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Sample records for fascicularis dra polymorphism

  1. Polymorphism and selection in the major histocompatibility complex DRA and DQA genes in the family Equidae.

    PubMed

    Janova, Eva; Matiasovic, Jan; Vahala, Jiri; Vodicka, Roman; Van Dyk, Enette; Horin, Petr

    2009-07-01

    The major histocompatibility complex genes coding for antigen binding and presenting molecules are the most polymorphic genes in the vertebrate genome. We studied the DRA and DQA gene polymorphism of the family Equidae. In addition to 11 previously reported DRA and 24 DQA alleles, six new DRA sequences and 13 new DQA alleles were identified in the genus Equus. Phylogenetic analysis of both DRA and DQA sequences provided evidence for trans-species polymorphism in the family Equidae. The phylogenetic trees differed from species relationships defined by standard taxonomy of Equidae and from trees based on mitochondrial or neutral gene sequence data. Analysis of selection showed differences between the less variable DRA and more variable DQA genes. DRA alleles were more often shared by more species. The DQA sequences analysed showed strong amongst-species positive selection; the selected amino acid positions mostly corresponded to selected positions in rodent and human DQA genes.

  2. ELA-DRA polymorphisms are not associated with Equine Arteritis Virus infection in horses from Argentina.

    PubMed

    Kalemkerian, P B; Metz, G E; Peral-Garcia, P; Echeverria, M G; Giovambattista, G; Díaz, S

    2012-12-01

    Polymorphisms at Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) genes have been associated with resistance/susceptibility to infectious diseases in domestic animals. The aim of this investigation was to evaluate whether polymorphisms of the DRA gene the Equine Lymphocyte Antigen is associated with susceptibility to Equine Arteritis Virus (EAV) infection in horses in Argentina. The equine DRA gene was screened for polymorphisms using Pyrosequencing® Technology which allowed the detection of three ELA-DRA exon 2 alleles. Neither allele frequencies nor genotypic differentiation exhibited any statistically significant (P-values=0.788 and 0.745) differences between the EAV-infected and no-infected horses. Fisher's exact test and OR calculations did not show any significant association. As a consequence, no association could be established between the serological condition and ELA-DRA.

  3. Extensive polymorphism of the major histocompatibility complex DRA gene in Balkan donkeys: perspectives on selection and genealogy.

    PubMed

    Arbanasić, Haidi; Galov, Ana; Ambriović-Ristov, Andreja; Grizelj, Juraj; Arsenos, Georgios; Marković, Božidarka; Dovenski, Toni; Vince, Silvijo; Curik, Ino

    2013-12-01

    The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) contains genes important for immune response in mammals, and these genes exhibit high polymorphism and diversity. The DRA gene, a member of the MHC class II family, is highly conserved across a large number of mammalian species, but it displays exceptionally rich sequence variations in Equidae members. We analyzed allelic polymorphism of the DRA locus in 248 donkeys sampled across the Balkan Peninsula (Albania, Bulgaria, Croatia, Macedonia, Greece and Montenegro). Five known alleles and two new alleles were identified. The new allele Eqas-DRA*0601 was found to carry a synonymous mutation, and new allele Eqas-DRA*0701, a non-synonymous mutation. We further analyzed the historical selection and allele genealogy at the DRA locus in equids. Signals of positive selection obtained by various tests were ambiguous. A conservative conclusion is that DRA polymorphism occurred relatively recently and that positive selection has been acting on the DRA locus for a relatively brief period.

  4. Trans-species polymorphism and selection in the MHC class II DRA genes of domestic sheep.

    PubMed

    Ballingall, Keith T; Rocchi, Mara S; McKeever, Declan J; Wright, Frank

    2010-01-01

    Highly polymorphic genes with central roles in lymphocyte mediated immune surveillance are grouped together in the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) in higher vertebrates. Generally, across vertebrate species the class II MHC DRA gene is highly conserved with only limited allelic variation. Here however, we provide evidence of trans-species polymorphism at the DRA locus in domestic sheep (Ovis aries). We describe variation at the Ovar-DRA locus that is far in excess of anything described in other vertebrate species. The divergent DRA allele (Ovar-DRA*0201) differs from the sheep reference sequences by 20 nucleotides, 12 of which appear non-synonymous. Furthermore, DRA*0201 is paired with an equally divergent DRB1 allele (Ovar-DRB1*0901), which is consistent with an independent evolutionary history for the DR sub-region within this MHC haplotype. No recombination was observed between the divergent DRA and B genes in a range of breeds and typical levels of MHC class II DR protein expression were detected at the surface of leukocyte populations obtained from animals homozygous for the DRA*0201, DRB1*0901 haplotype. Bayesian phylogenetic analysis groups Ovar-DRA*0201 with DRA sequences derived from species within the Oryx and Alcelaphus genera rather than clustering with other ovine and caprine DRA alleles. Tests for Darwinian selection identified 10 positively selected sites on the branch leading to Ovar-DRA*0201, three of which are predicted to be associated with the binding of peptide antigen. As the Ovis, Oryx and Alcelaphus genera have not shared a common ancestor for over 30 million years, the DRA*0201 and DRB1*0901 allelic pair is likely to be of ancient origin and present in the founding population from which all contemporary domestic sheep breeds are derived. The conservation of the integrity of this unusual DR allelic pair suggests some selective advantage which is likely to be associated with the presentation of pathogen antigen to T-cells and the

  5. Trans-species polymorphism and selection in the MHC class II DRA genes of domestic sheep.

    PubMed

    Ballingall, Keith T; Rocchi, Mara S; McKeever, Declan J; Wright, Frank

    2010-06-30

    Highly polymorphic genes with central roles in lymphocyte mediated immune surveillance are grouped together in the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) in higher vertebrates. Generally, across vertebrate species the class II MHC DRA gene is highly conserved with only limited allelic variation. Here however, we provide evidence of trans-species polymorphism at the DRA locus in domestic sheep (Ovis aries). We describe variation at the Ovar-DRA locus that is far in excess of anything described in other vertebrate species. The divergent DRA allele (Ovar-DRA*0201) differs from the sheep reference sequences by 20 nucleotides, 12 of which appear non-synonymous. Furthermore, DRA*0201 is paired with an equally divergent DRB1 allele (Ovar-DRB1*0901), which is consistent with an independent evolutionary history for the DR sub-region within this MHC haplotype. No recombination was observed between the divergent DRA and B genes in a range of breeds and typical levels of MHC class II DR protein expression were detected at the surface of leukocyte populations obtained from animals homozygous for the DRA*0201, DRB1*0901 haplotype. Bayesian phylogenetic analysis groups Ovar-DRA*0201 with DRA sequences derived from species within the Oryx and Alcelaphus genera rather than clustering with other ovine and caprine DRA alleles. Tests for Darwinian selection identified 10 positively selected sites on the branch leading to Ovar-DRA*0201, three of which are predicted to be associated with the binding of peptide antigen. As the Ovis, Oryx and Alcelaphus genera have not shared a common ancestor for over 30 million years, the DRA*0201 and DRB1*0901 allelic pair is likely to be of ancient origin and present in the founding population from which all contemporary domestic sheep breeds are derived. The conservation of the integrity of this unusual DR allelic pair suggests some selective advantage which is likely to be associated with the presentation of pathogen antigen to T-cells and the

  6. Dr(a-) polymorphism of decay accelerating factor. Biochemical, functional, and molecular characterization and production of allele-specific transfectants.

    PubMed Central

    Lublin, D M; Thompson, E S; Green, A M; Levene, C; Telen, M J

    1991-01-01

    The Dra antigen belongs to the Cromer-related blood group system, a series of antigens on decay accelerating factor (DAF), a glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol-anchored membrane protein that protects host cells from complement-mediated damage. We studied the rare inherited Dr(a-) phenotype to ascertain the associated biochemical and functional changes in DAF and to characterize the basis for this polymorphism. Radioimmunoassay assay and flow cytometric analysis of Dr(a-) erythrocytes demonstrated 40% of normal surface expression of DAF but normal levels of several other glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol-anchored proteins, distinguishing this phenotype from that of paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria. Western blots confirmed this reduced DAF expression and indicated a slightly faster mobility of the molecule on SDS-PAGE. Despite the reduced DAF expression, Dr(a-) erythrocytes functioned normally in the complement lysis sensitivity assay. Utilization of the polymerase chain reaction to amplify mononuclear cell genomic DNA from three unrelated Dr(a-) individuals demonstrated that a point mutation underlies the Dr(a-) phenotype: a C to T change in nucleotide 649 resulting in a serine165 to leucine change. This defines the Drb allele of DAF, which can be distinguished from Dra by a Taq I restriction fragment length polymorphism. We created transfected Chinese hamster ovary cell lines expressing either the Dra or the Drb allelic form of DAF. These allele-specific transfectants were tested by inhibition of hemagglutination or flow cytometry and confirmed the specificity of anti-Dra alloantisera. The allele-specific transfectants could form the basis of a new serological approach to immunohematology. Images PMID:1710232

  7. Novel Polymorphic Microsatellite Markers Reveal Genetic Differentiation between Two Sympatric Types of Galaxea fascicularis

    PubMed Central

    Nakajima, Yuichi; Shinzato, Chuya; Satoh, Noriyuki; Mitarai, Satoshi

    2015-01-01

    The reef-building, scleractinian coral, Galaxea fascicularis, is classified into soft and hard types, based on nematocyst morphology. This character is correlated with the length of the mitochondrial non-coding region (mt-Long: soft colony type, and nematocysts with wide capsules and long shafts; mt-Short: hard colony type, and nematocysts with thin capsules and short shafts). We isolated and characterized novel polymorphic microsatellite markers for G. fascicularis using next-generation sequencing. Based upon the mitochondrial non-coding region, 53 of the 97 colonies collected were mt-Long (mt-L) and 44 were mt-Short (mt-S). Among the 53 mt-L colonies, 27 loci were identified as amplifiable, polymorphic microsatellite loci, devoid of somatic mutations and free of scoring errors. Eleven of those 27 loci were also amplifiable and polymorphic in the 44 mt-S colonies; these 11 are cross-type microsatellite loci. The other 16 loci were considered useful only for mt-L colonies. These 27 loci identified 10 multilocus lineages (MLLs) among the 53 mt-L colonies (NMLL/N = 0.189), and the 11 cross-type loci identified 7 MLLs in 44 mt-S colonies (NMLL/N = 0.159). Significant genetic differentiation between the two types was detected based on the genetic differentiation index (FST = 0.080, P = 0.001). Bayesian clustering also indicated that these two types are genetically isolated. While nuclear microsatellite genotypes also showed genetic differentiation between mitochondrial types, the mechanism of divergence is not yet clear. These markers will be useful to estimate genetic diversity, differentiation, and connectivity among populations, and to understand evolutionary processes, including divergence of types in G. fascicularis. PMID:26147677

  8. Polymorphisms in MHC-DRA and -DRB alleles of water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) reveal different features from cattle DR alleles.

    PubMed

    Sena, L; Schneider, M P C; Brenig, B; Honeycutt, R L; Womack, J E; Skow, L C

    2003-02-01

    Seventy-five individuals of Bubalus bubalis belonging to four different breeds, three of river buffalo and one of swamp buffalo, were studied for polymorphism in MHC DRB (Bubu-DRB) and DRA (Bubu-DRA) loci. Eight alleles of Bubu-DRB were found, and all alleles in the swamp type were shared with the three river breeds. All alleles sampled from the breed of European origin (Mediterranean) were present in breeds sampled in Brazil, thus variability of this locus may have been preserved to a great extent in the more recently founded Brazilian population. Bubu-DRB alleles contained higher proportions of synonymous vs. non-synonymous substitutions in the non-peptide-binding sites (PBS) region, in contrast to the pattern of variation found in BoLA-DRB3, the orthologous locus in cattle. This indicated that either the first domain exon (exon 2) of Bubu-DRB has not undergone as much recombination and/or gene conversion as in cattle alleles, or Bubu-DRB may be more ancient than BoLA-DRB3 alleles. Phylogenetic analysis of DRB alleles from Bubalus, Syncerus c. caffer, the Cape buffalo, and domestic cattle demonstrated transspecies polymorphism. Water buffalo contained two alleles of DRA that differed from each other in two amino acid positions, including one in the PBS (alpha22) that was also shared with Anoa depressicornis, the anoa. Discovery of variation in DRA was surprising as the first domain of DRA is a highly conserved polypeptide in mammals in general and especially in ruminants, where no other substitution in PBS was seen.

  9. Association between Genetic Polymorphism in the Swine Leukocyte Antigen-DRA Gene and Piglet Diarrhea in Three Chinese Pig Breeds.

    PubMed

    Yang, Q L; Zhao, S G; Wang, D W; Feng, Y; Jiang, T T; Huang, X Y; Gun, S B

    2014-09-01

    The swine leukocyte antigen (SLA)-DRA locus is noteworthy among other SLA class II loci for its limited variation and has not been investigated in depth. This study was investigated to detect polymorphisms of four exons of SLA-DRA gene and its association with piglet diarrhea in Landrace, Large White and Duroc pigs. No polymorphisms were detected in exon 3, while 2 SNPs (c.178G>A and c.211T>C), 2 SNPs (c.3093A>C and c.3104C>T) and 5 SNPs (c.4167A>G, c.4184A>G, c.4194A>G, c.4246A>G and c.4293G>A) were detected in exon 1, exon 2 and exon 4 respectively, and 1 SNP (c.4081T>C) in intron 3. Statistical results showed that genotype had significant effect on piglet diarrhea, individuals with genotype BC had a higher diarrhea score when compared with the genotypes AA, AB, AC and CC. Futhermore, genotype AC had a higher diarrhea score than the genotype CC in exon 1 (p<0.05); diarrhea scores of genotype AA and BB were higher than those of genotypes AC and CC in exon 2 (p<0.05); individuals with genotype AA had a higher diarrhea score than individuals with genotype AB and BB in exon 4 (p<0.05). Fourteen common haplotypes were founded by haplotype constructing of all SNPs in the three exons, its association with piglet diarrhea appeared that Hap2, 5, 8, 10, and 14 may be the susceptible haplotypes and Hap9 may be the resistant haplotype to piglet diarrhea. The genetic variations identified of the SLA-DRA gene may potentially be functional mutations related to piglet diarrhea.

  10. Discovery of novel MHC-class I alleles and haplotypes in Filipino cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis) by pyrosequencing and Sanger sequencing: Mafa-class I polymorphism.

    PubMed

    Shiina, Takashi; Yamada, Yukiho; Aarnink, Alice; Suzuki, Shingo; Masuya, Anri; Ito, Sayaka; Ido, Daisuke; Yamanaka, Hisashi; Iwatani, Chizuru; Tsuchiya, Hideaki; Ishigaki, Hirohito; Itoh, Yasushi; Ogasawara, Kazumasa; Kulski, Jerzy K; Blancher, Antoine

    2015-10-01

    Although the low polymorphism of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) transplantation genes in the Filipino cynomolgus macaque (Macaca fascicularis) is expected to have important implications in the selection and breeding of animals for medical research, detailed polymorphism information is still lacking for many of the duplicated class I genes. To better elucidate the degree and types of MHC polymorphisms and haplotypes in the Filipino macaque population, we genotyped 127 unrelated animals by the Sanger sequencing method and high-resolution pyrosequencing and identified 112 different alleles, 28 at cynomolgus macaque MHC (Mafa)-A, 54 at Mafa-B, 12 at Mafa-I, 11 at Mafa-E, and seven at Mafa-F alleles, of which 56 were newly described. Of them, the newly discovered Mafa-A8*01:01 lineage allele had low nucleotide similarities (<86%) with primate MHC class I genes, and it was also conserved in the Vietnamese and Indonesian populations. In addition, haplotype estimations revealed 17 Mafa-A, 23 Mafa-B, and 12 Mafa-E haplotypes integrated with 84 Mafa-class I haplotypes and Mafa-F alleles. Of these, the two Mafa-class I haplotypes, F/A/E/B-Hp1 and F/A/E/B-Hp2, had the highest haplotype frequencies at 10.6 and 10.2%, respectively. This suggests that large scale genetic screening of the Filipino macaque population would identify these and other high-frequency Mafa-class I haplotypes that could be used as MHC control animals for the benefit of biomedical research.

  11. Swine leukocyte antigen class II genes (SLA-DRA, SLA-DRB1, SLA-DQA, SLA-DQB1) polymorphism and genotyping in Guizhou minipigs.

    PubMed

    Liu, Z Z; Xia, J H; Xin, L L; Wang, Z G; Qian, L; Wu, S G; Yang, S L; Li, K

    2015-11-30

    The swine leukocyte antigen (SLA) complex harbors highly polymorphic gene clusters encoding glycoproteins that are involved in responses to vaccines, infectious disease, and production performance. Pigs with well-defined SLA class II genes are useful for the study of disease, immunology, and vaccines. In this study, we analyzed four SLA class II genes (SLA-DRA, SLA-DRB1, SLA-DQA, SLA-DQB1) in 22 founder Guizhou minipigs using a sequence-based typing method. Twelve alleles were detected, compared with the SLA class II allele sequences in the GenBank, and one of twelve alleles was found to be novel in Guizhou minipigs. There are four SLA II haplotypes, and one of them has been previously reported in Meishan pigs. Furthermore, based on sequence information of these alleles, we developed a simple SLA typing method implemented to SLA-typing for unknown offspring of Guizhou minipigs, relying on designed twelve sequence specific primers that could discriminate between each other. According to the combination of sequence-based typing and PCR-SSP, we were able to rapidly check SLA typing of Guizhou breeding stock and identified four SLA haplotypes in the herd. Therefore, SLA-defined Guizhou minipigs will be useful as animal models for xenotransplantation and immunological research.

  12. Cytochrome P450 2E1 RsaI/PstI and DraI Polymorphisms Are Risk Factors for Lung Cancer in Mongolian and Han Population in Inner Mongolia

    PubMed Central

    Su, Xiu-lan; Bin, Ba; Cui, Hong-wei; Ran, Mei-rong

    2011-01-01

    Objective To explore the relationship between cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1) RsaI/PstI and DraI polymorphism and lung cancer susceptibility in Mongolian and Han population in Inner Mongolia of China. Methods CYP2E1 RsaI/PstI and DraI polymorphisms were detected by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism in 64 lung cancer patients, 150 healthy Mongolian and 150 healthy Han individuals. The distribution of genotype and allele frequencies of CYP2E1 RsaI/PstI and DraI polymorphisms were studied. Results The risk of lung cancer was increased in individuals with CYP2E1 (cl/cl) and CYP2E1 (DD) with OR values of 2.431 (95%CI=1.082-5.460) and 2.778 (95%CI=1.358-5.683) respectively (P<0.05). When CYP2E1 RsaI/PstI and DraI polymorphisms were combined, the risk of lung cancer was reduced in individuals with CYP2E1 (cl/c2+c2/c2 and DD+CC) with OR values of 0.233 (95%CI=0.088-0.615, P<0.05). In smokers, the susceptibility to lung cancer was higher in the individuals with CYP2E1 (c1/c1) and CYP2E1 (DD) than in the individuals with c2 and C allele (P<0.05, OR=2.643 and 4.308 respectively). There was no significant difference in distribution of CYP2E1 genotype frequency between healthy Mongolian, Han population and lung cancer patients, healthy controls in Inner Mongolia. Conclusion CYP2E1 (c1/c1) and CYP2E1 (DD) are predisposing factors of lung cancer in population in Inner Mongolia. CYP2E1 (c2﹢C) co-mutation may decrease the risk of lung cancer. Smoking exerts synergetic effect with CYP2E1 (c1/c1) and CYP2E1 (DD) on the occurrence of lung cancer. PMID:23483202

  13. Effect of Genetic Diversity in Swine Leukocyte Antigen-DRA Gene on Piglet Diarrhea.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xiaoyu; Yang, Qiaoli; Yuan, Junhu; Liu, Lixia; Sun, Wenyang; Jiang, Yingdi; Zhao, Shengguo; Zhang, Shengwei; Huang, Wangzhou; Gun, Shuangbao

    2016-07-15

    The swine leukocyte antigens (SLAs) are the multigene families related to immune responses. Little is known about the effect of the DRA gene on diarrheal disease. This study reported the genetic diversity of the DRA gene in exons 1, 3 and 4 in 290 Chinese Yantai black pigs. No variation was identified in exon 3. In exon 1, three genotypes and two alleles were identified, generated by two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). In exon 4, there were eight genotypes and five alleles containing seven SNPs were detected with four SNPs being novel SNPs. The low polymorphism found in swine DRA is consistent with the concept that the DRA gene is highly conserved among all mammalian species. Statistical analyses indicated that the genotypes of exon 1 were not significantly associated with piglet diarrhea (p > 0.05); however, genotypes C₄C₄ (1.80 ± 0.33) and A₄E₄ (1.66 ± 0.25) of exon 4 were significantly susceptible to diarrhea (p < 0.01). These indicate that the particular genotypes of the DRA gene are susceptible to diarrheal disease, which provides valuable information for disease-resistance breeding in swine.

  14. Effect of Genetic Diversity in Swine Leukocyte Antigen-DRA Gene on Piglet Diarrhea.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xiaoyu; Yang, Qiaoli; Yuan, Junhu; Liu, Lixia; Sun, Wenyang; Jiang, Yingdi; Zhao, Shengguo; Zhang, Shengwei; Huang, Wangzhou; Gun, Shuangbao

    2016-01-01

    The swine leukocyte antigens (SLAs) are the multigene families related to immune responses. Little is known about the effect of the DRA gene on diarrheal disease. This study reported the genetic diversity of the DRA gene in exons 1, 3 and 4 in 290 Chinese Yantai black pigs. No variation was identified in exon 3. In exon 1, three genotypes and two alleles were identified, generated by two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). In exon 4, there were eight genotypes and five alleles containing seven SNPs were detected with four SNPs being novel SNPs. The low polymorphism found in swine DRA is consistent with the concept that the DRA gene is highly conserved among all mammalian species. Statistical analyses indicated that the genotypes of exon 1 were not significantly associated with piglet diarrhea (p > 0.05); however, genotypes C₄C₄ (1.80 ± 0.33) and A₄E₄ (1.66 ± 0.25) of exon 4 were significantly susceptible to diarrhea (p < 0.01). These indicate that the particular genotypes of the DRA gene are susceptible to diarrheal disease, which provides valuable information for disease-resistance breeding in swine. PMID:27429004

  15. Effect of Genetic Diversity in Swine Leukocyte Antigen-DRA Gene on Piglet Diarrhea

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Xiaoyu; Yang, Qiaoli; Yuan, Junhu; Liu, Lixia; Sun, Wenyang; Jiang, Yingdi; Zhao, Shengguo; Zhang, Shengwei; Huang, Wangzhou; Gun, Shuangbao

    2016-01-01

    The swine leukocyte antigens (SLAs) are the multigene families related to immune responses. Little is known about the effect of the DRA gene on diarrheal disease. This study reported the genetic diversity of the DRA gene in exons 1, 3 and 4 in 290 Chinese Yantai black pigs. No variation was identified in exon 3. In exon 1, three genotypes and two alleles were identified, generated by two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). In exon 4, there were eight genotypes and five alleles containing seven SNPs were detected with four SNPs being novel SNPs. The low polymorphism found in swine DRA is consistent with the concept that the DRA gene is highly conserved among all mammalian species. Statistical analyses indicated that the genotypes of exon 1 were not significantly associated with piglet diarrhea (p > 0.05); however, genotypes C4C4 (1.80 ± 0.33) and A4E4 (1.66 ± 0.25) of exon 4 were significantly susceptible to diarrhea (p < 0.01). These indicate that the particular genotypes of the DRA gene are susceptible to diarrheal disease, which provides valuable information for disease-resistance breeding in swine. PMID:27429004

  16. Earth observation archive activities at DRA Farnborough

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palmer, M. D.; Williams, J. M.

    1993-01-01

    Space Sector, Defence Research Agency (DRA), Farnborough have been actively involved in the acquisition and processing of Earth Observation data for over 15 years. During that time an archive of over 20,000 items has been built up. This paper describes the major archive activities, including: operation and maintenance of the main DRA Archive, the development of a prototype Optical Disc Archive System (ODAS), the catalog systems in use at DRA, the UK Processing and Archive Facility for ERS-1 data, and future plans for archiving activities.

  17. Temporal stability of Symbiodinium phylotype in scleractinian coral Galaxea fascicularis from a tropical fringing reef in the South China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Guowei; Huang, Hui; Dong, Zhijun; Yu, Ziniu

    2011-11-01

    Symbiodinium sp. occurs in a symbiotic association with various marine invertebrates, including the scleractinian corals. Understanding the flexibility and specificity in coral-algal symbiosis can have important implications for predicting the future of coral reefs in the era of global climate change. In the present study, we conducted Symbiodinium phylotype analysis, based on polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP), in the scleractinian coral, Galaxea fascicularis, from a tropical fringing reef in Hainan Island, over a 1-yr period. Our results showed that Galaxea fascicularis could associate with Symbiodinium clade C and D either individually or simultaneously. However, during the sampling period, the Symbiodinium phylotype did not change significantly in the scleractinian coral Galaxea fascicularis, although the seawater temperature decreased sharply in the winter season. This study further suggests that the shift in Symbiodinium communities in response to seasonally fluctuating environments might not be a universal feature of coral-algal associations.

  18. Genetic diversity of the class II major histocompatibility DRA locus in European, Asiatic and African domestic donkeys.

    PubMed

    Vranova, Marie; Alloggio, Ingrid; Qablan, Moneeb; Vyskocil, Mirko; Baumeisterova, Aneta; Sloboda, Michal; Putnova, Lenka; Vrtkova, Irena; Modry, David; Horin, Petr

    2011-07-01

    The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genes coding for antigen presenting molecules are the most polymorphic genes in vertebrate genome. The MHC class II DRA gene shows only small variation in many mammalian species, but it exhibits relatively high level of polymorphism in Equidae, especially in donkeys. This extraordinary degree of polymorphism together with signatures of selection in specific amino acids sites makes the donkey DRA gene a suitable model for population diversity studies. The objective of this study was to investigate the DRA gene diversity in three different populations of donkeys under infectious pressure of protozoan parasites, Theileria equi and Babesia caballi. Three populations of domestic donkeys from Italy (N = 68), Jordan (N = 43), and Kenya (N = 78) were studied. A method of the donkey MHC DRA genotyping based on PCR-RFLP and sequencing was designed. In addition to the DRA gene, 12 polymorphic microsatellite loci were genotyped. The presence of Theileria equi and Babesia caballi parasites in peripheral blood was investigated by PCR. Allele and genotype frequencies, observed and expected heterozygosities and F(IS) values were computed as parameters of genetic diversity for all loci genotyped. Genetic distances between the three populations were estimated based on F(ST) values. Statistical associations between parasite infection and genetic polymorphisms were sought. Extensive DRA locus variation characteristic for Equids was found. The results showed differences between populations both in terms of numbers of alleles and their frequencies as well as variation in expected heterozygosity values. Based on comparisons with neutral microsatellite loci, population sub-structure characteristics and association analysis, convincing evidence of pathogen-driven selection at the population level was not provided. It seems that genetic diversity observed in the three populations reflects mostly effects of selective breeding and their different

  19. DRA 2005: The brave new world.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Richard

    2006-01-01

    The Deficit Reduction Act (DRA) of 2005 was signed into law to achieve 39 billion dollars in reductions from federal spending programs, 11 billion dollars from Medicare and Medicaid alone. Conservative estimates indicate that imaging alone accounts for 2.8 billion dollars of that amount. As of the writing of this article, both houses of Congress were reviewing bills with bipartisan support aimed at defusing, at least temporarily, the negative impact of the DRA; however, these bills do not affect the law in totality. Dealing with the changes that the DRA will force upon outpatient imaging practices will require all parties involved in outpatient imaging--physicians, administrators, and staff alike--to make smart, efficient, but practical changes in operational models to effectively survive in this new legislatively mandated environment.

  20. Brief Note Low diversity of the major histocompatibility complex class II DRA gene in domestic goats (Capra hircus) in Southern China.

    PubMed

    Chen, L P; E, G X; Zhao, Y J; Na, R S; Zhao, Z Q; Zhang, J H; Ma, Y H; Sun, Y W; Zhong, T; Zhang, H P; Huang, Y F

    2015-01-01

    DRA encodes the alpha chain of the DR heterodimer, is closely linked to DRB and is considered almost monomorphic in major histocompatibility complex region. In this study, we identified the exon 2 of DRA to evaluate the immunogenetic diversity of Chinese south indigenous goat. Two single nucleotide polymorphisms in an untranslated region and one synonymous substitution in coding region were identified. These data suggest that high immunodiversity in native Chinese population. PMID:26125900

  1. Late type close binary system CM Dra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalomeni, Belinda

    2015-08-01

    In this study, we present new observations of the close binary system CM Dra. We analyzed all the available data of the system and estimated the physical parameters of the system stars highly accurately. Using the newly obtained parameters the distance of the system is determined to be 11.6 pc. A possible giant planet orbiting the close binary system has been detected. This orbital period would likely make it one of the longest known orbital period planet.

  2. Continental monophyly and molecular divergence of Peninsular Malaysia's Macaca fascicularis fascicularis.

    PubMed

    Abdul-Latiff, Muhammad Abu Bakar; Ruslin, Farhani; Faiq, Hamdan; Hairul, Mohd Salleh; Rovie-Ryan, Jeffrine Japning; Abdul-Patah, Pazil; Yaakop, Salmah; Md-Zain, Badrul Munir

    2014-01-01

    The phylogenetic relationships of long-tailed macaque (Macaca fascicularis fascicularis) populations distributed in Peninsular Malaysia in relation to other regions remain unknown. The aim of this study was to reveal the phylogeography and population genetics of Peninsular Malaysia's M. f. fascicularis based on the D-loop region of mitochondrial DNA. Sixty-five haplotypes were detected in all populations, with only Vietnam and Cambodia sharing four haplotypes. The minimum-spanning network projected a distant relationship between Peninsular Malaysian and insular populations. Genetic differentiation (F(ST), Nst) results suggested that the gene flow among Peninsular Malaysian and the other populations is very low. Phylogenetic tree reconstructions indicated a monophyletic clade of Malaysia's population with continental populations (NJ = 97%, MP = 76%, and Bayesian = 1.00 posterior probabilities). The results demonstrate that Peninsular Malaysia's M. f. fascicularis belonged to Indochinese populations as opposed to the previously claimed Sundaic populations. M. f. fascicularis groups are estimated to have colonized Peninsular Malaysia ~0.47 million years ago (MYA) directly from Indochina through seaways, by means of natural sea rafting, or through terrestrial radiation during continental shelf emersion. Here, the Isthmus of Kra played a central part as biogeographical barriers that then separated it from the remaining continental populations.

  3. Continental Monophyly and Molecular Divergence of Peninsular Malaysia's Macaca fascicularis fascicularis

    PubMed Central

    Abdul-Latiff, Muhammad Abu Bakar; Ruslin, Farhani; Faiq, Hamdan; Hairul, Mohd Salleh; Rovie-Ryan, Jeffrine Japning; Abdul-Patah, Pazil; Md-Zain, Badrul Munir

    2014-01-01

    The phylogenetic relationships of long-tailed macaque (Macaca fascicularis fascicularis) populations distributed in Peninsular Malaysia in relation to other regions remain unknown. The aim of this study was to reveal the phylogeography and population genetics of Peninsular Malaysia's M. f. fascicularis based on the D-loop region of mitochondrial DNA. Sixty-five haplotypes were detected in all populations, with only Vietnam and Cambodia sharing four haplotypes. The minimum-spanning network projected a distant relationship between Peninsular Malaysian and insular populations. Genetic differentiation (FST, Nst) results suggested that the gene flow among Peninsular Malaysian and the other populations is very low. Phylogenetic tree reconstructions indicated a monophyletic clade of Malaysia's population with continental populations (NJ = 97%, MP = 76%, and Bayesian = 1.00 posterior probabilities). The results demonstrate that Peninsular Malaysia's M. f. fascicularis belonged to Indochinese populations as opposed to the previously claimed Sundaic populations. M. f. fascicularis groups are estimated to have colonized Peninsular Malaysia ~0.47 million years ago (MYA) directly from Indochina through seaways, by means of natural sea rafting, or through terrestrial radiation during continental shelf emersion. Here, the Isthmus of Kra played a central part as biogeographical barriers that then separated it from the remaining continental populations. PMID:25143948

  4. Interactions between PII proteins and the nitrogenase regulatory enzymes DraT and DraG in Azospirillum brasilense.

    PubMed

    Huergo, Luciano F; Chubatsu, Leda S; Souza, Emanuel M; Pedrosa, Fábio O; Steffens, Maria B R; Merrick, Mike

    2006-10-01

    In Azospirillum brasilense ADP-ribosylation of dinitrogenase reductase (NifH) occurs in response to addition of ammonium to the extracellular medium and is mediated by dinitrogenase reductase ADP-ribosyltransferase (DraT) and reversed by dinitrogenase reductase glycohydrolase (DraG). The P(II) proteins GlnB and GlnZ have been implicated in regulation of DraT and DraG by an as yet unknown mechanism. Using pull-down experiments with His-tagged versions of DraT and DraG we have now shown that DraT binds to GlnB, but only to the deuridylylated form, and that DraG binds to both the uridylylated and deuridylylated forms of GlnZ. The demonstration of these specific protein complexes, together with our recent report of the ability of deuridylylated GlnZ to be sequestered to the cell membrane by the ammonia channel protein AmtB, offers new insights into the control of NifH ADP-ribosylation.

  5. Outburst activity of the symbiiotic binary AG Dra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gális, R.; Hric, L.; Leedjärv, L.; Merc, J.

    2016-03-01

    The outburst activity of the symbiotic system AG Dra has been studied using extensive spectroscopic observational material. High luminosity and temperature of the hot component of AG Dra indicate that quasi-steady thermonuclear shell burning takes place on the surface of the white dwarf. The major (cool) outbursts at the beginning of active phases might occur due to enhanced thermonuclear burning triggered by disk instability. Smaller scale hot outbursts might be explained by the accretion disc instability model like in dwarf novae. We discovered significant similarities in photometric and spectroscopic behaviour of AG Dra and prototypical symbiotic star Z And.

  6. The whole mitochondrial genome of the Cynomolgus macaque (Macaca fascicularis).

    PubMed

    Li, Ruilei; Wang, Huawei; Yang, Liqin; Zhang, Baoming; Li, Yijiang; Hu, Jiansheng; Kong, Qingpeng

    2015-04-01

    Macaca fascicularis, known as the long-tailed macaque, is widely distributed in southern of East Asia and Southeast Asia. It was one of the most commonly used non-human primates in biomedical research. Thus, to illustrate the maternal phylogenetic status of M. fascicularis in primates based on the whole mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) genome and determine a reference sequence for future population genetic studies by taking mtDNA as molecular marker, in this study, the high quality whole mtDNA genome of M. fascicularis was amplified and sequenced. Our data showed that the whole mtDNA genome of M. fascicularis includes 16,571 base pairs (bps). Further phylogenetic analyses of M. fascicularis were performed by incorporating the 83 available whole mtDNA genomes belonging to 77 primate species with Tupaia belangeri as out-group. Our result supported that M. fascicularis belongs to Macaca. Cercopithecinae. Cercopithecidae. Anthropoidea. Primates, which has the closest genetic affinity with Macaca mulatta. In addition, the ancestral divergence between the tarsier and other primate species was supported with evidence from the whole mtDNA genomes.

  7. Outburst Activity of the Symbiotic System AG Dra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gális, R.; Hric, L.; Leedjärv, L.; Kundra, E.

    2015-07-01

    AG Dra is one of the best studied symbiotic systems. A period analysis of new and historical photometric data, as well as radial velocities, confirmed the presence of the two periods — about 550 days, caused by orbital motion, and around 350 days, related to pulsations of the cool component of AG Dra. In addition, the active stages change distinctively, but the outbursts recur with periods from 359 to 375 days.

  8. Standardised MedDRA queries: their role in signal detection.

    PubMed

    Mozzicato, Patricia

    2007-01-01

    Standardised MedDRA (Medical Dictionary for Regulatory Activities) queries (SMQs) are a newly developed tool to assist in the retrieval of cases of interest from a MedDRA-coded database. SMQs contain terms related to signs, symptoms, diagnoses, syndromes, physical findings, laboratory and other physiological test data etc, that are associated with the medical condition of interest. They are being developed jointly by CIOMS and the MedDRA Maintenance and Support Services Organization (MSSO) and are provided as an integral part of a MedDRA subscription. During their development, SMQs undergo testing to assure that they are able to retrieve cases of interest within the defined scope of the SMQ. This paper describes the features of SMQs that allow for flexibility in their application, such as 'narrow' and 'broad' sub-searches, hierarchical grouping of sub-searches and search algorithms. In addition, as with MedDRA, users can request changes to SMQs. SMQs are maintained in synchrony with MedDRA versions by internal maintenance processes in the MSSO. The list of safety topics to be developed into SMQs is long and comprehensive. The CIOMS Working Group retains a list of topics to be developed and periodically reviews the list for priority and relevance. As of mid-2007, 37 SMQs are in production use and several more are under development. The potential uses of SMQs in safety analysis will be discussed including their role in signal detection and evaluation. PMID:17604415

  9. Evaluating Gaia performances on eclipsing binaries. IV. Orbits and stellar parameters for SV Cam, BS Dra and HP Dra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milone, E. F.; Munari, U.; Marrese, P. M.; Williams, M. D.; Zwitter, T.; Kallrath, J.; Tomov, T.

    2005-10-01

    This is the fourth in a series of papers that aim both to provide reasonable orbits for a number of eclipsing binaries and to evaluate the expected performance of Gaia of these objects and the accuracy that is achievable in the determination of such fundamental stellar parameters as mass and radius. In this paper, we attempt to derive the orbits and physical parameters for three eclipsing binaries in the mid-F to mid-G spectral range. As for previous papers, only the H_P, V_T, BT photometry from the Hipparcos/Tycho mission and ground-based radial velocities from spectroscopy in the region 8480-8740 Å are used in the analyses. These data sets simulate the photometric and spectroscopic data that are expected to be obtained by Gaia, the approved ESA Cornerstone mission to be launched in 2011. The systems targeted in this paper are SV Cam, BS Dra and HP Dra. SV Cam and BS Dra have been studied previously, allowing comparisons of the derived parameters with those from full scale and devoted ground-based investigations. HP Dra has no published orbital solution. SV Cam has a β Lyrae type light curve and the others have Algol-like light curves. SV Cam has the complication of light curve anomalies, usually attributed to spots; BS Dra has non-solar metallicity, and HP Dra appears to have a small eccentricity and a sizeable time derivative in the argument of the periastron. Thus all three provide interesting and different test cases.

  10. The function of the octamer-binding site in the DRA promoter

    SciTech Connect

    Voliva, C.F.; Jabrane-Ferrat, N.; Peterlin, B.M.

    1996-06-01

    The octamer binding site, which is located immediately upstream of the poorly conserved DRA TATA sequence, is important for high levels of expression of this human major histocompatibility class II gene in B cells. In this study, we demonstrate that the substitution of the DRA TATA sequence with the TATA box from the adenovirus Elb promoter removes the requirement for the octamer binding site for high levels of expression from the DRA promoter. Since only the TATA box from the Elb but not the DRA promoters binds the TATA binding protein, we conclude that the octamer binding site helps to recruit TBP to the DRA promoter. 32 refs., 7 figs.

  11. The DraC usher in Dr fimbriae biogenesis of uropathogenic E. coli Dr(+) strains.

    PubMed

    Zalewska-Piatek, Beata; Kur, Marta; Wilkanowicz, Sabina; Piatek, Rafał; Kur, Józef

    2010-05-01

    Biogenesis of Dr fimbriae encoded by the dra gene cluster of uropathogenic Escherichia coli strains requires the chaperone-usher pathway. This secretion system is based on two non-structural assembly components, the DraB periplasmic chaperone and DraC outer-membrane usher. The DraB controls the folding of DraE subunits, and DraC forms the assembly and secretion platform for polymerization of subunits in linear fibers. In this study, mutagenesis of the DraC N-terminus was undertaken to select residues critical for Dr fimbriae bioassembly. The DraC-F4A, DraC-C64, DraC-C100A and DraC-W142A significantly reduced the adhesive ability of E. coli strains. The biological activity of the DraC mutants as a assembly platform for Dr fimbriae polymerization was verified by agglutination of human erythrocytes and adhesion to DAF localized at the surface of CHO-DAF(+) and HeLa cells. The residue F4 of the DraC usher conserved among FGL and FGS chaperone-assembled adhesive organelles can be used to design pillicides blocking the biogenesis of Dr fimbriae. Because the draC and afaC-III genes share 100% identity the range of the virulence determinant inhibitors could also be extended to E. coli strains encoding afa-3 gene cluster. The investigations performed showed that the usher N-terminus plays an important role in biogenesis of complete fiber.

  12. Photometric study of the pulsating, eclipsing binary OO DRA

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, X. B.; Deng, L. C.; Tian, J. F.; Wang, K.; Yan, Z. Z.; Luo, C. Q.; Sun, J. J.; Liu, Q. L.; Xin, H. Q.; Zhou, Q.; Luo, Z. Q.

    2014-12-01

    We present a comprehensive photometric study of the pulsating, eclipsing binary OO Dra. Simultaneous B- and V-band photometry of the star was carried out on 14 nights. A revised orbital period and a new ephemeris were derived from the data. The first photometric solution of the binary system and the physical parameters of the component stars are determined. They reveal that OO Dra could be a detached system with a less-massive secondary component nearly filling its Roche lobe. By subtracting the eclipsing light changes from the data, we obtained the intrinsic pulsating light curves of the hotter, massive primary component. A frequency analysis of the residual light yields two confident pulsation modes in both B- and V-band data with the dominant frequency detected at 41.865 c/d. A brief discussion concerning the evolutionary status and the pulsation nature of the binary system is finally given.

  13. LUT observations of the mass-transferring binary AI Dra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Wenping; Qian, Shengbang; Li, Linjia; Zhou, Xiao; Zhao, Ergang; Liu, Nianping

    2016-06-01

    Complete UV band light curve of the eclipsing binary AI Dra was observed with the Lunar-based Ultraviolet Telescope (LUT) in October 2014. It is very useful to adopt this continuous and uninterrupted light curve to determine physical and orbital parameters of the binary system. Photometric solutions of the spot model are obtained by using the W-D (Wilson and Devinney) method. It is confirmed that AI Dra is a semi-detached binary with secondary component filling its critical Roche lobe, which indicates that a mass transfer from the secondary component to the primary one should happen. Orbital period analysis based on all available eclipse times suggests a secular period increase and two cyclic variations. The secular period increase was interpreted by mass transfer from the secondary component to the primary one at a rate of 4.12 ×10^{-8}M_{⊙}/yr, which is in agreement with the photometric solutions. Two cyclic oscillations were due to light travel-time effect (LTTE) via the presence of two cool stellar companions in a near 2:1 mean-motion resonance. Both photometric solutions and orbital period analysis confirm that AI Dra is a mass-transferring binary, the massive primary is filling 69 % of its critical Roche lobe. After the primary evolves to fill the critical Roche lobe, the mass transfer will be reversed and the binary will evolve into a contact configuration.

  14. Mechanisms of DRA recycling in intestinal epithelial cells: effect of enteropathogenic E. coli.

    PubMed

    Gujral, Tarunmeet; Kumar, Anoop; Priyamvada, Shubha; Saksena, Seema; Gill, Ravinder K; Hodges, Kim; Alrefai, Waddah A; Hecht, Gail A; Dudeja, Pradeep K

    2015-12-15

    Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) is a food-borne pathogen that causes infantile diarrhea worldwide. EPEC decreases the activity and surface expression of the key intestinal Cl(-)/HCO3(-) exchanger SLC26A3 [downregulated in adenoma (DRA)], contributing to the pathophysiology of early diarrhea. Little is known about the mechanisms governing membrane recycling of DRA. In the current study, Caco-2 cells were used to investigate DRA trafficking under basal conditions and in response to EPEC. Apical Cl(-)/HCO3(-) exchange activity was measured as DIDS-sensitive (125)I(-) uptake. Cell surface biotinylation was performed to assess DRA endocytosis and exocytosis. Inhibition of clathrin-mediated endocytosis by chlorpromazine (60 μM) increased apical Cl(-)/HCO3(-) exchange activity. Dynasore, a dynamin inhibitor, also increased function and surface levels of DRA via decreased endocytosis. Perturbation of microtubules by nocodazole revealed that intact microtubules are essential for basal exocytic (but not endocytic) DRA recycling. Mice treated with colchicine showed a decrease in DRA surface levels as visualized by confocal microscopy. In response to EPEC infection, DRA surface expression was reduced partly via an increase in DRA endocytosis and a decrease in exocytosis. These effects were dependent on the EPEC virulence genes espG1 and espG2. Intriguingly, the EPEC-induced decrease in DRA function was unaltered in the presence of dynasore, suggesting a clathrin-independent internalization of surface DRA. In conclusion, these studies establish the role of clathrin-mediated endocytosis and microtubules in the basal surface expression of DRA and demonstrate that the EPEC-mediated decrease in DRA function and apical expression in Caco-2 cells involves decreased exocytosis.

  15. Morphometrics and Pelage Characterization of Longtailed Macaques (Macaca fascicularis) from Pulau Bintan, Indonesia; Singapore; and Southern Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Villano, Jason S; Ogden, Bryan E; Yong, Peggy P; Lood, Natividad M; Sharp, Patrick E

    2009-01-01

    Cynomolgus (or longtailed) macaques (Macaca fascicularis) are used extensively as laboratory animals in biomedical research. Their use in Singapore, an emerging biomedical hub in Southeast Asia, is now increasing widely, with research subjects currently originating from Singapore, Vietnam, and Pulau Bintan, Indonesia. Limited data exist on the genetic and phenotypic polymorphisms and phylogenetic relationships of these groups, and the animals are used as research subjects without regard to potential differences or homogeneity. Here we characterize their phenotypes by using established primatology tools to detail morphometrics and pelage erythrism and saturation. Pelage analyses supported the Gloger rule, in which heavily pigmented forms predominate near the equator, with Singaporean and Bintan macaques having darker pelage than Vietnamese macaques. Morphometric variation patterns suggest a tendency toward insular dwarfism and correlate generally with the Bergmann rule, in which body mass increases with latitude and colder climate. Although the 3 populations all belong to the nominotypical subspecies M. f. fascicularis, phenotypic differences are evident and are valuable tools to analyze their phylogeographic history and phylogenetic relationships. PMID:19930820

  16. Vaginal Stone in a Cynomolgus Macaque (Macaca fascicularis).

    PubMed

    Colagross-Schouten, Angela M; Canfield, Don R

    2015-12-01

    A 20-y-old female cynomolgus macaque (Macaca fascicularis) housed in an indoor primate facility presented for poor appetite and acute weakness after several years of no adverse health events. Physical examination revealed a firm, ovoid mass in the caudal abdomen. Further evaluation revealed the mass to be a vaginal calculus composed of calcium carbonate, apatite, and struvite. To our knowledge, this case is the first reported description of a vaginal stone in an NHP.

  17. Effects of over-expression of the regulatory enzymes DraT and DraG on the ammonium-dependent post-translational regulation of nitrogenase reductase in Azospirillum brasilense.

    PubMed

    Huergo, Luciano F; Souza, Emanuel M; Steffens, Maria B R; Yates, M Geoffrey; Pedrosa, Fábio O; Chubatsu, Leda S

    2005-03-01

    Nitrogen fixation in Azospirillum brasilense is regulated at transcriptional and post-translational levels. Post-translational control occurs through the reversible ADP-ribosylation of dinitrogenase reductase (Fe Protein), mediated by the dinitrogenase reductase ADP-ribosyltransferase (DraT) and dinitrogenase reductase glycohydrolase (DraG). Although the DraT and DraG activities are regulated in vivo, the molecules responsible for such regulation remain unknown. We have constructed broad-host-range plasmids capable of over-expressing, upon IPTG induction, the regulatory enzymes DraT and DraG as six-histidine-N-terminal fused proteins (His). Both DraT-His and DraG-His are functional in vivo. We have analyzed the effects of DraT-His and DraG-His over-expression on the post-translational modification of Fe Protein. The DraT-His over-expression led to Fe Protein modification in the absence of ammonium addition, while cells over-expressing DraG-His showed only partial ADP-ribosylation of Fe Protein by adding ammonium. These results suggest that both DraT-His and DraG-His lose their regulation upon over-expression, possible by titrating out negative regulators.

  18. Geographical, genetic and functional diversity of antiretroviral host factor TRIMCyp in cynomolgus macaque (Macaca fascicularis).

    PubMed

    Saito, Akatsuki; Kono, Ken; Nomaguchi, Masako; Yasutomi, Yasuhiro; Adachi, Akio; Shioda, Tatsuo; Akari, Hirofumi; Nakayama, Emi E

    2012-03-01

    The antiretroviral factor tripartite motif protein 5 (TRIM5) gene-derived isoform (TRIMCyp) has been found in at least three species of Old World monkey: rhesus (Macaca mulatta), pig-tailed (Macaca nemestrina) and cynomolgus (Macaca fascicularis) macaques. Although the frequency of TRIMCyp has been well studied in rhesus and pig-tailed macaques, the frequency and prevalence of TRIMCyp in cynomolgus macaques remain to be definitively elucidated. Here, the geographical and genetic diversity of TRIM5α/TRIMCyp in cynomolgus macaques was studied in comparison with their anti-lentiviral activity. It was found that the frequency of TRIMCyp in a population in the Philippines was significantly higher than those in Indonesian and Malaysian populations. Major and minor haplotypes of cynomolgus macaque TRIMCyp with single nucleotide polymorphisms in the cyclophilin A domain were also found. The functional significance of the polymorphism in TRIMCyp was examined, and it was demonstrated that the major haplotype of TRIMCyp suppressed human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) but not HIV-2, whilst the minor haplotype of TRIMCyp suppressed HIV-2 but not HIV-1. The major haplotype of TRIMCyp did not restrict a monkey-tropic HIV-1 clone, NL-DT5R, which contains a capsid with the simian immunodeficiency virus-derived loop between α-helices 4 and 5 and the entire vif gene. These results indicate that polymorphisms of TRIMCyp affect its anti-lentiviral activity. Overall, the results of this study will help our understanding of the genetic background of cynomolgus macaque TRIMCyp, as well as the host factors composing species barriers of primate lentiviruses.

  19. Keratin 8 knockdown leads to loss of the chloride transporter DRA in the colon.

    PubMed

    Asghar, M Nadeem; Priyamvada, Shubha; Nyström, Joel H; Anbazhagan, Arivarasu Natarajan; Dudeja, Pradeep K; Toivola, Diana M

    2016-06-01

    Keratins (K) are intermediate filament proteins important in protection from stress. The roles of keratins in the intestine are not clear, but K8 knockout (K8(-/-)) mice develop a Th2-type colonic inflammation, epithelial hyperproliferation, and mild diarrhea caused by a keratin level-dependent decrease in short-circuit current and net sodium and chloride absorption in the distal colon. The lack of K8 leads to mistargeting or altered levels of membrane proteins in colonocytes; however, the main transporter responsible for the keratin-related ion transport defect is unknown. We here analyzed protein and mRNA levels of candidate ion transporters CFTR, PAT-1, NHE-3, and DRA in ileum, cecum, and proximal and distal colon. Although no differences were observed for CFTR, PAT-1, or NHE-3, DRA mRNA levels were decreased by three- to fourfold and DRA protein was almost entirely lost in K8(-/-) cecum and proximal and distal colon compared with K8(+/+), whereas the levels in ileum were normal. In K8(+/-) mice, DRA mRNA levels were unaltered, while decreased DRA protein levels were detected in the proximal colon. Immunofluorescence staining confirmed the loss of DRA in K8(-/-) distal colon, while K8(+/-) displayed a similar but more patchy apical DRA distribution compared with K8(+/+) DRA was similarly decreased when K8 was knocked down in Caco-2 cells, confirming that K8 levels modulate DRA levels in an inflammation-independent manner. Taken together, the loss of DRA in the K8(-/-) mouse colon and cecum explains the dramatic chloride transport defect and diarrheal phenotype after K8 inactivation and identifies K8 as a novel regulator of DRA. PMID:27125276

  20. New polymorphic variants of human blood clotting factor IX

    SciTech Connect

    Surin, V.L.; Luk`yanenko, A.V.; Tagiev, A.F.; Smirnova, O.V.; Plutalov, O.V.; Berlin, Yu.A.

    1995-04-01

    The polymorphism of Alu-repeats, which are located in the introns of the human factor IX gene (copies 1-3), was studied. To identify polymorphic variants, direct sequencing of PCR products that contained appropriate repeats was used. In each case, 20 unrelated X chromosomes were studied. A polymorphic Dra I site was found near the 3{prime}-end of Alu copy 3 within the region of the polyA tract. A PCR-based testing system with internal control of restriction hydrolysis was suggested. Testing 81 unrelated X chromosomes revealed that the frequency of the polymorphic Dra I site is 0.23. Taq I polymorphism, which was revealed in Alu copy 4 of factor IX gene in our previous work, was found to be closely linked to Dra I polymorphism. Studies in linkage between different types of polymorphisms of the factor IX gene revealed the presence of a rare polymorphism in intron a that was located within the same minisatellite region as the known polymorphic insertion 50 bp/Dde I. However, the size of the insertion in our case was 26 bp. Only one polymorphic variant was found among over 150 unrelated X chromosomes derived from humans from Moscow and its vicinity. 10 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  1. First analysis of eight Algol-type binaries: EI Aur, XY Dra, BP Dra, DD Her, VX Lac, WX Lib, RZ Lyn, and TY Tri

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zasche, P.

    2016-01-01

    The available photometry from the online databases were used for the first light curve analysis of eight eclipsing binary systems EI Aur, XY Dra, BP Dra, DD Her, VX Lac, WX Lib, RZ Lyn, and TY Tri. All these stars are of Algol-type, having the detached components and the orbital periods from 0.92 to 6.8 days. For the systems EI Aur and BP Dra the large amount of the third light was detected during the light curve solution. Moreover, 468 new times of minima for these binaries were derived, trying to identify the period variations. For the systems XY Dra and VX Lac the third bodies were detected with the periods 17.7, and 49.3 years, respectively.

  2. Formalizing MedDRA to support semantic reasoning on adverse drug reaction terms.

    PubMed

    Bousquet, Cédric; Sadou, Éric; Souvignet, Julien; Jaulent, Marie-Christine; Declerck, Gunnar

    2014-06-01

    Although MedDRA has obvious advantages over previous terminologies for coding adverse drug reactions and discovering potential signals using data mining techniques, its terminological organization constrains users to search terms according to predefined categories. Adding formal definitions to MedDRA would allow retrieval of terms according to a case definition that may correspond to novel categories that are not currently available in the terminology. To achieve semantic reasoning with MedDRA, we have associated formal definitions to MedDRA terms in an OWL file named OntoADR that is the result of our first step for providing an "ontologized" version of MedDRA. MedDRA five-levels original hierarchy was converted into a subsumption tree and formal definitions of MedDRA terms were designed using several methods: mappings to SNOMED-CT, semi-automatic definition algorithms or a fully manual way. This article presents the main steps of OntoADR conception process, its structure and content, and discusses problems and limits raised by this attempt to "ontologize" MedDRA.

  3. Construction and Validation of a Systematic Ethogram of Macaca fascicularis in a Free Enclosure

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Tao; Ji, Yongjia; Kong, Fei; Zhan, Qunlin; Cheng, Ke; Fang, Liang; Xie, Peng

    2012-01-01

    Behavioral studies in non-human primates have become ideal models for further investigations into advanced cognitive function in humans. To date, there is no systematic ethogram of the cynomolgus monkey (Macaca fascicularis) in a free enclosure. In a field observation of 6012 subjects, 107 distinct behaviors of M. fascicularis were preliminarily described. 83 of these behaviors were then independently validated through a randomized cohort and classified into 12 behavioral categories. 53 of these behaviors were then selected to accurately reflect the daily mundane activity of the species in a free enclosure. These findings systematically document the behavior of M. fascicularis in a free enclosure for use in further investigations. PMID:22662158

  4. VizieR Online Data Catalog: RV curves of 42 Dra and HD 139357 (Dollinger+, 2009)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dollinger, M. P.; Hatzes, A. P.; Pasquini, L.; Guenther, E. W.; Hartmann, M.; Girardi, L.

    2009-06-01

    42 Dra and HD 139 357 belong to a star sample observed since February 2004 from the Thuringer Landessternwarte Tautenburg (TLS) as part of the Tautenburg Observatory Planet Search Programme (TOPS). (2 data files).

  5. Outburst Activity Driven by Evolved Pulsating Star in the Symbiotic Binary AG Dra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gális, R.; Hric, L.; Leedjärv, L.

    2015-12-01

    The symbiotic system AG Dra regularly undergoes quiescent and active stages which consist of the series of individual outbursts. The period analysis of new and historical photometric data, as well as radial velocities, confirmed the presence of the two periods. The longer one around ≈ 550 d is related to the orbital motion and the shorter one ≈355 d could be due to pulsation of the cool component of AG Dra.

  6. DRA 500 kJ multi-module capacitor bank

    SciTech Connect

    Augsburger, B.; Smith, B.; McNab, I.R.; Chen, Y.G.; Edwards, D.; Gilbert, S.; Savell, G.; Robinson, M.; Chapman, P.

    1995-01-01

    Maxwell Laboratories Inc. has designed, manufactured and installed a 500 kJ multi-module capacitor bank at DRA Fort Halstead to be used for the investigation of ETC technologies. This paper describes the pulsed power system design and present typical test data acquired during manufacturing testing. The 500 kJ system is made up of ten independent 50 kJ modules with a dual operating voltage of 11 kV and 22 kV. The capacitor bank modularity provides the user with pulse shaping flexibility by allowing for time-sequence firing of the ten 50 kJ units. The 500 kJ system can be operated in 50 kJ increments, allowing the user to vary the amount of energy needed for laboratory type testing. Each 50 kJ module is a stand alone capacitor bank equipped with a Maxwell 11/22 kV 50 kJ capacitor, output switch (Maxwell Triggered Vacuum Switch, TVS-40), output inductor, trigger generator, energy dumping system, and control circuits. This system has been tested to demonstrate the overall electrical performance and system flexibility into a resistive load. Data is presented to show the capacitor bank current output pulse variations, both in simultaneous and time-sequence operation. The data shows the advantages of such a capacitor bank for laboratory type experiments and future fieldable power supply systems.

  7. In vitro interactions between the PII proteins and the nitrogenase regulatory enzymes dinitrogenase reductase ADP-ribosyltransferase (DraT) and dinitrogenase reductase-activating glycohydrolase (DraG) in Azospirillum brasilense.

    PubMed

    Huergo, Luciano F; Merrick, Mike; Monteiro, Rose A; Chubatsu, Leda S; Steffens, Maria B R; Pedrosa, Fábio O; Souza, Emanuel M

    2009-03-13

    The activity of the nitrogenase enzyme in the diazotroph Azospirillum brasilense is reversibly inactivated by ammonium through ADP-ribosylation of the nitrogenase NifH subunit. This process is catalyzed by DraT and is reversed by DraG, and the activities of both enzymes are regulated according to the levels of ammonium through direct interactions with the P(II) proteins GlnB and GlnZ. We have previously shown that DraG interacts with GlnZ both in vivo and in vitro and that DraT interacts with GlnB in vivo. We have now characterized the influence of P(II) uridylylation status and the P(II) effectors (ATP, ADP, and 2-oxoglutarate) on the in vitro formation of DraT-GlnB and DraG-GlnZ complexes. We observed that both interactions are maximized when P(II) proteins are de-uridylylated and when ADP is present. The DraT-GlnB complex formed in vivo was purified to homogeneity in the presence of ADP. The stoichiometry of the DraT-GlnB complex was determined by three independent approaches, all of which indicated a 1:1 stoichiometry (DraT monomer:GlnB trimer). Our results suggest that the intracellular fluctuation of the P(II) ligands ATP, ADP, and 2-oxoglutarate play a key role in the post-translational regulation of nitrogenase activity.

  8. Transcellular oxalate and Cl- absorption in mouse intestine is mediated by the DRA anion exchanger Slc26a3, and DRA deletion decreases urinary oxalate.

    PubMed

    Freel, Robert W; Whittamore, Jonathan M; Hatch, Marguerite

    2013-10-01

    Active transcellular oxalate transport in the mammalian intestine contributes to the homeostasis of this important lithogenic anion. Several members of the Slc26a gene family of anion exchangers have a measurable oxalate affinity and are expressed along the gut, apically and basolaterally. Mouse Slc26a6 (PAT1) targets to the apical membrane of enterocytes in the small intestine, and its deletion results in net oxalate absorption and hyperoxaluria. Apical exchangers of the Slc26a family that mediate oxalate absorption have not been established, yet the Slc26a3 [downregulated in adenoma (DRA)] protein is a candidate mediator of oxalate uptake. We evaluated the role of DRA in intestinal oxalate and Cl(-) transport by comparing unidirectional and net ion fluxes across short-circuited segments of small (ileum) and large (cecum and distal colon) intestine from wild-type (WT) and DRA knockout (KO) mice. In WT mice, all segments demonstrated net oxalate and Cl(-) absorption to varying degrees. In KO mice, however, all segments exhibited net anion secretion, which was consistently, and solely, due to a significant reduction in the absorptive unidirectional fluxes. In KO mice, daily urinary oxalate excretion was reduced 66% compared with that in WT mice, while urinary creatinine excretion was unchanged. We conclude that DRA mediates a predominance of the apical uptake of oxalate and Cl(-) absorbed in the small and large intestine of mice under short-circuit conditions. The large reductions in urinary oxalate excretion underscore the importance of transcellular intestinal oxalate absorption, in general, and, more specifically, the importance of the DRA exchanger in oxalate homeostasis.

  9. Mechanical properties of the cement of the stalked barnacle Dosima fascicularis (Cirripedia, Crustacea).

    PubMed

    Zheden, Vanessa; Klepal, Waltraud; Gorb, Stanislav N; Kovalev, Alexander

    2015-02-01

    The stalked barnacle Dosima fascicularis secretes foam-like cement, the amount of which usually exceeds that produced by other barnacles. When Dosima settles on small objects, this adhesive is additionally used as a float which gives buoyancy to the animal. The dual use of the cement by D. fascicularis requires mechanical properties different from those of other barnacle species. In the float, two regions with different morphological structure and mechanical properties can be distinguished. The outer compact zone with small gas-filled bubbles (cells) is harder than the interior one and forms a protective rind presumably against mechanical damage. The inner region with large, gas-filled cells is soft. This study demonstrates that D. fascicularis cement is soft and visco-elastic. We show that the values of the elastic modulus, hardness and tensile stress are considerably lower than in the rigid cement of other barnacles. PMID:25657833

  10. Turritopsis fascicularis Fraser, 1943 (Cnidaria: Hydrozoa): redescription and discussion of its phylogenetic position within the genus.

    PubMed

    Miglietta, Maria Pia

    2016-01-01

    Turritopsis fascicularis Fraser, 1943 was first described off Alligator Reef, Florida, USA, at a depth of 216 m. Presumably a deep-sea species, its validity has often been questioned due to the scarcity of available records. In this paper, T. fascicularis is re-described from some mature colonies from the upper slope of the Gulf of Mexico. Furthermore, new pictures of the colony, polyps, and medusa buds, are provided. A ~600bp sequence of the large ribosomal subunit of the mitochondrial RNA (lsu-rRNA, 16S), also known as the Hydrozoan barcoding molecule, is used for the first time to confirm the validity of T. fascicularis as a species, and analyze its phylogenetic position within the genus Turritopsis. PMID:27394557

  11. Mechanical properties of the cement of the stalked barnacle Dosima fascicularis (Cirripedia, Crustacea)

    PubMed Central

    Zheden, Vanessa; Klepal, Waltraud; Gorb, Stanislav N.; Kovalev, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    The stalked barnacle Dosima fascicularis secretes foam-like cement, the amount of which usually exceeds that produced by other barnacles. When Dosima settles on small objects, this adhesive is additionally used as a float which gives buoyancy to the animal. The dual use of the cement by D. fascicularis requires mechanical properties different from those of other barnacle species. In the float, two regions with different morphological structure and mechanical properties can be distinguished. The outer compact zone with small gas-filled bubbles (cells) is harder than the interior one and forms a protective rind presumably against mechanical damage. The inner region with large, gas-filled cells is soft. This study demonstrates that D. fascicularis cement is soft and visco-elastic. We show that the values of the elastic modulus, hardness and tensile stress are considerably lower than in the rigid cement of other barnacles. PMID:25657833

  12. Cynomolgus macaque (Macaca fascicularis) immunoglobulin heavy chain locus description.

    PubMed

    Yu, Guo-Yun; Mate, Suzanne; Garcia, Karla; Ward, Michael D; Brueggemann, Ernst; Hall, Matthew; Kenny, Tara; Sanchez-Lockhart, Mariano; Lefranc, Marie-Paule; Palacios, Gustavo

    2016-07-01

    Cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis) have become an important animal model for biomedical research. In particular, it is the animal model of choice for the development of vaccine candidates associated with emerging dangerous pathogens. Despite their increasing importance as animal models, the cynomolgus macaque genome is not fully characterized, hindering molecular studies for this model. More importantly, the lack of knowledge about the immunoglobulin (IG) locus organization directly impacts the analysis of the humoral response in cynomolgus macaques. Recent advances in next generation sequencing (NGS) technologies to analyze IG repertoires open the opportunity to deeply characterize the humoral immune response. However, the IG locus organization for the animal is required to completely dissect IG repertoires. Here, we describe the localization and organization of the rearranging IG heavy (IGH) genes on chromosome 7 of the cynomolgus macaque draft genome. Our annotation comprises 108 functional genes which include 63 variable (IGHV), 38 diversity (IGHD), and 7 joining (IGHJ) genes. For validation, we provide RNA transcript data for most of the IGHV genes and all of the annotated IGHJ genes, as well as proteomic data to validate IGH constant genes. The description and annotation of the rearranging IGH genes for the cynomolgus macaques will significantly facilitate scientific research. This is particularly relevant to dissect the immune response during vaccination or infection with dangerous pathogens such as Ebola, Marburg and other emerging pathogens where non-human primate models play a significant role for countermeasure development.

  13. Polyostotic fibrous dysplasia in a cynomolgus Macaque (Macaca fascicularis).

    PubMed

    Bauer, Cassondra; Dunn, Betty G; Brothman, Arthur R; Dick, Edward J; Christensen, Chris; Voges, Andra; Moore, Charleen M

    2012-04-01

    A 2.3-y-old female cynomolgus macaque (Macaca fascicularis) presented with a broken right tibia and fibula. Radiographs showed multiple cyst-like defects in all long bones. We suspected that both fractures were pathologic because they occurred through these defects. Ultrasonography, MRI, and dual X-ray absorptiometry revealed that the defects were filled with soft tissue. Grossly, the bones were abnormal in shape, and a gelatinous material filled the defects and the surrounding marrow cavity. Histologically, the gelatinous material was composed of fibrin and cartilage; few normal bone cells were seen. Genetic testing revealed extra material on the short arm of chromosome 8 in all tissues examined, but no copy number alterations of likely clinical significance were observed, and no abnormalities were found that were unique to the lesions. In light of the clinical signs and radiographic and pathologic findings, polyostotic fibrous dysplasia was diagnosed. This report represents the first documented case of fibrous dysplasia in a cynomolgus macaque.

  14. Effects of synthetic glycosides on steroid balance in Macaca fascicularis

    SciTech Connect

    Malinow, M.R.; Elliott, W.H.; McLaughlin, P.; Upson, B.

    1987-01-01

    The predominantly beta-anomer of diosgenin glucoside (DG) was synthesized and its effects on cholesterol homeostasis were tested in monkeys. Cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis) were fed, during two 3-week periods, a semipurified diet with 0.1% cholesterol and a similar ration containing 1% DG, respectively. A Chow diet was given for 5 weeks between the experimental periods. Cholesterol and bile acid balance were analyzed during the last week of each semipurified diet. Diosgenin glucoside reduced cholesterolemia from 292 mg/dl to 172 mg/dl, decreased intestinal absorption of exogenous cholesterol from 62.4% to 26.0%, and increased secretion of endogenous cholesterol from -0.8 to 93.5 mg/day. The fecal excretion of neutral steroids rose from 40.7 to 157.3 mg/day; that of bile acids changed, nonsignificantly, from 23.1 to 16.0 mg/day. The cholesterol balance was -44 mg/day in the control period, and 88 mg/day in the DG-fed animals. No toxic signs were observed. Thus, when long-term studies demonstrate that the glucoside is well tolerated, DG and other synthetic glycosides with similar activities may be of use in the management of hypercholesterolemia and atherosclerosis.

  15. Scrub Typhus antibody in cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Heisey, G B; Gan, E; Shirai, A; Groves, M G

    1981-06-01

    Using an indirect immunofluorescence technique, sera from 113 cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis), trapped in Peninsular Malaysia, were screened for the presence of antibody to six prototype strains of Rickettsia tsutsugamushi combined into three polyvalent groupings: I--Karp, TA716, and TA763; II--Gilliam; and III--TA678 and TH1817. Fifteen percent (17/113) of the monkeys had antibody titers greater than or equal to 1:50 to one or more of the antigenic groups. Although a titer greater than or equal to 1:150 is generally considered indicative or prior Rickettsia tsutsugamushi infection, we selected a less than 1:25 titer as a conservative standard to insure non-infected animals. Using this criterion, 62 (55%) of the 113 monkeys were accepted for use in scrub typhus studies. The high prevalence of antibody to scrub typhus in the semi-arboreal cynomolgus monkey is in marked contrast to the low prevalence reported in the strictly arboreal silvered leaf monkeys (Presbytis cristatus). The results of this study indicate that cynomolgus monkeys should be rigorously screened for evidence of prior infection before they are included in experimental scrub typhus studies.

  16. Polyostotic Fibrous Dysplasia in a Cynomolgus Macaque (Macaca fascicularis)

    PubMed Central

    Bauer, Cassondra; Dunn, Betty G; Brothman, Arthur R; Jr, Edward J Dick; Christensen, Chris; Voges, Andra; Moore, Charleen M

    2012-01-01

    A 2.3-y-old female cynomolgus macaque (Macaca fascicularis) presented with a broken right tibia and fibula. Radiographs showed multiple cyst-like defects in all long bones. We suspected that both fractures were pathologic because they occurred through these defects. Ultrasonography, MRI, and dual X-ray absorptiometry revealed that the defects were filled with soft tissue. Grossly, the bones were abnormal in shape, and a gelatinous material filled the defects and the surrounding marrow cavity. Histologically, the gelatinous material was composed of fibrin and cartilage; few normal bone cells were seen. Genetic testing revealed extra material on the short arm of chromosome 8 in all tissues examined, but no copy number alterations of likely clinical significance were observed, and no abnormalities were found that were unique to the lesions. In light of the clinical signs and radiographic and pathologic findings, polyostotic fibrous dysplasia was diagnosed. This report represents the first documented case of fibrous dysplasia in a cynomolgus macaque. PMID:22546922

  17. Postdispersal nepotism in male long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis).

    PubMed

    Gerber, Livia; Krützen, Michael; de Ruiter, Jan R; van Schaik, Carel P; van Noordwijk, Maria A

    2016-01-01

    Cooperative behaviors are promoted by kin selection if the costs to the actor are smaller than the fitness benefits to the recipient, weighted by the coefficient of relatedness. In primates, cooperation occurs primarily among female dyads. Due to male dispersal before sexual maturity in many primate species, however, it is unknown whether there are sufficient opportunities for selective tolerance and occasional coalitionary support for kin selection to favor male nepotistic support. We studied the effect of the presence of male kin on correlates of male reproductive success (residence time, duration of high dominance rank) in non-natal male long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis). We found that "related" (i.e., related at the half-sibling level or higher) males in a group have a significantly higher probability to remain in the non-natal group compared to males without relatives. Moreover, males stayed longer in a group when a relative was present at group entry or joined the same group within 3 months upon arrival. Males with co-residing relatives also maintained a high rank for longer than those without. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of a potential nepotistic effect on residence and rank maintenance among non-natal males in a social system without long-term alliances. PMID:26811773

  18. Tissue repair after condylectomy in growing Macaca fascicularis.

    PubMed

    Bakker, V M; Swartberg, P E; Heeley, J D

    1984-02-01

    In order to determine the nature of tissue repair after removal of condyles, bilateral condylectomies were performed in seven growing female Macaca fascicularis. Two animals underwent condylectomies only, and five animals were fitted with maxillary and mandibular splints before undergoing condylectomies. One condyle from each condylectomized animal was processed for histologic examination. Four animals, with intact condyles, were available as controls: Two had splints placed, while the other two did not undergo any treatment. Nine mo after surgery, the histology of 12 resection sites and 12 control condyles (seven removed at condylectomy and five at death) was compared. In the control condyles, hypertrophic cartilage was seen over the entire condylar surface. From the 12 resection sites, five showed hypertrophic cartilage, non-hypertrophic cartilage cells were present in three, and four demonstrated bone apposition and resorption. Cartilage was present only at the medial and central aspects of the surgical site, and in every specimen, bone was seen at the lateral pole. Two out of 12 fossae overlying surgical sites contained hypertrophic cartilage, while the five control glenoid fossae showed bone, an intermediate zone, and a fibrous capsule. Because of the variety in tissue response and the small number of animals in each group, the effect of the splints could not be determined. Based on the results of this study, the following was concluded: (1) Regeneration of organized hypertrophic cartilage with inherent growth potential can take place after condylectomy, albeit not in every instance and only in the medial aspect of the stump. In the lateral aspect, and also medially if hypertrophic cartilage does not reform, bone is predominant. The original height is not recovered. (2) The cartilage of the glenoid fossa is capable of adaptive changes similar to those seen in condylar cartilage. PMID:6582091

  19. Prauserella coralliicola sp. nov., isolated from the coral Galaxea fascicularis.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jia-Fa; Li, Jie; You, Zhi-Qing; Zhang, Si

    2014-10-01

    A novel Gram-stain-positive actinobacterium, designated strain SCSIO 11529(T), was isolated from tissues of the stony coral Galaxea fascicularis, and characterized by using a polyphasic approach. The temperature range for growth was 22-50 °C (optimum 28-45 °C), the pH range for growth was 6.0-8.0 (optimum pH 7.0), and the NaCl concentration range for growth was 0-7% (w/v) NaCl. The polar lipid profile contained diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylmethylethanolamine, phosphatidylethanolamine and an unknown polar lipid. The predominant menaquinone was MK-9(H4). The major fatty acids (>10%) were iso-C16:0, iso-C17:1ω6c, iso-C16:1 H and C16:1ω7c/iso-C15:0 2-OH. The DNA G+C content of strain SCSIO 11529(T) was 70.2 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain SCSIO 11529(T) belongs to the genus Prauserella, with the closest neighbours being Prauserella marina MS498(T) (97.0% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity), Prauserella rugosa DSM 43194(T) (96.4%) and Prauserella flava YIM 90630(T) (95.9%). Based on the evidence of the present study, strain SCSIO 11529(T) is considered to represent a novel species of the genus Prauserella, for which the name Prauserella coralliicola sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is SCSIO 11529(T) ( = DSM 45821(T) = NBRC 109418(T)).

  20. Beneficial Insect Attraction to Milkweeds (Asclepias speciosa, Asclepias fascicularis) in Washington State, USA.

    PubMed

    James, David G; Seymour, Lorraine; Lauby, Gerry; Buckley, Katie

    2016-06-29

    Native plant and beneficial insect associations are relatively unstudied yet are important in native habitat restoration programs for improving and sustaining conservation biological control of arthropod pests in agricultural crops. Milkweeds (Asclepias spp.) are currently the focus of restoration programs in the USA aimed at reversing a decline in populations of the milkweed-dependent monarch butterfly (Danaus plexippus); however, little is known of the benefits of these plants to other beneficial insects. Beneficial insects (predators, parasitoids, pollinators) attracted to two milkweed species (Asclepias speciosa, Asclepias fascicularis) in central Washington State, WA, USA were identified and counted on transparent sticky traps attached to blooms over five seasons. Combining all categories of beneficial insects, means of 128 and 126 insects per trap were recorded for A. speciosa and A. fascicularis, respectively. Predatory and parasitic flies dominated trap catches for A. speciosa while parasitic wasps were the most commonly trapped beneficial insects on A. fascicularis. Bees were trapped commonly on both species, especially A. speciosa with native bees trapped in significantly greater numbers than honey bees. Beneficial insect attraction to A. speciosa and A. fascicularis was substantial. Therefore, these plants are ideal candidates for habitat restoration, intended to enhance conservation biological control, and for pollinator conservation. In central Washington, milkweed restoration programs for enhancement of D. plexippus populations should also provide benefits for pest suppression and pollinator conservation.

