Science.gov

Sample records for farmer oriented research

  1. Reduction of farmers' postural load during occupationally oriented medical rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Nevala-Puranen, N

    1995-12-01

    Farmers' back problems may be associated with the amount of back flexion and the handling of heavy loads. The aim of this study was to analyse the effects of occupationally oriented medical rehabilitation courses on female farmers' postural load. Twenty seven female farmers (aged from 32 to 52 years) took part in four rehabilitation courses at one rehabilitation centre in Finland. The subjects suffered from various musculoskeletal symptoms, which decreased their work ability. The rehabilitation courses included two periods: the first lasted for 3 weeks and the latter for 1 week, organized 6 months after the first period. The work postures and their load on the musculoskeletal system were classified by the computerized OWAS method in three daily work phases. During the 3-week periods new work techniques were learned, and simultaneous bent and twisted postures for the back decreased from 34 to 4% of all studied work postures. Similarly, postures with one or both arms above shoulder level were reduced from 44 to 24%. Rechecking after the 6-month period confirmed that the adoption of new work techniques was consistent. The study showed that female farmers could change their work techniques during this kind of intensive rehabilitation period, and the changes were seen 6 months later in the follow-up.

  2. Preparation of Problem Oriented Learning Materials: Experimental Project: Farmers Functional Literacy Programme.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deleon, Asher, Ed.

    Using practical problems faced by farmers developing new agricultural methods, a problem-oriented approach to adult functional literacy was developed and tested in the Jaipur district. The booklet explains the first two of the project's five phases: exploration, syllabus and curriculum construction, materials preparation, action, and evaluation.…

  3. Linking Research, Extension and Farmers: The Case of Mangrove Swamp Rice Cultivation in Sierra Leone.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zinnah, Moses Moroe

    1994-01-01

    Interviews with 124 rice farmers in Sierra Leone revealed that farmers and extension staff have minimal participation and input in testing of new cultivation technologies. The top-down research approach has limited contact among researchers, extension staff, and farmers and affected the utility and application of research. (SK)

  4. Farmer attitudes and perceptions to the re-use of fertiliser products from resource-oriented sanitation systems - The case of Vellore, South India.

    PubMed

    Simha, Prithvi; Lalander, Cecilia; Vinnerås, Björn; Ganesapillai, M

    2017-03-01

    Relatively little research has been conducted to date on farmer attitudes towards the use of fertilisers from resource-oriented sanitation systems. This study employed a psycho-sociological approach to identify factors that encourage, or discourage, negative and positive attitudes to human waste recycling among farmers in southern India. A survey involving face-to-face interviews was performed with 120 randomly sampled farmers, taking into account the following factors: gender, age, religion, caste, type of farming, farm size, annual income and farming history. Variations in variables (χ(2) and ANOVA) were considered statistically significant if p-value was <0.05. When asked whether they thought human wastes could be used as fertiliser, of the farmers who expressed an opinion 59% were positive to re-use of urine and 46% to re-use of human faeces. Farmers in Vellore appeared to display what we term, a 'not-in-my-circle' syndrome, as they would prefer their neighbours to use human urine rather than their friends, family and colleagues. The main factors that motivated farmers to respond positively to re-use of urine were improved soil quality and potential cost savings from reduced use of chemical fertilisers. Fear of crop die-off, fear of being ridiculed and uncertainty over consumer marketplace behaviour were significant factors among farmers with a negative attitude. Furthermore, the survey responses indicated that besides socio-demographic factors, other factors such as 'trust' might have to be taken into consideration when planning and implementing nutrient recycling programmes. Early dialogue, continuous interaction and integration of user stakeholders (producers and consumers) in conceptualisation, design and implementation of nutrient recycling programmes are essential to ensure future success and wider adoption.

  5. Effects of occupationally-oriented rehabilitation on farmers' work techniques, musculoskeletal symptoms, and work ability.

    PubMed

    Nevala-Puranen, N

    1996-09-01

    Changes in work techniques, musculoskeletal symptoms and work ability were studied after occupationally-oriented rehabilitation courses for farmers experiencing low back or shoulder pain. Fifty-two women and 43 men participated. The OWAS analysis of work postures, biomechanical modeling of lifting techniques, and a questionnaire were used before and after the courses and after 1 year of follow-up. Bent and twisted postures or postures with the arms over the shoulders occurred more seldom after the courses and the follow-up. Changes in lifting techniques were minor. The musculoskeletal pain index decreased by 12 and 3 points for the women and men, respectively. The mean work ability index increased from 33.5 (men and women) to 36.5 (women) and 35.1 (men). This study showed that rehabilitation can produce significant, long-lasting effects on rehabilitees' work techniques, work ability, and subjective well-being.

  6. Dislocated Farmers: Number, Distribution, and Impacts. Research Report Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Philip L.; Olmstead, Alan L.

    This report is an overview of the current status of farmers in the U.S. economy, with an emphasis on the characteristics of displaced farmers, the reasons for their displacement, the effects of their displacement on the economy, and some policy recommendations for the future. Following an executive summary, the report is organized in five…

  7. Farmers' Attitude towards a Participatory Research Method Used to Evaluate Weed Management Strategies in Bananas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ganpat, Wayne G.; Isaac, Wendy-Ann P.; Brathwaite, Richard A. I.; Bekele, Isaac

    2009-01-01

    In this study, farmers were engaged in a participatory research project and their attitudes evaluated. The purpose was to identify the characteristics of farmers who are favourably predisposed towards meaningful participation in the process. Several cover crops were tested for possible use in the management of watergrass ("Commelina…

  8. What Makes Small-Scale Farmers Participate in Financing Agricultural Research and Extension? Analysis of Three Case Studies from Benin

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moumouni, Ismail M.; Vodouhe, Simplice D.; Streiffeler, Friedhelm

    2009-01-01

    This paper analyses the organizational, financial and technological incentives that service organizations used to motivate farmers to finance agricultural research and extension in Benin. Understanding the foundations and implications of these motivation systems is important for improving farmer financial participation in agricultural research and…

  9. Differences and Commonalities: Farmer Stratifications in the San Luis Valley Research/Extension Project Area. ARE Research Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eckert, Jerry B.

    A research project in the San Luis Valley of Colorado sought to isolate a few unique farm types that could become target groups for the design and implementation of agricultural research and extension programs. Questionnaires were completed by 44 of 65 farmers in one watershed area of Conejos County. Analysis revealed a complex pattern of…

  10. Sending Farmers Back to School: The Impact of Farmer Field Schools in Indonesia. World Bank Policy Research Working Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feder, Gershon; Murgai, Rinku; Quizon, Jaime B.

    A study evaluated the impact of Farmer Field Schools in Indonesia, an intensive participatory training program emphasizing integrated pest management. Focus was on whether program participation improved yields and reduced pesticide use among graduates and neighbors who gained knowledge through informal communications. It used a modified…

  11. SU-E-T-431: Vertically-Oriented Farmer-Type Chamber for Small-Field Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Ahmad, M; Chu, A; Lincoln, H; Chen, Z; Deng, J; Nath, R

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To introduce a non-conventional measurement setup using Farmer-type chambers to accommodate several situations of small-field dose measurements without compromising accuracy. The validation of this technique was demonstrated for photon small-field output measurements, and electron small-field percentage depth-dose (PDD) measurements. Methods: Initial chamber alignment was performed using the conventional (horizontally-oriented) chamber setup. A PDD was acquired for a 4×4 cm{sup 2} field size using this arrangement. This PDD was used as a positional reference for the vertically-oriented chamber (VOC) configuration. Next, a PDD was acquired for a 4×4 cm{sup 2} field size with the VOC. The PDD's were superimposed to find the effective shift of the VOC. Using the shifted VOC setup, photon small-field output factors were measured and compared to stereotactic diode output factor measurements. Additionally, electron smallfield PDD's were acquired using the VOC setup and results were compared to electron Monte Carlo (eMC) predictions in the Eclipse treatment planning system (TPS). Results: (1) For photon small-field output factors field-sizes 2×2 cm{sup 2} and larger, the difference between the VOC setup and SFD measurements were less than 0.8%. For field sizes less than 2×2 cm{sup 2} discrepancies ranged from 4.0 to 10.6%. (2) PDD's measured by VOC setup show better than 1.6% agreement as compared to eMC for all electron energies measured down to the 80% depth on the 2×2 cm{sup 2} PDD curve. Disagreement between the VOC setup measurement and eMC calculations for depths down to the 50% depth on the PDD curve is 3.6% or less. Conclusion: Using the VOC setup, it is possible to use a conventional farmer chamber for small field-size measurements down to 2×2 cm{sup 2} field size without sacrificing the accuracy of measurements.

  12. Classroom Oriented Research in Second Language Acquisition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seliger, Herbert W., Ed.; Long, Michael H., Ed.

    A collection of works concerning classroom research methodology, learner strategies and variables, teacher speech, teacher and learner feedback, and second language classroom communication has been compiled. It includes: "What Is Classroom Oriented Research?" (Herbert W. Seliger and Michael H. Long); "Inside the 'Black Box': Methodological Issues…

  13. Well-Being Is a Process of Becoming: Respondent-Led Research with Organic Farmers in Madagascar

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farnworth, Cathy Rozel

    2009-01-01

    Malagasy "players"--farmers, middle men, organic organisations and policy makers--see in export-orientated organic agriculture a way for Madagascar to build upon its historic export strengths: spices, essential oils, medicinal plants and tropical fruits. They point to the "de facto" organic status of most farming in the country…

  14. Rural Life and Farmer Attitudes: An Ohio Survey. Research Circular 260.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Napier, Ted L.; And Others

    Using the mailing list of the "Ohio Farmer," a 1979 mail survey assessed attitudes toward land use controls, pollution, and farm living, and examined various agricultural practices of Ohio's farmers (N=623). Farmers were found to have extensive agricultural training in the form of farm work experiences, as well as formal agricultural…

  15. Review of the nutritional implications of farmers' markets and community gardens: a call for evaluation and research efforts.

    PubMed

    McCormack, Lacey Arneson; Laska, Melissa Nelson; Larson, Nicole I; Story, Mary

    2010-03-01

    The development and promotion of farmers' markets and community gardens is growing in popularity as a strategy to increase community-wide fruit and vegetable consumption. Despite large numbers of farmers' markets and community gardens in the United States, as well as widespread enthusiasm for their use as a health promotion tool, little is known about their influence on dietary intake. This review examines the current scientific literature on the implications of farmers' market programs and community gardens on nutrition-related outcomes in adults. Studies published between January 1980 and January 2009 were identified via PubMed and Agricola database searches and by examining reference lists from relevant studies. Studies were included in this review if they took place in the United States and qualitatively or quantitatively examined nutrition-related outcomes, including dietary intake; attitudes and beliefs regarding buying, preparing, or eating fruits and vegetables; and behaviors and perceptions related to obtaining produce from a farmers' market or community garden. Studies focusing on garden-based youth programs were excluded. In total, 16 studies were identified for inclusion in this review. Seven studies focused on the impact of farmers' market nutrition programs for Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children participants, five focused on the influence of farmers' market programs for seniors, and four focused on community gardens. Findings from this review reveal that few well-designed research studies (eg, those incorporating control groups) utilizing valid and reliable dietary assessment methods to evaluate the influence of farmers' markets and community gardens on nutrition-related outcomes have been completed. Recommendations for future research on the dietary influences of farmers' markets and community gardens are provided.

  16. Interdisciplinary communication of infectious disease research - translating complex epidemiological findings into understandable messages for village chicken farmers in Myanmar.

    PubMed

    Henning, Joerg; Hla, Than; Meers, Joanne

    2014-01-01

    Improvement in animal disease control and prevention is dependent on several factors including farmers' uptake of new technologies and skills, particularly in developing countries. Extension is the means by which information about these technologies and skills is delivered to farmers, in order that they can use this knowledge to improve farming practices and their quality of life. This implies a shift from traditional methods to new science-based methods of production. However, in many developing countries farmers are illiterate and unable to understand written outcomes of scientific research. This paper summarizes approaches to communicate epidemiological findings and reports on experiences obtained from a research project in Myanmar, where results from epidemiological field investigations and intervention studies were 'translated' in an understandable manner to village communities. Rural chicken farmers were the central focus of this extension work and simple and sustainable methods to improve the health and production of scavenging chicken flocks were promoted. Unique extension materials transformed scientific outputs published in international journals into clear pictographic messages comprehendible by villagers, while maintaining country-specific, traditional, religious and public perspectives. Benefits, difficulties and pitfalls in using extension methods to communicate advice on preventive veterinary medicine measures in different cross-cultural settings are discussed and guidelines on how to distribute epidemiological research results to illiterate farmers are provided.

  17. Effect of Participatory Research on Farmers' Knowledge and Practice of IPM: The Case of Cotton in Benin

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Togbé, Codjo Euloge; Haagsma, Rein; Aoudji, Augustin K. N.; Vodouhê, Simplice D.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This study assesses the effect of participatory research on farmers' knowledge and practice of Integrated Pest Management (IPM) in Benin. The participatory field experiments were carried out during the 2011-2012 cotton growing season, and focused on the development and application of pest management knowledge. Methodology: A…

  18. Public-Private Policy Change and Its Influence on the Linkage of Agricultural Research, Extension and Farmers in Iran

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karamidehkordi, Esmail

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: This article aims to show the linkage of Iranian agricultural research centres with extension and farmers, using three case studies in 1999, 2005 and 2010. Design/methodology/approach: The data were collected through document analyses, structured and semi-structured interviews and observations. Findings: The 1999 and 2005 cases were…

  19. Community-oriented support and research structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Attig, Norbert; Eickermann, Thomas; Gibbon, Paul; Lippert, Thomas

    2009-07-01

    Coordinated by the Partnership for Advanced Computing in Europe (PRACE) Europe is restructuring and strengthening its high-performance computing infrastructure with the aim to create a model HPC ecosystem. At the tip of the pyramid, up to six centres are envisaged that will operate systems of the highest performance class. The HPC Research Infrastructure (HPC-RI) will comprise European, national and regional centres. Science communities are integral partners, strong links will include Grid and Cloud users. The HPC-RI strives at providing scientists all over Europe, on the one hand, with unlimited and independent access to state-of-the-art computer resources in all performance classes and, on the other hand, with a world-class pan-European competence and support network. While the hardware-oriented buildup of the infrastructure is making progress, high-quality user support and software development in the upcoming era of unprecedented parallelism and exascale on the horizon have become the imminent challenges. This has been clearly recognized by the European Commission, who will issue calls for proposals to fund petascale software development in summer 2009. Although traditional support structures are well established in Europe's major supercomputing centres, it is questionable if these structures are able to meet the challenges of the future: in general, support structures are based on cross-disciplinary computer science and mathematics teams; disciplinary computational science support usually is given in an ad-hoc, project-oriented manner. In this paper, we describe our approach to establish a suitable support structure-Simulation Laboratories (SL). SLs are currently being established at the Jülich Supercomputing Centre of the Forschungszentrum Jülich (FZJ) and at the Steinbuch Centre for Computing (SCC) of the Karlsruhe Institute for Technology (KIT) in Germany. While SLs are community-oriented, i.e. each SL focusses on a specific community, they are structured

  20. Brain research, gender and sexual orientation.

    PubMed

    Swaab, D F; Gooren, L J; Hofman, M A

    1995-01-01

    Recent brain research has revealed structural differences in the hypothalamus in relation to biological sex and sexual orientation. Differences in size and cell number of various nuclei in the hypothalamus for homosexual versus heterosexual men have recently been reported in two studies. We have found that a cluster of cells in the preoptic area of the human hypothalamus contains about twice as many cells in young adult men as in women. We have called this cluster the sexually dimorphic nucleus (SDN). The magnitude of the difference is the SDN depends on age. In other human research, two other hypothalamic nuclei (interstitial nuclei of the anterior hypothalamus [INAH] 2 and 3) and part of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BST) have been reported to be sexually dimorphic in the human. Sexual differentiation to the human brain takes place much later than originally claimed. At birth the SDN contains only some 20% of the cells found at 2 to 4 years of age. The cell number rapidly increases in boys and girls at the same rate until 2 to 4 years of age. After that age period, a decrease in cell number takes place in girls, but not in boys. This causes the sexual differentiation of the SDN. This postnatal period of hypothalamic differentiation indicates that, in addition to genetic factors, a multitude of environmental and psychosocial factors may have profound influence on the sexual differentiation of the brain. No difference in SDN cell number was observed between homosexual and heterosexual men. This finding refutes Dörner's hypothesis that homosexual males have a "female" hypothalamus. However, in a sample of brains of homosexual men we did find that an area of the hypothalamus called the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) contains twice as many cells as the SCN of a heterosexual group. A recent report by LeVay claims that another nucleus, INAH-3, is more than twice as large in heterosexual as in homosexual men, whereas Allen and Gorski found that the anterior

  1. Research oriented MSc course on solar eruptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vainio, Rami; Heber, Bernd; Agueda, Neus; Kilpua, Emilia; Isavnin, Alexey; Afanasiev, Alexandr; Ganse, Urs; Koskinen, Hannu E. J.

    2014-05-01

    Department of Physics, University of Helsinki, organized a five-credit-point Master-level course on "Solar Eruptions and Space Environment" in spring 2013. The course, attended by nine students, included twenty hours of introductory lectures on solar eruptive phenomena (focusing on energetic particle emissions) as well as experimental and theoretical methods to analyze them. In addition, the course contained ten hours of exercise sessions, where solutions on short calculation exercises were presented and discussed. The main learning method on the course was, however, a coordinated scientific analysis of five solar eruptions observed by the STEREO spacecraft in 2010-2011. The students were grouped in four teams to study the solar eruptive events from four different view points: (1) Analysis of morphology and kinematics of coronal mass ejections, (2) analysis of EUV imaging observations of coronal wave-like transients, (3) solar and interplanetary magnetic field conditions during the eruptions, and (4) emission and transport modelling of near-relativistic electron events associated with the eruptions. Each group of students was assigned a scientist to oversee their work. The students reported weekly on their progress and gave a final presentation (of 30 minutes) in a seminar session at the end of the seven-week course. Grading of the course was based on the home exercises and final presentations. Students were also asked to give anonymous feedback on the course. Learning results on the course were very encouraging, showing that research oriented courses with practical research exercises on specific topics give students deeper knowledge and more practical skills than traditional lectures and home exercises alone.

  2. System Oriented Runway Management: A Research Update

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lohr, Gary W.; Brown, Sherilyn A.; Stough, Harry P., III; Eisenhawer, Steve; Atkins, Stephen; Long, Dou

    2011-01-01

    The runway configuration used by an airport has significant implications with respect to its capacity and ability to effectively manage surface and airborne traffic. Aircraft operators rely on runway configuration information because it can significantly affect an airline's operations and planning of their resources. Current practices in runway management are limited by a relatively short time horizon for reliable weather information and little assistance from automation. Wind velocity is the primary consideration when selecting a runway configuration; however when winds are below a defined threshold, discretion may be used to determine the configuration. Other considerations relevant to runway configuration selection include airport operator constraints, weather conditions (other than winds) traffic demand, user preferences, surface congestion, and navigational system outages. The future offers an increasingly complex landscape for the runway management process. Concepts and technologies that hold the potential for capacity and efficiency increases for both operations on the airport surface and in terminal and enroute airspace are currently under investigation. Complementary advances in runway management are required if capacity and efficiency increases in those areas are to be realized. The System Oriented Runway Management (SORM) concept has been developed to address this critical part of the traffic flow process. The SORM concept was developed to address all aspects of runway management for airports of varying sizes and to accommodate a myriad of traffic mixes. SORM, to date, addresses the single airport environment; however, the longer term vision is to incorporate capabilities for multiple airport (Metroplex) operations as well as to accommodate advances in capabilities resulting from ongoing research. This paper provides an update of research supporting the SORM concept including the following: a concept of overview, results of a TRCM simulation, single

  3. Managing the Teaching-Research Nexus: Ideals and Practice in Research-Oriented Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geschwind, Lars; Broström, Anders

    2015-01-01

    This paper demonstrates that while ideals of close linkages between research and teaching are widely embraced in research-oriented universities, a practice of division of labour between teaching-oriented and research-oriented staff persists. In an investigation of how the research-teaching nexus is managed at three Swedish universities, we…

  4. Abortion and the ethics of genetic sexual orientation research.

    PubMed

    Murphy, T F

    1995-01-01

    Research is being conducted to determine whether there is a genetic basis for homoerotic sexual orientation in adults. Reports indicate that such a basis may exist. Some homosexual men and women have welcomed the possibility of biological confirmation of their sexual orientation and subsequent behavior. If human sexual orientation were proven to be genetically determined, many homosexuals would not feel compelled to justify their sexuality. One would simply be born either homosexual or heterosexual. Others, however, worry that the ability to identify homosexuality through genetic markers may be used prejudicially against homosexuals. German sexologist Gunter Schmidt has argued that since society has yet to fully accept homosexuals and homosexuality, research into the possible causes of homosexuality is potentially dangerous to gay men and women. In the same vein, gay studies scholar David Halperin argues that the search for a scientific etiology of sexual orientation is a homophobic venture which should be clearly seen as such. Considerable concern therefore exists that sexual orientation research may lead to genocide against homosexuals through the practice of selective abortion on the basis of a fetus's genetically identified sexual orientation. The author, however, is skeptical that a simple genetic test is on the horizon which is capable of determining an individual's sexual orientation, and were such a test available, that it would necessarily be used only to the detriment of homosexuals. He does acknowledge that such a test could be used prejudicially with regard to access to employment, insurance, and other social goods, but it nonetheless remains unjustified to completely forbid genetic sexual orientation research. A sexual orientation test and abortion, and the ethics of sexual orientation research are discussed.

  5. Research Methodology of Family-Oriented Care

    PubMed Central

    Ransom, Donald C.

    1991-01-01

    Family practice and family-centered primary care have a special role in studying the family. A framework for conceptualizing research on families and health, illness, and care is presented. The author discusses ways in which families can influence the health of their members, current controversies about what family means, the logic of family research measurements, whether family research is warranted, and the question of variable-versus case- (person- versus family-) centered research design and analysis. PMID:21229057

  6. Impact of Research Orientation on Attitudes toward Research of Social Work Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolin, Brien L.; Lee, Kyoung Hag; GlenMaye, Linnea F.; Yoon, Dong Pil

    2012-01-01

    This study explored the relationship between orientation to research and attitudes toward research among social work students. Orientation included the students' beliefs regarding the importance of research, the usefulness of research, and its validity. Attitude included the student's research anxiety and interest. Surveys were administered to 283…

  7. Teaching Consumer-Oriented Ethnographic Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Andrew D.; Wu, Lan

    2012-01-01

    Despite an increasing demand for marketing researchers familiar with ethnographic methods, ethnographic consumer research has received little coverage in current marketing curricula. The innovation discussed in the present paper addresses this problem: it introduces the notion of "cultural relativism" and gives students hands-on experience in…

  8. Mountain treelines: A roadmap for research orientation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Malanson, George P.; Resler, Lynn M.; Bader, Maaike Y.; Holtmeier, Fredrich-Karl; Butler, David R.; Weiss, Daniel J.; Daniels, Lori D.; Fagre, Daniel B.

    2011-01-01

    For over 100 years, mountain treelines have been the subject of varied research endeavors and remain a strong area of investigation. The purpose of this paper is to examine aspects of the epistemology of mountain treeline research-that is, to investigate how knowledge on treelines has been acquired and the changes in knowledge acquisition over time, through a review of fundamental questions and approaches. The questions treeline researchers have raised and continue to raise have undoubtedly directed the current state of knowledge. A continuing, fundamental emphasis has centered on seeking the general cause of mountain treelines, thus seeking an answer to the question, "What causes treeline?" with a primary emphasis on searching for ecophysiological mechanisms of low-temperature limitation for tree growth and regeneration. However, treeline research today also includes a rich literature that seeks local, landscape-scale causes of treelines and reasons why treelines vary so widely in three-dimensional patterns from one location to the next, and this approach and some of its consequences are elaborated here. In recent years, both lines of research have been motivated greatly by global climate change. Given the current state of knowledge, we propose that future research directions focused on a spatial approach should specifically address cross-scale hypotheses using statistics and simulations designed for nested hierarchies; these analyses will benefit from geographic extension of treeline research.

  9. Practitioner-Oriented Research as a Tool for Professional Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johansson, Inge; Sandberg, Anette; Vuorinen, Tuula

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse how a model for practitioner-oriented research can be used as a tool for professional development in the preschool. The focus of interest is the type of knowledge that is formed when researchers and preschool staff cooperate on local projects, and what this new knowledge means for the images of professional…

  10. Teaching Research Methodologies to Professionally Oriented Honors Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levinson, Julie; Mandel, Richard

    2013-01-01

    The benefits of encouraging undergraduate students to pursue independent research have been well documented (Craney; Guterman; Hathaway et al.; Ishiyama; Kremer and Bringle; Volkwein and Carbone). Introducing students to research processes and protocols is always a challenge, particularly for students enrolled in professionally oriented,…

  11. The ethics of genetic research on sexual orientation.

    PubMed

    Schüklenk, U; Stein, E; Kerin, J; Byne, W

    1997-01-01

    Research into the genetic component of some complex behaviors often causes controversy, depending on the social meaning and significance of the behavior under study. Research into sexual orientation-simplistically referred to as "gay gene" research-is an example of research that provokes intense controversy. This research is worrisome for many reasons, including the fact that it has been used to harm lesbians and gay men. Many homosexual people have been forced to undergo "treatments" to change their sexual orientation. Other chose to undergo them to escape discrimination and social disapprobation. But there are other reasons to worry about such research. The very motivation for seeking an "origin" of homosexuality reveals homophobia. Moreover, such research may lead to prenatal tests that claim to predict for homosexuality. For homosexual people who live in countries with no legal protections these dangers are particularly serious.

  12. An agriculture and health inter-sectorial research process to reduce hazardous pesticide health impacts among smallholder farmers in the Andes

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The use of highly hazardous pesticides by smallholder farmers constitutes a classic trans-sectoral ‘wicked problem’. We share our program of research in potato and vegetable farming communities in the Andean highlands, working with partners from multiple sectors to confront this problem over several projects. Methods We engaged in iterative cycles of mixed methods research around particular questions, actions relevant to stakeholders, new proposal formulation and implementation followed by evaluation of impacts. Capacity building occurred among farmers, technical personnel, and students from multiple disciplines. Involvement of research users occurred throughout: women and men farmers, non-governmental development organizations, Ministries of Health and Agriculture, and, in Ecuador, the National Council on Social Participation. Results Pesticide poisonings were more widespread than existing passive surveillance systems would suggest. More diversified, moderately developed agricultural systems had lower pesticide use and better child nutrition. Greater understanding among women of crop management options and more equal household gender relations were associated with reduced farm pesticide use and household pesticide exposure. Involvement in more organic agriculture was associated with greater household food security and food sovereignty. Markets for safer produce supported efforts by smallholder farmers to reduce hazardous pesticide use. Participatory interventions included: promoting greater access to alternative methods and inputs in a store co-sponsored by the municipality; producing less harmful inputs such as compost by women farmers; strengthening farmer organizations around healthier and more sustainable agriculture; marketing safer produce among social sectors; empowering farmers to act as social monitors; and using social monitoring results to inform decision makers. Uptake by policy makers has included: the Ecuadorian Ministry of Health

  13. Control of research oriented software development

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, L.C.; Dronkers, J.J.; Pitsker, B.

    1985-12-01

    The Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 directs the Department of Energy (DOE) to dispose permanently high level radioactive waste and civilian spent nuclear fuel by January 31, 1998. DOE has responded by creating an organizational structure that directs all the activities necessary to carry out the legislative demands. LLNL is conducting research in the earth sciences and is developing some unique computer codes to help establish the feasibility of geologic repositories for nuclear waste. LLNL has several codes under development. This paper examines the administrative and organizational measures that were and still are being undertaken in order to control the development of the two major codes. In the case of one code, the software quality assurance requirements were imposed five years after the code began its development. This required a retroactive application of requirements. The other code is still in the conceptual stages of development and here requirements can be applied as soon as the initial code design begins. Both codes are being developed by scientists, not computer programmers, and both are modeling codes, not data acquisition and reduction codes. Also the projects for which these codes are being developed have slightly different software quality assurance requirements. All these factors contribute unique difficulties in attempts to assure that the development not only results in a reliable prediction, but that whatever the reliability, it can be objectively shown to exist. The paper will examine a software management model. It will also discuss the reasons why it is felt that this particular model would stand a reasonable chance for success. The paper will then describe the way in which the model should be integrated into the existing management configuration and tradition.

  14. Scaling-up Sustainable Land Management Practices through the Concept of the Rural Resource Centre: Reconciling Farmers' Interests with Research Agendas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Takoutsing, Bertin; Tchoundjeu, Zacharie; Degrande, Ann; Asaah, Ebenezar; Tsobeng, Alain

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Formal agricultural research has generated vast amount of knowledge and fundamental insights on land management, but their low adoption has been attributed to the use of public extension approach. This research aims to address whether and how full participation of farmers through the concept of Rural Resource Centre (RRC) provides new…

  15. Research on Sexual Orientation and Human Development: A Commentary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strickland, Bonnie R.

    1995-01-01

    Reviews the evolution of research over the past 25 years on sexual orientation and its effects on human development, concluding that gay and lesbian interests and behavior appear to result from a complex interplay of genetic, prenatal, and environmental influences. Notes that gender identity develops early, especially for males, and is difficult…

  16. Philosophical Analysis, Research on Teaching, and Aim-Oriented Empiricism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Popp, Jerome A.

    1980-01-01

    An attempt is made at providing cohesion and structure for a range of disparate activities and examining their interrelationships. Among concepts considered are: (1) the relationship of philosophic analysis in education; (2) the nature of pedagogical research; (3) the process-product paradigm; (4) aim-oriented empiricism; (5) the reduction thesis;…

  17. Research on farmers' objectives for tree breeding. Report of a workshop following a regional study in Asia

    SciTech Connect

    Raintree, J.B.; Taylor, D.A.

    1991-09-01

    In 1989, a study of farmers' tree breeding objectives was carried out in 31 villages in 7 countries of Asia. These conference proceedings contain discussion of the study's findings and its methodology and recommendations for follow-up activities. The primary aim of the study was to describe 'ideotypes' (plant models designed to yield products of greater quality and quantity than a conventional cultivar or wild plant) of multipurpose trees desired by farmer respondents. The study's main conclusion is that farmers' tree-breeding objectives can be elicited by the methodology used, and factors related to local situations. Recommended follow-up activities include: (1) consultation which extends beyond farmers to include other interest groups within the community; and (2) a small-scale study of processes by which farmers improve trees, with consideration of a larger scale study if warranted. Individual reports discuss tree breeding in Thailand, Sri Lanka, Indonesia, the Philippines, and Nepal.

  18. Bio-Nanotechnology Infrastructure and Technology Oriented Research

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-07-17

    1 TO: TECHNICALREPORTS@AFOSR.AF.MIL HAROLD.WEINSTOCK@AFOSR.AF.MIL SUBJECT: FINAL PERFORMANCE REPORT TO Dr. Harold Weinstock, Program Director...CONTRACT NUMBER BIO-NANOTECHNOLOGY INFRASTRUCTURE AND TECHNOLOGY ORIENTED RESEARCH 5b. GRANT NUMBER FA9550-05-1-0232 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT...NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Kinzy Jones 5d. PROJECT NUMBER Florida International University ADVANCED MATERIALS ENGINEERING RESERACH INSTITUTE 5e

  19. LSST Astroinformatics And Astrostatistics: Data-oriented Astronomical Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borne, Kirk D.; Stassun, K.; Brunner, R. J.; Djorgovski, S. G.; Graham, M.; Hakkila, J.; Mahabal, A.; Paegert, M.; Pesenson, M.; Ptak, A.; Scargle, J.; Informatics, LSST; Statistics Team

    2011-01-01

    The LSST Informatics and Statistics Science Collaboration (ISSC) focuses on research and scientific discovery challenges posed by the very large and complex data collection that LSST will generate. Application areas include astroinformatics, machine learning, data mining, astrostatistics, visualization, scientific data semantics, time series analysis, and advanced signal processing. Research problems to be addressed with these methodologies include transient event characterization and classification, rare class discovery, correlation mining, outlier/anomaly/surprise detection, improved estimators (e.g., for photometric redshift or early onset supernova classification), exploration of highly dimensional (multivariate) data catalogs, and more. We present sample science results from these data-oriented approaches to large-data astronomical research. We present results from LSST ISSC team members, including the EB (Eclipsing Binary) Factory, the environmental variations in the fundamental plane of elliptical galaxies, and outlier detection in multivariate catalogs.

  20. Embedding a Recovery Orientation into Neuroscience Research: Involving People with a Lived Experience in Research Activity.

    PubMed

    Stratford, Anthony; Brophy, Lisa; Castle, David; Harvey, Carol; Robertson, Joanne; Corlett, Philip; Davidson, Larry; Everall, Ian

    2016-03-01

    This paper highlights the importance and value of involving people with a lived experience of mental ill health and recovery in neuroscience research activity. In this era of recovery oriented service delivery, involving people with the lived experience of mental illness in neuroscience research extends beyond their participation as "subjects". The recovery paradigm reconceptualises people with the lived experience of mental ill health as experts by experience. To support this contribution, local policies and procedures, recovery-oriented training for neuroscience researchers, and dialogue about the practical applications of neuroscience research, are required.

  1. Farmer, Agent, and Specialist Perspectives on Preferences for Learning among Today's Farmers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franz, Nancy K.; Piercy, Fred; Donaldson, Joseph; Westbrook, Johnnie; Richard, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Few studies have examined the types of educational delivery methods preferred by farmers (Eckert & Bell, 2005; Eckert & Bell, 2006). The research project reported here explored the preferred learning methods of farmers in Louisiana, Tennessee, and Virginia. Data on learning methods collected directly from farmers were compared with…

  2. Suicide and Sexual Orientation: A Critical Summary of Recent Research and Directions for Future Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muehrer, Peter

    1995-01-01

    Research on the hypothesized relationship between sexual orientation and suicide is limited. National or statewide data on frequency and causes of completed suicide in gay and lesbian people do not exist. Methodological limitations in research literature include lack of consensus on definition of key terms, nonrepresentative samples, and lack of…

  3. An Investigation into the Socio-Psychological Determinants of Farmers' Conservation Decisions: Method and Implications for Policy, Extension and Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wauters, E.; Mathijs, E.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this article is to present and apply a method to investigate farmers' socio-psychological determinants of conservation practice adoption, as an aid in extension, policy and conservation practice design. Design/methodology/approach: We use a sequential mixed method, starting with qualitative semi-structured interviews (n = 24),…

  4. Assessing the Educational and Financial Needs of Small-Scale Dairy Farmers in Socopo, Venezuela. Summary of Research 64.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nieto, Ruben D.; Henderson, Janet L.

    The process of transferring agricultural technology in many countries was studied to determine the perceived educational and financial needs of small-scale dairy farmers in Socopo, Venezuela. The following data were collected: (1) demographic characteristics--age, educational level, farm size, number of lactating cows, dairy farming experience,…

  5. Methods in Second Language Classroom-Oriented Research: A Critical Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nunan, David

    1991-01-01

    Analysis of 50 empirical classroom-oriented investigations of second-language learning concludes that there is a need for more contextualized research; extended theoretical bases of research; an extended range of research tools, techniques, and methods; reevaluation of the distinctions between process- and product-oriented research; and more…

  6. The State of Knowledge of Outdoor Orientation Programs: Current Practices, Research, and Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Brent J.; Gass, Michael A.; Nafziger, Christopher S.; Starbuck, J. David

    2014-01-01

    Outdoor orientation programs represent a prominent area of experiential education with over 25,000 participants annually. More than 191 outdoor orientation programs currently operate in the United States and Canada. The research examining outdoor orientation programs consists of 25 peer-reviewed published studies and 11 dissertations. A new theory…

  7. Farmers Insures Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freifeld, Lorri

    2012-01-01

    Farmers Insurance claims the No. 2 spot on the Training Top 125 with a forward-thinking training strategy linked to its primary mission: FarmersFuture 2020. It's not surprising an insurance company would have an insurance policy for the future. But Farmers takes that strategy one step further, setting its sights on 2020 with a far-reaching plan to…

  8. Social Network Structures among Groundnut Farmers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thuo, Mary; Bell, Alexandra A.; Bravo-Ureta, Boris E.; Okello, David K.; Okoko, Evelyn Nasambu; Kidula, Nelson L.; Deom, C. Michael; Puppala, Naveen

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Groundnut farmers in East Africa have experienced declines in production despite research and extension efforts to increase productivity. This study examined how social network structures related to acquisition of information about new seed varieties and productivity among groundnut farmers in Uganda and Kenya.…

  9. Researches on High Accuracy Prediction Methods of Earth Orientation Parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, X. Q.

    2015-09-01

    respectively, which are used to improve/re-evaluate the AR model. Comparing to the single AR model, the AR+Kalman method performs better in the prediction of UT1-UTC and ΔLOD, and the improvement in the prediction of the polar motion is significant. (3) Following the successful Earth Orientation Parameter Prediction Comparison Campaign (EOP PCC), the Earth Orientation Parameter Combination of Prediction Pilot Project (EOPC PPP) was sponsored in 2010. As one of the participants from China, we update and submit the short- and medium-term (1 to 90 days) EOP predictions every day. From the current comparative statistics, our prediction accuracy is on the medium international level. We will carry out more innovative researches to improve the EOP forecast accuracy and enhance our level in EOP forecast.

  10. Linking birds, fields and farmers.

    PubMed

    Swagemakers, Paul; Wiskerke, Han; Van Der Ploeg, Jan Douwe

    2009-05-01

    The dramatic decline in the presence of farmland birds during recent decades has provoked much attention in agri-environmental policy and ecological research. However, the still limited understanding of the socio-economical mechanisms that govern the decline in bird presence hampers the formulation of effective adjustments in land-use and farming practices that could support the return of birds to farmland, i.e. the required fine-tuning of management practices. As a consequence, the existing agri-environmental schemes that offer financial compensation to farmers for implementing generally simple and rather crude measures to stimulate the presence of birds have been limited in their effectiveness and subject to much debate. The objective of this paper is to provide a sociological appraisal of farmers' experiences with meadow bird protection in a mainly dairy farming area in the Netherlands. The methodology combined visual map analysis, surveys, interviews with farmers and experts, and monitoring farmers' discussions. The results allowed an assessment of (i) farmers' views on historical changes in bird numbers in the area and the current distribution of bird nests, (ii) locally adjusted, fine-tuned management practices that were considered to be promising for protecting bird nests, (iii) the importance of farm management with 'an eye for birds', i.e. farmers and/or birdwatchers paying additional attention to the presence of nests and chicks before carrying out farming activities, and (iv) the views of key experts in the socio-institutional network in the case study area. The paper concludes that there are various promising options for fine-tuning farm management so it offers better bird protection, but it is expected that such measures will predominantly be adopted on less intensively managed farms.

  11. Research Information Needs of Public Policy Oriented Researchers at a Regional University: Issues Emerging from a Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Faye

    2008-01-01

    This article presents the results of a pilot study of the research information needs, behaviour and source preferences of academic researchers at a regional university engaged in a public policy research project. In-depth interviews with three public policy oriented academic researchers undertaking interdisciplinary research projects at Charles…

  12. Organic dairy farmers put more emphasis on production traits than conventional farmers.

    PubMed

    Slagboom, M; Kargo, M; Edwards, D; Sørensen, A C; Thomasen, J R; Hjortø, L

    2016-12-01

    The overall aim of this research was to characterize the preferences of Danish dairy farmers for improvements in breeding goal traits. The specific aims were (1) to investigate the presence of heterogeneity in farmers' preferences by means of cluster analysis, and (2) to associate these clusters with herd characteristics and production systems (organic or conventional). We established a web-based survey to characterize the preferences of farmers for improvements in 10 traits, by means of pairwise rankings. We also collected a considerable number of herd characteristics. Overall, 106 organic farmers and 290 conventional farmers answered the survey, all with Holstein cows. The most preferred trait improvement was cow fertility, and the least preferred was calving difficulty. By means of cluster analysis, we identified 4 distinct clusters of farmers and named them according to the trait improvements that were most preferred: Health and Fertility, Production and Udder Health, Survival, and Fertility and Production. Some herd characteristics differed between clusters; for example, farmers in the Survival cluster had twice the percentage of dead cows in their herds compared with the other clusters, and farmers that gave the highest ranking to cow and heifer fertility had the lowest conception rate in their herds. This finding suggests that farmers prefer to improve traits that are more problematic in their herd. The proportion of organic and conventional farmers also differed between clusters; we found a higher proportion of organic farmers in the production-based clusters. When we analyzed organic and conventional data separately, we found that organic farmers ranked production traits higher than conventional farmers. The herds of organic farmers had lower milk yields and lower disease incidences, which might explain the high ranking of milk production and the low ranking of disease traits. This study shows that heterogeneity exists in farmers' preferences for

  13. Recent Trends and Future Directions of Research in Orienteering.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seiler, Roland

    1994-01-01

    Analyzes 220 documents on orienteering published 1984-94. Discusses publication numbers and types and content characteristics in the areas of psychological aspects, physiological demands, sports medicine and health aspects, psychological-physiological interactions, training and coaching, school programs for children and teaching manuals,…

  14. [Research on the orientedly immobilized urease via concanavalin A].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jianqin; Chen, Shaohua; Wang, Jianwen

    2008-04-01

    Concanavalin A (ConA) is immobilized on a pre-activated chitosan microspheres, and then oriented immobilization of urease is carried out based on the strong interaction between ConA and glycoprotein. The optimum immobilization conditions are as follows: glutaraldehyde concentration is 3.5%, ConA concentration 1 mg/mL, ConA pH 7.0 and urease concentration 0.4 mg/mL. For orientedly immobilized urease, the highest activity was allowed at pH 5.0-6.0 and temperature 77 degrees C, and the Michaelis constant (Km) was disclosed to be 11.76 mmol/L by Lineweaver-Burk plot. Compared with the free urease and the randomly immobilized urease, the optimum pH of the orientedly immobilized urease becomes smaller and the pH domain wider. Orientedly immobilized urease presents higher temperature resistance, higher affinity to the substrate, and higher stability of operation.

  15. Different Types of Sensation Seeking: A Person-Oriented Approach in Sensation-Seeking Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suranyi, Zsuzsanna; Hitchcock, David B.; Hittner, James B.; Vargha, Andras; Urban, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Previous research on sensation seeking (SS) was dominated by a variable-oriented approach indicating that SS level has a linear relation with a host of problem behaviors. Our aim was to provide a person-oriented methodology--a probabilistic clustering--that enables examination of both inter- and intra-individual differences in not only the level,…

  16. Retrieval-oriented design of clinical research forms.

    PubMed

    Gall, W; Eigenbauer, E; Rasoul-Rockenschaub, S

    2001-07-01

    Computerized clinical forms are subject to a wide variety of different requirements. They have to allow detailed documentation and must be user-friendly. State-of-the-art applications for design permit clinicians themselves to create their own forms as needed, with the various variables presented in different ways depending on their intended use. Often, however, only aspects of clinical documentation are considered, with no thought being given to subsequent data retrieval. This article presents guidelines for the retrieval-oriented design of clinical forms. It discusses where anticipatory measures for structuring forms are easier to accomplish than complex data linkage at the time of retrieval and analysis.

  17. A Selective Critique of Animal Experiments in Human-Orientated Biological Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webb, G. P.

    1990-01-01

    The advantages and justifications for using small animals in human-oriented research are reviewed. Some of the pitfalls of extrapolating animal-derived data to humans are discussed. Several specific problems with animal experimentation are highlighted. (CW)

  18. Measuring the Quality of Mission-Oriented Research

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-02-01

    improve research performance. A peer reviewed objective- dependent (PROD) evaluation system is proposed to cater for the broad spectrum of research...to quantify research quality using the bibliometrics method, in which the ratings are determined through peer reviewing . This quality assessment

  19. NASULGC Council on Extension, Committee on Program Innovation and Action Oriented Research; 1968 Report. Part 1. Program Innovations. Part 2. Action Oriented Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association of State Universities and Land Grant Colleges, Washington, DC.

    This report on extension activities of member institutions of the National Association of State Universities and Land Grant Colleges describes 91 program innovations and action oriented research activities. Objectives, sponsorship, program evaluations, and other data are cited for program innovations in such areas as continuing medical education,…

  20. The National Shipbuilding Research Program, Zone-Oriented Drawings For Life Cycle Management

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-09-01

    types in order to best meet the needs of the life cycle management process. The report also identifies the need for System Diagrams to be main- tained...September 1988 NSRP Report 0286 THE NATIONAL SHIPBUILDING RESEARCH PROGRAM Zone-Oriented Drawings For Life Cycle Management U.S. DEPARTMENT OF...TITLE AND SUBTITLE The National Shipbuilding Research Program, Zone-Oriented Drawings For Life Cycle Management 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER

  1. Use of Bennett's Hierarchical Model in the Evaluation of the Extension Education Program for Cacao Farmers in the Northeast Region of the Dominican Republic. Summary of Research 54.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De los Santos, Saturnino; Norland, Emmalou Van Tilburg

    A study evaluated the cacao farmer training program in the Dominican Republic by testing hypothesized relationships among reactions, knowledge and skills, attitudes, aspirations, and some selected demographic characteristics of farmers who attended programs. Bennett's hierarchical model of program evaluation was used as the framework of the study.…

  2. Recent Developments in Motivational Orientation Research: A Rejoinder.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boshier, Roger

    1990-01-01

    Refutes MacLean's critique of two instruments: the Education Participation Scale and the Personality and Educational Environment Scale. Major arguments center on sample size, predictive validity, reliability, deficiency and growth motivation, research methodology, and inclusion of up-to-date research. (39 references) (SK)

  3. Agroecology Education: Action-Oriented Learning and Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lieblein, Geir; Breland, Tor Arvid; Francis, Charles; Ostergaard, Edvin

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This article examines and evaluates the potential contributions from action learning and action research with stakeholders to higher education in agriculture and food systems. Design/Methodology/Approach: The research is based on our experiences over the past two decades of running PhD courses and an MSc degree programme in Agroecology in…

  4. Research Challenges and Opportunities for Clinically Oriented Academic Radiology Departments.

    PubMed

    Decker, Summer J; Grajo, Joseph R; Hazelton, Todd R; Hoang, Kimberly N; McDonald, Jennifer S; Otero, Hansel J; Patel, Midhir J; Prober, Allen S; Retrouvey, Michele; Rosenkrantz, Andrew B; Roth, Christopher G; Ward, Robert J

    2016-01-01

    Between 2004 and 2012, US funding for the biomedical sciences decreased to historic lows. Health-related research was crippled by receiving only 1/20th of overall federal scientific funding. Despite the current funding climate, there is increased pressure on academic radiology programs to establish productive research programs. Whereas larger programs have resources that can be utilized at their institutions, small to medium-sized programs often struggle with lack of infrastructure and support. To address these concerns, the Association of University Radiologists' Radiology Research Alliance developed a task force to explore any untapped research productivity potential in these smaller radiology departments. We conducted an online survey of faculty at smaller clinically funded programs and found that while they were interested in doing research and felt it was important to the success of the field, barriers such as lack of resources and time were proving difficult to overcome. One potential solution proposed by this task force is a collaborative structured research model in which multiple participants from multiple institutions come together in well-defined roles that allow for an equitable distribution of research tasks and pooling of resources and expertise. Under this model, smaller programs will have an opportunity to share their unique perspective on how to address research topics and make a measureable impact on the field of radiology as a whole. Through a health services focus, projects are more likely to succeed in the context of limited funding and infrastructure while simultaneously providing value to the field.

  5. Methodological Orientation of Research Articles Appearing in Higher Education Journals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ritter, Sherri E.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to understand the methodologies authors in higher education journals used to obtain knowledge in their fields. This study looked at five peer reviewed journals of higher education and analyzed the methods of research employed by the authors to help them answer their respective research questions. The methods of…

  6. Marketing orientation in hospitals: findings from a multi-phased research study.

    PubMed

    Wrenn, Bruce

    2007-01-01

    It is clear from numerous studies conducted over a wide variety of industries that marketing-oriented organizations perform better than those that do not adopt this business philosophy. Recent studies have confirmed this finding in healthcare organizations as well. What is now coming to light is the way in which a marketing orientation does contribute to better performance in hospitals, and the difficulties marketers face in getting recognition of that fact by non-marketers in their organization. This article reports on a multi-phased research study of the implementation of marketing-oriented behaviors in a hospital setting.

  7. Commentary on Sexual Orientation: Research and Social Policy Implications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baumrind, Diana

    1995-01-01

    Evaluates the methodology and conclusions reached in the 12 research articles in this issue as they pertain to 3 questions: (1) is homosexuality a choice?; (2) what psychological risks are unique to the mental health and well-being of lesbian and gay youths?; and (3) what are the effects of being raised by homosexual parents? (MDM)

  8. The Role of Research-Oriented Universities in School Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nur, Mary Morison

    1986-01-01

    The interdisciplinary school-university partnership based at Stanford University is establishing a database for developing educational policy. The following features are discussed: (1) historical perspective; (2) data collection/feedback process and its contribution to the linking of researcher and practitioner on a national basis; (3) lessons…

  9. A Family-Oriented Decision-Making Model for Human Research in Mainland China.

    PubMed

    Rui, Deng

    2015-08-01

    This essay argues that individual-oriented informed consent is inadequate to protect human research subjects in mainland China. The practice of family-oriented decision-making is better suited to guide moral research conduct. The family's role in medical decision-making originates from the mutual benevolence that exists among family members, and is in accordance with family harmony, which is the aim of Confucian society. I argue that the practice of informed consent for medical research on human subjects ought to remain family-oriented in mainland China. This essay explores the main features of this model of informed consent and demonstrates the proper authority of the family. The family's participation in decision-making as a whole does not negate or deny the importance of the individual who is the subject of the choice, but rather acts more fully to protect research subjects.

  10. Research on Adolescent Sexual Orientation: Development, Health Disparities, Stigma, and Resilience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saewyc, Elizabeth M.

    2011-01-01

    The decade between 1998 and 2008 saw rapid increases in research on adolescent sexual orientation development and related health issues, both in the quantity and in the quality of studies. While much of the research originated in North America, studies from other countries also contributed to emerging understanding of developmental trajectories…

  11. Design-Based Research Principles for Student Orientation to Online Study: Capturing the Lessons Learnt

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wozniak, Helen; Pizzica, Jenny; Mahony, Mary Jane

    2012-01-01

    Few institutions have reported research on students' "use" of orientation programs designed for mature students returning to study in contemporary learning environments now regularly amalgamating distance and online strategies. We report within a design-based research framework the student experience of "GetLearning," the third…

  12. A neuroinformatics database system for disease-oriented neuroimaging research.

    PubMed

    Wong, Stephen T C; Hoo, Kent Soo; Cao, Xinhua; Tjandra, Donny; Fu, J C; Dillon, William P

    2004-03-01

    Clinical databases are continually growing and accruing more patient information. One of the challenges for managing this wealth of data is efficient retrieval and analysis of a broad range of image and non-image patient data from diverse data sources. This article describes the design and implementation of a new class of research data warehouse, neuroinformatics database system (NIDS), which will alleviate these problems for clinicians and researchers studying and treating patients with intractable temporal lobe epilepsy. The NIDS is a secured, multi-tier system that enables the user to gather, proofread, analyze, and store data from multiple underlying sources. In addition to data management, the NIDS provides several key functions including image analysis and processing, free text search of patient reports, construction of general queries, and on-line statistical analysis. The establishment of this integrated research database will serve as a foundation for future hypothesis-driven experiments, which could uncover previously unsuspected correlations and perhaps help to identify new and accurate predictors for image diagnosis.

