confirmation of delayed symptoms and precipitant antibody was present in seven (1.7%) whereas delayed symptoms and ELISA antibody was present in nine (2.2%). Using either antibody method only two (0.5%) had a combination of antibody to M faenae, delayed onset symptoms, and restricted pulmonary physiology. PMID:2357452

  14. Farmer's lung in Northern Ireland.

    PubMed

    Stanford, C F; Hall, G; Chivers, A; Martin, B; Nicholls, D P; Evans, J

    1990-05-01

    A total of 381 farmers in Northern Ireland were studied using a questionnaire, pulmonary function tests, and antibody levels to Micropolyspora faena to assess the incidence of farmer's lung. Twenty (4.9%) had a history of a previous diagnosis of farmer's lung by their doctor. Forty four (10.4%) had delayed onset symptoms compatible with farmer's lung, 32 (7.9%) had precipitant antibody, and 61 (15%) had raised antibody by the enzyme linked immunosorbent (ELISA) method. Restricted lungs were present physiologically in 40 (9.8%). A confirmation of delayed symptoms and precipitant antibody was present in seven (1.7%) whereas delayed symptoms and ELISA antibody was present in nine (2.2%). Using either antibody method only two (0.5%) had a combination of antibody to M faenae, delayed onset symptoms, and restricted pulmonary physiology.

  15. Pesticide risk perceptions and the differences between farmers and extensionists: Towards a knowledge-in-context model

    SciTech Connect

    Ríos-González, Adriana; Jansen, Kees; Javier Sánchez-Pérez, Héctor

    2013-07-15

    A growing body of literature analyzes farmer perceptions of pesticide risk, but much less attention has been given to differences in risk perception between farmers and technical experts. Furthermore, inconsistencies in knowledge have too easily been explained in terms of lack of knowledge rather than exploring the underlying reasons for particular forms of thinking about pesticide risks. By doing this, the division between expert and lay knowledge has been deepened rather than transcended. Objective: This study aims to understand differences and similarities among the perceptions of pesticide risks of farmers, farm workers, and technical experts such as extensionists, by applying a social science approach towards knowledge and risk attitudes. Methods: Semi-structured interviews and field observations were conducted to smallholders, farm workers, extensionists, health professionals and scientists involved in the use and handling of pesticides. Subsequently, a survey was carried out to quantify the farmers and extensionists' acceptance or rejection of typical assertions expressed previously in the semi-structured interviews. Results: Smallholders showed to gain knowledge from their own experiences and to adapt pesticides practices, which is a potential basis for transforming notions of pesticide safety and risk reduction strategies. Though extensionists have received formal education, they sometimes develop ideas deviating from the technical perspective. The risk perception of the studied actors appeared to vary according to their role in the agricultural labor process; they varied much less than expected according to their schooling level. Conclusions: Commitment to the technical perspective is not dramatically different for extensionists on the one hand and farmers as well as farm workers on the other hand. Ideas about a supposed lack of knowledge by farmers and the need of formal training are too much driven by a deficit model of knowledge. Further research on

  16. 40 CFR 262.70 - Farmers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Farmers. 262.70 Section 262.70 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS APPLICABLE TO GENERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE Farmers § 262.70 Farmers. A farmer disposing of waste...

  17. 40 CFR 262.70 - Farmers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Farmers. 262.70 Section 262.70 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS APPLICABLE TO GENERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE Farmers § 262.70 Farmers. A farmer disposing of waste...

  18. 40 CFR 262.70 - Farmers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Farmers. 262.70 Section 262.70 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS APPLICABLE TO GENERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE Farmers § 262.70 Farmers. A farmer disposing of waste...

  19. 40 CFR 262.70 - Farmers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Farmers. 262.70 Section 262.70 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS APPLICABLE TO GENERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE Farmers § 262.70 Farmers. A farmer disposing of waste...

  20. Stress and Burnout Among Finnish Dairy Farmers.

    PubMed

    Kallioniemi, Marja K; Simola, Ahti; Kaseva, Janne; Kymäläinen, Hanna-Riitta

    2016-01-01

    Psychosocial risks among farmers have increasingly been examined because of the ongoing changes in agriculture, such as restructuring of the industry, transition from family farming towards entrepreneurship, and climate change. The aims of the study were to determine the stressors, prevalence of stress and burnout, and variables associated with these symptoms among Finnish dairy farmers. In total 265 respondents completed a postal survey; their average age was 48 years, 44% were females and 56% males. The farms of the survey sample were larger (54 field hectares, 29 cows) than an average farm in Finland (37 hectares, 24 cows) in 2010. The most common stressors were external, such as "agricultural policy of the EU" (European Union) and "the treatment of farmers in society and the media." In addition, common stressors were related to farm and work, e.g., "amount of work," unpredictability, and "animal diseases." The prevalence of stress (42%) was found to have increased compared with earlier studies and was greater than among the general working population. All respondents as a group were classified as having slight symptoms of burnout, and one tenth (9%) of dairy farmers had experienced severe burnout. Stressors related to the workload and health were associated with stress and burnout symptoms. Also, a poor economic situation and loneliness were related to stress. Burnout correlated with a tie stall barn type and with a farm not being involved in the milk production record system. Factors protecting against burnout included positive features of the work and living environment. The study revealed changes during the past decade and new features of the well-being at work on dairy farms in Finland.

  1. Developing new pathways into the biomedical informatics field: the AMIA High School Scholars Program.

    PubMed

    Unertl, Kim M; Finnell, John T; Sarkar, Indra Neil

    2016-07-01

    Increasing access to biomedical informatics experiences is a significant need as the field continues to face workforce challenges. Looking beyond traditional medical school and graduate school pathways into the field is crucial for expanding the number of individuals and increasing diversity in the field. This case report provides an overview of the development and initial implementation of the American Medical Informatics Association (AMIA) High School Scholars Program. Initiated in 2014, the program's primary goal was to provide dissemination opportunities for high school students engaged in biomedical informatics research. We discuss success factors including strong cross-institutional, cross-organizational collaboration and the high quality of high school student submissions to the program. The challenges encountered, especially around working with minors and communicating program expectations clearly, are also discussed. Finally, we present the path forward for the continued evolution of the AMIA High School Scholars Program.

  2. Using Theory of Learning and Awareness to Bring about Learning through a School-Based Environmental Field Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kwan, Tammy; Chan, Eva

    2004-01-01

    A school-based environmental field project "What Happens Around You and Your School Area?" was designed under the School-based Curriculum Project Scheme (2001-2002) supported by the Hong Kong Education Manpower Bureau (formerly the Education Department). This school-based environmental field project, with heavy inclusion of environmental…

  3. A Preparadigmatic Field: A Review of Research on School Vandalism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zweig, April; Ducey, Michael H.

    One of 52 theoretical papers on school crime and its relation to poverty, this chapter reviews the various approaches used in the study of school vandalism and attempts to define what is needed now. The main contribution of early research on vandalism is to point out an intellectual dead end. Conventional demographic approaches to the problem, by…

  4. Ten Minute Field Trips: Using the School Grounds to Teach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Helen Ross

    1984-01-01

    Discusses how school grounds can be used as a resource to relate textbook concepts to everyday life and to understand interrelationships which exist in the outdoors. Possible school ground learnings considered include topics related to weather and weather prediction; changes (aging, growth, decay); geology; temperature; water; and recycling. (BC)

  5. 29 CFR 780.133 - Farmers' cooperative as a “farmer.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Farmers' cooperative as a âfarmer.â 780.133 Section 780.133... General Scope of Agriculture Practices Performed âby A Farmerâ § 780.133 Farmers' cooperative as a “farmer.” (a) The phrase “by a farmer” covers practices performed either by the farmer himself or by the...

  6. 29 CFR 780.133 - Farmers' cooperative as a “farmer.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Farmers' cooperative as a âfarmer.â 780.133 Section 780.133... General Scope of Agriculture Practices Performed âby A Farmerâ § 780.133 Farmers' cooperative as a “farmer.” (a) The phrase “by a farmer” covers practices performed either by the farmer himself or by the...

  7. Farmer's lung disease in Somerset.

    PubMed Central

    Pether, J V; Greatorex, F B

    1976-01-01

    A survey of laboratory records was made to assess the value of the precipitin test and isolation methods in the diagnosis of farmer's lung disease and also to determine its prevalence in the farming population of Somerset. A link was established between the clinical diagnosis as written on the form that accompanied the specimen and the actual number of positive laboratory diagnoses made. Fifty (43%) of the clinically diagnosed patients were serologically positive for farmer's lung during a four-year period. If the clinically diagnosed but serologically negative cases of farmer's lung disease are added to this number, a prevalence of about 23 per 1000 of the farming population of Somerset is obtained. PMID:999800

  8. Lamont-Doherty's Secondary School Field Research Program: 10 years of field research-based education.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newton, R.; Vincent, S.; Gribbin, S.; Peteet, D. M.; Sambrotto, R.; Bostick, B. C.; Corbett, E.; Nguyen, K.; Bjornton, J.; Lee, D.; Dubossi, D.; Reyes, N.

    2014-12-01

    This fall marks the 10th year in which we have run a research-project-based educational program for high school students and science teachers at the Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory. This summer's cohort included 31 teenagers, 7 science teachers, and 16 college students, most of whom are returning to the program to help run the research projects. Nearly all of our students attend non-competitive-entry public schools in NYC or the neighborhoods around the Observatory. Over 80% are from under-served minority populations. Most receive Title I/III assistance. About 60% are young women. During the past 10 years, nearly all of our participants have gone on to 4-year colleges. About half are declaring science and engineering majors. Our students receive scholarship support at rates several times higher than their graduating peers, including 5 Gates Millennium scholars over the past 5 years. Our science is centered on studies of a nearby tidal wetland, where we have expanded from fish collections in year one to include everything from sediment core analysis to soil chemistry to nutrient cycles to the local food web. In this presentation we will look back over 10 years of experience and focus on what lessons can be learned about (1) how to engage teams of young investigators in authentic scientific research; (2) what cultural/organizational structures encourage them to make use of place- and project-based learning and (3) what the participants themselves report as the most useful aspects of our programming. The presentation will include video clips from the students' field experiences and from reflective interviews with "graduates".

  9. Improving Field Experiences for Rural Preservice Teachers through the Establishment of a Professional Development School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castleman, Jacquelyn B.

    This practicum reports on the creation of a professional development school (PDS) designed to improve field experiences for early childhood education majors at a rural private college. The goal of the project was to increase the number of qualified teachers at a local primary school who would be willing to participate in the supervision of student…

  10. Farmers' Preferences for Methods of Receiving Information on New or Innovative Farming Practices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riesenberg, Lou E.; Gor, Christopher Obel

    1989-01-01

    Survey of 386 Idaho farmers (response rate 58 percent) identified preferred methods of receiving information on new or innovative farming practices. Analysis revealed preference for interpersonal methods (demonstrations, tours, and field trips) over mass media such as computer-assisted instruction (CAI) and home study, although younger farmers,…

  11. Training and Farmers' Organizations' Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miiro, Richard F.; Matsiko, Frank B.; Mazur, Robert E.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: This study sought to determine the influence of training transfer factors and actual application of training on organization level outcomes among farmer owned produce marketing organizations in Uganda. Design/methodology/approach: Interviews based on the Learning Transfer Systems Inventory (LTSI) were conducted with 120 PMO leaders…

  12. Education Needs of Michigan Farmers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suvedi, Murari; Jeong, Eunseong; Coombs, John

    2010-01-01

    In 2008 MSU Extension evaluated their program to identify the major areas of educational need for Michigan farmers and agribusiness operators. Surveys were mailed to a stratified random sample from Michigan Agricultural Statistics Service records of dairy, livestock, swine, cash crops, fruit, vegetable, and nursery/greenhouse producers. Findings…

  13. Remembrances on the origin of the Mexican School of Particles and Fields

    SciTech Connect

    Lucio, Jose Luis; Zepeda, Arnulfo

    2006-09-25

    The Mexican School of Particles and Fields was borne at a time when scientific communications in Mexico, specially with the first world community, were very slow and inefficient. Nowadays, after 22 years, the school is well attended every two years by students and young researchers from Mexico and Latin America. By introducing participants to the fast moving frontier of scientific developments in the area of of high energy physics and astroparticle physics, the School has played an important role in fostering the career of young researchers working in these fields.

  14. Lung function and bronchial reactivity in farmers.

    PubMed Central

    Iversen, M; Dahl, R; Jensen, E J; Korsgaard, J; Hallas, T

    1989-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prevalence and type of lung function disorders in Danish farmers. Three samples of farmers were drawn from a group of unselected farmers who had participated in an epidemiological study. Group I (47 persons) was a sample of the 8% of all farmers who had reported that they had asthma; group II (63 persons) was a sample of the 28% of farmers who had had wheezing, shortness of breath, or cough without phlegm; and group III (34 persons) a sample of the farmers (64% of the total) who had no asthma and no respiratory symptoms. The farmers with symptoms (groups I and II) had low mean levels of FEV1 and high values for residual volume, whereas the symptomless farmers had normal lung function and no airways obstruction. The proportion of farmers with an FEV1 below the 95% confidence limit for predicted values was 43% in group I and 23% in group II; there were none in group III. Bronchial hyperreactivity to histamine occurred in 96% of asthmatic farmers, 67% of farmers with wheezing or shortness of breath, and 59% of symptomless farmers. A low level of FEV1 was associated with the number of years in pig farming and bronchial hyperreactivity in group II but not group I or III. Most of the bronchial hyperreactivity was explained in the multiple regression analysis by a low FEV1, though this was significant only for farmers in group II. Thus farmers who reported asthma, wheezing, shortness of breath, or a dry cough in general had airways obstruction with an increased residual volume, whereas symptomless farmers had normal lung function. Severe bronchial hyperreactivity was mostly explained by a diagnosis of asthma and poor lung function, though some farmers with normal lung function and no respiratory symptoms had increased bronchial reactivity. PMID:2799744

  15. Tilting the Playing Field: Schools, Sports, Sex and Title IX.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gavora, Jessica

    This book suggests that Title IX of the Education Amendments is not creating more female athletes but instead eliminating some of the most prestigious men's sports programs in the name of gender equity. It shows how Title IX has affected every aspect of education, from kindergarten through graduate school, making profound changes in areas as…

  16. Field Test of an Epidemiology Curriculum for Middle School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaelin, Mark A.; Huebner, Wendy W.; Nicolich, Mark J.; Kimbrough, Maudellyn L.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the effectiveness of a middle school epidemiology curriculum called Detectives in the Classroom. The curriculum presents epidemiology as the science of public health, using health-related issues that capture the interest of young students and help prepare them to make evidence-based health-related decisions.…

  17. Increasing Safety in America's Public Schools. Lessons from the Field.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bacon, Beth

    This publication summarizes the 1999 Metropolitan Life Survey (MetLife) of the American Teacher, Violence in America's Public Schools: Five Years Later, highlighting findings from conversations in four local education fund (LEF) communities. The MetLife study surveyed and interviewed students, teachers, and law enforcement officials. Overall,…

  18. Voices from the Field: School Leadership in Special Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zaretsky, Lindy; Moreau, Louise; Faircloth, Susan

    2008-01-01

    This study focuses on four key issues: the perception of the role played by principals in Ontario in the administration and supervision of special education programs and services; the extent to which the construct of the principal as the instructional leader accurately depicts the role of the principal in schools with high concentrations of…

  19. Cooperative Learning: A Field Study with Implications for School Psychologists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bramlett, Ronald K.

    Cooperative learning has received a substantial amount of empirical support to indicate it is a viable classroom reward structure. It has been recommended that school psychologists might add this strategy to their repertoire of interventions to be used in consulting with teachers, particularly integrating handicapped students. A structured…

  20. Economic Openness and the Marginalization of Small Family Farmers: Aligning Curriculum To Meet the Needs of Rural Adolescents in Brazil.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Audrey-Marie Schuh

    Economic liberalization and the rise of global competition have increased the importance of agricultural, technical, and business skills for small farmers in Brazil. However, many rural farmers are unable to attend agricultural technical schools due to low educational attainment. The first section of this paper discusses the impact that…

  1. Extension's Role with Farmers' Markets: Working with Farmers, Consumers, and Communities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abel, Jennifer; Thomson, Joan; Maretzki, Audrey

    1999-01-01

    Extension education can help farmers and consumers enjoy benefits of farmers' markets by helping farmers learn about marketing, assisting communities with site selection, encouraging use of Women Infants Children Farmers' Market Nutrition Program coupons, and teaching consumers about food use and preservation. (SK)

  2. Farmer Experience of Pluralistic Agricultural Extension, Malawi

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chowa, Clodina; Garforth, Chris; Cardey, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Malawi's current extension policy supports pluralism and advocates responsiveness to farmer demand. We investigate whether smallholder farmers' experience supports the assumption that access to multiple service providers leads to extension and advisory services that respond to the needs of farmers. Design/methodology/approach: Within a…

  3. Communicating with "Neglected" Farmers on Regulatory Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (USDA), Washington, DC.

    Workshop recommendations resulting from an Animal and Plant Health Service (APHS) Seminar on ways of reaching "neglected" farmers and enlisting their support for the APHS regulatory programs are provided. The "neglected" farmer is identified as those low-income/minority group marginal farmers who cannot be reached by ordinary means, e.g., poor…

  4. ANNUAL ESTIMATED REPLACEMENT FARMER OPPORTUNITIES IN NEBRASKA.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    GENEREUX, DOUGLAS G.

    AN ESTIMATE OF ANNUAL FARMER REPLACEMENT NEEDS IN THE 93 COUNTIES OF NEBRASKA WAS COMPUTED BY A FORMULA DEVELOPED BY CLARENCE BUNDY AT IOWA STATE UNIVERSITY AND APPLIED TO CENSUS DATA. THE FORMULA WAS USED TO DETERMINE THE NUMBER OF FARMER RETIREMENTS, OR FARMERS LEAVING FARMING, AND FARM CONSOLIDATION RATES. ACCORDING TO THE ESTIMATES, 951…

  5. Use of Student Field-Based Consulting in Business Education: A Comparison of American and Australian Business Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sciglimpaglia, Donald; Toole, Howard R.

    2010-01-01

    This study reports the results of a comparative study of American business schools and Australian schools of commerce regarding utilization of field-based consultancy and associated critical variables. Respondents in the survey were 141 deans of Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business (AACSB) accredited business schools in the United…

  6. Farmers' confidence in vaccinating badgers against bovine tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Enticott, G; Maye, D; Ilbery, B; Fisher, R; Kirwan, J

    2012-02-25

    This paper examines UK farmers' levels of confidence in vaccinating badgers against bovine tuberculosis (bTB) and their trust in the Government's ability to deal with bTB. In 2010, a badger vaccine based on the BCG vaccine was licensed following field trials and used as part of the UK Government's Badger Vaccination Deployment Project. A stratified random sample of cattle farmers in five different locations of England was surveyed using a telephone survey to elicit their views of badger vaccination. The survey provided a total of 341 responses with a response rate of 80 per cent. Results suggest that the farmers are cautious about badger vaccination, appearing to be neither overly confident nor unconfident in it. However, the farmers did not reveal high levels of trust in the Government to manage bTB policy or badger vaccination. There were no differences in the levels of confidence or trust between farms that were under bTB restrictions at the time of the survey and those that were not or between farms with historically high levels of bTB. Analysis of principal components suggests that 33 per cent of the farmers accepted badger vaccination, but that acceptance is dependent on the wider social and political environment.

  7. Reflections on Teaching and Learning for Sustainability from the Cascadia Sustainability Field School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owens, Cameron; Sotoudehnia, Maral; Erickson-McGee, Paige

    2015-01-01

    A complex and contested concept, sustainability presents a great challenge to teachers and learners. Field study is a potentially promising venue to unpack the problematics of sustainability in practice. This paper reflects on the Cascadia Sustainability Field School, offered through the University of Victoria, Canada, providing an overview of the…

  8. Improving a Field School Curriculum Using Modularized Lessons and Authentic Case-Based Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rea, Roy V.; Hodder, Dexter P.

    2007-01-01

    University course evaluations are replete with student comments expressing frustration with taking time out of work, paying money for, and putting energy into field education projects that lack authentic "real-world" problem-solving objectives. Here, we describe a model for field school education that borrows on pedagogical tools such as…

  9. School's IN for Summer: An Alternative Field Experience for Elementary Science Methods Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanuscin, Deborah L.; Musikul, Kusalin

    2007-01-01

    Field experiences are critical to teacher learning and enhance the effectiveness of methods courses; however, when methods courses are offered in the summer, traditional school-based field experiences are not possible. This article describes an alternative campus-based experience created as part of an elementary science methods course. The Summer…

  10. A Comparative Model of Field Investigations: Aligning School Science Inquiry with the Practices of Contemporary Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Windschitl, Mark; Dvornich, Karen; Ryken, Amy E.; Tudor, Margaret; Koehler, Gary

    2007-01-01

    Field investigations are not characterized by randomized and manipulated control group experiments; however, most school science and high-stakes tests recognize only this paradigm of investigation. Scientists in astronomy, genetics, field biology, oceanography, geology, and meteorology routinely select naturally occurring events and conditions and…

  11. Impact of a Paid Urban Field Experience on Teacher Candidates' Willingness to Work in Urban Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grande, Marya; Burns, Barbara; Schmidt, Raquel; Marable, Michele A.

    2009-01-01

    This article describes a paid field experience designed to investigate teacher candidates' willingness to teach in urban schools. Seventy-three teacher candidates each participated in an urban field experience including 90 hours of tutoring and 12 hours of training. Data from pre and post surveys indicated no significant difference as the number…

  12. Cognitive Impact of a Grade School Field Trip.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrell, Patricia D.

    2003-01-01

    Presents a study to design and conduct a three-hour field experience for 3rd and 4th grade students on forestry and forest products, and to determine the cognitive effects of participation in this field trip on the children. Reports an increase in student knowledge after participating in this experience. Discusses the reasons for students'…

  13. Evaluating Sound Field Amplification Technology in New Brunswick Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubin, Rhonda; Aquino-Russell, Catherine; Flagg-Williams, Joan

    2007-01-01

    (Purpose) The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of classroom sound field amplification on communication in kindergarten through grade 3 classrooms. (Methodology) Sixty classrooms were involved in the study; half of the classrooms were provided with sound field amplification. The flow of communication was measured through…

  14. Design and Implementation of a Genomics Field Trip Program Aimed at Secondary School Students

    PubMed Central

    Fox, Joanne A.

    2012-01-01

    With the rapid pace of advancements in biological research brought about by the application of computer science and information technology, we believe the time is right for introducing genomics and bioinformatics tools and concepts to secondary school students. Our approach has been to offer a full-day field trip in our research facility where secondary school students carry out experiments at the laboratory bench and on a laptop computer. This experience offers benefits for students, teachers, and field trip instructors. In delivering a wide variety of science outreach and education programs, we have learned that a number of factors contribute to designing a successful experience for secondary school students. First, it is important to engage students with authentic and fun activities that are linked to real-world applications and/or research questions. Second, connecting with a local high school teacher to pilot programs and linking to curricula taught in secondary schools will enrich the field trip experience. Whether or not programs are linked directly to local teachers, it is important to be flexible and build in mechanisms for collecting feedback in field trip programs. Finally, graduate students can be very powerful mentors for students and should be encouraged to share their enthusiasm for science and to talk about career paths. Our experiences suggest a real need for effective science outreach programs at the secondary school level and that genomics and bioinformatics are ideal areas to explore. PMID:22956895

  15. A Mobile Farmers' Market Brings Nutrition Education to Low-Income Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellsworth, Devin; Ernst, Jenny; Snelling, Anastasia

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the impact of a nutrition-education intervention delivered at low-income middle schools in Washington, DC in the USA, using a mobile farmers' market to bring hands-on lessons to schools. The program was a partnership between a local farm and university and was funded by the United States Department…

  16. Building a Professional Development System That Works for the Field of Out-of-School Time. Making the MOST of Out-of-School Time.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Costley, Joan

    This paper focuses on some of the "how to's" of professional development for the field of out-of-school programs. The paper examines some of the training experiments in the out-of-school time field and considers questions and issues that must be addressed to create an accessible, viable, and useful system of professional development for…

  17. School Psychology: Prospective and Retrospective Views of the Field. Proceedings of the Annual Alfred University School Psychology Symposium (20th, Alfred, New York, November 1, 1998).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaughan, Edward, Ed.; Faherty, Ellen, Ed.

    Five contributors, viewing the field from divergent phenomenological spaces, provide a variety of viewpoints on the status of the field of school psychology. In "Glimpses of the Future in Current Practice?" Randy W. Kamphaus discusses the changing nature of school psychology, its two identities today, and the need to adapt a core value for…

  18. Field Dependence-Field Independence Cognitive Style, Gender, Career Choice and Academic Achievement of Secondary School Students in Emohua Local Government Area of Rivers State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Onyekuru, Bruno Uchenna

    2015-01-01

    This is a descriptive study that investigated the relationships among field dependence-field independence cognitive style and gender, career choice and academic achievement of secondary school students in Emohua Local Government Area of Rivers State, Nigeria. From the initial sample of 320 senior secondary school one (SS1) students drawn from the…

  19. Ecologically-Based Invasive Plant Management Field School Workbook 2009

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A curriculum developed for a field-based course of study for ecologically-based invasive plant management. This curriculum is presented in a modular format with specific exercises to emphasize the important aspects to applying this decision tool to land management....

  20. Rich Township High School, Olympia Fields Campus, Rich Township, Illinois. Profiles of Significant Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clinchy, Evans

    A profile is presented of a high school designed to accommodate the organization of teachers into teams working with student groups of varying sizes--this organization is housed in a compact building with the teaching teams centered in clusters of classrooms. The building is heated in winter and cooled in summer by a heat pump system. The…

  1. Farmers' willingness to pay for groundwater protection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lichtenberg, Erik; Zimmerman, Rae

    1999-03-01

    The effectiveness of current groundwater protection policies depends largely on farmers' voluntary compliance with leaching reduction measures, an important component of which is their willingness to adopt costlier production practices in order to prevent leaching of chemicals. Data from an original survey of 1611 corn and soybean growers in the mid-Atlantic region were used to estimate farmers' willingness to pay to prevent leaching of pesticides into groundwater. The results indicate that farmers are willing to pay more for leaching prevention than nonfarm groundwater consumers, both absolutely and relative to total income. The primary motivation appears to be concern for overall environmental quality rather than protection of drinking water or the health and safety of themselves and their families. Hobby farmers are willing to pay more than farmers with commercial activity. Certified pesticide applicators are willing to pay less than farmers without certification.

  2. Danish dairy farmers' perception of biosecurity.

    PubMed

    Kristensen, Erling; Jakobsen, Esben B

    2011-05-01

    To implement biosecurity measures at farm-level is a motivational challenge to dairy farmers as emerging diseases and their consequences largely are unpredictable. One of the reasons for this challenge is that outcomes are more likely to benefit society than the individual farmer. From the individual farmer's point of view the impacts of zoonotic risk, international trade and welfare concerns appear less obvious than the direct costs at farm-level. Consequently, a social dilemma may arise where collective interests are at odds with private interests. To improve biosecurity at farm-level farmers must be motivated to change behavior in the 'right' direction which could provide selfish farmers with unintended possibilities to exploit the level of biosecurity provided by other dairy farmers' collective actions. Farmers' perception of risk of disease introduction into a dairy herd was explored by means of Q-methodology. Participating farmers owned very large dairy herds and were selected for this study because Danish legislation since 2008 has required that larger farms develop and implement a farm specific biosecurity plan. However, a year from introduction of this requirement, none of the participating farmers had developed a biosecurity plan. Farmers' perception of biosecurity could meaningfully be described by four families of perspectives, labeled: cooperatives; confused; defectors, and introvert. Interestingly, all families of perspectives agreed that sourcing of animals from established dealers represented the highest risk to biosecurity at farm-level. Farmers and policy-makers are faced with important questions about biosecurity at farm-level related to the sanctioning system within the contextual framework of social dilemmas. To solve these challenges we propose the development of a market-mediated system to (1) reduce the risk of free-riders, and (2) provide farmers with incentives to improve biosecurity at farm-level.

  3. Humour as a Resource and Strategy for Boys to Gain Status in the Field of Informal School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huuki, Tuija; Manninen, Sari; Sunnari, Vappu

    2010-01-01

    Through a feminist approach this paper illustrates how humour is used as a resource and strategy for status among Finnish school boys and in constructing culturally accepted masculinity in the field of informal school. Based on interview and observation material collected in three schools, the results suggest that although humour is often…

  4. School Psychology Research and Practice in East Asia: Perspectives on the Past, Present, and Future Directions of the Field

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Jacqueline A.; Watanabe, Yayoi; Lee, Dong Hun; McIntosh, Kent

    2016-01-01

    To engage in a comparison of school psychology research and practice in eastern and western countries, the current study sought to identify key themes that have influenced the field of school psychology in East Asian countries. Forty-six leading school psychology professionals in Japan, Hong Kong, South Korea, Thailand, and Taiwan provided their…

  5. Airborne Nicotine Concentrations in the Workplaces of Tobacco Farmers

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Seok-Ju; Park, Sung-Jun; Kim, Byoung-Seok; Lim, Hyun-Sul; Kim, Jik-Su; Kim, In-Shik

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Nicotine is a natural alkaloid and insecticide in tobacco leaves. Green tobacco sickness (GTS) is known as a disease of acute nicotine intoxication among tobacco farmers. Until now, GTS has been recognized globally as a disease that results from nicotine absorption through the skin. However, we assumed that GTS might also result from nicotine inhalation as well as absorption. We aimed to measure the airborne nicotine concentrations in various work environments of Korean tobacco farmers. Methods We measured the nicotine concentrations in the tobacco fields, private curing barns, and joint curing barns of farmers from July to October 2010. All sampling and analyses of airborne nicotine were conducted according to the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health manual of analytic methods. Results The airborne nicotine concentrations (geometric mean [geometric standard deviation]) in the tobacco field were 83.4 mg/m3 (1.2) in the upper region and 93.3 mg/m3 (1.2) in the lower region. In addition, the nicotine concentration by personal sampling was 150.1 mg/m3. Similarly, the nicotine concentrations in the private curing barn, workers in curing barns, the front yard of the curing barn, and in the joint curing barn were 323.7 mg/m3 (2.0), 121.0 mg/m3 (1.5), 73.7 mg/m3 (1.7), and 610.3 mg/m3 (1.0), respectively. Conclusions The nicotine concentration in the workplaces of tobacco farmers was very high. Future studies should measure the environmental concentration of nicotine that is inhaled by tobacco farmers. PMID:24921017

  6. Changing Farmers' Land Management Practices in the Hills of Nepal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paudel, Giridhari Sharma; Thapa, Gopal B.

    2001-12-01

    This paper sheds light on changing farmers' land management practices in two mountain watersheds, with and without external assistance, in the western hills of Nepal. Information used in the analysis were obtained through a survey of 300 households, group discussion, key informant interviews, and field observation conducted during April-September 1999. Confronted with ever-decreasing landholding size due to a steadily growing population and scarcity of nonfarming employment opportunities, farmers in both watersheds have increasingly adopted assorted types of structural and biological measures to control soil erosion, landslides, gully expansion, and soil nutrient loss to maintain or even enhance land productivity. Adoption of gully control measures, construction of the retention walls, alley cropping, use of vegetative measures for landslide control, mulching, and use of green manure and chemical fertilizers are found significantly high in the project area due to the provision of technical and financial support, whereas composting is found significantly high in the nonproject area. Different from the traditionally held beliefs, population pressure on a finite land resource has brought positive change in land management. However, the experience from both watersheds indicates that there is limit to the extent that resource poor farmers can respond to land degradation without any external assistance. Required is the arrangement for appropriate polices and support services and facilities enabling farmers to adopt locationally suitable and economically attractive land management technologies.

  7. Changing farmers' land management practices in the hills of Nepal.

    PubMed

    Paudel, G S; Thapa, G B

    2001-12-01

    This paper sheds light on changing farmers' land management practices in two mountain watersheds, with and without extemal assistance, in the western hills of Nepal. Information used in the analysis were obtained through a survey of 300 households, group discussion, key informant interviews, and field observation conducted during April-September 1999. Confronted with ever-decreasing landholding size due to a steadily growing population and scarcity of nonfarming employment opportunities, farmers in both watersheds have increasingly adopted assorted types of structural and biological measures to control soil erosion, landslides, gully expansion, and soil nutrient loss to maintain or even enhance land productivity. Adoption of guly control measures, construction of the retention walls, alley cropping, use of vegetative measures for landslide control, mulching, and use of green manure and chemical fertilizers are found significantly high in the project area due to the provision of technical and financial support, whereas composting is found significantly high in the nonproject area. Different from the traditionally held beliefs, population pressure on a finite land resource has brought positive change in land management. However, the experience from both watersheds indicates that there is limit to the extent that resource poor farmers can respond to land degradation without any extemal assistance. Required is the arrangement for appropriate polices and support services and facilities enabling farmers to adopt locationally suitable and economically attractive land management technologies.

  8. Improving community development by linking agriculture, nutrition and education: design of a randomised trial of “home-grown” school feeding in Mali

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Providing food through schools has well documented effects in terms of the education, health and nutrition of school children. However, there is limited evidence in terms of the benefits of providing a reliable market for small-holder farmers through “home-grown” school feeding approaches. This study aims to evaluate the impact of school feeding programmes sourced from small-holder farmers on small-holder food security, as well as on school children’s education, health and nutrition in Mali. In addition, this study will examine the links between social accountability and programme performance. Design This is a field experiment planned around the scale-up of the national school feeding programme, involving 116 primary schools in 58 communities in food insecure areas of Mali. The randomly assigned interventions are: 1) a school feeding programme group, including schools and villages where the standard government programme is implemented; 2) a “home-grown” school feeding and social accountability group, including schools and villages where the programme is implemented in addition to training of community based organisations and local government; and 3) the control group, including schools and household from villages where the intervention will be delayed by at least two years, preferably without informing schools and households. Primary outcomes include small-holder farmer income, school participation and learning, and community involvement in the programme. Other outcomes include nutritional status and diet-diversity. The evaluation will follow a mixed method approach, including household, school and village level surveys as well as focus group discussions with small-holder farmers, school children, parents and community members. The impact evaluation will be incorporated within the national monitoring and evaluation (M&E) system strengthening activities that are currently underway in Mali. Baselines surveys are planned for 2012. A monthly

  9. Incidental Becomes Visible: A Comparison of School- and Community-Based Field Experience Narratives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holder, K. C.; Downey, Jayne A.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe and compare student learning documented using written field experience summary narratives and occurring in community-based or school-based locations. Utilizing a hybrid portraiture--instrumental case study design, two researchers selected participants from undergraduate educational psychology courses using…

  10. A Solar Energy Curriculum for Elementary Schools, Kindergarten Through Grade Six. Field Test Copy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lampert, Seymour; And Others

    Presented is the field test version of an elementary school solar energy curriculum consisting of nearly 50 activities and demonstration experiments. Developed by a team of teachers and subject matter specialists, these materials are grouped under seven content area headings: (1) Scientific Method; (2) Energy and Life; (3) Sun and Light; (4)…

  11. The Impact of Sound-Field Systems on Learning and Attention in Elementary School Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dockrell, Julie E.; Shield, Bridget

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The authors evaluated the installation and use of sound-field systems to investigate the impact of these systems on teaching and learning in elementary school classrooms. Methods: The evaluation included acoustic surveys of classrooms, questionnaire surveys of students and teachers, and experimental testing of students with and without…

  12. Special Field Reports on School Desegregation Projects: Hartford, Forrest City, Bernalillo, Dade County.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ralston, Carolyn; Lewis, Ann

    These reports of the National Center for Research and Information on Equal Educational Opportunity analyze four school districts differing demographically, geographically, and in terms of local history in order to gather information on the ongoing desegregation projects in these areas. Field trips were made to Hartford, Connecticut, Dade County,…

  13. Perspectives on a Reconceptualized Early Field Experience in an Urban School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burant, Theresa J.

    Teacher education in the U.S. faces a critical dilemma: preparing white, middle-class preservice teachers to teach increasingly diverse student populations in public schools. Early field experiences (EFEs) show promise for addressing this mismatch, yet little is actually known about what happens to preservice teachers in practicum experiences.…

  14. Impacts of Farmers' Knowledge Increase on Farm Profit and Watershed Water Quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, D.; Bennett, D. A.

    2013-12-01

    This study explores the impact that an increase in real-time data might have on farmers' nitrogen management, on-farm profit, and watershed water quality in the Midwestern US. In this study, an agent-based model (ABM) is used to simulate farmers' decisions about nitrogen application rate and timing in corn fields. SWAT (soil-water assessment tool) is used to generate a database that characterizes the response of corn yields to nitrogen fertilizer application and the dynamics of nitrogen loss under different scenarios of rainfall events. The database simulates a scenario where farmers would receive real-time feedback about the fate and impact of nitrogen applied to their fields from in-situ sensors. The ability to transform these data into optimal actions is simulated at multiple levels for farmer agents. In a baseline scenario, the farmer agent is only aware of the yield potential of the land field and single values of N rates for achieving the yield potential and is not aware of N loss from farm fields. Knowledge increase is represented by greater accuracy in predicting rainfall events, and the increase of the number of discrete points in a field-specific quadratic curve that captures crop yield response to various levels of nitrogen perceived by farmer agents. In addition, agents perceive N loss from farm fields at increased temporal resolutions. Correspondingly, agents make adjustments to the rate of N application for crops and the timing of fertilizer application given the rainfall events predictions. Farmers' decisions simulated by the ABM are input into SWAT to model nitrogen concentration in impacted streams. Farm profit statistics and watershed-level nitrogen loads are compared among different scenarios of knowledge increase. The hypothesis that the increase of farmers' knowledge benefits both farm profits and watershed water quality is tested through the comparison.

  15. Small Farmers' Habits of Reading Agricultural Extension Publications: The Case of Moshav Farmers in Israel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blum, Abraham; Azencot, Moshe

    1989-01-01

    Interviews farmers in Moshavim, Israel, to examine the need for efficient written communication channels between agricultural extension services and small farmers. Identifies the main problems as a weak distribution system and the necessity for authors of extension pamphlets and brochures to consider the special needs of small farmers. (KEH)

  16. Farmer, Agent, and Specialist Perspectives on Preferences for Learning among Today's Farmers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franz, Nancy K.; Piercy, Fred; Donaldson, Joseph; Westbrook, Johnnie; Richard, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Few studies have examined the types of educational delivery methods preferred by farmers (Eckert & Bell, 2005; Eckert & Bell, 2006). The research project reported here explored the preferred learning methods of farmers in Louisiana, Tennessee, and Virginia. Data on learning methods collected directly from farmers were compared with…

  17. Field study on effects of a heat exchanger on broiler performance, energy use, and calculated carbon dioxide emission at commercial broiler farms, and the experiences of farmers using a heat exchanger.