  1. Beneficial Insect Attraction to Milkweeds (Asclepias speciosa, Asclepias fascicularis) in Washington State, USA

    PubMed Central

    James, David G.; Seymour, Lorraine; Lauby, Gerry; Buckley, Katie

    2016-01-01

    Native plant and beneficial insect associations are relatively unstudied yet are important in native habitat restoration programs for improving and sustaining conservation biological control of arthropod pests in agricultural crops. Milkweeds (Asclepias spp.) are currently the focus of restoration programs in the USA aimed at reversing a decline in populations of the milkweed-dependent monarch butterfly (Danaus plexippus); however, little is known of the benefits of these plants to other beneficial insects. Beneficial insects (predators, parasitoids, pollinators) attracted to two milkweed species (Asclepias speciosa, Asclepias fascicularis) in central Washington State, WA, USA were identified and counted on transparent sticky traps attached to blooms over five seasons. Combining all categories of beneficial insects, means of 128 and 126 insects per trap were recorded for A. speciosa and A. fascicularis, respectively. Predatory and parasitic flies dominated trap catches for A. speciosa while parasitic wasps were the most commonly trapped beneficial insects on A. fascicularis. Bees were trapped commonly on both species, especially A. speciosa with native bees trapped in significantly greater numbers than honey bees. Beneficial insect attraction to A. speciosa and A. fascicularis was substantial. Therefore, these plants are ideal candidates for habitat restoration, intended to enhance conservation biological control, and for pollinator conservation. In central Washington, milkweed restoration programs for enhancement of D. plexippus populations should also provide benefits for pest suppression and pollinator conservation. PMID:27367733

  2. Beneficial Insect Attraction to Milkweeds (Asclepias speciosa, Asclepias fascicularis) in Washington State, USA.

    PubMed

    James, David G; Seymour, Lorraine; Lauby, Gerry; Buckley, Katie

    2016-01-01

    Native plant and beneficial insect associations are relatively unstudied yet are important in native habitat restoration programs for improving and sustaining conservation biological control of arthropod pests in agricultural crops. Milkweeds (Asclepias spp.) are currently the focus of restoration programs in the USA aimed at reversing a decline in populations of the milkweed-dependent monarch butterfly (Danaus plexippus); however, little is known of the benefits of these plants to other beneficial insects. Beneficial insects (predators, parasitoids, pollinators) attracted to two milkweed species (Asclepias speciosa, Asclepias fascicularis) in central Washington State, WA, USA were identified and counted on transparent sticky traps attached to blooms over five seasons. Combining all categories of beneficial insects, means of 128 and 126 insects per trap were recorded for A. speciosa and A. fascicularis, respectively. Predatory and parasitic flies dominated trap catches for A. speciosa while parasitic wasps were the most commonly trapped beneficial insects on A. fascicularis. Bees were trapped commonly on both species, especially A. speciosa with native bees trapped in significantly greater numbers than honey bees. Beneficial insect attraction to A. speciosa and A. fascicularis was substantial. Therefore, these plants are ideal candidates for habitat restoration, intended to enhance conservation biological control, and for pollinator conservation. In central Washington, milkweed restoration programs for enhancement of D. plexippus populations should also provide benefits for pest suppression and pollinator conservation. PMID:27367733

  3. Phylogenetic relationships of Malaysia's long-tailed macaques, Macaca fascicularis, based on cytochrome b sequences.

    PubMed

    Abdul-Latiff, Muhammad Abu Bakar; Ruslin, Farhani; Fui, Vun Vui; Abu, Mohd-Hashim; Rovie-Ryan, Jeffrine Japning; Abdul-Patah, Pazil; Lakim, Maklarin; Roos, Christian; Yaakop, Salmah; Md-Zain, Badrul Munir

    2014-01-01

    Phylogenetic relationships among Malaysia's long-tailed macaques have yet to be established, despite abundant genetic studies of the species worldwide. The aims of this study are to examine the phylogenetic relationships of Macaca fascicularis in Malaysia and to test its classification as a morphological subspecies. A total of 25 genetic samples of M. fascicularis yielding 383 bp of Cytochrome b (Cyt b) sequences were used in phylogenetic analysis along with one sample each of M. nemestrina and M. arctoides used as outgroups. Sequence character analysis reveals that Cyt b locus is a highly conserved region with only 23% parsimony informative character detected among ingroups. Further analysis indicates a clear separation between populations originating from different regions; the Malay Peninsula versus Borneo Insular, the East Coast versus West Coast of the Malay Peninsula, and the island versus mainland Malay Peninsula populations. Phylogenetic trees (NJ, MP and Bayesian) portray a consistent clustering paradigm as Borneo's population was distinguished from Peninsula's population (99% and 100% bootstrap value in NJ and MP respectively and 1.00 posterior probability in Bayesian trees). The East coast population was separated from other Peninsula populations (64% in NJ, 66% in MP and 0.53 posterior probability in Bayesian). West coast populations were divided into 2 clades: the North-South (47%/54% in NJ, 26/26% in MP and 1.00/0.80 posterior probability in Bayesian) and Island-Mainland (93% in NJ, 90% in MP and 1.00 posterior probability in Bayesian). The results confirm the previous morphological assignment of 2 subspecies, M. f. fascicularis and M. f. argentimembris, in the Malay Peninsula. These populations should be treated as separate genetic entities in order to conserve the genetic diversity of Malaysia's M. fascicularis. These findings are crucial in aiding the conservation management and translocation process of M. fascicularis populations in Malaysia.

  4. The Mutual Influences between Depressed Macaca fascicularis Mothers and Their Infants

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Liang; Wang, Tao; Fang, Liang; Yang, Deyu; Melgiri, Narayan D.; Xie, Peng

    2014-01-01

    Objective To assess the influence of infant rearing on the behavior of depressed adult female Macaca fascicularis and the influence of depressed infant-rearing adult female Macaca fascicularis on their infants in a free enclosure environment. Methods Here, 20 depressed subjects and then 20 healthy subjects were randomly selected from a total population of 1007 adult female Macaca fascicularis subjects. Four depressed subjects and eight healthy subjects were rearing infants. By focal observation, three trained observers video-recorded the selected subjects over a total observational period of 560 hours. The video footage was analyzed by qualified blinded analysts that coded the raw footage into quantitative behavioral data (i.e., durations of 53 pre-defined behavioral items across 12 behavioral categories) for statistical analysis. Results Between infant-rearing and non-rearing healthy subjects, ten differential behaviors distributed across five behavioral categories were identified. Between infant-rearing and non-rearing depressed subjects, nine behaviors distributed across five behavioral categories were identified. Between infant-rearing healthy and infant-rearing depressed subjects, fifteen behaviors distributed across six behavioral categories were identified. Conclusion Infant-rearing depressed adult female Macaca fascicularis subjects may have a worse psychological status as compared to non-rearing depressed counterparts. Infant rearing may negatively influence depressed Macaca fascicularis mothers. Infant-rearing depressed subjects were less adequate at raising infants as compared to infant-rearing healthy subjects. Thus, maternal depression in this macaque species may negatively impact infatile development, which is consistent with previous findings in humans. PMID:24599092

  5. Lactobacillus acidophilus attenuates downregulation of DRA function and expression in inflammatory models.

    PubMed

    Singh, Varsha; Kumar, Anoop; Raheja, Geetu; Anbazhagan, Arivarasu N; Priyamvada, Shubha; Saksena, Seema; Jhandier, Muhammad Nauman; Gill, Ravinder K; Alrefai, Waddah A; Borthakur, Alip; Dudeja, Pradeep K

    2014-09-15

    Probiotics, including Lactobacilli, are commensal bacteria that have been used in clinical trials and experimental models for the prevention and treatment of diarrheal disorders. Our previous studies have shown that Lactobacillus acidophilus (LA) and its culture supernatant (CS) stimulated Cl(-)/HCO3 (-) exchange activity, acutely via an increase in the surface levels of downregulated in adenoma (DRA, SLC26A3) and in long-term treatments via increasing its expression involving transcriptional mechanisms. However, the role of LA in modulating DRA activity under inflammatory conditions is not known. Current in vitro studies using human intestinal epithelial Caco-2 cells examined the efficacy of LA or its CS in counteracting the inhibitory effects of interferon-γ (IFN-γ) on Cl(-)/HCO3 (-) exchange activity. Pretreatment of cells with LA or LA-CS for 1 h followed by coincubation with IFN-γ significantly alleviated the inhibitory effects of IFN-γ on Cl(-)/HCO3 (-) exchange activity. In the in vivo model of dextran sulfate sodium-induced experimental colitis (3% in drinking water for 7 days) in C57BL/6J mice, administration of live LA (3 × 10(9) colony-forming units) via oral gavage attenuated colonic inflammation. LA administration also counteracted the colitis-induced decrease in DRA mRNA and protein levels. Efficacy of LA or its secreted soluble factors in alleviating inflammation and inflammation-associated dysregulation of DRA activity could justify their therapeutic potential in inflammatory diarrheal diseases.

  6. Type II secretory pathway for surface secretion of DraD invasin from the uropathogenic Escherichia coli Dr+ strain.

    PubMed

    Zalewska-Piatek, Beata; Bury, Katarzyna; Piatek, Rafal; Bruzdziak, Piotr; Kur, Józef

    2008-07-01

    The virulence of the uropathogenic Escherichia coli Dr(+) IH11128 strain is associated with the presence of Dr fimbrial structures and a DraD invasin which can act as a fimbrial capping domain at the bacterial cell surface. However, a recent study suggests that the DraD protein is surface exposed in two forms: fimbria associated and fimbria nonassociated (prone to interaction with the N-terminal extension of the DraE protein located on the fimbrial tip). The actual mechanism of DraD surface secretion is presently unknown. We identified a previously unrecognized type II secretory pathway (secreton) in the uropathogenic E. coli Dr(+) strain which is well conserved among gram-negative bacteria and used mainly for secretion of virulence determinants. An active secreton is composed of 12 to 15 different proteins, among which GspD functions as an outer-membrane channel to permit extrusion of proteins in a folded state. Therefore, we inactivated the pathway by inserting the group II intron into a gspD gene of the type II secretion machinery by site-specific recombination. DraD secretion by the E. coli Dr(+) and gspD mutant strains was determined by immunofluorescence microscopy (with antibodies raised against DraD) and an assay of cell binding between bacteria and HeLa cells. The specificity of DraD-mediated bacterial binding for the integrin receptor was confirmed by examination of the adhesion of DraD-coated beads to HeLa cells in the presence and absence of alpha(5)beta(1) monoclonal antibodies. The investigations that we performed showed that type II secretion in E. coli Dr(+) strains leads to DraD translocation at the bacterial cell surfaces.

  7. Effective and basic business strategic tools to overcome the DRA impact in outpatient imaging centers.

    PubMed

    Cerdena, Ernesto A; Corigliano, Barbara A

    2007-01-01

    The implementation of the Deficit Reduction Act (DRA) of 2005 has had adverse impacts with freestanding imaging centers and independent diagnostic testing facilities (IDTF) throughout the nation, including patient's access to quality imaging as well as crippling an organization's bottom line. Basic but effective business strategic tools should be formulated and executed to overcome the negative impact of the DRA. This should include creative and innovative process improvement initiatives while reducing operational costs and optimizing staff, thus improving profitability. Radiology administrators should act as facilitators to articulate and instill the mission, core values, and vision of the organization to the staff. Equally important, leaders in the imaging industry need to manifest a strong commitment in bringing the center into a whole new paradigm shift towards excellence and effective business operations. PMID:17983040

  8. Spectral Line Variations of Symbiotic Stars EG And, AG Dra, and BX Mon and Its Interpretation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Tae Seog; Kim, Soo Hyun; Moon, Hyeonwoo; Kim, Kyu-Seob; Oh, Hyungil

    2013-02-01

    We present some results obtained by high resolution spectroscopic observations for symbiotic stars EG And, AG Dra, and BX Mon in recent years which were performed with 1.8-m reflector and echelle spectrograph BOES at Bohyunsan Optical Astronomy Observatory, Youngcheon, South Korea. The variations of Hα emission line during a night and the variations of H Balmer lines and He I emission lines among several analyzed lines over months and years are shown and discussed.

  9. [Application analysis of adverse drug reaction terminology WHOART and MedDRA].

    PubMed

    Liu, Jing; Xie, Yan-ming; Gai, Guo-zhong; Liao, Xing

    2015-12-01

    Drug safety has always been a global focus. Discovery and accurate information acquisition of adverse drug reaction have been the most crucial concern. Terminology of adverse drug reaction makes adverse reaction medical report meaningful, standardized and accurate. This paper discussed the domestic use of the terminology WHOART and MedDRA in terms of content, structure, and application situation. It also analysed the differences between the two terminologies and discusses the future trend of application in our country PMID:27245013

  10. Isolation and cDNA characteristics of MHC-DRA genes from gayal (Bos frontalis) and gaytle (Bos frontalis × Bos taurus)

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Yongke; Zhang, Xiaomin; Xi, Dongmei; Li, Guozhi; Wang, Liping; Zheng, Huanli; Du, Min; Gu, Zhaobing; Yang, Yulin; Yang, Yuai

    2015-01-01

    The mammalian major histocompatibility complex (MHC) plays important roles in pathogen recognition and disease resistance. In the present study, the coding sequence and the 5′- and 3′-untranslated regions of MHC class II DR alpha chain (the DRA gene) from rare gayal and gaytle were cloned and analyzed to dissect structural and functional variations. The nucleotide and amino acid sequences for the DRA genes in gayal (Bofr-DRA) and gaytle (Bofr × BoLA-DRA) were almost identical to those for cattle and yak (99%). Compared to yak, two amino acids substitutions in the signal peptide (SP) domain for gayal were found within all Bos animals. Except for only one replacement in the amino acid within the α2 domain of the DRA protein in gayal, the additional residues were highly conserved across the species investigated. The 20 peptide-binding sites (PBS) of Bofr-DRA and Bofr × BoLA-DRA were essentially reserved in the α1 domain among all species investigated. The lesser degree of substitution in Bofr-DRA is concordant with the concept that the DRA gene is highly conserved among all mammals. The very high degree of conservativity of the DRA gene among ruminants, including gayal, suggests its recent evolutionary separation. PMID:26019649

  11. Identification and characterization of microRNAs in the crab-eating macaque (Macaca fascicularis) using transcriptome analysis.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hao; Zhang, Rui; Jing, Ying; Zhu, Lin; Zhang, Wen; Liu, Chang; Wang, Jin; Yang, Jie; Zhang, Junfeng; Zen, Ke; Zhang, Chenyu; Li, Donghai

    2014-02-25

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs), with an average length between 16 nt and 26 nt, are small non-coding RNAs that can repress gene expression on the post-transcriptional level. Macaca fascicularis (M. fascicularis), one of the most important nonhuman primate animal models, is widely used in basic and applied preclinical research, especially in studies that involve neuroscience and disease. However, due to the lack of a complete genome sequence, the miRNAs in M. fascicularis have not been completely characterized. In this study, 86 putative M. fascicularis miRNAs were identified using a strategy of our design. The expression of some of these miRNAs in the tissue was confirmed by qRT-PCR. The function and pathway of their targeted genes were analyzed to reveal the potential relevance of miRNA regulation on diseases and physiological processes. The current study provides insight into potential miRNAs and forms a useful knowledge base for the future understanding of the function of miRNAs in M. fascicularis.

  12. Cloning and polymorphisms of the 3' untranslated region of malic enzyme gene in Chinese red cattle.

    PubMed

    Zhou, G L; Zhang, G L; Cao, Y; Jin, H G

    2011-09-01

    The objective of this study was to identify alternative transcripts and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the 3'-untranslated region (3' UTR) of bovine malic enzyme (ME1) gene and to evaluate the extent to which polymorphisms were associated with meat quality and carcass traits in Chinese red cattle. Two transcripts, long transcript and short transcript that differ in the length of the 3' UTR were cloned. A single nucleotide polymorphism was detected in 3' UTR and a restriction site for endonuclease ME1-Dra I was also found. The result revealed that the ME1-Dra I genotypes had a significant effect on cooking loss, pH measured 24h post-mortem (pH(24h)) and eye muscle area (P < 0.05). In conclusion, the SNPs may be used as DNA markers to select for meat quality and carcass traits in Chinese red cattle.

  13. Relative quantification of HLA-DRA1 and -DQA1 expression by real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR).

    PubMed

    Fernandez, S; Wassmuth, R; Knerr, I; Frank, C; Haas, J P

    2003-04-01

    Polymorphism in the upstream regulatory region (URR) of the MHC class II DQA1 gene defines 10 different alleles named QAP (DQA1 promoter). In vitro studies have suggested that allelic polymorphism in the HLA-DQA promoter region may result in differences in HLA-DQA1 gene expression. In the present study, we used real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) to quantify differences in HLA-DQA1 gene expression. After the isolation of total mRNA, reverse transcription into cDNA was carried out using random hexamer priming and moloney murine leukaemia virus (MMLV) reverse transcriptase. Quantification of DQA1 mRNA species using a set of six group-specific primer pairs for the detection of HLA-DQA1*01, *02, *03, *04, *05 and *06 was carried out on an ABI PRISM GeneAmp 7700 Sequence Detection System (Perkin Elmer, Foster City, CA) with real-time detection and quantification taking advantage of the fluorescence TaqMan technology (Perkin Elmer, Foster City, CA). Normalization of cDNA templates was achieved by glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) quantification. In addition, the total amount of mRNA produced by HLA-DQA1 and HLA-DRA1 expression was quantified for comparison. Subsequently, this approach was validated using Raji and HUT-78 cell lines and tested with peripheral mononuclear cells (PBMC) of 45 samples taken from healthy volunteers. The sensitivity was determined with > or = 10(2) copies. Comparison of the allele-specific DQA1 expression with the total expression of DQA1 and DRA1 mRNA indicated that DQA1*04 expression was increased compared with the expression of other alleles of the DQA1 gene. Thus, allele-specific quantification of DQA1 gene products could be achieved by real-time RT-PCR suitable for the analysis of differential expression of DQA1 mRNAs in homozygote and heterozygote combinations.

  14. Identification of a novel yolk protein in the hermatypic coral Galaxea fascicularis.

    PubMed

    Hayakawa, Hideki; Andoh, Tadashi; Watanabe, Toshiki

    2007-03-01

    The reef-building (or hermatypic) coral Galaxea fascicularis (Anthozoa, Hexacorallia, Scleractinia) has an annual reproductive cycle. Females of G. fascicularis release packages (or ;bundles') of eggs for external fertilization, whereas male individuals form bundles consisting of sperm and infertile ;pseudo-eggs' that are thought to confer buoyancy to the male bundle. In the egg of G. fascicularis, four proteins (GfEP-1 to 4) were found to be stored in high abundance, and three of them (GfEP-1, 2 and 3) are generated by processing of a vitellogenin (Vg)-like precursor. In the present study, a cDNA encoding GfEP-4 was cloned and its sequence determined (GenBank/EMBL/DDBJ accession no. AB259859). The amino acid sequence of this protein does not exhibit similarity to known proteins, including Vgs or other yolk proteins found in some invertebrates. The expression of GfEP-4 mRNA was observed in females, and also in the majority of males examined, although expression levels were lower than in females. The GfEP-4 protein was detected in pseudo-eggs, where its concentration was 20-100 times lower than in eggs. In contrast, GfEP-1, 2 and 3 were not detected in pseudo-eggs. A protein (28 kDa) which cross-reacted with anti-GfEP-4 antibodies was detected in eggs of the coral Montipora digitata, suggesting the possibility that homologs of this protein are present in the eggs of other scleractinian corals. PMID:17551245

  15. High-Cadence B-Band Search for Optical Flares on BY Dra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vander Haagen, G. A.

    2015-12-01

    The high-cadence search at 50 and 100 samples/sec of BY Dra revealed very short-duration B-band flares. A statistical criterion was used to isolate the short-duration optical flares from random photon events. Three flares, ranging in duration from 60 to 130 ms, with peaks 0.30-0.43 magnitude above the mean, were detected within the 80.2 hours of periodic monitoring from July 2012 through October 2015. This represents a flare rate of 0.04 flares/hour.

  16. The first photometric study of W UMa eclipsing binary OQ Dra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heidarnia, R.; Ebadi, H.; Rooydargard, H.

    2016-11-01

    The present study is an analysis of V-band CCD observations of new W UMa contact binary OQ Dra. To carry out the analysis, Primary and secondary minimum were obtained and new epoch was calculated. The computed period of system was 0.33967 day. Light curve analysis was performed using Binary Maker 3 and PHOEBE that uses the latest Wilson-Devinney code. We obtained photometric mass ratio of qptm = 0.55. O'Connell effect also was seen in the fitted model. Finally, the best model was achieved by introducing 2 spots on each component.

  17. Finding the factors of reduced genetic diversity on X chromosomes of Macaca fascicularis: male-driven evolution, demography, and natural selection.

    PubMed

    Osada, Naoki; Nakagome, Shigeki; Mano, Shuhei; Kameoka, Yosuke; Takahashi, Ichiro; Terao, Keiji

    2013-11-01

    The ratio of genetic diversity on X chromosomes relative to autosomes in organisms with XX/XY sex chromosomes could provide fundamental insight into the process of genome evolution. Here we report this ratio for 24 cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) originating in Indonesia, Malaysia, and the Philippines. The average X/A diversity ratios in these samples was 0.34 and 0.20 in the Indonesian-Malaysian and Philippine populations, respectively, considerably lower than the null expectation of 0.75. A Philippine population supposed to derive from an ancestral population by founding events showed a significantly lower ratio than the parental population, suggesting a demographic effect for the reduction. Taking sex-specific mutation rate bias and demographic effect into account, expected X/A diversity ratios generated by computer simulations roughly agreed with the observed data in the intergenic regions. In contrast, silent sites in genic regions on X chromosomes showed strong reduction in genetic diversity and the observed X/A diversity ratio in the genic regions cannot be explained by mutation rate bias and demography, indicating that natural selection also reduces the level of polymorphism near genes. Whole-genome analysis of a female cynomolgus monkey also supported the notion of stronger reduction of genetic diversity near genes on the X chromosome.

  18. The rhesus (Macaca mulatta) and crab-eating (Macaca fascicularis) monkeys in cardiovascular and aerospace research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erickson, H. H.; Ritzman, J. R.

    1977-01-01

    Two nonhuman primate species were used to investigate the effects of gravitoinertial forces on pilot incapacitation and performance impairment, to define human physiologic tolerance and safe exposure limits to these environments, and to obtain data which can be used to evolve new methods to improve man's G tolerance to match the structural capability of new generation aircraft. The macaca fascicularis was used to study the effects of environmental stress and atheroscelerosis on cerebral blood flow and function agents on myocardial and cardiovascular function were studied in the macaca mulatta.

  19. Social dominance and serum testosterone concentration in dyads of male Macaca fascicularis.

    PubMed

    Clarke, M R; Kaplan, J R; Bumsted, P T; Koritnik, D R

    1986-01-01

    The relationship between social dominance and serum testosterone concentration was evaluated in 24 male Macaca fascicularis in 14 dyads at 2-week intervals over an 8-month period. No associations between testosterone concentration and dominance ranks were found in dyads with "clear dominance" relationships. A significant positive association was found between testosterone concentration and dominance ranks in dyads that exhibited "contested dominance" or dominance reversals. Thus, higher testosterone concentration corresponded to social dominance in subjects dominant as the result of a contest, rather than a consequence of high relative rank.

  20. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Long-term variations of kappa Dra (Saad+, 2004)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saad, S. M.; Kubat, J.; Koubsky, P.; Harmanec, P.; Skoda, P.; Korcakova, D.; Krticka, J.; Slechta, M.; Bozic, H.; Ak, H.; Hadrava, P.; Votruba, V.

    2004-04-01

    A summary of results of spectroscopic monitoring of the bright Be star kappa Dra carried out at the Ondrejov Observatory between 1990 and 2004 is presented. To investigate long-term variations of Kappa Dra, we focused on Hα, H{beta}, H{gamma}, H{delta}, SiII 6347{AA}, SiII 6371{AA}, HeI 6678{AA}, and FeII 6456{AA} lines. We measured equivalent widths {W}, peak intensities of the double emission lines, and the central intensity of the absorption reversals relative to the adjacent continuum (IV, IR, and Ic, respectively), and also the peak separation between violet and red peaks (Deltanup). Note that {W} is taken with a negative sign for the emission line profile. Only {W}, and Ic were measured, of course, for the absorption lines of {HeI} and {SiII}. All measurements are collected together with heliocentric Julian dates of mid-exposures (HJDs) in Tables 2, 3 and 4. (3 data files).

  1. VizieR Online Data Catalog: BVR photometry of IZ Mon and AR Dra (Yang+, 2016)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Y.-G.; Dai, H.-F.; Zhou, Z.; Li, Q.

    2016-07-01

    CCD Photometry for IZ Mon and AR Dra, was acquired using the 60cm telescope and the 85cm telescope at the Xinglong station (XLs) of National Astronomical Observatories of China (NAOC). Two telescopes are equipped with the standard Johnson-Cousins UBVRcIc. filters. We then obtained the individual observations as heliocentric Julian dates and differential magnitude, which are listed in Table1. The complete light curves for IZ Mon were obtained on 2009 January 20, 22, 24, 25, and 26, and March 1, using the 85cm telescope. The exposure times are fixed to be 20, 15, and 15s for BVR bands, respectively. A total of 961, 960, and 959 effective images in BVR bands are obtained. Another primary eclipse for IZ Mon was monitored on 2011 January 17. AR Dra was observed on 2009 February 20, 25, 26, and 27, with the 65cm telescope. The typical exposure times are 50, 40 and 40s for BVR bands, which depend on the condition of weather. In total, we obtained 733, 728 and 356 images in B, V and R bands, respectively. (6 data files).

  2. Power Requirements for The NASA Mars Design Reference Architecture (DRA) 5.0

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cataldo, Robert L.

    2009-01-01

    This paper summarizes the power systems analysis results from NASA s recent Mars DRA 5.0 study which examined three architecture options and resulting mission requirements for a human Mars landing mission in the post-2030 timeframe. DRA 5.0 features a long approximately 500 day surface stay split mission using separate cargo and crewed Mars transfer vehicles. Two cargo flights, utilizing minimum energy trajectories, pre-deploy a cargo lander to the surface and a habitat lander into a 24-hour elliptical Mars parking orbit where it remains until the arrival of the crew during the next mission opportunity approximately 26 months later. The pre-deployment of cargo poses unique challenges for set-up and emplacement of surface assets that results in the need for self or robotically deployed designs. Three surface architecture options were evaluated for breadth of science content, extent of exploration range/capability and variations in system concepts and technology. This paper describes the power requirements for the surface operations of the three mission options, power system analyses including discussion of the nuclear fission, solar photovoltaic and radioisotope concepts for main base power and long range mobility.

  3. Detection of cerebral aneurysms in MRA, CTA and 3D-RA data sets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hentschke, Clemens M.; Beuing, Oliver; Nickl, Rosa; Tönnies, Klaus D.

    2012-03-01

    We propose a system to automatically detect cerebral aneurysms in 3D X-ray rotational angiography images (3D-RA), magnetic resonance angiography images (MRA) and computed tomography angiography images (CTA). After image normalization, initial candidates are found by applying a blob-enhancing filter on the data sets. Clusters are computed by a modified k-means algorithm. A post-processing step reduces the false positive (FP) rate on the basis of computed features. This is implemented as a rule-based system that is adapted according to the modality. In MRA, clusters are excluded that are not neighbored to a vessel. As a final step, FP are further reduced by applying a threshold classification on a feature. Our method was tested on 93 angiographic data sets containing aneurysm and non-aneurysm cases. We achieved 95 % sensitivity with an average rate of 2.6 FP per data set (FP/DS) in case of 3D-RA, 89 % sensitivity at 6.6 FP/DS for MRA and 95 % sensitivity at 37.6 FP/DS with CTA, respectively. We showed that our post-processing approach eliminates FP in MRA with only a slight decrease of sensitivity. In contrast to other approaches, our algorithm does not require a vessel segmentation and does not require training of distributional properties.

  4. The role of interdigitation in sagittal growth of the maxillomandibular complex in Macaca fascicularis.

    PubMed

    Ostyn, J M; Maltha, J C; van 't Hof, M A; van der Linden, F P

    1996-01-01

    The role of the interdigitation of posterior teeth in maxillomandibular growth and development was studied longitudinally in Macaca fascicularis monkeys. Fourteen monkeys were divided into a control group (n = 7) and an experimental group (n = 7). At the start of the study, the mean age of the animals was 29 weeks. At that stage the interdigitation in the experimental group was eliminated by grinding the cusps of the molars and canines. The animals were followed until 143 weeks of age and studied with the aid of tantalum implants and lateral radiographs. The findings indicated that elimination of the interdigitation resulted in a deviating anteroposterior relationship between the jaws and a significant inhibition of the vertical growth of the maxilla in the second half of the experimental period, while total face height was not noticeably affected. As a result, a more prognathic mandible and a more mesial occlusion developed. It can be concluded that the interdigitation plays a role in the regulation of vertical and anteroposterior facial growth and constitutes an important factor in the jaw relation in Macaca fascicularis monkeys.

  5. Isolation and Identification of Cytotoxic Compounds from Aeschynomene fascicularis, a Mayan Medicinal Plant.

    PubMed

    Caamal-Fuentes, Edgar E; Peraza-Sánchez, Sergio R; Torres-Tapia, Luis W; Moo-Puc, Rosa E

    2015-07-24

    The plant Aeschynomene fascicularis (Fabaceae) has been used in Mayan traditional medicine in the Yucatan peninsula. However, the compounds present in the plant responsible for its curative properties have not yet been investigated. Aeschynomene fascicularis root bark was extracted with 100% methanol to obtain a crude extract. The methanol extract was partitioned successively with solvents with increasing polarity to obtain the corresponding hexane (Hx), dichloromethane (DCM) and ethyl acetate fractions (EtOAc), as well as a residual water-alcoholic fraction. These fractions were tested for their cytotoxic activities using an MTT assay against Hep-2 cancer cell lines. The Hx fraction led to the isolation of spinochalcone C (1), spinochalcone A (2), isocordoin (3) and secundiflorol G (4). Their structures were identified based on spectroscopic evidence and chemical properties. All compounds were subjected to cytotoxicity and antiproliferative assays against a panel of seven cell lines, including one normal-type cell line. Spinochalcone A (2) exhibited cytotoxic activity against DU-145 cell line and antiproliferative activity against the KB cell line. Secundiflorol G (4) showed strong cytotoxic activity towards KB and Hep-2 cell lines. In addition, isocordoin (3) showed moderate activity on KB, Hep-2 and DU-145 cell lines. The active Compounds 2, 3 and 4 are potential therapeutic entities against cancer.

  6. Biochemical analyses of the cement float of the goose barnacle Dosima fascicularis--a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Zheden, Vanessa; Klepal, Waltraud; von Byern, Janek; Bogner, Fabian Robert; Thiel, Karsten; Kowalik, Thomas; Grunwald, Ingo

    2014-09-01

    The goose barnacle Dosima fascicularis produces an excessive amount of adhesive (cement), which has a double function, being used for attachment to various substrata and also as a float (buoy). This paper focuses on the chemical composition of the cement, which has a water content of 92%. Scanning electron microscopy with EDX was used to measure the organic elements C, O and N in the foam-like cement. Vibrational spectroscopy (FTIR, Raman) provided further information about the overall secondary structure, which tended towards a β-sheet. Disulphide bonds could not be detected by Raman spectroscopy. The cystine, methionine, histidine and tryptophan contents were each below 1% in the cement. Analyses of the cement revealed a protein content of 84% and a total carbohydrate content of 1.5% in the dry cement. The amino acid composition, 1D/2D-PAGE and MS/MS sequence analysis revealed a de novo set of peptides/proteins with low homologies with other proteins such as the barnacle cement proteins, largely with an acidic pI between 3.5 and 6.0. The biochemical composition of the cement of D. fascicularis is similar to that of other barnacles, but it shows interesting variations. PMID:25237772

  7. Dark calcification and the daily rhythm of calcification in the scleractinian coral, Galaxea fascicularis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Horani, F. A.; Tambutté, É.; Allemand, D.

    2007-09-01

    The rate of calcification in the scleractinian coral Galaxea fascicularis was followed during the daytime using 45Ca tracer. The coral began the day with a low calcification rate, which increased over time to a maximum in the afternoon. Since the experiments were carried out under a fixed light intensity, these results suggest that an intrinsic rhythm exists in the coral such that the calcification rate is regulated during the daytime. When corals were incubated for an extended period in the dark, the calcification rate was constant for the first 4 h of incubation and then declined, until after one day of dark incubation, calcification ceased, possibly as a result of the depletion of coral energy reserves. The addition of glucose and Artemia reduced the dark calcification rate for the short duration of the experiment, indicating an expenditure of oxygen in respiration. Artificial hypoxia reduced the rate of dark calcification to about 25% compared to aerated coral samples. It is suggested that G. fascicularis obtains its oxygen needs from the surrounding seawater during the nighttime, whereas during the day time the coral exports oxygen to the seawater.

  8. Biochemical analyses of the cement float of the goose barnacle Dosima fascicularis--a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Zheden, Vanessa; Klepal, Waltraud; von Byern, Janek; Bogner, Fabian Robert; Thiel, Karsten; Kowalik, Thomas; Grunwald, Ingo

    2014-09-01

    The goose barnacle Dosima fascicularis produces an excessive amount of adhesive (cement), which has a double function, being used for attachment to various substrata and also as a float (buoy). This paper focuses on the chemical composition of the cement, which has a water content of 92%. Scanning electron microscopy with EDX was used to measure the organic elements C, O and N in the foam-like cement. Vibrational spectroscopy (FTIR, Raman) provided further information about the overall secondary structure, which tended towards a β-sheet. Disulphide bonds could not be detected by Raman spectroscopy. The cystine, methionine, histidine and tryptophan contents were each below 1% in the cement. Analyses of the cement revealed a protein content of 84% and a total carbohydrate content of 1.5% in the dry cement. The amino acid composition, 1D/2D-PAGE and MS/MS sequence analysis revealed a de novo set of peptides/proteins with low homologies with other proteins such as the barnacle cement proteins, largely with an acidic pI between 3.5 and 6.0. The biochemical composition of the cement of D. fascicularis is similar to that of other barnacles, but it shows interesting variations.

  9. Phylogenetic relationships of Malaysia’s long-tailed macaques, Macaca fascicularis, based on cytochrome b sequences

    PubMed Central

    Abdul-Latiff, Muhammad Abu Bakar; Ruslin, Farhani; Fui, Vun Vui; Abu, Mohd-Hashim; Rovie-Ryan, Jeffrine Japning; Abdul-Patah, Pazil; Lakim, Maklarin; Roos, Christian; Yaakop, Salmah; Md-Zain, Badrul Munir

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Phylogenetic relationships among Malaysia’s long-tailed macaques have yet to be established, despite abundant genetic studies of the species worldwide. The aims of this study are to examine the phylogenetic relationships of Macaca fascicularis in Malaysia and to test its classification as a morphological subspecies. A total of 25 genetic samples of M. fascicularis yielding 383 bp of Cytochrome b (Cyt b) sequences were used in phylogenetic analysis along with one sample each of M. nemestrina and M. arctoides used as outgroups. Sequence character analysis reveals that Cyt b locus is a highly conserved region with only 23% parsimony informative character detected among ingroups. Further analysis indicates a clear separation between populations originating from different regions; the Malay Peninsula versus Borneo Insular, the East Coast versus West Coast of the Malay Peninsula, and the island versus mainland Malay Peninsula populations. Phylogenetic trees (NJ, MP and Bayesian) portray a consistent clustering paradigm as Borneo’s population was distinguished from Peninsula’s population (99% and 100% bootstrap value in NJ and MP respectively and 1.00 posterior probability in Bayesian trees). The East coast population was separated from other Peninsula populations (64% in NJ, 66% in MP and 0.53 posterior probability in Bayesian). West coast populations were divided into 2 clades: the North-South (47%/54% in NJ, 26/26% in MP and 1.00/0.80 posterior probability in Bayesian) and Island-Mainland (93% in NJ, 90% in MP and 1.00 posterior probability in Bayesian). The results confirm the previous morphological assignment of 2 subspecies, M. f. fascicularis and M. f. argentimembris, in the Malay Peninsula. These populations should be treated as separate genetic entities in order to conserve the genetic diversity of Malaysia’s M. fascicularis. These findings are crucial in aiding the conservation management and translocation process of M. fascicularis populations

  10. pH-dependent structural change of the extracellular sensor domain of the DraK histidine kinase from Streptomyces coelicolor

    SciTech Connect

    Yeo, Kwon Joo; Kim, Eun Hye; Hwang, Eunha; Han, Young-Hyun; Eo, Yumi; Kim, Hyun Jung; Kwon, Ohsuk; Hong, Young-Soo; Cheong, Chaejoon; Cheong, Hae-Kap

    2013-02-15

    Highlights: ► We described the biochemical and biophysical properties of the extracellular sensory domain (ESD) of DraK histidine kinase. ► The ESD of DraK showed a reversible pH-dependent conformational change in a wide pH range. ► The E83 is an important residue for the pH-dependent conformational change. -- Abstract: Recently, the DraR/DraK (Sco3063/Sco3062) two-component system (TCS) of Streptomycescoelicolor has been reported to be involved in the differential regulation of antibiotic biosynthesis. However, it has not been shown that under which conditions and how the DraR/DraK TCS is activated to initiate the signal transduction process. Therefore, to understand the sensing mechanism, structural study of the sensory domain of DraK is highly required. Here, we report the biochemical and biophysical properties of the extracellular sensory domain (ESD) of DraK. We observed a reversible pH-dependent conformational change of the ESD in a pH range of 2.5–10. Size-exclusion chromatography and AUC (analytical ultracentrifugation) data indicated that the ESD is predominantly monomeric in solution and exists in equilibrium between monomer and dimer states in acidic condition. Using NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance) and CD (circular dichroism) spectroscopy, our findings suggest that the structure of the ESD at low pH is more structured than that at high pH. In particular, the glutamate at position 83 is an important residue for the pH-dependent conformational change. These results suggest that this pH-dependent conformational change of ESD may be involved in signal transduction process of DraR/DraK TCS.

  11. DRA/NASA/ONERA Collaboration on Icing Research. Part 2; Prediction of Airfoil Ice Accretion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, William B.; Gent, R. W.; Guffond, Didier

    1997-01-01

    This report presents results from a joint study by DRA, NASA, and ONERA for the purpose of comparing, improving, and validating the aircraft icing computer codes developed by each agency. These codes are of three kinds: (1) water droplet trajectory prediction, (2) ice accretion modeling, and (3) transient electrothermal deicer analysis. In this joint study, the agencies compared their code predictions with each other and with experimental results. These comparison exercises were published in three technical reports, each with joint authorship. DRA published and had first authorship of Part 1 - Droplet Trajectory Calculations, NASA of Part 2 - Ice Accretion Prediction, and ONERA of Part 3 - Electrothermal Deicer Analysis. The results cover work done during the period from August 1986 to late 1991. As a result, all of the information in this report is dated. Where necessary, current information is provided to show the direction of current research. In this present report on ice accretion, each agency predicted ice shapes on two dimensional airfoils under icing conditions for which experimental ice shapes were available. In general, all three codes did a reasonable job of predicting the measured ice shapes. For any given experimental condition, one of the three codes predicted the general ice features (i.e., shape, impingement limits, mass of ice) somewhat better than did the other two. However, no single code consistently did better than the other two over the full range of conditions examined, which included rime, mixed, and glaze ice conditions. In several of the cases, DRA showed that the user's knowledge of icing can significantly improve the accuracy of the code prediction. Rime ice predictions were reasonably accurate and consistent among the codes, because droplets freeze on impact and the freezing model is simple. Glaze ice predictions were less accurate and less consistent among the codes, because the freezing model is more complex and is critically

  12. The Long-Term Spectroscopic Misadventures of AG Dra with a Nod toward V407 Cyg: Degenerates Behaving Badly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shore, S.N.; Genovali, K.; Wahlgren, G. M.

    2013-01-01

    We present some results of an ongoing study of the long-term spectroscopic variations of AG Dra, a prototypical eruptive symbiotic system. We discuss the effects of the environment and orbital modulation in this system and some of the physical processes revealed by a comparison with the nova outburst of the symbiotic-like recurrent nova V407 Cyg 2010.

  13. Variations in the orbital periods of the Algol-type eclipsing binaries RZ Cas and Z Dra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khaliullina, A. I.

    2016-05-01

    A detailed study of variations of the orbital periods of the Algol-type eclipsing binary systems RZ Cas and Z Dra is presented. The fairly complex variations of the periods of both systems can be represented as a superposition of a secular increase of the period, slow periodic fluctuations, and quasiperiodic oscillations with a small amplitude occurring on timescales of decades. The secular increase of the period can be explained by the steady mass transfer from the less massive to the more massive component with conservation of the total angular momentum. The mass-transfer rate is 5.7 × 10-9 M ⊙/yr for RZ Cas and 3.0×10-8 M ⊙/yr for Z Dra. To explain the long-period cyclic variations of the orbital periods of RZCas and Z Dra, it must be assumed that the eclipsing binaries move in long-period orbits. RZ Cas moves with a period of 133 yr around a third body withmass M 3 > 0.55 M ⊙, while Z Dra moves with a period of 60 yr around a third body with mass M 3 > 0.7 M ⊙. The residual fluctuations of the periods may be due to a superposition of variations due to magnetic cycles and non-stationary ejections of matter.

  14. The Long-Term Spectroscopic Misadventures of AG Dra with a Nod toward V407 Cyg: Degenerates Behaving Badly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shore, S. N.; Genovali, K.; Wahlgren, G. M.

    We present some results of an ongoing study of the long-term spectroscopic variations of AG Dra, a prototypical eruptive symbiotic system. We discuss the effects of the environment and orbital modulation in this system and some of the physical processes revealed by a comparison with the nova outburst of the symbiotic-like recurrent nova V407 Cyg 2010.

  15. Multiple sclerosis risk markers in HLA-DRA, HLA-C, and IFNG genes are associated with sex-specific childhood leukemia risk.

    PubMed

    Morrison, Brittany A; Ucisik-Akkaya, Esma; Flores, Hilario; Alaez, Carmen; Gorodezky, Clara; Dorak, M Tevfik

    2010-12-01

    Previous epidemiologic studies showed four times increased risk of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) in children of women with multiple sclerosis (MS). MS shows a risk association with Human leukocyte antigens (HLA)-DRA single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs3135388, which is a proxy marker for DRB1*1501. We examined the relevance of rs3135388 in childhood ALL risk along with two other HLA-DRA SNPs in two case-control groups: 114 cases and 388 controls from South Wales (UK) and 100 Mexican Mestizo cases and 253 controls. We first confirmed the correlation between rs3135388 and DRB1*1501 in HLA-typed reference cell lines. We noted a female-specific risk association in childhood ALL (pooled odds ratio (OR) = 2.6, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.5-4.5, Mantel-Haenszel P = 0.0009) similar to the stronger association of DRB1*1501 in females with MS. Examination of an HLA-C 5' flanking region SNP rs9264942, known to correlate with HLA-C expression, showed a protective association in girls (OR = 0.4, 95% CI = 0.2-0.7, Mantel-Haenszel P = 0.0003) similar to the protective HLA-Cw*05 association in MS. In a reference cell line panel, HLA-Cw5 homozygous samples (n = 8) were also homozygous for the minor allele of the SNP. Likewise, the male-specific protective association of interferon-gamma (IFNG) SNP rs2069727 in MS was replicated with the same sex specificity in childhood ALL (OR = 0.6, 95% CI = 0.4-1.0, Mantel-Haenszel P = 0.03). Two other SNPs in superkiller viralicidic activity 2-like and tenascin XB that are markers for systemic lupus erythematosus susceptibility showed female-specific associations but due to linkage disequilibrium with HLA-DRB1*15. Our observations supported the epidemiologic link between MS and childhood ALL and added the sex effect to this connection. It appears that only girls born to mothers with MS may have an increased risk of ALL. Investigating the mechanism of these sex-specific associations may help understand the pathogenesis of MS and ALL.

  16. Lunar-based Ultraviolet Telescope study of the well-known Algol-type binary TW Dra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Wen-Ping; Qian, Sheng-Bang; Zejda, Miloslav; Zhu, Li-Ying; Li, Lin-Jia

    2016-06-01

    By using the Lunar-based Ultraviolet Telescope (LUT) from 2014 December 2 to December 4, the first near-UV light curve of the well-known Algol-type binary TW Dra is reported, which is analyzed with the 2013 version of the W-D code. Our solutions confirmed that TW Dra is a semi-detached binary system where the secondary component fills its Roche lobe. The mass ratio and a high inclination are obtained (q = 0.47, i = 86.68°). Based on 589 available data spanning more than one century, the complex period changes are studied. Secular increase and three cyclical changes are found in the corresponding orbital period analysis. The secular increase changes reveal mass transfer from the secondary component to the primary one at a rate of 6.8 × 10‑7 M ⊙ yr‑1. One large cyclical change of 116.04 yr may be caused by disturbance of visual component ADS 9706B orbiting TW Dra (ADS 9706A), while the other two cyclical changes with shorter periods of 22.47 and 37.27 yr can be explained as the result of two circumbinary companions that are orbiting around TW Dra, where the two companions are in simple 3 : 5 orbit-rotation resonances. TW Dra itself is a basic binary in a possible sextuple system with the configuration (1 + 1) + (1 + 1) + (1 + 1), which further suggests that multiplicity may be a fairly common phenomenon in close binary systems.

  17. Lunar-based Ultraviolet Telescope study of the well-known Algol-type binary TW Dra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Wen-Ping; Qian, Sheng-Bang; Zejda, Miloslav; Zhu, Li-Ying; Li, Lin-Jia

    2016-06-01

    By using the Lunar-based Ultraviolet Telescope (LUT) from 2014 December 2 to December 4, the first near-UV light curve of the well-known Algol-type binary TW Dra is reported, which is analyzed with the 2013 version of the W-D code. Our solutions confirmed that TW Dra is a semi-detached binary system where the secondary component fills its Roche lobe. The mass ratio and a high inclination are obtained (q = 0.47, i = 86.68°). Based on 589 available data spanning more than one century, the complex period changes are studied. Secular increase and three cyclical changes are found in the corresponding orbital period analysis. The secular increase changes reveal mass transfer from the secondary component to the primary one at a rate of 6.8 × 10-7 M ⊙ yr-1. One large cyclical change of 116.04 yr may be caused by disturbance of visual component ADS 9706B orbiting TW Dra (ADS 9706A), while the other two cyclical changes with shorter periods of 22.47 and 37.27 yr can be explained as the result of two circumbinary companions that are orbiting around TW Dra, where the two companions are in simple 3 : 5 orbit-rotation resonances. TW Dra itself is a basic binary in a possible sextuple system with the configuration (1 + 1) + (1 + 1) + (1 + 1), which further suggests that multiplicity may be a fairly common phenomenon in close binary systems.

  18. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor and bleeding in a cynomolgus macaque (Macaca fascicularis).

    PubMed

    Silverstein, Marnie G; El-Amin, Colette Kirk; Shively, Carol A

    2014-06-01

    Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI) are associated with an increased bleeding risk in humans. This report describes a bleeding event in a cynomolgus macaque (Macaca fascicularis) treated with the SSRI sertraline HCl (Zoloft). During the treatment course, the subject presented with a maculopapular rash, cutaneous bleeding, epistaxis, bleeding from the eye, melena, and a severe thrombocytopenia. To our knowledge, this report is the first description of an SSRI-related adverse event in a nonhuman primate. This report demonstrates that the clinical presentation of SSRI-associated bleeding in cynomolgus macaques is consistent with that reported in humans and that complications from SSRI treatment should be considered as a differential diagnosis for maculopapular dermatitis or spontaneous bleeding in this species.

  19. Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitor and Bleeding in a Cynomolgus Macaque (Macaca fascicularis)

    PubMed Central

    Silverstein, Marnie G; El-Amin, Colette Kirk; Shively, Carol A

    2014-01-01

    Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI) are associated with an increased bleeding risk in humans. This report describes a bleeding event in a cynomolgus macaque (Macaca fascicularis) treated with the SSRI sertraline HCl (Zoloft). During the treatment course, the subject presented with a maculopapular rash, cutaneous bleeding, epistaxis, bleeding from the eye, melena, and a severe thrombocytopenia. To our knowledge, this report is the first description of an SSRI-related adverse event in a nonhuman primate. This report demonstrates that the clinical presentation of SSRI-associated bleeding in cynomolgus macaques is consistent with that reported in humans and that complications from SSRI treatment should be considered as a differential diagnosis for maculopapular dermatitis or spontaneous bleeding in this species. PMID:24956214

  20. Neuroblastoma at the trigeminal nerve in a cynomolgus monkey (Macaca fascicularis).

    PubMed

    Ide, Tetsuya; Moriyama, Akiko; Uchida, Kazuyuki; Chambers, James K; Okazaki, Takanobu; Kobayashi, Kinji; Nakatsuji, Shunji; Matsumoto, Masahiro

    2016-07-01

    A male cynomolgus monkey (Macaca fascicularis) of 5 years and 11 months of age from the vehicle control group of a 4-week repeated oral dose toxicity study had a spontaneously occurring mass lesion directly attached to the proximal part of the left trigeminal nerve. Histologically, the mass was characterized by a multifocal nodular appearance. Nodular zones showed low to moderate cellularity and were composed of small round cells exhibiting nuclear uniformity. On the other hand, inter-nodular zones were composed of nerve fiber containing septa and closely aggregated highly pleomorphic cells. Immunohistochemically, the small round cells were strongly immunopositive for synaptophysin, neuN, and class III beta-tubulin, while the highly pleomorphic cells were weakly immunopositive for neuN and occasionally immunopositive for class III beta-tubulin and doublecortin, suggesting that the tumor had originated from a neuronal lineage cell. Based on these findings, the mass was diagnosed as a neuroblastoma at the trigeminal nerve. PMID:27559245

  1. Neuroblastoma at the trigeminal nerve in a cynomolgus monkey (Macaca fascicularis)

    PubMed Central

    Ide, Tetsuya; Moriyama, Akiko; Uchida, Kazuyuki; Chambers, James K.; Okazaki, Takanobu; Kobayashi, Kinji; Nakatsuji, Shunji; Matsumoto, Masahiro

    2016-01-01

    A male cynomolgus monkey (Macaca fascicularis) of 5 years and 11 months of age from the vehicle control group of a 4-week repeated oral dose toxicity study had a spontaneously occurring mass lesion directly attached to the proximal part of the left trigeminal nerve. Histologically, the mass was characterized by a multifocal nodular appearance. Nodular zones showed low to moderate cellularity and were composed of small round cells exhibiting nuclear uniformity. On the other hand, inter-nodular zones were composed of nerve fiber containing septa and closely aggregated highly pleomorphic cells. Immunohistochemically, the small round cells were strongly immunopositive for synaptophysin, neuN, and class III beta-tubulin, while the highly pleomorphic cells were weakly immunopositive for neuN and occasionally immunopositive for class III beta-tubulin and doublecortin, suggesting that the tumor had originated from a neuronal lineage cell. Based on these findings, the mass was diagnosed as a neuroblastoma at the trigeminal nerve. PMID:27559245

  2. Characterization of cement float buoyancy in the stalked barnacle Dosima fascicularis (Crustacea, Cirripedia).

    PubMed

    Zheden, Vanessa; Kovalev, Alexander; Gorb, Stanislav N; Klepal, Waltraud

    2015-02-01

    Dosima fascicularis is the only barnacle which can drift autonomously at the water surface with a foam-like cement float. The cement secreted by the animal contains numerous gas-filled cells of different size. When several individuals share one float, their size and not their number is crucial for the production of both volume and mass of the float. The gas content within the cells of the foam gives positive static buoyancy to the whole float. The volume of the float, the gas volume and the positive static buoyancy are positively correlated. The density of the cement float without gas is greater than that of seawater. This study shows that the secreted cement consists of more than 90% water and the gas volume is on average 18.5%. Our experiments demonstrate that the intact foam-like cement float is sealed to the surrounding water. PMID:25657839

  3. Characterization of cement float buoyancy in the stalked barnacle Dosima fascicularis (Crustacea, Cirripedia)

    PubMed Central

    Zheden, Vanessa; Kovalev, Alexander; Gorb, Stanislav N.; Klepal, Waltraud

    2015-01-01

    Dosima fascicularis is the only barnacle which can drift autonomously at the water surface with a foam-like cement float. The cement secreted by the animal contains numerous gas-filled cells of different size. When several individuals share one float, their size and not their number is crucial for the production of both volume and mass of the float. The gas content within the cells of the foam gives positive static buoyancy to the whole float. The volume of the float, the gas volume and the positive static buoyancy are positively correlated. The density of the cement float without gas is greater than that of seawater. This study shows that the secreted cement consists of more than 90% water and the gas volume is on average 18.5%. Our experiments demonstrate that the intact foam-like cement float is sealed to the surrounding water. PMID:25657839

  4. Study of the gastrointestinal parasitic fauna of captive non-human primates (Macaca fascicularis).

    PubMed

    Zanzani, Sergio Aurelio; Gazzonis, Alessia Libera; Epis, Sara; Manfredi, Maria Teresa

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine helminths and protozoans in cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis) imported from registered breeding facilities in China and their relation to health risks for non-human primate handlers in biomedical research centers and in breeding facilities. Fresh fecal samples were collected from a total of 443 M. fascicularis and analyzed by copromicroscopical analysis, immunoenzymatic, or molecular assays. As to helminths, whose eggs were shed in 2.03% of the samples, Trichuris and Oesophagostomum were the only two taxa found, with low prevalence and low eggs per gram (EPG) values. Protozoans were more frequently detected (87.40%), with Entamoeba coli (85.19%) and Endolimax nana (79.26%) as the most prevalent species shed. Other parasites found by fecal smear examination were uninucleated-cyst-producing Entamoebas (78.52%), Iodamoeba bütschlii (42.96%), and Chilomastix mesnili (24.44%), while cysts of Balantidium coli (22.2%) were only observed by sedimentation. No coproantigens of Giardia duodenalis, Cryptosporidium spp., and Entamoeba histolytica complex were detected. Blastocystis sp. infection was noticed in 87.63% of macaques by PCR. These cynomolgus monkeys were infected with many subtypes (ST1, ST2, ST3, ST5, and ST7), where the predominant Blastocystis sp. subtypes were ST2 (77.5%), followed by ST1 (63.5%). Data collected confirmed the presence of potentially zoonotic parasites and a high parasite diversity, suggesting the need for appropriate and sensitive techniques to adequately control them and related health risks for handlers of non-human primates in biomedical research centers and in breeding facilities. PMID:26374536

  5. Analysis of Macular Drusen and Blood Test Results in 945 Macaca fascicularis

    PubMed Central

    Nishiguchi, Koji M.; Yokoyama, Yu; Fujii, Yusuke; Fujita, Kosuke; Tomiyama, Yusuke; Kawasaki, Ryo; Furukawa, Toshinori; Ono, Fumiko; Shimozawa, Nobuhiro; Togo, Mutsumi; Suzuki, Michihiro; Nakazawa, Toru

    2016-01-01

    Age-dependent formation of macular drusen caused by the focal accumulation of extracellular deposits beneath the retinal pigment epithelium precede the development of age-related macular degeneration (AMD), one of the leading causes of blindness worldwide. It is established that inflammation contributes to the pathogenesis of drusen and AMD. However, development of a preemptive therapeutic strategy targeting macular drusen and AMD has been impeded by the lack of relevant animal models because most laboratory animals lack macula, an anatomic feature present only in humans and a subset of monkeys. Reportedly, macular drusen and macular degeneration develop in monkeys in an age-dependent manner. In this study, we analyzed blood test results from 945 Macaca fascicularis, 317 with and 628 without drusen. First, a trend test for drusen frequency (the Cochran–Armitage test) was applied to the quartile data for each parameter. We selected variables with an increasing or decreasing trend with higher quartiles at P < 0.05, to which multivariate logistic regression analysis was applied. This revealed a positive association of age (odds ratio [OR]: 1.10 per year, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.07–1.12) and white blood cell count (OR: 1.01 per 1 × 103/μl, 95% CI: 1.00–1.01) with drusen. When the monkeys were divided by age, the association between drusen and white blood cell count was only evident in younger monkeys (OR: 1.01 per 1 × 103/μl, 95% CI: 1.00–1.02). In conclusion, age and white blood cell count may be associated with drusen development in M. fascicularis. Systemic inflammation may contribute to drusen formation in monkeys. PMID:27776188

  6. Infection by Brazilian and Dutch swine hepatitis E virus strains induces haematological changes in Macaca fascicularis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Hepatitis E virus (HEV) has been described as an emerging pathogen in Brazil and seems to be widely disseminated among swine herds. An autochthonous human case of acute hepatitis E was recently reported. To obtain a better understanding of the phenotypic profiles of both human and swine HEV strains, a experimental study was conducted using the animal model, Macaca fascicularis. Methods Six cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) were inoculated intravenously with swine HEV genotype 3 that was isolated from naturally and experimentally infected pigs in Brazil and the Netherlands. Two other monkeys were inoculated with HEV genotype 3 that was recovered from Brazilian and Argentinean patients with locally acquired acute and fulminant hepatitis E. The haematological, biochemical, and virological parameters of all animals were monitored for 67 days. Results Subclinical hepatitis was observed in all monkeys after inoculation with HEV genotype 3 that was recovered from the infected swine and human patients. HEV RNA was detected in the serum and/or faeces of 6 out of the 8 cynomolgus monkeys between 5 and 53 days after inoculation. The mild inflammation of liver tissues and elevations of discrete liver enzymes were observed. Seroconversions to anti-HEV IgM and/or IgG were detected in 7 animals. Reactivities to anti-HEV IgA were also detected in the salivary samples of 3 animals. Interestingly, all of the infected monkeys showed severe lymphopenia and a trend toward monocytosis, which coincided with elevations in alanine aminotransferase and antibody titres. Conclusions The ability of HEV to cross the species barrier was confirmed for both the swine (Brazilian and Dutch) and human (Argentinean) strains, thus reinforcing the zoonotic risk of hepatitis E in South America. Cynomolgus monkeys that were infected with HEV genotype 3 developed subclinical hepatitis that was associated with haematological changes. Haematological approaches should be considered in

  7. Study of the gastrointestinal parasitic fauna of captive non-human primates (Macaca fascicularis).

    PubMed

    Zanzani, Sergio Aurelio; Gazzonis, Alessia Libera; Epis, Sara; Manfredi, Maria Teresa

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine helminths and protozoans in cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis) imported from registered breeding facilities in China and their relation to health risks for non-human primate handlers in biomedical research centers and in breeding facilities. Fresh fecal samples were collected from a total of 443 M. fascicularis and analyzed by copromicroscopical analysis, immunoenzymatic, or molecular assays. As to helminths, whose eggs were shed in 2.03% of the samples, Trichuris and Oesophagostomum were the only two taxa found, with low prevalence and low eggs per gram (EPG) values. Protozoans were more frequently detected (87.40%), with Entamoeba coli (85.19%) and Endolimax nana (79.26%) as the most prevalent species shed. Other parasites found by fecal smear examination were uninucleated-cyst-producing Entamoebas (78.52%), Iodamoeba bütschlii (42.96%), and Chilomastix mesnili (24.44%), while cysts of Balantidium coli (22.2%) were only observed by sedimentation. No coproantigens of Giardia duodenalis, Cryptosporidium spp., and Entamoeba histolytica complex were detected. Blastocystis sp. infection was noticed in 87.63% of macaques by PCR. These cynomolgus monkeys were infected with many subtypes (ST1, ST2, ST3, ST5, and ST7), where the predominant Blastocystis sp. subtypes were ST2 (77.5%), followed by ST1 (63.5%). Data collected confirmed the presence of potentially zoonotic parasites and a high parasite diversity, suggesting the need for appropriate and sensitive techniques to adequately control them and related health risks for handlers of non-human primates in biomedical research centers and in breeding facilities.

  8. Reduced heterotrophy in the stony coral Galaxea fascicularis after life-long exposure to elevated carbon dioxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Joy N.; Strahl, Julia; Noonan, Sam H. C.; Schmidt, Gertraud M.; Richter, Claudio; Fabricius, Katharina E.

    2016-06-01

    Ocean acidification imposes many physiological, energetic, structural and ecological challenges to stony corals. While some corals may increase autotrophy under ocean acidification, another potential mechanism to alleviate some of the adverse effects on their physiology is to increase heterotrophy. We compared the feeding rates of Galaxea fascicularis colonies that have lived their entire lives under ocean acidification conditions at natural carbon dioxide (CO2) seeps with colonies living under present-day CO2 conditions. When provided with the same quantity and composition of zooplankton as food, corals acclimatized to high CO2 showed 2.8 to 4.8 times depressed rates of zooplankton feeding. Results were consistent over four experiments, from two expeditions and both in field and chamber measurements. Unless replenished by other sources, reduced zooplankton uptake in G. fascicularis acclimatized to ocean acidification is likely to entail a shortage of vital nutrients, potentially jeopardizing their health and survival in future oceans.

  9. Reduced heterotrophy in the stony coral Galaxea fascicularis after life-long exposure to elevated carbon dioxide

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Joy N.; Strahl, Julia; Noonan, Sam H. C.; Schmidt, Gertraud M.; Richter, Claudio; Fabricius, Katharina E.

    2016-01-01

    Ocean acidification imposes many physiological, energetic, structural and ecological challenges to stony corals. While some corals may increase autotrophy under ocean acidification, another potential mechanism to alleviate some of the adverse effects on their physiology is to increase heterotrophy. We compared the feeding rates of Galaxea fascicularis colonies that have lived their entire lives under ocean acidification conditions at natural carbon dioxide (CO2) seeps with colonies living under present-day CO2 conditions. When provided with the same quantity and composition of zooplankton as food, corals acclimatized to high CO2 showed 2.8 to 4.8 times depressed rates of zooplankton feeding. Results were consistent over four experiments, from two expeditions and both in field and chamber measurements. Unless replenished by other sources, reduced zooplankton uptake in G. fascicularis acclimatized to ocean acidification is likely to entail a shortage of vital nutrients, potentially jeopardizing their health and survival in future oceans. PMID:27255977

  10. Reduced heterotrophy in the stony coral Galaxea fascicularis after life-long exposure to elevated carbon dioxide.

    PubMed

    Smith, Joy N; Strahl, Julia; Noonan, Sam H C; Schmidt, Gertraud M; Richter, Claudio; Fabricius, Katharina E

    2016-01-01

    Ocean acidification imposes many physiological, energetic, structural and ecological challenges to stony corals. While some corals may increase autotrophy under ocean acidification, another potential mechanism to alleviate some of the adverse effects on their physiology is to increase heterotrophy. We compared the feeding rates of Galaxea fascicularis colonies that have lived their entire lives under ocean acidification conditions at natural carbon dioxide (CO2) seeps with colonies living under present-day CO2 conditions. When provided with the same quantity and composition of zooplankton as food, corals acclimatized to high CO2 showed 2.8 to 4.8 times depressed rates of zooplankton feeding. Results were consistent over four experiments, from two expeditions and both in field and chamber measurements. Unless replenished by other sources, reduced zooplankton uptake in G. fascicularis acclimatized to ocean acidification is likely to entail a shortage of vital nutrients, potentially jeopardizing their health and survival in future oceans. PMID:27255977

  11. Rotational modulation and flares on RS CVn and BY Dra-type stars. I - Photometry and spot models for BY Dra, AU Mic, AR Lac, II Peg and V 711 Tau (= HR 1099)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodono, M.; Cutispoto, G.; Pazzani, V.; Catalano, S.; Byrne, P. B.

    1986-01-01

    Multicolor wide-band photometry of five active stars is presented. The observations were carried out at several places before, during and after the period of IUE observations for the purpose of determining the location, sizes, and evolution of photospheric spots at the time when chromospheric, transition region, and coronal activity data were obtained from UV and radio observations. II Peg, BY Dra, and AU Mic show fairly stable quasi-sinusoidal light curves, while AR Lac and V 711 Tau show double-peaked light curves. For V 711 Tau, a remarkable evolution of the spotted area extent and/or longitude distribution is found. Small, but definite color variations that are consistent with the cool spot hypothesis have also been detected for BY Dra, II Peg and V 711 Tau.

  12. Jaw-muscle architecture and mandibular morphology influence relative maximum jaw gapes in the sexually dimorphic Macaca fascicularis.

    PubMed

    Terhune, Claire E; Hylander, William L; Vinyard, Christopher J; Taylor, Andrea B

    2015-05-01

    Maximum jaw gape is a performance variable related to feeding and non-feeding oral behaviors, such as canine gape displays, and is influenced by several factors including jaw-muscle fiber architecture, muscle position on the skull, and jaw morphology. Maximum gape, jaw length, and canine height are strongly correlated across catarrhine primates, but relationships between gape and other aspects of masticatory apparatus morphology are less clear. We examine the effects of jaw-adductor fiber architecture, jaw-muscle leverage, and jaw form on gape in an intraspecific sample of sexually dimorphic crab-eating macaques (Macaca fascicularis). As M. fascicularis males have relatively larger maximum gapes than females, we predict that males will have muscle and jaw morphologies that facilitate large gape, but these morphologies may come at some expense to bite force. Male crab-eating macaques have relatively longer jaw-muscle fibers, masseters with decreased leverage, and temporomandibular joint morphologies that facilitate the production of wide gapes. Because relative canine height is correlated with maximum gape in catarrhines, and males have relatively longer canines than females, these results support the hypothesis that male M. fascicularis have experienced selection to increase maximum gape. The sexes do not differ in relative masseter physiologic cross-sectional area (PCSA), but males compensate for a potential trade-off between muscle excursion versus muscle force with increased temporalis weight and PCSA. This musculoskeletal configuration is likely functionally significant for behaviors involving aggressive canine biting and displays in male M. fascicularis and provides additional evidence supporting the multifactorial nature of the catarrhine masticatory apparatus. Our results have implications for the evolution of craniofacial morphology in catarrhine primates and reinforce the importance of evaluating additional factors other than feeding behavior and diet

  13. Effects of heat treatment on stress corrosion cracking of a discontinuously reinforced aluminum (DRA) 7XXX alloy during slow strain rate testing

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, P.M.; Lewandowski, J.J.

    1995-11-01

    Discontinuously reinforced aluminum (DRA) alloys are being developed as candidate materials for the automotive and aerospace industry. Although the corrosion and stress corrosion cracking (SCC) susceptibility of aluminum alloys have been extensively studied, comparatively little is known about the corrosion and SCC behavior of DRA materials. The intent of the present work was to study the effects of changes in microstructure/heat treatment on the crack nucleation mechanisms in DRAs and their monolithic atrices on the overall slow strain rate SCC performance in a 3.5% NaCl solution (pH = 3.0). For a given heat treatment, MB78 DRA materials show more susceptibility to stress corrosion cracking than the equivalent monolithic material. For the MB78 composite, the UAII material exhibited the maximum susceptibility to SCC. Both the UAI and UAII material were more susceptible to SCC than the OA material. MB78 DRA and monolithic specimens which have been shown to have a continuous ({eta} and {eta}{prime}) layer along the grain boundaries also showed higher susceptibility to stress corrosion cracking. Significantly more crack coalescence to form larger cracks was observed for the DRA specimens tested in the NaCl solution compared to the DRA specimens tested in dry-air. Monolithic specimens (OA as well as UA) did not exhibit visible micro-cracks or significant crack coalescence on the surfaces.

  14. Suppression of X-rays during an optical outburst of the helium dwarf nova KL Dra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramsay, Gavin; Wheatley, Peter J.; Rosen, Simon; Barclay, Thomas; Steeghs, Danny

    2012-09-01

    KL Dra is a helium-accreting AM CVn binary system with an orbital period close to 25 min. Approximately every 60 d there is a 4-mag optical outburst lasting ˜10 d. We present the most sensitive X-ray observations made of an AM CVn system during an outburst cycle. A series of eight observations were made using XMM-Newton which started shortly after the onset of an optical outburst. We find that X-rays are suppressed during the optical outburst. There is some evidence for a spectral evolution of the X-ray spectrum during the course of the outburst. A periodic modulation is seen in the ultraviolet data at three epochs - this is a signature of the binary orbital or the superhump period. The temperature of the X-ray-emitting plasma is cooler compared to dwarf novae, which may suggest that a wind is the origin of a significant fraction of the X-ray flux.

  15. Photometric analysis of overcontact binaries AK Her, HI Dra, V1128 Tau, and V2612 Oph

    SciTech Connect

    Çalışkan, Ş.; Özavcı, İ.; Baştürk, Ö.; Şenavcı, H. V.; Kılıçoğlu, T.; Yılmaz, M.; Selam, S. O.; Latković, O.; Djurašević, G.; Cséki, A. E-mail: ozavci@science.ankara.edu.tr E-mail: hvsenavci@ankara.edu.tr E-mail: mesutyilmaz@ankara.edu.tr E-mail: olivia@aob.rs E-mail: attila@aob.rs

    2014-12-01

    We analyze new, high quality multicolor light curves of four overcontact binaries: AK Her, HI Dra, V1128 Tau, and V2612 Oph, and determine their orbital and physical parameters using the modeling program of G. Djurasevic and recently published results of radial velocity studies. The achieved precision in absolute masses is between 10% and 20%, and the precision in absolute radii is between 5% and 10%. All four systems are W UMa-type binaries with bright or dark spots indicative of mass and energy transfer or surface activity. We estimate the distances and the ages of the systems using the luminosities computed through our analysis, and perform an O – C study for V1128 Tau, which reveals a complex period variation that can be interpreted in terms of mass loss/exchange and either the presence of the third body, or the magnetic activity on one of the components. We conclude that further observations of these systems are needed to deepen our understanding of their nature and variability.

  16. V380 Dra: New short-period totally eclipsing active binary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Özdarcan, O.

    2014-02-01

    In this study, first complete and standard BVR light curves and photometric analysis of the eclipsing binary system V380 Dra are presented. Photometric analysis result indicates that the system has components which are cool main sequence stars. In light and color curves, remarkable asymmetry is observed, especially after secondary minimum, which is believed to be a result of chromospheric activity in one or both components. O-C diagram of available small number of eclipse times, together with new eclipse timings in this work, exhibits no significant variation. Preliminary light curve solution shows that the secondary minimum is total eclipse. By using the advantage of total eclipse and mass-luminosity relation, it is found that the system has a possible mass ratio of q = 0.81. First estimation of masses and radii of primary and secondary components are M1 = 0.77 M⊙,M2 = 0.62 M⊙ and R1 = 0.93 R⊙,R2 = 0.77 R⊙, respectively.

  17. Engineering Macaca fascicularis cytochrome P450 2C20 to reduce animal testing for new drugs.

    PubMed

    Rua, Francesco; Sadeghi, Sheila J; Castrignanò, Silvia; Di Nardo, Giovanna; Gilardi, Gianfranco

    2012-12-01

    In order to develop in vitro methods as an alternative to P450 animal testing in the drug discovery process, two main requisites are necessary: 1) gathering of data on animal homologues of the human P450 enzymes, currently very limited, and 2) bypassing the requirement for both the P450 reductase and the expensive cofactor NADPH. In this work, P450 2C20 from Macaca fascicularis, homologue of the human P450 2C8 has been taken as a model system to develop such an alternative in vitro method by two different approaches. In the first approach called "molecular Lego", a soluble self-sufficient chimera was generated by fusing the P450 2C20 domain with the reductase domain of cytochrome P450 BM3 from Bacillus megaterium (P450 2C20/BMR). In the second approach, the need for the redox partner and also NADPH were both obviated by the direct immobilization of the P450 2C20 on glassy carbon and gold electrodes. Both systems were then compared to those obtained from the reconstituted P450 2C20 monooxygenase in presence of the human P450 reductase and NADPH using paclitaxel and amodiaquine, two typical drug substrates of the human P450 2C8. The K(M) values calculated for the 2C20 and 2C20/BMR in solution and for 2C20 immobilized on electrodes modified with gold nanoparticles were 1.9 ± 0.2, 5.9 ± 2.3, 3.0 ± 0.5 μM for paclitaxel and 1.2 ± 0.2, 1.6±0.2 and 1.4 ± 0.2 μM for amodiaquine, respectively. The data obtained not only show that the engineering of M. fascicularis did not affect its catalytic properties but also are consistent with K(M) values measured for the microsomal human P450 2C8 and therefore show the feasibility of developing alternative in vitro animal tests.

  18. Compete to Play: Trade-Off with Social Contact in Long-Tailed Macaques (Macaca fascicularis)

    PubMed Central

    Ballesta, Sébastien; Reymond, Gilles; Pozzobon, Mathieu; Duhamel, Jean-René

    2014-01-01

    Many animal species engage in various forms of solitary object play, but this activity seems to be of particular importance in primates. If playing objects constitute a valuable resource, and access to such objects is limited, a competitive context may arise. We inserted a unique toy within a mini-colony of long-tailed macaque (Macaca fascicularis) and compared their behaviors to sessions without playing object. An automatic color-based 3D video device was used to track the positions of each animal and the toy, and this data was categorized into 5 exclusive behaviors (resting, locomotion, foraging, social contact and object play). As expected, the delay to first access to the object reflected the hierarchy of the colony, indicating that a competition took place to own this unique resource of entertainment. In addition, we found that the amount of object play was not correlated with social or foraging behavior, suggesting independent motivational mechanisms. Conversely, object playing time was negatively correlated with idling time, thus indicating its relation to pastime activities. Interestingly, the amount of social contacts in the group was significantly reduced by the heightened competitive context, suggesting that competitors are more likely to be perceived as potential threat requiring caution, as shown in humans. Experimental manipulation of competitive contexts in primates reveals common mental processes involved in social judgment, and shows that access to valuable resources can be a sufficient cause for variations in group cohesion. PMID:25551755

  19. Occurrence of multinucleated hepatocytes in cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) from different geographical regions.

    PubMed

    Novilla, M N; Jackson, M K; Reim, D A; Jacobson, S B; Nagata, R A

    2014-11-01

    Multinucleated hepatocytes (MNHs) have been occasionally reported in macaques, as well as chimpanzees and gorillas, as an incidental finding. However, information is sparse on variations in incidence in the cynomolgus macaque (Macaca fascicularis). A survey was conducted to assess the occurrence of MNHs in the liver of stock (nonstudy) animals from SNBL SRC (Alice, TX) and SNBL USA (Everett, WA) submitted for diagnostic purposes. A total of 215 cynomolgus monkeys originally from Cambodia (61), China (5), Indonesia (125), and Mauritius (24) were used for this investigation. From each animal, usually 2 liver samples were processed for histopathology with 2 sections in each slide. An MNH was defined as a hepatocyte with 3 or more nuclei. A threshold of 3 MNHs was selected for the Multinucleated Hepatocyte Grading System: 0 = not remarkable (≤3 MNHs counted from 2-4 liver sections), minimal = 4 to 15 MNHs, mild = 16 to 30 MNHs, moderate = 31 to 59 MNHs, and severe ≥60 MNHs. The incidence of MNHs was 60 of 86 (70%) in males and 72 of 129 (56%) in females for a total overall incidence of 132 of 215 animals (61%). Affected hepatocytes were frequently observed close to the capsule and generally had 3 to 8 nuclei per hepatocyte but as many as 15 occurred in a single cell. Awareness of the incidence of MNHs in cynomolgus monkeys is important for potential use as background data in preclinical safety and toxicity evaluation studies.

  20. Population and Landscape Genetics of an Introduced Species (M. fascicularis) on the Island of Mauritius

    PubMed Central

    Satkoski Trask, Jessica; George, Debra; Houghton, Paul; Kanthaswamy, Sree; Smith, David Glenn

    2013-01-01

    The cynomolgus macaque, Macaca fascicularis, was introduced onto the island of Mauritius in the early 17th century. The species experienced explosive population growth, and currently exists at high population densities. Anecdotes collected from nonhuman primate trappers on the island of Mauritius allege that animals from the northern portion of the island are larger in body size than and superior in condition to their conspecifics in the south. Although previous genetic studies have reported Mauritian cynomolgus macaques to be panmictic, the individuals included in these studies were either from the southern/central or an unknown portion of the island. In this study, we sampled individuals broadly throughout the entire island of Mauritius and used spatial principle component analysis to measure the fine-scale correlation between geographic and genetic distance in this population. A stronger correlation between geographic and genetic distance was found among animals in the north than in those in the southern and central portions of the island. We found no difference in body weight between the two groups, despite anecdotal evidence to the contrary. We hypothesize that the increased genetic structure among populations in the north is related to a reduction in dispersal distance brought about by human habitation and tourist infrastructure, but too recent to have produced true genetic differentiation. PMID:23341917

  1. Pharmacokinetics of 2 Formulations of Transdermal Fentanyl in Cynomolgus Macaques (Macaca fascicularis).

    PubMed

    Carlson, Amy M; Kelly Iii, Richard; Fetterer, David P; Rico, Pedro J; Bailey, Emily J

    2016-01-01

    Fentanyl is a μ-opioid agonist that often is used as the analgesic component for balanced anesthesia in both human and veterinary patients. Minimal information has been published regarding appropriate dosing, and the pharmacokinetics of fentanyl are unknown in NHP. The pharmacokinetic properties of 2 transdermal fentanyl delivery methods, a solution (2.6 and 1.95 mg/kg) and a patch (25 μg/h), were determined when applied topically to the dorsal scapular area of cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis). Serum fentanyl concentrations were analyzed by using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Compared with the patch, the transdermal fentanyl solution generated higher drug concentrations over longer time. Adverse reactions occurred in the macaques that received the transdermal fentanyl solution at 2.6 mg/kg. Both preparations showed significant interanimal variability in the maximal serum drug levels, time to achieve maximal fentanyl levels, elimination half-life, and AUC values. Both the maximal concentration and the time at which this concentration occurred were increased in macaques compared with most other species after application of the transdermal fentanyl patch and compared with dogs after application of the transdermal fentanyl solution. The pharmacokinetic properties of transdermal fentanyl in macaques are markedly different from those in other veterinary species and preclude its use as a long-acting analgesic drug in NHP. PMID:27423151

  2. Infinium monkeys: Infinium 450K array for the Cynomolgus macaque (Macaca fascicularis).

    PubMed

    Ong, Mei-Lyn; Tan, Peck Yean; MacIsaac, Julia L; Mah, Sarah M; Buschdorf, Jan Paul; Cheong, Clara Y; Stunkel, Walter; Chan, Louiza; Gluckman, Peter D; Chng, Keefe; Kobor, Michael S; Meaney, Michael J; Holbrook, Joanna D

    2014-05-08

    The Infinium Human Methylation450 BeadChip Array (Infinium 450K) is a robust and cost-efficient survey of genome-wide DNA methylation patterns. Macaca fascicularis (Cynomolgus macaque) is an important disease model; however, its genome sequence is only recently published, and few tools exist to interrogate the molecular state of Cynomolgus macaque tissues. Although the Infinium 450K is a hybridization array designed to the human genome, the relative conservation between the macaque and human genomes makes its use in macaques feasible. Here, we used the Infinium 450K array to assay DNA methylation in 11 macaque muscle biopsies. We showed that probe hybridization efficiency was related to the degree of sequence identity between the human probes and the macaque genome sequence. Approximately 61% of the Human Infinium 450K probes could be reliably mapped to the Cynomolgus macaque genome and contain a CpG site of interest. We also compared the Infinium 450K data to reduced representation bisulfite sequencing data generated on the same samples and found a high level of concordance between the two independent methodologies, which can be further improved by filtering for probe sequence identity and mismatch location. We conclude that the Infinium 450K array can be used to measure the DNA methylome of Cynomolgus macaque tissues using the provided filters. We also provide a pipeline for validation of the array in other species using a simple BLAST-based sequence identify filter.