  13. Conflicting demands and shifts between policy and intra-scientific orientation during conservation research programmes.

    PubMed

    Ranius, Thomas; Rudolphi, Jörgen; Sténs, Anna; Mårald, Erland

    2017-03-15

    Conservation scientists must meet the sometimes conflicting demands of policy and science, but not necessarily at the same time. We analysed the policy and intra-scientific orientations of research projects on effects of stump extraction on biodiversity, and found shifts over time associated with these demands. Our results indicate that uncertainties related to both factual issues and human decisions are often ignored in policy-oriented reports and syntheses, which could give misleading indications of the reliability or feasibility of any conclusions. The policy versus intra-scientific orientation of the scientific papers generated from the surveyed projects varied substantially, although we argue that in applied research, societal relevance is generally more important than intra-scientific relevance. To make conservation science more socially relevant, there is a need for giving societal relevance higher priority, paying attention to uncertainties and increasing the awareness of the value of cross-disciplinary research considering human decisions and values.

  14. 7 CFR 1216.9 - Farmers stock peanuts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Farmers stock peanuts. 1216.9 Section 1216.9... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEANUT PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Peanut Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1216.9 Farmers stock...

  15. 7 CFR 1216.9 - Farmers stock peanuts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Farmers stock peanuts. 1216.9 Section 1216.9... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEANUT PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Peanut Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1216.9 Farmers stock...

  16. 7 CFR 1216.9 - Farmers stock peanuts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Farmers stock peanuts. 1216.9 Section 1216.9... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEANUT PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Peanut Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1216.9 Farmers stock...

  17. 7 CFR 1216.9 - Farmers stock peanuts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Farmers stock peanuts. 1216.9 Section 1216.9... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEANUT PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Peanut Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1216.9 Farmers stock...

  18. 7 CFR 1216.9 - Farmers stock peanuts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Farmers stock peanuts. 1216.9 Section 1216.9... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEANUT PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Peanut Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1216.9 Farmers stock...

  19. Dome Storage of Farmer Stock Peanuts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The small-scale farmer stock storage research facility at the National Peanut Research Laboratory in Dawson, GA consisting of four warehouses and four monolithic domes was used to conduct a 3-yr study looking at the effects of storing peanuts through the summer months following harvest. The study wa...

  20. The Graduate Student Experience at a Research-Oriented University in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Yii-Nii

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the life experiences of graduate students who were satisfied with their graduate careers at a research-oriented university in Taiwan. A qualitative phenomenological method was used, with in-depth interviews for data collection. Participants included 17 master's students and eight doctoral students. Four themes emerged as…

  1. Fundamental Nursing: Process-Oriented Guided-Inquiry Learning (POGIL) Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roller, Maureen C.

    2015-01-01

    Measuring the effect of a Process-Oriented Guided-Inquiry Learning (POGIL) implementation in a fundamental baccalaureate-nursing course is one way to determine its effectiveness. To date, the use of POGIL from a research perspective in fundamental nursing has not been documented in the literature. The purpose of the study was to measure the…

  2. A Learning Research Informed Design and Evaluation of a Web-Enhanced Object Oriented Programming Seminar

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Georgantaki, Stavroula C.; Retalis, Symeon D.

    2007-01-01

    "Object-Oriented Programming" subject is included in the ACM Curriculum Guidelines for Undergraduate and Graduate Degree Programs in Computer Science as well as in Curriculum for K-12 Computer Science. In a few research studies learning problems and difficulties have been recorded, and therefore, specific pedagogical guidelines and…

  3. Scrutinizing Immutability: Research on Sexual Orientation and U.S. Legal Advocacy for Sexual Minorities.

    PubMed

    Diamond, Lisa M; Rosky, Clifford J

    2016-01-01

    We review scientific research and legal authorities to argue that the immutability of sexual orientation should no longer be invoked as a foundation for the rights of individuals with same-sex attractions and relationships (i.e., sexual minorities). On the basis of scientific research as well as U.S. legal rulings regarding lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) rights, we make three claims: First, arguments based on the immutability of sexual orientation are unscientific, given what we now know from longitudinal, population-based studies of naturally occurring changes in the same-sex attractions of some individuals over time. Second, arguments based on the immutability of sexual orientation are unnecessary, in light of U.S. legal decisions in which courts have used grounds other than immutability to protect the rights of sexual minorities. Third, arguments about the immutability of sexual orientation are unjust, because they imply that same-sex attractions are inferior to other-sex attractions, and because they privilege sexual minorities who experience their sexuality as fixed over those who experience their sexuality as fluid. We conclude that the legal rights of individuals with same-sex attractions and relationships should not be framed as if they depend on a certain pattern of scientific findings regarding sexual orientation.

  4. Research on faculty orientation programs: guidelines and directions for nurse educators.

    PubMed

    Morin, Karen H; Ashton, Kathleen C

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this study was to review the literature for the quality of evidence available regarding faculty orientation programs and to identify practice and research implications. Computerized searches in Medline, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, and Educational Resources Information Center, and references cited in articles, were the data sources reviewed. Keywords used in the search were faculty orientation, faculty development, faculty development programs, faculty mentoring, new faculty needs, nursing, teaching, and mentoring. All relevant articles published after 1980 were evaluated. Nineteen reports of research from indexed journals in English relevant to the keywords were reviewed: 14 were quantitative reports, and 5 were qualitative. Characteristics consistently present in the literature were that an orientation program takes place over a prolonged period of time, is incorporated into faculty development plans, creates or fosters an inviting environment, includes information about the tripartite role of the academician, and identifies a specific institutional resource person such as a mentor. Most research to date has been descriptive, consistent with the third level of quality of evidence (III; Marek, 1995). Faculty for whom orientation programs are offered might immerse themselves more effectively in their new environments. Mentoring relationships can ease faculty transitions.

  5. A Research Agenda for Service-Oriented Architecture (SOA): Maintenance and Evolution of Service-Oriented Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-01

    Arsanjani, A., Ghosh, S., Allam , A., Abdollah, T., Ganapathy, S., & Holley, K. “SOMA: A Me- thod for Developing Service-Oriented Solutions.” IBM...Zhang 2007] Zhang, L., Arsanjani, A., Allam , A., Lu, D., & Chee, Y. “Variation-Oriented Analysis for SOA Solution Design.” Proceedings of the 2007

  6. Research On The Classification Of High Resolution Image Based On Object-oriented And Class Rule

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, C. K.; Fang, W.; Dong, X. J.

    2015-06-01

    With the development of remote sensing technology, the spatial resolution, spectral resolution and time resolution of remote sensing data is greatly improved. How to efficiently process and interpret the massive high resolution remote sensing image data for ground objects, which with spatial geometry and texture information, has become the focus and difficulty in the field of remote sensing research. An object oriented and rule of the classification method of remote sensing data has presents in this paper. Through the discovery and mining the rich knowledge of spectrum and spatial characteristics of high-resolution remote sensing image, establish a multi-level network image object segmentation and classification structure of remote sensing image to achieve accurate and fast ground targets classification and accuracy assessment. Based on worldview-2 image data in the Zangnan area as a study object, using the object-oriented image classification method and rules to verify the experiment which is combination of the mean variance method, the maximum area method and the accuracy comparison to analysis, selected three kinds of optimal segmentation scale and established a multi-level image object network hierarchy for image classification experiments. The results show that the objectoriented rules classification method to classify the high resolution images, enabling the high resolution image classification results similar to the visual interpretation of the results and has higher classification accuracy. The overall accuracy and Kappa coefficient of the object-oriented rules classification method were 97.38%, 0.9673; compared with object-oriented SVM method, respectively higher than 6.23%, 0.078; compared with object-oriented KNN method, respectively more than 7.96%, 0.0996. The extraction precision and user accuracy of the building compared with object-oriented SVM method, respectively higher than 18.39%, 3.98%, respectively better than the object-oriented KNN method 21

  7. Ethical advantages of using domestic bird species for magnetic orientation research.

    PubMed

    Freire, Rafael

    2011-01-01

    Identifying the mechanism in birds that controls magnetic orientation behavior is proving elusive and is currently attracting a plethora of research activity. Much of this research involves wild birds that are caught in nets, tested and released. Ethical concerns regarding these experiments are likely to encompass the welfare of animals, their "rights" and conservation issues. Recently, Pekin ducks derived from migratory ancestors have been shown to posses a magnetic compass in a simple conditioning procedure. The use of domestic bird species provides a refinement in the ethics of animal experimentation since these birds are not caught in nets, are less fearful of humans and their use does not raise conservation concerns. The study of magnetic orientation is a high profile and fascinating areas of animal behavior research and one in which behavioral scientists should be seen to actively embrace the principles of the 3R's.

  8. Farmers' Concerns: A Qualitative Assessment to Plan Rural Medical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Brittney T.; Johnson, Gwendolyn J.; Wheat, John R.; Wofford, Amina S.; Wiggins, O. Sam; Downey, Laura H.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Context: Limited research suggests that translational approaches are needed to decrease the distance, physical and cultural, between farmers and health care. Purpose: This study seeks to identify special concerns of farmers in Alabama and explore the need for a medical education program tailored to prepare physicians to address those…

  9. Organizing and Conducting Farmer-Scientist Focus Sessions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lev, Larry S.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Farmer-scientist focus sessions represent a means by which participants exchange ideas for action, identify researchable topics, and enhance long-term farmer-scientist team work. Three examples involving controlling weeds, disposal of cull onion, and food safety concerns are described that illustrate the types of issues treated, the format, and…

  10. Social Learning and Innovation at Retail Farmers' Markets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinrichs, C. Claire; Gillespie, Gilbert W.; Feenstra, Gail W.

    2004-01-01

    Retail farmers' markets are seen as key institutions in a more "civic agriculture," but little is known about how they promote small business entrepreneurship. Drawing on research in economic sociology and economic geography, this paper examines the role of social learning in vendor innovation. Data from a 1999 mail survey of farmers' market…

  11. Health Research Profile to assess the capacity of low and middle income countries for equity-oriented research

    PubMed Central

    Tugwell, P; Sitthi-Amorn, C; Hatcher-Roberts, J; Neufeld, V; Makara, P; Munoz, F; Czerny, P; Robinson, V; Nuyens, Y; Okello, D

    2006-01-01

    Background The Commission on Health Research for Development concluded that "for the most vulnerable people, the benefits of research offer a potential for change that has gone largely untapped." This project was designed to assess low and middle income country capacity and commitment for equity-oriented research. Methods A multi-disciplinary team with coordinators from each of four regions (Asia, Latin America, Africa and Central and Eastern Europe) developed a questionnaire through consensus meetings using a mini-Delphi technique. Indicators were selected based on their quality, validity, comprehensiveness, feasibility and relevance to equity. Indicators represented five categories that form the Health Research Profile (HRP): 1) Research priorities; 2) Resources (amount spent on research); 3) Production of knowledge (capacity); 4) Packaging of knowledge and 5) Evidence of research impact on policy and equity. We surveyed three countries from each region. Results Most countries reported explicit national health research priorities. Of these, half included specific research priorities to address inequities in health. Data on financing were lacking for most countries due to inadequate centralized collection of this information. The five main components of HRP showed a gradient where countries scoring lower on the Human Development Index (HDI) had a lower capacity to conduct research to meet local health research needs. Packaging such as peer-reviewed journals and policy forums were reported by two thirds of the countries. Seven out of 12 countries demonstrated impact of health research on policies and reported engagement of stakeholders in this process. Conclusion Only one out of 12 countries indicated there was research on all fronts of the equity debate. Knowledge sharing and management is needed to strengthen within-country capacity for research and implementation to reduce inequities in health. We recommend that all countries (and external agencies) should

  12. Towards a Collaborative Research: A Case Study on Linking Science to Farmers' Perceptions and Knowledge on Arabica Coffee Pests and Diseases and Its Management.

    PubMed

    Liebig, Theresa; Jassogne, Laurence; Rahn, Eric; Läderach, Peter; Poehling, Hans-Michael; Kucel, Patrick; Van Asten, Piet; Avelino, Jacques

    2016-01-01

    The scientific community has recognized the importance of integrating farmer's perceptions and knowledge (FPK) for the development of sustainable pest and disease management strategies. However, the knowledge gap between indigenous and scientific knowledge still contributes to misidentification of plant health constraints and poor adoption of management solutions. This is particularly the case in the context of smallholder farming in developing countries. In this paper, we present a case study on coffee production in Uganda, a sector depending mostly on smallholder farming facing a simultaneous and increasing number of socio-ecological pressures. The objectives of this study were (i) to examine and relate FPK on Arabica Coffee Pests and Diseases (CPaD) to altitude and the vegetation structure of the production systems; (ii) to contrast results with perceptions from experts and (iii) to compare results with field observations, in order to identify constraints for improving the information flow between scientists and farmers. Data were acquired by means of interviews and workshops. One hundred and fifty farmer households managing coffee either at sun exposure, under shade trees or inter-cropped with bananas and spread across an altitudinal gradient were selected. Field sampling of the two most important CPaD was conducted on a subset of 34 plots. The study revealed the following findings: (i) Perceptions on CPaD with respect to their distribution across altitudes and perceived impact are partially concordant among farmers, experts and field observations (ii) There are discrepancies among farmers and experts regarding management practices and the development of CPaD issues of the previous years. (iii) Field observations comparing CPaD in different altitudes and production systems indicate ambiguity of the role of shade trees. According to the locality-specific variability in CPaD pressure as well as in FPK, the importance of developing spatially variable and relevant

  13. Towards deep inclusion for equity-oriented health research priority-setting: A working model.

    PubMed

    Pratt, Bridget; Merritt, Maria; Hyder, Adnan A

    2016-02-01

    Growing consensus that health research funders should align their investments with national research priorities presupposes that such national priorities exist and are just. Arguably, justice requires national health research priority-setting to promote health equity. Such a position is consistent with recommendations made by the World Health Organization and at global ministerial summits that health research should serve to reduce health inequalities between and within countries. Thus far, no specific requirements for equity-oriented research priority-setting have been described to guide policymakers. As a step towards the explication and defence of such requirements, we propose that deep inclusion is a key procedural component of equity-oriented research priority-setting. We offer a model of deep inclusion that was developed by applying concepts from work on deliberative democracy and development ethics. This model consists of three dimensions--breadth, qualitative equality, and high-quality non-elite participation. Deep inclusion is captured not only by who is invited to join a decision-making process but also by how they are involved and by when non-elite stakeholders are involved. To clarify and illustrate the proposed dimensions, we use the sustained example of health systems research. We conclude by reviewing practical challenges to achieving deep inclusion. Despite the existence of barriers to implementation, our model can help policymakers and other stakeholders design more inclusive national health research priority-setting processes and assess these processes' depth of inclusion.

  14. Extension and Validation of Research on Acquisition and Retention of Cognitive versus Perceptually Oriented Training Materials

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-06-01

    Roseann Mikos and Robert J. Casey, Jr.Canyon Research Group, Inc. No and John Lockhart Army Research Institute ARI FIELD UNIT AT FORT BLISS. TEXAS C2l...Training Materials *. .EFOR.I.N ORG. REPORT NuNsEN 7 AUTMORI’s) | CONTRACT OR GRANT NUMBEI-, Roseann Mikos Robert J. Casey, Jr. MDA903-79-C-0270 John...ON ACQUISITION AND RETENTION OF COGNITIVE VERSUS PERCEPTUALLY ORIENTED TRAINING MATERIALS Roseann Mikos and Robert J. Casey, Jr. Canyon Research

  15. Farmers' Opinions about Third-Wave Technologies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lasley, Paul; Bultena, Gordon

    The opinions of 1,585 Iowa farmers about 8 emergent agricultural technologies (energy production from feed grains and oils; energy production from livestock waste; genetic engineering research on plants, livestock, and humans; robotics for on-farm use; confinement livestock facilities; and personal computers for farm families) were found to be…

  16. Farmers' attitudes to disease risk management in England: a comparative analysis of sheep and pig farmers.

    PubMed

    Garforth, C J; Bailey, A P; Tranter, R B

    2013-07-01

    The UK Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (Defra) identified practices to reduce the risk of animal disease outbreaks. We report on the response of sheep and pig farmers in England to promotion of these practices. A conceptual framework was established from research on factors influencing adoption of animal health practices, linking knowledge, attitudes, social influences and perceived constraints to the implementation of specific practices. Qualitative data were collected from nine sheep and six pig enterprises in 2011. Thematic analysis explored attitudes and responses to the proposed practices, and factors influencing the likelihood of implementation. Most feel they are doing all they can reasonably do to minimise disease risk and that practices not being implemented are either not relevant or ineffective. There is little awareness and concern about risk from unseen threats. Pig farmers place more emphasis than sheep farmers on controlling wildlife, staff and visitor management and staff training. The main factors that influence livestock farmers' decision on whether or not to implement a specific disease risk measure are: attitudes to, and perceptions of, disease risk; attitudes towards the specific measure and its efficacy; characteristics of the enterprise which they perceive as making a measure impractical; previous experience of a disease or of the measure; and the credibility of information and advice. Great importance is placed on access to authoritative information with most seeing vets as the prime source to interpret generic advice from national bodies in the local context. Uptake of disease risk measures could be increased by: improved risk communication through the farming press and vets to encourage farmers to recognise hidden threats; dissemination of credible early warning information to sharpen farmers' assessment of risk; and targeted information through training events, farming press, vets and other advisers, and farmer groups

  17. Person-oriented methods in partner violence research: distinct biopsychosocial profiles among battered women.

    PubMed

    Nurius, Paula S; Macy, Rebecca J

    2010-06-01

    Violence researchers have called for the use of person-oriented methods to understand differences that have been found in biopsychosocial consequences among those who experience intimate partner violence (IPV). To address this issue, we apply a person-oriented statistical method, latent profile analysis (LPA), to test for meaningful subgroups of a sample of 448 battered women based on participants' appraisals of their vulnerability relative to their violent partner, depressive symptoms, physical injuries, overall physical health functioning, and their positive and negative social relationships with friends and family. The LPA established five significantly distinct subgroups. Using MANOVA, we examined these subgroups and their respective IPV exposure, both concomitant and separate incidents within the past year. Those with the most intensive violence exposure show the greatest level of challenge and impairment. However, the groups with comparable levels of IPV exposure manifest distinctly different configurations of biopsychosocial profiles, indicating a need for adaptive interventions commensurate with these profiles. We discuss the implications these findings have for developing adaptive interventions for battered women, as well as the potential utility of person-oriented tools for violence researchers.

  18. Possibilities of the Integration of the Method of the Ecologically Oriented Independent Scientific Research in the Study Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grizans, Jurijs; Vanags, Janis

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to analyse possibilities of the integration of the method of the ecologically oriented independent scientific research in the study process. In order to achieve the set aim, the following scientific research methods were used: analysis of the conceptual guidelines for the development of environmentally oriented entrepreneurship, interpretation of the experts' evaluation of the ecologically oriented management, analysis of the results of the students' ecologically oriented independent scientific research, as well as monographic and logically constructive methods. The results of the study give an opportunity to make conclusions and to develop conceptual recommendations on how to introduce future economics and business professionals with the theoretical and practical aspects of ecologically oriented management during the study process.

  19. Analysis and Research on Haier Group's Website Construction Based on Cybermarketing-orientation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Zhao; Yintao, Bao

    At present, many large-scaled and medium-sized enterprises have established their own e-commerce websites. But there are still many shortcomings in the aspects of website constructions of these enterprises, especially can't reflect the value of cybermarketing in full. Haier is one of the world's top 500 enterprises,and its website has distinct advantages and disadvantages, so it is a classic case for studying. During the same time of analyzing and researching Haier's website on cybermarketing- oriented website construction, this paper reveals the subsistent problems of our large-scaled and medium-sized enterprises in this regard, and put forward reasonable countermeasures and advices, which make large-scale and medium-sized enterprises to enhance the cognition of cybermarketing-oriented website construction.

  20. An innovative program to fund health-oriented student projects and research.

    PubMed

    Bybee, Ronald F; Thompson, Sharon E

    2004-01-01

    The price of a university education has increased over the years. As a result, students often graduate with thousands of dollars of debt. Conducting research or developing class projects that require personal expenditures can be overwhelming, if not impossible. Participation in research and in developing projects can enhance a student's educational experience. In an effort to address cost issues and provide an optimal learning experience for all students through participation in projects and research, the College of Health Sciences at the University of Texas at El Paso (UTEP) collaborated with a regional foundation to fund health-oriented students' projects and research. Approximately 100 projects have been funded in amounts from 200 dollars to 10,000 dollars at UTEP. Similar programs can be replicated at other US universities. Establishing a general fund and identifying contributors may be a viable option, although finding a foundation or agency to fund the project poses a challenge.

  1. Optics At The Arctic Circle, An Example Of Application-Oriented Research Generating New Industrial Activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lammasniemi, Jorma; Myllyla, Risto; Hannula, Tapio

    1989-04-01

    This paper discusses research/industry interaction in application-oriented research groups specializing in the development of optoelectronic instruments and measurement methods. The research groups are working in Oulu, a city in Northern Finland, in an industrial environment consisting originally of pulp and paper industries together with metalworking and engineering industries. These established industrial areas are active in adopting new technologies for automation and process renewal. Furthermore, new emerging businesses are being generated through pilot installations and new product ideas created by research groups. The technologies considered are optical and infrared process analyzers, semiconductor laser-based dimension measurements and optoelectronic hybrid module fabrication. Examples of new products and enterprises employing these technologies are given. Additional skills and education especially in miniature optics and related constructions, are considered important for the future.

  2. [Research-oriented experimental course of plant cell and gene engineering for undergraduates].

    PubMed

    Xiaofei, Lin; Rong, Zheng; Morigen, Morigen

    2015-04-01

    Research-oriented comprehensive experimental course for undergraduates is an important part for their training of innovation. We established an optional course of plant cell and gene engineering for undergraduates using our research platform. The course is designed to study the cellular and molecular basis and experimental techniques for plant tissue culture, isolation and culture of protoplast, genetic transformation, and screening and identification of transgenic plants. To develop undergraduates' ability in experimental design and operation, and inspire their interest in scientific research and innovation consciousness, we integrated experimental teaching and practice in plant genetic engineering on the tissue, cellular, and molecular levels. Students in the course practiced an experimental teaching model featured by two-week teaching of principles, independent experimental design and bench work, and ready-to-access laboratory. In this paper, we describe the contents, methods, evaluation system and a few issues to be solved in this course, as well as the general application and significance of the research-oriented experimental course in reforming undergraduates' teaching and training innovative talents.

  3. What would research-oriented ionosphere models require to get ready for transition to operation?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maruyama, N.; Richards, P. G.; Sun, Y.; Mayer, L.; Fang, T.; Fuller-Rowell, T. J.; Fedrizzi, M.; Codrescu, M.; Richmond, A. D.; Maute, A. I.

    2013-05-01

    First principle models of the terrestrial ionosphere and thermosphere have been used for basic research for about four decades, but are they ready for forecast and transition to operation? The current capabilities and limitations of the research oriented models of the ionosphere and thermosphere are briefly reviewed with a special focus on how to improve space weather forecasts. A new Ionosphere-Plasmasphere-Electrodynamics (IPE) model has been developed at NOAA SWPC, in an effort to bridge the gap between research-oriented models and operational models. It consists of a physics based model of the ionosphere and plasmasphere based on the Field Line Interhemispheric Plasma (FLIP) model [Richards et al] that has been used for basic research for many years. The International Geomagnetic Reference Field (IGRF) has been implemented, in order to improve the prediction accuracy. Furthermore, the global ionospheric potential is solved self-consistently on the same grid as the Ionosphere-Plasmasphere model. In this presentation, the forecasting capability of the IPE model is addressed regarding the ionospheric responses to forcing from terrestrial weather and solar-wind-magnetosphere interaction.

  4. "Education through Research" at European Universities: Notes on the Orientation of Academic Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simons, Maarten

    2006-01-01

    Traditionally, "education through research" is understood to be a main characteristic of education at the university. In this article we will explore how "education through research" is argued to be of major importance for the European knowledge society, how there is still a reference to the idea of "Bildung" or…

  5. Development of Background-Oriented Schlieren for NASA Langley Research Center Ground Test Facilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bathel, Brett F.; Borg, Stephen; Jones, Stephen; Overmeyer, Austin; Walker, Eric; Goad, William; Clem, Michelle; Schairer, Edward T.; Mizukaki, Toshiharu

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of recent wind tunnel tests performed at the NASA Langley Research Center where the Background-Oriented Schlieren (BOS) technique was used to provide information pertaining to flow-field density disturbances. The facilities in which the BOS technique was applied included the National Transonic Facility (NTF), Transonic Dynamics Tunnel (TDT), 31-Inch Mach 10 Air Tunnel, 15-Inch Mach 6 High-Temperature Air Tunnel, Rotor Test Cell at the 14 by 22 Subsonic Tunnel, and a 13-Inch Low-Speed Tunnel.

  6. Effect of the Relationship between Agricultural Extension Agents and Wheat Farmers in Medina Region, Saudi Arabia, on the Adoption of Appropriate Wheat Production Practices. A Summary Report of Research. Department Information Bulletin 91-3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bakri, Mohammad Saleh

    The relationship between agricultural extension agents and wheat farmers in the Medina region, Saudi Arabia, was analyzed, based on each group's perception of the relationship. Participants were 73 randomly selected wheat farmers and 31 of 34 agricultural extension agents working in the region during spring 1990. Farmers were interviewed, and…

  7. Re-Orientation of Clinical Research in Traumatic Brain Injury: Report of an International Workshop on Comparative Effectiveness Research

    PubMed Central

    Menon, David K.; Lingsma, Hester F.; Pineda, Jose A.; Sandel, M. Elizabeth; Manley, Geoffrey T.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract During the National Neurotrauma Symposium 2010, the DG Research of the European Commission and the National Institutes of Health/National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NIH/NINDS) organized a workshop on comparative effectiveness research (CER) in traumatic brain injury (TBI). This workshop reviewed existing approaches to improve outcomes of TBI patients. It had two main outcomes: First, it initiated a process of re-orientation of clinical research in TBI. Second, it provided ideas for a potential collaboration between the European Commission and the NIH/NINDS to stimulate research in TBI. Advances in provision of care for TBI patients have resulted from observational studies, guideline development, and meta-analyses of individual patient data. In contrast, randomized controlled trials have not led to any identifiable major advances. Rigorous protocols and tightly selected populations constrain generalizability. The workshop addressed additional research approaches, summarized the greatest unmet needs, and highlighted priorities for future research. The collection of high-quality clinical databases, associated with systems biology and CER, offers substantial opportunities. Systems biology aims to identify multiple factors contributing to a disease and addresses complex interactions. Effectiveness research aims to measure benefits and risks of systems of care and interventions in ordinary settings and broader populations. These approaches have great potential for TBI research. Although not new, they still need to be introduced to and accepted by TBI researchers as instruments for clinical research. As with therapeutic targets in individual patient management, so it is with research tools: one size does not fit all. PMID:21545277

  8. Development and Evaluation of a Hematology-Oriented Clinical Research Training Program in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Sung, Lillian; Rego, Eduardo; Riva, Eloisa; Elwood, Jessica; Basso, Joe; Clayton, Charles P; Mikhael, Joseph

    2016-03-15

    The objectives of the study were to describe the development of a patient-oriented clinical research training program in a low- or middle-income country (LMIC) setting, to describe perceived benefits of the program and barriers to application, and to make recommendations for future training programs. The program was developed by the American Society of Hematology in collaboration with Latin American stakeholders and clinical researchers. Session types were didactic, small group, and one-on-one faculty/participant dyad formats. Outcomes were assessed by quantitative surveys of trainees and qualitative feedback from both trainees and faculty members. The program is an annual 2-day course specifically for Latin American hematologists. Through course evaluations, all trainees described that the didactic sessions were relevant. All session types were useful for gaining knowledge and skills, particularly one-on-one meetings. The potential for networking was highly valued. Barriers to trainee applications were the concerns that skill level, proposed research program, and knowledge of English were not sufficiently strong to warrant acceptance into the course, and financial costs of attendance. We have described the development and initial evaluation of a clinical research training program in a LMIC setting. We learned several valuable lessons that are applicable to other research training programs.

  9. Sexual orientation and gender identity in schools: A call for more research in school psychology-No more excuses.

    PubMed

    Espelage, Dorothy L

    2016-02-01

    Research focused on sexual orientation and gender identity among youth is scarce in school psychology journals. Graybill and Proctor (2016; this issue) found that across a sample of eight school support personnel journals only .3 to 3.0% of the articles since 2000 included lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender (LGBT)-related research. It appears that special issues are a mechanism for publishing LGBT-related scholarship. This commentary includes a call for more research in school psychology and other related disciplines that intentionally addresses experiences of LGBT youth and their families. Two articles in this special section are summarized and critiqued with clear directions for future scholarship. Researchers and practitioners are ethically responsible for engaging in social justice oriented research and that includes assessing gender identity and sexual orientation in their studies and prevention program evaluations.

  10. The Role of Research and the Cultural and Social Orientation of the Deaf. Proceedings of the First Gallaudet Symposium on Research in Deafness (Jun 20 - 21, 1975).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallaudet Coll., Washington, DC.

    Presented are 30 papers given at a 1975 symposium on the roll of research and the cultural and social orientation of the deaf. Major papers have the following titles and authors: "Faculty and Institutional Research in a Special Higher Education Institution" (J. Schuchman); "The Roles of Research Laboratories at Gallaudet" (W. Stokoe, J. Pickett,…

  11. Farmer's lung in Northern Ireland.

    PubMed Central

    Stanford, C F; Hall, G; Chivers, A; Martin, B; Nicholls, D P; Evans, J

    1990-01-01

    A total of 381 farmers in Northern Ireland were studied using a questionnaire, pulmonary function tests, and antibody levels to Micropolyspora faena to assess the incidence of farmer's lung. Twenty (4.9%) had a history of a previous diagnosis of farmer's lung by their doctor. Forty four (10.4%) had delayed onset symptoms compatible with farmer's lung, 32 (7.9%) had precipitant antibody, and 61 (15%) had raised antibody by the enzyme linked immunosorbent (ELISA) method. Restricted lungs were present physiologically in 40 (9.8%). A confirmation of delayed symptoms and precipitant antibody was present in seven (1.7%) whereas delayed symptoms and ELISA antibody was present in nine (2.2%). Using either antibody method only two (0.5%) had a combination of antibody to M faenae, delayed onset symptoms, and restricted pulmonary physiology. PMID:2357452

  12. Farmer's lung in Northern Ireland.

    PubMed

    Stanford, C F; Hall, G; Chivers, A; Martin, B; Nicholls, D P; Evans, J

    1990-05-01

    A total of 381 farmers in Northern Ireland were studied using a questionnaire, pulmonary function tests, and antibody levels to Micropolyspora faena to assess the incidence of farmer's lung. Twenty (4.9%) had a history of a previous diagnosis of farmer's lung by their doctor. Forty four (10.4%) had delayed onset symptoms compatible with farmer's lung, 32 (7.9%) had precipitant antibody, and 61 (15%) had raised antibody by the enzyme linked immunosorbent (ELISA) method. Restricted lungs were present physiologically in 40 (9.8%). A confirmation of delayed symptoms and precipitant antibody was present in seven (1.7%) whereas delayed symptoms and ELISA antibody was present in nine (2.2%). Using either antibody method only two (0.5%) had a combination of antibody to M faenae, delayed onset symptoms, and restricted pulmonary physiology.

  13. 40 CFR 262.70 - Farmers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Farmers. 262.70 Section 262.70 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS APPLICABLE TO GENERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE Farmers § 262.70 Farmers. A farmer disposing of waste...

  14. 40 CFR 262.70 - Farmers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Farmers. 262.70 Section 262.70 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS APPLICABLE TO GENERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE Farmers § 262.70 Farmers. A farmer disposing of waste...

  15. 40 CFR 262.70 - Farmers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Farmers. 262.70 Section 262.70 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS APPLICABLE TO GENERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE Farmers § 262.70 Farmers. A farmer disposing of waste...

  16. 40 CFR 262.70 - Farmers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Farmers. 262.70 Section 262.70 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS APPLICABLE TO GENERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE Farmers § 262.70 Farmers. A farmer disposing of waste...

  17. Early career perspectives on psychotherapy research and practice: psychotherapist effects, multicultural orientation, and couple interventions.

    PubMed

    Owen, Jesse

    2013-12-01

    I was awarded the Early Career Award from Division 29 and the American Psychological Foundation (APF) in 2012, and in this article, I provide an overview of my psychotherapy research career and insight gained along the way. Specifically, I will cover 3 main areas of my research: (a) psychotherapist effects, (b) multicultural processes in psychotherapy, and (c) romantic relationship interventions. First, although it is well known that some psychotherapists are better than others, the source of this expertise is not well understood. Across my studies, I have found notable variability in the ways that psychotherapists are able to effectively engage clients during sessions and this may be a key source of psychotherapist effectiveness. Next, I provide an overview of my studies examining clients' perceptions of their psychotherapists' multicultural orientation (MCO). For instance, across 9 studies, clients' perceptions of their psychotherapists' MCO accounted for 4% to 5% of the variance in clients' psychological well-being and was strongly associated with clients' alliance scores (weighted rs |.30| to |.64|). I also comment on the role of commitment in couple psychotherapy, by highlighting the importance of commitment uncertainty. Lastly, I provide some comments looking forward to potential themes in psychotherapy research and practice.

  18. Would banning atrazine benefit farmers?

    PubMed

    Ackerman, Frank; Whited, Melissa; Knight, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Atrazine, an herbicide used on most of the US corn (maize) crop, is the subject of ongoing controversy, with increasing documentation of its potentially harmful health and environmental impacts. Supporters of atrazine often claim that it is of great value to farmers; most recently, Syngenta, the producer of atrazine, sponsored an "Atrazine Benefits Team" (ABT) of researchers who released a set of five papers in 2011, reporting huge economic benefits from atrazine use in US agriculture. A critical review of the ABT papers shows that they have underestimated the growing problem of atrazine-resistant weeds, offered only a partial review of the effectiveness of alternative herbicides, and ignored the promising option of nonchemical weed management techniques. In addition, the most complete economic analysis in the ABT papers implies that withdrawal of atrazine would lead to a decrease in corn yields of 4.4% and an increase in corn prices of 8.0%. The result would be an increase in corn growers' revenues, equal to US$1.7 billion annually under ABT assumptions. Price impacts on consumers would be minimal: at current levels of ethanol production and use, gasoline prices would rise by no more than US$0.03 per gallon; beef prices would rise by an estimated US$0.01 for a 4-ounce hamburger and US$0.05 for an 8-ounce steak. Thus withdrawal of atrazine would boost farm revenues, while only changing consumer prices by pennies.

  19. Would banning atrazine benefit farmers?

    PubMed Central

    Ackerman, Frank; Whited, Melissa; Knight, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Atrazine, an herbicide used on most of the US corn (maize) crop, is the subject of ongoing controversy, with increasing documentation of its potentially harmful health and environmental impacts. Supporters of atrazine often claim that it is of great value to farmers; most recently, Syngenta, the producer of atrazine, sponsored an “Atrazine Benefits Team” (ABT) of researchers who released a set of five papers in 2011, reporting huge economic benefits from atrazine use in US agriculture. A critical review of the ABT papers shows that they have underestimated the growing problem of atrazine-resistant weeds, offered only a partial review of the effectiveness of alternative herbicides, and ignored the promising option of non-chemical weed management techniques. In addition, the most complete economic analysis in the ABT papers implies that withdrawal of atrazine would lead to a decrease in corn yields of 4.4% and an increase in corn prices of 8.0%. The result would be an increase in corn growers’ revenues, equal to US$1.7 billion annually under ABT assumptions. Price impacts on consumers would be minimal: at current levels of ethanol production and use, gasoline prices would rise by no more than US$0.03 per gallon; beef prices would rise by an estimated US$0.01 for a 4-ounce hamburger and US$0.05 for an 8-ounce steak. Thus withdrawal of atrazine would boost farm revenues, while only changing consumer prices by pennies. PMID:24804340

  20. Journal Club presentation in research orientation at Bahria University Medical & Dental College

    PubMed Central

    Rehman, Rehana; Rehan, Rabiya; Usmani, Ambreen

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To determine faculty perception on journal club (JC) presentation at Bahria University Medical and Dental College (BUMDC), Karachi. Pakistan. Methods: It was a cross sectional study conducted from January 2009 to December 2012 to acquire faculty member’s feedback on JC presentations in structured meeting at BUMDC. Feedback was acquired by a self-reported questionnaire on a 3-pt Likert scale with a score of 1= disagree, 2= neutral, 3 = agree. Respondents were divided into Group I; senior faculty (professors, associates and assistants) and Group II of junior faculty (lecturers). Chi square test was applied to compare categorical variables; results considered significant with p value< 0.05. Result: A total of 75JC presentations were made in study period. In Group I, response was acquired by 5 Professors, 3 Associate Professors and 7 Assistant Professors whereas 34 lecturers comprised of Group II. Both groups responded to usefulness of JC equally without any significant difference. JC encouraged literature search in 35(72%), enabled 38(78%) to recall their knowledge and 34(70%) to understand study objectives. The participants 34(70%) were able to comprehend research methodology, 19(38%) understood biostatistics and 29(59%) evaluated the paper critically. The exercise motivated 36(74%) and 30(62%) participants were able to design their research projects. Conclusions: Orientation of research at BUMDC was made possible by JC discussions which encouraged literature review from reputable journals, understanding of research methodology and critical appraisals that facilitated formulation of research plans. PMID:25878630

  1. Development and Validation of a Farmers' Market Audit Tool in Rural and Urban Communities.

    PubMed

    Byker Shanks, Carmen; Jilcott Pitts, Stephanie; Gustafson, Alison

    2015-11-01

    The number of farmers' markets in the United States is growing. Although there are tools to analyze food availability at grocery stores, corner stores, and convenience stores, little research exists about the availability of food types at farmers' markets. This research developed an audit tool to measure the food environment at farmers' markets in rural and urban food environments and examined its psychometric properties, including face validity, interrater reliability, and discriminant validity. The Farmers' Market Audit Tool was reviewed by content experts, revised, and then tested in six farmers' markets by researchers across three states in 2013, including Kentucky, North Carolina, and Montana. Seven food categories were developed, including vegetables, fruits, meats, cheeses, eggs, grains, and samples. Interrater reliability was high within farmers' market across states. As expected, discriminant validity indicated a systematic disagreement within and between states due to seasonality and ability to grow different types of food across different farmers' markets. The total scores assessing the healthfulness of each farmers' market was 38 (range = 28-50). Using the Farmers' Market Audit Tool at farmers' markets is a reliable and valid method to capture the availability of food offerings.

  2. Farmers, streams, information, and money: does informing farmers about riparian management have any effect?

    PubMed

    Rhodes, Heather M; Leland, Louis S; Niven, Brian E

    2002-11-01

    We assessed relationships between the extent to which farmers reported exposure to relevant information and their attitudes towards, knowledge about, and degree of adoption of riparian management strategies. We also examined associations between knowledge of, or receipt of, financial assistance for riparian fencing/planting and intentions for and extent of adoption of this strategy. A mail survey of 718 pastoral farmers in Otago and Southland in New Zealand [294 surveys returned (41%)] yielded 279 usable questionnaires. Indices were developed to reflect range and frequency of information use and range of practices adopted. Attitudes were measured using Likert-type responses to 11 statements, and knowledge as a score on a ten-question true/false test. Positive relationships between information and the three main response variables (attitude, knowledge, and adoption) were weak but significant and systematic. These associations remained significant when important demographic and farm characteristics were taken into account. Informed farmers were more likely to report intentions to carry out riparian fencing or planting within the next year. Farmers who were aware that funding was available were also more likely to state this intention, independent of information level. The reported extent to which waterways had been fenced to exclude stock was related to receipt of funding, but not to information level. Financial factors were the most influential barrier preventing adoption of permanent fencing. Our research shows a positive correlation between the receipt of information and funding and the adoption of specific riparian management measures.

  3. Knowledge Operation Capability Evaluation Model and Strategic Orientation of Supply Chain: Exploratory Research Based on View of Ecology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Wen-Yong; Song, Ze-Qian

    The competitiveness of Supply Chain (SC) correlates intimately with its knowledge operation (KO). In order to realize better assessment value, this paper constructed an evaluation framework on knowledge operation of SC and a detailed index system. According to theory of ecology, expounded the evaluation orientation and future research direction from view of comprehensiveness and adaptability. Additionally, a case about Toyota recall-gate was analyzed. Through research, it provides two dimensions of results evaluating orientation which may help enterprise make right decision upon SC.

  4. Genetic influences on adolescent sexual behavior: Why genes matter for environmentally oriented researchers.

    PubMed

    Harden, K Paige

    2014-03-01

    There are dramatic individual differences among adolescents in how and when they become sexually active adults, and early sexual activity is frequently cited as a cause of concern for scientists, policymakers, and the general public. Understanding the causes and developmental impact of adolescent sexual activity can be furthered by considering genes as a source of individual differences. Quantitative behavioral genetics (i.e., twin and family studies) and candidate gene association studies now provide clear evidence for the genetic underpinnings of individual differences in adolescent sexual behavior and related phenotypes. Genetic influences on sexual behavior may operate through a variety of direct and indirect mechanisms, including pubertal development, testosterone levels, and dopaminergic systems. Genetic differences may be systematically associated with exposure to environments that are commonly treated as causes of sexual behavior (gene-environment correlation). Possible gene-environment correlations pose a serious challenge for interpreting the results of much behavioral research. Multivariate, genetically informed research on adolescent sexual behavior compares twins and family members as a form of quasi experiment: How do twins who differ in their sexual experiences differ in their later development? The small but growing body of genetically informed research has already challenged dominant assumptions regarding the etiology and sequelae of adolescent sexual behavior, with some studies indicating possible positive effects of teenage sexuality. Studies of Gene × Environment interaction may further elucidate the mechanisms by which genes and environments combine to shape the development of sexual behavior and its psychosocial consequences. Overall, the existence of heritable variation in adolescent sexual behavior has profound implications for environmentally oriented theory and research.

  5. Genetic Influences on Adolescent Sexual Behavior: Why Genes Matter for Environmentally-Oriented Researchers

    PubMed Central

    Harden, K. Paige

    2013-01-01

    There are dramatic individual differences among adolescents in how and when they become sexually active adults, and “early” sexual activity is frequently cited as a cause of concern for scientists, policymakers, and the general public. Understanding the causes and developmental impact of adolescent sexual activity can be furthered by considering genes as a source of individual differences. Quantitative behavioral genetics (i.e., twin and family studies) and candidate gene association studies now provide clear evidence for the genetic underpinnings of individual differences in adolescent sexual behavior and related phenotypes. Genetic influences on sexual behavior may operate through a variety of direct and indirect mechanisms, including pubertal development, testosterone levels, and dopaminergic systems. Genetic differences may be systematically associated with exposure to environments that are commonly treated as causes of sexual behavior (gene-environment correlation). Possible gene-environment correlations pose a serious challenge for interpreting the results of much behavioral research. Multivariate, genetically-informed research on adolescent sexual behavior compares twins and family members as a form of “quasi-experiment”: How do twins who differ in their sexual experiences differ in their later development? The small but growing body of genetically-informed research has already challenged dominant assumptions regarding the etiology and sequelae of adolescent sexual behavior, with some studies indicating possible positive effects of teenage sexuality. Studies of gene × environment interaction may further elucidate the mechanisms by which genes and environments combine to shape the development of sexual behavior and its psychosocial consequences. Overall, the existence of heritable variation in adolescent sexual behavior has profound implications for environmentally-oriented theory and research. PMID:23855958

  6. "Asia Literacy" through Research-Oriented School-Engaged Teacher Education: From Volunteer Mandarin Teaching-Assistants to Volunteer Teacher-Researchers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singh, Michael; Zhao, Da Cheng

    2009-01-01

    This paper explores the possibilities for building research-oriented, school-engaged teacher education through the professional learning of volunteer teacher-researchers. Volunteerism in education covers a broad spectrum of people and activities ranging from working in school canteens to supporting language and literacy programs. This paper…

  7. 29 CFR 780.133 - Farmers' cooperative as a “farmer.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Farmers' cooperative as a âfarmer.â 780.133 Section 780.133... General Scope of Agriculture Practices Performed âby A Farmerâ § 780.133 Farmers' cooperative as a “farmer.” (a) The phrase “by a farmer” covers practices performed either by the farmer himself or by the...

  8. 29 CFR 780.133 - Farmers' cooperative as a “farmer.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Farmers' cooperative as a âfarmer.â 780.133 Section 780.133... General Scope of Agriculture Practices Performed âby A Farmerâ § 780.133 Farmers' cooperative as a “farmer.” (a) The phrase “by a farmer” covers practices performed either by the farmer himself or by the...

  9. Farmer's lung disease in Somerset.

    PubMed Central

    Pether, J V; Greatorex, F B

    1976-01-01

    A survey of laboratory records was made to assess the value of the precipitin test and isolation methods in the diagnosis of farmer's lung disease and also to determine its prevalence in the farming population of Somerset. A link was established between the clinical diagnosis as written on the form that accompanied the specimen and the actual number of positive laboratory diagnoses made. Fifty (43%) of the clinically diagnosed patients were serologically positive for farmer's lung during a four-year period. If the clinically diagnosed but serologically negative cases of farmer's lung disease are added to this number, a prevalence of about 23 per 1000 of the farming population of Somerset is obtained. PMID:999800

  10. Chemistry Teachers' Views on Teaching "Climate Change"--An Interview Case Study from Research-Oriented Learning in Teacher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feierabend, Timo; Jokmin, Sebastian; Eilks, Ingo

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a case study from research-oriented learning in chemistry teacher education. The study evaluates the views of twenty experienced German chemistry teachers about the teaching of climate change in chemistry education. Data was collected using semi-structured interviews about the teachers' experiences and their views about…

  11. Farmers Prone to Drought Risk: Why Some Farmers Undertake Farm-Level Risk-Reduction Measures While Others Not?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gebrehiwot, Tagel; van der Veen, Anne

    2015-03-01

    This research investigates farmers' cognitive perceptions of risk and the behavioral intentions to undertake farm-level risk-reduction measures. It has been observed that people who are susceptible to natural hazards often fail to act, or do very little, to protect their assets or lives. To answer the question of why some people show adaptive behavior while others do not, a socio-psychological model of precautionary adaptation based on protection motivation theory and trans-theoretical stage model has been applied for the first time to areas of drought risk in the developing countries cultural context. The applicability of the integrated model is explored by means of a representative sample survey of smallholder farmers in northern Ethiopia. The result of the study showed that there is a statistically significant association between farmer's behavioral intention to undertake farm-level risk-reduction measures and the main important protection motivation model variables. High perceived vulnerability, severity of consequences, self-efficacy, and response efficacy lead to higher levels of behavioral intentions to undertake farm-level risk-reduction measures. For farmers in the action stage, self-efficacy and response efficacy were the main motivators of behavioral intention. For farmers in the contemplative stage, self-efficacy and cost appear to be the main motivators for them to act upon risk reduction, while perceived severity of consequences and cost of response actions were found to be important for farmers in the pre-contemplative stage.

  12. Using a Modelling Language for Supporting University Students' Orienting Activity When Studying Research Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kosonen, Kari; Ilomäki, Liisa; Lakkala, Minna

    2015-01-01

    The present study focuses on examining how digitally guided conceptual mapping can be used in orienting students in higher education to learn complex domain content and practices. The outcomes of conceptual mapping were investigated as the orienting bases created by the students that used digitalized conceptual tools to construct an external…

  13. Research on ERP Teaching Model Reform for Application-Oriented Talents Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fan, Chongjun; Zhang, Peng; Liu, Qin; Yang, Jianzheng; Xi, Wanyu

    2011-01-01

    Enterprise Resource Planning is one of the core courses of management. According to the educational characteristics of application-oriented talents training, this paper discussed the issues of ERP teaching for application-oriented talents training at present and proposed a number of ideas and strategies in the aspects of modifying the teaching…

  14. Assessing Farmer Innovations in Agroforestry in Eastern Zambia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katanga, R.; Kabwe, G.; Kuntashula, E.; Mafongoya, P. L.; Phiri, S.

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes farmer innovations on improved fallows developed by researchers to replenish soil fertility. The reasons for the innovations and how these innovations are facilitating wide adoption of improved fallows are discussed. Research designed trial results to evaluate the ecological robustness of these innovations are also analyzed in…

  15. From Research to Operations: Integrating Components of an Advanced Diagnostic System with an Aspect-Oriented Framework

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fletcher, Daryl P.; Alena, Richard L.; Akkawi, Faisal; Duncavage, Daniel P.

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents some of the challenges associated with bringing software projects from the research world into an operationa1 environment. While the core functional components of research-oriented software applications can have great utility in an operational setting, these applications often lack aspects important in an operational environment such as logging and security. Furthermore, these stand-alone applications, sometimes developed in isolation from one another, can produce data products useful to other applications in a software ecosystem.

  16. Farmers' market use among African-American women participating in the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children.

    PubMed

    Racine, Elizabeth F; Smith Vaughn, Ashley; Laditka, Sarah B

    2010-03-01

    close to home and lack of transportation to farmers' markets. Women who received and redeemed Farmers' Market Nutrition Program vouchers were much more likely to purchase fruits/vegetables at farmers' markets. Future research to explore barriers and incentives for farmers' market use among WIC participants in urban and rural settings is warranted.

  17. A user-oriented web crawler for selectively acquiring online content in e-health research

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Songhua; Yoon, Hong-Jun; Tourassi, Georgia

    2014-01-01

    Motivation: Life stories of diseased and healthy individuals are abundantly available on the Internet. Collecting and mining such online content can offer many valuable insights into patients’ physical and emotional states throughout the pre-diagnosis, diagnosis, treatment and post-treatment stages of the disease compared with those of healthy subjects. However, such content is widely dispersed across the web. Using traditional query-based search engines to manually collect relevant materials is rather labor intensive and often incomplete due to resource constraints in terms of human query composition and result parsing efforts. The alternative option, blindly crawling the whole web, has proven inefficient and unaffordable for e-health researchers. Results: We propose a user-oriented web crawler that adaptively acquires user-desired content on the Internet to meet the specific online data source acquisition needs of e-health researchers. Experimental results on two cancer-related case studies show that the new crawler can substantially accelerate the acquisition of highly relevant online content compared with the existing state-of-the-art adaptive web crawling technology. For the breast cancer case study using the full training set, the new method achieves a cumulative precision between 74.7 and 79.4% after 5 h of execution till the end of the 20-h long crawling session as compared with the cumulative precision between 32.8 and 37.0% using the peer method for the same time period. For the lung cancer case study using the full training set, the new method achieves a cumulative precision between 56.7 and 61.2% after 5 h of execution till the end of the 20-h long crawling session as compared with the cumulative precision between 29.3 and 32.4% using the peer method. Using the reduced training set in the breast cancer case study, the cumulative precision of our method is between 44.6 and 54.9%, whereas the cumulative precision of the peer method is between 24.3 and

  18. Training and Farmers' Organizations' Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miiro, Richard F.; Matsiko, Frank B.; Mazur, Robert E.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: This study sought to determine the influence of training transfer factors and actual application of training on organization level outcomes among farmer owned produce marketing organizations in Uganda. Design/methodology/approach: Interviews based on the Learning Transfer Systems Inventory (LTSI) were conducted with 120 PMO leaders…

  19. Education Needs of Michigan Farmers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suvedi, Murari; Jeong, Eunseong; Coombs, John

    2010-01-01

    In 2008 MSU Extension evaluated their program to identify the major areas of educational need for Michigan farmers and agribusiness operators. Surveys were mailed to a stratified random sample from Michigan Agricultural Statistics Service records of dairy, livestock, swine, cash crops, fruit, vegetable, and nursery/greenhouse producers. Findings…

  20. Farmer and Public Attitudes Toward Lamb Finishing Systems.

    PubMed

    Coleman, Grahame; Jongman, Ellen; Greenfield, L; Hemsworth, Paul

    2016-01-01

    To develop research and policy on the welfare of lambs in intensive finishing systems, it is important to understand public and sheep farmers' attitudes. The aim of this research was to identify and compare farmer and community attitudes relevant to the intensification of lamb finishing. The majority of respondents in the community sample expressed concern about all listed welfare issues, but particularly about feedlotting of lambs and the associated confinement. These attitudes correlated with community views on the importance of welfare issues including social contact and freedom to roam. Farmers expressed much lower levels of concern than did the general public except with regard to the health of lambs, disease control, access to shade, and lack of access to clean water.