    PubMed

    Bokkers, E A M; van Zanten, H H E; van den Brand, H

    2010-12-01

    In broiler houses, ventilation removes moisture and maintains ambient temperature and air quality. During cold weather conditions, ventilation can result in undesirable heat loss from the house. Extra input of energy for heating the building is needed then, resulting in extra CO(2) emissions when fossil fuels are used for this purpose. In such a situation, an air-to-air heat exchanger (HE) might be valuable because it recovers heat by prewarming fresh supply air with warm inside air. The aim of this study was to analyze effects of on-farm use of an HE on broiler performance, energy use, and CO(2) emission by comparing production cycles with and without an HE, and to inventory the experiences of farmers using an HE. Data were collected of production cycles finished with (102) or without (149) an HE on 25 farms. Data on mortality, feed intake, water intake, and BW gain were obtained to analyze broiler performance. When available, gas and electricity use were obtained to analyze energy use and to calculate CO(2) emission. Farmers were interviewed about their experiences regarding the HE. The use of an HE tended to increase daily weight gain (56 vs. 55, SEM 0.3 g/d; P = 0.07), but did not affect other performance variables. Based on 13 farms, gas use was reduced by 38% (P < 0.01) after installing an HE. Based on 3 farms only, an HE did not affect electricity use, total energy use, or calculated CO(2) emission. It appeared that farmers were satisfied with the HE because they experienced an increase in job satisfaction, an improvement of climate conditions and litter quality in the broiler house, and a more uniform temperature and broiler distribution in the house. We concluded that the use of an HE reduced gas use and has the ability to improve broiler weight gain but had no effect on other broiler performance variables. Effects on CO(2) emission were unclear. Farmers appeared to be positive about using an HE, because it improved broiler house climate and job

  18. A conceptual model for determining career choice of CHROME alumna based on farmer's conceptual models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, Lisa Simmons

    This qualitative program evaluation examines the career decision-making processes and career choices of nine, African American women who participated in the Cooperating Hampton Roads Organization for Minorities in Engineering (CHROME) and who graduated from urban, rural or suburban high schools in the year 2000. The CHROME program is a nonprofit, pre-college intervention program that encourages underrepresented minority and female students to enter science, technically related, engineering, and math (STEM) career fields. The study describes career choices and decisions made by each participant over a five-year period since high school graduation. Data was collected through an Annual Report, Post High School Questionnaires, Environmental Support Questionnaires, Career Choice Questionnaires, Senior Reports, and standardized open-ended interviews. Data was analyzed using a model based on Helen C. Farmer's Conceptual Models, John Ogbu's Caste Theory and Feminist Theory. The CHROME program, based on its stated goals and tenets, was also analyzed against study findings. Findings indicated that participants received very low levels of support from counselors and teachers to pursue STEM careers and high levels of support from parents and family, the CHROME program and financial backing. Findings of this study also indicated that the majority of CHROME alumna persisted in STEM careers. The most successful participants, in terms of undergraduate degree completion and occupational prestige, were the African American women who remained single, experienced no critical incidents, came from a middle class to upper middle class socioeconomic background, and did not have children.

  19. Beginning Farmer Sustainable Agriculture Project. Interim Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Rural Affairs, Hartington, NE.

    This project increases opportunities for beginning farmers to learn about and implement sustainable farming methods through mutual-help discussion groups and continuing education opportunities. Local groups established in six areas in northeast Nebraska in 1991 constitute the Beginning Farmer Support Network (BFSN). At workshops held throughout…

  20. Human prehistory: Hunting for the earliest farmers.

    PubMed

    Rowley-Conwy, Peter

    2009-11-03

    The degree to which the spread of farming into Europe was accompanied by demographic shifts is subject to intense debate. Genetic evidence from Europe's first farmers and their hunter-gatherer counterparts now suggests an important role for the immigration of farmers.

  1. Best Management Practices for Beginning Farmer Support

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ochterski, Jim; Frenay, Erica

    2010-01-01

    Many beginning farmers have little previous contact with Extension, yet they will comprise an important part of our future base of support. We present those educational activities directed toward beginning farmers that represent high impact, outcome-based Extension programming, given an educator's time limitations. This checklist of insights will…

  2. Successful Black Farmers: Factors in Their Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Minnie M.; Larson, Olaf F.

    This paper identifies individual and institutional factors which have facilitated or inhibited the achievement of successful black farmers. The information derived from the case studies is used to develop a model which can be used in working effectively with black farmers. The thirteen case studies discussed focus on the following: (1) reasons for…

  3. Social Network Structures among Groundnut Farmers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thuo, Mary; Bell, Alexandra A.; Bravo-Ureta, Boris E.; Okello, David K.; Okoko, Evelyn Nasambu; Kidula, Nelson L.; Deom, C. Michael; Puppala, Naveen

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Groundnut farmers in East Africa have experienced declines in production despite research and extension efforts to increase productivity. This study examined how social network structures related to acquisition of information about new seed varieties and productivity among groundnut farmers in Uganda and Kenya.…

  4. Farmer's Use of the Soil Test Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Best, K. E.; Blackburn, D. J.

    A study of Haldimand County (Ontario, Canada) farmers' use and understanding of soil test reports and the relationship of these variables with certain personal and social characteristics of the respondents are summarized. The objectives of the study were to indicate the extent to which farmers use the soil test report, the quality of fertilizer…

  5. Factors Influencing Access to Integrated Soil Fertility Management Information and Knowledge and Its Uptake among Smallholder Farmers in Zimbabwe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gwandu, T.; Mtambanengwe, F.; Mapfumo, P.; Mashavave, T. C.; Chikowo, R.; Nezomba, H.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The study evaluated how farmer acquisition, sharing and use patterns of information and knowledge interact with different socioeconomic factors to influence integrated soil fertility management (ISFM) technology uptake. Design/methodology/approach: The study was conducted as part of an evaluation of field-based farmer learning approaches…

  6. Follow Up Study: John H. Lounsbury School of Education Field-Based Program Graduates Now Teaching in Partner and Professional Development Schools of Georgia College and State University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smoot, Sharene L.

    A study was done to investigate the status and attitudes of graduates from field-based programs of the John H. Lounsbury School of Education of Georgia College and State University who were teaching in partner and professional development schools. The study was done in two waves, first by e-mail, and then by postal service. There were 41…

  7. Water Quality: A Field-Based Quality Testing Program for Middle Schools and High Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Massachusetts State Water Resources Authority, Boston.

    This manual contains background information, lesson ideas, procedures, data collection and reporting forms, suggestions for interpreting results, and extension activities to complement a water quality field testing program. Information on testing water temperature, water pH, dissolved oxygen content, biochemical oxygen demand, nitrates, total…

  8. Maximizing School Counselors' Efforts by Implementing School-Wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports: A Case Study from the Field

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodman-Scott, Emily

    2014-01-01

    School-Wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (PBIS) are school-wide, data-driven frameworks for promoting safe schools and student learning. This article explains PBIS and provides practical examples of PBIS implementation by describing a school counselor-run PBIS framework in one elementary school, as part of a larger, district-wide…

  9. Will China's Cooperative Medical System fail again? Insight from farmer satisfaction survey.

    PubMed

    Chen, Dong; Tang, Kam Ki; Zhao, Lifeng; Zhang, Yuhong

    2015-06-01

    This paper studied the sustainability of China's New Rural Cooperative Medical System (NCMS) by evaluating the satisfaction rate of its participants-the farmers. The study related the overall satisfaction of the farmers to their satisfaction with the four different aspects of the program. It also identified which personal and program attributes affect the farmers' satisfaction rate. Survey data of 1278 households from 66 counties in Shandong Province of China were collected in 2011 using a multi-stage stratified cluster-sampling method. To overcome the nepotistic barriers in rural China, field surveys in each township were conducted by university students from the same place. Data were analyzed using multiple regressions and structural equation modeling method. The results showed that 86% of the farmers were either satisfied or very satisfied with the NCMS and 82% indicated their intention to continue participating in the program. Aside from its financial benefits, both the publicity and reimbursement procedure of the program were found to be significant factors in influencing the satisfaction of the farmers. Majority of the participants held positive opinions toward the NCMS, contradicting the negative assessments made by many previous studies. Given the high proportion of farmers willing to continue with the program, it is likely to be sustainable in the near future. Greater publicity and education efforts should be made to make the farmers better informed about the program, and measures should be taken to improve its reimbursement procedure and the setting of the premium level.

  10. Organic dairy farmers put more emphasis on production traits than conventional farmers.

    PubMed

    Slagboom, M; Kargo, M; Edwards, D; Sørensen, A C; Thomasen, J R; Hjortø, L

    2016-12-01

    The overall aim of this research was to characterize the preferences of Danish dairy farmers for improvements in breeding goal traits. The specific aims were (1) to investigate the presence of heterogeneity in farmers' preferences by means of cluster analysis, and (2) to associate these clusters with herd characteristics and production systems (organic or conventional). We established a web-based survey to characterize the preferences of farmers for improvements in 10 traits, by means of pairwise rankings. We also collected a considerable number of herd characteristics. Overall, 106 organic farmers and 290 conventional farmers answered the survey, all with Holstein cows. The most preferred trait improvement was cow fertility, and the least preferred was calving difficulty. By means of cluster analysis, we identified 4 distinct clusters of farmers and named them according to the trait improvements that were most preferred: Health and Fertility, Production and Udder Health, Survival, and Fertility and Production. Some herd characteristics differed between clusters; for example, farmers in the Survival cluster had twice the percentage of dead cows in their herds compared with the other clusters, and farmers that gave the highest ranking to cow and heifer fertility had the lowest conception rate in their herds. This finding suggests that farmers prefer to improve traits that are more problematic in their herd. The proportion of organic and conventional farmers also differed between clusters; we found a higher proportion of organic farmers in the production-based clusters. When we analyzed organic and conventional data separately, we found that organic farmers ranked production traits higher than conventional farmers. The herds of organic farmers had lower milk yields and lower disease incidences, which might explain the high ranking of milk production and the low ranking of disease traits. This study shows that heterogeneity exists in farmers' preferences for

  11. Sub-slab pressure field extension in schools and other large buildings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, D. B.; Craig, A. B.; Leovic, K. W.

    1991-09-01

    The experiences of EPA are discussed in using pressure field extension (PFE) to design active subslab depressurization (ASD) systems to reduce radon levels in old and new schools, including instances where the data collected resulted in the installation of smaller systems than expected and selection of high vacuum fans instead of normal mitigation fans. A central collection system for use under very large slabs is discussed and PFE data are given for a hospital under construction. The most direct method of projecting or measuring the performance of an ASD system is to measure the strength and extent of the pressure field established under the slab. The PFE can be determined (during diagnostics) to help design an ASD system and (following installation) to ascertain system performance. In schools and other large buildings, these data are invaluable to provide a system that will mitigate the building without undue cost escalation.

  12. Heat exposure on farmers in northeast Ghana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frimpong, Kwasi; Van Etten E J, Eddie; Oosthuzien, Jacques; Fannam Nunfam, Victor

    2017-03-01

    Environmental health hazards faced by farmers, such as exposure to extreme heat stress, are a growing concern due to global climate change, particularly in tropical developing countries. In such environments, farmers are considered to be a population at risk of environmental heat exposure. The situation is exacerbated due to their farming methods that involve the use of primitive equipment and hard manual labour conducted in full sunshine under hot and humid conditions. However, there is inadequate information about the extent of heat exposure to such farmers, both at the household and farm levels. This paper presents results from a study assessing environmental heat exposure on rural smallholder farmers in Bawku East, Northern Ghana. From January to December 2013, Lascar USB temperature and humidity sensors and a calibrated Questemp heat stress monitor were deployed to farms and homes of rural farmers at Pusiga in Bawku East to capture farmers' exposure to heat stress in both their living and working environments as they executed regular farming routines. The Lascar sensors have the capability to frequently, accurately and securely measure temperature and humidity over long periods. The Questemp heat stress monitor was placed in the same vicinity and showed strong correlations to Lascar sensors in terms of derived values of wet-bulb globe temperature (WBGT). The WBGT in the working environment of farmers peaked at 33.0 to 38.1 °C during the middle of the day in the rainy season from March to October and dropped to 14.0-23.7 °C in the early morning during this season. A maximum hourly WBGT of 28.9-37.5 °C (March-October) was recorded in the living environment of farmers, demonstrating little relief from heat exposure during the day. With these levels of heat stress, exposed farmers conducting physically demanding outdoor work risk suffering serious health consequences. The sustainability of manual farming practices is also under threat by such high levels of

  13. Heat exposure on farmers in northeast Ghana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frimpong, Kwasi; Van Etten E J, Eddie; Oosthuzien, Jacques; Fannam Nunfam, Victor

    2016-08-01

    Environmental health hazards faced by farmers, such as exposure to extreme heat stress, are a growing concern due to global climate change, particularly in tropical developing countries. In such environments, farmers are considered to be a population at risk of environmental heat exposure. The situation is exacerbated due to their farming methods that involve the use of primitive equipment and hard manual labour conducted in full sunshine under hot and humid conditions. However, there is inadequate information about the extent of heat exposure to such farmers, both at the household and farm levels. This paper presents results from a study assessing environmental heat exposure on rural smallholder farmers in Bawku East, Northern Ghana. From January to December 2013, Lascar USB temperature and humidity sensors and a calibrated Questemp heat stress monitor were deployed to farms and homes of rural farmers at Pusiga in Bawku East to capture farmers' exposure to heat stress in both their living and working environments as they executed regular farming routines. The Lascar sensors have the capability to frequently, accurately and securely measure temperature and humidity over long periods. The Questemp heat stress monitor was placed in the same vicinity and showed strong correlations to Lascar sensors in terms of derived values of wet-bulb globe temperature (WBGT). The WBGT in the working environment of farmers peaked at 33.0 to 38.1 °C during the middle of the day in the rainy season from March to October and dropped to 14.0-23.7 °C in the early morning during this season. A maximum hourly WBGT of 28.9-37.5 °C (March-October) was recorded in the living environment of farmers, demonstrating little relief from heat exposure during the day. With these levels of heat stress, exposed farmers conducting physically demanding outdoor work risk suffering serious health consequences. The sustainability of manual farming practices is also under threat by such high levels of

  14. Geological field study for science education on Elementary and Junior high school student, in Shimane prefecture, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsumoto, I.

    2011-12-01

    The importance of learning at field has been increasing in the elementary and the junior high school in Japan. And, an environmental education is one of the important subjects even in the school education, too. It was important, as for science education, understanding with actual feeling and learning were specified as for the Teaching outlines (the Japanese Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology) of the new science textbook of the elementary and the junior high school as well. However, It is a little actual situation that there is in an opportunity for the field learning enforced in the school lesson by the investigation of JST (Japan Science and Tecnology Agency). This tendency is strong as much as school of the city and that circumference. I have this cause think that there are a few suitable places for learning to observe geological and biological field near school. In addition, below two is pointed out as a big problem to obstruct the execution of field learning. 1) A natural experience isn't being done sufficient as much as a teacher can teach to the student. 2) It doesn't have the confidence that a teacher teaches a student geology and biology at the field. I introduce the practical example of geological field learning at the public elementary school of the Shimane prefecture by this research. Though it is the place where nature is comparatively rich even in Japan, it can't be said that field learning is popular in Shimane prefecture. A school teacher has to learning experience at field, and he must settle confidence to guide a student at the field. A specialist in the university and the museum must support continuous learning for that to the school teacher.

  15. Attracting Youth to Agriculture: The Career Interests of Young Farmers Club Members in Uganda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mukembo, Stephen C.; Edwards, M. Craig; Ramsey, Jon W.; Henneberry, Shida R.

    2014-01-01

    This embedded, quantitative case study included 102 participants who were members of Young Farmers Clubs (YFCs) from two secondary schools in eastern Uganda. The study's multifold purpose was to describe YFC members' personal characteristics and their reasons for joining the clubs. In addition, the study sought to determine the career…

  16. Factors Associated with Farmer's Perception of Agricultural Extension in Antioquia, Columbia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zapata, Fabio A.

    Farmers' perceptions of Extension services and Extension agents representing agricultural organizations in Antioquia, Columbia, were studied. A total of 370 interviews were made with clients of three Extension Services. A positive correlation was found between the client's perception of the agent and years of schooling, economic status, practices…

  17. Would banning atrazine benefit farmers?

    PubMed

    Ackerman, Frank; Whited, Melissa; Knight, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Atrazine, an herbicide used on most of the US corn (maize) crop, is the subject of ongoing controversy, with increasing documentation of its potentially harmful health and environmental impacts. Supporters of atrazine often claim that it is of great value to farmers; most recently, Syngenta, the producer of atrazine, sponsored an "Atrazine Benefits Team" (ABT) of researchers who released a set of five papers in 2011, reporting huge economic benefits from atrazine use in US agriculture. A critical review of the ABT papers shows that they have underestimated the growing problem of atrazine-resistant weeds, offered only a partial review of the effectiveness of alternative herbicides, and ignored the promising option of nonchemical weed management techniques. In addition, the most complete economic analysis in the ABT papers implies that withdrawal of atrazine would lead to a decrease in corn yields of 4.4% and an increase in corn prices of 8.0%. The result would be an increase in corn growers' revenues, equal to US$1.7 billion annually under ABT assumptions. Price impacts on consumers would be minimal: at current levels of ethanol production and use, gasoline prices would rise by no more than US$0.03 per gallon; beef prices would rise by an estimated US$0.01 for a 4-ounce hamburger and US$0.05 for an 8-ounce steak. Thus withdrawal of atrazine would boost farm revenues, while only changing consumer prices by pennies.

  18. Would banning atrazine benefit farmers?

    PubMed Central

    Ackerman, Frank; Whited, Melissa; Knight, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Atrazine, an herbicide used on most of the US corn (maize) crop, is the subject of ongoing controversy, with increasing documentation of its potentially harmful health and environmental impacts. Supporters of atrazine often claim that it is of great value to farmers; most recently, Syngenta, the producer of atrazine, sponsored an “Atrazine Benefits Team” (ABT) of researchers who released a set of five papers in 2011, reporting huge economic benefits from atrazine use in US agriculture. A critical review of the ABT papers shows that they have underestimated the growing problem of atrazine-resistant weeds, offered only a partial review of the effectiveness of alternative herbicides, and ignored the promising option of non-chemical weed management techniques. In addition, the most complete economic analysis in the ABT papers implies that withdrawal of atrazine would lead to a decrease in corn yields of 4.4% and an increase in corn prices of 8.0%. The result would be an increase in corn growers’ revenues, equal to US$1.7 billion annually under ABT assumptions. Price impacts on consumers would be minimal: at current levels of ethanol production and use, gasoline prices would rise by no more than US$0.03 per gallon; beef prices would rise by an estimated US$0.01 for a 4-ounce hamburger and US$0.05 for an 8-ounce steak. Thus withdrawal of atrazine would boost farm revenues, while only changing consumer prices by pennies. PMID:24804340

  19. Farmer's Lung Disease. A Review.

    PubMed

    Cano-Jiménez, Esteban; Acuña, Adelaida; Botana, María Isabel; Hermida, Teresa; González, María Guadalupe; Leiro, Virginia; Martín, Irene; Paredes, Sonia; Sanjuán, Pilar

    2016-06-01

    Farmer's lung disease (FLD) is a form of hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP) caused by inhaling microorganisms from hay or grain stored in conditions of high humidity in the agricultural workplace. It is probably underdiagnosed, especially in northern Spain, where climatic conditions favor the development of this disease. According to previous studies, the most common antigens are usually thermophilic actinomycetes and fungi. The epidemiology of the disease is not well known, and is based on studies conducted by Central European and Asian groups. The clinical presentation may vary, differentiating the chronic (exposure to lower concentrations of the antigen over a longer period time) and the acute forms (after exposure to high concentrations of the antigen). In patients with respiratory symptoms and agricultural occupational exposure, radiological, lung function and/or anatomical pathology findings must be compatible with FLD, bronchoalveolar lavage must show lymphocytosis, and tests must find sensitivity to the antigen. The main treatment is avoidance of the antigen, so it is essential to educate patients on preventive measures. To date, no controlled studies have assessed the role of immunosuppressive therapy in this disease. Corticosteroid treatment has only been shown to accelerate resolution of the acute forms, but there is no evidence that it is effective in preventing disease progression in the long-term or reducing mortality.

  20. Impacts of public policies and farmer preferences on agroforestry practices in Kerala, India.

    PubMed

    Guillerme, S; Kumar, B M; Menon, A; Hinnewinkel, C; Maire, E; Santhoshkumar, A V

    2011-08-01

    Agroforestry systems are fundamental features of the rural landscape of the Indian state of Kerala. Yet these mixed species systems are increasingly being replaced by monocultures. This paper explores how public policies on land tenure, agriculture, forestry and tree growing on private lands have interacted with farmer preferences in shaping land use dynamics and agroforestry practices. It argues that not only is there no specific policy for agroforestry in Kerala, but also that the existing sectoral policies of land tenure, agriculture, and forestry contributed to promoting plantation crops, even among marginal farmers. Forest policies, which impose restrictions on timber extraction from farmers' fields under the garb of protecting natural forests, have often acted as a disincentive to maintaining tree-based mixed production systems on farmlands. The paper argues that public policies interact with farmers' preferences in determining land use practices.

  1. Summer school in the field of Space Technologies: A novel approach for teenage education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolea, Paul; Vladut Dascal, Paul

    2014-05-01

    This paper presents the main practical aspects regarding the organization of a summer school in the field of Space Technologies and Radio Science. This one-week summer school is aimed for education of teenagers between 12 and 16 years. Currently, the summer school reached its third edition. During this educational activities some especially designed prototype equipments were used with the main purpose of educating adolescents towards a scientific career in the field of Space Technologies and Radio Science. The main equipments and associated experiments are presented as follows: 1. A teaching purpose radio telescope emphasizing the working principle of professional radio telescopes. The experiments were focused on scanning the sky for identifying the positions of geostationary satellites and the Sun. 2. A weather satellite reception equipment used for downloading real-time APT (Automatic Picture Transmission) weather data from NOAA (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration) weather satellite fleet. The visual images were used for emphasizing the clouds and cloud systems over Europe. 3. A prototype equipment for receiving electromagnetic waves in the field of VLF (Very Low Frequency) with the purpose of analyzing the electromagnetic radio frequency spectrum. The main emphasized phenomenons in the VLF band (3 kHz - 30 kHz) are related to radio transmitters, electrical discharges in the atmosphere (lightning) and the electromagnetic pollution. 4. An equipment designed for initiating teenagers in the field of radio communication. This equipment was used for transmission and reception of images and sound over a distance of few kilometers, by using high-gain directional antennas. 5. Other sets of experiments were undertaken with the main purpose of mapping the countryside area in which the experiments had taken place. For this activity GPS devices were used. This paper may be considered a practical guideline for those who want to attract young students towards a

  2. Farmer Heroes Manage Nutrients On Farm

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    These featured farmers have been identified by the National Association of Conservation Districts and EPA for implementing specific best management practices to reduce pollution while also improving or sustaining their profits, soil quality or yields.

  3. Agricultural waste utilisation strategies and demand for urban waste compost: Evidence from smallholder farmers in Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Nigussie, Abebe; Kuyper, Thomas W; de Neergaard, Andreas

    2015-10-01

    The use of agricultural waste for soil amendment is limited in developing countries. Competition between fuel and feed is the major cause for the insufficient application of agricultural waste on cropland. The aims of this study were therefore (i) to investigate variation in agricultural waste allocation between groups of farmers with different livelihood strategies and link this allocation with the nutrient balances of their production systems, (ii) to identify farm characteristics that influence utilisation of agricultural waste for soil amendment, and (iii) to assess demand for urban waste compost. A total of 220 farmers were selected randomly and interviewed using standardised semi-structured questionnaires. Four groups of farmers, namely (i) field crop farmers, (ii) vegetable producers, (iii) ornamental-plant growers, and (iv) farmers practising mixed farming, were identified using categorical principal component and two-step cluster analyses. Field crop farmers produced the largest quantity of agricultural waste, but they allocated 80% of manure to fuel and 85% of crop residues to feed. Only <10% of manure and crop residues were applied on soils. Farmers also sold manure and crop residues, and this generated 5-10% of their annual income. Vegetable and ornamental-plant growers allocated over 40% of manure and crop residues to soil amendment. Hence, nutrient balances were less negative in vegetable production systems. Education, farm size, land tenure and access to extension services were the variables that impeded allocation of agricultural waste to soil amendment. Replacement of fuel and feed through sustainable means is a viable option for soil fertility management. Urban waste compost should also be used as alternative option for soil amendment. Our results showed variation in compost demand between farmers. Education, landownership, experience with compost and access to extension services explained variation in compost demand. We also demonstrated that

  4. Factors Influencing Smallholder Farmers' Climate Change Perceptions: A Study from Farmers in Ethiopia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habtemariam, Lemlem Teklegiorgis; Gandorfer, Markus; Kassa, Getachew Abate; Heissenhuber, Alois

    2016-08-01

    Factors influencing climate change perceptions have vital roles in designing strategies to enrich climate change understanding. Despite this, factors that influence smallholder farmers' climate change perceptions have not yet been adequately studied. As many of the smallholder farmers live in regions where climate change is predicted to have the most negative impact, their climate change perception is of particular interest. In this study, based on data collected from Ethiopian smallholder farmers, we assessed farmers' perceptions and anticipations of past and future climate change. Furthermore, the factors influencing farmers' climate change perceptions and the relation between farmers' perceptions and available public climate information were assessed. Our findings revealed that a majority of respondents perceive warming temperatures and decreasing rainfall trends that correspond with the local meteorological record. Farmers' perceptions about the past climate did not always reflect their anticipations about the future. A substantial number of farmers' anticipations of future climate were less consistent with climate model projections. The recursive bivariate probit models employed to explore factors affecting different categories of climate change perceptions illustrate statistical significance for explanatory variables including location, gender, age, education, soil fertility status, climate change information, and access to credit services. The findings contribute to the literature by providing evidence not just on farmers' past climate perceptions but also on future climate anticipations. The identified factors help policy makers to provide targeted extension and advisory services to enrich climate change understanding and support appropriate farm-level climate change adaptations.

  5. Analyzing the heterogeneity of farmers' preferences for improvements in dairy cow traits using farmer typologies.

    PubMed

    Martin-Collado, D; Byrne, T J; Amer, P R; Santos, B F S; Axford, M; Pryce, J E

    2015-06-01

    Giving consideration to farmers' preferences for improvements in animal traits when designing genetic selection tools such as selection indexes might increase the uptake of these tools. The increase in use of genetic selection tools will, in turn, assist in the realization of genetic gain in breeding programs. However, the determination of farmers' preferences is not trivial because of its large heterogeneity. The aim of this study was to quantify Australian dairy farmers' preferences for cow trait improvements to inform and ultimately direct the choice of traits and selection indexes in the 2014 review of the National Breeding Objective. A specific aim was to analyze the heterogeneity of preferences for cow trait improvements by determining whether there are farmer types that can be identified with specific patterns of preferences. We analyzed whether farmer types differed in farming system, socioeconomic profile, and attitudes toward breeding and genetic evaluation tools. An online survey was developed to explore farmers' preferences for improvement in 13 cow traits. The pairwise comparisons method was used to derive a ranking of the traits for each respondent. A total of 551 farmers fully completed the survey. A principal component analysis followed by a Ward hierarchical cluster analysis was used to group farmers according to their preferences. Three types of farmers were determined: (1) production-focused farmers, who gave the highest preference of all for improvements in protein yield, lactation persistency, feed efficiency, cow live weight, and milking speed; (2) functionality-focused farmers with the highest preferences of all for improvements in mastitis, lameness, and calving difficulty; and (3) type-focused farmers with the highest preferences of all for mammary system and type. Farmer types differed in their age, their attitudes toward genetic selection, and in the selection criteria they use. Surprisingly, farmer types did not differ for herd size

  6. Factors Influencing Smallholder Farmers' Climate Change Perceptions: A Study from Farmers in Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Habtemariam, Lemlem Teklegiorgis; Gandorfer, Markus; Kassa, Getachew Abate; Heissenhuber, Alois

    2016-08-01

    Factors influencing climate change perceptions have vital roles in designing strategies to enrich climate change understanding. Despite this, factors that influence smallholder farmers' climate change perceptions have not yet been adequately studied. As many of the smallholder farmers live in regions where climate change is predicted to have the most negative impact, their climate change perception is of particular interest. In this study, based on data collected from Ethiopian smallholder farmers, we assessed farmers' perceptions and anticipations of past and future climate change. Furthermore, the factors influencing farmers' climate change perceptions and the relation between farmers' perceptions and available public climate information were assessed. Our findings revealed that a majority of respondents perceive warming temperatures and decreasing rainfall trends that correspond with the local meteorological record. Farmers' perceptions about the past climate did not always reflect their anticipations about the future. A substantial number of farmers' anticipations of future climate were less consistent with climate model projections. The recursive bivariate probit models employed to explore factors affecting different categories of climate change perceptions illustrate statistical significance for explanatory variables including location, gender, age, education, soil fertility status, climate change information, and access to credit services. The findings contribute to the literature by providing evidence not just on farmers' past climate perceptions but also on future climate anticipations. The identified factors help policy makers to provide targeted extension and advisory services to enrich climate change understanding and support appropriate farm-level climate change adaptations.

  7. International Volcanological Field School in Kamchatka and Alaska: Experiencing Language, Culture, Environment, and Active Volcanoes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eichelberger, J. C.; Gordeev, E.; Ivanov, B.; Izbekov, P.; Kasahara, M.; Melnikov, D.; Selyangin, O.; Vesna, Y.

    2003-12-01

    The Kamchatka State University of Education, University of Alaska Fairbanks, and Hokkaido University are developing an international field school focused on explosive volcanism of the North Pacific. An experimental first session was held on Mutnovsky and Gorely Volcanoes in Kamchatka during August 2003. Objectives of the school are to:(1) Acquaint students with the chemical and physical processes of explosive volcanism, through first-hand experience with some of the most spectacular volcanic features on Earth; (2) Expose students to different concepts and approaches to volcanology; (3) Expand students' ability to function in a harsh environment and to bridge barriers in language and culture; (4) Build long-lasting collaborations in research among students and in teaching and research among faculty in the North Pacific region. Both undergraduate and graduate students from Russia, the United States, and Japan participated. The school was based at a mountain hut situated between Gorely and Mutnovsky Volcanoes and accessible by all-terrain truck. Day trips were conducted to summit craters of both volcanoes, flank lava flows, fumarole fields, ignimbrite exposures, and a geothermal area and power plant. During the evenings and on days of bad weather, the school faculty conducted lectures on various topics of volcanology in either Russian or English, with translation. Although subjects were taught at the undergraduate level, lectures led to further discussion with more advanced students. Graduate students participated by describing their research activities to the undergraduates. A final session at a geophysical field station permitted demonstration of instrumentation and presentations requiring sophisticated graphics in more comfortable surroundings. Plans are underway to make this school an annual offering for academic credit in the Valley of Ten Thousand Smokes, Alaska and in Kamchatka. The course will be targeted at undergraduates with a strong interest in and

  8. Physics Laboratory Investigation of Vocational High School Field Stone and Concrete Construction Techniques in the Central Java Province (Indonesia)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purwandari, Ristiana Dyah

    2015-01-01

    The investigation aims in this study were to uncover the observations of infrastructures and physics laboratory in vocational high school for Stone and Concrete Construction Techniques Expertise Field or Teknik Konstruksi Batu dan Beton (TKBB)'s in Purwokerto Central Java Province, mapping the Vocational High School or Sekolah Menengah Kejuruan…

  9. Dynamic Instructional Leadership to Support Student Learning and Development: The Field Guide to Comer Schools in Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joyner, Edward T., Ed.; Ben-Avie, Michael, Ed.; Comer, James P., Ed.

    2004-01-01

    Schools are the only universally accessible institutions where there are enough adults to provide continuous support for children's growth, development, and success in life. Using the process pioneered by renowned child psychiatrist Dr. James P. Comer and his colleagues at the Yale School Development Program (SDP), this unique field guide offers…

  10. Curricular Orientations, Experiences, and Actions: Graduate Students in Science and Mathematics Fields Work in Urban High School Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christodoulou, Nikoletta; Varelas, Maria; Wenzel, Stacy

    2009-01-01

    We examined curricular orientations that graduate students in science and mathematics fields held as they experienced urban high-school science and mathematics classrooms. We analyzed how these educators (called Fellows) saw themselves, students, teachers, schools, education, and the sense they made of mathematics and science education in urban,…

  11. Disseminating Improved Practices: Are Volunteer Farmer Trainers Effective?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lukuyu, B.; Place, F.; Franzel, S.; Kiptot, E.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This paper assesses the effectiveness of volunteer farmer trainers in promoting adoption of agricultural technologies in western Kenya. Specifically, the purpose was to assess the type of information they disseminated, farmer trainers' characteristics desirable to farmer trainees, and how trainees evaluate farmer trainers.…

  12. Black Farmers: Why Such a Severe and Continuing Decline?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beale, Calvin

    1991-01-01

    Proposes reasons for the precipitous drop in the number of Black farmers since the 1950s. Today, most Black farmers have very small operations and are at an advanced age. A healthy rural nonfarm economy is essential to supplement farmers incomes. The Agriculture Credit Act of 1987 offers low-interest loans to Black farmers. (KS)

  13. Farmers Extension Program Effects on Yield Gap in North China Plain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sum, N.; Zhao, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Improving crop yield of the lowest yielding smallholder farmers in developing countries is essential to both food security of the country and the farmers' livelihood. Although wheat and maize production in most developed countries have reached 80% or greater of yield potential determined by simulated models, yield gap remains high in the developing world. One of these cases is the yield gap of maize in the North China Plain (NCP), where the average farmer's yield is 41% of his or her potential yield. This large yield gap indicates opportunity to raise yields substantially by improving agronomy, especially in nutrition management, irrigation facility, and mechanization issues such as technical services. Farmers' agronomic knowledge is essential to yield performance. In order to propagate such knowledge to farmers, agricultural extension programs, especially in-the-field guidance with training programs at targeted demonstration fields, have become prevalent in China. Although traditional analyses of the effects of the extension program are done through surveys, they are limited to only one to two years and to a small area. However, the spatial analysis tool Google Earth Engine (GEE) and its extensive satellite imagery data allow for unprecedented spatial temporal analysis of yield variation. We used GEE to analyze maize yield in Quzhou county in the North China Plain from 2007 to 2013. We based our analysis on the distance from a demonstration farm plot, the source of the farmers' agronomic knowledge. Our hypothesis was that the farther the farmers' fields were from the demonstration plot, the less access they would have to the knowledge, and the less increase in yield over time. Testing this hypothesis using GEE helps us determine the effectiveness of the demonstration plot in disseminating optimal agronomic practices in addition to evaluating yield performance of the demonstration field itself. Furthermore, we can easily extend this methodology to analyze the whole

  14. Initial Characterization of Colombian High School Physics Teachers' Pedagogical Content Knowledge on Electric Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melo-Niño, Lina Viviana; Cañada, Florentina; Mellado, Vicente

    2017-02-01

    We explore the initial characterization of the pedagogical content knowledge of four, in-service, Colombian pre-university secondary education physics teachers on the concept of electric field. Two of them teach the content in English as a second language. The aim of the study was to obtain an image of the participants' teaching of electric field and the inherent complexities that go with that. The results revealed that factors which involved their personal educational models, such as, how they interpret their school's curriculum, the relationship they see between physics and mathematics, the most effective strategies for teaching physics, and the time they have available to develop the topic played a significant role. The teachers considered it essential to establish new strategies that would motivate the pupils by helping them visualize the electric field.

  15. Initial Characterization of Colombian High School Physics Teachers' Pedagogical Content Knowledge on Electric Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melo-Niño, Lina Viviana; Cañada, Florentina; Mellado, Vicente

    2015-09-01

    We explore the initial characterization of the pedagogical content knowledge of four, in-service, Colombian pre-university secondary education physics teachers on the concept of electric field. Two of them teach the content in English as a second language. The aim of the study was to obtain an image of the participants' teaching of electric field and the inherent complexities that go with that. The results revealed that factors which involved their personal educational models, such as, how they interpret their school's curriculum, the relationship they see between physics and mathematics, the most effective strategies for teaching physics, and the time they have available to develop the topic played a significant role. The teachers considered it essential to establish new strategies that would motivate the pupils by helping them visualize the electric field.

  16. Cultural ecology of Whitethroat (Sylvia communis) habitat management by farmers: winter in farmland trees and shrubs in Senegambia.

    PubMed

    Stoate, C; Morris, R M; Wilson, J D

    2001-08-01

    The presence of Whitethroats and their potential invertebrate prey in farmland trees and shrubs was investigated. The management of this vegetation by farmers, and their motivation for that management, was explored using participatory techniques. Whitethroats were associated with Guiera senegalensis, the shrub species which supports most caterpillars and spiders. Farmers reported declines in trees and shrubs since the 1950s, loss of fallow areas, declines in soil fertility and crop yields, and increases in the use of fire for clearing fields. Trees are valued by people for their cultural and medicinal uses and some species used by Whitethroats and other birds have potential for restoring soil fertility, although this was not recognised by farmers. More sustainable use of savanna farmland could have both agronomic and wider conservation benefits, and the provision of information that accommodates farmers' cultural and economic incentives could benefit both farmers and wildlife.

  17. Digital field mapping for stimulating Secondary School students in the recognition of geological features and landforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giardino, Marco; Magagna, Alessandra; Ferrero, Elena; Perrone, Gianluigi

    2015-04-01

    Digital field mapping has certainly provided geoscientists with the opportunity to map and gather data in the field directly using digital tools and software rather than using paper maps, notebooks and analogue devices and then subsequently transferring the data to a digital format for subsequent analysis. But, the same opportunity has to be recognized for Geoscience education, as well as for stimulating and helping students in the recognition of landforms and interpretation of the geological and geomorphological components of a landscape. More, an early exposure to mapping during school and prior to university can optimise the ability to "read" and identify uncertainty in 3d models. During 2014, about 200 Secondary School students (aged 12-15) of the Piedmont region (NW Italy) participated in a research program involving the use of mobile devices (smartphone and tablet) in the field. Students, divided in groups, used the application Trimble Outdoors Navigators for tracking a geological trail in the Sangone Valley and for taking georeferenced pictures and notes. Back to school, students downloaded the digital data in a .kml file for the visualization on Google Earth. This allowed them: to compare the hand tracked trail on a paper map with the digital trail, and to discuss about the functioning and the precision of the tools; to overlap a digital/semitransparent version of the 2D paper map (a Regional Technical Map) used during the field trip on the 2.5D landscape of Google Earth, as to help them in the interpretation of conventional symbols such as contour lines; to perceive the landforms seen during the field trip as a part of a more complex Pleistocene glacial landscape; to understand the classical and innovative contributions from different geoscientific disciplines to the generation of a 3D structural geological model of the Rivoli-Avigliana Morainic Amphitheatre. In 2013 and 2014, some other pilot projects have been carried out in different areas of the

  18. Rural Economics: Farmers in Transition. Preliminary Assessment of Dislocated Farmer Assistance Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heimlich, Joe E.; Van Tilburg, Emmalou

    Rural Economics: Farmers in Transition (RE:FIT), the Dislocated Farmer Assistance Program in Ohio, was designed to help farm families assess their skills and interests in nonfarm employment. The processes used by agents in counseling families were evaluated. The program was designed by personnel of the Ohio Cooperative Extension Service (OCES) to…

  19. Farmers' Use of Publications. Report of a Survey of Ontario Farmers' Receipt and Use of Three Technical Publications of the Ontario Department of Agriculture and Food.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blackburn, Donald J.