  3. Compete to play: trade-off with social contact in long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis).

    PubMed

    Ballesta, Sébastien; Reymond, Gilles; Pozzobon, Mathieu; Duhamel, Jean-René

    2014-01-01

    Many animal species engage in various forms of solitary object play, but this activity seems to be of particular importance in primates. If playing objects constitute a valuable resource, and access to such objects is limited, a competitive context may arise. We inserted a unique toy within a mini-colony of long-tailed macaque (Macaca fascicularis) and compared their behaviors to sessions without playing object. An automatic color-based 3D video device was used to track the positions of each animal and the toy, and this data was categorized into 5 exclusive behaviors (resting, locomotion, foraging, social contact and object play). As expected, the delay to first access to the object reflected the hierarchy of the colony, indicating that a competition took place to own this unique resource of entertainment. In addition, we found that the amount of object play was not correlated with social or foraging behavior, suggesting independent motivational mechanisms. Conversely, object playing time was negatively correlated with idling time, thus indicating its relation to pastime activities. Interestingly, the amount of social contacts in the group was significantly reduced by the heightened competitive context, suggesting that competitors are more likely to be perceived as potential threat requiring caution, as shown in humans. Experimental manipulation of competitive contexts in primates reveals common mental processes involved in social judgment, and shows that access to valuable resources can be a sufficient cause for variations in group cohesion. PMID:25551755

  4. Experimental and postexperimental effects of posteriorly directed extraoral traction in adult Macaca fascicularis.

    PubMed

    Brandt, H C; Shapiro, P A; Kokich, V G

    1979-03-01

    The experimental, postexperimental, and postretention effects of continuous high-pull headgear force application to the maxilla were evaluated in four adult, nongrowing Macaca fascicularis monkeys. Force was applied at 450 grams per side to face-bows attached to cast maxillary splints with an implanted occipital plug for anchorage. The active experimental phase lasted from 84 days to 205 days, and its effects were documented histologically, cephalometrically, and with dry skull preparations. Postexperimental, retention, and postretention responses were documented cephalometrically. The findings of the present investigation lead to the following conclusions: 1. The termination active sutural growth is of little significance to the remodeling potential of the sutural articulations and the morphologic adaptability of the facial skeletal complex. 2. The length of time necessary for resorptive remodeling of the sutural bony projections is partially responsible for the slower rate of detectable skeletal movement in adult animals. 3. The sutural ligament in adult animals is initially less responsive to the effects of extraoral force application, possibly because of a diminished level of cellular activity at older ages. 4. Increases in age do not appear to affect the osteogenic potential of the periosteal envelope. 5. Retention aids in establishing a maintainable equilibrium following experimentally induced sutural and skeletal remodeling, but it is of little importance in maintaining the altered position of the denition. 6. The amount of postexperimental skeletal reorientation following force application to the maxilla may be related to the force level and the duration of force.

  5. Generation of haploid embryonic stem cells from Macaca fascicularis monkey parthenotes

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Hui; Liu, Zhen; Ma, Yu; Zhong, Cuiqing; Yin, Qi; Zhou, Chikai; Shi, Linyu; Cai, Yijun; Zhao, Hanzhi; Wang, Hui; Tang, Fan; Wang, Yan; Zhang, Chenchen; Liu, Xin-yuan; Lai, Dongmei; Jin, Ying; Sun, Qiang; Li, Jinsong

    2013-01-01

    Recent success in the derivation of haploid embryonic stem cells (haESCs) from mouse via parthenogenesis and androgenesis has enabled genetic screening in mammalian cells and generation of gene-modified animals. However, whether haESCs can be derived from primates remains unknown. Here, we report the derivation of haESCs from parthenogenetic blastocysts of Macaca fascicularis monkeys. These cells, termed as PG-haESCs, are pluripotent and can differentiate to cells of three embryonic germ layers in vitro or in vivo. Interestingly, the haploidy of one monkey PG-haESC line (MPH1) is more stable compared with that of the other one (MPH2), as shown by the existence of haploid cells for more than 140 days without fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) enrichment of haploid cells. Importantly, transgenic monkey PG-haESC lines can be generated by lentivirus- and piggyBac transposon-mediated gene transfer. Moreover, genetic screening is feasible in monkey PG-haESCs. Our results demonstrate that PG-haESCs can be generated from monkeys, providing an ideal tool for genetic analyses in primates. PMID:23856644

  6. Telomere length of the colonial coral Galaxea fascicularis at different developmental stages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuta, H.; Hidaka, M.

    2013-06-01

    The ability to estimate coral age using soft tissue would be useful for population biology or aging studies on corals. In this study, we investigated whether telomere length can be used to estimate coral age. We applied single telomere length analysis to a colonial coral, Galaxea fascicularis, and estimated telomere lengths of specific coral chromosomes at different developmental stages. If the telomere shortened at each cell division, the telomere length of the coral would be longest in sperm and shortest in adult colonies. However, the mean telomere length of sperm, planula larvae, and polyps was approximately 4 kb, with no significant differences among the developmental stages. The telomerase restriction fragment (TRF) analysis also showed no significant difference in the mean TRF length among the developmental stages. Our results suggested that telomere length is maintained during developmental stages and that estimating the age of colonial coral based on telomere length may not be possible. However, our findings can be used to examine avoidance of aging and rejuvenation during regeneration and asexual reproduction in colonial corals.

  7. ADP-ribosylation of dinitrogenase reductase in Azospirillum brasilense is regulated by AmtB-dependent membrane sequestration of DraG.

    PubMed

    Huergo, Luciano F; Souza, Emanuel M; Araujo, Mariana S; Pedrosa, Fábio O; Chubatsu, Leda S; Steffens, Maria B R; Merrick, Mike

    2006-01-01

    Nitrogen fixation in some diazotrophic bacteria is regulated by mono-ADP-ribosylation of dinitrogenase reductase (NifH) that occurs in response to addition of ammonium to the extracellular medium. This process is mediated by dinitrogenase reductase ADP-ribosyltransferase (DraT) and reversed by dinitrogenase reductase glycohydrolase (DraG), but the means by which the activities of these enzymes are regulated are unknown. We have investigated the role of the P(II) proteins (GlnB and GlnZ), the ammonia channel protein AmtB and the cellular localization of DraG in the regulation of the NifH-modification process in Azospirillum brasilense. GlnB, GlnZ and DraG were all membrane-associated after an ammonium shock, and both this membrane sequestration and ADP-ribosylation of NifH were defective in an amtB mutant. We now propose a model in which membrane association of DraG after an ammonium shock creates a physical separation from its cytoplasmic substrate NifH thereby inhibiting ADP-ribosyl-removal. Our observations identify a novel role for an ammonia channel (Amt) protein in the regulation of bacterial nitrogen metabolism by mediating membrane sequestration of a protein other than a P(II) family member. They also suggest a model for control of ADP-ribosylation that is likely to be applicable to all diazotrophs that exhibit such post-translational regulation of nitrogenase.

  8. Coronal Temperature and Emission Measure Distributions for he Active G Supergiant Beta Dra and other ASCA Projects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Alexander

    1998-01-01

    This NASA grant supported my ASCA observing and data analysis programs during AOs 1-4. This research involved four Guest Observer projects. Analysis of data from all four programs has been completed. This grant included the following ASCA GO programs: AO1 - "Coronal Temperature and Emission Measure Distributions for the Active G Supergiant Beta Dra" AO2 - "Contemporaneous ASCA, EUVE, IUE, and VLA/AT Observations of Atmospheric Structure of the RS CVn Binary HR1099". AO3 - "Coronal Temperature and Emission Measure Distributions for the hybrid-chromosphere star alpha TrA". AO4-"Activity on the edge of convection: The atmosphere of Canopus (alpha Car, FO Ib-II)".

  9. Two types of periglomerular cells in the olfactory bulb of the macaque monkey (Macaca fascicularis).

    PubMed

    Liberia, Teresa; Blasco-Ibáñez, José Miguel; Nácher, Juan; Varea, Emilio; Lanciego, José Luis; Crespo, Carlos

    2013-07-01

    The olfactory bulb (OB) of mammals is the brain region that receives the sensory information coming from the olfactory epithelium. The entrance of the olfactory information occurs in spherical structures of neuropil named olfactory glomeruli and is modulated by a population of interneurons known as periglomerular cells (PG). It has been demonstrated that there are two types of PG in the OB of some macrosmatic mammals, including rats and mice. Type 1 PG (PG-1) receive synapses from the olfactory nerve, whereas type 2 PG (PG-2) do not receive synapses from the olfactory axons. To date, the presence of the two types of PG has not been investigated in microsmatic mammals. In this context, we analyze the presence of PG-1 and PG-2 in the OB of the long-tailed macaque (Macaca fascicularis). For that, we used the enzyme tyrosine hydroxylase, the neuronal isoform of the enzyme nitric oxide synthase and the calcium-binding proteins calbindin D-28k and calretinin as neurochemical markers. Our results demonstrate that the OB of the macaque contains PG-1 and PG-2. A subpopulation of PG-1 expresses tyrosine hydroxylase and another expresses the neuronal isoform of nitric oxide synthase. In addition, a subpopulation of PG-2 expresses calbindin D-28k and another expresses calretinin. Double immunofluorescence demonstrates that there is no colocalization of two markers in the same PG. These results mimic those found in macrosmatic animals. The presence of two types of PG in the glomerular circuits seems to be a key principle for the organization of the OB of mammals.

  10. A natural model of behavioral depression in postpartum adult female cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis)

    PubMed Central

    CHU, Xun-Xun; Rizak, Joshua Dominic; YANG, Shang-Chuan; WANG, Jian-Hong; MA, Yuan-Ye; HU, Xin-Tian

    2014-01-01

    Postpartum depression (PPD) is a modified form of major depressive disorders (MDD) that can exert profound negative effects on both mothers and infants than MDD. Within the postpartum period, both mothers and infants are susceptible; but because PPD typically occurs for short durations and has moderate symptoms, there exists challenges in exploring and addressing the underlying cause of the depression. This fact highlights the need for relevant animal models. In the present study, postpartum adult female cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) living in breeding groups were observed for typical depressive behavior. The huddle posture behavior was utilized as an indicator of behavioral depression postpartum (BDP) as it has been established as the core depressive-like behavior in primates. Monkeys were divided into two groups: A BDP group (n=6), which were found to spend more time huddling over the first two weeks postpartum than other individuals that formed a non-depression control group (n=4). The two groups were then further analyzed for locomotive activity, stressful events, hair cortisol levels and for maternal interactive behaviors. No differences were found between the BDP and control groups in locomotive activity, in the frequencies of stressful events experienced and in hair cortisol levels. These findings suggested that the postpartum depression witnessed in the monkeys was not related to external factors other than puerperium period. Interestingly, the BDP monkeys displayed an abnormal maternal relationship consisting of increased infant grooming. Taken together, these findings suggest that the adult female cynomolgus monkeys provide a natural model of behavioral postpartum depression that holds a number of advantages over commonly used rodent systems in PPD modeling. The cynomolgus monkeys have a highly-organized social hierarchy and reproductive characteristics without seasonal restriction—similar to humans—as well as much greater homology to

  11. Effect of Soy Isoflavones on Thyroid Hormones in Intact and Ovariectomized Cynomolgus Monkeys (Macaca fascicularis)

    PubMed Central

    Silverstein, Marnie G.; Kaplan, Jay R.; Appt, Susan E.; Register, Thomas C.; Shively, Carol A.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Soy isoflavones are commonly used to alleviate menopause-related symptoms. Menopausal women are at an increased risk for hypothyroidism and there are concerns that isoflavones may be detrimental to thyroid health. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of soy protein and isoflavones on thyroid function and the relationship between thyroid and ovarian function. Methods Adult female cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) were randomized to consume two diets differing only in protein source: casein-lactalbumin (n = 44) or soy protein with isoflavones (n = 41). After 34 months all animals were ovariectomized via laparotomy. Half of the monkeys from each diet treatment group continued to consume their Pre-Ovariectomy treatment phase diet (either SOY [n = 19] or CL [n = 21]) for an additional 34 months. The remaining animals did not continue their diets, and thus were not considered further. Circulating progesterone, triiodothyronine, thyroxine, and thyroid stimulating hormone were measured at baseline. Thyroid hormones were remeasured during each treatment phase. Results Dietary soy increased triiodothyronine in pre-ovariectomized monkeys and prevented a decline in thyroxine following surgical menopause (both p’s < 0.05). Mean progesterone concentrations were positively correlated with triiodothyronine at baseline in pre-ovariectomized monkeys (p < 0.01). Conclusions Progesterone levels and triiodothyronine are positively correlated in macaques. Dietary soy increases triiodothyronine in pre-ovariectomized monkeys and prevents a decline in thyroxine following surgical menopause. The outcomes observed in this study suggest soy protein and isoflavone consumption does not adversely affect and may even preserve thyroid function in postmenopausal women. PMID:24618766

  12. Masticatory loadings and cranial deformation in Macaca fascicularis: a finite element analysis sensitivity study

    PubMed Central

    Fitton, L C; Shi, J F; Fagan, M J; O’Higgins, P

    2012-01-01

    Biomechanical analyses are commonly conducted to investigate how craniofacial form relates to function, particularly in relation to dietary adaptations. However, in the absence of corresponding muscle activation patterns, incomplete muscle data recorded experimentally for different individuals during different feeding tasks are frequently substituted. This study uses finite element analysis (FEA) to examine the sensitivity of the mechanical response of a Macaca fascicularis cranium to varying muscle activation patterns predicted via multibody dynamic analysis. Relative to the effects of varying bite location, the consequences of simulated variations in muscle activation patterns and of the inclusion/exclusion of whole muscle groups were investigated. The resulting cranial deformations were compared using two approaches; strain maps and geometric morphometric analyses. The results indicate that, with bite force magnitude controlled, the variations among the mechanical responses of the cranium to bite location far outweigh those observed as a consequence of varying muscle activations. However, zygomatic deformation was an exception, with the activation levels of superficial masseter being most influential in this regard. The anterior portion of temporalis deforms the cranial vault, but the remaining muscles have less profound effects. This study for the first time systematically quantifies the sensitivity of an FEA model of a primate skull to widely varying masticatory muscle activations and finds that, with the exception of the zygomatic arch, reasonable variants of muscle loading for a second molar bite have considerably less effect on cranial deformation and the resulting strain map than does varying molar bite point. The implication is that FEA models of biting crania will generally produce acceptable estimates of deformation under load as long as muscle activations and forces are reasonably approximated. In any one FEA study, the biological significance of the

  13. A natural model of behavioral depression in postpartum adult female cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis).

    PubMed

    Chu, Xun-Xun; Dominic Rizak, Joshua; Yang, Shang-Chuan; Wang, Jian-Hong; Ma, Yuan-Ye; Hu, Xin-Tian

    2014-05-01

    Postpartum depression (PPD) is a modified form of major depressive disorders (MDD) that can exert profound negative effects on both mothers and infants than MDD. Within the postpartum period, both mothers and infants are susceptible; but because PPD typically occurs for short durations and has moderate symptoms, there exists challenges in exploring and addressing the underlying cause of the depression. This fact highlights the need for relevant animal models. In the present study, postpartum adult female cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) living in breeding groups were observed for typical depressive behavior. The huddle posture behavior was utilized as an indicator of behavioral depression postpartum (BDP) as it has been established as the core depressive-like behavior in primates. Monkeys were divided into two groups: A BDP group (n=6), which were found to spend more time huddling over the first two weeks postpartum than other individuals that formed a non-depression control group (n=4). The two groups were then further analyzed for locomotive activity, stressful events, hair cortisol levels and for maternal interactive behaviors. No differences were found between the BDP and control groups in locomotive activity, in the frequencies of stressful events experienced and in hair cortisol levels. These findings suggested that the postpartum depression witnessed in the monkeys was not related to external factors other than puerperium period. Interestingly, the BDP monkeys displayed an abnormal maternal relationship consisting of increased infant grooming. Taken together, these findings suggest that the adult female cynomolgus monkeys provide a natural model of behavioral postpartum depression that holds a number of advantages over commonly used rodent systems in PPD modeling. The cynomolgus monkeys have a highly-organized social hierarchy and reproductive characteristics without seasonal restriction-similar to humans-as well as much greater homology to humans

  14. A review of background findings in cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) from three different geographical origins.

    PubMed

    Drevon-Gaillot, Elodie; Perron-Lepage, Marie-France; Clément, Christian; Burnett, Roger

    2006-11-01

    This review was performed to assess variations in background observations in cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis) originating from three breeding centres located in Mauritius, The Philippines and Vietnam. The data and tissue samples from 90 cynomolgus monkeys (approximately evenly distributed between the three sources) comprising the control groups from 11 regulatory toxicology studies were used for this investigation. Clinical data--age, body weight, organ weights, haematology and serum biochemistry--were analyzed. Samples of stomach, colon, kidney, heart, liver, spleen and lung were examined microscopically and graded to characterize the degree of lymphoplasmacytic cell infiltration. The main microscopic origin-related variations concerned the digestive tract, where the lymphoplasmacytic cell infiltration grade was significantly lower (p0.001) in cynomolgus monkeys from Mauritius when compared with those from Asia. Generally, only the antral mucosa of the stomach was infiltrated in cynomolgus monkeys from The Philippines, whereas both the fundic and antral regions were infiltrated in those from Vietnam. The digestive tract infiltration grade was strongly correlated with the mean white blood cell count in monkeys from all three sources. Spiral-shaped bacteria were observed in the stomach of monkeys from all three sources, but their presence did not correlate with the severity of the gastric infiltrate. Helicobacter heilmannii-type bacteria were almost always seen in the fundus, Helicobacter pylori-type bacteria were only occasionally seen in the antral region. The incidences of other microscopic findings, such as urothelial cytoplasmic inclusions or Balantidium coli in the caecum, also varied according to the source of the monkeys. Some variations in relative organ weights, haematology and serum biochemistry were also related to the origin of the monkeys, but these did not correlate with the microscopic findings. PMID:16984807

  15. Stimulus-Food Pairings Produce Stimulus-Directed Touch Screen Responding in Cynomolgus Monkeys ("Macaca Fascicularis") with or without a Positive Response Contingency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bullock, Christopher E.; Myers, Todd M.

    2009-01-01

    Acquisition and maintenance of touch-screen responding was examined in naive cynomolgus monkeys ("Macaca fascicularis") under automaintenance and classical conditioning arrangements. In the first condition of Experiment 1, we compared acquisition of screen touching to a randomly positioned stimulus (a gray square) that was either stationary or…

  16. The noncanonical disulfide bond as the important stabilizing element of the immunoglobulin fold of the Dr fimbrial DraE subunit.

    PubMed

    Piatek, Rafał; Bruździak, Piotr; Wojciechowski, Marek; Zalewska-Piatek, Beata; Kur, Józef

    2010-02-23

    Fimbrial adhesins of pathogenic bacteria are linear protein associates responsible for binding to the specific host cell receptors. They are assembled via the chaperone/usher pathway conserved in Gram-negative bacteria. These adhesive organelles are characterized by the high resistance to dissociation and unfolding caused by temperature or chemical denaturants. The self-complemented (SC) recombinant subunits of adhesive structures make up the minimal model used to analyze stability phenomena of these organelles. The SC subunits are both highly stabilized thermodynamically and kinetically. They are characterized by a standard free energy of unfolding of 70-80 kJ/mol and a rate constant of unfolding of 10(-17) s(-1) (half-life of unfolding of 10(8) years at 25 degrees C). The DraE subunit of Dr fimbriae is characterized by a disulfide bond that joins the beginning of the A1 strand with the end of the B strand. Such localization is unique and differentiates this protein from other proteins of the Ig-like family. Sequence analysis shows that many protein subunits of adhesive structures possess cysteines that may form a potential disulfide bond homologous to that of DraE. In this paper, we investigate the influence of this noncanonical disulfide bond on the stability of DraE-sc by constructing a DraE-sc-DeltaSS mutant protein (Cys/Ala mutant). This construct unfolds thermally at a T(m) of 65.4 degrees C, more than 20 degrees C lower than that of the native DraE-sc protein, and possesses a different unfolding mechanism. The calculated standard free energy of unfolding of DraE-sc-DeltaSS is equal to 30 +/- 5 kJ/mol. This allows us to suggest that the disulfide bond is an important stabilizing feature of many fimbrial subunits.

  17. Variation in skeletal microstructure of the coral Galaxea fascicularis: effects of an aquarium environment and preparatory techniques.

    PubMed

    Clode, Peta L; Marshall, Alan T

    2003-04-01

    To compare the crystalline microstructure of exsert septa, polyps of the scleractinian coral Galaxea fascicularis were sampled from shallow reef flat colonies, from colonies living at a depth of 9 m, and from colonies kept in a closed-circuit aquarium. Septal crystal structure and orientation was markedly different between corals in the field and in aquaria. In samples collected from deep water, acicular crystals were composed of conglomerates of finer crystals, and skeletal filling was considerably reduced when compared with samples collected from shallow water. Comparisons were also made between septa prepared in sodium hypochlorite (commercial bleach), sodium hydroxide (NaOH), hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)), and distilled water (dH(2)O). Commercial bleach was the most effective solvent for tissue dissolution in investigations of skeletal structure. Samples prepared in NaOH commonly displayed crystalline artefacts, while the use of dH(2)O and H(2)O(2) was labor intensive and often resulted in unclean preparations. Fusiform crystals were seen only on G. fascicularis septa prepared in bleach and on Acropora formosa axial corallites prepared in either bleach or dH(2)O. We suggest that the mechanical agitation and additional washing necessary for samples prepared in dH(2)O, NaOH, or H(2)O(2) resulted in the loss of fusiform crystals from these preparations.

  18. Role for draTG and rnf Genes in Reduction of 2,4-Dinitrophenol by Rhodobacter capsulatus

    PubMed Central

    Sáez, Lara P.; García, Patricia; Martínez-Luque, Manuel; Klipp, Werner; Blasco, Rafael; Castillo, Francisco

    2001-01-01

    The phototrophic bacterium Rhodobacter capsulatus is able to reduce 2,4-dinitrophenol (DNP) to 2-amino-4-nitrophenol enzymatically and thus can grow in the presence of this uncoupler. DNP reduction was switched off by glutamine or ammonium, but this short-term regulation did not take place in a draTG deletion mutant. Nevertheless, the target of DraTG does not seem to be the nitrophenol reductase itself since the ammonium shock did not inactivate the enzyme. In addition to this short-term regulation, ammonium or glutamine repressed the DNP reduction system. Mutants of R. capsulatus affected in ntrC or rpoN exhibited a 10-fold decrease in nitroreductase activity in vitro but almost no DNP activity in vivo. In addition, mutants affected in rnfA or rnfC, which are also under NtrC control and encode components involved in electron transfer to nitrogenase, were unable to metabolize DNP. These results indicate that NtrC regulates dinitrophenol reduction in R. capsulatus, either directly or indirectly, by controlling expression of the Rnf proteins. Therefore, the Rnf complex seems to supply electrons for both nitrogen fixation and DNP reduction. PMID:11160111

  19. Theta(1) and gamma Tauri: Understanding the coronal structure of Hyades giants. EUV spectroscopy of BY Dra systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stern, Robert A.

    1995-01-01

    These programs involve: (1) analysis and interpretation of EUVE spectrometer observations of the active giant beta Cet in comparison to the Hyades giant theta(1) Tau, and (2) analysis and interpretation of EUVE spectrometer observations of the BY Dra systems FK Aqr, DH Leo, and BH Lyn. EUVE carried out observations of beta Cet, but has yet to perform an observation of theta(1) Tau. In beta Cet, a number of Fe lines from high ionization species were observed, up to Fe XXIV. The spectrum overall resembles that seen in the active binary Capella (alpha Aur). All three BY Dra systems were observed by EUVE, and show evidence of high temperature (approximately 10(exp 7) K) plasma; FK Aqr and DH Leo show significant variability in their Deep Survey lightcurves. In FK Aqr, spectral differences between its 'quiescent' and 'active' states suggest possible differences in the plasma density. In DH Leo, the Deep Survey lightcurve, taken over nearly 8 days, shows a distinct period of approximately 1.05 days, similar to the photometric period. The emission measure distributions of all three systems are rather similar in shape, and can be well-represented by a power law with slope approximately 1.5 from 6.2-7.0 in log T.

  20. Studies on the structure of low density lipoproteins isolated from Macaca fascicularis fed an atherogenic diet.

    PubMed

    Tall, A R; Small, D M; Atkinson, D; Rudel, L L

    1978-12-01

    Cynomolgus monkeys, Macaca fascicularis, fed cholesterol-containing saturated-fat diets develop increased levels of high molecular weight plasma low density lipoproteins (LDL), associated with accelerated atherosclerosis. To study the composition and structure of these abnormal particles, LDL from monkeys, fed atherogenic and control diets, were characterized chemically and examined by differential scanning calorimetry and low-angle X-ray scattering. LDL from animals on the experimental diet showed an increase in molecular weight (4.0 to 7.0 x 10(6), experimental diet compared with 3.0 to 3.7 x 10(6), control diet) associated with a large increase in cholesterol ester content and concomitant smaller increases in protein, phospholipid, and free cholesterol. There was a strong positive correlation between molecular weight and the number of saturated and monounsaturated cholesterol esters in the particle. In contrast, particle content of polyunsaturated cholesterol esters remained constant despite large changes in total particle cholesterol esters.When examined by calorimetry and X-ray scattering, LDL from monkeys on both diets diplayed a reversible transition of cholesterol esters from an ordered smeticlike (layered) structure to a more disordered state. For all animals on the experimental diet, the peak temperature of the cholesterol-ester transition (42-48 degrees C) was above body temperature (39 degrees C), but below body temperature on the control diet (34-38.5 degrees C). In the experimental group, the transition temperature was correlated with the LDL molecular weight. However, after thermal disruption of LDL, liquid-crystalline transitions of LDL cholesterol esters were observed in the same temperature range as in the intact lipoprotein, which shows that changes in particle size had little effect on the cholesterol-ester transition temperature. Rather, the transition temperature was determined by the degree of saturation of the LDL cholesterol ester fatty

  1. Pharmacokinetics of 2 Formulations of Buprenorphine in Macaques (Macaca mulatta and Macaca fascicularis)

    PubMed Central

    Nunamaker, Elizabeth A; Halliday, Lisa C; Moody, David E; Fang, Wenfang B; Lindeblad, Matthew; Fortman, Jeffrey D

    2013-01-01

    Buprenorphine is the cornerstone of pain management in nonhuman primates, but the pharmacokinetics of this widely used drug are unknown. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the pharmacokinetic profiles of buprenorphine (0.01 and 0.03 mg/kg IM) and sustained-release buprenorphine (0.2 mg/kg SC) in 2 macaque species (M. mulatta and M. fascicularis) by using mass spectrometry. The pharmacokinetics did not differ significantly between species, and buprenorphine was dose-proportional at the tested doses. The low and high doses of buprenorphine had elimination half-lives of 2.6 ± 0.7 and 5.3 ± 2.0 h, respectively, but the low-dose data were constrained by the sensitivity of the analytical method. Sustained-release buprenorphine had an elimination half-life of 42.6 ± 26.2 h. The AUC0-Tlast of buprenorphine were 9.1 ± 4.3 and 39.0 ± 25.1 ng×h/mL for the low and high doses, respectively, and sustained-release buprenorphine had an AUC0-Tlast of 177 ± 74 ng×h/mL. Assuming a hypothesized therapeutic buprenorphine plasma concentration threshold of 0.1 ng/mL in macaques, these results suggest that buprenorphine doses of 0.01 mg/kg IM should be administered every 6 to 8 h, whereas doses of 0.03 mg/kg IM can be administered every 12 h. These results further demonstrate that a single 0.2-mg/kg SC injection of sustained-release buprenorphine maintains plasma concentrations above 0.1 ng/mL for 5 d in macaques. These findings support a new dosing strategy using sustained-release buprenorphine to improve pain management, decrease animal stress, improve animal welfare, and simplify the postoperative management of nonhuman primates in laboratory animal and zoological settings. PMID:23562033

  2. Ternary complex formation between AmtB, GlnZ and the nitrogenase regulatory enzyme DraG reveals a novel facet of nitrogen regulation in bacteria.

    PubMed

    Huergo, Luciano F; Merrick, Mike; Pedrosa, Fábio O; Chubatsu, Leda S; Araujo, Luíza M; Souza, Emanuel M

    2007-12-01

    Ammonium movement across biological membranes is facilitated by a class of ubiquitous channel proteins from the Amt/Rh family. Amt proteins have also been implicated in cellular responses to ammonium availability in many organisms. Ammonium sensing by Amt in bacteria is mediated by complex formation with cytosolic proteins of the P(II) family. In this study we have characterized in vitro complex formation between the AmtB and P(II) proteins (GlnB and GlnZ) from the diazotrophic plant-associative bacterium Azospirillum brasilense. AmtB-P(II) complex formation only occurred in the presence of adenine nucleotides and was sensitive to 2-oxoglutarate when Mg(2+) and ATP were present, but not when ATP was substituted by ADP. We have also shown in vitro complex formation between GlnZ and the nitrogenase regulatory enzyme DraG, which was stimulated by ADP. The stoichiometry of this complex was 1:1 (DraG monomer : GlnZ trimer). We have previously reported that in vivo high levels of extracellular ammonium cause DraG to be sequestered to the cell membrane in an AmtB and GlnZ-dependent manner. We now report the reconstitution of a ternary complex involving AmtB, GlnZ and DraG in vitro. Sequestration of a regulatory protein by the membrane-bound AmtB-P(II) complex defines a new regulatory role for Amt proteins in Prokaryotes.

  3. Test Review: Beaver, J. M., & Carter, M. A. (2006). "The Developmental Reading Assessment--Second Edition" (DRA2). Upper Saddle River, NJ--Pearson

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarty, Allison M.; Christ, Theodore J.

    2010-01-01

    This article reviews the "Developmental Reading Assessment--Second Edition" (DRA2), a teacher-administered assessment that identifies students' instructional level, along with their strengths and weaknesses in reading. Once teachers calculate and interpret scores, the data can purportedly be used to inform, and possibly individualize, instruction.…

  4. The distinct roles of anion transporters Slc26a3 (DRA) and Slc26a6 (PAT-1) in fluid and electrolyte absorption in the murine small intestine.

    PubMed

    Xia, Weiliang; Yu, Qin; Riederer, Brigitte; Singh, Anurag Kumar; Engelhardt, Regina; Yeruva, Sunil; Song, Penghong; Tian, De-An; Soleiman, Manoocher; Seidler, Ursula

    2014-08-01

    The mixing of gastric and pancreatic juice subjects the jejunum to unique ionic conditions with high luminal CO2 tension and HCO3 − concentration. We investigated the role of the small intestinal apical anion exchangers PAT-1 (Slc26a6) and DRA (Slc26a3) in basal and CO2/HCO3 −-stimulated jejunal fluid absorption. Single pass perfusion of jejunal segments was performed in anaesthetised wild type (WT) as well as in mice deficient in DRA, PAT-1, Na+/H+ exchanger 3 (NHE3) or NHE2, and in carbonic anhydrase II (CAII). Unbuffered saline (pH 7.4) perfusion of WT jejunum resulted in fluid absorption and acidification of the effluent. DRA-deficient jejunum absorbed less fluid than WT, and acidified the effluent more strongly, consistent with its action as a Cl−/HCO3 − exchanger. PAT-1-deficient jejunum also absorbed less fluid but resulted in less effluent acidification. Switching the luminal solution to a 5 % CO2/HCO3 − buffered solution (pH 7.4), resulted in a decrease in jejunal enterocyte pHi in all genotypes, an increase in luminal surface pH and a strong increase in fluid absorption in a PAT-1- and NHE3- but not DRA-, CAII, or NHE2-dependent fashion. Even in the absence of luminal Cl−, luminal CO2/HCO3 − augmented fluid absorption in WT, CAII, NHE2- or DRA-deficient, but not in PAT-1- or NHE3-deficient mice, indicating the likelihood that PAT-1 serves to import HCO3 − and NHE3 serves to import Na+ under these circumstances. The results suggest that PAT-1 plays an important role in jejunal Na+HCO3 – reabsorption, while DRA absorbs Cl− and exports HCO3 − in a partly CAII-dependent fashion. Both PAT-1 and DRA significantly contribute to intestinal fluid absorption and enterocyte acid/base balance but are activated by different ion gradients.

  5. Introducing SummerTime: A package for high-precision computation of sums appearing in DRA1 method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Roman N.; Mingulov, Kirill T.

    2016-06-01

    We present the Mathematica package SummerTime for arbitrary-precision computation of sums appearing in the results of DRA method (Lee, 2010). So far these results include the following families of the integrals: 3-loop onshell massless vertices, 3-loop onshell mass operator type integrals, 4-loop QED-type tadpoles, 4-loop massless propagators (Lee et al., 2010; Lee and Smirnov, 2011; Lee et al., 2011, 2012). The package can be used for high-precision numerical computation of the expansion of the integrals from the above families around arbitrary space-time dimension. In addition, this package contains convenient tools for the calculation of multiple zeta values, harmonic polylogarithms and other transcendental numbers expressed in terms of nested sums with factorized summand.

  6. Immunohistochemical localization of acid-sensing ion channel 2 (ASIC2) in cutaneous Meissner and Pacinian corpuscles of Macaca fascicularis.

    PubMed

    Cabo, R; Gálvez, M A; San José, I; Laurà, R; López-Muñiz, A; García-Suárez, O; Cobo, T; Insausti, R; Vega, J A

    2012-05-16

    Acid-sensing ion channel 2 (ASIC2) is a member of the degenerin/epithelial sodium channel superfamily, presumably involved mechanosensation. Expression of ASIC2 has been detected in mechanosensory neurons as well as in both axons and Schwann-like cells of cutaneous mechanoreceptors. In these studies we analysed expression of ASIC2 in the cutaneous sensory corpuscles of Macaca fascicularis using immunohistochemistry and laser confocal-scanner microscopy. ASIC2 immunoreactivity was detected in both Meissner and Pacinian corpuscles. It was found to co-localize with neuron-specific enolase and RT-97, but not with S100 protein, demonstrating that ASIC2 expression is restricted to axons supplying mechanoreceptors. These results demonstrate for the first time the presence of the protein ASIC2 in cutaneous rapidly adapting low-threshold mechanoreceptors of monkey, suggesting a role of this ion channel in touch sense.

  7. Mechanism of the pH-Induced Conformational Change in the Sensor Domain of the DraK Histidine Kinase via the E83, E105, and E107 Residues

    PubMed Central

    Jee, Jun-Goo; Lee, Jae Kyoung; Kim, Hyo Jeong; Park, Jin-Wan; Kim, Eun-Hee; Hwang, Eunha; Kim, Sang-Yoon; Lee, Eun-Gyeong; Kwon, Ohsuk; Cheong, Hae-Kap

    2014-01-01

    The DraR/DraK two-component system was found to be involved in the differential regulation of antibiotic biosynthesis in a medium-dependent manner; however, its function and signaling and sensing mechanisms remain unclear. Here, we describe the solution structure of the extracellular sensor domain of DraK and suggest a mechanism for the pH-dependent conformational change of the protein. The structure contains a mixed alpha-beta fold, adopting a fold similar to the ubiquitous sensor domain of histidine kinase. A biophysical study demonstrates that the E83, E105, and E107 residues have abnormally high pKa values and that they drive the pH-dependent conformational change for the extracellular sensor domain of DraK. We found that a triple mutant (E83L/E105L/E107A) is pH independent and mimics the low pH structure. An in vivo study showed that DraK is essential for the recovery of the pH of Streptomyces coelicolor growth medium after acid shock. Our findings suggest that the DraR/DraK two-component system plays an important role in the pH regulation of S. coelicolor growth medium. This study provides a foundation for the regulation and the production of secondary metabolites in Streptomyces. PMID:25203403

  8. Pre- and Post-harvest Influences on Seed Dormancy Status of an Australian Goodeniaceae species, Goodenia fascicularis

    PubMed Central

    Hoyle, Gemma L.; Steadman, Kathryn J.; Daws, Matthew I.; Adkins, Steve W.

    2008-01-01

    Background and Aims The period during which seeds develop on the parent plant has been found to affect many seed characteristics, including dormancy, through interactions with the environment. Goodenia fascicularis (Goodeniaceae) seeds were used to investigate whether seeds of an Australian native forb, harvested from different environments and produced at different stages of the reproductive period, differ in dormancy status. Methods During the reproductive phase, plants were grown ex situ in warm (39/21 °C) or cool (26/13 °C) conditions, with adequate or limited water availability. The physiological dormancy of resulting seeds was measured in terms of the germination response to warm stratification (34/20 °C, 100 % RH, darkness). Key Results Plants in the cool environment were tall and had high above-ground biomass, yet yielded fewer seeds over a shorter, later harvest period when compared with plants in the warm environment. Seeds from the cool environment also had higher viability and greater mass, despite a significant proportion (7 % from the cool-wet environment) containing no obvious embryo. In the warm environment, the reproductive phase was accelerated and plants produced more seeds despite being shorter and having lower above-ground biomass than those in the cool environment. Ten weeks of warm stratification alleviated physiological dormancy in seeds from all treatments resulting in 80–100 % germination. Seeds that developed at warm temperatures were less dormant (i.e. germination percentages were higher) than seeds from the cool environment. Water availability had less effect on plant and seed traits than air temperature, although plants with reduced soil moisture were shorter, had lower biomass and produced fewer, less dormant seeds than plants watered regularly. Conclusions Goodenia fascicularis seeds are likely to exhibit physiological dormancy regardless of the maternal environment. However, seeds collected from warm, dry environments are

  9. Genetic differentiation and connectivity of morphological types of the broadcast-spawning coral Galaxea fascicularis in the Nansei Islands, Japan.

    PubMed

    Nakajima, Yuichi; Zayasu, Yuna; Shinzato, Chuya; Satoh, Noriyuki; Mitarai, Satoshi

    2016-03-01

    Population connectivity resulting from larval dispersal is essential for the maintenance or recovery of populations in marine ecosystems, including coral reefs. Studies of species diversity and genetic connectivity within species are essential for the conservation of corals and coral reef ecosystems. We analyzed mitochondrial DNA sequence types and microsatellite genotypes of the broadcast-spawning coral, Galaxea fascicularis, from four regions in the subtropical Nansei Islands in the northwestern Pacific Ocean. Two types (soft and hard types) of nematocyst morphology are known in G. fascicularis and are significantly correlated with the length of a mitochondrial DNA noncoding sequence (soft type: mt-L; hard type: mt-S type). Using microsatellites, significant genetic differentiation was detected between the mitochondrial DNA sequence types in all regions. We also found a third genetic cluster (mt-L+), and this unexpected type may be a cryptic species of Galaxea. High clonal diversity was detected in both mt-L and mt-S types. Significant genetic differentiation, which was found among regions within a given type (F ST = 0.009-0.024, all Ps ≤ 0.005 in mt-L; 0.009-0.032, all Ps ≤ 0.01 in mt-S), may result from the shorter larval development than in other broadcast-spawning corals, such as the genus Acropora. Nevertheless, intraspecific genetic diversity and connectivity have been maintained, and with both sexual and asexual reproduction, this species appears to have a potential for the recovery of populations after disturbance. PMID:27087925

  10. Association between CYP2E1 polymorphisms and risk of gastric cancer: An updated meta-analysis of 32 case-control studies

    PubMed Central

    ZHANG, MING-XING; LIU, KAI; WANG, FU-GANG; WEN, XIAO-WEN; SONG, XI-LIN

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies suggested that RsaI/PstI and DraI polymorphisms on cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1) may be associated with susceptibility to gastric cancer (GC). However, this association remains ambiguous. A meta-analysis of previously published studies was performed in an attempt to elucidate this association. The odds ratio and 95% confidence interval were used to assess the strength of the association. In the overall analyses of RsaI/PstI and DraI, no association was identified. In the subgroup analyses, RsaI/PstI was identified to increase the risk of GC in the smoking population. In addition, in the previous studies of interactions with other genes, RsaI/PstI was revealed to be associated with increased GC risks when glutathione S-transferase-µ-1 or glutathione S-transferase θ-1 was null or DraI was homozygous wild-type. However, these stratified analyses were lacking credibility due to the limitation of correlational study numbers. In conclusion, CYP2E1 polymorphisms revealed no association with the risk of GC. PMID:27284439

  11. Trypanosoma cruzi in non-human primates with a history of stillbirths: a retrospective study (Papio hamadryas spp.) and case report (Macaca fascicularis)

    PubMed Central

    Grieves, Jessica L.; Hubbard, Gene B.; Williams, Jeff T.; VandeBerg, John L.; Dick, Edward J.; López-Alvarenga, Juan C.; Schlabritz-Loutsevitch, Natalia E.

    2011-01-01

    Background Congenital transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi has been described in humans and experimental work has been conducted with mice, but not with non-human primates (NHPs). Methods We conducted a retrospective study of female baboons (Papio hamadryas spp.) naturally seropositive or seronegative for T. cruzi with history of fetal loss, and we report a stillbirth in a cynomolgus macaque (Macaca fascicularis) with placental T. cruzi amastigotes. Results There were no differences in menstrual cycle parameters and the number of fetal losses between seropositive and seronegative baboons with history of fetal loss. The amount of parasite DNA detected using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (Q-PCR) in M. fascicularis placenta was within the range detected in infected baboon tissues. Conclusions There is no evidence that chronic maternal T. cruzi infection causes fetal loss in baboons. Q-PCR is a useful diagnostic tool to study archived NHP placentas. PMID:18671769

  12. Nuclear Thermal Rocket/Vehicle Characteristics And Sensitivity Trades For NASA's Mars Design Reference Architecture (DRA) 5.0 Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borowski, Stanley K.; McCurdy, David R.; Packard, Thomas W.

    2009-01-01

    This paper summarizes Phase I and II analysis results from NASA's recent Mars DRA 5.0 study which re-examined mission, payload and transportation system requirements for a human Mars landing mission in the post-2030 timeframe. Nuclear thermal rocket (NTR) propulsion was again identified as the preferred in-space transportation system over chemical/aerobrake because of its higher specific impulse (I(sub sp)) capability, increased tolerance to payload mass growth and architecture changes, and lower total initial mass in low Earth orbit (IMLEO) which is important for reducing the number of Ares-V heavy lift launches and overall mission cost. DRA 5.0 features a long surface stay (approximately 500 days) split mission using separate cargo and crewed Mars transfer vehicles (MTVs). All vehicles utilize a common core propulsion stage with three 25 klbf composite fuel NERVA-derived NTR engines (T(sub ex) approximately 2650 - 2700 K, p(sub ch) approximately 1000 psia, epsilon approximately 300:1, I(sub sp) approximately 900 - 910 s, engine thrust-toweight ratio approximately 3.43) to perform all primary mission maneuvers. Two cargo flights, utilizing 1-way minimum energy trajectories, pre-deploy a cargo lander to the surface and a habitat lander into a 24-hour elliptical Mars parking orbit where it remains until the arrival of the crewed MTV during the next mission opportunity (approximately 26 months later). The cargo payload elements aerocapture (AC) into Mars orbit and are enclosed within a large triconicshaped aeroshell which functions as payload shroud during launch, then as an aerobrake and thermal protection system during Mars orbit capture and subsequent entry, descent and landing (EDL) on Mars. The all propulsive crewed MTV is a 0-gE vehicle design that utilizes a fast conjunction trajectory that allows approximately 6-7 month 1-way transit times to and from Mars. Four 12.5 kW(sub e) per 125 square meter rectangular photovoltaic arrays provide the crewed MTV with

  13. Photometry of Symbiotic Stars: an International Campaign 7b. CQ DRA (4Dra), YY Her, V 443 Her, BX Mon, AG Peg, AX Per, V 741 Per, FGG Sge, QW Sge, PU VUL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hric, L.; Skopal, A.; Urban, Z.; Petrik, K.; Komzik, R.; Chochol, D.; Pribulla, T.; Niarchos, P.; Rovithis-Livaniou, H.; Rovithis, P.; Kaserkevich, V. S.; Shpychka, I. V.; Velic, Z.; Halevin, A. V.; Andronov, I. L.; Oksa, G.; Krticka, J.

    1996-10-01

    We present new observations of 10 symbiotic and symbiotic-like stars. The photoelectric UBV(R) observations cover the period 1994.75 to 1996.0. The CCD VRI, photographic and visual data also cover earlier times. The main results can be summarized as follows: (1) CQ Dra: The expected sudden brightening in the U color has been observed around JD 2 449 700. After then, the star's brightness declined smoothly in all three colors. (2) YY Her: The steady decline of the star's brightness in the V and R colors has been observed. (3) V443 Her: Variability with an amplitude of about 0.4 mag in the V color has been detected, while nothing similar has been found in the R and I. (4) AX Per: Our present data cover in part the primary minimum of the star. During the autumn of 1995, a small increase in all three colors has been observed. (5) PU Vul: A brightness minimum at JD 2 449 953, best pronounced in the V color, has been observed.

  14. An SNP marker at the STAT6 locus can identify the hybrids between rhesus (Macaca mulatta) and long-tailed macaques (M. fascicularis) in Thailand: a rapid and simple screening method and its application.

    PubMed

    Jadejaroen, Janya; Kawamoto, Yoshi; Hamada, Yuzuru; Malaivijitnond, Suchinda

    2016-01-01

    A polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) assay was developed to genetically discriminate rhesus (Macaca mulatta) macaques from long-tailed (M. fascicularis) macaques. The 745 bp PCR amplicon of the STAT6 locus that spans a potentially species-diagnostic single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) marker was digested with ApaI and gel electrophoresed to give (1) two (234 and 511 bp), (2) one (745 bp) and (3) three (234, 511 and 745 bp) band patterns that correspond to the genotypes G/G (long-tailed macaque specific homozygote), A/A (rhesus macaque specific homozygote) and A/G (hybrid specific heterozygote), respectively. The diagnostic robustness and efficiency of this PCR-RFLP assay was tested on wild rhesus and long-tailed macaques inhabiting Thailand and a known hybrid population. The Indochinese and Sundaic long-tailed macaque samples (n = 18) all showed a homozygous G/G pattern, while the Indochinese rhesus macaques (n = 10) all showed a homozygous A/A pattern. The rhesus/long-tailed hybrid population at Khao Khieow Open Zoo, which resulted from an introduced group of rhesus macaques that hybridized with the indigenous long-tailed macaques about 20 years ago, revealed 47% (56/118 samples analyzed) with the heterogenous A/G genotype. In addition, the frequency of the rhesus-specific allele A significantly decreased in the hybrid population during 2006-2014, where a strong association between the STAT6 genotype and the morphology of the individuals was detected. In conclusion, a robust PCR-RFLP assay allows a simple, effective and inexpensive approach, in particular for field studies, to assess hybrid individuals between rhesus and long-tailed macaques. Although this assay cannot conclusively identify all the hybrids over two or more generations, it at least can allow the evaluation of the process of hybridization, and so it is applicable to the assessment of the status of natural or anthropogenic hybridization between the two

  15. Pharmacokinetics of Cefovecin in Cynomolgus Macaques (Macaca fascicularis), Olive Baboons (Papio anubis), and Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatto)

    SciTech Connect

    Raabe, Brigitte M.; Lovaglio, Jamie A.; Grover, GScott; Brown, Scott A.; Boucher, Joseph F.; Yuan, Yang; Civil, Jacqueline R.; Gillhouse, Kimberly A.; Stubbs, Makeida N.; Hoggatt, Amber F.; Halliday, Lisa C.; Fortman, Jeffrey D.

    2011-05-01

    Cefovecin sodium is a long-acting, third-generation, cephalosporin antibiotic approved for the treatment of skin infections in dogs and cats. The pharmacokinetic properties of cefovecin were evaluated in cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis), olive baboons (Papio anubis), and rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatto) by using a single-dose (8 mg/kg SC) dosing regimen. Plasma cefovecin concentrations were determined by using ultra-performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry, and a noncompartmental model was used to determine pharmacokinetic parameters. The half-life of cefovecin was 4.95 {+-} 1.47 h in cynomolgus macaques, 9.17 {+-} 1.84 h in olive baboons, and 8.40 {+-} 2.53 h in rhesus macaques. These values are considerably lower than the half-lives previously published for dogs (133 h) and cats (166 h). The extended half-life of cefovecin in dogs and cats is speculated to be due to active reabsorption of drug in the kidney tubules because plasma clearance is well below the normal glomerular filtration rate. In nonhuman primates, renal clearance rates approximated plasma clearance rates, suggesting that active renal reabsorption of cefovecin does not occur in these species. The pharmacokinetic properties of cefovecin in nonhuman primates are vastly different from the pharmacokinetic properties in dogs and cats, precluding its use as a long-acting antibiotic in nonhuman primates. This study highlights the importance of performing pharmacokinetic studies prior to extralabel drug usage.

  16. Attenuation of neurovirulence, biodistribution, and shedding of a poliovirus:rhinovirus chimera after intrathalamic inoculation in Macaca fascicularis.

    PubMed

    Dobrikova, Elena Y; Goetz, Christian; Walters, Robert W; Lawson, Sarah K; Peggins, James O; Muszynski, Karen; Ruppel, Sheryl; Poole, Karyol; Giardina, Steven L; Vela, Eric M; Estep, James E; Gromeier, Matthias

    2012-03-01

    A dependence of poliovirus on an unorthodox translation initiation mode can be targeted selectively to drive viral protein synthesis and cytotoxicity in malignant cells. Transformed cells are naturally susceptible to poliovirus, due to widespread ectopic upregulation of the poliovirus receptor, Necl-5, in ectodermal/neuroectodermal cancers. Viral tumor cell killing and the host immunologic response it engenders produce potent, lasting antineoplastic effects in animal tumor models. Clinical application of this principle depends on unequivocal demonstration of safety in primate models for paralytic poliomyelitis. We conducted extensive dose-range-finding, toxicity, biodistribution, shedding, and neutralizing antibody studies of the prototype oncolytic poliovirus recombinant, PVS-RIPO, after intrathalamic inoculation in Macaca fascicularis. These studies suggest that intracerebral PVS-RIPO inoculation does not lead to viral propagation in the central nervous system (CNS), does not cause histopathological CNS lesions or neurological symptoms that can be attributed to the virus, is not associated with extraneural virus dissemination or replication and does not induce shedding of virus with stool. Intrathalamic PVS-RIPO inoculation induced neutralizing antibody responses against poliovirus serotype 1 in all animals studied.

  17. Gene expression analysis of volatile-rich male flowers of dioecious Pandanus fascicularis using expressed sequence tags.

    PubMed

    Vinod, M S; Sankararamasubramanian, H M; Priyanka, R; Ganesan, G; Parida, Ajay

    2010-07-15

    Pandanus fascicularis is dioecious with the female plant producing a non-scented fruit while the male produces a flower rich in volatiles. The essential oil extracted from the flowers is economically exploited as a natural flavouring agent as well as for its therapeutic properties. Molecular dissection of this distinct flower for identifying the genes responsible for its aroma by way of expressed sequence tags (ESTs) has not been initiated in spite of its economic viability. A male flower-specific cDNA library was constructed and 977 ESTs were generated. CAP3 analysis performed on the dataset revealed 83 contigs (549 ESTs) and 428 singlets, thereby yielding a total of 511 unigenes. Functional annotation using the BLAST2GO software resulted in 1952 Gene ontology (GO) functional classification terms for 621 sequences. Unknown proteins were further analysed with InterProScan to determine their functional motifs. RNA gel blot analysis of 26 functionally distinct transcripts potentially involved in flowering and volatile generation, using vegetative and reproductive tissues of both the sexes, revealed differential expression profiles. In addition to an overview of genes expressed, candidate genes with expression that are modulated predominantly in the male inflorescence were also identified. This is the first report on generation of ESTs to determine the subset of genes that can be used as potential candidates for future attempts aimed towards its genetic and genome analysis including metabolic engineering of floral volatiles in this economically important plant.

  18. Infectivity and pathogenesis of titered dosages of simian immunodeficiency virus experimentally inoculated into longtailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis).

    PubMed

    Tsai, C C; Follis, K E; Grant, R F; Nolte, R E; Wu, H; Benveniste, R E

    1993-10-01

    The 50% macaque infectious dose (MID50) and pathogenesis of uncloned simian immunodeficiency virus (isolated from a pigtailed macaque, SIVmne) was determined in longtailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis). Five pairs of macaques were inoculated with 10-fold dilutions of the virus stock, and one macaque was mock-infected. The virologic and clinical status of these macaques was monitored for up to 80 weeks. The MID50 of SIVmne was determined to be 10(2) cell culture infectious dose of the original virus stock. In order to test the infectivity and pathogenesis of an established viral dose, six additional macaques were inoculated with 10x MID50 (10(3) cell culture infectious dose) of the SIVmne. The virologic and clinical status of these macaques was monitored for 40 weeks. All of the macaques inoculated with 10x MID50 or greater became infected as evidenced by seroconversion and consistent virus isolation from peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Macaques infected with SIVmne had an initial sharp decrease in CD2, CD20, CD4, CD8, and CD4CD29 lymphocyte subsets, whereas the CD4:CD8 ratio increased. Viremic macaques developed persistent slight to moderate peripheral lymphadenopathy approximately 3 to 4 weeks after inoculation. Four macaques subsequently died of AIDS-like disease at 29, 33, 42, and 80 weeks after inoculation. Data obtained from the viral titration study and the acute infection model will aid in the development of animal trials to evaluate antiretroviral therapies and preventive vaccines against human immunodeficiency virus infection.

  19. Morphology of the cement apparatus and the cement of the buoy barnacle Dosima fascicularis (Crustacea, Cirripedia, Thoracica, Lepadidae).

    PubMed

    Zheden, Vanessa; Von Byern, Janek; Kerbl, Alexandra; Leisch, Nikolaus; Staedler, Yannick; Grunwald, Ingo; Power, Anne Marie; Klepal, Waltraud

    2012-10-01

    Barnacles produce a proteinaceous adhesive called cement to attach permanently to rocks or to other hard substrata. The stalked barnacle Dosima fascicularis is of special interest as it produces a large amount of foam-like cement that can be used as a float. The morphology of the cement apparatus and of the polymerized cement of this species is almost unknown. The current study aims at filling these gaps in our knowledge using light and electron microscopy as well as x-ray microtomography. The shape of the cement gland cells changes from round to ovoid during barnacle development. The cytoplasm of the gland cells, unlike that of some other barnacles, does not have distinct secretory and storage regions. The cement canals, which transport the cement from the gland cells to the base of the stalk, end at different positions in juvenile and mature animals. With increasing size of the cement float, the exit of the cement canals shift from the centrally positioned attachment disk of the vestigial antennules to more lateral positions on the stalk. The bubbles enclosed in the foam-like float are most likely filled with CO(2) that diffuses from the hemolymph into the cement canal system and from there into the cement.

  20. Visible lesion laser thresholds in Cynomolgus (Macaca fascicularis) retina with a 1064 nm 12-ns pulsed laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliver, Jeffrey W.; Stolarski, David J.; Noojin, Gary D.; Hodnett, Harvey M.; Imholte, Michelle L.; Rockwell, Benjamin A.; Kumru, Semih S.

    2007-02-01

    A series of experiments in a new animal model for retinal damage, cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis), have been conducted to determine the damage threshold for 12.5-nanosecond laser exposures at 1064 nm. These results provide a direct comparison to threshold values obtained in rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta), which is the model historically used in establishing retinal maximum permissible exposure (MPE) limits. In this study, the irradiance level of a collimated Gaussian laser beam of 2.5 mm diameter at the cornea was randomly varied to produce a rectangular grid of exposures on the retina. Exposures sites were fundoscopically evaluated at post-irradiance intervals of 1 hour and 24 hours. Probit analysis was performed on dose-response data to obtain probability of response curves. The 50% probability of damage (ED50) values for 1 and 24 hours post-exposure are 28.5(22.7-38.4) μJ and 17.0(12.9-21.8) μJ, respectively. These values compare favorably to data obtained with the rhesus model, 28.7(22.3-39.3) μJ and 19.1(13.6-24.4) μJ, suggesting that the cynomolgus monkey may be a suitable replacement for rhesus monkey in photoacoustic minimum visible lesion threshold studies.

  1. Highly heterogeneous bacterial communities associated with the South China Sea reef corals Porites lutea, Galaxea fascicularis and Acropora millepora.

    PubMed

    Li, Jie; Chen, Qi; Zhang, Si; Huang, Hui; Yang, Jian; Tian, Xin-Peng; Long, Li-Juan

    2013-01-01

    Coral harbor diverse and specific bacteria play significant roles in coral holobiont function. Bacteria associated with three of the common and phylogenetically divergent reef-building corals in the South China Sea, Porites lutea, Galaxea fascicularis and Acropora millepora, were investigated using 454 barcoded-pyrosequencing. Three colonies of each species were sampled, and 16S rRNA gene libraries were constructed individually. Analysis of pyrosequencing libraries showed that bacterial communities associated with the three coral species were more diverse than previous estimates based on corals from the Caribbean Sea, Indo-Pacific reefs and the Red Sea. Three candidate phyla, including BRC1, OD1 and SR1, were found for the first time in corals. Bacterial communities were separated into three groups: P. lutea and G. fascicular, A. millepora and seawater. P. lutea and G. fascicular displayed more similar bacterial communities, and bacterial communities associated with A. millepora differed from the other two coral species. The three coral species shared only 22 OTUs, which were distributed in Alphaproteobacteria, Deltaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, Chloroflexi, Actinobacteria, Acidobacteria and an unclassified bacterial group. The composition of bacterial communities within each colony of each coral species also showed variation. The relatively small common and large specific bacterial communities in these corals implies that bacterial associations may be structured by multiple factors at different scales and that corals may associate with microbes in terms of similar function, rather than identical species.

  2. Depression-Like Behavioral Phenotypes by Social and Social Plus Visual Isolation in the Adult Female Macaca fascicularis

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Qinmin; Wang, Tao; Shively, Carol; Wu, Qingyuan; Gong, Wei; Fang, Liang; Zhan, Qunlin; Melgiri, N. D.; Xie, Peng

    2013-01-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a debilitating psychiatric mood disorder that affects millions of individuals globally. Our understanding of the biological basis of MDD is poor, and current treatments are ineffective in a significant proportion of cases. This current situation may relate to the dominant rodent animal models of depression, which possess translational limitations due to limited homologies with humans. Therefore, a more homologous primate model of depression is needed to advance investigation into the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying depression and to conduct pre-clinical therapeutic trials. Here, we report two convenient methods – social isolation and social plus visual isolation – which can be applied to construct a non-human primate model of depression in the adult female cynomolgus monkey (Macaca fascicularis). Both social and social plus visual isolation were shown to be effective in inducing depression-like behavior by significantly reducing socially dominant aggressive conflict behavior, communicative behavior, sexual behavior, and parental behavior. The addition of visual isolation produced more profound behavioral changes than social isolation alone by further reducing parental behavior and sexual behavior. Thus, the degree of behavioral pathology may be manipulated by the degree of isolation. These methods can be applied to construct a non-human primate model of depression in order to assess physiological, behavioral, and social phenomena in a controlled laboratory setting. PMID:24023857

  3. Highly Heterogeneous Bacterial Communities Associated with the South China Sea Reef Corals Porites lutea, Galaxea fascicularis and Acropora millepora

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jie; Chen, Qi; Zhang, Si; Huang, Hui; Yang, Jian; Tian, Xin-Peng; Long, Li-Juan

    2013-01-01

    Coral harbor diverse and specific bacteria play significant roles in coral holobiont function. Bacteria associated with three of the common and phylogenetically divergent reef-building corals in the South China Sea, Porites lutea, Galaxea fascicularis and Acropora millepora, were investigated using 454 barcoded-pyrosequencing. Three colonies of each species were sampled, and 16S rRNA gene libraries were constructed individually. Analysis of pyrosequencing libraries showed that bacterial communities associated with the three coral species were more diverse than previous estimates based on corals from the Caribbean Sea, Indo-Pacific reefs and the Red Sea. Three candidate phyla, including BRC1, OD1 and SR1, were found for the first time in corals. Bacterial communities were separated into three groups: P. lutea and G. fascicular, A. millepora and seawater. P. lutea and G. fascicular displayed more similar bacterial communities, and bacterial communities associated with A. millepora differed from the other two coral species. The three coral species shared only 22 OTUs, which were distributed in Alphaproteobacteria, Deltaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, Chloroflexi, Actinobacteria, Acidobacteria and an unclassified bacterial group. The composition of bacterial communities within each colony of each coral species also showed variation. The relatively small common and large specific bacterial communities in these corals implies that bacterial associations may be structured by multiple factors at different scales and that corals may associate with microbes in terms of similar function, rather than identical species. PMID:23940737

  4. Molecular detection and prevalence of Giardia duodenalis and Cryptosporidium spp. among long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis) in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Sricharern, Wanat; Inpankaew, Tawin; Keawmongkol, Sarawan; Supanam, Juthamas; Stich, Roger W; Jittapalapong, Sathaporn

    2016-06-01

    Giardia duodenalis and Cryptosporidium spp. are divergent protozoal intestinal parasites that infect human beings and other animals, including non-human primates. Although long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis) reside in human communities in Thailand, the prevalence of Giardia spp. and Cryptosporidium spp. in these primates has not been previously investigated. The objective of this study was to evaluate long-tailed macaques living near human communities as possible hosts of these intestinal parasites. In 2014, 200 fecal samples were randomly collected from long-tailed macaques living in different areas of Lopburi province, Thailand, and tested with a panel of PCR assays for Giardia spp. and Cryptosporidium spp. G. duodenalis assemblage B was most frequently detected (6%), while assemblage A and an inconclusive assemblage were detected in single samples, for a total G. duodenalis infection rate of 7%. Two samples (1%) tested positive for Cryptosporidium spp., which were both classified as monkey genotypes. No significant associations were found between G. duodenalis infection and sex or location of macaques. This study indicates that long-tailed macaques can carry G. duodenalis and, to a lesser extent, Cryptosporidium spp. monkey genotype. These results warrant education of residents and tourists to limit contact with long-tailed macaques and to take hygienic precautions to mitigate risk of zoonotic and anthroponotic transmission of these parasites between people and macaques. PMID:26892616

  5. Sex-dependent expression of mRNA encoding a major egg protein in the gonochoric coral Galaxea fascicularis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayakawa, H.; Nakano, Y.; Andoh, T.; Watanabe, T.

    2005-11-01

    A cDNA encoding a major egg protein was cloned in Galaxea fascicularis, a hermatypic coral with a gonochoric breeding system, and gene expression at the transcriptional level was compared between female and functional male colonies. In an electrophoretic analysis, four soluble proteins were present in high abundance in the female egg, but not in the pseudo-eggs of functional males. Partial amino acid sequences of one of the major proteins named GfEP-1 (88 kDa) were determined, and a cDNA fragment of about 2 kb containing a partial GfEP-1 sequence was isolated. The deduced amino acid sequence exhibited sequence similarities to vertebrate and invertebrate vitellogenins. GfEP-1 transcripts were detected in both sexes 0 1 month before spawning. However, the mRNA levels were significantly higher in females than in functional males. The expression of GfEP-1 may be utilized in sexing and also monitoring effects of environmental and anthropogenic factors on vitellogenesis and sex determination.

  6. Stereospecific alignment of the X and Y elements is required for major histocompatibility complex class II DRA promoter function.

    PubMed Central

    Vilen, B J; Cogswell, J P; Ting, J P

    1991-01-01

    The regulatory mechanisms controlling expression of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II genes involve several cis-acting DNA elements, including the X and Y boxes. These two elements are conserved within all murine and human class II genes and are required for accurate and efficient transcription from MHC class II promoters. Interestingly, the distance between the X and Y elements is also evolutionarily conserved at 18 to 20 bp. To investigate the function of the invariant spacing in the human MHC class II gene, HLA-DRA, we constructed a series of spacing mutants which alters the distance between the X and Y elements by integral and half-integral turns of the DNA helix. Transient transfection of the spacing constructs into Raji cells revealed that inserting integral turns of the DNA helix (+20 and +10 bp) did not reduce promoter activity, while inserting or deleting half-integral turns of the DNA helix (+15, +5, and -5 bp) drastically reduced promoter activity. The loss of promoter function in these half-integral turn constructs was due neither to the inability of the X and Y elements to bind proteins nor to improper binding of the X- and Y-box-binding proteins. These data indicate that the X and Y elements must be aligned on the same side of the DNA helix to ensure normal function. This requirement for stereospecific alignment strongly suggests that the X- and Y-box-binding proteins either interact directly or are components of a larger transcription complex which assembles on one face of the DNA double helix. Images PMID:1901941

  7. Morphologic-anthropological investigations in tomb K93.12 at Dra' Abu el-Naga (Western Thebes, Egypt).

    PubMed

    Lösch, Sandra; Moghaddam, Negahnaz; Paladin, Alice; Rummel, Ute; Hower-Tilmann, Estelle; Zink, Albert

    2014-01-01

    In this study we present the analysis of the human remains from tomb K93.12 in the Ancient Egyptian necropolis of Dra' Abu el-Naga, located opposite the modern city of Luxor in Upper Egypt on the western bank of the Nile. Archaeological findings indicate that the rock tomb was originally built in the early 18th dynasty. Remains of two tomb-temples of the 20th dynasty and the looted burial of the High Priest of Amun Amenhotep have been identified. After the New Kingdom the tomb was reused as a burial place until the 26th dynasty. The skeletal and mummified material of the different tomb areas underwent a detailed anthropological and paleopathological analysis. The human remains were mostly damaged and scattered due to extensive grave robberies. In total, 79 individuals could be partly reconstructed and investigated. The age and sex distribution revealed a male predominance and a high percentage of young children (< 6 years) and adults in the range of 20 to 40 years. The paleopathological analysis showed a high prevalence of stress markers such as cribra orbitalia in the younger individuals, and other pathological conditions such as dental diseases, degenerative diseases and a possible case of ankylosing spondylitis. Additionally, 13 mummies of an intrusive waste pit could be attributed to three different groups belonging to earlier time periods based on their style of mummification and materials used. The study revealed important information on the age and sex distribution and diseases of the individuals buried in tomb K93.12.

  8. Crystallographic Structure of the Human Leukocyte Antigen DRA, DRB3*0101: Models of a Directional Alloimmune Respone and Autoimmunity

    SciTech Connect

    Parry,C.; Gorski, J.; Stern, L.

    2007-01-01

    We describe structural studies of the human leukocyte antigen DR52a, HLA-DRA/DRB3*0101, in complex with an N-terminal human platelet integrin {alpha}II{sub B}{beta}III glycoprotein peptide which contains a Leu/Pro dimorphism. The 33:Leu dimorphism is the epitope for the T cell directed response in neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia and post-transfusion purpura in individuals with the {alpha}II{sub B}{beta}III 33:Pro allele, and defines the unidirectional alloimmune response. This condition is always associated with DR52a. The crystallographic structure has been refined to 2.25 {angstrom}. There are two {alpha}{beta} heterodimers to the asymmetric unit in space group P4{sub 1}2{sub 1}2. The molecule is characterized by two prominent hydrophobic pockets at either end of the peptide binding cleft and a deep, narrower and highly charged P4 opening underneath the beta 1 chain. Further, the peptide in the second molecule displays a sharp upward turn after pocket P9. The structure reveals the role of pockets and the distinctive basic P4 pocket, shared by DR52a and DR3, in selecting their respective binding peptide repertoire. We observe an interesting switch in a residue from the canonically assigned pocket 6 seen in prior class II structures to pocket 4. This occludes the P6 pocket helping to explain the distinctive '1-4-9' peptide binding motif. A {beta}57 Asp {yields} Val substitution abrogates the salt-bridge to {alpha}76 Arg and along with a hydrophobic {beta}37 is important in shaping the P9 pocket. DRB3*0101 and DRB1*0301 belong to an ancestral haplotype and are associated with many autoimmune diseases linked to antigen presentation, but whereas DR3 is susceptible to type 1 diabetes DR52a is not. This dichotomy is explored for clues to the disease.

  9. D-alanine modification of a protease-susceptible outer membrane component by the Bordetella pertussis dra locus promotes resistance to antimicrobial peptides and polymorphonuclear leukocyte-mediated killing.

    PubMed

    Taneja, Neetu Kumra; Ganguly, Tridib; Bakaletz, Lauren O; Nelson, Kimberly J; Dubey, Purnima; Poole, Leslie B; Deora, Rajendar

    2013-11-01

    Bordetella pertussis is the causative agent of pertussis, a highly contagious disease of the human respiratory tract. Despite very high vaccine coverage, pertussis has reemerged as a serious threat in the United States and many developing countries. Thus, it is important to pursue research to discover unknown pathogenic mechanisms of B. pertussis. We have investigated a previously uncharacterized locus in B. pertussis, the dra locus, which is homologous to the dlt operons of Gram-positive bacteria. The absence of the dra locus resulted in increased sensitivity to the killing action of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) and human phagocytes. Compared to the wild-type cells, the mutant cells bound higher levels of cationic proteins and peptides, suggesting that dra contributes to AMP resistance by decreasing the electronegativity of the cell surface. The presence of dra led to the incorporation of d-alanine into an outer membrane component that is susceptible to proteinase K cleavage. We conclude that dra encodes a virulence-associated determinant and contributes to the immune resistance of B. pertussis. With these findings, we have identified a new mechanism of surface modification in B. pertussis which may also be relevant in other Gram-negative pathogens.

  10. Drug-Induced Liver Injury Associated With Antidepressive Psychopharmacotherapy: An Explorative Assessment Based on Quantitative Signal Detection Using Different MedDRA Terms.

    PubMed

    Gahr, Maximilian; Zeiss, René; Lang, Dirk; Connemann, Bernhard J; Hiemke, Christoph; Schönfeldt-Lecuona, Carlos

    2016-06-01

    Drug-induced liver injury is a major problem of pharmacotherapy and is also frequent with antidepressive psychopharmacotherapy. However, there are only few studies using a consistent methodologic approach to study hepatotoxicity of a larger group of antidepress ants. We performed a quantitative signal detection analysis using data from the Uppsala Monitoring Centre from the WHO that records adverse drug reaction (ADR) data from worldwide sources; we retrieved substance- and country-specific (Australia, France, Germany, Italy, Spain, the United Kingdom, and the United States) ADR data and calculated reporting odds ratios as measures for disproportionality within a case/noncase approach. To allow for identification of agents that cause severe forms of hepatotoxic ADRs, we used 2 terms of the MedDRA ("drug-related hepatic disorders-comprehensive search" [DRHD-CS] and "… -severe events only" [DRHD-SEO]). Distribution of signals was heterogeneous throughout the different data sets, and consistent findings were present for only a few substances: agomelatine (AGM) and tianeptine as well as both positive control agents (amineptine, nefazodone) generated signals related to DRHD-CS and DRHD-SEO in all analyzed data sets. Tri- and tetracyclic antidepressants (here amitriptyline, clomipramine, mianserin, mirtazapine, trimipramine) were associated with hepatotoxicity in several data sets. Using 2 MedDRA terms did not allow for detection of agents that cause severe hepatotoxic ADR. Our results support the findings of previous, primarily literature-based, systematic analyses of hepatotoxicity related to antidepressive psychopharmacotherapy. No new safety information could be generated. Application of 2 MedDRA terms did not increase the substance-specific safety information.

  11. Drug-Induced Liver Injury Associated With Antidepressive Psychopharmacotherapy: An Explorative Assessment Based on Quantitative Signal Detection Using Different MedDRA Terms.

    PubMed

    Gahr, Maximilian; Zeiss, René; Lang, Dirk; Connemann, Bernhard J; Hiemke, Christoph; Schönfeldt-Lecuona, Carlos

    2016-06-01

    Drug-induced liver injury is a major problem of pharmacotherapy and is also frequent with antidepressive psychopharmacotherapy. However, there are only few studies using a consistent methodologic approach to study hepatotoxicity of a larger group of antidepress ants. We performed a quantitative signal detection analysis using data from the Uppsala Monitoring Centre from the WHO that records adverse drug reaction (ADR) data from worldwide sources; we retrieved substance- and country-specific (Australia, France, Germany, Italy, Spain, the United Kingdom, and the United States) ADR data and calculated reporting odds ratios as measures for disproportionality within a case/noncase approach. To allow for identification of agents that cause severe forms of hepatotoxic ADRs, we used 2 terms of the MedDRA ("drug-related hepatic disorders-comprehensive search" [DRHD-CS] and "… -severe events only" [DRHD-SEO]). Distribution of signals was heterogeneous throughout the different data sets, and consistent findings were present for only a few substances: agomelatine (AGM) and tianeptine as well as both positive control agents (amineptine, nefazodone) generated signals related to DRHD-CS and DRHD-SEO in all analyzed data sets. Tri- and tetracyclic antidepressants (here amitriptyline, clomipramine, mianserin, mirtazapine, trimipramine) were associated with hepatotoxicity in several data sets. Using 2 MedDRA terms did not allow for detection of agents that cause severe hepatotoxic ADR. Our results support the findings of previous, primarily literature-based, systematic analyses of hepatotoxicity related to antidepressive psychopharmacotherapy. No new safety information could be generated. Application of 2 MedDRA terms did not increase the substance-specific safety information. PMID:26470856

  12. Automated segmentation of cerebral vasculature with aneurysms in 3DRA and TOF-MRA using geodesic active regions: An evaluation study

    SciTech Connect

    Bogunovic, Hrvoje; Pozo, Jose Maria; Villa-Uriol, Maria Cruz; and others

    2011-01-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the suitability of an improved version of an automatic segmentation method based on geodesic active regions (GAR) for segmenting cerebral vasculature with aneurysms from 3D x-ray reconstruction angiography (3DRA) and time of flight magnetic resonance angiography (TOF-MRA) images available in the clinical routine. Methods: Three aspects of the GAR method have been improved: execution time, robustness to variability in imaging protocols, and robustness to variability in image spatial resolutions. The improved GAR was retrospectively evaluated on images from patients containing intracranial aneurysms in the area of the Circle of Willis and imaged with two modalities: 3DRA and TOF-MRA. Images were obtained from two clinical centers, each using different imaging equipment. Evaluation included qualitative and quantitative analyses of the segmentation results on 20 images from 10 patients. The gold standard was built from 660 cross-sections (33 per image) of vessels and aneurysms, manually measured by interventional neuroradiologists. GAR has also been compared to an interactive segmentation method: isointensity surface extraction (ISE). In addition, since patients had been imaged with the two modalities, we performed an intermodality agreement analysis with respect to both the manual measurements and each of the two segmentation methods. Results: Both GAR and ISE differed from the gold standard within acceptable limits compared to the imaging resolution. GAR (ISE) had an average accuracy of 0.20 (0.24) mm for 3DRA and 0.27 (0.30) mm for TOF-MRA, and had a repeatability of 0.05 (0.20) mm. Compared to ISE, GAR had a lower qualitative error in the vessel region and a lower quantitative error in the aneurysm region. The repeatability of GAR was superior to manual measurements and ISE. The intermodality agreement was similar between GAR and the manual measurements. Conclusions: The improved GAR method outperformed ISE qualitatively as well as

  13. The role of anthropic, ecological, and social factors in sleeping site choice by long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis).

    PubMed

    Brotcorne, Fany; Maslarov, Cindy; Wandia, I Nengah; Fuentes, Agustin; Beudels-Jamar, Roseline C; Huynen, Marie-Claude

    2014-12-01

    When choosing their sleeping sites, primates make adaptive trade-offs between various biotic and abiotic constraints. In human-modified environments, anthropic factors may play a role. We assessed the influence of ecological (predation), social (intergroup competition), and anthropic (proximity to human settlements) factors in sleeping site choice by long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis) occupying a habitat at the interface of natural forests and human-modified zones in Bali Barat National Park, Indonesia. Over the course of 56 nights, we collected data relating to physical features of sleeping trees, patterns of the use of sleeping sites within the home range, pre-sleep behavior, diurnal ranging patterns and availability of natural and human food. Overall, the macaques used 17 sleeping sites with 37 sleeping trees. When the monkeys slept in forest zones, they selected sleeping trees that had larger trunks but were not significantly taller than surrounding trees. Though the macaques rarely re-used sleeping sites on consecutive nights, they frequently re-used four sites over the study period. The group favored sleeping within the core area of its home range, despite the occurrence of frequent agonistic intergroup encounters there. Macaques preferentially selected sleeping trees located within or near human-modified zones, especially when human food was abundant and natural food was scarce. These results partially support the hypothesis that long-tailed macaques choose their sleeping sites to avoid predation; proximity to human settlements appears to be the primary factor influencing sleeping site choice in this primate species. Our results reflect the strong influence that anthropic factors have on primates, which subsist in increasingly human-dominated landscapes.

  14. Population Recovery of Nicobar Long-Tailed Macaque Macaca fascicularis umbrosus following a Tsunami in the Nicobar Islands, India.