  1. Lung function and bronchial reactivity in farmers.

    PubMed Central

    Iversen, M; Dahl, R; Jensen, E J; Korsgaard, J; Hallas, T

    1989-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prevalence and type of lung function disorders in Danish farmers. Three samples of farmers were drawn from a group of unselected farmers who had participated in an epidemiological study. Group I (47 persons) was a sample of the 8% of all farmers who had reported that they had asthma; group II (63 persons) was a sample of the 28% of farmers who had had wheezing, shortness of breath, or cough without phlegm; and group III (34 persons) a sample of the farmers (64% of the total) who had no asthma and no respiratory symptoms. The farmers with symptoms (groups I and II) had low mean levels of FEV1 and high values for residual volume, whereas the symptomless farmers had normal lung function and no airways obstruction. The proportion of farmers with an FEV1 below the 95% confidence limit for predicted values was 43% in group I and 23% in group II; there were none in group III. Bronchial hyperreactivity to histamine occurred in 96% of asthmatic farmers, 67% of farmers with wheezing or shortness of breath, and 59% of symptomless farmers. A low level of FEV1 was associated with the number of years in pig farming and bronchial hyperreactivity in group II but not group I or III. Most of the bronchial hyperreactivity was explained in the multiple regression analysis by a low FEV1, though this was significant only for farmers in group II. Thus farmers who reported asthma, wheezing, shortness of breath, or a dry cough in general had airways obstruction with an increased residual volume, whereas symptomless farmers had normal lung function. Severe bronchial hyperreactivity was mostly explained by a diagnosis of asthma and poor lung function, though some farmers with normal lung function and no respiratory symptoms had increased bronchial reactivity. PMID:2799744

  2. Extension's Role with Farmers' Markets: Working with Farmers, Consumers, and Communities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abel, Jennifer; Thomson, Joan; Maretzki, Audrey

    1999-01-01

    Extension education can help farmers and consumers enjoy benefits of farmers' markets by helping farmers learn about marketing, assisting communities with site selection, encouraging use of Women Infants Children Farmers' Market Nutrition Program coupons, and teaching consumers about food use and preservation. (SK)

  3. Farmer Experience of Pluralistic Agricultural Extension, Malawi

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chowa, Clodina; Garforth, Chris; Cardey, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Malawi's current extension policy supports pluralism and advocates responsiveness to farmer demand. We investigate whether smallholder farmers' experience supports the assumption that access to multiple service providers leads to extension and advisory services that respond to the needs of farmers. Design/methodology/approach: Within a…

  4. Communicating with "Neglected" Farmers on Regulatory Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (USDA), Washington, DC.

    Workshop recommendations resulting from an Animal and Plant Health Service (APHS) Seminar on ways of reaching "neglected" farmers and enlisting their support for the APHS regulatory programs are provided. The "neglected" farmer is identified as those low-income/minority group marginal farmers who cannot be reached by ordinary means, e.g., poor…

  5. ANNUAL ESTIMATED REPLACEMENT FARMER OPPORTUNITIES IN NEBRASKA.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    GENEREUX, DOUGLAS G.

    AN ESTIMATE OF ANNUAL FARMER REPLACEMENT NEEDS IN THE 93 COUNTIES OF NEBRASKA WAS COMPUTED BY A FORMULA DEVELOPED BY CLARENCE BUNDY AT IOWA STATE UNIVERSITY AND APPLIED TO CENSUS DATA. THE FORMULA WAS USED TO DETERMINE THE NUMBER OF FARMER RETIREMENTS, OR FARMERS LEAVING FARMING, AND FARM CONSOLIDATION RATES. ACCORDING TO THE ESTIMATES, 951…

  6. How Farmers Learn about Environmental Issues: Reflections on a Sociobiographical Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vandenabeele, Joke; Wildemeersch, Danny

    2012-01-01

    At the time of this research, protests of farmers against new environmental policy measures received much media attention. News reports suggested that farmers' organizations rejected the idea that modern farming techniques cause damage to the environment and even tried to undermine attempts to reconcile the goals of modern agriculture with…

  7. A License to Produce? Farmer Interpretations of the New Food Security Agenda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fish, Rob; Lobley, Matt; Winter, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Drawing on the findings of empirical research conducted in the South West of England, this paper explores how farmers make sense of re-emerging imperatives for "food security" in UK policy and political discourse. The analysis presented is based on two types of empirical inquiry. First, an extensive survey of 1543 farmers, exploring the…

  8. Lessons from an Experiential Learning Process: The Case of Cowpea Farmer Field Schools in Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nederlof, E. Suzanne; Odonkor, Ezekiehl N.

    2006-01-01

    The Farmer Field School (FFS) is a form of adult education using experiential learning methods, aimed at building farmers' decision-making capacity and expertise. The National Research Institute in West Africa conducted FFS in cowpea cultivation and we use this experience to analyse the implementation of the FFS approach. How does it work in…

  9. Research on the function orientation of pumped-storage plant in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Jun-shu; Bo, Yuan; Wu, Sheng-yu; Zhang, Fu-qiang; Hao, Wei-hua

    2017-01-01

    With the growth of electrical load and development of clean energy, peak regulation of power system has been paid more attention to, in which case pumped-storage plant becomes the most efficient and economical way against peak load and the ensurance of safe and stable system operation. However, the dispatch and operation mode of pumped-storage plant is a little unreasonable at present in our country, due to the insufficient acknowledge of plants’ function orientation in different regions. This paper studied the standard of classifying pumped-storage plants, by dividing the plant function into three types security oriented, peak shaving oriented and renewable energy accommodation oriented, based on the local load characteristic, structure of power supply, accommodating capability of renewable energy, nuclear energy, etc. Finally, according to the current and future development situation of five Chinese regions, the function orientation partition of pumped-storage plant is given, which has profound guiding and practical significance for pumped-storage plant dispatch and operation.

  10. [Research on direct forming of comminuted fracture surgery orienting model by selective laser melting].

    PubMed

    He, Xingrong; Yang, Yongqiang; Wu, Weihui; Wang, Di; Ding, Huanwen; Huang, Weihong

    2010-06-01

    In order to simplify the distal femoral comminuted fracture surgery and improve the accuracy of the parts to be reset, a kind of surgery orienting model for the surgery operation was designed according to the scanning data of computer tomography and the three-dimensional reconstruction image. With the use of DiMetal-280 selective laser melting rapid prototyping system, the surgery orienting model of 316L stainless steel was made through orthogonal experiment for processing parameter optimization. The technology of direct manufacturing of surgery orienting model by selective laser melting was noted to have obvious superiority with high speed, precise profile and good accuracy in size when compared with the conventional one. The model was applied in a real surgical operation for thighbone replacement; it worked well. The successful development of the model provides a new method for the automatic manufacture of customized surgery model, thus building a foundation for more clinical applications in the future.

  11. Different animal welfare orientations towards some key research areas of current relevance to pastoral dairy farming in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Webster, J R; Schütz, K E; Sutherland, M A; Stewart, M; Mellor, D J

    2015-01-01

    The New Zealand dairy industry needs to meet public expectations regarding animal welfare in order to retain the freedom to operate and achieve market success. Three key orientations towards animal welfare assessment have been identified, namely biological functioning, affective state and natural living, the last two of which are more recent foci for societal concern. Biological functioning was the first and most-studied aspect of animal welfare and continues to be important, but now the contribution of affective state to animal well-being is emphasised much more. Natural living, or naturalness, has received relatively less attention from animal welfare science. It is proposed that increasing the use of naturalness as a contextual reference point for considering species-specific behavioural expressions of affective state will enhance its inclusion in animal welfare assessment. Nevertheless, all three orientations need to be considered in order to evaluate the significance of welfare research findings. On this basis, five key aspects of the New Zealand dairy industry that have been the subject of recent research, due to the risk of them not meeting public expectations, are highlighted and discussed. The aspects are provision of shade and shelter, meeting targets for body condition, provision of comfortable surfaces for rearing calves, and for adult cows while off pasture, and pain relief for disbudding of calves. Research evidence indicates that the industry guidelines on body condition score, if met, would satisfy public expectations across the three orientations to animal welfare, whereas further work is needed on the other aspects. It is concluded that considering these three orientations to animal welfare when planning research and then evaluating the outcomes will help to promote the market success of the dairy industry in New Zealand.

  12. Agricultural Science in the Wild: A Social Network Analysis of Farmer Knowledge Exchange

    PubMed Central

    Wood, Brennon A.; Blair, Hugh T.; Gray, David I.; Kemp, Peter D.; Kenyon, Paul R.; Morris, Steve T.; Sewell, Alison M.

    2014-01-01

    Responding to demands for transformed farming practices requires new forms of knowledge. Given their scale and complexity, agricultural problems can no longer be solved by linear transfers in which technology developed by specialists passes to farmers by way of extension intermediaries. Recent research on alternative approaches has focused on the innovation systems formed by interactions between heterogeneous actors. Rather than linear transfer, systems theory highlights network facilitation as a specialized function. This paper contributes to our understanding of such facilitation by investigating the networks in which farmers discuss science. We report findings based on the study of a pastoral farming experiment collaboratively undertaken by a group of 17 farmers and five scientists. Analysis of prior contact and alter sharing between the group’s members indicates strongly tied and decentralized networks. Farmer knowledge exchanges about the experiment have been investigated using a mix of quantitative and qualitative methods. Network surveys identified who the farmers contacted for knowledge before the study began and who they had talked to about the experiment by 18 months later. Open-ended interviews collected farmer statements about their most valuable contacts and these statements have been thematically analysed. The network analysis shows that farmers talked about the experiment with 192 people, most of whom were fellow farmers. Farmers with densely tied and occupationally homogeneous contacts grew their networks more than did farmers with contacts that are loosely tied and diverse. Thematic analysis reveals three general principles: farmers value knowledge delivered by persons rather than roles, privilege farming experience, and develop knowledge with empiricist rather than rationalist techniques. Taken together, these findings suggest that farmers deliberate about science in intensive and durable networks that have significant implications for

  13. Farmers' Perceptions of Climate Variability and Factors Influencing Adaptation: Evidence from Anhui and Jiangsu, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kibue, Grace Wanjiru; Liu, Xiaoyu; Zheng, Jufeng; zhang, Xuhui; Pan, Genxing; Li, Lianqing; Han, Xiaojun

    2016-05-01

    Impacts of climate variability and climate change are on the rise in China posing great threat to agriculture and rural livelihoods. Consequently, China is undertaking research to find solutions of confronting climate change and variability. However, most studies of climate change and variability in China largely fail to address farmers' perceptions of climate variability and adaptation. Yet, without an understanding of farmers' perceptions, strategies are unlikely to be effective. We conducted questionnaire surveys of farmers in two farming regions, Yifeng, Jiangsu and Qinxi, Anhui achieving 280 and 293 responses, respectively. Additionally, we used climatological data to corroborate the farmers' perceptions of climate variability. We found that farmers' were aware of climate variability such that were consistent with climate records. However, perceived impacts of climate variability differed between the two regions and were influenced by farmers' characteristics. In addition, the vast majorities of farmers were yet to make adjustments in their farming practices as a result of numerous challenges. These challenges included socioeconomic and socio-cultural barriers. Results of logit modeling showed that farmers are more likely to adapt to climate variability if contact with extension services, frequency of seeking information, household heads' education, and climate variability perceptions are improved. These results suggest the need for policy makers to understand farmers' perceptions of climate variability and change in order to formulate policies that foster adaptation, and ultimately protect China's agricultural assets.

  14. Farmers' Perceptions of Climate Variability and Factors Influencing Adaptation: Evidence from Anhui and Jiangsu, China.

    PubMed

    Kibue, Grace Wanjiru; Liu, Xiaoyu; Zheng, Jufeng; Zhang, Xuhui; Pan, Genxing; Li, Lianqing; Han, Xiaojun

    2016-05-01

    Impacts of climate variability and climate change are on the rise in China posing great threat to agriculture and rural livelihoods. Consequently, China is undertaking research to find solutions of confronting climate change and variability. However, most studies of climate change and variability in China largely fail to address farmers' perceptions of climate variability and adaptation. Yet, without an understanding of farmers' perceptions, strategies are unlikely to be effective. We conducted questionnaire surveys of farmers in two farming regions, Yifeng, Jiangsu and Qinxi, Anhui achieving 280 and 293 responses, respectively. Additionally, we used climatological data to corroborate the farmers' perceptions of climate variability. We found that farmers' were aware of climate variability such that were consistent with climate records. However, perceived impacts of climate variability differed between the two regions and were influenced by farmers' characteristics. In addition, the vast majorities of farmers were yet to make adjustments in their farming practices as a result of numerous challenges. These challenges included socioeconomic and socio-cultural barriers. Results of logit modeling showed that farmers are more likely to adapt to climate variability if contact with extension services, frequency of seeking information, household heads' education, and climate variability perceptions are improved. These results suggest the need for policy makers to understand farmers' perceptions of climate variability and change in order to formulate policies that foster adaptation, and ultimately protect China's agricultural assets.

  15. Farmers' loss due to Guinea worm disease: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Brieger, W R; Guyer, J

    1990-04-01

    Guinea worm disease has been blamed for much disability and loss of productivity among farmers in Africa and South Asia. Many studies have tried to equate days lost in illness to monetary values. These attempts often overlook the process of disability in relation to farming patterns. This pilot effort uses a qualitative case study approach to learn about how Guinea worm can cause loss to farmers. Twenty in-depth interviews with affected farmers showed that their losses are related to the time of year they are affected by Guinea worm. Some crops with flexible planting times, e.g. cassava, may not be as affected. Duration of disability is another determining factor. Insights from this pilot study can be used to design more appropriate large-scale survey instruments and guide development of longitudinal research.

  16. Are Conventional Farmers Conventional? Analysis of the Environmental Orientations of Conventional New Zealand Farmers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fairweather, John R.; Hunt, Lesley M.; Rosin, Chris J.; Campbell, Hugh R.

    2009-01-01

    Within the political economy of agriculture and agrofood literatures there are examples of approaches that reject simple dichotomies between alternatives and the mainstream. In line with such approaches, we challenge the assumption that alternative agriculture, and its attendant improved environmental practices, alternative management styles, less…

  17. Study Orientations as Indicators of Ideologies. A Study of Five Student Teacher Groups. Research Report 41.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Puurula, Arja

    The official recommendations of teacher education in Finland stress the personality growth of student teachers towards an active, highly educated, socially oriented, and humanistic personality. This is a study of three kinds of prospective teachers: nursery school teachers, elementary teachers, and subject teachers. The student teachers of the…

  18. Parent Oriented Home-Based Early Childhood Education Program. Research Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Ira J.; And Others

    This report contains descriptions of 44 exemplary parent oriented early childhood education programs plus a locator system designed to facilitate access to the information in these program descriptions. The program descriptions are organized into four sections: (1) programs in which school systems are the agencies responsible, (2) programs in…

  19. Research on the rapid and accurate positioning and orientation approach for land missile-launching vehicle.

    PubMed

    Li, Kui; Wang, Lei; Lv, Yanhong; Gao, Pengyu; Song, Tianxiao

    2015-10-20

    Getting a land vehicle's accurate position, azimuth and attitude rapidly is significant for vehicle based weapons' combat effectiveness. In this paper, a new approach to acquire vehicle's accurate position and orientation is proposed. It uses biaxial optical detection platform (BODP) to aim at and lock in no less than three pre-set cooperative targets, whose accurate positions are measured beforehand. Then, it calculates the vehicle's accurate position, azimuth and attitudes by the rough position and orientation provided by vehicle based navigation systems and no less than three couples of azimuth and pitch angles measured by BODP. The proposed approach does not depend on Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS), thus it is autonomous and difficult to interfere. Meanwhile, it only needs a rough position and orientation as algorithm's iterative initial value, consequently, it does not have high performance requirement for Inertial Navigation System (INS), odometer and other vehicle based navigation systems, even in high precise applications. This paper described the system's working procedure, presented theoretical deviation of the algorithm, and then verified its effectiveness through simulation and vehicle experiments. The simulation and experimental results indicate that the proposed approach can achieve positioning and orientation accuracy of 0.2 m and 20″ respectively in less than 3 min.

  20. Connecting Research on Retinitis Pigmentosa to the Practice of Orientation and Mobility.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geruschat, Duane R.; Turano, Kathleen A.

    2002-01-01

    Retinitis pigmentosa (RP) causes restriction of the visual field, progressive vision loss, and night blindness. This article presents an overview of the most common problems in orientation and mobility (O&M) for individuals with RP, appropriate interventions, vision science discoveries related to RP, and the impact of RP on functional visual…

  1. Eight Teachers' Control Orientations and Their Students' Problem-Solving Ability. Research Series No. 188.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prawat, Richard S.; Anderson, Ariel L. H.

    An interview of 64 students in eight 3rd- and 4th-grade classrooms and an assessment of their teachers' control orientation were conducted for the purpose of testing the hypothesis that students of autonomy-granting teachers are better means-ends thinkers than those of controlling teachers. Dimensions of students' classroom socialization of…

  2. Microworlds for Learning Object-Oriented Programming: Considerations from Research to Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Djelil, Fahima; Albouy-Kissi, Adelaide; Albouy-Kissi, Benjamin; Sanchez, Eric; Lavest, Jean-Marc

    2016-01-01

    Object-Oriented paradigm is a common paradigm for introductory programming courses. However, many teachers find that transitioning to teaching this paradigm is a difficult task. To overcome this complexity, many experienced teachers use microworlds to give beginner students an intuitive and rapid understanding of fundamental abstract concepts of…

  3. Towards "Refiguring Presences" as an Anti-Colonial Orientation to Research in Early Childhood Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nxumalo, Fikile

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, I craft a methodological orientation for attending to the intricacies of everyday place encounters in early childhood settings with particular attention to settler colonialism and more-than-human entanglements. Drawing from my work with children and educators in childcare settings located in what is now British Columbia, Canada, I…

  4. Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathematics Teaching, 1973

    1973-01-01

    Implications for teachers from Piagetian-oriented piagetian-oriented research on problem solving reported in an article by Eleanor Duckworth are presented. Edward de Bono's Children Solve Problems,'' a collection of examples, is also discussed. (MS)

  5. Impact of Training Bolivian Farmers on Integrated Pest Management and Diffusion of Knowledge to Neighboring Farmers.

    PubMed

    Jørs, Erik; Konradsen, Flemming; Huici, Omar; Morant, Rafael C; Volk, Julie; Lander, Flemming

    2016-01-01

    Teaching farmers integrated pest management (IPM) in farmer field schools (FFS) has led to reduced pesticide use and safer handling. This article evaluates the long-term impact of training farmers on IPM and the diffusion of knowledge from trained farmers to neighboring farmers, a subject of importance to justify training costs and to promote a healthy and sustainable agriculture. Training on IPM of farmers took place from 2002 to 2004 in their villages in La Paz County, Bolivia, whereas dissemination of knowledge from trained farmer to neighboring farmer took place until 2009. To evaluate the impact of the intervention, self-reported knowledge and practice on pesticide handling and IPM among trained farmers (n = 23) and their neighboring farmers (n = 47) were analyzed in a follow-up study and compared in a cross-sectional analysis with a control group of farmers (n = 138) introduced in 2009. Variables were analyzed using χ2 test and analysis of variance (ANOVA). Trained farmers improved and performed significantly better in all tested variables than their neighboring farmers, although the latter also improved their performance from 2002 to 2009. Including a control group showed an increasing trend in all variables, with the control farmers having the poorest performance and trained farmers the best. The same was seen in an aggregated variable where trained farmers had a mean score of 16.55 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 15.45-17.65), neighboring farmers a mean score of 11.97 (95% CI: 10.56-13.38), and control farmers a mean score of 9.18 (95% CI: 8.55-9.80). Controlling for age and living altitude did not change these results. Trained farmers and their neighboring farmers improved and maintained knowledge and practice on IPM and pesticide handling. Diffusion of knowledge from trained farmers might explain the better performance of the neighboring farmers compared with the control farmers. Dissemination of knowledge can contribute to justify the cost and convince

  6. Agent oriented programming: An overview of the framework and summary of recent research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shoham, Yoav

    1993-01-01

    This is a short overview of the agent-oriented programming (AOP) framework. AOP can be viewed as an specialization of object-oriented programming. The state of an agent consists of components called beliefs, choices, capabilities, commitments, and possibly others; for this reason the state of an agent is called its mental state. The mental state of agents is captured formally in an extension of standard epistemic logics: beside temporalizing the knowledge and belief operators, AOP introduces operators for commitment, choice and capability. Agents are controlled by agent programs, which include primitives for communicating with other agents. In the spirit of speech-act theory, each communication primitive is of a certain type: informing, requesting, offering, etc. This document describes these features in more detail and summarizes recent results and ongoing AOP-related work.

  7. Growth and analysis of highly oriented (11n) BCSCO films for device research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raina, K. K.; Pandey, R. K.

    1995-01-01

    Films of BCSCO superconductor of the type Bi2CaSr2Cu2Ox have been grown by liquid phase epitaxy method (LPE), using a partially closed growth chamber. The films were grown on (001) and (110) NdGaO3 substrates by slow cooling process in an optimized temperature range below the peritectic melting point (880 C) of Bi2CaSr2Cu2O8. Optimization of parameters, such as seed rotation, soak of initial growth temperature and growth period results in the formation of 2122 phase BCSCO films. The films grown at rotation rates of less than 30 and more than 70 rpm are observed to be associated with the second phase of Sr-Ca-Cu-O system. Higher growth temperatures (is greater than 860 C) also encourage to the formation of this phase. X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) measurements show that the films grown on (110) NdGaO3 have a preferred (11 n)-orientation. It is pertinent to mention here that in our earlier results published elsewhere we obtained c-axis oriented Bi2CaSr2Cu2O8 phase films on (001) NdGaO3 substrate. Critical current density is found to be higher for the films grown on (110) than (001) NdGaO3 substrate orientation. The best values of zero resistance (T(sub co)) and critical current density obtained are 87 K and 105 A/sq cm, respectively.

  8. Growth and Analysis of Highly Oriented (11n) BCSCO Films for Device Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raina, K. K.; Pandey, R. K.

    1995-01-01

    Films of BCSCO superconductor of the type Bi2CaSr2Cu2O(x), have been grown by liquid phase epitaxy method (LPE), using a partially closed growth chamber. The films were grown on (001) and (110) NdGaO3 substrates by slow cooling process in an optimized temperature range below the peritectic melting point (880 C) of Bi2CaSr2Cu2O8. Optimization of parameters, such as seed rotation, soak of initial growth temperature and growth period results in the formation of 2122 phase BCSCO films. The films grown at rotation rates of less than 30 and more than 70 rpm are observed to be associated with the second phase of Sr-Ca-Cu-O system. Higher growth temperatures (greater than 860 C) also encourage to the formation of this phase. XRD measurements show that the films grown on (110) NdGaO3 have a preferred (11n)-orientation. It is pertinent to mention here that in our earlier results published elsewhere we obtained c-axis oriented Bi2CaSr2Cu2O8 phase films on (001) NdGaO3 substrate. Critical current density is found to be higher for the films grown on (110) than (001) NdGaO3 substrate orientation. The best values, zero resistance (T(sab co)) and critical current density obtained are 87 K and 10(exp 5) A/sq cm respectively.

  9. Does Reform-Oriented Teaching Make a Difference? The Relationship Between Teaching Practices and Achievement in Mathematics and Science. Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Le, Vi-Nhuan; Stecher, Brian M.; Lockwood, J.R.; Hamilton, Laura S.; Robyn, Abby; Williams, Valerie L.; Ryan, Gery; Kerr, Kerri A.; Martinez, Jose Felipe; Klein, Stephen P.

    2006-01-01

    In a three-year study, RAND researchers examined the relationship between reform-oriented instruction and student performance in mathematics and science. At the end of the study, students who had been exposed to more reform-oriented teaching performed better in both math and science than those who had experienced less, but the differences in…

  10. Socio-climatic Exposure of an Afghan Poppy Farmer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mankin, J. S.; Diffenbaugh, N. S.

    2011-12-01

    Many posit that climate impacts from anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions will have consequences for the natural and agricultural systems on which humans rely for food, energy, and livelihoods, and therefore, on stability and human security. However, many of the potential mechanisms of action in climate impacts and human systems response, as well as the differential vulnerabilities of such systems, remain underexplored and unquantified. Here I present two initial steps necessary to characterize and quantify the consequences of climate change for farmer livelihood in Afghanistan, given both climate impacts and farmer vulnerabilities. The first is a conceptual model mapping the potential relationships between Afghanistan's climate, the winter agricultural season, and the country's political economy of violence and instability. The second is a utility-based decision model for assessing farmer response sensitivity to various climate impacts based on crop sensitivities. A farmer's winter planting decision can be modeled roughly as a tradeoff between cultivating the two crops that dominate the winter growing season-opium poppy (a climate tolerant cash crop) and wheat (a climatically vulnerable crop grown for household consumption). Early sensitivity analysis results suggest that wheat yield dominates farmer decision making variability; however, such initial results may dependent on the relative parameter ranges of wheat and poppy yields. Importantly though, the variance in Afghanistan's winter harvest yields of poppy and wheat is tightly linked to household livelihood and thus, is indirectly connected to the wider instability and insecurity within the country. This initial analysis motivates my focused research on the sensitivity of these crops to climate variability in order to project farmer well-being and decision sensitivity in a warmer world.

  11. [Integrated sustainability-oriented reporting--key indicators for communities and cities. Results of a research and development project].

    PubMed

    Süss, W; Glismann, W; Trojan, A

    2005-02-01

    In our research project -- supported by the German Federal Ministry for Education and Research (BMBF) - 35 key indicators were developed in an ongoing process in co-operation with 10 East German cities, which are all members in the German cities healthy network. With these indicators the cities should take up integrated sustainability - oriented health reporting, from which actions and projects for health promotion and prevention can be derived. The conceptual background for the research project and the reports to be made by the project in co-operation with the cities, are the three policy programmes that to be realised on a county level: Healthy Cities, Local Agenda 21 and the German city development programme "Soziale Stadt (socially oriented city)". The common goal of these programmes is the sustainable improvement of the quality of life in the counties. The project is part of the BMBF-supported research field "problem - oriented regional reporting systems", in which other projects are involved which are mainly being conducted in the newly-formed East German "Lander". In this article we describe the co-operative process of the development of the indicators. A synopsis of already applied or proposed sets of indicators for municipal reporting was the basis for the development of the project's set of 35 key indicators. The set of indicators is presented according to its usefulness for planning and realisation of actions for health promotion on county level. For each of the 35 indicators a meta - data description was made to support the counties and cities in our project for health reporting. These indicator profiles are also helpful and supportive for all counties and citiesaiming at such health reporting. The project started in May 2002 and lasts till Mai 2005, so that most reports should be completed in the spring of 2005.

  12. Farmers' willingness to pay for groundwater protection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lichtenberg, Erik; Zimmerman, Rae

    1999-03-01

    The effectiveness of current groundwater protection policies depends largely on farmers' voluntary compliance with leaching reduction measures, an important component of which is their willingness to adopt costlier production practices in order to prevent leaching of chemicals. Data from an original survey of 1611 corn and soybean growers in the mid-Atlantic region were used to estimate farmers' willingness to pay to prevent leaching of pesticides into groundwater. The results indicate that farmers are willing to pay more for leaching prevention than nonfarm groundwater consumers, both absolutely and relative to total income. The primary motivation appears to be concern for overall environmental quality rather than protection of drinking water or the health and safety of themselves and their families. Hobby farmers are willing to pay more than farmers with commercial activity. Certified pesticide applicators are willing to pay less than farmers without certification.

  13. Impacts of sparing use of water on farmer income of China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhan; Deng, Xiangzheng; Chen, Jiancheng

    We examine relationships between nationwide sparing use of water and farmer income of China in this article. As increasing implementation of water projects and irrigation system, the cost of water use has increased in many regions. However, as local policy-oriented urban expansion and ecological restoration have carried out during the past decade, water demand has increased. The spatial distributions of water use and farmer income are uneven and their relationships are ambiguous over time, especially it is uncertain that farmers can benefit from those so called water-saving programs when urban expansion grows faster in China. Based on consumption theory, empirical results of Blundell-Bond dynamic panel-data model with generalized method of moments (GMM) estimators indicate saving one percent of water has positive impacts at 0.085-0.35 percent on farmer income in the following statistical year. Population has negative impacts on farmer income. Particularly in Central China, one percent of increase in population will statistically significantly decrease 0.276 percent of contemporaneous farmer income. Particularly, in Eastern China with large population during years 2004 through 2012, the total amount of water use increases one percent, contemporaneous farmer income loses 0.04 percent. Thus, saving water can benefit future farmer income, and it indicates that urban expansion may induce the diversion of resources and agricultural production from rural to urban area. Policy implication of relationships between water allocation and farmer income distribution caused by water-saving programs needs to be further studied at regional scale, in particularly to the regions with large population and urban expansion in China.

  14. Community support systems for farmers who live with disability.

    PubMed

    Friesen, Margaret N; Krassikouva-Enns, Olga; Ringaert, Laurie; Isfeld, Harpa

    2010-04-01

    To return to farming following the onset of a disabling injury or health condition is predicated on a supportive environment for the farm owner-operator. The purpose of this study was to examine barriers and facilitators of returning to work after an injury or acquired disability, and to identify community supports (formal and informal) needed and available to farmers. This was a qualitative study using a participatory action research approach that involved a research team, an advisory group of seven stakeholder participants and semistructured interviews with farmers, their spouses, and service providers in the study communities. A total of 11 farmers and 17 service providers took part in a focus group or were interviewed individually with or without the spouse present. Focus group discussions and interviews were transcribed and analyzed using constant comparison method and team consensus of findings. Themes of barriers and facilitators for return to farming were identified as health care services, financial and economic issues, and "hands-on" assistance. Themes were organized into an ecological conceptual diagram depicting barriers and facilitators in the microsystem of the farm family, the mesosystem of the local farming community and regional health jurisdictions, and the macrosystem of the province and/or nation's social, legislative, and economic realities. Enhancing community support systems for farmers who become disabled as a result of injury or illness will require a multilevel system approach that involves health, financial, and labor resources.

  15. Danish dairy farmers' perception of biosecurity.

    PubMed

    Kristensen, Erling; Jakobsen, Esben B

    2011-05-01

    To implement biosecurity measures at farm-level is a motivational challenge to dairy farmers as emerging diseases and their consequences largely are unpredictable. One of the reasons for this challenge is that outcomes are more likely to benefit society than the individual farmer. From the individual farmer's point of view the impacts of zoonotic risk, international trade and welfare concerns appear less obvious than the direct costs at farm-level. Consequently, a social dilemma may arise where collective interests are at odds with private interests. To improve biosecurity at farm-level farmers must be motivated to change behavior in the 'right' direction which could provide selfish farmers with unintended possibilities to exploit the level of biosecurity provided by other dairy farmers' collective actions. Farmers' perception of risk of disease introduction into a dairy herd was explored by means of Q-methodology. Participating farmers owned very large dairy herds and were selected for this study because Danish legislation since 2008 has required that larger farms develop and implement a farm specific biosecurity plan. However, a year from introduction of this requirement, none of the participating farmers had developed a biosecurity plan. Farmers' perception of biosecurity could meaningfully be described by four families of perspectives, labeled: cooperatives; confused; defectors, and introvert. Interestingly, all families of perspectives agreed that sourcing of animals from established dealers represented the highest risk to biosecurity at farm-level. Farmers and policy-makers are faced with important questions about biosecurity at farm-level related to the sanctioning system within the contextual framework of social dilemmas. To solve these challenges we propose the development of a market-mediated system to (1) reduce the risk of free-riders, and (2) provide farmers with incentives to improve biosecurity at farm-level.

  16. Sensors Enable Plants to Text Message Farmers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2013-01-01

    Long-term human spaceflight means long-term menu planning. Since every pound of cargo comes with a steep price tag, NASA has long researched technologies and techniques to allow astronauts to grow their own food, both on the journey and in some cases at their destination. Sustainable food technologies designed for space have resulted in spinoffs that improve the nutrition, safety, and durability of food on Earth. There are of course tradeoffs involved in making astronauts part-time farmers. Any time spent tending plants is time that can t be spent elsewhere: collecting data, exploring, performing routine maintenance, or sleeping. And as scarce as time is for astronauts, resources are even more limited. It is highly practical, therefore, to ensure that farming in space is as automated and precise as possible.

  17. Growth and analysis of highly oriented (11n) BCSCO films for device research

    SciTech Connect

    Raina, K.K.; Pandey, R.K.

    1994-12-31

    Films of BCSCO superconductor of the type Bi{sub 2}CaSr{sub 2}Cu{sub 2}O{sub x} have been grown by liquid phase epitaxy method (LPE), using a partially closed growth chamber. The films were grown on (001) and (110) NdGaO{sub 3} substrates by slow cooling process in an optimized temperature range below the peritectic melting point (880{degrees}C) of Bi{sub 2}CaSr{sub 2}Cu{sub 2}O{sub 8}. Optimization of parameters, such as seed rotation, soak of initial growth temperature and growth period results in the formation of 2122 phase BCSCO films. The films grown at rotation rates of less than 30 and more than 70 rpm are observed to be associated with the second phase of Sr-Ca-Cu-O system. Higher growth temperatures (>860{degrees}C) also encourage to the formation of this phase. XRD measurements show that the films grown on (110) NdGaO{sub 3} have a preferred (11n)-orientation. It is pertinent to mention here that in our earlier results published elsewhere we obtained c-axis oriented Bi{sub 2}CaSr{sub 2}Cu{sub 2}O{sub 8} phase films on (001) NdGaO{sub 3} substrate. Critical current density is found to be higher for the films grown on (110) than (001) NdGaO{sub 3} substrate orientation. The best values of zero resistance (T{sub co}) and critical current density obtained are 87 K and 10{sup 5} A/cm{sup 2}, respectively.

  18. Farmers' perception of the role of veterinary surgeons in vaccination strategies on British dairy farms.

    PubMed

    Richens, I F; Hobson-West, P; Brennan, M L; Lowton, R; Kaler, J; Wapenaar, W

    2015-11-07

    There is limited research investigating the motivators and barriers to vaccinating dairy cattle. Veterinary surgeons have been identified as important sources of information for farmers making vaccination and disease control decisions, as well as being farmers' preferred vaccine suppliers. Vets' perception of their own role and communication style can be at odds with farmers' reported preferences. The objective of this study was to investigate how dairy farmers perceived the role of vets in implementing vaccination strategies on their farm. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 24 dairy farmers from across Britain. The data were analysed using thematic analysis. Analysis revealed that farmers perceive vets to have an important role in facilitating decision-making in all aspects of vaccination, including the aspects of vaccine distribution and advice on implementation. This important role is acknowledged by farmers who have regular veterinary contact, but also farmers with solely emergency veterinary contact. Given this finding, future work should investigate the attitudes of vets towards vaccination and how they perceive their role. Combining this knowledge will enable optimisation of vaccination strategies on British dairy farms.

  19. Motivating California organic farmers to go solar: Economics may trump philosophy in deciding to adopt photovoltaics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fata, Johnathon A.

    Organic farmers who have adopted solar photovoltaic (PV) systems to generate electricity are leaders in agricultural energy sustainability, yet research on their culture and motivations is largely incomplete. These farmers share economic and logistical constraints, but they may differ in their underlying worldviews. To better understand what motivates San Francisco Bay Area organic farmers to install solar PV systems, 14 in-depth interviews and short surveys were conducted and included a "frontier mentality" rubric. Additionally, nine online surveys were administered. In this study's sample, financial concerns turned out to provide the greatest motivation for farmers to adopt solar PV. Concern for the environment followed closely. Among farms that did not have solar, the overwhelming prohibiting factor was upfront cost. Climate change was not cited directly as a driving force for adoption of solar PV by any of the participants. A wide range of differences among organic farmers existed in environmental attitudes. This reflected the diversity of views held by organic farmers in California today. For example, certified organic farmers had less strongly held environmental values than did those that eschew third-party certification in favor of a trust-based connection to the consumer. Understanding this group of highly involved environmental players provides insight into environmental behavior of other farmers as well as broader categories of consumers and businesses.

  20. Farmers' Intentions to Implement Foot and Mouth Disease Control Measures in Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Jemberu, Wudu T; Mourits, M C M; Hogeveen, H

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to explore farmers' intentions to implement foot and mouth disease (FMD) control in Ethiopia, and to identify perceptions about the disease and its control measures that influence these intentions using the Health Belief Model (HBM) framework. Data were collected using questionnaires from 293 farmers in three different production systems. The influence of perceptions on the intentions to implement control measures were analyzed using binary logistic regression. The effect of socio-demographic and husbandry variables on perceptions that were found to significantly influence the intentions were analyzed using ordinal logistic regression. Almost all farmers (99%) intended to implement FMD vaccination free of charge. The majority of farmers in the pastoral (94%) and market oriented (92%) systems also had the intention to implement vaccination with charge but only 42% of the crop-livestock mixed farmers had the intention to do so. Only 2% of pastoral and 18% of crop-livestock mixed farmers had the intention to implement herd isolation and animal movement restriction continuously. These proportions increased to 11% for pastoral and 50% for crop-livestock mixed farmers when the measure is applied only during an outbreak. The majority of farmers in the market oriented system (>80%) had the intention to implement herd isolation and animal movement restriction measure, both continuously and during an outbreak. Among the HBM perception constructs, perceived barrier was found to be the only significant predictor of the intention to implement vaccination. Perceived susceptibility, perceived benefit and perceived barrier were the significant predictors of the intention for herd isolation and animal movement restriction measure. In turn, the predicting perceived barrier on vaccination control varied significantly with the production system and the age of farmers. The significant HBM perception predictors on herd isolation and animal movement

  1. Thermal instability theory analysis of multifaceted asymmetric radiation from the edge (MARFE) in Tokamak Experiment for Technology Oriented Research (TEXTOR)

    SciTech Connect

    Kelly, F. A.; Stacey, W. M.; Rapp, J.; Brix, M.

    2001-07-01

    The density limits for a series of shots in TEXTOR [Tokamak Experiment for Technology Oriented Research, E. Hintz, P. Bogen, H. A. Claa{ss}en , in Contributions to High-Temperature Plasma Physics, edited by K. H. Spatschek and J. Uhlenbusch (Akademie Verlag, Berlin, 1994, p. 373)], over a range of heating powers, that ended in multifaceted asymmetric radiation from the edge (MARFE) have been analyzed within the context of thermal instability theory. The prediction of MARFE onset agrees with observation to within the experimental uncertainty.

  2. Small Farmers' Habits of Reading Agricultural Extension Publications: The Case of Moshav Farmers in Israel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blum, Abraham; Azencot, Moshe

    1989-01-01

    Interviews farmers in Moshavim, Israel, to examine the need for efficient written communication channels between agricultural extension services and small farmers. Identifies the main problems as a weak distribution system and the necessity for authors of extension pamphlets and brochures to consider the special needs of small farmers. (KEH)

  3. Affordances, Barriers, and Motivations: Engagement in Research Activity by Academics at the Research-Oriented University in Vietnam

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nguyen, Quy; Klopper, Christopher; Smith, Calvin

    2016-01-01

    The importance of academics undertaking research and publishing their research results is emphasised by universities. Engagement in research is recognised as an effective means to increase a university's profile. This study applied a qualitative approach to explore affordances, barriers, and motivations towards the engagement in research…

  4. Factors Related to Adoption and Non-Adoption of Technical and Organizational Recommendations by Farmers Involved with Societe de Developpement du Cacao (SO.DE.CAO) in Cameroon. A Research Summary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamga, Andre; Cheek, Jimmy G.

    In order to promote cocoa production and assist cocoa farmers in overcoming diseases in this crop, the government of Cameroon created an experimental corporation called Societe de Developpement du Cacao (SO.DE.CAO) in 1974. This organization functioned much like an extension service to provide information about crop production and disease control.…

  5. Climate Trends and Farmers' Perceptions of Climate Change in Zambia.

    PubMed

    Mulenga, Brian P; Wineman, Ayala; Sitko, Nicholas J

    2017-02-01

    A number of studies use meteorological records to analyze climate trends and assess the impact of climate change on agricultural yields. While these provide quantitative evidence on climate trends and the likely effects thereof, they incorporate limited qualitative analysis of farmers' perceptions of climate change and/or variability. The present study builds on the quantitative methods used elsewhere to analyze climate trends, and in addition compares local narratives of climate change with evidence found in meteorological records in Zambia. Farmers offer remarkably consistent reports of a rainy season that is growing shorter and less predictable. For some climate parameters-notably, rising average temperature-there is a clear overlap between farmers' observations and patterns found in the meteorological records. However, the data do not support the perception that the rainy season used to begin earlier, and we generally do not detect a reported increase in the frequency of dry spells. Several explanations for these discrepancies are offered. Further, we provide policy recommendations to help farmers adapt to climate change/variability, as well as suggestions to shape future climate change policies, programs, and research in developing countries.

  6. Climate Trends and Farmers' Perceptions of Climate Change in Zambia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mulenga, Brian P.; Wineman, Ayala; Sitko, Nicholas J.

    2017-02-01

    A number of studies use meteorological records to analyze climate trends and assess the impact of climate change on agricultural yields. While these provide quantitative evidence on climate trends and the likely effects thereof, they incorporate limited qualitative analysis of farmers' perceptions of climate change and/or variability. The present study builds on the quantitative methods used elsewhere to analyze climate trends, and in addition compares local narratives of climate change with evidence found in meteorological records in Zambia. Farmers offer remarkably consistent reports of a rainy season that is growing shorter and less predictable. For some climate parameters—notably, rising average temperature—there is a clear overlap between farmers' observations and patterns found in the meteorological records. However, the data do not support the perception that the rainy season used to begin earlier, and we generally do not detect a reported increase in the frequency of dry spells. Several explanations for these discrepancies are offered. Further, we provide policy recommendations to help farmers adapt to climate change/variability, as well as suggestions to shape future climate change policies, programs, and research in developing countries.

  7. Clinical Care and Research Using Medus/A, A Medically Oriented Data Base Management System

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Peter B.; Strong, Robert M.

    1978-01-01

    Health care research often requires the acquisition of data from institutions and processes where the primary concern is the care of patients and the research is secondary. Under these circumstances, the collection and management of information for research must cooperate with the use of the same information for patient care. We present a data base management system, MEDUS/A, designed to meet the conditions imposed by the cooperative use of the data. Our experience with two research projects is described in view of the data model, data acquisition and reporting facilities, access control facilities, query capabilities and data analysis capabilities of MEDUS/A.

  8. Beginning Farmer Sustainable Agriculture Project. Interim Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Rural Affairs, Hartington, NE.

    This project increases opportunities for beginning farmers to learn about and implement sustainable farming methods through mutual-help discussion groups and continuing education opportunities. Local groups established in six areas in northeast Nebraska in 1991 constitute the Beginning Farmer Support Network (BFSN). At workshops held throughout…

  9. Human prehistory: Hunting for the earliest farmers.

    PubMed

    Rowley-Conwy, Peter

    2009-11-03

    The degree to which the spread of farming into Europe was accompanied by demographic shifts is subject to intense debate. Genetic evidence from Europe's first farmers and their hunter-gatherer counterparts now suggests an important role for the immigration of farmers.

  10. Best Management Practices for Beginning Farmer Support

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ochterski, Jim; Frenay, Erica

    2010-01-01

    Many beginning farmers have little previous contact with Extension, yet they will comprise an important part of our future base of support. We present those educational activities directed toward beginning farmers that represent high impact, outcome-based Extension programming, given an educator's time limitations. This checklist of insights will…

  11. Successful Black Farmers: Factors in Their Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Minnie M.; Larson, Olaf F.

    This paper identifies individual and institutional factors which have facilitated or inhibited the achievement of successful black farmers. The information derived from the case studies is used to develop a model which can be used in working effectively with black farmers. The thirteen case studies discussed focus on the following: (1) reasons for…

  12. Farmer's Use of the Soil Test Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Best, K. E.; Blackburn, D. J.

    A study of Haldimand County (Ontario, Canada) farmers' use and understanding of soil test reports and the relationship of these variables with certain personal and social characteristics of the respondents are summarized. The objectives of the study were to indicate the extent to which farmers use the soil test report, the quality of fertilizer…

  13. Explaining Strengthening Mechanisms, Institutional Orientations and Problematic Challenges of University Agricultural Research in Iran

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharifzadeh, Aboulghasem; Abdollahzadeh, Gholamhossein

    2009-01-01

    According to empirical evidence and noted implications of sustainable agricultural development as a systemic and multi-actor process, integration of the research function of higher agricultural education in Iranian agricultural research systems seems to be an ongoing and considerable necessity. With the aim of identification and analysis of…

  14. Using Mixed Methods from a Communicative Orientation: Researching with Grassroots Roma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flecha, Ramon

    2014-01-01

    Over a decade ago, researchers in Roma studies shifted their approach, from an exclusionary stance to a more communicative one. Despite major positive changes since then, researchers still do not adequately reflect the voices of the majority of the world's Roma. In this article, we draw on a communicative mixed methods case study, conducted within…

  15. Beyond "on" or "with": Questioning Power Dynamics and Knowledge Production in "Child-Oriented" Research Methodology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunleth, Jean

    2011-01-01

    By taking a reflexive approach to research methodology, this article contributes to discussions on power dynamics and knowledge production in the social studies of children. The author describes and analyzes three research methods that she used with children--drawing, child-led tape-recording and focus group discussions. These methods were carried…

  16. Integrating a Peer-Taught Module on Practical Research Ethics into the Graduate Student Orientation Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Danowitz, Amy M.; Taylor, Christopher E.

    2011-01-01

    As active members of the scientific community, graduate students make ethical judgments about the conduct and presentation of their research. Pressures in the research environment often influence these decisions. Because inappropriate decisions can lead to unethical behavior and scientific misconduct, it is important that students understand the…

  17. The lived experience of low back pain among Irish farmers: case studies.

    PubMed

    Osborne, Aoife; Blake, Catherine; Meredith, David; McNamara, John; Phelan, Jim; Cunningham, Caitriona

    2014-01-01

    Low back pain (LBP) is the most commonly reported musculoskeletal disorder (MSD) among farmers. There is limited researching regarding the lived experience of LBP among farmers. Video interviews were conducted with three dairy farmers who reported having a significant episode of LBP. The interview data were transcribed and analyzed, and results were presented in relation to the constructs explored. The farmers experienced their first significant episode of LBP in their late 20s or early 30s and all attributed their LBP to farm work or a farm-related incident. Hours worked per day ranged from 9 to 13 hours. Tasks identified by farmers that they were unable to do due to LBP included physical work, working with sheep, building work, and "certain jobs." Work changes made due to LBP included getting help, slowing down, avoiding strenuous work, carrying smaller loads, mechanizing the farm, using the tractor more, and wearing a back belt for certain jobs. Each farmer had his own way of preventing or managing his LBP, including a mix of active self-management and passive coping strategies such as swimming, using ice, spinal manipulation, and taking medication. The farmers were unable to quantify how much their LBP had cost them directly or indirectly. The case studies illustrate farmers engaging in ongoing work despite significant pain. All of the farmers have adapted at work and engaged in self-management strategies to reduce the occurrence of LBP. Given the rich data produced by these case studies, future case studies are recommended to gain greater insights into farmers' experiences concerning LBP.

  18. From Reductionism to Holism: Systems-oriented Approaches in Cancer Research.

    PubMed

    Kienle, Gunver; Kiene, Helmut

    2012-11-01

    Somatic mutation theory of cancer has directed cancer research during the last century. A deluge of information on cellular, molecular, and genetic behavior was uncovered, but so was a mind-numbing complexity that still challenges research and concepts, and expectations in the war on cancer have by and large not been fulfilled. A change of paradigm beyond reductionism has been called for, especially as research ubiquitously points at the importance of tissue, microenvironment, extracellular matrix, embryonic and morphogenetic fields, and fields of tissue maintenance and organization in the processes of carcinogenesis, cancer control, and cancer progression, as well as in the control of cellular and genetic behavior. Holistic, organismic systems concepts open new perspectives for cancer research and treatment, as well as general biological understanding.

  19. From Reductionism to Holism: Systems-oriented Approaches in Cancer Research

    PubMed Central

    Kiene, Helmut

    2012-01-01

    Somatic mutation theory of cancer has directed cancer research during the last century. A deluge of information on cellular, molecular, and genetic behavior was uncovered, but so was a mind-numbing complexity that still challenges research and concepts, and expectations in the war on cancer have by and large not been fulfilled. A change of paradigm beyond reductionism has been called for, especially as research ubiquitously points at the importance of tissue, microenvironment, extracellular matrix, embryonic and morphogenetic fields, and fields of tissue maintenance and organization in the processes of carcinogenesis, cancer control, and cancer progression, as well as in the control of cellular and genetic behavior. Holistic, organismic systems concepts open new perspectives for cancer research and treatment, as well as general biological understanding. PMID:27257534

  20. Research on meaning-making and health in secular society: secular, spiritual and religious existential orientations.

    PubMed

    la Cour, Peter; Hvidt, Niels C

    2010-10-01

    This article proposes a framework of concepts for the field of existential meaning-making in secular cultures such as those of Northern Europe. Seeking an operational approach, we have narrowed the field's components down to a number of basic domains and dimensions that provide a more authentic cultural basis for research in secular society. Reviewing the literature, three main domains of existential meaning-making emerge: Secular, spiritual, and religious. In reconfirming these three domains, we propose to couple them with the three dimensions of cognition (knowing), practice (doing), and importance (being), resulting in a conceptual framework that can serve as a fundamental heuristic and methodological research tool for mapping the field of existential meaning-making and health. The proposed grid might contribute to clearer understanding of the multidimensional nature of existential meaning-making and as a guide for posing adequate research and clinical questions in the field.

  1. Selected case studies of technology transfer from mission-oriented applied research

    SciTech Connect

    Daellenbach, K.K.; Watts, R.L.; Young, J.K. ); Abarcar, R.B. )

    1992-07-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) Advanced Industrial Concepts Division (AICD) under the Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT) supports interdisciplinary applied research and exploratory development that will expand the knowledge base to enable industry to improve its energy efficiency and its capability to use alternative energy resources. AICD capitalizes on scientific and technical advances from the United States and abroad, applying them to address critical technical needs of American industry. As a result, AICD research and development products are many and varied, and the effective transfer of these products to diverse targeted users requires different strategies as well. This paper describes the products of AICD research, how they are transferred to potential users, and how actual transfer is determined.

  2. [Quality management and practice-oriented research in a clinic-network of mother-/father-child rehabilitation centres].