    A survey was conducted to determine the extent of Ontario farmers' receipt, use and perception of three publications of the Ontario Department of Agriculture and Food--"Field Crop Recommendations for Ontario,""Guide to Chemical Weed Control" and "Dairy Husbandry in Ontario." A questionnaire was mailed in May 1969 to a…

  20. Traditional Geology Field Camp: A capstone course at South Dakota School of Mines and Technology (BHNSFS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uzunlar, N.; Lisenbee, A. L.

    2012-12-01

    The Black Hills Natural Sciences Field Station (BHNSFS) has provided field training in geology and geological engineering for more than 40 years, and since the 1980's as a consortium serving five schools with South Dakota School of Mines and Technology as the coordinator. The traditional summer geology field camp is a five week long, intense program aimed to prepare students for subsequent professional geologic experiences. It is delivered from two separate facilities, one in the Black Hills (South Dakota) from a beautiful log lodge along Sand Creek, in eastern Wyoming, and a second from the town of Taskesti along the North Anatolian fault approximately 200 km east of Istanbul, Turkey. At both locations, the courses maintain a strong emphasis on basic field applications, including the use of GPS as a mapping tool in most exercises. The preparation of well-written reports, based on field descriptions supplemented by research on the web or through published documents, is strongly emphasized. Projects at the Black Hills field camp includes mapping of Precambrian basement, Paleozoic stratigraphy, and Laramide Tertiary plutons and structural features as welll as post-Laramide,, faulted continental strata. The popular Taskesti field camp utilizes the diverse geology of the Tethyan realm, as well as the culture and history, of central Turkey (Anatolia). The course is based at a Turkish Government Earthquake Research Center facility along the North Anatolian fault. Students examine and map selected locations across the Izmir-Ankara suture including: 1) Deformed Cretaceous and Tertiary carbonate and clastic strata of the Sakarya micro-continent in a fore-arc basin; 2) Marble and skarn surrounding Eocene, subduction-related granite intruded into a passive margin sequence in the Sivrihisar region of central Anatolia; 3) Faulted and folded Neogene strata in the northern flank of the post-Tethyan, Haymana Basin and the contrasting terrains across the North Anatolian fault (J

  1. Transforming School Leadership and Management to Support Student Learning and Development: The Field Guide to Comer Schools in Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joyner, Edward T., Ed.; Ben-Avie, Michael, Ed.; Comer, James P., Ed.

    2004-01-01

    For more than 35 years, the Yale School Development Program (SDP) has been pioneering the Comer Process for planned change in schools. From initial planning and preparation, through foundation building, transformation, institutionalization, and renewal, the Comer Process provides school leaders with a comprehensive and effective framework for…

  2. Outstanding in the Field II: Citizen Science Experiences for Middle Schools in Northeast Louisiana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Case Hanks, A. T.; Bhattacharjee, J.; Clark, L.; Pugh, A.

    2012-12-01

    In order to prepare middle school teachers for the next generation sciences standards and the new common core, the University of Louisiana at Monroe (ULM) Colleges of Arts and Sciences and Education and Human Development launched the Outstanding in the Field II program. Through the creation of a mesonet with the weather stations at middle school sites, this project aims to foster and enrich the experience of teacher/student-collected data while logging the data into a larger scientific database, producing citizen scientists. By empowering students and teachers to actively participate in 'real science', they generate data to be analyzed from both the physical and life science perspective and thus, highlight the next generation science standards and core disciplinary ideas. This project also promotes collaboration between the life and physical sciences while highlighting scientific practices and cross-cutting concepts within science and literacy. To ensure the successful implementation of the program, faculty and will provide several follow-up workshops during the academic year. These workshops will focus on the common core connections of math and literacy as well as ways in which the project can be supported at each site through face-to-face observations and online collaborations. This year-long program began with a field intensive workshop in July 2012 and enrolled 30 6th, 7th, and 8th science teachers from the Northeast region of Louisiana to provide a genuine scientific experience that would be taken back and applied within the classroom. By becoming students, teachers began by collecting data in the field and establishing and refining the intricate connection between real- world experiments and science taught in classrooms. . They returned to the ULM campus to build and deploy weather stations. Teachers were then tasked with the development of a plan to install the weather station and collect data at their school site with emphasis on implementation within their

  3. Heat exposure on farmers in northeast Ghana.

    PubMed

    Frimpong, Kwasi; Van Etten E J, Eddie; Oosthuzien, Jacques; Fannam Nunfam, Victor

    2017-03-01

    Environmental health hazards faced by farmers, such as exposure to extreme heat stress, are a growing concern due to global climate change, particularly in tropical developing countries. In such environments, farmers are considered to be a population at risk of environmental heat exposure. The situation is exacerbated due to their farming methods that involve the use of primitive equipment and hard manual labour conducted in full sunshine under hot and humid conditions. However, there is inadequate information about the extent of heat exposure to such farmers, both at the household and farm levels. This paper presents results from a study assessing environmental heat exposure on rural smallholder farmers in Bawku East, Northern Ghana. From January to December 2013, Lascar USB temperature and humidity sensors and a calibrated Questemp heat stress monitor were deployed to farms and homes of rural farmers at Pusiga in Bawku East to capture farmers' exposure to heat stress in both their living and working environments as they executed regular farming routines. The Lascar sensors have the capability to frequently, accurately and securely measure temperature and humidity over long periods. The Questemp heat stress monitor was placed in the same vicinity and showed strong correlations to Lascar sensors in terms of derived values of wet-bulb globe temperature (WBGT). The WBGT in the working environment of farmers peaked at 33.0 to 38.1 °C during the middle of the day in the rainy season from March to October and dropped to 14.0-23.7 °C in the early morning during this season. A maximum hourly WBGT of 28.9-37.5 °C (March-October) was recorded in the living environment of farmers, demonstrating little relief from heat exposure during the day. With these levels of heat stress, exposed farmers conducting physically demanding outdoor work risk suffering serious health consequences. The sustainability of manual farming practices is also under threat by such high levels of

  4. Engaging High School Science Teachers in Field-Based Seismology Research: Opportunities and Challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Long, M. D.

    2015-12-01

    Research experiences for secondary school science teachers have been shown to improve their students' test scores, and there is a substantial body of literature about the effectiveness of RET (Research Experience for Teachers) or SWEPT (Scientific Work Experience Programs for Teachers) programs. RET programs enjoy substantial support, and several opportunities for science teachers to engage in research currently exist. However, there are barriers to teacher participation in research projects; for example, laboratory-based projects can be time consuming and require extensive training before a participant can meaningfully engage in scientific inquiry. Field-based projects can be an effective avenue for involving teachers in research; at its best, earth science field work is a fun, highly immersive experience that meaningfully contributes to scientific research projects, and can provide a payoff that is out of proportion to a relatively small time commitment. In particular, broadband seismology deployments provide an excellent opportunity to provide teachers with field-based research experience. Such deployments are labor-intensive and require large teams, with field tasks that vary from digging holes and pouring concrete to constructing and configuring electronics systems and leveling and orienting seismometers. A recently established pilot program, known as FEST (Field Experiences for Science Teachers) is experimenting with providing one week of summer field experience for high school earth science teachers in Connecticut. Here I report on results and challenges from the first year of the program, which is funded by the NSF-CAREER program and is being run in conjunction with a temporary deployment of 15 seismometers in Connecticut, known as SEISConn (Seismic Experiment for Imaging Structure beneath Connecticut). A small group of teachers participated in a week of field work in August 2015 to deploy seismometers in northern CT; this experience followed a visit of the

  5. Exposure to Radiofrequency Electromagnetic Fields From Wi-Fi in Australian Schools.

    PubMed

    Karipidis, Ken; Henderson, Stuart; Wijayasinghe, Don; Tjong, Lydiawati; Tinker, Rick

    2017-01-10

    The increasing use of Wi-Fi in schools and other places has given rise to public concern that the radiofrequency (RF) electromagnetic fields from Wi-Fi have the potential to adversely affect children. The current study measured typical and peak RF levels from Wi-Fi and other sources in 23 schools in Australia. All of the RF measurements were much lower than the reference levels recommended by international guidelines for protection against established health effects. The typical and peak RF levels from Wi-Fi in locations occupied by children in the classroom were of the order of 10(-4) and 10(-2)% of the exposure guidelines, respectively. Typical RF levels in the classroom were similar between Wi-Fi and radio but higher than other sources. In the schoolyard typical RF levels were higher for radio, TV and mobile phone base stations compared to Wi-Fi. The results of this study showed that the typical RF exposure of children from Wi-Fi at school is very low and comparable or lower to other sources in the environment.

  6. Management of School Infrastructure in the Context of a No-Fee Schools Policy in Rural South African Schools: Lessons from the Field

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marishane, Ramodikoe Nylon

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the management of school infrastructure in the context of the "no-fee schools" policy introduced in the South African education delivery system. Focusing on four rural schools, the study applied a qualitative method, which involved observation of infrastructure conditions prevailing at four selected schools and…

  7. Conventional Gymnasium vs. Geodesic Field House. A Comparative Study of High School Physical Education and Assembly Facilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Educational Facilities Labs., Inc., New York, NY.

    A description is presented of the design features of a high school's geodesic dome field house. Following consideration of various design features and criteria for the physical education facility, a comprehensive analysis is given of comparative costs of a geodesic dome field house and conventional gymnasium. On the basis of the study it would…

  8. Exploring the use of Virtual Field Trips with elementary school teachers: A collaborative action research approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scott, Jeffrey Lance

    This research examines how elementary school teachers, when supported, use Virtual Field Trips (VFTs) to address the curricula in meaningful ways. I conducted a qualitative study with six teachers, in a collaborative action research context over a six month period. The teachers, five males and one female, all taught either grade five or six and utilized Virtual Field Trips within a variety of curricula areas including science, social studies, music and language arts. In addition, the thesis examines resulting integration of technology into the regular classroom program as a product of the utilization of Virtual Field Trips. The process of collaborative action research was applied as a means of personal and professional growth both for the participants and the researcher/facilitator. By the end of the research study, all participants had learned to integrate Virtual Field Trips into their classroom program, albeit with different levels of success and in different curricula areas. The development of attitudes, skills and knowledge for students and teachers alike was fostered through the participation in Virtual Field Trips. A common concern regarding the utilization of Virtual Field Trips was the time spent locating an appropriate site that met curricula expectations. Participation in the collaborative action research process allowed each teacher to grow professionally, personally and socially. Each participant strongly encouraged the utilization of a long term project with a common area of exploration as a means for positive professional development. Implications and recommendations for future research on the utilization of Virtual Field Trips, as well as the viability of collaborative action research to facilitate teacher development are presented.

  9. Effect of psychological skills training during military survival school: a randomized, controlled field study.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Marcus K; Stanfill, Katherine E; Padilla, Genieleah A; Markham, Amanda E; Ward, Michael D; Koehler, Matthew M; Anglero, Antonio; Adams, Barry D

    2011-12-01

    In this randomized, controlled field study, we examined the effects of a brief psychological skills training (PST) intervention on stress responses during military survival school. A second purpose was to build upon prior research in this unique environment by extending the follow-up window to 3 months. Baseline subjective distress (dissociative) symptoms were measured in 65 male military subjects, who were then randomized either to PST or a control group that received no training beyond the normal survival school curriculum. PST received training in arousal control, mental imagery, goal setting, and positive self-talk in two separate 40-minute sessions before stressful field exercises. Stress symptoms were then assessed during a mock-captivity phase of training, as well as 24 hours, 1 month, and 3 months after completion of training. Repeated-measures analyses of variance with follow-up paired t tests examined differences between groups and across time. Survival training precipitated remarkable increases in subjective distress, but few substantive group differences emerged. This study extends prior work quantifying the human stress response to intense military training.

  10. Farmers' perceptions, knowledge, and management of coffee pests and diseases and their natural enemies in Chiapas, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Segura, H R; Barrera, J F; Morales, H; Nazar, A

    2004-10-01

    Small farmers' perceptions of coffee Coffea arabica L. herbivores and their natural enemies, how those perceptions relate to field infestation levels, and pest management practices being implemented by members from two organic and nonorganic coffee grower organizations in the Soconusco region, southeastern Mexico, were analyzed through an interview survey, diagnostic workshops, and field sampling. The terms pest, disease, and damage were commonly used as synonyms. The major phytophagous species, as perceived by the interviewees, were Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari), and to a lesser extent the fungi Corticium koleroga Cooke (Höhnel) and Hemileia vastatrix Berkeley & Broome. Among the nonorganic farmers, other nonpest-related constraints were regarded as more important. Awareness of the existence of natural enemies was low, despite more organic farmers have used the ectoparasitoid bethylid Cephalonomia stephanoderis Betrem against H. hampei. Labor supplied by household members was most frequent for pest control; only organic farmers exchanged labor for this purpose. The levels of infestation by H. hampei, Leucoptera coffeella Guérin-Méneville, and C. koleroga were lower within the organic coffee stands. However, a low effectiveness for pest control was commonly perceived, probably due to a feeling, among the organic farmers, of a low impact of their pest management extension service, whereas a lack of motivation was prevalent among the nonorganic farmers, shown by a concern with their low coffee yields and the emigration of youth. The importance of understanding farmers' perceptions and knowledge of pests and their natural enemies and the need for participatory pest management approaches, are discussed.

  11. A model for safety and health promotion among Danish farmers.

    PubMed

    Hjort, Charlotte; Højmose, Poul; Sherson, David

    2003-01-01

    In 1999, a project concerning the prevention of accidents and occupational diseases was started in Vejle County, Denmark. The aim of the project was to increase the safety and health in farming. The project was based on a participatory strategy. The main principles were local involvement in designing the project, multifaceted activities for defined target-groups and respect for occupational skills and integrity. This multilevel approach involved individuals, groups and organisations. Activities were initiated and adjusted throughout the project. This interactive work remodeling the activities throughout the project period and method encouraged empowerment leaving experiences among the participants. Target groups included farmers, farmers' wives, agricultural advisors, agricultural school teachers, employees and part-time assistants. Activities included dialog-meetings, information meetings in larger and smaller groups, as well as designing of educational safety material, e.g., for children and employees. The project is run with a very low degree of central organisational activities, and is also a so called "bottom-up" project with a low budget. Evaluations are undertaken throughout the project period. If this concept can be implemented in Denmark, it may well be useful in other developed as well as less industrialized countries.

  12. Restricted Application of Insecticides: A Promising Tsetse Control Technique, but What Do the Farmers Think of It?

    PubMed Central

    Bouyer, Fanny; Hamadou, Seyni; Adakal, Hassane; Lancelot, Renaud; Stachurski, Frédéric; Belem, Adrien M. G.; Bouyer, Jérémy

    2011-01-01

    Background Restricted application of insecticides to cattle is a cheap and safe farmer-based method to control tsetse. In Western Africa, it is applied using a footbath, mainly to control nagana and the tick Amblyomma variegatum. In Eastern and Southern Africa, it might help controlling the human disease, i.e., Rhodesian sleeping sickness as well. The efficiency of this new control method against ticks, tsetse and trypanosomoses has been demonstrated earlier. The invention, co-built by researchers and farmers ten years ago, became an innovation in Burkina Faso through its diffusion by two development projects. Methodology/Principal Findings In this research, we studied the process and level of adoption in 72 farmers inhabiting the peri-urban areas of Ouagadougou and Bobo-Dioulasso. Variables describing the livestock farming system, the implementation and perception of the method and the knowledge of the epidemiological system were used to discriminate three clusters of cattle farmers that were then compared using indicators of adoption. The first cluster corresponded to modern farmers who adopted the technique very well. The more traditional farmers were discriminated into two clusters, one of which showed a good adoption rate, whereas the second failed to adopt the method. The economic benefit and the farmers' knowledge of the epidemiological system appeared to have a low impact on the early adoption process whereas some modern practices, as well as social factors appeared critical. The quality of technical support provided to the farmers had also a great influence. Cattle farmers' innovation-risk appraisal was analyzed using Rogers' adoption criteria which highlighted individual variations in risk perceptions and benefits, as well as the prominent role of the socio-technical network of cattle farmers. Conclusions/Significance Results are discussed to highlight the factors that should be taken into consideration, to move discoveries from bench to field for an

  13. High School and Undergraduate Participation in Field Experiments as a Means of Teaching Global Change Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiariello, N. R.; Gomez, W.; Field, C. B.

    2004-12-01

    Field experiments offer unique opportunities to teach undergraduates and high school students many of the principles and methods of global change science. The Jasper Ridge Global Change Experiment (JRGCE) studies the response of California grassland to four environmental factors changing globally, and has emphasized a tiered program of outreach that combines curriculum supplements, demonstration tours, sample data sets, and internship opportunities. The program emphasizes translating a complex environmental question into an experiment. High school outreach by the JRGCE has focused on the environmental studies classes at a nearby public high school. Students begin with background material via a website and in-class sessions that focus on global and regional changes in the four environmental factors incorporated in the experiment: warming, elevated CO2, increased precipitation, and nitrogen deposition. Each class also visits the experiment to see and discuss many aspects of experimental design: environmental heterogeneity, the importance of replication and randomization, the role of experimental controls, the possibility of experimental artifacts, the importance of minimally disruptive measurements, and the complexity of ecosystems and their responses to experimental treatments. These demonstration tours also emphasize hands-on measurements to illustrate how ecosystem responses to global change are quantified across a wide range of mechanisms. Finally, students use data from the experiment to test for effects of the treatments. For undergraduate classes, outreach focuses on either broad-based or more specialized demonstration tours to support their already well-developed curriculum. A few strongly interested high school students and undergraduates also conduct studies within the JRGCE under the supervision of a graduate student, postdoc, or professor. These educational activities depend crucially on three factors: 1) involvement of many members of the experiment team

  14. Reinforcing key concepts in the discipline of geobiology through active learning in the field - an example integrating middle school through graduate school students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilhooly, W., III; Werne, J. P.; O'Beirne, M.; Johnson, E.; Martin, P. A.; Harris, J. H., IV; Fouskas, F.; Steinman, B. A.

    2015-12-01

    Our goal was to introduce students to current research in the scientific discipline of geobiology. To accomplish this, we established a three-fold approach to link course work with fieldwork through: 1) active participation in the field and laboratory, 2) multi-tiered mentoring, 3) and formal education modules. During the summer of 2015, six undergraduate students and seven graduate students collected field samples from Green Lake (NY) and Mahoney Lake (BC). The students learned how to take water and sediment samples, process samples in anaerobic chambers in the field, and deal with moderately adverse field conditions. These learning by doing activities reinforced lessons learned in the classroom. The second phase involved two high school students who helped process and analyze the samples in the laboratory during summer session. These students worked with the undergraduate and graduate students who participated in the fieldwork. This interaction benefited both the high school students, who learned new methods, and the university students who learned to explain their field research and mentor younger students. The third phase involved creation of education modules to better inform middle school students of the issues of hypoxia. We piloted portions of our module at a conference for forty middle school girls. Graduate students showed the girls field equipment and how to make oxygen measurements using handheld instruments. In all of these activities, the students had the opportunity to work with the PI's, who were fully engaged in the process and who made a constant effort to be educators in the field and in the lab.

  15. White School Counselors Becoming Racial Justice Allies to Students of Color: A Call to the Field of School Counseling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moss, Lauren J.; Singh, Anneliese A.

    2015-01-01

    White school counselors must consider how racial identity, and whiteness as a construct, influences their work with students of color. This article addresses opportunities for White school counselors regarding how they may become allies to students of color and suggests way in which counselor educators can support the ally identity development in…

  16. Investigating the Transition Process when Moving from a Spiral Curriculum Alignment into a Field-Focus Science Curriculum Alignment in Middle School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alwardt, Randi Kay

    2011-01-01

    This investigation examined the transition from a spiral science curriculum to a field-focus science curriculum in middle school. A spiral science curriculum focuses on a small part of each field of science during each middle school year, more of a general science concept. In contrast to that, the base of a field-focus curriculum is that each…

  17. An assessment of the impacts of pesticide use on the environment and health of rice farmers in Sierra Leone.

    PubMed

    Sankoh, Alhaji I; Whittle, Rebecca; Semple, Kirk T; Jones, Kevin C; Sweetman, Andrew J

    2016-09-01

    One of the biggest challenges faced by Sierra Leonean farmers is pest control. Birds, rodents, insects, crustaceans and other organisms can drastically reduce yields. In order to prevent these organisms from destroying their crop, farmers use pesticides. However there are reports that these chemicals are being misused and such misuse is having a negative impact on the environment and the health of the farmers. This research study aimed to investigate the use of pesticides in rice fields and its potential effects on the environment and on the farmers of Sierra Leone. Five hundred farmers and one hundred health workers across the country were interviewed. Fifty focus group discussions were also completed. Field observations were also undertaken to see how farmers apply pesticides to their farms and the possible threats these methods have on human health and the environment. It is clear that a wide range of pesticides are used by rice farmers in Sierra Leone with 60% of the pesticides used entering the country illegally. Most farmers have no knowledge about the safe handling of pesticides as 71% of them have never received any form of training. The pesticides kill both target and non-target organisms some of which enter the food chain. Cases of health problems such as nausea, respiratory disorders and blurred vision investigated in this research are significantly higher among farmers who use pesticides than those who do not use pesticides. Cases of pesticide intoxication are not investigated by health workers but results obtained from interviews with them also indicated that cases of pesticides related symptoms are significantly higher in environments where pesticides are used than those in which pesticides are not used.

  18. Farmers' Functional Literacy Program in India.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chauhan, Malikhan S.

    The Farmers' Functional Literacy Program has been conducted in conjunction with an intensive agricultural development program in the villages of India since 1968. A recent innovation of significance to developing countries, the program incorporates the concept of linking education to development. This joint venture of three governmental ministries…

  19. Genetic Alterations in Pesticide Exposed Bolivian Farmers

    PubMed Central

    Jørs, Erik; Gonzáles, Ana Rosa; Ascarrunz, Maria Eugenia; Tirado, Noemi; Takahashi, Catharina; Lafuente, Erika; Dos Santos, Raquel A; Bailon, Natalia; Cervantes, Rafael; O, Huici; Bælum, Jesper; Lander., Flemming

    2007-01-01

    Background Pesticides are of concern in Bolivia because of increasing use. Frequent intoxications have been demonstrated due to use of very toxic pesticides, insufficient control of distribution and sale and little knowledge among farmers of protective measures and hygienic procedures. Method Questionnaires were applied and blood tests taken from 81 volunteers from La Paz County, of whom 48 were pesticide exposed farmers and 33 non-exposed controls. Sixty males and 21 females participated with a mean age of 37.3 years (range 17–76). Data of exposure and possible genetic damage were collected and evaluated by well known statistical methods, controlling for relevant confounders. To measure genetic damage chromosomal aberrations and the comet assay analysis were performed. Results Pesticide exposed farmers had a higher degree of genetic damage compared to the control group. The number of chromosomal aberrations increased with the intensity of pesticide exposure. Females had a lower number of chromosomal aberrations than males, and people living at altitudes above 2500 metres seemed to exhibit more DNA damage measured by the comet assay. Conclusions Bolivian farmers showed signs of genotoxic damage, probably related to exposure to pesticides. Due to the potentially negative long term health effects of genetic damage on reproduction and the development of cancer, preventive measures are recommended. Effective control with imports and sales, banning of the most toxic pesticides, education and information are possible measures, which could help preventing the negative effects of pesticides on human health and the environment. PMID:19662224

  20. Farmers' Opinions about Third-Wave Technologies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lasley, Paul; Bultena, Gordon

    The opinions of 1,585 Iowa farmers about 8 emergent agricultural technologies (energy production from feed grains and oils; energy production from livestock waste; genetic engineering research on plants, livestock, and humans; robotics for on-farm use; confinement livestock facilities; and personal computers for farm families) were found to be…

  1. Farmers' Functional Literacy Project (Bhimili Study).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rao, D. S.

    1979-01-01

    As part of a farmers' functional literacy project, the Department of Adult and Continuing Education, Andhra University, Waltair (India), investigated a sampling of participant characteristics and their relation to progress in improving literacy skills and learning such aspects of agriculture as animal husbandry, poultry, dairying, and so on. (MF)

  2. Dome Storage of Farmer Stock Peanuts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The small-scale farmer stock storage research facility at the National Peanut Research Laboratory in Dawson, GA consisting of four warehouses and four monolithic domes was used to conduct a 3-yr study looking at the effects of storing peanuts through the summer months following harvest. The study wa...

  3. Participatory support to farmers in improving safety and health at work: building WIND farmer volunteer networks in Viet Nam.

    PubMed

    Kawakami, Tsuyoshi; Van, Vhu Nhu; Theu, Nguyen Van; Khai, Ton That; Kogi, Kazutaka

    2008-10-01

    The government of Viet Nam places a high priority on upgrading the quality of farmers' lives. Providing adequate occupational safety and health (OSH) protection for all farmers is an important challenge. The Ministry of Labour, Invalids and Social Affairs (MOLISA) of Viet Nam trained WIND (Work Improvement in Neighbourhood Development) farmer volunteers. From 2004-2007, MOLISA in cooperation with ministries of health and agriculture trained 480 WIND farmer volunteers in selected 14 provinces. Trained farmer volunteers trained their neighbouring farmers and expanded their networks. The WIND training programme produced in Cantho, Viet Nam in 1996, was used as the core training methodology. The WIND action-checklist, good example photo-sheets, and other participatory training materials were designed for WIND farmer volunteers as practical training tools. The volunteers trained 7,922 farmers. The trained farmers implemented 28,508 improvements in materials handling, work posture, machine and electrical safety, working environments and control of hazardous chemicals, and welfare facilities. The provincial support committees organized follow-up workshops and strengthen the WIND farmer volunteer networks. The system of WIND farmer volunteers proved effective in extending practical OSH protection measures to farmers at grassroots level. The system of WIND farmer volunteers was adopted in the First National Programme on Labour Protection and OSH of Viet Nam as a practical means in OSH and is now further expanding within the framework of the National Programme.

  4. Knowledge, Attitudes, Practices and Biomonitoring of Farmers and Residents Exposed to Pesticides in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira Pasiani, Juliana; Torres, Priscila; Roniery Silva, Juciê; Zago Diniz, Bruno; Dutra Caldas, Eloisa

    2012-01-01

    In this study, the knowledge, attitudes and practices regarding pesticide use and the levels of exposure of farmers and residents to organophosphorous and/or carbamates pesticides were evaluated in two rural settings in Brazil. A questionnaire was completed by 112 farm workers aged ≥18 years. Almost all farmers acknowledged that pesticides were potentially harmful to their health (87.5%); however, over half rarely (48.2%) or never (7.2%) used personal protective devices (PPDs). An association was found (p = 0.001) between the work regimen and the use of PPDs, with more frequent equipment use among hired laborers than those involved in family agriculture. A significant correlation (p = 0.027) was found between the reporting of adverse symptoms and the use of backpack sprayers. Mean AChE activities of farmers (n = 64) and residents (n = 18) during the exposure and non-exposure periods were significantly lower than their control groups. Mean BChE activities of farmers and residents were significantly lower than their controls during the exposure period. Among the 60 farmers that had blood samples collected in both the exposure and non-exposure (baseline) periods, 10 (16.7%) had AChE depletion of over 30% during the exposure period compared with the baseline level. Six residents living on the same farms also presented this depletion. AChE was over 30% higher than the baseline level for 19 farmers (31.7%), indicating a reboot effect. Special education programs are needed in these regions to promote the safe use of pesticides in the field to decrease the risks from exposure to pesticides for farmers, and from secondary exposure to these compounds for their families. PMID:23202670

  5. Farmers' attitudes to disease risk management in England: a comparative analysis of sheep and pig farmers.

    PubMed

    Garforth, C J; Bailey, A P; Tranter, R B

    2013-07-01

    The UK Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (Defra) identified practices to reduce the risk of animal disease outbreaks. We report on the response of sheep and pig farmers in England to promotion of these practices. A conceptual framework was established from research on factors influencing adoption of animal health practices, linking knowledge, attitudes, social influences and perceived constraints to the implementation of specific practices. Qualitative data were collected from nine sheep and six pig enterprises in 2011. Thematic analysis explored attitudes and responses to the proposed practices, and factors influencing the likelihood of implementation. Most feel they are doing all they can reasonably do to minimise disease risk and that practices not being implemented are either not relevant or ineffective. There is little awareness and concern about risk from unseen threats. Pig farmers place more emphasis than sheep farmers on controlling wildlife, staff and visitor management and staff training. The main factors that influence livestock farmers' decision on whether or not to implement a specific disease risk measure are: attitudes to, and perceptions of, disease risk; attitudes towards the specific measure and its efficacy; characteristics of the enterprise which they perceive as making a measure impractical; previous experience of a disease or of the measure; and the credibility of information and advice. Great importance is placed on access to authoritative information with most seeing vets as the prime source to interpret generic advice from national bodies in the local context. Uptake of disease risk measures could be increased by: improved risk communication through the farming press and vets to encourage farmers to recognise hidden threats; dissemination of credible early warning information to sharpen farmers' assessment of risk; and targeted information through training events, farming press, vets and other advisers, and farmer groups

  6. Uneven Playing Field: Demographic Differences and High School "Choice" in Philadelphia. Policy Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Research for Action, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Every fall, eighth graders participate in the School District of Philadelphia's high school application and admissions process, vying for spots in a tiered system of public high schools across the city. This policy brief looks at disparities in the students who are successful in exercising school "choice" in the District's high school…

  7. Charter Schools and "Customer" Satisfaction: Lessons from Field Testing a Parent Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wohlstetter, Priscilla; Nayfack, Michelle B.; Mora-Flores, Eugenia

    2008-01-01

    Since the development of magnet schools in the 1960s--and more recently, the proliferation of charter schools in the last fifteen years--school choice has been a pervasive element on the education reform landscape. With this growth has come the need for information tools to help site-based educators manage, grow, and improve their schools. This is…

  8. Engaging Families to Support Students' Transition to High School: Evidence from the Field

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mac Iver, Martha Abele; Epstein, Joyce L.; Sheldon, Steven B.; Fonseca, Ean

    2015-01-01

    This exploratory study addresses the challenge of declining family engagement at the critical transition to high school. We use data from a survey of schools to examine whether and how middle grades and high schools engage families when their students transition to high school. Findings indicate that there is a significant negative relationship…

  9. Farmers' valuation of incentives to produce genetically modified organism-free milk: Insights from a discrete choice experiment in Germany.

    PubMed

    Schreiner, J A; Latacz-Lohmann, U

    2015-11-01

    This paper investigates farmers' willingness to participate in a genetically modified organism (GMO)-free milk production scheme offered by some German dairy companies. The empirical analysis is based upon discrete choice experiments with 151 dairy farmers from 2 regions in Germany. A conditional logit estimation reveals a strong positive effect of the price premium on offer. Reliable feed monitoring and free technical support increase the likelihood of scheme adoption, the latter however only in farms that have been receiving technical support in other fields. By contrast, any interference with the entrepreneurial autonomy of farmers, through pre-arranged feed procurement or prescriptive advice on the part of the dairy company, lowers acceptance probabilities. Farmers' attitudes toward cultivation of genetically modified soy, their assessment of the market potential of GMO-free milk and future feed prices were found to be significant determinants of adoption, as are farmer age, educational status, and current feeding regimens. Respondents requested on average a mark-up of 0.80 eurocents per kilogram of milk to accept a contract. Comparison of the estimates for the 2 regions suggests that farmers in northern Germany are, on average, more likely to convert to genetically modified-free production; however, farmers in the south are, ceteris paribus, more responsive to an increase in the price premium offered. A latent class model reveals significant differences in the valuation of scheme attributes between 2 latent classes of adopters and nonadopters.

  10. Farmers' Perceptions of Necessary Management Skills in Finland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mattila, Tiina E. A.; Kaustell, Kim O.; Leppala, Jarkko; Hurme, Timo; Suutarinen, Juha

    2007-01-01

    The main aim of this pre-study was to provide a preliminary overview of Finnish farmers' motivation and capacity prerequisites for adopting and improving their management skills. Motivation was studied by asking farmers what farm management tasks and skills they consider important. Capacity was evaluated by asking farmers to rank management tasks…

  11. Information Search Behaviors of Indian Farmers: Implications for Extension Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glendenning, Claire J.; Babu, Suresh C.; Asenso-Okyere, Kwadwo

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: In India, a national survey conducted in 2003 showed that only 40% of farmers accessed extension. But little is known of the characteristics of farmers who did not access extension. However, this understanding is needed in order to target approaches to farmers, who differ in their access and use of information, that is their information…

  12. Educational Interests, Needs and Learning Preferences of Immigrant Farmers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCamant, Thaddeus

    2014-01-01

    The immigrant population is growing in rural Minnesota, and those who are interested in farming will be replacing a dwindling population of traditionally white farmers. Like traditional American farmers, immigrant farmers have a need for continuing education to keep them up on best practices and new technology in agriculture. Minnesota's…

  13. Farmers' Markets in Rural Communities: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alfonso, Moya L.; Nickelson, Jen; Cohen, Danielle

    2012-01-01

    Background: Although the potential health benefits of farmers markets have been discussed for years, there is a dearth of literature to aid health educators in advocating for the development of local farmers markets. Purpose: The purpose of this manuscript is to present a case study of a rural farmers market in southeast Georgia with emphasis on…

  14. RE:FIT: Assessing Career Potential for Dislocated Farmers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heimlich, Joe E.; Tilberg, Emmalou Van

    1988-01-01

    Notes that the geographic separation and autonomy experienced by farmers creates a unique challenge for career and crisis counseling programs. Provides an overview of Rural Economics: Farmers in Transition (RE:FIT), a dislocated farmer assistance effort created by the Ohio Cooperative Extension Service to provide outplacement services such as…

  15. Preferred Knowledge Sources for Beginning Farmers: The Case of Kentucky

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brislen, Lilian; Tanaka, Keiko; Jacobsen, Krista

    2016-01-01

    This article presents an analysis of preferred knowledge sources for beginning farmers and differences in knowledge networks between "heritage" and "nonheritage" farmers. The purpose of the analysis is to support the reassessment of training, technical assistance, and other needs of beginning farmers to be able to develop more…

  16. 75 FR 72780 - Advisory Committee on Beginning Farmers and Ranchers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-26

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Advisory Committee on Beginning Farmers and Ranchers AGENCY: Departmental... on Beginning Farmers and Ranchers (Committee) will be held to discuss and explore USDA policy options designed to create and sustain ``New and Beginning Farmers and Ranchers.'' DATES: The public meetings...

  17. 7 CFR 761.209 - Loan funds for beginning farmers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Loan funds for beginning farmers. 761.209 Section 761... Funds to State Offices § 761.209 Loan funds for beginning farmers. Each fiscal year, the Agency reserves a portion of direct and guaranteed FO and OL loan funds for beginning farmers in accordance...

  18. 75 FR 43140 - Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-23

    ... Foreign Agricultural Service Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers AGENCY: Foreign Agricultural Service... assistance and cash benefits. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers Staff... ; or visit the TAA for Farmers' Web site: http://www.fas.usda.gov/itp/taa . Dated: July 14, 2010....

  19. 7 CFR 761.209 - Loan funds for beginning farmers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Loan funds for beginning farmers. 761.209 Section 761... Funds to State Offices § 761.209 Loan funds for beginning farmers. Each fiscal year, the Agency reserves a portion of direct and guaranteed FO and OL loan funds for beginning farmers in accordance...

  20. 75 FR 49886 - Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-16

    ... Foreign Agricultural Service Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers AGENCY: Foreign Agricultural Service... CONTACT: Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers Program Staff, FAS, USDA by phone: (202) 720-0638 or (202) 690- 0633; or by e-mail at: tradeadjustment@fas.usda.gov ; or visit ] the TAA for Farmers' Web...

  1. Attitudes of Small Farmers As 1995 Farm Bill Stakeholders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lockett, Benny L.

    To design public issues education programs to meet the needs of small farmers, the Cooperative Extension programs at Prairie View A&M University (Texas) and nine other 1890 land grant institutions surveyed small farmers' opinions concerning the 1995 farm bill. Responses were received from 644 farmers in the states in which these institutions…

  2. 75 FR 20977 - Departmental Management; Advisory Committee on Minority Farmers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-22

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Departmental Management; Advisory Committee on Minority Farmers AGENCY: USDA... Advisory Committee on Minority Farmers (Committee) on December 2, 2009. The purpose of the Committee is to..., methods of maximizing participation of minority farmers and ranchers in Department of Agriculture...

  3. Should Farmers' Locus of Control Be Used in Extension?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nuthall, Peter L.

    2010-01-01

    To explore whether Farmers' Locus of Control (LOC) could be useful in agricultural extension programmes to improve managerial ability. This test records a farmer's belief in her/his control over production outcomes. A mail survey of 2300 New Zealand farmers was used to obtain a range of variables, and to measure their LOC using a question set…

  4. "American Gothic" Revised: Positive Perceptions from a Young American Farmer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joehl, Regan R.

    2008-01-01

    Grant Wood's "American Gothic," intended to represent the Depression Era, Midwestern farmer, has been regarded by many as the stereotypical representation of a true American farmer for decades. While this painting does represent farmers in the early part of the 20th century, the author feels obliged to say that it is time to drop this…

  5. Barriers and Coping Mechanisms Relating to Agroforestry Adoption by Smallholder Farmers in Zimbabwe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chitakira, Munyaradzi; Torquebiau, Emmanuel

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the present study was to investigate agroforestry adoption by smallholder farmers in Gutu District, Zimbabwe. Design/Methodology/Approach: The methodology was based on field data collected through household questionnaires, key informant interviews and direct observations. Findings: Major findings reveal that traditional…

  6. Farmer Perceptions of Soil and Water Conservation Issues: Implications to Agricultural and Extension Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruening, Thomas; Martin, Robert A.

    1992-01-01

    A survey of 731 Iowa farmers received 432 responses indicating that (1) groundwater and water quality were of greater concern than soil conservation; (2) field demonstrations and county meetings were useful information sources on these issues; and (3) government agencies such as cooperative extension and state universities were useful sources of…

  7. Lamont-Doherty's Secondary School Field Research Program: Institutionalizing outreach to secondary school students at a soft-money research institute

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sambrotto, R.