    PubMed

    Velankar, Avadhoot D; Kumara, Honnavalli N; Pal, Arijit; Mishra, Partha Sarathi; Singh, Mewa

    2016-01-01

    Natural disasters pose a threat to isolated populations of species with restricted distributions, especially those inhabiting islands. The Nicobar long tailed macaque.Macaca fascicularis umbrosus, is one such species found in the three southernmost islands (viz. Great Nicobar, Little Nicobar and Katchal) of the Andaman and Nicobar archipelago, India. These islands were hit by a massive tsunami (Indian Ocean tsunami, 26 December 2004) after a 9.2 magnitude earthquake. Earlier studies [Umapathy et al. 2003; Sivakumar, 2004] reported a sharp decline in the population of M. f. umbrosus after thetsunami. We studied the distribution and population status of M. f. umbrosus on thethree Nicobar Islands and compared our results with those of the previous studies. We carried out trail surveys on existing paths and trails on three islands to get encounter rate as measure of abundance. We also checked the degree of inundation due to tsunami by using Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI) on landsat imageries of the study area before and after tsunami. Theencounter rate of groups per kilometre of M. f. umbrosus in Great Nicobar, Little Nicobar and Katchal was 0.30, 0.35 and 0.48 respectively with the mean group size of 39 in Great Nicobar and 43 in Katchal following the tsunami. This was higher than that reported in the two earlier studies conducted before and after the tsunami. Post tsunami, there was a significant change in the proportion of adult males, adult females and immatures, but mean group size did not differ as compared to pre tsunami. The results show that population has recovered from a drastic decline caused by tsunami, but it cannot be ascertained whether it has reached stability because of the altered group structure. This study demonstrates the effect of natural disasters on island occurring species.

  15. Detection and quantification of male-specific fetal DNA in the serum of pregnant cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis).

    PubMed

    Yasmin, Lubna; Takano, Jun-Ichiro; Nagai, Yasushi; Otsuki, Junko; Sankai, Tadashi

    2015-02-01

    Because of their developmental similarities to humans, nonhuman primates are often used as a model to study fetal development for potential clinical applications in humans. The detection of fetal DNA in maternal plasma or serum offers a source of fetal genetic material for prenatal diagnosis. However, no such data have been reported for cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis), an important model in biomedical research. We have developed a specific, highly sensitive PCR system for detecting and quantifying male-specific fetal DNA in pregnant cynomolgus monkeys. We used multiplex quantitative real-time PCR to analyze cell-free DNA in maternal blood serum obtained from 46 pregnant monkeys at gestational weeks 5, 12, and 22. The presence of SRY gene and DYS14 Y chromosomal sequences was determined in 28 monkeys with male-bearing pregnancies. According to confirmation of fetal sex at birth, the probe and primers for detecting the Y chromosomal regions at each time point revealed 100% specificity of the PCR test and no false-positive or false-negative results. Increased levels of the SRY-specific sequences (mean, 4706 copies/mL serum DNA; range, 1731 to 12,625) and DYS14-specific sequences (mean, 54,814 copies/mL serum DNA; range, 4175-131,250 copies) were detected at week 22. The SRY- and DYS14-specific probes appear to be an effective combination of markers in a multiplex PCR system. To our knowledge, this report is the first to describe the detection of cell-free DNA in cynomolgus monkeys. PMID:25730760

  16. The trade balance of grooming and its coordination of reciprocation and tolerance in Indonesian long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis).

    PubMed

    Gumert, Michael D; Ho, Moon-Ho R

    2008-07-01

    We collected data on grooming, proximity, and aggression in long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis) in Kalimantan, Indonesia. We used this data to study how grooming influenced a receiver's (B) behavior towards the bout's initiator (A). In our first analysis, post-grooming samples were collected after A groomed B. These were compared to matched-control samples of similar conditions but A had not previously groomed B. This comparison was performed on 26 individuals (16 female, 3 male, 7 immature) and tested whether A's initial act of grooming increased the pair's time in proximity and the amount of time B groomed A. We also tested if A's grooming decreased B's aggression towards A per time in proximity. Rates of B-->A aggression per time in proximity with A for 39 individuals (18 female, 5 male, 16 immature) were compared between post-grooming and focal sample data. Finally, we studied 248 grooming bouts to test if the first two grooming episodes were time matched. We assessed the influence of age, sex, rank and inferred kinship on time matching, and controlled for individual variation and tendency to groom using a general linear mixed model. Our results showed that A-->B grooming acted to increase B-->A grooming and the pair's proximity, while lowering B-->A aggression. Despite these effects, episodes in grooming bouts were generally not matched, except weakly among similar partners (i.e., female pairs and immature pairs). Grooming imbalance was greatest across age-sex class (i.e., male-female and adult-immature pairs). In similar pairs, grooming duration was skewed in favor of high-ranking individuals. We conclude grooming established tolerance and increased the likelihood that grooming reciprocation would occur, but grooming durations were not typically matched within bouts. Lack of time matching may be the result of grooming that is performed to coordinate interchanges of other social services.

  17. Population Recovery of Nicobar Long-Tailed Macaque Macaca fascicularis umbrosus following a Tsunami in the Nicobar Islands, India

    PubMed Central

    Velankar, Avadhoot D.; Kumara, Honnavalli N.

    2016-01-01

    Natural disasters pose a threat to isolated populations of species with restricted distributions, especially those inhabiting islands. The Nicobar long tailed macaque.Macaca fascicularis umbrosus, is one such species found in the three southernmost islands (viz. Great Nicobar, Little Nicobar and Katchal) of the Andaman and Nicobar archipelago, India. These islands were hit by a massive tsunami (Indian Ocean tsunami, 26 December 2004) after a 9.2 magnitude earthquake. Earlier studies [Umapathy et al. 2003; Sivakumar, 2004] reported a sharp decline in the population of M. f. umbrosus after thetsunami. We studied the distribution and population status of M. f. umbrosus on thethree Nicobar Islands and compared our results with those of the previous studies. We carried out trail surveys on existing paths and trails on three islands to get encounter rate as measure of abundance. We also checked the degree of inundation due to tsunami by using Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI) on landsat imageries of the study area before and after tsunami. Theencounter rate of groups per kilometre of M. f. umbrosus in Great Nicobar, Little Nicobar and Katchal was 0.30, 0.35 and 0.48 respectively with the mean group size of 39 in Great Nicobar and 43 in Katchal following the tsunami. This was higher than that reported in the two earlier studies conducted before and after the tsunami. Post tsunami, there was a significant change in the proportion of adult males, adult females and immatures, but mean group size did not differ as compared to pre tsunami. The results show that population has recovered from a drastic decline caused by tsunami, but it cannot be ascertained whether it has reached stability because of the altered group structure. This study demonstrates the effect of natural disasters on island occurring species. PMID:26886197

  18. Development of interspecies cloned embryos reconstructed with rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) oocytes and cynomolgus monkey (Macaca fascicularis) fibroblast cell nuclei.

    PubMed

    Yamochi, Takayuki; Kida, Yuta; Oh, Noriyoshi; Ohta, Sei; Amano, Tomoko; Anzai, Masayuki; Kato, Hiromi; Kishigami, Satoshi; Mitani, Tasuku; Matsumoto, Kazuya; Saeki, Kazuhiro; Takenoshita, Makoto; Iritani, Akira; Hosoi, Yoshihiko

    2013-11-01

    Interspecies somatic cell nuclear transfer (ISCNT) has been proposed as a technique to produce cloned offspring of endangered species as well as to investigate nucleus-cytoplasm interactions in mammalian embryo. However, it is still not known which embryo culture medium is optimal for ISCNT embryos for the nuclear donor or the oocyte recipient. We assessed the effects of the culture medium on the developmental competence of the ISCNT embryos by introducing cynomolgus monkey (Macaca fascicularis) fibroblast nuclei into enucleated rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) oocytes (monkey-rabbit embryo). The monkey-rabbit ISCNT embryos that were cultured in mCMRL-1066 developed to the blastocyst stage, although all monkey-rabbit ISCNT embryos cultured in M199 were arrested by the 4-cell stage. When monkey-rabbit ISCNT and rabbit-rabbit somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) embryos were cultured in mCMRL-1066, the blastocyst cell numbers of the monkey-rabbit ISCNT embryos corresponded to the cell numbers of the control rabbit-rabbit SCNT embryos, which were produced from a rabbit fibroblast nucleus and an enucleated rabbit oocyte. In addition, the presence of mitochondria, which were introduced with monkey fibroblasts into rabbit recipient cytoplasm, was confirmed up to the blastocyst stage by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). This study demonstrated that: (1) rabbit oocytes can reprogramme cynomolgus monkey somatic cell nuclei, and support preimplantation development; (2) monkey-rabbit ISCNT embryos developed well in monkey culture medium at early embryonic developmental stages; (3) the cell number of monkey-rabbit ISCNT embryos is similar to that of rabbit-rabbit SCNT embryos; and (4) the mitochondrial fate of monkey-rabbit ISCNT embryos is heteroplasmic from the time just after injection to the blastocyst stage that has roots in both rabbit oocytes and monkey fibroblasts.

  19. Population Recovery of Nicobar Long-Tailed Macaque Macaca fascicularis umbrosus following a Tsunami in the Nicobar Islands, India.

    PubMed

    Velankar, Avadhoot D; Kumara, Honnavalli N; Pal, Arijit; Mishra, Partha Sarathi; Singh, Mewa

    2016-01-01

    Natural disasters pose a threat to isolated populations of species with restricted distributions, especially those inhabiting islands. The Nicobar long tailed macaque.Macaca fascicularis umbrosus, is one such species found in the three southernmost islands (viz. Great Nicobar, Little Nicobar and Katchal) of the Andaman and Nicobar archipelago, India. These islands were hit by a massive tsunami (Indian Ocean tsunami, 26 December 2004) after a 9.2 magnitude earthquake. Earlier studies [Umapathy et al. 2003; Sivakumar, 2004] reported a sharp decline in the population of M. f. umbrosus after thetsunami. We studied the distribution and population status of M. f. umbrosus on thethree Nicobar Islands and compared our results with those of the previous studies. We carried out trail surveys on existing paths and trails on three islands to get encounter rate as measure of abundance. We also checked the degree of inundation due to tsunami by using Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI) on landsat imageries of the study area before and after tsunami. Theencounter rate of groups per kilometre of M. f. umbrosus in Great Nicobar, Little Nicobar and Katchal was 0.30, 0.35 and 0.48 respectively with the mean group size of 39 in Great Nicobar and 43 in Katchal following the tsunami. This was higher than that reported in the two earlier studies conducted before and after the tsunami. Post tsunami, there was a significant change in the proportion of adult males, adult females and immatures, but mean group size did not differ as compared to pre tsunami. The results show that population has recovered from a drastic decline caused by tsunami, but it cannot be ascertained whether it has reached stability because of the altered group structure. This study demonstrates the effect of natural disasters on island occurring species. PMID:26886197

  20. The role of anthropic, ecological, and social factors in sleeping site choice by long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis).

    PubMed

    Brotcorne, Fany; Maslarov, Cindy; Wandia, I Nengah; Fuentes, Agustin; Beudels-Jamar, Roseline C; Huynen, Marie-Claude

    2014-12-01

    When choosing their sleeping sites, primates make adaptive trade-offs between various biotic and abiotic constraints. In human-modified environments, anthropic factors may play a role. We assessed the influence of ecological (predation), social (intergroup competition), and anthropic (proximity to human settlements) factors in sleeping site choice by long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis) occupying a habitat at the interface of natural forests and human-modified zones in Bali Barat National Park, Indonesia. Over the course of 56 nights, we collected data relating to physical features of sleeping trees, patterns of the use of sleeping sites within the home range, pre-sleep behavior, diurnal ranging patterns and availability of natural and human food. Overall, the macaques used 17 sleeping sites with 37 sleeping trees. When the monkeys slept in forest zones, they selected sleeping trees that had larger trunks but were not significantly taller than surrounding trees. Though the macaques rarely re-used sleeping sites on consecutive nights, they frequently re-used four sites over the study period. The group favored sleeping within the core area of its home range, despite the occurrence of frequent agonistic intergroup encounters there. Macaques preferentially selected sleeping trees located within or near human-modified zones, especially when human food was abundant and natural food was scarce. These results partially support the hypothesis that long-tailed macaques choose their sleeping sites to avoid predation; proximity to human settlements appears to be the primary factor influencing sleeping site choice in this primate species. Our results reflect the strong influence that anthropic factors have on primates, which subsist in increasingly human-dominated landscapes. PMID:24810544

  1. The effect of different flow regimes on the growth and metabolic rates of the scleractinian coral Galaxea fascicularis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schutter, M.; Crocker, J.; Paijmans, A.; Janse, M.; Osinga, R.; Verreth, A. J.; Wijffels, R. H.

    2010-09-01

    To study the effect of water flow on coral growth, four series of ten coral nubbins of Galaxea fascicularis were exposed to four different flow regimes (0, 10, 20, and 25 cm s-1, bidirectional flow) for 42 weeks. Buoyant weight, surface area, and polyp number were measured at regular intervals. Net photosynthesis and dark respiration were measured at the corresponding flow speeds, and daily amount of photosynthetic carbon left for coral growth was calculated. Finally, skeletal density and CN content, chlorophyll concentration and dry weight of coral tissue were determined for each coral. Specific growth rate (in day-1) decreased with time in each flow treatment. Absence of flow resulted in significantly lower growth rates. Average specific growth rate calculated over the entire experiment was not significantly different between 10 and 20 cm s-1, while it was significantly higher at 25 cm s-1. From 10 to 25 cm s-1, average net photosynthetic rate decreased and average dark respiration rate did not change significantly. Scope for growth based on phototrophic carbon decreased with increasing flow. Growth was not positively correlated with either photosynthesis or respiration, or scope for growth. It is suggested that higher flow rates reduce the chance of disturbance of coral growth by competing algae or cyanobacteria, allowing corals to grow more readily with the maximum specific growth rate possible under the given environmental conditions. Notably, other effects of increased flow, such as increased respiratory rates and increased (in)organic nutrient uptake, might have been equally responsible for the increased growth of the corals in 25 cm s-1.

  2. Marine prey processed with stone tools by Burmese long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis aurea) in intertidal habitats.

    PubMed

    Gumert, Michael D; Malaivijitnond, Suchinda

    2012-11-01

    Long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis) feed opportunistically in many habitats. The Burmese subspecies (M. f. aurea) inhabits coastal areas in southwestern Thailand and Myanmar, and some of their populations have adapted lithic customs for processing encased foods in intertidal habitats. We investigated the diet of such macaques in Laemson National Park, Thailand, and identified the variety of foods they processed with stones. We conducted 36 shore surveys to study tool sites following feeding activity, during which we counted the minimum number of individual (MNI) food items found at each site. We identified 47 food species (43 animals and four plants), from 37 genera. We counted 1,991 food items during surveys. Nearly all were mollusks (n = 1,924), with the small remainder primarily consisting of crustaceans and nuts. The two most common foods, rock oysters (Saccostrea cucullata; n = 1,062) and nerite snails (Nerita spp.; n = 538), composed 80.2% of our sample. Four prey species comprised 83.2% of the sample (MNI = 1,656), S. cucullata (n = 1,062), Nerita chamaeleon (n = 419), Thais bitubercularis (n = 95), and Monodonta labio (n = 80). Macaques selected a wide variety of foods. However, they heavily concentrated on those that were abundant, easy to access, and sufficiently sized. The Burmese long-tailed macaque stone-processed diet, which focuses on intertidal marine prey, differs from Sapajus and Pan, who use stones primarily for encased nuts and fruits. In terms of diversity of foods exploited, coastal stone-based predation by macaques resembles the diet of coastal-foraging humans (Homo sapiens sapiens).

  3. Toward reduction in animal sacrifice for drugs: molecular modeling of Macaca fascicularis P450 2C20 for virtual screening of Homo sapiens P450 2C8 substrates.

    PubMed

    Rua, Francesco; Di Nardo, Giovanna; Sadeghi, Sheila J; Gilardi, Gianfranco

    2012-01-01

    Macaca fascicularis P450 2C20 shares 92% identity with human cytochrome P450 2C8, which is involved in the metabolism of more than 8% of all prescribed drugs. To date, only paclitaxel and amodiaquine, two substrate markers of the human P450 2C8, have been experimentally confirmed as M. fascicularis P450 2C20 drugs. To bridge the lack of information on the ligands recognized by M. fascicularis P450 2C20, in this study, a three-dimensional homology model of this enzyme was generated on the basis of the available crystal structure of the human homologue P450 2C8 using YASARA. The results indicated that 90.0%, 9.0%, 0.5%, and 0.5% of the residues of the P450 2C20 model were located in the most favorable, allowed, generously allowed, and disallowed regions, respectively. The root-mean-square deviation of the C-alpha superposition of the M. fascicularis P450 2C20 model with the Homo sapiens P450 2C8 was 0.074 Å, indicating a very high similarity of the two structures. Subsequently, the 2C20 model was used for in silico screening of 58 known P450 2C8 substrates and 62 inhibitors. These were also docked in the active site of the crystal structure of the human P450 2C8. The affinity of each compound for the active site of both cytochromes proved to be very similar, meaning that the few key residues that are mutated in the active site of the M. fascicularis P450 do not prevent the P450 2C20 from recognizing the same substrates as the human P450 2C8.

  4. Loading patterns and jaw movements during mastication in Macaca fascicularis: a bone-strain, electromyographic, and cineradiographic analysis.

    PubMed

    Hylander, W L; Johnson, K R; Crompton, A W

    1987-03-01

    Rosette strain gage, electromyography (EMG), and cineradiographic techniques were used to analyze loading patterns and jaw movements during mastication in Macaca fascicularis. The cineradiographic data indicate that macaques generally swallow frequently throughout a chewing sequence, and these swallows are intercalated into a chewing cycle towards the end of a power stroke. The bone strain and jaw movement data indicate that during vigorous mastication the transition between fast close and the power stroke is correlated with a sharp increase in masticatory force, and they also show that in most instances the jaws of macaques are maximally loaded prior to maximum intercuspation, i.e. during phase I (buccal phase) occlusal movements. Moreover, these data indicate that loads during phase II (lingual phase) occlusal movements are ordinarily relatively small. The bone strain data also suggest that the duration of unloading of the jaw during the power stroke of mastication is largely a function of the relaxation time of the jaw adductors. This interpretation is based on the finding that the duration from 100% peak strain to 50% peak strain during unloading closely approximates the half-relaxation time of whole adductor jaw muscles of macaques. The EMG data of the masseter and medial pterygoid muscles have important implications for understanding both the biomechanics of the power stroke and the external forces responsible for the "wishboning" effect that takes place along the mandibular symphysis and corpus during the power stroke of mastication. Although both medial pterygoid muscles reach maximum EMG activity during the power stroke, the activity of the working-side medial pterygoid peaks after the balancing-side medial pterygoid. Associated with the simultaneous increase of force of the working-side medial pterygoid and the decrease of force of the balancing-side medial pterygoid is the persistently high level of EMG activity of the balancing-side deep masseter

  5. MHC class I A region diversity and polymorphism in macaque species

    PubMed Central

    de Vos-Rouweler, Annemiek J. M.; Heijmans, Corrine M. C.; de Groot, Natasja G.; Doxiadis, Gaby G. M.; Bontrop, Ronald E.

    2007-01-01

    The HLA-A locus represents a single copy gene that displays abundant allelic polymorphism in the human population, whereas, in contrast, a nonhuman primate species such as the rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) possesses multiple HLA-A-like (Mamu-A) genes, which parade varying degrees of polymorphism. The number and combination of transcribed Mamu-A genes present per chromosome display diversity in a population of Indian animals. At present, it is not clearly understood whether these different A region configurations are evolutionarily stable entities. To shed light on this issue, rhesus macaques from a Chinese population and a panel of cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) were screened for various A region-linked variations. Comparisons demonstrated that most A region configurations are old entities predating macaque speciation, whereas most allelic variation (>95%) is of more recent origin. The latter situation contrasts the observations of the major histocompatibility complex class II genes in rhesus and cynomolgus macaques, which share a high number of identical alleles (>30%) as defined by exon 2 sequencing. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s00251-007-0201-2) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. PMID:17334754

  6. Identification of microRNAs in Macaca fascicularis (Cynomolgus Monkey) by Homology Search and Experimental Validation by Small RNA-Seq and RT-qPCR Using Kidney Cortex Tissues

    PubMed Central

    Veeranagouda, Yaligara; Rival, Pierrick; Prades, Catherine; Mariet, Claire; Léonard, Jean-François; Gautier, Jean-Charles; Zhou, Xiaobing; Wang, Jufeng; Li, Bo; Ozoux, Marie-Laure; Boitier, Eric

    2015-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) present in tissues and biofluids are emerging as sensitive and specific safety biomarkers. MiRNAs have not been thoroughly described in M. fascicularis, an animal model used in pharmaceutical industry especially in drug safety evaluation. Here we investigated the miRNAs in M. fascicularis. For Macaca mulatta, a closely related species of M. fascicularis, 619 stem-loop precursor miRNAs (pre-miRNAs) and 914 mature miRNAs are available in miRBase version 21. Using M. mulatta miRNAs as a reference list and homology search tools, we identified 604 pre-miRNAs and 913 mature miRNAs in the genome of M. fascicularis. In order to validate the miRNAs identified by homology search we attempted to sequence miRNAs expressed in kidney cortex from M. fascicularis. MiRNAs expressed in kidney cortex may indeed be released in urine upon kidney cortex damage and be potentially used to monitor drug induced kidney injury. Hence small RNA sequencing libraries were prepared using kidney cortex tissues obtained from three naive M. fascicularis and sequenced. Analysis of sequencing data indicated that 432 out of 913 mature miRNAs were expressed in kidney cortex tissues. Assigning these 432 miRNAs to pre-miRNAs revealed that 273 were expressed from both the -5p and -3p arms of 150 pre-miRNAs and 159 miRNAs expressed from either the -5p or -3p arm of 176 pre-miRNAs. Mapping sequencing reads to pre-miRNAs also facilitated the detection of twenty-two new miRNAs. To substantiate miRNAs identified by small RNA sequencing, 313 miRNAs were examined by RT-qPCR. Expression of 262 miRNAs in kidney cortex tissues ware confirmed by TaqMan microRNA RT-qPCR assays. Analysis of kidney cortex miRNA targeted genes suggested that they play important role in kidney development and function. Data presented in this study may serve as a valuable resource to assess the renal safety biomarker potential of miRNAs in Cynomolgus monkeys. PMID:26562842

  7. Characterization of Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) DRB Exon 2 and DRA Exon 3 Fragments in a Primary Terrestrial Rabies Vector (Procyon lotor)

    PubMed Central

    Castillo, Sarrah; Srithayakumar, Vythegi; Meunier, Vanessa; Kyle, Christopher J.

    2010-01-01

    The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) presents a unique system to explore links between genetic diversity and pathogens, as diversity within MHC is maintained in part by pathogen driven selection. While the majority of wildlife MHC studies have investigated species that are of conservation concern, here we characterize MHC variation in a common and broadly distributed species, the North American raccoon (Procyon lotor). Raccoons host an array of broadly distributed wildlife diseases (e.g., canine distemper, parvovirus and raccoon rabies virus) and present important human health risks as they persist in high densities and in close proximity to humans and livestock. To further explore how genetic variation influences the spread and maintenance of disease in raccoons we characterized a fragment of MHC class II DRA exon 3 (250bp) and DRB exon 2 (228 bp). MHC DRA was found to be functionally monomorphic in the 32 individuals screened; whereas DRB exon 2 revealed 66 unique alleles among the 246 individuals screened. Between two and four alleles were observed in each individual suggesting we were amplifying a duplicated DRB locus. Nucleotide differences between DRB alleles ranged from 1 to 36 bp (0.4–15.8% divergence) and translated into 1 to 21 (1.3–27.6% divergence) amino acid differences. We detected a significant excess of nonsynonymous substitutions at the peptide binding region (P = 0.005), indicating that DRB exon 2 in raccoons has been influenced by positive selection. These data will form the basis of continued analyses into the spatial and temporal relationship of the raccoon rabies virus and the immunogenetic response in its primary host. PMID:20706587

  8. Polymorphous computing fabric

    DOEpatents

    Wolinski, Christophe Czeslaw; Gokhale, Maya B.; McCabe, Kevin Peter

    2011-01-18

    Fabric-based computing systems and methods are disclosed. A fabric-based computing system can include a polymorphous computing fabric that can be customized on a per application basis and a host processor in communication with said polymorphous computing fabric. The polymorphous computing fabric includes a cellular architecture that can be highly parameterized to enable a customized synthesis of fabric instances for a variety of enhanced application performances thereof. A global memory concept can also be included that provides the host processor random access to all variables and instructions associated with the polymorphous computing fabric.

  9. Emergence and evolution of inter-specific segregating retrocopies in cynomolgus monkey (Macaca fascicularis) and rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta)

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xu; Zhang, Qu; Su, Bing

    2016-01-01

    Retroposition is an RNA-mediated mechanism to generate gene duplication, and is believed to play an important role in genome evolution and phenotypic adaptation in various species including primates. Previous studies suggested an elevated rate of recent retroposition in the rhesus macaque genome. To better understand the impact of retroposition on macaque species which have undergone an adaptive radiation approximately 3–6 million years ago, we developed a bioinformatics pipeline to identify recently derived retrocopies in cynomolgus monkeys. As a result, we identified seven experimentally validated young retrocopies, all of which are polymorphic in cynomolgus monkeys. Unexpectedly, five of them are also present in rhesus monkeys and are still segregating. Molecular evolutionary analysis indicates that the observed inter-specific polymorphism is attribute to ancestral polymorphism. Further population genetics analysis provided strong evidence of balancing selection on at least one case (Crab-eating monkey retrocopy 6, or CER6) in both species. CER6 is in adjacent with an immunoglobulin related gene and may be involved in host-pathogen interaction, a well-known target of balancing selection. Altogether, our data support that retroposition is an important force to shape genome evolution and species adaptation. PMID:27600022

  10. Emergence and evolution of inter-specific segregating retrocopies in cynomolgus monkey (Macaca fascicularis) and rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xu; Zhang, Qu; Su, Bing

    2016-09-07

    Retroposition is an RNA-mediated mechanism to generate gene duplication, and is believed to play an important role in genome evolution and phenotypic adaptation in various species including primates. Previous studies suggested an elevated rate of recent retroposition in the rhesus macaque genome. To better understand the impact of retroposition on macaque species which have undergone an adaptive radiation approximately 3-6 million years ago, we developed a bioinformatics pipeline to identify recently derived retrocopies in cynomolgus monkeys. As a result, we identified seven experimentally validated young retrocopies, all of which are polymorphic in cynomolgus monkeys. Unexpectedly, five of them are also present in rhesus monkeys and are still segregating. Molecular evolutionary analysis indicates that the observed inter-specific polymorphism is attribute to ancestral polymorphism. Further population genetics analysis provided strong evidence of balancing selection on at least one case (Crab-eating monkey retrocopy 6, or CER6) in both species. CER6 is in adjacent with an immunoglobulin related gene and may be involved in host-pathogen interaction, a well-known target of balancing selection. Altogether, our data support that retroposition is an important force to shape genome evolution and species adaptation.

  11. Emergence and evolution of inter-specific segregating retrocopies in cynomolgus monkey (Macaca fascicularis) and rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xu; Zhang, Qu; Su, Bing

    2016-01-01

    Retroposition is an RNA-mediated mechanism to generate gene duplication, and is believed to play an important role in genome evolution and phenotypic adaptation in various species including primates. Previous studies suggested an elevated rate of recent retroposition in the rhesus macaque genome. To better understand the impact of retroposition on macaque species which have undergone an adaptive radiation approximately 3-6 million years ago, we developed a bioinformatics pipeline to identify recently derived retrocopies in cynomolgus monkeys. As a result, we identified seven experimentally validated young retrocopies, all of which are polymorphic in cynomolgus monkeys. Unexpectedly, five of them are also present in rhesus monkeys and are still segregating. Molecular evolutionary analysis indicates that the observed inter-specific polymorphism is attribute to ancestral polymorphism. Further population genetics analysis provided strong evidence of balancing selection on at least one case (Crab-eating monkey retrocopy 6, or CER6) in both species. CER6 is in adjacent with an immunoglobulin related gene and may be involved in host-pathogen interaction, a well-known target of balancing selection. Altogether, our data support that retroposition is an important force to shape genome evolution and species adaptation. PMID:27600022

  12. Absent in Melanoma 2 (AIM2) is an important mediator of interferon-dependent and -independent HLA-DRA and HLA-DRB gene expression in colorectal cancers.

    PubMed

    Lee, J; Li, L; Gretz, N; Gebert, J; Dihlmann, S

    2012-03-01

    Absent in Melanoma 2 (AIM2) is a member of the HIN-200 family of hematopoietic, IFN-inducible, nuclear proteins, associated with both, infection defense and tumor pathology. Recently, AIM2 was found to act as a DNA sensor in innate immunity. In addition, we and others have previously demonstrated a high frequency of AIM2-alterations in microsatellite unstable (MSI-H) tumors. To further elucidate AIM2 function in colorectal tumors, we here addressed AIM2-responsive target genes by microarray based gene expression profiling of 22 244 human genes. A total of 111 transcripts were significantly upregulated, whereas 80 transcripts turned out to be significantly downregulated in HCT116 cells, constitutively expressing AIM2, compared with AIM2-negative cells. Among the upregulated genes that were validated by quantitative PCR and western blotting we recognized several interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs: IFIT1, IFIT2, IFIT3, IFI6, IRF7, ISG15, HLA-DRA, HLA-DRB, TLR3 and CIITA), as well as genes involved in intercellular adhesion and matrix remodeling. Expression of ISGs correlated with expression of AIM2 in 10 different IFN-γ treated colorectal cancer cell lines. Moreover, small interfering RNA-mediated knock-down of AIM2 resulted in reduced expression of HLA-DRA, HLA-DRB and CIITA in IFN-γ-treated cells. IFN-γ independent induction of HLA-DR genes and their encoded proteins was also demonstrated upon doxycyclin-regulated transient induction of AIM2. Luciferase reporter assays revealed induction of the HLA-DR promoter upon AIM2 transfection in different cell lines. STAT-signaling was not involved in IFN-γ independent induction of ISGs, arguing against participation of cytokines released in an autostimulating manner. Our data indicate that AIM2 mediates both IFN-γ dependent and independent induction of several ISGs, including genes encoding the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II antigens HLA-DR-α and -β. This suggests a novel role of the IFN/AIM2/ISG

  13. Physical volcanology, geochemistry and basin evolution of the Ediacaran volcano-sedimentary succession in the Bas Draâ inlier (Ouarzazate Supergroup, Western Anti-Atlas, Morocco)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karaoui, Brahim; Breitkreuz, Christoph; Mahmoudi, Abdelkader; Youbi, Nasrrddine

    2014-11-01

    New geologic mapping, lithofacies and granulometric analysis, and geochemistry from the volcano-sedimentary successions of the central part of the Bas Draâ inlier, Western Anti-Atlas, constrain the Ediacaran Ouarzazate Supergroup evolution during the post-collisional stage of the Pan-African orogeny. Volcanosedimentary facies analysis is the key aspect of the present contribution. We distinguished sixteen terrestrial volcanosedimentary lithofacies in the Bas Draâ succession (BDS), which reaches a total thickness of 2000 m. BDS evolution can be grouped into four units (Aouinet Aït Oussa I to IV, AO I-AO IV). The earliest volcanic activity produced rhyolitic ignimbrite sheets (AO I), which had been considered as lava flows by previous workers, and which were presumably related to caldera system(s). During AO II, a complex of high-silica andesitic and rhyolitic lavas formed, punctuated by the explosive eruption of a high-temperature silica-rich magma leading to the formation of parataxitic ignimbrite. AO III consists of basalt and andesite lava fields and small explosive, in parts phreatomagmatic volcanic vents. It is dissected by fluvial systems depositing external non-volcanic and local volcanic debris. BDS evolution terminated with the formation of a large SiO2-rich lava dome complex (AO IV), accompanied by small basalt effusive event. Volcanosedimentary facies analysis infers that the BDS evolved in a continental extensional setting developing in a low topography under humid paleoclimatic conditions. Alteration textures are dominated by a piemontite-calcite-albite-quartz (+ iron oxides) assemblage. Chemical analysis of BDS volcanic and subvolcanic rocks belongs to high-k calc-alkaline and alkali-calcic to alkaline magmatic trend typical for a post-collision setting. Trace elements spidergrams show a pattern typical for subduction-related suites of orogenic belts. REE patterns show moderate enrichment in LREE relative to flat HREE, with strong negative Eu

  14. Brain aneurysm segmentation in CTA and 3DRA using geodesic active regions based on second order prototype features and nonparametric density estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernandez, Monica; Frangi, Alejandro F.

    2005-04-01

    Coupling the geodesic active contours model with statistical information based on regions introduces robustness in the segmentation of images with weak or inhomogeneous gradients. In the estimation of the probability density function for each region take part the definition of the features that describe the image inside the different regions and the method of density estimation itself. A Gaussian Mixture Model is frequently proposed for density estimation. This approach is based on the assumption that the intensity distribution of the image is the most discriminant feature in a region. However, the use of second order features provides a better discrimination of the different regions, as these features represent more accurately the local properties of the image manifold. Due to the high dimensionality of the problem, the use of non parametric density estimation methods becomes necessary. In this article, we present a novel method of introducing the second order information of an image for non parametric estimation of the probability density functions of the different tissues that are present in medical images. The novelty of the method stems on the use of the response of the image under an orthogonal harmonic operator set projected onto a prototype space for feature generation. The technique described here is applied to the segmentation of brain aneurysms in Computed Tomography Angiography (CTA) and 3D Rotational Angiography (3DRA) showing a qualitative improvement from the Gaussian Mixture Model approach.

  15. Colour cues for leaf food selection by long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis) with a new suggestion for the evolution of trichromatic colour vision.

    PubMed

    Lucas, P W; Darvell, B W; Lee, P K; Yuen, T D; Choong, M F

    1998-01-01

    Leaf colour, size and toughness were investigated in five plant species important in the diet of Macaca fascicularis in Singapore. Leaf colour and size were examined as potential visual cues for food selection, whereas toughness mirrored fibre content, the inverse of food quality. As leaves matured, they changed colour and toughened. Leaf lightness and yellowness were strongly negatively correlated with toughness, but variation in both the red-green axis of the CIE Lab colour space and leaf size were not. Leaves selected as food by the macaques were distinguished by being very light, yellow to slightly green. Some leaves were dappled with red. The literature suggests that these leaves are relatively rich in protein without being tough and therefore would be sought after by primates. We argue that leaf colour is an important indicator of the nutritive value of leaves. Trichromatic vision is an important advantage in finding those palatable leaves that are dappled red. These would appear dark to dichromatic primates and be deceptive by making leaves look older (lower in quality) than they actually are. This would decrease the perceived window of feeding opportunity for such primates who would be at a disadvantage in trying to find these leaves. It is possible that trichromatic vision in catarrhine primates may have originally evolved for the detection of red coloration in the leaves of shade-tolerant tropical plants, enabling the better exploitation of a food resource. PMID:9595683

  16. Characterization of alpha-defensins plasma levels in Macaca fascicularis and correlations with virological parameters during SHIV89.6Pcy11 experimental infection.

    PubMed

    Baroncelli, Silvia; Negri, Donatella R M; Rovetto, Claudia; Belli, Roberto; Ciccozzi, Massimo; Catone, Stefania; Michelini, Zuleika; Borghi, Martina; Leone, Pasqualina; Fagrouch, Zahra; Heeney, Jonathan; Cara, Andrea

    2007-02-01

    Alpha-defensins have been shown to inhibit HIV-1 replication in vitro and may contribute to the overall control of viral replication in vivo. In the present work, we quantitatively measured the levels of alpha-defensins in the plasma of healthy and experimentally SHIV-infected Macaca fascicularis (cynomolgus monkeys), an animal model of AIDS pathogenesis and vaccine development. Characterization of physiological plasma alpha-defensins levels was performed in 12 healthy monkeys following longitudinal analysis using an alpha-defensins ELISA kit currently validated for macaque use. Subsequently, alpha-defensins levels were quantitatively measured in 23 cynomolgus monkeys during titration protocols following both the mucosal and systemic routes of infection with the pathogenic SHIV89.6P(cy11). A significant increase in plasma alpha-defensins levels was consistently observed at early time points in all infected animals, regardless of the infection route. Moreover, a positive correlation was observed between viral replication and levels of alpha-defensins during the acute phase of infection. Interestingly, in the animals infected through the mucosal route, alpha-defensins levels remained significantly higher at later time points, up to 19 weeks from the infection, while in cynomolgus infected intravenously, alpha-defensins levels returned to baseline levels by 4 weeks from infection, suggesting that the different route of infection may differently activate the innate immune response.

  17. Colour cues for leaf food selection by long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis) with a new suggestion for the evolution of trichromatic colour vision.

    PubMed

    Lucas, P W; Darvell, B W; Lee, P K; Yuen, T D; Choong, M F

    1998-01-01

    Leaf colour, size and toughness were investigated in five plant species important in the diet of Macaca fascicularis in Singapore. Leaf colour and size were examined as potential visual cues for food selection, whereas toughness mirrored fibre content, the inverse of food quality. As leaves matured, they changed colour and toughened. Leaf lightness and yellowness were strongly negatively correlated with toughness, but variation in both the red-green axis of the CIE Lab colour space and leaf size were not. Leaves selected as food by the macaques were distinguished by being very light, yellow to slightly green. Some leaves were dappled with red. The literature suggests that these leaves are relatively rich in protein without being tough and therefore would be sought after by primates. We argue that leaf colour is an important indicator of the nutritive value of leaves. Trichromatic vision is an important advantage in finding those palatable leaves that are dappled red. These would appear dark to dichromatic primates and be deceptive by making leaves look older (lower in quality) than they actually are. This would decrease the perceived window of feeding opportunity for such primates who would be at a disadvantage in trying to find these leaves. It is possible that trichromatic vision in catarrhine primates may have originally evolved for the detection of red coloration in the leaves of shade-tolerant tropical plants, enabling the better exploitation of a food resource.

  18. The effects of thermal and high-CO2 stresses on the metabolism and surrounding microenvironment of the coral Galaxea fascicularis.

    PubMed

    Agostini, Sylvain; Fujimura, Hiroyuki; Higuchi, Tomihiko; Yuyama, Ikuko; Casareto, Beatriz E; Suzuki, Yoshimi; Nakano, Yoshikatsu

    2013-08-01

    The effects of elevated temperature and high pCO2 on the metabolism of Galaxea fascicularis were studied with oxygen and pH microsensors. Photosynthesis and respiration rates were evaluated from the oxygen fluxes from and to the coral polyps. High-temperature alone lowered both photosynthetic and respiration rates. High pCO2 alone did not significantly affect either photosynthesis or respiration rates. Under a combination of high-temperature and high-CO2, the photosynthetic rate increased to values close to those of the controls. The same pH in the diffusion boundary layer was observed under light in both (400 and 750 ppm) CO2 treatments, but decreased significantly in the dark as a result of increased CO2. The ATP contents decreased with increasing temperature. The effects of temperature on the metabolism of corals were stronger than the effects of increased CO2. The effects of acidification were minimal without combined temperature stress. However, acidification combined with higher temperature may affect coral metabolism due to the amplification of diel variations in the microenvironment surrounding the coral and the decrease in ATP contents.

  19. Quantitative Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction Measurement of HLA-DRA Gene Expression in Whole Blood Is Highly Reproducible and Shows Changes That Reflect Dynamic Shifts in Monocyte Surface HLA-DR Expression during the Course of Sepsis

    PubMed Central

    Tina, Elisabet; Bäckman, Anders; Magnuson, Anders; Strålin, Kristoffer; Söderquist, Bo; Källman, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Introduction A decrease in the expression of monocyte surface protein HLA-DR (mHLA-DR), measured by flow cytometry (FCM), has been suggested as a marker of immunosuppression and negative outcome in severe sepsis. However, FCM is not always available due to sample preparation that limits its use to laboratory operational hours. In this prospective study we evaluated dynamic changes in mHLA-DR expression during sepsis in relation to changes in HLA-DRA gene expression and Class II transactivator (CIITA), measured by quantitative Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction (qRT-PCR). Aims The aims of this study were: 1. to validate the robustness of qRT-PCR measurement of HLA-DRA- and CIITA–mRNA expression, in terms of reproducibility; and 2. to see if changes in expression of these genes reflect changes in mHLA-DR expression during the course of severe and non-severe bacteraemic sepsis. Methods and Findings Blood samples were collected from 60 patients with bacteraemic sepsis on up to five occasions during Days 1–28 after hospital admission. We found the reproducibility of the qRT-PCR method to be high by demonstrating low threshold variations (<0.11 standard deviation (SD)) of the qRT-PCR system, low intra-assay variation of Ct-values within triplicates (≤0.15 SD) and low inter-assay variations (12%) of the calculated target gene ratios. Our results also revealed dynamic HLA-DRA expression patterns during the course of sepsis that reflected those of mHLA-DR measured by FCM. Furthermore, HLA-DRA and mHLA-DR recovery slopes in patients with non-severe sepsis differed from those in patients with severe sepsis, shown by mixed model for repeated measurements (p<0.05). However, during the first seven days of sepsis, PCR-measurements showed a higher magnitude of difference between the two sepsis groups. Mean differences (95% CI) between severe sepsis (n = 20) and non-severe sepsis (n = 40) were; on day 1–2, HLA-DRA 0.40 (0.28–0.59) p<0.001, CIITA 0.48 (0.32–0.72) p = 0

  20. Novel experimental methods for investigating high speed friction of titanium-aluminum-vanadium/tool steel interface and dynamic failure of extrinsically toughened DRA composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irfan, Mohammad Abdulaziz

    effects the sliding resistance of the interface. The experimental results deduced from the response of the sliding interface to step changes in normal pressure and the applied shear stress reinforce the importance of including frictional memory in the development of rate dependent state variable friction models. The second part of the thesis presents an investigation into the dynamic deformation and failure of extrinsically toughened DRA composites. Experiments were conducted using the split Hopkinson pressure bar to investigate the deformation and flow behavior under dynamic compression loading. A modified Hopkinson bar apparatus was used to explore the dynamic fracture behavior of three different extrinsically toughened DRA composites. The study was paralleled by systematic exploration of the failure modes in each composite. For all the composites evaluated the dynamic crack propagation characteristics of the composites are observed to be strongly dependent on the volume fraction of the ductile phase reinforcement in the composite, the yield stress of the ductile phase reinforcement, the micro-structural arrangement of the ductile phase reinforcements with respect to the notch, and the impact velocity employed in the particular experiment.

  1. Disappearing Polymorphs Revisited

    PubMed Central

    Bučar, Dejan-Krešimir; Lancaster, Robert W; Bernstein, Joel

    2015-01-01

    Nearly twenty years ago, Dunitz and Bernstein described a selection of intriguing cases of polymorphs that disappear. The inability to obtain a crystal form that has previously been prepared is indeed a frustrating and potentially serious problem for solid-state scientists. This Review discusses recent occurrences and examples of disappearing polymorphs (as well as the emergence of elusive crystal forms) to demonstrate the enduring relevance of this troublesome, but always captivating, phenomenon in solid-state research. A number of these instances have been central issues in patent litigations. This Review, therefore, also highlights the complex relationship between crystal chemistry and the law. PMID:26031248

  2. Genetic Heterogeneity of Borrelia burgdorferi Sensu Lato in the Southern United States Based on Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism and Sequence Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Lin, T.; Oliver, J. H.; Gao, L.; Kollars, T. M.; Clark, K. L.

    2001-01-01

    Fifty-six strains of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, isolated from ticks and vertebrate animals in Missouri, South Carolina, Georgia, Florida, and Texas, were identified and characterized by PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis of rrf (5S)-rrl (23S) intergenic spacer amplicons. A total of 241 to 258 bp of intergenic spacers between tandemly duplicated rrf (5S) and rrl (23S) was amplified by PCR. MseI and DraI restriction fragment polymorphisms were used to analyze these strains. PCR-RFLP analysis results indicated that the strains represented at least three genospecies and 10 different restriction patterns. Most of the strains isolated from the tick Ixodes dentatus in Missouri and Georgia belonged to the genospecies Borrelia andersonii. Excluding the I. dentatus strains, most southern strains, isolated from the ticks Ixodes scapularis and Ixodes affinis, the cotton rat (Sigmodon hispidus), and cotton mouse (Peromyscus gossypinus) in Georgia and Florida, belonged to Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto. Seven strains, isolated from Ixodes minor, the wood rat (Neotoma floridana), the cotton rat, and the cotton mouse in South Carolina and Florida, belonged to Borrelia bissettii. Two strains, MI-8 from Florida and TXW-1 from Texas, exhibited MseI and DraI restriction patterns different from those of previously reported genospecies. Eight Missouri tick strains (MOK-3a group) had MseI patterns similar to that of B. andersonii reference strain 21038 but had a DraI restriction site in the spacer. Strain SCGT-8a had DraI restriction patterns identical to that of strain 25015 (B. bissettii) but differed from strain 25015 in its MseI restriction pattern. Strain AI-1 had the same DraI pattern as other southern strains in the B. bissettii genospecies but had a distinct MseI profile. The taxonomic status of these atypical strains needs to be further evaluated. To clarify the taxonomic positions of these atypical Borrelia strains, the complete sequences of

  3. Assessing natural introgression in 2 biomedical model species, the rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) and the long-tailed macaque (Macaca fascicularis).

    PubMed

    Bonhomme, Maxime; Cuartero, Sergi; Blancher, Antoine; Crouau-Roy, Brigitte

    2009-01-01

    Rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) and long-tailed macaque (Macaca fascicularis) are the 2 most commonly used primate model species in biomedical sciences. Although morphological studies have revealed a weak hybridization at the interspecific contact zone, in the north of Indochina, a molecular study has suggested an ancient introgression from rhesus to long-tailed macaque into the Indo-Chinese peninsula. However, the gene flow between these 2 taxa has never been quantified using genetic data and theoretical models. In this study, we have examined genetic variation within and between the parapatric Chinese rhesus macaque and Indo-Chinese long-tailed macaque populations, using 13 autosomal, 5 sex-linked microsatellite loci and mitochondrial DNA sequence data. From these data, we assessed genetic structure and estimated gene flow using a Bayesian clustering approach and the "Isolation with Migration" model. Our results reveal a weak interspecific genetic differentiation at both autosomal and sex-linked loci, suggesting large population sizes and/or gene flow between populations. According to the Bayesian clustering, Chinese rhesus macaque is a highly homogeneous gene pool that contributes strongly to the current Indo-Chinese long-tailed macaque genetic makeup, whether or not current admixture is assumed. Coalescent simulations, which integrated the characteristics of the loci, pointed out 1) a higher effective population size in rhesus macaque, 2) no mitochondrial gene flow, and 3) unilateral and male-mediated nuclear gene flow of approximately 10 migrants per generation from rhesus to long-tailed macaque. These patterns of genetic structure and gene flow suggest extensive ancient introgression from Chinese rhesus macaque into the Indo-Chinese long-tailed macaque population.

  4. There Is More than One Way to Crack an Oyster: Identifying Variation in Burmese Long-Tailed Macaque (Macaca fascicularis aurea) Stone-Tool Use.

    PubMed

    Tan, Amanda; Tan, Say Hoon; Vyas, Dhaval; Malaivijitnond, Suchinda; Gumert, Michael D

    2015-01-01

    We explored variation in patterns of percussive stone-tool use on coastal foods by Burmese long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis aurea) from two islands in Laem Son National Park, Ranong, Thailand. We catalogued variation into three hammering classes and 17 action patterns, after examining 638 tool-use bouts across 90 individuals. Hammering class was based on the stone surface used for striking food, being face, point, and edge hammering. Action patterns were discriminated by tool material, hand use, posture, and striking motion. Hammering class was analyzed for associations with material and behavioural elements of tool use. Action patterns were not, owing to insufficient instances of most patterns. We collected 3077 scan samples from 109 macaques on Piak Nam Yai Island's coasts, to determine the proportion of individuals using each hammering class and action pattern. Point hammering was significantly more associated with sessile foods, smaller tools, faster striking rates, smoother recoil, unimanual use, and more varied striking direction, than were face and edge hammering, while both point and edge hammering were significantly more associated with precision gripping than face hammering. Edge hammering also showed distinct differences depending on whether such hammering was applied to sessile or unattached foods, resembling point hammering for sessile foods and face hammering for unattached foods. Point hammering and sessile edge hammering compared to prior descriptions of axe hammering, while face and unattached edge hammering compared to pound hammering. Analysis of scans showed that 80% of individuals used tools, each employing one to four different action patterns. The most common patterns were unimanual point hammering (58%), symmetrical-bimanual face hammering (47%) and unimanual face hammering (37%). Unimanual edge hammering was relatively frequent (13%), compared to the other thirteen rare action patterns (<5%). We compare our study to other stone

  5. A novel wireless recording and stimulating multichannel epicortical grid for supplementing or enhancing the sensory-motor functions in monkey (Macaca fascicularis)

    PubMed Central

    Zippo, Antonio G.; Romanelli, Pantaleo; Torres Martinez, Napoleon R.; Caramenti, Gian C.; Benabid, Alim L.; Biella, Gabriele E. M.

    2015-01-01

    Artificial brain-machine interfaces (BMIs) represent a prospective step forward supporting or replacing faulty brain functions. So far, several obstacles, such as the energy supply, the portability and the biocompatibility, have been limiting their effective translation in advanced experimental or clinical applications. In this work, a novel 16 channel chronically implantable epicortical grid has been proposed. It provides wireless transmission of cortical recordings and stimulations, with induction current recharge. The grid has been chronically implanted in a non-human primate (Macaca fascicularis) and placed over the somato-motor cortex such that 13 electrodes recorded or stimulated the primary motor cortex and three the primary somatosensory cortex, in the deeply anaesthetized animal. Cortical sensory and motor recordings and stimulations have been performed within 3 months from the implant. In detail, by delivering motor cortex epicortical single spot stimulations (1–8 V, 1–10 Hz, 500 ms, biphasic waves), we analyzed the motor topographic precision, evidenced by tunable finger or arm movements of the anesthetized animal. The responses to light mechanical peripheral sensory stimuli (blocks of 100 stimuli, each single stimulus being <1 ms and interblock intervals of 1.5–4 s) have been analyzed. We found 150–250 ms delayed cortical responses from fast finger touches, often spread to nearby motor stations. We also evaluated the grid electrical stimulus interference with somatotopic natural tactile sensory processing showing no suppressing interference with sensory stimulus detection. In conclusion, we propose a chronically implantable epicortical grid which can accommodate most of current technological restrictions, representing an acceptable candidate for BMI experimental and clinical uses. PMID:26029061

  6. There Is More than One Way to Crack an Oyster: Identifying Variation in Burmese Long-Tailed Macaque (Macaca fascicularis aurea) Stone-Tool Use

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Amanda; Tan, Say Hoon; Vyas, Dhaval; Malaivijitnond, Suchinda; Gumert, Michael D.

    2015-01-01

    We explored variation in patterns of percussive stone-tool use on coastal foods by Burmese long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis aurea) from two islands in Laem Son National Park, Ranong, Thailand. We catalogued variation into three hammering classes and 17 action patterns, after examining 638 tool-use bouts across 90 individuals. Hammering class was based on the stone surface used for striking food, being face, point, and edge hammering. Action patterns were discriminated by tool material, hand use, posture, and striking motion. Hammering class was analyzed for associations with material and behavioural elements of tool use. Action patterns were not, owing to insufficient instances of most patterns. We collected 3077 scan samples from 109 macaques on Piak Nam Yai Island’s coasts, to determine the proportion of individuals using each hammering class and action pattern. Point hammering was significantly more associated with sessile foods, smaller tools, faster striking rates, smoother recoil, unimanual use, and more varied striking direction, than were face and edge hammering, while both point and edge hammering were significantly more associated with precision gripping than face hammering. Edge hammering also showed distinct differences depending on whether such hammering was applied to sessile or unattached foods, resembling point hammering for sessile foods and face hammering for unattached foods. Point hammering and sessile edge hammering compared to prior descriptions of axe hammering, while face and unattached edge hammering compared to pound hammering. Analysis of scans showed that 80% of individuals used tools, each employing one to four different action patterns. The most common patterns were unimanual point hammering (58%), symmetrical-bimanual face hammering (47%) and unimanual face hammering (37%). Unimanual edge hammering was relatively frequent (13%), compared to the other thirteen rare action patterns (<5%). We compare our study to other stone

  7. A novel wireless recording and stimulating multichannel epicortical grid for supplementing or enhancing the sensory-motor functions in monkey (Macaca fascicularis).

    PubMed

    Zippo, Antonio G; Romanelli, Pantaleo; Torres Martinez, Napoleon R; Caramenti, Gian C; Benabid, Alim L; Biella, Gabriele E M

    2015-01-01

    Artificial brain-machine interfaces (BMIs) represent a prospective step forward supporting or replacing faulty brain functions. So far, several obstacles, such as the energy supply, the portability and the biocompatibility, have been limiting their effective translation in advanced experimental or clinical applications. In this work, a novel 16 channel chronically implantable epicortical grid has been proposed. It provides wireless transmission of cortical recordings and stimulations, with induction current recharge. The grid has been chronically implanted in a non-human primate (Macaca fascicularis) and placed over the somato-motor cortex such that 13 electrodes recorded or stimulated the primary motor cortex and three the primary somatosensory cortex, in the deeply anaesthetized animal. Cortical sensory and motor recordings and stimulations have been performed within 3 months from the implant. In detail, by delivering motor cortex epicortical single spot stimulations (1-8 V, 1-10 Hz, 500 ms, biphasic waves), we analyzed the motor topographic precision, evidenced by tunable finger or arm movements of the anesthetized animal. The responses to light mechanical peripheral sensory stimuli (blocks of 100 stimuli, each single stimulus being <1 ms and interblock intervals of 1.5-4 s) have been analyzed. We found 150-250 ms delayed cortical responses from fast finger touches, often spread to nearby motor stations. We also evaluated the grid electrical stimulus interference with somatotopic natural tactile sensory processing showing no suppressing interference with sensory stimulus detection. In conclusion, we propose a chronically implantable epicortical grid which can accommodate most of current technological restrictions, representing an acceptable candidate for BMI experimental and clinical uses. PMID:26029061

  8. Immunoreactivity for Choline Acetyltransferase of Peripheral-Type (pChAT) in the Trigeminal Ganglion Neurons of the Non-Human Primate Macaca fascicularis

    PubMed Central

    Koga, Tsuneyuki; Bellier, Jean-Pierre; Kimura, Hiroshi; Tooyama, Ikuo

    2013-01-01

    Transcripts of the choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) gene reveal a number of different splice variants including ChAT of a peripheral type (pChAT). Immunohistochemical staining of the brain using an antibody against pChAT clearly revealed peripheral cholinergic neurons, but failed to detect cholinergic neurons in the central nervous system. In rodents, pChAT-immunoreactivity has been detected in cholinergic parasympathetic postganglionic and enteric ganglion neurons. In addition, pChAT has been observed in non-cholinergic neurons such as peripheral sensory neurons in the trigeminal and dorsal root ganglia. The common type of ChAT (cChAT) has been investigated in many parts of the brain and the spinal cord of non-human primates, but little information is available about the localization of pChAT in primate species. Here, we report the detection of pChAT immunoreactivity in trigeminal ganglion (TG) neurons and its co-localization with Substance P (SP) and/or calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) in the cynomolgus monkey, Macaca fascicularis. Neurons positive for pChAT were observed in a rather uniform pattern in approximately half of the trigeminal neurons throughout the TG. Most pChAT-positive neurons had small or medium-sized cell bodies. Double-immunofluorescence staining showed that 85.1% of SP-positive cells and 74.0% of CGRP-positive cells exhibited pChAT immunoreactivity. Most pChAT-positive cells were part of a larger population of neurons that co-expressed SP and/or CGRP. PMID:23720604

  9. Sex differences in the stone tool-use behavior of a wild population of burmese long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis aurea).

    PubMed

    Gumert, Michael D; Hoong, Low Kuan; Malaivijitnond, Suchinda

    2011-12-01

    We investigated sex differences in how Burmese long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis aurea) used stone tools to open shelled food items along the shores of two islands in Laemson National Park, Thailand. Over a 2-week period in December 2009, we collected scan and focal samples on macaques when they were visible along the shores and mangroves. We found females used stones more often while feeding and used smaller tools than males. Females also processed sessile oysters more than males, whereas males processed unattached foods more than females. It was unclear which sex was overall more proficient at stone tool use, but males did perform significantly better at opening unattached food items with large pounding stones. Females also struck food items more times during tool-use bouts and at a faster rate, but no significant difference was found in average tool-use bout duration. Males processed foods slightly faster within a tool-use bout, but we were unable to detect a significant difference in the rate of food processing while foraging with tools. In summary females chipped open sessile oysters with an axing technique more than males, while males used larger stones to pound open unattached shelled food more often than females. Despite using pounding more than females, males also regularly utilized the axing technique on sessile oysters. Our results are the first assessment of sex differences in macaque stone tool use, providing a basis for comparison with tool use in other primates, and to nonfunctional forms of stone use in other macaques.

  10. Enzyme polymorphisms in Canarium

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fifty-two accessions of Canarium involving seven species, C. ovatum, C. album, C. megalanthum, C. harveyi, C. indicum, C. mehenbethene, and C. odontophyllum were studied for isozyme polymorphisms. Starch gel electrophoresis with a histidine-citrate buffer system (pH 6.5) was employed to assay six en...

  11. Polymorphous Perversity in Texts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson-Eilola, Johndan

    2012-01-01

    Here's the tricky part: If we teach ourselves and our students that texts are made to be broken apart, remixed, remade, do we lose the polymorphous perversity that brought us pleasure in the first place? Does the pleasure of transgression evaporate when the borders are opened?

  12. Polymorphism of sorbitol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nezzal, Amale; Aerts, Luc; Verspaille, Marleen; Henderickx, Geert; Redl, Andreas

    2009-07-01

    The polymorphism of sorbitol was investigated, confirming the existence of four anhydrous crystalline phases plus the hydrate. The crystallised melt (CM), the alpha form, and the gamma form were obtained via a dry route. The CM was confirmed to be a crystalline state with a spherulite morphology. The alpha form was obtained via direct conversion from the CM, in contrast to more complicated routes previously reported, and was found to have a very high crystallinity. Gamma crystals were obtained by seeding the melt at high temperature; however, crystallinity was clearly less than for alpha crystals. Despite its lower crystallinity, the gamma polymorph was found to be the most stable of the anhydrous crystalline forms; this was confirmed by its high melting point and low hygroscopicity. In contrast, the alpha polymorph has a relatively high melting point but lacks moisture stability at high relative humidity. The hydrate form has the same resistance to moisture as the gamma form, but melts at a lower temperature. The combination of both a high melting point and high stability in the presence of water makes the gamma polymorph best suited for confectionary applications.

  13. Investigation of Uranium Polymorphs

    SciTech Connect

    Sweet, Lucas E.; Henager, Charles H.; Hu, Shenyang Y.; Johnson, Timothy J.; Meier, David E.; Peper, Shane M.; Schwantes, Jon M.

    2011-08-01

    The UO3-water system is complex and has not been fully characterized, even though these species are common throughout the nuclear fuel cycle. As an example, most production schemes for UO3 result in a mixture of up to six or more different polymorphic phases, and small differences in these conditions will affect phase genesis that ultimately result in measureable changes to the end product. As a result, this feature of the UO3-water system may be useful as a means for determining process history. This research effort attempts to better characterize the UO3-water system with a variety of optical techniques for the purpose of developing some predictive capability for estimating process history in polymorphic phases of unknown origin. Three commercially relevant preparation methods for the production of UO3 were explored. Previously unreported low temperature routes to β- and γ-UO3 were discovered. Raman and fluorescence spectroscopic libraries were established for pure and mixed polymorphic forms of UO3 in addition to the common hydrolysis products of UO3. An advantage of the sensitivity of optical fluorescence microscopy over XRD has been demonstrated. Preliminary aging studies of the α and γ forms of UO3 have been conducted. In addition, development of a 3-D phase field model used to predict phase genesis of the system was initiated. Thermodynamic and structural constants that will feed the model have been gathered from the literature for most of the UO3 polymorphic phases.

  14. Polymorphism of 4-bromobenzophenone.

    PubMed

    Strzhemechny, Mikhail A; Baumer, Vyacheslav N; Avdeenko, Anatoli A; Pyshkin, Oleg S; Romashkin, Roman V; Buravtseva, Lyubov M

    2007-04-01

    A combination of single-crystal and powder X-ray diffractometry was used to study the structure of two polymorphs of 4-bromobenzophenone over the temperature range from 100 to 300 K. One of the polymorphs of the title compound was known previously and its structure has been determined at room temperature [Ebbinghaus et al. (1997). Z. Kristallogr. 212, 339-340]. Two crystal growth methods were employed, one of which (a modification of the Bridgman-Stockbarger technique) resulted in single crystals of a previously unknown structure. The basic physical properties of the stable polymorph are: growth method, from 2-propanol solutions or gradient sublimation; space group, monoclinic P2(1)/c; melting point, T(m) = 355.2 K; X-ray density (at 100 K), D(x) = 1.646 g cm(-3). The same properties of the metastable polymorph (triclinic P\\overline 1 ) are: growth method, modified Bridgman-Stockbarger method; X-ray density (at 100 K), D(x) = 1.645 g cm(-3); T(m) = 354 K. Thermograms suggest that the melting of the metastable form is accompanied by at least a partial crystallization presumably into the monoclinic form; the transformation is therefore monotropic. Analysis of short distances in both polymorphs shows that numerous weak hydrogen bonds of the C-H...pi type ensure additional stabilization within the respective planes normal to the longest dimension of the molecules. The strong temperature dependence of the lattice constants and of the weak bond distances in the monoclinic form suggest that the weak bond interactions might be responsible for both the large thermal expansion within plane bc and the considerable thermal expansion anisotropy. PMID:17374940

  15. Modelling variations in corallite morphology of Galaxea fascicularis coral colonies with depth and light on coastal fringing reefs in the Wakatobi Marine National Park (S.E. Sulawesi, Indonesia).

    PubMed

    Crabbe, M James C; Smith, David J

    2006-04-01

    Coastal environments in the tropics can suffer from high sedimentation and low light levels. Galaxea fascicularis is a hermatypic coral that is relatively resilient to stress from bleaching and from sedimentation. Corallite dimensions--width, height, corallite densities and inter-corallite distances--of Galaxea fascicularis colonies varied significantly with depth, and so with incident light at the Sampela reef in the Wakatobi Marine National Park, S.E. Sulawesi, Indonesia. Modelling studies based on our data showed that corallite width decreased with the amount of incident light, while corallite height increased with the amount of incident light (r2 values of 0.835 for width and 0.869 for height). In all colonies, inter-corallite distance decreased significantly with the amount of incident light (r2 = 0.89). Colony width/height ratio increased in a linear fashion with inter-corallite distance for all colonies studied (r2 = 0.65). Current flow as judged using tags did not appear to be a factor in variations of corallite dimensions. Our results suggest that under low light conditions, distribution and size of corallites may optimise heterotrophic nutrition, while in conditions where light is not limiting, distribution and size of corallites may be optimal for photosynthesis.

  16. Polymorphism of phosphoric oxide

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hill, W.L.; Faust, G.T.; Hendricks, S.B.

    1943-01-01

    The melting points and monotropic relationship of three crystalline forms of phosphoric oxide were determined by the method of quenching. Previous vapor pressure data are discussed and interpreted to establish a pressure-temperature diagram (70 to 600??) for the one-component system. The system involves three triple points, at which solid, liquid and vapor (P4O10) coexist in equilibrium, namely: 420?? and 360 cm., 562?? and 43.7 cm. and 580?? and 55.5 cm., corresponding to the hexagonal, orthorhombic and stable polymorphs, respectively, and at least two distinct liquids, one a stable polymer of the other, which are identified with the melting of the stable form and the hexagonal modification, respectively. Indices of refraction of the polymorphs and glasses were determined. The density and the thermal, hygroscopic and structural properties of the several phases are discussed.

  17. [Polymorphs of clopidogrel bisulfate].

    PubMed

    Liu, Yi; Huang, Hai-Wei; Wu, Jian-Min; Shi, Ya-Qin; Yang, La-Hu

    2013-08-01

    This paper is to report the polymorphism of raw materials of clopidogrel bisulfate at home and abroad. By the analysis of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and powder X-ray diffraction (p-XRD), samples are roughly classified into two groups, except one patent material. And the differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) examination showed more detailed information for these materials. The results of the study could provide comprehensive basis for the quality evaluation of clopidogrel bisulfate. PMID:24187849

  18. Abnormal glucose tolerance and insulin resistance in polycystic ovary syndrome amongst the Taiwanese population- not correlated with insulin receptor substrate-1 Gly972Arg/Ala513Pro polymorphism

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Ta-Chin; Yen, Jui-Mei; Gong, Kum-Bing; Kuo, Tsung-Cheng; Ku, Dong-Chi; Liang, Shu-Fen; Wu, Ming-Jiuan

    2006-01-01

    Background Insulin resistance and glucose dysmetabolism in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) are related with the polymorphisms in the genes encoding the insulin receptor substrate (IRS) proteins, especially Gly972Arg/Ala513Pro polymorphism being reported to be associated with type-2 diabetes and PCOS. We intended to assess the prevalence of abnormal glucose tolerance (AGT) and insulin resistance in Taiwanese PCOS women. We also tried to assess whether the particular identity of Gly972Arg/Ala513Pro polymorphic alleles of the IRS-1 gene mutation can be used as an appropriate diagnostic indicator for PCOS. Methods We designed a prospective clinical study. Forty-seven Taiwanese Hoklo and Hakka women, diagnosed with PCOS were enrolled in this study as were forty-five healthy Hoklo and Hakka women as the control group. Insulin resistance was evaluated with fasting insulin, fasting glucose/insulin ratio, and homeostasis model assessment index for insulin resistance (HOMAIR). The genomic DNA of the subjects was amplified by PCR and digested by restriction fragmented length polymorphism (RFLP) with Bst N1 used for codon 972 and Dra III for codon 513. Results AGT was found in 46.8% of these PCOS patients and was significantly related to high insulin resistance rather than the low insulin resistance. Those patients with either insulin resistance or AGT comprised the majority of PCOS affected patients (AGT + fasting insulin ≥17: 83%, AGT + glucose/insulin ratio ≥6.5: 85.1%, AGT + HOMAIR ≥ 2: 87.2%, and AGT + HOMAIR ≥ 3.8: 72.3%). None of the tested samples revealed any polymorphism due to the absence of any Dra III recognition site or any Bst N1 recognition site in the amplified PCR fragment digested by restriction fragmented length polymorphism. Conclusion There is significantly high prevalence of AGT and insulin resistance in PCOS women, but Gly972Arg and Ala513Pro polymorphic alleles of IRS-1 are rare and are not associated with the elevated risk of PCOS amongst

  19. cDNA cloning and genetic polymorphism of the swine major histocompatibility complex (SLA) class II DMA gene.

    PubMed

    Ando, A; Kawata, H; Murakami, T; Shigenari, A; Shiina, T; Sada, M; Tsuji, T; Toriu, A; Nakanishi, Y; Mitsuhashi, T; Sekikawa, K; Inoko, H

    2001-04-01

    cDNA clones corresponding to the swine histocompatibility complex (SLA: swine leucocyte antigen)-DM alpha chain were isolated using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) products from the third exon in the human HLA-DMA gene as a probe. Amino acid comparative analysis revealed that these clones were more closely related to the bovine and human DMA genes than to the other swine class II genes alpha chain genes, DRA, DQA and DOA. These results suggest that the SLA-DMA gene is expressed and may function, like HLA-DM, as an important modulator in class II restricted antigen processing in swine. Furthermore, based on the sequences and PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) patterns in the SLA-DMA gene, no allelic variation was recognized in the second exon, but five allelic variations were recognized in the third exon in five different breeds of swine. These DMA alleles were defined by variation at four nucleotide positions. Two of these alleles resulted in an amino acid substitution. These results suggest that SLA-DMA has little polymorphism as observed in HLA-DMA and mouse H2-Ma.

  20. The sweet taste quality is linked to a cluster of taste fibers in primates: lactisole diminishes preference and responses to sweet in S fibers (sweet best) chorda tympani fibers of M. fascicularis monkey

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yiwen; Danilova, Vicktoria; Cragin, Tiffany; Roberts, Thomas W; Koposov, Alexey; Hellekant, Göran

    2009-01-01

    Background Psychophysically, sweet and bitter have long been considered separate taste qualities, evident already to the newborn human. The identification of different receptors for sweet and bitter located on separate cells of the taste buds substantiated this separation. However, this finding leads to the next question: is bitter and sweet also kept separated in the next link from the taste buds, the fibers of the taste nerves? Previous studies in non-human primates, P. troglodytes, C. aethiops, M. mulatta, M. fascicularis and C. jacchus, suggest that the sweet and bitter taste qualities are linked to specific groups of fibers called S and Q fibers. In this study we apply a new sweet taste modifier, lactisole, commercially available as a suppressor of the sweetness of sugars on the human tongue, to test our hypothesis that sweet taste is conveyed in S fibers. Results We first ascertained that lactisole exerted similar suppression of sweetness in M. fascicularis, as reported in humans, by recording their preference of sweeteners and non- sweeteners with and without lactisole in two-bottle tests. The addition of lactisole significantly diminished the preference for all sweeteners but had no effect on the intake of non-sweet compounds or the intake of water. We then recorded the response to the same taste stimuli in 40 single chorda tympani nerve fibers. Comparison between single fiber nerve responses to stimuli with and without lactisole showed that lactisole only suppressed the responses to sweeteners in S fibers. It had no effect on the responses to any other stimuli in all other taste fibers. Conclusion In M. fascicularis, lactisole diminishes the attractiveness of compounds, which taste sweet to humans. This behavior is linked to activity of fibers in the S-cluster. Assuming that lactisole blocks the T1R3 monomer of the sweet taste receptor T1R2/R3, these results present further support for the hypothesis that S fibers convey taste from T1R2/R3 receptors, while

  1. Polymorphic Electronic Circuits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoica, Adrian

    2004-01-01

    Polymorphic electronics is a nascent technological discipline that involves, among other things, designing the same circuit to perform different analog and/or digital functions under different conditions. For example, a circuit can be designed to function as an OR gate or an AND gate, depending on the temperature (see figure). Polymorphic electronics can also be considered a subset of polytronics, which is a broader technological discipline in which optical and possibly other information- processing systems could also be designed to perform multiple functions. Polytronics is an outgrowth of evolvable hardware (EHW). The basic concepts and some specific implementations of EHW were described in a number of previous NASA Tech Briefs articles. To recapitulate: The essence of EHW is to design, construct, and test a sequence of populations of circuits that function as incrementally better solutions of a given design problem through the selective, repetitive connection and/or disconnection of capacitors, transistors, amplifiers, inverters, and/or other circuit building blocks. The evolution is guided by a search-and-optimization algorithm (in particular, a genetic algorithm) that operates in the space of possible circuits to find a circuit that exhibits an acceptably close approximation of the desired functionality. The evolved circuits can be tested by computational simulation (in which case the evolution is said to be extrinsic), tested in real hardware (in which case the evolution is said to be intrinsic), or tested in random sequences of computational simulation and real hardware (in which case the evolution is said to be mixtrinsic).

  2. Polymorphic Evolutionary Games.

    PubMed

    Fishman, Michael A

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, I present an analytical framework for polymorphic evolutionary games suitable for explicitly modeling evolutionary processes in diploid populations with sexual reproduction. The principal aspect of the proposed approach is adding diploid genetics cum sexual recombination to a traditional evolutionary game, and switching from phenotypes to haplotypes as the new game׳s pure strategies. Here, the relevant pure strategy׳s payoffs derived by summing the payoffs of all the phenotypes capable of producing gametes containing that particular haplotype weighted by the pertinent probabilities. The resulting game is structurally identical to the familiar Evolutionary Games with non-linear pure strategy payoffs (Hofbauer and Sigmund, 1998. Cambridge University Press), and can be analyzed in terms of an established analytical framework for such games. And these results can be translated into the terms of genotypic, and whence, phenotypic evolutionary stability pertinent to the original game.

  3. Gene Polymorphisms in Chronic Periodontitis

    PubMed Central

    Laine, Marja L.; Loos, Bruno G.; Crielaard, W.

    2010-01-01

    We aimed to conduct a review of the literature for gene polymorphisms associated with chronic periodontitis (CP) susceptibility. A comprehensive search of the literature in English was performed using the keywords: periodontitis, periodontal disease, combined with the words genes, mutation, or polymorphism. Candidate gene polymorphism studies with a case-control design and reported genotype frequencies in CP patients were searched and reviewed. There is growing evidence that polymorphisms in the IL1, IL6, IL10, vitamin D receptor, and CD14 genes may be associated with CP in certain populations. However, carriage rates of the rare (R)-allele of any polymorphism varied considerably among studies and most of the studies appeared under-powered and did not correct for other risk factors. Larger cohorts, well-defined phenotypes, control for other risk factors, and analysis of multiple genes and polymorphisms within the same pathway are needed to get a more comprehensive insight into the contribution of gene polymorphisms in CP. PMID:20339487

  4. Preferential Nucleation during Polymorphic Transformations

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, H.; Sietsma, J.; Offerman, S. E.

    2016-01-01

    Polymorphism is the ability of a solid material to exist in more than one phase or crystal structure. Polymorphism may occur in metals, alloys, ceramics, minerals, polymers, and pharmaceutical substances. Unresolved are the conditions for preferential nucleation during polymorphic transformations in which structural relationships or special crystallographic orientation relationships (OR’s) form between the nucleus and surrounding matrix grains. We measured in-situ and simultaneously the nucleation rates of grains that have zero, one, two, three and four special OR’s with the surrounding parent grains. These experiments show a trend in which the activation energy for nucleation becomes smaller – and therefore nucleation more probable - with increasing number of special OR’s. These insights contribute to steering the processing of polymorphic materials with tailored properties, since preferential nucleation affects which crystal structure forms, the average grain size and texture of the material, and thereby - to a large extent - the final properties of the material. PMID:27484579

  5. Preferential Nucleation during Polymorphic Transformations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, H.; Sietsma, J.; Offerman, S. E.

    2016-08-01

    Polymorphism is the ability of a solid material to exist in more than one phase or crystal structure. Polymorphism may occur in metals, alloys, ceramics, minerals, polymers, and pharmaceutical substances. Unresolved are the conditions for preferential nucleation during polymorphic transformations in which structural relationships or special crystallographic orientation relationships (OR’s) form between the nucleus and surrounding matrix grains. We measured in-situ and simultaneously the nucleation rates of grains that have zero, one, two, three and four special OR’s with the surrounding parent grains. These experiments show a trend in which the activation energy for nucleation becomes smaller – and therefore nucleation more probable - with increasing number of special OR’s. These insights contribute to steering the processing of polymorphic materials with tailored properties, since preferential nucleation affects which crystal structure forms, the average grain size and texture of the material, and thereby - to a large extent - the final properties of the material.

  6. Preferential Nucleation during Polymorphic Transformations.

    PubMed

    Sharma, H; Sietsma, J; Offerman, S E

    2016-08-03

    Polymorphism is the ability of a solid material to exist in more than one phase or crystal structure. Polymorphism may occur in metals, alloys, ceramics, minerals, polymers, and pharmaceutical substances. Unresolved are the conditions for preferential nucleation during polymorphic transformations in which structural relationships or special crystallographic orientation relationships (OR's) form between the nucleus and surrounding matrix grains. We measured in-situ and simultaneously the nucleation rates of grains that have zero, one, two, three and four special OR's with the surrounding parent grains. These experiments show a trend in which the activation energy for nucleation becomes smaller - and therefore nucleation more probable - with increasing number of special OR's. These insights contribute to steering the processing of polymorphic materials with tailored properties, since preferential nucleation affects which crystal structure forms, the average grain size and texture of the material, and thereby - to a large extent - the final properties of the material.

  7. Preferential Nucleation during Polymorphic Transformations.

    PubMed

    Sharma, H; Sietsma, J; Offerman, S E

    2016-01-01

    Polymorphism is the ability of a solid material to exist in more than one phase or crystal structure. Polymorphism may occur in metals, alloys, ceramics, minerals, polymers, and pharmaceutical substances. Unresolved are the conditions for preferential nucleation during polymorphic transformations in which structural relationships or special crystallographic orientation relationships (OR's) form between the nucleus and surrounding matrix grains. We measured in-situ and simultaneously the nucleation rates of grains that have zero, one, two, three and four special OR's with the surrounding parent grains. These experiments show a trend in which the activation energy for nucleation becomes smaller - and therefore nucleation more probable - with increasing number of special OR's. These insights contribute to steering the processing of polymorphic materials with tailored properties, since preferential nucleation affects which crystal structure forms, the average grain size and texture of the material, and thereby - to a large extent - the final properties of the material. PMID:27484579

  8. Genetic polymorphisms and disease prevention.

    PubMed

    Mahoney, Martin C

    2007-06-15

    Building upon the resources of traditional epidemiology, molecular epidemiology has extended our understanding that disease risk varies based not only upon acquired factors (e.g., exposures, behaviors, demographics), but also as a function of inherited factors (e.g., genetic polymorphisms). Individual susceptibility to cancer is influenced by polymorphisms in phase I enzymes (e.g., activation), phase 2 enzymes (e.g., detoxification), defects in the repair of DNA damage and other cancer susceptibility genes. Because tobacco use and nutrition represent behaviors/exposures which account for a significant number of cancer cases and deaths, these two factors are used to illustrate the relationship between genetic polymorphisms and disease prevention. Susceptibility to the health risks of smoking appears to be influenced by genetic factors that impact initiation, dependence, and nicotine metabolism. Nutrient metabolism also involves polymorphic enzyme pathways and gene-nutrient interactions may influence cancer risk. While the discipline of molecular epidemiology continues to face methodologic challenges related to the need to study large numbers of subjects, current knowledge can be applied to prevention activities. Genetic polymorphisms, and other molecular markers, can be used to develop clinical prevention studies targeted to unique subsets of persons at the highest risk of developing disease. Knowledge about the relationships between polymorphisms and disease outcomes can also be used for reinforcing healthy lifestyles, motivating positive behavior changes, helping to target medical therapy, and aiding in better focusing surveillance activities. PMID:17252563

  9. New polymorphous computing fabric.

    SciTech Connect

    Wolinski, C.; Gokhale, M.; McCabe, K. P.