    PubMed

    Otto, F; Arnhold-Kerri, S

    2010-04-01

    The Research Network Prevention and Rehabilitation for Mothers and Children is an association of currently 24 rehabilitation centres for mothers, fathers and their children, and a scientific team at the Hannover Medical School. The Research Network combines practice-oriented research on mother and child health with the further development of treatment programmes and the implementation of internal quality management in mother-/father-child rehabilitation centres in accordance with DIN EN ISO 9001. The present paper describes the concept of the Research Network and the work contents addressed over the last three years. The advantages and disadvantages of this association and the changes initiated in practice were evaluated from the point of view of 19 quality managers of the participating clinics. The data were collected by means of semi-structured interviews, and a qualitative content analysis was performed in order to quantify the responses. The concept of the Research Network has proven successful. In the view of the quality managers of the clinics, implementation of DIN EN ISO 9001 has lead to structuring of the processes, improved internal communication, and increased motivation in the team. The major obstacles were the lack of time and human resources. In all clinics, the participation in practice-related research projects und scientifically monitored concept development has contributed to optimizing everyday practice. The exchange between the quality managers in external quality circle meetings was of central importance. The conjunction of internal quality management, practice-related research and concept development in a network can be recommended also for other associations of clinics, health centres or medical practices.

  3. Doing Economics: Enhancing Skills through a Process-Oriented Senior Research Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGoldrick, KimMarie

    2008-01-01

    The author describes a senior-level course designed to promote student skills in "acting like economists." Although most departments offer senior-level courses, this one is unique in that it was developed on the basis of learning as opposed to content objectives, assignments are designed to reinforce and further develop research skills through a…

  4. Why Adults Participate in Education: Some Implications for Program Development of Research on Motivational Orientations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darkenwald, Gordon G.

    While recent research on why adults participate in continuing education programs does not provide educational planners with any easy prescriptions for programing success, it does suggest some broad directions for more effective program development, particularly in relation to needs assessment, the promotional aspect of marketing, and the design…

  5. Semantic analysis according to Peep Koort--a substance-oriented research methodology.

    PubMed

    Sivonen, Kerstin; Kasén, Anne; Eriksson, Katie

    2010-12-01

    The aim of this article is to describe the hermeneutic semantic analysis created by professor Peep Koort (1920-1977) and to discuss it as a methodology for research within caring science. The methodology is developed with a hermeneutic approach that differs from the traditions of semantic analysis in philosophy or linguistics. The research objects are core concepts and theoretical constructs (originally within the academic discipline of education science, later on within the academic discipline of caring science), focusing deeper understanding of essential meaning content when developing a discipline. The qualitative methodology of hermeneutic semantic analysis is described step by step as created by Koort, interpreted and developed by the authors. An etymological investigation and an analysis of synonymy between related concepts within a conceptual family guides the researcher to understand and discriminate conceptual dimensions of meaning content connected to the word studied, thus giving opportunities to summarise it in a theoretical definition, a discovery that can be tested in varying contexts. From a caring science perspective, we find the hermeneutic methodology of semantic analysis fruitful and suitable for researchers developing their understanding of core concepts and theoretical constructs connected to the development of the academic discipline.

  6. A Research-Oriented Approach to Digestive Physiology To Replace Traditional Enzymatic Laboratories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grabowski, Gregory M.; Holt, Jelena

    2002-01-01

    Describes a physiology laboratory designed to localize digestive enzymes within the digestive tract of cockroaches and develop a general conclusion about the similarities to mammalian digestion. This approach not only demonstrates the practicality of lecture material, but also provides a springboard for independent research opportunities.…

  7. Modular Research-Based Composably Trustworthy Mission-Oriented Resilient Clouds (MRC2)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-02-01

    efficiency , and resilience. We built on the foundations of a companion DARPA project, CRASH-worthy Trustworthy Systems Research and Development (CTSRD...beneficial tradeoffs between security and energy efficiency • Advancing multi-scale computing techniques • Exploiting capability- system security...overall energy efficiency are total system -network emergent properties that must be defined hierarchically, because they have potentially different

  8. Emerging Issues in Research on Lesbians' and Gay Men's Mental Health: Does Sexual Orientation Really Matter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cochran, Susan D.

    2001-01-01

    Researchers have identified elevated risk for stress-sensitive mental disorders among homosexuals attributed to the harmful effects of homophobia. The onset, course, treatment, and prevention of mental disorders among homosexuals differ in important ways from those of heterosexuals. Examines differential rates of mental health morbidity; suicide…

  9. Learning from Wang Yang-Ming: Exploring Oriental Contributions to Understanding Action Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tickle, Les

    2005-01-01

    This article reports recent foraging for ideas in action research among the lives and intellects of Chinese society. It began and is reported as a personal journey, initially following the trail of the activist scholar Wang Yang-Ming. The method is a roam through some of the resources that have so far been discovered. The style is…

  10. Lessons and Perspectives on Balancing Research and Diversity-Oriented Service

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emanuel, R. E.

    2012-12-01

    Diversity among scientists is necessary to bring together the range of personal and professional perspectives required to address many grand challenges of research in the earth and environmental sciences. Despite gains in recent decades, African Americans and American Indians remain severely under-represented at the graduate level in the environmental sciences, posing an impediment to ethnic diversity in the ranks of professional scientists. For example, the US National Science Foundation reported that in one recent year African Americans received 1,041 (3%) and American Indians received 120 (0.4%) of the 33,284 science and engineering doctoral degrees granted in the US. These fractions are smaller than African American and American Indian representation among bachelor's degree recipients, and they are smaller than representation in the general US population. Lessons from multiple disciplines (chemistry, medicine and geoscience) suggest that group learning, longitudinal mentoring and networking opportunities are critical elements in the retention of under-represented minority students and their conversion to professionals in scientific fields. With this in mind, I have worked to incorporate these elements into my own research program, which moved recently from a predominantly undergraduate institution to a research extensive university. I discuss the outcomes, successes and challenges of a recent project engaging 14 students and 5 faculty mentors from 6 institutions, including 2 HBCUs, in a yearlong study of secondary ecosystem succession in North Carolina. I frame this discussion in the general context of my own experience, as an American Indian academic, balancing diversity-related service and more traditionally recognized forms of scholarship (i.e. teaching and research) at both predominantly undergraduate and research extensive universities.

  11. Heat exposure on farmers in northeast Ghana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frimpong, Kwasi; Van Etten E J, Eddie; Oosthuzien, Jacques; Fannam Nunfam, Victor

    2017-03-01

    Environmental health hazards faced by farmers, such as exposure to extreme heat stress, are a growing concern due to global climate change, particularly in tropical developing countries. In such environments, farmers are considered to be a population at risk of environmental heat exposure. The situation is exacerbated due to their farming methods that involve the use of primitive equipment and hard manual labour conducted in full sunshine under hot and humid conditions. However, there is inadequate information about the extent of heat exposure to such farmers, both at the household and farm levels. This paper presents results from a study assessing environmental heat exposure on rural smallholder farmers in Bawku East, Northern Ghana. From January to December 2013, Lascar USB temperature and humidity sensors and a calibrated Questemp heat stress monitor were deployed to farms and homes of rural farmers at Pusiga in Bawku East to capture farmers' exposure to heat stress in both their living and working environments as they executed regular farming routines. The Lascar sensors have the capability to frequently, accurately and securely measure temperature and humidity over long periods. The Questemp heat stress monitor was placed in the same vicinity and showed strong correlations to Lascar sensors in terms of derived values of wet-bulb globe temperature (WBGT). The WBGT in the working environment of farmers peaked at 33.0 to 38.1 °C during the middle of the day in the rainy season from March to October and dropped to 14.0-23.7 °C in the early morning during this season. A maximum hourly WBGT of 28.9-37.5 °C (March-October) was recorded in the living environment of farmers, demonstrating little relief from heat exposure during the day. With these levels of heat stress, exposed farmers conducting physically demanding outdoor work risk suffering serious health consequences. The sustainability of manual farming practices is also under threat by such high levels of

  12. Heat exposure on farmers in northeast Ghana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frimpong, Kwasi; Van Etten E J, Eddie; Oosthuzien, Jacques; Fannam Nunfam, Victor

    2016-08-01

    Environmental health hazards faced by farmers, such as exposure to extreme heat stress, are a growing concern due to global climate change, particularly in tropical developing countries. In such environments, farmers are considered to be a population at risk of environmental heat exposure. The situation is exacerbated due to their farming methods that involve the use of primitive equipment and hard manual labour conducted in full sunshine under hot and humid conditions. However, there is inadequate information about the extent of heat exposure to such farmers, both at the household and farm levels. This paper presents results from a study assessing environmental heat exposure on rural smallholder farmers in Bawku East, Northern Ghana. From January to December 2013, Lascar USB temperature and humidity sensors and a calibrated Questemp heat stress monitor were deployed to farms and homes of rural farmers at Pusiga in Bawku East to capture farmers' exposure to heat stress in both their living and working environments as they executed regular farming routines. The Lascar sensors have the capability to frequently, accurately and securely measure temperature and humidity over long periods. The Questemp heat stress monitor was placed in the same vicinity and showed strong correlations to Lascar sensors in terms of derived values of wet-bulb globe temperature (WBGT). The WBGT in the working environment of farmers peaked at 33.0 to 38.1 °C during the middle of the day in the rainy season from March to October and dropped to 14.0-23.7 °C in the early morning during this season. A maximum hourly WBGT of 28.9-37.5 °C (March-October) was recorded in the living environment of farmers, demonstrating little relief from heat exposure during the day. With these levels of heat stress, exposed farmers conducting physically demanding outdoor work risk suffering serious health consequences. The sustainability of manual farming practices is also under threat by such high levels of

  13. Improving Agricultural Extension Services through University Outreach Initiatives: A Case of Farmers in Model Villages in Ogun State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oloruntoba, Abayomi; Adegbite, Dorcas A.

    2006-01-01

    University outreach is an educational and research-based information source enabling farmers to make decisions that improve the quality of their lives. This paper explores how collaborative efforts between the university and farmers have directly impacted in albeit Striga ("noxious witch weed") ravaged maize farms in rainforest farming…

  14. The Contemporary Academic: Orientation towards Research Work and Researcher Identity of Higher Education Lecturers in the Health Professions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyd, Pete; Smith, Caroline

    2016-01-01

    Internationally, the increasing emphasis in universities on the quality of teaching, on student employability and on a corporate approach to entrepreneurial income generation has created a tension around the primacy afforded to published research outputs as a focus for academic work and status. In this study, a framework for academic socialisation…

  15. Farmers' preferences for water policy reforms: Results from a survey in Alberta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, W.; Bjornlund, H.; Klein, K.

    2012-12-01

    Facing increasingly urgent stress on global water scarcity, many reforms have been launched in countries around the world. As the biggest group of natural resource managers, farmers' behaviour is drawing increasingly wide attention. Satisfying new demands for water will depend on farmers' support since, generally, water will need to be transferred from farmers who have historically secure rights. Although water pricing reform is widely considered to lead to water conservation, the uncertainty of its potential impacts hinders the process of reform. This farmer-level empirical research explores farmers' possible responses to introduction of reforms in water pricing. A survey was conducted of about 300 farm households that use water for irrigating crops in Southern Alberta, an area that is facing water shortages and has had to stop issuing new water licences. By using structural equation modelling, the strength and direction of direct and indirect relationships between external, internal and behavioural variables as proposed in general attitude theory have been estimated. Farming as a family engagement, family members' and family unit's characteristics doubtlessly affect farming practice and farm decisions. Farmers' behaviour was explored under the family and farm context. In developing and testing conceptual models that integrate socio-demographic, psychological, farming context and social milieu factors, we may develop a deeper understanding of farmers' behaviour. The findings and recommendations will be beneficial for environmental practitioners and policy makers.

  16. Comparing Ethical and Epistemic Standards for Investigative Journalists and Equity-Oriented Collaborative Community-Based Researchers: Why Working for a University Matters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, Anne; Glass, Ronald David

    2014-01-01

    Criticisms of IRBs are proliferating. In response, we compare the ethical and epistemic standards of two closely related forms of inquiry, investigative journalism and equity-oriented collaborative community-based research (EOCCBR). We argue that a university affiliation justifies formal ethical review of research and suggest how institutionalized…

  17. Introductory paper: The orientation of immunological research in relation to the global antimalaria programme

    PubMed Central

    Wernsdorfer, W. H.

    1979-01-01

    Immunological research on malaria has produced a wealth of information on the relationship between Plasmodium and the vertebrate host, introducing new serological tools into epidemiological methodology and experimentally proving the possibility of protecting vertebrates against malaria, thus moving vaccination from the realm of pure hypothesis to the level of feasibility. The alarming malaria situation in the world is reason enough to expand immunological research further to improve diagnostic and epidemiological tools and to develop methods for the protection of man against malaria. The programme of the Scientific Working Group on the Immunology of Malaria, UNDP/World Bank/WHO Special Programme for Research and Training in Tropical Diseases, complies with these objectives. A projection of potential effects of malaria vaccines on the malaria situation shows considerable promise in areas with relatively low basic reproduction rates; in areas with high basic reproduction rates they would need to complement other malaria control measures and may ultimately add the critical momentum required to render adequate malaria control feasible in tropical Africa. PMID:317437

  18. Farmer's Lung Disease. A Review.

    PubMed

    Cano-Jiménez, Esteban; Acuña, Adelaida; Botana, María Isabel; Hermida, Teresa; González, María Guadalupe; Leiro, Virginia; Martín, Irene; Paredes, Sonia; Sanjuán, Pilar

    2016-06-01

    Farmer's lung disease (FLD) is a form of hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP) caused by inhaling microorganisms from hay or grain stored in conditions of high humidity in the agricultural workplace. It is probably underdiagnosed, especially in northern Spain, where climatic conditions favor the development of this disease. According to previous studies, the most common antigens are usually thermophilic actinomycetes and fungi. The epidemiology of the disease is not well known, and is based on studies conducted by Central European and Asian groups. The clinical presentation may vary, differentiating the chronic (exposure to lower concentrations of the antigen over a longer period time) and the acute forms (after exposure to high concentrations of the antigen). In patients with respiratory symptoms and agricultural occupational exposure, radiological, lung function and/or anatomical pathology findings must be compatible with FLD, bronchoalveolar lavage must show lymphocytosis, and tests must find sensitivity to the antigen. The main treatment is avoidance of the antigen, so it is essential to educate patients on preventive measures. To date, no controlled studies have assessed the role of immunosuppressive therapy in this disease. Corticosteroid treatment has only been shown to accelerate resolution of the acute forms, but there is no evidence that it is effective in preventing disease progression in the long-term or reducing mortality.

  19. Transforming a research-oriented dataset for evaluation of tactical information extraction technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, Heather; Kase, Sue E.; Knight, Joanne

    2016-05-01

    The most representative and accurate data for testing and evaluating information extraction technologies is real-world data. Real-world operational data can provide important insights into human and sensor characteristics, interactions, and behavior. However, several challenges limit the feasibility of experimentation with real-world operational data. Realworld data lacks the precise knowledge of a "ground truth," a critical factor for benchmarking progress of developing automated information processing technologies. Additionally, the use of real-world data is often limited by classification restrictions due to the methods of collection, procedures for processing, and tactical sensitivities related to the sources, events, or objects of interest. These challenges, along with an increase in the development of automated information extraction technologies, are fueling an emerging demand for operationally-realistic datasets for benchmarking. An approach to meet this demand is to create synthetic datasets, which are operationally-realistic yet unclassified in content. The unclassified nature of these unclassified synthetic datasets facilitates the sharing of data between military and academic researchers thus increasing coordinated testing efforts. This paper describes the expansion and augmentation of two synthetic text datasets, one initially developed through academic research collaborations with the Army. Both datasets feature simulated tactical intelligence reports regarding fictitious terrorist activity occurring within a counterinsurgency (COIN) operation. The datasets were expanded and augmented to create two military relevant datasets. The first resulting dataset was created by augmenting and merging the two to create a single larger dataset containing ground-truth. The second resulting dataset was restructured to more realistically represent the format and content of intelligence reports. The dataset transformation effort, the final datasets, and their

  20. Explaining mastitis incidence in Dutch dairy farming: the influence of farmers' attitudes and behaviour.

    PubMed

    Jansen, J; van den Borne, B H P; Renes, R J; van Schaik, G; Lam, T J G M; Leeuwis, C

    2009-11-15

    better measure than farmers' self-reported behaviour to explain and predict differences in mastitis incidence between farms. Consequently, future research and animal health promotion programs should take into account not only farmers' behaviour, but also farmers' attitudes. This study provides a first empirical investigation into the social processes applicable to mastitis incidence and is therefore considered a good starting point for future research to further investigate the causal effect of attitude change on farmers' behaviour and animal health.

  1. Survey of food safety practices on small to medium-sized farms and in farmers markets.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Judy A; Gaskin, Julia W; Harrison, Mark A; Cannon, Jennifer L; Boyer, Renee R; Zehnder, Geoffrey W

    2013-11-01

    As produce consumption has increased, so have foodborne disease outbreaks associated with fresh produce. Little research has addressed food safety practices used on small to medium-sized farms selling locally or in farmers markets. This study evaluated current food safety practices used by farmers on small to medium-sized farms and managers of farmers markets in Georgia, Virginia, and South Carolina based on responses to surveys. Surveys were developed, pretested, and revised before implementation with target audiences and were implemented via mail and the Web to maximize participation, with reminders sent to nonrespondents. Data were collected from 226 farmers and 45 market managers. Frequencies and percentages were calculated for all response variables. Responses from farmers indicated that more than 56% of them use manures. Of those who use manures, 34% use raw or mixtures of raw and composted manure, and over 26% wait fewer than 90 days between application of raw manure and harvest. Over 27% use water sources that have not been tested for safety for irrigation, and 16% use such water sources for washing produce. Over 43% do not sanitize surfaces that touch produce at the farm. Only 33% of farmers always clean transport containers between uses. Responses from market managers indicated that over 42% have no food safety standards in place for the market. Only 2 to 11% ask farmers specific questions about conditions on the farm that could affect product safety. Less than 25% of managers sanitize market surfaces. Only 11% always clean market containers between uses. Over 75% of markets offer no sanitation training to workers or vendors. While farmers and market managers are using many good practices, the results indicate that some practices being used may put consumers at risk of foodborne illness. Consequently, there is a need for training for both farmers and market managers.

  2. Understanding Farmer Perspectives on Climate Change Adaptation and Mitigation

    PubMed Central

    Morton, Lois Wright; Hobbs, Jon

    2015-01-01

    Agriculture is vulnerable to climate change and a source of greenhouse gases (GHGs). Farmers face pressures to adjust agricultural systems to make them more resilient in the face of increasingly variable weather (adaptation) and reduce GHG production (mitigation). This research examines relationships between Iowa farmers’ trust in environmental or agricultural interest groups as sources of climate information, climate change beliefs, perceived climate risks to agriculture, and support for adaptation and mitigation responses. Results indicate that beliefs varied with trust, and beliefs in turn had a significant direct effect on perceived risks from climate change. Support for adaptation varied with perceived risks, while attitudes toward GHG reduction (mitigation) were associated predominantly with variation in beliefs. Most farmers were supportive of adaptation responses, but few endorsed GHG reduction, suggesting that outreach should focus on interventions that have adaptive and mitigative properties (e.g., reduced tillage, improved fertilizer management). PMID:25983336

  3. Farmer Heroes Manage Nutrients On Farm

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    These featured farmers have been identified by the National Association of Conservation Districts and EPA for implementing specific best management practices to reduce pollution while also improving or sustaining their profits, soil quality or yields.

  4. Factors Influencing Smallholder Farmers' Climate Change Perceptions: A Study from Farmers in Ethiopia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habtemariam, Lemlem Teklegiorgis; Gandorfer, Markus; Kassa, Getachew Abate; Heissenhuber, Alois

    2016-08-01

    Factors influencing climate change perceptions have vital roles in designing strategies to enrich climate change understanding. Despite this, factors that influence smallholder farmers' climate change perceptions have not yet been adequately studied. As many of the smallholder farmers live in regions where climate change is predicted to have the most negative impact, their climate change perception is of particular interest. In this study, based on data collected from Ethiopian smallholder farmers, we assessed farmers' perceptions and anticipations of past and future climate change. Furthermore, the factors influencing farmers' climate change perceptions and the relation between farmers' perceptions and available public climate information were assessed. Our findings revealed that a majority of respondents perceive warming temperatures and decreasing rainfall trends that correspond with the local meteorological record. Farmers' perceptions about the past climate did not always reflect their anticipations about the future. A substantial number of farmers' anticipations of future climate were less consistent with climate model projections. The recursive bivariate probit models employed to explore factors affecting different categories of climate change perceptions illustrate statistical significance for explanatory variables including location, gender, age, education, soil fertility status, climate change information, and access to credit services. The findings contribute to the literature by providing evidence not just on farmers' past climate perceptions but also on future climate anticipations. The identified factors help policy makers to provide targeted extension and advisory services to enrich climate change understanding and support appropriate farm-level climate change adaptations.

  5. Analyzing the heterogeneity of farmers' preferences for improvements in dairy cow traits using farmer typologies.

    PubMed

    Martin-Collado, D; Byrne, T J; Amer, P R; Santos, B F S; Axford, M; Pryce, J E

    2015-06-01

    Giving consideration to farmers' preferences for improvements in animal traits when designing genetic selection tools such as selection indexes might increase the uptake of these tools. The increase in use of genetic selection tools will, in turn, assist in the realization of genetic gain in breeding programs. However, the determination of farmers' preferences is not trivial because of its large heterogeneity. The aim of this study was to quantify Australian dairy farmers' preferences for cow trait improvements to inform and ultimately direct the choice of traits and selection indexes in the 2014 review of the National Breeding Objective. A specific aim was to analyze the heterogeneity of preferences for cow trait improvements by determining whether there are farmer types that can be identified with specific patterns of preferences. We analyzed whether farmer types differed in farming system, socioeconomic profile, and attitudes toward breeding and genetic evaluation tools. An online survey was developed to explore farmers' preferences for improvement in 13 cow traits. The pairwise comparisons method was used to derive a ranking of the traits for each respondent. A total of 551 farmers fully completed the survey. A principal component analysis followed by a Ward hierarchical cluster analysis was used to group farmers according to their preferences. Three types of farmers were determined: (1) production-focused farmers, who gave the highest preference of all for improvements in protein yield, lactation persistency, feed efficiency, cow live weight, and milking speed; (2) functionality-focused farmers with the highest preferences of all for improvements in mastitis, lameness, and calving difficulty; and (3) type-focused farmers with the highest preferences of all for mammary system and type. Farmer types differed in their age, their attitudes toward genetic selection, and in the selection criteria they use. Surprisingly, farmer types did not differ for herd size

  6. Factors Influencing Smallholder Farmers' Climate Change Perceptions: A Study from Farmers in Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Habtemariam, Lemlem Teklegiorgis; Gandorfer, Markus; Kassa, Getachew Abate; Heissenhuber, Alois

    2016-08-01

    Factors influencing climate change perceptions have vital roles in designing strategies to enrich climate change understanding. Despite this, factors that influence smallholder farmers' climate change perceptions have not yet been adequately studied. As many of the smallholder farmers live in regions where climate change is predicted to have the most negative impact, their climate change perception is of particular interest. In this study, based on data collected from Ethiopian smallholder farmers, we assessed farmers' perceptions and anticipations of past and future climate change. Furthermore, the factors influencing farmers' climate change perceptions and the relation between farmers' perceptions and available public climate information were assessed. Our findings revealed that a majority of respondents perceive warming temperatures and decreasing rainfall trends that correspond with the local meteorological record. Farmers' perceptions about the past climate did not always reflect their anticipations about the future. A substantial number of farmers' anticipations of future climate were less consistent with climate model projections. The recursive bivariate probit models employed to explore factors affecting different categories of climate change perceptions illustrate statistical significance for explanatory variables including location, gender, age, education, soil fertility status, climate change information, and access to credit services. The findings contribute to the literature by providing evidence not just on farmers' past climate perceptions but also on future climate anticipations. The identified factors help policy makers to provide targeted extension and advisory services to enrich climate change understanding and support appropriate farm-level climate change adaptations.

  7. Disseminating Improved Practices: Are Volunteer Farmer Trainers Effective?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lukuyu, B.; Place, F.; Franzel, S.; Kiptot, E.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This paper assesses the effectiveness of volunteer farmer trainers in promoting adoption of agricultural technologies in western Kenya. Specifically, the purpose was to assess the type of information they disseminated, farmer trainers' characteristics desirable to farmer trainees, and how trainees evaluate farmer trainers.…

  8. Black Farmers: Why Such a Severe and Continuing Decline?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beale, Calvin

    1991-01-01

    Proposes reasons for the precipitous drop in the number of Black farmers since the 1950s. Today, most Black farmers have very small operations and are at an advanced age. A healthy rural nonfarm economy is essential to supplement farmers incomes. The Agriculture Credit Act of 1987 offers low-interest loans to Black farmers. (KS)

  9. Birth order, sibling sex ratio, handedness, and sexual orientation of male and female participants in a BBC internet research project.

    PubMed

    Blanchard, Ray; Lippa, Richard A

    2007-04-01

    This study investigated the relations among sexual orientation, fraternal birth order (number of older brothers), and hand-preference. The participants were 87,798 men and 71,981 women who took part in a Web-based research project sponsored by the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC). The results yielded some evidence confirming prior findings that non-right-handedness is associated with homosexuality in men and women, that older brothers increase the odds of homosexuality in men, and that the effect of older brothers on sexual orientation is limited to right-handed men. The evidence was weaker than in previous studies, however, probably because the usual relations among the variables of interest were partially obscured by the effects of other factors. Thus, the homosexual men and women had higher rates of non-right-handedness than their heterosexual counterparts, but the strongest handedness finding for both sexes was a marked tendency for participants who described themselves as ambidextrous also to describe themselves as bisexual. The birth order data were strongly affected by a tendency for the male participants to report an excess of older sisters, and the female participants to report an excess of older brothers. Statistical analyses confirmed that this was an artifact of the parental stopping rule, "Continue having children until you have offspring of both sexes." In subsequent analyses, participants were divided into those who did and did not have younger siblings, on the grounds that the data of the former would be less contaminated by the stopping rule. In the former subsample, the right-handed homo/bisexual males showed the typical high ratio of older brothers to older sisters, whereas the non-right-handed homo/bisexual males did not.

  10. Which factor contribute most to empower farmers through e-Agriculture in Bangladesh?

    PubMed

    Rashid, Sheikh Mohammed Mamur; Islam, Md Rezwan; Quamruzzaman, Md

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this research was designed to investigate the impact of e-Agriculture on farmers of Bangladesh. Empowerment is stratified as economic, family and social, political, knowledge and psychological empowerment. Data were collected in Bhatbour Block of Dhighi union under Sadar Upazila of Minikganj District. Data were collected in two phases from the same group of respondents (in August, 2013 and September, 2015). Two sample t test and step-wise multiple regression method were used for analysis. The results showed that e-Agriculture had significant impact on the empowerment of farmers of Bangladesh. Additionally, the study concluded that the most significant factor behind the empowerment of farmer was the use of e-Agriculture which could explain almost 84 % of the total variation of the empowerment. Based on the findings, it is recommended that government should implement e-Agriculture based projects on a massive scale for the empowerment of the farmers.

  11. Modeling-Oriented Assessment in K-12 Science Education: A synthesis of research from 1980 to 2013 and new directions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Namdar, Bahadir; Shen, Ji

    2015-05-01

    Scientific modeling has been advocated as one of the core practices in recent science education policy initiatives. In modeling-based instruction (MBI), students use, construct, and revise models to gain scientific knowledge and inquiry skills. Oftentimes, the benefits of MBI have been documented using assessments targeting students' conceptual understanding or affective domains. Fewer studies have used assessments directly built on the ideas of modeling. The purpose of this study is to synthesize and examine modeling-oriented assessments (MOA) in the last three decades and propose new directions for research in this area. The study uses a collection of 30 empirical research articles that report MOA from an initial library of 153 articles focusing on MBI in K-12 science education from 1980 to 2013. The findings include the variety of themes within each of the three MOA dimensions (modeling products, modeling practices, and meta-modeling knowledge) and the areas of MOA still in need of much work. Based on the review, three guiding principles are proposed for future work in MOA: (a) framing MOA in an ecology of assessment, (b) providing authentic modeling contexts for assessment, and (c) spelling out the connections between MOA items and the essential aspects of modeling to be assessed.

  12. Building resilience to social-ecological change through farmers' learning practices in semi-arid Makueni County Kenya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ifejika Speranza, Chinwe; Kiteme, Boniface; Kimathi Mbae, John; Schmude, Miron

    2015-04-01

    Social-ecological change is resulting in various risks and opportunities to farmers, which they address through complex multi-strategies to sustain their agricultural-based livelihoods and agricultural landscapes. This paper examines how various stakeholders such as research and government organisations, local and international non-governmental organisations, private companies, farmer groups, individual actors and farmers draw on scientific, external and localised knowledge to address the needs of farmers in sustainable land management and food production. What is the structure of collaboration between the various actors and how does this influence the potential for learning, not only for the farmers but also for other stakeholders? How does the supplied knowledge meet farmers' knowledge needs and demands for sustainable land management and food production? To what extent and how is knowledge co-produced among the various stakeholders? What different types of learning can be identified and what are their influences on farmers' sustainable land management practices? How does farmer learning foster the resilience of agricultural landscapes? Answers to these questions are sought through a case study in the semi-arid areas of Makueni County, Kenya. Particular environmental risks in the study area relate to recurrent droughts and flooding, soil erosion and general land degradation. Opportunities in the study area arise short-term due to more conducive rainfall conditions for crop and vegetation growth, institutional arrangements that foster sustainable land management such as agroforestry programmes and conservation agriculture projects. While farmers observe changes in their environment, they weigh the various risks and opportunities that arise from their social-ecological context and their own capacity to respond leading to the prioritization of certain adaptations relative to others. This can mean that while certain farmers may have knowledge on sustainable land

  13. Agricultural biotechnology and smallholder farmers in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Anthony, Vivienne M; Ferroni, Marco

    2012-04-01

    Agricultural biotechnology holds much potential to contribute towards crop productivity gains and crop improvement for smallholder farmers in developing countries. Over 14 million smallholder farmers are already benefiting from biotech crops such as cotton and maize in China, India and other Asian, African and Central/South American countries. Molecular breeding can accelerate crop improvement timescales and enable greater use of diversity of gene sources. Little impact has been realized to date with fruits and vegetables because of development timescales for molecular breeding and development and regulatory costs and political considerations facing biotech crops in many countries. Constraints to the development and adoption of technology-based solutions to reduce yield gaps need to be overcome. Full integration with broader commercial considerations such as farmer access to seed distribution systems that facilitate dissemination of improved varieties and functioning markets for produce are critical for the benefits of agricultural biotechnology to be fully realized by smallholders. Public-private partnerships offer opportunities to catalyze new approaches and investment while accelerating integrated research and development and commercial supply chain-based solutions.

  14. Rural Economics: Farmers in Transition. Preliminary Assessment of Dislocated Farmer Assistance Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heimlich, Joe E.; Van Tilburg, Emmalou

    Rural Economics: Farmers in Transition (RE:FIT), the Dislocated Farmer Assistance Program in Ohio, was designed to help farm families assess their skills and interests in nonfarm employment. The processes used by agents in counseling families were evaluated. The program was designed by personnel of the Ohio Cooperative Extension Service (OCES) to…

  15. Farmer Health and Adaptive Capacity in the Face of Climate Change and Variability. Part 2: Contexts, Personal Attributes and Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Hogan, Anthony; Bode, Adam; Berry, Helen

    2011-01-01

    This study extends the emerging body of research on farmer adaptation to climate change, by segmenting farmers on the basis of specific attributes (health, values, belief about climate change, sense of responsibility for climate change, desire to change, social, human and financial capitals and farmer demographics) and considering such attributes as critical social aspects of the contextualized capacity to adapt. The segmental analysis was based on a nationally representative sample of 3,993 farmers concerned with farmer adaptation of climate risks. The resulting data were subjected to two-step cluster analysis to identify homogenous groups of farmers based on factors related to climate change adaptation. A three-cluster solution was identified wherein farmers were distinguishable on the basis of belief in climate change, desire for financial assistance and advice, social connectedness, information seeking, and adverse farm conditions. The largest group (Cluster 1: 55%) was characterized by farmers who recognized being affected by drought and drying and who were actively engaged in adaptive practices, despite the fact that they had little income and poor farm resources. One third of these farmers reported that their health was a barrier to sustained activity in farming. Cluster 2 (26%) was characterized by farmers not readily affected by drying, who enjoyed good incomes, good health and better farming conditions. They expressed little desire to adapt. The smallest cluster (Cluster 3: 19%) was also characterized by farmers who recognized that they were affected by drying. However, despite a desire to adapt, they had very little means to do so. They reported the poorest natural resources and the poorest health, despite being younger. The findings suggest that it is the intent to adapt, starting from where people are at, which is a more important indicator of the capacity to work towards sustainable practices than assets tests alone. PMID:22073028

  16. Farmer health and adaptive capacity in the face of climate change and variability. Part 2: Contexts, personal attributes and behaviors.

    PubMed

    Hogan, Anthony; Bode, Adam; Berry, Helen

    2011-10-01

    This study extends the emerging body of research on farmer adaptation to climate change, by segmenting farmers on the basis of specific attributes (health, values, belief about climate change, sense of responsibility for climate change, desire to change, social, human and financial capitals and farmer demographics) and considering such attributes as critical social aspects of the contextualized capacity to adapt. The segmental analysis was based on a nationally representative sample of 3,993 farmers concerned with farmer adaptation of climate risks. The resulting data were subjected to two-step cluster analysis to identify homogenous groups of farmers based on factors related to climate change adaptation. A three-cluster solution was identified wherein farmers were distinguishable on the basis of belief in climate change, desire for financial assistance and advice, social connectedness, information seeking, and adverse farm conditions. The largest group (Cluster 1: 55%) was characterized by farmers who recognized being affected by drought and drying and who were actively engaged in adaptive practices, despite the fact that they had little income and poor farm resources. One third of these farmers reported that their health was a barrier to sustained activity in farming. Cluster 2 (26%) was characterized by farmers not readily affected by drying, who enjoyed good incomes, good health and better farming conditions. They expressed little desire to adapt. The smallest cluster (Cluster 3: 19%) was also characterized by farmers who recognized that they were affected by drying. However, despite a desire to adapt, they had very little means to do so. They reported the poorest natural resources and the poorest health, despite being younger. The findings suggest that it is the intent to adapt, starting from where people are at, which is a more important indicator of the capacity to work towards sustainable practices than assets tests alone.

  17. Orienting hypnosis.

    PubMed

    Hope, Anna E; Sugarman, Laurence I

    2015-01-01

    This article presents a new frame for understanding hypnosis and its clinical applications. Despite great potential to transform health and care, hypnosis research and clinical integration is impaired in part by centuries of misrepresentation and ignorance about its demonstrated efficacy. The authors contend that advances in the field are primarily encumbered by the lack of distinct boundaries and definitions. Here, hypnosis, trance, and mind are all redefined and grounded in biological, neurological, and psychological phenomena. Solutions are proposed for boundary and language problems associated with hypnosis. The biological role of novelty stimulating an orienting response that, in turn, potentiates systemic plasticity forms the basis for trance. Hypnosis is merely the skill set that perpetuates and influences trance. This formulation meshes with many aspects of Milton Erickson's legacy and Ernest Rossi's recent theory of mind and health. Implications of this hypothesis for clinical skills, professional training, and research are discussed.

  18. Heat exposure on farmers in northeast Ghana.

    PubMed

    Frimpong, Kwasi; Van Etten E J, Eddie; Oosthuzien, Jacques; Fannam Nunfam, Victor

    2017-03-01

    Environmental health hazards faced by farmers, such as exposure to extreme heat stress, are a growing concern due to global climate change, particularly in tropical developing countries. In such environments, farmers are considered to be a population at risk of environmental heat exposure. The situation is exacerbated due to their farming methods that involve the use of primitive equipment and hard manual labour conducted in full sunshine under hot and humid conditions. However, there is inadequate information about the extent of heat exposure to such farmers, both at the household and farm levels. This paper presents results from a study assessing environmental heat exposure on rural smallholder farmers in Bawku East, Northern Ghana. From January to December 2013, Lascar USB temperature and humidity sensors and a calibrated Questemp heat stress monitor were deployed to farms and homes of rural farmers at Pusiga in Bawku East to capture farmers' exposure to heat stress in both their living and working environments as they executed regular farming routines. The Lascar sensors have the capability to frequently, accurately and securely measure temperature and humidity over long periods. The Questemp heat stress monitor was placed in the same vicinity and showed strong correlations to Lascar sensors in terms of derived values of wet-bulb globe temperature (WBGT). The WBGT in the working environment of farmers peaked at 33.0 to 38.1 °C during the middle of the day in the rainy season from March to October and dropped to 14.0-23.7 °C in the early morning during this season. A maximum hourly WBGT of 28.9-37.5 °C (March-October) was recorded in the living environment of farmers, demonstrating little relief from heat exposure during the day. With these levels of heat stress, exposed farmers conducting physically demanding outdoor work risk suffering serious health consequences. The sustainability of manual farming practices is also under threat by such high levels of

  19. Having It All? Transferring Community-Oriented Research Principles to Teaching and Learning to Develop Better University Engagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adshead, Maura; Quillinan, Bernie

    2017-01-01

    There are increasing demands on universities to develop more meaningful linkages with local communities--from government, from citizens and taxpayers, and from students. But the incorporation of community-oriented praxis into the university mission is not straightforward and requires a significant re-orientation away from "traditional"…

  20. Research tools to investigate movements, migrations, and life history of sturgeons (Acipenseridae), with an emphasis on marine-oriented populations.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Troy C; Doukakis, Phaedra; Lindley, Steven T; Schreier, Andrea D; Hightower, Joseph E; Hildebrand, Larry R; Whitlock, Rebecca E; Webb, Molly A H

    2013-01-01

    Worldwide, sturgeons (Acipenseridae) are among the most endangered fishes due to habitat degradation, overfishing, and inherent life history characteristics (long life span, late maturation, and infrequent spawning). As most sturgeons are anadromous, a considerable portion of their life history occurs in estuarine and marine environments where they may encounter unique threats (e.g., interception in non-target fisheries). Of the 16 marine-oriented species, 12 are designated as Critically Endangered by the IUCN, and these include species commercially harvested. We review important research tools and techniques (tagging, electronic tagging, genetics, microchemistry, observatory) and discuss the comparative utility of these techniques to investigate movements, migrations, and life-history characteristics of sturgeons. Examples are provided regarding what the applications have revealed regarding movement and migration and how this information can be used for conservation and management. Through studies that include Gulf (Acipenser oxyrinchus desotoi) and Green Sturgeon (A. medirostris), we illustrate what is known about well-studied species and then explore lesser-studied species. A more complete picture of migration is available for North American sturgeon species, while European and Asian species, which are among the most endangered sturgeons, are less understood. We put forth recommendations that encourage the support of stewardship initiatives to build awareness and provide key information for population assessment and monitoring.

  1. Study of the power exhaust and the role of impurities in the Torus Experiment for Technological Oriented Research (TEXTOR)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pospieszczyk, A.; Samm, U.; Bertschinger, G.; Bogen, P.; Claassen, H. A.; Esser, G.; Gerhauser, H.; Hey, J. D.; Hintz, E.; Könen, L.; Lie, Y. T.; Rusbüldt, D.; Schorn, R. P.; Schweer, B.; Tokar, M.; Winter, J.; Durodie, F.; Koch, R.; Messiaen, A. M.; Ongena, J.; Telesca, G.; Vanderplas, R. E.; van Nieuwenhove, R.; van Oost, G.; van Wassenhove, G.; Weynants, R. R.

    1995-06-01

    Controlled application of radiating impurities in the boundary layer can help to solve the problem of power exhaust in a fusion reactor. Experiments in the Torus Experiment for Technological Oriented Research (TEXTOR) [J. Nucl. Mater. 145-147, 3 (1987)] are presented, which show that impurities with sufficiently high atomic number (≥10) are well suited for this purpose. Injection of neon, a gas recycled at the wall, enabled the establishment of a quasistationary radiating boundary layer, from which more than 90% of the input power was emitted. The required neon density was established by means of a feedback control for the neon influx, which was made possible by the toroidal pump limiter Advanced Limiter Technology (ALT-II) [J. Nucl. Mater. 162-164, 115 (1989)]. Alternatively, or in addition silicon was introduced as a condensing element—either by surface reactions from siliconized walls or by silane [SiH(D)4] injection—which revealed self-controlling mechanisms effective with changing plasma parameters. In neither case was a significant increase in central impurity concentration observed and good energy confinement time was maintained up to the highest plasma densities. Based on the information from various refined edge diagnostics, the underlying mechanisms for the buildup of a radiating plasma mantle and the interdependences of neon and silicon on other impurities are discussed.

  2. Research Tools to Investigate Movements, Migrations, and Life History of Sturgeons (Acipenseridae), with an Emphasis on Marine-Oriented Populations

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Troy C.; Doukakis, Phaedra; Lindley, Steven T.; Schreier, Andrea D.; Hightower, Joseph E.; Hildebrand, Larry R.; Whitlock, Rebecca E.; Webb, Molly A. H.

    2013-01-01

    Worldwide, sturgeons (Acipenseridae) are among the most endangered fishes due to habitat degradation, overfishing, and inherent life history characteristics (long life span, late maturation, and infrequent spawning). As most sturgeons are anadromous, a considerable portion of their life history occurs in estuarine and marine environments where they may encounter unique threats (e.g., interception in non-target fisheries). Of the 16 marine-oriented species, 12 are designated as Critically Endangered by the IUCN, and these include species commercially harvested. We review important research tools and techniques (tagging, electronic tagging, genetics, microchemistry, observatory) and discuss the comparative utility of these techniques to investigate movements, migrations, and life-history characteristics of sturgeons. Examples are provided regarding what the applications have revealed regarding movement and migration and how this information can be used for conservation and management. Through studies that include Gulf (Acipenser oxyrinchus desotoi) and Green Sturgeon (A. medirostris), we illustrate what is known about well-studied species and then explore lesser-studied species. A more complete picture of migration is available for North American sturgeon species, while European and Asian species, which are among the most endangered sturgeons, are less understood. We put forth recommendations that encourage the support of stewardship initiatives to build awareness and provide key information for population assessment and monitoring. PMID:23990959

  3. The impacts of pesticides on the health of farmers in Fasa, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Zare, Sajad; Behzadi, Mehdi; Tarzanan, Mohsen; Mohamadi, Masome Beik; Omidi, Leila; Heydarabadi, Akbar Babaei; Kazemi, Somayeh

    2015-01-01

    Background: With the growing global population, it is becoming increasingly difficult to ignore the demands for food and energy. A major portion of the food and energy is produced via agriculture and livestock activities. The objectives of this research are to gather information regarding the demographic features of farmers, previous poisoning, and the extent of farmers’ knowledge in the use of pesticides and associated hazards in different counties and villages in Fasa, a city located in the Fars province of Iran. Methods: This cross-sectional study was carried out from March to July 2012 in the Nobandegan and Sheshdeh counties, and villages including Miandeh, Fedshkuyeh, Senan, Rahimabad, and other places in the Fasa suburban countryside. To collect data, an appropriate questionnaire was designed and implemented. Results: A total of 200 farmers participated in the study. We found that 55% of farmers were illiterate. Approximately 86% of used pesticides were organophosphorus compounds. Around 30% of the farmers used no protective equipment while working with pesticides, and only 22% of farmers had read and understood the instructions on the pesticide containers. Conclusion: Given the toxicity and hazards of pesticides and their adverse effects on farmers’ health, effective measures should be adopted to decrease the amount of pesticides used. Conducting training programs for farmers may help to reduce pesticide exposure risks. PMID:26396730

  4. Digging Deeper: A Case Study of Farmer Conceptualization of Ecosystem Services in the American South.

    PubMed

    Quinn, Courtney E; Quinn, John E; Halfacre, Angela C

    2015-10-01

    The interest in improved environmental sustainability of agriculture via biodiversity provides an opportunity for placed-based research on the conceptualization and articulation of ecosystem services. Yet, few studies have explored how farmers conceptualize the relationship between their farm and nature and by extension ecosystem services. Examining how farmers in the Southern Piedmont of South Carolina discuss and explain the role of nature on their farm, we create a detail-rich picture of how they perceive ecosystem services and their contributions to the agroeconomy. Using 34 semi-structured interviews, we developed a detail-rich qualitative portrait of these farmers' conceptualizations of ecosystem services. Farmers' conceptualization of four ecosystem services: provisioning, supporting, regulating, and cultural are discussed, as well as articulation of disservices. Results of interviews show that most interviewees expressed a basic understanding of the relationship between nature and agriculture and many articulated benefits provided by nature to their farm. Farmers referred indirectly to most services, though they did not attribute services to biodiversity or ecological function. While farmers have a general understanding and appreciation of nature, they lack knowledge on specific ways biodiversity benefits their farm. This lack of knowledge may ultimately limit farmer decision-making and land management to utilize ecosystem services for environmental and economic benefits. These results suggest that additional communication with farmers about ecosystem services is needed as our understanding of these benefits increases. This change may require collaboration between conservation biology professionals and extension and agriculture professionals to extended successful biomass provisioning services to other ecosystem services.

  5. Digging Deeper: A Case Study of Farmer Conceptualization of Ecosystem Services in the American South

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quinn, Courtney E.; Quinn, John E.; Halfacre, Angela C.

    2015-10-01

    The interest in improved environmental sustainability of agriculture via biodiversity provides an opportunity for placed-based research on the conceptualization and articulation of ecosystem services. Yet, few studies have explored how farmers conceptualize the relationship between their farm and nature and by extension ecosystem services. Examining how farmers in the Southern Piedmont of South Carolina discuss and explain the role of nature on their farm, we create a detail-rich picture of how they perceive ecosystem services and their contributions to the agroeconomy. Using 34 semi-structured interviews, we developed a detail-rich qualitative portrait of these farmers' conceptualizations of ecosystem services. Farmers' conceptualization of four ecosystem services: provisioning, supporting, regulating, and cultural are discussed, as well as articulation of disservices. Results of interviews show that most interviewees expressed a basic understanding of the relationship between nature and agriculture and many articulated benefits provided by nature to their farm. Farmers referred indirectly to most services, though they did not attribute services to biodiversity or ecological function. While farmers have a general understanding and appreciation of nature, they lack knowledge on specific ways biodiversity benefits their farm. This lack of knowledge may ultimately limit farmer decision-making and land management to utilize ecosystem services for environmental and economic benefits. These results suggest that additional communication with farmers about ecosystem services is needed as our understanding of these benefits increases. This change may require collaboration between conservation biology professionals and extension and agriculture professionals to extended successful biomass provisioning services to other ecosystem services.

  6. Restricted Application of Insecticides: A Promising Tsetse Control Technique, but What Do the Farmers Think of It?

    PubMed Central

    Bouyer, Fanny; Hamadou, Seyni; Adakal, Hassane; Lancelot, Renaud; Stachurski, Frédéric; Belem, Adrien M. G.; Bouyer, Jérémy

    2011-01-01

    Background Restricted application of insecticides to cattle is a cheap and safe farmer-based method to control tsetse. In Western Africa, it is applied using a footbath, mainly to control nagana and the tick Amblyomma variegatum. In Eastern and Southern Africa, it might help controlling the human disease, i.e., Rhodesian sleeping sickness as well. The efficiency of this new control method against ticks, tsetse and trypanosomoses has been demonstrated earlier. The invention, co-built by researchers and farmers ten years ago, became an innovation in Burkina Faso through its diffusion by two development projects. Methodology/Principal Findings In this research, we studied the process and level of adoption in 72 farmers inhabiting the peri-urban areas of Ouagadougou and Bobo-Dioulasso. Variables describing the livestock farming system, the implementation and perception of the method and the knowledge of the epidemiological system were used to discriminate three clusters of cattle farmers that were then compared using indicators of adoption. The first cluster corresponded to modern farmers who adopted the technique very well. The more traditional farmers were discriminated into two clusters, one of which showed a good adoption rate, whereas the second failed to adopt the method. The economic benefit and the farmers' knowledge of the epidemiological system appeared to have a low impact on the early adoption process whereas some modern practices, as well as social factors appeared critical. The quality of technical support provided to the farmers had also a great influence. Cattle farmers' innovation-risk appraisal was analyzed using Rogers' adoption criteria which highlighted individual variations in risk perceptions and benefits, as well as the prominent role of the socio-technical network of cattle farmers. Conclusions/Significance Results are discussed to highlight the factors that should be taken into consideration, to move discoveries from bench to field for an

  7. Are social security policies for Chinese landless farmers really effective on health in the process of Chinese rapid urbanization? a study on the effect of social security policies for Chinese landless farmers on their health-related quality of life

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The continuing urbanization in China has resulted in a loss of land and rights among farmers. The social security of landless farmers has attracted considerable research attention. However, only few studies measure the health-related quality of life (HRQOL) of landless farmers by employing scientific standardized scales. By using five-dimensional European quality of life (EQ-5D) scales, this study measures the HRQOL of landless farmers from a new perspective and examines how the social security policies affect their HRQOL. Methods This study is based on a 2013 household survey that has been conducted among 1,500 landless famers who are residing in six resettlement areas in three cities within the Yangtze River Delta region, namely, Nanjing, Hangzhou, and Yangzhou. This study adopts EQ-5D scales to measure the HRQOL of these farmers. More than 50% of the respondents are in poor or non-serious health conditions, and over 50% are not satisfied with their current social security policies. The health conditions and social security policies are analyzed by multinomial regression analysis and the relationship between these two factors are analyzed via structural equation modeling (SEM). Results First, the descriptive statistical analysis shows that more than 50% of the respondents are in poor or non-serious health conditions, and that the largest proportion of these farmers are suffering from anxiety or depression, which is the most serious of the five dimensions. Second, multinomial regression analysis shows that the satisfaction of landless farmers with their social security policies improves their living conditions, particularly in their capacity for self-care, in their ability to perform daily activities, and in the reduction of pain, anxiety, and depression. Third, SEM model analysis shows that the satisfaction of landless farmers with their social security policies positively influences their HRQOL. Among the five dimensions of EQ-5D, daily activities

  8. Costs of Lygus herbivory on cotton associated with farmer decision-making: an ecoinformatics approach.

    PubMed

    Rosenheim, Jay A

    2013-06-01

    Because the farmer is typically excluded from the experimental research setting, experimental research may face challenges in evaluating pest management tactics whose costs and benefits hinge on farmer decision-making. In these cases an ecoinformatics approach, in which observational data collected from the commercial farming setting are "mined" to quantify both biological variables and farmer behavior, can complement experimentation as a useful research tool. Here I analyze such an observational data set to characterize associations between early- (June) and mid-season (July) Lygus hesperus Knight populations and farmer decisions to apply plant growth regulators and defoliants. Previous experimental work suggested the hypothesis that Lygus herbivory, by inducing abscission of young flower buds, might generate increased use of plant growth regulators and defoliants. Cotton's ability to compensate for loss of flower buds may, however, increase as plants grow. On upland cotton, June Lygus populations were associated with increased use of plant growth regulators, as expected, but this relationship was not observed for July Lygus populations. June Lygus populations were not associated with the use of defoliants, whereas, surprisingly, July Lygus populations were associated with decreases in defoliant use. In contrast to these positive and negative associations observed on upland cotton, on Pima cotton Lygus populations exhibited no associations with use of either plant growth regulators or defoliants. These results suggest that cotton responses to Lygus herbivory, as demonstrated in previously published experimental studies, can translate into economically meaningful changes in farmer decisions to apply agricultural chemicals.