    2015-12-01

    The Secondary School Field Research Program is a field and laboratory internship for high school students at the Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory. Over the past 11 years it has grown into a significant program, engaging approximately 50 high school and college students each summer, most of them from ethnic and economic groups that are under-represented in the STEM fields. The internships are based on research-driven science questions on estuarine physics, chemistry, ecology and the paleo-environment. Field studies are linked to associated laboratory analyses whose results are reported by the students as a final project. For the past two years, we have focused on the transition to an institutional program, with sustainable funding and organizational structures. At a grant-driven institution whose mission is largely restricted to basic research, institutionalization has not been an easy task. To leverage scarce resources we have implemented a layered structure that relies on near-peer mentoring. So a typical research team might include a mix of new and more experienced high school students, a college student, a high school science teacher and a Lamont researcher as a mentor. Graduates of the program are employed to assist with administration. Knowledge and best practices diffuse through the organization in an organic, if not entirely structured, fashion. We have found that a key to long-term funding has been survival: as we have sustained a successful program and developed a model adapted to Lamont's unique environment, we have attracted longer term core financing on which grant-driven extensions can be built. The result is a highly flexible program that is student-centered in the context of a broader research culture connecting our participants with the advantages of working at a premier soft-money research institution.

  8. Socioeconomic factors affecting farmers' perceptions of land degradation and stonewall terraces in central Palestine.

    PubMed

    Hammad, Ahmad Abu; Børresen, Trond

    2006-03-01

    Land degradation by soil erosion is a socioeconomic and environmental problem facing many developing countries. Application of stonewall terraces for soil moisture conservation is vital to reducing the environmental impacts of this phenomenon. To this end, a field plot experiment was conducted in the study area along with the use of a closed-ended questionnaire. The object of the experiment was to study the socioeconomic impacts of soil erosion on local farmers and their adoption of the stonewall terrace technique. The study showed a higher net profit in areas that had implemented terrace conservation practices than in areas that had not (i.e., 3.5 to 6 times higher net profit). Correlation analysis indicated that the farmers' perceptions, land ownership, and geomorphology were significantly related to the farmers' incentives and willingness to adopt terraces as soil conservation measures (P < 0.05), although the correlations were negative. Smallholder farmers (52% of the interviewed farmers) were involved in the sale of the agricultural land for urban uses, largely because of the high price and immediate returns offered. However, the associated land use changes warrant greater involvement of both the private and public sectors. This cooperation may be accomplished through the introduction of a long-term agricultural loan system and the development of proper legislation accompanied by a comprehensive and durable infrastructure and service system with the goal of reducing the negative impact of land use changes and encouraging sustainable use of resources.

  9. The injured and diseased farmer: occupational health, embodiment and technologies of harm and care.

    PubMed

    Lovelock, Kirsten

    2012-05-01

    Occupational health in agriculture is a significant public health issue in industrialised agricultural nations. This article reports on 26 in-depth interviews with farmers throughout New Zealand. Farmers are exposed to a range of technologies which place them at risk of injury and disease and/or prevent injury and disease. In this article these technologies are respectively conceptualised as technologies of harm and technologies of care. Despite being vulnerable to high rates of injury, fatality and occupationally related diseases the uptake of technologies of care amongst farmers in New Zealand is poor. The analysis draws on body theory to explore the meaning attached to injury and disease and to examine the socio-cultural field of agriculture. It is argued that the key features of subjective embodiment and social, cultural and symbolic capital can undermine the uptake of technologies of care, ensuring poor occupational health outcomes on New Zealand farms.

  10. Farmers' perceptions of land degradation and their investments in land management: a case study in the Central Rift Valley of Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Adimassu, Zenebe; Kessler, Aad; Yirga, Chilot; Stroosnijder, Leo

    2013-05-01

    To combat land degradation in the Central Rift Valley (CRV) of Ethiopia, farmers are of crucial importance. If farmers perceive land degradation as a problem, the chance that they invest in land management measures will be enhanced. This study presents farmers' perceptions of land degradation and their investments in land management, and to what extent the latter are influenced by these perceptions. Water erosion and fertility depletion are taken as main indicators of land degradation, and the results show that farmers perceive an increase in both indicators over the last decade. They are aware of it and consider it as a problem. Nevertheless, farmers' investments to control water erosion and soil fertility depletion are very limited in the CRV. Results also show that farmers' awareness of both water erosion and soil fertility decline as a problem is not significantly associated with their investments in land management. Hence, even farmers who perceive land degradation on their fields and are concerned about its increase over the last decade do not significantly invest more in water erosion and soil fertility control measures than farmers who do not perceive these phenomena. Further research is needed to assess which other factors might influence farmers' investments in land management, especially factors related to socioeconomic characteristics of farm households and plot characteristics which were not addressed by this study.

  11. Importance of field scientific learning at the time of elementary and junior high school. - Introduction of geological field learning in Shimane Prefecture, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsumoto, I.

    2014-12-01

    Importance of the scientific field learning is increasing since the disaster by the Tohoku-Earthquake and Tsunami at the 11th March 2011, in Japan. Effective enforcement of the environmental education from a kindergarten to a University student is very important educational tool for protecting future earth's environment. Practice of the geological field study at the time of elementary and junior high school is very important. This study reports the present situation and the practice example of field scientific learning of Japan. Particularly, I report practice of the geological field education in a class of Shimane prefecture. I point out that "Consciousness (In)", "knowledge (About)", and "action (For)" are important three factors not only environmental education but also geological field education (e.g. Matsumoto, 2014). However, the practice rate of field geological learning at the elementary and junior high school is very low in Japan (Miyashita and Matsumoto, 2010). I introduce the effective method of increasing the practice rate of field geological study. I discuss about pedagogy which improves especially a student's scientific literacy.

  12. [Risk behavior among farmers from Podkarpacie Provinece].

    PubMed

    Binkowska-Bury, Monika; Penar-Zadarko, Beata; Marć, Małgorzata; Sobolewski, Marek

    2010-01-01

    Increasing awareness of science and medical environments and the society in the scope of behavioral conditioning of many diseases (e.g. cardiovascular diseases, tumors and injuries motivates to shape pro-health behaviors and eliminate harmful habit also in rural areas. There is a need for constant monitoring of behaviors related to health among rural areas inhabitants. The results enriches present state of knowledge in that scope, as well as might be use to increase the effectiveness of health promotion and health education activities and shape pro-health lifestyle among rural areas inhabitants, and particularly among farmers. The aim of the study was to acquaint socio-demographic features related to risk behaviors (tobacco smoking, alcohol drinking) among farmers from Podkarpacie Provinece. The study was carried out between January and December 2009 among 755 farmers with national health insurance KRUS for minimum last year, living in Podkarpacie Provinece, whom had their own farm business, owned a farm either spouse or household member works on the farm. The study population was purposefully chosen. The study was conducted using a diagnostics survey method with questionnaire including above all questions considering tobacco smoking, alcohol drinking and demographic issues. Results from questionnaires were analyzed using the statistical package STATISTICA 9.0 (Statsoft). The gathered data was statistically prepared using chi-square test, logistic regression model with stepwise and progressive regression. Based on results it was assumed that frequency of tobacco smoking in the studied group values 31.5%. More frequent smoke: men than women, people with high economic status and those evaluating their Heath state as a good one. Gender and material status are strong predictors of tobacco smoking among farmers. Age and level of education do not influence on tobacco smoking among studied farmers. Frequency of alcohol drinking in the studied group values 82.0%. More

  13. Impacts on rural livelihoods in Cambodia following adoption of best practice health and husbandry interventions by smallholder cattle farmers.

    PubMed

    Young, J R; O'Reilly, R A; Ashley, K; Suon, S; Leoung, I V; Windsor, P A; Bush, R D

    2014-08-01

    To better understand how smallholder farmers whom own the majority of Cambodian cattle can contribute to efforts to address food security needs in the Mekong region, a five-year research project investigating methods to improve cattle health and husbandry practices was conducted. Cattle production in Cambodia is constrained by transboundary animal diseases (TADs) including foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) and haemorrhagic septicaemia (HS) plus poor nutrition, reproduction and marketing knowledge. The project worked in six villages in Kandal, Takeo and Kampong Cham province during 2007-12. Farmers from three 'high intervention' (HI) villages incrementally received a participatory extension programme that included FMD and HS vaccination, forage development and husbandry training. Evaluation of project impacts on livelihoods was facilitated by comparison with three 'low intervention' (LI) villages where farmers received vaccinations only. Results of knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) and socio-economic surveys conducted in 2012 of 120 participating farmers identified that farmer knowledge in the HI project sites exceeded LI sites on the topics of biosecurity, internal parasites, nutrition and reproduction. HI farmers adopted biosecurity practices including a willingness to vaccinate for FMD and HS at their own cost, separate sick from healthy cattle, grow and feed forages and displayed awareness of the benefits of building fattening pens. HI farmers that grew forages observed time savings exceeding two hours per day each for men, women and children, enabling expansion of farm enterprises, secondary employment and children's schooling. Logistic regression analysis revealed that farmers in the HI group significantly increased annual household income (P < 0.001), with 53% reporting an increase of 100% or more. We conclude that improving smallholder KAP of cattle health and production can lead to improved livelihoods. This strategy should be of interest to policymakers

  14. Marketing Fresh Produce to Local Schools: The North Florida Cooperative Experience [and] Cultivating Schools as Customers in a Local Market: The New North Florida Cooperative Experience [and] Acquiring Capital and Establishing a Credit History: The North Florida Cooperative Experience [and] Success of the New North Florida Cooperative: A Progress Report on Producer Direct Sales to School Districts. Small Farmer Success Story. Bulletins 1-4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC.

    These four bulletins describe how a group of limited-resource small farmers in northern Florida's Jackson County, the USDA, the West Florida Resource Conservation and Development Council, Florida A&M University, and the Federation of Southern Cooperatives organized the New North Florida Cooperative to increase farm income by introducing…

  15. Assessing Hmong farmers' safety and health.

    PubMed

    de Castro, A B; Krenz, Jennifer; Neitzel, Richard L

    2014-05-01

    This pilot project investigated agricultural-related safety and health issues among Hmong refugees working on family-operated farms. Novel approaches, namely participatory rural appraisal and photovoice, were used to conduct a qualitative occupational hazard assessment with a group of Hmong farmers in Washington State. These two methods were useful in gathering participants' own perspectives about priority concerns. Several identified problems were related to musculoskeletal disorders, handling and operating heavy machinery, heat and cold stress, respiratory exposures, pest management, and socioeconomic and language concerns. Findings from this study provide insight into the work-related challenges that Hmong refugee farmers encounter and can serve as a basis for occupational health professionals to develop interventions to assist this underserved group.

  16. Farmer Decision-Making for Climate Adaptation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lubell, M.; Niles, M.; Salerno, J.

    2015-12-01

    This talk will provide an overview of several studies of how farmers make decisions about climate change adaptation and mitigation. A particular focus will be the "limiting factors hypothesis", which argues that farmers will respond to the climate variables that usually have the largest impact on their crop productivity. For example, the most limiting factor in California is usually water so how climate change affects water will be the largest drive of climate adaptation decisions. This basic idea is drawn from the broader theory of "psychological distance", which argue that human decisions are more attuned to ideas that are psychologically closer in space, time, or other factors. Empirical examples come from California, New Zealand, and Africa.

  17. Development and Implementation of a Series of Laboratory Field Trips for Advanced High School Students to Connect Chemistry to Sustainability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aubrecht, Katherine B.; Padwa, Linda; Shen, Xiaoqi; Bazargan, Gloria

    2015-01-01

    We describe the content and organization of a series of day-long field trips to a university for high school students that connect chemistry content to issues of sustainability. The seven laboratory activities are in the areas of environmental degradation, energy production, and green chemistry. The laboratory procedures have been modified from…

  18. Trail Blazers: Fourth-Grade Students Create Digital Field Guides for Visitors to the School's Nature Trail

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connors, Lisa Marie

    2011-01-01

    As a fourth-grade science teacher, the author wanted a project that was (a) yearlong in scope, (b) got her students outside more, and (c) laid the groundwork for a learning progression. In this article, she describes a project in which her fourth-grade students created digital field guides for visitors to their school's nature trail. In the…

  19. Higher Learning: Impacts of a High-Altitude Adventure-Based Field School on College Student Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harper, Nevin J.; Webster, Anthony L.

    2017-01-01

    Student learning can be enhanced through applied experience of theoretical knowledge. The purpose of this study was to identify and articulate personal and educational impacts experienced by students during a mentally and physically challenging international adventure-based field school. Nineteen students and two faculty members participated in a…

  20. Effects of Classroom Acoustics on Performance and Well-Being in Elementary School Children: A Field Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klatte, Maria; Hellbruck, Jurgen; Seidel, Jochen; Leistner, Philip

    2010-01-01

    Children are more impaired than adults by unfavorable listening conditions such as reverberation and noise. Nevertheless, the acoustical conditions in classrooms often do not fit the specific needs of young listeners. This field study aimed to analyze the effects of classroom reverberation on children's performance and well-being at school.…

  1. The Effects of a Sound-Field Amplification System on Managerial Time in Middle School Physical Education Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Stu

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The focus of this research effort was to examine the effect of a sound-field amplification system on managerial time in the beginning of class in a physical education setting. Method: A multiple baseline design across participants was used to measure change in the managerial time of 2 middle school female physical education teachers using…

  2. The Practical Source of Educational Knowledge for Pre-Service Teachers in Confronting Field-Based Challenges in School Practicum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsai, Hsien-Chang; Liu, Shih-Hsiung

    2013-01-01

    Educational value in teacher education courses is unquestioned; however, there are still many doubts about the practicality of the knowledge acquired from university courses and a field-based course in school practicum. The purpose of this study is to identify the practicality of the educational knowledge from the above courses for pre-service…

  3. How Zimbabwean AIDS Orphans Negotiate Their Personal Identities within the Fields of Home and School in a Stigmatising Society

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kwenda, Chiwimbiso M.

    2009-01-01

    This study is based on field data originally collected for a PhD research project in a small district of Zimbabwe. The study attempts to answer the question about how AIDS orphaned children in a selected context in Zimbabwe construct their concept of self as members of their changed and recomposing families, and as members of their school and…

  4. Field Practice in La Mixteca: Transnational Teacher Education in the Service of Mexican Indigenous Students in U.S. Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruiz, Nadeen Teresa; Baird, Peter J.; Torres Hernández, Pedro

    2016-01-01

    Initial research has documented the ill treatment suffered by Mexican indigenous students in U.S. schools. Using a framework of transnational teacher education, we examined the impact of field practice in an indigenous area of Mexico on teacher candidates. Candidates showed growth in new understandings, such as their role as bilingual teachers in…

  5. An Elementary School Environmental Education Field Trip: Long-Term Effects on Ecological and Environmental Knowledge and Attitude Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farmer, James; Knapp, Doug; Benton, Gregory M.

    2007-01-01

    Using phenomenological analysis, the authors examined the long-term effects of an environmental education school field trip on fourth grade elementary students who visited Great Smoky Mountains National Park. The authors' findings suggest that one year after the experience, many students remembered what they had seen and heard and had developed a…

  6. Schooling's "Contribution" to Contemporary Violent Conflict: Review of Theoretical Ideas and Case Studies in the Field of Education and Conflict

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matsumoto, Mitsuko

    2015-01-01

    Some argue that the field of study of "education and conflict" has yet to be solidified since its emergence in the 1990s, partly due to the weak theory base. This article reviews the literature on the "contribution" of schooling in contemporary violent conflict, via three strands of theoretical ideas, to demonstrate the…

  7. Toward Effective and Compelling Instruction for High School eCommerce Students: Results from a Small Field Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luterbach, Kenneth J.; Rodriguez, Diane; Love, Lakecia

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes an instructional development effort to create effective and compelling instruction for eCommerce students. Results from a small field study inform the development project. Four high school students in an eCommerce course completed the standalone tutorial developed to teach them how to create a web page in the HyperText Markup…

  8. Drop-Out in Schools in India: Minor Field Studies in Orissa 1990. Educational and Psychological Interactions. No. 112.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ekstrand, Gudrun, Ed.

    This document consists of a report on the Minor Field Studies (MFS) program of the Swedish International Development Authority (SIDA) and contains two MFS papers by teacher trainees at the Malmo School of Education in Sweden. The papers presented are "Drop-outs in Orissa," by Elisabeth Rosen, and "Education in India: A Study of…

  9. Can structural adjustment work for women farmers.

    PubMed

    Mehra, R

    1991-12-01

    This article discusses the impact of structural adjustment programs (SAPs) on women farmers in developing countries. SAPs aim to improve economic efficiency and promote more rapid economic growth. SAPs are introduced in two phases. The first phase involves short-term loans with the condition that the country adopt monetary restraints and currency devaluation measures. In the second phase, long-term loans are given with the provision that the country deregulate their economy and open up markets. The agricultural sector is affected by SAPs because of their importance in employment, income generation, and export earnings. SAPs result in lower farm commodity prices due to currency devaluations and in removal of subsidies, which results in market-sensitive pricing or higher food prices. The impact of SAPs on agriculture vary between countries. In Morocco and Algeria, agriculture expanded under SAPs. In Indonesia, Bolivia, Costa Rica, and Mexico, the agriculture stagnated or declined. Agricultural growth was slowest in Africa. SAPs were somewhat successful in increasing agricultural exports. Food production grew slowly in many adjusting countries. Blame for failures of SAPs has been placed on government failure to implement reforms properly and overly optimistic assumptions about the timing of productive gains. Little attention has focused on the constraints facing women farmers, who are a large proportion of farmers, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa. This article focuses on the issues of limited access to resources, credit, agricultural extension and information, land ownership, education, and time as constraints to women farmers. Women also must ensure household food security. For SAPs to work effectively, complementary policies must be implemented that reallocate available productive resources and new technologies to women and that deal with women's constraints.

  10. Characterizing customers at medical center farmers' markets.

    PubMed

    Kraschnewski, Jennifer L; George, Daniel R; Rovniak, Liza S; Monroe, Diana L; Fiordalis, Elizabeth; Bates, Erica

    2014-08-01

    Approximately 100 farmers' markets operate on medical center campuses. Although these venues can uniquely serve community health needs, little is known about customer characteristics and outreach efforts. Intercept survey of markets and market customers between August 2010 and October 2011 at three medical centers in different geographic regions of the US (Duke University Medical Center, Cleveland Clinic, and Penn State Hershey Medical Center) were conducted. Markets reported serving 180-2,000 customers per week and conducting preventive medicine education sessions and community health programs. Customers (n = 585) across markets were similar in sociodemographic characteristics--most were middle-aged, white, and female, who were employees of their respective medical center. Health behaviors of customers were similar to national data. The surveyed medical center farmers' markets currently serve mostly employees; however, markets have significant potential for community outreach efforts in preventive medicine. If farmers' markets can broaden their reach to more diverse populations, they may play an important role in contributing to community health.

  11. In Defense of Field Trips: A Conversation with Educators from an Extraordinary Alabama Public School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    von Zastrow, Claus

    2010-01-01

    People looking for a public school Cinderella story need look no further than George Hall Elementary in Mobile, Alabama. The once struggling school, which serves mostly low-income children, now boasts state math and reading test scores most wealthy suburban schools would be proud of. George Hall did not have to sacrifice all but the basics to get…

  12. School Choice in the Local Environment: Headteachers as Gatekeepers on an Uneven Playing Field.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herbert, David

    2000-01-01

    Under British school-choice systems, parental perceptions of school quality motivate considerable pupil migration. Headteachers are cast into managerial roles stressing their ability to retain catchment populations and attract pupils from elsewhere. A South Wales study shows that school location and local environment figure prominently in a…

  13. A Field Study of Telepractice for School Intervention Using the ASHA NOMS K-12 Database

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gabel, Rodney; Grogan-Johnson, Sue; Alvares, Robin; Bechstein, Leah; Taylor, Jacquelyn

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe the characteristics and effectiveness of a telepractice speech-language therapy program for school-age children. Outcome data related to the caseload, type and amount of intervention, and student progress from a school-based telepractice therapy program were compared with the K-12 Schools National…

  14. Undergraduate Psychology Students' Knowledge and Exposure to School Psychology: Suggestions for Diversifying the Field

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bocanegra, Joel O.; Gubi, Aaron A.; Fan, Chung-Hau; Hansmann, Paul R.

    2015-01-01

    Trainers within school psychology have struggled to recruit racial/ethnic minority graduate students, with a recent demographic survey suggesting that racial/ethnic minorities comprise 9.3% of school-based practitioners (Curtis, Castillo, & Gelley, 2012). Furthermore, research has suggested that school psychology training programs have also…

  15. "Micro" Politics: Mapping the Origins of Schools Computing as a Field of Education Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Selwyn, Neil

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the emergence of schools "micro-computing" in the UK between 1977 and 1984--a period of significant educational, technological and political change. During this time, computing developed rapidly from a niche activity in a few select schools to the state subsidized purchasing of a "computer in every school"…

  16. School Entry Age: The Effects on School Achievement and Adjustment. An Education Field Problem Research Project Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rabinowitz, Linda Gross

    Compared were the academic achievement, personal and social adjustment, and special education referral rates of early, middle, and late school entrants. It was hypothesized that: (1) there is a significant relationship between entry age and achievement and adjustment variables; (2) achievement and adjustment are significantly different among…

  17. Needs assessment for reducing pesticide risk: a case study with farmers in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Phung, Dung Tri; Connell, Des; Miller, Greg; Rutherford, Shannon; Chu, Cordia

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to identify the needs for and solutions to pesticide risk reduction for farmers in Vietnam, using a comprehensive needs assessment model applied for evaluating community needs and policy development. Four kinds of needs were evaluated using qualitative research methods. A comparative analysis of pesticide regulations was used to identify comparative needs. In-depth interviews with authorities and experts were conducted to identify normative needs. Observations on farmer's practice were used to identify expressed needs, and focus group discussions among farmers were implemented to identify felt needs. The needs for pesticide regulations obtained from comparative analysis and experts include enhancement of pesticide legislation; multisectoral involvement in pesticide regulations; improvement of capacity for sectors involving in pesticide regulations; risk-benefit guidance for pesticide registration; reforms of pesticide regulations relating to the restriction, cancellation, suspension, transport, storage, and disposal of pesticides; and the development of occupational hygiene and safety policy and programs for agricultural activities. The expressed needs based on field observations comprise improvement in knowledge and behavior of farmers about pesticide safety with specific areas, and supports in safety facilities and personal protective equipment. The key request from farmers include needs about technical training for occupational safety and hygiene of pesticide application, and support for safety facilities for pesticide application and protective equipment. The results of comprehensive needs assessment were useful in the development of a range of strategies in legislative improvement, workplace and personal hygiene, information and training, and medical surveillance and pesticide poisoning first aids for pesticide risk reduction for Vietnamese farmers.

  18. Prevalence and risk factors for farmer's lung in greenhouse farmers: an epidemiological study of 5,880 farmers from Northeast China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shuo; Chen, Donghong; Fu, Shuang; Ren, Yangang; Wang, Lingling; Zhang, Yibing; Zhao, Mingjing; He, Xiaoyu; Wang, Xiaoge

    2015-03-01

    The objectives of this epidemiological study were to evaluate the prevalence of farmer's lung disease (FLD) and to explore the potential risk factors for FLD among Chinese greenhouse farmers. A total of 835 plastic film greenhouses, including 5,880 active farmers who engaged in crop cultivation or poultry farming, were randomly selected from the rural regions of Northeastern China. These farmers participated in the study by answering a medical questionnaire. 5,420 greenhouse farmers accepted and answered questionnaires in full (response rate, 92.18 %). Prevalence of FLD among these farmers was 5.7 % (308/5,420). Besides, a number of classic risk factors for FLD were identified, such as years of age, shorter time interval for re-entry greenhouse, ventilation frequency of greenhouse more than once per 4 h, the area of greenhouses greater than 30 m(2) but without a ventilation facility, ventilation duration less than 30 min every time, greenhouse with height less than 1.8 m, greenhouse with humidity greater than 65 %, frequent exposure to moldy materials in greenhouse, living inside greenhouse, and et al. FLD is and will continue to be a real health problem for Chinese farmers. If these preventive measures are implemented, the prevalence of FLD in Chinese greenhouse farmers might be greatly reduced.

  19. Scaring as a tool to alleviate crop damage by geese: Revealing differences between farmers' perceptions and the scale of the problem.

    PubMed

    Simonsen, Caroline E; Tombre, Ingunn M; Madsen, Jesper

    2017-03-01

    Expanding populations of farmland foraging geese are causing escalating conflict with agriculture. We used questionnaires to investigate farmers´ perceptions in mid-Norway of spring staging geese and the extent to which they attempt to reduce pasture damage by goose scaring. We predicted farmers' scaring effort (a measure of dissatisfaction) to increase on fields closer to goose roosting sites where goose grazing intensity was highest (measured by dropping counts). Results showed no such relationship, suggesting that farmers' perception of goose use was not linked to actual goose use, but influenced by sociological factors and individual opinion. These results confirm the need to distribute subsidies/compensation to affected farmers based upon quantifiable measures of goose use rather than complaint levels. To avoid further conflict escalation, it is equally important that managers are aware of farmers´ perceptions and their causes, to effectively target communication about policies and measures to mitigate goose-agriculture problems.

  20. Urinary paranitrophenol, a metabolite of methyl parathion, in Thai farmer and child populations.

    PubMed

    Panuwet, Parinya; Prapamontol, Tippawan; Chantara, Somporn; Thavornyuthikarn, Prasak; Bravo, Roberto; Restrepo, Paula; Walker, Robert D; Williams, Bryan L; Needham, Larry L; Barr, Dana B

    2009-10-01

    Human exposure to methyl parathion can be assessed by measuring the concentration of its metabolite paranitrophenol (PNP) in urine. Our biologic monitoring study in Chiang Mai, Thailand, measured PNP and dialkylphosphate metabolites (i.e., dimethylphosphate [DMP] and dimethylthiophosphate [DMTP]) of methyl parathion in urine samples collected from 136 farmers (age 20 to 65 years) and 306 school children (age 10 to 15 years) in 2006. Participants came from two topographically different areas: one was colder and mountainous, whereas the other was alluvial with climate fluctuations depending on the monsoon season. Both children and farmers were recruited from each area. Despite methyl parathion's prohibited use in agriculture in 2004, we detected PNP in >90% of all samples analyzed. We applied a nonparametric correlation test (PNP vs. DMP and DMTP) to determine whether the PNP found in most of the samples tested resulted from exposures to methyl parathion. DMP (Spearman's rho = 0.601 [p = 0.001] for farmers and Spearman's rho = 0.263 [p <0.001] for children) and DMTP (Spearman's rho = 0.296 [p = 0.003] for farmers and Spearman's rho = 0.304 [p<0.001] for children) were positively correlated with PNP, suggesting a common source for the three analytes, presumably methyl parathion or related environmental degradates. Although we found a modest correlation between the metabolites, our findings suggest that despite the prohibition, at least a portion (approximately 25% to 60%) of the PNP detected among farmers and children in Thailand may be attributed to exposure from continued methyl parathion use.

  1. Genetic diversity and parentage in farmer selections of cacao from Southern Sulawesi, Indonesia revealed by microsatellite markers

    PubMed Central

    Dinarti, Diny; Susilo, Agung W.; Meinhardt, Lyndel W.; Ji, Kun; Motilal, Lambert A.; Mischke, Sue; Zhang, Dapeng

    2015-01-01

    Indonesia is the third largest cocoa-producing country in the world. Knowledge of genetic diversity and parentage of farmer selections is important for effective selection and rational deployment of superior cacao clones in farmers’ fields. We assessed genetic diversity and parentage of 53 farmer selections of cacao in Sulawesi, Indonesia, using 152 international clones as references. Cluster analysis, based on 15 microsatellite markers, showed that these Sulawesi farmer selections are mainly comprised of hybrids derived from Trinitario and two Upper Amazon Forastero groups. Bayesian assignment and likelihood-based parentage analysis further demonstrated that only a small number of germplasm groups, dominantly Trinitario and Parinari, contributed to these farmer selections, in spite of diverse parental clones having been used in the breeding program and seed gardens in Indonesia since the 1950s. The narrow parentage predicts a less durable host resistance to cacao diseases. Limited access of the farmers to diverse planting materials or the strong preference for large pods and large bean size by local farmers, may have affected the selection outcome. Diverse sources of resistance, harbored in different cacao germplasm groups, need to be effectively incorporated to broaden the on-farm diversity and ensure sustainable cacao production in Sulawesi. PMID:26719747

  2. Building Geophysics Talent and Opportunity in Africa: Experience from the AfricaArray/Wits Geophysics Field School

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webb, S. J.; Manzi, M.; Scheiber-Enslin, S. E.; Durrheim, R. J.; Jones, M. Q. W.; Nyblade, A.

    2015-12-01

    There are many challenges faced by geophysics students and academic staff in Africa that make it difficult to develop effective field and research programs. Challenges to conducting field work that have been identified, and that can be tackled are: lack of training on geophysical equipment and lack of exposure to field program design and implementation. To address these challenges, the AfricaArray/Wits Geophysics field school is designed to expose participants to a wide variety of geophysical instruments and the entire workflow of a geophysical project. The AA field school was initially developed for the geophysics students at the University of the Witwatersrand. However, by increasing the number of participants, we are able to make more effective use of a large pool of equipment, while addressing challenging geophysical problems at a remote field site. These additional participants are selected partially based on the likely hood of being able start a field school at their home institution. A good candidate would have access to geophysical equipment, but may not have knowledge of how to use it or how to effectively design surveys. These are frequently junior staff members or graduate students in leadership roles. The three week program introduces participants to the full geophysical field workflow. The first week is spent designing a geophysical survey, including determining the cost. The second week is spent collecting data to address a real geophysical challenge, such as determining overburden thickness, loss of ground features due to dykes in a mine, or finding water. The third week is spent interpreting and integrating the various data sets culminating in a final presentation. Participants are given all lecture material and much of the software is open access; this is done to encourage using the material at the home institution. One innovation has been to use graduate students as instructors, thus building a pool of talent that has developed the logistic and

  3. DCFRN: a radio network for small farmers.

    PubMed

    Amt, W

    1986-01-01

    The Developing Countries Farm Radio Network (DCFRN), a media group founded in 1979, is committed to assisting small farmers to increase their food supplies by using established radio stations along with other local communication channels to spread agricultural information. The success of this effort is evident in the fact that over 500 broadcasters or organizations in over 100 countries disseminate DCFRN information to an estimated 100,000,000 listeners in about 100 languages. 9 packets have been produced and distributed thus far. Information is gathered on appropriate and inexpensive technologies grassroots level farmers use in developing countries to increase food production, decrease post harvest losses and to make more efficient use of food. The source of this information is on-site interviews with small farmers, farm broadcasters, extension workers, health workers, scientists, and university and government officials; printed materials; and feedback from questionnaires that are included in each information packet. Information on agricultural or nutritional innovations must be developed, tested, and proven in the developing world and must be adaptable in other developing countries in order to be put on tape and then be disseminated by DCFRN. The radio scripts are prepared in a culturally and religiously neutral style. The scripts cover a wide variety of agricultural or health and nutrition issues. Each packet contains "The Blue Sheet," DCFRN's newsletter for participants in the Network. It provides current information about the Network and also covers other development issues not included in the radio scripts. DCFRN information also has been used in newspaper articles, posters, classroom teaching, video tapes, television shows, loudspeaker broadcasts, and puppet shows.

  4. 29 CFR 780.614 - Definition of a farmer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Definition of a farmer. 780.614 Section 780.614 Labor... § 780.614 Definition of a farmer. The Act does not define the term “farmer.” Whether an employer is a “farmer” within the meaning of section 13(b)(13) must be determined by consideration of the...

  5. 29 CFR 780.614 - Definition of a farmer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Definition of a farmer. 780.614 Section 780.614 Labor... § 780.614 Definition of a farmer. The Act does not define the term “farmer.” Whether an employer is a “farmer” within the meaning of section 13(b)(13) must be determined by consideration of the...

  6. Tomatoes, Cucumbers, and Salad Tag: A Farmer Goes to School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Summers, William

    2013-01-01

    Will Summers has been farming since 2007 when he interned for a small community-supported agriculture (CSA) farm in Austin, Texas. His agricultural experience since then has primarily been with nonprofit organizations where he has cultivated vegetables, kept chickens, milked goats, and introduced young people to the wonders of farming and…

  7. Of Organic Farmers and "Good Farmers": Changing Habitus in Rural England

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutherland, Lee-Ann; Darnhofer, Ika

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, numerous studies have identified the importance of cultural constructions of "good farming" to farming practice. In this paper, we develop the "good farming" construct through an empirical study of organic and conventional farmers, focussing on how change occurs. Drawing on Bourdieu's concepts of cultural…

  8. Why Farmers Persist in or Drop Out of Young Farmer Instructional Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matteson, H. R.; Thompson, J. F.

    A study was conducted to determine why some young farmers continue to attend Wisconsin's five-year (part-time) instructional program and others drop out. Specifically, both groups were compared in personal characteristics, satisfaction regarding in-class instruction, satisfaction regarding on-farm instruction, and relevance of program to student's…

  9. Farmers, streams, information, and money: does informing farmers about riparian management have any effect?

    PubMed

    Rhodes, Heather M; Leland, Louis S; Niven, Brian E

    2002-11-01

    We assessed relationships between the extent to which farmers reported exposure to relevant information and their attitudes towards, knowledge about, and degree of adoption of riparian management strategies. We also examined associations between knowledge of, or receipt of, financial assistance for riparian fencing/planting and intentions for and extent of adoption of this strategy. A mail survey of 718 pastoral farmers in Otago and Southland in New Zealand [294 surveys returned (41%)] yielded 279 usable questionnaires. Indices were developed to reflect range and frequency of information use and range of practices adopted. Attitudes were measured using Likert-type responses to 11 statements, and knowledge as a score on a ten-question true/false test. Positive relationships between information and the three main response variables (attitude, knowledge, and adoption) were weak but significant and systematic. These associations remained significant when important demographic and farm characteristics were taken into account. Informed farmers were more likely to report intentions to carry out riparian fencing or planting within the next year. Farmers who were aware that funding was available were also more likely to state this intention, independent of information level. The reported extent to which waterways had been fenced to exclude stock was related to receipt of funding, but not to information level. Financial factors were the most influential barrier preventing adoption of permanent fencing. Our research shows a positive correlation between the receipt of information and funding and the adoption of specific riparian management measures.

  10. Survey data of stated farmer׳s preferences and willingness to supply straw.

    PubMed

    Giannoccaro, Giacomo

    2017-04-01

    This data article provides a data description on article entitled "Assessing farmers׳ willingness to supply biomass as energy feedstock: Cereal straw in Apulia (Italy)" (G. Giannoccaro, C.B. de Gennaro, E. DeMeo, M. Prosperi, 2017). This DiB consists of data obtained through a survey to farmers in Foggia Province, Italy. The survey was carried out by means of a structured questionnaire administrated to about 200 local wheat producers. Face to face interviews were carried out by professionals. From the hard copy of questionnaire, data were firstly transferred into an excel sheet, than exported to STATA.14 software. The file contains text, dummy and metric variables with reference to a number of variables such as on-farm structural features (land size, crops, livestock units, grain and straw yields, etc.), socio-economic (straw price, willingness to accept, off-farm job, income, membership of farm union, etc.) and personal (farmer׳s age, family members, educational level, etc.). Data has not been uploaded to a public repository.

  11. Agricultural Multifunctionality and Farmers' Entrepreneurial Skills: A Study of Tuscan and Welsh Farmers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Selyf Lloyd; Marsden, Terry; Miele, Mara; Morley, Adrian

    2010-01-01

    The process of agricultural restructuring in Europe has been strongly influenced both by CAP support of multifunctional agriculture and by market liberalisation, and farmers are exhorted to become more entrepreneurial in response. This paper explores the interaction of these policy goals in two regions where a rural development form of…

  12. Extending Technologies among Small-Scale Farmers in Meru, Kenya: Ingredients for Success in Farmer Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Kristin; Franzel, Steven; Hildebrand, Peter; Irani, Tracy; Place, Nick

    2004-01-01

    Agricultural extension is evolving worldwide, and there is much emphasis today on community-based mechanisms of dissemination in order to bring sustainable change. The goal of this study was to examine the factors that make farmer groups successful in dissemination of information and technologies. A mixed-methods, multiple-stage approach was used…

  13. [Review on farmer's climate change perception and adaptation].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xue-Yan

    2014-08-01

    As the most serious challenge that the humankind is facing, climate change has been strengthened vulnerability in many countries and regions, and how to scientifically adapt to climate change has become the global issue of common concern to the international community today. The impact of climate change on farming people depending on the nature resource is especially remarkable, and understanding farmers' adaptation mechanism and process is very important to effectively make the adaptation policy. As the basis of understanding the human response action, public perception has provided a new perspective to verify the farmers' adaptation mechanism and process about climate change. Based on the recent theoretical and empirical developments of farmers' perception and adaptation, the impact of climate change on the farmers' livelihood was analyzed, and the main adaptation obstacles which the farmers faced in response to climate change were summarized systematically. Then, we analyzed the relationship between the farmers' climate change perception and adaptation, illuminated the key cognitive elements in the process of the farmers' climate change adaptation and introduced the framework to analyze the relationship between the farmers' climate change perception and adaptation. At last, this review put forward the key questions which should be considered in study on the relationship between the farmers' climate change perception and adaptation.

  14. Armed forces career exploration for high school students in the fields of engineering and science. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-08-01

    Morgan State University`s School of Engineering conducted its third annual Armed Forces Career Exploration program for high school students in the fields of engineering and science. The four week program was jointly sponsored by the US Army Laboratory Command (Ballistics Research Laboratory and Human Engineering Laboratory) and US Department of Energy (Los Alamos National Laboratory). The environment in a predominantly urban school system is such that a significant number of very capable students reach the eleventh grade without plans for the future. These students as a result of teacher influence have taken lower level math and science courses and we feel by participating in this program will see reasons for pursuing higher level math and science courses their last two years in high school. Inasmuch as intervention programs have not yet significantly affected the profile of these schools this pool of students represents an opportunity to make an early impact on the number of students that enter college intending to major in math, science or engineering. This report presents the program that provided selected students with pre-engineering and science enrichment experiences designed to enhance their understanding of engineering, increase their awareness of career opportunities in science and engineering, advance their readiness to enter temporary job situation, and foster the development of self-confidence in their individual capabilities.

  15. Sub-slab pressure-field extension in schools and other large buildings. Rept. for 1988-91

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, D.B.; Craig, A.B.; Leovic, K.W.

    1991-01-01

    The paper discusses EPA's experiences using pressure field extension (PFE) to design active subslab depressurization (ASD) systems to reduce radon levels in old and new schools, including instances where the data collected resulted in the installation of smaller systems than expected and selection of high vacuum fans instead of 'normal' mitigation fans. A central collection system for use under very large slabs is discussed and PFE data are given for a hospital under construction. The most direct method of projecting or measuring the performance of an ASD system is to measure the strength and extent of the pressure field established under the slab. The PFE can be determined (during diagnostics) to help design an ASD system and (following installation) to ascertain system performance. In schools and other large buildings, these data are invaluable to provide a system that will mitigate the building without undue cost escalation.