    2002-01-01

    This paper introduces a new polymorphous computing Fabric well suited to DSP and Image Processing and describes its implementation on a Configurable System on a Chip (CSOC). The architecture is highly parameterized and enables customization of the synthesized Fabric to achieve high performance for a specific class of application. For this reason it can be considered to be a generic model for hardware accelerator synthesis from a high level specification. Another important innovation is the Fabric uses a global memory concept, which gives the host processor random access to all the variables and instructions on the Fabric. The Fabric supports different computing models including MIMD, SPMD and systolic flow and permits dynamic reconfiguration. We present a specific implementation of a bank of FIR filters on a Fabric composed of 52 cells on the Altera Excalibur ARM running at 33 MHz. The theoretical performance of this Fabric is 1.8 GMACh. For the FIR application we obtain 1.6 GMAC/s real performance. Some automatic tools have been developed like the tool to provide a host access utility and assembler.

  10. Structural Polymorphism in Amyloids

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Eric M.; Wu, Bo; Surewicz, Krystyna; Nadaud, Philippe S.; Helmus, Jonathan J.; Chen, Shugui; Jaroniec, Christopher P.; Surewicz, Witold K.

    2011-01-01

    The C-terminally-truncated human prion protein variant Y145Stop (or PrP23–144), associated with a familial prion disease, provides a valuable model for studying the fundamental properties of protein amyloids. In previous solid-state NMR experiments, we established that the β-sheet core of the PrP23–144 amyloid is composed of two β-strand regions encompassing residues ∼113–125 and ∼130–140. The former segment contains a highly conserved hydrophobic palindrome sequence, 113AGAAAAGA120, which has been considered essential to PrP conformational conversion. Here, we examine the role of this segment in fibrillization of PrP23–144 using a deletion variant, Δ113–120 PrP23–144, in which the palindrome sequence is missing. Surprisingly, we find that deletion of the palindrome sequence affects neither the amyloidogenicity nor the polymerization kinetics of PrP23–144, although it does alter amyloid conformation and morphology. Using two-dimensional and three-dimensional solid-state NMR methods, we find that Δ113–120 PrP23–144 fibrils contain an altered β-core extended N-terminally to residue ∼106, encompassing residues not present in the core of wild-type PrP23–144 fibrils. The C-terminal β-strand of the core, however, is similar in both fibril types. Collectively, these data indicate that amyloid cores of PrP23–144 variants contain “essential” (i.e. nucleation-determining) and “nonessential” regions, with the latter being “movable” in amino acid sequence space. These findings reveal an intriguing new mechanism for structural polymorphism in amyloids and suggest a potential means for modulating the physicochemical properties of amyloid fibrils without compromising their polymerization characteristics. PMID:22002245

  11. Crystallographic and Computational Studies of a Class II MHC Complex with a Nonconforming Peptide: HLA-DRA/DRB3*0101

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parry, Christian S.; Gorski, Jack; Stern, Lawrence J.

    2003-03-01

    The stable binding of processed foreign peptide to a class II major histocompatibility (MHC) molecule and subsequent presentation to a T cell receptor is a central event in immune recognition and regulation. Polymorphic residues on the floor of the peptide binding site form pockets that anchor peptide side chains. These and other residues in the helical wall of the groove determine the specificity of each allele and define a motif. Allele specific motifs allow the prediction of epitopes from the sequence of pathogens. There are, however, known epitopes that do not satisfy these motifs: anchor motifs are not adequate for predicting epitopes as there are apparently major and minor motifs. We present crystallographic studies into the nature of the interactions that govern the binding of these so called nonconforming peptides. We would like to understand the role of the P10 pocket and find out whether the peptides that do not obey the consensus anchor motif bind in the canonical conformation observed in in prior structures of class II MHC-peptide complexes. HLA-DRB3*0101 complexed with peptide crystallized in unit cell 92.10 x 92.10 x 248.30 (90, 90, 90), P41212, and the diffraction data is reliable to 2.2ÅWe are complementing our studies with dynamical long time simulations to answer these questions, particularly the interplay of the anchor motifs in peptide binding, the range of protein and ligand conformations, and water hydration structures.

  12. Comparative Hydrodynamics of Bacterial Polymorphism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spagnolie, Saverio E.; Lauga, Eric

    2011-02-01

    Most bacteria swim through fluids by rotating helical flagella which can take one of 12 distinct polymorphic shapes, the most common of which is the normal form used during forward swimming runs. To shed light on the prevalence of the normal form in locomotion, we gather all available experimental measurements of the various polymorphic forms and compute their intrinsic hydrodynamic efficiencies. The normal helical form is found to be the most efficient of the 12 polymorphic forms by a significant margin—a conclusion valid for both the peritrichous and polar flagellar families, and robust to a change in the effective flagellum diameter or length. Hence, although energetic costs of locomotion are small for bacteria, fluid mechanical forces may have played a significant role in the evolution of the flagellum.

  13. Genetics Home Reference: catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia

    MedlinePlus

    ... for This Page Cerrone M, Napolitano C, Priori SG. Catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia: A paradigm to understand ... on PubMed Central Liu N, Ruan Y, Priori SG. Catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia. Prog Cardiovasc Dis. 2008 ...

  14. Crystal Polymorphs of Barbital: News about a Classic Polymorphic System

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Barbital is a hypnotic agent that has been intensely studied for many decades. The aim of this work was to establish a clear and comprehensible picture of its polymorphic system. Four of the six known solid forms of barbital (denoted I0, III, IV, and V) were characterized by various analytical techniques, and the thermodynamic relationships between the polymorph phases were established. The obtained data permitted the construction of the first semischematic energy/temperature diagram for the barbital system. The modifications I0, III, and V are enantiotropically related to one another. Polymorph IV is enantiotropically related to V and monotropically related to the other two forms. The transition points for the pairs I0/III, I0/V, and III/IV lie below 20 °C, and the transition point for IV/V is above 20 °C. At room temperature, the order of thermodynamic stability is I0 > III > V > IV. The metastable modification III is present in commercial samples and has a high kinetic stability. The solid-state NMR spectra provide information on aspects of crystallography (viz., the asymmetric units and the nature of hydrogen bonding). The known correlation between specific N–H···O=C hydrogen bonding motifs of barbiturates and certain IR characteristics was used to predict the H-bonded pattern of polymorph IV. PMID:24283960

  15. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of a monomeric mutant of Azami-Green (mAG), an Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein-like green-emitting fluorescent protein from the stony coral Galaxea fascicularis.

    PubMed

    Ebisawa, Tatsuki; Yamamura, Akihiro; Kameda, Yasuhiro; Hayakawa, Kou; Nagata, Koji; Tanokura, Masaru

    2009-12-01

    Monomeric Azami-Green (mAG) from the stony coral Galaxea fascicularis is the first monomeric green-emitting fluorescent protein that is not a derivative of Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein (avGFP). mAG and avGFP are 27% identical in amino-acid sequence. Diffraction-quality crystals of recombinant mAG were obtained by the sitting-drop vapour-diffusion method using PEG 3350 as the precipitant. The mAG crystal diffracted X-rays to 2.20 A resolution on beamline AR-NW12A at the Photon Factory (Tsukuba, Japan). The crystal belonged to space group P1, with unit-cell parameters a = 41.78, b = 51.72, c = 52.89 A, alpha = 90.96, beta = 103.41, gamma = 101.79 degrees. The Matthews coefficient (V(M) = 2.10 A(3) Da(-1)) indicated that the crystal contained two mAG molecules per asymmetric unit.

  16. Polymorphism in pleistocene land snails.

    PubMed

    Owen, D F

    1966-04-01

    Under suitable conditions the colors and patterns of the shells of land snails may be preserved for thousands of years. In a late Pleistocene population of Limicolaria martensiana all the major color forms that occur in modern living snails may be distinguished, and the basic polymorphism is at least 8,000 to 10,000 year old. PMID:17830234

  17. Interleukin gene polymorphisms in pneumoconiosis.

    PubMed

    Helmig, Simone; Grossmann, Martin; Wübbeling, Jelena; Schneider, Joachim

    2012-08-01

    Inhaled asbestos fibres are known to cause inflammation processes with the result of lung or pleural fibrosis and malignancies. Interleukins (IL), such as IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-10, have various functions in the regulation of the inflammatory response and in proliferative processes after inhalation of silica dust and can, therefore, influence the pathogenesis of asbestos-induced fibrosis and carcinogenesis. Polymorphisms within these genes may be associated with susceptibility to silica and asbestos-induced lung diseases. Thus, IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-10 polymorphisms were examined to determine an association with asbestos or silica-induced fibrosis or malignancies. Association studies were performed in 1180 individuals, using control subjects (n=177), fibrosis patients (n=605), lung cancer (LC) patients (n=364) and malignant mesothelioma (MM) patients (n=34). IL-1β (C-511T; C+3954T), IL-6 (G-174C) as well as IL-10 (G-1082A) polymorphisms were investigated. Compared to a healthy (control) group, a higher risk was seen for malignant mesothelioma patients in all investigated polymorphisms. The IL-6 -174C allele showed a tendency towards a higher risk for fibrosis or asbestos-induced lung cancer (ORasbestosis, 1.338; 95% CI, 0.71-2.53; ORsilicosis, 1.226; 95% CI, 0.54-2.81; ORfibrosis other aetiology, 1.313; 95% CI, 0.58-2.98 and ORLC asbestos, 2.112; 95% CI, 0.75-5.92). The IL-10 -1082A carrier seemed to be at higher risk for silicosis (ORsilicosis, 2.064; 95% CI, 0.78-5.49) but not for asbestosis. In summary, this study did not reveal sufficient evidence for a significant association of the investigated interleukin polymorphisms with asbestos or silica-induced diseases in the population studied.

  18. Characterization of polymorphic ampicillin forms.

    PubMed

    Baraldi, C; Tinti, A; Ottani, S; Gamberini, M C

    2014-11-01

    In this work polymorphs of α-aminobenzylpenicillin (ampicillin), a β-lactamic antibiotic, were prepared and investigated by several experimental and theoretical methods. Amorphous monohydrate and three crystalline forms, the trihydrate, the crystal form I and the crystal form II, were investigated by FT-IR and micro-Raman. Also data obtained by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) and hot-stage Raman spectroscopy are reported. Finally, quantum mechanical calculations were performed by density functional theory (DFT) to assist the assignment of spectroscopic experimental bands. For the first time, the ampicillin molecule in its zwitterionic form was studied at the B3LYP/aug-cc-pVDZ level and the corresponding theoretical vibrational spectra were computed. In fact, ampicillin in the crystal is in zwitterionic form and concentrations of this same form are quite relevant in solutions at physiological pH. Experimental and theoretical results allowed identification of specific features for polymorph characterization. Bands typical of the different polymorphs are identified both in IR and Raman spectra: in particular in the NH stretching region (IR), in the amide I+δNH region (both techniques), in the 1520-1490cm(-1) region (IR), in the 1320-1300cm(-1) and 1280-1220cm(-1) (IR), in the 1200-1170cm(-1) (Raman), in the amide V region (IR), and, finally, in the 715-640cm(-1) and 220-200cm(-1) (Raman). Interconversion among different polymorphs was investigated by hot-stage Raman spectroscopy and thermal analysis, clarifying the complex pattern of transformations undergone as a function of temperature and heating rate. In particular, DSC scans show how the trihydrate crystals transform into anhydrous forms on heating. Finally, stability tests demonstrated, after a two years period, that no transformation or degradation of the polymorphs occurred.

  19. Neutral behavior of shared polymorphism

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Andrew G.

    1997-01-01

    Several cases have been described in the literature where genetic polymorphism appears to be shared between a pair of species. Here we examine the distribution of times to random loss of shared polymorphism in the context of the neutral Wright–Fisher model. Order statistics are used to obtain the distribution of times to loss of a shared polymorphism based on Kimura’s solution to the diffusion approximation of the Wright–Fisher model. In a single species, the expected absorption time for a neutral allele having an initial allele frequency of ½ is 2.77 N generations. If two species initially share a polymorphism, that shared polymorphism is lost as soon as either of two species undergoes fixation. The loss of a shared polymorphism thus occurs sooner than loss of polymorphism in a single species and has an expected time of 1.7 N generations. Molecular sequences of genes with shared polymorphism may be characterized by the count of the number of sites that segregate in both species for the same nucleotides (or amino acids). The distribution of the expected numbers of these shared polymorphic sites also is obtained. Shared polymorphism appears to be more likely at genetic loci that have an unusually large number of segregating alleles, and the neutral coalescent proves to be very useful in determining the probability of shared allelic lineages expected by chance. These results are related to examples of shared polymorphism in the literature. PMID:9223256

  20. Crystallization and transitions of sulfamerazine polymorphs.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Geoff G Z; Gu, Chonghui; Zell, Mark T; Burkhardt, R Todd; Munson, Eric J; Grant, David J W

    2002-04-01

    A bulk powder of sulfamerazine polymorph II in a narrow distribution of particle size was prepared for the first time. The two known sulfamerazine polymorphs, I and II, were physically characterized by optical microscopy, powder X-ray diffractometry, differential scanning calorimetry, carbon-13 solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and measurements of aqueous solubility and density. The thermodynamics and kinetics of the transition between the polymorphs was examined under various pharmaceutically relevant conditions, such as heating, cooling, milling, compaction, and contact with solvents. The two polymorphs were found to be enantiotropes with slow kinetics of interconversion. The thermodynamic transition temperature lies between 51 and 54 degrees C, with polymorph II stable at lower temperatures. Ostwald's Rule of Stages explains the crystallization of the polymorphs from various solvents and may account for the delay in the discovery of polymorph II. PMID:11948548

  1. Superhard Monoclinic Polymorph of Carbon

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Quan; Ma, Yanming; Oganov, Artem R.; Wang, Hongbo; Wang, Hui; Xu, Ying; Cui, Tian; Mao, Ho-Kwang; Zou, Guangtian; Jilin; SBU; CIW

    2009-05-08

    We report a novel phase of carbon possessing a monoclinic C2/m structure (8 atoms/cell) identified using an ab initio evolutionary structural search. This polymorph, which we call M-carbon, is related to the (2x1) reconstruction of the (111) surface of diamond and can also be viewed as a distorted (through sliding and buckling of the sheets) form of graphite. It is stable over cold-compressed graphite above 13.4 GPa. The simulated x-ray diffraction pattern and near K-edge spectroscopy are in satisfactory agreement with the experimental data [W.L. Mao et al., Science 302, 425 (2003)] on overcompressed graphite. The hardness and bulk modulus of this new carbon polymorph are calculated to be 83.1 and 431.2 GPa, respectively, which are comparable to those of diamond.

  2. Milk casein polymorphism in man.

    PubMed

    Ponzone, A; Voglino, G F

    1976-06-01

    Urea-starch-gel electrophoresis was used to examine 175 casein samples, 130 collected at random from women from the urban area of Turin, and 45 from women resident in villages in the Sardinian hinterland. Two polymorphic systems controlling alpha- and beta-casein were demonstrated in both groups, together with similar gene frequencies for individual alleles. In addition, a rare variant was discovered in the Sardinian group.

  3. The Single Nucleotide Polymorphism Consortium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgan, Michael

    2003-01-01

    I want to discuss both the Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) Consortium and the Human Genome Project. I am afraid most of my presentation will be thin on law and possibly too high on rhetoric. Having been engaged in a personal and direct way with these issues as a trained scientist, I find it quite difficult to be always as objective as I ought to be.

  4. Accelerated speciation in colour-polymorphic birds.

    PubMed

    Hugall, Andrew F; Stuart-Fox, Devi

    2012-05-09

    Colour polymorphism exemplifies extreme morphological diversity within populations. It is taxonomically widespread but generally rare. Theory suggests that where colour polymorphism does occur, processes generating and maintaining it can promote speciation but the generality of this claim is unclear. Here we confirm, using species-level molecular phylogenies for five families of non-passerine birds, that colour polymorphism is associated with accelerated speciation rates in the three groups in which polymorphism is most prevalent. In all five groups, colour polymorphism is lost at a significantly greater rate than it is gained. Thus, the general rarity and phylogenetic dispersion of colour polymorphism is accounted for by a combination of higher speciation rate and higher transition rate from polymorphism to monomorphism, consistent with theoretical models where speciation is driven by fixation of one or more morphs. This is corroborated by evidence from a species-level molecular phylogeny of passerines, incorporating 4,128 (66.5%) extant species, that polymorphic species tend to be younger than monomorphic species. Our results provide empirical support for the general proposition, dating from classical evolutionary theory, that colour polymorphism can increase speciation rates.

  5. Identification of Cryptosporidium spp. Oocysts in United Kingdom Noncarbonated Natural Mineral Waters and Drinking Waters by Using a Modified Nested PCR-Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism Assay

    PubMed Central

    Nichols, R. A. B.; Campbell, B. M.; Smith, H. V.

    2003-01-01

    We describe a nested PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) method for detecting low densities of Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts in natural mineral waters and drinking waters. Oocysts were recovered from seeded 1-liter volumes of mineral water by filtration through polycarbonate membranes and from drinking waters by filtration, immunomagnetizable separation, and filter entrapment, followed by direct extraction of DNA. The DNA was released from polycarbonate filter-entrapped oocysts by disruption in lysis buffer by using 15 cycles of freeze-thawing (1 min in liquid nitrogen and 1 min at 65°C), followed by proteinase K digestion. Amplicons were readily detected from two to five intact oocysts on ethidium bromide-stained gels. DNA extracted from Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts, C. muris (RN 66), C. baileyi (Belgium strain, LB 19), human-derived C. meleagridis, C. felis (DNA from oocysts isolated from a cat), and C. andersoni was used to demonstrate species identity by PCR-RFLP after simultaneous digestion with the restriction enzymes DraI and VspI. Discrimination between C. andersoni and C. muris isolates was confirmed by a separate, subsequent digestion with DdeI. Of 14 drinking water samples tested, 12 were found to be positive by microscopy, 8 were found to be positive by direct PCR, and 14 were found to be positive by using a nested PCR. The Cryptosporidium species detected in these finished water samples was C. parvum genotype 1. This method consistently and routinely detected >5 oocysts per sample. PMID:12839797

  6. Analysis of the bacterial diversity existing on animal hide and wool: development of a preliminary PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism fingerprint database for identifying isolates.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yu; Gao, Hongwei; Zhang, Yanming; Deng, Mingjun; Wu, Zhenxing; Zhu, Laihua; Duan, Qing; Xu, Biao; Liang, Chengzhu; Yue, Zhiqin; Xiao, Xizhi

    2012-01-01

    Twenty-one bacterial strains were isolated from imported cattle hide and rabbit wool using two types of media, nutrient broth, and nutrient broth with serum. The bacteria identified were Brevibacillus laterosporus, Leclercia adecarboxylata, Peptococcus niger, Bacillus circulans, Raoultella ornithinolytica, Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus cereus, Bacillus thermobacillus, Bacillus choshinensis, Bacillus sphaericus, Acinetobacter haemolyticus, Sphingomonas paucimobilis, Bacillus thuringiensis, Staphylococcus intermedius, Mycobacteria, Moraxella, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Ralstonia pickettii, Staphylococcus chromogenes, Comamonas testosteroni, and Cupriavidus pauculus. The 16s rDNA gene of each bacterium was amplified using the universal primers 27f and 1492r. The amplicons were digested with AvaI, BamHI, BgII, DraI, EcoRI, EcoRV, HindIII, HinfI, HpaI, PstI, SmaI, TaqII, XbaI, XmaI, AluI, XhoI, and PvuI individually. A specific fingerprint from the PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism method based on 16s rDNA was obtained for each bacterium. The results showed that the method developed was useful not only for bacterial identification but also for the etiological investigation of pathogens in imported animal hair and wool. PMID:23451394

  7. Parasitic polymorphism of Coccidioides spp

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Coccidioides spp. is the ethiological agent of coccidioidomycosis, an infection that can be fatal. Its diagnosis is complicated, due to that it shares clinical and histopathological characteristics with other pulmonary mycoses. Coccidioides spp. is a dimorphic fungus and, in its saprobic phase, grows as a mycelium, forming a large amount of arthroconidia. In susceptible persons, arthroconidia induce dimorphic changes into spherules/endospores, a typical parasitic form of Coccidioides spp. In addition, the diversity of mycelial parasitic forms has been observed in clinical specimens; they are scarcely known and produce errors in diagnosis. Methods We presented a retrospective study of images from specimens of smears with 15% potassium hydroxide, cytology, and tissue biopsies of a histopathologic collection from patients with coccidioidomycosis seen at a tertiary-care hospital in Mexico City. Results The parasitic polymorphism of Coccidioides spp. observed in the clinical specimens was as follows: i) spherules/endospores in different maturation stages; ii) pleomorphic cells (septate hyphae, hyphae composed of ovoid and spherical cells, and arthroconidia), and iii) fungal ball formation (mycelia with septate hyphae and arthroconidia). Conclusions The parasitic polymorphism of Coccidioides spp. includes the following: spherules/endospores, arthroconidia, and different forms of mycelia. This knowledge is important for the accurate diagnosis of coccidioidomycosis. In earlier studies, we proposed the integration of this diversity of forms in the Coccidioides spp. parasitic cycle. The microhabitat surrounding the fungus into the host would favor the parasitic polymorphism of this fungus, and this environment may assist in the evolution toward parasitism of Coccidioides spp. PMID:24750998

  8. Metabolic polymorphisms and cancer susceptibility.

    PubMed

    Smith, G; Stanley, L A; Sim, E; Strange, R C; Wolf, C R

    1995-01-01

    The vast majority of cancers arise as a consequence of exposure to environmental agents that are toxic or mutagenic. In response to this, all higher organisms have evolved complex mechanisms by which they can protect themselves from environmental challenge. In many cases, this involves an adaptive response in which the levels of expression of enzymes active in the metabolism and detoxification of the foreign chemical are induced. The best characterized of these enzyme systems are the cytochrome P450s, the GSTs and the NATs. An unfortunate consequence of many of these reactions, however, is the creation of a toxic or mutagenic reaction product from chemicals that require metabolic activation before realizing their full carcinogenic potential. Altered expression of one or more of these drug metabolizing enzymes can therefore be predicted to have profound toxicological consequences. Genetic polymorphisms with well defined associated phenotypes have now been characterized in P450, GST and NAT genes. Indeed, many of these polymorphisms have been associated with decreased or increased metabolism of many tumour promoters and chemical carcinogens and hence offer protection against or increased susceptibility to many distinct tumour types.

  9. A new polymorph of physcion.

    PubMed

    Hopf, Henning; Jones, Peter G; Goclik, Eva; Aust, Pauline; Rödiger, Johanna

    2012-08-01

    The structure of the title compound, 7-methoxy-2-methyl-4,5-dihydroxyanthracene-9,10-dione, C(16)H(12)O(5), was originally reported by Ulický et al. [Acta Cryst. (1991). C47, 1879-1881] in the space group P2(1)2(1)2(1) [polymorph (Io)]. The new polymorph, (Im), crystallizes in the space group P2(1)/c. The molecular structures are closely similar, with both -OH groups forming intramolecular hydrogen bonds to one of the neighbouring quinone O atoms, thus slightly lengthening this C=O bond; the pattern of C-C bond lengths in the ring system is consistent with some contribution from a resonance form with a negative charge at the hydrogen-bonded quinone O atom and an aromatic region around its neighbouring C atoms. The packing of (Im) is simpler than the extensively crosslinked pattern of (Io), with molecular tapes connected by classical (but three-centre) and `weak' hydrogen bonds, parallel to [201].

  10. Spinning up the polymorphs of calcium carbonate

    PubMed Central

    Boulos, Ramiz A.; Zhang, Fei; Tjandra, Edwin S.; Martin, Adam D.; Spagnoli, Dino; Raston, Colin L.

    2014-01-01

    Controlling the growth of the polymorphs of calcium carbonate is important in understanding the changing environmental conditions in the oceans. Aragonite is the main polymorph in the inner shells of marine organisms, and can be readily converted to calcite, which is the most stable polymorph of calcium carbonate. Both of these polymorphs are significantly more stable than vaterite, which is the other naturally occurring polymorph of calcium carbonate, and this is reflected in its limited distribution in nature. We have investigated the effect of high shear forces on the phase behaviour of calcium carbonate using a vortex fluidic device (VFD), with experimental parameters varied to explore calcium carbonate mineralisation. Variation of tilt angle, rotation speed and temperature allow for control over the size, shape and phase of the resulting calcium carbonate. PMID:24448077

  11. AG Dra monitoring requested for multiwavelength campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waagen, Elizabeth O.

    2013-06-01

    Dr. Andrea Dupree (Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics) has requested AAVSO monitoring (visual and photometric) of the symbiotic variable AG Draconis from June 20 through at least September 2013 for correlation with upcoming Chandra x-ray and HST ultraviolet observations. The purpose of their observations is to determine the dynamics of the gas and the temperatures and densities in various parts of this complex system. Finder charts with sequences may be created using the AAVSO Variable Star Plotter (http://www.aavso.org/vsp). Observations should be submitted to the AAVSO International Database.

  12. Temporal Expression of Peripheral Blood Leukocyte Biomarkers in a Macaca fascicularis Infection Model of Tuberculosis; Comparison with Human Datasets and Analysis with Parametric/Non-parametric Tools for Improved Diagnostic Biomarker Identification

    PubMed Central

    Wareham, Alice; Lewandowski, Kuiama S.; Williams, Ann; Dennis, Michael J.; Sharpe, Sally; Vipond, Richard; Silman, Nigel; Ball, Graham

    2016-01-01

    A temporal study of gene expression in peripheral blood leukocytes (PBLs) from a Mycobacterium tuberculosis primary, pulmonary challenge model Macaca fascicularis has been conducted. PBL samples were taken prior to challenge and at one, two, four and six weeks post-challenge and labelled, purified RNAs hybridised to Operon Human Genome AROS V4.0 slides. Data analyses revealed a large number of differentially regulated gene entities, which exhibited temporal profiles of expression across the time course study. Further data refinements identified groups of key markers showing group-specific expression patterns, with a substantial reprogramming event evident at the four to six week interval. Selected statistically-significant gene entities from this study and other immune and apoptotic markers were validated using qPCR, which confirmed many of the results obtained using microarray hybridisation. These showed evidence of a step-change in gene expression from an ‘early’ FOS-associated response, to a ‘late’ predominantly type I interferon-driven response, with coincident reduction of expression of other markers. Loss of T-cell-associate marker expression was observed in responsive animals, with concordant elevation of markers which may be associated with a myeloid suppressor cell phenotype e.g. CD163. The animals in the study were of different lineages and these Chinese and Mauritian cynomolgous macaque lines showed clear evidence of differing susceptibilities to Tuberculosis challenge. We determined a number of key differences in response profiles between the groups, particularly in expression of T-cell and apoptotic makers, amongst others. These have provided interesting insights into innate susceptibility related to different host `phenotypes. Using a combination of parametric and non-parametric artificial neural network analyses we have identified key genes and regulatory pathways which may be important in early and adaptive responses to TB. Using comparisons

  13. Polymorphix: a sequence polymorphism database.

    PubMed

    Bazin, Eric; Duret, Laurent; Penel, Simon; Galtier, Nicolas

    2005-01-01

    Within-species sequence variation data are of special interest since they contain information about recent population/species history, and the molecular evolutionary forces currently in action in natural populations. These data, however, are presently dispersed within generalist databases, and are difficult to access. To solve this problem, we have developed Polymorphix, a database dedicated to sequence polymorphism. It contains within-species homologous sequence families built using EMBL/GenBank under suitable similarity and bibliographic criteria. Polymorphix is an ACNUC structured database allowing both simple and complex queries for population genomic studies. Alignments within families as well as phylogenetic trees can be download. When available, outgroups are included in the alignment. Polymorphix contains sequences from the nuclear, mitochondrial and chloroplastic genomes of every eukaryote species represented in EMBL. It can be accessed by a web interface (http://pbil.univ-lyon1.fr/polymorphix/query.php).

  14. Polymorphisms affecting trace element bioavailability.

    PubMed

    Mathers, John C; Méplan, Catherine; Hesketh, John E

    2010-10-01

    This review outlines the nature of inter-individual variation in trace element bioavailability, focusing on genetic and epigenetic determinants. We note that pathogenic mutations responsible for dangerously high (or low) status for the micronutrient are unlikely to make large contributions to variability in bioavailability among the general population. Prospective genotyping (for variants in genes encoding selenoproteins) of participants in human studies illustrate one approach to understanding the complex interactions between genotype and trace element supply, which determine the functional bioavailability of selenium. Rapid advances in technological and bioinformatics tools; e. g., as used in Genome-Wide Association Studies, are opening new avenues for research on the genetic determinants of inter-individual variation in trace element bioavailability. This may include copy number variants in addition to the more widely studied polymorphisms. Future research on trace element bioavailability should encompass studies of epigenetic variants, including the role of non-coding (micro) RNA.

  15. Vibrational study of tamoxifen citrate polymorphism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gamberini, M. C.; Baraldi, C.; Tinti, A.; Palazzoli, F.; Ferioli, V.

    2007-09-01

    The trans isomer of ( Z)-2-[ p-(1,2-diphenyl-butenyl)phenoxy]- N, N-dimethyletylamine (tamoxifen) is well known for its endocrine activity as an antiestrogenic agent. Its citrate salt, a widely used pharmaceutical agent, appears in three main polymorphic forms, two of which are well known (I and II) and another form not yet well evidenced. A vibrational study has been conducted for identifying the two known polymorphic forms of tamoxifen citrate (I and II) and for characterising the other form (form III) examined in this study. Other techniques for the characterization of the different polymorphs, such as XRDP, have been used.

  16. [Relationship of MTHFR gene polymorphisms with infertility].

    PubMed

    Guo, Kai-min; Tian, Run-hui; Wang, Hong-liang

    2016-02-01

    The folate metabolic pathway plays important roles in cellular physiology by participating in nucleotide synthesis, DNA repair and methylation, and maintenance and stability of the genome. Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) is a key regulatory enzyme involved in folate metabolism. Polymorphisms of MTHFR may change the level of homocysteine and affect DNA synthesis and methylation, leading to an increased oxidative stress and disturbed methylation reactions and consequently affecting reproductive function. This article presents an overview on MTHFR gene polymorphisms, proposing that multicentered, large-sample and long-term prospective studies are needed to reveal the relationship between MTHFR gene polymorphisms and infertility.

  17. Rivastigmine hydrogen tartrate polymorphs: Solid-state characterisation of transition and polymorphic conversion via milling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amaro, Maria Inês; Simon, Alice; Cabral, Lúcio Mendes; de Sousa, Valéria Pereira; Healy, Anne Marie

    2015-11-01

    Rivastigmine (RHT) is an active pharmaceutical ingredient that is used for the treatment of mild to moderately severe dementia in Alzheimer's disease, and is known to present two polymorphic forms and to amorphise upon granulation. To date there is no information in the scientific or patent literature on polymorphic transition and stability. Hence, the aim of the current study was to gain a fundamental understanding of the polymorphic forms by (1) evaluating RHT thermodynamic stability (monotropy or enantiotropy) and (2) investigating the potential for polymorphic transformation upon milling. The two polymorphic and amorphous forms were characterised using X-ray powder diffractometry, thermal analyses, infra-red spectroscopy and water sorption analysis. The polymorphic transition was found to be spontaneous (ΔG0 < 0) and exothermic (ΔH0 < 0), indicative of a monotropic polymorph pair. The kinetic studies showed a fast initial polymorphic transition characterised by a heterogeneous nucleation, followed by a slow crystal growth. Ball milling can be used to promote the polymorphic transition and for the production of RHT amorphous form.

  18. Purification of polymorphic components of complex genomes

    DOEpatents

    Stodolsky, M.

    1991-07-16

    A method is disclosed for processing related subject and reference macromolecule populations composed of complementary strands into their respective subject and reference populations of representative fragments and effectuating purification of unique polymorphic subject fragments. 1 figure.

  19. Purification of polymorphic components of complex genomes

    DOEpatents

    Stodolsky, M.

    1988-01-21

    A method for processing related subject and reference macromolecule composed of complementary strand into their respective subject and reference populations of representative fragments and effectuating purification of unique polymorphic subject fragments. 1 fig.

  20. Purification of polymorphic components of complex genomes

    DOEpatents

    Stodolsky, Marvin

    1991-01-01

    A method is disclosed for processing related subject and reference macromolecule populations composed of complementary strands into their respective subject and reference populations of representative fragments and effectuating purification of unique polymorphic subject fragments.

  1. Persistent hydrogen bonding in polymorphic crystal structures.

    PubMed

    Galek, Peter T A; Fábián, László; Allen, Frank H

    2009-02-01

    The significance of hydrogen bonding and its variability in polymorphic crystal structures is explored using new automated structural analysis methods. The concept of a chemically equivalent hydrogen bond is defined, which may be identified in pairs of structures, revealing those types of bonds that may persist, or not, in moving from one polymorphic form to another. Their frequency and nature are investigated in 882 polymorphic structures from the Cambridge Structural Database. A new method to compare conformations of equivalent molecules is introduced and applied to derive distinct subsets of conformational and packing polymorphs. The roles of chemical functionality and hydrogen-bond geometry in persistent interactions are systematically explored. Detailed structural comparisons reveal a large majority of persistent hydrogen bonds that are energetically crucial to structural stability. PMID:19155561

  2. Kinetic Trapping of Metastable Amino Acid Polymorphs

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Second harmonic generation (SHG) microscopy measurements indicate that inkjet-printed racemic solutions of amino acids can produce nanocrystals trapped in metastable polymorph forms upon rapid solvent evaporation. Polymorphism impacts the composition, distribution, and physico-kinetic properties of organic solids, with energetic arguments favoring the most stable polymorph. In this study, unfavored noncentrosymmetric crystal forms were observed by SHG microscopy. Polarization-dependent SHG measurement and synchrotron X-ray microdiffraction analysis of individual printed drops are consistent with formation of homochiral crystal production. Fundamentally, these results provide evidence supporting the ubiquity of Ostwald’s Rule of Stages, describing the hypothesized transitioning of crystals between metastable polymorphic forms in the early stages of crystal formation. Practically, the presence of homochiral metastable forms has implications on chiral resolution and on solid form preparations relying on rapid solvent evaporation. PMID:24451055

  3. Impact polymorphs of quartz: experiments and modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Price, M. C.; Dutta, R.; Burchell, M. J.; Cole, M. J.

    2013-09-01

    We have used the light gas gun at the University of Kent to perform a series of impact experiments firing quartz projectiles onto metal, quartz and sapphire targets. The aim is to quantify the amount of any high pressure quartz polymorphs produced, and use these data to develop our hydrocode modelling to enable the predict ion of the quantity of polymorphs produced during a planetary scale impact.

  4. DNA polymorphism identity determination using flow cytometry

    DOEpatents

    Nolan, John P.; White, P. Scott; Cai, Hong

    2001-01-01

    DNA polymorphism identity determination using flow cytometry. Primers designed to be immobilized on microspheres are allowed to anneal to the DNA strand under investigation, and are extended by either DNA polymerase using fluorescent dideoxynucleotides or ligated by DNA ligase to fluorescent reporter oligonucleotides. The fluorescence of either the dideoxynucleotide or the reporter oligonucleotide attached to the immobilized primer is measured by flow cytometry, thereby identifying the nucleotide polymorphism on the DNA strand.

  5. β2-Adrenoreceptor Polymorphisms in Asthmatic Patients

    PubMed Central

    Binaei, Saeed; Rashed, Sahar M.; Christensen, Michael L.

    2003-01-01

    β2-adrenergic receptors (β2AR) are GTP-binding protein (G-protein) coupled receptors widely distributed in human tissue. Inhaled β2-agonist drugs exert their primary effect on the β2AR of bronchial smooth muscles, causing relaxation and bronchial dilatation. Polymorphisms in the β2AR gene have been identified, which may affect responsiveness to β2-agonists and disease severity in asthmatics. Nine single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within the coding region and eight SNPs within in the 5′ upstream region of the β2AR gene have been identified. The two most studied polymorphisms are mutations in the coding region at codon 16, Arg to Gly (Arg16Gly) and at codon 27, Gln to Glu (Gln27Glu). Evidence suggests that carriers of Gly16, as well as carriers of Gln27, are prone to down-regulation of β2AR. Patients who are homozygous for Arg16 and/or Glu 27 may be more susceptible to tachyplaxis with chronic use of β2-agonists. Although β2AR polymorphism is not related to the severity of asthma, patients with nocturnal asthma have higher frequency of Gly16. A polymorphism in the 5′ upstream region, 5′ leader cistron (5′LC), encodes for a protein that regulates mRNA transcription. The Cys19 polymorphism in the 5′LC is associated with higher expression of β2AR. More recent studies have focused on combinations of polymorphisms across the gene region (haplotypes). The interaction of multiple SNPs within a haplotype may control β2AR function resulting in different phenotypic response in patients with asthma. β2AR polymorphism may have a significant implication in the pathophysiology of asthma and therapeutic response. PMID:23300392

  6. Survivin promoter polymorphism and cervical carcinogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Borbély, A A; Murvai, M; Szarka, K; Kónya, J; Gergely, L; Hernádi, Z; Veress, G

    2007-01-01

    Background Survivin, a novel member of the inhibitor of apoptosis family, plays an important role in cell cycle regulation. A common polymorphism at the survivin gene promoter (G/C at position 31) was shown to be correlated with survivin gene expression in cancer cell lines. Aim To investigate whether this polymorphism could be involved in the development of human papillomavirus (HPV)‐associated cervical carcinoma. Methods Survivin promoter polymorphism was detected in patients with cervical cancer, in patients with equivocal cytological atypia and in a control population using polymerase chain reaction (PCR‐restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) and PCR‐single strand conformation polymorphism analysis. HPV was typed in patients with cervical cancer and cytological atypia using PCR‐RFLP. Results No statistically significant differences were found in the genotype distributions of the survivin promoter variants among our study groups. Conclusions The survivin promoter polymorphism at position 31 may not represent an increased risk for the development of cervical cancer, at least in the population studied here. PMID:16714396

  7. New polymorphs of an old drug: conformational and synthon polymorphism of 5-nitrofurazone.

    PubMed

    Pogoda, Dorota; Janczak, Jan; Videnova-Adrabinska, Veneta

    2016-04-01

    Two new polymorphic forms of 5-nitrofurazone (5-nitro-2-furaldehyde semicarbazone) have been synthesized and structurally characterized by single-crystal and powder X-ray diffraction methods, vibrational spectroscopy (FT-IR and temperature Raman), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and Hirshfeld surface analysis. The compound crystallizes in three different polymorphic forms P21/a (polymorph α), P21 (polymorph β) and P21/c (polymorph γ), the crystal structures of two of which (polymorphs β and γ) represent new structure determinations. The solid-state molecular organization in the three crystal forms is analyzed and discussed in terms of molecular conformation, crystal packing and hydrogen-bonded networks. All three crystals are formed from trans geometrical isomers, but the molecular conformation of the α-polymorph is syn-anti-anti-anti, while that of β- and γ-polymorphs is syn-anti-syn-syn. As a consequence of this the hydrogen-bond donor and acceptor sites of the molecules are oriented differently, which in turn results in different hydrogen-bond connectivity and packing patterns. PMID:27048728

  8. An overview of famotidine polymorphs: solid-state characteristics, thermodynamics, polymorphic transformation and quality control.

    PubMed

    Lin, Shan-Yang

    2014-07-01

    Crystal polymorphism of pharmaceuticals has well-known profound effects on the physical, chemical, and pharmaceutical properties of drugs, which can result in changes in the solubility, stability, dissolution, bioavailability, and efficacy of drugs. In this review article, famotidine (FAM), which has a well-known trade name of Pepcid®, was selected as a model drug. Although FAM has three polymorphs (forms A, B and C), forms A and B have been commonly discussed. The active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) in the commercial version of FAM is the metastable form B. FAM has been a concern of FDA because of the physical properties, solubilities, bioavailabilities, or bioequivalencies of the different polymorphic forms. In addition, a patent infringement suit of FAM polymorph had been made sound legal arguments in the pharmaceutical market. We review the solid-state characteristics, thermodynamics, polymorphic transformation, and quality control of FAM in drug products. In particular, pharmaceutical processes, such as grinding, compression, and heating temperature have a significant effect on the polymorphic transformation of FAM. Moreover, environmental humidity and residual water content should be well controlled to prevent polymorphic transformation of FAM during pharmaceutical processing. Several thermal and spectroscopic analytical techniques used for qualitative and quantitative determinations of polymorphic transformation of FAM after different treatments or quality control of FAM in the commercial tablets before and after the expiration dates have been discussed. PMID:24577998

  9. Stability and metastability of bromine clathrate polymorphs.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Andrew H; Molinero, Valeria

    2013-05-23

    Clathrate hydrates are crystals in which water forms a network of fully hydrogen-bonded polyhedral cages that contain small guests. Clathrate hydrates occur mostly in two cubic crystal polymorphs, sI and sII. Bromine is one of two guests that yield a hydrate with the tetragonal structure (TS), the topological dual of the Frank-Kasper σ phase. There has been a long-standing disagreement on whether bromine hydrate also forms metastable sI and sII crystals. To date there are no data on the thermodynamic range of stability (e.g., the melting temperatures) of the metastable polymorphs. Here we use molecular dynamics simulations with the coarse-grained model of water mW to (i) investigate the thermodynamic stability of the empty and guest-filled the sI, sII, TS, and HS-I hydrate polymorphs, (ii) develop a coarse-grained model of bromine compatible with mW water, and (iii) evaluate the stability of the bromine hydrate polymorphs. The mW model predicts the same relative energy of the empty clathrate polymorphs and the same phase diagram as a function of water-guest interaction than the fully atomistic TIP4P water model. There is a narrow region in water-guest parameter space for which TS is marginally more stable than sI or sII. We parametrize a coarse-grained model of bromine compatible with mW water and use it to determine the order of stability of the bromine hydrate polymorphs. The melting temperatures of the bromine hydrate polymorphs predicted by the coarse-grained model are 281 ± 1 K for TS, 279 ± 1 K for sII, and 276 ± 1 K for sI. The closeness of the melting temperatures supports the plausibility of formation of metastable sII and sI bromine hydrates.

  10. Polymorphism of SARS-CoV genomes.

    PubMed

    Shang, Lei; Qi, Yan; Bao, Qi-Yu; Tian, Wei; Xu, Jian-Cheng; Feng, Ming-Guang; Yang, Huan-Ming

    2006-04-01

    In this work, severe acute respiratory syndrome associated coronavirus (SARS-CoV) genome BJ202 (AY864806) was completely sequenced. The genome was directly accessed from the stool sample of a patient in Beijing. Comparative genomics methods were used to analyze the sequence variations of 116 SARS-CoV genomes (including BJ202) available in the NCBI GenBank. With the genome sequence of GZ02 as the reference, there were 41 polymorphic sites identified in BJ202 and a total of 278 polymorphic sites present in at least two of the 116 genomes. The distribution of the polymorphic sites was biased over the whole genome. Nearly half of the variations (50.4%, 140/278) clustered in the one third of the whole genome at the 3' end (19.0 kb-29.7 kb). Regions encoding Orf10-11, Orf3/4, E, M and S protein had the highest mutation rates. A total of 15 PCR products (about 6.0 kb of the genome) including 11 fragments containing 12 known polymorphic sites and 4 fragments without identified polymorphic sites were cloned and sequenced. Results showed that 3 unique polymorphic sites of BJ202 (positions 13 804, 15 031 and 20 792) along with 3 other polymorphic sites (26 428, 26 477 and 27 243) all contained 2 kinds of nucleotides. It is interesting to find that position 18379 which has not been identified to be polymorphic in any of the other 115 published SARS-CoV genomes is actually a polymorphic site. The nucleotide composition of this site is A (8) to G (6). Among 116 SARS-CoV genomes, 18 types of deletions and 2 insertions were identified. Most of them were related to a 300 bp region (27,700-28,000) which encodes parts of the putative ORF9 and ORF10-11. A phylogenetic tree illustrating the divergence of whole BJ202 genome from 115 other completely sequenced SARS-CoVs was also constructed. BJ202 was phylogeneticly closer to BJ01 and LLJ-2004. PMID:16625834

  11. [Protamine gene polymorphisms and male infertility].

    PubMed

    Jiang, Wei-jun; Zhang, Jing; Xia, Xin-yi; Xu, Hao-qin

    2015-12-01

    Protamine (PRM) is one of the most abundant arginine-rich nucleoproteins in sperm and plays an important role in spermatogenesis. In the late stage of spermatogenesis, the replacement of PRM by histone prompts the closer combination between the nuclear matrix of sperm and nucleoprotein in order for high enrichment and condensation of nuclear chromatin in addition to preventing the sperm genome from mutation induced by internal and external factors. With the development of DNA sequencing techniques, researches on the association between PRM polymorphisms and male fertility are surfacing as a hot field. Many studies show that rs2301365 polymorphism is a risk factor for male infertility and increases the risk of male infertility by 27 - 66%, that rs737008 polymorphism of PRM1 and rs1646022 polymorphism of PRM2 are protective factors against Asian infertility, and that the ratio of PRM1 to PRM2 is intensively associated with male infertility. This review presents an update on the association between PRM gene polymorphisms and male infertility.

  12. The Basques according to polymorphic Alu insertions.

    PubMed

    de Pancorbo, M M; López-Martínez, M; Martínez-Bouzas, C; Castro, A; Fernández-Fernández, I; de Mayolo, G A; de Mayolo, A A; de Mayolo, P A; Rowold, D J; Herrera, R J

    2001-08-01

    Polymorphic Alu insertions provide a set of DNA markers of interest in human population genetics. Approximately 1000-2000 of these insertions have not reached fixation within the human genome. Each one of these polymorphic loci most probably resulted from a unique insertional event, and therefore all individuals possessing the insertion are related by descent not just state. In addition, the direction of mutational change is toward the gain of the Alu element at a particular locus. Therefore, the improved knowledge of both the ancestral state and the direction of mutational change greatly facilitates the analysis of population relationships. As a result, Alu insertion polymorphisms represent a significant tool for population genetic studies. In this study, polymorphic Alu insertions have been employed to ascertain phylogenetic relationships among Basque groups and worldwide populations. The Basques are considered to be a geographic isolate with a unique language and customs. They may be direct descendants of Cro-Magnon enclaves from the upper Paleolithic (38,000 to 10,000 years). The Basques are distributed among narrow valleys in northeastern Spain with little migration between them until recently. This characteristic may have had an effect on allelic frequency distributions. With the aim of studying this possible effect, we have analyzed six autosomal polymorphic Alu loci from four different sites within the Spanish Basque region in order to ascertain any genetic heterogeneity among the Basques. The results are consistent with a lack of homogeneity among these four autochthonous Basque groups.

  13. The Basques according to polymorphic Alu insertions.

    PubMed

    de Pancorbo, M M; López-Martínez, M; Martínez-Bouzas, C; Castro, A; Fernández-Fernández, I; de Mayolo, G A; de Mayolo, A A; de Mayolo, P A; Rowold, D J; Herrera, R J

    2001-08-01

    Polymorphic Alu insertions provide a set of DNA markers of interest in human population genetics. Approximately 1000-2000 of these insertions have not reached fixation within the human genome. Each one of these polymorphic loci most probably resulted from a unique insertional event, and therefore all individuals possessing the insertion are related by descent not just state. In addition, the direction of mutational change is toward the gain of the Alu element at a particular locus. Therefore, the improved knowledge of both the ancestral state and the direction of mutational change greatly facilitates the analysis of population relationships. As a result, Alu insertion polymorphisms represent a significant tool for population genetic studies. In this study, polymorphic Alu insertions have been employed to ascertain phylogenetic relationships among Basque groups and worldwide populations. The Basques are considered to be a geographic isolate with a unique language and customs. They may be direct descendants of Cro-Magnon enclaves from the upper Paleolithic (38,000 to 10,000 years). The Basques are distributed among narrow valleys in northeastern Spain with little migration between them until recently. This characteristic may have had an effect on allelic frequency distributions. With the aim of studying this possible effect, we have analyzed six autosomal polymorphic Alu loci from four different sites within the Spanish Basque region in order to ascertain any genetic heterogeneity among the Basques. The results are consistent with a lack of homogeneity among these four autochthonous Basque groups. PMID:11511929

  14. Polymorphism in hexanitrohexaazaisowurtzitane crystallized from solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Jinjiang; Tian, Yong; Liu, Yu; Zhang, Haobin; Shu, Yuanjie; Sun, Jie

    2012-09-01

    An investigation has been performed on the effect of the properties of solvent and anti-solvent, addition method of anti-solvent and crystallization temperature on the polymorphic transformation of HNIW precipitated from solution. The crystallization behavior of HNIW polymorphs were confirmed by powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) and the polymorphic content was evaluated by Rietveld analysis. It was observed that the dipole moment of anti-solvent and the supersaturation were related to the variations in polymorphic form. The metastable form β always was precipitated initially in high polarity anti-solvent or in high supersaturation case, and then transformed to the stable form ε by solution mediated process, which obeyed the Ostwald's rule of stages. A new acetone solvate was isolated in acetone solution, which was so unstable that it quickly desolated to obtain form β. The stability of the hydrate form α depends on the degree of hydration and hence the low hydration degree of form α precipitated from solution can transform to form ε. Forms γ and ε are enantiotropic relationship and the transformation temperature Tc is associated with the solvent system. The investigation of the polymorphic transformation of HNIW contributes to the understanding of the crystallization mechanism and the preparing of the four pure forms of HNIW.

  15. TNF-α gene polymorphisms and expression.

    PubMed

    El-Tahan, Radwa R; Ghoneim, Ahmed M; El-Mashad, Noha

    2016-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) is a proinflammatory cytokine with an important role in the pathogenesis of several diseases. Its encoding gene is located in the short arm of chromosome 6 in the major histocompatibility complex class III region. Most of the TNF-α gene polymorphisms are located in its promoter region and they are thought to affect the susceptibility and/or severity of different human diseases. This review summarizes the data related to the association between TNF-α gene and its receptor polymorphisms, and the development of autoimmune diseases. Among these polymorphisms the -308G/A TNF-α promotor polymorphism has been associated several times with the the development of autoimmune diseases, however some discrepant results have been recorded. The other TNF-α gene polymorphisms had little or no association with autoimmune diseases. Current results about the molecules controlling TNF-α expression are also presented. The discrepancy between different records could be related partly to either the differences in the ethnic origin or number of the studied individuals, or the abundance and activation of other molecules that interact with the TNF-α promotor region or other elements. PMID:27652081

  16. Hapsembler: An Assembler for Highly Polymorphic Genomes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donmez, Nilgun; Brudno, Michael

    As whole genome sequencing has become a routine biological experiment, algorithms for assembly of whole genome shotgun data has become a topic of extensive research, with a plethora of off-the-shelf methods that can reconstruct the genomes of many organisms. Simultaneously, several recently sequenced genomes exhibit very high polymorphism rates. For these organisms genome assembly remains a challenge as most assemblers are unable to handle highly divergent haplotypes in a single individual. In this paper we describe Hapsembler, an assembler for highly polymorphic genomes, which makes use of paired reads. Our experiments show that Hapsembler produces accurate and contiguous assemblies of highly polymorphic genomes, while performing on par with the leading tools on haploid genomes. Hapsembler is available for download at http://compbio.cs.toronto.edu/hapsembler.

  17. Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms and Osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ting; Liang, Yuting; Li, Hong; Li, Haibo; He, Quanze; Xue, Ying; Shen, Cong; Zhang, Chunhua; Xiang, Jingjing; Ding, Jie; Qiao, Longwei; Zheng, Qiping

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Osteoarthritis (OA) is a complex disorder characterized by degenerative articular cartilage and is largely attributed to genetic risk factors. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are common DNA variants that have shown promising and efficiency, compared with positional cloning, to map candidate genes of complex diseases, including OA. In this study, we aim to provide an overview of multiple SNPs from a number of genes that have recently been linked to OA susceptibility. We also performed a comprehensive meta-analysis to evaluate the association of SNP rs7639618 of double von Willebrand factor A domains (DVWA) gene with OA susceptibility. A systematic search of studies on the association of SNPs with susceptibility to OA was conducted in PubMed and Google scholar. Studies subjected to meta-analysis include human and case-control studies that met the Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium model and provide sufficient data to calculate an odds ratio (OR). A total of 9500 OA cases and 9365 controls in 7 case-control studies relating to SNP rs7639618 were included in this study and the ORs with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated. Over 50 SNPs from different genes have been shown to be associated with either hip (23), or knee (20), or both (13) OA. The ORs of these SNPs for OA and the subtypes are not consistent. As to SNP rs7639618 of DVWA, increased knee OA risk was observed in all genetic models analyzed. Specifically, people from Asian with G-allele showed significantly increased risk of knee OA (A versus G: OR = 1.28, 95% CI 1.13–1.46; AA versus GG: OR = 1.60, 95% CI 1.25–2.05; GA versus GG: OR = 1.31, 95% CI 1.18–1.44; AA versus GA+GG: OR = 1.34, 95% CI 1.12–1.61; AA+GA versus GG: OR = 1.40, 95% CI 1.19–1.64), but not in Caucasians or with hip OA. Our results suggest that multiple SNPs play different roles in the pathogenesis of OA and its subtypes; SNP rs7639618 of DVWA gene is associated with a significantly increased

  18. Clinical applications of Genome Polymorphism Scans

    PubMed Central

    Weber, James L

    2006-01-01

    Applications of Genome Polymorphism Scans range from the relatively simple such as gender determination and confirmation of biological relationships, to the relatively complex such as determination of autozygosity and propagation of genetic information throughout pedigrees. Unlike nearly all other clinical DNA tests, the Scan is a universal test – it covers all people and all genes. In balance, I argue that the Genome Polymorphism Scan is the most powerful, affordable clinical DNA test available today. Reviewers: This article was reviewed by Scott Weiss (nominated by Neil Smalheiser), Roberta Pagon (nominated by Jerzy Jurka) and Val Sheffield (nominated by Neil Smalheiser). PMID:16756678

  19. Polymorphs calcium carbonate on temperature reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Chong, Kai-Yin; Chia, Chin-Hua; Zakaria, Sarani

    2014-09-03

    Calcium carbonate (CaCO{sub 3}) has three different crystal polymorphs, which are calcite, aragonite and vaterite. In this study, effect of reaction temperature on polymorphs and crystallite structure of CaCO{sub 3} was investigated. X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), fourier transform infrared (FTIR), and variable pressure scanning electron microscope (VPSEM) were used to characterize the obtained CaCO{sub 3} particles. The obtained results showed that CaCO{sub 3} with different crystal and particle structures can be formed by controlling the temperature during the synthesis process.

  20. Migraine and genetic polymorphisms: an overview.

    PubMed

    Pizza, Vincenzo; Agresta, Anella; Agresta, Antonio; Lamaida, Eros; Lamaida, Norman; Infante, Francesco; Capasso, Anna

    2012-01-01

    The relationship between genetic polymorphisms and migraine as a cause of an increased risk of thrombotic disorders development is still debated In this respect, factor V Leiden, factor V (H1299R), prothrombin G20210A, factor XIII (V34L), β-fibrinogen, MTHFR (C677T), MTHFR (A1298C), APO E, PAI-1, HPA-1 and ACE I/D seem to play a determinant role in vascular diseases related to migraine. The present review analyzes both the incidence of the above genetic vascular mutations in migraineurs and the most re-cent developments related to genetic polymorphisms and migraine.

  1. Molecular basis for amyloid-[beta] polymorphism

    SciTech Connect

    Colletier, Jacques-Philippe; Laganowsky, Arthur; Landau, Meytal; Zhao, Minglei; Soriaga, Angela B.; Goldschmidt, Lukasz; Flot, David; Cascio, Duilio; Sawaya, Michael R.; Eisenberga, David

    2011-10-19

    Amyloid-beta (A{beta}) aggregates are the main constituent of senile plaques, the histological hallmark of Alzheimer's disease. A{beta} molecules form {beta}-sheet containing structures that assemble into a variety of polymorphic oligomers, protofibers, and fibers that exhibit a range of lifetimes and cellular toxicities. This polymorphic nature of A{beta} has frustrated its biophysical characterization, its structural determination, and our understanding of its pathological mechanism. To elucidate A{beta} polymorphism in atomic detail, we determined eight new microcrystal structures of fiber-forming segments of A{beta}. These structures, all of short, self-complementing pairs of {beta}-sheets termed steric zippers, reveal a variety of modes of self-association of A{beta}. Combining these atomic structures with previous NMR studies allows us to propose several fiber models, offering molecular models for some of the repertoire of polydisperse structures accessible to A{beta}. These structures and molecular models contribute fundamental information for understanding A{beta} polymorphic nature and pathogenesis.

  2. Idealized powder diffraction patterns for cellulose polymorphs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cellulose samples are routinely analyzed by X-ray diffraction to determine their crystal type (polymorph) and crystallinity. However, the connection is seldom made between those efforts and the crystal structures of cellulose that have been determined with synchrotron X-radiation and neutron diffrac...

  3. Chromosomal polymorphism in the Sporothrix schenckii complex.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Alexandre A; Fernandes, Geisa F; Rodrigues, Anderson M; Lima, Fábio M; Marini, Marjorie M; Dos S Feitosa, Luciano; de Melo Teixeira, Marcus; Felipe, Maria Sueli Soares; da Silveira, José Franco; de Camargo, Zoilo P

    2014-01-01

    Sporotrichosis is a polymorphic disease caused by a complex of thermodimorphic fungi including S. brasiliensis, S. schenckii sensu stricto (s. str.), S. globosa and S. luriei. Humans and animals can acquire the disease through traumatic inoculation of propagules into the subcutaneous tissue. Despite the importance of sporotrichosis as a disease that can take epidemic proportions there are just a few studies dealing with genetic polymorphisms and genomic architecture of these pathogens. The main objective of this study was to investigate chromosomal polymorphisms and genomic organization among different isolates in the S. schenckii complex. We used pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) to separate chromosomal fragments of isolated DNA, followed by probe hybridization. Nine loci (β-tubulin, calmodulin, catalase, chitin synthase 1, Internal Transcribed Spacer, Pho85 cyclin-dependent kinase, protein kinase C Ss-2, G protein α subunit and topoisomerase II) were mapped onto chromosomal bands of Brazilian isolates of S. schenckii s. str. and S. brasiliensis. Our results revealed the presence of intra and interspecies polymorphisms in chromosome number and size. The gene hybridization analysis showed that closely related species in phylogenetic analysis had similar genetic organizations, mostly due to identification of synteny groups in chromosomal bands of similar sizes. Our results bring new insights into the genetic diversity and genome organization among pathogenic species in the Sporothrix schenckii complex.

  4. Milk casein polymorphism in the Kikuyu population.

    PubMed

    Ponzone, A; Voglino, G F; Tognolo, A

    1975-09-01

    Urea-starch-gel electrophoresis of casein samples from women of the Kikuyu tribe (central Africa) shows that this Negroid population had the same alpha- and beta-casein polymorphic pattern as Caucasoids, though their gene frequencies for the beta-locus were inverted. A new beta-casein variant (named beta-E) was identified.

  5. Chromosomal Polymorphism in the Sporothrix schenckii Complex

    PubMed Central

    Sasaki, Alexandre A.; Fernandes, Geisa F.; Rodrigues, Anderson M.; Lima, Fábio M.; Marini, Marjorie M.; dos S. Feitosa, Luciano; de Melo Teixeira, Marcus; Felipe, Maria Sueli Soares; da Silveira, José Franco; de Camargo, Zoilo P.

    2014-01-01

    Sporotrichosis is a polymorphic disease caused by a complex of thermodimorphic fungi including S. brasiliensis, S. schenckii sensu stricto (s. str.), S. globosa and S. luriei. Humans and animals can acquire the disease through traumatic inoculation of propagules into the subcutaneous tissue. Despite the importance of sporotrichosis as a disease that can take epidemic proportions there are just a few studies dealing with genetic polymorphisms and genomic architecture of these pathogens. The main objective of this study was to investigate chromosomal polymorphisms and genomic organization among different isolates in the S. schenckii complex. We used pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) to separate chromosomal fragments of isolated DNA, followed by probe hybridization. Nine loci (β-tubulin, calmodulin, catalase, chitin synthase 1, Internal Transcribed Spacer, Pho85 cyclin-dependent kinase, protein kinase C Ss-2, G protein α subunit and topoisomerase II) were mapped onto chromosomal bands of Brazilian isolates of S. schenckii s. str. and S. brasiliensis. Our results revealed the presence of intra and interspecies polymorphisms in chromosome number and size. The gene hybridization analysis showed that closely related species in phylogenetic analysis had similar genetic organizations, mostly due to identification of synteny groups in chromosomal bands of similar sizes. Our results bring new insights into the genetic diversity and genome organization among pathogenic species in the Sporothrix schenckii complex. PMID:24466257

  6. Four new polymorphic forms of suplatast tosilate.

    PubMed

    Nagai, Keiko; Ushio, Takanori; Miura, Hidenori; Nakamura, Takashi; Moribe, Kunikazu; Yamamoto, Keiji

    2014-01-01

    We found four new polymorphic forms (γ-, ε-, ζ-, and η-forms) of suplatast tosilate (ST) by recrystallization and seeding with ST-analogous compounds; three polymorphic forms (α-, β-, and δ-forms) of ST have been previously reported. The physicochemical properties of these new forms were investigated using infrared (IR) spectroscopy, solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, and powder X-ray diffractometry. The presence of hydrogen bonds in the new forms was assessed from the IR and solid-state NMR spectra. The crystal structures of the ε- and η-forms were determined from their powder X-ray diffraction data using the direct space approach and the Monte Carlo method, followed by Rietveld refinement. The structures determined for the ε- and η-forms supported the presence of hydrogen bonds between the ST molecules, as the IR and solid-state NMR spectra indicated. The thermodynamic characteristics of the seven polymorphic forms were evaluated by determining the solubility of each form. The α-form was the most insoluble in 2-propanol at 35°C, and was thus concluded to be the most stable form. The ε-form was the most soluble, and a polymorphic transition from the ε- to the α-form was observed during solubility testing. PMID:24211359

  7. Difficulties in Learning Inheritance and Polymorphism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liberman, Neomi; Beeri, Catriel; Kolikant, Yifat Ben-David

    2011-01-01

    This article reports on difficulties related to the concepts of inheritance and polymorphism, expressed by a group of 22 in-service CS teachers with an experience with the procedural paradigm, as they coped with a course on OOP. Our findings are based on the analysis of tests, questionnaires that the teachers completed in the course, as well as on…

  8. Characterization of Polymorphic Forms of Rifaximin.

    PubMed

    Kogawa, Ana Carolina; Antonio, Selma Gutierrez; Salgado, Hérida Regina Nunes

    2016-07-01

    Rifaximin is a gut-selective oral antimicrobial that has no systemic adverse effects compared with placebo. It is used for the treatment of hepatic encephalopathy, traveler's diarrhea, irritable bowel syndrome, Clostridium difficile infection, ulcerative colitis, and acute diarrhea. The crystalline form present in rifaximin, α, has minimal systemic absorption compared to the amorphous form. The objective of this study was to obtain polymorphic forms of rifaximin using recrystallization processes. The forms were characterized and studied by thermal analysis, X-ray powder diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and solubility testing. Six polymorphic forms of rifaximin, designated I-VI, were obtained by the crystallization process by evaporation of the solvent. Some polymorphic forms obtained in this work may not have the same excellent tolerability as the reference medicine; therefore, studies such as these are extremely important and point to the need for greater requirements by the regulatory agencies overseeing polymorph analysis of the raw materials used in the manufacture of medicines marketed globally. These analyses are not required in the majority of official compendia. Partnerships among industries, research centers, and universities would be a viable way to consolidate research in this area and contribute to improving the quality of solid drugs. PMID:27455934

  9. Vibrational spectroscopic study of polymorphism and polymorphic transformation of the anti-viral drug lamivudine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Yong; Zhang, Huili; Xue, Jiadan; Tang, Wenjian; Fang, Hongxia; Zhang, Qi; Li, Yafang; Hong, Zhi

    2015-02-01

    Vibrational spectra of hydrated and anhydrous lamivudines, and also the dynamic process of polymorphic transformation have been characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) and Raman spectroscopic techniques. The vibrational modes of both polymorphic lamivudines are assigned. FT-IR and Raman spectral results show that the interaction between crystalline water and lamivudine molecular has an important effect on the molecular vibration motions of polymorphic lamivudines. The two characteristic Raman peaks at 783 and 798 cm-1 represent hydrated and anhydrous lamivudine respectively. The relationship between changes of two characteristic peak normalized areas and heating time could be fitted with single exponential functions, and the dynamic information of polymorphic transformation of lamivudine drug is obtained. The decay rate of characteristic peak for hydrated lamivudine and the growth rate of that for anhydrous lamivudine are consistent during dehydration transformation process. The reported results provide us important benchmark for qualitatively monitoring different polymorphic drugs and also establishing the corresponding model for the polymorphic transformation of drugs in related pharmaceutical research fields.

  10. Correlation between ribosomal DNA polymorphism and electrophoretic enzyme polymorphism in Yersinia.

    PubMed

    Picard-Pasquier, N; Picard, B; Heeralal, S; Krishnamoorthy, R; Goullet, P

    1990-08-01

    Ribosomal DNA (rDNA) polymorphism was compared with electrophoretic enzyme polymorphism for the intra- and interspecies differentiation of Yersinia enterocolitica, Y. pseudotuberculosis, Y. intermedia, Y. aldovae, Y. frederiksenii and Y. kristensenii. DNA from 90 strains previously classified into six zymotypes (Y. enterocolitica and Y. frederiksenii) and into distinct enzyme electrophoretic patterns (the four other species) was digested with EcoRI or HindIII and analysed by Southern blotting. The six species were clearly differentiated from each other. In Y. enterocolitica, the subclassification of biotype 1 into zymotypes 1A and 1B was also reflected in the rDNA and the four other bio-zymotypes gave four different classes of restriction pattern. In Y. frederiksenii, both EcoRI and HindIII gave five distinct riboclasses which correlated with the zymotypes. In the four other species, the phenotype polymorphism appeared to be better correlated with the restriction fragment length polymorphism data in some enzymes than others. The data demonstrate that the inter- and intraspecies classification by rDNA polymorphism using two restriction enzymes is similar to that based on electrophoretic enzyme polymorphism. The analysis could be refined for taxonomic and epidemiological purposes by using other restriction enzymes.

  11. Polymorphism Control in Nanostructured Metal Oxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sood, Shantanu

    Polymorphic phase transformations are common to all nanocrystalline binary metal oxides. The polymorphic nature of such metal oxides makes available a large number of phases with differing crystal structures, each stable under certain conditions of temperature, pressure, and/or particle size. These different crystal structures translate to unique physical and chemical properties for each structural class of polymorphs. Thus predicting when polymorphic phase transitions are likely to occur becomes important to the synthesis of stable functional materials with desired properties. Theoretical calculations using a heuristic approach have resulted in an accurate estimation of the critical particle size predicting metastable to stable phase transitions. This formula is applied to different case studies: for anatase to rutile titania; gamma-Alumina to alpha-Alumina; and tetragonal to monoclinic zirconia. The theoretical values calculated have been seen to be very close to the experimental results from the literature. Manifestation of the effect of phase transitions in nanostructured metal oxides was provided in the study of metastable to stable phase transitions in WO3. Nanowires of tungsten trioxide have been synthesized in-situ inside an electron microscope. Such structure of tungsten trioxide result due to a metastable to stable phase transformation, from the cubic to the monoclinic phase. The transformation is massive and complete. The structures formed are unique one-dimensional nanowires. Such a method can be scaled inside any equipment equipped with an electron gun, for example lithography systems either using STEM or E-beam lithography. Another study on nanowire formation in binary metal oxides involved the synthesis of stable orthorhombic MoO3 by means of blend electrospinning. Both a traditional single jet electrospinning set up and a novel high-throughput process to get high aspect ratio nanowires. The latter is a jet-controlled and flow controlled

  12. Adiponectin gene polymorphisms: Association with childhood obesity.

    PubMed

    Fraga, Vanêssa Gomes; Gomes, Karina Braga

    2014-03-01

    The current childhood obesity epidemic represents a particular challenge for public health. Understanding of the etiological mechanisms of obesity remains integral in treating this complex disorder. In recent years, studies have elucidated the influence of hormones secreted by adipose tissue named adipokines. Adiponectin is a adipokine that exhibits important anti-inflammatory, insulin-sensitizing and anti-atherogenic properties and it is strongly associated to obesity development. It is well known that adiponectin levels decrease with obesity. Furthermore, studies show that some single nucleotide polymorphisms in the gene encoding adiponectin, ADIPOQ, may influence the expression of this protein. The objective of this paper is to provide an up-to-date review of ADIPOQ polymorphisms in the context of childhood obesity. PMID:27625863

  13. Novel polymorphic microsatellite markers in Odontobutis potamophila.

    PubMed

    Shen, Y B; Li, D; Li, J L; Wang, R Q; Xuan, Y F

    2015-01-01

    We characterized 16 novel polymorphic loci isolated from a partial genomic DNA library of Odontobutis potamophila enriched for CA repeats. We tested the variability of these microsatellites on 51 unrelated individuals collected in China. All loci were polymorphic. The average allele number was 14.6 per locus, ranging from 2 to 27. The observed heterozygosity ranged from 0.35 to 0.90, with an average of 0.70, whereas the average expected heterozygosity was 0.76. Twelve of the 16 microsatellites conformed to Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium and were inherited independently. These developed microsatellites will be useful in studies of population genetics and other genetic studies on this important food species.

  14. Androgen receptor gene polymorphism in zebra species.

    PubMed

    Ito, Hideyuki; Langenhorst, Tanya; Ogden, Rob; Inoue-Murayama, Miho

    2015-09-01

    Androgen receptor genes (AR) have been found to have associations with reproductive development, behavioral traits, and disorders in humans. However, the influence of similar genetic effects on the behavior of other animals is scarce. We examined the loci AR glutamine repeat (ARQ) in 44 Grevy's zebras, 23 plains zebras, and three mountain zebras, and compared them with those of domesticated horses. We observed polymorphism among zebra species and between zebra and horse. As androgens such as testosterone influence aggressiveness, AR polymorphism among equid species may be associated with differences in levels of aggression and tameness. Our findings indicate that it would be useful to conduct further studies focusing on the potential association between AR and personality traits, and to understand domestication of equid species. PMID:26236645

  15. Catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia: a current overview.

    PubMed

    Leite, Luiz R; Henz, Benhur D; Macedo, Paula G; Santos, Simone N; Barreto, José R; Zanatta, André; Fenelon, Guilherme; Cruz Filho, Fernando E S

    2009-03-01

    Catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia occurs in healthy children and young adults causing syncope and sudden cardiac death. This is a familial disease, which affect de novo mutation in 50% of the cases. At least two causative genes have been described to be localized in the chromosome 1; mutation of the ryanodine receptor gene and calsequestrin gene. The classical clinical presentation is syncope triggered by exercise and emotion in children and adolescents with no structural heart disease. Polymorphic ventricular tachycardia during treadmill testing, or after isoproterenol infusion, is the most common feature. Therapeutic options include, beta-blockers, calcium-channel blockers and, an implantable cardioverter defibrillator is indicated in high-risk patients. Risk stratification of this disease is very challenging, since some risk factors proved to be useful in some series but not in others. However, family history of sudden cardiac death and symptoms initiated in very young children are important predictors.

  16. Carbon nitride frameworks and dense crystalline polymorphs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pickard, Chris J.; Salamat, Ashkan; Bojdys, Michael J.; Needs, Richard J.; McMillan, Paul F.

    2016-09-01

    We used ab initio random structure searching (AIRSS) to investigate polymorphism in C3N4 carbon nitride as a function of pressure. Our calculations reveal new framework structures, including a particularly stable chiral polymorph of space group P 43212 containing mixed s p2 and s p3 bonding, that we have produced experimentally and recovered to ambient conditions. As pressure is increased a sequence of structures with fully s p3 -bonded C atoms and three-fold-coordinated N atoms is predicted, culminating in a dense P n m a phase above 250 GPa. Beyond 650 GPa we find that C3N4 becomes unstable to decomposition into diamond and pyrite-structured CN2.

  17. Adiponectin gene polymorphisms: Association with childhood obesity

    PubMed Central

    Fraga, Vanêssa Gomes; Gomes, Karina Braga

    2014-01-01

    The current childhood obesity epidemic represents a particular challenge for public health. Understanding of the etiological mechanisms of obesity remains integral in treating this complex disorder. In recent years, studies have elucidated the influence of hormones secreted by adipose tissue named adipokines. Adiponectin is a adipokine that exhibits important anti-inflammatory, insulin-sensitizing and anti-atherogenic properties and it is strongly associated to obesity development. It is well known that adiponectin levels decrease with obesity. Furthermore, studies show that some single nucleotide polymorphisms in the gene encoding adiponectin, ADIPOQ, may influence the expression of this protein. The objective of this paper is to provide an up-to-date review of ADIPOQ polymorphisms in the context of childhood obesity. PMID:27625863

  18. Indomethacin polymorphs: Experimental and conformational analysis.

    PubMed

    Aceves-Hernandez, J M; Nicolás-Vázquez, I; Aceves, F J; Hinojosa-Torres, J; Paz, M; Castaño, V M

    2009-07-01

    Thermal analysis of indomethacin alpha and gamma polymorphs presents a temperature transition at 429.2 and 435.8 K, respectively, although with X-ray diffraction or near infra-red spectroscopy phase transformations were not registered. DSC method for the indomethacin amorphous solid shows an endothermic event; however, the conformational analysis at higher temperature shows a rotational change which may explain such endothermic peak. By heating the gamma polymorph at 483 K (210 degrees C) for 30 min and then quenching into liquid nitrogen the amorphous solid was obtained. The alpha form shows the highest intrinsic dissolution rate, while the lowest rate was for the amorphous indomethacin. Theoretical calculations (ab initio, Hartree-Fock and density functional theory, DFT) indicate that the double interaction is responsible for the observed difference in solubility.

  19. Calorimetric determinations and theoretical calculations of polymorphs of thalidomide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lara-Ochoa, F.; Pérez, G. Espinosa; Mijangos-Santiago, F.

    2007-09-01

    The analysis of the thermograms of thalidomide obtained for the two reported polymorphs α and β by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) shows some inconsistencies that are discussed in the present work. The conception of a new polymorph form, named β ∗, allowed us to explain the observed thermal behavior more satisfactorily. This new polymorph shows enantiotropy with both α and β polymorphs, reflected in the unique endotherm obtained in the DSC-thermograms, when a heating rate of 10 °C/min is applied. Several additional experiments, such as re-melting of both polymorph forms, showed that there is indeed a new polymorph with an endotherm located between the endotherms of α and β. IR, Raman, and powder X-ray permit us to characterize the isolated compound, resulting from the re-melting of both polymorph forms. Mechanical calculations were performed to elucidate the conformations of each polymorph, and ab initio quantum chemical calculations were performed to determine the energy of the more stable conformers and the spatial cell energy for both polymorphs α and β. These results suggested a possible conformation for the newly discovered polymorph β ∗.

  20. Detection of polymorphisms of human DNA by gel electrophoresis as single-strand conformation polymorphisms

    SciTech Connect

    Orita, Masato; Iwahana, Hiroyuki; Kanazawa, Hiroshi; Hayashi, Kenshi; Sekiya, Takao )

    1989-04-01

    The authors developed mobility shift analysis of single-stranded DNAs on neutral polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis to detect DNA polymorphisms. This method follows digestion of genomic DNA with restriction endonucleases, denaturation in alkaline solution, and electrophoresis on a neutral polyacrylamide gel. After transfer to a nylon membrane, the mobility shift due to a nucleotide substitution of a single-stranded DNA fragment could be detected by hybridization with a nick-translated DNA fragment or more clearly with RNA copies synthesized on each strand of the DNA fragment as probes. As the mobility shift caused by nucleotide substitutions might be due to a conformational change of single-stranded DNAs, we designate the features of single-stranded DNAs as single-strand conformation polymorphisms (SSCPs). Like restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs), SSCPs were found to be allelic variants of true Mendelian traits, and therefore they should be useful genetic markers. Moreover, SSCP analysis has the advantage over RFLP analysis that it can detect DNA polymorphisms and point mutations at a variety of positions in DNA fragments. Since DNA polymorphisms have been estimated to occur every few hundred nucleotides in the human genome, SSCPs may provide many genetic markers.