  9. Enabling Philippine Farmers to Adapt to Climate Variability Using Seasonal Climate and Weather Forecast with a Crop Simulation Model in an SMS-based Farmer Decision Support System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebardaloza, J. B. R.; Trogo, R.; Sabido, D. J.; Tongson, E.; Bagtasa, G.; Balderama, O. F.

    2015-12-01

    Corn farms in the Philippines are rainfed farms, hence, it is of utmost importance to choose the start of planting date so that the critical growth stages that are in need of water will fall on dates when there is rain. Most farmers in the Philippines use superstitions and traditions as basis for farming decisions such as when to start planting [1]. Before climate change, superstitions like planting after a feast day of a saint has worked for them but with the recent progression of climate change, farmers now recognize that there is a need for technological intervention [1]. The application discussed in this paper presents a solution that makes use of meteorological station sensors, localized seasonal climate forecast, localized weather forecast and a crop simulation model to provide recommendations to farmers based on the crop cultivar, soil type and fertilizer type used by farmers. It is critical that the recommendations given to farmers are not generic as each farmer would have different needs based on their cultivar, soil, fertilizer, planting schedule and even location [2]. This application allows the farmer to inquire about whether it will rain in the next seven days, the best date to start planting based on the potential yield upon harvest, when to apply fertilizer and by how much, when to water and by how much. Short messaging service (SMS) is the medium chosen for this application because while mobile penetration in the Philippines is as high as 101%, the smart phone penetration is only at 15% [3]. SMS has been selected as it has been identified as the most effective way of reaching farmers with timely agricultural information and knowledge [4,5]. The recommendations while derived from making use of Automated Weather Station (AWS) sensor data, Weather Research Forecasting (WRF) models and DSSAT 4.5 [9], are translated into the local language of the farmers and in a format that is easily understood as recommended in [6,7,8]. A pilot study has been started

  10. A Survey on Implementations of Chinese New Farmers' Education Policies: The Case of Hebei Province

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhao, Xiwen

    2009-01-01

    In order to realise the strategic aim of constructing new socialist rural communities in the 21st century, "new farmers' education" has been placed on the Chinese government's agenda and will soon become a very important issue of Chinese adult education in both research and its practice. As an adult educational researcher I first…

  11. Training of Farmers in Island Agricultural Areas: The Case of Cyclades Prefecture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brinia, Vasiliki; Papavasileiou, Panagiotis

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this research is to explore the views of young farmers regarding the agricultural training, the training needs and content, as well as the implementation of information technology (IT) and the Internet in agricultural training. The research was conducted in the Greek islands of Cyclades. Methodology: A quantitative approach…

  12. EDITORIAL: Optical orientation Optical orientation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    SAME ADDRESS *, Yuri; Landwehr, Gottfried

    2008-11-01

    radiation. The major results of the systematic work on optical orientation, both experimental and theoretical, at the Ioffe Institute and the Ecole Normale Supérieure in Paris are documented in the book Optical Orientation, edited by F Meier and B P Zakharchenya in the series Modern Problems in Condensed Matter Sciences [4], in which the foundations of optical orientation are comprehensively presented by renowned authors. This book is still the unsurpassed standard work in the field. If one asks what has become new since that publication in 1984 it is obviously the arrival of low-dimensional structures, two-dimensional heterostructures and zero-dimensional quantum dots. It has turned out that the quantum confinement can significantly modify the spin lifetime and the spin relaxation. The experimental work on spin alignment was done by a relative small number of researchers. However, the situation has substantially changed during the last decade. Research on spin-related phenomena has become very popular and the word 'spintronics' was coined. Spin research is no longer considered to be somewhat esoteric, since the replacement of silicon microelectronics based on the electron charge by spin-based electronics is being discussed. Whether these proposals can be realized remains to be seen. But one consequence has been a worldwide increase of high level basic research in spin phenomena. Another line of current research which has contributed to the popularity of spin-related research is quantum computing, based on spin-qubits. To be useful, solid state systems require long spin relaxation times and weak interaction with the environment. This is indispensable for low error rates. The difficulties in achieving these goals have been extensively discussed in the literature. Nowadays, because of the volume and diversity of spin-related work worldwide, a book on optical orientation like that edited by Meyer and Zakharchenya does not seem possible, so in this special issue of

  13. Joint venture schemes in Limpopo Province and their outcomes on smallholder farmers livelihoods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mapedza, Everisto; van Koppen, Barbara; Sithole, Pinimidzai; Bourblanc, Magalie

    2016-04-01

    Joint Venture schemes based on the floppy irrigation technology are being promoted in the post-Apartheid South Africa's Limpopo Province. Access to land and water resources in South Africa are largely viewed as a mechanism for re-dressing the Apartheid injustices. This research was part of a broader applied research to help inform irrigation practise in the Limpopo Province. The research used literature review, key informant interviews and a questionnaire survey. The overall research question sought to understand how the Joint Venture Schemes had benefited the smallholder farmers. This paper argues that the joint venture partnership created a new injustice. Firstly, the Joint Venture Scheme design is fundamentally a bad idea which disempower farmers not only to water access but also land as well. The choice of the 'efficient' floppy irrigation technology was made by the state and entailed that land had to be managed as a single unit. In order to make more effective use of this highly sophisticated new technology, the smallholder farmers also needed to go into a joint venture partnership with a white commercial farmer. By virtue of signing the Joint Venture agreement the farmers were also forfeiting their land and water rights to be used for crop production. The smallholder farmers lost access to their water and land resources and were largely relegated to sharing profits - when they exist - with hardly any skills development despite what was initially envisaged in the Joint Venture partnership. Secondly, the implementation of the JVS has been skewed from the start which explains the bad results. This paper further shows how the negative outcomes affected women in particular. As the smallholder farmers argue the technological options chosen by the state have excluded both male and female farmers from accessing and utilising their land and water resources in order to improve their livelihoods; it has entrenched the role of the state and the private interests at the

  14. Farmers' Functional Literacy Program in India.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chauhan, Malikhan S.

    The Farmers' Functional Literacy Program has been conducted in conjunction with an intensive agricultural development program in the villages of India since 1968. A recent innovation of significance to developing countries, the program incorporates the concept of linking education to development. This joint venture of three governmental ministries…

  15. Genetic Alterations in Pesticide Exposed Bolivian Farmers

    PubMed Central

    Jørs, Erik; Gonzáles, Ana Rosa; Ascarrunz, Maria Eugenia; Tirado, Noemi; Takahashi, Catharina; Lafuente, Erika; Dos Santos, Raquel A; Bailon, Natalia; Cervantes, Rafael; O, Huici; Bælum, Jesper; Lander., Flemming

    2007-01-01

    Background Pesticides are of concern in Bolivia because of increasing use. Frequent intoxications have been demonstrated due to use of very toxic pesticides, insufficient control of distribution and sale and little knowledge among farmers of protective measures and hygienic procedures. Method Questionnaires were applied and blood tests taken from 81 volunteers from La Paz County, of whom 48 were pesticide exposed farmers and 33 non-exposed controls. Sixty males and 21 females participated with a mean age of 37.3 years (range 17–76). Data of exposure and possible genetic damage were collected and evaluated by well known statistical methods, controlling for relevant confounders. To measure genetic damage chromosomal aberrations and the comet assay analysis were performed. Results Pesticide exposed farmers had a higher degree of genetic damage compared to the control group. The number of chromosomal aberrations increased with the intensity of pesticide exposure. Females had a lower number of chromosomal aberrations than males, and people living at altitudes above 2500 metres seemed to exhibit more DNA damage measured by the comet assay. Conclusions Bolivian farmers showed signs of genotoxic damage, probably related to exposure to pesticides. Due to the potentially negative long term health effects of genetic damage on reproduction and the development of cancer, preventive measures are recommended. Effective control with imports and sales, banning of the most toxic pesticides, education and information are possible measures, which could help preventing the negative effects of pesticides on human health and the environment. PMID:19662224

  16. Farmers' Functional Literacy Project (Bhimili Study).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rao, D. S.

    1979-01-01

    As part of a farmers' functional literacy project, the Department of Adult and Continuing Education, Andhra University, Waltair (India), investigated a sampling of participant characteristics and their relation to progress in improving literacy skills and learning such aspects of agriculture as animal husbandry, poultry, dairying, and so on. (MF)

  17. Participatory support to farmers in improving safety and health at work: building WIND farmer volunteer networks in Viet Nam.

    PubMed

    Kawakami, Tsuyoshi; Van, Vhu Nhu; Theu, Nguyen Van; Khai, Ton That; Kogi, Kazutaka

    2008-10-01

    The government of Viet Nam places a high priority on upgrading the quality of farmers' lives. Providing adequate occupational safety and health (OSH) protection for all farmers is an important challenge. The Ministry of Labour, Invalids and Social Affairs (MOLISA) of Viet Nam trained WIND (Work Improvement in Neighbourhood Development) farmer volunteers. From 2004-2007, MOLISA in cooperation with ministries of health and agriculture trained 480 WIND farmer volunteers in selected 14 provinces. Trained farmer volunteers trained their neighbouring farmers and expanded their networks. The WIND training programme produced in Cantho, Viet Nam in 1996, was used as the core training methodology. The WIND action-checklist, good example photo-sheets, and other participatory training materials were designed for WIND farmer volunteers as practical training tools. The volunteers trained 7,922 farmers. The trained farmers implemented 28,508 improvements in materials handling, work posture, machine and electrical safety, working environments and control of hazardous chemicals, and welfare facilities. The provincial support committees organized follow-up workshops and strengthen the WIND farmer volunteer networks. The system of WIND farmer volunteers proved effective in extending practical OSH protection measures to farmers at grassroots level. The system of WIND farmer volunteers was adopted in the First National Programme on Labour Protection and OSH of Viet Nam as a practical means in OSH and is now further expanding within the framework of the National Programme.

  18. The ecological model web concept: A consultative infrastructure for researchers and decision makers using a Service Oriented Architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geller, Gary

    2010-05-01

    Rapid climate and socioeconomic changes may be outrunning society's ability to understand, predict, and respond to change effectively. Decision makers such as natural resource managers want better information about what these changes will be and how the resources they are managing will be affected. Researchers want better understanding of the components and processes of ecological systems, how they interact, and how they respond to change. Nearly all these activities require computer models to make ecological forecasts that can address "what if" questions. However, despite many excellent models in ecology and related disciplines, there is no coordinated model system—that is, a model infrastructure--that researchers or decision makers can consult to gain insight on important ecological questions or help them make decisions. While this is partly due to the complexity of the science, to lack of critical observations, and other issues, limited access to and sharing of models and model outputs is a factor as well. An infrastructure that increased access to and sharing of models and model outputs would benefit researchers, decision makers of all kinds, and modelers. One path to such a "consultative infrastructure" for ecological forecasting is called the Model Web, a concept for an open-ended system of interoperable computer models and databases communicating using a Service Oriented Architectures (SOA). Initially, it could consist of a core of several models, perhaps made interoperable retroactively, and then it could grow gradually as new models or databases were added. Because some models provide basic information of use to many other models, such as simple physical parameters, these "keystone" models are of particular importance in a model web. In the long run, a model web would not be rigidly planned and built--instead, like the World Wide Web, it would grow largely organically, with limited central control, within a framework of broad goals and data exchange

  19. Knowledge and practices of farmers with reference to pesticide management: implications on human health.

    PubMed

    Karunamoorthi, Kaliyaperumal; Mohammed, Mubarek; Wassie, Fantahun

    2012-01-01

    A study was conducted to assess the knowledge and practices of Ethiopian farmers about pesticide management: implications for human health. A pretested standardized questionnaire was administered. The results revealed that the great majority 174 (99.4%) farmers had ample awareness about pesticide impact on human health. However, various hazardous practices have also been documented. One hundred thirty-five (77.2%) farmers make use of the empty pesticide containers for various household purposes. The most frequent self-reported toxicity symptoms associated with pesticide use were headache (58.8%), salivation and vomiting (38.2%), nausea (36.5%), and sneezing (12.5%). Chi-square analysis revealed a strong association between the farmer's educational status and reported toxicity symptoms (p = .0001; χ(2) = 498.2; df = 30). Creating awareness about safe usage of pesticide is extremely vital by special orientation programs. Besides, promoting alternative pest control strategies such as use of biopesticides and integrated pest management (IPM) could be productive.

  20. a Study of Risk Preferences and Perceptions of Weather Variability of Smallholder Subsistence Farmers in Malawi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, S.; Michelson, H. C.

    2013-12-01

    In 2011, the global population reached seven billion people. According to Foley et al. (2011) nearly one billion still suffer from chronic hunger. World population is expected to increase by another 9-11 billion by 2050. As demand for food grows, the world food system faces three primary challenges: to ensure that the current population of seven billion is adequately fed, to double food production to meet future population growth, and to achieve both in an environmentally sustainable way. As pressures on the global food system grow, sub-Saharan presents a special set of opportunities and challenges. In parts of sub-Saharan Africa, smallholder adoption of productivity-increasing agricultural technologies has proved a pervasive challenge and staple grain yields in the region lag significantly behind the rest of the world. National policies and internationally-funded initiatives such as the Alliance for a Green Revolution in Africa (AGRA) have proposed to close the agricultural yield gap through promotion of small farmer adoption of technologies that increase production efficiency, such as improved seeds, fertilizer and irrigation. However, research has found that even when these productivity-enhancing technologies are provided at subsidized costs, many projects report take-up rates well below 100%. In order to understand why farmers are not making investments to improve staple crop yields, it is critical to investigate the nature of the problem of the low take-up rate. Possible hypotheses include: credit constraints, opportunity costs, and farmer risk and/or time preferences that lead them to delay investment. Our project in Mwandama, Malawi uses techniques from prospect theory and expected utility theory to provide insight into farmer decision-making around technology adoption. We build on past research conducted in Ethiopia, India and Uganda, which has found that poor farmers systematically underweight the likelihood of good outcomes. We use a new methodology

  1. Farmers' Perceptions of Necessary Management Skills in Finland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mattila, Tiina E. A.; Kaustell, Kim O.; Leppala, Jarkko; Hurme, Timo; Suutarinen, Juha

    2007-01-01

    The main aim of this pre-study was to provide a preliminary overview of Finnish farmers' motivation and capacity prerequisites for adopting and improving their management skills. Motivation was studied by asking farmers what farm management tasks and skills they consider important. Capacity was evaluated by asking farmers to rank management tasks…

  2. Information Search Behaviors of Indian Farmers: Implications for Extension Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glendenning, Claire J.; Babu, Suresh C.; Asenso-Okyere, Kwadwo

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: In India, a national survey conducted in 2003 showed that only 40% of farmers accessed extension. But little is known of the characteristics of farmers who did not access extension. However, this understanding is needed in order to target approaches to farmers, who differ in their access and use of information, that is their information…

  3. Educational Interests, Needs and Learning Preferences of Immigrant Farmers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCamant, Thaddeus

    2014-01-01

    The immigrant population is growing in rural Minnesota, and those who are interested in farming will be replacing a dwindling population of traditionally white farmers. Like traditional American farmers, immigrant farmers have a need for continuing education to keep them up on best practices and new technology in agriculture. Minnesota's…

  4. Farmers' Markets in Rural Communities: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alfonso, Moya L.; Nickelson, Jen; Cohen, Danielle

    2012-01-01

    Background: Although the potential health benefits of farmers markets have been discussed for years, there is a dearth of literature to aid health educators in advocating for the development of local farmers markets. Purpose: The purpose of this manuscript is to present a case study of a rural farmers market in southeast Georgia with emphasis on…

  5. RE:FIT: Assessing Career Potential for Dislocated Farmers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heimlich, Joe E.; Tilberg, Emmalou Van

    1988-01-01

    Notes that the geographic separation and autonomy experienced by farmers creates a unique challenge for career and crisis counseling programs. Provides an overview of Rural Economics: Farmers in Transition (RE:FIT), a dislocated farmer assistance effort created by the Ohio Cooperative Extension Service to provide outplacement services such as…

  6. Preferred Knowledge Sources for Beginning Farmers: The Case of Kentucky

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brislen, Lilian; Tanaka, Keiko; Jacobsen, Krista

    2016-01-01

    This article presents an analysis of preferred knowledge sources for beginning farmers and differences in knowledge networks between "heritage" and "nonheritage" farmers. The purpose of the analysis is to support the reassessment of training, technical assistance, and other needs of beginning farmers to be able to develop more…

  7. 75 FR 72780 - Advisory Committee on Beginning Farmers and Ranchers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-26

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Advisory Committee on Beginning Farmers and Ranchers AGENCY: Departmental... on Beginning Farmers and Ranchers (Committee) will be held to discuss and explore USDA policy options designed to create and sustain ``New and Beginning Farmers and Ranchers.'' DATES: The public meetings...

  8. 7 CFR 761.209 - Loan funds for beginning farmers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Loan funds for beginning farmers. 761.209 Section 761... Funds to State Offices § 761.209 Loan funds for beginning farmers. Each fiscal year, the Agency reserves a portion of direct and guaranteed FO and OL loan funds for beginning farmers in accordance...

  9. 75 FR 43140 - Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-23

    ... Foreign Agricultural Service Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers AGENCY: Foreign Agricultural Service... assistance and cash benefits. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers Staff... ; or visit the TAA for Farmers' Web site: http://www.fas.usda.gov/itp/taa . Dated: July 14, 2010....

  10. 7 CFR 761.209 - Loan funds for beginning farmers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Loan funds for beginning farmers. 761.209 Section 761... Funds to State Offices § 761.209 Loan funds for beginning farmers. Each fiscal year, the Agency reserves a portion of direct and guaranteed FO and OL loan funds for beginning farmers in accordance...

  11. 75 FR 49886 - Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-16

    ... Foreign Agricultural Service Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers AGENCY: Foreign Agricultural Service... CONTACT: Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers Program Staff, FAS, USDA by phone: (202) 720-0638 or (202) 690- 0633; or by e-mail at: tradeadjustment@fas.usda.gov ; or visit ] the TAA for Farmers' Web...

  12. Attitudes of Small Farmers As 1995 Farm Bill Stakeholders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lockett, Benny L.

    To design public issues education programs to meet the needs of small farmers, the Cooperative Extension programs at Prairie View A&M University (Texas) and nine other 1890 land grant institutions surveyed small farmers' opinions concerning the 1995 farm bill. Responses were received from 644 farmers in the states in which these institutions…

  13. 75 FR 20977 - Departmental Management; Advisory Committee on Minority Farmers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-22

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Departmental Management; Advisory Committee on Minority Farmers AGENCY: USDA... Advisory Committee on Minority Farmers (Committee) on December 2, 2009. The purpose of the Committee is to..., methods of maximizing participation of minority farmers and ranchers in Department of Agriculture...

  14. Should Farmers' Locus of Control Be Used in Extension?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nuthall, Peter L.

    2010-01-01

    To explore whether Farmers' Locus of Control (LOC) could be useful in agricultural extension programmes to improve managerial ability. This test records a farmer's belief in her/his control over production outcomes. A mail survey of 2300 New Zealand farmers was used to obtain a range of variables, and to measure their LOC using a question set…

  15. "American Gothic" Revised: Positive Perceptions from a Young American Farmer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joehl, Regan R.

    2008-01-01

    Grant Wood's "American Gothic," intended to represent the Depression Era, Midwestern farmer, has been regarded by many as the stereotypical representation of a true American farmer for decades. While this painting does represent farmers in the early part of the 20th century, the author feels obliged to say that it is time to drop this…

  16. How ecosystem services knowledge and values influence farmers' decision-making.

    PubMed

    Lamarque, Pénélope; Meyfroidt, Patrick; Nettier, Baptiste; Lavorel, Sandra

    2014-01-01

    The ecosystem services (ES) concept has emerged and spread widely recently, to enhance the importance of preserving ecosystems through global change in order to maintain their benefits for human well-being. Numerous studies consider various dimensions of the interactions between ecosystems and land use via ES, but integrated research addressing the complete feedback loop between biodiversity, ES and land use has remained mostly theoretical. Few studies consider feedbacks from ecosystems to land use systems through ES, exploring how ES are taken into account in land management decisions. To fill this gap, we carried out a role-playing game to explore how ES cognition mediates feedbacks from environmental change on farmers' behaviors in a mountain grassland system. On a close to real landscape game board, farmers were faced with changes in ES under climatic and socio-economic scenarios and prompted to plan for the future and to take land management decisions as they deemed necessary. The outcomes of role-playing game were complemented with additional agronomic and ecological data from interviews and fieldwork. The effects of changes in ES on decision were mainly direct, i.e. not affecting knowledge and values, when they constituted situations with which farmers were accustomed. For example, a reduction of forage quantity following droughts led farmers to shift from mowing to grazing. Sometimes, ES cognitions were affected by ES changes or by external factors, leading to an indirect feedback. This happened when fertilization was stopped after farmers learned that it was inefficient in a drought context. Farmers' behaviors did not always reflect their attitudes towards ES because other factors including topographic constraints, social value of farming or farmer individual and household characteristics also influenced land-management decisions. Those results demonstrated the interest to take into account the complete feedback loop between ES and land management

  17. How Ecosystem Services Knowledge and Values Influence Farmers' Decision-Making

    PubMed Central

    Lamarque, Pénélope; Meyfroidt, Patrick; Nettier, Baptiste; Lavorel, Sandra

    2014-01-01

    The ecosystem services (ES) concept has emerged and spread widely recently, to enhance the importance of preserving ecosystems through global change in order to maintain their benefits for human well-being. Numerous studies consider various dimensions of the interactions between ecosystems and land use via ES, but integrated research addressing the complete feedback loop between biodiversity, ES and land use has remained mostly theoretical. Few studies consider feedbacks from ecosystems to land use systems through ES, exploring how ES are taken into account in land management decisions. To fill this gap, we carried out a role-playing game to explore how ES cognition mediates feedbacks from environmental change on farmers' behaviors in a mountain grassland system. On a close to real landscape game board, farmers were faced with changes in ES under climatic and socio-economic scenarios and prompted to plan for the future and to take land management decisions as they deemed necessary. The outcomes of role-playing game were complemented with additional agronomic and ecological data from interviews and fieldwork. The effects of changes in ES on decision were mainly direct, i.e. not affecting knowledge and values, when they constituted situations with which farmers were accustomed. For example, a reduction of forage quantity following droughts led farmers to shift from mowing to grazing. Sometimes, ES cognitions were affected by ES changes or by external factors, leading to an indirect feedback. This happened when fertilization was stopped after farmers learned that it was inefficient in a drought context. Farmers' behaviors did not always reflect their attitudes towards ES because other factors including topographic constraints, social value of farming or farmer individual and household characteristics also influenced land-management decisions. Those results demonstrated the interest to take into account the complete feedback loop between ES and land management

  18. An assessment of the impacts of pesticide use on the environment and health of rice farmers in Sierra Leone.

    PubMed

    Sankoh, Alhaji I; Whittle, Rebecca; Semple, Kirk T; Jones, Kevin C; Sweetman, Andrew J

    2016-09-01

    One of the biggest challenges faced by Sierra Leonean farmers is pest control. Birds, rodents, insects, crustaceans and other organisms can drastically reduce yields. In order to prevent these organisms from destroying their crop, farmers use pesticides. However there are reports that these chemicals are being misused and such misuse is having a negative impact on the environment and the health of the farmers. This research study aimed to investigate the use of pesticides in rice fields and its potential effects on the environment and on the farmers of Sierra Leone. Five hundred farmers and one hundred health workers across the country were interviewed. Fifty focus group discussions were also completed. Field observations were also undertaken to see how farmers apply pesticides to their farms and the possible threats these methods have on human health and the environment. It is clear that a wide range of pesticides are used by rice farmers in Sierra Leone with 60% of the pesticides used entering the country illegally. Most farmers have no knowledge about the safe handling of pesticides as 71% of them have never received any form of training. The pesticides kill both target and non-target organisms some of which enter the food chain. Cases of health problems such as nausea, respiratory disorders and blurred vision investigated in this research are significantly higher among farmers who use pesticides than those who do not use pesticides. Cases of pesticide intoxication are not investigated by health workers but results obtained from interviews with them also indicated that cases of pesticides related symptoms are significantly higher in environments where pesticides are used than those in which pesticides are not used.

  19. Proceedings of the 3rd International Workshop on a Research Agenda for Maintenance and Evolution of Service-Oriented Systems (MESOA 2009)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-02-01

    software evolution laws discussed in Sec- tion 6.2. At a high level, this approach is based on the Open Archive Information System (OAIS) reference model ...solution is an automated model - based method for evolu- tion of service-oriented systems . Central to the approach is a CRUD (Create, Read, Update, De- lete...Grace A. Lewis Dennis B. Smith Ned Chapin Kostas Kontogiannis February 2010 SPECIAL REPORT CMU/SEI-2010-SR-004 Research, Technology , and System

  20. Building an understanding of water use innovation adoption processes through farmer-driven experimentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sturdy, Jody D.; Jewitt, Graham P. W.; Lorentz, Simon A.

    Smallholder farmers in Southern Africa are faced with the challenge of securing their livelihoods within the context of a wide variety of biophysical and socio-economic constraints. Agriculture is inherently risky, particularly in regions prone to drought or dry spells, and risk-averse farmers may be viewed by researchers or extension agents as reluctant to invest in agricultural innovations that have potential to improve their livelihoods. However, farmers themselves are more interested in personal livelihood security than any other stakeholder and it is the farmers’ perceptions of needs, investment options and risks that drive their decision-making process. A holistic approach to agricultural innovation development and extension is needed to address both socio-economic and biophysical dynamics that influence adoption and dissemination of innovations. This paper, presents a methodology for involving farmers from the Bergville district of South Africa in the process of innovation development through facilitation of farmer-driven gardening experiments. Facilitating farmer-driven experimentation allows farmers to methodically assess the value of innovations they choose to study while providing researchers with a venue for learning about socio-economic as well as biophysical influences on farmers’ decisions. With this knowledge, researchers can focus on developing innovations that are socially and economically appropriate and therefore, more readily adoptable. The participatory process gave farmers the tools they needed to make informed decisions through critical thinking and analysis and improved their confidence in explaining the function of innovations to others. Researchers were able to use farmers’ manually collected data and observations to supplement laboratory generated and electronically recorded information about soil water dynamics to understand water balances associated with different garden bed designs, and to investigate whether trench beds, drip

  1. The Influence of Enterprise Diversification on Household Food Security among Small-Scale Sugarcane Farmers: A Case Study of Muhoroni Division, Nyando District, Kenya

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muthoni Thuo, Caroline

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the levels of household food security and the influence of enterprise diversification on household food security among small-scale sugarcane farmers in Muhoroni division, Nyando District, Kenya. A cross-sectional research design was used in this study. The population consisted of small-scale sugarcane farmers who grow sugarcane…

  2. [Risk behavior among farmers from Podkarpacie Provinece].

    PubMed

    Binkowska-Bury, Monika; Penar-Zadarko, Beata; Marć, Małgorzata; Sobolewski, Marek

    2010-01-01

    Increasing awareness of science and medical environments and the society in the scope of behavioral conditioning of many diseases (e.g. cardiovascular diseases, tumors and injuries motivates to shape pro-health behaviors and eliminate harmful habit also in rural areas. There is a need for constant monitoring of behaviors related to health among rural areas inhabitants. The results enriches present state of knowledge in that scope, as well as might be use to increase the effectiveness of health promotion and health education activities and shape pro-health lifestyle among rural areas inhabitants, and particularly among farmers. The aim of the study was to acquaint socio-demographic features related to risk behaviors (tobacco smoking, alcohol drinking) among farmers from Podkarpacie Provinece. The study was carried out between January and December 2009 among 755 farmers with national health insurance KRUS for minimum last year, living in Podkarpacie Provinece, whom had their own farm business, owned a farm either spouse or household member works on the farm. The study population was purposefully chosen. The study was conducted using a diagnostics survey method with questionnaire including above all questions considering tobacco smoking, alcohol drinking and demographic issues. Results from questionnaires were analyzed using the statistical package STATISTICA 9.0 (Statsoft). The gathered data was statistically prepared using chi-square test, logistic regression model with stepwise and progressive regression. Based on results it was assumed that frequency of tobacco smoking in the studied group values 31.5%. More frequent smoke: men than women, people with high economic status and those evaluating their Heath state as a good one. Gender and material status are strong predictors of tobacco smoking among farmers. Age and level of education do not influence on tobacco smoking among studied farmers. Frequency of alcohol drinking in the studied group values 82.0%. More

  3. Orientation and Mobility with Persons Who Are Deaf-Blind: An Initial Examination of Single-Subject Design Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Amy T.

    2009-01-01

    Persons who are deaf-blind represent a heterogeneous, low-incidence population of children and adults who, at some point in life, regardless of the presence of additional disabilities, may benefit from formal orientation and mobility (O&M) instruction. Current national policies, such as the No Child Left Behind Act, which emphasize that…

  4. Addressing Retention through an Orientation Course: Results from a North Campus Study. Research Report No. 87-24.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belcher, Marcia J.; And Others

    In 1984-85, Miami-Dade Community College's (MDCC's) North Campus developed a one-credit orientation course (SLS 1101) to provide students with information and college-level skills before they encounter problems. A study was conducted to assess the effectiveness of SLS 1101 in reducing attrition and increasing grade point average (GPA) over the…

  5. Farmers flock to coastal cities.

    PubMed

    Zhou, M; Mulley, S

    1994-01-01

    China's rural-urban migration flows, particularly into Shanghai, Guangdong province, Beijing, and coastal areas, present challenges for urban development. The impact on rural and urban areas and suggestions for minimizing undesirable consequences were discussed. Professor Zhang Qingwu, deputy director of the Population Research Institute of Xiamen University in Fujian province, believes that the large migrating populations and those without residence cards pose problems for heavily populated cities: they strain resources (housing, water and electricity supplies, transportation, telecommunication, environmental hygiene, food supplies, and educational facilities). Crime increases. Municipal departments must increase their administrative load in service sectors. The general idea is that rural-to-urban migration reflects social progress and adds to a productive work force. Flexible policies are recommended. In Guangdong province, where migrants arrived from Sichuan and Hunan provinces, counties from the latter two provinces have established offices for supervising their former residents. Employment adjustment can be anticipated when the major flock of migrants arrive after the Lantern Festival. Professor Gui Shixun of the Population Research Institute of East China Normal University and advisor to the State Family Planning Commission recommends that development strategies incorporate planning for imbalances between local population and migrant urban workers. In some areas, women represent the bulk of migrants, while in other areas men do. Cultural development should be stressed, with investments also improved in telecommunications, traffic and transportation, education, and hygiene. Professor Jiang Zhixue recommends shifting from labor-intensive enterprises to technology-intensive enterprises and a better trained work force. Other schemes, such as the purchase by migrants of residence cards in Xiamen, would entitle migrants to the same rights and obligations as

  6. Moral Orientation, Gender, and Salary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manning, Roger W.

    A study examined the relationship among gender, moral orientation, and pay. Although the participants were about equal in terms of gender, 48 males and 53 females, males tended to hold higher degrees. The researcher hypothesized that salaries would be differentiated based on gender and moral orientation. Assumptions were that care-oriented males…

  7. Identifying emergent social networks at a federally qualified health center-based farmers' market.

    PubMed

    Alia, Kassandra A; Freedman, Darcy A; Brandt, Heather M; Browne, Teri

    2014-06-01

    Identifying potential mechanisms connecting farmers' market interventions with health, economic, and community outcomes could inform strategies for addressing health disparities. The present study used social network theory to guide the in-depth examination of naturally occurring social interactions at a farmers' market located at a federally qualified health center located in a rural, low-income community. Trained observers recorded 61 observation logs at the market over 18 weeks. Thematic analysis revealed a range of actors and nonhuman facilitators instrumental to the farmers' market context. These actors connected with one another for communication and relationship development, economic and financial exchange, education, resource sharing, community ownership of the farmers' market, and conflict resolution. These interactions provided opportunities for social networks to develop among attendees, which may have facilitated the acquisition of social supports related to improved health, economic and community outcomes. Results provide insight into the role social networks may play in mediating the relationship between a farmers' market intervention and individual benefits. Findings also contribute to defining the typology of social networks, which may further disentangle the complex relationships between social networks and health outcomes. Future research should identify strategies for purposefully targeting social networks as a way to reduce diet-related health disparities.

  8. Farmers' perceptions of land degradation and their investments in land management: a case study in the Central Rift Valley of Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Adimassu, Zenebe; Kessler, Aad; Yirga, Chilot; Stroosnijder, Leo

    2013-05-01

    To combat land degradation in the Central Rift Valley (CRV) of Ethiopia, farmers are of crucial importance. If farmers perceive land degradation as a problem, the chance that they invest in land management measures will be enhanced. This study presents farmers' perceptions of land degradation and their investments in land management, and to what extent the latter are influenced by these perceptions. Water erosion and fertility depletion are taken as main indicators of land degradation, and the results show that farmers perceive an increase in both indicators over the last decade. They are aware of it and consider it as a problem. Nevertheless, farmers' investments to control water erosion and soil fertility depletion are very limited in the CRV. Results also show that farmers' awareness of both water erosion and soil fertility decline as a problem is not significantly associated with their investments in land management. Hence, even farmers who perceive land degradation on their fields and are concerned about its increase over the last decade do not significantly invest more in water erosion and soil fertility control measures than farmers who do not perceive these phenomena. Further research is needed to assess which other factors might influence farmers' investments in land management, especially factors related to socioeconomic characteristics of farm households and plot characteristics which were not addressed by this study.

  9. Assessing Hmong farmers' safety and health.

    PubMed

    de Castro, A B; Krenz, Jennifer; Neitzel, Richard L

    2014-05-01

    This pilot project investigated agricultural-related safety and health issues among Hmong refugees working on family-operated farms. Novel approaches, namely participatory rural appraisal and photovoice, were used to conduct a qualitative occupational hazard assessment with a group of Hmong farmers in Washington State. These two methods were useful in gathering participants' own perspectives about priority concerns. Several identified problems were related to musculoskeletal disorders, handling and operating heavy machinery, heat and cold stress, respiratory exposures, pest management, and socioeconomic and language concerns. Findings from this study provide insight into the work-related challenges that Hmong refugee farmers encounter and can serve as a basis for occupational health professionals to develop interventions to assist this underserved group.

  10. Farmer Decision-Making for Climate Adaptation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lubell, M.; Niles, M.; Salerno, J.

    2015-12-01

    This talk will provide an overview of several studies of how farmers make decisions about climate change adaptation and mitigation. A particular focus will be the "limiting factors hypothesis", which argues that farmers will respond to the climate variables that usually have the largest impact on their crop productivity. For example, the most limiting factor in California is usually water so how climate change affects water will be the largest drive of climate adaptation decisions. This basic idea is drawn from the broader theory of "psychological distance", which argue that human decisions are more attuned to ideas that are psychologically closer in space, time, or other factors. Empirical examples come from California, New Zealand, and Africa.

  11. Engaging farmers to inform future diffuse pollution policy in England

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vrain, Emilie; Lovett, Andrew; Nobel, Lister; Grant, Fiona; Blundell, Paul; Cleasby, Will

    2013-04-01

    Stakeholder knowledge and engagement is increasingly seen as a necessary ingredient for catchment management. Whilst many agricultural management options remain voluntary, the implementation of diffuse pollution mitigation measures will only be effective with the cooperation of stakeholders. Anthony et al. (2009) and Zhang et al. (2012) state the need for more information on the realistic farmer uptake of methods to enhance analyses of the potential for pollution mitigation. A study engaging farmers to understand current agricultural practices and their attitudes towards mitigation measures has formed part of the Demonstration Test Catchment (DTC) programme in England. Interviews with over seventy farmers were conducted during 2012 in three contrasting areas of the UK: the grassland dominated Eden catchment in the North West of England; the arable dominated Wensum catchment in East Anglia and the mixed farming of the Hampshire Avon catchment in southern England. Results from the farmer survey provide a baseline regarding current agricultural practices and give insight regarding attitudes to the adoption of other mitigation measures in the future. Opinions were obtained on eighty different measures taken from a recent guide to possible measures prepared for the UK government (Newell-Price et al., 2011). Analyses have been conducted examining how current use and attitudes towards future adoption of measures varies according to different characteristics of farm businesses. These findings will be of benefit to researchers, policy makers and farm advisers, particularly aiding decision making with respect to strategies for future implementation of programmes of measures. References. Anthony, S.G. et al., 2009. Quantitative assessment of scenarios for managing trade-off between the economic performance of agriculture and the environment and between different environmental media. Available at: http://randd.defra.gov.uk/Default

  12. Farmers' perceptions of pesticides, and resultant health problems from exposures.

    PubMed

    Kishi, Misa

    2002-01-01

    As part of an evaluation study of the impacts of the Indonesian integrated pest management (IPM) Farmer Field Schools on farmers' health, focus group discussions were conducted with rice farmers who grew shallots in rotation. Farmers who had previously participated in IPM rice field schools and who were at the time participating in IPM shallot field schools were compared with farmers who had had no experience with IPM methods. The study found that farmers' knowledge concerning the health dangers of pesticides is not sufficient to change their behaviors. Their overriding concern is crop damage that leads to economic loss, not health. IPM field-school training offers farmers a viable alternative by concretely demonstrating the health, agricultural, environmental, and economic advantages of eliminating unnecessary pesticide use. If public health professionals aim to change behaviors through interventions, they must employ appropriate methods, meet the community's priorities and values, and offer feasible alternatives.

  13. Natural versus anthropogenic climate change: Swedish farmers' joint construction of climate perceptions.

    PubMed

    Asplund, Therese

    2016-07-01

    While previous research into understandings of climate change has usually examined general public perceptions, this study offers an audience-specific departure point. This article analyses how Swedish farmers perceive climate change and how they jointly shape their understandings. The agricultural sector is of special interest because it both contributes to and is directly affected by climate change. Through focus group discussions with Swedish farmers, this study finds that (1) farmers relate to and understand climate change through their own experiences, (2) climate change is understood either as a natural process subject to little or no human influence or as anthropogenic and (3) various communication tools contribute to the formation of natural and anthropogenic climate change frames. The article ends by discussing frame resonance and frame clash in public understanding of climate change and by comparing potential similarities and differences in how various segments of the public make sense of climate change.

  14. Stress and Burnout Among Finnish Dairy Farmers.

    PubMed

    Kallioniemi, Marja K; Simola, Ahti; Kaseva, Janne; Kymäläinen, Hanna-Riitta

    2016-01-01

    Psychosocial risks among farmers have increasingly been examined because of the ongoing changes in agriculture, such as restructuring of the industry, transition from family farming towards entrepreneurship, and climate change. The aims of the study were to determine the stressors, prevalence of stress and burnout, and variables associated with these symptoms among Finnish dairy farmers. In total 265 respondents completed a postal survey; their average age was 48 years, 44% were females and 56% males. The farms of the survey sample were larger (54 field hectares, 29 cows) than an average farm in Finland (37 hectares, 24 cows) in 2010. The most common stressors were external, such as "agricultural policy of the EU" (European Union) and "the treatment of farmers in society and the media." In addition, common stressors were related to farm and work, e.g., "amount of work," unpredictability, and "animal diseases." The prevalence of stress (42%) was found to have increased compared with earlier studies and was greater than among the general working population. All respondents as a group were classified as having slight symptoms of burnout, and one tenth (9%) of dairy farmers had experienced severe burnout. Stressors related to the workload and health were associated with stress and burnout symptoms. Also, a poor economic situation and loneliness were related to stress. Burnout correlated with a tie stall barn type and with a farm not being involved in the milk production record system. Factors protecting against burnout included positive features of the work and living environment. The study revealed changes during the past decade and new features of the well-being at work on dairy farms in Finland.

  15. Can structural adjustment work for women farmers.

    PubMed

    Mehra, R

    1991-12-01

    This article discusses the impact of structural adjustment programs (SAPs) on women farmers in developing countries. SAPs aim to improve economic efficiency and promote more rapid economic growth. SAPs are introduced in two phases. The first phase involves short-term loans with the condition that the country adopt monetary restraints and currency devaluation measures. In the second phase, long-term loans are given with the provision that the country deregulate their economy and open up markets. The agricultural sector is affected by SAPs because of their importance in employment, income generation, and export earnings. SAPs result in lower farm commodity prices due to currency devaluations and in removal of subsidies, which results in market-sensitive pricing or higher food prices. The impact of SAPs on agriculture vary between countries. In Morocco and Algeria, agriculture expanded under SAPs. In Indonesia, Bolivia, Costa Rica, and Mexico, the agriculture stagnated or declined. Agricultural growth was slowest in Africa. SAPs were somewhat successful in increasing agricultural exports. Food production grew slowly in many adjusting countries. Blame for failures of SAPs has been placed on government failure to implement reforms properly and overly optimistic assumptions about the timing of productive gains. Little attention has focused on the constraints facing women farmers, who are a large proportion of farmers, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa. This article focuses on the issues of limited access to resources, credit, agricultural extension and information, land ownership, education, and time as constraints to women farmers. Women also must ensure household food security. For SAPs to work effectively, complementary policies must be implemented that reallocate available productive resources and new technologies to women and that deal with women's constraints.

  16. Invited review: Determinants of farmers' adoption of management-based strategies for infectious disease prevention and control.

    PubMed

    Ritter, Caroline; Jansen, Jolanda; Roche, Steven; Kelton, David F; Adams, Cindy L; Orsel, Karin; Erskine, Ron J; Benedictus, Geart; Lam, Theo J G M; Barkema, Herman W

    2017-02-22

    The prevention and control of endemic pathogens within and between farms often depends on the adoption of best management practices. However, farmers regularly do not adopt recommended measures or do not enroll in voluntary disease control programs. This indicates that a more comprehensive understanding of the influences and extension tools that affect farmers' management decisions is necessary. Based on a review of relevant published literature, we developed recommendations to support policy-makers, industry representatives, researchers, veterinarians, and other stakeholders when motivating farmers to adopt best management practices, and to facilitate the development and implementation of voluntary prevention and control programs for livestock diseases. Farmers will make management decisions based on their unique circumstances, agricultural contexts, beliefs, and goals. Providing them with rational but universal arguments might not always be sufficient to motivate on-farm change. Implementation of recommended management practices is more likely if farmers acknowledge the existence of a problem and their responsibility to take action. The perceived feasibility and effectiveness of the recommended management strategy and sufficient technical knowledge further increase the likelihood of adequate adoption. Farmers will also weigh the expected advantages of a proposed change against the expected disadvantages, and these considerations often include internal drivers such as pride or the desire to conform with perceived standards. Extension tools and farmers' social referents (e.g., veterinarians, peers) not only provide technical information but also influence these standards. Whereas mass media have the potential to deliver information to a broad audience, more personal approaches such as participatory group learning or individual communication with farm advisors can enable the tailoring of recommendations to farmers' situations. Approaches that appeal to farmers

  17. Effetive methods in educating extension agents and farmers on conservation farming technology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Adoption of new technologies requires transfer of information from developers to end users. Efficiency of the transfer process influences the rate of adoption and ultimate impact of the technology. Various channels are used to transfer technology from researchers to farmers. Two commonly used ones ...

  18. Growing Opportunities: CSA Members, CSA Farmers, and Informal Learning in the USA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Everson, Connie

    2015-01-01

    Community-supported agriculture (CSA) began as a loosely formalised, vaguely socialistic agreement between consumers and farmers through which the consumers were provided with fresh produce from the farms. When the institution became more structured, education gained a near-equal footing with the nutritional offerings. My research indicated that…

  19. Characterizing customers at medical center farmers' markets.

    PubMed

    Kraschnewski, Jennifer L; George, Daniel R; Rovniak, Liza S; Monroe, Diana L; Fiordalis, Elizabeth; Bates, Erica

    2014-08-01

    Approximately 100 farmers' markets operate on medical center campuses. Although these venues can uniquely serve community health needs, little is known about customer characteristics and outreach efforts. Intercept survey of markets and market customers between August 2010 and October 2011 at three medical centers in different geographic regions of the US (Duke University Medical Center, Cleveland Clinic, and Penn State Hershey Medical Center) were conducted. Markets reported serving 180-2,000 customers per week and conducting preventive medicine education sessions and community health programs. Customers (n = 585) across markets were similar in sociodemographic characteristics--most were middle-aged, white, and female, who were employees of their respective medical center. Health behaviors of customers were similar to national data. The surveyed medical center farmers' markets currently serve mostly employees; however, markets have significant potential for community outreach efforts in preventive medicine. If farmers' markets can broaden their reach to more diverse populations, they may play an important role in contributing to community health.

  20. Orienteering injuries

    PubMed Central

    Folan, Jean M.

    1982-01-01

    At the Irish National Orienteering Championships in 1981 a survey of the injuries occurring over the two days of competition was carried out. Of 285 individual competitors there was a percentage injury rate of 5.26%. The article discusses the injuries and aspects of safety in orienteering. Imagesp236-ap237-ap237-bp238-ap239-ap240-a PMID:7159815

  1. Research on long-term autonomous orbit determination for navigation constellation using inter-satellite orientation observation information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Bo; Xu, Bo; Wang, Hai-Hong

    2009-12-01

    Long-term autonomous orbit determination is one of the key techniques of autonomous navigation for navigation constellation. Based only on cross-link range observation, which is not able to overcome the defect of entire constellation rotation and translation relative to inertial reference frame, the accuracy of autonomous orbit determination is reduced with time. In order to solve this problem, the approach of using inter-satellite orientation observation is put forward to estimate the constellation rotation and translation with the benefit of absolute position information provided by stars. In view of the fact that most navigation satellites moving in near circular orbits, and also in order to reduce the calculation burden of onboard computer, nonsingular orbital elements are chosen as state variables and analytical method is used to calculate the transition matrix in this paper. In addition, the extended Kalman filter is designed to fuse information of satellite dynamic model, cross-link range observation and inter-satellite orientation observation to determine the orbit. The simulation results based on the IGS Final Products of GPS constellation indicate that, at the certain error condition of range and orientation measurement, the URE of constellation is better than 2 meters within 120 days.

  2. Local Farmers' Perceptions of Climate Change and Local Adaptive Strategies: A Case Study from the Middle Yarlung Zangbo River Valley, Tibet, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chunyan; Tang, Ya; Luo, Han; Di, Baofeng; Zhang, Liyun

    2013-10-01

    Climate change affects the productivity of agricultural ecosystems. Farmers cope with climate change based on their perceptions of changing climate patterns. Using a case study from the Middle Yarlung Zangbo River Valley, we present a new research framework that uses questionnaire and interview methods to compare local farmers' perceptions of climate change with the adaptive farming strategies they adopt. Most farmers in the valley believed that temperatures had increased in the last 30 years but did not note any changes in precipitation. Most farmers also reported sowing and harvesting hulless barley 10-15 days earlier than they were 20 years ago. In addition, farmers observed that plants were flowering and river ice was melting earlier in the season, but they did not perceive changes in plant germination, herbaceous vegetation growth, or other spring seasonal events. Most farmers noticed an extended fall season signified by delays in the freezing of rivers and an extended growing season for grassland vegetation. The study results showed that agricultural practices in the study area are still traditional; that is, local farmers' perceptions of climate change and their strategies to mitigate its impacts were based on indigenous knowledge and their own experiences. Adaptive strategies included adjusting planting and harvesting dates, changing crop species, and improving irrigation infrastructure. However, the farmers' decisions could not be fully attributed to their concerns about climate change. Local farming systems exhibit high adaptability to climate variability. Additionally, off-farm income has reduced the dependence of the farmers on agriculture, and an agricultural subsidy from the Chinese Central Government has mitigated the farmers' vulnerability. Nevertheless, it remains necessary for local farmers to build a system of adaptive climate change strategies that combines traditional experience and indigenous knowledge with scientific research and government

  3. Towards secondary use of heterogeneous radio-oncological data for retrospective clinical trials: service-oriented connection of a central research database with image analysis tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bougatf, Nina; Bendl, Rolf; Debus, Jürgen

    2015-03-01

    Our overall objective is the utilization of heterogeneous and distributed radio-oncological data in retrospective clinical trials. Previously, we have successfully introduced a central research database for collection of heterogeneous data from distributed systems. The next step is the integration of image analysis tools in the standard retrieval process. Hence, analyses for complex medical questions can be processed automatically and facilitated immensely. In radiation oncology recurrence analysis is a central approach for the evaluation of therapeutic concepts. However, various analysis steps have to be performed like image registration, dose transformation and dose statistics. In this paper we show the integration of image analysis tools in the standard retrieval process by connecting them with our central research database using a service-oriented approach. A concrete problem from recurrence analysis has been selected to prove our concept exemplarily. We implemented service-oriented data collection and analysis tools to use them in a central analysis platform, which is based on a work flow management system. An analysis work flow has been designed that, at first, identifies patients in the research database fulfilling the inclusion criteria. Then the relevant imaging data is collected. Finally the imaging data is analyzed automatically. After the successful work flow execution, the results are available for further evaluation by a physician. As a result, the central research database has been connected successfully with automatic data collection and image analysis tools and the feasibility of our service-oriented approach has been demonstrated. In conclusion, our approach will simplify retrospective clinical trials in our department in future.

  4. Biological effect of low-head sea lamprey barriers: Designs for extensive surveys and the value of incorporating intensive process-oriented research

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hayes, D.B.; Baylis, J.R.; Carl, L.M.; Dodd, H.R.; Goldstein, J.D.; McLaughlin, R.L.; Noakes, D.L.G.; Porto, L.M.

    2003-01-01

    Four sampling designs for quantifying the effect of low-head sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) barriers on fish communities were evaluated, and the contribution of process-oriented research to the overall confidence of results obtained was discussed. The designs include: (1) sample barrier streams post-construction; (2) sample barrier and reference streams post-construction; (3) sample barrier streams pre- and post-construction; and (4) sample barrier and reference streams pre- and post-construction. In the statistical literature, the principal basis for comparison of sampling designs is generally the precision achieved by each design. In addition to precision, designs should be compared based on the interpretability of results and on the scale to which the results apply. Using data collected in a broad survey of streams with and without sea lamprey barriers, some of the tradeoffs that occur among precision, scale, and interpretability are illustrated. Although circumstances such as funding and availability of pre-construction data may limit which design can be implemented, a pre/post-construction design including barrier and reference streams provides the most meaningful information for use in barrier management decisions. Where it is not feasible to obtain pre-construction data, a design including reference streams is important to maintain the interpretability of results. Regardless of the design used, process-oriented research provides a framework for interpreting results obtained in broad surveys. As such, information from both extensive surveys and intensive process-oriented research provides the best basis for fishery management actions, and gives researchers and managers the most confidence in the conclusions reached regarding the effects of sea lamprey barriers.

  5. Impacts on rural livelihoods in Cambodia following adoption of best practice health and husbandry interventions by smallholder cattle farmers.