  16. Testing the Test: A Study of PARCC Field Trials in Two School Districts. Policy Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rennie Center for Education Research & Policy, 2015

    2015-01-01

    The potential use of computer-based assessments has raised concerns from educators, policymakers, and parents about information technology infrastructure in school districts and the preparation of staff and students to use new technologies for assessment purposes, and the potential impact of testing activities on core school functions,…

  17. Official Bilingualism and Field Narratives: Does School Practice Echo Policy Discourse?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nana, Genevoix

    2013-01-01

    This research builds on several layers of meaning representing views from education officials, head teachers, teachers and pupils to investigate the discourse and implementation of official bilingualism policy in primary schools in Cameroon. While at the macro-level, the celebration of the "National Bilingualism Day" in schools has…

  18. The Impact of Classification and Framing in Entrepreneurial Education: Field Observations in Two Lower Secondary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diehl, Monika; Lindgren, Joakim; Leffler, Eva

    2015-01-01

    This article's purpose is to examine, on the basis of Bernstein's theory of classification and framing, how teachers express the concept and content of entrepreneurship in classroom practices in two Swedish lower secondary schools. The study is part of a national school improvement program aiming to better understand, develop and encourage…

  19. Teacher Mobility, School Segregation, and Pay-Based Policies to Level the Playing Field

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clotfelter, Charles T.; Ladd, Helen F.; Vigdor, Jacob L.

    2011-01-01

    Research has consistently shown that teacher quality is distributed very unevenly among schools, to the clear disadvantage of minority students and those from low-income families. Using North Carolina data on the length of time individual teachers remain in their schools, we examine the potential for using salary differentials to overcome this…

  20. Building Research Collaboratives among Schools and Universities: Lessons from the Field

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuriloff, Peter; Reichert, Michael; Stoudt, Brett; Ravitch, Sharon

    2009-01-01

    In a previous issue of "Mind, Brain, and Education," Hinton and Fischer (2008) argue that educational research needs to be grounded in the lived realities of school life. They advocate for research schools as a venue for accomplishing this. The Center for the Study of Boys' and Girls' Lives represents an alternative model--a research collaborative…

  1. Developing Comprehensive Induction in Jewish Day Schools: Lessons from the Field

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birkeland, Sarah; Feiman-Nemser, Sharon

    2009-01-01

    Effective school-based induction for new teachers involves much more than mentoring; it requires a comprehensive array of supports buttressed by a collaborative professional culture. Yet few schools are able to offer such a nourishing environment to their new hires. What would it take to bridge the gap between the real and the ideal? In 2005 team…

  2. Longitudinal Study of Elementary School Effects: Design, Instruments, and Specifications for a Field Test. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDaniel, Ernest D.; And Others

    Patterns of cognitive, affective, and social growth of elementary school children are described and the school and home variables which influence such growth are identified in this longitudinal study. This final report presents the final instruments and the interpretive data associated with them. The study permits the tracing of developmental…

  3. The Logistics of Implementing a Field-Based Comprehensive School Reform Initiative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reeves, Dawn E.

    2014-01-01

    This research is a qualitative, reflective case study regarding a cohort in the form of a district-university partnership between the Oak Park Schools in Oak Park, Michigan and the College of Education at Western Michigan University in Kalamazoo, Michigan. The initiators of the program envisioned a more successful urban school district by offering…

  4. School District Labour Conflict and Frame Analysis: A Field Study of Contentious Negotiations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gates, Gordon S.; Vesneske, Staci S.

    2012-01-01

    Labour conflict in school districts is a largely neglected area of educational research. This study examines the perceptions, actions, and decisions of union and district leaders using social movement theory to describe, analyze, and interpret contentious contract negotiations in three school districts in the Pacific Northwest region of the US.…

  5. The Private School Market in Kuwait: A Field Study on Educational Investment Behavior of Kuwaiti Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alqahtani, Abdulmuhsen Ayedh

    2014-01-01

    The current study aims at exploring Kuwaiti families' educational investment behavior pursuant to the selection of a specific private school for their children from the private school market. Using the quantitative approach and the principles of marketing research, a survey was administered to a randomly selected sample of Kuwaiti families (n =…

  6. An anthropological approach to teaching health sciences students cultural competency in a field school program.

    PubMed

    Hutchins, Frank T; Brown, Lori DiPrete; Poulsen, Keith P

    2014-02-01

    International immersion experiences do not, in themselves, provide students with the opportunity to develop cultural competence. However, using an anthropological lens to educate students allows them to learn how to negotiate cultural differences by removing their own cultural filters and seeing events through the eyes of those who are culturally different. Faculty at the University of Wisconsin-Madison's Global Health Institute believed that an embedded experience, in which students engaged with local communities, would encourage them to adopt this Cultural Competency 2.0 position. With this goal in mind, they started the Field School for the Study of Language, Culture, and Community Health in Ecuador in 2003 to teach cultural competency to medical, veterinary, pharmacy, and nursing students. The program was rooted in medical anthropology and embraced the One Health initiative, which is a collaborative effort of multiple disciplines working locally, nationally, and globally to obtain optimal health for people, animals, and the environment. In this article, the authors identify effective practices and challenges for using a biocultural approach to educating students. In a semester-long preparatory class, students study the Spanish language, region-specific topics, and community engagement principles. While in Ecuador for five weeks, students apply their knowledge during community visits that involve homestays and service learning projects, for which they partner with local communities to meet their health needs. This combination of language and anthropological course work and community-based service learning has led to positive outcomes for the local communities as well as professional development for students and faculty.

  7. Simulating farmer behaviour under water markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Padula, SIlvia; Erfani, Tohid; Henriques, Catarina; Maziotis, Alexandros; Garbe, Jennifer; Swinscoe, Thomas; Harou, Julien; Weatherhead, Keith; Beevers, Lindsay; Fleskens, Luuk

    2015-04-01

    Increasing water scarcity may lead water managers to consider alternative approaches to water allocation including water markets. One concern with markets is how will specific sectors interact with a potential water market, when will they gain or loose water and will they benefit economically - why, when and how? The behaviours of different individual abstractors or institutional actors under water markets is of interest to regulators who seek to design effective market policies which satisfy multiple stakeholder groups. In this study we consider two dozen agricultural water users in eastern England (Nar basin). Using partially synthetic but regionally representative cropping and irrigation data we simulate the buying and selling behaviour of farmers on a weekly basis over multiple years. The impact of on-farm water storage is assessed for farmers who own a reservoir. A river-basin-scale hydro-economic multi-agent model is used that represents individual abstractors and can simulate a spot market under various licensing regimes. Weekly varying economic demand curves for water are calibrated based on historical climate and water use data. The model represents the trade-off between current use value and expected gains from trade to reach weekly decisions. Early results are discussed and model limitations and possible extensions are presented.

  8. Skin cancer preventive behaviors among rural farmers: An intervention based on protection motivation theory

    PubMed Central

    Babazadeh, Towhid; Kamran, Aziz; Dargahi, Abdollah; Moradi, Fatemeh; Shariat, Fariba; Rezakhani Moghaddam, Hamed

    2016-01-01

    Background: Skin cancer is a serious public health problem in the world. Its prevalence in many countries has been increased in recent years. This study aimed to assess the effects of a theory-based educational intervention to promote skin cancer preventive behaviors (SCPBs) among rural farmers in Chalderan County, Iran. Methods: This was a quasi-randomized controlled field trial study conducted on 238 rural farmers. The data were collected by a questionnaire containing the constructs of the Protection Motivation Theory (PMT) as well as the items of SCPBs. The differences between the groups before and 3 months after the intervention were determined by independent t-test, paired t-test, and chi-square applying SPSS software. Results: Before the intervention, no significant difference was found in the scores of the PMT constructs between the two groups (p>0.05). However, significant differences were found between the scores of all the variables, as well as SCPBs, in the two groups after the intervention (p<0.05). Conclusion: The PMT was found to be an appropriate framework for designing educational interventions aiming at promoting SCPBs among rural farmers. It was concluded that designing an educational program with a focus on promoting perceived susceptibility increased the level of performing SCPBs among the rural farmers. PMID:28210609

  9. AfricaArray International Geophysics Field School: Applications of Near Surface Geophysics to challenges encountered in mine planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webb, S. J.; Jones, M. Q.; Durrheim, R. J.; Nyblade, A.; Snyman, Q.

    2012-12-01

    Hard rock exploration and mining presents many opportunities for the effective use of near surface geophysics. For over 10 years the AfricaArray international geophysics field school has been hosted at a variety of mines in South Africa. While the main objective of the field school is practical training for the next generation of geophysicists, being hosted at a mine has allowed us to investigate applications of near surface geophysics in the early stages of mine planning and development as geophysics is often cheaper and faster than drilling. Several applications include: detailed delineation of dykes and stringer dykes, physical property measurements on drill core for modeling and marker horizons, determination of overburden thickness, locations of water and faults. Dolerite dykes are usually magnetic and are associated with loss of ground (i.e. where the dyke replaces the ore and thus reduces the amount of ore available) and safety/stability concerns. Thus the accurate mapping of dykes and narrow stringers that are associated with them are crucial to the safe planning of a mine. We have acquired several case studies where ground magnetic surveys have greatly improved on the resolution and detail of airborne magnetic surveys in regions of complicated dyke swarms. In many cases, thin stringer dykes of less than 5 cm have been detected. Physical property measurements of these dykes can be used to distinguish between different ages of dykes. It is important to accurately determine overburden thickness when planning an open pit mine as this directly affects the cost of development. Depending on the nature of the overburden, both refraction seismic and or DC resistivity can provide continuous profiling in the area of interest that fills in gaps between boreholes. DC resistivity is also effective for determining water associated with dykes and structures that may affect mine planning. The field school mainly addresses the training of a variety of students. The core

  10. Apomixis technology development-virgin births in farmers' fields?

    PubMed

    Spillane, Charles; Curtis, Mark D; Grossniklaus, Ueli

    2004-06-01

    Apomixis is the process of asexual reproduction through seed, in the absence of meiosis and fertilization, generating clonal progeny of maternal origin. Major benefits to agriculture could result from harnessing apomixis in crop plants. Although >400 apomictic plant species are known, apomixis is rare among crop plants, and the transfer of apomixis to crop varieties by conventional breeding has been largely unsuccessful. Because apomictic and sexual pathways are closely related, de novo engineering of apomixis might be achieved in sexually reproducing crops. Early consideration of issues relating to biosafety and intellectual property (IP) management can facilitate the acceptance and deployment of apomixis technology in agriculture.

  11. Energy Smart Schools--Applied Research, Field Testing, and Technology Integration

    SciTech Connect

    Nebiat Solomon; Robin Vieira; William L. Manz; Abby Vogen; Claudia Orlando; Kimberlie A. Schryer

    2004-12-01

    The National Association of State Energy Officials (NASEO) in conjunction with the California Energy Commission, the Energy Center of Wisconsin, the Florida Solar Energy Center, the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority, and the Ohio Department of Development's Office of Energy Efficiency conducted a four-year, cost-share project with the U.S. Department of Energy (USDOE), Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy to focus on energy efficiency and high-performance technologies in our nation's schools. NASEO was the program lead for the MOU-State Schools Working group, established in conjunction with the USDOE Memorandum of Understanding process for collaboration among state and federal energy research and demonstration offices and organizations. The MOU-State Schools Working Group included State Energy Offices and other state energy research organizations from all regions of the country. Through surveys and analyses, the Working Group determined the school-related energy priorities of the states and established a set of tasks to be accomplished, including the installation and evaluation of microturbines, advanced daylighting research, testing of schools and classrooms, and integrated school building technologies. The Energy Smart Schools project resulted in the adoption of advanced energy efficiency technologies in both the renovation of existing schools and building of new ones; the education of school administrators, architects, engineers, and manufacturers nationwide about the energy-saving, economic, and environmental benefits of energy efficiency technologies; and improved the learning environment for the nation's students through use of better temperature controls, improvements in air quality, and increased daylighting in classrooms. It also provided an opportunity for states to share and replicate successful projects to increase their energy efficiency while at the same time driving down their energy costs.

  12. Preparing students for higher education and careers in agriculture and related fields: An ethnography of an urban charter school

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henry, Kesha Atasha

    This study explored the preparation of students for higher education and careers in agriculturally-related fields at an urban charter high school. The data were collected through interviews, observations, and field notes. The data were analyzed by qualitative methodology with phenomenology as the theoretical framework. Findings indicated that administrators thought it was important to incorporate agricultural science courses into urban school curricula. They stated that agricultural science courses gave urban students a different way of looking at science and helped to enhance the science and technology focus of the school. Further, agricultural science courses helped to break urban students' stereotypes about agriculture and helped to bring in more state funding for educational programs. However they thought that it was more challenging to teach agricultural science in urban versus rural schools and they focused more on Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) related careers. The students had mixed views about higher education and careers in agriculture. This was based on their limited knowledge and stereotypes about agricultural majors and career options. The students highlighted several key reasons why they chose to enroll in agricultural science courses. This included the benefits of dual science credits and the ability to earn an associate degree upon successful completion of their program. Students also loved science and appreciated the science intensive nature of the agricultural courses. Additionally, they thought that the agricultural science courses were better than the other optional courses. The results also showed that electronic media such as radio and TV had a negative impact on students' perceptions about higher education and careers in agriculturally-related fields. Conclusions and recommendations are presented.

  13. Inspiring careers in STEM and healthcare fields through medical simulation embedded in high school science education

    PubMed Central

    Berk, Louis J.; Muret-Wagstaff, Sharon L.; Goyal, Riya; Joyal, Julie A.; Gordon, James A.; Faux, Russell

    2014-01-01

    The most effective ways to promote learning and inspire careers related to science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) remain elusive. To address this gap, we reviewed the literature and designed and implemented a high-fidelity, medical simulation-based Harvard Medical School MEDscience course, which was integrated into high school science classes through collaboration between medical school and K–12 faculty. The design was based largely on the literature on concepts and mechanisms of self-efficacy. A structured telephone survey was conducted with 30 program alumni from the inaugural school who were no longer in high school. Near-term effects, enduring effects, contextual considerations, and diffusion and dissemination were queried. Students reported high incoming attitudes toward STEM education and careers, and these attitudes showed before versus after gains (P < .05). Students in this modest sample overwhelmingly attributed elevated and enduring levels of impact on their interest and confidence in pursuing a science or healthcare-related career to the program. Additionally, 63% subsequently took additional science or health courses, 73% participated in a job or educational experience that was science related during high school, and 97% went on to college. Four of every five program graduates cited a health-related college major, and 83% offered their strongest recommendation of the program to others. Further study and evaluation of simulation-based experiences that capitalize on informal, naturalistic learning and promote self-efficacy are warranted. PMID:25179609

  14. Inspiring careers in STEM and healthcare fields through medical simulation embedded in high school science education.

    PubMed

    Berk, Louis J; Muret-Wagstaff, Sharon L; Goyal, Riya; Joyal, Julie A; Gordon, James A; Faux, Russell; Oriol, Nancy E

    2014-09-01

    The most effective ways to promote learning and inspire careers related to science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) remain elusive. To address this gap, we reviewed the literature and designed and implemented a high-fidelity, medical simulation-based Harvard Medical School MEDscience course, which was integrated into high school science classes through collaboration between medical school and K-12 faculty. The design was based largely on the literature on concepts and mechanisms of self-efficacy. A structured telephone survey was conducted with 30 program alumni from the inaugural school who were no longer in high school. Near-term effects, enduring effects, contextual considerations, and diffusion and dissemination were queried. Students reported high incoming attitudes toward STEM education and careers, and these attitudes showed before versus after gains (P < .05). Students in this modest sample overwhelmingly attributed elevated and enduring levels of impact on their interest and confidence in pursuing a science or healthcare-related career to the program. Additionally, 63% subsequently took additional science or health courses, 73% participated in a job or educational experience that was science related during high school, and 97% went on to college. Four of every five program graduates cited a health-related college major, and 83% offered their strongest recommendation of the program to others. Further study and evaluation of simulation-based experiences that capitalize on informal, naturalistic learning and promote self-efficacy are warranted.

  15. Farmers' Concerns: A Qualitative Assessment to Plan Rural Medical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Brittney T.; Johnson, Gwendolyn J.; Wheat, John R.; Wofford, Amina S.; Wiggins, O. Sam; Downey, Laura H.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Context: Limited research suggests that translational approaches are needed to decrease the distance, physical and cultural, between farmers and health care. Purpose: This study seeks to identify special concerns of farmers in Alabama and explore the need for a medical education program tailored to prepare physicians to address those…

  16. A study of suicide in farmers in England and Wales.

    PubMed

    Malmberg, A; Hawton, K; Simkin, S

    1997-07-01

    The proportional mortality ratio for suicide is higher in farmers than in the general population. The reasons for this are likely to be complex, but may include easy availability of firearms, stress related to work, financial difficulties, and family problems. A psychological autopsy study of suicide in 84 farmers who died between 1991-1994 is presented and some preliminary findings are discussed.

  17. Dislocated Farmers: Number, Distribution, and Impacts. Research Report Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Philip L.; Olmstead, Alan L.

    This report is an overview of the current status of farmers in the U.S. economy, with an emphasis on the characteristics of displaced farmers, the reasons for their displacement, the effects of their displacement on the economy, and some policy recommendations for the future. Following an executive summary, the report is organized in five…

  18. Exposure assessment and lung function in pig and poultry farmers

    PubMed Central

    Radon, K; Weber, C; Iversen, M; Danuser, B; Pedersen, S; Nowak, D

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—To describe the relation between spirometric findings and farming characteristics and variables of exposure to organic dust measured during work in animal buildings. Farmers have traditionally been described as having one of the most dangerous occupations, so a large scale study on European farmers was carried out. This is the report of the second part of that study.
METHODS—40 pig farmers in Denmark and 36 poultry farmers in Switzerland were chosen randomly and were assessed over 1 working day.
RESULTS—Mean (SD) baseline spirometric results in pig farmers were higher than in poultry farmers (forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) (% of reference value) 108.3 (16.7) v 100.2 (14.2); p=0.04). Baseline lung function results were significantly associated with ventilation of the animal houses. Furthermore, temperature was related to spirometric findings in pig farmers.
CONCLUSIONS—Ventilation of the animal house and temperature might influence respiratory morbidity in farmers.


Keywords: ventilation; micro-organism; European multicentre study PMID:11351057

  19. 75 FR 23227 - Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-03

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Foreign Agricultural Service Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers AGENCY: Foreign Agricultural Service... can be obtained at the Web site for the Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers program. The URL...

  20. 75 FR 42376 - Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-21

    ... Foreign Agricultural Service Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers AGENCY: Foreign Agricultural Service... began a review of a petition for trade adjustment assistance filed under the FY 2011 Program by three... benefits. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers Staff, FAS, USDA,...

  1. 75 FR 43485 - Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-26

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Foreign Agricultural Service Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers AGENCY... (FAS) today accepted and began a review of a petition for trade adjustment assistance filed under the...: Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers Staff, FAS, USDA, by phone: (202) 720-0638, or (202)...

  2. 7 CFR 1216.9 - Farmers stock peanuts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Farmers stock peanuts. 1216.9 Section 1216.9... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEANUT PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Peanut Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1216.9 Farmers stock...

  3. 7 CFR 1216.9 - Farmers stock peanuts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Farmers stock peanuts. 1216.9 Section 1216.9... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEANUT PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Peanut Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1216.9 Farmers stock...

  4. 7 CFR 1216.9 - Farmers stock peanuts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Farmers stock peanuts. 1216.9 Section 1216.9... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEANUT PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Peanut Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1216.9 Farmers stock...

  5. 7 CFR 1216.9 - Farmers stock peanuts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Farmers stock peanuts. 1216.9 Section 1216.9... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEANUT PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Peanut Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1216.9 Farmers stock...

  6. 7 CFR 1216.9 - Farmers stock peanuts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Farmers stock peanuts. 1216.9 Section 1216.9... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEANUT PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Peanut Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1216.9 Farmers stock...

  7. Organizing and Conducting Farmer-Scientist Focus Sessions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lev, Larry S.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Farmer-scientist focus sessions represent a means by which participants exchange ideas for action, identify researchable topics, and enhance long-term farmer-scientist team work. Three examples involving controlling weeds, disposal of cull onion, and food safety concerns are described that illustrate the types of issues treated, the format, and…

  8. Helping Farmers Access Farmland: New Jersey's New Land Link Website

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schilling, Brian J.; Marxen, Lucas J.; Everett, Jeffrey C.; Miller, Camille L.; Kimmel, David A.; Cook, Justine C.

    2015-01-01

    Access to land is a common obstacle for beginning farmers and established farmers seeking to expand their operations. Particularly in urban-influenced areas, leasing farmland is often more financially feasible than fee ownership. Locating available land or the right leasing situation, however, can be difficult. NJ Land Link (http://njlandlink.org)…

  9. Social Learning and Innovation at Retail Farmers' Markets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinrichs, C. Claire; Gillespie, Gilbert W.; Feenstra, Gail W.

    2004-01-01

    Retail farmers' markets are seen as key institutions in a more "civic agriculture," but little is known about how they promote small business entrepreneurship. Drawing on research in economic sociology and economic geography, this paper examines the role of social learning in vendor innovation. Data from a 1999 mail survey of farmers' market…

  10. 26 CFR 1.162-12 - Expenses of farmers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... § 1.263A-4. The cost of farm machinery, equipment, and farm buildings represents a capital investment... farmers. (a) Farms engaged in for profit. A farmer who operates a farm for profit is entitled to deduct... including the value of farm produce grown upon the farm or the labor of the taxpayer. For rules...

  11. 26 CFR 1.162-12 - Expenses of farmers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... § 1.263A-4. The cost of farm machinery, equipment, and farm buildings represents a capital investment... farmers. (a) Farms engaged in for profit. A farmer who operates a farm for profit is entitled to deduct... including the value of farm produce grown upon the farm or the labor of the taxpayer. For rules...

  12. Ethnological Field Training in the Mezquital Valley, Mexico. Papers from the Ixmiquilpan Field Schools in Cultural Anthropology and Linguistics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenny, Michael, Ed.; Bernard, H. Russell, Ed.

    Thirteen papers by graduate students who participated in a 1971 summer field program in Hidalgo, Mexico, are presented. Twelve of the papers are presented in the English language and one is presented in Spanish. Research for seven of the papers was undertaken in established Otomi Indian villages or hamlets. Research for the remaining six papers…

  13. Modeling Student Choice of STEM Fields of Study: Testing a Conceptual Framework of Motivation, High School Learning, and Postsecondary Context of Support. WISCAPE Working Paper

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Xueli

    2012-01-01

    This study draws upon social cognitive career theory and higher education literature to propose and test a conceptual framework for understanding the selection of postsecondary STEM fields of study by recent high school graduates who attend four-year institutions. Results suggest that high school math achievement, exposure to math and science…

  14. Preservice Teachers' Reflections on Their Home-School Clinical Teaching Experience: Evidence to Support an Alternative Field Experience for Teacher Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Everhart, Brett; McKethan, Robert

    2004-01-01

    Teacher education programs continue to search for alternative field experiences for preservice teachers. Whether the public schools are overloaded with interns or a break from certain schools is recommended for various reasons, it is important to identify appropriate alternative practice teaching opportunities prior to student teaching. With the…

  15. The Development of a Procedure for Placing Education Students in Public Schools for Field Work Activities. Emergence of Higher Education in America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ceaser, Lisbeth; West, John

    This developmental project was designed to solve the conflict between the Center for Teacher Education at California Polytechnic State University in San Luis Obispo and the local public school districts regarding the placement of education students in public school classrooms for field work activities. The conflict arose when one major school…

  16. Sensors Enable Plants to Text Message Farmers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2013-01-01

    Long-term human spaceflight means long-term menu planning. Since every pound of cargo comes with a steep price tag, NASA has long researched technologies and techniques to allow astronauts to grow their own food, both on the journey and in some cases at their destination. Sustainable food technologies designed for space have resulted in spinoffs that improve the nutrition, safety, and durability of food on Earth. There are of course tradeoffs involved in making astronauts part-time farmers. Any time spent tending plants is time that can t be spent elsewhere: collecting data, exploring, performing routine maintenance, or sleeping. And as scarce as time is for astronauts, resources are even more limited. It is highly practical, therefore, to ensure that farming in space is as automated and precise as possible.

  17. Healthy sand : a farmers initiative on soil protection and ecosystem service management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smit, Annemieke; Verzandvoort, Simone; Kuikman, Peter; Stuka, Jason; Morari, Francesco; Rienks, Willem; Stokkers, Jan; Hesselink, Bertus; Lever, Henk

    2015-04-01

    In a small region in the Netherlands a group of dairy farmers (cooperated in a foundation HOE Duurzaam) cooperates with the drinking water company and together aim for a more healthy soil. They farm a sandy soil, which is in most of the parcels low in organic matter. The local farmers perceive loss of soil fertility and blame loss of soil organic matter for that. All farmers expect that increasing the soil organic matter content will retain more nitrates in the soil, leading to a reduction in nitrate leaching and a higher nutrient availability for the crops, forage and grass and probably low urgency for grassland renewal. The drinking water company in the area also has high expectations that a higher SOM content does relate to higher quality of the (drinking) water and lower costs to clean and filter the water to meet drinking water quality requirements. Most farmers in the area face suboptimal moisture conditions and thrive for increasing the soil organic matter content and improving the soil structure as key factors to relieve, soil moisture problems both in dry (drought) and wet (flooding) periods. A better water holding capacity of the soil provides benefits for the regional water board as this reduces leaching and run-off. The case study, which is part of the Recare-project, at first glance deals with soil management and technology to improve soil quality. However, the casus in fact deals with social innovation. The real challenge to this group of neighbours, farmers within a small region, and to science is how to combine knowledge and experience on soil management for increasing the content of soil organic matter and how to recognize the ecosystem services that are provided by the adapted and more 'healthy' soils. And also how to formalize relations between costs and benefits of measures taken in the field and how these could be financially rewarded from an agreed and acceptable financial awarding scheme based on payments for securing soil carbon stocks and

  18. Agricultural Extension Messages Using Video on Portable Devices Increased Knowledge about Seed Selection, Storage and Handling among Smallholder Potato Farmers in Southwestern Uganda.

    PubMed

    Van Campenhout, Bjorn; Vandevelde, Senne; Walukano, Wilberforce; Van Asten, Piet

    2017-01-01

    To feed a growing population, agricultural productivity needs to increase dramatically. Agricultural extension information, with its public, non-rival nature, is generally undersupplied, and public provision remains challenging. In this study, simple agricultural extension video messages, delivered through Android tablets, were tested in the field to determine if they increased farmers' knowledge of recommended practices on (i) potato seed selection and (ii) seed storage and handling among a sample of potato farmers in southwestern Uganda. Using a field experiment with ex ante matching in a factorial design, it was established that showing agricultural extension videos significantly increased farmers' knowledge. However, results suggested impact pathways that went beyond simply replicating what was shown in the video. Video messages may have triggered a process of abstraction, whereby farmers applied insights gained in one context to a different context.

  19. Striga Biocontrol on a Toothpick: A Readily Deployable and Inexpensive Method for Smallholder Farmers.

    PubMed

    Nzioki, Henry S; Oyosi, Florence; Morris, Cindy E; Kaya, Eylul; Pilgeram, Alice L; Baker, Claire S; Sands, David C

    2016-01-01

    Striga hermonthica (witchweed) is a parasitic weed that attacks and significantly reduces the yields of maize, sorghum, millet, and sugarcane throughout sub-Saharan Africa. Low cost management methods such as hand weeding, short crop rotations, trap cropping, or conventional biocontrol have not been effective. Likewise, Striga-tolerant or herbicide-resistant maize cultivars are higher yielding, but are often beyond the economic means of sustenance farmers. The fungal pathogen, Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. strigae, has been the object of numerous studies to develop Striga biocontrol. Under experimental conditions this pathogen can reduce the incidence of Striga infestation but field use is not extensive, perhaps because it has not been sufficiently effective in restoring crop yield and reducing the soil Striga seed bank. Here we brought together Kenyan and US crop scientists with smallholder farmers to develop and validate an effective biocontrol strategy for management of Striga on smallholder farms. Key components of this research project were the following: (1) Development of a two-step method of fungal delivery, including laboratory coating of primary inoculum on toothpicks, followed by on-farm production of secondary field inoculum in boiled rice enabling delivery of vigorous, fresh inoculum directly to the seedbed; (2) Training of smallholder farmers (85% women), to produce the biocontrol agent and incorporate it into their maize plantings in Striga-infested soils and collect agronomic data. The field tests expanded from 30 smallholder farmers to a two-season, 500-farmer plot trial including paired plus and minus biocontrol plots with fertilizer and hybrid seed in both plots and; (3) Concerted selection of variants of the pathogen identified for enhanced virulence, as has been demonstrated in other host parasite systems were employed here on Striga via pathogen excretion of the amino acids L-leucine and L-tyrosine that are toxic to Striga but innocuous to maize

  20. Striga Biocontrol on a Toothpick: A Readily Deployable and Inexpensive Method for Smallholder Farmers

    PubMed Central

    Nzioki, Henry S.; Oyosi, Florence; Morris, Cindy E.; Kaya, Eylul; Pilgeram, Alice L.; Baker, Claire S.; Sands, David C.

    2016-01-01

    Striga hermonthica (witchweed) is a parasitic weed that attacks and significantly reduces the yields of maize, sorghum, millet, and sugarcane throughout sub-Saharan Africa. Low cost management methods such as hand weeding, short crop rotations, trap cropping, or conventional biocontrol have not been effective. Likewise, Striga-tolerant or herbicide-resistant maize cultivars are higher yielding, but are often beyond the economic means of sustenance farmers. The fungal pathogen, Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. strigae, has been the object of numerous studies to develop Striga biocontrol. Under experimental conditions this pathogen can reduce the incidence of Striga infestation but field use is not extensive, perhaps because it has not been sufficiently effective in restoring crop yield and reducing the soil Striga seed bank. Here we brought together Kenyan and US crop scientists with smallholder farmers to develop and validate an effective biocontrol strategy for management of Striga on smallholder farms. Key components of this research project were the following: (1) Development of a two-step method of fungal delivery, including laboratory coating of primary inoculum on toothpicks, followed by on-farm production of secondary field inoculum in boiled rice enabling delivery of vigorous, fresh inoculum directly to the seedbed; (2) Training of smallholder farmers (85% women), to produce the biocontrol agent and incorporate it into their maize plantings in Striga-infested soils and collect agronomic data. The field tests expanded from 30 smallholder farmers to a two-season, 500-farmer plot trial including paired plus and minus biocontrol plots with fertilizer and hybrid seed in both plots and; (3) Concerted selection of variants of the pathogen identified for enhanced virulence, as has been demonstrated in other host parasite systems were employed here on Striga via pathogen excretion of the amino acids L-leucine and L-tyrosine that are toxic to Striga but innocuous to maize

  1. 76 FR 14371 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comment Request-WIC Farmers...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-16

    ... Food and Nutrition Service Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comment Request--WIC Farmers' Market Nutrition Program (FMNP) Forms and Regulations AGENCY: Food and Nutrition... in the WIC Farmers' Market Nutrition Program Financial Report (Form FNS-683); WIC Farmers'...

  2. Comparing Farmer-to-Farmer Video with Workshops to Train Rural Women in Improved Rice Parboiling in Central Benin

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zossou, Esperance; Van Mele, Paul; Vodouhe, Simplice D.; Wanvoeke, Jonas

    2009-01-01

    This article deals with the comparison of the conventional training based on two day community workshops and farmer-to-farmer video used as methodologies for the dissemination of improved rice parboiling process in Benin. From November 2007 to May 2008, we interviewed 160 women and 17 women groups who had been exposed to both, one or other of the…

  3. Using a Field Trip Inventory to Determine If Listening to Elementary School Students' Conversations, While on a Zoo Field Trip, Enhances Preservice Teachers' Abilities to Plan Zoo Field Trips

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patrick, Patricia; Mathews, Cathy; Tunnicliffe, Sue Dale

    2013-10-01

    This study investigated whether listening to spontaneous conversations of elementary students and their teachers/chaperones, while they were visiting a zoo, affected preservice elementary teachers' conceptions about planning a field trip to the zoo. One hundred five preservice elementary teachers designed field trips prior to and after listening to students' conversations during a field trip to the zoo. In order to analyze the preservice teachers' field trip designs, we conducted a review of the literature on field trips to develop the field trip inventory (FTI). The FTI focussed on three major components of field trips: cognitive, procedural, and social. Cognitive components were subdivided into pre-visit, during-visit, and post-visit activities and problem-solving. Procedural components included information about the informal science education facility (the zoo) and the zoo staff and included advanced organizers. Social components on student groups, fun, control during the zoo visit, and control of student learning. The results of the investigation showed that (a) the dominant topic in conversations among elementary school groups at the zoo was management, (b) procedural components were mentioned least often, (c) preservice teachers described during-visit activities more often than any other characteristic central to field trip design, (d) seven of the nine characteristics listed in the FTI were noted more frequently in the preservice teachers' field trip designs after they listened to students' conversations at the zoo, and (e) preservice teachers thought that students were not learning and that planning was important.

  4. Oil company surface use: Do farmers need protection

    SciTech Connect

    Feriancek, J.; McNeill, C.L.

    1995-12-31

    Weld County, a large, rural county in northeastern Colorado, experienced a surge in natural gas exploration and production during the last few years, and led the United States in drilling activity in 1993. Much of Weld County consists of highly productive irrigated cropland where farmers produce onion, carrots, and other surface-intensive crops and the loss of even a small amount of land to oil and gas operations is keenly felt. Not surprisingly, the surge in drilling has led to increased complaints by the agricultural community and has fueled surface owner efforts to gain more control over, and compensation for, oil and gas operations on their land. Oil and gas drilling is not new to Weld County. Oil was first discovered in the Denver-Julesberg basin in 1949. The Wattenberg gas field, located in Weld, Adams, and Boulder Counties, was discovered in 1970. Much of the Wattenberg acreage was leased years ago, and continues to be held by production from wells drilled during the 1970s and 1980s. A federal tax credit for wells drilled prior to January 1, 1993, in {open_quotes}tight sand{close_quotes} formations, combined with a high success ratio, led to the drilling of new wells at a frenzied pace. Wells in the Wattenberg field have been sufficiently profitable that drilling has continued after expiration of the tax credit.

  5. Pre-harvest cane burning and health: the association between school absences and burning sugarcane fields

    PubMed Central

    Mauro, Carla Cabrini; Ferrante, Vera Lúcia Silveira Bota; Arbex, Marcos Abdo; Ribeiro, Maria Lúcia; Magnani, Romeu

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate an association between pre-harvest sugarcane burning and respiratory diseases in children under five years of age. The following data were collected in five schools in the city of Araraquara, SP, Southeastern Brazil, between March and June 2009: daily records of absences and the reasons stated for these absences, total concentration of suspended particulate matter (µg/m3), and air humidity. The relationship between the percentage of school absences due to respiratory problems and the concentration of particulate matter in March and from April to June presented a distinct behavior: absences increased alongside the increase in particulate matter concentration. The use of school absences as indicators of this relationship is an innovative approach. PMID:26018783

  6. PREFACE: Lectures from the European RTN Winter School on Strings, Supergravity and Gauge Fields, Barcelona, 12-16 January 2004

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russo, Jorge G.

    2005-04-01

    This issue of Classical and Quantum Gravity contains the proceedings of the RTN European Winter School on Strings, Supergravity and Gauge Fields, which was held at the University of Barcelona, Spain, between 12-16 January 2004. The School was part of the RTN programme The Quantum Structure of Spacetime and the Geometric Nature of Fundamental Interactions of the European Union. It was attended by 181 registered participants. The lectures contain a pedagogical introduction to topics in string theory which are currently under active investigation. They were targeted mainly at students near the end of their PhD, and young postdocs and researchers. The topics were carefully selected to cover phenomenological aspects of string theory, covered by the lectures by A Uranga (Intersecting Brane Worlds) and U Danielsson (String Theory and Cosmology), as well as more fundamental and theoretical issues, covered by N Nekrasov (Non-perturbative Aspects of Supersymmetric Gauge Theories), P Townsend (Branes in Field Theory, not included in these proceedings) and Jaume Gomis (Tachyon Condensation: Towards Time Dependent Backgrounds and Holography). We must thank the lecturers for their admirable exposition of these interesting subjects. We hope that the readers of these proceedings receive these lectures with the same enthusiasm as they were received by all students and physicists that attended the School. Following the tradition of the RTN schools there were, in addition to the lectures, five workgroups on more specialized subjects, which aimed to discuss scientific problems of general interest to our network, facilitate communication between the various groups and, hopefully, help start new collaborations. They were Integrable Structures of the Gauge/String Correspondence led by G Arutyunov and B Stefanski Closed Timelike Curves in Supergravity and String Theory led by N Drukker and L Maoz Black Objects in Higher Dimensional General Relativity and Supergravity led by H Elvang and T

  7. Improving early detection of exotic or emergent oyster diseases in France: identifying factors associated with shellfish farmer reporting behaviour of oyster mortality.

    PubMed

    Lupo, C; Osta Amigo, A; Mandard, Y V; Peroz, C; Renault, T

    2014-09-01

    Farmers' vigilance is essential for the detection of epidemics, including potential emerging diseases, in marine shellfish. A field study was conducted to investigate oyster farmers' reporting practices and behaviour, and to identify factors influencing the reporting process of oyster mortality, with the ultimate aim of improving early detection of unexplained oyster mortality outbreaks. A retrospective case-control study of oyster farmers from Charente-Maritime (France) was designed, based on interviews with 27 non-reporting and 89 reporting farmers, further split into 40 formerly-reporting and 49 currently-reporting farmers. Information about farmer and farm characteristics, farming practices, farm health history and related financial compensation on the farm, knowledge of the mortality reporting system and reporting behaviour was collected. Sampling design was considered in the calculations and farmers' reporting behaviour was modelled using an ordinal logistic regression (continuation-ratio model). Notification procedures were fairly well known among farmers and the reporting system was well accepted overall. Nevertheless, a lack of awareness of the aims of the reporting system was revealed, which contributed to late reporting. Factors identified as driving a farmer's decision to report oyster mortality concerned their lack of awareness of mortality reporting (production type, farm size, location of the production cycle, accessibility of the leasing grounds) and willingness to report (possibility and extent of financial compensation, a feeling of not being involved, whether it was first year of reporting). Overall classification performance of the model built in this study was 64%. In particular, financial compensation for oyster production losses appeared to be a clear incentive for reporting, but was countered by a habituation effect combined with a lack of awareness of the aims of the reporting system: oyster farmers looking for benefits for themselves in

  8. Effect of Participatory Research on Farmers' Knowledge and Practice of IPM: The Case of Cotton in Benin

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Togbé, Codjo Euloge; Haagsma, Rein; Aoudji, Augustin K. N.; Vodouhê, Simplice D.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This study assesses the effect of participatory research on farmers' knowledge and practice of Integrated Pest Management (IPM) in Benin. The participatory field experiments were carried out during the 2011-2012 cotton growing season, and focused on the development and application of pest management knowledge. Methodology: A…

  9. Genetic identity and parentage in farmer selections of cacao from Southern Sulawesi, Indonesia revealed by molecular markers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Indonesia is the 3rd largest cocoa producing countries in the world and 71% of its production is from Sulawesi Island. Knowledge about the genetic background of farmer selections is highly important for effective identification and rational deployment of superior cacao clones in farmers’ fields. Mor...