  1. Innate Immune Gene Polymorphisms in Tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Sadee, Wolfgang

    2012-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is a leading cause worldwide of human mortality attributable to a single infectious agent. Recent studies targeting candidate genes and “case-control” association have revealed numerous polymorphisms implicated in host susceptibility to TB. Here, we review current progress in the understanding of causative polymorphisms in host innate immune genes associated with TB pathogenesis. We discuss genes encoding several types of proteins: macrophage receptors, such as the mannose receptor (MR, CD206), dendritic cell-specific ICAM-3-grabbing nonintegrin (DC-SIGN, CD209), Dectin-1, Toll-like receptors (TLRs), complement receptor 3 (CR3, CD11b/CD18), nucleotide oligomerization domain 1 (NOD1) and NOD2, CD14, P2X7, and the vitamin D nuclear receptor (VDR); soluble C-type lectins, such as surfactant protein-A (SP-A), SP-D, and mannose-binding lectin (MBL); phagocyte cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), IL-6, IL-10, IL-12, and IL-18; chemokines, such as IL-8, monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1), RANTES, and CXCL10; and other important innate immune molecules, such as inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and solute carrier protein 11A1 (SLC11A1). Polymorphisms in these genes have been variably associated with susceptibility to TB among different populations. This apparent variability is probably accounted for by evolutionary selection pressure as a result of long-term host-pathogen interactions in certain regions or populations and, in part, by lack of proper study design and limited knowledge of molecular and functional effects of the implicated genetic variants. Finally, we discuss genomic technologies that hold promise for resolving questions regarding the evolutionary paths of the human genome, functional effects of polymorphisms, and corollary impacts of adaptation on human health, ultimately leading to novel approaches to controlling TB. PMID:22825450

  2. Variation and polymorphism in helminth parasites.

    PubMed

    Maizels, R M; Kurniawan-Atmadja, A

    2002-01-01

    There are strong biological, evolutionary and immunological arguments for predicting extensive polymorphism among helminth parasites, but relatively little data and few instances from which the selective forces acting on parasite diversity can be discerned. The paucity of information on intraspecific variation stands in contrast to the fine detail with which helminth species have been delineated by morphological techniques, accentuating a trend towards considering laboratory strains as representative of a relatively invariant organism. However, in the fast-moving evolutionary race between host and parasite one would predict a monomorphic species would be driven to extinction. We review the arena of intraspecific variation for the major helminth parasites, ranging from biological properties such as host or vector preference, to biochemical and immunological characteristics, as well as molecular markers such as DNA sequence variants. These data are summarized, before focusing in more detail on polymorphisms within protein-coding genes of potential relevance to the host-parasite relationship, such as vaccine candidates. In particular, we discuss the available data on a number of major antigens from the filarial nematode Brugia malayi. Information is currently too sparse to answer the question of whether there is antigenic variation in filariasis, but the indications are that proteins from the blood-borne microfilarial stage show significant intraspecific variability. Future work will define whether polymorphisms in these antigens may be driven by exposure to the host immune response or reflect some other facet of parasite biology.

  3. Genotyping for cytochrome P450 polymorphisms.

    PubMed

    Daly, Ann K; King, Barry P; Leathart, Julian B S

    2006-01-01

    Protocols for the extraction of DNA from human blood and for genotyping for a number of common cytochrome P450 polymorphisms using either polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-restriction fragment length polymorphism or PCR-single-strand conformational polymorphism (SSCP) analysis are described. Rapid high-throughput techniques are also available for analyses of this type, but they require access to specialized equipment and are not considered here. General guidelines for performing amplification using PCR are described together with electrophoresis protocols for analysis of restriction digests of PCR products with agarose and polyacrylamide gels including the use of polyacrylamide-based gels for SSCP analysis. Protocols for the following specific isoforms and alleles are also provided: CYP1A1 (*2B and *4 alleles), CYP2C8 (*3 and *4 alleles), CYP2C9 (*2, *3, and *11 alleles), CYP2C19 (*2 and *3 alleles), CYP2D6 (*3, *4, *5, and *6 alleles), CYP2E1 (*5A, *5B, and *6 alleles), and CYP3A5 (*3 allele).

  4. Chromosome-length polymorphism in fungi.

    PubMed Central

    Zolan, M E

    1995-01-01

    The examination of fungal chromosomes by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis has revealed that length polymorphism is widespread in both sexual and asexual species. This review summarizes characteristics of fungal chromosome-length polymorphism and possible mitotic and meiotic mechanisms of chromosome length change. Most fungal chromosome-length polymorphisms are currently uncharacterized with respect to content and origin. However, it is clear that long tandem repeats, such as tracts of rRNA genes, are frequently variable in length and that other chromosomal rearrangements are suppressed during normal mitotic growth. Dispensable chromosomes and dispensable chromosome regions, which have been well documented for some fungi, also contribute to the variability of the fungal karyotype. For sexual species, meiotic recombination increases the overall karyotypic variability in a population while suppressing genetic translocations. The range of karyotypes observed in fungi indicates that many karyotypic changes may be genetically neutral, at least under some conditions. In addition, new linkage combinations of genes may also be advantageous in allowing adaptation of fungi to new environments. PMID:8531892

  5. Glucosyltransferase gene polymorphism among Streptococcus mutans strains.

    PubMed Central

    Chia, J S; Hsu, T Y; Teng, L J; Chen, J Y; Hahn, L J; Yang, C S

    1991-01-01

    Genetic polymorphisms in genes coding for the glucosyltransferases were detected among Streptococcus mutans serotype c strains by Southern blot analysis with DNA probes located within the gtfB gene (H. Aoki, T. Shiroza, M. Hayakawa, S. Sato, and H. K. Kuramitsu, Infect. Immun. 53:587-594, 1986). Restriction endonucleases were used to examine genomic DNAs isolated from serotype a to h strains. The variations were readily detected among 33 strains of serotype c by EcoRI and PstI restriction enzyme digestions. Serotypes e and f, which are genetically similar to serotype c, also had comparable polymorphism; however, serotypes a, b, d, g, and h did not hybridize to the same DNA probes in parallel experiments. Further analysis of enzymatic activities for glucan synthesis and sucrose-dependent adherence revealed no significant differences among the serotype c strains. Our results suggested that genetic polymorphisms existing in S. mutans serotype c strains may reflect a complexity in genes coding for the glucosyltransferases, which are produced ubiquitously in members of the S. mutans group. Images PMID:1826894

  6. Genotyping for cytochrome P450 polymorphisms.

    PubMed

    Daly, Ann K; King, Barry P; Leathart, Julian B S

    2006-01-01

    Protocols for the extraction of DNA from human blood and for genotyping for a number of common cytochrome P450 polymorphisms using either polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-restriction fragment length polymorphism or PCR-single-strand conformational polymorphism (SSCP) analysis are described. Rapid high-throughput techniques are also available for analyses of this type, but they require access to specialized equipment and are not considered here. General guidelines for performing amplification using PCR are described together with electrophoresis protocols for analysis of restriction digests of PCR products with agarose and polyacrylamide gels including the use of polyacrylamide-based gels for SSCP analysis. Protocols for the following specific isoforms and alleles are also provided: CYP1A1 (*2B and *4 alleles), CYP2C8 (*3 and *4 alleles), CYP2C9 (*2, *3, and *11 alleles), CYP2C19 (*2 and *3 alleles), CYP2D6 (*3, *4, *5, and *6 alleles), CYP2E1 (*5A, *5B, and *6 alleles), and CYP3A5 (*3 allele). PMID:16719392

  7. Role of liquid polymorphism during the crystallization of silicon.

    PubMed

    Desgranges, Caroline; Delhommelle, Jerome

    2011-03-01

    Using molecular simulation, we establish the pivotal role played by liquid polymorphs during the crystallization of silicon. When undercooled at a temperature 20% below the melting point, a silicon melt is under the form of the highly coordinated, high-density liquid (HDL) polymorph. We find that crystallization starts with the formation, within the HDL liquid, of a nanosized droplet of the least stable liquid polymorph, known as the almost tetracoordinated low-density liquid (LDL) polymorph. We then show that the crystalline embryo forms within the LDL droplet, close to the interface with the surrounding HDL liquid, thereby following a pathway associated with a much lower free energy barrier than the direct formation of the crystalline embryo from the HDL liquid would have required. This implies that, for substances exhibiting liquid polymorphs, theories, like the classical nucleation theory, and empirical rules, like Ostwald's rule, should be modified to account for the role of liquid polymorphs in the nucleation process. PMID:21322596

  8. Role of liquid polymorphism during the crystallization of silicon.

    PubMed

    Desgranges, Caroline; Delhommelle, Jerome

    2011-03-01

    Using molecular simulation, we establish the pivotal role played by liquid polymorphs during the crystallization of silicon. When undercooled at a temperature 20% below the melting point, a silicon melt is under the form of the highly coordinated, high-density liquid (HDL) polymorph. We find that crystallization starts with the formation, within the HDL liquid, of a nanosized droplet of the least stable liquid polymorph, known as the almost tetracoordinated low-density liquid (LDL) polymorph. We then show that the crystalline embryo forms within the LDL droplet, close to the interface with the surrounding HDL liquid, thereby following a pathway associated with a much lower free energy barrier than the direct formation of the crystalline embryo from the HDL liquid would have required. This implies that, for substances exhibiting liquid polymorphs, theories, like the classical nucleation theory, and empirical rules, like Ostwald's rule, should be modified to account for the role of liquid polymorphs in the nucleation process.

  9. [The relationship between BDNF gene polymorphisms and alcoholics in Japan].

    PubMed

    Narita, Shin; Nagahori, Kenta; Yoshihara, Eiji; Nishizawa, Daisuke; Ikeda, Kazutaka; Kawai, Atsuko; Iwahashi, Kazuhiko

    2013-12-01

    As a help of the mechanism elucidation of alcoholism, we studied the relationship between brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) rs6265, 270 C/T (ID number has not yet been determined), and rs10835210 gene polymorphisms, which are reported to be related to bipolar disorder, and alcoholics. We genotyped the three polymorphisms in the BDNF gene using polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) in 65 alcoholics and 71 healthy controls. In this study, there was no significant difference in the frequency of rs6265 and 270 C/T polymorphisms between alcoholics and controls (P > 0.05). However, there was a significant difference in the genotype frequency of rs10835210 polymorphism between alcoholics and controls (P < 0.05), in which the CA heterozygote genotype and A allele frequency was higher in alcoholics than in the controls. It suggests the possibility that the BDNF rs10835210 gene polymorphism affects the etiology of alcoholism.

  10. Colour Polymorphism Protects Prey Individuals and Populations Against Predation

    PubMed Central

    Karpestam, Einat; Merilaita, Sami; Forsman, Anders

    2016-01-01

    Colour pattern polymorphism in animals can influence and be influenced by interactions between predators and prey. However, few studies have examined whether polymorphism is adaptive, and there is no evidence that the co-occurrence of two or more natural prey colour variants can increase survival of populations. Here we show that visual predators that exploit polymorphic prey suffer from reduced performance, and further provide rare evidence in support of the hypothesis that prey colour polymorphism may afford protection against predators for both individuals and populations. This protective effect provides a probable explanation for the longstanding, evolutionary puzzle of the existence of colour polymorphisms. We also propose that this protective effect can provide an adaptive explanation for search image formation in predators rather than search image formation explaining polymorphism. PMID:26902799

  11. Polymorphism in the Upper Cretaceous ammonite Libycoceras Ismaeli (Zittel)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kassab, A. S.; Hamama, H. H.

    This work gives a full account of the ontogenetic development and variation in a population of the Upper Cretaneous sphenodiscid ammonite Libycoceras ismaeli hadens subsp. nov. The collection, from a single narrow stratum and the same locality, displays a kind of polymorphism. Such polymorphism is reflected strikingly as differences in shell shape and ornament. Some results of the ontogenetic and statistical analyses indicate sexual dimorphism, whereas others may show ecophenotypic polymorphism. The polymorphic variants are identical in their early ontogeny, but differ in mature and adult stages.

  12. Persistence of neutral polymorphisms in Lake Victoria cichlid fish

    PubMed Central

    Nagl, Sandra; Tichy, Herbert; Mayer, Werner E.; Takahata, Naoyuki; Klein, Jan

    1998-01-01

    Phylogenetic trees for groups of closely related species often have different topologies, depending on the genes used. One explanation for the discordant topologies is the persistence of polymorphisms through the speciation phase, followed by differential fixation of alleles in the resulting species. The existence of transspecies polymorphisms has been documented for alleles maintained by balancing selection but not for neutral alleles. In the present study, transspecific persistence of neutral polymorphisms was tested in the endemic haplochromine species flock of Lake Victoria cichlid fish. Putative noncoding region polymorphisms were identified at four randomly selected nuclear loci and tested on a collection of 12 Lake Victoria species and their putative riverine ancestors. At all loci, the same polymorphism was found to be present in nearly all the tested species, both lacustrine and riverine. Different polymorphisms at these loci were found in cichlids of other East African lakes (Malawi and Tanganyika). The Lake Victoria polymorphisms must have therefore arisen after the flocks now inhabiting the three great lakes diverged from one another, but before the riverine ancestors of the Lake Victoria flock colonized the Lake. Calculations based on the mtDNA clock suggest that the polymorphisms have persisted for about 1.4 million years. To maintain neutral polymorphisms for such a long time, the population size must have remained large throughout the entire period. PMID:9826684

  13. Genetic Polymorphisms, Hormone Levels, and Hot Flashes in Midlife Women

    PubMed Central

    Schilling, Chrissy; Gallicchio, Lisa; Miller, Susan R.; Langenberg, Patricia; Zacur, Howard; Flaws, Jodi A.

    2007-01-01

    Objective Hot flashes disrupt the lives of millions of women each year. Although hot flashes are a public health concern, little is known about risk factors that predispose women to hot flashes. Thus, the objective of this study was to examine whether sex steroid hormone levels and genetic polymorphisms in hormone biosynthesis and degradation enzymes are associated with the risk of hot flashes. Methods In a cross-sectional study design, midlife women aged 45 to 54 years (n=639) were recruited from Baltimore and its surrounding counties. Participants completed a questionnaire and donated a blood sample for steroid hormone analysis and genotyping. The associations between genetic polymorphisms and hormone levels, as well as the associations between genetic polymorphisms, hormone levels, and hot flashes were examined using statistical models. Results A polymorphism in CYP1B1 was associated with lower dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate (DHEA-S) and progesterone levels, while a polymorphism in CYP19 (aromatase) was associated with higher testosterone and DHEA-S levels. Lower progesterone and sex hormone binding globulin levels, lower free estradiol index, and a higher ratio of total androgens to total estrogens were associated with the experiencing of hot flashes. A polymorphism in CYP1B1 and a polymorphism in 3βHSD were both associated with hot flashes. Conclusion Some genetic polymorphisms may be associated with altered levels of hormones in midlife women. Further, selected genetic polymorphisms and altered hormone levels may be associated with the risk of hot flashes in midlife women. PMID:17187946

  14. Polymorphism in phenobarbital: discovery of a new polymorph and crystal structure of elusive form V.

    PubMed

    Roy, Saikat; Goud, N Rajesh; Matzger, Adam J

    2016-03-21

    This report highlights the discovery of a new polymorph of the anticonvulsant drug phenobarbital (PB) using polymer-induced heteronucleation (PIHn) and unravelling the crystal structure of the elusive form V. Both forms are characterized by structural, thermal and VT-Raman spectroscopy methods to elucidate phase transformation behavior and shed light on stability relationships.

  15. TLR4 polymorphism and periodontitis susceptibility

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Su-Han; Guan, Xiao-Yan; Liang, Wen-Hong; Bai, Guo-Hui; Liu, Jian-Guo

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Many primary and secondary studies reported the association between Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) polymorphism and periodontitis susceptibility, which mainly focused on TLR4–299A>G or TLR4–399C>T of Caucasian, however, these studies had different conclusions. The aim of this study was to reassess relative studies about TLR4 polymorphism and periodontitis susceptibility, and update meta-analysis. Methods: We searched the electronic database including CNKI (Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure), PubMed, Embase, and hand searched relative studies until January 4, 2016. Two authors selected studies according to inclusion and exclusion criteria, assessed studies using Newcastle-Ottawa Scale case control study (NOS), and calculated the combined effect size using STATA software, version 12.0. Results: This meta-analysis included 18 studies, containing 2453 healthy participants and 2987 patients with chronic periodontitis (CP) and 462 patients with aggressive periodontitis (AP). There was a significance between TLR4C>G (rs7873784) allele and CP in Asian, and its recessive model was also significant (for C vs G: odds ratio [OR] = 0.72, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.54–0.95, I2 = 0%; for CC + CG vs GG: OR = 0.66, 95% CI = 0.49–0.89, I2 = 0%). However, we did not detect any significant relevance between other TLR4 polymorphism and periodontitis susceptibility in overall and subgroup analyses. The sensitive analysis showed that dropping any single studies did not affect the pooled-analysis results. Publication bias was not detected. Conclusions: The meta-analysis found association between TLR4C>G (rs7873784) allele and CP in Asian and it may passed on to offsprings in the form of recessiveness. However, further studies about the association between TLR4C>G (rs7873784) and CP is warranted to confirm. PMID:27603404

  16. MICA polymorphism: biology and importance in cancer.

    PubMed

    Chen, Dan; Gyllensten, Ulf

    2014-12-01

    The major histocompatibility complex class I polypeptide-related sequence A gene (MICA) encodes a membrane-bound protein acting as a ligand to stimulate an activating receptor, NKG2D, expressed on the surface of essentially all human natural killer (NK), γδ T and CD8(+) αβ T cells. MICA protein is absent from most cells but can be induced by infections and oncogenic transformation and is frequently expressed in epithelial tumors. Upon binding to MICA, NKG2D activates cytolytic responses of NK and γδ T cells against infected and tumor cells expressing MICA. Therefore, membrane-bound MICA acts as a signal during the early immune response against infection or spontaneously arising tumors. On the other hand, human tumor cells spontaneously release a soluble form of MICA, causing the downregulation of NKG2D and in turn severe impairment of the antitumor immune response of NK and CD8(+) T cells. This is considered to promote tumor immune evasion and also to compromise host resistance to infections. MICA is the most polymorphic non-classical class I gene. A possible association of MICA polymorphism with genetic predisposition to different cancer types has been investigated in candidate gene-based studies. Two genome-wide association studies have identified loci in MICA that influence susceptibility to cervical neoplasia and hepatitis C virus-induced hepatocellular carcinoma, respectively. Given the current level of interest in the field of MICA gene, we discuss the genetics and biology of the MICA gene and the role of its polymorphism in cancer. Gaps in our understanding and future research needs are also discussed.

  17. What Determines the Ice Polymorph in Clouds?

    PubMed

    Hudait, Arpa; Molinero, Valeria

    2016-07-20

    Ice crystals in the atmosphere nucleate from supercooled liquid water and grow by vapor uptake. The structure of the ice polymorph grown has strong impact on the morphology and light scattering of the ice crystals, modulates the amount of water vapor in ice clouds, and can impact the molecular uptake and reactivity of atmospheric aerosols. Experiments and molecular simulations indicate that ice nucleated and grown from deeply supercooled liquid water is metastable stacking disordered ice. The ice polymorph grown from vapor has not yet been determined. Here we use large-scale molecular simulations to determine the structure of ice that grows as a result of uptake of water vapor in the temperature range relevant to cirrus and mixed-phase clouds, elucidate the molecular mechanism of the formation of ice at the vapor interface, and compute the free energy difference between cubic and hexagonal ice interfaces with vapor. We find that vapor deposition results in growth of stacking disordered ice only under conditions of extreme supersaturation, for which a nonequilibrium liquid layer completely wets the surface of ice. Such extreme conditions have been used to produce stacking disordered frost ice in experiments and may be plausible in the summer polar mesosphere. Growth of ice from vapor at moderate supersaturations in the temperature range relevant to cirrus and mixed-phase clouds, from 200 to 260 K, produces exclusively the stable hexagonal ice polymorph. Cubic ice is disfavored with respect to hexagonal ice not only by a small penalty in the bulk free energy (3.6 ± 1.5 J mol(-1) at 260 K) but also by a large free energy penalty at the ice-vapor interface (89.7 ± 12.8 J mol(-1) at 260 K). The latter originates in higher vibrational entropy of the hexagonal-terminated ice-vapor interface. We predict that the free energy penalty against the cubic ice interface should decrease strongly with temperature, resulting in some degree of stacking disorder in ice grown from

  18. Trophic radiation through polymorphism in cichlid fishes

    PubMed Central

    Sage, Richard D.; Selander, Robert K.

    1975-01-01

    Several morphologically defined species of cichlid fishes (Cichlasoma) endemic to the Cuatro Cienegas basin of Mexico and differing in tooth structure, body shape, and diet are allelically identical at 27 gene loci. The presence of only one Mendelian population in each of three drainage systems studied and the occurrence of two of the morphotypes in the same broods indicate that the supposed species are morphs. That trophic radiation in the Cuatro Cienegas cichlids has been achieved through ecological polymorphism rather than speciation raises questions regarding the genetic basis for the extensive intralacustrine radiation of cichlids in Africa and elsewhere. Images PMID:16592286

  19. [HLA-B27 polymorphism and spondyloarthropathies].

    PubMed

    Peixoto, M J; Gonzales, T; Spinola, H; Couto, A R; Mora, M Gantes; Brehm, A; Santos, M R; Garrett, F; Armas, J Bruges

    2005-01-01

    The association of HLA-B27 with ankylosing spondylitis (AS), and other spondyloarthropathies (SpA), remains as one of the strongest between HLA molecules and human disease. Since it was reported, in 1973, it has been extensively studied in order to understand the underlying pathogenic mechanism. The objective of this article is to review the current knowledge on the structure and polymorphism of HLA-B27 molecule, as well as describe the main pathogenic hypotheses trying to explain its association with AS.

  20. What Determines the Ice Polymorph in Clouds?

    PubMed

    Hudait, Arpa; Molinero, Valeria

    2016-07-20

    Ice crystals in the atmosphere nucleate from supercooled liquid water and grow by vapor uptake. The structure of the ice polymorph grown has strong impact on the morphology and light scattering of the ice crystals, modulates the amount of water vapor in ice clouds, and can impact the molecular uptake and reactivity of atmospheric aerosols. Experiments and molecular simulations indicate that ice nucleated and grown from deeply supercooled liquid water is metastable stacking disordered ice. The ice polymorph grown from vapor has not yet been determined. Here we use large-scale molecular simulations to determine the structure of ice that grows as a result of uptake of water vapor in the temperature range relevant to cirrus and mixed-phase clouds, elucidate the molecular mechanism of the formation of ice at the vapor interface, and compute the free energy difference between cubic and hexagonal ice interfaces with vapor. We find that vapor deposition results in growth of stacking disordered ice only under conditions of extreme supersaturation, for which a nonequilibrium liquid layer completely wets the surface of ice. Such extreme conditions have been used to produce stacking disordered frost ice in experiments and may be plausible in the summer polar mesosphere. Growth of ice from vapor at moderate supersaturations in the temperature range relevant to cirrus and mixed-phase clouds, from 200 to 260 K, produces exclusively the stable hexagonal ice polymorph. Cubic ice is disfavored with respect to hexagonal ice not only by a small penalty in the bulk free energy (3.6 ± 1.5 J mol(-1) at 260 K) but also by a large free energy penalty at the ice-vapor interface (89.7 ± 12.8 J mol(-1) at 260 K). The latter originates in higher vibrational entropy of the hexagonal-terminated ice-vapor interface. We predict that the free energy penalty against the cubic ice interface should decrease strongly with temperature, resulting in some degree of stacking disorder in ice grown from

  1. RADB: a database of rheumatoid arthritis-related polymorphisms.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ruijie; Luan, Meiwei; Shang, Zhenwei; Duan, Lian; Tang, Guoping; Shi, Miao; Lv, Wenhua; Zhu, Hongjie; Li, Jin; Lv, Hongchao; Zhang, Mingming; Liu, Guiyou; Chen, He; Jiang, Yongshuai

    2014-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune disease that has a complex genetic basis. Therefore, it is important to explore the genetic background of RA. The extensive recent application of polymorphic genetic markers, especially single nucleotide polymorphisms, has presented us with a large quantity of genetic data. In this study, we developed the Database of Rheumatoid Arthritis-related Polymorphisms (RADB), to integrate all the RA-related genetic polymorphisms and provide a useful resource for researchers. We manually extracted the RA-related polymorphisms from 686 published reports, including RA susceptibility loci, polymorphisms associated with particular clinical features of RA, polymorphisms associated with drug response in RA and polymorphisms associated with a higher risk of cardiovascular disease in RA. Currently, RADB V1.0 contains 3235 polymorphisms that are associated with 636 genes and refer to 68 countries. The detailed information extracted from the literature includes basic information about the articles (e.g., PubMed ID, title and abstract), population information (e.g., country, geographic area and sample size) and polymorphism information (e.g., polymorphism name, gene, genotype, odds ratio and 95% confidence interval, P-value and risk allele). Meanwhile, useful annotations, such as hyperlinks to dbSNP, GenBank, UCSC, Gene Ontology and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway, are included. In addition, a tool for meta-analysis was developed to summarize the results of multiple studies. The database is freely available at http://www.bioapp.org/RADB. Database URL: http://www.bioapp.org/RADB.

  2. IL-1 polymorphism and periimplantitis. A literature review.

    PubMed

    Bormann, Kai-Hendrik; Stühmer, Constantin; Z'Graggen, Marcel; Kokemöller, Horst; Rücker, Martin; Gellrich, Nils-Claudius

    2010-01-01

    The most important factor leading to periimplantitis with bone loss appears to be an inflammatory process due to plaque accumulation. The object of this article was to present a review of the literature on a possible correlation between IL-1 polymorphism and periimplantitis. Research was carried out in the PUBMED and WEB OF KNOWLEDGE literature databases and 27 relevant articles were found. Of these articles, 4 groups of authors came to the conclusion that no correlation exists between IL-1 polymorphism and periimplantitis. In 5 articles by 4 groups of authors, the influence of IL-1 polymorphism on periimplantitis is unclear. 9 studies prove a correlation between IL-1 polymorphism and periimplantitis, and 6 studies also document a direct linkage between gene polymorphism and periimplantitis, if certain cofactors are present. IL-1 polymorphism is frequently connected with "noninfectious periimplant bone loss". Other studies prove that the inflammatory mediators and IL-1beta were significantly elevated in the gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) of infected implants. Many studies document that IL-1 polymorphism alone cannot be considered a risk factor for bone loss, but in combination with smoking, it is closely associated with periimplant bone loss. More studies are needed to discover possible correlations between IL-1 polymorphism and periimplantitis. PMID:20625956

  3. Human lymphocyte polymorphisms detected by quantitative two-dimensional electrophoresis

    SciTech Connect

    Goldman, D.; Merril, C.R.

    1983-09-01

    A survey of 186 soluble lymphocyte proteins for genetic polymorphism was carried out utilizing two-dimensional electrophoresis of /sup 14/C-labeled phytohemagglutinin (PHA)-stimulated human lymphocyte proteins. Nineteen of these proteins exhibited positional variation consistent with independent genetic polymorphism in a primary sample of 28 individuals. Each of these polymorphisms was characterized by quantitative gene-dosage dependence insofar as the heterozygous phenotype expressed approximately 50% of each allelic gene product as was seen in homozygotes. Patterns observed were also identical in monozygotic twins, replicate samples, and replicate gels. The three expected phenotypes (two homozygotes and a heterozygote) were observed in each of 10 of these polymorphisms while the remaining nine had one of the homozygous classes absent. The presence of the three phenotypes, the demonstration of gene-dosage dependence, and our own and previous pedigree analysis of certain of these polymorphisms supports the genetic basis of these variants. Based on this data, the frequency of polymorphic loci for man is: P . 19/186 . .102, and the average heterozygosity is .024. This estimate is approximately 1/3 to 1/2 the rate of polymorphism previously estimated for man in other studies using one-dimensional electrophoresis of isozyme loci. The newly described polymorphisms and others which should be detectable in larger protein surveys with two-dimensional electrophoresis hold promise as genetic markers of the human genome for use in gene mapping and pedigree analyses.

  4. DNA polymorphisms in grain sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench).

    PubMed

    Tao, Y; Manners, J M; Ludlow, M M; Henzell, R G

    1993-07-01

    Molecular markers [random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP)] were used to determine the frequency of DNA polymorphism in grain sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench). Twenty-nine oligonucleotide primers were employed for RAPDs, generating a total of 262 DNA fragments, of which 145 were polymorphic in at least one pairwise comparison between 36 genotypes. Individual primers differed significantly in their ability to detect genetic polymorphism in the species. The overall frequency of polymorphisms was low with a mean frequency of 0.117 polymorphisms per RAPD band being obtained from all pairwise comparisons between genotypes, with maximum and minimum values of 0.212 and 0.039, respectively. Results from phenetic analysis of bandsharing data were consistent with current sub-specific groupings of the species, with clusters of Durra, Zerazera, Caud-Nig, Caud-Kaura and Caffrorum being discernible. The results also indicated that individuals of a similar taxonomic grouping but different geographic origin may be genetically less identical than previously considered. Similar frequencies of polymorphism to that obtained with RAPDs were obtained with RFLPs. Results from these experiments indicated that a high level of genetic uniformity exists within S. bicolor. PMID:24193776

  5. Association between Tryptophan Hydroxylase 2 Gene Polymorphism and Completed Suicide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fudalej, Sylwia; Ilgen, Mark; Fudalej, Marcin; Kostrzewa, Grazyna; Barry, Kristen; Wojnar, Marcin; Krajewski, Pawel; Blow, Frederic; Ploski, Rafal

    2010-01-01

    The association between suicide and a single nucleotide polymorphism (rs1386483) was examined in the recently identified tryptophan hydroxylase 2 (TPH2) gene. Blood samples of 143 suicide victims and 162 age- and sex-matched controls were examined. The frequency of the TT genotype in the TPH2 polymorphism was higher in suicide victims than in…

  6. Effects of human SAMHD1 polymorphisms on HIV-1 susceptibility

    SciTech Connect

    White, Tommy E.; Brandariz-Nuñez, Alberto; Valle-Casuso, Jose Carlos; Knowlton, Caitlin; Kim, Baek; Sawyer, Sara L.; Diaz-Griffero, Felipe

    2014-07-15

    SAMHD1 is a human restriction factor that prevents efficient infection of macrophages, dendritic cells and resting CD4+ T cells by HIV-1. Here we explored the antiviral activity and biochemical properties of human SAMHD1 polymorphisms. Our studies focused on human SAMHD1 polymorphisms that were previously identified as evolving under positive selection for rapid amino acid replacement during primate speciation. The different human SAMHD1 polymorphisms were tested for their ability to block HIV-1, HIV-2 and equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV). All studied SAMHD1 variants block HIV-1, HIV-2 and EIAV infection when compared to wild type. We found that these variants did not lose their ability to oligomerize or to bind RNA. Furthermore, all tested variants were susceptible to degradation by Vpx, and localized to the nuclear compartment. We tested the ability of human SAMHD1 polymorphisms to decrease the dNTP cellular levels. In agreement, none of the different SAMHD1 variants lost their ability to reduce cellular levels of dNTPs. Finally, we found that none of the tested human SAMHD1 polymorphisms affected the ability of the protein to block LINE-1 retrotransposition. - Highlights: • Human SAMHD1 single-nucleotide polymorphisms block HIV-1 and HIV-2 infection. • SAMHD1 polymorphisms do not affect its ability to block LINE-1 retrotransposition. • SAMHD1 polymorphisms decrease the cellular levels of dNTPs.

  7. Isolation of tetranucleotide repeat polymorphisms flanking the BRCA1 gene

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett-Baker, P.E.; Kiousis, S.; King, S.E.

    1996-02-15

    This article reports on the isolation of tetranucleotide repeat polymorphisms which flank the BRCA1 gene on human chromosome 17. BRCA1 has been linked to both hereditary breast and ovarian cancer. Fifteen new short tandem repeat polymorphisms (STRPs) flanking the BRCA1 locus are reported. 18 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Effects of functional polymorphisms on beef carcass merit

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To develop a resource to identify polymorphisms present in common beef cattle breeds, and relate those polymorphisms to phenotypic differences, low-coverage genomic sequence was obtained on 186 purebred bulls from 15 predominant breeds in the United States, and 84 crossbred sons of these bulls. The...

  9. From Single Nucleotide Polymorphism to Transcriptional Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Martini, Sebastian; Nair, Viji; Patel, Sanjeevkumar R.; Eichinger, Felix; Nelson, Robert G.; Weil, E. Jennifer; Pezzolesi, Marcus G.; Krolewski, Andrzej S.; Randolph, Ann; Keller, Benjamin J.; Werner, Thomas; Kretzler, Matthias

    2013-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies have proven to be highly effective at defining relationships between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and clinical phenotypes in complex diseases. Establishing a mechanistic link between a noncoding SNP and the clinical outcome is a significant hurdle in translating associations into biological insight. We demonstrate an approach to assess the functional context of a diabetic nephropathy (DN)-associated SNP located in the promoter region of the gene FRMD3. The approach integrates pathway analyses with transcriptional regulatory pattern-based promoter modeling and allows the identification of a transcriptional framework affected by the DN-associated SNP in the FRMD3 promoter. This framework provides a testable hypothesis for mechanisms of genomic variation and transcriptional regulation in the context of DN. Our model proposes a possible transcriptional link through which the polymorphism in the FRMD3 promoter could influence transcriptional regulation within the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-signaling pathway. These findings provide the rationale to interrogate the biological link between FRMD3 and the BMP pathway and serve as an example of functional genomics-based hypothesis generation. PMID:23434934

  10. Milk protein polymorphism in Kangayam cattle.

    PubMed

    Jeichitra, V; Kandasamy, N; Panneerselvam, S

    2003-04-01

    This paper reports the milk protein polymorphism, the allele frequencies of variants and the possible linkages among various combinations of milk protein phenotypes in the Kangayam cattle of south India. Milk samples from 156 Kangayam cows were typed by starch gel and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis for caseins and whey proteins, respectively. All the four milk protein components studied, alpha(s)1-casein. beta-casein, beta-lactoglobulin and alpha-lactalbumin, exhibited polymorphism with high allele frequencies of 0.9231 +/- 0.0151 for alpha(s)1-casein C, 0.9263 +/- 0.0148 for beta-casein A, 0.9135 +/- 0.0159 for beta-lactoglobulin B and a relatively high frequency of 0.6218 +/- 0.0275 for alpha-lactalbumin A. The mean heterozygosity estimated over all the four milk protein loci was 0.2420. Genetic equilibrium was observed among all the loci studied, except alpha-lactalbumin. Linkage analysis confirmed the non-independence between alpha(s)1- and beta-caseins and between caseins and alpha-lactalbumin phenotypes.

  11. Polymorphic collaboration in the global grid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McQuay, William K.

    2006-05-01

    Next generation collaborative systems must be able to represent the same information in different forms on a broad spectrum of devices and resources from low end personal digital assistants (PDA) to high performance computers (HPC). Users might be on a desktop then switch to a laptop and then to a PDA while accessing the global grid. The user preference profile for a collaboration session should be capable of moving with them as well as be automatically adjusted for the device type. Collaborative systems must be capable of representing the same information in many forms for different domains and on many devices and thus be polymorphic. Polymorphic collaboration will provide an ability for multiple heterogeneous resources (human to human, human to machine and machine to machine) to share information and activities, as well as the ability to regulate collaborative sessions based on client characteristics and needs; reuse user profiles, tool category choices, and settings in future collaboration session by same or different users; use intelligent agents to assist collaborative systems in learning user/resource preferences and behaviors, and autonomously derive optimal information to provide to users and decision makers. This paper discusses ongoing research in next generation collaborative environments with the goal of making electronic collaboration as easy to use as the telephone - collaboration at the touch of the screen.

  12. Genetic epidemiology of single-nucleotide polymorphisms.

    PubMed

    Collins, A; Lonjou, C; Morton, N E

    1999-12-21

    On the causal hypothesis, most genetic determinants of disease are single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that are likely to be selected as markers for positional cloning. On the proximity hypothesis, most disease determinants will not be included among markers but may be detected through linkage disequilibrium with other SNPs. In that event, allelic association among SNPs is an essential factor in positional cloning. Recent simulation based on monotonic population expansion suggests that useful association does not usually extend beyond 3 kb. This is contradicted by significant disequilibrium at much greater distances, with corresponding reduction in the number of SNPs required for a cost-effective genome scan. A plausible explanation is that cyclical expansions follow population bottlenecks that establish new disequilibria. Data on more than 1,000 locus pairs indicate that most disequilibria trace to the Neolithic, with no apparent difference between haplotypes that are random or selected through a major disease gene. Short duration may be characteristic of alleles contributing to disease susceptibility and haplotypes characteristic of particular ethnic groups. Alleles that are highly polymorphic in all ethnic groups may be older, neutral, or advantageous, in weak disequilibrium with nearby markers, and therefore less useful for positional cloning of disease genes. Significant disequilibrium at large distance makes the number of suitably chosen SNPs required for genome screening as small as 30,000, or 1 per 100 kb, with greater density (including less common SNPs) reserved for candidate regions.

  13. Bitter Taste Receptor Polymorphisms and Human Aging

    PubMed Central

    Carrai, Maura; Crocco, Paolina; Montesanto, Alberto; Canzian, Federico; Rose, Giuseppina; Rizzato, Cosmeri

    2012-01-01

    Several studies have shown that genetic factors account for 25% of the variation in human life span. On the basis of published molecular, genetic and epidemiological data, we hypothesized that genetic polymorphisms of taste receptors, which modulate food preferences but are also expressed in a number of organs and regulate food absorption processing and metabolism, could modulate the aging process. Using a tagging approach, we investigated the possible associations between longevity and the common genetic variation at the three bitter taste receptor gene clusters on chromosomes 5, 7 and 12 in a population of 941 individuals ranging in age from 20 to 106 years from the South of Italy. We found that one polymorphism, rs978739, situated 212 bp upstream of the TAS2R16 gene, shows a statistically significant association (p = 0.001) with longevity. In particular, the frequency of A/A homozygotes increases gradually from 35% in subjects aged 20 to 70 up to 55% in centenarians. These data provide suggestive evidence on the possible correlation between human longevity and taste genetics. PMID:23133589

  14. Plumage polymorphism and fitness in Swainson's hawks.

    PubMed

    Briggs, C W; Collopy, M W; Woodbridge, B

    2011-10-01

    We examine the maintenance of a plumage polymorphism, variation in plumages among the same age and sex class within a population, in a population of Swainson's Hawks. We take advantage of 32 years of data to examine two prevalent hypotheses used to explain the persistence of morphs: apostatic selection and heterozygous advantage. We investigate differences in fitness among three morph classes of a melanistic trait in Swainson's Hawks: light (7% of the local breeding population), intermediate (57%) and dark (36%). Specifically, we examined morph differences in adult apparent survival, breeding success, annual number of fledglings produced, probability of offspring recruitment into the breeding population and lifetime reproductive success (LRS). If apostatic selection were a factor in maintaining morphs, we would expect that individuals with the least frequent morph would perform best in one or more of these fitness categories. Alternatively, if heterozygous advantage played a role in the maintenance of this polymorphism, we would expect heterozygotes (i.e. intermediate morphs) to have one or more increased rates in these categories. We found no difference in adult apparent survival between morph classes. Similarly, there were no differences in breeding success, nest productivity, LRS or probability of recruitment of offspring between parental morph. We conclude that neither apostatic selection nor heterozygous advantage appear to play a role in maintaining morphs in this population.

  15. Dynamically Alterable Arrays of Polymorphic Data Types

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, Mark

    2006-01-01

    An application library package was developed that represents data packets for Deep Space Network (DSN) message packets as dynamically alterable arrays composed of arbitrary polymorphic data types. The software was to address a limitation of the present state of the practice for having an array directly composed of a single monomorphic data type. This is a severe limitation when one is dealing with science data in that the types of objects one is dealing with are typically not known in advance and, therefore, are dynamic in nature. The unique feature of this approach is that it enables one to define at run-time the dynamic shape of the matrix with the ability to store polymorphic data types in each of its indices. Existing languages such as C and C++ have the restriction that the shape of the array must be known in advance and each of its elements be a monomorphic data type that is strictly defined at compile-time. This program can be executed on a variety of platforms. It can be distributed in either source code or binary code form. It must be run in conjunction with any one of a number of Lisp compilers that are available commercially or as shareware.

  16. Polymorphism of the IGF-I System and Sports Performance.

    PubMed

    Ben-Zaken, Sigal; Meckel, Yoav; Nemet, Dan; Dror, Nitzan; Eliakim, Alon

    2016-06-01

    The potential use genetic polymorphism, and in particularly polymorphism of hormone genes, as tool to predict athletic performance is currently very challenging. Recent studies suggest that single nucleotide polymorphisms in IGF-I and myostatin may be beneficial for endurance and short distance running, and may even be associated with elite performance. Polymorphism in IGF-I receptor may differentiate between the two edges of the endurance-power athletic performance running spectrum suggesting beneficial effects for endurance and prevent from success in power events. In contrast, and despite similar metabolic demands, the myostatin-IGF-I-IGF-IR system seems not to play an important role in swimming excellence. This suggests that combining different sport disciplines for sports genetic research purposes should be done with extreme caution. Finally, since any phenotype reflects a complex relationship between genes, environment, epigenetic factors, and the interactions between them, consulting the young athlete regarding future success cannot be based solely on genetic polymorphism.

  17. Polymorphism of the IGF-I System and Sports Performance.

    PubMed

    Ben-Zaken, Sigal; Meckel, Yoav; Nemet, Dan; Dror, Nitzan; Eliakim, Alon

    2016-06-01

    The potential use genetic polymorphism, and in particularly polymorphism of hormone genes, as tool to predict athletic performance is currently very challenging. Recent studies suggest that single nucleotide polymorphisms in IGF-I and myostatin may be beneficial for endurance and short distance running, and may even be associated with elite performance. Polymorphism in IGF-I receptor may differentiate between the two edges of the endurance-power athletic performance running spectrum suggesting beneficial effects for endurance and prevent from success in power events. In contrast, and despite similar metabolic demands, the myostatin-IGF-I-IGF-IR system seems not to play an important role in swimming excellence. This suggests that combining different sport disciplines for sports genetic research purposes should be done with extreme caution. Finally, since any phenotype reflects a complex relationship between genes, environment, epigenetic factors, and the interactions between them, consulting the young athlete regarding future success cannot be based solely on genetic polymorphism. PMID:27464417

  18. A gene feature enumeration approach for describing HLA allele polymorphism.

    PubMed

    Mack, Steven J

    2015-12-01

    HLA genotyping via next generation sequencing (NGS) poses challenges for the use of HLA allele names to analyze and discuss sequence polymorphism. NGS will identify many new synonymous and non-coding HLA sequence variants. Allele names identify the types of nucleotide polymorphism that define an allele (non-synonymous, synonymous and non-coding changes), but do not describe how polymorphism is distributed among the individual features (the flanking untranslated regions, exons and introns) of a gene. Further, HLA alleles cannot be named in the absence of antigen-recognition domain (ARD) encoding exons. Here, a system for describing HLA polymorphism in terms of HLA gene features (GFs) is proposed. This system enumerates the unique nucleotide sequences for each GF in an HLA gene, and records these in a GF enumeration notation that allows both more granular dissection of allele-level HLA polymorphism and the discussion and analysis of GFs in the absence of ARD-encoding exon sequences.

  19. A panel of polymorphic bovine, ovine and caprine microsatellite markers.

    PubMed

    Kemp, S J; Hishida, O; Wambugu, J; Rink, A; Longeri, M L; Ma, R Z; Da, Y; Lewin, H A; Barendse, W; Teale, A J

    1995-10-01

    A panel of 81 new polymorphic bovine microsatellite markers is described, together with further information on a previously reported group of 16 markers. The mean polymorphism information content of the 97 markers determined in 20 cattle was 0.66. Seventy-three of these markers have been assigned to chromosomes by either linkage analysis or use of hybrid cell panels. Thirty-nine of the markers were polymorphic in sheep, and 32 were polymorphic in goat. This study identified a set of 18 robust markers that were polymorphic in all three species and that covered 14 bovine chromosomes. This provides a single group of markers, which would be suited to genetic distance analysis and parentage control in cattle, sheep and goat. PMID:7486246

  20. [Polymorphic light dermatitis. Photobiology and photoprotection].

    PubMed

    Corrales Padilla, H

    1976-01-01

    It is possible in the majority of patients with polymorphic light eruption to produce lesions experimentally. Only the reproduction of the clinical reaction is significant for the diagnosis. Irradiation is carried out in the same test area two or three times with a dose of up to eight times the minimal erythema dose. Sunlight is the best agent for the evaluation of this protocutaneous disorder. A localised area of the skin can be exposed to midday sunshine about half an hour on three consecutive days. But sunlight has the disadvantage of having a variable ultraviolet emission at different times. It is necessary to differentiate lupus erythematosus and photocontact dermatitis, which may produce identical reactions. Other light sources are the hot quartz lamp, fluorescent tube "sun lamp", solar simulator and the monochromater. Patients with polymorphic light eruption are sensitive to light in the range 300 to 320 nm. but some of them are sensitive to savelengths shorter or longer than this range. The methods of protection against solar radiation which have been tried include: 1) Avoidance of sunlight; 2) Promotion of melanin hyperpgimentation and thickening of the stratum corneum-by controlled exposure to sunlight; 3) Application of a film of a chemical compound that will act as a physical screen and absorb, scatter or reflect damaging radiation; 4) Chemical modification of the stratum corneum by topically applied substances which can conjugate chemically or be absorbed onto the stratum corneum and filter the damaging rays. Many authors at present consider the use of alcoholic solutions of para-aminobenzoic acid (PABA) to be the most effective method of preventing reactions from exposure to sunlight. Pathak and Fitzpatrick showed that 5 % PABA in 70 % ethanol and 2,5 % Escalol 506 in 65 % ethanol is the most effective sunscreen against radiation of the sunburn spectrum. A dihydroxyacetone (DHA) and naphthaquinone (lawsone) sunscreen provides photoprotection for all

  1. Polymorphic Alu insertions among Mayan populations.

    PubMed

    Herrera, R J; Rojas, D P; Terreros, M C

    2007-01-01

    The Mayan homeland within Mesoamerica spans five countries: Belize, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras and Mexico. There are indications that the people we call the Maya migrated from the north to the highlands of Guatemala as early as 4000 B.C. Their existence was village-based and agricultural. The culture of these Preclassic Mayans owes much to the earlier Olmec civilization, which flourished in the southern portion of North America. In this study, four different Mayan groups were examined to assess their genetic variability. Ten polymorphic Alu insertion (PAI) loci were employed to ascertain the genetic affinities among these Mayan groups. North American, African, European and Asian populations were also examined as reference populations. Our results suggest that the Mayan groups examined in this study are not genetically homogeneous. PMID:17151812

  2. Gene Polymorphisms and Pharmacogenetics in Rheumatoid Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Rego-Pérez, Ignacio; Fernández-Moreno, Mercedes; Blanco, Francisco J

    2008-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a systemic, chronic and inflammatory disease of unknown etiology with genetic predisposition. The advent of new biological agents, as well as the more traditional disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs, has resulted in highly efficient therapies for reducing the symptoms and signs of RA; however, not all patients show the same level of response in disease progression to these therapies. These variations suggest that RA patients may have different genetic regulatory mechanisms. The extensive polymorphisms revealed in non-coding gene-regulatory regions in the immune system, as well as genetic variations in drug-metabolizing enzymes, suggest that this type of variation is of functional and evolutionary importance and may provide clues for developing new therapeutic strategies. Pharmacogenetics is a rapidly advancing area of research that holds the promise that therapies will soon be tailored to an individual patient’s genetic profile. PMID:19506728

  3. Tubulin Bistability and Polymorphic Dynamics of Microtubules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohrbach, Hervé; Johner, Albert; Kulić, Igor M.

    2010-12-01

    Based on the hypothesis that the GDP-tubulin dimer is a conformationally bistable molecule—rapidly fluctuating between a discrete curved and a straight state—we develop a model for polymorphic dynamics of the microtubule lattice. We show that GDP-tubulin bistability consistently explains unusual dynamic fluctuations, the apparent length-stiffness relation of grafted taxol-stabilized microtubules, and the curved-helical appearance of microtubules in general. When clamped by one end the microtubules undergo an unusual zero energy motion—in its effect reminiscent of a limited rotational hinge. We conclude that microtubules exist in highly cooperative energy-degenerate helical states and discuss possible implications in vivo.

  4. Amyloid Polymorphism: Structural Basis and Neurobiological Relevance

    PubMed Central

    Tycko, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Summary Our understanding of the molecular structures of amyloid fibrils that are associated with neurodegenerative diseases, of mechanisms by which disease-associated peptides and proteins aggregate into fibrils, and of structural properties of aggregation intermediates has advanced considerably in recent years. Detailed molecular structural models for certain fibrils and aggregation intermediates are now available. It is now well established that amyloid fibrils are generally polymorphic at the molecular level, with a given peptide or protein being capable of forming a variety of distinct, self-propagating fibril structures. Recent results from structural studies and from studies involving cell cultures, transgenic animals, and human tissue provide initial evidence that molecular structural variations in amyloid fibrils and related aggregates may correlate with or even produce variations in disease development. This article reviews our current knowledge of the structural and mechanistic aspects of amyloid formation, as well as current evidence for the biological relevance of structural variations. PMID:25950632

  5. Androgen receptor gene mutation, rearrangement, polymorphism.

    PubMed

    Eisermann, Kurtis; Wang, Dan; Jing, Yifeng; Pascal, Laura E; Wang, Zhou

    2013-09-01

    Genetic aberrations of the androgen receptor (AR) caused by mutations, rearrangements, and polymorphisms result in a mutant receptor that has varied functions compared to wild type AR. To date, over 1,000 mutations have been reported in the AR with most of these being associated with androgen insensitivity syndrome (AIS). While mutations of AR associated with prostate cancer occur less often in early stage localized disease, mutations in castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) patients treated with anti-androgens occur more frequently with 10-30% of these patients having some form of mutation in the AR. Resistance to anti-androgen therapy usually results from gain-of-function mutations in the LBD such as is seen with bicalutamide and more recently with enzalutamide (MDV3100). Thus, it is crucial to investigate these new AR mutations arising from drug resistance to anti-androgens and other small molecule pharmacological agents.

  6. Diosgenone: a second P21 polymorph

    PubMed Central

    Hernández Linares, María-Guadalupe; Guerrero-Luna, Gabriel; Bernès, Sylvain; Flores-Alamo, Marcos; Fernández-Herrera, María A.

    2012-01-01

    Diosgenone [(20S,22R,25R)-spirost-4-en-3-one, C27H40O3] has been proposed as a new therapeutic alternative for the treatment of malaria. The first X-ray structure report for diosgenone was by Piro et al. [(2002). Z. Naturforsch. Teil C, 57, 947–950] in the space group P21 (Z′ = 2). We now report a new polymorph in the same space group, with two mol­ecules in the asymmetric unit. Both mol­ecules have similar conformations, characterized by a skewed envelope A ring, which contains the C=C bond conjugated with the ketone functionality at C3. The dimorphism results from a modification of the relative orientation of the mol­ecules in the asymmetric unit: two independent mol­ecules were arranged anti­parallel in the Piro report, while they are parallel in the present determination. PMID:22904824

  7. Multimodal Spectroscopic Study of Amyloid Fibril Polymorphism.

    PubMed

    VandenAkker, Corianne C; Schleeger, Michael; Bruinen, Anne L; Deckert-Gaudig, Tanja; Velikov, Krassimir P; Heeren, Ron M A; Deckert, Volker; Bonn, Mischa; Koenderink, Gijsje H

    2016-09-01

    Amyloid fibrils are a large class of self-assembled protein aggregates that are formed from unstructured peptides and unfolded proteins. The fibrils are characterized by a universal β-sheet core stabilized by hydrogen bonds, but the molecular structure of the peptide subunits exposed on the fibril surface is variable. Here we show that multimodal spectroscopy using a range of bulk- and surface-sensitive techniques provides a powerful way to dissect variations in the molecular structure of polymorphic amyloid fibrils. As a model system, we use fibrils formed by the milk protein β-lactoglobulin, whose morphology can be tuned by varying the protein concentration during formation. We investigate the differences in the molecular structure and composition between long, straight fibrils versus short, wormlike fibrils. We show using mass spectrometry that the peptide composition of the two fibril types is similar. The overall molecular structure of the fibrils probed with various bulk-sensitive spectroscopic techniques shows a dominant contribution of the β-sheet core but no difference in structure between straight and wormlike fibrils. However, when probing specifically the surface of the fibrils with nanometer resolution using tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (TERS), we find that both fibril types exhibit a heterogeneous surface structure with mainly unordered or α-helical structures and that the surface of long, straight fibrils contains markedly more β-sheet structure than the surface of short, wormlike fibrils. This finding is consistent with previous surface-specific vibrational sum-frequency generation (VSFG) spectroscopic results ( VandenAkker et al. J. Am. Chem. Soc. , 2011 , 133 , 18030 - 18033 , DOI: 10.1021/ja206513r ). In conclusion, only advanced vibrational spectroscopic techniques sensitive to surface structure such as TERS and VSFG are able to reveal the difference in structure that underlies the distinct morphology and rigidity of different amyloid

  8. Ecological separation in a polymorphic terrestrial salamander.

    PubMed

    Anthony, Carl D; Venesky, Matthew D; Hickerson, Cari-Ann M

    2008-07-01

    1. When studying speciation, researchers commonly examine reproductive isolation in recently diverged populations. Polymorphic species provide an opportunity to examine the role of reproductive isolation in populations that may be in the process of divergence. 2. We examined a polymorphic population of Plethodon cinereus (red-backed salamanders) for evidence of sympatric ecological separation by colour morphology. Recent studies have correlated temperature and climate with colour morphology in this species, but no studies have looked at differences in diet or mate choice between colour morphs. We used artificial cover objects to assess salamander diet, mating preference and surface activity over a 2-year period at a field site in north-eastern Ohio. 3. We detected differences in diet between two colour morphs, striped and unstriped. The diets of striped individuals were significantly more diverse and were made up of more profitable prey than the diets of unstriped salamanders. 4. Opposite sex pairs were made up of individuals of the same colour morph and striped males were found more often with larger females than were unstriped males. 5. We corroborate findings of earlier studies suggesting that the unstriped form is adapted to warmer conditions. Unstriped individuals were the first to withdraw from the forest floor as temperatures fell in the late fall. We found no evidence that the colour morphs responded differently to abiotic factors such as soil moisture and relative humidity, and responses to surface temperatures were also equivocal. 6. We conclude that the two colour morphs exhibit some degree of ecological separation and tend to mate assortatively, but are unlikely to be undergoing divergence given the observed frequency of intermorph pairings.

  9. Consequences of POR mutations and polymorphisms

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Walter L.; Agrawal, Vishal; Sandee, Duanpen; Tee, Meng Kian; Huang, Ningwu; Choi, Ji Ha; Morrissey, Kari; Giacomini, Kathleen M.

    2015-01-01

    P450 oxidoreductase (POR) transports electrons from NADPH to all microsomal cytochrome P450 enzymes, including steroidogenic P450c17, P450c21 and P450aro. Severe POR mutations A287P (in Europeans) and R457H (in Japanese) cause the Antley-Bixler skeletal malformation syndrome (ABS) plus impaired steroidogenesis (causing genital anomalies), but the basis of ABS is unclear. We have characterized the activities of ~40 POR variants, showing that assays based on P450c17 activities, but not cytochrome c assays, correlate with the clinical phenotype. The human POR gene is highly polymorphic: the A503V sequence variant, which decreases P450c17 activities to ~60%, is found on ~28% of human alleles. A promoter polymorphism (~8% of Asians and ~13% of Caucasians) at −152 reduces transcriptional activity by half. Screening of 35 POR variants showed that most mutants lacking activity with P450c17 or cytochrome c also lacked activity to support CYP1A2 and CYP2C19 metabolism of EOMCC (a fluorogenic non-drug substrate), although there were some remarkable differences: Q153R causes ABS and has ~30% of wild-type activity with P450c17 but had 144% of WT activity with CYP1A2 and 284% with CYP2C19. The effects of POR variants on CYP3A4, which metabolizes nearly 50% of clinically used drugs, was examined with multiple, clinically-relevant drug substrates, showing that A287P and R457H dramatically reduce drug metabolism, and that A503V variably impairs drug metabolism. The degree of activity can vary with the drug substrate assayed, as the drugs can influence the conformation of the P450. POR is probably an important contributor to genetic variation in both steroidogenesis and drug metabolism. PMID:21070833

  10. Sexual selection and genetic colour polymorphisms in animals.

    PubMed

    Wellenreuther, Maren; Svensson, Erik I; Hansson, Bengt

    2014-11-01

    Genetic colour polymorphisms are widespread across animals and often subjected to complex selection regimes. Traditionally, colour morphs were used as simple visual markers to measure allele frequency changes in nature, selection, population divergence and speciation. With advances in sequencing technology and analysis methods, several model systems are emerging where the molecular targets of selection are being described. Here, we discuss recent studies on the genetics of sexually selected colour polymorphisms, aiming at (i) reviewing the evidence of sexual selection on colour polymorphisms, (ii) highlighting the genetic architecture, molecular and developmental basis underlying phenotypic colour diversification and (iii) discuss how the maintenance of such polymorphisms might be facilitated or constrained by these. Studies of the genetic architecture of colour polymorphism point towards the importance of tight clustering of colour loci with other trait loci, such as in the case of inversions and supergene structures. Other interesting findings include linkage between colour loci and mate preferences or sex determination, and the role of introgression and regulatory variation in fuelling polymorphisms. We highlight that more studies are needed that explicitly integrate fitness consequences of sexual selection on colour with the underlying molecular targets of colour to gain insights into the evolutionary consequences of sexual selection on polymorphism maintenance.

  11. Identification of polymorphism in ethylone hydrochloride: synthesis and characterization

    PubMed Central

    Alarcon, Idralyn Q.; Copeland, Catherine R.; Cameron, T. Stanley; Linden, Anthony; Grossert, J. Stuart

    2015-01-01

    Ethylone, a synthetic cathinone with psychoactive properties, is a designer drug which has appeared on the recreational drug market in recent years. Since 2012, illicit shipments of ethylone hydrochloride have been intercepted with increasing frequency at the Canadian border. Analysis has revealed that ethylone hydrochloride exists as two distinct polymorphs. In addition, several minor impurities were detected in some seized exhibits. In this study, the two conformational polymorphs of ethylone hydrochloride have been synthesized and fully characterized by FTIR, FT‐Raman, powder XRD, GC‐MS, ESI‐MS/MS and NMR (13C CPMAS, 1H, 13C). The two polymorphs can be distinguished by vibrational spectroscopy, solid‐state nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and X‐ray diffraction. The FTIR data are applied to the identification of both polymorphs of ethylone hydrochloride (mixed with methylone hydrochloride) in a laboratory submission labelled as 'Ocean Snow Ultra’. The data presented in this study will assist forensic scientists in the differentiation of the two ethylone hydrochloride polymorphs. This report, alongside our recent article on the single crystal X‐ray structure of a second polymorph of this synthetic cathinone, is the first to confirm polymorphism in ethylone hydrochloride. © 2015 Canada Border Services Agency. Drug Testing and Analysis published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. © 2015 Canada Border Services Agency. Drug Testing and Analysis published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26344849

  12. Does colour polymorphism enhance survival of prey populations?

    PubMed

    Wennersten, Lena; Forsman, Anders

    2009-06-22

    That colour polymorphism may protect prey populations from predation is an old but rarely tested hypothesis. We examine whether colour polymorphic populations of prey exposed to avian predators in an ecologically valid visual context were exposed to increased extinction risk compared with monomorphic populations. We made 2976 artificial pastry prey, resembling Lepidoptera larvae, in four different colours and presented them in 124 monomorphic and 124 tetramorphic populations on tree trunks and branches such that they would be exposed to predation by free-living birds, and monitored their 'survival'. Among monomorphic populations, there was a significant effect of prey coloration on survival, confirming that coloration influenced susceptibility to visually oriented predators. Survival of polymorphic populations was inferior to that of monomorphic green populations, but did not differ significantly from monomorphic brown, yellow or red populations. Differences in survival within polymorphic populations paralleled those seen among monomorphic populations; the red morph most frequently went extinct first and the green morph most frequently survived the longest. Our findings do not support the traditional protective polymorphism hypothesis and are in conflict with those of earlier studies. As a possible explanation to our findings, we offer a competing 'giveaway cue' hypothesis: that polymorphic populations may include one morph that attracts the attention of predators and that polymorphic populations therefore may suffer increased predation compared with some monomorphic populations. PMID:19324729

  13. Does colour polymorphism enhance survival of prey populations?

    PubMed

    Wennersten, Lena; Forsman, Anders

    2009-06-22

    That colour polymorphism may protect prey populations from predation is an old but rarely tested hypothesis. We examine whether colour polymorphic populations of prey exposed to avian predators in an ecologically valid visual context were exposed to increased extinction risk compared with monomorphic populations. We made 2976 artificial pastry prey, resembling Lepidoptera larvae, in four different colours and presented them in 124 monomorphic and 124 tetramorphic populations on tree trunks and branches such that they would be exposed to predation by free-living birds, and monitored their 'survival'. Among monomorphic populations, there was a significant effect of prey coloration on survival, confirming that coloration influenced susceptibility to visually oriented predators. Survival of polymorphic populations was inferior to that of monomorphic green populations, but did not differ significantly from monomorphic brown, yellow or red populations. Differences in survival within polymorphic populations paralleled those seen among monomorphic populations; the red morph most frequently went extinct first and the green morph most frequently survived the longest. Our findings do not support the traditional protective polymorphism hypothesis and are in conflict with those of earlier studies. As a possible explanation to our findings, we offer a competing 'giveaway cue' hypothesis: that polymorphic populations may include one morph that attracts the attention of predators and that polymorphic populations therefore may suffer increased predation compared with some monomorphic populations.

  14. Alpha-2 domain polymorphism and HLA class I peptide loading.

    PubMed

    Prilliman, K R; Crawford, D; Hickman, H D; Jackson, K W; Wang, J; Hildebrand, W H

    1999-11-01

    Diversity within the class I HLA antigen binding groove is positioned to moderate the presentation of peptide ligands. Polymorphism is widely dispersed about the peptide binding groove, and unravelling the functional significance of a given polymorphism requires comparative analysis of peptides presented by class I subtypes differing at the position(s) in question. Previous studies have demonstrated that not all class I polymorphisms act equally, and to determine the impact of substitutions specifically located in the alpha2 domain, peptides purified from B*1501, B*1512, B*1510, and B*1518 were examined by pooled Edman sequencing and comparative mass spectrometric analysis. Molecule B*1512 differs from B*1501 at residues 166 (Glu to Asp) and 167 (Trp to Gly) of the alpha2 domain. The pooled motif and ion mass ligand maps for B*1512 tightly matched those of B*1501, demonstrating that the 166/167 polymorphism between B*1501 and B*1512 has little impact upon ligand presentation. Although the 166/167 polymorphism minimally affects peptide binding preferences, this polymorphism makes B*1512 and B*1501 quite distinct by serology. We then compared the B70 molecules B*1510 and B*1518. The two are almost indistinguishable by serology and differ only by an alpha2 polymorphism at 116. Comparative peptide mapping shows that a Tyr to Ser polymorphism at 116 drastically changes the ligands bound by B*1510 and B*1518; no overlaps could be found. Polymorphisms in alpha2 therefore vary from subtle to extreme in the manner by which they moderate ligand presentation, and serologic crossreactivity did not reflect the ligands presented by these B15 subtypes.

  15. The role of interleukin DNA polymorphisms in gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Yuzhalin, Arseniy

    2011-11-01

    Gastric carcinoma is one of the most widespread malignancies worldwide. Interleukins are the key group of cytokines which may have tumor-promoting or tumor-suppressing effect, and receptors for them, of course, have the same importance in this context. However, mechanisms of their impact on tumor are not fully understood up to date. Numerous studies provide conflicting data, that makes picture more confusing and complicated. It is known that single nucleotide polymorphisms in interleukin genes may dramatically affect on protein expression level, or alter its functions, which may lead to gastritis or ulcer, and eventually promote cancer occurrence. Furthermore, some of these genetic polymorphisms may serve as predictive factors for cancer prognosis and prevention. In order to understand the impact of each genetic polymorphism, the review of IL-1B, IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL17A, IL-17F DNA polymorphisms on gastric carcinoma was done, and risk alleles were recommended for further research.

  16. [Study of Chloroplast DNA Polymorphism in the Sunflower (Helianthus L.)].

    PubMed

    Markina, N V; Usatov, A V; Logacheva, M D; Azarin, K V; Gorbachenko, C F; Kornienko, I V; Gavrilova, V A; Tihobaeva, V E

    2015-08-01

    The polymorphism of microsatellite loci of chloroplast genome in six Helianthus species and 46 lines of cultivated sunflower H. annuus (17 CMS lines and 29 Rf-lines) were studied. The differences between species are confined to four SSR loci. Within cultivated forms of the sunflower H. annuus, the polymorphism is absent. A comparative analysis was performed on sequences of the cpDNA inbred line 3629, line 398941 of the wild sunflower, and the American line HA383 H. annuus. As a result, 52 polymorphic loci represented by 27 SSR and 25 SNP were found; they can be used for genotyping of H. annuus samples, including cultural varieties: twelve polymorphic positions, of which eight are SSR and four are SNP. PMID:26601486

  17. Chromosome Polymorphism in Microtus (Alexandromys) mujanensis (Arvicolinae, Rodentia).

    PubMed

    Lemskaya, Natalya A; Kartavtseva, Irina V; Rubtsova, Nadezhda V; Golenishchev, Fedor N; Sheremetyeva, Irina N; Graphodatsky, Alexander S

    2015-01-01

    The Muya Valley vole (Microtus mujanensis) has a constant diploid chromosome number of 2n = 38, but an unstable karyotype with polymorphic chromosome pairs. Here, we describe 4 karyotypic variants involving 2 polymorphic chromosome pairs, MMUJ8 and MMUJ14, in 6 animals from Buryatia using a combination of GTG-banding and chromosome painting with M. agrestis probes. We suggest that the polymorphic pairs MMUJ8 and MMUJ14 were formed through pericentric inversions that played a major role during karyotype evolution of the species. We also propose that the stable diploid number with some ongoing polymorphism in the number of chromosome arms indicates that this evolutionarily young endemic species of Russian Far East is on the way to karyotype and likely species stabilization.

  18. [Study of Chloroplast DNA Polymorphism in the Sunflower (Helianthus L.)].

    PubMed

    Markina, N V; Usatov, A V; Logacheva, M D; Azarin, K V; Gorbachenko, C F; Kornienko, I V; Gavrilova, V A; Tihobaeva, V E

    2015-08-01

    The polymorphism of microsatellite loci of chloroplast genome in six Helianthus species and 46 lines of cultivated sunflower H. annuus (17 CMS lines and 29 Rf-lines) were studied. The differences between species are confined to four SSR loci. Within cultivated forms of the sunflower H. annuus, the polymorphism is absent. A comparative analysis was performed on sequences of the cpDNA inbred line 3629, line 398941 of the wild sunflower, and the American line HA383 H. annuus. As a result, 52 polymorphic loci represented by 27 SSR and 25 SNP were found; they can be used for genotyping of H. annuus samples, including cultural varieties: twelve polymorphic positions, of which eight are SSR and four are SNP.

  19. Unsolvated ruthenium(II) benzene dichloride: The beta polymorph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galli, Simona; Giacobbe, Carlotta; Tabacaru, Aurel; Xhaferaj, Nertil; Pettinari, Claudio

    2014-06-01

    A novel polymorph of the unsolvated species [Ru2(benzene)2Cl4] (β form in the following) was serendipitously isolated as a polycrystalline powder. Its molecular and crystal structure was unraveled by means of state-of-the-art X-ray powder diffraction structure determination methods applied to laboratory data, and was compared to those of both the α polymorph and the CHCl3 solvate, throwing light on some discrepant results recently appeared in the literature. The thermal behavior of the α and β polymorphs was investigated by coupling thermogravimetric analyses to variable-temperature X-ray powder diffraction experiments. No temperature-stimulated phase transformation could be detected between the two polymorphs, each preserving its structural features up to decomposition, suggesting that kinetic, more than thermodynamic, factors regulate their isolation.

  20. [Functional polymorphisms in clock genes and circadian rhythm sleep disorders].

    PubMed

    Ebisawa, Takashi

    2007-06-01

    Polymorphisms in clock genes induce circadian rhythm sleep disorders. Mutations in Per2 gene (S662G) or Casein Kinasel delta (CK16) gene (T44A) cause Familial advanced sleep phase syndrome. Missense polymorphisms in Per3 (V647G) and CK1e (S408N) genes increase or decrease the risk of developing delayed sleep phase syndrome. All of these polymorphisms seem to affect the phosphorylation of the clock proteins. Some of the polymorphisms in CK1, which shows reduced enzyme activity in vitro, induced increased phosphorylation of PER proteins in in vivo assays. Careful attention should be paid to analyze the complex system composed of feedback loops, such as the biological clock. PMID:17633519

  1. Mineralogy of Silica Polymorphs in Basaltic Clasts in Eucrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ono, H.; Takenouchi, A.; Mikouchi, T.

    2016-08-01

    We analyzed silica polymorphs in basaltic clasts in Y-75011, Pasamonte and Stannern eucrites. Cristobalite and quartz have been found, which suggests wide occurrence of hydrothermal activity throughout the crust of Vesta.

  2. Prioritizing sequence polymorphisms for potential association with phenotype

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The millions of SNP, insertions and deletions revealed by next generation sequencing (NGS), are certain to include polymorphisms responsible for phenotypic variation. Distinguishing causal from benign variants may allow genomic predictions that are robust across populations. While variants underly...

  3. On signal sequence polymorphisms and diseases of distribution.

    PubMed Central

    Rosenblum, J S; Gilula, N B; Lerner, R A

    1996-01-01

    We report a previously unappreciated property of the signals that target organelle-specific proteins to their subcellular sites of action. Such targeting sequences are shown to be polymorphic. We discovered this polymorphism when we cloned the mitochondrial manganese-containing superoxide dismutase from cell lines of normal individuals and patients with genetic diseases of premature aging and compared their sequences to each other and to those previously reported. The polymorphism consists of a single nucleotide change in the region of the DNA that encodes the signal sequence such that either an alanine or valine is present. Subsequently, eight cell lines were analyzed and all three possible combinations of the two signal sequences were observed. Such signal sequence polymorphisms could result in diseases of distribution, where essential proteins are not properly targeted, thereby leading to absolute or relative deficiencies of critical enzymes within specific cellular compartments. Progeria and related syndromes may be diseases of distribution. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 PMID:8633092

  4. Chromosome Polymorphism in Microtus (Alexandromys) mujanensis (Arvicolinae, Rodentia).

    PubMed

    Lemskaya, Natalya A; Kartavtseva, Irina V; Rubtsova, Nadezhda V; Golenishchev, Fedor N; Sheremetyeva, Irina N; Graphodatsky, Alexander S

    2015-01-01

    The Muya Valley vole (Microtus mujanensis) has a constant diploid chromosome number of 2n = 38, but an unstable karyotype with polymorphic chromosome pairs. Here, we describe 4 karyotypic variants involving 2 polymorphic chromosome pairs, MMUJ8 and MMUJ14, in 6 animals from Buryatia using a combination of GTG-banding and chromosome painting with M. agrestis probes. We suggest that the polymorphic pairs MMUJ8 and MMUJ14 were formed through pericentric inversions that played a major role during karyotype evolution of the species. We also propose that the stable diploid number with some ongoing polymorphism in the number of chromosome arms indicates that this evolutionarily young endemic species of Russian Far East is on the way to karyotype and likely species stabilization. PMID:26314555

  5. eNOS Genetic Polymorphisms and Cancer Risk

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Xueren; Wang, Jie; Wang, Wenjun; Wang, Mingxi; Zhang, Jianqiong

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The association between endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) polymorphisms (intron 4a/b, -786T>C and 894G>T) and cancer risk remains elusive. In addition, no studies focused on their associations with the risk of breast cancer in Chinese Han population. Thus, a meta-analysis was conducted to determine the relationship between eNOS polymorphisms and cancer risk, and then a case–control study in Chinese Han population was performed to assess their associations with breast cancer susceptibility. Odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were used to assess the strength of association. The pooled analysis indicated that eNOS intron 4a/b and -786T>C polymorphisms were significantly associated with an increased risk of overall cancer. In subgroup analyses based on cancer type, the significant association was found between eNOS intron 4a/b polymorphism and prostate cancer risk, eNOS -786T>C polymorphism and risk of prostate, bladder and breast cancers, and eNOS 894G>T polymorphism and breast cancer risk. In subgroup analyses based on ethnicity, eNOS intron 4a/b and -786T>C polymorphisms were associated with an increased risk of cancer in Caucasians. In consistent with our meta-analysis results, a case–control study in Chinese Han population showed significant associations of eNOS -786T>C and 894G>T polymorphisms with the increased risk of breast cancer. In addition, stratified analyses based on pathological type showed that eNOS 894G>T polymorphism was only associated with the risk of infiltrative ductal carcinoma. Stratified analyses by tumor stage showed that eNOS -786T>C polymorphism was only associated with the risk of tumor stage III and IV. In conclusion, our meta-analysis and case–control study suggest that eNOS -786T>C and 894G>T polymorphisms are associated with the increased risk of breast cancer. PMID:26131841

  6. Genetic Polymorphisms Influence Cognition in Patients Undergoing Carotid Interventions.

    PubMed

    Hitchner, Elizabeth; Morrison, Doug; Liao, Phoebe; Rosen, Allyson; Zhou, Wei

    2016-09-01

    While carotid interventions help decrease the risk of stroke, nearly 40% of patients experience cognitive deterioration. Genetic polymorphism in apolipoprotein E (ApoE) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) have been implicated in cognitive impairment; however, it is unclear whether they may influence cognitive changes in patients undergoing carotid intervention. In this study, we seek to assess the role of genetic polymorphisms in carotid intervention-related cognitive change. Polymorphisms related to cognitive function were chosen for this preliminary analysis. Over 2 years, patients undergoing carotid interventions were prospectively recruited. Patients underwent neuropsychological testing 2 weeks prior to and at 1 month following their procedure. Saliva samples were collected for genetic analysis. Logistic regressions were used to identify associations between polymorphisms and cognitive measures. A total of 91 patients were included; all were male with an average age of 70 years. The majority of patients exhibited hypertension (95%) and a history of smoking (81%). Presence of ApoE 4 allele was associated with depression (p= 0.047). After correcting for age and genetic polymorphisms in BDNF and serotonin transporter (5-HTT), ApoE 4 allele was associated with depression (p= 0.044) and showed a trend with baseline cognitive impairment (p= 0.10). Age ≥ 70 years was associated with baseline cognitive impairment after adjusting for the three genetic polymorphisms (p= 0.03). Patients with ApoE 4 and BDNF A polymorphisms performed less well on the visual and verbal memory measures, respectively. Polymorphisms in ApoE and BDNF may provide insight on cognition in patients undergoing carotid interventions; however, the mechanism of this relationship remains unclear. PMID:27574384

  7. A link between TP53 polymorphisms and metabolism.

    PubMed

    Kung, Che-Pei; Basu, Subhasree; Murphy, Maureen E

    2016-07-01

    Besides being a critical tumor suppressor, the TP53 gene also plays a role in metabolism and recent studies in humans have implicated the codon 72 polymorphism of TP53 in this role. Using a humanized knock-in mouse model for these TP53 variants, we show that this polymorphism has a significant impact on the metabolic response to a high-fat diet. PMID:27652322

  8. BRM polymorphisms, pancreatic cancer risk and survival.

    PubMed

    Segedi, Maja; Anderson, Laura N; Espin-Garcia, Osvaldo; Borgida, Ayelet; Bianco, Teresa; Cheng, Dangxiao; Chen, Zhuo; Patel, Devalben; Brown, M Catherine; Xu, Wei; Reisman, David; Gallinger, Steven; Cotterchio, Michelle; Hung, Rayjean; Liu, Geoffrey; Cleary, Sean P

    2016-12-01

    Variant alleles of two promoter polymorphisms in the BRM gene (BRM-741, BRM-1321), create MEF2D transcription binding sites that lead to epigenetic silencing of BRM, the key catalytic component of the SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complex. BRM suppression can be reversed pharmacologically.(1) Our group and others have reported associations with lung, head and neck, hepatocellular cancer risk,(1-3) and with lung and esophageal cancer prognosis (ASCO 2013; abstract 11057 & 4077). Herein, we assessed risk and survival associations with pancreatic cancer. A provincial population-based case-control study was conducted with 623 histologically confirmed pancreatic adenocarcinoma cases and 1,192 age/gender distribution-matched controls.(4) Survival of cases was obtained through the Ontario Cancer Registry. Logistic and Cox proportional hazard regression models were fitted, adjusting for relevant covariates. Median age was 65 y; 52% were male; Stage I (8%), II (55%), III (14%), IV (23%); 53% after curative resection, 79% after chemotherapy; and 83% had died. In the risk analysis, adjusted odds ratios (aOR) were 1.01 (95% CI: 0.1-2.0) and 0.96 (95% CI: 0.7-1.3) for the homozygotes of BRM-741 and BRM-1321, respectively; aOR of double-homozygotes was 1.11 (95% CI: 0.80-1.53), compared to the double-wildtype. For the survival analysis, adjusted hazard ratios (aHR) were 2.19 (95% CI: 1.9-2.5) for BRM-741 and 1.94 (95% CI: 1.7-2.2) for BRM-1321, per unit increase in variant alleles. Compared with the double-wildtype, aHR for carrying no, one, and two double-homozygotes were 2.14 (95% CI: 1.6-2.8), 4.17 (95% CI: 3.0-5.7), 8.03 (95% CI: 5.7-11.4), respectively. In conclusion, two functional promoter BRM polymorphisms were not associated with pancreatic adenocarcinoma risk, but are strongly associated with survival. PMID:27487558

  9. Identification of conserved and polymorphic STRs for personal genomes

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Short tandem repeats (STRs) are abundant in human genomes. Numerous STRs have been shown to be associated with genetic diseases and gene regulatory functions, and have been selected as genetic markers for evolutionary and forensic analyses. High-throughput next generation sequencers have fostered new cutting-edge computing techniques for genome-scale analyses, and cross-genome comparisons have facilitated the efficient identification of polymorphic STR markers for various applications. Results An automated and efficient system for detecting human polymorphic STRs at the genome scale is proposed in this study. Assembled contigs from next generation sequencing data were aligned and calibrated according to selected reference sequences. To verify identified polymorphic STRs, human genomes from the 1000 Genomes Project were employed for comprehensive analyses, and STR markers from the Combined DNA Index System (CODIS) and disease-related STR motifs were also applied as cases for evaluation. In addition, we analyzed STR variations for highly conserved homologous genes and human-unique genes. In total 477 polymorphic STRs were identified from 492 human-unique genes, among which 26 STRs were retrieved and clustered into three different groups for efficient comparison. Conclusions We have developed an online system that efficiently identifies polymorphic STRs and provides novel distinguishable STR biomarkers for different levels of specificity. Candidate polymorphic STRs within a personal genome could be easily retrieved and compared to the constructed STR profile through query keywords, gene names, or assembled contigs. PMID:25560225

  10. Epitaxial stabilization and phase instability of VO2 polymorphs

    DOE PAGES

    Lee, Shinbuhm; Ivanov, Ilia N.; Keum, Jong K.; Lee, Ho Nyung

    2016-01-20

    The VO2 polymorphs, i.e., VO2(A), VO2(B), VO2(M1) and VO2(R), have a wide spectrum of functionalities useful for many potential applications in information and energy technologies. However, synthesis of phase pure materials, especially in thin film forms, has been a challenging task due to the fact that the VO2 polymorphs are closely related to each other in a thermodynamic framework. Here, we report epitaxial stabilization of the VO2 polymorphs to synthesize high quality single crystalline thin films and study the phase stability of these metastable materials. We selectively deposit all the phases on various perovskite substrates with different crystallographic orientations. Bymore » investigating the phase instability, phonon modes and transport behaviours, not only do we find distinctively contrasting physical properties of the VO2 polymorphs, but that the polymorphs can be on the verge of phase transitions when heated as low as ~400 °C. In conclusion, our successful epitaxy of both VO2(A) and VO2(B) phases, which are rarely studied due to the lack of phase pure materials, will open the door to the fundamental studies of VO2 polymorphs for potential applications in advanced electronic and energy devices.« less

  11. TP53 polymorphism, HPV infection, and risk of cervical cancer.

    PubMed

    Klug, S J; Wilmotte, R; Santos, C; Almonte, M; Herrero, R; Guerrero, I; Caceres, E; Peixoto-Guimaraes, D; Lenoir, G; Hainaut, P; Walboomers, J M; Muñoz, N

    2001-09-01

    The role of a polymorphism at position 72 of the tumor suppressor gene TP53 in the development of cervical cancer is not well established. The arginine variant of the p53 protein could be more susceptible to degradation by human papillomavirus (HPV) E6 protein than the protein containing proline. Recent studies show controversial results. We investigated a possible association between TP53 polymorphism and cervical cancer in a Peruvian population with high prevalence of HPV infection. HPV status and TP53 polymorphism were determined for 119 cases of invasive cervical cancer and 127 control women from Peru. HPV infection was detected by PCR of cervical cells or tumor biopsies. For determination of TP53 polymorphism, exon 4 of the TP53 gene was amplified by PCR, and DNA was subsequently subjected to restriction enzyme digest. Associations between TP53 polymorphism, HPV infection, and cervical cancer were assessed using logistic regression. Women homozygotes for arginine had a 2.2-fold increased risk (95% confidence interval: 0.6-7.6) for cervical cancer. The odds ratio for women heterozygotes for Arg/Pro was 3.5 (95% confidence interval: 0.9-14). Similarly increased risks were found when restricting analysis to HPV-positive women only. The distribution of TP53 genotypes in this Peruvian population was comparable with that found in Caucasians. Our results cannot rule out an association between the TP53 polymorphism at codon 72, HPV infection, and the etiology of cervical cancer. PMID:11535556

  12. Color polymorphism in an aphid is maintained by attending ants

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Saori; Murakami, Taiga; Yoshimura, Jin; Hasegawa, Eisuke

    2016-01-01

    The study of polymorphisms is particularly informative for enhancing our understanding of phenotypic and genetic diversity. The persistence of polymorphism in a population is generally explained by balancing selection. Color polymorphisms that are often found in many insects and arthropods are prime examples of the maintenance of polymorphisms via balancing selection. In some aphids, color morphs are maintained through frequency-dependent predation by two predatory insects. However, the presence of color polymorphism in ant-attended aphids cannot be explained by traditional balancing selection because these aphids are free from predation. We examined the selective advantages of the existence of two color (red and green) morphs in the ant-attended aphid, Macrosiphoniella yomogicola, in fields. We measured the degree of ant attendance on aphid colonies with different proportions of color morphs. The results show that the ants strongly favor aphid colonies with intermediate proportions of the two color morphs. The relationship between the degree of ant attendance and the proportion of color morphs in the field is convex when aphid colony size and ant colony size are controlled. This function has a peak of approximately 65% of green morphs in a colony. This system represents the first case of a balancing polymorphism that is not maintained by opposing factors but by a symbiotic relationship.