    PubMed

    Young, J R; O'Reilly, R A; Ashley, K; Suon, S; Leoung, I V; Windsor, P A; Bush, R D

    2014-08-01

    To better understand how smallholder farmers whom own the majority of Cambodian cattle can contribute to efforts to address food security needs in the Mekong region, a five-year research project investigating methods to improve cattle health and husbandry practices was conducted. Cattle production in Cambodia is constrained by transboundary animal diseases (TADs) including foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) and haemorrhagic septicaemia (HS) plus poor nutrition, reproduction and marketing knowledge. The project worked in six villages in Kandal, Takeo and Kampong Cham province during 2007-12. Farmers from three 'high intervention' (HI) villages incrementally received a participatory extension programme that included FMD and HS vaccination, forage development and husbandry training. Evaluation of project impacts on livelihoods was facilitated by comparison with three 'low intervention' (LI) villages where farmers received vaccinations only. Results of knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) and socio-economic surveys conducted in 2012 of 120 participating farmers identified that farmer knowledge in the HI project sites exceeded LI sites on the topics of biosecurity, internal parasites, nutrition and reproduction. HI farmers adopted biosecurity practices including a willingness to vaccinate for FMD and HS at their own cost, separate sick from healthy cattle, grow and feed forages and displayed awareness of the benefits of building fattening pens. HI farmers that grew forages observed time savings exceeding two hours per day each for men, women and children, enabling expansion of farm enterprises, secondary employment and children's schooling. Logistic regression analysis revealed that farmers in the HI group significantly increased annual household income (P < 0.001), with 53% reporting an increase of 100% or more. We conclude that improving smallholder KAP of cattle health and production can lead to improved livelihoods. This strategy should be of interest to policymakers

  6. Prevalence and risk factors for farmer's lung in greenhouse farmers: an epidemiological study of 5,880 farmers from Northeast China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shuo; Chen, Donghong; Fu, Shuang; Ren, Yangang; Wang, Lingling; Zhang, Yibing; Zhao, Mingjing; He, Xiaoyu; Wang, Xiaoge

    2015-03-01

    The objectives of this epidemiological study were to evaluate the prevalence of farmer's lung disease (FLD) and to explore the potential risk factors for FLD among Chinese greenhouse farmers. A total of 835 plastic film greenhouses, including 5,880 active farmers who engaged in crop cultivation or poultry farming, were randomly selected from the rural regions of Northeastern China. These farmers participated in the study by answering a medical questionnaire. 5,420 greenhouse farmers accepted and answered questionnaires in full (response rate, 92.18 %). Prevalence of FLD among these farmers was 5.7 % (308/5,420). Besides, a number of classic risk factors for FLD were identified, such as years of age, shorter time interval for re-entry greenhouse, ventilation frequency of greenhouse more than once per 4 h, the area of greenhouses greater than 30 m(2) but without a ventilation facility, ventilation duration less than 30 min every time, greenhouse with height less than 1.8 m, greenhouse with humidity greater than 65 %, frequent exposure to moldy materials in greenhouse, living inside greenhouse, and et al. FLD is and will continue to be a real health problem for Chinese farmers. If these preventive measures are implemented, the prevalence of FLD in Chinese greenhouse farmers might be greatly reduced.

  7. Orientation and the Young Orienteer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walsh, S. E.; Martland, J. R.

    Orientation within orienteering is dependent on the use of two basic strategies; that is, either a compass or Magnetic-North-based strategy, which relies on the use of one set of information; or the use of a map and landmark-based strategy which relies on the use of at least two sets of information. Walsh and found that, when given the choice, young children use the compass-based strategy when following complex potentially disorientating routes.The efficacy of these two basic orientation strategies was investigated within three different orienteering environments: (1) a familiar known environment; (2) a familiar unknown environment and (3) an unfamiliar unknown environment.Subjects, age range from 9 to 10think aloud particularly the introduction of basic skills to young performers. They support the argument that is essential to introduce the map and compass simultaneously and that relocation and orientation skills should be coached concurrently.

  8. Public and farmer perceptions of dairy cattle welfare in the United States.

    PubMed

    Wolf, C A; Tonsor, G T; McKendree, M G S; Thomson, D U; Swanson, J C

    2016-07-01

    This research used surveys of the public and dairy farmers in the United States to assess perceptions and attitudes related to dairy cattle welfare. Sixty-three percent of public respondents indicated that they were concerned about dairy cattle welfare. Most public respondents agreed that animal welfare was more important than low milk prices but that the average American did not necessarily agree. Most public respondents had not viewed media stories related to dairy cattle welfare. Respondents who had viewed these stories did so on television or Internet. The United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) was viewed as the most accurate source of information related to dairy cattle welfare, followed by the Humane Society of the United States (HSUS) and the American Veterinary Medicine Association (AVMA). Both public and dairy farmer respondents viewed farmers as having the most influence on dairy cattle welfare. However, there was a general pattern of public respondents indicating that groups including USDA, HSUS, and AVMA had a relatively larger influence on dairy cattle welfare than did farmer respondents. In contrast, dairy farmers indicated that individual actors-farmers, veterinarians, consumers-had more influence than the public indicated. When asked about production practices, most public respondents indicated that they would vote for a ban on antibiotic use outside of disease treatment or for the mandated use of pain control in castration. However, a minority indicated they would vote to ban the use of recombinant bovine somatotropin (rbST) or to pay a premium for milk produced without rbST. With respect to explaining public support for the production practice bans and limits, respondents were more likely to vote for the restrictions if they were older, female, had higher income, or had viewed animal welfare stories in the media.

  9. Needs assessment for reducing pesticide risk: a case study with farmers in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Phung, Dung Tri; Connell, Des; Miller, Greg; Rutherford, Shannon; Chu, Cordia

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to identify the needs for and solutions to pesticide risk reduction for farmers in Vietnam, using a comprehensive needs assessment model applied for evaluating community needs and policy development. Four kinds of needs were evaluated using qualitative research methods. A comparative analysis of pesticide regulations was used to identify comparative needs. In-depth interviews with authorities and experts were conducted to identify normative needs. Observations on farmer's practice were used to identify expressed needs, and focus group discussions among farmers were implemented to identify felt needs. The needs for pesticide regulations obtained from comparative analysis and experts include enhancement of pesticide legislation; multisectoral involvement in pesticide regulations; improvement of capacity for sectors involving in pesticide regulations; risk-benefit guidance for pesticide registration; reforms of pesticide regulations relating to the restriction, cancellation, suspension, transport, storage, and disposal of pesticides; and the development of occupational hygiene and safety policy and programs for agricultural activities. The expressed needs based on field observations comprise improvement in knowledge and behavior of farmers about pesticide safety with specific areas, and supports in safety facilities and personal protective equipment. The key request from farmers include needs about technical training for occupational safety and hygiene of pesticide application, and support for safety facilities for pesticide application and protective equipment. The results of comprehensive needs assessment were useful in the development of a range of strategies in legislative improvement, workplace and personal hygiene, information and training, and medical surveillance and pesticide poisoning first aids for pesticide risk reduction for Vietnamese farmers.

  10. DCFRN: a radio network for small farmers.

    PubMed

    Amt, W

    1986-01-01

    The Developing Countries Farm Radio Network (DCFRN), a media group founded in 1979, is committed to assisting small farmers to increase their food supplies by using established radio stations along with other local communication channels to spread agricultural information. The success of this effort is evident in the fact that over 500 broadcasters or organizations in over 100 countries disseminate DCFRN information to an estimated 100,000,000 listeners in about 100 languages. 9 packets have been produced and distributed thus far. Information is gathered on appropriate and inexpensive technologies grassroots level farmers use in developing countries to increase food production, decrease post harvest losses and to make more efficient use of food. The source of this information is on-site interviews with small farmers, farm broadcasters, extension workers, health workers, scientists, and university and government officials; printed materials; and feedback from questionnaires that are included in each information packet. Information on agricultural or nutritional innovations must be developed, tested, and proven in the developing world and must be adaptable in other developing countries in order to be put on tape and then be disseminated by DCFRN. The radio scripts are prepared in a culturally and religiously neutral style. The scripts cover a wide variety of agricultural or health and nutrition issues. Each packet contains "The Blue Sheet," DCFRN's newsletter for participants in the Network. It provides current information about the Network and also covers other development issues not included in the radio scripts. DCFRN information also has been used in newspaper articles, posters, classroom teaching, video tapes, television shows, loudspeaker broadcasts, and puppet shows.

  11. Analyzing Orientations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruggles, Clive L. N.

    Archaeoastronomical field survey typically involves the measurement of structural orientations (i.e., orientations along and between built structures) in relation to the visible landscape and particularly the surrounding horizon. This chapter focuses on the process of analyzing the astronomical potential of oriented structures, whether in the field or as a desktop appraisal, with the aim of establishing the archaeoastronomical "facts". It does not address questions of data selection (see instead Chap. 25, "Best Practice for Evaluating the Astronomical Significance of Archaeological Sites", 10.1007/978-1-4614-6141-8_25) or interpretation (see Chap. 24, "Nature and Analysis of Material Evidence Relevant to Archaeoastronomy", 10.1007/978-1-4614-6141-8_22). The main necessity is to determine the azimuth, horizon altitude, and declination in the direction "indicated" by any structural orientation. Normally, there are a range of possibilities, reflecting the various errors and uncertainties in estimating the intended (or, at least, the constructed) orientation, and in more formal approaches an attempt is made to assign a probability distribution extending over a spread of declinations. These probability distributions can then be cumulated in order to visualize and analyze the combined data from several orientations, so as to identify any consistent astronomical associations that can then be correlated with the declinations of particular astronomical objects or phenomena at any era in the past. The whole process raises various procedural and methodological issues and does not proceed in isolation from the consideration of corroborative data, which is essential in order to develop viable cultural interpretations.

  12. Assessing readiness for establishing a farmers' market at a community health center.

    PubMed

    Freedman, Darcy A; Whiteside, Y Omar; Brandt, Heather M; Young, Vicki; Friedman, Daniela B; Hébert, James R

    2012-02-01

    Farmers' markets are community health promotion interventions that increase access to fresh fruits and vegetables. As farmers' markets continue to develop, it is important to strategically locate them in settings that are accessible to populations disparately affected by health disparities. One potential setting is a community health center. The goal of this analysis is to extend existing research on community readiness to identify indicators of preparedness among community health centers for establishing onsite farmers' markets. The sampling frame for the readiness assessment included all community health centers in South Carolina (N = 20) representing 163 practice sites. Data collection included two brief online surveys, in-depth key informant interviews, and secondary analysis of contextual data. Five themes related to readiness for establishing a farmers market at a community health center were identified: capacity, social capital, awareness of health problems and solutions, logistical factors, and sustainability. Findings from this study provide guidance to researchers and community health center staff as they explore the development of environmental interventions focused on reducing diet-related health conditions by improving access to healthy foods.

  13. Climate Change Perceptions of NY State Farmers: The Role of Risk Perceptions and Adaptive Capacity.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Bruno; Burnham, Morey; Terracina-Hartman, Carol; Sopchak, Amanda R; Selfa, Theresa

    2016-12-01

    Climate change is expected to severely impact agricultural practices in many important food-producing regions, including the Northeast United States. Changing climate conditions, such as increases in the amount of rainfall, will require farmers to adapt. Yet, little is known with regard to farmers' perceptions and understandings about climate change, especially in the industrialized country context. This paper aims at overcoming this research limitation, as well as determining the existing contextual, cognitive, and psychological barriers that can prevent adoption of sustainable practices of farmers in New York State. The study is framed within the adaptive capacity and risk perception literature, and is based on a qualitative analysis of in-depth interviews with farmers in 21 farms in two counties in Central New York. The results reveal diverging views about the long-term consequences of climate change. Results also reveal that past experience remains as the most important source of information that influences beliefs and perceptions about climate change, confirming previous research.

  14. Climate Change Perceptions of NY State Farmers: The Role of Risk Perceptions and Adaptive Capacity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, Bruno; Burnham, Morey; Terracina-Hartman, Carol; Sopchak, Amanda R.; Selfa, Theresa

    2016-12-01

    Climate change is expected to severely impact agricultural practices in many important food-producing regions, including the Northeast United States. Changing climate conditions, such as increases in the amount of rainfall, will require farmers to adapt. Yet, little is known with regard to farmers' perceptions and understandings about climate change, especially in the industrialized country context. This paper aims at overcoming this research limitation, as well as determining the existing contextual, cognitive, and psychological barriers that can prevent adoption of sustainable practices of farmers in New York State. The study is framed within the adaptive capacity and risk perception literature, and is based on a qualitative analysis of in-depth interviews with farmers in 21 farms in two counties in Central New York. The results reveal diverging views about the long-term consequences of climate change. Results also reveal that past experience remains as the most important source of information that influences beliefs and perceptions about climate change, confirming previous research.

  15. 29 CFR 780.614 - Definition of a farmer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Definition of a farmer. 780.614 Section 780.614 Labor... § 780.614 Definition of a farmer. The Act does not define the term “farmer.” Whether an employer is a “farmer” within the meaning of section 13(b)(13) must be determined by consideration of the...

  16. 29 CFR 780.614 - Definition of a farmer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Definition of a farmer. 780.614 Section 780.614 Labor... § 780.614 Definition of a farmer. The Act does not define the term “farmer.” Whether an employer is a “farmer” within the meaning of section 13(b)(13) must be determined by consideration of the...

  17. Of Organic Farmers and "Good Farmers": Changing Habitus in Rural England

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutherland, Lee-Ann; Darnhofer, Ika

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, numerous studies have identified the importance of cultural constructions of "good farming" to farming practice. In this paper, we develop the "good farming" construct through an empirical study of organic and conventional farmers, focussing on how change occurs. Drawing on Bourdieu's concepts of cultural…

  18. Why Farmers Persist in or Drop Out of Young Farmer Instructional Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matteson, H. R.; Thompson, J. F.

    A study was conducted to determine why some young farmers continue to attend Wisconsin's five-year (part-time) instructional program and others drop out. Specifically, both groups were compared in personal characteristics, satisfaction regarding in-class instruction, satisfaction regarding on-farm instruction, and relevance of program to student's…

  19. Survey data of stated farmer׳s preferences and willingness to supply straw.

    PubMed

    Giannoccaro, Giacomo

    2017-04-01

    This data article provides a data description on article entitled "Assessing farmers׳ willingness to supply biomass as energy feedstock: Cereal straw in Apulia (Italy)" (G. Giannoccaro, C.B. de Gennaro, E. DeMeo, M. Prosperi, 2017). This DiB consists of data obtained through a survey to farmers in Foggia Province, Italy. The survey was carried out by means of a structured questionnaire administrated to about 200 local wheat producers. Face to face interviews were carried out by professionals. From the hard copy of questionnaire, data were firstly transferred into an excel sheet, than exported to STATA.14 software. The file contains text, dummy and metric variables with reference to a number of variables such as on-farm structural features (land size, crops, livestock units, grain and straw yields, etc.), socio-economic (straw price, willingness to accept, off-farm job, income, membership of farm union, etc.) and personal (farmer׳s age, family members, educational level, etc.). Data has not been uploaded to a public repository.

  20. Agricultural Multifunctionality and Farmers' Entrepreneurial Skills: A Study of Tuscan and Welsh Farmers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Selyf Lloyd; Marsden, Terry; Miele, Mara; Morley, Adrian

    2010-01-01

    The process of agricultural restructuring in Europe has been strongly influenced both by CAP support of multifunctional agriculture and by market liberalisation, and farmers are exhorted to become more entrepreneurial in response. This paper explores the interaction of these policy goals in two regions where a rural development form of…

  1. Extending Technologies among Small-Scale Farmers in Meru, Kenya: Ingredients for Success in Farmer Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Kristin; Franzel, Steven; Hildebrand, Peter; Irani, Tracy; Place, Nick

    2004-01-01

    Agricultural extension is evolving worldwide, and there is much emphasis today on community-based mechanisms of dissemination in order to bring sustainable change. The goal of this study was to examine the factors that make farmer groups successful in dissemination of information and technologies. A mixed-methods, multiple-stage approach was used…

  2. [Review on farmer's climate change perception and adaptation].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xue-Yan

    2014-08-01

    As the most serious challenge that the humankind is facing, climate change has been strengthened vulnerability in many countries and regions, and how to scientifically adapt to climate change has become the global issue of common concern to the international community today. The impact of climate change on farming people depending on the nature resource is especially remarkable, and understanding farmers' adaptation mechanism and process is very important to effectively make the adaptation policy. As the basis of understanding the human response action, public perception has provided a new perspective to verify the farmers' adaptation mechanism and process about climate change. Based on the recent theoretical and empirical developments of farmers' perception and adaptation, the impact of climate change on the farmers' livelihood was analyzed, and the main adaptation obstacles which the farmers faced in response to climate change were summarized systematically. Then, we analyzed the relationship between the farmers' climate change perception and adaptation, illuminated the key cognitive elements in the process of the farmers' climate change adaptation and introduced the framework to analyze the relationship between the farmers' climate change perception and adaptation. At last, this review put forward the key questions which should be considered in study on the relationship between the farmers' climate change perception and adaptation.

  3. Developing a risk-based trading scheme for cattle in England: farmer perspectives on managing trading risk for bovine tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Little, R; Wheeler, K; Edge, S

    2017-02-11

    This paper examines farmer attitudes towards the development of a voluntary risk-based trading scheme for cattle in England as a risk mitigation measure for bovine tuberculosis (bTB). The research reported here was commissioned to gather evidence on the type of scheme that would have a good chance of success in improving the information farmers receive about the bTB risk of cattle they buy. Telephone interviews were conducted with a stratified random sample of 203 cattle farmers in England, splitting the interviews equally between respondents in the high-risk area and low-risk area for bTB. Supplementary interviews and focus groups with farmers were also carried out across the risk areas. Results suggest a greater enthusiasm for a risk-based trading scheme in low-risk areas compared with high-risk areas and among members of breed societies and cattle health schemes. Third-party certification of herds by private vets or the Animal and Plant Health Agency were regarded as the most credible source, with farmer self-certification being favoured by sellers, but being regarded as least credible by buyers. Understanding farmers' attitudes towards voluntary risk-based trading is important to gauge likely uptake, understand preferences for information provision and to assist in monitoring, evaluating and refining the scheme once established.

  4. Simulating farmer behaviour under water markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Padula, SIlvia; Erfani, Tohid; Henriques, Catarina; Maziotis, Alexandros; Garbe, Jennifer; Swinscoe, Thomas; Harou, Julien; Weatherhead, Keith; Beevers, Lindsay; Fleskens, Luuk

    2015-04-01

    Increasing water scarcity may lead water managers to consider alternative approaches to water allocation including water markets. One concern with markets is how will specific sectors interact with a potential water market, when will they gain or loose water and will they benefit economically - why, when and how? The behaviours of different individual abstractors or institutional actors under water markets is of interest to regulators who seek to design effective market policies which satisfy multiple stakeholder groups. In this study we consider two dozen agricultural water users in eastern England (Nar basin). Using partially synthetic but regionally representative cropping and irrigation data we simulate the buying and selling behaviour of farmers on a weekly basis over multiple years. The impact of on-farm water storage is assessed for farmers who own a reservoir. A river-basin-scale hydro-economic multi-agent model is used that represents individual abstractors and can simulate a spot market under various licensing regimes. Weekly varying economic demand curves for water are calibrated based on historical climate and water use data. The model represents the trade-off between current use value and expected gains from trade to reach weekly decisions. Early results are discussed and model limitations and possible extensions are presented.

  5. The NLSY Kinship Links: Using the NLSY79 and NLSY-Children Data to Conduct Genetically-Informed and Family-Oriented Research.

    PubMed

    Rodgers, Joseph Lee; Beasley, William H; Bard, David E; Meredith, Kelly M; D Hunter, Michael; Johnson, Amber B; Buster, Maury; Li, Chengchang; May, Kim O; Mason Garrison, S; Miller, Warren B; van den Oord, Edwin; Rowe, David C

    2016-07-01

    The National Longitudinal Survey of Youth datasets (NLSY79; NLSY-Children/Young Adults; NLSY97) have extensive family pedigree information contained within them. These data sources are based on probability sampling, a longitudinal design, and a cross-generational and within-family data structure, with hundreds of phenotypes relevant to behavior genetic (BG) researchers, as well as to other developmental and family researchers. These datasets provide a unique and powerful source of information for BG researchers. But much of the information required for biometrical modeling has been hidden, and has required substantial programming effort to uncover-until recently. Our research team has spent over 20 years developing kinship links to genetically inform biometrical modeling. In the most recent release of kinship links from two of the NLSY datasets, the direct kinship indicators included in the 2006 surveys allowed successful and unambiguous linking of over 94 % of the potential pairs. In this paper, we provide details for research teams interested in using the NLSY data portfolio to conduct BG (and other family-oriented) research.

  6. A Preliminary Analysis of Solar Irradiance Measurements at TNB Solar Research Centre for Optimal Orientation of Fixed Solar Panels installed in Selangor Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashim, A. M.; Ali, M. A. M.; Ahmad, B.; Shafie, R. M.; Rusli, R.; Aziz, M. A.; Hassan, J.; Wanik, M. Z. C.

    2013-06-01

    The well established rule for orienting fixed solar devices is to face south for places in the northern hemisphere and northwards for the southern hemisphere. However for regions near the equator such as in Selangor Malaysia, the position of the sun at solar noon is always near zenith both to the north and south depending on location and month of year. This paper reports an analysis of global solar radiation data taken at TNB Solar Research Centre, Malaysia. The solar radiation is measured using both shaded and exposed pyranometers together with a pyrheliometer which is mounted on a sun-tracker. The analysis on the solar measurements show that a near regular solar irradiation pattern had occurred often enough during the year to recommend an optimum azimuth orientation of installing the fixed solar panels tilted facing towards east. Even though all the solar measurements were done at a single location in TNBR Solar Research Centre at Bangi, for locations near the equator with similar weather pattern, the recommended azimuth direction of installing fixed solar panels and collectors tilted eastward will also be generally valid.

  7. Research-Oriented Series: A Portal into the Culture of Biomedical Research for Junior Medical Students at Alfaisal University in Saudi Arabia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shareef, Mohammad Abrar; Dweik, Loai M.; Abudan, Zainab; Gazal, Abdalla M.; Abu-Dawas, Reema B.; Chamseddin, Ranim A.; Albali, Nawaf H.; Ali, Alaa A.; Khan, Tehreem A.; AlAmodi, Abdulhadi A.

    2015-01-01

    Student contributions to research have been shown to effectively reflect on their communication and critical thinking skills. Short-term research courses offer opportunities for medical students to advance their research experience in subsequent high-demanding long-term research opportunities. The purpose of the present study was to describe the…

  8. A method to assess soil erosion from smallholder farmers' fields: a case study from Malawi.

    PubMed

    Mohamoud, Yusuf M

    2013-09-01

    Soil erosion by water is a major threat to sustainable food production systems in Africa. This study presents a qualitative soil erosion assessment method that links the number of broken ridges (NBRS) observed on a smallholder farmer's field after a rain event to factors of soil erosion (e.g., rainfall intensity, slope steepness, crop canopy height, and conservation practice) and to soil loss data measured from a runoff plot and receiving small streams. The assessment method consists of a rapid survey of smallholder farmers combined with field monitoring. Results show an indirect relationship between NBRS and factors of soil erosion. Results also show a direct relationship between NBRS and suspended sediment concentrations measured from an experimental runoff plot and receiving streams that drain the sub-watersheds where farmers' fields are located. Given the limited human and financial resources available to soil erosion research in developing countries, monitoring NBRS is a simple, cost-effective, and reliable erosion assessment method for regions where smallholder farmers practice contour ridging.

  9. Sustainable Farming Practices: Ghanaian Farmers' Perception of Erosion and Their Use of Conservation Measures.

    PubMed

    Veihe

    2000-04-01

    / Soil erosion in Africa has been in the limelight over the last two decades with researchers and policy-makers calling for sustainable farming practices. This is often based on the assumption that farmers have a poor perception and little knowledge about soil erosion and conservation measures and completely ignores the realities of the Africanenvironment and the socioeconomic constraints farmers are faced with. This paper investigates the way farmers in northern Ghana perceive soil erosion and their rationality when it comes to their choice of conservation measures, and the question is asked whether the existing farming practices can be considered sustainable. Based on this study it appears that farmers have a clear perception of the problem and adopt a wide range of conservation measures, depending on the availability of stones and grasses, possible side effects associated with using these measures, as well as the time spent on establishing and maintaining them. This study shows that when trying to find solutions to soil erosion problems, both the physical and socioeconomic realities of the environment have to be considered.

  10. The Veggie Project: a case study of a multi-component farmers' market intervention.

    PubMed

    Freedman, Darcy A; Bell, Bethany A; Collins, Leslie V

    2011-08-01

    This case study provides an in-depth examination of process and feasibility factors associated with the development of a multi-component environmental intervention designed to increase access to fresh fruits and vegetables in four low-income, minority, urban communities with few healthy food retail outlets. The intervention, the Veggie Project, included three components: (a) onsite farmers' markets, (b) a Super Shopper voucher program, and (c) a Youth Leader Board. We analyzed receipts from sales transactions at the farmers' markets, close-ended surveys with participants, in-depth interviews with project stakeholders, and journal entries completed by youth participants. Thirty-four farmers' markets occurred, resulting in 1,101 sales transactions. Financial vouchers were used to purchased 63% of the produce. All of the youth Super Shoppers came to the market at least once and made significantly more purchase transactions than adults. The farmers' markets were never accessed by 38% of the adult Super Shoppers. The Veggie Project increased access to healthy foods, particularly among youth. More research is warranted to examine the relationship between market use and dietary behaviors as well as other factors (i.e., besides physical and economic) influencing food access among adults.

  11. Research on drug-receptor interactions and prediction of drug activity via oriented immobilized receptor capillary electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chunye; Zhang, Xuejiao; Jing, Hui; Miao, Yanqing; Zhao, Lingzhi; Han, Yan; Cui, Cuixia

    2015-10-01

    Oriented covalent immobilized β2 -adrenergic receptor (β2 -AR) CE (OIRCE) was developed to determine the interactions between a set of natural extracts of Radix Paeoniae Rubra (NERPR) and β2 -AR, and to predict the activity of NERPR. The inner capillary surface is chemically bonded with stable β2 -AR coating via microwave-assisted technical synthesis. The modified capillaries were characterized via infrared spectroscopy and fluorescence microscopy. Furthermore, the bonding amounts of β2 -AR were first obtained via fluorescence spectroscopy method. In determining the amount of bonded β2 -AR, the regression equation A  =  576 707C + 35.449 and the correlation coefficient 0.9995 were obtained. This result revealed an excellent linear relationship in the range of 2 × 10(-4)  mg/mL to 1 × 10(-3)  mg/mL. The normalized capacity factor (KRCE ) was obtained using OIRCE in evaluating drug-receptor interactions. Related theories and equations were used to calculate KRCE values from apparent migration times of a solute and EOF. The order of KRCE and the binding constant (Kb ) values between drugs and β2 -AR was well consistent. The results confirmed that the OIRCE and KRCE values can be effectually used to investigate drug-receptor interactions, and OIRCE has the potential to predict drug activity and to select leading compounds from natural chemicals.

  12. A study of suicide in farmers in England and Wales.

    PubMed

    Malmberg, A; Hawton, K; Simkin, S

    1997-07-01

    The proportional mortality ratio for suicide is higher in farmers than in the general population. The reasons for this are likely to be complex, but may include easy availability of firearms, stress related to work, financial difficulties, and family problems. A psychological autopsy study of suicide in 84 farmers who died between 1991-1994 is presented and some preliminary findings are discussed.

  13. Exposure assessment and lung function in pig and poultry farmers

    PubMed Central

    Radon, K; Weber, C; Iversen, M; Danuser, B; Pedersen, S; Nowak, D

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—To describe the relation between spirometric findings and farming characteristics and variables of exposure to organic dust measured during work in animal buildings. Farmers have traditionally been described as having one of the most dangerous occupations, so a large scale study on European farmers was carried out. This is the report of the second part of that study.
METHODS—40 pig farmers in Denmark and 36 poultry farmers in Switzerland were chosen randomly and were assessed over 1 working day.
RESULTS—Mean (SD) baseline spirometric results in pig farmers were higher than in poultry farmers (forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) (% of reference value) 108.3 (16.7) v 100.2 (14.2); p=0.04). Baseline lung function results were significantly associated with ventilation of the animal houses. Furthermore, temperature was related to spirometric findings in pig farmers.
CONCLUSIONS—Ventilation of the animal house and temperature might influence respiratory morbidity in farmers.


Keywords: ventilation; micro-organism; European multicentre study PMID:11351057

  14. 75 FR 23227 - Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-03

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Foreign Agricultural Service Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers AGENCY: Foreign Agricultural Service... can be obtained at the Web site for the Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers program. The URL...

  15. Agricultural Mechanical Skills Needed by Farmers in Texas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webb, Earl S.; Knotts, Clifton Don

    This study identified skills that should be taught in the agricultural mechanics area of production vocational agriculture courses in Texas high schools. The data were obtained from questionnaires given to 50 young farmers who had been recognized by the State Association of Young Farmers of Texas for outstanding farming programs during one of the…

  16. 75 FR 42376 - Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-21

    ... Foreign Agricultural Service Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers AGENCY: Foreign Agricultural Service... began a review of a petition for trade adjustment assistance filed under the FY 2011 Program by three... benefits. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers Staff, FAS, USDA,...

  17. 75 FR 43485 - Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-26

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Foreign Agricultural Service Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers AGENCY... (FAS) today accepted and began a review of a petition for trade adjustment assistance filed under the...: Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers Staff, FAS, USDA, by phone: (202) 720-0638, or (202)...

  18. Helping Farmers Access Farmland: New Jersey's New Land Link Website

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schilling, Brian J.; Marxen, Lucas J.; Everett, Jeffrey C.; Miller, Camille L.; Kimmel, David A.; Cook, Justine C.

    2015-01-01

    Access to land is a common obstacle for beginning farmers and established farmers seeking to expand their operations. Particularly in urban-influenced areas, leasing farmland is often more financially feasible than fee ownership. Locating available land or the right leasing situation, however, can be difficult. NJ Land Link (http://njlandlink.org)…

  19. 26 CFR 1.162-12 - Expenses of farmers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... § 1.263A-4. The cost of farm machinery, equipment, and farm buildings represents a capital investment... farmers. (a) Farms engaged in for profit. A farmer who operates a farm for profit is entitled to deduct... including the value of farm produce grown upon the farm or the labor of the taxpayer. For rules...

  20. 26 CFR 1.162-12 - Expenses of farmers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... § 1.263A-4. The cost of farm machinery, equipment, and farm buildings represents a capital investment... farmers. (a) Farms engaged in for profit. A farmer who operates a farm for profit is entitled to deduct... including the value of farm produce grown upon the farm or the labor of the taxpayer. For rules...

  1. Industrial Orientation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rasor, Leslie; Brooks, Valerie

    These eight modules for an industrial orientation class were developed by a project to design an interdisciplinary program of basic skills training for disadvantaged students in a Construction Technology Program (see Note). The Drafting module overviews drafting career opportunities, job markets, salaries, educational requirements, and basic…

  2. Control Oriented System Identification

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-08-01

    The research goals for this grant were to obtain algorithms for control oriented system identification is to construct dynamical models of systems...and measured information. Algorithms for this type of nonlinear system identification have been given that produce models suitable for gain scheduled

  3. 76 FR 14371 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comment Request-WIC Farmers...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-16

    ... Food and Nutrition Service Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comment Request--WIC Farmers' Market Nutrition Program (FMNP) Forms and Regulations AGENCY: Food and Nutrition... in the WIC Farmers' Market Nutrition Program Financial Report (Form FNS-683); WIC Farmers'...

  4. A coordinated research programme to develop methodologies for an integrated approach to improve small scale market oriented dairy systems in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Perera, B M A O

    2007-12-01

    A five-year Coordinated Research Project (CRP) entitled 'Integrated approach for improving small scale market oriented dairy systems' is currently being implemented by the Food and Agriculture Organization and the International Atomic Energy Agency, through their Joint Programme on 'Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture'. The objectives are to (a) identify and prioritize the constraints and opportunities in the selected dairy farms; (b) determine the most important limiting factors; (c) develop intervention strategies; (c) assess the economic impact of the interventions; (d) develop methodologies for recording and demonstrating the economic impact; and (e) promote the adoption and dissemination of proven strategies and methodologies. Fifteen institutes in developing as well as developed countries are participating in the project, through ten research contracts (Bangladesh, Cameroon, Pakistan, Paraguay, Peru, South Africa, Sri Lanka, Tanzania, Tunisia and Venezuela), one technical contract (Peru) and four research agreements (Malaysia, U.K., U.S.A. and Uruguay). The initial phase of the project, which focused on the conduct of Participatory Rural Appraisals and Economic Opportunity Surveys in the countries of the research contract holders, has now been completed. This paper describes the background to the CRP approach and the procedures used for developing, initiating and implementing this project.

  5. The Ethics of Science and/as Research: Deconstruction and the Orientations of a New Academic Responsibility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trifonas, Peter

    2003-01-01

    The principle of reason "as principle of grounding, foundation or institution" has tended to guide the science of research toward techno-practical ends. From this epistemic superintendence of the terms of knowledge and inquiry, there has arisen the traditional notion of academic responsibility that is tied to the pursuit of truth via a conception…

  6. Using Evaluation Research as a Means for Policy Analysis in a "New" Mission-Oriented Policy Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amanatidou, Effie; Cunningham, Paul; Gök, Abdullah; Garefi, Ioanna

    2014-01-01

    Grand challenges stress the importance of multi-disciplinary research, a multi-actor approach in examining the current state of affairs and exploring possible solutions, multi-level governance and policy coordination across geographical boundaries and policy areas, and a policy environment for enabling change both in science and technology and in…

  7. Connections, Productivity and Funding: An Examination of Factors Influencing Scientists' Perspectives on the Market Orientation of Academic Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ronning, Emily Anne

    2012-01-01

    This study examines scientists' perceptions of the environment in which they do their work. Specifically, this study examines how academic and professional factors such as research productivity, funding levels for science, connections to industry, type of academic appointment, and funding sources influence scientists' perceptions of the…

  8. Comparing Farmer-to-Farmer Video with Workshops to Train Rural Women in Improved Rice Parboiling in Central Benin

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zossou, Esperance; Van Mele, Paul; Vodouhe, Simplice D.; Wanvoeke, Jonas

    2009-01-01

    This article deals with the comparison of the conventional training based on two day community workshops and farmer-to-farmer video used as methodologies for the dissemination of improved rice parboiling process in Benin. From November 2007 to May 2008, we interviewed 160 women and 17 women groups who had been exposed to both, one or other of the…

  9. Studying the hydro-meteorological extremes. The benefits from the European Flash Flood research oriented HYDRATE project.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsanis, Ioannis K.; Koutroulis, Aristeidis G.; Daliakopoulos, Ioannis N.; Grillakis, Emmanouil G.

    2010-05-01

    The present paper summarizes the advances of flash flood research for the Greek case study, within the frame of HYDRATE EC funded project. As a first step, a collation of homogenous primary data on flash floods occurred in Greece based on various data sources resulted in 21 documented events, enriching the HYDRATE database. Specific major events were selected for further detailed data collation and analysis. A common intensive post event field survey was conducted by various researchers with different skills and experience, in order to document the 18th of September 2007, Western Slovenia flash flood event. The observation strategy and the lessons learned during this campaign were applied successfully for surveying an event in Crete. Two flash flood events occurred in Crete were selected for detailed analysis, the 13th of January 1994 event occurred in Giofiros basin and the 17th of October 2006 event occurred in Almirida basin. Several techniques, like distributed rainfall-runoff modelling, hydraulic modelling, indirect and empirical peak discharge estimation, were applied for the understanding of the dominant flash flood processes and the effect of initial conditions on peak discharge. In a more general framework, the seasonality of the hydrometeorologic characteristics of floods that occurred in Crete during the period 1990-2007 and the atmospheric circulation conditions during the flood events were examined. During the three and a half years research period, many lessons have learnt from a fruitful collaboration among the project partners. HYDRATE project improved the scientific basis of flash flood research and provided research knowledge on flood risk management.

  10. Climate change threats to family farmers' sense of place and mental wellbeing: A case study from the Western Australian Wheatbelt.

    PubMed

    Ellis, Neville R; Albrecht, Glenn A

    2017-02-01

    'Sense of place' has become a central concept in the analysis of the cultural, personal and mental health risks posed by a changing climate. However, such place-related understandings of mental health and wellbeing remain largely limited to Indigenous health contexts. In this article we argue the relevance of sense of place in understanding the mental health impacts of climate change on family farmers who retain close living and working relationships to the land. We conducted a community-based qualitative case study located in the Western Australian Wheatbelt - a region that has experienced some of the most significant climate change in Australia. A three-part interview series was conducted with 22 family farmers between February 2013 and April 2014, and 15 interviews with various agricultural and mental health key informants. The research findings reveal that recently observed patterns of climate change have exacerbated farmers' worries about the weather, undermined notions of self-identity, and contributed to cumulative and chronic forms of place-based distress, culminating in heightened perceived risk of depression and suicide. The research findings highlight the tightly coupled ecosystem health-human health relationships that exist for family farmers living in regions affected by climate change, as well as the significance of farmers' place-based attachments and identities for their mental health and wellbeing.

  11. Prevalence of Musculoskeletal Symptoms and Predictors of Seeking Healthcare among Iowa Farmers.

    PubMed

    Tonelli, S; Culp, K; Donham, K J

    2015-10-01

    Farmers experience musculoskeletal symptoms such as pain and disability at a higher rate than other professions, yet little is known about the associated environmental and health factors. The objective of this research is to describe health screening data, musculoskeletal symptoms, and farm safety environmental scores to determine the relationships among these variables for Midwest famers. The sample (n = 438) included farmers from 38 counties that surround ten AgriSafe clinic sites in Iowa who were principal farm operators and/or spouses, farmed at least 20 hours per week on average, and had agricultural production of at least $1,000 in sales a year. Musculoskeletal symptom prevalence varied by age and joint, with the lowest prevalence of 28% for the elbow and the highest prevalence of over 73% for the lower back. The average number of painful joints was 4.15 (SD = 2.75) over the last year, with significantly more older farmers experiencing knee pain. Of farmers in the older age category (N = 223), 144 (64.6%) were in the low safety category (safety score ≤ 95). Significant predictors of seeking healthcare due to musculoskeletal symptoms included doctor-diagnosed arthritis (OR = 1.742; 95% CI: 1.024-2.963), employee help on the farm (OR = 2.162; 95% CI: 1.254-3.727), hip pain (OR = 2.959; 95% CI: 1.751-5.001), and upper back pain (OR = 2.036; 95% CI: 1.204-3.443). Health and safety professionals can use a standardized health and safety checklist to identify areas of concern and increase the safety and health of farmers.

  12. Encouraging farmers to retrofit tractors: a qualitative analysis of risk perceptions among a group of high-risk farmers in New York.

    PubMed

    Sorensen, J A; May, J J; Paap, K; Purschwitz, M A; Emmelin, M

    2008-01-01

    Tractor rollovers continue to be one of the most frequent causes of agricultural fatalities. Despite knowledge of rollovers and the efficacy of rollover protective structures (ROPS), few New York farmers have considered installing ROPS on their unprotected tractors. Qualitative interviews conducted with an "at-risk" segment of the New York farming community indicate that there are a number of barriers to safety in general and to retrofitting, in particular. The following themes and categories emerged in relation to safety and risk taking: constant exposures to risk with positive outcomes normalizes risk; the modeling of risk by significant others positions risk as part of a farming identity; and the pressure to reduce costs, save time, and accept risk frames risk-taking as the cost-effective option (especially in regard to retrofitting, which farmers believe is both expensive and time-consuming). Recommendations for researchers planning retrofitting interventions would be to focus safety messages on the risk to significant others or on the financial impact of rollovers, and to provide financial incentives and assistance to farmers considering retrofitting.

  13. 20 Years of Developing Capacity for Action-Oriented Collaborative Regional Research in the Asia-Pacific Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tupas, L. M.; Stevenson, L. A.

    2015-12-01

    During its 3rd strategic phase, which ran from 2010 to 2015, the APN provided support for 123 projects through its competitive collaborative regional research and capacity development programmes. With over 250 peer-reviewed papers and the underlying philosophy that the regional research it undertakes engages at least two developing countries, the 3rd strategic phase is not only improving the research capabilities of nations in the region, but is engaging the developing country community in underpinning policy-relevant research. The extent to which science is contributing to policy is further evident in that 69% of the activities conducted had some form of science-policy mechanism built in to the project activities. The period of the 3rd Strategic Phase has been witness to significant changes in the make-up of the "conventional" global change arena, with the transition of some global change programmes into the new "Future Earth" initiative. At the same time, major events such as the Rio+20 Summit, the post-2015 Sustainable Development Goals, the establishment of an IPCC-related platform for biodiversity, i.e. IPBES, and the evolving engagement of science and policy communities has kept the APN busy at what it does best - networking and partnering with the international community. The APN has embraced these changes through its dynamism, allowing the APN to meet not only the needs of the scientists and decision makers its serves in the region but those of the international science communities as well. The challenge for the APN in its next two decades will be to ensure alignment with the transforming global change arena. With key phrases such as "policy-relevant science" and "science-policy interactions" being adopted broadly by the community at large these days, the APN's niche in the global community has received considerable recognition, particularly as other institutions strive to adopt similar practices that the APN has built over the last 20 years.

  14. Improving Fruit and Vegetable Consumption Among Low-Income Customers at Farmers Markets: Philly Food Bucks, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 2011

    PubMed Central

    Aquilante, Jennifer L.; Solomon, Sara; Colby, Lisa; Kawinzi, Mukethe A.; Uy, Nicky; Mallya, Giridhar

    2013-01-01

    Introduction We evaluated whether Philly Food Bucks, a bonus incentive program at farmers markets, is associated with increased fruit and vegetable consumption and Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) sales at farmers markets in low-income areas. Methods A convenience sample of 662 customers at 22 farmers markets in low-income neighborhoods in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, was surveyed via face-to-face interviews. Questions addressed shopping characteristics, self-reported change in fruit and vegetable consumption, whether customers tried new fruits or vegetables, use of Philly Food Bucks, and demographic information. Market-level SNAP sales and Philly Food Bucks redemption data were also collected to monitor sales patterns. Results Philly Food Bucks users were significantly more likely than nonusers to report increasing fruit and vegetable consumption (OR, 2.4; 95% CI, 1.6–3.7; P < .001) and to report trying new fruits or vegetables (OR 1.8; 95% CI, 1.2–2.7; P = .006). At the market level, average SNAP sales more than doubled at farmers markets in low-income areas in the first 2 years of the Philly Food Bucks program. At the city’s largest farmers market in a low-income area, the program was associated with an almost 5-fold higher increase in annual SNAP sales compared with baseline. Conclusion Results from this study demonstrate that a bonus incentive program tied to SNAP was associated with self-reported increases in fruit and vegetable consumption and increased SNAP sales at participating farmers markets in low-income communities. More research is warranted to evaluate the long-term impact of bonus incentives on farmers market use, dietary behaviors, and health outcomes. PMID:24135390

  15. Link practical-oriented research and education: New training tools for a sustainable use of plant protection products.

    PubMed

    Sacchettini, G; Calliera, M

    2017-02-01

    In the Horizon 2020 work programme 2016-17 it is stated that in 2010, 71% of European farm managers were operating on the basis of practical experience only. Education levels greatly vary depending on country, farm managers' age and gender, or farm structures, and this can hamper innovation. Transition towards a more sustainable agriculture requires a renewal and strengthening of the technical skills of all the actors involved and - as a consequence - of the educational system. The EU Directive on the sustainable use of pesticides (EU, 128/2009/EC) requires European Member States to develop training activities targeting occupational exposure to pesticides. The objective of this study is to develop new training tools for operators, addressing the new legal requirements and taking into account what is already available. For this reason, the outcomes of different European and national research projects developed by the Opera Research Centre were used, involving stakeholders in the decision making process, but also considering the real behaviours and perceptions of the final users. As a result, an e-learning tool able to build personalized training programmes, by collecting and integrating existing training material on Plant Protection Products use was developed, together with an e-learning course, with the aim to help operators, advisors and distributors to get prepared for their national certificate test. This work highlights the opportunity to create long-term added value through enhanced collaboration between educators and researchers, and identifies a common set of priorities that has to be taken into account in order to nudge the changes required to achieve a more sustainable use of pesticide and, more in general, sustainable development.

  16. Job-Oriented Basic Skills (JOBS) Curricula: An Overview of Four Research Studies to Improve Program Effectiveness.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-01-01

    sls learning by lower aptitude students. UNCLASSIFIED U cUYY wAIPcAT op ThNs PAom of 3mom*g FOREWORD This research was conducted under contract with...identify instructional methods, techniques, strategies, or content areas that could be used to improve JOBS program effectiveness. The contracting ...differential Is accounted for In part by the fact that 3OBS students have mucL lower aptitude scores and lower post-"A"-school-attrition rates than

  17. Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease in Never-Smoking Dairy Farmers

    PubMed Central

    Stoleski, Saso; Minov, Jordan; Karadzinska-Bislimovska, Jovanka; Mijakoski, Dragan

    2015-01-01

    Introduction : Work-related chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) represents a considerable part of the disease burden globally. Objective : To assess the COPD prevalence and characteristics in never-smoking dairy farmers. Materials and Methodology : We have conducted a cross-sectional study with 75 male dairy farmers aged 26 to 59 years, and compared them with equivalent number of male office workers similar by age, and duration of employment. Data on chronic respiratory symptoms, job history and daily activities were obtained by questionnaire. Lung functional testing of the examined subjects included baseline spirometry, and bronchodilator reversibility measurement. Results : Dairy farmers showed higher prevalence of overall respiratory symptoms, but significant difference was noticed for cough, phlegm, and dyspnea. Dairy farmers had more prevalent work-related respiratory symptoms, being significant for overall symptoms, cough, and phlegm. The mean baseline values of spirometric parameters were lower in dairy farmers, but significance was reported for FEV1/FVC%, MEF50, MEF75, and MEF25-75. Dairy farmers had significantly higher COPD prevalence than office controls (10.7% vs 2.7%, P = 0,049). Dairy farmers and office controls showed significant association between COPD and age over 45 years. Dairy farmers had a significant association between COPD and employment duration of over 20 years (P = 0.023), but also between COPD and work-related chronic respiratory symptoms (P = 0.041). Conclusion : The study findings favor the cause-effect association between job exposure to respiratory hazards, and development of persistent airway obstruction among dairy farmers. PMID:25893027

  18. Dutch dairy farmers' need for microbiological mastitis diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Griffioen, Karien; Hop, Geralda E; Holstege, Manon M C; Velthuis, Annet G J; Lam, Theo J G M

    2016-07-01

    Although several microbiological mastitis diagnostic tools are currently available, dairy farmers rarely use them to base treatment decisions on. In this study, we conducted a telephone interview among 195 randomly selected Dutch dairy farmers to determine their current use of and their need for microbiological diagnostics for clinical mastitis (CM), subclinical mastitis (SCM), and dry-cow treatment (DCT), followed by the test characteristics they consider important. A structured questionnaire was used, based on face-to-face interviews previously held with other farmers. The answers were registered in a database and analyzed using descriptive statistics and univariable and multivariable models. Antimicrobial treatment decisions for CM, SCM, and DCT were mainly based on clinical signs and somatic cell count. In case of CM, 34% of farmers indicated that they currently submit milk samples for bacteriological culture (BC). This would increase to 71% if an on-farm test resulting in treatment advice within 12 h were available. For SCM, use would increase from 22 to 55%, and for DCT, from 7 to 34%, if the same 12-h test were available. For CM and DCT, the preferred test outcome was advice on which antibiotic to use, according to 58 and 15% of the farmers, respectively. For SCM, the preferred test outcome was the causative bacterium for 38% of the farmers. Farmers who currently submit CM milk samples for BC were 13.1 times more likely to indicate, as the preferred test outcome, advice on which antibiotic to use, compared with farmers who do not currently submit CM milk samples for BC. Fourteen percent of the farmers indicated not being interested at all in microbiological mastitis diagnostics for CM. For SCM and DCT, 27 and 55%, respectively, were not interested in microbiological mastitis diagnostics. Regarding test characteristics that farmers considered important, reliability was most often indicated (44-51% of the farmers). Additionally, a preferred time-to-result of

  19. Ionosphere Waves Service (IWS) - a problem-oriented tool in ionosphere and Space Weather research produced by POPDAT project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferencz, Csaba; Lizunov, Georgii; Crespon, François; Price, Ivan; Bankov, Ludmil; Przepiórka, Dorota; Brieß, Klaus; Dudkin, Denis; Girenko, Andrey; Korepanov, Valery; Kuzmych, Andrii; Skorokhod, Tetiana; Marinov, Pencho; Piankova, Olena; Rothkaehl, Hanna; Shtus, Tetyana; Steinbach, Péter; Lichtenberger, János; Sterenharz, Arnold; Vassileva, Any

    2014-05-01

    In the frame of the FP7 POPDAT project the Ionosphere Waves Service (IWS) has been developed and opened for public access by ionosphere experts. IWS is forming a database, derived from archived ionospheric wave records to assist the ionosphere and Space Weather research, and to answer the following questions: How can the data of earlier ionospheric missions be reprocessed with current algorithms to gain more profitable results? How could the scientific community be provided with a new insight on wave processes that take place in the ionosphere? The answer is a specific and unique data mining service accessing a collection of topical catalogs that characterize a huge number of recorded occurrences of Whistler-like Electromagnetic Wave Phenomena, Atmosphere Gravity Waves, and Traveling Ionosphere Disturbances. IWS online service (http://popdat.cbk.waw.pl) offers end users to query optional set of predefined wave phenomena, their detailed characteristics. These were collected by target specific event detection algorithms in selected satellite records during database buildup phase. Result of performed wave processing thus represents useful information on statistical or comparative investigations of wave types, listed in a detailed catalog of ionospheric wave phenomena. The IWS provides wave event characteristics, extracted by specific software systems from data records of the selected satellite missions. The end-user can access targets by making specific searches and use statistical modules within the service in their field of interest. Therefore the IWS opens a new way in ionosphere and Space Weather research. The scientific applications covered by IWS concern beyond Space Weather also other fields like earthquake precursors, ionosphere climatology, geomagnetic storms, troposphere-ionosphere energy transfer, and trans-ionosphere link perturbations.

  20. Disparities in the Availability of Farmers Markets in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Singleton, Chelsea R.; Sen, Bisakha; Affuso, Olivia

    2016-01-01

    Farmers markets (FM) have been proposed by researchers, policymakers, and health agencies as a potential community-level strategy to prevent obesity and reduce disparities in healthy food access in the U.S. Information about disparities in farmers market availability is scarce. This research aimed to examine county-level associations between farmers market (FM) availability and demographic, socioeconomic, health, and environmental measures in an effort to determine if disparities in availability exist in the U.S. An ecological study of 3,135 U.S. counties was conducted in 2013 using 2009–2010 data extracted from the United States Department of Agriculture Food Environment Atlas. Logistic regression and Poisson regression models were used to determine associations between county-level FM availability and measures such as percentage of non-Hispanic black residents, median household income, and number of grocery stores per 100,000 residents (i.e., per capita). Regression models were stratified by metro county status and all analyses were adjusted for state-level clustering. There were 1,774 (56.6%) counties with at least one FM available. Median household income was associated with increased odds of having at least one FM available among non-metro counties, but not metro counties. Percentage of non-Hispanic black residents and residents living in poverty were negatively associated with per capita FMs among metro and non-metro counties. Per capita fast food restaurants was negatively associated with per capita FMs among metro counties. Disparities in FM availability exist in the U.S. More research on the behavioral and health implications of farmers market availability should be conducted. PMID:27746854

  1. Farmer Attitudes and Livestock Disease: Exploring Citizenship Behaviour and Peer Monitoring across Two BVD Control Schemes in the UK.