  10. Baseline information development for energy smart schools -- applied research, field testing and technology integration

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Tengfang; Piette, Mary Ann

    2004-08-05

    The original scope of work was to obtain and analyze existing and emerging data in four states: California, Florida, New York, and Wisconsin. The goal of this data collection was to deliver a baseline database or recommendations for such a database that could possibly contain window and daylighting features and energy performance characteristics of Kindergarten through 12th grade (K-12) school buildings (or those of classrooms when available). In particular, data analyses were performed based upon the California Commercial End-Use Survey (CEUS) databases to understand school energy use, features of window glazing, and availability of daylighting in California K-12 schools. The outcomes from this baseline task can be used to assist in establishing a database of school energy performance, assessing applications of existing technologies relevant to window and daylighting design, and identifying future R&D needs. These are in line with the overall project goals as outlined in the proposal. Through the review and analysis of this data, it is clear that there are many compounding factors impacting energy use in K-12 school buildings in the U.S., and that there are various challenges in understanding the impact of K-12 classroom energy use associated with design features of window glazing and skylight. First, the energy data in the existing CEUS databases has, at most, provided the aggregated electricity and/or gas usages for the building establishments that include other school facilities on top of the classroom spaces. Although the percentage of classroom floor area in schools is often available from the databases, there is no additional information that can be used to quantitatively segregate the EUI for classroom spaces. In order to quantify the EUI for classrooms, sub-metering of energy usage by classrooms must be obtained. Second, magnitudes of energy use for electricity lighting are not attainable from the existing databases, nor are the lighting levels contributed

  11. Integrating geoscience and Native American experiences through a multi-state geoscience field trip for high school students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelso, P. R.; Brown, L. M.; Spencer, M.; Sabatine, S.; Goetz, E. R.

    2012-12-01

    Lake Superior State University (LSSU) developed the GRANITE (Geological Reasoning And Natives Investigating The Earth) to engage high school students in the geosciences. The GRANITE program's target audience is Native American high school students and other populations underrepresented in the geosciences. Through the GRANITE program students undertake a variety of field and laboratory geosciences activities that culminates in a two week summer geoscience field experience during which they travel from Michigan to Wyoming. The sites students visit were selected because of their interesting and diverse geologic features and because in many cases they have special significance to Native American communities. Examples of the processes and localities studied by GRANITE students include igneous processes at Bear Butte, SD (Mato Paha) and Devil's Tower, WY (Mato Tipila); sedimentary processes in the Badlands, SD (Mako Sica) and Black Hills, SD (Paha Sapa); karst processes at Wind Cave, SD (Wasun Niye) and Vore Buffalo Jump; structural processes at Van Hise rock, WI and Dillon normal fault Badlands, SD; hydrologic and laucustrine processes along the Great Lakes and at the Fond du Lac Reservation, MN; fluvial processes along the Mississippi and Missouri rivers; geologic resources at the Homestake Mine, SD and Champion Mine, MI; and metamorphic processes at Pipestone, MN and Baraboo, WI. Through the GRANITE experience students develop an understanding of how geoscience is an important part of their lives, their communities and the world around them. The GRANITE program also promotes each student's growth and confidence to attend college and stresses the importance of taking challenging math and science courses in high school. Geoscience career opportunities are discussed at specific geologic localities and through general discussions. GRANITE students learn geosciences concepts and their application to Native communities and society in general through activities and

  12. Interdisciplinary communication of infectious disease research - translating complex epidemiological findings into understandable messages for village chicken farmers in Myanmar.

    PubMed

    Henning, Joerg; Hla, Than; Meers, Joanne

    2014-01-01

    Improvement in animal disease control and prevention is dependent on several factors including farmers' uptake of new technologies and skills, particularly in developing countries. Extension is the means by which information about these technologies and skills is delivered to farmers, in order that they can use this knowledge to improve farming practices and their quality of life. This implies a shift from traditional methods to new science-based methods of production. However, in many developing countries farmers are illiterate and unable to understand written outcomes of scientific research. This paper summarizes approaches to communicate epidemiological findings and reports on experiences obtained from a research project in Myanmar, where results from epidemiological field investigations and intervention studies were 'translated' in an understandable manner to village communities. Rural chicken farmers were the central focus of this extension work and simple and sustainable methods to improve the health and production of scavenging chicken flocks were promoted. Unique extension materials transformed scientific outputs published in international journals into clear pictographic messages comprehendible by villagers, while maintaining country-specific, traditional, religious and public perspectives. Benefits, difficulties and pitfalls in using extension methods to communicate advice on preventive veterinary medicine measures in different cross-cultural settings are discussed and guidelines on how to distribute epidemiological research results to illiterate farmers are provided.

  13. Immersion in a Hudson Valley Tidal Marsh and Climate Research Community - Lamont-Doherty's Secondary School Field Research Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peteet, D. M.; Newton, R.; Vincent, S.; Sambrotto, R.; Bostick, B. C.; Schlosser, P.; Corbett, J. E.

    2015-12-01

    A primary advantage of place-based research is the multidisciplinary and interdisciplinary research that can be applied to a single locale, with a depth of continued study through time. Through the last decade, Lamont-Doherty's Secondary School Field Research Program (SSFRP) has promoted scientific inquiry, mostly among groups under-represented in STEM fields, in Piermont Marsh, a federally protected marsh in the Hudson estuary. At the same time, Lamont Doherty Earth Observatory (LDEO) scientists have become more involved, through mentoring by researchers, postdocs and graduate students, often paired with high school teachers. The sustained engagement of high school students in a natural environment, experiencing the Hudson River and its tidal cycles, protection of coastline, water quality improvement, native and invasive plant communities, is fundamental to their understanding of the importance of wetlands with their many ecosystem services. In addition, the Program has come to see "place" as inclusive of the Observatory itself. The students' work at Lamont expands their understanding of educational opportunities and career possibilities. Immersing students in a research atmosphere brings a level of serious inquiry and study to their lives and provides them with concrete contributions that they make to team efforts. Students select existing projects ranging from water quality to Phragmites removal, read papers weekly, take field measurements, produce lab results, and present their research at the end of six weeks. Ongoing results build from year to year in studies of fish populations, nutrients, and carbon sequestration, and the students have presented at professional scientific meetings. Through the Program students gain a sense of ownership over both their natural and the academic environments. Challenges include sustained funding of the program; segmenting the research for reproducible, robust results; fitting the projects to PIs' research goals, time

  14. From High School to College to Work: Students with Disabilities in High Tech Fields.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burgstahler, Sheryl; Wild, Nellie; Smallman, Julie

    This paper describes DO-IT (Disabilities, Opportunities, Internetworking and Technology), a cooperative program of the University of Washington and the High School/High Tech program to increase the career success of individuals with disabilities by providing access to technology, career preparation activities, and work experiences. DO-IT works…

  15. Working with Limited English Proficient Students: Input from the Field on a High School Newcomer Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munoz, Marco A.; Clavijo, Catherine

    While the number of limited English proficient (LEP) students has grown nationwide, these students' academic achievement levels have lagged significantly behind those of their language majority peers. Dropout rates among LEP students are also high. The Newcomer Program within Kentucky's Jefferson County Public Schools is a full-day transitional…

  16. Introducing High School Students to NMR Spectroscopy through Percent Composition Determination Using Low-Field Spectrometers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonjour, Jessica L.; Pitzer, Joy M.; Frost, John A.

    2015-01-01

    Mole to gram conversions, density, and percent composition are fundamental concepts in first year chemistry at the high school or undergraduate level; however, students often find it difficult to engage with these concepts. We present a simple laboratory experiment utilizing portable nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) to determine the…

  17. Early Experience in Restructuring Schools: Voices from the Field. Results in Education Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elmore, Richard F.

    As part of its school restructuring work with states, the National Governors' Association sponsored a March 1988 working meeting of experts to define common issues confronting educators and policymakers. Besides initiating dialogue between these groups, the meeting concentrated discussion on early state and district efforts. This essay summarizes…

  18. Employers Talk about Building a School-to-Work System: Voices from the Field.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wills, Joan L., Ed.

    This document contains background information on the school-to-work (STW) movement and 20 essays written by employers and intermediaries involved in STW program planning and implementation. Four points are highlighted: (1) it takes time to assemble an STW system; (2) the number of students participating in structured work-based learning remains…

  19. More than a Field Trip: Science Programmes for Elementary School Groups at Museums.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, Sabra; Hein, George E.

    1991-01-01

    Reviews the work of the Program Evaluation and Research Group (PERG) at Lesley College in evaluating informal, nonschool science programs for elementary students. Compares PERG's findings with other published literature about elementary school programs in extraschool science institutions and discusses issues that apply to all such programs from…

  20. Are Computer Science and Information Technology Still Masculine Fields? High School Students' Perceptions and Career Choices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papastergiou, M.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated Greek high school students' intentions and motivation towards and against pursuing academic studies in Computer Science (CS), the influence of the family and the scholastic environment on students' career choices, students' perceptions of CS and the Information Technology (IT) profession as well as students' attendance at…

  1. Efficient Financial Management in Rural Schools: Common Problems and Solutions from the Field. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Inman-Freitas, Deborah

    Based on a recent nationwide survey of rural administrators, this digest reports on the financial problems of rural school districts and some possible strategies for improvement. Rural administrators reported the following financial management problems: (1) cash flow problems due to late receipt of state aid or taxes; (2) expenditures that are…

  2. Gaining Control of Violence in the Schools: A View from the Field. ERIC Digest No. 100.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ascher, Carol

    This ERIC digest presents a summary of discussions from urban educators who addressed the issue of school violence at a National Education Association meeting held May 19, 1994. These educators note that American society is steeped in violence, particularly in urban areas, where children experience frustration, helplessness, and anger, and where…

  3. Decision-Making Administrative Behavior: Field-Centered Profile of the Urban School Principal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cuttitta, Frederick F.

    This paper describes an attempt to develop a theoretical model to guide the collection and interpretation of empirical data related to the administrative behavior of school principals. The author selects Griffith's decision-making theory as the conceptual framework for a study of the administrative behaviors of a group of New York City principals.…

  4. Strategies for Change: A Field Guide to Social Marketing for School Health Professionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American School Health Association (NJ3), 2004

    2004-01-01

    Strategies for Change outlines how to use social marketing strategies to influence change in the health programs in a building, district or community. Authors describe how to develop a strategy to influence district administrators, school board members, colleagues and parents. This step-by-step guide leads through the process for developing,…

  5. More Clearly Defining the Field: A Survey of Subtopics in School Effects Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teddlie, Charles; Roberts, Sharon Pol

    This paper presents findings of a study that sought to delineate subtopics within school-effects research (SER). After conducting a literature review and determining initial categories, a survey was conducted of 37 authors who were judged to have made the most significant contribution to SER within the last decade. A total of 28 authors responded.…

  6. High School Geography Project. Introductory Unit. ETS Evaluation Report, Limited Field Trials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bogatz, Gerry Ann; And Others

    This unit is one of several being prepared as a part of a geography course based on a settlement theme provisionally planned for tenth grade students. The materials are part of a larger proto unit on "A Structure of Geography." The original unit was tried out during the spring of 1965, then revised for the limited school trials. The…

  7. Mapping the Field: A Report on Expanded-Time Schools in America. Fall 2012

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Jessica

    2012-01-01

    Expanding learning time has become a leading strategy for closing the achievement and opportunity gaps that plague high-poverty schools in particular. With more time, educators are able to deepen the curriculum, embed enrichment classes and activities, and engage in frequent opportunities for teacher collaboration and professional development.…

  8. Design Solutions: Supplement to the Curriculum Guide for Art in the Secondary Schools. Field Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chicago Board of Education, IL.

    Intended to clarify the elements and principles of design as stated in the "Curriculum Guide for Art in the Secondary Schools," this illustrated supplement presents 15 design units with step-by-step instructions for clarifying design problems and providing solutions. Each unit is presented in three stages, each of which is a complete…

  9. ''Principalled'' Leadership in the PDS School: Enhancing the Field Experience for Pre-Service Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klenk, Laura

    2015-01-01

    In the mid-1980s and early 1990s, the Holmes group (1990) laid out a blueprint for leadership in PDS schools, positing that effective principals could foster leadership roles for all participants. Since then other scholars have explored the challenges of establishing strong principal-PDS relationships. This qualitative case study reveals how one…

  10. WiFi in Schools, Electromagnetic Fields and Cell Phones: Alberta Health Fact Sheet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Education, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Wireless devices and the networks that support them are becoming more common in Alberta schools. WiFi is a wireless networking technology that allows computers and other devices to communicate over a wireless signal. Typically the signal is carried by radio waves over an area of up to 100 meters. Through the implementation of a WiFi network,…

  11. Leveling the Playing Field: First Generation Korean American Males and School Based Extracurricular Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levy, Corey

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the manner in which extracurricular activities impacted the acculturation of first-generation adolescent males. Specifically, the project focused on the influence of organized high school soccer on the development of first-generation adolescent Korean American males. Eight adolescent participants, ranging in age from fourteen…

  12. Helping Schools Change: Strategies Derived from Field Experience. Occasional Papers/20.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leithwood, K. A.; And Others

    This monograph speaks to the general problem of helping schools improve their effectiveness and specifically is concerned with the nature of strategies most appropriate for use by university-based research and development personnel. The purpose is to identify and describe some of the more important features of effective, clinically oriented…

  13. A Field Study Examining Success Factors of University-School-Collaboration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wegner, Claas; Janzen, Nadeshda; Zehne, Carolin

    2015-01-01

    With decreasing numbers of students pursuing a career in science (OECD, 2008), the call for educational reforms building a basis for an interest in science is great. Cooperation between schools and universities are an important aspect of these reforms, as they aim at sparking an interest in science (Robert Bosch Foundation, 2005). The Ministry of…

  14. Mapping the Terrain: Educational Leadership Field Experiences in K-12 Virtual Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaFrance, Jason A.; Beck, Dennis

    2014-01-01

    Opportunities for K-12 students to choose virtual and blended learning experiences continue to grow. All 50 states including Washington, D.C., now offer some virtual experience in K-12 education. Of these, 40 states have state virtual schools or state-led online learning initiatives. In addition, federal and state support for this type of learning…

  15. Sign Language as Medium of Instruction in Botswana Primary Schools: Voices from the Field

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mpuang, Kerileng D.; Mukhopadhyay, Sourav; Malatsi, Nelly

    2015-01-01

    This descriptive phenomenological study investigates teachers' experiences of using sign language for learners who are deaf in the primary schools in Botswana. Eight in-service teachers who have had more than ten years of teaching deaf or hard of hearing (DHH) learners were purposively selected for this study. Data were collected using multiple…

  16. Who Goes to Graduate/Professional School? The Importance of Economic Fluctuations, Undergraduate Field, and Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bedard, Kelly; Herman, Douglas A.

    2008-01-01

    This study examines the impact of fluctuations in entry-level labor market conditions on the graduate school enrollment decisions of newly minted undergraduate degree holders. Using repeated cross-section data for recently graduated science and engineering undergraduates from the National Survey of Recent College Graduates, and state-level…

  17. Inspiring Careers in STEM and Healthcare Fields through Medical Simulation Embedded in High School Science Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berk, Louis J.; Muret-Wagstaff, Sharon L.; Goyal, Riya; Joyal, Julie A.; Gordon, James A.; Faux, Russell; Oriol, Nancy E.

    2014-01-01

    The most effective ways to promote learning and inspire careers related to science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) remain elusive. To address this gap, we reviewed the literature and designed and implemented a high-fidelity, medical simulation-based Harvard Medical School MEDscience course, which was integrated into high school…

  18. Knowledge training and the change of fertilizer use intensity: Evidence from wheat farmers in China.

    PubMed

    Pan, Dan; Kong, Fanbin; Zhang, Ning; Ying, Ruiyao

    2017-03-28

    High fertilizer use intensity is a serious issue throughout China, with adverse environmental and economic impacts. The lack of knowledge of Chinese farmers has been found to be the primary constraint. Using a propensity score matching (PSM) method to create a credible counterfactual analysis, this study examines the causal effects of two kinds of knowledge training approaches, traditional one-time training and in-field guidance, on the change of fertilizer use intensity of wheat farmers in China. The estimated results provide evidence that the traditional one-time training approach has a small effect on fertilizer use intensity reduction (only a 4% average), while the in-field guidance has a larger effect on fertilizer use intensity reduction (a 17% average). Moreover, we also found knowledge training has heterogeneous treatment effects. The reduction in fertilizer use intensity is larger for the farmers who are male and middle aged, have acquired a middle level of education, receive a lower share of off-farm income, collect a lower income, and operate a larger farm.

  19. Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease in Never-Smoking Dairy Farmers

    PubMed Central

    Stoleski, Saso; Minov, Jordan; Karadzinska-Bislimovska, Jovanka; Mijakoski, Dragan

    2015-01-01

    Introduction : Work-related chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) represents a considerable part of the disease burden globally. Objective : To assess the COPD prevalence and characteristics in never-smoking dairy farmers. Materials and Methodology : We have conducted a cross-sectional study with 75 male dairy farmers aged 26 to 59 years, and compared them with equivalent number of male office workers similar by age, and duration of employment. Data on chronic respiratory symptoms, job history and daily activities were obtained by questionnaire. Lung functional testing of the examined subjects included baseline spirometry, and bronchodilator reversibility measurement. Results : Dairy farmers showed higher prevalence of overall respiratory symptoms, but significant difference was noticed for cough, phlegm, and dyspnea. Dairy farmers had more prevalent work-related respiratory symptoms, being significant for overall symptoms, cough, and phlegm. The mean baseline values of spirometric parameters were lower in dairy farmers, but significance was reported for FEV1/FVC%, MEF50, MEF75, and MEF25-75. Dairy farmers had significantly higher COPD prevalence than office controls (10.7% vs 2.7%, P = 0,049). Dairy farmers and office controls showed significant association between COPD and age over 45 years. Dairy farmers had a significant association between COPD and employment duration of over 20 years (P = 0.023), but also between COPD and work-related chronic respiratory symptoms (P = 0.041). Conclusion : The study findings favor the cause-effect association between job exposure to respiratory hazards, and development of persistent airway obstruction among dairy farmers. PMID:25893027

  20. Survey data on key climate and environmental drivers of farmers' migration in Burkina Faso, West Africa.

    PubMed

    Sanfo, Safiétou; Fonta, M William; Boubacar, Ibrahim; Lamers, P A John

    2016-12-01

    This article describes two datasets generated from various sources in south western Burkina Faso to identify the key climate and environmental drivers that cause farmers to migrate. The survey sampling is random but reasoned and rational. The first dataset from 367 farm households contains data on farmers' perception of climate change risks or hazards, their impacts on farmland productivity and farm households' risk management strategies. The second dataset from 58 farm households contains data on agricultural practices, environmental changes, and environmental migration. Three supplemental Excel sheets show the results of the surveys. Details on the sample as well as further interpretation and discussion of the surveys are available in the associated research article ('Field Facts for Crop Insurance Design: Empirical Evidence from South Western Burkina Faso' (W. M. Fonta, S. Sanfo, B. Ibrahim, B. Barry, 2015) [1]).

  1. Dutch dairy farmers' need for microbiological mastitis diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Griffioen, Karien; Hop, Geralda E; Holstege, Manon M C; Velthuis, Annet G J; Lam, Theo J G M

    2016-07-01

    Although several microbiological mastitis diagnostic tools are currently available, dairy farmers rarely use them to base treatment decisions on. In this study, we conducted a telephone interview among 195 randomly selected Dutch dairy farmers to determine their current use of and their need for microbiological diagnostics for clinical mastitis (CM), subclinical mastitis (SCM), and dry-cow treatment (DCT), followed by the test characteristics they consider important. A structured questionnaire was used, based on face-to-face interviews previously held with other farmers. The answers were registered in a database and analyzed using descriptive statistics and univariable and multivariable models. Antimicrobial treatment decisions for CM, SCM, and DCT were mainly based on clinical signs and somatic cell count. In case of CM, 34% of farmers indicated that they currently submit milk samples for bacteriological culture (BC). This would increase to 71% if an on-farm test resulting in treatment advice within 12 h were available. For SCM, use would increase from 22 to 55%, and for DCT, from 7 to 34%, if the same 12-h test were available. For CM and DCT, the preferred test outcome was advice on which antibiotic to use, according to 58 and 15% of the farmers, respectively. For SCM, the preferred test outcome was the causative bacterium for 38% of the farmers. Farmers who currently submit CM milk samples for BC were 13.1 times more likely to indicate, as the preferred test outcome, advice on which antibiotic to use, compared with farmers who do not currently submit CM milk samples for BC. Fourteen percent of the farmers indicated not being interested at all in microbiological mastitis diagnostics for CM. For SCM and DCT, 27 and 55%, respectively, were not interested in microbiological mastitis diagnostics. Regarding test characteristics that farmers considered important, reliability was most often indicated (44-51% of the farmers). Additionally, a preferred time-to-result of

  2. It is an Experience, Not a Lesson: The Nature of High School Students' Experiences at a Biological Field Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behrendt, Marc E.

    The purpose of this case study was to describe the nature of high school students' experiences in the immersive four-day field experience at Stone Laboratory Biological Field Station including excursions to Kelley's Island and South Bass Island. Six tenth, eleventh, and twelfth grade students participated through interviews, photovoice, observations, and a survey. Pretrip semi-structured interviews were conducted to understand each participant student's relationship with science. Participants were given cameras to record their field trip experiences to relate what they found interesting, important, and exciting. Back at school after the field trip, the participants were asked to choose their five most meaningful photographs, and write a short essay to describe the significance of each image. A posttrip semi-structured interview explored each participant's experiences during the field trip. An unstructured interview was conducted to discuss each participant's full photograph gallery from the field trip. Interview transcripts were member checked with one minor wording change. Analysis consisted of open coding using apriori codes derived from the ecological framework and emergent codes derived from the data. Coding was duplicated through multiple readers. Significant findings included: 1) Prior experience, prior knowledge, and funds of knowledge added relevance and value to an experience, facilitating interest development; 2) Experiences appeared to be more meaningful when all the senses were stimulated; 3) Friends and peers were an essential part of a quality experience; 4) Quality experiences included a wow factor, or sudden awareness; 5) Teachers needed to be within the experience, not the focus of the experience, and needed to be available to answer questions, be enthusiastic when a discovery was made, and promote student reflection concerning their perceptions and discoveries; 6) A quality informal learning situation incorporated the cognitive/affective, physical

  3. High School Longitudinal Study of 2009 (HSLS:09) Base-Year Field Test Report. Working Paper Series. NCES 2011-01

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ingels, Steven J.; Herget, Deborah; Pratt, Daniel J.; Dever, Jill; Copello, Elizabeth; Leinwand, Steve

    2010-01-01

    This report examines the results of the field test for the base year of the High School Longitudinal Study of 2009 (HSLS:09). The general purposes of the field test were, in anticipation of the base-year full-scale effort, to test instruments, forms, and procedures; to experiment with different approaches to questionnaire content and survey…

  4. Notes from the field: outbreak of skin lesions among high school wrestlers--Arizona, 2014.

    PubMed

    Williams, Candice; Wells, Jamie; Klein, Ronald; Sylvester, Tammy; Sunenshine, Rebecca

    2015-05-29

    Skin infections are a common problem among athletes at all levels of competition; among wrestlers, 8.5% of all adverse events are caused by skin infections. Wrestlers are at risk because of the constant skin-to-skin contact required during practice and competition. The most common infections transmitted among high school wrestlers include fungal infections (e.g., ringworm), the viral infection herpes gladiatorum caused by herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1), and bacterial infections (e.g., impetigo) caused by Staphylococcus or Streptococcus species, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcal aureus (MRSA). On February 7, 2014, the Maricopa County Department of Public Health was notified of multiple wrestlers who reported skin lesions 2 weeks after participating in a wrestling tournament at school A. The tournament was held on January 24-25 and included 168 wrestlers representing 24 schools. The county health department initiated an investigation to identify cases of skin lesion, determine lesion etiology, identify risks associated with lesion development, and provide guidance for preventing additional cases.

  5. Evaluation of One- and Two-Day Forestry Field Programs for Elementary School Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powers, Amy L.

    2004-01-01

    The methods and findings from a program evaluation of a forestry field visit for second grade students are detailed in this article. A pretest, posttest methodology was used to determine changes in students' (n = 133) attitudes and knowledge before and after the field experience(s). Interviews and surveys were conducted with students, teachers (n…

  6. A Review of Research on School Field Trips and Their Value in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Behrendt, Marc; Franklin, Teresa

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine the importance of science field trips as educational tools to connect students to classroom concepts. Experiential learning at formal and informal field trip venues increases student interest, knowledge, and motivation. The teacher's role in preplanning, implementation, and reflection often dictates the…

  7. Second Field Test of the AEL Measure of School Capacity for Improvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Copley, Lisa D.; Meehan, Merrill L.; Howley, Caitlin W.; Hughes, Georgia K.

    2005-01-01

    The major purpose of the second field test of the AEL MSCI instrument was to assess the psychometric properties of the refined version with a larger, more diverse group of respondents. The first objective of this field test was to expand the four-point Likert-type response scale to six points in order to yield more variance in responses. The…

  8. Field Dependence-Independence and Physical Activity Engagement among Middle School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Wenhao; Chepyator-Thomson, Jepkorir Rose

    2009-01-01

    Background: Field dependence-independence (FDI) is a tendency to rely on external frames (given situations and authoritative people) or internal frames (oneself, including one's own body) for one's information processing and behavior. Literature has constantly reported that field-dependent (FD) individuals, who are less autonomous in…

  9. ETIPS: Using Cases with Virtual Schools to Prepare for, Extend, and Deepen Preservice Teachers' Field Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dexter, Sara L.; Riedel, Eric; Scharber, Cassandra

    2008-01-01

    Field experiences are identified as an important component in the preparation of new teachers. As such, methods to supplement field experiences with pre- and post-activities that ready preservice teachers to effectively learn from them warrant further examination. This paper presents one tool that has been used successfully to improve preservice…

  10. Not Prepared for Class: High-Poverty Schools Continue to Have Fewer In-Field Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Almy, Sarah; Theokas, Christina

    2010-01-01

    As Secretary of Education from 1993 to 2001, Richard Riley had serious concerns about out-of-field teaching. The practice--which places in core academic classes instructors who have neither certification nor a major in the subject field taught--just didn't make sense to him. Both when he considered what children were getting in the classroom or…

  11. Time of farmers' exposure to biological factors in agricultural working environment.

    PubMed

    Mołocznik, Anna

    2004-01-01

    Working time in conditions of exposure to hazardous factors is an important element indispensable for the evaluation of human exposure in the working environment. Agricultural work is accompanied by co-occurrence of many risk factors threatening farmers' health, e.g. dust, elements of the thermal environment, noise, vibration, chemical and biological agents. Biological factors cause diseases with contagious, allergic or immuno-toxic backgrounds which constitute the majority of farmers' occupational diseases registered in Poland. Exposure to hazardous factors in agricultural working environment is due to contact with plants, animals and organic wastes, more precisely--with microbes, plant and animal particles present in aerogenic agricultural dust, as well as pathogens of contagious and invasive diseases present in contaminated soil, water and plants. Data concerning the duration of farmers' exposure to biological and other factors of the working environment were obtained with the use of the Private Farmer Work Chart. Time-schedule observations concerned an annual work cycle. The study covered 30 farms with the following production profiles: plant (Group A), animal (Group B) and mixed production (Group C). The total working time was: in Group A - from 106-163 % of the legal working time; in Group B - from 75-147 %; in Group C - from 136-167 %. Among 48 work activities contributing to the full working cycle among the farmers examined, 15 activities were accompanied by 5 factors. These were mainly field activities which covered plant harvesting and fertilizing, chemical plant protection, as well as cultivation activities. Agricultural dust and elements of the thermal environment were the environmental factors most frequently accompanying agricultural work, followed by contact with biological factors, noise, vibration, and chemical agents. Biological factors are a specific element associated with 19 work activities, mainly the spreading of manure, animal breeding and

  12. Bessemer, AL receives Technical Assistance to Start Farmers Market

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    ATLANTA - Bessemer, AL has been selected as one of 27 rural community projects across the country to participate in Local Foods, Local Places, a federal initiative that helps communities increase economic opportunities for local farmers and related

  13. Upland Farmers' Comprehension of Pictorial Messages on Environmental Protection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gravoso, R. S.; Stuart, T. H.

    2000-01-01

    A study to explore Filipino farmers' comprehension of pictorial messages on environmental protection found that educational attainment, visual exposure, and knowledge of environmental protection positively influenced visual comprehension. Color did not necessarily improve comprehension. (Contains 24 references.) (JOW)

  14. 29 CFR 780.614 - Definition of a farmer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... farming operations as a distinct activity for the purpose of producing a farm crop. A corporation or a farmers' cooperative may be a “farmer” if engaged in actual farming of the nature and extent...

  15. 29 CFR 780.614 - Definition of a farmer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... farming operations as a distinct activity for the purpose of producing a farm crop. A corporation or a farmers' cooperative may be a “farmer” if engaged in actual farming of the nature and extent...

  16. 29 CFR 780.614 - Definition of a farmer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... farming operations as a distinct activity for the purpose of producing a farm crop. A corporation or a farmers' cooperative may be a “farmer” if engaged in actual farming of the nature and extent...

  17. How diverse a farmer-managed wheat landrace can be?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phenotypic variation in phenological, quantitative and qualitative traits was assessed in geographically-isolated, farmer-managed wheat landrace populations grown under subsistence farming conditions. Several multivariate, genetic diversity and sequential equation modeling procedures were used to bu...

  18. Soil fertility, crop biodiversity, and farmers' revenues: Evidence from Italy.

    PubMed

    Di Falco, Salvatore; Zoupanidou, Elisavet

    2017-03-01

    This paper analyzes the interplay between soil fertility, crop biodiversity, and farmers' revenues. We use a large, original, farm-level panel dataset. Findings indicate that both crop biodiversity and soil fertility have positive effects on farmers' revenues. It is also shown that crop biodiversity and soil fertility may act as substitutes. These results provide evidence for the important role of diversity in the resilience of agroecosystems. Crop diversification can be a potential strategy to support productivity when soils are less fertile.

  19. Anxiety and Depression Symptoms Among Farmers: The HUNT Study, Norway

    PubMed Central

    Torske, Magnhild Oust; Hilt, Bjørn; Glasscock, David; Lundqvist, Peter; Krokstad, Steinar

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Agriculture has undergone profound changes, and farmers face a wide variety of stressors. Our aim was to study the levels of anxiety and depression symptoms among Norwegian farmers compared with other occupational groups. Working participants in the HUNT3 Survey (The Nord-Trøndelag Health Study, 2006–2008), aged 19–66.9 years, were included in this cross-sectional study. We compared farmers (women, n = 317; men, n = 1,100) with HUNT3 participants working in other occupational groups (women, n = 13,429; men, n = 10,026), classified according to socioeconomic status. We used the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) to measure anxiety and depression symptoms. Both male and female farmers had higher levels of depression symptoms than the general working population, but the levels of anxiety symptoms did not differ. The differences in depression symptom levels between farmers and the general working population increased with age. In an age-adjusted logistic regression analysis, the odds ratio (OR) for depression caseness (HADS-D ≥8) when compared with the general working population was 1.49 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.22–1.83) in men and 1.29 (95% CI: 0.85–1.95) in women. Male farmers had a higher OR of depression caseness than any other occupational group (OR = 1.94, 95% CI: 1.52–2.49, using higher-grade professionals as reference). Female farmers had an OR similar to men (2.00, 95% CI: 1.26–3.17), but lower than other manual occupations. We found that farmers had high levels of depression symptoms and average levels of anxiety symptoms compared with other occupational groups. PMID:26488439

  20. 13 CFR 120.550 - What is homestead protection for farmers?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false What is homestead protection for farmers? 120.550 Section 120.550 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION BUSINESS... for Farmers § 120.550 What is homestead protection for farmers? SBA may lease to a farmer-Borrower...

  1. 13 CFR 120.550 - What is homestead protection for farmers?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false What is homestead protection for farmers? 120.550 Section 120.550 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION BUSINESS... for Farmers § 120.550 What is homestead protection for farmers? SBA may lease to a farmer-Borrower...

  2. Use of Different Information Sources for Decision Making by Traditional Farmers in a Progressive Knowledge System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blum, Abraham

    1989-01-01

    A study determined the use of different information sources for decision making used by traditional Arab farmers in Israel. A questionnaire was used to interview 48 farmers from 4 villages in the Nazareth region and 56 farmers from 5 villages in the Gaza strip in their homes. Farmers were asked to name major innovations they had adopted during the…

  3. An overview and analysis of journal operations, journal publication patterns, and journal impact in school psychology and related fields.

    PubMed

    Floyd, Randy G; Cooley, Kathryn M; Arnett, James E; Fagan, Thomas K; Mercer, Sterett H; Hingle, Christine

    2011-12-01

    This article describes the results of three studies designed to understand better the journal operations, publishing practices, and impact of school psychology journals in recent years. The first study presents the results of a survey focusing on journal operations and peer-review practices that was completed by 61 journal editors of school psychology and aligned journals. The second study presents the results of review and classification of all articles appearing in one volume year for nine school psychology journals (i.e., The California School Psychologist, Canadian Journal of School Psychology, Journal of Applied School Psychology, Journal of School Psychology, Psychology in the Schools, School Psychology Forum, School Psychology International, School Psychology Quarterly, and School Psychology Review). The third study employed multilevel modeling to investigate differences in the longitudinal trends of impact factor data for five school psychology journals listed in the Web of Science (i.e., Journal of School Psychology, Psychology in the Schools, School Psychology International, School Psychology Quarterly, and School Psychology Review). The article addresses implications for authors, editors, and journal editorial teams as well as the status and impact of school psychology journals.

  4. Orphan boy the farmer: evaluating folktales to teach safety to Hmong farmers.

    PubMed

    Schermann, Michele A; Bartz, Penny; Shutske, John M; Moua, MaiKia; Vue, Pa Chia; Lee, Tou Thai

    2007-01-01

    Many Hmong refugees continue their cultural tradition of farming in the United States. The purpose of this project was to evaluate culturally based storytelling as a method to convey farming safety information to Hmong families. Hmong have an oral tradition; spoken stories are used to teach about heritage, as well as personal and social values, and end with a lesson or moral that can apply to their lives. Stories from "Orphan Boy the Farmer" illustrate hazards, behaviors, consequences, and control strategies related to farm work typical of Hmong farming in Minnesota and Wisconsin. The message of the 3 stories is that the successful farmer works safely and keeps his children safe from injury. Three stories were read, in Hmong, at 6 events in Minnesota and Wisconsin. Data were collected from 118 participants using focus group discussions. Transcripts were translated and analyzed to identify ideas and reactions to the stories expressed by participants. Findings indicate that storytelling was an appealing delivery method for most of the participants of this study. Participants were able to recount story content pertaining to farming safety and relate messages to their experiences dealing with hazards; unanticipated findings uncovered barriers to adopting safe practices. Several aspects of the storytelling performance influence its effectiveness. Development of folktale content and implementation of storytelling performances are described.

  5. Stories from the field: Teaching science in low-performing, rural schools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conetta, Patrick John

    If teachers matter to the academic success of students, then having experienced teachers shows significant promise in eliminating persistent achievement gaps. However, high rates of teacher attrition are persistent in schools serving low-income and minority students serving to reinforce these persistent gaps. The purpose of this study is to allow the voices of science teachers working in low-performing, rural schools to be heard and expand our current understanding of teacher retention beyond "yes" or "no" decisions. The narratives teachers share demonstrate that persistence is constructed daily through frustrations and hard-won victories that are significant to one's career decisions. With an ear for the structures that guide teacher's practice and create professional tension, teacher narratives also represent hope for the subtle and splendid ways they challenge these tensions to carve out their existence as educators. Their stories are inspirational to future teachers and teacher educators because they provide insights to the ways teachers learn to persist. My research was guided by three general interests: What experiences bring individuals to teach science in hard to staff schools, what conditions did teachers find when they arrived, and how do science teachers respond to the circumstances in which they find themselves teaching. Steered by Holland, Lachicotte, Skinner, and Cain's (1998) theoretical framework of Figured Worlds, and inspired by previous work utilizing this framework, I gathered data through extended interviews with nine participants and examined their stories through qualitative narrative analysis to illustrate the delicate interplay between structure and agency and how this interplay is intertwined with teachers' willingness to persist. This study revealed that individual willingness to persist was interwoven with their ability to author themselves within and/or against existing cultural models of the "good teacher" and its implications lead to

  6. 7 CFR 170.11 - How are farmers and vendors selected for participation in the USDA Farmers Market?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS MARKETING PRACTICES UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT... of farmer or vendor (i.e., fruit, vegetable, herb, baker) and secondly, on the specific types...