  13. Color polymorphism in an aphid is maintained by attending ants

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Saori; Murakami, Taiga; Yoshimura, Jin; Hasegawa, Eisuke

    2016-01-01

    The study of polymorphisms is particularly informative for enhancing our understanding of phenotypic and genetic diversity. The persistence of polymorphism in a population is generally explained by balancing selection. Color polymorphisms that are often found in many insects and arthropods are prime examples of the maintenance of polymorphisms via balancing selection. In some aphids, color morphs are maintained through frequency-dependent predation by two predatory insects. However, the presence of color polymorphism in ant-attended aphids cannot be explained by traditional balancing selection because these aphids are free from predation. We examined the selective advantages of the existence of two color (red and green) morphs in the ant-attended aphid, Macrosiphoniella yomogicola, in fields. We measured the degree of ant attendance on aphid colonies with different proportions of color morphs. The results show that the ants strongly favor aphid colonies with intermediate proportions of the two color morphs. The relationship between the degree of ant attendance and the proportion of color morphs in the field is convex when aphid colony size and ant colony size are controlled. This function has a peak of approximately 65% of green morphs in a colony. This system represents the first case of a balancing polymorphism that is not maintained by opposing factors but by a symbiotic relationship. PMID:27617289

  14. Epitaxial stabilization and phase instability of VO2 polymorphs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Shinbuhm; Ivanov, Ilia N.; Keum, Jong K.; Lee, Ho Nyung

    2016-01-01

    The VO2 polymorphs, i.e., VO2(A), VO2(B), VO2(M1) and VO2(R), have a wide spectrum of functionalities useful for many potential applications in information and energy technologies. However, synthesis of phase pure materials, especially in thin film forms, has been a challenging task due to the fact that the VO2 polymorphs are closely related to each other in a thermodynamic framework. Here, we report epitaxial stabilization of the VO2 polymorphs to synthesize high quality single crystalline thin films and study the phase stability of these metastable materials. We selectively deposit all the phases on various perovskite substrates with different crystallographic orientations. By investigating the phase instability, phonon modes and transport behaviours, not only do we find distinctively contrasting physical properties of the VO2 polymorphs, but that the polymorphs can be on the verge of phase transitions when heated as low as ~400 °C. Our successful epitaxy of both VO2(A) and VO2(B) phases, which are rarely studied due to the lack of phase pure materials, will open the door to the fundamental studies of VO2 polymorphs for potential applications in advanced electronic and energy devices.

  15. Color polymorphism in an aphid is maintained by attending ants.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Saori; Murakami, Taiga; Yoshimura, Jin; Hasegawa, Eisuke

    2016-09-01

    The study of polymorphisms is particularly informative for enhancing our understanding of phenotypic and genetic diversity. The persistence of polymorphism in a population is generally explained by balancing selection. Color polymorphisms that are often found in many insects and arthropods are prime examples of the maintenance of polymorphisms via balancing selection. In some aphids, color morphs are maintained through frequency-dependent predation by two predatory insects. However, the presence of color polymorphism in ant-attended aphids cannot be explained by traditional balancing selection because these aphids are free from predation. We examined the selective advantages of the existence of two color (red and green) morphs in the ant-attended aphid, Macrosiphoniella yomogicola, in fields. We measured the degree of ant attendance on aphid colonies with different proportions of color morphs. The results show that the ants strongly favor aphid colonies with intermediate proportions of the two color morphs. The relationship between the degree of ant attendance and the proportion of color morphs in the field is convex when aphid colony size and ant colony size are controlled. This function has a peak of approximately 65% of green morphs in a colony. This system represents the first case of a balancing polymorphism that is not maintained by opposing factors but by a symbiotic relationship. PMID:27617289

  16. Association of Toll-like receptor 2 polymorphisms with gout

    PubMed Central

    CAI, YAN; PENG, YI-HUA; TANG, ZHONG; GUO, XIAO-LAN; QING, YU-FENG; LIANG, SU-HUA; JIANG, HONG; DANG, WANG-TAI; MA, QIANG; HE, CHENG; ZHOU, JING-GUO

    2014-01-01

    Gout is the most common autoinflammatory arthritis characterized by elevated serum urate and recurrent attacks of intra-articular crystal deposition of monosodium urate (MSU) in tissues. The pathogenesis of gout has not been fully determined, although certain genetic factors are involved in the development of gout. Accumulated data suggested that MSU crystal-induced inflammation is a paradigm of innate immunity. As Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are the underlying mechanisms of the innate immune response, the present study aimed to investigate whether TLR2 polymorphisms are associated with gout. Two single-nucleotide polymorphisms (Arg677Trp and Arg753Gln, rs5743708) in TLR2 were genotyped by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism and the −196 to −174 del polymorphism was investigated using the allele-specific polymerase chain reaction in 431 individuals (215 patients with gout and 216 healthy controls). TLR2 Arg677Trp and Arg753Gln genotyping indicated that all the positive samples were of the wild-type genotype. No significant differences in genotype (χ2=1.686, P=0.430) and allele (χ2=1.430, P=0.232) frequencies of the −196 to −174 del polymorphism between the patients with gout and the control groups was observed. Our results suggested that the TLR2 Arg677Trp, Arg753Gln and the −196 to −174 del polymorphisms were not associated with susceptibility to primary gouty arthritis. PMID:24649113

  17. Polymorphism of CAG repeats in androgen receptor of carnivores.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qin; Zhang, Xiuyue; Wang, Xiaofang; Zeng, Bo; Jia, Xiaodong; Hou, Rong; Yue, Bisong

    2012-03-01

    Androgen effect is mediated by the androgen receptor (AR). The polymorphism of CAG triplet repeat (polyCAG), in the N-terminal transactivation domain of the AR protein, has been involved either in endocrine or neurological disorders in human. We obtained partial sequence of AR exon 1 in 10 carnivore species. In most carnivore species, polyglutamine length polymorphism presented in all three CAG repeat regions of AR, in contrast, only CAG-I site polymorphism presented in primate species, and CAG-I and CAG-III sites polymorphism presented in Canidae. Therefore, studies focusing on disease-associated polymorphism of poly(CAG) in carnivore species AR should investigate all three CAG repeats sites, and should not only consider CAG-I sites as the human disease studies. The trinucleotide repeat length in carnivore AR exon 1 had undergone from expansions to contractions during carnivores evolution, unlike a linear increase in primate species. Furthermore, the polymorphisms of the triplet-repeats in the same tissue (somatic mosaicism) were demonstrated in Moutain weasel, Eurasian lynx, Clouded leopard, Chinese tiger, Black leopard and Leopard AR. And, the abnormal stop codon was found in the exon 1 of three carnivore species AR (Moutain weasel, Eurasian lynx and Black leopard). It seemed to have a high frequency presence of tissue-specific somatic in carnivores AR genes. Thus the in vivo mechanism leading to such highly variable phenotypes of the described mutations, and their impact on these animals, are worthwhile to be further elucidated.

  18. Epitaxial stabilization and phase instability of VO2 polymorphs

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Shinbuhm; Ivanov, Ilia N.; Keum, Jong K.; Lee, Ho Nyung

    2016-01-01

    The VO2 polymorphs, i.e., VO2(A), VO2(B), VO2(M1) and VO2(R), have a wide spectrum of functionalities useful for many potential applications in information and energy technologies. However, synthesis of phase pure materials, especially in thin film forms, has been a challenging task due to the fact that the VO2 polymorphs are closely related to each other in a thermodynamic framework. Here, we report epitaxial stabilization of the VO2 polymorphs to synthesize high quality single crystalline thin films and study the phase stability of these metastable materials. We selectively deposit all the phases on various perovskite substrates with different crystallographic orientations. By investigating the phase instability, phonon modes and transport behaviours, not only do we find distinctively contrasting physical properties of the VO2 polymorphs, but that the polymorphs can be on the verge of phase transitions when heated as low as ~400 °C. Our successful epitaxy of both VO2(A) and VO2(B) phases, which are rarely studied due to the lack of phase pure materials, will open the door to the fundamental studies of VO2 polymorphs for potential applications in advanced electronic and energy devices. PMID:26787259

  19. Quantitative evaluation of mefenamic acid polymorphs by terahertz-chemometrics.

    PubMed

    Otsuka, Makoto; Nishizawa, Jun-ichi; Shibata, Jiro; Ito, Masahiko

    2010-09-01

    The purpose of the present study is to measure polymorphic content in a bulk powder, mefenamic acid polymorph of pharmaceuticals, as a model drug by THz-spectrometer using frequency-tunable THz wave generators based on difference-frequency generation in gallium phosphate crystals. Mefenamic acid polymorphic forms I and II were obtained by recrystallisation. Eleven standard samples varying a various polymorphic form I content (0-100%) were prepared by physical mixing. After smoothing and area normalising, the THz-spectra of all standard samples showed an isosbestic point at 3.70 THz. After the THz-spectral data sets were arranged into five frequency ranges, and pretreated using various functions, calibration models were calculated by the partial least square regression method. The effect of spectral data management on the chemometric parameters of the calibration models was investigated. The relationship between predicted and actual form I content was the best linear plot. On the regression vector (RV) that corresponded to absorption THz-spectral data, the peak at 1.45 THz was the highest value, and the peak at 2.25 THz was the lowest on RV. THz-spectroscopy with chemometrics would be useful for the quantitative evaluation of mefenamic acid polymorphs in the pharmaceutical industry. This method is expected to provide a rapid and nondestructive quantitative analysis of polymorphs. PMID:20665848

  20. DRD2 C957T polymorphism interacts with the COMT Val158Met polymorphism in human working memory ability.

    PubMed

    Xu, Haiyan; Kellendonk, Christoph B; Simpson, Eleanor H; Keilp, John G; Bruder, Gerard E; Polan, H Jonathan; Kandel, Eric R; Gilliam, T Conrad

    2007-02-01

    The C957T polymorphism in the dopamine D2 receptor (DRD2) gene and the Val158Met polymorphism in the Catechol-O-Methyl-Transferase (COMT) gene affect dopamine transmission and have been found to be associated with schizophrenia. Since DRD2 in mice and the COMT gene in humans modulate working memory, we examined the relationship and possible interaction of both polymorphisms to working memory performance in 188 healthy adults. Subjects having the DRD2 C/C allele showed the poorest performance in a word serial position test. Moreover, the effect of the C957T genotype was strengthened when interaction with the COMT Val158Met polymorphism was included in the analysis. We propose that an interaction of the DRD2 C957T and COMT Val158Met may be involved in the generation of some working memory deficits in schizophrenia.

  1. Gene Polymorphism Studies in a Teaching Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shultz, Jeffry

    2009-02-01

    I present a laboratory procedure for illustrating transcription, post-transcriptional modification, gene conservation, and comparative genetics for use in undergraduate biology education. Students are individually assigned genes in a targeted biochemical pathway, for which they design and test polymerase chain reaction (PCR) primers. In this example, students used genes annotated for the steroid biosynthesis pathway in soybean. The authoritative Kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes (KEGG) interactive database and other online resources were used to design primers based first on soybean expressed sequence tags (ESTs), then on ESTs from an alternate organism if soybean sequence was unavailable. Students designed a total of 50 gene-based primer pairs (37 soybean, 13 alternative) and tested these for polymorphism state and similarity between two soybean and two pea lines. Student assessment was based on acquisition of laboratory skills and successful project completion. This simple procedure illustrates conservation of genes and is not limited to soybean or pea. Cost per student estimates are included, along with a detailed protocol and flow diagram of the procedure.

  2. Polymorphic Admixture Typing in Human Ethnic Populations

    PubMed Central

    Dean, Michael; Stephens, J. Claiborne; Winkler, Cheryl; Lomb, Deborah A.; Ramsburg, Mark; Boaze, Raleigh; Stewart, Claudia; Charbonneau, Lauren; Goldman, David; Albaugh, Bernard J.; Goedert, James J.; Beasley, R. Palmer; Hwang, Lu-Yu; Buchbinder, Susan; Weedon, Michael; Johnson, Patricia A.; Eichelberger, Mary; O'Brien, Stephen J.

    1994-01-01

    A panel of 257 RFLP loci was selected on the basis of high heterozygosity in Caucasian DNA surveys and equivalent spacing throughout the human genome. Probes from each locus were used in a Southern blot survey of allele frequency distribution for four human ethnic groups: Caucasian, African American, Asian (Chinese), and American Indian (Cheyenne). Nearly all RFLP loci were polymorphic in each group, albeit with a broad range of differing allele frequencies (δ). The distribution of frequency differences (δ values) was used for three purposes: (1) to provide estimates for genetic distance (differentiation) among these ethnic groups, (2) to revisit with a large data set the proportion of human genetic variation attributable to differentiation within ethnic groups, and (3) to identify loci with high δ values between recently admixed populations of use in mapping by admixture linkage disequilibrium (MALD). Although most markers display significant allele frequency differences between ethnic groups, the overall genetic distances between ethnic groups were small (.066–.098), and <10% of the measured overall molecular genetic diversity in these human samples can be attributed to “racial” differentiation. The median δ values for pairwise comparisons between groups fell between .15 and .20, permitting identification of highly informative RFLP loci for MALD disease association studies. PMID:7942857

  3. Apolipoprotein E Polymorphism in Tuberculosis Patients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naserpour Farivar, Taghi; Sharifi Moud, Batool; Sargazi, Mansur; Moeenrezakhanlou, Alireza

    In this study, we aimed to determine the significance of association between Tuberculosis and apolipoprotein E polymorphism. The apolipoprotein E genotypes were assayed in 250 tuberculosis patients by polymerase chain reaction followed by enzymatic digestion with Hha I. The results were compared with the results of the same experiments on 250 sex and age matched control peoples. Present results showed that in studied populations, prevalence of E4 genotype was lower in controls than in patients (8 v. 13.2%; OR = 1.75, p<0.05) and prevalence of E3 genotype was high in controls than in patients (86 v.51%; OR = 0.17, p<0.05). Statistically significant difference was found between patients and controls with respect to ɛ2 allele frequencies, while ɛ2 allele frequency was found to be much less prevalent in controls (6%) than in patients (35.8%; OR = 8.72, p<0.05). Also, our study revealed that there is an association between apolipoprotein E genotypes and amplitude to tuberculosis in studied populations. However, large population-based studies are needed to understand the exact role played by the locus in causing the condition.

  4. Alcohol dehydrogenase polymorphism in Apis mellifera.

    PubMed

    Martins, E; Mestriner, M A; Contel, E P

    1977-04-01

    A polymorphic system of ADH isozymes is described in the honeybee Apis mellifera. Three and six different electrophoretic patterns were found, respectively, in drone and worker pupae analysis. The data indicate that the ADH isozymes are controlled by three alleles, Adh-1(1), Adh-1(2), and Adh-1(3). The frequency of the Adh-1 alleles is different in two analyzed subspecies, Apis mellifera adansonii (African bees) and Apis mellifera ligustica (Italian bees). In the African bees, the frequencies are 0.256 and 0.697 for Adh-1(1) and Adh-1(2), respectively. In the Italian bees, these values are shown to be 0.902 and 0.098, respectively. The allele Adh-1(3) was not detected in the Italian bee population. The effect of NAD on the resolution of this system was investigated, and only one region of ADH activity was obtained in drone pupae analysis when NAD was used in the gels. However, two different regions of activity were observed in the same samples, in the absence of the coenzyme. ADH activity was not detected in young larvae, but it increased to a maximum in prepupal and white-eyed pupal phases. It then declined progressively to total absence in the emerging bees.

  5. Dispersal Polymorphisms in Invasive Fire Ants.

    PubMed

    Helms, Jackson A; Godfrey, Aaron

    2016-01-01

    In the Found or Fly (FoF) hypothesis ant queens experience reproduction-dispersal tradeoffs such that queens with heavier abdomens are better at founding colonies but are worse flyers. We tested predictions of FoF in two globally invasive fire ants, Solenopsis geminata (Fabricius, 1804) and S. invicta (Buren, 1972). Colonies of these species may produce two different monogyne queen types-claustral queens with heavy abdomens that found colonies independently, and parasitic queens with small abdomens that enter conspecific nests. Claustral and parasitic queens were similarly sized, but the abdomens of claustral queens weighed twice as much as those of their parasitic counterparts. Their heavier abdomens adversely impacted morphological predictors of flight ability, resulting in 32-38% lower flight muscle ratios, 55-63% higher wing loading, and 32-33% higher abdomen drag. In lab experiments maximum flight durations in claustral S. invicta queens decreased by about 18 minutes for every milligram of abdomen mass. Combining our results into a simple fitness tradeoff model, we calculated that an average parasitic S. invicta queen could produce only 1/3 as many worker offspring as a claustral queen, but could fly 4 times as long and have a 17- to 36-fold larger potential colonization area. Investigations of dispersal polymorphisms and their associated tradeoffs promises to shed light on range expansions in invasive species, the evolution of alternative reproductive strategies, and the selective forces driving the recurrent evolution of parasitism in ants.

  6. Dispersal Polymorphisms in Invasive Fire Ants.

    PubMed

    Helms, Jackson A; Godfrey, Aaron

    2016-01-01

    In the Found or Fly (FoF) hypothesis ant queens experience reproduction-dispersal tradeoffs such that queens with heavier abdomens are better at founding colonies but are worse flyers. We tested predictions of FoF in two globally invasive fire ants, Solenopsis geminata (Fabricius, 1804) and S. invicta (Buren, 1972). Colonies of these species may produce two different monogyne queen types-claustral queens with heavy abdomens that found colonies independently, and parasitic queens with small abdomens that enter conspecific nests. Claustral and parasitic queens were similarly sized, but the abdomens of claustral queens weighed twice as much as those of their parasitic counterparts. Their heavier abdomens adversely impacted morphological predictors of flight ability, resulting in 32-38% lower flight muscle ratios, 55-63% higher wing loading, and 32-33% higher abdomen drag. In lab experiments maximum flight durations in claustral S. invicta queens decreased by about 18 minutes for every milligram of abdomen mass. Combining our results into a simple fitness tradeoff model, we calculated that an average parasitic S. invicta queen could produce only 1/3 as many worker offspring as a claustral queen, but could fly 4 times as long and have a 17- to 36-fold larger potential colonization area. Investigations of dispersal polymorphisms and their associated tradeoffs promises to shed light on range expansions in invasive species, the evolution of alternative reproductive strategies, and the selective forces driving the recurrent evolution of parasitism in ants. PMID:27082115

  7. Pharmacogenetic analysis of clinically relevant genetic polymorphisms.

    PubMed

    McLeod, Howard L

    2005-11-15

    The ascertainment of the human genome sequence has generated great enthusiasm for the use of gene-based approaches to improve virtually all aspects of medical care. Particular interest has focused on the field of pharmacogenetics--for example, the use of an individual's genetic profile to optimize drug prescription. This approach takes advantage of the presence of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) or other genetic variants in every gene in the human genome. There are currently > 9 million SNPs in the human SNP database dbSNP, with an estimated 11 million variants ultimately to be found in the human population. To date, the preponderance of interest in this field has centered on the potential of applying this approach to subacute or chronic illnesses, such as cancer, cardiovascular disease, human immunodeficiency virus infection, or rheumatologic disorders. In contrast, little attention has been devoted to the potential utility of implementing the pharmacogenomic methodology for guiding drug selection for acutely ill patients in the critical care environment. Although such an approach has theoretical appeal as a means of enhancing quality and improving outcomes in this setting, several obstacles currently exist and slow the progress toward clinical application. PMID:16237646

  8. Long, polymorphic microsatellites in simple organisms.

    PubMed

    Field, D; Wills, C

    1996-02-22

    We have examined the phylogenetic distribution of the longest, perfect microsatellites in GenBank. Despite the large contributions of model higher-eukaryotic organisms to GenBank, the selective cloning of long microsatellites from these organisms as genetic markers, and the relative lack of concentration on the microsatellites in lower eukaryotes and prokaryotes, we found that simple organisms, defined here as slime molds, fungi, protists, prokaryotes, viruses, organelles and plasmids, contributed 78 of the 375 examined sequences. These 78 simple-organism microsatellites are characterized predominantly by trinucleotide repeats, nearly half of which lie in exons, and in general show a bias towards A+T rich motifs. Simple-organism microsatellites represented more than once in GenBank displayed length polymorphisms when independent clones were compared. These facts collectively raise speculation as to the role of these 'junk' sequences in such highly economical genomes, especially when precise changes in long microsatellites are known to regulate critical virulence factors in several prokaryotes. Regardless of their biological significance, simple-organism microsatellites may provide a general source of molecular markers to track disease outbreaks and the evolution of microorganisms in unprecedented detail.

  9. [Genomic medicine. Polymorphisms and microarray applications].

    PubMed

    Spalvieri, Mónica P; Rotenberg, Rosa G

    2004-01-01

    This update shows new concepts related to the significance of DNA variations among individuals, as well as to their detection by using a new technology. The sequencing of the human genome is only the beginning of what will enable us to understand genetic diversity. The unit of DNA variability is the polymorphism of a single nucleotide (SNP). At present, studies on SNPs are restricted to basic research but the large number of papers on this subject makes feasible their entrance into clinical practice. We illustrate here the use of SNPs as molecular markers in ethnical genotyping, gene expression in some diseases and as potential targets in pharmacological response, and also introduce the technology of arrays. Microarrays experiments allow the quantification and comparison of gene expression on a large scale, at the same time, by using special chips and array designs. Conventional methods provide data from up to 20 genes, while a single microarray may provide information about thousands of them simultaneously, leading to a more rapid and accurate genotyping. Biotechnology improvements will facilitate our knowledge of each gene sequence, the frequency and exact location of SNPs and their influence on cellular behavior. Although experimental efficiency and validity of results from microarrays are still controversial, the knowledge and characterization of a patient's genetic profile will lead, undoubtedly, to advances in prevention, diagnosis, prognosis and treatment of human diseases. PMID:15637833

  10. Dispersal Polymorphisms in Invasive Fire Ants

    PubMed Central

    Helms, Jackson A.; Godfrey, Aaron

    2016-01-01

    In the Found or Fly (FoF) hypothesis ant queens experience reproduction-dispersal tradeoffs such that queens with heavier abdomens are better at founding colonies but are worse flyers. We tested predictions of FoF in two globally invasive fire ants, Solenopsis geminata (Fabricius, 1804) and S. invicta (Buren, 1972). Colonies of these species may produce two different monogyne queen types—claustral queens with heavy abdomens that found colonies independently, and parasitic queens with small abdomens that enter conspecific nests. Claustral and parasitic queens were similarly sized, but the abdomens of claustral queens weighed twice as much as those of their parasitic counterparts. Their heavier abdomens adversely impacted morphological predictors of flight ability, resulting in 32–38% lower flight muscle ratios, 55–63% higher wing loading, and 32–33% higher abdomen drag. In lab experiments maximum flight durations in claustral S. invicta queens decreased by about 18 minutes for every milligram of abdomen mass. Combining our results into a simple fitness tradeoff model, we calculated that an average parasitic S. invicta queen could produce only 1/3 as many worker offspring as a claustral queen, but could fly 4 times as long and have a 17- to 36-fold larger potential colonization area. Investigations of dispersal polymorphisms and their associated tradeoffs promises to shed light on range expansions in invasive species, the evolution of alternative reproductive strategies, and the selective forces driving the recurrent evolution of parasitism in ants. PMID:27082115

  11. Colonial and Cellular Polymorphism in Xenorhabdus luminescens

    PubMed Central

    Hurlbert, Ronald E.; Xu, Jimin; Small, Christopher L.

    1989-01-01

    A highly polymorphic Xenorhabdus luminescens strain was isolated. The primary form of X. luminescens was luminescent and nonswarming and produced a yellow pigment and antimicrobial substances. The primary form generated a secondary form that had a distinct orange pigmentation, was weakly luminescent, and did not produce antimicrobial substances. Both the primary and secondary forms generated a set of colony variants at frequencies that exceeded normal rates for spontaneous mutation. The variant forms include nonswarming and swarming forms that formed large colonies and a small-colony (SC) form. The primary and secondary forms generated their SC forms at frequencies of between 1 and 14% and 1 and 2%, respectively. The SC forms were distinct from their parental primary and secondary forms in colony and cellular morphology and in protein composition. The cellular morphology and protein patterns of the nonswarming and swarming colony variants were all very similar. The DNA fingerprints of all forms were similar. Each SC-form colony reverted at high frequency to the form from which it was derived. The proportion of parental-type cells in the SC-form colonies varied with age, with young colonies containing as few as 0.0002% parental-type cells. The primary-to-secondary switch was stable, but all the other colony forms were able to switch at high frequencies to the alternative colony phenotypes. Images PMID:16347906

  12. Lactotransferrin Gene Polymorphism Associated with Caries Experience.

    PubMed

    Doetzer, Andrea D; Brancher, João A; Pecharki, Giovana D; Schlipf, Nina; Werneck, Renata; Mira, Marcelo T; Riess, Olaf; Bauer, Peter; Trevilatto, Paula Cristina

    2015-01-01

    Dental caries is a common multifactorial disease, resulting from the interaction of biofilm, cariogenic diet and host response over time. Lactotransferrin (LTF) is a main salivary glycoprotein, which modulates the host immune-inflammatory and antibacterial response. Although a genetic component for caries outcome has been identified, little is known over the genetic aspects underlying its susceptibility. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the association between LTF polymorphisms and caries susceptibility. Six hundred seventy seven 12-year-old students were selected: 346 with (DMFT ≥ 1) and 331 without caries experience (DMFT = 0). Also, individuals concentrating higher levels of disease (polarization group, DMFT ≥ 2, n = 253) were tested against those with DMFT ≤ 1 (n = 424). Along with clinical parameters, three representative LTF tag SNPs (rs6441989, rs2073495, rs11716497) were genotyped and the results were evaluated using univariate and multivariate analyses. Allele A for tag SNP rs6441989 was found to be significantly less frequent in the polarization group, conferring a protective effect against caries experience [AA + AG × GG (OR: 0.710, 95% CI: 0.514-0.980, p = 0.045)], and remained significantly associated with caries protection in the presence of gingivitis (p = 0.020) and plaque (p = 0.035). These results might contribute to the understanding of the genetic control of caries susceptibility in humans. PMID:25998152

  13. Long, polymorphic microsatellites in simple organisms.

    PubMed

    Field, D; Wills, C

    1996-02-22

    We have examined the phylogenetic distribution of the longest, perfect microsatellites in GenBank. Despite the large contributions of model higher-eukaryotic organisms to GenBank, the selective cloning of long microsatellites from these organisms as genetic markers, and the relative lack of concentration on the microsatellites in lower eukaryotes and prokaryotes, we found that simple organisms, defined here as slime molds, fungi, protists, prokaryotes, viruses, organelles and plasmids, contributed 78 of the 375 examined sequences. These 78 simple-organism microsatellites are characterized predominantly by trinucleotide repeats, nearly half of which lie in exons, and in general show a bias towards A+T rich motifs. Simple-organism microsatellites represented more than once in GenBank displayed length polymorphisms when independent clones were compared. These facts collectively raise speculation as to the role of these 'junk' sequences in such highly economical genomes, especially when precise changes in long microsatellites are known to regulate critical virulence factors in several prokaryotes. Regardless of their biological significance, simple-organism microsatellites may provide a general source of molecular markers to track disease outbreaks and the evolution of microorganisms in unprecedented detail. PMID:8728984

  14. Surveying expression level polymorphism and single-feature polymorphism in near-isogenic wheat lines differing for the Yr5 stripe rust resistance locus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    DNA polymorphisms are valuable for several applications including genotyping, molecular mapping and marker-assisted selection. The Affymetrix Wheat GeneChip was used to survey expression level polymorphisms (ELPs) and single-feature polymorphisms (SFPs) between two near-isogenic wheat genotypes (BC...

  15. Surveying expression level polymorphism and single-feature polymorphism in near-isogenic wheat lines differing for the Yr5 stripe rust resistance locus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    DNA polymorphisms are valuable for several applications including genotyping, molecular mapping and marker-assisted selection. The Affymetrix Wheat GeneChip was used to survey expression level polymorphisms (ELPs) and single-feature polymorphisms (SFPs) between two near-isogenic wheat genotypes (BC7...

  16. COMT Val158Met Polymorphism Modulates Huntington's Disease Progression

    PubMed Central

    Rebeix, Isabelle; Dupoux, Emmanuel; Durr, Alexandra; Brice, Alexis; Charles, Perrine; Cleret de Langavant, Laurent; Youssov, Katia; Verny, Christophe; Damotte, Vincent; Azulay, Jean-Philippe; Goizet, Cyril; Simonin, Clémence; Tranchant, Christine; Maison, Patrick; Rialland, Amandine; Schmitz, David; Jacquemot, Charlotte; Fontaine, Bertrand; Bachoud-Lévi, Anne-Catherine

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about the genetic factors modulating the progression of Huntington’s disease (HD). Dopamine levels are affected in HD and modulate executive functions, the main cognitive disorder of HD. We investigated whether the Val158Met polymorphism of the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene, which influences dopamine (DA) degradation, affects clinical progression in HD. We carried out a prospective longitudinal multicenter study from 1994 to 2011, on 438 HD gene carriers at different stages of the disease (34 pre-manifest; 172 stage 1; 130 stage 2; 80 stage 3; 17 stage 4; and 5 stage 5), according to Total Functional Capacity (TFC) score. We used the Unified Huntington’s Disease Rating Scale to evaluate motor, cognitive, behavioral and functional decline. We genotyped participants for COMT polymorphism (107 Met-homozygous, 114 Val-homozygous and 217 heterozygous). 367 controls of similar ancestry were also genotyped. We compared clinical progression, on each domain, between groups of COMT polymorphisms, using latent-class mixed models accounting for disease duration and number of CAG (cytosine adenine guanine) repeats. We show that HD gene carriers with fewer CAG repeats and with the Val allele in COMT polymorphism displayed slower cognitive decline. The rate of cognitive decline was greater for Met/Met homozygotes, which displayed a better maintenance of cognitive capacity in earlier stages of the disease, but had a worse performance than Val allele carriers later on. COMT polymorphism did not significantly impact functional and behavioral performance. Since COMT polymorphism influences progression in HD, it could be used for stratification in future clinical trials. Moreover, DA treatments based on the specific COMT polymorphism and adapted according to disease duration could potentially slow HD progression. PMID:27657697

  17. Association between HRH4 polymorphisms and ankylosing spondylitis susceptibility

    PubMed Central

    Ran, Bo; Wang, Yongcheng; Zhang, Yonggang; Mao, Keya; Wang, Yan

    2015-01-01

    Target: The purpose of the study was to investigate the association between the histamine H4 receptor (HRH4) polymorphisms and the susceptibility to ankylosing spondylitis (AS). Methods: Polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) method was used to analyze the HRH4 rs8088140 and rs657132 polymorphisms. Linkage disequilibrium and haplotype analyses were conducted with Haploview software. The genotypes distributions of HRH4 polymorphisms in the control group were tested by Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE), allele, genotype and haplotype frequencies between the cases and control groups were compared by χ2 test. The controls were matched with cases by age and gender. The relative risk of AS with HRH4 polymorphisms was represented by odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) calculated by χ2 test. Results: The genotypes distributions of HRH4 rs8088140, rs657132 polymorphisms in controls conformed to HWE. The frequency of rs657132 AA genotype in the case group was obviously higher than that in the control group (P=0.040), and so was the A allele (OR=2.572, 95% CI=1.475-4.486, P=0.022). The frequency differences of A-A haplotype between two groups had statistical significance (P=0.011, OR=2.071, 95% CI=1.172-3.660) through haplotype analysis, indicating A-A might be the susceptible haplotype to AS. Conclusion: The AA genotypes of HRH4 rs657132 polymorphism may be the susceptible factors for AS, and rs657132 plays a role in generation of AS. In addition, A-A haplotype in rs8088140-rs657132 is also increased the risk of AS. PMID:26823878

  18. MTHFR genetic polymorphism increases the risk of preterm delivery

    PubMed Central

    Nan, Yanrong; Li, Hongmei

    2015-01-01

    Aims: This study aimed to investigate the association between the methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene C677T and A1298C polymorphisms and premature delivery susceptibility. Methods: With matched age and gender, 108 premature delivery pregnant women as cases and 108 healthy pregnant women as controls were recruited in this case-control study. The cases and controls had same gestational weeks. Polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) method was adopted to analyze C677T and A1298C polymorphisms of the participants. Linkage disequilibrium (LD) and haplotype analysis were conducted by Haploview software. The differences for frequencies of gene type, allele and haplotypes in cases and controls were tested by chi-square test. The relevant risk of premature delivery was represented by odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs). Results: TT gene type frequency of C677T polymorphsim was higher in cases than the controls (P=0.004, OR=3.077, 95% CI=1.469-6.447), so was allele T (P=0.002, OR=1.853, 95% CI=1.265-2.716). Whereas, CC gene type of A1298C polymorphism had a lower distribution in cases than the controls (P=0.008, OR=0.095, 95% CI=0.012-0.775), so was allele C (P=0.047, OR=0.610, 95% CI=0.384-0.970). Haplotype analysis and linkage disequilibrium test conducted on the alleles of two polymorphisms in MTHFR gene, we discovered that haplotype T-A had a higher distribution in cases, which indicated that susceptible haplotype T-A was the candidate factor for premature delivery. Conclusions: Gene type TT of MTHFR C677T polymorphism might make premature delivery risk rise while gene type CC of A1298C polymorphism might have protective influence on premature delivery. PMID:26261642

  19. A second triclinic polymorph of azimsulfuron

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Eunjin; Kim, Jineun; Park, Hyunjin; Kim, Tae Ho

    2016-01-01

    The title compound, C13H16N10O5S (systematic name: 1-(4,6-di­meth­oxypyrimidin-2-yl)-3-{[1-methyl-4-(2-methyl-2H-tetra­zol-5-yl)pyrazol-5-yl]sulfonyl}urea), is a second triclinic polymorph of this crystal [for the other, see: Jeon et al., (2015 ▸). Acta Cryst. E71, o470–o471]. There are two mol­ecules, A and B, in the asymmetric unit; the dihedral angles between the pyrazole ring and the tetra­zole and di­meth­oxy­pyrimidine ring planes are 72.84 (10) and 37.24 (14)°, respectively (mol­ecule A) and 84.38 (9) and 26.09 (15)°, respectively (mol­ecule B). Each mol­ecule features an intra­molecular N—H⋯N hydrogen bond. In the crystal, aromatic π–π stacking inter­actions [centroid–centroid separations = 3.9871 (16), 3.4487 (14) and 3.5455 (16) Å] link the mol­ecules into [001] chains. In addition, N—H⋯N, N—H⋯O, C—H⋯O and C—H⋯N hydrogen bonds occur, forming a three-dimensional architecture. We propose that the dimorphism results from differences in conformations and packing owing to different inter­molecular inter­actions, especially aromatic π–π stacking. PMID:27746943

  20. The polymorphisms of the chromatin fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boulé, Jean-Baptiste; Mozziconacci, Julien; Lavelle, Christophe

    2015-01-01

    In eukaryotes, the genome is packed into chromosomes, each consisting of large polymeric fibers made of DNA bound with proteins (mainly histones) and RNA molecules. The nature and precise 3D organization of this fiber has been a matter of intense speculations and debates. In the emerging picture, the local chromatin state plays a critical role in all fundamental DNA transactions, such as transcriptional control, DNA replication or repair. However, the molecular and structural mechanisms involved remain elusive. The purpose of this review is to give an overview of the tremendous efforts that have been made for almost 40 years to build physiologically relevant models of chromatin structure. The motivation behind building such models was to shift our representation and understanding of DNA transactions from a too simplistic ‘naked DNA’ view to a more realistic ‘coated DNA’ view, as a step towards a better framework in which to interpret mechanistically the control of genetic expression and other DNA metabolic processes. The field has evolved from a speculative point of view towards in vitro biochemistry and in silico modeling, but is still longing for experimental in vivo validations of the proposed structures or even proof of concept experiments demonstrating a clear role of a given structure in a metabolic transaction. The mere existence of a chromatin fiber as a relevant biological entity in vivo has been put into serious questioning. Current research is suggesting a possible reconciliation between theoretical studies and experiments, pointing towards a view where the polymorphic and dynamic nature of the chromatin fiber is essential to support its function in genome metabolism.

  1. Human enamel thickness and ENAM polymorphism

    PubMed Central

    Daubert, Diane M; Kelley, Joanna L; Udod, Yuriy G; Habor, Carolina; Kleist, Chris G; Furman, Ilona K; Tikonov, Igor N; Swanson, Willie J; Roberts, Frank A

    2016-01-01

    The tooth enamel development gene, enamelin (ENAM), showed evidence of positive selection during a genome-wide scan of human and primate DNA for signs of adaptive evolution. The current study examined the hypothesis that a single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) C14625T (rs7671281) in the ENAM gene identified in the genome-wide scan is associated with a change in enamel phenotype. African Americans were selected as the target population, as they have been reported to have a target SNP frequency of approximately 50%, whereas non-Africans are predicted to have a 96% SNP frequency. Digital radiographs and DNA samples from 244 teeth in 133 subjects were analysed, and enamel thickness was assessed in relation to SNP status, controlling for age, sex, tooth number and crown length. Crown length was found to increase with molar number, and females were found to have thicker enamel. Teeth with larger crowns also had thicker enamel, and older subjects had thinner enamel. Linear regression and generalized estimating equations were used to investigate the relationship between enamel thickness of the mandibular molars and ENAM SNP status; enamel in subjects with the derived allele was significantly thinner (P=0.040) when the results were controlled for sex, age, tooth number and crown length. The derived allele demonstrated a recessive effect on the phenotype. The data indicate that thinner dental enamel is associated with the derived ENAM genotype. This is the first direct evidence of a dental gene implicated in human adaptive evolution as having a phenotypic effect on an oral structure. PMID:27357321

  2. Relationship between TBX20 gene polymorphism and congenital heart disease.

    PubMed

    Yang, X F; Zhang, Y F; Zhao, C F; Liu, M M; Si, J P; Fang, Y F; Xing, W W; Wang, F L

    2016-01-01

    Congenital heart disease in children is a type of birth defect. Previous studies have suggested that the transcription factor, TBX20, is involved in the occurrence and development of congenital heart disease in children; however, the specific regulatory mechanisms are yet to be evaluated. Hence, this study aimed to evaluate the relationship between the TBX20 polymorphism and the occurrence and development of congenital heart disease. The TBX20 gene sequence was obtained from the NCBI database and the polymorphic locus candidate was predicted. Thereafter, the specific gene primers were designed for the restriction fragment length polymorphism-polymerase chain reaction (RFLP-PCR) of DNA extracted from the blood of 80 patients with congenital heart disease and 80 controls. The results of the PCR were subjected to correlation analysis to identify the differences between the amplicons and to determine the relationship between the TBX20 gene polymorphism and congenital heart disease. One of the single nucleotide polymorphic locus was found to be rs3999950: c.774T>C (Ala265Ala). The TC genotype frequency in the patients was higher than that in the controls, similar to that for the C locus. The odds ratio of the TC genotypes was above 1, indicating that the presence of the TC genotype increases the incidence of congenital heart diseases. Thus, rs3999950 may be associated with congenital heart disease, and TBX20 may predispose children to the defect. PMID:27323105

  3. Turner syndrome and genetic polymorphism: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    de Marqui, Alessandra Bernadete Trovó

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To present the main results of the literature on genetic polymorphisms in Turner syndrome and their association with the clinical signs and the etiology of this chromosomal disorder. Data sources: The review was conducted in the PubMed database without any time limit, using the terms Turner syndrome and genetic polymorphism. A total of 116 articles were found, and based on the established inclusion and exclusion criteria 17 were selected for the review. Data synthesis: The polymorphisms investigated in patients with Turner syndrome were associated with growth deficit, causing short stature, low bone mineral density, autoimmunity and cardiac abnormalities, which are frequently found in patients with Turner syndrome. The role of single nucleotide polymorphisms in the etiology of Turner syndrome, i.e., in chromosomal nondisjunction, was also confirmed. Conclusions: Genetic polymorphisms appear to be associated with Turner syndrome. However, in view of the small number of published studies and their contradictory findings, further studies in different populations are needed in order to clarify the role of genetic variants in the clinical signs and etiology of the Turner syndrome. PMID:25765448

  4. Inflammatory bowel disease: the role of inflammatory cytokine gene polymorphisms.

    PubMed Central

    Balding, Joanna; Livingstone, Wendy J; Conroy, Judith; Mynett-Johnson, Lesley; Weir, Donald G; Mahmud, Nasir; Smith, Owen P

    2004-01-01

    The mechanisms responsible for development of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) have not been fully elucidated, although the main cause of disease pathology is attributed to up-regulated inflammatory processes. The aim of this study was to investigate frequencies of polymorphisms in genes encoding pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory markers in IBD patients and controls. We determined genotypes of patients with IBD (n= 172) and healthy controls (n= 389) for polymorphisms in genes encoding various cytokines (interleukin (IL)-1beta, IL-6, tumour necrosis factor (TNF), IL-10, IL-1 receptor antagonist). Association of these genotypes to disease incidence and pathophysiology was investigated. No strong association was found with occurrence of IBD. Variation was observed between the ulcerative colitis study group and the control population for the TNF-alpha-308 polymorphism (p= 0.0135). There was also variation in the frequency of IL-6-174 and TNF-alpha-308 genotypes in the ulcerative colitis group compared with the Crohn's disease group (p= 0.01). We concluded that polymorphisms in inflammatory genes are associated with variations in IBD phenotype and disease susceptibility. Whether the polymorphisms are directly involved in regulating cytokine production, and consequently pathophysiology of IBD, or serve merely as markers in linkage disequilibrium with susceptibility genes remains unclear. PMID:15223609

  5. Polymorphism and thermodynamics of m-hydroxybenzoic acid.

    PubMed

    Nordström, Fredrik L; Rasmuson, Ake C

    2006-08-01

    Solution and solid-state properties of m-hydroxybenzoic acid have been investigated. Two polymorphs were found where the monoclinic modification exhibits a higher stability than the orthorhombic form. The solubility of the monoclinic polymorph was determined between 10 and 50 degrees C in methanol, acetonitrile, acetic acid, acetone, water and ethyl acetate. The solubility of the orthorhombic polymorph was determined between 10 and 50 degrees C in acetonitrile, acetic acid, acetone and ethyl acetate. A thermodynamic analysis revealed a marked correlation between the molar solubility and the van't Hoff enthalpy of solution at constant temperature. In addition, in each solvent increased temperature resulted in increased van't Hoff enthalpy of solution. It is shown that the solubility data can be used to estimate melting properties for both polymorphs. The solubility ratio of the two forms and the DSC thermogram of the orthorhombic form strongly suggest that the system is monotropic. However, according to the polymorph rules of Burger and Ramberger, the estimated higher melting enthalpy and lower melting temperature of the orthorhombic form points towards an enantiotropic system. Hence, this system appears to be an exception to the Burger and Ramberger melting enthalpy rule, and the probable reason for this is found in the difference in the heat capacity of the two solid forms. PMID:16781127

  6. Polymorphic behavior of isonicotinamide in cooling crystallization from various solvents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, Thomas B.; Taris, Alessandra; Rong, Ben-Guang; Grosso, Massimiliano; Qu, Haiyan

    2016-09-01

    In this work the nucleation of different polymorphs of isonicotinamide (INA) from different solvents has been studied. The metastable zone width of INA in cooling crystallization from five different solvents has been investigated and attempts have been made to reveal the link between the INA molecular self-association to the polymorphism of the nucleated crystals using ATR FT-IR (Attenuated Total Reflectance Fourier Transform Infrared) and Raman spectroscopy. Raman and IR spectra of INA dissolved in different solvents have demonstrated that the INA molecules might associate in different configurations, whereas, the link between the structure of the molecular self-association and the structure of the nucleated polymorph is complicated by the influence of INA concentration. This is consistent with our previous study with piroxicam. The cooling crystallization of INA from five different solvents resulted in two different polymorphs depending on the initial concentration of the solution. The results obtained in the present work showed that information about self-association of an API (Active Pharmaceutical Ingredient) in a given solvent is not sufficient to predict the polymorphic behavior in all scenarios.

  7. Vitamin D Receptor Polymorphism and Breast Cancer Risk

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Demin; Jing, Lei; Zhang, Suzhan

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The objective was to perform a meta-analysis to summarize the available evidence from prospective nested case-control studies on the association of vitamin D receptor (VDR) polymorphism and the risk of breast cancer. We searched PubMed, ISI web of science, EMBASE, and reference lists for included articles. Study specific odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were pooled by using fixed-effect or random-effects models. Eight studies were included in the meta-analysis. There were no association between Fok1 gene allele contrast f versus F (OR: 0.859; 95%CI: 0.685–1.079), ff versus FF (OR: 0.893; 95%CI: 0.763–1.045), recessive models ff versus FF+Ff (OR: 0.932; 95%CI: 0.796–1.092), and dominant models ff+Ff versus FF (OR: 0.899; 95%CI: 0.780–1.037). The estimated VDR polymorphism showed no significant association between Bsm1, Taq1, Apa1 polymorphism, and breast cancer risk. In the Caucasian ethnic subgroup, no association was found between allele contrast, recessive models, and dominant models on Fok1, Bsm1 polymorphism, and breast cancer risk. VDR polymorphism (Fok1, Bsm1, Taq1, and Apa1) were not associated with the risk of breast cancer in the general population as well as Caucasian population. PMID:27149457

  8. Development of novel polymorphic microsatellite markers in Siganus fuscescens.

    PubMed

    Mao, X Q; Li, Z B; Ning, Y F; Shangguan, J B; Yuan, Y; Huang, Y S; Li, B B

    2016-07-29

    Rabbitfish, Siganus fuscescens, is widely distributed in the Indo-Pacific regions and eastern Mediterranean. Its dwelling place includes reef flats, coral reef regions, and seagrass meadows in tropical area and reef areas or shallow waters in locations at high latitudes. In the present study, 10 new polymorphic microsatellite markers were screened from 30 wild S. fuscescens individuals, using a method of fast isolation protocol and amplified fragment length polymorphism of sequences containing repeats. The number of polymorphic alleles per locus was 3 to 5 with a mean of 4.3, while the value of polymorphic information content ranged from 0.283 to 0.680. The values of the observed and expected heterozygosities were in the range 0.3333-0.8462 and 0.3011-0.7424, respectively. Deviation from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium was not observed in this study. These polymorphic loci are expected to be effective in evaluating the genetic diversity, population structure, and gene flow and in determining the paternity in S. fuscescens, as well as for conservation management.

  9. Micro-Evolution in Grasshoppers Mediated by Polymorphic Robertsonian Translocations

    PubMed Central

    Colombo, Pablo C.

    2013-01-01

    This review focuses on grasshoppers that are polymorphic for Robertsonian translocations because in these organisms the clarity of meiotic figures allows the study of both chiasma distribution and the orientation of trivalents and multivalents in metaphase I. Only five species of such grasshoppers were found in the literature, and all of them were from the New World: Oedaleonotus enigma (Scudder) (Orthoptera: Acrididae), Leptysma argentina Bruner, Dichroplus pratensis Bruner, Sinipta dalmani Stål, and Cornops aquaticum Bruner. A general feature of these species (except O. enigma) is that fusion carriers suffer a marked reduction of proximal and interstitial (with respect to the centromere) chiasma frequency; this fact, along with the reduction in the number of linkage groups with the consequent loss of independent segregation, produces a marked decrease of recombination in fusion carriers. This reduction in recombination has led to the conclusion that Robertsonian polymorphic grasshopper species share some properties with inversion polymorphic species of Drosophila, such as the central-marginal pattern (marginal populations are monomorphic, central populations are highly polymorphic). This pattern might be present in D. pratensis, which is certainly the most complex Robertsonian polymorphism system in the present study. However, L. argentina and C. aquaticum do not display this pattern. This issue is open to further research. Since C. aquaticum is soon to be released in South Africa as a biological control, the latitudinal pattern found in South America may repeat there. This experiment's outcome is open and deserves to be followed. PMID:23909914

  10. Klotho gene polymorphisms are related to colorectal cancer susceptibility

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Chang; Cui, Wei; Wang, Li; Yan, Lei; Ruan, Xinjian; Liu, Yanfang; Jia, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Xia

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship of Klotho gene G-395A and C1818T polymorphisms with colorectal cancer (CRC) susceptibility. Methods: 125 CRC patients and 125 controls were enrolled in the study. G-395A and C1818T polymorphisms were genotyped with polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) technology. Haploview software was utilized to conduct linkage disequilibrium and haplotype analysis. Odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (95% CI) were used to analyze the correlation of genotypes and haplotypes with CRC susceptibility. Results: AA and GA genotypes of G-395A polymorphisms were related with CRC risk (AA: OR = 4.161, 95% CI = 1.437-12.053; GA: OR = 1.958, 95% CI = 1.133-3.385). The frequency of A allele was much higher in case group, compared with controls (31.2% vs.17.6%) and the value of OR AND 95% CI suggested that A allele served as a risk factor for CRC (OR = 2.123, 95% CI = 1.393-3.236). Haplotypes analysis indicated that A-C and A-T haplotypes were significantly associated with risk of CRC (OR = 1.822, 95% CI = 1.124-2.954; OR = 2.877, 95% CI = 1.340-6.176). Conclusion: G-395A polymorphism of Klotho gene could increase the risk of CRC. PMID:26261651

  11. Polymorphism and thermodynamics of m-hydroxybenzoic acid.

    PubMed

    Nordström, Fredrik L; Rasmuson, Ake C

    2006-08-01

    Solution and solid-state properties of m-hydroxybenzoic acid have been investigated. Two polymorphs were found where the monoclinic modification exhibits a higher stability than the orthorhombic form. The solubility of the monoclinic polymorph was determined between 10 and 50 degrees C in methanol, acetonitrile, acetic acid, acetone, water and ethyl acetate. The solubility of the orthorhombic polymorph was determined between 10 and 50 degrees C in acetonitrile, acetic acid, acetone and ethyl acetate. A thermodynamic analysis revealed a marked correlation between the molar solubility and the van't Hoff enthalpy of solution at constant temperature. In addition, in each solvent increased temperature resulted in increased van't Hoff enthalpy of solution. It is shown that the solubility data can be used to estimate melting properties for both polymorphs. The solubility ratio of the two forms and the DSC thermogram of the orthorhombic form strongly suggest that the system is monotropic. However, according to the polymorph rules of Burger and Ramberger, the estimated higher melting enthalpy and lower melting temperature of the orthorhombic form points towards an enantiotropic system. Hence, this system appears to be an exception to the Burger and Ramberger melting enthalpy rule, and the probable reason for this is found in the difference in the heat capacity of the two solid forms.

  12. Reduced X-linked nucleotide polymorphism in Drosophila simulans.

    PubMed

    Begun, D J; Whitley, P

    2000-05-23

    Population genetic theory predicts that selectively driven changes of allele frequency for both beneficial and deleterious mutants reduce polymorphism at tightly linked sites. All else being equal, these reductions in polymorphism are expected to be greater when recombination rates are lower. Therefore, the empirical observation of a positive correlation between recombination rates and amounts of DNA polymorphism across the Drosophila melanogaster genome can be explained by two very different types of natural selection. Here, we evaluate alternative models of effects of selection on linked sites by comparison of X-linked and autosomal variation. We present polymorphism data from 40 genes distributed across chromosome arms X and 3R of Drosophila simulans, a sibling species of D. melanogaster. We find significantly less silent polymorphism in D. simulans on the X chromosome than on 3R, but no difference between arms for silent divergence between species. This pattern is incompatible with predictions from theoretical studies on the effect of negative selection on linked sites. We propose that some form of positive selection having greater effects on sex chromosomes than on autosomes is the better explanation for the D. simulans data.

  13. Development of novel polymorphic microsatellite markers in Siganus fuscescens.

    PubMed

    Mao, X Q; Li, Z B; Ning, Y F; Shangguan, J B; Yuan, Y; Huang, Y S; Li, B B

    2016-01-01

    Rabbitfish, Siganus fuscescens, is widely distributed in the Indo-Pacific regions and eastern Mediterranean. Its dwelling place includes reef flats, coral reef regions, and seagrass meadows in tropical area and reef areas or shallow waters in locations at high latitudes. In the present study, 10 new polymorphic microsatellite markers were screened from 30 wild S. fuscescens individuals, using a method of fast isolation protocol and amplified fragment length polymorphism of sequences containing repeats. The number of polymorphic alleles per locus was 3 to 5 with a mean of 4.3, while the value of polymorphic information content ranged from 0.283 to 0.680. The values of the observed and expected heterozygosities were in the range 0.3333-0.8462 and 0.3011-0.7424, respectively. Deviation from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium was not observed in this study. These polymorphic loci are expected to be effective in evaluating the genetic diversity, population structure, and gene flow and in determining the paternity in S. fuscescens, as well as for conservation management. PMID:27525874

  14. Solid-state characterization of two polymorphs of aspartame hemihydrate.

    PubMed

    Leung, S S; Padden, B E; Munson, E J; Grant, D J

    1998-04-01

    From the known crystal structure of aspartame hemihydrate, designated form 1, the theoretical powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) pattern was calculated. This PXRD pattern differs significantly from that of the commercially available aspartame hemihydrate, which is therefore a different polymorph, designated form II. Form II transforms to form I during ball-milling or on heating for 30 min at 160 degrees C in the presence of steam. The two polymorphs were compared by PXRD, differential scanning calorimetry, thermogravimetric analysis, Karl Fischer titrimetry, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) absorption spectroscopy, 13C solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (SSNMR) spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, particle size analysis, and measurements of true density and intrinsic dissolution rate. Comparison of the 13C SSNMR and FTIR spectra of the two polymorphs suggests that the crystal structure of form II is less symmetric, with the side chains located in multiple environments. Although both hemihydrate polymorphs on heating in the absence of moisture dehydrate to a crystalline anhydrate, form I does so at a lower temperature, suggesting weaker interactions of water with aspartame molecules. At higher temperatures the anhydrate from both hemihydrate polymorphs yields 3-(carboxymethyl)-6-benzyl-2,5-dioxopiperazine (DKP) by a cyclization reaction for which the temperature, reaction enthalpy, and activation energy are very similar. Both hemihydrate forms, when in contact with liquid water, yield the 2.5-hydrate.

  15. Surface Accuracy Measurement Sensor for Deployable Reflector Antennas (SAMS DRA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neiswander, R. S.

    1980-01-01

    Specifications, system configurations, and concept tests for surface measurement sensors for deployable reflector antennas are presented. Two approaches toward the optical measurement of remote target displacements are discussed: optical ranging, in which the basic measurement is target-to-sensor range; and in particular, optical angular sensing, in which the principle measurements are of target angular displacements lateral to the line of sight. Four representative space antennas are examined.

  16. The Y Alu polymorphism in southern African populations and its relationship to other Y-specific polymorphisms

    SciTech Connect

    Spurdle, A.B.; Jenkins, T. ); Hammer, M.F. )

    1994-02-01

    Y-linked polymorphisms were studied in a number of African populations. The frequency of the alleles of a Y-specific Alu insertion polymorphism, termed the [open quotes]Y Alu polymorphism,[close quotes] was determined in 889 individuals from 23 different African population groups. A trend in frequency was observed, with the insert largely absent in Caucasoid populations, at intermediate frequency in the Khoisan, and at high frequency in Negroids. The insert predates diversification of Homo sapiens, since it occurs in all groups. The Alu insertion is believed to result from a unique mutation event, and comparisons between this and several other Y-linked polymorphisms were carried out in an attempt to validate their usefulness in population and evolutionary studies. The p21A1/Taql and pDP31/EcoRI polymorphisms and 49a/TaqI alleles were all shown to have arisen on more than one occasion, and evidence exists for a preraciation crossover event between the Y-linked pseudoautosomal XY275 locus and the Y chromosome pseudoautosomal boundary. 33 refs., 4 figs., 5 tabs.

  17. Reverse random amplified microsatellite polymorphism reveals enhanced polymorphisms in the 3' end of simple sequence repeats in the pepper genome.

    PubMed

    Min, Woong-Ki; Han, Jung-Heon; Kang, Won-Hee; Lee, Heung-Ryul; Kim, Byung-Dong

    2008-09-30

    Microsatellites or simple sequence repeats (SSR) are widely distributed in eukaryotic genomes and are informative genetic markers. Despite many advantages of SSR markers such as a high degree of allelic polymorphisms, co-dominant inheritance, multi-allelism, and genome-wide coverage in various plant species, they also have shortcomings such as low polymorphic rates between genetically close lines, especially in Capsicum annuum. We developed an alternative technique to SSR by normalizing and alternating anchored primers in random amplified microsatellite polymorphisms (RAMP). This technique, designated reverse random amplified microsatellite polymorphism (rRAMP), allows the detection of nucleotide variation in the 3' region flanking an SSR using normalized anchored and random primer combinations. The reproducibility and frequency of polymorphic loci in rRAMP was vigorously enhanced by translocation of the 5' anchor of repeat sequences to the 3' end position and selective use of moderate arbitrary primers. In our study, the PCR banding pattern of rRAMP was highly dependent on the frequency of repeat motifs and primer combinations with random primers. Linkage analysis showed that rRAMP markers were well scattered on an intra-specific pepper map. Based on these results, we suggest that this technique is useful for studying genetic diversity, molecular fingerprinting, and rapidly constructing molecular maps for diverse plant species. PMID:18483466

  18. Hepatitis-related hepatocellular carcinoma: Insights into cytokine gene polymorphisms

    PubMed Central

    Dondeti, Mahmoud Fathy; El-Maadawy, Eman Anwar; Talaat, Roba Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a primary liver cancer, which is one of the most prevalent cancers among humans. Many factors are involved in the liver carcinogenesis as lifestyle and environmental factors. Hepatitis virus infections are now recognized as the chief etiology of HCC; however, the precise mechanism is still enigmatic till now. The inflammation triggered by the cytokine-mediated immune response, was reported to be the closest factor of HCC development. Cytokines are immunoregulatory proteins produced by immune cells, functioning as orchestrators of the immune response. Genes of cytokines and their receptors are known to be polymorphic, which give rise to variations in their genes. These variations have a great impact on the expression levels of the secreted cytokines. Therefore, cytokine gene polymorphisms are involved in the molecular mechanisms of several diseases. This piece of work aims to shed much light on the role of cytokine gene polymorphisms as genetic host factor in hepatitis related HCC. PMID:27570418

  19. Investigation of the Polymorphs and Hydrolysis of Uranium Trioxide

    SciTech Connect

    Sweet, Lucas E.; Blake, Thomas A.; Henager, Charles H.; Hu, Shenyang Y.; Johnson, Timothy J.; Meier, David E.; Peper, Shane M.; Schwantes, Jon M.

    2013-04-01

    This work focuses on progress in gaining a better understanding of the polymorphic nature of the UO3-water system, one of several important materials associated with the nuclear fuel cycle. The UO3-water system is complex and has not been fully characterized, even though these species are common throughout the fuel cycle. Powder x-ray diffraction, Raman and fluorescence characterization was performed on polymorphic forms of UO3 and UO3 hydrolysis products for the purpose of developing some predictive capability of estimating process history and utility, e.g. for polymorphic phases of unknown origin. Specifically, we have investigated three industrially relevant production pathways of UO3 and discovered a previously unknown low temperature route to β-UO3. Pure phases of UO3, hydrolysis products and starting materials were used to establish optical spectroscopic signatures for these compounds.

  20. DNA Polymorphisms in Lentinula edodes, the Shiitake Mushroom

    PubMed Central

    Kulkarni, Rajiv K.

    1991-01-01

    DNA restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs) were examined in Lentinula edodes strains. Genomic DNA from strain 70 was cloned in plasmid vector pUC19, and 18 random clones containing low-copy DNA sequences were used to probe seven strains in Southern DNA-DNA hybridizations. Each cloned fragment revealed DNA polymorphism. An RFLP genotype was determined for each strain and the genetic relatedness was assessed. The coefficients of genetic similarity among the seven strains ranged from 0.43 to 0.90. The inheritance of RFLP markers was examined in single spore isolates. Homokaryons displayed a loss of polymorphic bands compared with the parent dikaryon. Hybrids constructed by crossing compatible homokaryons displayed the inheritance of RFLP markers from each parent homokaryon. Images PMID:16348509

  1. Interleukin 28B genetic polymorphism and hepatitis B virus infection.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Toru

    2014-09-14

    Interleukin (IL) 28B genetic polymorphism is significantly associated with the sustained virological response rate in patients with chronic hepatitis C treated with pegylated interferon-α (PEG-IFN) plus ribavirin and with spontaneous hepatitis C virus clearance. However, a consensus on the relationship between IL28B genetic polymorphism and the favorable outcome of chronic hepatitis B virus infection defined by hepatitis B e antigen seroconversion, and/or hepatitis B surface antigen seroclearance in patients treated with interferon or PEG-IFN has not been reached. Several reports failed to show a positive association, while some studies demonstrated a positive association in certain subject settings. More prospective studies including large cohorts are needed to determine the possible association between IL28B genetic polymorphism and the outcome of interferon or PEG-IFN treatment for chronic hepatitis B.

  2. Mu opioid receptor polymorphism, early social adversity, and social traits.

    PubMed

    Carver, Charles S; Johnson, Sheri L; Kim, Youngmee

    2016-10-01

    A polymorphism in the mu opioid receptor gene OPRM1 (rs1799971) has been investigated for its role in sensitivity to social contexts. Evidence suggests that the G allele of this polymorphism is associated with higher levels of sensitivity. This study tested for main effects of the polymorphism and its interaction with a self-report measure of childhood adversity as an index of negative environment. Outcomes were several personality measures relevant to social connection. Significant interactions were obtained, such that the negative impact of childhood adversity on personality was greater among G carriers than among A homozygotes on measures of agreeableness, interdependence, anger proneness, hostility, authentic pride, life engagement, and an index of (mostly negative) feelings coloring one's world view. Findings support the role of OPRM1 in sensitivity to negative environments. Limitations are noted, including the lack of a measure of advantageous social environment to assess sensitivity to positive social contexts.

  3. NQR investigation and characterization of cocrystals and crystal polymorphs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seliger, Janez; Žagar, Veselko; Asaji, Tetsuo

    2013-05-01

    The application of 14N NQR to the study of cocrystals and crystal polymorphs is reviewed. In ferroelectric and antiferroelectric organic cocrystals 14N NQR is used to determine proton position in an N-H...O hydrogen bond and proton displacement below TC. In cocrystal isonicitinamide - oxalic acid (2:1) 14N NQR is used to distinguish between two polymorphs and to determine the type of the hydrogen bond (N-...H-O). The difference in the 14N NQR spectra of cocrystal formers and cocrystal is investigated in case of carbamazepine, saccharin and carbamazepine - saccharin (1:1). The experimental resolution allows an unambiguous distinction between the 14N NQR spectrum of the cocrystal and the 14N NQR spectra of the cocrystal formers. The possibility of application of NQR and double resonance for the determination of the inhomogeneity of the sample and for the study of the life time of an unstable polymorph is discussed.

  4. Hepatitis-related hepatocellular carcinoma: Insights into cytokine gene polymorphisms.

    PubMed

    Dondeti, Mahmoud Fathy; El-Maadawy, Eman Anwar; Talaat, Roba Mohamed

    2016-08-14

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a primary liver cancer, which is one of the most prevalent cancers among humans. Many factors are involved in the liver carcinogenesis as lifestyle and environmental factors. Hepatitis virus infections are now recognized as the chief etiology of HCC; however, the precise mechanism is still enigmatic till now. The inflammation triggered by the cytokine-mediated immune response, was reported to be the closest factor of HCC development. Cytokines are immunoregulatory proteins produced by immune cells, functioning as orchestrators of the immune response. Genes of cytokines and their receptors are known to be polymorphic, which give rise to variations in their genes. These variations have a great impact on the expression levels of the secreted cytokines. Therefore, cytokine gene polymorphisms are involved in the molecular mechanisms of several diseases. This piece of work aims to shed much light on the role of cytokine gene polymorphisms as genetic host factor in hepatitis related HCC. PMID:27570418

  5. High-pressure polymorphism of acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin): Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crowell, Ethan L.; Dreger, Zbigniew A.; Gupta, Yogendra M.

    2015-02-01

    Micro-Raman spectroscopy was used to elucidate the high-pressure polymorphic behavior of acetylsalicylic acid (ASA), an important pharmaceutical compound known as aspirin. Using a diamond anvil cell (DAC), single crystals of the two polymorphic phases of aspirin existing at ambient conditions (ASA-I and ASA-II) were compressed to 10 GPa. We found that ASA-I does not transform to ASA-II, but instead transforms to a new phase (ASA-III) above ∼2 GPa. It is demonstrated that this transformation primarily introduces structural changes in the bonding and arrangement of the acetyl groups and is reversible upon the release of pressure. In contrast, a less dense ASA-II shows no transition in the pressure range studied, though it appears to exhibit a disordered structure above 7 GPa. Our results suggest that ASA-III is the most stable polymorph of aspirin at high pressures.

  6. Stability of polymorphic forms of ranitidine hydrochloride.

    PubMed

    Wu, V; Rades, T; Saville, D J

    2000-07-01

    Ranitidine-HCl can exist in two different polymorphic forms: form I (m.p. 134-140 degrees C) and form II (m.p. 140-144 degrees C). In the present study the stability of form I of ranitidine-HCl to a selection of powder pretreatments, to reflect conditions which might occur in manufacturing procedures, and also to a limited range of storage conditions was investigated. The original samples of form I and form II used were characterised by X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD), hot stage microscopy (HSM) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). A quantitative XRPD method for determining the fraction of form II in the presence of form I was used. XRPD data were analysed using regression techniques and artificial neural networks (ANN). The quantitative XRPD technique was then used to monitor the relative proportion of form II in each treated sample. Pretreatments of form I included (i) mixing with form II or with common excipients (ii) compression and grinding (iii) contact with solvents (followed by drying) before storage. Storage conditions involved three temperatures (20 degrees C, 30 degrees C, 42 degrees C) and three relative humidities (45% RH; 55% RH; 75% RH). Samples were stored for a period of 6 months. A limited factorial design was used. No increase in the form II:form I ratio was observed in the following pretreatment processes: introduction of form II nuclei into form I; introduction of excipients to form I; compression of form I powder at 5 and 15 tons; normal mixing and grinding processes; addition of isopropanol (IPA) or water/IPA mix followed by drying. In the pretreatment process where water was added to form I powder (with most or all of the powder dissolving), drying of the liquefied mass led to a mix of form I and form II. On storage at room temperature (20-30 degrees C), low relative humidity (45-55% RH), and in an air-tight container there was no increase in the form II:form I ratio. Storage of form I/form II mixes, particularly at high humidity

  7. Catalog of microRNA seed polymorphisms in vertebrates.

    PubMed

    Zorc, Minja; Skok, Dasa Jevsinek; Godnic, Irena; Calin, George Adrian; Horvat, Simon; Jiang, Zhihua; Dovc, Peter; Kunej, Tanja

    2012-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of non-coding RNA that plays an important role in posttranscriptional regulation of mRNA. Evidence has shown that miRNA gene variability might interfere with its function resulting in phenotypic variation and disease susceptibility. A major role in miRNA target recognition is ascribed to complementarity with the miRNA seed region that can be affected by polymorphisms. In the present study, we developed an online tool for the detection of miRNA polymorphisms (miRNA SNiPer) in vertebrates (http://www.integratomics-time.com/miRNA-SNiPer) and generated a catalog of miRNA seed region polymorphisms (miR-seed-SNPs) consisting of 149 SNPs in six species. Although a majority of detected polymorphisms were due to point mutations, two consecutive nucleotide substitutions (double nucleotide polymorphisms, DNPs) were also identified in nine miRNAs. We determined that miR-SNPs are frequently located within the quantitative trait loci (QTL), chromosome fragile sites, and cancer susceptibility loci, indicating their potential role in the genetic control of various complex traits. To test this further, we performed an association analysis between the mmu-miR-717 seed SNP rs30372501, which is polymorphic in a large number of standard inbred strains, and all phenotypic traits in these strains deposited in the Mouse Phenome Database. Analysis showed a significant association between the mmu-miR-717 seed SNP and a diverse array of traits including behavior, blood-clinical chemistry, body weight size and growth, and immune system suggesting that seed SNPs can indeed have major pleiotropic effects. The bioinformatics analyses, data and tools developed in the present study can serve researchers as a starting point in testing more targeted hypotheses and designing experiments using optimal species or strains for further mechanistic studies.

  8. Association of interleukin 22 polymorphisms with gastric cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Qin, Shan-yu; Yang, Xian-wen; Luo, Wei; Chen, Mei; Liu, Zhi-ling; Su, Si-biao; Jiang, Hai-xing

    2015-03-01

    Interleukin (IL)-22 has been implicated in inflammation and tumorigenesis. To date, no studies have investigated the role of IL-22 polymorphism in the carcinogenesis of gastric cancer (GC). In this study, we aimed to investigate the association of IL-22 polymorphisms with the risk of GC in a Chinese population. One hundred eight GC patients and 110 healthy controls were included in the study. IL-22 rs1179251, rs2227485, and rs2227473 polymorphisms were determined by PCR amplification and DNA sequencing. Haplotypes were constructed, and a possible association of these haplotypes with GC was assessed. The distribution of IL-22 rs1179251 polymorphism with clinical parameters was also analyzed. The IL-22 rs1179251 polymorphism was significantly associated with an increased risk of GC (p < 0.05). Stratified analysis revealed that rs1179251 was associated with advanced stages, lymph node metastases, and distant metastases of GC (p < 0.05). No associations were found between rs2227485 and rs2227473 and the risk of GC (p > 0.05). Three possible haplotypes (C(rs1179251)-C(rs2227485)-G(rs2227485), C(rs1179251)-T(rs2227485)-G(rs2227485), and G(rs1179251)-T(rs2227485)-A(rs2227485)) were identified, but no associations were found between these and the risk of GC (p > 0.05). In summary, our study demonstrates that the rs1179251 polymorphism of IL-22 was associated with an increased risk of GC and may influence the progression of GC. Future larger studies with other ethnic populations are required to confirm these findings.

  9. A two-stage model for Cepaea polymorphism

    PubMed Central

    Cook, L. M.

    1998-01-01

    The history of the study of snails in the genus Cepaea is briefly outlined. Cepaea nemoralis and C. hortensis are polymorphic for genetically controlled shell colour and banding, which has been the main interest of the work covered. Random drift, selective predation and climatic selection, both at a macro- and micro-scale, all affect gene frequency. The usual approach to understanding maintenance of the polymorphism, has been to look for centripetal effects on frequency. Possible processes include balance of mutation pressure and drift, heterozygote advantage, relational balance heterosis, frequency-dependent predation, multi-niche selective balance, or some combination of these. Mutational balance is overlaid by more substantial forces. There is some evidence for heterosis. Predation by birds may protect the polymorphism, and act apostatically to favour distinct morphs. Although not substantiated for Cepaea, many studies show that predators behave in the appropriate manner, while shell colour polymorphisms in molluscs occur most commonly in species exposed to visually searching predators. It is not known whether different thermal properties of the shells help to generate equilibria. Migration between colonies is probably greater than originally thought. The present geographical range has been occupied for less than 5000 generations. Climatic and human modification alter snail habitats relatively rapidly, which in turn changes selection pressures. A simple simulation shows that migration coupled with selection which fluctuates but is not centripetal, may retain polymorphism for sufficiently long to account for the patterns we see today. There may therefore be a two-stage basis to the polymorphism, comprising long-term but weak balancing forces coupled with fluctuating selection which does not necessarily balance but results in very slow elimination. Persistence of genetic variants in this way may provide the conditions for evolution of a balanced genome.

  10. Polymorphism of the DNA Base Excision Repair Genes in Keratoconus

    PubMed Central

    Wojcik, Katarzyna A.; Synowiec, Ewelina; Sobierajczyk, Katarzyna; Izdebska, Justyna; Blasiak, Janusz; Szaflik, Jerzy; Szaflik, Jacek P.