    PubMed

    Heffernan, Claire; Azbel-Jackson, Lena; Brownlie, Joe; Gunn, George

    2016-01-01

    The eradication of BVD in the UK is technically possible but appears to be socially untenable. The following study explored farmer attitudes to BVD control schemes in relation to advice networks and information sharing, shared aims and goals, motivation and benefits of membership, notions of BVD as a priority disease and attitudes toward regulation. Two concepts from the organisational management literature framed the study: citizenship behaviour where actions of individuals support the collective good (but are not explicitly recognised as such) and peer to peer monitoring (where individuals evaluate other's behaviour). Farmers from two BVD control schemes in the UK participated in the study: Orkney Livestock Association BVD Eradication Scheme and Norfolk and Suffolk Cattle Breeders Association BVD Eradication Scheme. In total 162 farmers participated in the research (109 in-scheme and 53 out of scheme). The findings revealed that group helping and information sharing among scheme members was low with a positive BVD status subject to social censure. Peer monitoring in the form of gossip with regard to the animal health status of other farms was high. Interestingly, farmers across both schemes supported greater regulation with regard to animal health, largely due to the mistrust of fellow farmers following voluntary disease control measures. While group cohesiveness varied across the two schemes, without continued financial inducements, longer-term sustainability is questionable.

  2. Multi-trait evolution of farmer varieties of bread wheat after cultivation in contrasting organic farming systems in Europe.

    PubMed

    Dawson, J C; Serpolay, E; Giuliano, S; Schermann, N; Galic, N; Chable, V; Goldringer, I

    2012-03-01

    Because of the lack of varieties for organic agriculture, associations of organic farmers in several European countries have begun cultivating landraces and historic varieties, effectively practicing in situ conservation of agricultural biodiversity. To promote agrobiodiversity conservation, a special list for "conservation varieties" was implemented in 2008 by the EU because for any exchange and marketing of seeds in the EU, a variety must be registered in an official catalog. Our study aimed at improving knowledge on the phenotypic diversity and evolution of such varieties when cultivated on organic farms in Europe, in order to better define their specific characteristics and the implications for the registration process. We assessed multi-trait phenotypic evolution in eight European landraces and historic varieties of bread wheat and in two pureline variety checks, each grown by eight organic farmers over 2 years and then evaluated in a common garden experiment at an organic research farm. Measurements on each farmer's version of each variety included several standard evaluation criteria for assessing distinctness, uniformity and stability for variety registration. Significant phenotypic differentiation was found among farmers' versions of each variety. Some varieties showed considerable variation among versions while others showed fewer phenotypic changes, even in comparison to the two checks. Although farmers' variety would not satisfy uniformity or stability criteria as defined in the catalog evaluation requirements, each variety remained distinct when assessed using multivariate analysis. The amount of differentiation may be related to the initial genetic diversity within landraces and historic varieties.

  3. Impact of extension interventions in improving livelihood of dairy farmers of Nadia district of West Bengal, India.

    PubMed

    Garai, Suman; Garai, Sanchita; Maiti, Sanjit; Meena, B S; Ghosh, M K; Bhakat, Champak; Dutta, T K

    2017-03-01

    Livestock is a one of the major sources of livelihood for most of the small and marginal farmers in India, particularly for rural households who live in below poverty line. Extension interventions have long been seen as a key element for enabling farmers to obtain information and technologies that can improve their livelihoods. It is also recognized that extension is an important factor in promoting dairy development. Ex-post-facto cause to effect research design was applied in this study to trace out the impact of extension interventions in improving knowledge, attitude, adoption towards scientific dairy farming practices and improvement in milk production of dairy animal and income from dairying which will be resulted into improved livelihood of rural poor in Nadia district of West Bengal, India. Therefore, 60 dairy farmers of experimental villages who were considered as beneficiaries and 60 dairy farmers of control villages who were considered as non-beneficiaries were selected as sample for the study. It was found that beneficiaries had significantly higher score in all the five components of livelihood improvement with its all sub components, i.e., knowledge, attitude, adoption of scientific dairy farming practices, milk production per household per day and monthly income from dairying except disease control, and marketing component of adoption. Hence, it may be concluded that extension interventions had a significant impact on improving livelihood of rural dairy farmers in Nadia district of West Bengal, India.

  4. Farmers and Climate Change: A Cross-National Comparison of Beliefs and Risk Perceptions in High-Income Countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prokopy, Linda S.; Arbuckle, J. G.; Barnes, Andrew P.; Haden, V. R.; Hogan, Anthony; Niles, Meredith T.; Tyndall, John

    2015-08-01

    Climate change has serious implications for the agricultural industry—both in terms of the need to adapt to a changing climate and to modify practices to mitigate for the impacts of climate change. In high-income countries where farming tends to be very intensive and large scale, it is important to understand farmers' beliefs and concerns about climate change in order to develop appropriate policies and communication strategies. Looking across six study sites—Scotland, Midwestern United States, California, Australia, and two locations in New Zealand—this paper finds that over half of farmers in each location believe that climate change is occurring. However, there is a wide range of beliefs regarding the anthropogenic nature of climate change; only in Australia do a majority of farmers believe that climate change is anthropogenic. In all locations, a majority of farmers believe that climate change is not a threat to local agriculture. The different policy contexts and existing impacts from climate change are discussed as possible reasons for the variation in beliefs. This study compared varying surveys from the different locations and concludes that survey research on farmers and climate change in diverse locations should strive to include common questions to facilitate comparisons.

  5. Farmers and Climate Change: A Cross-National Comparison of Beliefs and Risk Perceptions in High-Income Countries.

    PubMed

    Prokopy, Linda S; Arbuckle, J G; Barnes, Andrew P; Haden, V R; Hogan, Anthony; Niles, Meredith T; Tyndall, John

    2015-08-01

    Climate change has serious implications for the agricultural industry-both in terms of the need to adapt to a changing climate and to modify practices to mitigate for the impacts of climate change. In high-income countries where farming tends to be very intensive and large scale, it is important to understand farmers' beliefs and concerns about climate change in order to develop appropriate policies and communication strategies. Looking across six study sites-Scotland, Midwestern United States, California, Australia, and two locations in New Zealand-this paper finds that over half of farmers in each location believe that climate change is occurring. However, there is a wide range of beliefs regarding the anthropogenic nature of climate change; only in Australia do a majority of farmers believe that climate change is anthropogenic. In all locations, a majority of farmers believe that climate change is not a threat to local agriculture. The different policy contexts and existing impacts from climate change are discussed as possible reasons for the variation in beliefs. This study compared varying surveys from the different locations and concludes that survey research on farmers and climate change in diverse locations should strive to include common questions to facilitate comparisons.

  6. Farmer Attitudes and Livestock Disease: Exploring Citizenship Behaviour and Peer Monitoring across Two BVD Control Schemes in the UK

    PubMed Central

    Heffernan, Claire; Azbel-Jackson, Lena; Brownlie, Joe; Gunn, George

    2016-01-01

    The eradication of BVD in the UK is technically possible but appears to be socially untenable. The following study explored farmer attitudes to BVD control schemes in relation to advice networks and information sharing, shared aims and goals, motivation and benefits of membership, notions of BVD as a priority disease and attitudes toward regulation. Two concepts from the organisational management literature framed the study: citizenship behaviour where actions of individuals support the collective good (but are not explicitly recognised as such) and peer to peer monitoring (where individuals evaluate other’s behaviour). Farmers from two BVD control schemes in the UK participated in the study: Orkney Livestock Association BVD Eradication Scheme and Norfolk and Suffolk Cattle Breeders Association BVD Eradication Scheme. In total 162 farmers participated in the research (109 in-scheme and 53 out of scheme). The findings revealed that group helping and information sharing among scheme members was low with a positive BVD status subject to social censure. Peer monitoring in the form of gossip with regard to the animal health status of other farms was high. Interestingly, farmers across both schemes supported greater regulation with regard to animal health, largely due to the mistrust of fellow farmers following voluntary disease control measures. While group cohesiveness varied across the two schemes, without continued financial inducements, longer-term sustainability is questionable. PMID:27023269

  7. Protocol for a process-oriented qualitative evaluation of the Waltham Forest and East London Collaborative (WELC) integrated care pioneer programme using the Researcher-in-Residence model

    PubMed Central

    Eyre, Laura; George, Bethan; Marshall, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The integration of health and social care in England is widely accepted as the answer to fragmentation, financial concerns and system inefficiencies, in the context of growing and ageing populations with increasingly complex needs. Despite an expanding body of literature, there is little evidence yet to suggest that integrated care can achieve the benefits that its advocates claim for it. Researchers have often adopted rationalist and technocratic approaches to evaluation, treating integration as an intervention rather than a process. Results have usually been of limited use to practitioners responsible for health and social care integration. There is, therefore, a need to broaden the evidence base, exploring not only what works but also how integrated care can most successfully be implemented and delivered. For this reason, we are carrying out a formative evaluation of the Waltham Forest and East London Collaborative (WELC) integrated care pioneer programme. Our expectation is that this will add value to the literature by focusing on the processes by which the vision and objectives of integrated care are translated through phases of development, implementation and delivery from a central to a local perspective, and from a strategic to an operational perspective. Methods and analysis The qualitative and process-oriented evaluation uses an innovative participative approach—the Researcher-in-Residence model. The evaluation is underpinned by a critical ontology, an interpretive epistemology and a critical discourse analysis methodology. Data will be generated using interviews, observations and documentary gathering. Ethics and dissemination Emerging findings will be interpreted and disseminated collaboratively with stakeholders, to enable the research to influence and optimise the effective implementation of integrated care across WELC. Presentations and publications will ensure that learning is shared as widely as possible. The study has received

  8. Using the Internet to Improve HRD Research: The Case of the Web-Based Delphi Research Technique to Achieve Content Validity of an HRD-Oriented Measurement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hatcher, Tim; Colton, Sharon

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this article is to highlight the results of the online Delphi research project; in particular the procedures used to establish an online and innovative process of content validation and obtaining "rich" and descriptive information using the internet and current e-learning technologies. The online Delphi was proven to be an…

  9. High confinement and high density with stationary plasma energy and strong edge radiation cooling in the upgraded Torus Experiment for Technology Oriented Research (TEXTOR-94)

    SciTech Connect

    Messiaen, A.M.; Ongena, J.; Unterberg, B.; Boedo, J.; Fuchs, G.; Jaspers, R.; Konen, L.; Koslowski, H.R.; Mank, G.; Rapp, J.; Samm, U.; Vandenplas, P.E.; Van Oost, G.; Van Wassenhove, G.; Waidmann, G.; Weynants, R.R.; Wolf, G.H.; Bertschinger, G.; Bonheure, G.; Brix, M.; Dumortier, P.; Durodie, F.; Finken, K.H.; Giesen, B.; Hillis, D.; Hutteman, P.; Koch, R.; Kramer-Flecken, A.; Lyssoivan, A.; Mertens, P.; Pospieszczyk, A.; Post-Zwicker, A.; Sauer, M.; Schweer, B.; Schwelberger, J.; Telesca, G.; Tokar, M.Z.; Uhlemann, R.; Vervier, M.; Winter, J. ||||

    1997-05-01

    An overview of the results obtained so far for the radiative I-mode regime on the upgraded Torus Experiment for Technology Oriented Research (TEXTOR-94) [{ital Proceedings of the 16th IEEE Symposium on Fusion Engineering} (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Piscataway, NJ, 1995), Vol. 1, p. 470] is given. This regime is obtained under quasistationary conditions with edge neon seeding in a pumped limiter tokamak with circular cross section. It combines high confinement and high {beta} (up to a normalized beta, {beta}{sub n}=2) with low edge q values (down to q{sub a}=2.8) and high density even above the Greenwald limit together with dominant edge radiative heat exhaust, and therefore shows promise for the future of fusion research. Bulk and edge properties of these discharges are described, and a detailed account is given of the energy and particle confinement and their scaling. Energy confinement scales linearly with density as for the nonsaturated Ohmic Neo-Alcator scaling, but the usual degradation with total power remains. No deleterious effects of the neon seeding on fusion reactivity and plasma stability have been observed. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  10. Farmwork-related injury among farmers 50 years of age and older in Kentucky and South Carolina: a cohort study, 2002-2005.

    PubMed

    Marcum, J L; Browning, S R; Reed, D B; Charnigo, R J

    2011-07-01

    Farmers in the U.S. are becoming more diverse; the average age of the farmer is increasing, as is the number of women and minority farm operators. There is limited research on injury risk factors in these special populations of farmers. It is especially important to study the risk factors for injury in these growing and at-risk groups. A longitudinal survey was conducted of farmers (n = 1,394) age 50 and older who resided in Kentucky and South Carolina. The questionnaire was administered by telephone and mail surveys four times between 2002 and 2005 to the fixed cohort of farmers, obtained by convenience sample. Approximately half of the cohort was female, and the majority of the cohort worked less than 40 hours per week. This cohort reported a crude, non-fatal injury rate of 9.3 injured farmers per 100 per year. Farmers reporting chronic bronchitis/emphysema (estimated odds ratio [EOR] = 1.57), back problems (EOR = 1.37), arthritis (EOR = 1.31), 3 to 4 restless nights in the past week (EOR = 2.02), or 5 to 7 restless nights in the past week (EOR = 1.82) were at significantly higher odds of sustaining a farmwork-related injury as calculated by the generalized estimating equations (GEE) regression method Farmers operating equipment on highways (EOR = 1.51) or climbing higher than eight feet (EOR = 1.69) were at significantly higher odds of sustaining a farmwork-related injury, and females were at higher risk of injury when performing animal-related tasks (EOR = 3.00) or crop-related tasks (EOR = 2.21). Identified factors associated with farmwork-related injury should better inform agricultural health policies and guidelines for older farmers, such as policies governing the allowable number of hours worked per week and rest breaks, guidelines that advise appropriate types of farm tasks, and ergonomic engineering advances on farming equipment.

  11. Do Farmers' Markets Improve Diet of Participants Using Federal Nutrition Assistance Programs? A Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byker, Carmen J.; Misyak, Sarah; Shanks, Justin; Serrano, Elena L.

    2013-01-01

    Farmers' markets have emerged as one health strategy to improve the access and availability of fresh foods for limited-resource audiences using federal nutrition assistance programs, although their effectiveness on dietary intake is not well understood. The review reported here evaluates the strengths and weaknesses of existing research about…

  12. The Role of Networks of Practice and Webs of Influencers on Farmers' Engagement with and Learning about Agricultural Innovations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oreszczyn, Sue; Lane, Andy; Carr, Susan

    2010-01-01

    Drawing on the UK research project, "Farmers' understandings of GM crops within local communities", this paper considers the application of the concepts of communities of practice and networks of practice in the agricultural context. A brief review of theories about communities of practice and networks of practice is given and some of…

  13. Demand for Agricultural Extension Services among Small-Scale Maize Farmers: Micro-Level Evidence from Kenya

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gido, Eric O.; Sibiko, Kenneth W.; Ayuya, Oscar I.; Mwangi, Joseph K.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The objective of the study was to determine the level and determinants of demand for extension services among small-scale maize farmers in Kenya. Design/methodology/approach: Based on an exploratory research design, primary data were collected from a sample of 352 households through face-to-face interviews. Focus group discussions were…

  14. Survey data on key climate and environmental drivers of farmers' migration in Burkina Faso, West Africa.

    PubMed

    Sanfo, Safiétou; Fonta, M William; Boubacar, Ibrahim; Lamers, P A John

    2016-12-01

    This article describes two datasets generated from various sources in south western Burkina Faso to identify the key climate and environmental drivers that cause farmers to migrate. The survey sampling is random but reasoned and rational. The first dataset from 367 farm households contains data on farmers' perception of climate change risks or hazards, their impacts on farmland productivity and farm households' risk management strategies. The second dataset from 58 farm households contains data on agricultural practices, environmental changes, and environmental migration. Three supplemental Excel sheets show the results of the surveys. Details on the sample as well as further interpretation and discussion of the surveys are available in the associated research article ('Field Facts for Crop Insurance Design: Empirical Evidence from South Western Burkina Faso' (W. M. Fonta, S. Sanfo, B. Ibrahim, B. Barry, 2015) [1]).

  15. Bessemer, AL receives Technical Assistance to Start Farmers Market

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    ATLANTA - Bessemer, AL has been selected as one of 27 rural community projects across the country to participate in Local Foods, Local Places, a federal initiative that helps communities increase economic opportunities for local farmers and related

  16. Upland Farmers' Comprehension of Pictorial Messages on Environmental Protection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gravoso, R. S.; Stuart, T. H.

    2000-01-01

    A study to explore Filipino farmers' comprehension of pictorial messages on environmental protection found that educational attainment, visual exposure, and knowledge of environmental protection positively influenced visual comprehension. Color did not necessarily improve comprehension. (Contains 24 references.) (JOW)

  17. 29 CFR 780.614 - Definition of a farmer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... farming operations as a distinct activity for the purpose of producing a farm crop. A corporation or a farmers' cooperative may be a “farmer” if engaged in actual farming of the nature and extent...

  18. 29 CFR 780.614 - Definition of a farmer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... farming operations as a distinct activity for the purpose of producing a farm crop. A corporation or a farmers' cooperative may be a “farmer” if engaged in actual farming of the nature and extent...

  19. 29 CFR 780.614 - Definition of a farmer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... farming operations as a distinct activity for the purpose of producing a farm crop. A corporation or a farmers' cooperative may be a “farmer” if engaged in actual farming of the nature and extent...

  20. How diverse a farmer-managed wheat landrace can be?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phenotypic variation in phenological, quantitative and qualitative traits was assessed in geographically-isolated, farmer-managed wheat landrace populations grown under subsistence farming conditions. Several multivariate, genetic diversity and sequential equation modeling procedures were used to bu...

  1. Assessment of farmer knowledge of large ruminant health and production in developing village-level biosecurity in northern Lao PDR.

    PubMed

    Nampanya, S; Rast, L; Khounsy, S; Windsor, P A

    2010-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine baseline knowledge and identify knowledge gaps of farmers on biosecurity, risk of transmission of transboundary diseases and large ruminant health and production in three provinces of northern Laos, Hua Phan (HP), Luang Prabang (LPB) and Xieng Khoung (XK). The survey was conducted in six villages that are project sites for an Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research (ACIAR) project, with two villages located in each of the three provinces. A census survey was conducted by interview with all 238 farmers participating in the ACIAR project, using a structured questionnaire. The interviews were conducted in Lao language and took 1-2 h per farmer. The answers were recorded in Lao and the survey data were translated into English and transcribed into Microsoft Excel, and a linear mixed model in the Genstat statistical analysis package was used to compare quantitative traits between the target provinces. The results showed that the prediction mean of farmer knowledge scores on parasitic disorders, infectious disease, reproduction and nutrition management were significantly different between the target provinces. The prediction mean of farmer knowledge scores on infectious disease questions ranged between 5.11 in HP to 8.54 in XK of 24 marks (P < 0.001). The prediction mean of total knowledge scores was 13.48 in LPB and 19.29 in XK of 42 marks (P < 0.001). The results indicate both the need for and scope required to attain improvements in farmer knowledge of large ruminant health and production. It was concluded that a participatory research and extension programme to address village-level biosecurity and reduce disease risks, plus enhance large ruminant production capabilities of smallholder producers, is a valid and potentially important strategy to address transboundary disease risk and rural poverty in northern Laos.

  2. Soil fertility, crop biodiversity, and farmers' revenues: Evidence from Italy.

    PubMed

    Di Falco, Salvatore; Zoupanidou, Elisavet

    2017-03-01

    This paper analyzes the interplay between soil fertility, crop biodiversity, and farmers' revenues. We use a large, original, farm-level panel dataset. Findings indicate that both crop biodiversity and soil fertility have positive effects on farmers' revenues. It is also shown that crop biodiversity and soil fertility may act as substitutes. These results provide evidence for the important role of diversity in the resilience of agroecosystems. Crop diversification can be a potential strategy to support productivity when soils are less fertile.

  3. Anxiety and Depression Symptoms Among Farmers: The HUNT Study, Norway

    PubMed Central

    Torske, Magnhild Oust; Hilt, Bjørn; Glasscock, David; Lundqvist, Peter; Krokstad, Steinar

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Agriculture has undergone profound changes, and farmers face a wide variety of stressors. Our aim was to study the levels of anxiety and depression symptoms among Norwegian farmers compared with other occupational groups. Working participants in the HUNT3 Survey (The Nord-Trøndelag Health Study, 2006–2008), aged 19–66.9 years, were included in this cross-sectional study. We compared farmers (women, n = 317; men, n = 1,100) with HUNT3 participants working in other occupational groups (women, n = 13,429; men, n = 10,026), classified according to socioeconomic status. We used the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) to measure anxiety and depression symptoms. Both male and female farmers had higher levels of depression symptoms than the general working population, but the levels of anxiety symptoms did not differ. The differences in depression symptom levels between farmers and the general working population increased with age. In an age-adjusted logistic regression analysis, the odds ratio (OR) for depression caseness (HADS-D ≥8) when compared with the general working population was 1.49 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.22–1.83) in men and 1.29 (95% CI: 0.85–1.95) in women. Male farmers had a higher OR of depression caseness than any other occupational group (OR = 1.94, 95% CI: 1.52–2.49, using higher-grade professionals as reference). Female farmers had an OR similar to men (2.00, 95% CI: 1.26–3.17), but lower than other manual occupations. We found that farmers had high levels of depression symptoms and average levels of anxiety symptoms compared with other occupational groups. PMID:26488439

  4. Lamont-Doherty's Secondary School Field Research Program: Using Goal-Oriented Applied Research as a Means of Building Comprehensive and Integrated Scientific Understanding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bostick, B. C.; Newton, R.; Vincent, S.; Peteet, D. M.; Sambrotto, R.; Schlosser, P.; Corbett, E.

    2015-12-01

    Conventional instruction in science often proceeds from the general to the specific and from text to action. Fundamental terminologies, concepts, and ideas that are often abstract are taught first and only after such introductory processes can a student engage in research. Many students struggle to find relevance when presented information without context specific to their own experiences. This challenge is exacerbated for students whose social circles do not include adults who can validate scientific learning from their own experiences. Lamont-Doherty's Secondary School Field Research Program inverts the standard paradigm and places small groups of students in research projects where they begin by performing manageable tasks on complex applied research projects. These tasks are supplemented with informal mentoring and relevant articles (~1 per week). Quantitative metrics suggest the approach is highly successful—most participants report a dramatic increase in their enthusiasm for science, 100% attend college, and approximately 50% declare majors in science or technology. We use one project, the construction of a microbial battery, to illustrate this novel model of science learning and argue that it should be considered a best practice for project-based science education. The goal of this project was to build a rechargeable battery for a mobile phone based on a geochemical cycle, to generate and store electricity. The students, mostly from ethnic groups under-represented in the STEM fields, combined concepts and laboratory methods from biology, chemistry and physics to isolate photosynthetic bacteria from a natural salt marsh, and made an in situ device capable of powering a light bulb. The younger participants had been exposed to neither high school chemistry nor physics at the start of the project, yet they were able to use the project as a platform to deepen their science knowledge and their desire for increased participation in formal science education.

  5. 13 CFR 120.550 - What is homestead protection for farmers?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false What is homestead protection for farmers? 120.550 Section 120.550 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION BUSINESS... for Farmers § 120.550 What is homestead protection for farmers? SBA may lease to a farmer-Borrower...

  6. 13 CFR 120.550 - What is homestead protection for farmers?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false What is homestead protection for farmers? 120.550 Section 120.550 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION BUSINESS... for Farmers § 120.550 What is homestead protection for farmers? SBA may lease to a farmer-Borrower...

  7. Use of Different Information Sources for Decision Making by Traditional Farmers in a Progressive Knowledge System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blum, Abraham

    1989-01-01

    A study determined the use of different information sources for decision making used by traditional Arab farmers in Israel. A questionnaire was used to interview 48 farmers from 4 villages in the Nazareth region and 56 farmers from 5 villages in the Gaza strip in their homes. Farmers were asked to name major innovations they had adopted during the…

  8. Striga Biocontrol on a Toothpick: A Readily Deployable and Inexpensive Method for Smallholder Farmers.

    PubMed

    Nzioki, Henry S; Oyosi, Florence; Morris, Cindy E; Kaya, Eylul; Pilgeram, Alice L; Baker, Claire S; Sands, David C

    2016-01-01

    Striga hermonthica (witchweed) is a parasitic weed that attacks and significantly reduces the yields of maize, sorghum, millet, and sugarcane throughout sub-Saharan Africa. Low cost management methods such as hand weeding, short crop rotations, trap cropping, or conventional biocontrol have not been effective. Likewise, Striga-tolerant or herbicide-resistant maize cultivars are higher yielding, but are often beyond the economic means of sustenance farmers. The fungal pathogen, Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. strigae, has been the object of numerous studies to develop Striga biocontrol. Under experimental conditions this pathogen can reduce the incidence of Striga infestation but field use is not extensive, perhaps because it has not been sufficiently effective in restoring crop yield and reducing the soil Striga seed bank. Here we brought together Kenyan and US crop scientists with smallholder farmers to develop and validate an effective biocontrol strategy for management of Striga on smallholder farms. Key components of this research project were the following: (1) Development of a two-step method of fungal delivery, including laboratory coating of primary inoculum on toothpicks, followed by on-farm production of secondary field inoculum in boiled rice enabling delivery of vigorous, fresh inoculum directly to the seedbed; (2) Training of smallholder farmers (85% women), to produce the biocontrol agent and incorporate it into their maize plantings in Striga-infested soils and collect agronomic data. The field tests expanded from 30 smallholder farmers to a two-season, 500-farmer plot trial including paired plus and minus biocontrol plots with fertilizer and hybrid seed in both plots and; (3) Concerted selection of variants of the pathogen identified for enhanced virulence, as has been demonstrated in other host parasite systems were employed here on Striga via pathogen excretion of the amino acids L-leucine and L-tyrosine that are toxic to Striga but innocuous to maize

  9. Striga Biocontrol on a Toothpick: A Readily Deployable and Inexpensive Method for Smallholder Farmers

    PubMed Central

    Nzioki, Henry S.; Oyosi, Florence; Morris, Cindy E.; Kaya, Eylul; Pilgeram, Alice L.; Baker, Claire S.; Sands, David C.

    2016-01-01

    Striga hermonthica (witchweed) is a parasitic weed that attacks and significantly reduces the yields of maize, sorghum, millet, and sugarcane throughout sub-Saharan Africa. Low cost management methods such as hand weeding, short crop rotations, trap cropping, or conventional biocontrol have not been effective. Likewise, Striga-tolerant or herbicide-resistant maize cultivars are higher yielding, but are often beyond the economic means of sustenance farmers. The fungal pathogen, Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. strigae, has been the object of numerous studies to develop Striga biocontrol. Under experimental conditions this pathogen can reduce the incidence of Striga infestation but field use is not extensive, perhaps because it has not been sufficiently effective in restoring crop yield and reducing the soil Striga seed bank. Here we brought together Kenyan and US crop scientists with smallholder farmers to develop and validate an effective biocontrol strategy for management of Striga on smallholder farms. Key components of this research project were the following: (1) Development of a two-step method of fungal delivery, including laboratory coating of primary inoculum on toothpicks, followed by on-farm production of secondary field inoculum in boiled rice enabling delivery of vigorous, fresh inoculum directly to the seedbed; (2) Training of smallholder farmers (85% women), to produce the biocontrol agent and incorporate it into their maize plantings in Striga-infested soils and collect agronomic data. The field tests expanded from 30 smallholder farmers to a two-season, 500-farmer plot trial including paired plus and minus biocontrol plots with fertilizer and hybrid seed in both plots and; (3) Concerted selection of variants of the pathogen identified for enhanced virulence, as has been demonstrated in other host parasite systems were employed here on Striga via pathogen excretion of the amino acids L-leucine and L-tyrosine that are toxic to Striga but innocuous to maize

  10. Orphan boy the farmer: evaluating folktales to teach safety to Hmong farmers.

    PubMed

    Schermann, Michele A; Bartz, Penny; Shutske, John M; Moua, MaiKia; Vue, Pa Chia; Lee, Tou Thai

    2007-01-01

    Many Hmong refugees continue their cultural tradition of farming in the United States. The purpose of this project was to evaluate culturally based storytelling as a method to convey farming safety information to Hmong families. Hmong have an oral tradition; spoken stories are used to teach about heritage, as well as personal and social values, and end with a lesson or moral that can apply to their lives. Stories from "Orphan Boy the Farmer" illustrate hazards, behaviors, consequences, and control strategies related to farm work typical of Hmong farming in Minnesota and Wisconsin. The message of the 3 stories is that the successful farmer works safely and keeps his children safe from injury. Three stories were read, in Hmong, at 6 events in Minnesota and Wisconsin. Data were collected from 118 participants using focus group discussions. Transcripts were translated and analyzed to identify ideas and reactions to the stories expressed by participants. Findings indicate that storytelling was an appealing delivery method for most of the participants of this study. Participants were able to recount story content pertaining to farming safety and relate messages to their experiences dealing with hazards; unanticipated findings uncovered barriers to adopting safe practices. Several aspects of the storytelling performance influence its effectiveness. Development of folktale content and implementation of storytelling performances are described.

  11. 7 CFR 170.11 - How are farmers and vendors selected for participation in the USDA Farmers Market?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS MARKETING PRACTICES UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT... of farmer or vendor (i.e., fruit, vegetable, herb, baker) and secondly, on the specific types...

  12. A Comparison: Procurement Practices of Government-Oriented and Commercial-Oriented Businesses.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-12-01

    3. Small Businesses Actively Seek Contracts - 42 4. Financing Research and Development ------- 44 C. SIMILARITIES --------------------------------- 46...contracts with economic escalator is preferable by suppliers to single year cost plus contracts. Government Commercial Oriented Oriented Businesses Busi ...Strongly Agree) majority, Government-oriented businesses responded that they do not finance research and development costs which may be incurred prior to

  13. Understanding farmers' intention and behavior regarding water conservation in the Middle-East and North Africa: a case study in Iran.

    PubMed

    Yazdanpanah, Masoud; Hayati, Dariush; Hochrainer-Stigler, Stefan; Zamani, Gholam Hosein

    2014-03-15

    There is a high risk of serious water shortages in Middle-East and North African countries. To decrease this threat water conservation strategies are gaining overall importance and one main focus is now on farmer's behavior. Among other dimensions it is assumed that normative issues play an important role in predicting environmental oriented intentions and actual actions. To empirically test the possible interactions the Theory of Planned Behavior was used, revised and expanded for the specific case on water management issues and applied to Iranian farmers. The results could not validate the TPB framework which emphasizes the importance of perceived behavioral control for intention and actual behavior and findings are much more in line with the Theory of Reasoned Action. Normative inclinations as well as perception of risk are found to be important for intention as well as actual water conservation behavior. Additionally, the importance and linkages of the dimensions are found to be different between sub-groups of farmers, especially between traditional water management farmers and those who already using advanced water management strategies. This raises the question if one-fits-all behavioral models are adequate for practical studies where sub-groups may very much differ in their actions. Still, our study suggests that in the context of water conservation, normative inclination is a key dimension and it may be useful to consider the role of positive, self-rewarding feelings for farmers when setting up policy measures in the region.

  14. Healthier land, healthier farmers: considering the potential of natural resource management as a place-focused farmer health intervention.

    PubMed

    Schirmer, Jacki; Berry, Helen L; O'Brien, Léan V

    2013-11-01

    Farmers have particular wellbeing-related vulnerabilities that conventional health interventions struggle to address. We consider the potential of natural resource management (NRM) programs, which reach large numbers of farmers, as non-conventional place-focused wellbeing interventions. Although designed to address environmental degradation, NRM can influence the wellbeing of farmers. We used qualitative meta-synthesis to reanalyse studies examining social dimensions of NRM in Australia and generate a theoretical framework identifying potential pathways between NRM and wellbeing, intended to inform subsequent empirical work. Our results suggest NRM programs influence several important determinants of farmer wellbeing, in particular social capital, self-efficacy, social identity, material wellbeing, and health itself. The pathways by which NRM influences these determinants are mediated by distal factors such as changes in land conditions, farmer skills and knowledge and resources accessible to farmers. These, in turn, are moderated by the design and delivery of NRM programs, suggesting potential to enhance the health benefits of NRM through specific attention to program design.

  15. Missional Imaginations for Theological Education: Mixed Model, Exploratory, Action-Oriented Research Mapping the Theological Identity and Organizational Readiness for Change of Five Theological School Systems in the United States Originating after 1945

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Small, Kyle J. A.

    2009-01-01

    This dissertation explores the formal theologies and organizational readiness for change with a view towards adopting missional prototypes for theological education across a school's (system's) tradition, curriculum, and structure. The research assessed five theological schools in the United States through an exploratory, action-oriented,…

  16. Pesticide risk perceptions and the differences between farmers and extensionists: Towards a knowledge-in-context model

    SciTech Connect

    Ríos-González, Adriana; Jansen, Kees; Javier Sánchez-Pérez, Héctor

    2013-07-15

    A growing body of literature analyzes farmer perceptions of pesticide risk, but much less attention has been given to differences in risk perception between farmers and technical experts. Furthermore, inconsistencies in knowledge have too easily been explained in terms of lack of knowledge rather than exploring the underlying reasons for particular forms of thinking about pesticide risks. By doing this, the division between expert and lay knowledge has been deepened rather than transcended. Objective: This study aims to understand differences and similarities among the perceptions of pesticide risks of farmers, farm workers, and technical experts such as extensionists, by applying a social science approach towards knowledge and risk attitudes. Methods: Semi-structured interviews and field observations were conducted to smallholders, farm workers, extensionists, health professionals and scientists involved in the use and handling of pesticides. Subsequently, a survey was carried out to quantify the farmers and extensionists' acceptance or rejection of typical assertions expressed previously in the semi-structured interviews. Results: Smallholders showed to gain knowledge from their own experiences and to adapt pesticides practices, which is a potential basis for transforming notions of pesticide safety and risk reduction strategies. Though extensionists have received formal education, they sometimes develop ideas deviating from the technical perspective. The risk perception of the studied actors appeared to vary according to their role in the agricultural labor process; they varied much less than expected according to their schooling level. Conclusions: Commitment to the technical perspective is not dramatically different for extensionists on the one hand and farmers as well as farm workers on the other hand. Ideas about a supposed lack of knowledge by farmers and the need of formal training are too much driven by a deficit model of knowledge. Further research on

  17. Parametric dependence of density limits in the Tokamak Experiment for Technology Oriented Research (TEXTOR): Comparison of thermal instability theory with experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelly, F. A.; Stacey, W. M.; Rapp, J.

    2001-11-01

    The observed dependence of the TEXTOR [Tokamak Experiment for Technology Oriented Research: E. Hintz, P. Bogen, H. A. Claassen et al., Contributions to High Temperature Plasma Physics, edited by K. H. Spatschek and J. Uhlenbusch (Akademie Verlag, Berlin, 1994), p. 373] density limit on global parameters (I, B, P, etc.) and wall conditioning is compared with the predicted density limit parametric scaling of thermal instability theory. It is necessary first to relate the edge parameters of the thermal instability theory to n¯ and the other global parameters. The observed parametric dependence of the density limit in TEXTOR is generally consistent with the predicted density limit scaling of thermal instability theory. The observed wall conditioning dependence of the density limit can be reconciled with the theory in terms of the radiative emissivity temperature dependence of different impurities in the plasma edge. The thermal instability theory also provides an explanation of why symmetric detachment precedes radiative collapse for most low power shots, while a multifaceted asymmetric radiation from the edge MARFE precedes detachment for most high power shots.

  18. Evaluation of the environmental sustainability of farmers' land use decisions in the saline-alkaline areas.

    PubMed

    Yu, Ran; Wang, Jiali

    2015-04-01

    Environmental sustainability has become the focus of agricultural sustainability. This study is aimed at evaluating the environmental sustainability of farmers' land use decisions on saline-alkaline soil in China. Based on empirical and theoretical approaches, the decisions mainly include planting, crop distribution, irrigation, drainage, and fertilization. By surveying 22 administrative villages in typical ecologically fragile saline-alkaline areas of five regions (Shandong, Jiangsu, Jilin, Ningxia, and Xinjiang), the paper builds the evaluation criteria at village level, and obtains a comprehensive index. From the results, irrigation concerns are absent from decision-making. For other decisions, farmers in most villages can appropriately deal with planting, drainage, and fertilization according to the regional natural and social geography conditions. But the comprehensive index of crop distribution in the coastal areas is much stronger than in the northeast and northwest. It is found that the similarities of unsustainability lie in the planting of water-consuming crops, the arbitrary distribution of crops, lack of drainage planning, obsolete water conservancy facilities, excessive use of chemical fertilizers, etc. According to the research, on the one hand, it can guide farmers to rationally make use of saline-alkaline land; on the other hand, it can also provide the basis for government to make differentiated policies in different areas and enhance pertinence in the course of technological extension and application.

  19. Grass pea and neurolathyrism: farmers' perception on its consumption and protective measure in North Shewa, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Girma, Anteneh; Tefera, Beneberu; Dadi, Legesse

    2011-03-01

    Neurolathyrism in Ethiopia is caused by food dependency on grass pea (Lathyrus sativus L.). In the study area, a large proportion of the farmers are growing grass pea since it can withstand harsh environments. Socio-economic factors (poverty; lack of money to buy other food legumes) and environmental problems (such as water logging and frost hazards) influence consumption of grass pea. Most of the respondents have the idea that some chemical contained in grass pea causes a health problem. Different processing and preparation methods are used to prepare grass pea into different food forms. The major processing methods include washing and soaking, as the farmers apply these methods mainly because they assume that the chemical that causes lathyrism, scientifically known as β-ODAP (β-N-oxalyl-L-α,β-diaminopropionic acid) is reduced through washing and soaking. The farmers adopt different strategies to avoid the problem of lathyrism such as avoiding consumption of grass pea in the form that they suspect to cause the problem, blending/mixing with other crops, applying different processing/detoxification methods. Since grass pea is consumed with a fear of lathyrism, future research should concentrate either on developing grass pea varieties with safe level of β-ODAP content or improving the traditional/indigenous processing methods.

  20. The influence of farmer demographic characteristics on environmental behaviour: a review.

    PubMed

    Burton, Rob J F

    2014-03-15

    Many agricultural studies have observed a relationship between farmer demographic characteristics and environmental behaviours. These relationships are frequently employed in the construction of models, the identification of farmer types, or as part of more descriptive analyses aimed at understanding farmers' environmental behaviour. However, they have also often been found to be inconsistent or contradictory. Although a considerable body of literature has built up around the subject area, research has a tendency to focus on factors such as the direction, strength and consistency of the relationship - leaving the issue of causality largely to speculation. This review addresses this gap by reviewing literature on 4 key demographic variables: age, experience, education, and gender for hypothesised causal links. Overall the review indicates that the issue of causality is a complex one. Inconsistent relationships can be attributed to the presence of multiple causal pathways, the role of scheme factors in determining which pathway is important, inadequately specified measurements of demographic characteristics, and the treatment of non-linear causalities as linear. In addition, all demographic characteristics were perceived to be influenced (to varying extents) by cultural-historical patterns leading to cohort effects or socialised differences in the relationship with environmental behaviour. The paper concludes that more work is required on the issue of causality.

  1. Mixed methods evaluation of targeted selective anthelmintic treatment by resource-poor smallholder goat farmers in Botswana

    PubMed Central

    Walker, Josephine G.; Ofithile, Mphoeng; Tavolaro, F. Marina; van Wyk, Jan A.; Evans, Kate; Morgan, Eric R.

    2015-01-01

    Due to the threat of anthelmintic resistance, livestock farmers worldwide are encouraged to selectively apply treatments against gastrointestinal nematodes (GINs). Targeted selective treatment (TST) of individual animals would be especially useful for smallholder farmers in low-income economies, where cost-effective and sustainable intervention strategies will improve livestock productivity and food security. Supporting research has focused mainly on refining technical indicators for treatment, and much less on factors influencing uptake and effectiveness. We used a mixed method approach, whereby qualitative and quantitative approaches are combined, to develop, implement and validate a TST system for GINs in small ruminants, most commonly goats, among smallholder farmers in the Makgadikgadi Pans region of Botswana, and to seek better understanding of system performance within a cultural context. After the first six months of the study, 42 out of 47 enrolled farmers were followed up; 52% had monitored their animals using the taught inspection criteria and 26% applied TST during this phase. Uptake level showed little correlation with farmer characteristics, such as literacy and size of farm. Herd health significantly improved in those herds where anthelmintic treatment was applied: anaemia, as assessed using the five-point FAMACHA© scale, was 0.44–0.69 points better (95% confidence interval) and body condition score was 0.18–0.36 points better (95% C.I., five-point scale) in treated compared with untreated herds. Only targeting individuals in greatest need led to similar health improvements compared to treating the entire herd, leading to dose savings ranging from 36% to 97%. This study demonstrates that TST against nematodes can be implemented effectively by resource-poor farmers using a community-led approach. The use of mixed methods provides a promising system to integrate technical and social aspects of TST programmes for maximum uptake and effect. PMID

  2. Smallholder farmers' behavioural intentions towards sustainable agricultural practices.

    PubMed

    Zeweld, Woldegebrial; Van Huylenbroeck, Guido; Tesfay, Girmay; Speelman, Stijn

    2017-02-01

    The introduction of sustainable practices is considered a win-win strategy for low-income countries because of its potential to simultaneously improve food security and address environmental issues. Despite the numerous studies that focus on the adoption of technological innovations, little work has been done on the socio-psychological behaviour of farmers with regard to sustainable practices. This study investigates smallholder farmers' intentions towards two practices: minimum tillage and row planting. The decomposed theory of planned behaviour is used as a theoretical framework to analyse the intentions. The findings reveal that attitudes and normative issues positively explain farmers' intentions to adopt both practices. Perceived control also has a positive significant effect on the intention to apply minimum tillage. When the intention is formed, farmers are expected to carry out their intention when opportunities arise. Moreover, perceived usefulness, social capital, and perceived ease of operation are also significant predictors of farmers' attitudes. Furthermore, social capital and training are factors that positively affect the normative issue, which in turn also positively mediates the relationship between training, social capital and intention. Finally, it is shown that neither the perceived resources nor information from the media significantly affect farmers' intentions. This paper thus confirms that social capital, personal efficacy, training and perceived usefulness play significant roles in the decision to adopt sustainable practices. In addition, willingness to adopt seems to be limited by negative attitudes and by weak normative issues. Therefore, to improve adoption of sustainable practices by smallholder farmers, attention should be given to socio-psychological issues. This could lead to improvements in farm productivity and enhance the livelihoods of smallholders.

  3. THE FUTURE FARMER OF TODAY IS THE SUCCESSFUL FARMER OF TOMORROW, AN AUTHORITATIVE REPORT ON THE DIFFUSION PROCESS AND THE ADOPTION STATUS OF FARMERS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Future Farmers of America, Washington, DC.

    A SYNOPSIS OF CHARACTERISTICS AND COMMUNICATIONS BEHAVIOR OF ADOPTERS OF NEW FARM IDEAS, AND AN INTRODUCTION TO HOW AN AGGRESSIVE MARKETING PROGRAM CAN BE KEYED TO THE DIFFUSION PROCESS AND ADOPTION STATUS OF FARMERS IS PRESENTED. THE DIFFUSION PROCESS INVOLVES THE SPREAD OF NEW IDEAS FROM THE SOURCES OF DEVELOPMENT TO THE ADOPTER THROUGH…

  4. Is the Use of Video Conferencing and Supporting Technologies a Feasible and Viable Way to Woo Farmers Back into Farmer Education?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Margaret; Fraser, Tom

    2011-01-01

    North Dakota State University (USA) have been using video conferencing as a delivery mode for farmer education for about twenty years and report that their farmers find this delivery method both practical and worthwhile. With the number of New Zealand farmers attending learning events decreasing, due mainly to time and cost, maybe it is time to…

  5. Adoption and farmer perception of best management practices in Southern Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guzmán, Gema; Portero, Ángela; Vanwallenghem, Tom; Laguna, Ana; Vanderlinden, Karl; Giráldez, Juan Vicente; Bijttebier, Jo; ten Berge, Hein

    2015-04-01

    Soil resources in many parts of Europe are being degraded due to non-sustainable land and soil management practices. During the past decennia, best management practices (BMPs) have been developed in order to maintain or restore soil health. However, the adoption rate in practice is rather low. Amongst other reasons, these practices might lack on-farm compatibility, or farmers may lack confidence in the proposed measures. In order to assess the adoption of management practices (MPs) and obtain information on farmer perception a study was performed in the Southern region of Spain (Andalusia), within three predefined farm type zones (FTZs) corresponding to arable, permanent crop and mixed farms. In order to identify main drivers and barriers for the adoption of different tillage practices, a sequential mixed method was applied, by combining qualitative and quantitative research techniques at different stages in time. First, a qualitative data-collection though semi-structured interviews were conducted in each FTZ to identify behavioral outcomes, normative referents and control factors for each unique MP in that specific FTZ context. Secondly, the quantitative stage of the mixed method approach encompassed a large scale survey based on the final list of control factors, outcomes and referents of each BMP which resulted from the first stage. As a final qualitative step, focus groups were conducted in each FTZ to elaborate on possible solutions towards the barriers on one or more MPs For this particular region of Spain, we observed that the adoption rates of a certain MP differed among subregions within each FTZ. In general barriers and drivers were found to vary in their nature and across the different subregions, although some of them were common across all subregions. It is noteworthy that the Common Agricultural Policy is the main influential agent for farmers' decisions and their perception of drivers (financial support) and limitations (rigidity of the measures

  6. Comparative homegarden medical ethnobotany of Naxi healers and farmers in Northwestern Yunnan, China

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Homegardens are ecologically and culturally important systems for cultivating medicinal plants for wellbeing by healers and farmers in Naxi communities of the Sino Himalayan region. The cultivation of medicinal plants in Naxi communities and associated ethnomedical knowledge base for maintaining and utilizing these resources is at risk with expanded commercialization of natural resources, development policies and rapid socio-economic change in China. Research is needed to understand the medicinal plant species maintained in Naxi homegardens, their use and contribution to community wellbeing, and how these practices and knowledge base varies between Naxi healers and farmers in order to develop plans for biodiversity conservation and preservation of ethnomedical practices. The main objective of this study is to document and compare medicinal plant species in Naxi homegardens and associated ethnomedical knowledge between Naxi healers and farmers. Methods Ethnobotanical homegarden surveys were conducted with three Naxi healers and 28 farmer households in two Naxi communities in Lijiang Prefecture in Northwest Yunnan Province of China. Surveys included inventories of medicinal plants in homegardens and semi-structured interviews with homegarden managers to document traditional medicinal uses of inventoried plants. Inventoried plants were classified into 13 ‘usage categories’ of medical condition groupings that impact a system of the body. Finally, plant species richness was calculated for each homegarden and species richness was compared between healers and farmers as well as between study sites using a Least Square Means Tukey HSD function. Results Ethnobotanical surveys at the study sites found that 13% of households rely exclusively on traditional Naxi medicine, 26% exclusively use Western medicine and 61% use a combination of traditional Naxi and Western medicine. A total of 106 medicinal plants were inventoried in Naxi homegardens representing 50

  7. Farmers' confidence in vaccinating badgers against bovine tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Enticott, G; Maye, D; Ilbery, B; Fisher, R; Kirwan, J

    2012-02-25

    This paper examines UK farmers' levels of confidence in vaccinating badgers against bovine tuberculosis (bTB) and their trust in the Government's ability to deal with bTB. In 2010, a badger vaccine based on the BCG vaccine was licensed following field trials and used as part of the UK Government's Badger Vaccination Deployment Project. A stratified random sample of cattle farmers in five different locations of England was surveyed using a telephone survey to elicit their views of badger vaccination. The survey provided a total of 341 responses with a response rate of 80 per cent. Results suggest that the farmers are cautious about badger vaccination, appearing to be neither overly confident nor unconfident in it. However, the farmers did not reveal high levels of trust in the Government to manage bTB policy or badger vaccination. There were no differences in the levels of confidence or trust between farms that were under bTB restrictions at the time of the survey and those that were not or between farms with historically high levels of bTB. Analysis of principal components suggests that 33 per cent of the farmers accepted badger vaccination, but that acceptance is dependent on the wider social and political environment.

  8. Cadmium levels in kidney cortex in Swedish farmers

    SciTech Connect

    Nilsson, U.; Schuetz, A.; Bensryd, I.; Nilsson, A.; Skerfving, S.; Mattsson, S.

    2000-01-01

    The cadmium levels in kidney cortex (K-Cd) did not differ statistically between 10 nonsmoking farmers from the south of Sweden, who had a high intake of locally produced food and who were affected by acid precipitation (as indicated by low pH in the drinking water from their private wells) and 10 farmers less affected. Neither did 10 farmers selected because of high blood cadmium (B-Cd) differ from 10 with low [medians: K-Cd, 15 vs 9 {micro}g/g; B-Cd, 2.6 vs 1.3 nmol/L (0.29 vs 0.14 {micro}g/L)]. In all 40 farmers, there was an increase of urinary cadmium levels (U-Cd) with decreasing drinking water pH. Further, K-Cd increased with rising B-Cd, and both B-Cd, and U-Cd rose with increasing age. Further, there was an association between U-Cd and B-Cd. The authors could not demonstrate with certainty any effect of the acid precipitation on the cadmium retention in the farmers, although the association between U-Cd and drinking water pH deserves further study.

  9. Puumala virus infections in Finland: increased occupational risk for farmers.

    PubMed

    Vapalahti, K; Paunio, M; Brummer-Korvenkontio, M; Vaheri, A; Vapalahti, O

    1999-06-15

    Puumala hantavirus, transmitted by bank voles (Clethrionomys glareolus), causes a mild-type hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome. The disease is common in Finland and is considered an occupational hazard for farmers, but the actual risk has not been assessed by analytical studies. Data on 5,132 serologically confirmed Puumala virus infections during 1989-1994 were analyzed, and cases among farmers and the population living in similar conditions were compared. The farmers contracted the disease earlier and more often than did the comparison group. In the province of Mikkeli with the highest incidence (70/100,000), the risk ratio was 5.1 (95% confidence interval (CI) 3.0-8.4) for 20- to 29-year-old farmers; in the older age groups, the risk was still increased but the risk ratios were lower. The peak incidence in the comparison group was 10 years later (age group 30-39 years). For the whole country, the result was similar although less marked. The average risk ratio adjusted by age, sex, and geographic variation was 1.7 (95% CI 1.5-1.8) for the whole country and 1.9 (95% CI 1.5-2.3) for the Mikkeli province, where 80% of Puumala virus infections among young farmers could be estimated to be attributable to occupation.

  10. Closing yield gaps in China by empowering smallholder farmers.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Weifeng; Cao, Guoxin; Li, Xiaolin; Zhang, Hongyan; Wang, Chong; Liu, Quanqing; Chen, Xinping; Cui, Zhenling; Shen, Jianbo; Jiang, Rongfeng; Mi, Guohua; Miao, Yuxin; Zhang, Fusuo; Dou, Zhengxia

    2016-09-29

    Sustainably feeding the world's growing population is a challenge, and closing yield gaps (that is, differences between farmers' yields and what are attainable for a given region) is a vital strategy to address this challenge. The magnitude of yield gaps is particularly large in developing countries where smallholder farming dominates the agricultural landscape. Many factors and constraints interact to limit yields, and progress in problem-solving to bring about changes at the ground level is rare. Here we present an innovative approach for enabling smallholders to achieve yield and economic gains sustainably via the Science and Technology Backyard (STB) platform. STB involves agricultural scientists living in villages among farmers, advancing participatory innovation and technology transfer, and garnering public and private support. We identified multifaceted yield-limiting factors involving agronomic, infrastructural, and socioeconomic conditions. When these limitations and farmers' concerns were addressed, the farmers adopted recommended management practices, thereby improving production outcomes. In one region in China, the five-year average yield increased from 67.9% of the attainable level to 97.0% among 71 leading farmers, and from 62.8% to 79.6% countywide (93,074 households); this was accompanied by resource and economic benefits.