  7. Association between occupational exposures to pesticides with heterogeneous chemical structures and farmer health in China

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Xusheng; Zhang, Chao; Hu, Ruifa; Li, Yifan; Yin, Yanhong; Chen, Zhaohui; Cai, Jinyang; Cui, Fang

    2016-01-01

    This study analyzed the associations of farmers’ exposure to organophosphates (OPs), organosulfurs (OSs), organonitrogens (ONs) and pyrethroids (PYRs) with parameters of the blood complete counts (CBC), a blood chemistry panel (BCP) and the conventional nerve conduction studies among 224 farmers in China in 2012. Two health examinations and a series of follow-up field surveys were conducted. Multiple linear regression analyses were used to evaluate the associations. The results show considerable associations between multiple groups of pesticides and several CBC parameters, but it was not enough to provide evidence of hematological disorders. The short- and medium-term OPs exposures were mainly associated with liver damage and peripheral nerve impairment, respectively, while OSs exposure might induce liver damage and renal dysfunction. The neurotoxicity of ONs was second only to OPs in addition to its potential liver damage and the induced alterations in glucose. In comparison, the estimated results show that PYRs would be the least toxic in terms of the low-dose application. In conclusion, occupational exposures to pesticides with heterogeneous chemical structures are associated with farmer health in different patterns, and the association between a specific group of pesticides and farmer health also differs between the short- and medium-term exposures. PMID:27117655

  8. Field Test and Performance Verification: Integrated Active Desiccant Rooftop Hybrid System Installed in a School - Final Report: Phase 4A

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, J

    2005-12-21

    This report summarizes the results of a field verification pilot site investigation that involved the installation of a hybrid integrated active desiccant/vapor-compression rooftop heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) unit at an elementary school in the Atlanta Georgia area. For years, the school had experienced serious humidity and indoor air quality (IAQ) problems that had resulted in occupant complaints and microbial (mold) remediation. The outdoor air louvers of the original HVAC units had been closed in an attempt to improve humidity control within the space. The existing vapor compression variable air volume system was replaced by the integrated active desiccant rooftop (IADR) system that was described in detail in an Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) report published in 2004 (Fischer and Sand 2004). The IADR system and all space conditions have been monitored remotely for more than a year. The hybrid system was able to maintain both the space temperature and humidity as desired while delivering the outdoor air ventilation rate required by American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers Standard 62. The performance level of the IADR unit and the overall system energy efficiency was measured and found to be very high. A comprehensive IAQ investigation was completed by the Georgia Tech Research Institute before and after the system retrofit. Before-and-after data resulting from this investigation confirmed a significant improvement in IAQ, humidity control, and occupant comfort. These observations were reported by building occupants and are echoed in a letter to ORNL from the school district energy manager. The IADR system was easily retrofitted in place of the original rooftop system using a custom curb adapter. All work was completed in-house by the school's maintenance staff over one weekend. A subsequent cost analysis completed for the school district by the design engineer of record concluded that the IADR system

  9. Notes from the field: elemental mercury spill in school bus and residence - North Carolina, 2013.

    PubMed

    Langley, Ricky; Hirsch, Anne; McDaniel, Jesse; Lott, Valerie; Shehee, Mina; Migit, Samantha; Dulaney, Anna R; Negron, Jose; Fleischauer, Aaron

    2014-02-14

    On September 16, 2013, the North Carolina Division of Public Health was notified of an elemental (metallic and liquid) mercury spill on a school bus. An elementary student boarded the bus with approximately 1 pound (454 g) of elemental mercury contained in a film canister, which the student had taken from an adult relative who had found it in a neighbor's shed. The canister was handled by several students before the contents spilled on the bus floor. Ten passengers aboard the bus were exposed, including eight students and two staff members. Although elemental mercury is not readily absorbed from skin contact or ingestion, it does vaporize at room temperatures and inhalation of the vapor can be harmful. The bus driver promptly notified school officials. Firefighters and a local hazardous materials team directed decontamination procedures (i.e., changing clothes and washing hands and shoes) for the 10 exposed passengers. The bus was immediately taken out of service and sent for disposal because of its age and the cost of decontamination.

  10. Is Authentic Cross-Cultural Collaboration Possible between Universities and Public Schools within a Professional Development School Model? Perceptions from the Field

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parkinson, Debra D.; Muir Welsh, Kate

    2009-01-01

    In 2003, a state in the Rocky Mountain region combined the concept of partner schools (Goodlad, 1993) and the model of a professional development school (Holmes Group, 1986, 1995) to develop four university public school partnerships. This study asked two guiding questions: Is authentic cross-cultural collaboration possible between a university…

  11. Healthier land, healthier farmers: considering the potential of natural resource management as a place-focused farmer health intervention.

    PubMed

    Schirmer, Jacki; Berry, Helen L; O'Brien, Léan V

    2013-11-01

    Farmers have particular wellbeing-related vulnerabilities that conventional health interventions struggle to address. We consider the potential of natural resource management (NRM) programs, which reach large numbers of farmers, as non-conventional place-focused wellbeing interventions. Although designed to address environmental degradation, NRM can influence the wellbeing of farmers. We used qualitative meta-synthesis to reanalyse studies examining social dimensions of NRM in Australia and generate a theoretical framework identifying potential pathways between NRM and wellbeing, intended to inform subsequent empirical work. Our results suggest NRM programs influence several important determinants of farmer wellbeing, in particular social capital, self-efficacy, social identity, material wellbeing, and health itself. The pathways by which NRM influences these determinants are mediated by distal factors such as changes in land conditions, farmer skills and knowledge and resources accessible to farmers. These, in turn, are moderated by the design and delivery of NRM programs, suggesting potential to enhance the health benefits of NRM through specific attention to program design.

  12. Farmers Prone to Drought Risk: Why Some Farmers Undertake Farm-Level Risk-Reduction Measures While Others Not?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gebrehiwot, Tagel; van der Veen, Anne

    2015-03-01

    This research investigates farmers' cognitive perceptions of risk and the behavioral intentions to undertake farm-level risk-reduction measures. It has been observed that people who are susceptible to natural hazards often fail to act, or do very little, to protect their assets or lives. To answer the question of why some people show adaptive behavior while others do not, a socio-psychological model of precautionary adaptation based on protection motivation theory and trans-theoretical stage model has been applied for the first time to areas of drought risk in the developing countries cultural context. The applicability of the integrated model is explored by means of a representative sample survey of smallholder farmers in northern Ethiopia. The result of the study showed that there is a statistically significant association between farmer's behavioral intention to undertake farm-level risk-reduction measures and the main important protection motivation model variables. High perceived vulnerability, severity of consequences, self-efficacy, and response efficacy lead to higher levels of behavioral intentions to undertake farm-level risk-reduction measures. For farmers in the action stage, self-efficacy and response efficacy were the main motivators of behavioral intention. For farmers in the contemplative stage, self-efficacy and cost appear to be the main motivators for them to act upon risk reduction, while perceived severity of consequences and cost of response actions were found to be important for farmers in the pre-contemplative stage.

  13. Exposure to radio frequency electromagnetic fields from wireless computer networks: duty factors of Wi-Fi devices operating in schools.

    PubMed

    Khalid, M; Mee, T; Peyman, A; Addison, D; Calderon, C; Maslanyj, M; Mann, S

    2011-12-01

    The growing use of wireless local area networks (WLAN) in schools has prompted a study to investigate exposure to the radio frequency (RF) electromagnetic fields from Wi-Fi devices. International guidelines on limiting the adverse health effects of RF, such as those of ICNIRP, allow for time-averaging of exposure. Thus, as Wi-Fi signals consist of intermittent bursts of RF energy, it is important to consider the duty factors of devices in assessing the extent of exposure and compliance with guidelines. Using radio packet capture methods, the duty factor of Wi-Fi devices has been assessed in a sample of 6 primary and secondary schools during classroom lessons. For the 146 individual laptops investigated, the range of duty factors was from 0.02 to 0.91%, with a mean of 0.08% (SD 0.10%). The duty factors of access points from 7 networks ranged from 1.0% to 11.7% with a mean of 4.79% (SD 3.76%). Data gathered with transmit time measuring devices attached to laptops also showed similar results. Within the present limited sample, the range of duty factors from laptops and access points were found to be broadly similar for primary and secondary schools. Applying these duty factors to previously published results from this project, the maximum time-averaged power density from a laptop would be 220 μW m(-2), at a distance of 0.5 m and the peak localised SAR predicted in the torso region of a 10 year old child model, at 34 cm from the antenna, would be 80 μW kg(-1).

  14. Smallholder farmers' behavioural intentions towards sustainable agricultural practices.

    PubMed

    Zeweld, Woldegebrial; Van Huylenbroeck, Guido; Tesfay, Girmay; Speelman, Stijn

    2017-02-01

    The introduction of sustainable practices is considered a win-win strategy for low-income countries because of its potential to simultaneously improve food security and address environmental issues. Despite the numerous studies that focus on the adoption of technological innovations, little work has been done on the socio-psychological behaviour of farmers with regard to sustainable practices. This study investigates smallholder farmers' intentions towards two practices: minimum tillage and row planting. The decomposed theory of planned behaviour is used as a theoretical framework to analyse the intentions. The findings reveal that attitudes and normative issues positively explain farmers' intentions to adopt both practices. Perceived control also has a positive significant effect on the intention to apply minimum tillage. When the intention is formed, farmers are expected to carry out their intention when opportunities arise. Moreover, perceived usefulness, social capital, and perceived ease of operation are also significant predictors of farmers' attitudes. Furthermore, social capital and training are factors that positively affect the normative issue, which in turn also positively mediates the relationship between training, social capital and intention. Finally, it is shown that neither the perceived resources nor information from the media significantly affect farmers' intentions. This paper thus confirms that social capital, personal efficacy, training and perceived usefulness play significant roles in the decision to adopt sustainable practices. In addition, willingness to adopt seems to be limited by negative attitudes and by weak normative issues. Therefore, to improve adoption of sustainable practices by smallholder farmers, attention should be given to socio-psychological issues. This could lead to improvements in farm productivity and enhance the livelihoods of smallholders.

  15. THE FUTURE FARMER OF TODAY IS THE SUCCESSFUL FARMER OF TOMORROW, AN AUTHORITATIVE REPORT ON THE DIFFUSION PROCESS AND THE ADOPTION STATUS OF FARMERS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Future Farmers of America, Washington, DC.

    A SYNOPSIS OF CHARACTERISTICS AND COMMUNICATIONS BEHAVIOR OF ADOPTERS OF NEW FARM IDEAS, AND AN INTRODUCTION TO HOW AN AGGRESSIVE MARKETING PROGRAM CAN BE KEYED TO THE DIFFUSION PROCESS AND ADOPTION STATUS OF FARMERS IS PRESENTED. THE DIFFUSION PROCESS INVOLVES THE SPREAD OF NEW IDEAS FROM THE SOURCES OF DEVELOPMENT TO THE ADOPTER THROUGH…

  16. Initial Characterization of Colombian High School Physics Teachers' Pedagogical Content Knowledge on Electric Fields

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melo-Niño, Lina Viviana; Cañada, Florentina; Mellado, Vicente

    2017-01-01

    We explore the initial characterization of the pedagogical content knowledge of four, in-service, Colombian pre-university secondary education physics teachers on the concept of electric field. Two of them teach the content in English as a second language. The aim of the study was to obtain an image of the participants' teaching of electric field…

  17. Forest Field Trips among High School Science Teachers in the Southern Piedmont

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCabe, Shannon M.; Munsell, John F.; Seiler, John R.

    2014-01-01

    Students benefit in many ways by taking field trips to forests. Improved academic performance, increased participation in outdoor recreation, and a better grasp of natural resources management are some of the advantages. However, trips are not easy for teachers to organize and lead. Declining budgets, on-campus schedules, and standards of learning…

  18. Persistence of Women and Minorities in STEM Field Majors: Is It the School that Matters?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffith, Amanda L.

    2010-01-01

    During college, many students switch from their planned major to another, particularly so when that planned major was in a Science, Technology, Engineering, or Mathematics (STEM) field. A worrying statistic shows that persistence in one of these majors is much lower for women and minorities, suggesting that this may be a leaky joint in the STEM…

  19. The Birth of a Field and the Rebirth of the Laboratory School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Marc; Gerlach, Jeanne

    2011-01-01

    We describe the emergence of a new field, "Mind Brain and Education", dedicated to the science of learning, as well as the roles researchers, policy makers, and educators need to play in developing this collaborative effort. The article highlights the challenges that MBE faces and the strategy researchers and educators in Texas are…

  20. Success in a High School Completion Program and Its Relation to Field Dependence-Independence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donnarumma, Theresa; And Others

    1980-01-01

    This study explored the cognitive style of field dependence-independence (FDI) and its relation to student attrition and performance on the General Educational Development Test and the Test of Adult Basic Education. Resultant correlations are discussed in terms of the usefulness of FDI in assessing the needs of adult learners. (Author/SK)

  1. Manufacture of Optacons for a Field Trial Within Elementary and Secondary Schools. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brugler, J. Stephen; Bliss, James C.

    Telesensory Systems, Inc. (TSI) was awarded a contract to design, develop, and test Optacons (Optical-to-Tactile Converter) and perepheral equipment. Optacons are direct-translation reading aids for the blind. The text summarizes the engineering design, manufacturing activities, field test procedure and results, and it provides recommendations for…

  2. Environmentally-friendly agricultural practices and their acceptance by smallholder farmers in China-A case study in Xinxiang County, Henan Province.

    PubMed

    Luo, Liangguo; Qin, Lihuan; Wang, Yan; Wang, Qian

    2016-11-15

    Intensive agriculture with high inputs has resulted in rapid development of crop production in China, accompanied by negative environmental effects such as serious non-point source agricultural pollution. Implementation of environmentally-friendly agricultural practices can effectively prevent such pollution. However, the acceptance and adoption of such practices are related not only to associated risks and potential benefits, but also to farmers' attitudes to and knowledge of scientifically validated practices. In the presented study we surveyed views of a stratified sample of 150 smallholder farmers and 10 extension service experts from Xinxiang, a high grain-producing county in Henan Province, China. Their opinions were explored in personal interviews using a questionnaire with three sections. The first section mainly sought information on surveyed farmers' demographic characteristics like gender, age and education. The second section concerned their awareness of the environmental problems and losses of yields associated with customary over-fertilization practices, and their main concerns about new practices. The third section addressed farmers' attitudes to, and the extension service experts' professional evaluations of, five selected practices in terms of the importance of seven factors (time demands, costs, risks, compatibility, complexity, trialability and observability). Acceptance indices were calculated from the responses to rank farmers' willingness to accept the five environmentally-friendly agricultural practices, and thus identify the most appropriate to promote in the study area. The results show that costs, followed by risks and observability, are the more important factors affecting farmers' decisions to adopt a practice. The results also indicate that no or minimum tillage and returning straw to the field are the most appropriate practices to promote initially at large scale in Xinxiang. The others could be popularized gradually after providing

  3. In(Formal) Conversation with Minority Parents and Communities of a Canadian Junior School: Findings and Cautions from the Field

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ippolito, John

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports on a university/school board collaborative outreach program hosted by a linguistically, culturally, and racially diverse junior school in Toronto, Canada. The program facilitates a forum where the school's families--in conversation with in-service and pre-service teachers, the school's administration, a local university's…

  4. Is the Use of Video Conferencing and Supporting Technologies a Feasible and Viable Way to Woo Farmers Back into Farmer Education?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Margaret; Fraser, Tom

    2011-01-01

    North Dakota State University (USA) have been using video conferencing as a delivery mode for farmer education for about twenty years and report that their farmers find this delivery method both practical and worthwhile. With the number of New Zealand farmers attending learning events decreasing, due mainly to time and cost, maybe it is time to…

  5. GeoGirls: A Geology and Geophysics Field Camp for Middle School Girls at Mount St. Helens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samson, C.; Allstadt, K.; Melander, S.; Groskopf, A.; Driedger, C. L.; Westby, E.

    2015-12-01

    The August 2015 GeoGirls program was a project designed to inspire girls to gain an appreciation and enthusiasm for Earth sciences using Mount St. Helens as an outdoor volcanic laboratory. Occupations in the field of science and engineering tend to be held by more males than females. One way to address this is to introduce girls to possible opportunities within the geosciences and encourage them to learn more about the dynamic environment in which they live. In 2015, the GeoGirls program sought to accomplish this goal through organizing a five day-long field camp for twenty middle school-aged girls, along with four high school-aged mentors and two local teachers. This group explored Mount St. Helens guided by female scientists from the USGS Cascade Volcano Observatory (CVO), the Mount St. Helens Institute (MSHI), UNAVCO, Boise State, Georgia Tech, University of Washington and Oregon State University. To introduce participants to techniques used by volcanologists, the girls participated in hands-on experiments and research projects focusing on seismology, GPS, terrestrial lidar, photogrammetry, water and tephra. Participants also learned to collect samples, analyze data and use microscopes. Through this experience, participants acquired strategies for conducting research by developing hypotheses, making observations, thinking critically and sharing their findings with others. The success of the GeoGirls program was evaluated by participant and parent survey questionnaires, which allowed assessment of overall enthusiasm and interest in pursuing careers in the geosciences. The program was free to participants and was run jointly by MSHI and CVO and funded by NSF, the American Association of University Women, the Association for Women Geoscientists, the Association of Environmental & Engineering Geologists and private donors. The program will run again in the summer of 2016.

  6. Precision of farmer-based fertility ratings and soil organic carbon for crop production on a Ferralsol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Musinguzi, P.; Ebanyat, P.; Tenywa, J. S.; Basamba, T. A.; Tenywa, M. M.; Mubiru, D.

    2015-09-01

    Simple and affordable soil fertility ratings are essential, particularly for the resource-constrained farmers in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), in planning and implementing prudent interventions. A study was conducted on Ferralsols in Uganda to evaluate farmer-based soil fertility assessment techniques, hereafter referred to as farmers' field experiences (FFE), for ease of use and precision, against more formal scientific quantitative ratings using soil organic carbon (SQR-SOC). A total of 30 fields were investigated and rated using both techniques, as low, medium and high in terms of soil fertility - with maize as the test crop. Both soil fertility rating techniques were fairly precise in delineating soil fertility classes, though the FFE was inefficient in distinguishing fields > 1.2 % SOC with medium and high fertility. Soil organic carbon, silt and clay were exceptionally influential, accounting for the highest percentage in grain yield of 50 % in the topsoil (0-15 cm) and 67 % for the mean concentrations from 0 to 15 and 15 to 30 cm. Each unit increase in SOC concentration resulted in 966 to 1223 kg ha-1 yield gain. The FFE technique was effective in identifying low-fertility fields, and this was coherent with the fields categorized as low (SOC < 1.2 %). Beyond this level, its precision can be remarkably increased when supplemented with the SQR-SOC technique.

  7. [Measurement of peak correction factor of Farmer chamber for calibration of flattening filter free (FFF) clinical photon beams].

    PubMed

    Kontra, Gábor; Major, Tibor; Polgár, Csaba

    2015-06-01

    Farmer-type ionization chambers are considered the most reliable detectors and for this reason they are most frequently used for the calibration of photon beams of medical linear accelerators. Flattening filter free (FFF) photon beams of linear accelerators have recently started to be used in radiotherapy. The dose profile of FFF beams is peaked in the center of the field and the dose distribution will be inhomogeneous along the axis of the 2.3 cm long measuring volume of the Farmer chamber. The peaked radiation field will result in volume averaging effects in the large Farmer chamber, therefore this chamber will underestimate the true central axis dose. Our objective was to determine the value of the peak correction factor (Kp) of Farmer-type chamber with measurements to avoid the underestimation of the central axis dose during the calibration of FFF radiation fields. Measurements were made with 6 MV and 10 MV flattened (6X and 10X) and FFF beams (6XFFF and 10XFFF) of a Varian TrueBeam medical linear accelerator in a solid water phantom at 10 cm depth. The source surface distance (SSD) was 100 cm, the field size was 10×10 cm and the dose rate was always 400 MU/min during the measurements. We delivered 100 MU in each measurement and the absorbed dose to water was calculated according to the IAEA TRS-398 dosimetry protocol. The measured signals of the ionization chambers were always corrected for the ion recombination loss. The ion recombination correction factors (Kr) were determined with the two-voltage method separately for the used ion chambers and for flattened and unflattened beams. First, we measured the dose to water with PTW TM30012 Farmer chamber in 6XFFF and 6X beams, then calculated the ratio of doses of 6XFFF and 6X beams (R6,Farmer). Immediately after this we repeated the above measurements with PTW TM31010 Semiflex chamber and determined the ratio of doses of 6XFFF and 6X beams again (R6,Semiflex). The length of the sensitive volume of the Semiflex

  8. Hydrogeology of the Owego-Apalachin Elementary School Geothermal Fields, Tioga County, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, John H.; Kappel, William M.

    2015-12-22

    The specific conductance of the saline water from the shallower fractured zone in the southwest field was about 16,000 microsiemens per centimeter at 25 degrees Celsius (μS/cm at 25°C), and that from the fractured zone in the northeast field was about 65,000 μS/cm at 25°C. The saline waters were characterized by a chemical composition similar to that of deep formation brines collected from oil and gas wells in the Appalachian Basin. About 40 percent of the geothermal wells discharged methane gas to land surface during and (or) following drilling. Sandstone beds at depths of 348 to 378 ft bls are the likely source of the methane gas, which was determined to be early thermogenic in origin.

  9. Cadmium levels in kidney cortex in Swedish farmers

    SciTech Connect

    Nilsson, U.; Schuetz, A.; Bensryd, I.; Nilsson, A.; Skerfving, S.; Mattsson, S.

    2000-01-01

    The cadmium levels in kidney cortex (K-Cd) did not differ statistically between 10 nonsmoking farmers from the south of Sweden, who had a high intake of locally produced food and who were affected by acid precipitation (as indicated by low pH in the drinking water from their private wells) and 10 farmers less affected. Neither did 10 farmers selected because of high blood cadmium (B-Cd) differ from 10 with low [medians: K-Cd, 15 vs 9 {micro}g/g; B-Cd, 2.6 vs 1.3 nmol/L (0.29 vs 0.14 {micro}g/L)]. In all 40 farmers, there was an increase of urinary cadmium levels (U-Cd) with decreasing drinking water pH. Further, K-Cd increased with rising B-Cd, and both B-Cd, and U-Cd rose with increasing age. Further, there was an association between U-Cd and B-Cd. The authors could not demonstrate with certainty any effect of the acid precipitation on the cadmium retention in the farmers, although the association between U-Cd and drinking water pH deserves further study.

  10. Puumala virus infections in Finland: increased occupational risk for farmers.

    PubMed

    Vapalahti, K; Paunio, M; Brummer-Korvenkontio, M; Vaheri, A; Vapalahti, O

    1999-06-15

    Puumala hantavirus, transmitted by bank voles (Clethrionomys glareolus), causes a mild-type hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome. The disease is common in Finland and is considered an occupational hazard for farmers, but the actual risk has not been assessed by analytical studies. Data on 5,132 serologically confirmed Puumala virus infections during 1989-1994 were analyzed, and cases among farmers and the population living in similar conditions were compared. The farmers contracted the disease earlier and more often than did the comparison group. In the province of Mikkeli with the highest incidence (70/100,000), the risk ratio was 5.1 (95% confidence interval (CI) 3.0-8.4) for 20- to 29-year-old farmers; in the older age groups, the risk was still increased but the risk ratios were lower. The peak incidence in the comparison group was 10 years later (age group 30-39 years). For the whole country, the result was similar although less marked. The average risk ratio adjusted by age, sex, and geographic variation was 1.7 (95% CI 1.5-1.8) for the whole country and 1.9 (95% CI 1.5-2.3) for the Mikkeli province, where 80% of Puumala virus infections among young farmers could be estimated to be attributable to occupation.

  11. Closing yield gaps in China by empowering smallholder farmers.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Weifeng; Cao, Guoxin; Li, Xiaolin; Zhang, Hongyan; Wang, Chong; Liu, Quanqing; Chen, Xinping; Cui, Zhenling; Shen, Jianbo; Jiang, Rongfeng; Mi, Guohua; Miao, Yuxin; Zhang, Fusuo; Dou, Zhengxia

    2016-09-29

    Sustainably feeding the world's growing population is a challenge, and closing yield gaps (that is, differences between farmers' yields and what are attainable for a given region) is a vital strategy to address this challenge. The magnitude of yield gaps is particularly large in developing countries where smallholder farming dominates the agricultural landscape. Many factors and constraints interact to limit yields, and progress in problem-solving to bring about changes at the ground level is rare. Here we present an innovative approach for enabling smallholders to achieve yield and economic gains sustainably via the Science and Technology Backyard (STB) platform. STB involves agricultural scientists living in villages among farmers, advancing participatory innovation and technology transfer, and garnering public and private support. We identified multifaceted yield-limiting factors involving agronomic, infrastructural, and socioeconomic conditions. When these limitations and farmers' concerns were addressed, the farmers adopted recommended management practices, thereby improving production outcomes. In one region in China, the five-year average yield increased from 67.9% of the attainable level to 97.0% among 71 leading farmers, and from 62.8% to 79.6% countywide (93,074 households); this was accompanied by resource and economic benefits.

  12. Brief treatment for elementary school children with disaster-related posttraumatic stress disorder: a field study.

    PubMed

    Chemtob, Claude M; Nakashima, Joanne; Carlson, John G

    2002-01-01

    Effective psychological intervention is needed to help children recover from disaster-related posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). This controlled study evaluated the effectiveness of a brief intervention for disaster-related PTSD. At one-year follow-up of a prior intervention for disaster-related symptoms, some previously treated children were still suffering significant trauma symptoms. Using a randomized lagged-groups design, we provided three sessions of Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) treatment to 32 of these children who met clinical criteria for PTSD. The Children's Reaction Inventory (CRI) was the primary measure of the treatment's effect on PTSD symptoms. Associated symptoms were measured using the Revised Children's Manifest Anxiety Scale (RCMAS) and the Children's Depression Inventory (CDI). Treatment resulted in substantial reductions in both groups' CRI scores and in significant, though more modest, reductions in RCMAS and CDI scores. Gains were maintained at six-month follow-up. Health visits to the school nurse were significantly reduced following treatment. Psychosocial intervention appears useful for children suffering disaster-related PTSD. Conducting controlled studies of children's treatment in the postdisaster environment appears feasible.

  13. Payments for Environmental Services as source of development funding for small-scale farmers in northern Namibia: preliminary results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angombe, Simon; Bloemertz, Lena; Käch, Simon; Asino, Josefina; Kuhn, Nikolaus J.

    2013-04-01

    Studies in Africa suggest that improving Soil Organic Carbon (SOC) on cropland soils increases yields, but also offers the opportunity of earning carbon credits. Further potential for earning carbon credits and generating Payments for Environmental Services (PES) lies in an integrated approach to landscape carbon management, including shrubland and pasture used for grazing and timber supply. These studies indicate that funds raised from PES could be used to foster the development of small-scale farming in northern Namibia. However, the limited information on soil quality and the rationale for particular soil management and land use practices applied by small-scale farmers in Namibia prohibits a conclusive assessment of the potential of Payment for PES as a source of income or funding opportunity for development initiatives in Northern Central Regions of Namibia. Therefore, the aim of this study is the identification of potential intervention mechanisms to improve the livelihood of small scale-farmers and reducing land degradation with the support of PES in the communal regions of northern Namibia. The work in Namibia aimed at identifying existing soil management and land use practices as well as soil quality, including carbon stocks, on land used by small-scale farmers in the densely populated northern central region. The main objective of the first part of the field work was to develop an overview of farming practices and soil quality as well as sampling and interviewing approaches. Four settlements were selected for the field work based on their distance to the urbanized road corridor between Oshakati and the Angolan border. Initial results confirm the potential to increase productivity on land used by small-scale farmers as well as the opportunity to develop landscape carbon stocks. However, limits to earning PES might be the lack of a market, and thus incentive for the farmers, to shift from subsistence to commercial farming.

  14. School Finance and the Conditions of Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ornstein, Allan C.

    1994-01-01

    Problems relating to school environment and building concerns eat up school budgets and negatively influence the overall fiscal condition of school districts. The article examines three issues impacting on school finance for the 1990s: environmental hazards (asbestos, radon, lead, electromagnetic fields, and air quality), school infrastructure…

  15. Designing management options to reduce surface runoff and sediment yield with farmers: an experiment in south-western France.

    PubMed

    Furlan, Adriana; Poussin, Jean-Christophe; Mailhol, Jean-Claude; Le Bissonnais, Yves; Gumiere, Silvio J

    2012-04-15

    To preserve the quality of surface water, official French regulations require farmers to keep a minimum acreage of grassland, especially bordering rivers. These agro-environmental measures do not account for the circulation of water within the catchment. This paper examines whether it is possible to design with the farmers agri-environmental measures at field and catchment scale to prevent soil erosion and surface water pollution. To support this participatory approach, the hydrology and erosion model STREAM was used for assessing the impact of a spring stormy event on surface runoff and sediment yield with various management scenarios. The study was carried out in collaboration with an agricultural committee in an area of south-western France where erosive runoff has a major impact on the quality of surface water. Two sites (A and B) were chosen with farmers to discuss ways of reducing total surface runoff and sediment yield at each site. The STREAM model was used to assess surface runoff and sediment yield under current cropping pattern at each site and to evaluate management scenarios including grass strips implementation or changes in cropping patterns within the catchment. The results of STREAM simulations were analysed jointly by farmers and researchers. Moreover, the farmers discussed each scenario in terms of its technical and economical feasibility. STREAM simulations showed that a 40 mm spring rainfall with current cropping patterns led to 3116 m3 total water runoff and 335 metric tons of sediment yield at site A, and 3249 m3 and 241 metric tons at site B. Grass strips implementation could reduce runoff for about 40% and sediment yield for about 50% at site A. At site B, grass strips could reduce runoff and sediment yield for more than 50%, but changes in cropping pattern could reduce it almost totally. The simulations led to three main results: (i) grass strips along rivers and ditches prevented soil sediments from entering the surface water but did not

  16. The impact of curiosity on learning during a school field trip to the zoo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlin, Kerry Ann

    1999-11-01

    This study was designed to examine (a) differences in cognitive learning as a result of a zoo field trip, (b) if the trip to the zoo had an impact on epistemic curiosity, (c) the role epistemic curiosity plays in learning, (d) the effect of gender, race, prior knowledge and prior visitation to the zoo on learning and epistemic curiosity, (e) participants' affect for the zoo animals, and (f) if prior visitation to the zoo contributes to prior knowledge. Ninety-six fourth and fifth grade children completed curiosity, cognitive, and affective written tests before and after a field trip to the Lowery Park Zoo in Tampa, Florida. The data showed that students were very curious about zoo animals. Dependent T-tests indicated no significant difference between pretest and posttest curiosity levels. The trip did not influence participants' curiosity levels. Multiple regression analysis was used to determine the relationship between the dependent variable, curiosity, and the independent variables, gender, race, prior knowledge, and prior visitation. No significant differences were found. Dependent T-tests indicated no significant difference between pretest and posttest cognitive scores. The field trip to the zoo did not cause an increase in participants' knowledge. However, participants did learn on the trip. After the field trip, participants identified more animals displayed by the zoo than they did before. Also, more animals were identified by species and genus names after the trip than before. These differences were significant (alpha = .05). Multiple regression analysis was used to determine the relationship between the dependent variable, posttest cognitive performance, and the independent variables, curiosity, gender, race, prior knowledge, and prior visitation. A significant difference was found for prior knowledge (alpha = .05). No significant differences were found for the other independent variables. Chi-square tests of significance indicated significant differences

  17. Farmer and Public Attitudes Toward Lamb Finishing Systems.

    PubMed

    Coleman, Grahame; Jongman, Ellen; Greenfield, L; Hemsworth, Paul

    2016-01-01

    To develop research and policy on the welfare of lambs in intensive finishing systems, it is important to understand public and sheep farmers' attitudes. The aim of this research was to identify and compare farmer and community attitudes relevant to the intensification of lamb finishing. The majority of respondents in the community sample expressed concern about all listed welfare issues, but particularly about feedlotting of lambs and the associated confinement. These attitudes correlated with community views on the importance of welfare issues including social contact and freedom to roam. Farmers expressed much lower levels of concern than did the general public except with regard to the health of lambs, disease control, access to shade, and lack of access to clean water.

  18. Farmers' loss due to Guinea worm disease: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Brieger, W R; Guyer, J

    1990-04-01

    Guinea worm disease has been blamed for much disability and loss of productivity among farmers in Africa and South Asia. Many studies have tried to equate days lost in illness to monetary values. These attempts often overlook the process of disability in relation to farming patterns. This pilot effort uses a qualitative case study approach to learn about how Guinea worm can cause loss to farmers. Twenty in-depth interviews with affected farmers showed that their losses are related to the time of year they are affected by Guinea worm. Some crops with flexible planting times, e.g. cassava, may not be as affected. Duration of disability is another determining factor. Insights from this pilot study can be used to design more appropriate large-scale survey instruments and guide development of longitudinal research.

  19. A sociohydrological model for smallholder farmers in Maharashtra, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pande, Saket; Savenije, Hubert H. G.

    2016-03-01

    We present a sociohydrological model that can help us to better understand the system dynamics of a smallholder farmer. It couples the dynamics of the six main assets of a typical smallholder farmer: water storage capacity, capital, livestock, soil fertility, grazing access, and labor. The hydroclimatic variability, which is a main driver and source of uncertainty of the smallholder system, is accounted for at subannual scale. The model incorporates rule-based adaptation mechanisms of smallholders (for example, adjusting expenditures on food and fertilizers and selling livestocks) when farmers face adverse sociohydrological conditions, such as low annual rainfall, occurrence of dry spells, or variability of input or commodity prices. We have applied the model to analyze the sociohydrology of a cash crop producing smallholder in Maharashtra, India, in a semisynthetic case study setting. Of late, this region has witnessed many suicides of farmers who could not extricate themselves out of the debt trap. These farmers lacked irrigation and were susceptible to fluctuating commodity prices and climatic variability. We studied the sensitivity of a smallholder's capital, an indicator of smallholder well-being, to two types of cash crops (cotton and sugarcane), water storage capacity, availability of irrigation, initial capital that a smallholder starts with, prevalent wage rates, and access to grazing. We found that (i) smallholders with low water storage capacities and no irrigation are most susceptible to distress, (ii) a smallholder's well-being is low at low wage rates, (iii) wage rate is more important than absolution of debt, (iv) well-being is sensitive to water storage capacity up to a certain level, and (v) well-being increases with increasing area available for livestock grazing. Our results indicate that government intervention to absolve the debt of farmers or to invest in local storage to buffer rainfall variability may not be enough. In addition, alternative

  20. Socio-climatic Exposure of an Afghan Poppy Farmer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mankin, J. S.; Diffenbaugh, N. S.

    2011-12-01

    Many posit that climate impacts from anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions will have consequences for the natural and agricultural systems on which humans rely for food, energy, and livelihoods, and therefore, on stability and human security. However, many of the potential mechanisms of action in climate impacts and human systems response, as well as the differential vulnerabilities of such systems, remain underexplored and unquantified. Here I present two initial steps necessary to characterize and quantify the consequences of climate change for farmer livelihood in Afghanistan, given both climate impacts and farmer vulnerabilities. The first is a conceptual model mapping the potential relationships between Afghanistan's climate, the winter agricultural season, and the country's political economy of violence and instability. The second is a utility-based decision model for assessing farmer response sensitivity to various climate impacts based on crop sensitivities. A farmer's winter planting decision can be modeled roughly as a tradeoff between cultivating the two crops that dominate the winter growing season-opium poppy (a climate tolerant cash crop) and wheat (a climatically vulnerable crop grown for household consumption). Early sensitivity analysis results suggest that wheat yield dominates farmer decision making variability; however, such initial results may dependent on the relative parameter ranges of wheat and poppy yields. Importantly though, the variance in Afghanistan's winter harvest yields of poppy and wheat is tightly linked to household livelihood and thus, is indirectly connected to the wider instability and insecurity within the country. This initial analysis motivates my focused research on the sensitivity of these crops to climate variability in order to project farmer well-being and decision sensitivity in a warmer world.

  1. Remembering the farmer in the agriculture policy and obesity debate.

    PubMed

    Farnese, Patricia L

    2010-01-01

    Agricultural policies are often criticized for promoting the overconsumption of unhealthy foods, thereby contributing to rising obesity rates. This article explores the accuracy of claims that existing agricultural policies contribute to obesity and describes the conflict between traditional nutrition and agricultural policy goals. The article concludes by asserting that the challenges facing farmers must be considered in the redesign of agriculture policy to support obesity prevention goals of governments. If the needs of farmers are overlooked, efforts to improve the nutritional profile of the average American diet will be undermined.

  2. Field/Lab Training Workshops in Planetary Geology and Astrobiology for Secondary School Teachers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Treiman, A.; Newsom, H.; Hoehler, T.; Tsairides, C.; Karlstrom, K.; Crossey, L.; Kiefer, W.; Kadel, S.; Garcia-Pichel, F.; Aubele, J.; Crumpler, L.

    2003-12-01

    Thematic field-lab-classroom workshops can be successful in training secondary teachers in planetary geology and astrobiology, from the LPI's 4 years experience. A typical workshop includes ˜4 days of field study and ˜3 days of related classroom/lab lectures and exercises. Up to 30 teachers have participated at once, and the staff averages 5 researchers and educators. The 2003 workshop, The Great Desert, focused on geology and life in the Colorado Plateau as analogs for Mars. Specific emphases were on geologic processes exemplified in the Grand Canyon, Sunset Crater and Meteor Crater, and on biotic communities in desert soils and hot springs. The classroom portion, hosted by UNM, included lectures, lab work, and teaching exercises keyed to the field experience and its extensions to Mars. Formal followups: non-directive exit questionnaires; email list-serves for participants; websites with images, presentations, and exercises from the workshop, and links to related materials (e.g., http://www.lpi.usra.edu/education/EPO/yellowstone2002/index.html); and interviews for six-month retrospective. Graduate and continuing education credit are available. Past workshops, all relevant to Mars, have targeted: geology and extremophiles of Yellowstone NP, geology of the Cascade volcanos; and giant floods and lava flows of central Washington. The greatest benefit of this workshop format is the teachers' intense, deep experience, emphasizing scientific content. They learn from field, classroom, and laboratory perspectives, and work with PhD level researchers who contribute their excitement, demonstrate and teach critical thought processes, and provide authoritative background and answers. The small group size permits personal interactions (among teachers and presenters) that complement each other's understanding and appreciation of the subject. They log ˜65 contact hours with the staff, in small groups or one-on-one. Teachers return to the classroom with personal experiences

  3. University-Based Teacher Education in the Field of Tension between the Academic World and Practical Experience in School: A Norwegian Case

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elstad, Eyvind

    2010-01-01

    Teacher education at the university has to relate both to the school and to academia. Since these two worlds have values that to some extent diverge, teacher education is placed in a field of tension between the requirement to adapt to academic standards, norms, and values and the requirement to maintain a close professional relationship with the…

  4. Vocational Education Curriculum Guide for the High School E.M.R.: A Field Test Copy. Research Monograph Number 11, Volume 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plue, William V.; And Others

    This vocational education curriculum guide for educable mentally handicapped high school students, an outgrowth of a Mississippi state research project, was developed by a professor from the University of Southern Mississippi's Department of Special Education to be field-tested, revised, and expanded. Under the general competencies of psychomotor…

  5. The Effect of Computer-Assisted Instruction and Field Independence on the Development of Rhythm Sight-Reading Skills of Middle School Instrumental Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Kenneth H.