    2014-01-01

    Keratoconus (KC) is a degenerative corneal disorder for which the exact pathogenesis is not yet known. Oxidative stress is reported to be associated with this disease. The stress may damage corneal biomolecules, including DNA, and such damage is primarily removed by base excision repair (BER). Variation in genes encoding BER components may influence the effectiveness of corneal cells to cope with oxidative stress. In the present work we genotyped 5 polymorphisms of 4 BER genes in 284 patients and 353 controls. The A/A genotype of the c.–1370T>A polymorphism of the DNA polymerase γ (POLG) gene was associated with increased occurrence of KC, while the A/T genotype was associated with decreased occurrence of KC. The A/G genotype and the A allele of the c.1196A>G polymorphism of the X-ray repair cross-complementing group 1 (XRCC1) were associated with increased, and the G/G genotype and the G allele, with decreased KC occurrence. Also, the C/T and T as well as C/C genotypes and alleles of the c.580C>T polymorphism of the same gene displayed relationship with KC occurrence. Neither the g.46438521G>C polymorphism of the Nei endonuclease VIII-like 1 (NEIL1) nor the c.2285T>C polymorphism of the poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) was associated with KC. In conclusion, the variability of the XRCC1 and POLG genes may play a role in KC pathogenesis and determine the risk of this disease. PMID:25356504

  11. Polymorphic phases of sp3-hybridized carbon under cold compression.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Rulong; Zeng, Xiao Cheng

    2012-05-01

    It is well established that graphite can be transformed into superhard carbons under cold compression (Mao et al. Science 2003, 302, 425). However, structure of the superhard carbon is yet to be determined experimentally. We have performed an extensive structural search for the high-pressure crystalline phases of carbon using the evolutionary algorithm. Nine low-energy polymorphic structures of sp(3)-hybridized carbon result from the unbiased search. These new polymorphic carbon structures together with previously reported low-energy sp(3)-hybridized carbon structures (e.g., M-carbon, W-carbon, and Cco-C(8) or Z-carbon) can be classified into three groups on the basis of different ways of stacking two (or more) out of five (A-E) types of buckled graphene layers. Such a classification scheme points out a simple way to construct a variety of sp(3)-hybridized carbon allotropes via stacking buckled graphene layers in different combinations of the A-E types by design. Density-functional theory calculations indicate that, among the nine low-energy crystalline structures, seven are energetically more favorable than the previously reported most stable crystalline structure (i.e., Cco-C(8) or Z-carbon) in the pressure range 0-25 GPa. Moreover, several newly predicted polymorphic sp(3)-hybridized carbon structures possess elastic moduli and hardness close to those of the cubic diamond. In particular, Z-carbon-4 possesses the highest hardness (93.4) among all the low-energy sp(3)-hybridized carbon structures predicted today. The calculated electronic structures suggest that most polymorphic carbon structures are optically transparent. The simulated X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectra of a few polymorphic structures are in good agreement with the experimental spectrum, suggesting that samples from the cold-compressed graphite experiments may consist of multiple polymorphic phases of sp(3)-hybridized carbon. PMID:22490007

  12. HFE polymorphisms affect survival of brain tumor patients.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sang Y; Slagle-Webb, Becky; Sheehan, Jonas M; Zhu, Junjia; Muscat, Joshua E; Glantz, Michael; Connor, James R

    2015-03-01

    The HFE (high iron) protein plays a key role in the regulation of body iron. HFE polymorphisms (H63D and C282Y) are the common genetic variants in Caucasians. Based on frequency data, both HFE polymorphisms have been associated with increased risk in a number of cancers. The prevalence of the two major HFE polymorphisms in a human brain tumor patient populations and the impact of HFE polymorphisms on survival have not been studied. In the present study, there is no overall difference in survival by HFE genotype. However, male GBM patients with H63D HFE (H63D) have poorer overall survival than wild type HFE (WT) male GBM (p = 0.03). In GBM patients with the C282Y HFE polymorphism (C282Y), female patients have poorer survival than male patients (p = 0.05). In addition, female metastatic brain tumor patients with C282Y have shorter survival times post diagnosis than WT patients (p = 0.02) or male metastatic brain tumor patients with C282Y (p = 0.02). There is a tendency toward a lower proportion of H63D genotype in GBM patients than a non-tumor control group (p = 0.09) or other subtypes of brain tumors. In conclusion, our study suggests that HFE genotype impacts survival of brain tumor patients in a gender specific manner. We previously reported that glioma and neuroblastoma cell lines with HFE polymorphisms show greater resistance to chemo and radiotherapy. Taken together, these data suggest HFE genotype is an important consideration for evaluating and planning therapeutic strategies in brain tumor patients.

  13. African origin of human-specific polymorphic Alu insertions

    SciTech Connect

    Batzer, M.A.; Alegria-Hartman, M. ); Stoneking, M. ); Bazan, H.; Kass, D.H.; Shaikh, T.H.; Scheer, W.D. ); Novick, G.E.; Herrera, R.J. ); Ioannou, P.A. )

    1994-12-06

    Alu elements are a family of interspersed repeats that have mobilized throughout primate genomes by retroposition from a few [open quotes]master[close quotes] genes. Among the 500,000 Alu elements in the human genome are members of the human-specific subfamily that are not fixed in the human species. Four such polymorphic human-specific Alu insertions were analyzed by a rapid, PCR-based assay. These four polymorphic Alu insertions were shown to be absent from the genomes of a number of nonhuman primates, consistent with their arising as human genetic polymorphisms sometime after the human/African ape divergence. Analysis of 664 unrelated individuals from 16 population groups from around the world revealed substantial levels of variation within population groups and significant genetic differentiation among groups. No significant associations were found among the four loci, consistent with their location on different chromosomes. A maximum-likelihood tree of population relationships showed four major groupings consisting of Africa, Europe, Asia/Americas, and Australia/New Guinea, which is concordant with similar trees based on other loci. A particularly useful feature of the polymorphic Alu insertions is that the ancestral state is known to be the absence of the Alu element, and the presence of the Alu element at a particular chromosomal site reflects a single, unique event in human evolution. A hypothetical ancestral group can then be included in the tree analysis, with the frequency of each insertion set to zero. The ancestral group connected to the maximum-likelihood tree within the African branch, which suggests an African origin of these polymorphic Alu insertions. These data are concordant with other diverse data sets, which lends further support to the recent African origin hypothesis for modern humans. Polymorphic Alu insertions represent a source of genetic variation for studying human population structure and evolution. 45 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Associations between vitamin D receptor polymorphisms and breast cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jie; He, Qi; Shao, Yu-Guo; Ji, Min; Bao, Wei

    2013-12-01

    Many epidemiologic studies have investigated the association between vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene polymorphisms and breast cancer risk, but the results were inconsistent. We performed a meta-analysis of 31 studies on VDR polymorphisms, including FokI, BsmI, TaqI, and ApaI, and breast cancer risk published before May 2013. For FokI, the allele of f was found to be associated with increased risk of breast cancer compared with F (OR, 1.19; 95% CI, 1.03-1.36). Patients with ff genotype were at significantly higher risk of breast cancer compared with those with FF genotype (OR, 1.95; 95% CI, 1.66-2.29). In subgroup analysis by race, Fok1 polymorphism was significantly associated with breast cancer risk for Caucasian population (f vs. F: OR, 1.35; 95% CI, 1.14-1.59; ff vs. FF: OR, 2.18; 95% CI, 1.86-2.54; ff vs. FF + Ff: OR, 1.16; 95% CI, 1.03-1.30). For ApaI, aa genotype was associated with increased breast cancer risk in Asian population based on four studies (aa vs. Aa + AA, OR, 1.49; 95% CI, 1.12-1.98). No significant association was found between breast cancer risk and ApaI and TaqI polymorphism in different models and populations. Our updated meta-analysis showed that Fok1 polymorphism is associated with breast cancer risk both in general population and in Caucasian population. ApaI polymorphism might be associated with breast cancer risk in Asian population. Large well-designed epidemiological studies are necessary to clarify the risk identified in the current meta-analysis. PMID:23900677

  15. [Genetic polymorphism of hemoglobin, protein systems, blood enzymes and their relationship to reproducibility].

    PubMed

    Siratskiĭ, I Z

    1992-01-01

    The genetic polymorphism of haemoglobin, transferrin, amylase, alkaline phosphatase, ceruloplasmin, beta-lactoglobulins and casein were studied. The relationship between the level of the heterozygosity of the blood polymorphic protein and enzyme systems was determined.

  16. Asymmetric Dispersal Can Maintain Larval Polymorphism: A Model Motivated by Streblospio benedicti

    PubMed Central

    Zakas, Christina; Hall, David W.

    2012-01-01

    Polymorphism in traits affecting dispersal occurs in a diverse variety of taxa. Typically, the maintenance of a dispersal polymorphism is attributed to environmental heterogeneity where parental bet-hedging can be favored. There are, however, examples of dispersal polymorphisms that occur across similar environments. For example, the estuarine polychaete Streblospio benedicti has a highly heritable offspring dimorphism that affects larval dispersal potential. We use analytical models of dispersal to determine the conditions necessary for a stable dispersal polymorphism to exist. We show that in asexual haploids, sexual haploids, and in sexual diploids in the absence of overdominance, asymmetric dispersal is required in order to maintain a dispersal polymorphism when patches do not vary in intrinsic quality. Our study adds an additional factor, dispersal asymmetry, to the short list of mechanisms that can maintain polymorphism in nature. The region of the parameter space in which polymorphism is possible is limited, suggesting why dispersal polymorphisms within species are rare. PMID:22576818

  17. Genomic and genotyping characterization of haplotype-based polymorphic microsatellites in Prunus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Efficient utilization of microsatellites in genetic studies remains impeded largely due to the unknown status of their primer reliability, chromosomal location, and allele polymorphism. Discovery and characterization of microsatellite polymorphisms in a taxon will disclose the unknowns and gain new ...

  18. Combined crystal structure prediction and high-pressure crystallization in rational pharmaceutical polymorph screening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neumann, M. A.; van de Streek, J.; Fabbiani, F. P. A.; Hidber, P.; Grassmann, O.

    2015-07-01

    Organic molecules, such as pharmaceuticals, agro-chemicals and pigments, frequently form several crystal polymorphs with different physicochemical properties. Finding polymorphs has long been a purely experimental game of trial-and-error. Here we utilize in silico polymorph screening in combination with rationally planned crystallization experiments to study the polymorphism of the pharmaceutical compound Dalcetrapib, with 10 torsional degrees of freedom one of the most flexible molecules ever studied computationally. The experimental crystal polymorphs are found at the bottom of the calculated lattice energy landscape, and two predicted structures are identified as candidates for a missing, thermodynamically more stable polymorph. Pressure-dependent stability calculations suggested high pressure as a means to bring these polymorphs into existence. Subsequently, one of them could indeed be crystallized in the 0.02 to 0.50 GPa pressure range and was found to be metastable at ambient pressure, effectively derisking the appearance of a more stable polymorph during late-stage development of Dalcetrapib.

  19. DNA polymorphism at the casein loci in sheep.

    PubMed

    Di Gregorio, P; Rando, A; Pieragostini, E; Masina, P

    1991-01-01

    By using seven endonucleases and four bovine cDNA probes specific for alpha S1-, alpha S2-, beta-, and kappa-casein genes, nine restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs) have been found in the sheep orthologous DNA regions. In contrast to the low level of variation observed at the protein level, these DNA polymorphisms determine a high level of heterozygosity and, therefore, represent useful tools for genetic analyses since they can also be obtained without the need for gene expression. In fact, informative matings suggest that in sheep, as in cattle, the four loci are linked.

  20. Novel polymorphs of the anti-Trypanosoma cruzi drug benznidazole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Honorato, Sara Braga; Mendonça, Jorge Souza; Boechat, Nubia; Oliveira, Alcemira Conceição; Mendes Filho, Josué; Ellena, Javier; Ayala, Alejandro Pedro

    2014-01-01

    Benznidazole (N-benzyl-2-(2-nitro-1H-imidazol-1-yl)acetamide), is a nitro-heterocyclic drug used in the treatment of Chagas disease. Despite the fact that this drug was released more than 30 years ago, little information about its solid state properties is available in the literature. In this study, it was verified that this drug exhibits three polymorphs, which were characterized in situ by X-ray powder diffraction, thermal analysis, hot stage microscopy and infrared spectroscopy. The thermodynamic relationships among these polymorphs were also discussed.

  1. Kappa-casein polymorphisms among cattle breeds and bison herds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cronin, M.A.; Cockett, N.

    1993-01-01

    We identified the HindIII restriction site polymorphism Of kappa-casein in cattle reported by Pinder et al. (Animal Genetics 22, 11, 1991) and found an additonal polymorphism (RsaI) in cattle and bison. The Hin dIII and Rsa I restriction sites were mapped and three haplotypes (alleles) were identified. Preliminary screening of 39 cattle and 71 bison revealed one allele restricted to cattle, one restricted to bison, and one shared by the species. No fixed allelic differences were observed among cattle breeds or among bison herds or subspecies.

  2. Symmetry, chirality and crystalline tendency: the polymorphism of triacylglycerols.

    PubMed

    Craven, R John; Lencki, Robert W

    2012-03-01

    The physical properties of foods containing fat are often dependent on the polymorphism of the constituent triacylglycerols (TAG). This is illustrated by the favourable physical and sensory properties associated with the β' form for margarine and butter and the β(V) form for chocolate. Recent investigations have revealed that the stereochemistry of TAG molecules has a profound influence on their polymorphism. For instance, a pure enantiomer of TAG (sn-10:0-10:0-16:0) was β'-tending while the corresponding racemic mixture (rac-10:0-10:0-16:0) was β-tending. In addition, the binary phase diagram for mixtures of the two enantiomers, sn-10:0-10:0-16:0 and sn-16:0-10:0-10:0, showed the formation of a eutectic (metastable β'-form conglomerate) and a molecular compound (stable β-form racemic compound). At heart, these differences in polymorph and crystalline tendency stem from differences in the stereochemistry of the unit cell -i.e. both enantiomers in the β unit cell, one enantiomer in the β' unit cell. Information on the relative stereochemical arrangement of molecules within the unit cell is also available from the crystallographic space group. This information (determined by X-ray diffraction) is available for a number of β- and β'-tending, chiral and achiral TAG systems. Like crystalline tendency (discussed previously), space group data indicates that the unit cell for TAG in the β' polymorph contains only one stereoisomer whereas the unit cell for TAG in the β polymorph contains both stereoisomers (conformers in achiral and enantiomers in chiral systems). Therefore, based on the current data, the stereochemical arrangement of TAG molecules in the unit cell is associated with the polymorphic form of the solid - both stereoisomers in the β form and one stereoisomer in the β' form. This perspective clearly explains the observed differences in polymorphic behavior for enantiopure and racemic TAG including the β'-stability of enantiopure systems. As a

  3. Alpha1-antichymotrypsin polymorphism in Japanese cases of Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Yoshizawa, T; Yamakawa-Kobayashi, K; Hamaguchi, H; Shoji, S

    1997-11-25

    We examined the possible involvement of alpha1-antichymotrypsin (ACT) polymorphism in the risk for Alzheimer's disease (AD) in a Japanese population. No differences between AD and control subjects have been shown in the genotype distributions and allele frequencies of ACT. No modification of the risk for AD was observed, either alone or in combination with the apolipoprotein epsilon4 (ApoE-4) allele. Our results from a Japanese population failed to confirm the previous data in which the ACT polymorphism was shown to affect the ApoE-4-associated risk for AD.

  4. The Pressure-Induced Polymorphic Transformations in Fluconazole.

    PubMed

    Gorkovenko, Ekaterina A; Kichanov, Sergey E; Kozlenko, Denis P; Belushkin, Alexandr V; Wąsicki, Jan; Nawrocik, Wojciech; Mielcarek, Jadwiga; Dubrovinsky, Leonid S; Lathe, Christian; Savenko, Boris N

    2015-12-01

    The structural properties and Raman spectra of fluconazole have been studied by means of X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy at pressures up to 2.5 and 5.5 GPa, respectively. At a pressure of 0.8 GPa, a polymorphic phase transition from the initial form I to a new triclinic form VIII has been observed. At higher pressure of P = 3.2 GPa, possible transformation into another new polymorphic form IX has been detected. The unit cell parameters and volumes, and vibration modes as functions of pressure have been obtained for the different forms of fluconazole.

  5. CYP1A1 genetic polymorphisms in Ecuador, South America.

    PubMed

    Paz-y-Miño, César; Arévalo, Melissa; Muñoz G, María José; Leone, Paola E

    2005-01-01

    A total of 108 individuals from the Ecuadorian population from rural and urban places were analyzed for two CYP1A1 gene polymorphisms. The frequency of the val allele at codon 462 was 0.50, while the frequency of the Msp I restriction site, m2 allele at the T6235C position was 0.70. These polymorphisms in Ecuador have higher frequencies if we compare with others around the world, with the exception of some South American population in Brazil and Chile.

  6. Structure Elucidation and Characterization of Different Thyroxine Polymorphs.

    PubMed

    Mondal, Santanu; Mugesh, Govindasamy

    2015-09-01

    Thyroid hormones regulate almost every process in the body, including body temperature, growth, and heart rate. They influence carbohydrate metabolism, protein synthesis and breakdown, and cardiovascular, renal, and brain function. Two new polymorphs of synthetic L-thyroxine (T4) are reported and the effect of polymorphism on the solubility of this important hormone is shown. Conformational changes were also discovered to have a remarkable effect on the strength of halogen bonding and the reactivity of the C-I bonds, which could have a significant effect on the hormone activity.

  7. Polymorphisms and genes associated with puberty in heifers.

    PubMed

    Fortes, Marina R S; Nguyen, Loan To; Porto Neto, Laercio R; Reverter, Antonio; Moore, Stephen S; Lehnert, Sigrid A; Thomas, Milton G

    2016-07-01

    Puberty onset is a multifactorial process influenced by genetic determinants and environmental conditions, especially nutritional status. Genes, genetic variations, and regulatory networks compose the molecular basis of achieving puberty. In this article, we reviewed the discovery of multiple polymorphisms and genes associated with heifer puberty phenotypes and discuss the opportunities to use this evolving knowledge of genetic determinants for breeding early pubertal Bos indicus-influenced cattle. The discovery of polymorphisms and genes was mainly achieved through candidate gene studies, quantitative trait loci analyses, genome-wide association studies, and recently, global gene expression studies (transcriptome). These studies are recapitulated and summarized in the current review. PMID:27238439

  8. Twelve polymorphic microsatellites in Oriental river prawn, Macrobrachium nipponense.

    PubMed

    Feng, J B; Li, J L

    2008-09-01

    Oriental river prawn, Macrobrachium nipponense, is a commercially important freshwater prawn species in China, Japan, Korea and Vietnam. Due to overfishing for food, the wild stocks M. nipponense are endangered. Twenty microsatellite loci were isolated from the M. nipponense. Twelve of these loci were polymorphic (seven to 16 alleles per locus), with expected heterozygosity ranging from 0.68 to 0.86 (n = 48). These polymorphic loci provide a valuable tool for assessing genetic diversity of wild and cultured populations.

  9. Molecular Docking Study of Conformational Polymorph: Building Block of Crystal Chemistry

    PubMed Central

    Dubey, Rashmi; Tewari, Ashish Kumar; Singh, Ved Prakash; Singh, Praveen; Dangi, Jawahar Singh; Puerta, Carmen; Valerga, Pedro; Kant, Rajni

    2013-01-01

    Two conformational polymorphs of novel 2-[2-(3-cyano-4,6-dimethyl-2-oxo-2H-pyridin-1-yl)-ethoxy]-4,6-dimethyl nicotinonitrile have been developed. The crystal structure of both polymorphs (1a and 1b) seems to be stabilized by weak interactions. A difference was observed in the packing of both polymorphs. Polymorph 1b has a better binding affinity with the cyclooxygenase (COX-2) receptor than the standard (Nimesulide). PMID:24250264

  10. [MOLECULAR-GENETIC POLYMORPHISM OF chs_H1 GENE IN UKRAINIAN HOP VARIETIES].

    PubMed

    Venzer, A M; Volkova, N E; Sivolap, Yu M

    2015-01-01

    Polymorphism of chs_H1 gene encoding the "true" chalcone synthase was determined by alignment of sequences. The polymorphism associates with single nucleotide changes, insertions or deletions (indels) in the promoter, exons, intron, 3'-untranslated region. The molecular-genetic polymorphism in gene chs_H1 different regions of hop varieties of Polessye Agriculture Institute' breeding NAAS was analyzed. PMID:26638493

  11. Searching the Cambridge Structural Database for the 'best' representative of each unique polymorph.

    PubMed

    van de Streek, Jacco

    2006-08-01

    A computer program has been written that removes suspicious crystal structures from the Cambridge Structural Database and clusters the remaining crystal structures as polymorphs or redeterminations. For every set of redeterminations, one crystal structure is selected to be the best representative of that polymorph. The results, 243,355 well determined crystal structures grouped by unique polymorph, are presented and analysed. PMID:16840806

  12. Polymorphism complexity and handedness inversion in serum albumin amyloid fibrils.

    PubMed

    Usov, Ivan; Adamcik, Jozef; Mezzenga, Raffaele

    2013-12-23

    Protein-based amyloid fibrils can show a great variety of polymorphic structures within the same protein precursor, although the origins of these structural homologues remain poorly understood. In this work we investigate the fibrillation of bovine serum albumin--a model globular protein--and we follow the polymorphic evolution by a statistical analysis of high-resolution atomic force microscopy images, complemented, at larger length scales, by concepts based on polymer physics formalism. We identify six distinct classes of coexisting amyloid fibrils, including flexible left-handed twisted ribbons, rigid right-handed helical ribbons and nanotubes. We show that the rigid fibrils originate from flexible fibrils through two diverse polymorphic transitions, first, via a single-fibril transformation when the flexible left-handed twisted ribbons turn into the helical left-handed ribbons, to finally evolve into nanotube-like structures, and second, via a double-fibril transformation when two flexible left-handed twisted ribbons wind together resulting in a right-handed twisted ribbon, followed by a rigid right-handed helical ribbon polymorphic conformation. Hence, the change in handedness occurs with an increase in the level of the fibril's structural organization. PMID:24171389

  13. Nestling polymorphism in a cuckoo-host system.

    PubMed

    Sato, Nozomu J; Tanaka, Keita D; Okahisa, Yuji; Yamamichi, Masato; Kuehn, Ralph; Gula, Roman; Ueda, Keisuke; Theuerkauf, Jörn

    2015-12-21

    Virulence of avian brood parasites can trigger a coevolutionary arms race, which favours rejection of parasitic eggs or chicks by host parents, and in turn leads to mimicry in parasite eggs or chicks [1-7]. The appearance of host offspring is critical to enable host parents to detect parasites. Thus, increasing accuracy of parasites' mimicry can favour a newly emerged host morph to escape parasites' mimicry. If parasites catch up with the hosts with a newly acquired mimetic morph, host polymorphism should be maintained through apostatic (negative frequency-dependent) selection, which favours hosts rarer morphs [1-3,7]. Among population-wide polymorphism, uniformity of respective host morphs in single host nests stochastically prevents parasites from targeting any specific morph of hosts and thus helps parents detect parasitism. Polymorphism in such a state is well-known in egg appearances of hosts of brood parasitic birds [2,3,7], which might also occur in chick appearances when arms races escalate. Here, we present evidence of polymorphism in chick skin coloration in a cuckoo-host system: the fan-tailed gerygone Gerygone flavolateralis and its specialist brood parasite, the shining bronze-cuckoo Chalcites lucidus in New Caledonia (Figure 1A-C). PMID:26702649

  14. High polymorphism at microsatellite loci in the Chinese donkey.

    PubMed

    Zhang, R F; Xie, W M; Zhang, T; Lei, C Z

    2016-01-01

    To reveal the genetic diversity and phylogenetic relationships between Chinese donkey breeds, 415 individuals representing ten breeds were investigated using ten microsatellite markers. The observed number of alleles, mean effective number of alleles (NE), mean expected heterozygosity (HE), and polymorphic information content (PIC) of each breed and polymorphic locus were analyzed. The results showed that seven (HTG7, HTG10, AHT4, HTG6, HMS6, HMS3, and HMS7) of ten microsatellite loci were polymorphic. The mean PIC, HE, and NE of seven polymorphic loci for the ten donkey breeds were 0.7679, 0.8072, and 6.0275, respectively. These results suggest that domestic Chinese donkey breeds possess higher levels of genetic diversity and heterozygosity than foreign donkeys. A neighbor-joining tree based on Nei's standard genetic distance showed that there was close genetic distance among Xinjiang, Qingyang, Xiji, and Guanzhong donkey breeds. In addition, Mongolia and Dezhou donkey breeds were placed in the same category. The phylogenetic tree revealed that the genetic relationships between Chinese donkey breeds are consistent with their geographic distribution and breeding history. PMID:27420967

  15. Polymorphic control of inhalation microparticles prepared by crystallization.

    PubMed

    Murnane, Darragh; Marriott, Christopher; Martin, Gary P

    2008-09-01

    Milling processes are known to cause polymorphic transition in enantiotropic systems and the micronization process employed to produce microparticles for inhalation formulations has been reported to result in solid-state damage. The aim of the current work was to investigate the polymorphism of salmeterol xinafoate (SX) following antisolvent micronization from poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) solvents and compare this to the properties of SX conventionally crystallized and micronized. Powder X-ray diffraction revealed that SX crystallized predominantly as the SX form I polymorph following rapid precipitation from PEG solvents and cooling crystallization from propan-2-ol. Thermo-kinetic analysis using a modified Avrami-Erofe'ev equation was applied to differential scanning calorimetric thermographs of crystallized and micronized SX. The kinetic analysis revealed that SX crystallized from PEG solvents underwent significantly less or no re-crystallization of SX form II from the melt. A polymorphic transition was identified upon heating ball-milled SX, although the untreated material was resistant to such transformation. The thermal behaviour of SX crystallized from PEG solvents was consistent with a lower degree of crystal lattice disorder and higher enantiotropic purity than SX crystallized from propan-2-ol; the same was also true when comparing SX before and after micronization.

  16. Genome-Wide Patterns of Nucleotide Polymorphism in Domesticated Rice

    PubMed Central

    Hernandez, Ryan D; Boyko, Adam; Fledel-Alon, Adi; York, Thomas L; Polato, Nicholas R; Olsen, Kenneth M; Nielsen, Rasmus; McCouch, Susan R; Bustamante, Carlos D; Purugganan, Michael D

    2007-01-01

    Domesticated Asian rice (Oryza sativa) is one of the oldest domesticated crop species in the world, having fed more people than any other plant in human history. We report the patterns of DNA sequence variation in rice and its wild ancestor, O. rufipogon, across 111 randomly chosen gene fragments, and use these to infer the evolutionary dynamics that led to the origins of rice. There is a genome-wide excess of high-frequency derived single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in O. sativa varieties, a pattern that has not been reported for other crop species. We developed several alternative models to explain contemporary patterns of polymorphisms in rice, including a (i) selectively neutral population bottleneck model, (ii) bottleneck plus migration model, (iii) multiple selective sweeps model, and (iv) bottleneck plus selective sweeps model. We find that a simple bottleneck model, which has been the dominant demographic model for domesticated species, cannot explain the derived nucleotide polymorphism site frequency spectrum in rice. Instead, a bottleneck model that incorporates selective sweeps, or a more complex demographic model that includes subdivision and gene flow, are more plausible explanations for patterns of variation in domesticated rice varieties. If selective sweeps are indeed the explanation for the observed nucleotide data of domesticated rice, it suggests that strong selection can leave its imprint on genome-wide polymorphism patterns, contrary to expectations that selection results only in a local signature of variation. PMID:17907810

  17. Polymorphic Regions Affecting Human Height Also Control Stature in Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Pryce, Jennie E.; Hayes, Ben J.; Bolormaa, Sunduimijid; Goddard, Michael E.

    2011-01-01

    Orthologous positions of 55 genes associated with height in four human populations were located on the bovine genome. Single nucleotide polymorphisms close to eight of these genes were significantly associated with stature in cattle (Bos taurus and Bos indicus). This suggests that these genes may contribute to controlling stature across mammalian species. PMID:21212230

  18. Sleep and COMT Polymorphism in ADHD Children: Preliminary Actigraphic Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gruber, Reut; Grizenko, Natalie; Schwartz, George; Amor, Leila Ben; Gauthier, Julie; de Guzman, Rosherrie; Joober, Ridha

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To examine whether COMT (catechol-O-methyltransferase) polymorphism modulates aspects of sleep in children diagnosed with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Method: Nightly sleep actigraphic recordings during a double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover clinical study (1 week of 0.5 mg/kg MPH; 1 week of placebo) were…

  19. Polymorphous low-grade adenocarcinoma of the nasal fossa.

    PubMed

    González-Lagunas, Javier; Alasà-Caparrós, Cristian; Vendrell-Escofet, Gerard; Huguet-Redecilla, Pere; Raspall-Martin, Guillermo

    2005-01-01

    An unusual case of a T4N2CMx polymorphous low grade adenocarcinoma located in the nasal fossae and extending to the pterygoid area is presented. The primary tumor was excised through a Lefort I maxillotomy and the neck was managed with a supraomohyoid neck dissection. Adjuntive postoperative radiotherapy was also administered to the patient.

  20. Advanced-functional Metal and Ceramics on Polymorphism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Yasuzo

    Advanced-functional meatl andceramics sholed be progressed and created on the basis of cahracteristic length such as the Fermi wave length, the mean free path, the coherent length etc. These lengthes have themselves for each material. In this paper, needs diversification, reconsideration of conductivity, carbon polymorphisms, nano-structure in superconductivity will be reviewed and forecasted.

  1. Characterization of nicergoline polymorphs crystallized in several organic solvents.

    PubMed

    Malaj, Ledjan; Censi, Roberta; Capsoni, Doretta; Pellegrino, Luca; Bini, Marcella; Ferrari, Stefania; Gobetto, Roberto; Massarotti, Vincenzo; Di Martino, Piera

    2011-07-01

    Nicergoline (NIC), a poorly water-soluble semisynthetic ergot derivative, was crystallized from several organic solvents, obtaining two different polymorphic forms, the triclinic form I and the orthorhombic form II. NIC samples were then characterized by several techniques such as (13)C cross-polarization magic angle spinning solid-state spectroscopy, room-temperature and high-temperature X-ray powder diffraction, differential scanning calorimetry, and by analysis of weight loss, solvent content, powder density, morphology, and particle size. Solubility and intrinsic dissolution rates determined for the two polymorphic forms in water and hydrochloride solutions (HCl 0.1 N) were always higher for form II than for form I, which is actually the form used for the industrial preparation of NIC medicinal products. Preformulation studies might encourage industry for the evaluation of polymorph II, as it is more suitable for pharmaceutical applications. Results in drug delivery, as well as those obtained by the above-mentioned techniques, and the application of Burger-Ramberger's rules make it possible to conclude that there is a thermodynamic relation of monotropy between the two polymorphs. This last assumption may help formulators in predicting the relative stability of the two forms. PMID:21254066

  2. PopAlu: population-scale detection of Alu polymorphisms

    PubMed Central

    Qian, Yu; Kehr, Birte

    2015-01-01

    Alu elements are sequences of approximately 300 basepairs that together comprise more than 10% of the human genome. Due to their recent origin in primate evolution some Alu elements are polymorphic in humans, present in some individuals while absent in others. We present PopAlu, a tool to detect polymorphic Alu elements on a population scale from paired-end sequencing data. PopAlu uses read pair distance and orientation as well as split reads to identify the location and precise breakpoints of polymorphic Alus. Genotype calling enables us to differentiate between homozygous and heterozygous carriers, making the output of PopAlu suitable for use in downstream analyses such as genome-wide association studies (GWAS). We show on a simulated dataset that PopAlu calls Alu elements inserted and deleted with respect to a reference genome with high accuracy and high precision. Our analysis of real data of a human trio from the 1000 Genomes Project confirms that PopAlu is able to produce highly accurate genotype calls. To our knowledge, PopAlu is the first tool that identifies polymorphic Alu elements from multiple individuals simultaneously, pinpoints the precise breakpoints and calls genotypes with high accuracy. PMID:26417547

  3. The role of MBL2 gene polymorphism in sepsis incidence

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Lei; Ning, Bo

    2015-01-01

    Aim: This case-control study was aimed to explore the role of mannose-binding lectin 2 (MBL2) gene rs1800450 polymorphism (codon 54 A/B, G230A) in the development of sepsis in Han Chinese. Methods: MBL2 rs1800450 polymorphism was genotyped by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). MBL serum level was detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Associations between rs1800450 and sepsis susceptibility was detected by Chi-square test and represented by odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Correlation of rs1800450 genotypes and MBL serum level was assessed using t test. Result: Variant A allele frequency was significantly observed in cases than that in controls, indicating a significant association with the susceptibility of sepsis (OR = 1.979, 95% CI = 1.200-3.262). GA genotype also relate to the onset of sepsis (OR = 2.090, 95% CI = 1.163-3.753). MBL serum concentrations were significantly different between case and control groups (P<0.001). Meanwhile, variant allele carriers had lower serum level compared with wild homozygous (P<0.001). Conclusion: Variant A allele in MBL2 gene rs1800450 polymorphism might increase the risk of sepsis via decrease the MBL serum level. PMID:26823854

  4. Nestling polymorphism in a cuckoo-host system.

    PubMed

    Sato, Nozomu J; Tanaka, Keita D; Okahisa, Yuji; Yamamichi, Masato; Kuehn, Ralph; Gula, Roman; Ueda, Keisuke; Theuerkauf, Jörn

    2015-12-21

    Virulence of avian brood parasites can trigger a coevolutionary arms race, which favours rejection of parasitic eggs or chicks by host parents, and in turn leads to mimicry in parasite eggs or chicks [1-7]. The appearance of host offspring is critical to enable host parents to detect parasites. Thus, increasing accuracy of parasites' mimicry can favour a newly emerged host morph to escape parasites' mimicry. If parasites catch up with the hosts with a newly acquired mimetic morph, host polymorphism should be maintained through apostatic (negative frequency-dependent) selection, which favours hosts rarer morphs [1-3,7]. Among population-wide polymorphism, uniformity of respective host morphs in single host nests stochastically prevents parasites from targeting any specific morph of hosts and thus helps parents detect parasitism. Polymorphism in such a state is well-known in egg appearances of hosts of brood parasitic birds [2,3,7], which might also occur in chick appearances when arms races escalate. Here, we present evidence of polymorphism in chick skin coloration in a cuckoo-host system: the fan-tailed gerygone Gerygone flavolateralis and its specialist brood parasite, the shining bronze-cuckoo Chalcites lucidus in New Caledonia (Figure 1A-C).

  5. Investigation of the Vitamin D Receptor Polymorphisms in Acromegaly Patients

    PubMed Central

    Ilhan, Muzaffer; Toptas-Hekimoglu, Bahar; Yaylim, Ilhan; Turgut, Seda; Turan, Saime; Karaman, Ozcan; Tasan, Ertugrul

    2015-01-01

    Objective. The genetic structural alterations in the majority of somatotroph adenomas are not clarified and the search for novel candidate genes is still a challenge. We aimed to investigate possible associations between vitamin D receptor (VDR) polymorphisms and acromegaly. Design, Patients, and Methods. 52 acromegaly patients (mean age 45.7 ± 1.9 years) and 83 controls (mean age 43.1 ± 2.6 years) were recruited to the study. VDR polymorphism was determined by polymerase chain reaction-based restriction fragment length polymorphism methods. Results. The distribution of VDR genotypes showed a significant difference in the frequencies of VDR FokI genotypes between patients and controls (P = 0.034). VDR FokI ff genotype was significantly decreased in acromegaly patients (P = 0.035) and carriers of FokI Ff genotype had a 1.5-fold increased risk for acromegaly (OR: 1.5, 95% CI: 1.07–2.1; P = 0.020). IGF1 levels after treatment were significantly higher in patients carrying the Ff genotype compared to carrying ff genotype (P = 0.0049). 25(OH)D3 levels were significantly lower in acromegaly patients (P < 0.001). Conclusions. Our study suggests that VDR FokI genotypes might affect the development of acromegaly and VDR polymorphisms may play a role in the course of acromegaly as a consequence of altering hormonal status. PMID:25839036

  6. A Simplified Technique for Evaluating Human "CCR5" Genetic Polymorphism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falteisek, Lukáš; Cerný, Jan; Janštová, Vanda

    2013-01-01

    To involve students in thinking about the problem of AIDS (which is important in the view of nondecreasing infection rates), we established a practical lab using a simplified adaptation of Thomas's (2004) method to determine the polymorphism of HIV co-receptor CCR5 from students' own epithelial cells. CCR5 is a receptor involved in…

  7. [Lactase polymorphism in representatives of different ethnic-territorial groups].

    PubMed

    Kozlov, A I; Sheremet'eva, V A; Kondik, V M

    1992-01-01

    Lactase polymorphism was studied in the native population of West Siberia and also in Buryatia. LAC*R frequency observed is-Khants- 0.8367, Mansi - 0.8660, Nenets - 0.8944, Buryats - 0.6883. The data obtained are considered to be the result of natural selection under traditional historical economical-cultural environment of the ethnic groups in question.

  8. A Polymorphism in Mitochondrial DNA Associated with IQ?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skuder, Patricia; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Of 100 DNA markers examined in an allelic association study, only 1 showed a replicated association with IQ in samples totaling 107 children. How the gene marked by the particular restriction fragment length polymorphism was tracked and its mitochondrial origin identified is described. (SLD)

  9. A Laboratory Exercise for Genotyping Two Human Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernando, James; Carlson, Bradley; LeBard, Timothy; McCarthy, Michael; Umali, Finianne; Ashton, Bryce; Rose, Ferrill F., Jr.

    2016-01-01

    The dramatic decrease in the cost of sequencing a human genome is leading to an era in which a wide range of students will benefit from having an understanding of human genetic variation. Since over 90% of sequence variation between humans is in the form of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), a laboratory exercise has been devised in order to…

  10. Biomarkers of Adiponectin: Plasma Protein Variation and Genomic DNA Polymorphisms

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Harvest F.

    2009-01-01

    Adiponectin is secreted by white adipose tissue and exists as the most abundant adipokine in the human plasma. Recent research has indicated that plasma adiponectin levels are inversely correlated with body mass index (BMI) and insulin resistance. Reduction of plasma adiponectin levels is commonly observed in the patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) and/or in those who are obese in comparison with healthy control individuals. The adiponectin (AdipoQ) gene has a moderate linkage disequilibrium (LD), but two small LD blocks are observed, respectively, in the promoter region and the boundary of exon 2-intron 2. Genetic association studies have demonstrated that single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) +45G15G(T/G) in exon 2 and +276G/T in intron 2 of the AdipoQ gene confer the risk susceptibility to the development of T2D, obesity and diabetic nephropathy (DN). The SNPs in the promoter region, including −11426A/G, −11377C/G and −11391G/A, are found to be associated with T2D and DN. Recent research has indicated that the promoter polymorphisms interfere with the AdipoQ promoter activity. The haplotypes constructed by the promoter polymorphisms and SNP +276G/T in intron 2 are associated with circulating adiponectin levels. This review summarises genetic and pathophysiological relevancies of adiponectin and discusses about the biomarkers of adiponectin plasma protein variation and genomic DNA polymorphisms. PMID:20029651

  11. The Role of Matrix Metalloproteinase Polymorphisms in Ischemic Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Jason J.; Stanfill, Ansley; Pourmotabbed, Tayebeh

    2016-01-01

    Stroke remains the fifth leading cause of mortality in the United States with an annual rate of over 128,000 deaths per year. Differences in incidence, pathogenesis, and clinical outcome have long been noted when comparing ischemic stroke among different ethnicities. The observation that racial disparities exist in clinical outcomes after stroke has resulted in genetic studies focusing on specific polymorphisms. Some studies have focused on matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). MMPs are a ubiquitous group of proteins with extensive roles that include extracellular matrix remodeling and blood-brain barrier disruption. MMPs play an important role in ischemic stroke pathophysiology and clinical outcome. This review will evaluate the evidence for associations between polymorphisms in MMP-1, 2, 3, 9, and 12 with ischemic stroke incidence, pathophysiology, and clinical outcome. The role of polymorphisms in MMP genes may influence the presentation of ischemic stroke and be influenced by racial and ethnic background. However, contradictory evidence for the role of MMP polymorphisms does exist in the literature, and further studies will be necessary to consolidate our understanding of these multi-faceted proteins. PMID:27529234

  12. Interferon-gamma Genetic Polymorphism and Expression in Kawasaki Disease

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Ying-Hsien; Hsu, Yu-Wen; Lu, Hsing-Fang; Wong, Henry Sung-Ching; Yu, Hong-Ren; Kuo, Hsing-Chun; Huang, Fu-Chen; Chang, Wei-Chiao; Kuo, Ho-Chang

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Kawasaki disease (KD) is a systemic vasculitis of unknown etiology. IFNG gene encoding interferon (IFN)-γ, produced by natural killer cells and T cells, has been suggested to play an important role in the immunopathogenesis of Kawasaki disease. The aim of this study was to examin the correlation of gene polymorphisms of the IFNG gene and plasma levels of IFN-γ in KD patients and their outcomes. A total of 950 subjects (381 KD and 569 controls) were recruited. Three tagging single-nucleotide polymorphisms (rs2069718, rs1861493, rs2069705) were selected for TaqMan allelic discrimination assay. Clinical phenotypes, coronary artery lesions (CAL), coronary artery aneurysms (CAA) and intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) treatment outcomes were collected for analysis. Plasma IFN-γ levels were also measured with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Polymorphisms of the IFNG gene were significantly different between the normal controls and KD patients. The G allele of rs1861493 conferred a better response to IVIG treatment in KD patients. AA allele frequencies of rs1861493 were also associated with a significantly higher risk of CAA in KD patients. Furthermore, the plasma IFN-γ level was lower in the AA allele than in the GG allele of rs1861493 both before and after IVIG treatment in KD patients. This study provides the first evidence supporting an association between IFNG gene polymorphisms, susceptibility of KD, IVIG responsiveness, and plasma IFN-γ levels in KD patients. PMID:27124053

  13. The Role of Matrix Metalloproteinase Polymorphisms in Ischemic Stroke.

    PubMed

    Chang, Jason J; Stanfill, Ansley; Pourmotabbed, Tayebeh

    2016-01-01

    Stroke remains the fifth leading cause of mortality in the United States with an annual rate of over 128,000 deaths per year. Differences in incidence, pathogenesis, and clinical outcome have long been noted when comparing ischemic stroke among different ethnicities. The observation that racial disparities exist in clinical outcomes after stroke has resulted in genetic studies focusing on specific polymorphisms. Some studies have focused on matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). MMPs are a ubiquitous group of proteins with extensive roles that include extracellular matrix remodeling and blood-brain barrier disruption. MMPs play an important role in ischemic stroke pathophysiology and clinical outcome. This review will evaluate the evidence for associations between polymorphisms in MMP-1, 2, 3, 9, and 12 with ischemic stroke incidence, pathophysiology, and clinical outcome. The role of polymorphisms in MMP genes may influence the presentation of ischemic stroke and be influenced by racial and ethnic background. However, contradictory evidence for the role of MMP polymorphisms does exist in the literature, and further studies will be necessary to consolidate our understanding of these multi-faceted proteins. PMID:27529234

  14. Relationship between horn fly infestation and polymorphisms in cytochrome

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Individual animal variation occurs regarding external parasite infestation in beef cattle. Our objective was to determine if horn flies infestations present on beef cattle are associated with the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP; T-318C) in the cytochrome P450 gene (CYP3A28) and the prolactin (PR...

  15. Common mitochondrial polymorphisms as risk factor for endometrial cancer

    PubMed Central

    Czarnecka, Anna M; Klemba, Aleksandra; Semczuk, Andrzej; Plak, Katarzyna; Marzec, Barbara; Krawczyk, Tomasz; Kofler, Barbara; Golik, Pawel; Bartnik, Ewa

    2009-01-01

    Endometrial carcinoma is the most commonly diagnosed gynaecological cancer in developed countries. Although the molecular genetics of this disease has been in the focus of many research laboratories for the last 20 years, relevant prognostic and diagnostic markers are still missing. At the same time mitochondrial DNA mutations have been reported in many types of cancer during the last two decades. It is therefore very likely that the mitochondrial genotype is one of the cancer susceptibility factors. To investigate the presence of mtDNA somatic mutations and distribution of inherited polymorphisms in endometrial adenocarcinoma patients we analyzed the D-loop sequence of cancer samples and their corresponding normal tissues and moreover performed mitochondrial haplogroup analysis. We detected 2 somatic mutation and increased incidence of mtDNA polymorphisms, in particular 16223C (80% patients, p = 0.005), 16126C (23%, p = 0.025) and 207A (19%, p = 0.027). Subsequent statistical analysis revealed that endometrial carcinoma population haplogroup distribution differs from the Polish population and that haplogroup H (with its defining polymorphism - C7028T) is strongly underrepresented (p = 0.003), therefore might be a cancer-protective factor. Our report supports the notion that mtDNA polymorphisms establish a specific genetic background for endometrial adenocarcinoma development and that mtDNA analysis may result in the development of new molecular tool for cancer detection. PMID:19863780

  16. Systematic Identification of Balanced Transposition Polymorphisms in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Faddah, Dina A.; Ganko, Eric W.; McCoach, Caroline; Pickrell, Joseph K.; Hanlon, Sean E.; Mann, Frederick G.; Mieczkowska, Joanna O.; Jones, Corbin D.; Lieb, Jason D.; Vision, Todd J.

    2009-01-01

    High-throughput techniques for detecting DNA polymorphisms generally do not identify changes in which the genomic position of a sequence, but not its copy number, varies among individuals. To explore such balanced structural polymorphisms, we used array-based Comparative Genomic Hybridization (aCGH) to conduct a genome-wide screen for single-copy genomic segments that occupy different genomic positions in the standard laboratory strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (S90) and a polymorphic wild isolate (Y101) through analysis of six tetrads from a cross of these two strains. Paired-end high-throughput sequencing of Y101 validated four of the predicted rearrangements. The transposed segments contained one to four annotated genes each, yet crosses between S90 and Y101 yielded mostly viable tetrads. The longest segment comprised 13.5 kb near the telomere of chromosome XV in the S288C reference strain and Southern blotting confirmed its predicted location on chromosome IX in Y101. Interestingly, inter-locus crossover events between copies of this segment occurred at a detectable rate. The presence of low-copy repetitive sequences at the junctions of this segment suggests that it may have arisen through ectopic recombination. Our methodology and findings provide a starting point for exploring the origins, phenotypic consequences, and evolutionary fate of this largely unexplored form of genomic polymorphism. PMID:19503594

  17. A polymorphic DNA marker genetically linked to Huntington's disease.

    PubMed

    Gusella, J F; Wexler, N S; Conneally, P M; Naylor, S L; Anderson, M A; Tanzi, R E; Watkins, P C; Ottina, K; Wallace, M R; Sakaguchi, A Y

    Family studies show that the Huntington's disease gene is linked to a polymorphic DNA marker that maps to human chromosome 4. The chromosomal localization of the Huntington's disease gene is the first step in using recombinant DNA technology to identify the primary genetic defect in this disorder.

  18. PRODH Polymorphisms, Cortical Volumes and Thickness in Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Gadelha, Ary; Santoro, Marcos L.; Noto, Cristiano; Christofolini, Denise M.; Assunção, Idaiane B.; Yamada, Karen M.; Ribeiro-dos-Santos, Ândrea K.; Santos, Sidney; Mari, Jair J.; Smith, Marília A. C.; Melaragno, Maria I.; Bressan, Rodrigo A.; Sato, João R.; Jackowski, Andrea P.; Belangero, Sintia I.

    2014-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a neurodevelopmental disorder with high heritability. Several lines of evidence indicate that the PRODH gene may be related to the disorder. Therefore, our study investigates the effects of 12 polymorphisms of PRODH on schizophrenia and its phenotypes. To further evaluate the roles of the associated variants in the disorder, we have conducted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans to assess cortical volumes and thicknesses. A total of 192 patients were evaluated using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV (SCID), Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS), Calgary Depression Scale, Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF) and Clinical Global Impression (CGI) instruments. The study included 179 controls paired by age and gender. The samples were genotyped using the real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR), restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP)-PCR and Sanger sequencing methods. A sample of 138 patients and 34 healthy controls underwent MRI scans. One polymorphism was associated with schizophrenia (rs2904552), with the G-allele more frequent in patients than in controls. This polymorphism is likely functional, as predicted by PolyPhen and SIFT, but it was not associated with brain morphology in our study. In summary, we report a functional PRODH variant associated with schizophrenia that may have a neurochemical impact, altering brain function, but is not responsible for the cortical reductions found in the disorder. PMID:24498354

  19. The role of glucocorticoid receptor (GR) polymorphisms in human erythropoiesis

    PubMed Central

    Varricchio, Lilian; Migliaccio, Anna Rita

    2014-01-01

    Glucocorticoids are endogenous steroid hormones that regulate several biological functions including proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis in numerous cell types in response to stress. Synthetic glucocorticoids, such as dexamethasone (Dex) are used to treat a variety of diseases ranging from allergy to depression. Glucocorticoids exert their effects by passively entering into cells and binding to a specific Glucocorticoid Receptor (GR) present in the cytoplasm. Once activated by its ligand, GR may elicit cytoplasmic (mainly suppression of p53), and nuclear (regulation of transcription of GR responsive genes), responses. Human GR is highly polymorphic and may encode > 260 different isoforms. This polymorphism is emerging as the leading cause for the variability of phenotype and response to glucocorticoid therapy observed in human populations. Studies in mice and clinical observations indicate that GR controls also the response to erythroid stress. This knowledge has been exploited in-vivo by using synthetic GR agonists for treatment of the erythropoietin-refractory congenic Diamond Blackfan Anemia and in-vitro to develop culture conditions that may theoretically generate red cells in numbers sufficient for transfusion. However, the effect exerted by GR polymorphism on the variability of the phenotype of genetic and acquired erythroid disorders observed in the human population is still poorly appreciated. This review will summarize current knowledge on the biological activity of GR and of its polymorphism in non-hematopoietic diseases and discuss the implications of these observations for erythropoiesis. PMID:25755906

  20. Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms Predict Symptom Severity of Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jiao, Yun; Chen, Rong; Ke, Xiaoyan; Cheng, Lu; Chu, Kangkang; Lu, Zuhong; Herskovits, Edward H.

    2012-01-01

    Autism is widely believed to be a heterogeneous disorder; diagnosis is currently based solely on clinical criteria, although genetic, as well as environmental, influences are thought to be prominent factors in the etiology of most forms of autism. Our goal is to determine whether a predictive model based on single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs)…

  1. Characterization of nicergoline polymorphs crystallized in several organic solvents.

    PubMed

    Malaj, Ledjan; Censi, Roberta; Capsoni, Doretta; Pellegrino, Luca; Bini, Marcella; Ferrari, Stefania; Gobetto, Roberto; Massarotti, Vincenzo; Di Martino, Piera

    2011-07-01

    Nicergoline (NIC), a poorly water-soluble semisynthetic ergot derivative, was crystallized from several organic solvents, obtaining two different polymorphic forms, the triclinic form I and the orthorhombic form II. NIC samples were then characterized by several techniques such as (13)C cross-polarization magic angle spinning solid-state spectroscopy, room-temperature and high-temperature X-ray powder diffraction, differential scanning calorimetry, and by analysis of weight loss, solvent content, powder density, morphology, and particle size. Solubility and intrinsic dissolution rates determined for the two polymorphic forms in water and hydrochloride solutions (HCl 0.1 N) were always higher for form II than for form I, which is actually the form used for the industrial preparation of NIC medicinal products. Preformulation studies might encourage industry for the evaluation of polymorph II, as it is more suitable for pharmaceutical applications. Results in drug delivery, as well as those obtained by the above-mentioned techniques, and the application of Burger-Ramberger's rules make it possible to conclude that there is a thermodynamic relation of monotropy between the two polymorphs. This last assumption may help formulators in predicting the relative stability of the two forms.

  2. PARP1 Val762Ala polymorphism reduces enzymatic activity

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Xiaogan; Wang Zhaoqi; Tong Weimin . E-mail: tong@iarc.fr; Shen Yan

    2007-03-02

    Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP1) modifies a variety of nuclear proteins by poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation, and plays diverse roles in molecular and cellular processes. A common PARP1 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) at codon 762, resulting in the substitution of alanine (Ala) for valine (Val) in the catalytic domain has been implicated in susceptibility to cancer. To characterize the functional effect of this polymorphism on PARP1, we performed in vitro enzymatic analysis on PARP1-Ala762 and PARP1-Val762. We found that PARP1-Ala762 displayed 57.2% of the activity of PARP1-Val762 for auto-poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation and 61.9% of the activity of PARP1-Val762 for trans-poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation of histone H1. The kinetic characterization revealed that the K {sub m} of PARP1-Ala762 was increased to a 1.2-fold of the K {sub m} of PARP1-Val762 for trans-poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation. Thus, the PARP1 Val762Ala polymorphism reduces the enzymatic activity of PARP1 by increasing K {sub m}. This finding suggests that different levels of poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation by PARP1 might aid in understanding Cancer risk of carriers of the PARP1 Val762Ala polymorphism.

  3. Influence of endothelial nitric oxide synthase polymorphisms in psoriasis risk.

    PubMed

    Coto-Segura, Pablo; Coto, Eliecer; Mas-Vidal, Albert; Morales, Blanca; Alvarez, Victoria; Díaz, Marta; Alonso, Belén; Santos-Juanes, Jorge

    2011-08-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is a potent regulator of keratinocyte growth and differentiation that has been implicated in the pathogenesis of psoriasis (Ps). The NOS3 -786 T/C (SNP id rs2070744; http://www.ensembl.org ), intron 4 variable number tandem repeat (VNTR), and Glu298Asp (SNP id rs1799983) polymorphisms, have been associated with differences in NO plasma concentrations and with the risk of hypertension (HT) and ischemic cardiac disease. The aim of this study was to determine whether the above-mentioned NOS3 variants contributed to the risk of Ps, and were associated with the risk for HT and CAD in these patients. A total of 368 patients with chronic plaque Ps and 400 healthy controls were genotyped for the NOS3 -786 T/C, intron 4 VNTR, and Glu298Asp polymorphisms. Carriers of the -786 C allele were significantly more frequent among the patients (p < 0.001). Carriers of the 4-repeats allele (45 + 44 genotypes) were also more frequent a (p < 0.001). No significant difference was found for the Glu298Asp polymorphism. None of the NOS3 variants was associated with Ht and CAD in our population. In conclusion, NOS3 gene polymorphism would be risk factors for developing Ps. PMID:21293869

  4. Do polymorphisms in chemosensory genes matter for human ingestive behavior?

    PubMed Central

    Hayes, John E.; Feeney, Emma L.; Allen, Alissa L.

    2013-01-01

    In the last decade, basic research in chemoreceptor genetics and neurobiology have revolutionized our understanding of individual differences in chemosensation. From an evolutionary perspective, chemosensory variations appear to have arisen in response to different living environments, generally in the avoidance of toxins and to better detect vital food sources. Today, it is often assumed that these differences may drive variable food preferences and choices, with downstream effects on health and wellness. A growing body of evidence indicates chemosensory variation is far more complex than previously believed. However, just because a genetic polymorphism results in altered receptor function in cultured cells or even behavioral phenotypes in the laboratory, this variation may not be sufficient to influence food choice in free living humans. Still, there is ample evidence to indicate allelic variation in TAS2R38 predicts variation in bitterness of synthetic pharmaceuticals (e.g., propylthiouracil) and natural plant compounds (e.g., goitrin), and this variation associates with differential intake of alcohol and vegetables. Further, this is only one of 25 unique bitter taste genes (TAS2Rs) in humans, and emerging evidence suggests other TAS2Rs may also contain polymorphisms that a functional with respect to ingestive behavior. For example, TAS2R16 polymorphisms are linked to the bitterness of naturally occurring plant compounds and alcoholic beverage intake, a TAS2R19 polymorphism predicts differences in quinine bitterness and grapefruit bitterness and liking, and TAS2R31 polymorphisms associate with differential bitterness of plant compounds like aristolochic acid and the sulfonyl amide sweeteners saccharin and acesulfame-K. More critically with respect to food choices, these polymorphisms may vary independently from each other within and across individuals, meaning a monolithic one-size-fits-all approach to bitterness needs to be abandoned. Nor are genetic

  5. Do polymorphisms in chemosensory genes matter for human ingestive behavior?

    PubMed

    Hayes, John E; Feeney, Emma L; Allen, Alissa L

    2013-12-01

    In the last decade, basic research in chemoreceptor genetics and neurobiology have revolutionized our understanding of individual differences in chemosensation. From an evolutionary perspective, chemosensory variations appear to have arisen in response to different living environments, generally in the avoidance of toxins and to better detect vital food sources. Today, it is often assumed that these differences may drive variable food preferences and choices, with downstream effects on health and wellness. A growing body of evidence indicates chemosensory variation is far more complex than previously believed. However, just because a genetic polymorphism results in altered receptor function in cultured cells or even behavioral phenotypes in the laboratory, this variation may not be sufficient to influence food choice in free living humans. Still, there is ample evidence to indicate allelic variation in TAS2R38 predicts variation in bitterness of synthetic pharmaceuticals (e.g., propylthiouracil) and natural plant compounds (e.g., goitrin), and this variation associates with differential intake of alcohol and vegetables. Further, this is only one of 25 unique bitter taste genes (TAS2Rs) in humans, and emerging evidence suggests other TAS2Rs may also contain polymorphisms that a functional with respect to ingestive behavior. For example, TAS2R16 polymorphisms are linked to the bitterness of naturally occurring plant compounds and alcoholic beverage intake, a TAS2R19 polymorphism predicts differences in quinine bitterness and grapefruit bitterness and liking, and TAS2R31 polymorphisms associate with differential bitterness of plant compounds like aristolochic acid and the sulfonyl amide sweeteners saccharin and acesulfame-K. More critically with respect to food choices, these polymorphisms may vary independently from each other within and across individuals, meaning a monolithic one-size-fits-all approach to bitterness needs to be abandoned. Nor are genetic

  6. Polymorphic minisatellites in the mitochondrial DNAs of Oryza and Brassica.

    PubMed

    Honma, Yujiro; Yoshida, Yu; Terachi, Toru; Toriyama, Kinya; Mikami, Tetsuo; Kubo, Tomohiko

    2011-08-01

    Polymorphic analyses of angiosperm mitochondrial DNA are rare in comparison with chloroplast DNA, because few target sequences in angiosperm mitochondrial DNA are known. Minisatellites, a tandem array of repeated sequences with a repeat unit of 10 to ~100 bp, are popular target sequences of animal mitochondria, but Beta vulgaris is the only known angiosperm species for which such an analysis has been conducted. From this lack of information, it was uncertain as to whether polymorphic minisatellites existed in other angiosperm species. Ten plant mitochondrial DNAs were found to contain minisatellite-like repeated sequences, most of which were located in intergenic regions but a few occurred in gene coding and intronic regions. Oryza and Brassica accessions were selected as models for the investigation of minisatellite polymorphism because substantial systematic information existed. PCR analysis of 42 Oryza accessions revealed length polymorphisms in four of the five minisatellites. The mitochondrial haplotypes of the 16 Oryza accessions with chromosomal complement (genome) types of CC, BBCC and CCDD were identical but were clearly distinguished from BB-genome accessions, a result consistent with the notion that the cytoplasmic donor parent of the amphidiploid species might be the CC-genome species. Twenty-nine accessions of six major cultivated species of Brassica were classified into five mitochondrial haplotypes based on two polymorphic minisatellites out of six loci. The haplotypes of Brassica juncea and Brassica carinata accessions were identical to Brassica rapa and Brassica nigra accessions, respectively. The haplotypes of Brassica napus accessions were heterogeneous and unique, results that were consistent with previous studies.

  7. [APOE gene polymorphisms associated with Down syndrome in Colombian populations].

    PubMed

    Rengifo, Lucero; Gaviria, Duverney; Serrano, Herman

    2012-06-01

    Introduction.Gene APOEε4 allele polymorphisms have been examined in Down syndrome because of the relationship between (a) the E4 isoform and (b) the type of Alzheimer's dementia that appears in individuals with Down syndrome. This isoform is considered a risk factor for Alzheimer's disease development and has been associated with early death in Down syndrome. Objectives. The polymorphisms in the APOE gene were characterized for Down syndrome individuals and their parents, in order to detect associations between the APOE polymorphisms and Down syndrome. Materials and methods. APOE gene polymorphisms were detected by RFLP-PCR and analyzed in 134 young individuals with Down syndrome, 87 mothers and 54 fathers, residents of the departments of Quindío and Risaralda, Colombia. The controls were 525 healthy individuals. Results. The APOEε3 allele and ε3/ε3 genotype were most frequent in all the populations (83-90% and 70-78%). The allelic frequency of APOEε2 was very low and ε2/ε2 (3-7%) was absent in Down syndrome and their parents. The allele APOEε4 was more frequent (11% vs. 9%) in Down syndrome individuals than in the controls. Comparing the allelic and genotypic frequencies between the populations with Down syndrome and their parents with the controls using Pearson c2 test and Fisher's exact test odds ratio, no statistically significant differences were found. Conclusions. No statistically significant association was found between the polymorphisms of the APOE gene and Down syndrome. Sample size or ethnic influences may have affected these results. More studies are necessary with other Colombian populations to determine possible associations in other genes related to Alzheimer's disease.

  8. Mutations and a polymorphism in the tuberin gene

    SciTech Connect

    Northup, H.; Rodriguez, J.A.; Au, K.S.; Rodriguez, E.

    1994-09-01

    Two deletions and a polymorphism have been identified in the recently described tuberin gene. The tuberin gene (designated TSC2) when mutated causes tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC). Fifty-three affected individuals (30 from families with multiple affected and 23 isolated cases) were screened with the tuberin cDNA for gross deletions or rearrangements. Both deletions were found in families with multiple affected members (family designations: HOU-5 and HOU-22). The approximate size of the deletion in HOU-5 is ten kilobases and eliminates a BamHI restriction site. The deletion includes a portion of the 5{prime} half of the tuberin cDNA. The deletion in HOU-22 occurs in the 3{prime} half of the gene. The deletions are being further characterized. A HindIII restriction site polymorphism was detected by a 0.5 kilobase probe from the 5{prime} coding region of the tuberin gene in an individual from a family linked to chromosome 9 (posterior probability of linkage 93%). The polymorphism did not segregate with TSC in the family. The family had previously been shown to give negative results with multiple markers on chromosome 16. The polymorphism was also seen in one individual among a panel of 20 randomly selected unaffected individuals. Thirty-five additional affected probands (five from families and 30 isolated cases) are being tested with the tuberin cDNA. Testing for subtle mutations is our panel of 80 affected probands is underway utilizing SSCP. Additional mutations or polymorphisms detected will be reported. The tuberin cDNA was a kind gift of The European Chromosome 16 Tuberous Sclerosis Consortium.

  9. BRCA1 polymorphism in breast cancer patients from Argentina

    PubMed Central

    JAURE, OMAR; ALONSO, ELIANA N.; BRAICO, DIEGO AGUILERA; NIETO, ALVARO; OROZCO, MANUELA; MORELLI, CECILIA; FERRO, ALEJANDRO M.; BARUTTA, ELENA; VINCENT, ESTEBAN; MARTÍNEZ, DOMINGO; MARTÍNEZ, IGNACIO; MAEGLI, MARIA INES; FRIZZA, ALEJANDRO; KOWALYZYN, RUBEN; SALVADORI, MARISA; GINESTET, PAUL; GONZALEZ DONNA, MARIA L.; BALOGH, GABRIELA A.

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common type of cancer in females in Argentina, with an incidence rate similar to that in the USA. However, the contribution of the BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation in breast cancer incidence has not yet been investigated in Argentina. In order to evaluate which BRCA1 polymorphisms or mutations characterize female breast cancer in Argentina, the current study enrolled 206 females with breast cancer from several hospitals from the southeast of Argentina. A buccal smear sample was obtained in duplicate from each patient and the DNA samples were processed for polymorphism analysis using the single-strand conformational polymorphism technique. The polymorphisms in BRCA1 were investigated using a combination of 15 primers to analyze exons 2, 3, 5, 20 and 11 (including the 11.1 to 11.12 regions). The BRCA1 mutations were confirmed by direct sequencing. Samples were successfully examined from 154 females and, among these, 16 mutations were identified in the BRCA1 gene representing 13.9% of the samples analyzed. One patient was identified with a polymorphism in exon 2 (0.86%), four in exon 20 (3.48%), four in exon 11.3 (3.48%), one in exon 11.7 (0.86%), two in exon 11.8 (1.74%), one in exon 11.10 (0.86%) and one in exon 11.11 (0.86%). The most prevalent alteration in BRCA1 was located in exon 11 (11 out of 16 patients; 68.75%). The objective of our next study is to evaluate the prevalence of mutations in the BRCA2 gene and analyze the BRCA1 gene in the healthy relatives of BRCA1 mutation carriers. PMID:25624909

  10. Association of PTEN gene polymorphisms with liver cancer risk

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hong-Guang; Liu, Fang-Feng; Zhu, Hua-Qiang; Zhou, Xu; Lu, Jun; Chang, Hong; Hu, Jin-Hua

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To find out if there are any relationship between three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) gene (rs1234213, rs1234220, and rs2299939) and the susceptibility of liver cancer. Methods: Genotypes of the three SNPs in the PTEN gene were achieved utilizing polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) method. Comparison of genotypes and alleles distribution differences between the case and the control subjects was accomplished with χ2 test. The analysis of linkage disequilibrium (LD) and haplotypes of the three SNPs was performed using SHEsis software. We adopted odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) to show the relative risk of liver cancer. Results: TC genotype and C allele of rs1234220 polymorphism showed much more frequently in cases than in controls, reflecting that the TC genotype and the C allele may be linked to the increased risk of liver cancer (OR=2.225, 95% CI=1.178-4.204; OR=1.941, 95% CI=1.124-3.351). Rs2299939 polymorphism showed an opposite result that the GT genotype probably reduce the risk of liver cancer (OR=0.483, 95% CI=0.259-0.900). Statistical significance was not found in the distribution differences of the genotypes of rs1234213 between two groups. LD and haplotype analysis results of the three SNPs showed that the T-C-G haplotype frequency was much higher in cases than in healthy objects, which proved that the T-C-G haplotype might be a susceptibility haplotype for liver cancer (OR=3.750, 95% CI=1.396-10.077). Conclusions: PTEN gene polymorphisms might relate to liver cancer risk. PMID:26823866

  11. EFFECT OF CYTOKINE AND PHARMACOGENOMIC GENETIC POLYMORPHISMS IN TRANSPLANTATION

    PubMed Central

    Girnita, Diana M; Burckart, Gilbert; Zeevi, Adriana

    2008-01-01

    Purpose of review Recent investigations related to the polymorphism of genes that affect drug therapy and the polymorphisms of cytokines and growth factors that control immune responses have been associated with outcomes following solid organ transplantation (SOT) and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). This review will provide a current update on the most recent findings and discuss the challenges for developing individualized therapeutic strategies based on clinical and genetic profiles. Recent Findings Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of cytokine genes have been shown to have an impact in vitro or in vivo protein secretion, dividing the individuals into High, Low or Intermediate producers for a given molecule. Many studies have been performed to determine the contribution of single cytokine gene SNPs on SOT or HSCT outcomes and the reported results are still controversial. However, analysis of a combination of several cytokines and/or cytokine receptor polymorphisms adjusted for known clinical risk factors and ethnicity have resulted in significant clinical correlations. Furthermore, associations with gene polymorphisms that affect immunosuppressive drug therapy in solid organ transplantation have also been extensively studied. There is a continuous flow of new information regarding functional SNPs that may affect the immune response to the allograft or to drug therapy and their impact on clinical outcomes have yet to be validated in large cohorts SOT or HSCT Summary Consolidating the information that we have on pharmacogenetics and on cytokine genetics to produce patient-oriented individualized drug regimens is an important challenge in transplantation medicine. Using a multi-variant approach based on genetic profile and other relevant clinical factors a score system may be developed to predict the severity of rejection, infection or other complications associated with transplantation. The ultimate goal of these studies is to improve patient

  12. Polymorphisms in canine platelet glycoproteins identify potential platelet antigens.

    PubMed

    Callan, Mary Beth; Werner, Petra; Mason, Nicola J; Meny, Geralyn M; Raducha, Michael G; Henthorn, Paula S

    2013-08-01

    Human alloimmune thrombocytopenic conditions caused by exposure to a platelet-specific alloantigen include neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia, posttransfusion purpura, and platelet transfusion refractoriness. More than 30 platelet-specific alloantigens have been defined in the human platelet antigen (HPA) system; however, there is no previous information on canine platelet-specific alloantigens. Using the HPA system as a model, we evaluated the canine ITGB3, ITGA2B, and GP1BB genes encoding GPIIIa (β3), GPIIb (αIIb), and GPIbβ, respectively, which account for 21 of 27 HPA, to determine whether amino acid polymorphisms are present in the orthologous canine genes. A secondary objective was to perform a pilot study to assess possible association between specific alleles of these proteins and a diagnosis of idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) in dogs. By using genomic DNA from dogs of various breeds with and without ITP, sequencing of PCR products encompassing all coding regions and exon-intron boundaries for these 3 genes revealed 4 single-nucleotide polymorphisms in ITGA2B resulting in amino acid polymorphisms in the canine genome, 3 previously reported and 1 newly identified (Gly[GGG]/Arg[AGG] at amino acid position 576 of ITGA2B. Of 16 possible ITGA2B protein alleles resulting from unique combinations of the 4 polymorphic amino acids, 5 different protein isoforms were present in homozygous dogs and explain all of the genotype combinations in heterozygous dogs. There was no amino acid polymorphism or protein isoform that was specific for a particular breed or for the diagnosis of ITP. PMID:24209971

  13. A Novel Approach for Mining Polymorphic Microsatellite Markers In Silico

    PubMed Central

    Hoffman, Joseph I.; Nichols, Hazel J.

    2011-01-01

    An important emerging application of high-throughput 454 sequencing is the isolation of molecular markers such as microsatellites from genomic DNA. However, few studies have developed microsatellites from cDNA despite the added potential for targeting candidate genes. Moreover, to develop microsatellites usually requires the evaluation of numerous primer pairs for polymorphism in the focal species. This can be time-consuming and wasteful, particularly for taxa with low genetic diversity where the majority of primers often yield monomorphic polymerase chain reaction (PCR) products. Transcriptome assemblies provide a convenient solution, functional annotation of transcripts allowing markers to be targeted towards candidate genes, while high sequence coverage in principle permits the assessment of variability in silico. Consequently, we evaluated fifty primer pairs designed to amplify microsatellites, primarily residing within transcripts related to immunity and growth, identified from an Antarctic fur seal (Arctocephalus gazella) transcriptome assembly. In silico visualization was used to classify each microsatellite as being either polymorphic or monomorphic and to quantify the number of distinct length variants, each taken to represent a different allele. The majority of loci (n = 36, 76.0%) yielded interpretable PCR products, 23 of which were polymorphic in a sample of 24 fur seal individuals. Loci that appeared variable in silico were significantly more likely to yield polymorphic PCR products, even after controlling for microsatellite length measured in silico. We also found a significant positive relationship between inferred and observed allele number. This study not only demonstrates the feasibility of generating modest panels of microsatellites targeted towards specific classes of gene, but also suggests that in silico microsatellite variability may provide a useful proxy for PCR product polymorphism. PMID:21853104

  14. The effect of pH on polymorph formation of the pharmaceutically active compound tianeptine.

    PubMed

    Orola, Liana; Veidis, Mikelis V; Sarcevica, Inese; Actins, Andris; Belyakov, Sergey; Platonenko, Aleksandrs

    2012-08-01

    The anti-depressant pharmaceutical tianeptine has been investigated to determine the dynamics of polymorph formation under various pH conditions. By varying the pH two crystalline polymorphs were isolated. The molecular and crystal structures have been determined to identify the two polymorphs. One polymorph is an amino carboxylic acid and the other polymorph is a zwitterion. In the solid state the tianeptine moieties are bonded through hydrogen bonds. The zwitterion was found to be less stable and transformed to the acid form. During this investigation an amorphous form was identified.

  15. The effect of pH on polymorph formation of the pharmaceutically active compound tianeptine.

    PubMed

    Orola, Liana; Veidis, Mikelis V; Sarcevica, Inese; Actins, Andris; Belyakov, Sergey; Platonenko, Aleksandrs

    2012-08-01

    The anti-depressant pharmaceutical tianeptine has been investigated to determine the dynamics of polymorph formation under various pH conditions. By varying the pH two crystalline polymorphs were isolated. The molecular and crystal structures have been determined to identify the two polymorphs. One polymorph is an amino carboxylic acid and the other polymorph is a zwitterion. In the solid state the tianeptine moieties are bonded through hydrogen bonds. The zwitterion was found to be less stable and transformed to the acid form. During this investigation an amorphous form was identified. PMID:22569228

  16. A novel method for identifying polymorphic transposable elements via scanning of high-throughput short reads

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Houxiang; Zhu, Dan; Lin, Runmao; Opiyo, Stephen Obol; Jiang, Ning; Shiu, Shin-Han; Wang, Guo-Liang

    2016-01-01

    Identification of polymorphic transposable elements (TEs) is important because TE polymorphism creates genetic diversity and influences the function of genes in the host genome. However, de novo scanning of polymorphic TEs remains a challenge. Here, we report a novel computational method, called PTEMD (polymorphic TEs and their movement detection), for de novo discovery of genome-wide polymorphic TEs. PTEMD searches highly identical sequences using reads supported breakpoint evidences. Using PTEMD, we identified 14 polymorphic TE families (905 sequences) in rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae, and 68 (10,618 sequences) in maize. We validated one polymorphic TE family experimentally, MoTE-1; all MoTE-1 family members are located in different genomic loci in the three tested isolates. We found that 57.1% (8 of 14) of the PTEMD-detected polymorphic TE families in M. oryzae are active. Furthermore, our data indicate that there are more polymorphic DNA transposons in maize than their counterparts of retrotransposons despite the fact that retrotransposons occupy largest fraction of genomic mass. We demonstrated that PTEMD is an effective tool for identifying polymorphic TEs in M. oryzae and maize genomes. PTEMD and the genome-wide polymorphic TEs in M. oryzae and maize are publically available at http://www.kanglab.cn/blast/PTEMD_V1.02.htm. PMID:27098848

  17. A novel method for identifying polymorphic transposable elements via scanning of high-throughput short reads.

    PubMed

    Kang, Houxiang; Zhu, Dan; Lin, Runmao; Opiyo, Stephen Obol; Jiang, Ning; Shiu, Shin-Han; Wang, Guo-Liang

    2016-06-01

    Identification of polymorphic transposable elements (TEs) is important because TE polymorphism creates genetic diversity and influences the function of genes in the host genome. However, de novo scanning of polymorphic TEs remains a challenge. Here, we report a novel computational method, called PTEMD (polymorphic TEs and their movement detection), for de novo discovery of genome-wide polymorphic TEs. PTEMD searches highly identical sequences using reads supported breakpoint evidences. Using PTEMD, we identified 14 polymorphic TE families (905 sequences) in rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae, and 68 (10,618 sequences) in maize. We validated one polymorphic TE family experimentally, MoTE-1; all MoTE-1 family members are located in different genomic loci in the three tested isolates. We found that 57.1% (8 of 14) of the PTEMD-detected polymorphic TE families in M. oryzae are active. Furthermore, our data indicate that there are more polymorphic DNA transposons in maize than their counterparts of retrotransposons despite the fact that retrotransposons occupy largest fraction of genomic mass. We demonstrated that PTEMD is an effective tool for identifying polymorphic TEs in M. oryzae and maize genomes. PTEMD and the genome-wide polymorphic TEs in M. oryzae and maize are publically available at http://www.kanglab.cn/blast/PTEMD_V1.02.htm. PMID:27098848

  18. Genetic polymorphism of toll-like receptors 4 gene by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphisms, polymerase chain reaction-single-strand conformational polymorphism to correlate with mastitic cows

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Pooja H.; Patel, Nirmal A.; Rank, D. N.; Joshi, C. G.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: An attempt has been made to study the toll-like receptors 4 (TLR4) gene polymorphism from cattle DNA to correlate with mastitis cows. Materials and Methods: In present investigation, two fragments of TLR4 gene named T4CRBR1 and T4CRBR2 of a 316 bp and 382 bp were amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), respectively from Kankrej (22) and Triple cross (24) cattle. The genetic polymorphisms in the two populations were detected by a single-strand conformational polymorphism in the first locus and by digesting the fragments with restriction endonuclease Alu I in the second one. Results: Results showed that both alleles (A and B) of two loci were found in all the two populations and the value of polymorphism information content indicated that these were highly polymorphic. Statistical results of χ2 test indicated that two polymorphism sites in the two populations fit with Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium (p<0.05). Meanwhile, the effect of polymorphism of TLR4 gene on the somatic cell score (SCS) indicated the cattle with allele a in T4CRBR1 showed lower SCS than that of allele B (p<0.05). Thus, the allele A might play an important role in mastitis resistance in cows. Conclusion: The relationship between the bovine mastitis trait and the polymorphism of TLR4 gene indicated that the bovine TLR4 gene may play an important role in mastitis resistance. PMID:27047144

  19. Retained fetal adrenal cortex in a cynomolgus macaque (Macaca fascicularis).

    PubMed

    Radi, Zaher; Evans, Mark

    2014-10-01

    An incidental, bilateral, retained fetal adrenal cortex was detected in a male cynomolgus macaque (age, approximately 2.4 y) used in a 4-week toxicology study. Microscopic examination of the adrenal gland cortex zone revealed the presence of additional solid sheets and columns of cells supported by vascular capillary bed and composed of large polyhedral cells with abundant eosinophilic, slightly finely vacuolated cytoplasm that surrounded the entire circumference of the medulla. Nuclei were vesicular, round to oval with prominent small nucleoli. There was no evidence for inflammation or cellular degeneration. Based on the microscopic examination, a diagnosis of retained fetal cortex of the adrenal gland was made. This morphologic change resembles fetal cortex in human infants. To our knowledge, this case description is the first report of a cynomolgus macaque with the rare entity of retained fetal cortex, which should not be misinterpreted as a test article-related change.

  20. Cerebral Baylisascaris larva migrans in a cynomolgus macaque (Macaca fascicularis).

    PubMed

    Shoieb, Ahmed; Radi, Zaher A

    2014-08-01

    An incidental, asymptomatic, focal inflammatory lesion was detected in brain cerebrum of an approximately 6-year-old, female cynomolgus macaque from a chronic toxicology study. No gross lesions were noted at necropsy. Microscopically, the lesion contained a cross-section of larvae approximately 70-80 μm in diameter, a centrally located intestine flanked on either side by large triangular excretory columns, and prominent single lateral cuticular alae. Mixed inflammatory cells of eosinophils, macrophages, and lymphocytes admixed with abundant connective tissue stroma and necrosis surrounded the larvae. Histochemical stains for trichrome revealed significant amount of fibrous connective tissue. The morphology of the larvae was compatible with Baylisascaris spp. Based on the microscopic and histochemical examination, a diagnosis of neural Baylisascaris spp. larva migrans was made.