  11. Determinants of choice of market-oriented indigenous Horo cattle production in Dano district of western Showa, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Alemayehu, Befikadu; Bogale, Ayalneh; Wollny, Clemens; Tesfahun, Girma

    2010-12-01

    Based on a survey data collected from 150 farming households in Dano district of western Showa of Ethiopia, this paper analyzes determinants of smallholders' choice for market oriented indigenous Horo cattle production and tries to suggest policy alternatives for sustainable use of animal genetic resource in the study area. Descriptive statistics and binary logistic model were employed to analyze the data. Eight explanatory variables including age of the household head, size of the grazing land, total size of cultivated land, farmer's experience in indigenous cattle production, farmer's attitude towards productivity of local breed, off-farm income, fattening practice, and availability of information and training of the head of the household regarding conservation, management and sustainable use indigenous cattle were found to be statistically significant variables to explain farmers' choice for market oriented indigenous cattle production activities. Besides, possible policy implications were made in order to improve conservation, management and sustainable use of market oriented indigenous cattle genetic resources.

  12. A sociohydrological model for smallholder farmers in Maharashtra, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pande, Saket; Savenije, Hubert H. G.

    2016-03-01

    We present a sociohydrological model that can help us to better understand the system dynamics of a smallholder farmer. It couples the dynamics of the six main assets of a typical smallholder farmer: water storage capacity, capital, livestock, soil fertility, grazing access, and labor. The hydroclimatic variability, which is a main driver and source of uncertainty of the smallholder system, is accounted for at subannual scale. The model incorporates rule-based adaptation mechanisms of smallholders (for example, adjusting expenditures on food and fertilizers and selling livestocks) when farmers face adverse sociohydrological conditions, such as low annual rainfall, occurrence of dry spells, or variability of input or commodity prices. We have applied the model to analyze the sociohydrology of a cash crop producing smallholder in Maharashtra, India, in a semisynthetic case study setting. Of late, this region has witnessed many suicides of farmers who could not extricate themselves out of the debt trap. These farmers lacked irrigation and were susceptible to fluctuating commodity prices and climatic variability. We studied the sensitivity of a smallholder's capital, an indicator of smallholder well-being, to two types of cash crops (cotton and sugarcane), water storage capacity, availability of irrigation, initial capital that a smallholder starts with, prevalent wage rates, and access to grazing. We found that (i) smallholders with low water storage capacities and no irrigation are most susceptible to distress, (ii) a smallholder's well-being is low at low wage rates, (iii) wage rate is more important than absolution of debt, (iv) well-being is sensitive to water storage capacity up to a certain level, and (v) well-being increases with increasing area available for livestock grazing. Our results indicate that government intervention to absolve the debt of farmers or to invest in local storage to buffer rainfall variability may not be enough. In addition, alternative

  13. Remembering the farmer in the agriculture policy and obesity debate.

    PubMed

    Farnese, Patricia L

    2010-01-01

    Agricultural policies are often criticized for promoting the overconsumption of unhealthy foods, thereby contributing to rising obesity rates. This article explores the accuracy of claims that existing agricultural policies contribute to obesity and describes the conflict between traditional nutrition and agricultural policy goals. The article concludes by asserting that the challenges facing farmers must be considered in the redesign of agriculture policy to support obesity prevention goals of governments. If the needs of farmers are overlooked, efforts to improve the nutritional profile of the average American diet will be undermined.

  14. Farmer responses to multiple stresses in the face of global change: Assessing five case studies to enhance adaptation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicholas, K. A.; Feola, G.; Lerner, A. M.; Jain, M.; Montefrio, M.

    2013-12-01

    The global challenge of sustaining agricultural livelihoods and yields in the face of growing populations and increasing climate change is the topic of intense research. The role of on-the-ground decision-making by individual farmers actually producing food, fuel, and fiber is often studied in individual cases to determine its environmental, economic, and social effects. However, there are few efforts to link across studies in a way that provides opportunities to better understand empirical farmer behavior, design effective policies, and be able to aggregate from case studies to a broader scale. Here we synthesize existing literature to identify four general factors affecting farmer decision-making: local technical and socio-cultural contexts; actors and institutions involved in decision-making; multiple stressors at broader scales; and the temporal gradient of decision-making. We use these factors to compare five cases that illustrate agricultural decision-making and its impacts: cotton and castor farming in Gujarat, India; swidden cultivation of upland rice in the Philippines; potato cultivation in Andean Colombia; winegrowing in Northern California; and maize production in peri-urban central Mexico. These cases span a geographic and economic range of production systems, but we find that we are able to make valid comparisons and draw lessons common across all cases by using the four factors as an organizing principle. We also find that our understanding of why farmers make the decisions they do changes if we neglect to examine even one of the four general factors guiding decision-making. This suggests that these four factors are important to understanding farmer decision-making, and can be used to guide the design and interpretation of future studies, as well as be the subject of further research in and of themselves to promote an agricultural system that is resilient to climate and other global environmental changes.

  15. Facing Off: Comparing an In-Person Library Orientation Lecture with an Asynchronous Online Library Orientation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gall, Dan

    2014-01-01

    A study to compare the effectiveness of an in-person library orientation with an online asynchronous orientation was conducted with three sections of Social Work Research Methods, a required course in the University of Iowa's Master of Social Work program. Two sections of the course received an online orientation involving short videos, text and…

  16. Aspect-Oriented Programming

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elrad, Tzilla (Editor); Filman, Robert E. (Editor); Bader, Atef (Editor)

    2001-01-01

    Computer science has experienced an evolution in programming languages and systems from the crude assembly and machine codes of the earliest computers through concepts such as formula translation, procedural programming, structured programming, functional programming, logic programming, and programming with abstract data types. Each of these steps in programming technology has advanced our ability to achieve clear separation of concerns at the source code level. Currently, the dominant programming paradigm is object-oriented programming - the idea that one builds a software system by decomposing a problem into objects and then writing the code of those objects. Such objects abstract together behavior and data into a single conceptual and physical entity. Object-orientation is reflected in the entire spectrum of current software development methodologies and tools - we have OO methodologies, analysis and design tools, and OO programming languages. Writing complex applications such as graphical user interfaces, operating systems, and distributed applications while maintaining comprehensible source code has been made possible with OOP. Success at developing simpler systems leads to aspirations for greater complexity. Object orientation is a clever idea, but has certain limitations. We are now seeing that many requirements do not decompose neatly into behavior centered on a single locus. Object technology has difficulty localizing concerns invoking global constraints and pandemic behaviors, appropriately segregating concerns, and applying domain-specific knowledge. Post-object programming (POP) mechanisms that look to increase the expressiveness of the OO paradigm are a fertile arena for current research. Examples of POP technologies include domain-specific languages, generative programming, generic programming, constraint languages, reflection and metaprogramming, feature-oriented development, views/viewpoints, and asynchronous message brokering. (Czarneclu and

  17. Research on the growth orientation of pyrite grains in the colloform textures in Baiyunpu Pb-Zn polymetallic deposit, Hunan, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Shang; Huang, Fei; Gu, Xiangping; Chen, Zhenyu; Xing, Miaomiao; Li, Yongli

    2017-02-01

    A large number of colloform-textured pyrites were found in Baiyunpu Pb-Zn ore bodies in Xinshao County, Hunan, China. This study investigates the growth orientation of the pyrite grains in these structures by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), in situ micro X-ray diffraction (μXRD) and electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD). The growth proceeded from micro-crystalline cores in the colloform textures. Moreover, the pyrite layers were discrete and separated by locally significant quantities of galena and calcite. The μXRD results suggested clear crystalline characteristics and weakly preferred orientations of the colloform textures. EBSD confirmed that the pyrite grains exist preferred orientations <100 > or <111 > in the layered zones. According to the crystal growth theory, the formation and variation of crystal preferred orientations (CPOs) in pyrite are mainly restricted by the internal crystal structure of the pyrite and depends on the external environment conditions, such as trace element concentrations and the supersaturation degree. We inferred the evolutionary regularity of lattice planes with different indices in the pyrite crystal structure from morphological, compositional and growth orientation information, which reflect the crystal growth history of the colloform pyrite. This study will advance our understanding of the growth processes of colloform pyrite and environmental evolution in the Baiyunpu Pb-Zn polymetallic deposits.

  18. Risk Factors for Low Back Disorders in Saskatchewan Farmers: Field-based Exposure Assessment to Build a Foundation for Epidemiological Studies

    PubMed Central

    Bath, Brenna; Johnson, Peter W; Teschke, Kay

    2016-01-01

    Background Studies of many geographical settings and agricultural commodities show that low back disorders are an important public health issue among farmers, who represent a special rural population. However, few studies have examined the impact of low back disorders on farmers’ work or the strategies that they adopt to avoid associated pain and disability. Objective This study protocol will investigate 3 issues related to low back disorders in Saskatchewan farmers: (1) the vibration, heavy lifting, and awkward postures farmers encounter during their work that might contribute to low back disorders; (2) the impact low back disorders have on farmers in terms of their ability to work; and (3) the types of preventative measures and solutions that farmers implement to reduce the occurrence of low back pain. Methods To answer these questions, researchers will travel to 30 farms to make measurements of vibration, lifting, and posture during the farmers’ regular work tasks. Farmers will be interviewed about any pain and/or disability using standardized interview questions. Farmers will also be asked about safety measures they have implemented at their farm, such as modified tools or equipment, to reduce the occurrence of low back disorders or pain. Results Data collection is currently underway for this study, with the intention to complete all data collection and analysis by the end of 2018. Conclusions Occupational determinants of health such as vibration, heavy lifting, and awkward postures are important in the development and progression of low back disorders, and the results of this study will allow for cost-effective epidemiological studies of these determinants in the future. In identifying prevention strategies, this study will also facilitate future research evaluating the effectiveness of safety measures. PMID:27286748

  19. The Utility of Discriminant Analysis for Predicting Farmers' Intentions to Participate in Farmer-Managed Irrigation Systems in Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zarafshani, Kiumars; Hossien Alibaygi, Amir; Afshar, Nasrin

    Participatory irrigation management has been problematic in most parts of the world and Iran has been no exception. The purpose of this study was to assess farmers' intentions to participate in irrigation management based on selected variables using discriminant analysis. A survey questionnaire was used to collect information from a sample of Water Cooperatives in Javanrood Townships using stratified random sampling (n = 106). Results indicated that age, educational level, attitude towards PIM, irrigation performance, landholding size, agricultural and non-agricultural income affected farmers' intentions to participate in irrigation management.

  20. Improving Smallholder Farmer Biosecurity in the Mekong Region Through Change Management.

    PubMed

    Young, J R; Evans-Kocinski, S; Bush, R D; Windsor, P A

    2015-10-01

    Transboundary animal diseases including foot-and-mouth disease and haemorrhagic septicaemia remain a major constraint for improving smallholder large ruminant productivity in the Mekong region, producing negative impacts on rural livelihoods and compromising efforts to reduce poverty and food insecurity. The traditional husbandry practices of smallholders largely exclude preventive health measures, increasing risks of disease transmission. Although significant efforts have been made to understand the social aspects of change development in agricultural production, attention to improving the adoption of biosecurity has been limited. This study reviews smallholder biosecurity risk factors identified in the peer-reviewed literature and from field research observations conducted in Cambodia and Laos during 2006-2013, considering these in the context of a change management perspective aimed at improving adoption of biosecurity measures. Motivation for change, resistance to change, knowledge management, cultural dimensions, systems theory and leadership are discussed. Due to geographical, physical and resource variability, the implementation of biosecurity interventions suitable for smallholders is not a 'one size fits all'. Smallholders should be educated in biosecurity principles and empowered to make personal decisions rather than adopt prescribed pre-defined interventions. Biosecurity interventions should be aligned with smallholder farmer motivations, preferably offering clear short-term risk management benefits that elicit interest from smallholders. Linking biosecurity and disease control with improved livestock productivity provides opportunities for sustainable improvements in livelihoods. Participatory research and extension that improves farmer knowledge and practices offers a pathway to elicit sustainable broad-scale social change. However, examples of successes need to be communicated both at the 'evidence-based level' to influence regional policy

  1. Some Heartland Farmers Just Say No to Chemicals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDermott, Jeanne

    1990-01-01

    Discusses how the increasing pollution and decreasing effectiveness of agrichemicals has spurred a new interest in "natural" farming practices in the midwestern United States. Provides the testimony of farmers who have converted their farming operations from chemically intensive to sustainable or alternative agricultural practices. (MCO)

  2. The Competencies Demonstrated by Farmers while Adapting to Climate Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pruneau, Diane; Kerry, Jackie; Mallet, Marie-Andree; Freiman, Viktor; Langis, Joanne; Laroche, Anne-Marie; Evichnevetski, Evgueni; Deguire, Paul; Therrien, Jimmy; Lang, Mathieu; Barbier, Pierre-Yves

    2012-01-01

    World population growth, overconsumption of resources, competition among countries and climate change are putting significant pressure on agriculture. In Canada, changes in precipitation, the appearance of new pests and poor soil quality are threatening the prosperity of small farmers. What human competencies could facilitate citizens' adaptation…

  3. Grower Communication Networks: Information Sources for Organic Farmers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crawford, Chelsi; Grossman, Julie; Warren, Sarah T.; Cubbage, Fred

    2015-01-01

    This article reports on a study to determine which information sources organic growers use to inform farming practices by conducting in-depth semi-structured interviews with 23 organic farmers across 17 North Carolina counties. Effective information sources included: networking, agricultural organizations, universities, conferences, Extension, Web…

  4. 75 FR 59683 - Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-28

    ... (No. 2011020) for trade adjustment assistance for coffee filed under the fiscal year (FY) 2011 program by the Kona Coffee Farmers Association. The petition was accepted for review by USDA on July 21, 2010...' criterion, the Administrator was not able to certify the petition, making coffee producers in...

  5. Neurological effects of pesticide use among farmers in China.

    PubMed

    Li, Yifan; Zhang, Chao; Yin, Yanhong; Cui, Fang; Cai, Jinyang; Chen, Zhaohui; Jin, Yanhong; Robson, Mark G; Li, Mao; Ren, Yuting; Huang, Xusheng; Hu, Ruifa

    2014-04-14

    The intensive use of pesticides has attracted great attention from the Chinese government. However, current regulations have had limited influence on their safe use. Although the acute neurologic effects of pesticides have been well documented, little is known about their cumulative effects. Knowledge of the impact of pesticides on health may convince farmers to minimize their use. We conducted a cross-sectional study in three provinces of China to evaluate the relationship between pesticide exposure and neurological dysfunction. Crop farmers were divided into two groups depending on their level of pesticide exposure. A total of 236 participants were assessed by questionnaire and neurological examination for symptoms and signs of neuropathy. Characteristics of neurologic dysfunction following cumulative low-level exposure were assessed with logistic regression analysis. Farmers exposed to high-level pesticide use had greater risk of developing sensations of numbness or prickling (odds ratio (OR) 2.62, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.08-6.36). After adjusting for recent exposure, the risk of numbness or prickling symptoms (OR 2.55, 95% CI: 1.04-6.25) remained statistically significant. Loss of muscle strength and decreased deep tendon reflexes had OR > 2, however, this did not reach statistical significance. These findings suggest that overuse of pesticides increased risk of neurologic dysfunction among farmers, with somatosensory small fibers most likely affected. Measures that are more efficient should be taken to curb excessive use of pesticides.

  6. 12 CFR 615.5174 - Farmer Mac securities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... managing credit and interest rate risks, and furthering your mission to finance agriculture. The total... internal controls are in place to prevent loss, in accordance with § 615.5133(e). Management must submit... securities. (2) Credit risk parameters including: (i) The quantities and types of Farmer Mac...

  7. The Farmer and the Goose--A Generalization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gannon, Gerald; Martelli, Mario

    1993-01-01

    Discusses the process of generalization. Illustrates the process by generalizing the classic problem of how a farmer can get a fox, a goose, and a bag of corn across a river in a boat that is large enough only for him and one of the three items. (MDH)

  8. Changing Farmers' Land Management Practices in the Hills of Nepal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paudel, Giridhari Sharma; Thapa, Gopal B.

    2001-12-01

    This paper sheds light on changing farmers' land management practices in two mountain watersheds, with and without external assistance, in the western hills of Nepal. Information used in the analysis were obtained through a survey of 300 households, group discussion, key informant interviews, and field observation conducted during April-September 1999. Confronted with ever-decreasing landholding size due to a steadily growing population and scarcity of nonfarming employment opportunities, farmers in both watersheds have increasingly adopted assorted types of structural and biological measures to control soil erosion, landslides, gully expansion, and soil nutrient loss to maintain or even enhance land productivity. Adoption of gully control measures, construction of the retention walls, alley cropping, use of vegetative measures for landslide control, mulching, and use of green manure and chemical fertilizers are found significantly high in the project area due to the provision of technical and financial support, whereas composting is found significantly high in the nonproject area. Different from the traditionally held beliefs, population pressure on a finite land resource has brought positive change in land management. However, the experience from both watersheds indicates that there is limit to the extent that resource poor farmers can respond to land degradation without any external assistance. Required is the arrangement for appropriate polices and support services and facilities enabling farmers to adopt locationally suitable and economically attractive land management technologies.

  9. Punjabi Orchard Farmers: An Immigrant Enclave in Rural California.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibson, Margaret A.

    1988-01-01

    Examines the adaptation patterns of Punjabi Sikh orchard farmers in rural California. Discusses the role of the following: (1) the historical context of immigration; (2) the immigrants' perceptions of their particular situation; (3) the group's cultural traditions; and (4) 1965 Immigration Act. (FMW)

  10. 29 CFR 780.332 - Exchange of labor between farmers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Employment in Agriculture That Is Exempted From the Minimum Wage and Overtime Pay Requirements Under Section... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exchange of labor between farmers. 780.332 Section 780.332 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR...

  11. 29 CFR 780.332 - Exchange of labor between farmers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Employment in Agriculture That Is Exempted From the Minimum Wage and Overtime Pay Requirements Under Section... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Exchange of labor between farmers. 780.332 Section 780.332 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR...

  12. 29 CFR 780.332 - Exchange of labor between farmers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Employment in Agriculture That Is Exempted From the Minimum Wage and Overtime Pay Requirements Under Section... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Exchange of labor between farmers. 780.332 Section 780.332 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR...

  13. 29 CFR 780.332 - Exchange of labor between farmers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Employment in Agriculture That Is Exempted From the Minimum Wage and Overtime Pay Requirements Under Section... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Exchange of labor between farmers. 780.332 Section 780.332 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR...

  14. 29 CFR 780.332 - Exchange of labor between farmers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Employment in Agriculture That Is Exempted From the Minimum Wage and Overtime Pay Requirements Under Section... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Exchange of labor between farmers. 780.332 Section 780.332 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR...

  15. Video in the Field: A Novel Approach to Farmer Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fraser, Colin

    1980-01-01

    Describes a farmer training program developed in Peru using videotape recorders and audiovisual trainees. Courses are produced and given to rural people on topics such as dairy cattle husbandry, irrigation, potato growing, citrus production, and reclamation of saline soils. (Author/SA)

  16. Texas Future Farmers of America Poultry Judging Handbook. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradley, J. W.; And Others

    This handbook is designed to help students in Texas prepare for Future Farmers of America (FFA) poultry judgings. The handbook is organized into five major sections that cover the following topics: organization of the Texas FFA poultry judging contest; judging production hens; judging production pullets; grading ready-to-cook broilers, fryers, or…

  17. 12 CFR 615.5174 - Farmer Mac securities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...) Market risk limits based on the effects that the Farmer Mac securities have on your capital and earnings. (d) Stress Test. You must perform stress tests on mortgage securities that are issued or guaranteed... fails a stress test, you must divest it as required by § 615.5143. Effective Date Note: At 77 FR...

  18. 75 FR 23226 - Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-03

    ..., and began a review of a petition, for trade adjustment assistance by the Catfish Farmers of America on behalf of U.S. farm-raised catfish producers. The Administrator will determine within 40 days whether or not increasing imports of catfish contributed importantly to a greater than 15 percent decrease in...

  19. The History of Future Farmer Organizations around the World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connors, James J.

    2013-01-01

    The establishment of the Future Farmers of America in 1928 and its subsequent growth in size and scope was noticed around the world. Agricultural education professionals from dozens of other countries wanted to know about the organization and how it helped motivate young rural boys to study vocational agriculture and choose agriculture as a career…

  20. 75 FR 61121 - Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-04

    ... Foreign Agricultural Service Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers AGENCY: Foreign Agricultural Service... (petition nos. 2011002 and 2011022) for trade adjustment assistance (TAA) for shrimp filed under the fiscal... in Subtitle C of Title I of the Trade Act of 2002 (Pub. L. 107-210). Because both petitions met...

  1. 75 FR 63437 - Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-15

    ... Foreign Agricultural Service Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers AGENCY: Foreign Agricultural Service... (No. 2011016) for trade adjustment assistance (TAA) for northeast multi-species fish filed under the..., Subtitle C of Title I of the Trade Act of 2002 (Pub. L. 107-210) states that petitions must...

  2. 75 FR 59684 - Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-28

    ... Foreign Agricultural Service Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers AGENCY: Foreign Agricultural Service... (No. 2011017) for trade adjustment assistance for apples filed under the fiscal year (FY) 2011 program..., 2010. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: To qualify under the program, Subtitle C of Title I of the Trade...

  3. 75 FR 59681 - Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-28

    ... Foreign Agricultural Service Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers AGENCY: Foreign Agricultural Service... (No. 2011029) for trade adjustment assistance for lamb filed under the fiscal year (FY) 2011 program..., 2010. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: To qualify under the program, Subtitle C of Title I of the Trade...

  4. 75 FR 59682 - Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-28

    ... Foreign Agricultural Service Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers AGENCY: Foreign Agricultural Service... (Nos. 2011023-2011027) for trade adjustment assistance for wool filed under the fiscal year (FY) 2011.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: To qualify under the program, Subtitle C of Title I of the Trade Act of 2002 (Pub....

  5. 75 FR 41432 - Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-16

    ... Foreign Agricultural Service Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers AGENCY: Foreign Agricultural Service... petition (No. 2010005) for trade adjustment assistance (TAA) for shrimp that was filed by the Southern... of the Trade Act of 2002 (Pub. L. 107-210). Individual shrimp producers in Alabama, Florida,...

  6. 75 FR 42375 - Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-21

    ... Foreign Agricultural Service Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers AGENCY: Foreign Agricultural Service... began a review of a petition for trade adjustment assistance filed under the FY 2011 Program by the... for free technical assistance and cash benefits. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Trade...

  7. 75 FR 59685 - Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-28

    ... Foreign Agricultural Service Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers AGENCY: Foreign Agricultural Service... (Nos. 2011024, 2011025) for trade adjustment assistance for lamb filed under the fiscal year (FY) 2011.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: To qualify under the program, Subtitle C of Title I of the Trade Act of 2002 (Pub....

  8. 75 FR 59682 - Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-28

    ... Foreign Agricultural Service Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers AGENCY: Foreign Agricultural Service... (No.'s 2011006-2011011, 2011028) for trade adjustment assistance for wool filed under the fiscal year... program, Subtitle C of Title I of the Trade Act of 2002 (Pub. L. 107-210) states that petitions...

  9. 75 FR 59683 - Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-28

    ... Foreign Agricultural Service Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers AGENCY: Foreign Agricultural Service... petition (No. 2011014) for trade adjustment assistance for dried prunes filed under the fiscal year (FY... Trade Act of 2002 (Pub. L. 107-210) states that petitions must demonstrate, using data for the...

  10. 75 FR 59681 - Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-28

    ... Foreign Agricultural Service Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers AGENCY: Foreign Agricultural Service... (No. 2011004) for trade adjustment assistance for lamb filed under the fiscal year (FY) 2011 program... 23, 2010. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: To qualify under the program, Subtitle C of Title I of the...

  11. 75 FR 23667 - Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-04

    ... Foreign Agricultural Service Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers AGENCY: Foreign Agricultural Service... of a petition, for trade adjustment assistance by the Prune Bargaining Association on behalf of prune... remarks for the record by faxing them to (202) 720-0876. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Trade...

  12. 75 FR 59684 - Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-28

    ... Foreign Agricultural Service Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers AGENCY: Foreign Agricultural Service.... 2011021) for trade adjustment assistance for wool filed under the fiscal year (FY) 2011 program ] by the... INFORMATION: To qualify under the program, Subtitle C of Title I of the Trade Act of 2002 (Pub. L....

  13. 75 FR 59682 - Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-28

    ... Foreign Agricultural Service Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers AGENCY: Foreign Agricultural Service... (No. 2011005) for trade adjustment assistance for wool filed under the fiscal year (FY) 2011 program... 21, 2010. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: To qualify under the program, Subtitle C of Title I of the...

  14. Distributing and Showing Farmer Learning Videos in Bangladesh

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bentley, Jeffery W.; Van Mele, Paul; Harun-ar-Rashid, Md.; Krupnik, Timothy J.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To describe the results of showing farmer learning videos through different types of volunteers. Design/Methodology/Approach: Semi-structured interviews with volunteers from different occupational groups in Bangladesh, and a phone survey with 227 respondents. Findings: Each occupational group acted differently. Shop keepers, tillage…

  15. Iowa Adult Farmers' Perception of the Value of Educational Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Keith L.; Kahler, Alan A.

    1982-01-01

    This article discusses the factors which influenced participation of adult farmers in educational programs and the factors which may have influenced changes in farming programs of the participants. These factors included size of farm operations, farm income, participation in farming, and community activities and sources of technical information.…

  16. MORTALITY AMONG FARMERS AND SPOUSES IN THE AGRICULTURAL HEALTH STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    In the Agricultural Health Study we evaluated the mortality experience of 52,395 farmers and 32,347 of their spouses in Iowa and North Carolina obtain information on cancer and other chronic disease risks from agricultural exposures and other factors associated with rural lifes...

  17. Communicating to Farmers about Skin Cancer: The Behavior Adaptation Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parrott, Roxanne; Monahan, Jennifer; Ainsworth, Stuart; Steiner, Carol

    1998-01-01

    States health campaign messages designed to encourage behavior adaptation have greater likelihood of success than campaigns promoting avoidance of at-risk behaviors that cannot be avoided. Tests a model of health risk behavior using four different behaviors in a communication campaign aimed at reducing farmers' risk for skin cancer--questions…

  18. 75 FR 9087 - Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-01

    ... implements the Trade Adjustment Assistance (TAA) for Farmers program as reauthorized by the American Recovery...) 720-0638; or by fax at (202) 720-8461. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Background The American Recovery and... Maintenance of records, audits, and compliance. 1580.503 Recovery of overpayments. 1580.504...

  19. Educational Priorities of Small Farmers in West Tennessee.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford, Carey L.

    1995-01-01

    According to survey responses from 108 of 150 Western Tennessee small farmers, 53% had less than a high school education and most were near retirement age. Greatest educational needs were in the areas of crop marketing, soil conservation, and pesticide use. Individualized methods and a focus on improving technical knowledge and existing marketing…

  20. Women Farmers in Central America: Myths, Roles, Reality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yudelman, Sally W.

    1994-01-01

    Improving economic opportunities for the increasing number of women farmers in rural Central America involves addressing low educational levels and challenging traditional social values. Government policies need to strengthen women's agricultural and natural-resource management skills by improving land access; encouraging membership in…

  1. Prevalence of peanut allergy in children of peanut farmers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    High levels of environmental exposure to peanut during infancy appear to promote sensitization by the epicutaneous route. Children of peanut farmers are likely exposed to relatively high levels of peanut protein in their environment, increasing their risk of cutaneous sensitization. The purpose of...

  2. Innovative Marketing Opportunities for Small Farmers: Local Schools as Customers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schofer, Daniel P.; Holmes, Glyen; Richardson, Vonda; Connerly, Charles

    A group of limited-resource small farmers in northern Florida's Jackson County, the USDA, the West Florida Resource Conservation and Development Council, Florida A&M University, and the Federation of Southern Cooperatives organized the New North Florida Cooperative to increase farm income by introducing improved methods of marketing…

  3. Agriculture and Locality Interrelationships: Perspectives of Local Officials and Farmers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moxley, Robert L.; Liles, James

    The focus of this study is the impact of urban activities (such as industry) and local governments on agriculture and the impact of agriculture on localities. This report is based on a qualitative study of an agricultural county, and interviews with community and county officials and farmers. The perceptions and opinions of officials are compared…

  4. Climate change and farmers' mental health: risks and responses.

    PubMed

    Berry, Helen L; Hogan, Anthony; Owen, Jennifer; Rickwood, Debra; Fragar, Lyn

    2011-03-01

    Climate change is exacerbating climate variability, evident in more frequent and severe weather-related disasters, such as droughts, fires, and floods. Most of what is known about the possible effects of climate change on rural mental health relates to prolonged drought. But though drought is known to be a disproportionate and general stressor, evidence is mixed and inconclusive. Over time, like drought other weather-related disasters may erode the social and economic bases on which farming communities depend. Rural vulnerability to mental health problems is greatly increased by socioeconomic disadvantage. Related factors may compound this, such as reduced access to health services as communities decline and a "stoical" culture that inhibits help-seeking. Australia has the world's most variable climate and is a major global agricultural producer. Yet despite Australia's (and, especially, rural communities') dependence on farmers' well-being and success, there is very little-and inconclusive-quantitative evidence about farmers' mental health. The aim of this review is to consider, with a view to informing other countries, how climate change and related factors may affect farmers' mental health in Australia. That information is a prerequisite to identifying, selecting, and evaluating adaptive strategies, to lessen the risks of adverse mental health outcomes. The authors identify the need for a systematic epidemiology of the mental health of farmers facing increasing climate change- related weather adversity.

  5. Changing farmers' land management practices in the hills of Nepal.

    PubMed

    Paudel, G S; Thapa, G B

    2001-12-01

    This paper sheds light on changing farmers' land management practices in two mountain watersheds, with and without extemal assistance, in the western hills of Nepal. Information used in the analysis were obtained through a survey of 300 households, group discussion, key informant interviews, and field observation conducted during April-September 1999. Confronted with ever-decreasing landholding size due to a steadily growing population and scarcity of nonfarming employment opportunities, farmers in both watersheds have increasingly adopted assorted types of structural and biological measures to control soil erosion, landslides, gully expansion, and soil nutrient loss to maintain or even enhance land productivity. Adoption of guly control measures, construction of the retention walls, alley cropping, use of vegetative measures for landslide control, mulching, and use of green manure and chemical fertilizers are found significantly high in the project area due to the provision of technical and financial support, whereas composting is found significantly high in the nonproject area. Different from the traditionally held beliefs, population pressure on a finite land resource has brought positive change in land management. However, the experience from both watersheds indicates that there is limit to the extent that resource poor farmers can respond to land degradation without any extemal assistance. Required is the arrangement for appropriate polices and support services and facilities enabling farmers to adopt locationally suitable and economically attractive land management technologies.

  6. 75 FR 28780 - Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-24

    ... Reinvestment Act of 2009 (Pub. L. 111-5) reauthorized the TAA for Farmers Program as established by Subtitle C of Title I of the Trade Act of 2002 (Pub. L. 107-210), which amended the Trade Act of 1974. The... increased imports of raw agricultural commodities, aquaculture products, or wild- caught aquatic...

  7. 75 FR 11513 - Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-11

    ... Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (Pub. L. 111-5) reauthorized the Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers program as established by Subtitle C of Title I of the Trade Act of 2002 (Pub. L. 107-210), which..., aquaculture products, or wild- caught aquatic species (each referred to as ``commodity'') have...

  8. Participatory Data Collection Technique for Capturing Beginning Farmer Program Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eschbach, Cheryl L.; Sirrine, J. R.; Lizotte, Erin; Rothwell, N. L.

    2016-01-01

    This article describes an innovative evaluation plan we employed to capture outcomes of a multiyear beginning farmer program and, specifically, highlights the facilitation technique we used to document short-term and intermediate goals of the program that matched U.S. Department of Agriculture grant requirements and Extension administration…

  9. Pollution Attitudes, Knowledge and Behavior of Farmers and Urban Men.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kronus, Carol L.; van Es, J. C.

    Data were gathered through telephone survey of a random sample of 91 urban men and 97 farm operators to study pollution attitudes, knowledge, and household pollution abatement behavior among urban residents and farmers. The results indicate that urban men are more concerned about pollution, more willing to allocate tax money to clean up pollution,…

  10. 75 FR 23226 - Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-03

    ..., and began a review of a petition, for trade adjustment assistance by the Louisiana Crawfish Farmers Association on behalf of farm-raised crawfish producers in Louisiana. The Administrator will determine within 40 days whether or not increasing imports of crawfish contributed importantly to a greater than...

  11. The Low-Income Farmer in a Changing Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fliegel, Frederick C.

    To identify some major differences among low-income farmers, and delineate that group representing the real core of the persistently poor, data were obtained from 189 farm operators representing a stratified random sample in Fayette County, Pennsylvania in 1957. The five main categories of individuals identified were: (1) the aged, (2) the…

  12. The Liberating Role of Astronomy in an Old Farmer's Almanac: David Rittenhouse's "Useful Knowledge" and a Benjamin Banneker Almanac for 1792

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, Theodore, Jr.

    2012-06-01

    Traditionally, astronomy met theology and political ethics in almanacs. As presented in early New England almanacs of the farmer's type, astronomy was deity-affirming and liberty-oriented. The old English label for astronomy that affirms theology was "Astro-theology" (William Derham, 1715). The New England rendering of astro-theology was so strongly oriented towards liberty that it can now be labeled astro-liberation theology. This 21st century label is appropriate because 18th century New England printers and astronomers used astronomy to demonstrate the glory of the Creator (astro-theology) and to encourage liberation from colonialism and slavery (astro-liberation theology). A philosophy of astronomy as "useful knowledge' expressed by David Rittenhouse in 1775 - and implicit in a Benjamin Banneker almanac for 1792 - included liberty-oriented visions of planet Earth as seen from outer space, and liberty-oriented visions of intelligent life on other planets orbiting other stars.

  13. Typical Farmers: The Strategy Galjart Did Not Explain [and] Article Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Protas, J. F. da Silva; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Protas and de Andrade state that rural extension efforts in developing nations should not expect the participation of "progressive" farmers to lead to larger participation of other farmers in adopting innovations. Van den Bar offers comments on the article. (SK)

  14. 29 CFR 780.612 - Employment by a “farmer.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... § 780.612 Employment by a “farmer.” A further requirement for exemption is the expressed statutory one that the employee must be employed in agriculture by a “farmer.” Employment by a nonfarmer will...

  15. 29 CFR 780.612 - Employment by a “farmer.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... § 780.612 Employment by a “farmer.” A further requirement for exemption is the expressed statutory one that the employee must be employed in agriculture by a “farmer.” Employment by a nonfarmer will...

  16. 29 CFR 780.132 - Operations must be performed “by” a farmer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... can a repairman who repairs and services farm machinery qualify as a “farmer” on that basis. Where... farmers in return for compensation in money or farm products is not a “farmer.” Thus, a person...

  17. 29 CFR 780.132 - Operations must be performed “by” a farmer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... can a repairman who repairs and services farm machinery qualify as a “farmer” on that basis. Where... farmers in return for compensation in money or farm products is not a “farmer.” Thus, a person...

  18. 78 FR 3393 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comment Request-Senior Farmers...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-16

    ... Food and Nutrition Service Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comment Request--Senior Farmers' Market Nutrition Program (SFMNP) AGENCY: Food and Nutrition Service (FNS), USDA... renewal of the currently approved collection for the Senior Farmers' Market Nutrition Program...

  19. Cross-sectional geometry in the humeri of foragers and farmers from the prehispanic American Southwest: exploring patterns in the sexual division of labor.

    PubMed

    Ogilvie, Marsha D; Hilton, Charles E

    2011-01-01

    The work effort of prehistoric males relative to females has long been of interest to anthropologists, particularly in foraging versus farming groups. This knowledge requires a clear understanding of the sexual division of labor, or the dichotomy in subsistence roles allocated to males and females. Such research in the Prehispanic American Southwest has been limited. As previous work has shown that bone is the osseous template that reflects in vivo activity levels, it is possible to assess gender-based differences in past work effort using analyses of geometric properties of bone and calculations of bilateral asymmetry. Our research comparatively analyzed upper limb work effort by sex and subsistence in two skeletal samples from disparate economic groups, foragers and farmers, both from similar desert environments. The residentially mobile foragers are from the Lower Pecos region of southwest Texas and the farmers are from the aggregated pueblo of Pottery Mound in south central New Mexico. Humeri from 27 adult foragers (n = 11 males; n = 17 females) and 65 adult farmers (n = 38 males; n = 27 females) were selected for study. All humeri were radiographed and/or scanned and digitized. Statistical comparisons using two-way ANOVAs indicate that female farmers exhibited the greatest humeral strength and the least asymmetry. Relative to all other groups examined, female farmers engaged in higher levels of upper limb work effort implying a substantial economic contribution to their agricultural economy.

  20. Investigating the impact of rice blast disease on the livelihood of the local farmers in greater Mwea region of Kenya.

    PubMed

    Kihoro, Joseph; Bosco, Njoroge J; Murage, Hunja; Ateka, Elijah; Makihara, Daigo

    2013-12-01

    Rice is the most important cereal crop in Kenya coming third after maize and wheat. It forms a very important diet for a majority of families in Kenya. The demand for rice in Kenya has seen a dramatic increase over the last few years while production has remained low. This is because rice production has been faced by serious constraints notably plant diseases of which the most devastating is rice blast. Rice blast is known to cause approximately 60% -100% yield losses. It is caused by an Ascomycete fungus called Magnaporthe Oryzae. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of rice blast disease on the livelihood of the local farmers in Greater Mwea region and develop a rice blast disease distribution map using GIS approach. The study methodology employed a questionnaire survey which were subjected to sample population of households in the 7 sections with 70 blocks within Mwea region. The collected data was analysed using SAS Version 9.1. Descriptive statistics were used to summarize the household characteristics, the farm characteristics and the farmers' perceptions of rice blast disease. In the questionnaire, farmers' response on whether they had been affected by rice blast disease and the total production per acreage was used to develop an attribute table with GPS points. The GPS points were interpolated to create a geographical distribution map of rice blast disease. From the research findings almost all the farmers' had awareness and knowledge of rice blast disease, 98% of the farmers interviewed were aware of rice blast disease. Out of the 98% with knowledge and awareness 76% have been affected by the disease, while 24% have never been affected. Farmers attributed rice blast disease to a range of different causes, including excessive use of nitrogen fertilizer, water shortage, lack of proper drainage canal and due to climate change. Majority of the farmers interviewed (72%) did not engage themselves in any other socio-economic activity even after

  1. Designing management options to reduce surface runoff and sediment yield with farmers: an experiment in south-western France.

    PubMed

    Furlan, Adriana; Poussin, Jean-Christophe; Mailhol, Jean-Claude; Le Bissonnais, Yves; Gumiere, Silvio J

    2012-04-15

    To preserve the quality of surface water, official French regulations require farmers to keep a minimum acreage of grassland, especially bordering rivers. These agro-environmental measures do not account for the circulation of water within the catchment. This paper examines whether it is possible to design with the farmers agri-environmental measures at field and catchment scale to prevent soil erosion and surface water pollution. To support this participatory approach, the hydrology and erosion model STREAM was used for assessing the impact of a spring stormy event on surface runoff and sediment yield with various management scenarios. The study was carried out in collaboration with an agricultural committee in an area of south-western France where erosive runoff has a major impact on the quality of surface water. Two sites (A and B) were chosen with farmers to discuss ways of reducing total surface runoff and sediment yield at each site. The STREAM model was used to assess surface runoff and sediment yield under current cropping pattern at each site and to evaluate management scenarios including grass strips implementation or changes in cropping patterns within the catchment. The results of STREAM simulations were analysed jointly by farmers and researchers. Moreover, the farmers discussed each scenario in terms of its technical and economical feasibility. STREAM simulations showed that a 40 mm spring rainfall with current cropping patterns led to 3116 m3 total water runoff and 335 metric tons of sediment yield at site A, and 3249 m3 and 241 metric tons at site B. Grass strips implementation could reduce runoff for about 40% and sediment yield for about 50% at site A. At site B, grass strips could reduce runoff and sediment yield for more than 50%, but changes in cropping pattern could reduce it almost totally. The simulations led to three main results: (i) grass strips along rivers and ditches prevented soil sediments from entering the surface water but did not

  2. Airborne Nicotine Concentrations in the Workplaces of Tobacco Farmers

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Seok-Ju; Park, Sung-Jun; Kim, Byoung-Seok; Lim, Hyun-Sul; Kim, Jik-Su; Kim, In-Shik

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Nicotine is a natural alkaloid and insecticide in tobacco leaves. Green tobacco sickness (GTS) is known as a disease of acute nicotine intoxication among tobacco farmers. Until now, GTS has been recognized globally as a disease that results from nicotine absorption through the skin. However, we assumed that GTS might also result from nicotine inhalation as well as absorption. We aimed to measure the airborne nicotine concentrations in various work environments of Korean tobacco farmers. Methods We measured the nicotine concentrations in the tobacco fields, private curing barns, and joint curing barns of farmers from July to October 2010. All sampling and analyses of airborne nicotine were conducted according to the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health manual of analytic methods. Results The airborne nicotine concentrations (geometric mean [geometric standard deviation]) in the tobacco field were 83.4 mg/m3 (1.2) in the upper region and 93.3 mg/m3 (1.2) in the lower region. In addition, the nicotine concentration by personal sampling was 150.1 mg/m3. Similarly, the nicotine concentrations in the private curing barn, workers in curing barns, the front yard of the curing barn, and in the joint curing barn were 323.7 mg/m3 (2.0), 121.0 mg/m3 (1.5), 73.7 mg/m3 (1.7), and 610.3 mg/m3 (1.0), respectively. Conclusions The nicotine concentration in the workplaces of tobacco farmers was very high. Future studies should measure the environmental concentration of nicotine that is inhaled by tobacco farmers. PMID:24921017

  3. Farmer's response to changing climate in North East India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De, Utpal Kumar

    2015-02-01

    Diversification of land use in the cultivation of various crops provides an alternative way to moderate the climate risk. By choosing alternative crops that are resilient to various weather parameters, farmers can reduce the crop damage and achieve optimum output from their limited land resources. Apart from other adaptation measures, crop diversity can reflect farmers' response towards changing climate uncertainty. This paper tries to examine the changing climatic condition through spatio-temporal variation of two important weather variables (precipitation and temperature) in the largest North-East Indian state, Assam, since 1950. It is examined by the variation in crop diversification index. We have used (1) Herfindahl Index for measuring degree of diversification and (2) locational quotient for measuring the changes in the regional crop concentration. The results show that, in almost all the districts, crop specialization has been taking place slowly and that happened mostly in the last phase of our study. The hilly and backward districts recorded more diversification but towards lower value crops. It goes against the normal feature of crop diversification where farmers diversify in favour of high value crops. Employing ordinary least squares method and/or Fixed Effect model, irrigation is found to have significant impact on crop diversification; while the flood plain zones and hill zones are found to have better progress in this regard, which has been due to the survival necessity of poor farmers living the zone. Thus crop diversity does not reflect very significant response from the farmers' side towards changing weather factors (except rainfall) though they have significant impact on the productivity of various crops, and thus profitability. The study thus suggests the necessity for rapid and suitable diversification as alternative climate change mitigation in the long run.

  4. Factors affecting farmers' behaviour in pesticide use: Insights from a field study in northern China.

    PubMed

    Fan, Liangxin; Niu, Haipeng; Yang, Xiaomei; Qin, Wei; Bento, Célia P M; Ritsema, Coen J; Geissen, Violette

    2015-12-15

    Quantitative understanding of farmers' behaviour in pesticide use is critical to enhance sustainability of chemical pest control and protect farmers' health and the environment. However, reports on the levels of knowledge and awareness of farmers and the practices of pesticide use are often insufficient. Here, we conducted a comprehensive analysis on the effects of knowledge and awareness of farmers as well as the influence of the associated stakeholders (i.e. pesticide retailers and the government) on farmers' behaviour in pesticide use by using a detailed survey of 307 agricultural households (79 grain farms, 65 fruit farms, 53 vegetable farms and 110 mixed-crop farms) in the Wei River basin in northern China. Eight protective behaviours (PBs) were exhibited by farmers. Careful and safe storage of pesticides, changing clothes or showering after applying pesticides, and reading instructions of the container labels before application were the most frequent PBs. Vegetable and fruit farmers had higher levels of education and knowledge than grain farmers, but the former were less willing to reduce pesticide use because of fear of low profits and lack of trust in the government and pesticide retailers. The PBs of farmers were strongly affected by the perception of the consequences of their behaviour (standardised path coefficient, SPC=0.42) and the level of farmers' knowledge (SPC=0.33). Pesticide retailers and the government had a moderate and weak influence, respectively, on farmers' PBs, suggesting a large gap of trust among farmers, pesticide retailers, and the government. Training and supervising retailers, educating farmers, and improving information transparency across farmers, pesticide retailers and the staff of the Agricultural Extension and Technology Service are recommended for bridging the gap of trust between farmers and the associated stakeholders as well as for promoting the use of PBs among farmers.

  5. 29 CFR 780.613 - “By such farmer.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false âBy such farmer.â 780.613 Section 780.613 Labor Regulations... such farmer.” The employee's primary employment in agriculture during the exempt week is also required to be by “such farmer.” The phrase “such farmer” refers to the particular farmer by whom the...

  6. 29 CFR 780.613 - “By such farmer.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false âBy such farmer.â 780.613 Section 780.613 Labor Regulations... such farmer.” The employee's primary employment in agriculture during the exempt week is also required to be by “such farmer.” The phrase “such farmer” refers to the particular farmer by whom the...

  7. Thinking in Orienteering.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johansen, Bjorn Tore

    1997-01-01

    A think-aloud technique, in which 20 orienteers verbalized their exact thoughts during orienteering, was used to examine the phenomenon of cognition during orienteering. Results indicate that orienteering is experienced as a task to be accomplished, a physical movement, and a dynamic process, and that thinking involves attuning perceptions to…

  8. Peer Mentoring Communities of Practice for Early and Mid-Career Faculty: Broad Benefits from a Research-Oriented Female Peer Mentoring Group

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rees, Amanda; Shaw, Kimberly

    2014-01-01

    In light of recent interest in the limitations of early and mid-career mentoring (Driscoll et al 2009; Trowers 2011), this case study of a women's scholarly activity and goal setting Community of Practice (CoP) indicates that such groups can offer extensive peer mentoring at one teaching-oriented state university in the United States. Using a…

  9. Research-Based Development of a Lesson Plan on Shower Gels and Musk Fragrances Following a Socio-Critical and Problem-Oriented Approach to Chemistry Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marks, Ralf; Eilks, Ingo

    2010-01-01

    A case is described of the development of a lesson plan for 10th grade (age range 15-16) chemistry classes on the chemistry of shower gels. The lesson plan follows a socio-critical and problem-oriented approach to chemistry teaching. This means that, aside from learning about the basic chemistry of the components making up modern shower gels in…

  10. An Evaluation of Three Methods of Racism-Sexism Training in a University Student Orientation Program. Research Report No. 1-75.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Troy, Warwick G.; And Others

    Three types of workshops dealing with racism and sexism were conducted for 1900 incoming university freshmen as part of their orientation program. The methods were a structured discussion model developed by Sedlacek and Brooks (1976), a Starpower simulation workshop, and a movie discussion group. Students were randomly assigned to one of the three…

  11. Why are simple control options for Toxocara vitulorum not being implemented by cattle and buffalo smallholder farmers in South-East Asia?

    PubMed

    Rast, Luzia; Toribio, Jenny-Ann L M L; Dhand, Navneet K; Khounsy, Syseng; Windsor, Peter A

    2014-02-01

    this intervention by smallholder farmers, especially as demand for livestock products continues to increase in this region and forces a change to more production oriented farming. To support this, continued capacity building that ensures knowledge transfer of best practice T. vitulorum control to smallholder farmers is required.

  12. Farmers' Cynicism toward Nature and Distrust of the Government: Where Does that Leave Conservation Buffer Programs?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gronewold, Katherine L.; Burnett, Ann; Meister, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Farmers are commonly regarded as stewards of the land. Farmers have, however, become cynical toward nature (Meister, Hest, & Burnett, 2009) and distrustful of the government (Cantrill, 2003). This study examines whether or not that cynicism and distrust is reflected in U.S. farmers' opinions of and future participation in conservation buffer…

  13. Fostering Transformative Learning in Non-Formal Settings: Farmer-Field Schools in East Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Edward W.; Duveskog, Deborah; Friis-Hansen, Esbern

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the practice of Farmer-Field Schools (FFS) theoretically framed from the perspective of transformative learning theory and non-formal education (NFE). Farmer-Field Schools are community-led NFE programs that provide a platform where farmers meet regularly to study the "how and why" of farming and…

  14. Adoption of Aquaculture Technology by Fish Farmers in Imo State of Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ike, Nwachukwu; Roseline, Onuegbu

    2007-01-01

    This paper evaluated the level of adoption of aquaculture technology extended to farmers in Imo State, Nigeria. To improve aquaculture practice in Nigeria, a technology package was developed and disseminated to farmers in the state. This package included ten practices that the farmers were supposed to adopt. Eighty-two respondents were randomly…

  15. The Impact of Farmer Field Schools on Human and Social Capital: A Case Study from Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    David, Soniia; Asamoah, Christopher

    2011-01-01

    Based on a case study of Ghanaian cocoa farmers who attended farmer field schools (FFS), this paper explores the impact of the FFS methodology on farmers' technical knowledge, experimentation, knowledge diffusion, group formation and social skills as a way of assessing whether the relatively high costs associated with the method is justified. We…

  16. 7 CFR 170.2 - Is the USDA Farmers Market a producer-only market?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Is the USDA Farmers Market a producer-only market? 170...) MISCELLANEOUS MARKETING PRACTICES UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 USDA FARMERS MARKET § 170.2 Is the USDA Farmers Market a producer-only market? Yes. A producer-only market is one that does not...

  17. 7 CFR 170.2 - Is the USDA Farmers Market a producer-only market?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Is the USDA Farmers Market a producer-only market? 170...) MISCELLANEOUS MARKETING PRACTICES UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 USDA FARMERS MARKET § 170.2 Is the USDA Farmers Market a producer-only market? Yes. A producer-only market is one that does not...

  18. Farmers' Visions on Soils: A Case Study among Agroecological and Conventional Smallholders in Minas Gerais, Brazil

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klingen, Klarien Elisabeth; De Graaff, Jan; Botelho, Maria Izabel Vieira; Kessler, Aad

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Why do farmers not take better care of their soils? This article aims to give insight into how farmers look at soil quality management. Design/methodology/approach: It analyses diverse land management practices and visions on soils and soil quality of ten agroecological and 14 conventional smallholder farmers in Araponga, Minas Gerais,…

  19. 29 CFR 780.203 - Performance of operations on a farm but not by the farmer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Performance of operations on a farm but not by the farmer... Operations § 780.203 Performance of operations on a farm but not by the farmer. Logging or sawmill operations on a farm undertaken on behalf of the farmer or on behalf of the buyer of the logs or the...

  20. 29 CFR 780.203 - Performance of operations on a farm but not by the farmer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Performance of operations on a farm but not by the farmer... Operations § 780.203 Performance of operations on a farm but not by the farmer. Logging or sawmill operations on a farm undertaken on behalf of the farmer or on behalf of the buyer of the logs or the...