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated how the effectiveness of computer-assisted instruction (CAI) to teach rhythm reading skills may be influenced by subjects' level of field dependence/independence. The subjects for the study consisted of 120 middle school instrumental music students divided into four groups based on scores from the Group Embedded Figures…

  6. Dysart Unified School District: How One School District Used Collaborative Planning to Improve Outcomes for All Students. From the Field. Digital Learning Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slaven, Chip; Hall, Sara; Schwartzbeck, Terri Duggan; Jones, Rachel; Wolf, Mary Ann

    2013-01-01

    The Dysart Unified School District (Dysart) in Arizona covers 140 square miles and serves numerous communities, including the cities of Surprise and El Mirage and some unincorporated areas of Maricopa County. At one time the fastest-growing school system in Arizona, Dysart has tripled in size since 2000. The district continues to grow, and in…

  7. Farm-to-School Programs: Perspectives of School Food Service Professionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Izumi, Betty T.; Alaimo, Katherine; Hamm, Michael W.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This qualitative study used a case study approach to explore the potential of farm-to-school programs to simultaneously improve children's diets and provide farmers with viable market opportunities. Design: Semistructured interviews were the primary data collection strategy. Setting: Seven farm-to-school programs in the Upper Midwest…

  8. Chicago's Use of Small Schools to Tackle the Drop-Out Problem: A Report from the Field

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nowaczewski, Jeanne L.

    2003-01-01

    Chicago, like many cities, suffers from a significant drop-out problem in its public high schools. The Chicago Public School system (CPS) committed itself in 2001 to utilize small schools--intimate learning environments of no more than 300 students built on communication, collaboration and meeting the needs of the community they serve--as a…

  9. Chock Full of Data: How School Districts Are Building Leader Tracking Systems to Support Principal Pipelines. Stories from the Field

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gill, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    At one time, finding an assistant principal for a public school in Denver entailed a search through "a gajillion résumés," in the words of one local school district administrator. Even then, some ideal candidates likely fell through the cracks. Those days are over, owing to the development by Denver Public Schools of a "leader…

  10. "School Violence" as a Social Problem: Charting the Rise of the Problem and the Emerging Specialist Field

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Jane; Munn, Pamela

    2008-01-01

    In the past 10 years, violence taking place in schools has entered both popular and academic discourse. Frequently, the term "school violence" is used as a catch-all concept to refer to disorder and disruption in schools, as well as the unruliness of contemporary youth. This is apparent not only in the North American context, but in…

  11. The Utility of Discriminant Analysis for Predicting Farmers' Intentions to Participate in Farmer-Managed Irrigation Systems in Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zarafshani, Kiumars; Hossien Alibaygi, Amir; Afshar, Nasrin

    Participatory irrigation management has been problematic in most parts of the world and Iran has been no exception. The purpose of this study was to assess farmers' intentions to participate in irrigation management based on selected variables using discriminant analysis. A survey questionnaire was used to collect information from a sample of Water Cooperatives in Javanrood Townships using stratified random sampling (n = 106). Results indicated that age, educational level, attitude towards PIM, irrigation performance, landholding size, agricultural and non-agricultural income affected farmers' intentions to participate in irrigation management.

  12. Coupled information diffusion--pest dynamics models predict delayed benefits of farmer cooperation in pest management programs.

    PubMed

    Rebaudo, François; Dangles, Olivier

    2011-10-01

    Worldwide, the theory and practice of agricultural extension system have been dominated for almost half a century by Rogers' "diffusion of innovation theory". In particular, the success of integrated pest management (IPM) extension programs depends on the effectiveness of IPM information diffusion from trained farmers to other farmers, an important assumption which underpins funding from development organizations. Here we developed an innovative approach through an agent-based model (ABM) combining social (diffusion theory) and biological (pest population dynamics) models to study the role of cooperation among small-scale farmers to share IPM information for controlling an invasive pest. The model was implemented with field data, including learning processes and control efficiency, from large scale surveys in the Ecuadorian Andes. Our results predict that although cooperation had short-term costs for individual farmers, it paid in the long run as it decreased pest infestation at the community scale. However, the slow learning process placed restrictions on the knowledge that could be generated within farmer communities over time, giving rise to natural lags in IPM diffusion and applications. We further showed that if individuals learn from others about the benefits of early prevention of new pests, then educational effort may have a sustainable long-run impact. Consistent with models of information diffusion theory, our results demonstrate how an integrated approach combining ecological and social systems would help better predict the success of IPM programs. This approach has potential beyond pest management as it could be applied to any resource management program seeking to spread innovations across populations.

  13. Lectures from the European RTN Winter School on Strings, Supergravity and Gauge Fields, CERN, 15 19 January 2007

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Derendinger, J.-P.; Scrucca, C. A.; Uranga, A.

    2007-11-01

    This special issue is devoted to the proceedings of the conference 'Winter School on Strings, Supergravity and Gauge Theories', which took place at CERN, the European Centre for Nuclear Research, in Geneva, Switzerland, from the 15 to the 19 of January 2007. This event was organized in the framework of the European Mobility Research and Training Network entitled 'Constituents, Fundamental Forces and Symmetries of the Universe'. It is part of a yearly series of scientific schools, which represents what is by now a well established tradition. The previous conferences have been held at SISSA, in Trieste, Italy, in February 2005 and at CERN in January 2006. The next will again take place at CERN, in January 2008. The school was primarily meant for young doctoral students and postdoctoral researchers working in the area of string theory. It consisted of several general lectures of four hours each, the notes of which are published in the present proceedings, and seven working group discussion sessions, focused on specific topics of the network research program. It was attended by approximatively 250 participants. The topics of the lectures were chosen to provide an introduction to some of the areas of recent progress, and to the open problems, in string theory. String theory is a compelling candidate for a theory of all interactions. A basic challenge in this field is therefore to explore the connection of string theory models and the laws of physics in different realms, like high-energy particle physics, early cosmology, or physics of strongly coupled gauge theories. Concerning the exploration of string theory compactifications leading to realistic models of particle physics, one of the main obstacles in this direction is the proper understanding of supersymmetry breaking. The lecture notes by Nathan Seiberg review the realization of spontaneous breaking of supersymmetry in field theory, including recent developments via the use of meta-stable long-lived vacua. It is

  14. Some Heartland Farmers Just Say No to Chemicals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDermott, Jeanne

    1990-01-01

    Discusses how the increasing pollution and decreasing effectiveness of agrichemicals has spurred a new interest in "natural" farming practices in the midwestern United States. Provides the testimony of farmers who have converted their farming operations from chemically intensive to sustainable or alternative agricultural practices. (MCO)

  15. The Competencies Demonstrated by Farmers while Adapting to Climate Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pruneau, Diane; Kerry, Jackie; Mallet, Marie-Andree; Freiman, Viktor; Langis, Joanne; Laroche, Anne-Marie; Evichnevetski, Evgueni; Deguire, Paul; Therrien, Jimmy; Lang, Mathieu; Barbier, Pierre-Yves

    2012-01-01

    World population growth, overconsumption of resources, competition among countries and climate change are putting significant pressure on agriculture. In Canada, changes in precipitation, the appearance of new pests and poor soil quality are threatening the prosperity of small farmers. What human competencies could facilitate citizens' adaptation…

  16. Grower Communication Networks: Information Sources for Organic Farmers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crawford, Chelsi; Grossman, Julie; Warren, Sarah T.; Cubbage, Fred

    2015-01-01

    This article reports on a study to determine which information sources organic growers use to inform farming practices by conducting in-depth semi-structured interviews with 23 organic farmers across 17 North Carolina counties. Effective information sources included: networking, agricultural organizations, universities, conferences, Extension, Web…

  17. 75 FR 59683 - Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-28

    ... (No. 2011020) for trade adjustment assistance for coffee filed under the fiscal year (FY) 2011 program by the Kona Coffee Farmers Association. The petition was accepted for review by USDA on July 21, 2010...' criterion, the Administrator was not able to certify the petition, making coffee producers in...

  18. Neurological effects of pesticide use among farmers in China.

    PubMed

    Li, Yifan; Zhang, Chao; Yin, Yanhong; Cui, Fang; Cai, Jinyang; Chen, Zhaohui; Jin, Yanhong; Robson, Mark G; Li, Mao; Ren, Yuting; Huang, Xusheng; Hu, Ruifa

    2014-04-14

    The intensive use of pesticides has attracted great attention from the Chinese government. However, current regulations have had limited influence on their safe use. Although the acute neurologic effects of pesticides have been well documented, little is known about their cumulative effects. Knowledge of the impact of pesticides on health may convince farmers to minimize their use. We conducted a cross-sectional study in three provinces of China to evaluate the relationship between pesticide exposure and neurological dysfunction. Crop farmers were divided into two groups depending on their level of pesticide exposure. A total of 236 participants were assessed by questionnaire and neurological examination for symptoms and signs of neuropathy. Characteristics of neurologic dysfunction following cumulative low-level exposure were assessed with logistic regression analysis. Farmers exposed to high-level pesticide use had greater risk of developing sensations of numbness or prickling (odds ratio (OR) 2.62, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.08-6.36). After adjusting for recent exposure, the risk of numbness or prickling symptoms (OR 2.55, 95% CI: 1.04-6.25) remained statistically significant. Loss of muscle strength and decreased deep tendon reflexes had OR > 2, however, this did not reach statistical significance. These findings suggest that overuse of pesticides increased risk of neurologic dysfunction among farmers, with somatosensory small fibers most likely affected. Measures that are more efficient should be taken to curb excessive use of pesticides.

  19. 12 CFR 615.5174 - Farmer Mac securities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... managing credit and interest rate risks, and furthering your mission to finance agriculture. The total... internal controls are in place to prevent loss, in accordance with § 615.5133(e). Management must submit... securities. (2) Credit risk parameters including: (i) The quantities and types of Farmer Mac...

  20. The Farmer and the Goose--A Generalization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gannon, Gerald; Martelli, Mario

    1993-01-01

    Discusses the process of generalization. Illustrates the process by generalizing the classic problem of how a farmer can get a fox, a goose, and a bag of corn across a river in a boat that is large enough only for him and one of the three items. (MDH)

  1. Punjabi Orchard Farmers: An Immigrant Enclave in Rural California.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibson, Margaret A.

    1988-01-01

    Examines the adaptation patterns of Punjabi Sikh orchard farmers in rural California. Discusses the role of the following: (1) the historical context of immigration; (2) the immigrants' perceptions of their particular situation; (3) the group's cultural traditions; and (4) 1965 Immigration Act. (FMW)

  2. Climate Trends and Farmers' Perceptions of Climate Change in Zambia.

    PubMed

    Mulenga, Brian P; Wineman, Ayala; Sitko, Nicholas J

    2017-02-01

    A number of studies use meteorological records to analyze climate trends and assess the impact of climate change on agricultural yields. While these provide quantitative evidence on climate trends and the likely effects thereof, they incorporate limited qualitative analysis of farmers' perceptions of climate change and/or variability. The present study builds on the quantitative methods used elsewhere to analyze climate trends, and in addition compares local narratives of climate change with evidence found in meteorological records in Zambia. Farmers offer remarkably consistent reports of a rainy season that is growing shorter and less predictable. For some climate parameters-notably, rising average temperature-there is a clear overlap between farmers' observations and patterns found in the meteorological records. However, the data do not support the perception that the rainy season used to begin earlier, and we generally do not detect a reported increase in the frequency of dry spells. Several explanations for these discrepancies are offered. Further, we provide policy recommendations to help farmers adapt to climate change/variability, as well as suggestions to shape future climate change policies, programs, and research in developing countries.

  3. 29 CFR 780.332 - Exchange of labor between farmers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Employment in Agriculture That Is Exempted From the Minimum Wage and Overtime Pay Requirements Under Section... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exchange of labor between farmers. 780.332 Section 780.332 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR...

  4. 29 CFR 780.332 - Exchange of labor between farmers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Employment in Agriculture That Is Exempted From the Minimum Wage and Overtime Pay Requirements Under Section... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Exchange of labor between farmers. 780.332 Section 780.332 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR...

  5. 29 CFR 780.332 - Exchange of labor between farmers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Employment in Agriculture That Is Exempted From the Minimum Wage and Overtime Pay Requirements Under Section... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Exchange of labor between farmers. 780.332 Section 780.332 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR...

  6. 29 CFR 780.332 - Exchange of labor between farmers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Employment in Agriculture That Is Exempted From the Minimum Wage and Overtime Pay Requirements Under Section... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Exchange of labor between farmers. 780.332 Section 780.332 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR...

  7. 29 CFR 780.332 - Exchange of labor between farmers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Employment in Agriculture That Is Exempted From the Minimum Wage and Overtime Pay Requirements Under Section... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Exchange of labor between farmers. 780.332 Section 780.332 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR...

  8. Texas Future Farmers of America Poultry Judging Handbook. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradley, J. W.; And Others

    This handbook is designed to help students in Texas prepare for Future Farmers of America (FFA) poultry judgings. The handbook is organized into five major sections that cover the following topics: organization of the Texas FFA poultry judging contest; judging production hens; judging production pullets; grading ready-to-cook broilers, fryers, or…

  9. 12 CFR 615.5174 - Farmer Mac securities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...) Market risk limits based on the effects that the Farmer Mac securities have on your capital and earnings. (d) Stress Test. You must perform stress tests on mortgage securities that are issued or guaranteed... fails a stress test, you must divest it as required by § 615.5143. Effective Date Note: At 77 FR...

  10. 75 FR 23226 - Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-03

    ..., and began a review of a petition, for trade adjustment assistance by the Catfish Farmers of America on behalf of U.S. farm-raised catfish producers. The Administrator will determine within 40 days whether or not increasing imports of catfish contributed importantly to a greater than 15 percent decrease in...

  11. The History of Future Farmer Organizations around the World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connors, James J.

    2013-01-01

    The establishment of the Future Farmers of America in 1928 and its subsequent growth in size and scope was noticed around the world. Agricultural education professionals from dozens of other countries wanted to know about the organization and how it helped motivate young rural boys to study vocational agriculture and choose agriculture as a career…

  12. 75 FR 61121 - Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-04

    ... Foreign Agricultural Service Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers AGENCY: Foreign Agricultural Service... (petition nos. 2011002 and 2011022) for trade adjustment assistance (TAA) for shrimp filed under the fiscal... in Subtitle C of Title I of the Trade Act of 2002 (Pub. L. 107-210). Because both petitions met...

  13. 75 FR 63437 - Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-15

    ... Foreign Agricultural Service Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers AGENCY: Foreign Agricultural Service... (No. 2011016) for trade adjustment assistance (TAA) for northeast multi-species fish filed under the..., Subtitle C of Title I of the Trade Act of 2002 (Pub. L. 107-210) states that petitions must...

  14. 75 FR 59684 - Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-28

    ... Foreign Agricultural Service Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers AGENCY: Foreign Agricultural Service... (No. 2011017) for trade adjustment assistance for apples filed under the fiscal year (FY) 2011 program..., 2010. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: To qualify under the program, Subtitle C of Title I of the Trade...

  15. 75 FR 59681 - Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-28

    ... Foreign Agricultural Service Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers AGENCY: Foreign Agricultural Service... (No. 2011029) for trade adjustment assistance for lamb filed under the fiscal year (FY) 2011 program..., 2010. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: To qualify under the program, Subtitle C of Title I of the Trade...

  16. 75 FR 59682 - Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-28

    ... Foreign Agricultural Service Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers AGENCY: Foreign Agricultural Service... (Nos. 2011023-2011027) for trade adjustment assistance for wool filed under the fiscal year (FY) 2011.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: To qualify under the program, Subtitle C of Title I of the Trade Act of 2002 (Pub....

  17. 75 FR 41432 - Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-16

    ... Foreign Agricultural Service Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers AGENCY: Foreign Agricultural Service... petition (No. 2010005) for trade adjustment assistance (TAA) for shrimp that was filed by the Southern... of the Trade Act of 2002 (Pub. L. 107-210). Individual shrimp producers in Alabama, Florida,...

  18. 75 FR 42375 - Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-21

    ... Foreign Agricultural Service Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers AGENCY: Foreign Agricultural Service... began a review of a petition for trade adjustment assistance filed under the FY 2011 Program by the... for free technical assistance and cash benefits. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Trade...

  19. 75 FR 59685 - Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-28

    ... Foreign Agricultural Service Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers AGENCY: Foreign Agricultural Service... (Nos. 2011024, 2011025) for trade adjustment assistance for lamb filed under the fiscal year (FY) 2011.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: To qualify under the program, Subtitle C of Title I of the Trade Act of 2002 (Pub....

  20. 75 FR 59682 - Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-28

    ... Foreign Agricultural Service Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers AGENCY: Foreign Agricultural Service... (No.'s 2011006-2011011, 2011028) for trade adjustment assistance for wool filed under the fiscal year... program, Subtitle C of Title I of the Trade Act of 2002 (Pub. L. 107-210) states that petitions...

  1. 75 FR 59683 - Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-28

    ... Foreign Agricultural Service Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers AGENCY: Foreign Agricultural Service... petition (No. 2011014) for trade adjustment assistance for dried prunes filed under the fiscal year (FY... Trade Act of 2002 (Pub. L. 107-210) states that petitions must demonstrate, using data for the...

  2. 75 FR 59681 - Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-28

    ... Foreign Agricultural Service Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers AGENCY: Foreign Agricultural Service... (No. 2011004) for trade adjustment assistance for lamb filed under the fiscal year (FY) 2011 program... 23, 2010. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: To qualify under the program, Subtitle C of Title I of the...

  3. 75 FR 23667 - Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-04

    ... Foreign Agricultural Service Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers AGENCY: Foreign Agricultural Service... of a petition, for trade adjustment assistance by the Prune Bargaining Association on behalf of prune... remarks for the record by faxing them to (202) 720-0876. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Trade...

  4. 75 FR 59684 - Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-28

    ... Foreign Agricultural Service Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers AGENCY: Foreign Agricultural Service.... 2011021) for trade adjustment assistance for wool filed under the fiscal year (FY) 2011 program ] by the... INFORMATION: To qualify under the program, Subtitle C of Title I of the Trade Act of 2002 (Pub. L....

  5. 75 FR 59682 - Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-28

    ... Foreign Agricultural Service Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers AGENCY: Foreign Agricultural Service... (No. 2011005) for trade adjustment assistance for wool filed under the fiscal year (FY) 2011 program... 21, 2010. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: To qualify under the program, Subtitle C of Title I of the...

  6. Distributing and Showing Farmer Learning Videos in Bangladesh

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bentley, Jeffery W.; Van Mele, Paul; Harun-ar-Rashid, Md.; Krupnik, Timothy J.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To describe the results of showing farmer learning videos through different types of volunteers. Design/Methodology/Approach: Semi-structured interviews with volunteers from different occupational groups in Bangladesh, and a phone survey with 227 respondents. Findings: Each occupational group acted differently. Shop keepers, tillage…

  7. Community support systems for farmers who live with disability.

    PubMed

    Friesen, Margaret N; Krassikouva-Enns, Olga; Ringaert, Laurie; Isfeld, Harpa

    2010-04-01

    To return to farming following the onset of a disabling injury or health condition is predicated on a supportive environment for the farm owner-operator. The purpose of this study was to examine barriers and facilitators of returning to work after an injury or acquired disability, and to identify community supports (formal and informal) needed and available to farmers. This was a qualitative study using a participatory action research approach that involved a research team, an advisory group of seven stakeholder participants and semistructured interviews with farmers, their spouses, and service providers in the study communities. A total of 11 farmers and 17 service providers took part in a focus group or were interviewed individually with or without the spouse present. Focus group discussions and interviews were transcribed and analyzed using constant comparison method and team consensus of findings. Themes of barriers and facilitators for return to farming were identified as health care services, financial and economic issues, and "hands-on" assistance. Themes were organized into an ecological conceptual diagram depicting barriers and facilitators in the microsystem of the farm family, the mesosystem of the local farming community and regional health jurisdictions, and the macrosystem of the province and/or nation's social, legislative, and economic realities. Enhancing community support systems for farmers who become disabled as a result of injury or illness will require a multilevel system approach that involves health, financial, and labor resources.

  8. Iowa Adult Farmers' Perception of the Value of Educational Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Keith L.; Kahler, Alan A.

    1982-01-01

    This article discusses the factors which influenced participation of adult farmers in educational programs and the factors which may have influenced changes in farming programs of the participants. These factors included size of farm operations, farm income, participation in farming, and community activities and sources of technical information.…

  9. MORTALITY AMONG FARMERS AND SPOUSES IN THE AGRICULTURAL HEALTH STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    In the Agricultural Health Study we evaluated the mortality experience of 52,395 farmers and 32,347 of their spouses in Iowa and North Carolina obtain information on cancer and other chronic disease risks from agricultural exposures and other factors associated with rural lifes...

  10. Communicating to Farmers about Skin Cancer: The Behavior Adaptation Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parrott, Roxanne; Monahan, Jennifer; Ainsworth, Stuart; Steiner, Carol

    1998-01-01

    States health campaign messages designed to encourage behavior adaptation have greater likelihood of success than campaigns promoting avoidance of at-risk behaviors that cannot be avoided. Tests a model of health risk behavior using four different behaviors in a communication campaign aimed at reducing farmers' risk for skin cancer--questions…

  11. 75 FR 9087 - Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-01

    ... implements the Trade Adjustment Assistance (TAA) for Farmers program as reauthorized by the American Recovery...) 720-0638; or by fax at (202) 720-8461. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Background The American Recovery and... Maintenance of records, audits, and compliance. 1580.503 Recovery of overpayments. 1580.504...

  12. Women Farmers in Central America: Myths, Roles, Reality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yudelman, Sally W.

    1994-01-01

    Improving economic opportunities for the increasing number of women farmers in rural Central America involves addressing low educational levels and challenging traditional social values. Government policies need to strengthen women's agricultural and natural-resource management skills by improving land access; encouraging membership in…

  13. Prevalence of peanut allergy in children of peanut farmers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    High levels of environmental exposure to peanut during infancy appear to promote sensitization by the epicutaneous route. Children of peanut farmers are likely exposed to relatively high levels of peanut protein in their environment, increasing their risk of cutaneous sensitization. The purpose of...

  14. Reduction of farmers' postural load during occupationally oriented medical rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Nevala-Puranen, N

    1995-12-01

    Farmers' back problems may be associated with the amount of back flexion and the handling of heavy loads. The aim of this study was to analyse the effects of occupationally oriented medical rehabilitation courses on female farmers' postural load. Twenty seven female farmers (aged from 32 to 52 years) took part in four rehabilitation courses at one rehabilitation centre in Finland. The subjects suffered from various musculoskeletal symptoms, which decreased their work ability. The rehabilitation courses included two periods: the first lasted for 3 weeks and the latter for 1 week, organized 6 months after the first period. The work postures and their load on the musculoskeletal system were classified by the computerized OWAS method in three daily work phases. During the 3-week periods new work techniques were learned, and simultaneous bent and twisted postures for the back decreased from 34 to 4% of all studied work postures. Similarly, postures with one or both arms above shoulder level were reduced from 44 to 24%. Rechecking after the 6-month period confirmed that the adoption of new work techniques was consistent. The study showed that female farmers could change their work techniques during this kind of intensive rehabilitation period, and the changes were seen 6 months later in the follow-up.

  15. Agriculture and Locality Interrelationships: Perspectives of Local Officials and Farmers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moxley, Robert L.; Liles, James

    The focus of this study is the impact of urban activities (such as industry) and local governments on agriculture and the impact of agriculture on localities. This report is based on a qualitative study of an agricultural county, and interviews with community and county officials and farmers. The perceptions and opinions of officials are compared…

  16. Climate Trends and Farmers' Perceptions of Climate Change in Zambia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mulenga, Brian P.; Wineman, Ayala; Sitko, Nicholas J.

    2017-02-01

    A number of studies use meteorological records to analyze climate trends and assess the impact of climate change on agricultural yields. While these provide quantitative evidence on climate trends and the likely effects thereof, they incorporate limited qualitative analysis of farmers' perceptions of climate change and/or variability. The present study builds on the quantitative methods used elsewhere to analyze climate trends, and in addition compares local narratives of climate change with evidence found in meteorological records in Zambia. Farmers offer remarkably consistent reports of a rainy season that is growing shorter and less predictable. For some climate parameters—notably, rising average temperature—there is a clear overlap between farmers' observations and patterns found in the meteorological records. However, the data do not support the perception that the rainy season used to begin earlier, and we generally do not detect a reported increase in the frequency of dry spells. Several explanations for these discrepancies are offered. Further, we provide policy recommendations to help farmers adapt to climate change/variability, as well as suggestions to shape future climate change policies, programs, and research in developing countries.

  17. Climate change and farmers' mental health: risks and responses.

    PubMed

    Berry, Helen L; Hogan, Anthony; Owen, Jennifer; Rickwood, Debra; Fragar, Lyn

    2011-03-01

    Climate change is exacerbating climate variability, evident in more frequent and severe weather-related disasters, such as droughts, fires, and floods. Most of what is known about the possible effects of climate change on rural mental health relates to prolonged drought. But though drought is known to be a disproportionate and general stressor, evidence is mixed and inconclusive. Over time, like drought other weather-related disasters may erode the social and economic bases on which farming communities depend. Rural vulnerability to mental health problems is greatly increased by socioeconomic disadvantage. Related factors may compound this, such as reduced access to health services as communities decline and a "stoical" culture that inhibits help-seeking. Australia has the world's most variable climate and is a major global agricultural producer. Yet despite Australia's (and, especially, rural communities') dependence on farmers' well-being and success, there is very little-and inconclusive-quantitative evidence about farmers' mental health. The aim of this review is to consider, with a view to informing other countries, how climate change and related factors may affect farmers' mental health in Australia. That information is a prerequisite to identifying, selecting, and evaluating adaptive strategies, to lessen the risks of adverse mental health outcomes. The authors identify the need for a systematic epidemiology of the mental health of farmers facing increasing climate change- related weather adversity.

  18. Assessing Farmer Innovations in Agroforestry in Eastern Zambia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katanga, R.; Kabwe, G.; Kuntashula, E.; Mafongoya, P. L.; Phiri, S.

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes farmer innovations on improved fallows developed by researchers to replenish soil fertility. The reasons for the innovations and how these innovations are facilitating wide adoption of improved fallows are discussed. Research designed trial results to evaluate the ecological robustness of these innovations are also analyzed in…

  19. 75 FR 28780 - Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-24

    ... Reinvestment Act of 2009 (Pub. L. 111-5) reauthorized the TAA for Farmers Program as established by Subtitle C of Title I of the Trade Act of 2002 (Pub. L. 107-210), which amended the Trade Act of 1974. The... increased imports of raw agricultural commodities, aquaculture products, or wild- caught aquatic...

  20. 75 FR 11513 - Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-11

    ... Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (Pub. L. 111-5) reauthorized the Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers program as established by Subtitle C of Title I of the Trade Act of 2002 (Pub. L. 107-210), which..., aquaculture products, or wild- caught aquatic species (each referred to as ``commodity'') have...

  1. Participatory Data Collection Technique for Capturing Beginning Farmer Program Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eschbach, Cheryl L.; Sirrine, J. R.; Lizotte, Erin; Rothwell, N. L.

    2016-01-01

    This article describes an innovative evaluation plan we employed to capture outcomes of a multiyear beginning farmer program and, specifically, highlights the facilitation technique we used to document short-term and intermediate goals of the program that matched U.S. Department of Agriculture grant requirements and Extension administration…

  2. Pollution Attitudes, Knowledge and Behavior of Farmers and Urban Men.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kronus, Carol L.; van Es, J. C.

    Data were gathered through telephone survey of a random sample of 91 urban men and 97 farm operators to study pollution attitudes, knowledge, and household pollution abatement behavior among urban residents and farmers. The results indicate that urban men are more concerned about pollution, more willing to allocate tax money to clean up pollution,…

  3. 75 FR 23226 - Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-03

    ..., and began a review of a petition, for trade adjustment assistance by the Louisiana Crawfish Farmers Association on behalf of farm-raised crawfish producers in Louisiana. The Administrator will determine within 40 days whether or not increasing imports of crawfish contributed importantly to a greater than...

  4. The Low-Income Farmer in a Changing Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fliegel, Frederick C.

    To identify some major differences among low-income farmers, and delineate that group representing the real core of the persistently poor, data were obtained from 189 farm operators representing a stratified random sample in Fayette County, Pennsylvania in 1957. The five main categories of individuals identified were: (1) the aged, (2) the…

  5. Denali Geographic 2012 : A University led scientific field experience for High School students at the Alaska Summer Research Academy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shipman, J. S.; Webley, P. W.; Burke, S.; Chebul, E.; Dempsey, A.; Hastings, H.; Terry, R.; Drake, J.

    2012-12-01

    The Alaska Summer Research Academy (ASRA) annually provides the opportunity for ~150 exceptional high school students to engage in scientific exploration at the university level. In July 2012, University of Alaska Fairbanks instructors led a two-week long ASRA module, called 'Denali Geographic', where eight student participants from across the USA and Canada learned how to observe changes in the natural world and design their own experiments for a field expedition to Denali National Park and Preserve, with assistance from the National Park Service. Each student designed an experiment/observational project prior to the expedition to investigate changes across the expanse of the park. Projects included wildlife documentation; scat and track observations; soil ph and moisture with elevation and vegetation changes; wildflowers species distribution; waterborne insect populations; atmospheric pressure and temperature variations; construction of sustainable buildings to minimize human impact on the park; and park geology comparisons between outcrop and distal stream deposits. The students learned how to design experiments, purchase supplies needed to conduct the work, and select good locations in which to sample in the park. Students used equipment such as GPS to mark field locations; a range finder to determine distance from wildlife; a hygrometer for temperature and pressure; nets and sorting equipments to analyze insects; and the preparation of Plaster of Paris for creating casts of animal tracks. All observations were documented in their field notebooks and blog entries made to share their experiences. Day excursions as part of the module included Poker Flats Research Range, where students learned about the use of unmanned aerial vehicles in scientific exploration; Alaska Volcano Observatory, where students learned about volcanic hazards in Alaska and the North Pacific; Chena Hot Springs and the Ice Museum, where students learned about thermal imaging using a Forward

  6. Typical Farmers: The Strategy Galjart Did Not Explain [and] Article Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Protas, J. F. da Silva; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Protas and de Andrade state that rural extension efforts in developing nations should not expect the participation of "progressive" farmers to lead to larger participation of other farmers in adopting innovations. Van den Bar offers comments on the article. (SK)

  7. 29 CFR 780.612 - Employment by a “farmer.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... § 780.612 Employment by a “farmer.” A further requirement for exemption is the expressed statutory one that the employee must be employed in agriculture by a “farmer.” Employment by a nonfarmer will...

  8. 29 CFR 780.612 - Employment by a “farmer.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... § 780.612 Employment by a “farmer.” A further requirement for exemption is the expressed statutory one that the employee must be employed in agriculture by a “farmer.” Employment by a nonfarmer will...

  9. 29 CFR 780.132 - Operations must be performed “by” a farmer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... can a repairman who repairs and services farm machinery qualify as a “farmer” on that basis. Where... farmers in return for compensation in money or farm products is not a “farmer.” Thus, a person...

  10. 29 CFR 780.132 - Operations must be performed “by” a farmer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... can a repairman who repairs and services farm machinery qualify as a “farmer” on that basis. Where... farmers in return for compensation in money or farm products is not a “farmer.” Thus, a person...

  11. 78 FR 3393 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comment Request-Senior Farmers...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-16

    ... Food and Nutrition Service Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comment Request--Senior Farmers' Market Nutrition Program (SFMNP) AGENCY: Food and Nutrition Service (FNS), USDA... renewal of the currently approved collection for the Senior Farmers' Market Nutrition Program...

  12. Farmer's response to changing climate in North East India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De, Utpal Kumar

    2015-02-01

    Diversification of land use in the cultivation of various crops provides an alternative way to moderate the climate risk. By choosing alternative crops that are resilient to various weather parameters, farmers can reduce the crop damage and achieve optimum output from their limited land resources. Apart from other adaptation measures, crop diversity can reflect farmers' response towards changing climate uncertainty. This paper tries to examine the changing climatic condition through spatio-temporal variation of two important weather variables (precipitation and temperature) in the largest North-East Indian state, Assam, since 1950. It is examined by the variation in crop diversification index. We have used (1) Herfindahl Index for measuring degree of diversification and (2) locational quotient for measuring the changes in the regional crop concentration. The results show that, in almost all the districts, crop specialization has been taking place slowly and that happened mostly in the last phase of our study. The hilly and backward districts recorded more diversification but towards lower value crops. It goes against the normal feature of crop diversification where farmers diversify in favour of high value crops. Employing ordinary least squares method and/or Fixed Effect model, irrigation is found to have significant impact on crop diversification; while the flood plain zones and hill zones are found to have better progress in this regard, which has been due to the survival necessity of poor farmers living the zone. Thus crop diversity does not reflect very significant response from the farmers' side towards changing weather factors (except rainfall) though they have significant impact on the productivity of various crops, and thus profitability. The study thus suggests the necessity for rapid and suitable diversification as alternative climate change mitigation in the long run.

  13. 29 CFR 780.613 - “By such farmer.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false âBy such farmer.â 780.613 Section 780.613 Labor Regulations... such farmer.” The employee's primary employment in agriculture during the exempt week is also required to be by “such farmer.” The phrase “such farmer” refers to the particular farmer by whom the...

  14. 29 CFR 780.613 - “By such farmer.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false âBy such farmer.â 780.613 Section 780.613 Labor Regulations... such farmer.” The employee's primary employment in agriculture during the exempt week is also required to be by “such farmer.” The phrase “such farmer” refers to the particular farmer by whom the...

  15. Human Vulnerability to Climate Variability in the Sahel: Farmers' Adaptation Strategies in Northern Burkina Faso

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbier, Bruno; Yacouba, Hamma; Karambiri, Harouna; Zoromé, Malick; Somé, Blaise

    2009-05-01

    In this study, the authors investigate farmers’ vulnerability to climate variability and evaluate local adoption of technology and farmers’ perceptions of adaptation strategies to rainfall variability and policies. A survey was conducted in a community in northern Burkina Faso following the crop failure of 2004. In 2006, following a better harvest, another survey was conducted to compare farmers’ actions and reactions during two contrasted rainy seasons. The results confirm that farmers from this community have substantially changed their practices during the last few decades. They have adopted a wide range of techniques that are intended to simultaneously increase crop yield and reduce yield variability. Micro water harvesting (Zaï) techniques have been widely adopted (41%), and a majority of fields have been improved with stone lines (60%). Hay (48%) and sorghum residues are increasingly stored to feed animals during the dry season, making bull and sheep fattening now a common practice. Dry season vegetable production also involves a majority of the population (60%). According to farmers, most of the new techniques have been adopted because of growing land scarcity and new market opportunities, rather than because of climate variability. Population pressure has reached a critical threshold, while land scarcity, declining soil fertility and reduced animal mobility have pushed farmers to intensify agricultural production. These techniques reduce farmers’ dependency on rainfall but are still insufficient to reduce poverty and vulnerability. Thirty-nine percent of the population remains vulnerable after a good rainy season. Despite farmers’ desire to remain in their own communities, migrations are likely to remain a major source of regular income and form of recourse in the event of droughts.

  16. Pest management in traditional maize stores in West Africa: a farmer's perspective.

    PubMed

    Meikle, W G; Markham, R H; Nansen, C; Holst, N; Degbey, P; Azoma, K; Korie, S

    2002-10-01

    Farmers in the Republic of Benin have few resources to invest in protection of stored maize, and prophylactic pesticide application is often recommended by extension and development agencies. Neither the efficacy nor profitability of such an application in traditional maize storage facilities has been addressed quantitatively. In this study, existing management options for stored maize were evaluated monthly over 6 mo in central and southern Benin with respect to their effects on grain injury and on densities of Prostephanus truncatus (Horn) and Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky. P. truncatus infested 54% of the experimental stores in the study even though Teretrius nigrescens (Lewis), a natural enemy introduced against P. truncatus, was well established in the region. S. zeamais was the most common pest, found in 85% of the experimental storage facilities. Prophylactically treated maize was, on average, worth more than untreated maize for month 1 through 5 in southern Benin, after taking into account market price, pesticide costs, percentage grain damage and weight loss, but maize storage was not profitable overall. No difference was observed between treatments in central Benin. After 6 mo treated storage facilities were not significantly different from untreated storage facilities in terms of either percentage damage or profit in either region. A rapid scouting plan intended to provide farmers with a means for identifying storage facilities at greatest risk of severe P. truncatus infestation was field validated. Given that unsafe pesticide use is prevalent in Benin, research and extension services should clearly state the limitations to prophylactic treatment and increase the effort to educate farmers on appropriate pesticide use, store monitoring and marketing.

  17. Improving Smallholder Farmer Biosecurity in the Mekong Region Through Change Management.

    PubMed

    Young, J R; Evans-Kocinski, S; Bush, R D; Windsor, P A

    2015-10-01

    Transboundary animal diseases including foot-and-mouth disease and haemorrhagic septicaemia remain a major constraint for improving smallholder large ruminant productivity in the Mekong region, producing negative impacts on rural livelihoods and compromising efforts to reduce poverty and food insecurity. The traditional husbandry practices of smallholders largely exclude preventive health measures, increasing risks of disease transmission. Although significant efforts have been made to understand the social aspects of change development in agricultural production, attention to improving the adoption of biosecurity has been limited. This study reviews smallholder biosecurity risk factors identified in the peer-reviewed literature and from field research observations conducted in Cambodia and Laos during 2006-2013, considering these in the context of a change management perspective aimed at improving adoption of biosecurity measures. Motivation for change, resistance to change, knowledge management, cultural dimensions, systems theory and leadership are discussed. Due to geographical, physical and resource variability, the implementation of biosecurity interventions suitable for smallholders is not a 'one size fits all'. Smallholders should be educated in biosecurity principles and empowered to make personal decisions rather than adopt prescribed pre-defined interventions. Biosecurity interventions should be aligned with smallholder farmer motivations, preferably offering clear short-term risk management benefits that elicit interest from smallholders. Linking biosecurity and disease control with improved livestock productivity provides opportunities for sustainable improvements in livelihoods. Participatory research and extension that improves farmer knowledge and practices offers a pathway to elicit sustainable broad-scale social change. However, examples of successes need to be communicated both at the 'evidence-based level' to influence regional policy

  18. Farmers' Cynicism toward Nature and Distrust of the Government: Where Does that Leave Conservation Buffer Programs?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gronewold, Katherine L.; Burnett, Ann; Meister, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Farmers are commonly regarded as stewards of the land. Farmers have, however, become cynical toward nature (Meister, Hest, & Burnett, 2009) and distrustful of the government (Cantrill, 2003). This study examines whether or not that cynicism and distrust is reflected in U.S. farmers' opinions of and future participation in conservation buffer…

  19. Adoption of Aquaculture Technology by Fish Farmers in Imo State of Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ike, Nwachukwu; Roseline, Onuegbu

    2007-01-01

    This paper evaluated the level of adoption of aquaculture technology extended to farmers in Imo State, Nigeria. To improve aquaculture practice in Nigeria, a technology package was developed and disseminated to farmers in the state. This package included ten practices that the farmers were supposed to adopt. Eighty-two respondents were randomly…

  20. 7 CFR 170.2 - Is the USDA Farmers Market a producer-only market?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Is the USDA Farmers Market a producer-only market? 170...) MISCELLANEOUS MARKETING PRACTICES UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 USDA FARMERS MARKET § 170.2 Is the USDA Farmers Market a producer-only market? Yes. A producer-only market is one that does not...